ESG-642 4.2 LITER - Pitt Auto Electric Company

ESG-642 4.2 LITER - Pitt Auto Electric Company
ESG-642
4.2 LITER
INDUSTRIAL ENGINE SERVICE MANUAL
FPP-194-309
April, 2001
Ford Power Products
28333 Telegraph Rd., Suite 300
Southfield, MI 48034
248 945 4500
(Fax) 248 945 4501
Ford Power Products, LTD
20/586 Arisdale Avenue
South Ockendon
Essex, RM 15 5TJ England
44 1708 672 415
(Fax) 44 1708 672 815
Ford Power Products, GmbH
Stolberger Str. 313
D-50933 Köln, Germany
49 221 94700 551
(Fax) 49 221 94700 560
HEALTH & SAFETY
!
WARNING: THE FOLLOWING HEALTH AND SAFETY RECOMMENDATIONS SHOULD BE
CAREFULLY OBSERVED.
CARRYING OUT CERTAIN OPERATIONS AND HANDLING SOME SUBSTANCES CAN BE DANGEROUS OR HARMFUL TO THE OPERATOR IF THE CORRECT SAFETY PRECAUTIONS ARE
NOT OBSERVED. SOME SUCH PRECAUTIONS ARE RECOMMENDED AT THE APPROPRIATE
POINTS IN THIS BOOK.
WHILE IT IS IMPORTANT THAT THESE RECOMMENDED SAFETY PRECAUTIONS ARE OBSERVED, CARE NEAR MACHINERY IS ALWAYS NECESSARY, AND NO LIST CAN BE EXHAUSTIVE. ALWAYS BE CAUTIOUS TO AVIOD POTENTIAL SAFETY RISKS.
The following recommendations are for general guidance:
1. Always wear correctly fitting protective clothing which should be laundered regularly. Loose or baggy
clothing can be extremely dangerous when working on running engines or machinery. Clothing which
becomes impregnated with oil or other substances can constitute a health hazard due to prolonged
contact with the skin even through underclothing.
2. So far as practicable, work on or close to engines or machinery only when they are stopped. If this is
not practicable, remember to keep tools, test equipment and all parts of the body well away from the
moving parts of the engine or equipment—fans, drive belts and pulleys are particularly dangerous. The
electric cooling fan used on some installations is actuated automatically when the coolant reaches a
specified temperature. For this reason, care should be taken to ensure that the ignition/isolating switch
is OFF when working in the vicinity of the fan as an increase in coolant temperature may cause the fan
suddenly to operate.
3. Avoid contact with exhaust pipes, exhaust manifolds and silencers when an engine is, or has recently
been running; these can be very hot and can cause severe burns.
4. Many liquids used in engines or vehicles are harmful if taken internally or splashed into the eyes. In
the event of accidentally swallowing gasoline (petrol), oil, diesel fuel, antifreeze, battery acid etc, DO
NOT ENCOURAGE VOMITING AND OBTAIN QUALIFIED MEDICAL ASSISTANCE IMMEDIATELY.
Wear protective goggles when handling liquids which are harmful to the eyes; these include ammonia
and battery acid. If any of these substances are splashed in the eyes, wash out thoroughly with clean
water and OBTAIN QUALIFIED MEDICAL ASSISTANCE IMMEDIATELY.
!
WARNING:
!
The Engine Exhaust from this product
contains chemicals known to the State
of California to cause cancer, birth
defects or other reproductive harm.
IMPORTANT SAFETY NOTICE
Appropriate service methods and proper repair procedures are essential for the safe, reliable operation
of all industrial engines as well as the personal safety of the individual doing the work. This Service
Manual provides general directions for accomplishing service and repair work with tested, effective
techniques. Following them will help assure reliability.
Section
Index
Reproduction in any manner, in whole or
in part, is prohibited without the express
permission in writing from:
Section 01
ESG-642
Section 02
ENGINE - 4.2L
Section 03
IGNITION
Section 04
FUEL
Section 05
COOLING
Section 06
CHARGING
Section 07
STARTER
Section 08
ELECTRONICS & DIAGNOSTIC
TROUBLE CODES
Section 09
METRICS
Section 10
DEALERS
Ford Power Products, Marketing
Department
Ford Power Products policy is one of continuous
improvement and while every effort is made to ensure
that this publication is up to date and correct in all
respects, the right to change prices, specifications and
equipment at any time without notice is reserved.
Accordingly this publication is not to be regarded
as a final description of any individual engine.
ESG-642
INDEX
SUBJECT
PAGE
SUBJECT
Description ................................................................... 01-3
Introduction .................................................................. 01-3
Engine Identification Nameplate ................................. 01-3
PAGE
Diagnosis And Testing (Continued)
Valves and Cylinder Head ......................................... 01-22
Valve Train Analysis – Dynamic ................................. 01-22
Rocker Arm ................................................................ 01-22
Push Rods ................................................................. 01-22
Positive Rotator and Valve Spring Retainer Keys ..... 01-22
Valves and Cylinder Head ......................................... 01-22
Camshaft Lobe Lift ..................................................... 01-22
OHV Engines ............................................................. 01-22
Typical Engine With Push Rods ................................. 01-22
Hydraulic Valve Tappet .............................................. 01-23
Leakdown Testing ...................................................... 01-23
Safety Notices .............................................................. 01-5
Notes, Cautions and Warnings ................................... 01-5
General Warnings ........................................................ 01-5
Battery Handling And Charging .................................. 01-6
Foreward ....................................................................... 01-7
Engine Identification .................................................... 01-7
General Service Procedures .................................... 01-25
Sprockets ................................................................... 01-25
Gears ......................................................................... 01-26
Camshaft Journal Diameter ....................................... 01-26
Camshaft Journal Clearance – OHV Engines .......... 01-27
Camshaft Lobe Surface ............................................. 01-27
Camshaft Lobe Lift ..................................................... 01-28
Camshaft Runout ....................................................... 01-28
Crankshaft Main Bearing Journal Diameter .............. 01-29
Crankshaft Main Bearing Journal Taper .................... 01-29
Crankshaft Main Bearing Journal Clearance ............ 01-30
Bearing Inspection ..................................................... 01-31
Crankcase End Play .................................................. 01-31
Cylinder Bore Taper ................................................... 01-33
Cylinder Bore Out-of-Round ...................................... 01-33
Piston Inspection ....................................................... 01-33
Piston Diameter ......................................................... 01-34
Piston to Cylinder Bore Clearance ............................ 01-34
Piston Selection ......................................................... 01-35
Piston Ring End Gap ................................................. 01-35
Piston Ring-to-Groove Clearance ............................. 01-36
Crankshaft Connecting Rod Journal Diameter ......... 01-37
Crankshaft Connecting Rod Journal Taper ............... 01-37
Connecting Rod Cleaning ......................................... 01-38
Connecting Rod Larger End Bore ............................. 01-38
Piston Pin Diameter ................................................... 01-39
Connecting Rod Bushing Diameter .......................... 01-39
Connecting Rod Bend ............................................... 01-40
Connecting Rod Twist ................................................ 01-40
Connecting Rod Piston Pin Side Clearance ............. 01-41
Connecting Rod Journal Clearance ......................... 01-41
Bearing Inspection ..................................................... 01-42
Roller Follower Inspection – OHC Engines .............. 01-43
Hydraulic Valve Tappet Inspection – OHV Engines ... 01-43
Hydraulic Valve Tappet Leakdown Test –
OHV Engines ........................................................... 01-43
European Service Identification Plate ........................ 01-8
U.S.A. Engine Identification Decal .............................. 01-9
Description And Operation ........................................ 01-10
Engine System ........................................................... 01-10
Diagnosis And Testing ............................................... 01-11
Engine System ........................................................... 01-11
Special Tools .............................................................. 01-11
Inspection and Verification ......................................... 01-11
Symptom Chart .......................................................... 01-11
Component Tests ....................................................... 01-14
Engine Oil Leaks ....................................................... 01-14
Fluorescnt Oil Aditive Method .................................... 01-14
Pressure Method ....................................................... 01-15
Testing Procedure ...................................................... 01-15
Leakage Points .......................................................... 01-15
Under Engine ............................................................ 01-15
With Transmission and Flywheel Removed .............. 01-15
Compression Tests .................................................... 01-15
Test Results ................................................................ 01-16
Compression Pressure Limit Chart ........................... 01-16
Interpreting Compression Readings ......................... 01-16
Cylinder Leakage Detection ...................................... 01-17
Oil Leak and Valve Stem Seal Test ............................ 01-17
Intake Manifold Vacuum Test ..................................... 01-17
Interpreting Vacuum Gauge Readings ...................... 01-17
Excessive Engine Oil Consumption .......................... 01-19
Oil Consumption Test ................................................. 01-19
Oil Pressure Test ........................................................ 01-21
Valve Train Analysis – Static (Engine Off) .................. 01-21
Valve Cover Removed ............................................... 01-21
Rocker Arm ................................................................ 01-21
Camshaft Roller Followers & Hydraulic Lash
Adjusters, Overhead Camshaft ................................ 01-21
Camshaft – Overhead Camshaft Engines ................. 01-21
Push Rods ................................................................. 01-21
Valve Springs ............................................................. 01-21
Valve Spring Retainer and Valve Spring
Retainer Keys .......................................................... 01-22
01-1
01
ESG-642
SUBJECT
PAGE
General Service Procedures (Continued)
Hydraulic Lash Adjuster Leakdown Test –
OHC Engines ........................................................... 01-44
Valve Stem Diameter ................................................. 01-45
Valve Stem-to-Valve Guide Clearance ...................... 01-46
Valve Inspection ......................................................... 01-47
Valve Guide Inner Diameter ....................................... 01-47
Valve Guide Reaming ................................................ 01-48
Valve Spring Installed Length .................................... 01-48
Valve Spring Free Length .......................................... 01-49
Valve Spring Out-of-Square ....................................... 01-49
Valve and Seat Refacing Measurements .................. 01-50
Valve Seat Width ........................................................ 01-50
Valve Seat Runout .....................................................01-51
Flywheel Inspection ................................................... 01-51
Oil Pump Gear Radial Clearance .............................. 01-52
Oil Pump Rotor Inspection ......................................... 01-52
Oil Pump Side Clearance .......................................... 01-53
Cylinder Bore Honing ................................................ 01-53
Cylinder Bore Cleaning ............................................. 01-54
Cylinder Block Repair ................................................ 01-55
Cast Iron Porosity Defects .......................................... 01-55
Cylinder Block Core Plug Replacement ................... 01-55
Cylinder Block Core Plug – Cup-Type ...................... 01-56
Cylinder Block Core Plug – Expansion-Type ............ 01-56
Spark Plug Thread Repair ......................................... 01-57
Exhaust Manifold Straightness .................................. 01-58
Specifications ............................................................. 01-60
01-2
ESG-642
DESCRIPTION
01234-1-05-98
Introduction
ESG-642-6007-AA
This section covers various engine tests,
adjustments, service procedures and cleaning/
inspection procedures. Engine assembly and
service specifications appear at the end of the
Section 02.
05-28-1998
FORD POWER PRODUCTS
Prior 2001
37827-1-04-98
For engine disassembly, assembly, installation,
adjustment procedures and specifications, refer to
Section 02.
ESG 642
6C-276-AA
The ESG 642 engine incorporates a closed-type
crankcase ventilation system.
01/02/2001
2001
To maintain the required performance level, the fuel
system, ignition system and engine must be kept
in good operating condition and meet
recommended adjustment specifications.
Engine Identification Nameplate
For quick engine identification, refer to the Engine
Identification Nameplate. The nameplates lists
engine information required for proper servicing of
the engine. The Engine Identification Nameplate and
identification label provide information pertaining to
engine displacement, serial number, model number,
S.O./Options, and model code.
Before replacing damaged or worn engine
components such as the crankshaft, cylinder head,
valve guide, valves, camshaft or cylinder block,
make sure part(s) is not serviceable.
WARNING: TO AVOID THE POSSIBILITY
OF PERSONAL INJURY OR DAMAGE,
!
DO NOT OPERATE THE ENGINE UNTIL
THE FAN BLADE HAS FIRST BEEN EXAMINED
FOR POSSIBLE CRACKS OR SEPARATION.
ENGINE CODE
CAUTION: Use of abrasive grinding
discs to remove gasket material from the
!
engine sealing surfaces during repair
procedures can contribute to engine damage
and wear. Airborne debris and abrasive grit
from the grinding disc may enter the engine
through exposed cavities causing premature
wear and eventual engine damage.
ENGINE PLANT CODE
SG612AB
JA
E
MADE IN ESSEX, CANADA
11/07/99
ENGINE BUILD DATE
E = ESSEX
Ford Power Products does not recommend using
abrasive grinding discs to remove engine gasket
material. Use manual gasket scrapers for removing
gasket material from the engine sealing surfaces.
Engine Code Decal
An engine code decal is attached to the engine front
cover. The symbol code on the decal identifies each
engine for determining parts usage.
Take added care to prevent scratching or gouging
aluminum sealing surfaces.
01-3
ESG-642
01-4
ESG-642
SAFETY NOTICE
There are numerous variations in procedures, techniques, tools and parts for servicing equipment, as well
as in the skill of the individual doing the work. This manual cannot possibly anticipate all such variations
and provide advice or cautions as to each. Accordingly, anyone who departs from the instructions provided
in this Manual must first establish that neither personal safety nor equipment integrity are compromised by
the choice of methods, tools or parts.
NOTES, CAUTIONS, AND WARNINGS
As you read through the procedures, you will come across NOTES, CAUTIONS, and WARNINGS. Each
one is there for a specific purpose. NOTES gives you added information that will help you to complete a
particuar procedure. CAUTIONS are given to prevent you from making an error that could damage the
equipment. WARNINGS remind you to be especially careful in those areas where carelessness can cause
personal injury. The following list contains some general WARNINGS that you should follow when you
work on the equipment.
!
GENERAL WARNINGS:
TO HELP AVOID INJURY:
• ALWAYS WEAR SAFETY GLASSES FOR EYE PROTECTION.
• USE SAFETY STANDS WHENEVER A PROCEDURE REQUIRES YOU TO BE UNDER THE
EQUIPMENT.
• BE SURE THAT THE IGNITION SWITCH IS ALWAYS IN THE OFF POSITION, UNLESS OTHERWISE
REQUIRED BY THE PROCEDURE.
• SET THE PARKING BRAKE (IF EQUIPPED) WHEN WORKING ON THE EQUIPMENT. IF YOU HAVE
AN AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION, SET IT IN PARK (ENGINE OFF) OR NEUTRAL (ENGINE ON)
UNLESS INSTRUCTED OTHERWISE FOR A SPECIFIC OPERATION. PLACE WOOD BLOCKS
(4”X 4” OR LARGER) TO THE FRONT AND REAR SURFACES OF THE TIRES TO PROVIDE
FURTHER RESTRAINT FROM INADVERTENT EQUIPMENT MOVEMENT.
• OPERATE THE ENGINE ONLY IN A WELL VENTILATED AREA TO AVOID THE DANGER OF
CARBON MONOXIDE.
• KEEP YOURSELF AND YOUR CLOTHING AWAY FROM MOVING PARTS WHEN THE ENGINE IS
RUNNING, ESPECIALLY THE FAN BELTS.
• TO PREVENT SERIOUS BURNS, AVOID CONTACT WITH HOT METAL PARTS SUCH AS THE
RADIATOR, EXHAUST MANIFOLD, TAIL PIPE, CATALYTIC CONVERTER AND MUFFLER.
• DO NOT SMOKE WHILE WORKING ON THE EQUIPMENT.
• ALWAYS REMOVE RINGS, WATCHES, LOOSE HANGING JEWELRY, AND LOOSE CLOTHING
BEFORE BEGINNING TO WORK ON THE EQUIPMENT. TIE LONG HAIR SECURELY BEHIND THE
HEAD.
• KEEP HANDS AND OTHER OBJECTS CLEAR OF THE RADIATOR FAN BLADES. ELECTRIC
COOLING FANS CAN START TO OPERATE AT ANY TIME BY AN INCREASE IN UNDERHOOD
TEMPERATURES, EVEN THOUGH THE IGNITION IS IN THE OFF POSITION. THEREFORE, CARE
SHOULD BE TAKEN TO ENSURE THAT THE ELECTRIC COOLING FAN IS COMPLETELY
DISCONNECTED WHEN WORKING UNDER THE HOOD.
01-5
ESG-642
Battery Handling and Charging
The handling and correct use of lead acid batteries is not as hazardous provided that sensible precautions
are observed and that operatives have been trained in their use and are adequately supervised.
It is important that all labelling on the battery is carefully read, understood and complied with. The format
of the following symbols and labels is common to most brands of lead acid battery.
1
2
3
4
5
6
RE
RN
LE
TU
AD
!
RECYCLE
SHIELD EYES
EXPLOSIVE
GASES CAN CAUSE
NO
DANGER/POISON
!
SULPHURIC ACID CAN CAUSE
BLINDNESS OR SEVERE BURNS
BLINDNESS OR INJURY
• SPARKS
• FLAMES
• SMOKING
LES GAZ EXPLOSES
PEUVENT BLESSER OU
RENDRE AVEUGLE
ET LES FLAMMES
DFENSE DE FUMER
SE PROTEEGER LES YEUX
L’ACIDE
SULFURIQUE
EVITER LES
ETINCELLES
LE
SE RINCER LES YEUX A
L’EAU IMMEDIATEMENT
CONSULTER UN MEDECIN
RAPIDEMENT
TENIR HORS DE LA PORTEE DES ENFANTS
TU
RN
11
PEUT CAUSER LA
CECITE OU DES
BRULURES GRAVES
RE
AD
KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN
FLUSH EYES
IMMEDIATELY
WITH WATER
GET MEDICAL
HELP FAST
10
9
8
7
RECYCLE
Fig. 1—Typical Battery Labelling
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Explosive gases
Eye protection must be WORN
No smoking or naked flames
Corrosive acid
Flush eyes immediately when contacted
with acid
6. CAUTION/IMPORTANT notice
7. Read relevant instructions
8. Keep away from children
9. Do not dispose of as household waste
10. Recycle (via recognized disposal
system)
11. Electrical current may cause injury to
personnel.
NOTE: Observe all manufacturers’ instructions when using charging equipment.
!
CAUTION: Batteries should not be charged in the vehicle or equipment. May damage electrical
components
01-6
ESG-642
FOREWORD
This book contains operating and maintenance instructions for the engine(s) listed on the title page.
The life of your engine unit and the delivery of the high performance built into it will depend on the care it
receives throughout its life. It is the operator’s responsibility to ensure that the engine is correctly operated
and that the maintenance operations outlined in this book are carried out regularly after the specified hours
of operation have been reached. We consider it to be in your interests to enlist the aid of an authorized Ford
Dealer (Europe) or Ford Power Products Distributor (USA) not only when repairs are required but also for
regular maintenance. Distributors are listed at the back of this manual.
Regular maintenance will result in minimal operating costs.
Engines manufactured by Ford Motor Company are available through Ford Power Products Dealers or
Distributors. When in need of parts or service, contact your local Authorized Dealer or Distributor. In
overseas territories, in the event of difficulties, communicate directly with the supervising Ford affiliated
Company in your area whose address appears at the end of this book.
Where the terms “Right” or “Left” occur in this publication, they refer to the respective sides of the engine
when viewed from the rear or flywheel end.
Pistons and valves are numbered from the front or timing cover end of the engine commencing at No. 1.
You may find that your engine assembly includes optional equipment not specifically covered in the following
text. Nevertheless, the maintenance procedures outlined in this book still apply to your engine.
ENGINE IDENTIFICATION
Because Ford Power Products markets such a wide range of industrial engines – manufactured both in
the U.S. and overseas – it is important that you have as complete identification of the engine as possible in
order to provide the correct replacement parts. New engines being shipped include a standard parts listing
describing the parts which does not tell the owner the part number. It remains a distributor function to
identify the part number. The key to identifying the engine is the identification decal mounted on the engine
rocker cover. That decal provides not only the engine serial number, but also the exact model or type,
options and S.O. (Special Order). The combination of that data permits you to isolate the precise engine,
build level and customer so you can determine the correct replacement parts.
01-7
ESG-642
EUROPEAN SERVICE IDENTIFICATION PLATE
This plate (Fig. 2) is fixed to the engine in a prominent position. Panels 1 to 11 on the plate refer to various
engine details as listed here.
Detail Title
1. Engine model identification.
2. Engine capacity.
3. Serial No: This identifies the engine as supplied by Power Products Engineering.
Date: The two letters following the serial No. indicate the year and month in which the specified build
components were assembled - refer to the chart, Fig 3.
NOTE: These markings should not be confused with any that may be stamped or etched into the crankcase
of the basic engine.
4. Selective Build Number indicates the complete specification. The digit to the extreme right hand side is
the build chart issue number.
5. Engine operating rpm. An asterisk denotes speed set by customer.
6. Not applicable.
7. Not applicable.
8.
9.
10.
Applicable to diesel engines only.
11. This box is provided for Equipment Manufacturers’ use when extra equipment is fitted outside of the
Ford Motor Company. Reference should be made to the Equipment Manufacturer for any information or
parts required.
1997
U
B
R
A
G
C
K
D
E
L
Y
S
T
1998
V
J
U
M
P
B
R
A
G
C
K
D
E
1999
W
L
Y
S
T
J
U
M
P
B
R
A
G
2000
X
C
K
D
E
L
Y
S
T
J
U
M
P
2001
Y
B
R
A
G
C
K
D
E
L
Y
S
T
2002
Z
J
U
M
P
B
R
A
G
C
K
D
E
Fig. 3 – Build Date Chart
NOTES: The letters I, O and Q are not
used in the year column. The letter
representing the month repeats every five
years.
Fig. 2 – Service Identification Plate
01-8
ESG-642
U.S.A. ENGINE IDENTIFICATION DECAL
An identification Decal is affixed to the valve cover of the engine. The decal contains the engine serial
number which identifies this unit from all others. Use all numbers when seeking information or ordering
replacement parts for this engine.
01 - Serial Number: Has a total of 10 numbers.
02 - Model Number
For a handy reference, this information is recorded on your Ford Power Products Operations Engine
Registration copy (Form #194-103-D).
PARTS AND SERVICE
Replacement parts can be obtained through your local Ford Power Products Distributors or Dealers listed
in the back portion of this handbook. They also may be found in the yellow pages under “Engines” or
contact Ford Power Products: 1-800 833-4773 U.S.A., 49221-94700551 Europe, or 441708-858415 Great
Britain.
Ford Power Products Distributors and Dealers are equipped to perform major and minor repairs. They are
anxious to see that all of your maintenance and service needs are quickly and courteously completed.
37827-1-04-98
01234-1-05-98
ESG 642
ESG-642-6007-AA
6C-276-AA
05-28-1998
FORD POWER PRODUCTS
2001
Prior 2001
01-9
01/02/2001
ESG-642
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
Correct engine identification is required to order
parts.
Engine System
For complete vehicle and engine identification
codes, refer to this Section.
This section covers general procedures and
diagnosis and testing of the engine system, including
exhaust emission control devices, which are also
covered in the EFI Diagnostic Manual.1
The engines incorporate the following features:
• A closed positive crankcase ventilation (PCV)
system.
• An exhaust emission control system.
The engine, fuel system, ignition system, emissions
system and exhaust system all affect exhaust
emission levels and must be maintained according
to the maintenance schedule. Refer to the
Maintenance and Operator’s Manual 194-308 or
call 1-800-833-4773 for the nearest Ford Power
Product’s Distributor/Dealer. They are also listed
in the back section of this manual.
1
Can be purchased as a separate item PFF-194-306 from your nearest Ford Power Products Distributor/Dealer listed in back section of
this manual.
01-10
ESG-642
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING
Special Tool(s)
12 Volt Master UV Diagnostic
Inspection Kit
164-R0756 or Equivalent
Engine System
Special Tool(s)
Commercially Available
Leakdown Tester
Vacuum/Pressure Tester
164-R0253 or Equivalent
Compression Tester
014-00707 or Equivalent
Inspection and Verification
Cup Shaped Adapter
TOOL-6565-AB or Equivalent
1. Verify the customer concern by operating the
engine to duplicate the condition.
2. Visually inspect for obvious signs of mechanical
and electrical damage. Refer to the following
chart.
Visual Inspection Chart
Dial Indicator with Bracketry
TOOL-4201-C or Equivalent
Engine Cylinder Leak
Detection/Air Pressurization Kit
014-00705 or Equivalent
Mechanical
• Engine coolant leaks
• Engine oil leaks
• Fuel leaks
• Damaged or severely worn pads
• Loose mounting bolts, studs, and nuts
3. If the inspection reveals obvious concerns that
can be readily identified, repair as required.
4. If the concerns remain after the inspection,
determine the symptoms and go to the symptom
chart.
Engine Oil Pressure Gauge
T73L-6600-A
Special Service Tools called for by the procedures
can be obtained by calling:
1-800-ROTUNDA (1-800-768-8632).
01-11
ESG-642
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING
Symptom Chart
ENGINE OPERATION
Condition
• Difficult Starting
Possible Source
• Damaged starting system.
• Damaged charging system/
battery.
• Burnt valve.
• Worn piston.
• Worn piston rings.
• Worn cylinder.
• Damaged cylinder head gasket.
• Damaged fuel system.
• Damaged ignition system.
• Poor Idling
• Damaged hydraulic valve
tappet or hydraulic lash
adjuster.
• Damaged hydraulic valve
tappet guide or hydraulic lash
adjuster.
• Improper valve-to-valve seat
contact.
• Damaged cylinder head gasket.
• Malfunctioning or damaged fuel
system.
• Malfunctioning or damaged
ignition system.
• Malfunctioning or damaged IAC
motor or system.
• Abnormal Combustion
2
• Damaged hydraulic valve
tappet or hydraulic lash
adjuster.
• Damaged hydraulic valve
tappet guide or hydraulic lash
adjuster.
• Burnt or sticking valve.
• Weak or broken valve spring.
• Carbon accumulation in
combustion chamber.
• Malfunctioning or damaged fuel
system.
• Malfunctioning or damaged
ignition system.
Action
• REFER to Section 07
• REFER to Section 06
• REPLACE valve.
• REPLACE piston and pin.
• REPAIR or REPLACE cylinder
blocks.
• REPLACE cylinder head
gasket.
• Refer to Section 04.
• Refer to Section 03.
• REPLACE hydraulic valve
tappet or hydraulic lash
adjuster.
• REPLACE hydraulic valve
tappet guide or hydraulic lash
adjuster.
• REPLACE valve or valve seat.
• REPLACE cylinder head
gasket.
• Refer to EFI Diagnostic Manual
or Section 04 of this manual2.
• Refer to EFI Diagnostic Manual
or Section 03 of this manual2.
• Section 03 of this manual.
• REPLACE hydraulic valve
tappet or hydraulic lash
adjuster.
• REPLACE hydraulic valve
tappet guide or hydraulic lash
adjuster.
• REPAIR or REPLACE valve.
• REPLACE valve spring.
• ELIMINATE carbon buildup.
• Refer to EFI Diagnostic Manual
or Section 04 of this manual2.
• Refer to EFI Diagnostic Manual
or Section 03 of this manual2.
Can be purchased as a separate item PFF-194-306 from your nearest Ford Power Products Distributor/Dealer listed in back section of this
manual.
01-12
ESG-642
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
ENGINE OPERATION
Condition
• Excessive Oil Consumption
Possible Source
• Worn piston ring groove.
• Sticking piston rings.
• Worn piston or cylinders.
• Worn valve stem seal.
• Worn valve stem or valve guide.
• Leaking oil.
• Engine Noise
• Excessive main bearing oil
clearance.
• Seized or heat damaged main
bearing.
• Excessive crankshaft end play.
• Excessive connecting rod
bearing oil clearance.
• Heat damaged connecting rod
bearing.
• Damaged connecting rod
bushing.
• Worn cylinder.
• Worn piston or piston pin.
• Damaged piston rings.
• Bent connecting rod.
• Malfunctioning hydraulic valve
tappet or hydraulic lash
adjuster.
• Excessive hydraulic valve
tappet or hydraulic lash
adjuster clearance.
• Broken valve spring.
• Excessive valve guide
clearance.
• Malfunctioning or damaged
cooling system.
• Malfunctioning or damaged fuel
system.
• Leaking exhaust system.
• Improper drive belt tension.
• Malfunctioning generator
bearing.
• Loose timing chain/belt.
• Damaged timing belt tensioner.
• Malfunctioning water pump
bearing.
01-13
Action
• REPLACE piston and pin.
• REPAIR or REPLACE piston
rings.
• REPAIR or REPLACE piston or
cylinder blocks.
• REPLACE valve stem seal.
• REPLACE valve stem and
guide.
• REPAIR oil leakage.
• ADJUST clearance or
REPLACE main bearing.
• REPLACE main bearing.
• REPLACE crankshaft thrust
main bearing.
• REPLACE connecting rod.
• REPLACE connecting rod
bearing.
• REPLACE connecting rod
bushing.
• REPAIR or REPLACE cylinder
blocks.
• REPLACE piston or piston pin.
• REPLACE piston rings.
• REPLACE connecting rod.
• REPLACE hydraulic valve
tappet or hydraulic lash
adjuster.
• ADJUST clearance or
REPLACE hydraulic valve
tappet guide or hydraulic lash
adjuster.
• REPLACE valve spring.
• REPAIR clearance or
REPLACE valve guide/stem.
• REFER to Section 05.
• Refer to Section 04.
• REPAIR exhaust leakage.
• REFER to Section 05.
• REFER to Section 06 for
diagnosis and testing of the
generator.
• ADJUST or REPLACE timing
chain/belt.
• REPLACE timing belt
tensioner.
• Replace water pump.
ESG-642
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
ENGINE OPERATION
Condition
• Insufficient Power
Possible Source
Action
• Malfunctioning hydraulic valve
tappet or hydraulic lash
adjuster.
• Damaged hydraulic valve
tappet guide or hydraulic lash
adjuster.
• Compression leakage at valve
seat.
• Seized valve stem.
• Weak or broken valve spring.
• Damaged cylinder head gasket.
• REPLACE hydraulic valve
tappet or hydraulic lash
adjuster.
• REPLACE hydraulic valve
tappet guide or hydraulic lash
adjuster.
• REPAIR or REPLACE valve,
valve seat or cylinder head.
• REPLACE valve stem.
• REPLACE valve spring.
• REPLACE cylinder head
gasket.
• REPLACE cylinder head.
• Cracked or distorted cylinder
head.
• Damaged, worn or sticking
piston ring(s).
• Worn or damaged piston.
• Malfunctioning or damaged fuel
system.
• Malfunctioning or damaged
ignition system.
• Damaged or plugged exhaust
system.
• REPAIR OR REPLACE piston
ring(s).
• REPLACE piston.
• Refer to Section 04.
• Refer to Section 03.
• REPAIR OR REPLACE
exhaust system.
Component Tests
Engine Oil Leaks
NOTE: When diagnosing engine oil leaks, the
source and location of the leak must be positively
identified prior to service.
Prior to performing this procedure, clean the
cylinder block, cylinder heads, valve covers (6582),
oil pan (6675) and flywheel (6375) with a suitable
solvent to remove all traces of oil.
Fluorescent Oil Additive Method
Use the 12 Volt Master UV Diagnostic Inspection
Kit to perform the following procedure for oil leak
diagnosis.
1. Clean the engine with a suitable solvent to
remove all traces of oil.
2. Drain engine oil crankcase and refill with
recommended oil, premixed with Diesel Engine
Oil Dye 164-R3705 meeting Ford specification
ESE-M9C103-B1 or equivalent. Use a minimum
14.8 ml (0.5 ounce) to a maximum 29.6 ml (1
ounce) of fluorescent additive to all engines. If
the oil is not premixed, fluorescent additive must
first be added to crankcase.
3. Run the engine for 15 minutes. Stop the engine
and inspect all seal and gasket areas for leaks
using the 12 Volt Master UV diagnostic
Inspection Kit. A clear bright yellow or orange
area will identify the leak. For extremely small
leaks, several hours may be required for the leak
to appear.
01-14
ESG-642
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
4. If necessary, pressurize the main oil gallery
system to locate leaks due to improperly sealed,
loose or cocked plugs.
Under Engine
5. Repair all leaks as required.
• oil pan rear seal (6723)
Pressure Method
The crankcase can be pressurized to locate oil
leaks. The following materials are required to
fabricate the tool to be used:
• engine front cover gasket
• air supply and air hose
• crankshaft main bearing cap side bolts
• air pressure gauge that registers pressure in 4
kPa (1 psi) increments
• oil pump and filter body (4.2L engine)
• air line shutoff valve
• appropriate fittings to attach the above parts to
oil fill, PCV grommet hole and crankcase
ventilation tube (6758)
• appropriate plugs to seal any openings leading to
the crankcase
• a solution of liquid detergent and water to be
applied with a suitable applicator such as a squirt
bottle or brush
• oil pan gaskets (6710)
• oil pan sealer
• crankshaft front seal (6700)
• crankshaft rear oil seal (6701)
With Transmission and Flywheel Removed
NOTE: Air leakage in the area around a crankshaft
rear oil seal does not necessarily indicate a
crankshaft rear oil seal leak. However, if no other
cause can be found for oil leakage, assume that
the crankshaft rear oil seal is the cause of the oil
leak.
NOTE: Light foaming equally around valve cover
bolts and crankshaft seals is not detrimental; no
repairs are required.
Fabricate the air supply hose to include the air line
shutoff valve and the appropriate adapter to permit
the air to enter the engine through the crankcase
ventilation tube. Fabricate the air pressure gauge
to a suitable adapter for installation on the engine
at the oil filler opening.
• crankshaft rear oil seal
Testing Procedure
• camshaft rear bearing covers (6266) or pipe plugs
at the end of oil passages
• Open the air supply valve until the pressure gauge
maintains 34 kPa (5 psi).
• rear main bearing cap partling line
• rear main bearing cap and seals
• flywheel mounting bolt holes (with flywheel
installed)
Oil leaks at crimped seams in sheet metal parts
and cracks in cast or stamped parts can be
detected when pressurizing the crankcase.
• Inspect sealed or gasketed areas for leaks by
applying a solution of liquid detergent and water
over areas for formation of bubbles which
indicates leakage.
Compression Tests
Leakage Points
Compression Gauge Check
Examine the following areas for oil leakage.
• valve cover gaskets (6584)
• intake manifold gaskets (9461)
• cylinder head gaskets
• oil bypass filter (6714)
• oil pump and filter body (6603)
• oil level indicator tube connection
1. Make sure the oil in the crankcase is of the
correct viscosity and at the proper level and that
the battery (10655) is properly charged. Operate
the vehicle until the engine is at normal operating
temperature. Turn the ignition switch to the OFF
position, then remove all the spark plugs
(12405).
2. Set the throttle plates in the wide-open position.
• oil pressure sensor (9278)
01-15
ESG-642
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
3. Install a Compression Tester in the No. 1 cylinder.
4. Install an auxiliary starter switch in the starting
circuit. With the ignition switch (11572) in the
OFF position, and using the auxiliary starter
switch, crank the engine a minimum of five
compression strokes and record the highest
reading. Note the approximate number of
compression strokes required to obtain the
highest reading.
5. Repeat the test on each cylinder, cranking the
engine approximately the same number of
compression strokes.
Test Results
The indicated compression pressures are
considered within specification if the lowest reading
cylinder is within 75 percent of the highest reading.
Refer to the Compression Pressure Limit Chart.
Compression Pressure Limit Chart
Maximum Minimum Maximum Minimum Maximum Minimum Maximum Minimum
psi
psi
psi
psi
psi
psi
psi
psi
924 kPa
(134 psi)
696 kPa
(101 psi)
1131 kPa
(164 psi)
848 kPa
(123 psi)
1338 kPa
(194 psi)
1000 kPa
(146 psi)
1154 kPa
(224 psi)
1158 kPa
(168 psi)
938 kPa
(136 psi)
703 kPa
(102 psi)
1145 kPa
(166 psi)
855 kPa
(124 psi)
1351 kPa
(196 psi)
1014 kPa
(147 psi)
1558 kPa
(226 psi)
1165 kPa
(169 psi)
952 kPa
(138 psi)
717 kPa
(104 psi)
1158 kPa
(168 psi)
869 kPa
(126 psi)
1365 kPa
(198 psi)
1020 kPa
(148 psi)
1572 kPa
(228 psi)
1179 kPa
(171 psi)
965 kPa
(140 psi)
724 kPa
(106 psi)
1172 kPa
(170 psi)
876 kPa
(127 psi)
1379 kPa
(200 psi)
1034 kPa
(150 psi)
1586 kPa
(230 psi)
1186 kPa
(172 psi)
979 kPa
(142 psi)
738 kPa
(107 psi)
1186 kPa
(172 psi)
889 kPa
(129 psi)
1303 kPa
(202 psi)
1041 kPa
(151 psi)
1600 kPa
(232 psi)
1200 kPa
(174 psi)
933 kPa
(144 psi)
745 kPa
(109 psi)
1200 kPa
(174 psi)
903 kPa
(131 psi)
1407 kPa
(204 psi)
1055 kPa
(153 psi)
1055 kPa
(153 psi)
1207 kPa
(175 psi)
1007 kPa
(146 psi)
758 kPa
(110 psi)
1214 kPa
(176 psi)
910 kPa
(132 psi)
1420 kPa
(206 psi)
1062 kPa
(154 psi)
1627 kPa
(154 psi)
1220 kPa
(177 psi)
1020 kPa
(148 psi)
765 kPa
(111 psi)
1227 kPa
(178 psi)
917 kPa
(133 psi)
1434 kPa
(208 psi)
1075 kPa
(156 psi)
1641 kPa
(238 psi)
1227 kPa
(178 psi)
1034 kPa
(150 psi)
779 kPa
(113 psi)
1241 kPa
(180 psi)
931 kPa
(135 psi)
1448 kPa
(210 psi)
1083 kPa
(157 psi)
1655 kPa
(240 psi)
1241 kPa
(180 psi)
1048 kPa
(152 psi)
786 kPa
(114 psi)
1225 kPa
(182 psi)
936 kPa
(136 psi)
1462 kPa
(212 psi)
1089 kPa
(158 psi)
1669 kPa
(242 psi)
1248 kPa
(181 psi)
1062 kPa
(154 psi)
793 kPa
(115 psi)
1269 kPa
(184 psi)
952 kPa
(138 psi)
1476 kPa
(214 psi)
1103 kPa
(160 psi)
1682 kPa
(244 psi)
1262 kPa
(183 psi)
1076 kPa
(156 psi)
807 kPa
(117 psi)
1282 kPa
(186 psi)
965 kPa
(140 psi)
1489 kPa
(216 psi)
1117 kPa
(162 psi)
1696 kPa
(246 psi)
1269 kPa
(184 psi)
1089 kPa
(158 psi)
814 kPa
(118 psi)
1296 kPa
(188 psi)
972 kPa
(141 psi)
1503 kPa
(218 psi)
1124 kPa
(163 psi)
1710 kPa
(248 psi)
1202 kPa
(186 psi)
1103 kPa
(160 psi)
872 kPa
(120 psi)
1310 kPa
(190 psi)
979 kPa
(142 psi)
1517 kPa
(220 psi)
1138 kPa
(165 psi)
1724 kPa
(250 psi)
1289 kPa
(187 psi)
1110 kPa
(161 psi)
834 kPa
(121 psi)
1324 kPa
(192 psi)
993 kPa
(144 psi)
1631 kPa
(222 psi)
1145 kPa
(166 psi)
–
–
If one or more cylinders reads low, squirt
approximately one tablespoon of clean engine oil
meeting Ford specification ESE-M2C153-E on top
of the pistons in the low-reading cylinders. Repeat
the compression pressure check on these
cylinders.
Interpreting Compression Readings
1. If compression improves considerably, piston
rings are faulty.
2. If compression does not improve, valves are
sticking or seating improperly.
01-16
ESG-642
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
3. If two adjacent cylinders indicate low
compression pressures and squirting oil on each
piston does not increase compression, the head
gasket may be leaking between cylinders.
Engine oil or coolant in cylinders could result
from this condition.
Use the Compression Pressure Limit Chart
when checking cylinder compression so that the
lowest reading is within 75 percent of the highest
reading.
2.
Connect the Engine Cylinder Leak Detection/
Air Pressurization Kit to a crankcase opening
(an oil level indicator tube (6754) is convenient).
Adjust the air pressure to approximately 34 kPa
(5psi).
3.
Using a solution of liquid soap and water, brush
the solution along the gasket sealing surfaces
and bearing seals. Look for bubbles or foam.
4.
Remove the spark plugs and rotate the
crankshaft slowly with a wrench. Check for
large amounts of air escaping into the cylinders
as each intake valve and exhaust valve opens.
5.
The spark plugs on the leaking cylinders will
probably show deposits of burned oil.
Cylinder Leakage Detection
When a cylinder produces a low reading, use of
the Engine Cylinder Leak Detection/Air
Pressurization Kit will be helpful in pinpointing the
exact cause.
Intake Manifold Vacuum Test
The leakage detector is inserted in the spark plug
hole, the piston is brought up to dead center on
the compression stroke, and compressed air is
admitted.
Once the combustion chamber is pressurized, a
special gauge included in the kit will read the
percentage of leakage. Leakage exceeding 20
percent is excessive.
While the air pressure is retained in the cylinder,
listen for the hiss of escaping air. A leak at the intake
valve (6507) will be heard in the throttle body
(9E926). A leak at the exhaust valve (6505) can be
heard at the tail pipe. Leakage past the piston rings
will be audible at the positive crankcase ventilation
(PCV) connection. If air is passing through a blown
head gasket to an adjacent cylinder, the noise will
be evident at the spark plug hole of the cylinder
into which the air is leaking. Cracks in the cylinder
blocks or gasket leakage into the cooling system
may be detected by a stream of bubbles in the
radiator (8005).
Oil Leak and Valve Stem Seal Test
The cylinder leakage detector tests for engine oil
leaks and checks the valve stem seals for leakage.
1.
Bring the engine to normal operating temperature.
Connect the Vacuum/Pressure Tester to the intake
manifold (9424). Run the engine at the specified
idle speed.
The vacuum gauge should read between 51-74 kPa
(15-22 in-Hg) depending upon the engine condition
and the altitude at which the test is performed.
Subtract 4.0193 kPa (1 in-Hg) from the specified
reading for every 304.8 m (1,000 feet) of elevation
above sea level.
The reading should be steady. If necessary, adjust
the gauge damper control (where used) if the
needle is fluttering rapidly. Adjust the damper until
the needle moves easily without excessive flutter.
Interpreting Vacuum Gauge Readings
A careful study of the vacuum gauge reading while
the engine is idling will help pinpoint trouble areas.
Always conduct other appropriate tests before
arriving at a final diagnostic decision. Vacuum gauge
readings, although helpful, must be interpreted
carefully.
Most vacuum gauges have a normal band indicated
on the gauge face.
Plug all crankcase openings except the one
used for connecting the leakage detector.
01-17
ESG-642
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
The following are potential gauge readings. Some
are normal; others should be investigated further.
5. STICKING VALVES: When the needle (dotted)
remains steady at a normal vacuum but
occasionally flicks (sharp, fast movement)
down and back about 13 kPa (4 in-Hg), one or
more valves may be sticking.
6. BURNED OR WARPED VALVES: A regular,
evenly-spaced, downscale flicking of the needle
indicates one or more burned or warped valves.
Insufficient hydraulic lash adjuster or hydraulic
lash adjuster (HLA) clearance will also cause
this reaction.
7. POOR VALVE SEATING: A small but regular
downscale flicking can mean one or more
valves are not seating.
8. WORN VALVE GUIDES: When the needle
oscillates over about a 13 kPa (4 in-Hg) range
at idle speed, the valve guides could be worn.
As engine speed increases, the needle will
become steady if guides are responsible.
9. WEAK VALVE SPRINGS: When the needle
oscillation becomes more violent as engine
rpm is increased, weak valve springs are
indicated. The reading at idle could be relatively
steady.
10. LATE VALVE TIMING: A steady but low reading
could be caused by late valve timing.
11. IGNITION TIMING RETARDING: Retarded
ignition timing will produce a steady but
somewhat low reading.
1.
NORMAL READING: Needle between 51-74
kPa (15-22 in-Hg) and holding steady.
2.
NORMAL READING DURING RAPID
ACCELERATION AND DEACCELERATION:
When the engine is rapidly accelerated (dotted
needle), the needle will drop to a low reading
(not to zero). When the throttle is suddenly
released, the needle will snap back up to a
higher than normal figure.
12. INSUFFICIENT SPARK PLUG GAP: When
spark plugs are gapped too close, a regular,
small pulsation of the needle can occur.
3.
NORMAL FOR HIGH-LIFT CAMSHAFT WITH
LARGE OVERLAP: The needle will register as
low as 51 kPa (15 in-Hg) but will be relatively
steady. Some oscillation is normal.
14. BLOWN HEAD GASKET: A regular drop of fair
magnitude can be caused by a blown head
gasket or warped cylinder head-to-cylinder
block surface.
4.
WORN RINGS OR DILUTED OIL: When the
engine is accelerated (dotted needle), the
needle drops to 0 kPa (0 in-Hg). Upon
deceleration, the needle runs slightly above 74
kPa (22 in-Hg).
01-18
13. INTAKE LEAK: A low, steady reading can be
caused by an intake manifold or throttle body
gasket leak.
ESG-642
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
15. RESTRICTED EXHAUST SYSTEM: When the
engine is first started and is idled, the reading
may be normal, but as the engine rpm is
increased, the back pressure caused by a
clogged muffler, kinked tail pipe or other
concerns will cause the needle to slowly drop
to 0 kPa (0 in-Hg). The needle then may slowly
rise. Excessive exhaust clogging will cause the
needle to drop to a low point even if the engine
is only idling.
When vacuum leaks are indicated, search out
and correct the cause. Excess air leaking into
the system will upset the fuel mixture and
cause concerns such as rough idle, missing
on acceleration or burned valves. If the leak
exists in an accessory unit such as the power
brake booster (2005), the unit will not function
correctly. Always fix vacuum leaks.
Excessive Engine Oil Consumption
The amount of oil an engine uses will vary with the
way the vehicle is driven in addition to normal
engine-to-engine variation. This is especially true
during the first 340 hours or 16,100 km (10,000
miles) when a new engine is being broken in or
until certain internal engine components become
conditioned. Vehicles used in heavy-duty operation
may use more oil. The following are examples of
heavy-duty operation:
• severe loading applications
When the pistons move downward, a thin film of oil
is left on the cylinder walls. As the engine is
operated, some oil is also drawn into the
combustion chambers past the intake and exhaust
valve stem seals and burned.
The following is a partial list of conditions that can
affect oil consumption rates:
• engine size
• operator driving habits
• ambient temperature
• quality and viscosity of the oil
Operating under varying conditions can frequently
be misleading. An engine that has been run for short
hours or in below-freezing ambient temperatures
may have consumed a “normal” amount of oil.
However, when checking engine oil level, it may
measure up to the full mark on the oil level dipstick
(6750) due to dilution (condensation and fuel) in
the engine crankcase. The engine might then be
run at high speeds where the condensation and
fuel boil off. The next time the engine oil is checked,
it may appear that a liter (quart) of oil was used in
about 3 to 3-1/2 hours. This perceived 3 to 3-1/2
hours per liter (quart) oil consumption rate causes
customer concern even though the actual overall
oil consumption rate is about 50 hours per liter
(quart).
• pistons, piston pins and rings (6102)
Make sure the selected engine oil meets Ford
specification WSS-M2C153-F and the
recommended API performance category “SJ” or
higher and SAE viscosity grade as shown in the
equipment Owner’s or Operators Engine handbook.
It is also important that the engine oil is changed at
the intervals specified. Refer to the Vehicle Owner’s
Guide or Engine Operator’s handbook.
• intake and exhaust valve stems
Oil Consumption Test
• intake and exhaust valve guides
The following diagnostic procedure is used to
determine the source of excessive internal oil
consumption.
• sustained high speed operation
Engines need oil to lubricate the following internal
components:
• cylinder block cylinder walls
• all internal engine components
01-19
ESG-642
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
NOTE: Oil use is normally greater during the
first 300 hours of service. As hours increase,
oil use generally decreases. Vehicles in normal
service should get at least 30 hours per liter
(900 miles per quart) after 300 hours of service.
High speeds, heavy loads, high ambient
temperature and other factors may result in
greater oil use.
d. Add one liter (quart) of oil. Restart the engine
and allow to idle for at least two minutes.
Shut off the engine and allow the oil to drain
back for at least five minutes. Mark the oil
level dipstick, using the procedure above.
This level may range from slightly below the
top of the cross-hatched area to slightly
below the letter F in FULL.
Define excessive oil consumption, such as the
number of hours per liter (quart) of oil used.
Also determine customer’s engine load habits,
such as sustained high speed operation,
extended idle, heavy work loads and other
considerations.
e. Record the vehicle mileage or hours.
f. Instruct the customer to run engine as usual
and perform the following:
• Check the oil level regularly at intervals of
3 to 3-1/2 hours.
Verify that the engine has no external oil leak
as described under Engine Oil Leaks in the
Diagnosis and Testing portion of this section.
• Return to the service point when the oil
level drops below the lower (ADD) mark
on the oil level dipstick.
Verify that the engine has the correct oil level
dipstick.
• Add only full liters (quarts) of the same oil
in an emergency. Note the mileage at
which the oil is added.
Verify that the engine is not being run in an
overfilled condition. Check the oil level at least
five minutes after a hot shutdown with the
vehicle parked on a level surface. In no case
should the level be above the top of the crosshatched area and the letter F in FULL. If
significantly overfilled, perform steps 5a
through 5d.
g. Check the oil level under the same conditions
and at the same location as in Steps 5c and
5d.
• Measure the distance from the oil level to
the UPPER mark on the oil level dipstick
and record.
Perform an oil consumption test:
• Measure the distance between the two
scribe marks and record.
a. Drain the engine oil, remove the oil bypass
filter and refill with one liter (quart) less than
the recommended amount.
• Divide the first measurement by the
second.
b. Run the engine for three minutes (10 minutes
if cold), and allow the oil to drain back for at
least five minutes with the vehicle on a level
surface.
c. Remove oil level dipstick and wipe clean.
NOTE: (Do not wipe with anything
contaminated with silicone compounds).
Reinstall the oil level dipstick, being sure to
seat it firmly in the oil level indicator tube.
Remove the oil level dipstick and draw a
mark on the back (unmarked) surface at the
indicated oil level. This level should be about
the same as the ADD mark on the face of
the oil level dipstick.
• Divide the hours run during the oil test by
the result. This quantity is the approximate
oil consumption rate in hours per liter or
in hours per quart.
h. If the oil consumption rate is unacceptable,
go to Step 6.
6.
Check the positive crankcase ventilation (PCV)
system. Make sure the system is not plugged.
7.
Check for plugged oil drain-back holes in the
cylinder heads and cylinder blocks.
8.
If the condition still exists after performing the
above steps, go to Step 9.
01-20
ESG-642
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
9.
Perform a cylinder compression test or perform
a cylinder leak detection test with Engine
Cylinder Leak Detection/Air Pressurization Kit.
This can help determine the source of oil
consumption such as valves, piston rings or
other areas.
6.
• insufficient oil
• oil leakage
10. NOTE: After determining if worn parts should
be replaced, make sure correct replacement
parts are used.
• worn or damaged oil pump
• oil pump screen cover and tube (6622)
Check valve guides for excessive guide
clearances. REPLACE all valve stem seals
after verifying valve guide clearance.
11. Worn or damaged internal engine components
can cause excessive oil consumption. Small
deposits of oil on the tips of spark plugs can
be a clue to internal oil consumption. If internal
oil consumption still persists, proceed as
follows:
a. Remove the engine from the vehicle and
place it on an engine work stand. Remove
the intake manifolds, cylinder heads, oil pan
and oil pump (6600).
If the pressure is not within specification, check
the following possible sources:
• excessive main bearing clearance
• excessive connecting rod bearing clearance
Valve Train Analysis – Static (Engine Off)
Valve Cover Removed
Check for damaged or severely worn parts and
correct assembly. Make sure correct parts are
used with the static engine analysis as follows.
Rocker Arm
• Check for loose mounting bolts, studs and nuts.
b. Check piston ring clearance, ring gap and
ring orientation. Repair as required.
• Check for plugged oil feed in the rocker arms
(6564) or cylinder head.
c. Check for excessive bearing clearance.
Repair as required.
Camshaft Roller Followers and Hydraulic
Lash Adjusters, Overhead Camshaft
12. Perform the oil consumption test to confirm the
oil consumption concern has been resolved.
• Check for loose mounting bolts on camshaft
carriers.
Oil Pressure Test
• Check for plugged oil feed in the camshaft roller
followers, hydraulic lash adjusters (HLA) or
cylinder heads.
1.
Disconnect and remove the oil pressure sensor
from the engine.
2.
Connect the Engine Oil Pressure Gauge and
Transmission Test Adapter to the oil pressure
sender oil gallery port.
3.
Run the engine until normal operating
temperature is reached.
Camshaft – Overhead Camshaft Engines
• Check for broken or damaged parts.
• Check the bolts on the intake manifold.
Push Rods
4.
Run the engine at 3000 rpm and record the
gauge reading.
• Check for bent push rods (6565) and restricted oil
passage.
5.
The oil pressure
specifications.
Valve Springs
should
be
within
• Check for broken or damaged parts.
01-21
ESG-642
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Valve Spring Retainer and Valve Spring
Retainer Keys
Push Rods
• Check for proper seating of the valve spring
retainer key (6518) on the valve stem and in valve
spring retainer (6514).
Valve Spring Retainer Keys
• Check for bent push rods and restriction in oil
passage.
Positive Rotator and Valve Spring Retainer
Keys
• Check for proper operation of positive rotator.
• Check for proper seating on the valve stem.
Valves and Cylinder Head
Valves and Cylinder Head
• Check for plugged oil drain back holes.
• Check the head gasket for proper installation.
• Check for missing or damaged valve stem seals
or guide mounted valve stem seals.
• Check for plugged oil drain back holes.
• Check for worn or damaged valve tips.
• Check for missing or damaged guide-mounted
valve stem seal.
• Check collapsed valve tappet gap.
• Check installed valve spring height.
• Check for missing or worn valve spring seats.
• Check for plugged oil metering orifice in cylinder
head oil reservoir (if equipped).
If insufficient oiling is suspected, check oil passages
for blockage, then accelerate the engine to 1200
rpm with the transmission in NEUTRAL or load
removed and the engine at normal operating
temperature. Oil should spurt from the rocker arm
oil holes such that valve tips and camshaft roller
followers are well oiled. With the valve covers off,
some oil splash may overshoot camshaft roller
followers.
Camshaft Lobe Lift
OHV Engines
Static checks (engine off) are to be made on the
engine prior to the dynamic procedure.
Check the lift of each lobe in consecutive order
and make a note of the readings.
Valve Train Analysis – Dynamic
1.
Remove the valve covers.
• Start the engine and, while idling, check for proper
operation of all parts. Check the following:
2.
Remove the rocker arm seat bolts, rocker arm
seat (6A528) and rocker arms.
Rocker Arm
Typical Engine With Push Rods
• Check for plugged oil in the rocker arms or cylinder
head.
• Check for proper overhead valve train lubrication.
If insufficient oiling is suspected, accelerate the
engine to 1200 rpm + 100 rpm with the transmission
in NEUTRAL or load removed and the engine at
normal operating temperature. Oil should spurt from
the rocker arm oil holes such that valve tips and
rocker arms are well oiled or, with the valve covers
off, oil splash may overshoot the rocker arms. If
oiling is insufficient for this to occur, check oil
passages for blockage.
01-22
ESG-642
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
3.
Make sure the valve tappet is seated against
camshaft (6250). Install the (A) dial Indicator
with Bracketry so the ball socket adapter of
the indicator is on top of the hydraulic lash
adjuster or the (B) Cup Shaped Adapter is on
top of the push rod and in the same plane as
the valve tappet push rod movement.
Hydraulic Valve Tappet
Hydraulic valve tappet noise can be caused by any
of the following:
• excessive collapsed valve tappet gap
• sticking valve tappet plunger
4.
Remove the spark plugs.
5.
Connect an auxiliary starter switch in the
starting circuit. Crank the engine with the
ignition switch in the OFF position. Bump the
crankshaft over until the hydraulic lash adjuster
is on the base circle of the camshaft lobe. At
this point, the hydraulic lash adjuster will be in
its lowest position. If checking during engine
assembly, turn the crankshaft using a socket
or ratchet.
• valve tappet check valve not functioning properly
6.
Zero the dial indicator. Continue to rotate the
crankshaft slowly until the valve tappet is in
the fully-raised position (highest indicator
reading).
7.
NOTE: If the lift on any lobe is below specified
service limits, the camshaft and hydraulic lash
adjuster operating on worn lobes must be
replaced, as well as any hydraulic lash adjuster
showing roller wear or needle bearing damage.
Compare the total lift recorded on the dial
indicator with specifications.
8.
To check the accuracy of the original dial
indicator reading, continue to rotate the
crankshaft until the indicator reads zero.
9.
Remove the dial indicator, adapter and
auxiliary starter switch.
10.
! CAUTION: After installing rocker arms,
do not rotate the crankshaft until valve
tappets have had sufficient time to bleed
down. To do otherwise may cause serious
valve damage. Manually bleeding-down
valve tappets will reduce waiting time.
Install the rocker arm seats, rocker arms and
rocker arm seat bolts.
11. Install the valve covers.
12. Install the spark plugs.
• air in lubrication system
• leakdown rate too rapid
• excessive valve guide wear
Excessive collapsed valve tappet gap can be
caused by loose rocker arm seat bolts/nuts,
incorrect initial adjustment or wear of valve tappet
face, or worn roller valve tappets, push rod, rocker
arm, rocker arm seat or valve tip. With valve tappet
collapsed, check gap between the valve tip and
the rocker arm to determine if any other valve train
parts are damaged, worn or out of adjustment.
A sticking valve tappet plunger can be caused by
dirt, chips or varnish inside the valve tappet.
A valve tappet check valve that is not functioning
can be caused by an obstruction such as dirt or
chips that prevent it from closing when the camshaft
lobe is lifting the valve tappet. It may also be caused
by a broken check valve spring.
Air bubbles in the lubrication system will prevent
the valve tappet from supporting the valve spring
load. This can be caused by too high or too low an
oil level in the oil pan or by air being drawn into the
system through a hole, crack or leaking gasket on
the oil pump screen cover and tube.
If the leakdown time is below the specified time for
used valve tappets, noisy operation can result. If
no other cause for noisy valve tappets can be found,
the leakdown rate should be checked and any valve
tappets outside the specification should be
replaced.
Assembled valve tappets can be tested with
Hydraulic tappet Leakdown Tester to check the
leakdown rate. The leakdown rate specification is
the time in seconds for the plunger to move a
specified distance while under a 22.7 kg (50 lb)
load. Test the valve tappets as follows:
01-23
ESG-642
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Leakdown Testing
Timing Chain
1.
Refer to Section 02 for the removal and installation
of timing chain belts, sprockets and tensioners.
NOTE: Do not mix parts from different hydraulic
lash adjusters (HLA). Parts are select-fit and
are not interchangeable.
Clean the valve tappet to remove all traces of
engine oil.
2.
NOTE: Valve tappets cannot be checked with
engine oil in them. Use only testing fluid.
Place the valve tappet in the tester with the
plunger facing upward. Pour hydraulic tester
fluid into a cup to a level that will cover the
valve tappet. The fluid can be purchased from
the tester’s manufacturer. Using kerosene or
any other fluid will not provide an accurate test.
3.
Adjust the length of the ram so the pointer is
1.59 mm (0.062 inch) below the starting mark
when the ram contracts the tappet plunger to
facilitate timing as the pointer passes Start
Timing mark.
Make sure the timing marks on the (A) crankshaft
sprocket (6306) and (B) camshaft sprocket (6256)
are positioned across from each other as shown
in illustration. The (C) engine balance shaft driven
gear (6A304) and (D) engine balance shaft drive
gear (6A303) must be positioned as illustrated.
Use the center mark on the pointer scale as
the Stop Timing point instead of the original
Stop Timing mark at the top of the scale.
4.
Work the valve tappet plunger up and down
until the valve tappet fills with fluid and all traces
of air bubbles have disappeared.
5.
Allow the ram and weight to force the valve
tappet plunger downward. Measure the exact
time it takes for the pointer to travel from the
Start Timing to Stop Timing marks of the tester.
6.
A satisfactory valve tappet must have a
leakdown rate (time in seconds) within
specified minimum and maximum limits.
7.
If the valve tappet is not within specification,
replace it with a new valve tappet. Do not
disassemble and clean new valve tappets
before testing because oil contained in the new
valve tappets is test fluid.
8.
Remove the fluid from the cup and bleed the
fluid form the valve tappet by working the
plunger up and down. This step will aid in
depressing the valve tappet plungers when
checking valve clearance.
01-24
ESG-642
GENERAL SERVICE PROCEDURES
Sprockets
! WARNING: TO AVOID THE POSSIBILITY
OF PERSONAL INJURY OR DAMAGE TO THE
VEHICLE, DO NOT OPERATE THE ENGINE WITH
THE HOOD OPEN UNTIL THE FAN BLADE HAS
BEEN EXAMINED FOR POSSIBLE CRACKS
AND SEPARATION.
NOTE: Specifications show the expected minimum
or maximum condition.
NOTE: If a component fails to meet the
specifications, it is necessary to replace or refinish.
If the component can be refinished, wear limits are
provided as an aid to making a decision. Any
component that fails to meet specifications and
cannot be refinished must be replaced.
1.
Inspect the (A) chain and the (B) sprockets.
• Replace as necessary.
01-25
ESG-642
GENERAL SERVICE PROCEDURES (Continued)
Gears
1.
Inspect the (A) thrust plate, the (B) cam gear
and the (C) crank gear.
• Replace as necessary.
Camshaft Journal Diameter
1.
Measure each camshaft journal diameter in two
directions.
• If it is out of specification, replace as
necessary.
01-26
ESG-642
GENERAL SERVICE PROCEDURES (Continued)
Camshaft Journal Clearance – OHV Engines
1.
NOTE: The camshaft journals must meet
specifications before checking camshaft journal
clearance.
Measure each camshaft bearing in two
directions.
• Subtract the camshaft journal diameter from
the camshaft bearing diameter
Camshaft Lobe Surface
1.
01-27
Inspect camshaft lobes for pitting or damage
in the active area. Minor pitting is acceptable
outside the active area.
ESG-642
GENERAL SERVICE PROCEDURES (Continued)
Camshaft Lobe Lift
Special Tool(s)
Dial Indicator with Bracketry
TOOL-4201-C or Equivalent
Special Service Tools called for by the procedures
can be obtained by calling:
1-800-ROTUNDA (1-800-768-8632).
1.
Use the Dial Indicator with Bracketry to
measure camshaft intake lobe life.
• Rotate the camshaft and subtract the lowest
dial indicator reading from the highest dial
indicator reading to figure the camshaft lobe
lift.
2.
Use the Dial Indicator with Bracketry to
measure camshaft exhaust lobe life.
• Rotate the camshaft and subtract the lowest
dial indicator reading from the highest dial
indicator reading to figure the camshaft lobe
lift.
Camshaft Runout
Special Tool(s)
Dial Indicator with Bracketry
TOOL-4201-C or Equivalent
Special Service Tools called for by the procedures
can be obtained by calling:
1-800-ROTUNDA (1-800-768-8632).
01-28
ESG-642
GENERAL SERVICE PROCEDURES (Continued)
NOTE: Camshaft journals must be within
specifications before checking runout.
1.
Use the Dial Indicator with Bracketry to
measure the camshaft runout.
• Rotate the camshaft and subtract the lowest
dial indicator reading from the highest dial
indicator reading.
Crankshaft Main Bearing Journal Diameter
1.
Measure each of the crankshaft main bearing
journal diameters in at least two directions.
• If it is out of specification, replace as
necessary.
Crankshaft Main Bearing Journal Taper
1.
Measure each of the crankshaft main bearing
journal diameters in at least two directions at
each end of the main bearing journal.
• If it is out of specifications, replace as
necessary.
01-29
ESG-642
GENERAL SERVICE PROCEDURES (Continued)
Crankshaft Main Bearing Journal Clearance
!
CAUTION: Before removing main
bearing, the cylinder heads must be removed
first on the ESG-642 engine. The main bearing
and head bolts are torque to yield and must be
discarded and replaced after this diagnostic
test.
Special Tool(s)
Plastigage â
D81L-6002-B or Equivalent
Special Service Tools called for by the procedures
can be obtained by calling:
1-800-ROTUNDA (1-800-768-8632).
NOTE: Crankshaft main bearing journals must be
within specifications before checking journal
clearance.
1.
2.
3.
Remove the crankshaft main bearing caps and
bearings.
Lay a piece of Plastigageâ across the face of
each crankshaft main surface.
NOTE: Do not turn the crankshaft while doing
this procedure.
Install and remove the crankshaft main bearing
cap.
4.
Verify the crankshaft journal clearance.
• If it is out of specification, replace as
necessary.
01-30
ESG-642
GENERAL SERVICE PROCEDURES (Continued)
Bearing Inspection
1.
Inspect bearings for the following defects.
Possible causes are shown:
• Cratering – fatigue failure (A)
• Spot polishing – improper seating (B)
• Scratching – dirty (C)
• Base exposed – poor lubrication (D)
• Both edges worn – journal damaged (E)
• One edge worn – journal tapered or bearing
not seated (F)
Crankcase End Play
Special Tool(s)
Dial Indicator with Bracketry
TOOL-4201-C or Equivalent
Special Service Tools called for by the procedures
can be obtained by calling:
1-800-ROTUNDA (1-800-768-8632).
1.
Measure the crankshaft end play. Use the Dial
Indicator with Bracketry to measure crankshaft
end play.
2.
Position the crankshaft to the rear of the
cylinder block.
3.
Zero the Dial Indicator with Bracketry.
01-31
ESG-642
GENERAL SERVICE PROCEDURES (Continued)
4.
Move the crankshaft to the front of the cylinder
block. Note and record the camshaft end play.
• If camshaft end play exceeds specifications,
replace the crankshaft thrust washers or
thrust bearing.
Special Tool(s)
Dial Indicator with Bracketry
TOOL-4201-C or Equivalent
Special Service Tools called for by the procedures
can be obtained by calling:
1-800-ROTUNDA (1-800-768-8632).
NOTE: Crankshaft main bearing journals must be
within specifications before checking runout.
1.
Use the Dial Indicator with Bracketry to
measure the crankshaft runout.
• Rotate the crankshaft and subtract the lowest
dial indicator reading from the highest dial
indicator reading to figure the crankshaft
runout. If it is out of specification, replace as
necessary.
01-32
ESG-642
GENERAL SERVICE PROCEDURES (Continued)
Cylinder Bore Taper
1.
Measure the cylinder bore at the top and
bottom. Verify the cylinder bore is within the
wear limit. The difference indicates the cylinder
bore taper. Bore the cylinder to the next
oversize.
1.
Measure the cylinder bore in two directions.
The difference is the out-of-round. Verify the
out-of-round is within the wear limit and bore
the cylinder to the next oversize limit.
Cylinder Bore Out-of-Round
Piston Inspection
Special Tool(s)
Piston Ring Groove Cleaner
D81L-6002-D or Equivalent
Special Service Tools called for by the procedures
can be obtained by calling:
1-800-ROTUNDA (1-800-768-8632).
01-33
ESG-642
GENERAL SERVICE PROCEDURES (Continued)
!
CAUTION: Do not use a caustic cleaning
solution or a wire brush to clean the pistons or
possible damage can occur.
1.
Clean and inspect the (A) ring lands, (B) skirts,
(C) pin bosses, and the (D) tops of the pistons.
If wear marks or polishing is found on the piston
skirt, check for a bent or twisted connecting
rod.
2.
Use the Piston Ring Groove Cleaner to clean
the piston ring grooves.
• Make sure the oil ring holes are clean.
Special Service Tools called for by the procedures
can be obtained by calling:
1-800-ROTUNDA (1-800-768-8632).
Piston Diameter
1.
Measure the piston skirt diameter.
1.
Subtract the piston diameter from the cylinder
bore diameter to find the piston-to-cylinder bore
clearance.
Piston to Cylinder Bore Clearance
01-34
ESG-642
GENERAL SERVICE PROCEDURES (Continued)
Piston Selection
NOTE: The cylinder bore must be within the
specifications for taper and out-of-round before
fitting a piston.
1.
Select a piston size based on the cylinder bore.
2.
NOTE: For precision fit, new pistons are divided
into three categories within each size range
based on their relative position within the range.
A paint spot on the new pistons indicates the
position within the size range.
Choose the piston with the proper paint color.
• Red – in the lower third of the size range.
• Blue – in the middle third of the size range.
• Yellow – in the upper third of the size range.
Piston Ring End Gap
Special Tool(s)
Feeler Gauge
D81L-4201-A or Equivalent
Special Service Tools called for by the procedures
can be obtained by calling:
1-800-ROTUNDA (1-800-768-8632).
!
CAUTION: Use care when fitting piston
rings to avoid possible damage to the piston
ring or the cylinder bore.
!
CAUTION: Piston rings should not be
transferred from one piston to another to
prevent damage to cylinder worn or piston.
NOTE: Cylinder bore must be within specification
for taper and out-of-round to fit piston rings.
1.
01-35
Use a piston without rings to push a piston ring
in a cylinder to the bottom of ring travel.
ESG-642
GENERAL SERVICE PROCEDURES (Continued)
2.
Use a feeler gauge to measure the top piston
ring end gap and the second piston ring end
gap.
Piston Ring-to-Groove Clearance
Special Tool(s)
Feeler Gauge
D81L-4201-A or Equivalent
Special Service Tools called for by the procedures
can be obtained by calling:
1-800-ROTUNDA (1-800-768-8632).
1.
Inspect for a stop in the grooves.
2.
Measure the piston-to-groove clearance.
01-36
ESG-642
GENERAL SERVICE PROCEDURES (Continued)
Crankshaft Connecting Rod Journal Diameter
1.
Measure the crankshaft connecting rod journal
diameters in at least two directions
perpendicular to one another. The difference
between the measurements is the out-of-round.
Verify the journal is within the wear limit
specification.
1.
Measure the crankshaft rod journal diameters
in two directions perpendicular to one another
at each end of the connecting rod journal. The
difference in the measurements from one end
to the other is the taper. Verify measurement
is within the wear limit.
Crankshaft Connecting Rod Journal Taper
01-37
ESG-642
GENERAL SERVICE PROCEDURES (Continued)
Connecting Rod Cleaning
!
CAUTION: Do not use a caustic cleaning
solution or damage to connecting rods can
occur.
1.
NOTE: The connecting rod large end is
mechanically split or cracked to produce a
unique parting face. This produces a locking
joint. Parts are not interchangeable.
Mark and separate the parts and clean with
solvent. Clean the oil passages.
Connecting Rod Larger End Bore
1.
Measure the bore in two directions. The
difference is the connecting rod bore out-ofround. Verify the out-of-round is within
specification.
!
CAUTION: The connecting rod bolts are
torque to yield and must be discarded and
replaced after this diagnostic test.
01-38
ESG-642
GENERAL SERVICE PROCEDURES (Continued)
Piston Pin Diameter
1.
Measure the piston pin diameter in two
directions at the points shown. Verify the
diameter is within specifications.
1.
Measure the inner diameter of the connecting
rod bushing. Verify the diameter is within
specification.
Connecting Rod Bushing Diameter
01-39
ESG-642
GENERAL SERVICE PROCEDURES (Continued)
Connecting Rod Bend
1.
Measure the connecting rod bend on a suitable
alignment fixture. Follow the instructions of the
fixture manufacturer. Verify the bend
measurement is within specification.
1.
Measure the connecting rod twist on a suitable
alignment fixture. Follow the instructions of the
fixture manufacturer. Verify the measurement
is within specification.
Connecting Rod Twist
01-40
ESG-642
GENERAL SERVICE PROCEDURES (Continued)
Connecting Rod Piston Pin Side Clearance
1.
Measure the clearance between the connecting
rod and the piston. Verify the measurement is
within specification.
Connecting Rod Journal Clearance
Special Tool(s)
Plastigage â
D81L-6002-B or Equivalent
Special Service Tools called for by the procedures
can be obtained by calling:
1-800-ROTUNDA (1-800-768-8632).
NOTE: The crankshaft connecting rod journals must
be within specifications to check the connecting rod
bearing journal clearances.
1.
Remove the connecting rod bearing cap.
2.
Position a piece of Plastigageâ across the
bearing surface.
!
CAUTION: The connecting rod bolts are
torque to yield and must be discarded and
replaced after this diagnostic test.
01-41
ESG-642
GENERAL SERVICE PROCEDURES (Continued)
3.
NOTE: Do not turn the crankshaft during this
step.
Install and torque to specifications, then
remove the connecting rod bearing cap.
4.
Measure the Plastigage â to get the connecting
rod bearing journal clearance. The Plastigageâ
should be smooth and flat. A change width
indicates a tapered or damaged connecting rod
bearing or connecting rod.
Bearing Inspection
1.
Inspect bearings for the following defects.
Possible causes are shown:
• Cratering – fatigue failure (A)
• Spot polishing – improper seating (B)
• Scratching – dirty (C)
• Base exposed – poor lubrication (D)
• Both edges worn – journal damaged (E)
• One edge worn – journal tapered or bearing
not seated (F)
01-42
ESG-642
GENERAL SERVICE PROCEDURES (Continued)
Roller Follower Inspection – OHC Engines
1.
Inspect the roller for flat spots or scoring. If any
damage is found, inspect the camshaft lobes
and hydraulic lash adjusters for damage.
Hydraulic Valve Tappet Inspection – OHV Engines
1.
Inspect the hydraulic valve tappet and roller
for damage. If any damage is found, inspect
the camshaft lobes and valves for damage.
Hydraulic Valve Tappet Leakdown Test – OHV Engines
1.
NOTE: The leakdown test will not be accurate
if it is done with engine oil in the hydraulic valve
tappet. Use testing fluid. New hydraulic valve
tappets are already filled with testing fluid.
Compress the hydraulic valve tappet to remove
the engine oil if necessary.
2.
01-43
Place (A) hydraulic valve tappet in a (B)
commercially available hydraulic tappet
leakdown tester. Position the (C) steel ball
provided in the plunger cap. Add testing fluid
to cover the hydraulic tappet and compress
Hydraulic Tappet Leakdown Tester until the
hydraulic valve tappet is filled with testing fluid.
ESG-642
GENERAL SERVICE PROCEDURES (Continued)
3.
Adjust the length of the (A) ram so that the (B)
pointer is just below the (C) Start Timing mark
when the ram contacts the hydraulic valve
tappet. Start timing as the pointer passes the
(C) Start Timing mark and end timing as the
pointer reaches the (D) center mark.
Hydraulic Lash Adjuster Leakdown Test – OHC Engines
1.
NOTE: The leakdown test will not be accurate
if it is done with engine oil in the hydraulic lash
adjuster. Use testing fluid. New hydraulic lash
adjusters are already filled with testing fluid.
Compress the hydraulic lash adjuster to
remove the engine oil if necessary.
2.
01-44
Place (A) hydraulic lash adjuster in a (B)
commercially available hydraulic tappet
leakdown tester. Position the (C) steel ball
provided in the plunger cap. Add testing fluid
to cover the hydraulic lash adjuster and
compress hydraulic tappet leakdown tester until
the hydraulic lash adjuster is filled with testing
fluid.
ESG-642
GENERAL SERVICE PROCEDURES (Continued)
3.
Adjust the length of the (A) ram so that the (B)
pointer is just below the (C) start timing mark
when the ram contacts the hydraulic lash
adjuster. Start timing as the pointer passes the
(C) start timing mark and end timing as the
pointer reaches the (D) center mark.
1.
Measure the diameter of each intake and
exhaust valve stem at the points shown. Verify
the diameter is within specification.
Valve Stem Diameter
01-45
ESG-642
GENERAL SERVICE PROCEDURES (Continued)
Valve Stem-to-Valve Guide Clearance
Special Tool(s)
Dial Indicator with Bracketry
TOOL-4201-C or Equivalent
Valve Stem Clearance Tool
TOOL-6505-E or Equivalent
Special Service Tools called for by the procedures
can be obtained by calling:
1-800-ROTUNDA (1-800-768-8632).
NOTE: Valve stem diameter must be within
specifications before checking valve stem to valve
guide clearance.
1.
NOTE: If necessary, use a magnetic base.
Install the Valve Stem Clearance Tool on the
valve stem and install the Dial Indicator with
Bracketery. Lower the valve until the Valve Stem
Clearance Tool contacts the upper surface of
the valve guide.
2.
01-46
Move the Valve Stem Clearance Tool toward
the Dial Indicator and zero the Dial Indicator.
Move the Valve Stem Clearance Tool away from
the Dial Indicator and note the reading. The
reading will be double the valve stem-to-valve
guide clearance. Valves with oversize stems
will need to be installed if out of specification.
ESG-642
GENERAL SERVICE PROCEDURES (Continued)
Valve Inspection
1.
Inspect the following valve areas:
• The end of the stem for grooves or scoring
(A).
• The valve face and the edge for pits, grooves
or scores (B).
• The valve head for signs of burning, erosion,
warpage and cracking. Minor pits, grooves
and other abrasions may be removed (C).
• The valve head thickness for wear (D).
Valve Guide Inner Diameter
1.
Measure the inner diameter of the valve guides
in two directions where indicated.
2.
If the valve guide is not within specifications,
ream the valve guide and install a valve with
an oversize stem or remove the valve guide
and install a new valve guide.
01-47
ESG-642
GENERAL SERVICE PROCEDURES (Continued)
Valve Guide Reaming
1.
Use a hand-reaming kit to ream the valve guide.
2.
Reface the valve seat.
3.
Clean the sharp edges left by reaming.
1.
Measure the installed length of each valve
spring.
Valve Spring Installed Length
01-48
ESG-642
GENERAL SERVICE PROCEDURES (Continued)
Valve Spring Free Length
1.
Measure the free length of each valve spring.
1.
Measure the out-of-square on each valve
spring.
Valve Spring Out-of-Square
• Turn the valve spring and observe the space
between the top of the valve spring and the
square. Replace the valve spring if out of
specification.
Special Tool(s)
Valve/Clutch Spring Tester
TOOL-6513-DD or Equivalent
Special Service Tools called for by the procedures
can be obtained by calling:
1-800-ROTUNDA (1-800-768-8632).
01-49
ESG-642
GENERAL SERVICE PROCEDURES (Continued)
1.
Use the Valve/Clutch Spring Tester to check
the valve springs for proper strength at the
specified valve spring length.
Valve and Seat Refacing Measurements
NOTE: After grinding valves or valve seats, check
valve clearance.
1.
Check the valve seat and valve angles.
1.
Measure the valve seat width. If necessary,
grind the valve seat to specification.
Valve Seat Width
01-50
ESG-642
GENERAL SERVICE PROCEDURES (Continued)
Valve Seat Runout
1.
Use the Valve Seat Runout Gauge to check
valve seat runout.
Flywheel Inspection
Special Tool(s)
Dial Indicator with Bracketry
TOOL-4201-C or Equivalent
Special Service Tools called for by the procedures
can be obtained by calling:
1-800-ROTUNDA (1-800-768-8632).
1.
Inspect the flywheel for:
• Cracks (A).
• Worn ring gear teeth (B).
• Chipped or cracked ring gear teeth (C).
2.
01-51
Inspect the flywheel ring gear runout.
ESG-642
GENERAL SERVICE PROCEDURES (Continued)
Oil Pump Gear Radial Clearance
1.
Measure the clearance between the rotor and
the pump housing.
1.
Inspect the oil pump rotor tips for damage or
wear.
Oil Pump Rotor Inspection
01-52
ESG-642
GENERAL SERVICE PROCEDURES (Continued)
Oil Pump Side Clearance
Special Tool(s)
Feeler Gauge
D81L-4201-A or Equivalent
Straight Edge
D83L-4201-A or Equivalent
Special Service Tools called for by the procedures
can be obtained by calling:
1-800-ROTUNDA (1-800-768-8632).
1.
01-53
Place the Straight Edge across the top of the
oil pump and rotors and use the Feeler Gauge
to measure the clearance between the rotors
and the Straight Edge.
ESG-642
GENERAL SERVICE PROCEDURES (Continued)
Cylinder Bore Honing
Special Tool(s)
Engine Cylinder Hone Set
T73L-6011-A
Special Service Tools called for by the procedures
can be obtained by calling:
1-800-ROTUNDA (1-800-768-8632).
NOTE: Before any cylinder bore is honed, all main
bearing caps must be installed so the crankshaft
bearing bores will not become distorted.
NOTE: To correct taper or out-of-round, bore the
cylinder block.
1.
NOTE: Honing should be done when fitting new
piston rings or to remove minor surface.
Hone with the Engine Cylinder Hone Set, at a
speed of 300-500 rpm and a hone grit of 180220 to provide the desired cylinder bore surface
finish.
Cylinder Bore Cleaning
1.
! CAUTION: If these procedures are not
followed, rusting of the cylinder bores may
occur.
Clean the cylinder bores with soap or detergent
and water.
2.
Thoroughly rinse with clean water and wipe dry
with a clean, lint-free cloth.
3.
Use a clean, lint-free cloth and lubricate the
cylinder bores.
• Use Engine Oil XO-10W30-QSP or -DSP
or equivalent meeting Ford specification
ESE-M2C153-E.
01-54
ESG-642
GENERAL SERVICE PROCEDURES (Continued)
Cylinder Block Repair
Cast Iron Porosity Defects
!
CAUTION: Do not attempt to repair
cracks, areas where temperature will exceed
260°C (500°F) or areas exposed to engine
coolant or oil. These areas will not repair and
could cause future failure.
1.
Repair porosity defects with an epoxy sealer
meeting Ford specification M3D35-A (E).
• Clean the surface to be repaired to a bright,
oil-free metal surface.
• Chamfer or undercut the repair area to a
greater depth than the rest of the cleaned
surface. Solid metal must surround the area
to be repaired.
• Apply the epoxy sealer and heat-cure with a
250-watt lamp placed 254 mm (10 inches)
from the repaired surface, or air dry for 1012 hours at a temperature above 10°C
(50°F).
• Sand or grind the repaired area to blend with
the general contour of the surface.
• Paint the surface to match the rest of the
cylinder block.
Cylinder Block Core Plug Replacement
Special Tool(s)
Impact Slide Hammer
T50T-100-A
Special Service Tools called for by the procedures
can be obtained by calling:
1-800-ROTUNDA (1-800-768-8632).
01-55
ESG-642
GENERAL SERVICE PROCEDURES (Continued)
1.
Use a slide hammer or tools suitable to remove
the cylinder block core plug.
2.
Inspect the cylinder block plug bore for any
damage that would interfered with the proper
sealing of the plug. If the cylinder block plug
bore is damaged, bore for the next oversize
plug.
3.
NOTE: Oversize plugs are identified by the OS
stamped in the flat located on the cup side of
the plug.
Coat the cylinder block core plug and bore
lightly with Threadlockâ 262 E2FZ-19554-B
or equivalent meeting Ford specification WSKM2G351-A6 and install the cylinder block core
plug.
Cylinder Block Core Plug – Cup-Type
!
CAUTION: Do not contact the flange
when installing a cup type cylinder block core
plug as this could damage the sealing edge and
result in leakage.
NOTE: When installed, the flanged edge must be
below the chamfered edge of the bore to effectively
seal the bore.
1.
Use a fabricated tool to seat the cup type
cylinder block core plug.
Cylinder Block Core Plug – Expansion-Type
!
CAUTION: Do not contact the crown
when installing an expansion type cylinder
block core plug. This could expand the plug
before seating and result in leakage.
1.
01-56
Use a fabricated tool to seat the expansion type
cylinder block core plug.
ESG-642
GENERAL SERVICE PROCEDURES (Continued)
Spark Plug Thread Repair
Special Tool(s)
Tapersert Installation Kit
107-R0921 or Equivalent
Feeler Gauge
D81L-4201-A or Equivalent
Special Service Tools called for by the procedures
can be obtained by calling:
1-800-ROTUNDA (1-800-768-8632).
!
CAUTION: The cylinder head must be
removed from the engine before installing a
tapersert. If this procedure is done with the
cylinder head on the engine, the cylinder walls
can be damaged by metal chips produced by
the thread cutting process.
!
CAUTION: Do not use power or air-driven
tools for finishing taperserts.
NOTE: This repair is permanent and will have no
effect on cylinder head or spark plug life.
1.
01-57
Clean the spark plug seat and threads.
ESG-642
GENERAL SERVICE PROCEDURES (Continued)
2.
Start the tap into the spark plug hole, being
careful to keep it properly aligned. As the tap
begins to cut new threads, apply aluminum
cutting oil.
3.
Continue cutting the threads and applying oil
until the stop ring bottoms against the spark
plug seat.
4.
Remove the tap and metal chips.
5.
Coat the threads of the mandrel with cutting
oil. Thread the tapersert onto the mandrel until
one thread of the mandrel extends beyond the
tapersert.
6.
NOTE: A properly installed tapersert will be
either flush with or 1.0 mm (0.039 inch) below
the spark plug gasket seat.
Tighten the tapersert into the spark plug hole.
01-58
ESG-642
GENERAL SERVICE PROCEDURES (Continued)
7.
Turn the mandrel body approximately one-half
turn counterclockwise and remove.
Exhaust Manifold Straightness
Special Tool(s)
Straightedge
D83L-4201-A
Special Service Tools called for by the procedures
can be obtained by calling:
1-800-ROTUNDA (1-800-768-8632).
NOTE: The 4.6L engine exhaust manifold is shown;
the 4.2L engine exhaust manifold is similar.
1.
01-59
Place the Straightedge across the exhaust
manifold flanges and check for warping with a
feeler gauge.
ESG-642
SPECIFICATIONS
General Specifications
Item
Sealants
Epoxy Sealer
Threadlockâ 262
E2FZ-19554-B
General Specifications
Specification
Item
Oil
Engine Oil
XO-5W20-QSP
or -DSP
M3D35-A (E)
WSK-M2G351-A6
Specification
ESE-M2C153-E
NOTE: Ford Power Products industrial engines are
designed to perform with engine oils that are
licensed by the American Petroleum Institute (API),
and oils carrying the most current API classification
should be used.
01-60
ESG-642
Engine – 4.2L
SUBJECT
PAGE
Special Tools ................................................................. 02-3
Description And Operation .......................................... 02-4
Engine .......................................................................... 02-4
Diagnosis And Testing ............................................... 02-12
Engine Repair ............................................................. 02-12
Intake Manifold – Upper Removal ............................. 02-12
Installation of Upper Intake Manifold ......................... 02-15
Intake Manifold – Lower Removal ............................. 02-16
Installation of Lower Intake Manifold ......................... 02-19
Cylinder Head Removal ............................................ 02-21
Cylinder Head Installation ......................................... 02-26
Valve Cover – LH Removal ....................................... 02-32
Valve Cover – LH Installation .................................... 02-34
Valve Cover – RH Removal ....................................... 02-35
Valve Cover – RH Installation .................................... 02-39
Valve Spring and Valve Spring Retainer ................... 02-39
Valve Tappet Removal ............................................... 02-42
Valve Tappet Installation ............................................ 02-44
Exhaust Manifold – LH Removal ............................... 02-45
Exhaust Manifold – RH Removal .............................. 02-47
Special Tools .............................................................. 02-48
Removal of Crankcase Damper ................................ 02-48
Crankcase Front Oil Seal ........................................... 02-51
Removal of Rear Crankshaft Oil Seal ....................... 02-54
Installation of Rear Crankshaft Oil Seal .................... 02-55
Oil Pump .................................................................... 02-56
Installation of Oil Pump .............................................. 02-57
Flywheel ..................................................................... 02-58
Oil Pan ....................................................................... 02-59
Installation of Oil Pan ................................................. 02-61
Oil Pump Screen Cover and Tube ............................. 02-62
Installation of Oil Pump Screen Cover & Tube .......... 02-63
Crankshaft Main/Piston Rod Bearings ...................... 02-63
Installation of Crankshaft Main/Piston Rod Bearings 02-65
Engine Front Cover .................................................... 02-66
Installation of Engine Front Cover ............................. 02-71
Timing Chain/Balance Shaft ...................................... 02-77
Camshaft .................................................................... 02-83
Removal of Engine .................................................... 02-87
SUBJECT
PAGE
Disassembly ............................................................... 02-90
Gears ......................................................................... 02-91
Disassembly and Assembly of Subassemblies ...
Cylinder Blocks .......................................................
Disassembly ...........................................................
Assembly ................................................................
Cylinder Head .........................................................
Disassembly of Cylinder Head ...............................
Assembly of Cylinder Head ....................................
02-104
02-104
02-105
02-106
02-107
02-107
02-108
Assembly ................................................................. 02-108
Special Tools ........................................................... 02-108
Assembly of Engine ................................................ 02-109
Installation ............................................................... 02-129
Special Tools ........................................................... 02-129
Specifications .......................................................... 02-132
02-1
02
ESG-642
02-2
ESG-642
SPECIAL TOOLS
Special Service Tools called for by the procedures
can be obtained by calling:
1-800-ROTUNDA (1-800-768-8632).
Special Tool(s)
Purchased From
Local Tool Dealer
Special Tool(s)
Seal Remover
T92C-6700-CH
Syncro Positioning Tool
T89P-12200-A
Vibration Damper Remover
Adapter
T82L-6316-B
Valve Spring Compressor
T81P-6513-A
Impact Slide Hammer
T50T-100-A
Piston Ring Compressor
D81L-6002-C or Equivalent
Rear Crankshaft Seal Remover
T95P-6701-EH
Camshaft Bearing Set
T65L-6250-A
Rear Main Seal Replacer
T82L-6701-A
Connecting Rod Guide Tool
T93P-6136-A
Front Crankcase Seal Installer/
Cover Aligner
T88T-6701-A
Crankshaft Damper Remover
T58P-6316-D
Front Crankcase Seal Replacer
T94P-6701-AH
Cylinder Ridge Reamer
T64L-6011-EA
Pound/Inch Torque Wrench
02-3
ESG-642
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
Engine
The 4.2L engine has:
• A V-block with six cylinders and splayed
crankpins.
• Hydraulic tappets for automatic lash
adjustment.
• A distributorless ignition system.
• Connecting rod parting faces that are unique
with an interference fit.
• A multiport, sequential fuel injection (SFI)
system.
• A balance shaft.
• Overhead valves.
02-4
ESG-642
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
Engine Disassembled View
2
1
3
8
4
5
7
6
11
12
9
10
15
15
17
16
14
18
19
20
02-5
ESG-642
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
Item
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
Part
Number
9F670
9728
12029
9E926
9E936
9424
9H486
9736
8594
8575
10884
Description
Idle Air Control Gasket
Accelerator Cable Bracket
Ignition Coil
Throttle Body
Throttle Body Gasket
Intake Manifold (Upper)
Intake Manifold Upper Gasket
Accelerator Cable Routing
Clip
Water Outlet Connection
Water Thermostat
Water Temperature Indicator
Sender Unit
Item
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
02-6
Part
Number Description
12A648 Engine Coolant Temperature
Sensor
9424
Intake Manifold (Lower)
9439
Intake Manifold Gasket (RH)
9439
Intake Manifold Gasket (LH)
9A424
Intake Manifold Seal Front
9A424
Intake Manifold Seal Rear
6010
Cylinder Block
9B339
Oil Pressure Sender Fitting
9278
Oil Pressure Sensor
ESG-642
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
Engine Disassembled View (Continued)
3
1
2
4
9
5
7
8
11
12
6
13
10
21
20
14
15
22
16
25
17
26
24
18
27
23
28
30 29
31
19
34
33
14
32
02-7
ESG-642
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
Item
1
2
3
Part
Number
10039
6758
6A666
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
6582
17A084
9430
9448
6051
6049
12280
12280
6C324
13
14
15
16
17
18
6582
6049
12405
17A084
9448
9430
Description
Generator Bracket
Crankcase Ventilation Tube
Positive Crankcase Ventilation
Valve
Valve Cover (RH)
Engine Lifting Eye
Exhaust Manifold (RH)
Exhaust Manifold Gasket (RH)
Head Gasket (RH)
Cylinder Head (RH)
Ignition Wire and Bracket (RH)
Ignition Wire and Bracket (LH)
Crankcase Vent Connector
and Hose
Valve Cover (LH)
Cylinder Head (LH)
Spark Plug (6 Req’d)
Engine Lifting Eye
Exhaust Manifold Gasket (LH)
Exhaust Manifold (LH)
Item
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
02-8
Part
Number Description
6754
Oil Level Indicator Tube
6A008
Cylinder Head to Block dowel
(4 Req’d)
6051
Head Gasket (LH)
6010
Cylinder Block
6565
Push Rod (12 Req’d)
6564
Rocker Arm (12 Req’d)
6A528
Rocker Arm Seat (12 Req’d)
N807699 Rocker Arm Bolt (12 Req’d)
6518
Valve Spring Retainer Key (24
Req’d)
6514
Valve Spring Retainer (12
Req’d)
6513
Valve Spring (12 Req’d)
6571
Valve Stem Seal (12 Req’d)
6514
Valve Spring Retainer (12
Req’d)
N807324 Head Bolt (16 Req’d)
6507
Intake Valve (6 Req’d)
6505
Exhaust Valve (6 Req’d)
ESG-642
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
Engine Disassembled View (Continued)
DA0616-C
02-9
ESG-642
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
Item
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
Part
Number
6255
6288
6A303
Description
Distributor Drive Gear
Timing Chain/Belt
Engine Balance Shaft Drive
Gear
6A304
Engine Balance Shaft Driven
Gear
6C341
Balance Shaft Thrust Plate
6A311
Engine Dynamic Balance
Shaft
6A333
Balance Shaft Front and Rear
Bearing (2 Req’d)
6K564
Tappet Guide Plate and
Retainer (RH)
6K564
Tappet Guide Plate and
Retainer (LH)
6500
Valve Tappet (16 Req’d)
6A335
Balance Shaft Cover Plug
N805256 Woodruff Key
6261
Camshaft Front Bearing
6306
Crankshaft Sprocket
6256
Camshaft Sprocket
6269
Camshaft Thrust Plate
6265
Camshaft Sprocket Spacer
6262
Camshaft
6250
Camshaft Center Bearing (2
Req’d)
6263
Camshaft Rear Bearing
6333
Crankshaft Main Bearing (3
Req’d)
6284
Timing Chain Vibration
Damper
388907 Woodruff Key
6329
Main Bearing Cap
6334
Main Bearing Cap
6337
Crankshaft Thrust Main
Bearing
Item
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
02-10
Part
Number Description
6266
Camshaft Rear Bearing
Cup Plug
6375
Flywheel
6A372
Engine Rear Plate
6701
Crankshaft Rear Oil Seal
6333
Crankshaft Main Bearing (3
Req’d)
6337
Crankshaft Thrust Main
Bearing
6626
Oil Pump Inlet Tube Gasket
6327
Main Bearing Cap
6235
Rear Main Bearing Cap
6675
Oil Pan
6622
Oil Pump Screen Cover and
Tube
6A835
Oil Pan Baffle Assy
6723
Oil Pan Rear Seal
6150
Piston Ring (6 Req’d)
6152
Piston Ring (6 Req’d)
6159
Piston Ring (6 Req’d)
6161
Piston Ring (6 Req’d)
6108
Piston (6 Req’d)
6135
Piston Pin (6 Req’d)
6200
Connecting Rod (6 Req’d)
6211
Connecting Rod Bearing
(Upper) (6 Req’d)
6211
Connecting Rod Bearing
(Lower) (6 Req’d)
6210
Connecting Rod Cap (6
(Req’d)
6200
Connecting Rod Assy (6
Req’d)
6100
Piston and Connecting Rod
Assy (6 Req’d)
ESG-642
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
Engine Disassembled View (Continued)
Item
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Part
Number Description
6N867
Engine Oil Cooler Inlet Tube
and Hose
6N866
Engine Oil Cooler Outlet Tube
and Hose
6312
Crankshaft Pulley
8501
Water Pump
8507
Water Pump Housing Gasket
12A112 Camshaft Position Sensor
12A362 Camshaft Synchronizer
6A618
Oil Pump Intermediate Shaft
Item
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
02-11
Part
Number
18663
6020
6K342
6C315
6714
6A642
6019
6010
Description
Heater Water Return Tube
Engine Front Cover Gasket
Crankshaft Position Sensor
Upper Shield
Crankshaft Position Sensor
Oil Bypass Filter
Oil Cooler
Engine Front Cover
Cylinder Block
ESG-642
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
The engine dynamic balance shaft (6A311) is
driven by a camshaft gear and rotates in an
opposite direction of the crankshaft (6303) to
reduce vibration.
The large end of the connecting rod is mechanically
split to produce a unique parting face. This produces
a locking joint. Connecting rods (6200) and
connecting rod caps are not interchangeable.
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING
Engine
For basic engine mechanical concerns, refer to
Section 01. For driveability concerns, refer to
Ignition (Section 03).
ENGINE REPAIR
Intake Manifold – Upper
Removal
1.
Remove the air cleaner assembly.
2.
Remove the engine cover.
3.
Disconnect the following at the throttle body:
1 – Accelerator cable.
2 – Speed control cable (if so equipped).
3 – Vapor management hose for PCV system.
4 – Wiring at the throttle position sensor.
5 – Electronic Governor if so equipped.
02-12
ESG-642
ENGINE REPAIR (Continued)
6.
Remove the accelerator cable bracket if so
equipped.
7.
Remove the throttle cable/speed control
routing clip retaining screw.
8.
Disconnect the manifold vacuum connection.
DA0202-A
02-13
ESG-642
ENGINE REPAIR (Continued)
9.
Remove the PCV valve.
10. Remove the transmission dipstick tube routing
bracket retaining nut and solenoid mounting
bracket, if so equipped.
11. NOTE: Illustration shown is F-TYPE.
Remove twelve bolts and the upper intake
manifold (9424).
12. NOTE: Illustration shown is MUSTANG TYPE.
Remove twelve bolts and the upper intake
manifold (9424).
02-14
ESG-642
ENGINE REPAIR (Continued)
13. For both types of intake manifolds, remove and
discard the two upper gaskets (9H486). Save
and reuse spacer plate (9N469).
9N469
9H486
Installation of Upper Intake Manifold
1.
MUSTANG
TYPE
Follow the removal procedure in reverse order
for both types of manifold (9424).
NOTE: Install two new intake manifold upper
gaskets (9H486) for both types of manifold.
9N469
9H486
2.
Install first gasket to lower intake manifold
(9J447).
3.
Install spacer plate (9N469).
4.
Install second upper intake manifold gasket
(9H486).
5.
Install upper intake manifold (9424).
F-TYPE
9N469
9H486
02-15
ESG-642
ENGINE REPAIR (Continued)
F-TYPE
2.
Tighten the upper intake manifold retaining bolts
in three stages in the sequence shown, using
the applicable illustration:
• Stage 1: 6 Nm (53 lb/in)
• Stage 2: 8-11.5 Nm (6-8 lb/ft)
• Stage 3: Rotate 85°-95°
MUSTANG TYPE
Intake Manifold – Lower
Removal
1.
Remove the upper intake manifold. Refer to
the procedure in this section.
2.
Drain radiator and remove the radiator upper
hose from the lower intake manifold.
02-16
ESG-642
ENGINE REPAIR (Continued)
3.
Disconnect the coolant bypass hose and the
heater hose.
4.
!
WARNING: DO NOT SMOKE OR
CARRY LIGHTED TOBACCO OR OPEN
FLAME OF ANY TYPE WHEN WORKING
ON OR NEAR ANY FUEL-RELATED COMPONENTS. HIGHLY FLAMMABLE MIXTURES ARE ALWAYS PRESENT AND CAN
BE IGNITED, RESULTING IN POSSIBLE
PERSONAL INJURY.
Disconnect the fuel line. Refer to Section 04.
5.
Disconnect the following electrical connectors:
1 – 42 pin connector.
2
3
2 – Camshaft Position Sensor (CMP).
3 – Cylinder head temp sensor.
4 – Crankshaft position sensor (CKP).
5 – Oil pressure switch.
6 – Heated oxygen (HO2S) sensor (LH).
7 – Manifold absolute pressure sensor (MAP).
8 – Idle air control motor (IAC).
9 – Intake air temperature (IAT).
10 – Throttle position sensor (TPS).
02-17
ESG-642
ENGINE REPAIR (Continued)
6.
NOTE: Lower intake manifold bolts are torqueto-yield. They must be discarded and replaced
with new bolts.
NOTE: The fuel charging components and
engine wiring harness are removed with the
lower intake manifold.
Remove the fourteen lower intake manifold
bolts (A) and (B) and discard.
7.
Remove and discard the lower intake manifold
sealing components.
Item
1
2
3
4
02-18
Part
Number
9439
9439
–
–
Description
Intake Manifold Gasket (LH)
Intake Manifold Gasket (RH)
Intake Manifold Rear End
Seal (Part of 9439)
Intake Manifold Front End
Seal (Part of 9439)
ESG-642
ENGINE REPAIR (Continued)
Installation of Lower Intake Manifold
! CAUTION: Mating parts must make contact
to each other within 4 minutes and connecting
bolts must be torqued within 15 minutes after
applying sealant. Failure to follow this
procedure can cause future oil leakage.
• Use silicone gasket and sealant F6AZ-19562-AA
or equivalent meeting Ford specification WSEM4G323-A6.
NOTE: Sealant must be removed and area cleaned
with solvant if above instructions are not followed.
• Use metal surface cleaner F4AZ-19A536-RA or
equivalent meeting Ford specification WSEM5B292-A.
1.
Install the lower intake manifold front and rear
end seals.
1– Apply a bead of sealant to the intake
manifold front and rear end seal mounting
points as indicated.
2 – Install the lower intake manifold front and
rear end seals.
2.
02-19
Install the intake manifold gaskets (9439).
ESG-642
ENGINE REPAIR (Continued)
! CAUTION: Mating parts must make contact
to each other within 4 minutes and connecting
bolts must be torqued within 15 minutes after
applying sealant. Failure to follow this
procedure can cause future oil leakage.
• Use silicone gasket and sealant F6AZ-19562-AA
or equivalent meeting Ford specification WSEM4G323-A6.
NOTE: Sealant must be removed and area cleaned
with solvant if above instructions are not followed.
• Use metal surface cleaner F4AZ-19A536-RA or
equivalent meeting Ford specification WSEM5B292-A.
3.
Apply a bead of sealant to the intake manifold
front and rear end seal mounting at the points
as indicated.
• Position the lower intake manifold.
4.
NOTE: Lower intake manifold bolts are torqueto-yield. They must be discarded and replaced.
Install six new (A) long lower intake manifold
bolts and the eight new (B) short lower intake
manifold bolts.
5.
Tighten the lower intake manifold bolts in two
stages in the sequence shown:
• Stage 1: 5 Nm (44 lb/in).
• Stage 2: 8-11.5 Nm (71-101 lb/in).
02-20
ESG-642
ENGINE REPAIR (Continued)
6.
Connect the water pump bypass hose.
1 – Position the water pump bypass hose.
2 – Position the hose clamp.
7.
Connect the fuel line. Refer to Section 04.
8.
Install the upper radiator hose to the lower
intake manifold.
9.
Connect the electrical harness.
10. Install the upper intake manifold. Refer to the
procedure in this section.
Cylinder Head Removal
1.
Remove the upper and lower intake manifolds.
Refer to the procedures in this section.
2.
Remove the valve cover (6582).
• Remove the ignition coil pack (if necessary).
Refer to procedures in Section 3.
1 – Remove the three valve cover bolts.
2 – Remove the two valve cover stud bolts.
3 – Remove the valve cover.
3.
Remove the exhaust manifold (9430). Refer to
the procedure in this section.
4.
If removing the LH cylinder head (6049),
remove and support the power steering pump
when applicable.
02-21
ESG-642
ENGINE REPAIR (Continued)
5.
Remove the 3 idler pulley bracket bolts.
6.
If removing the RH cylinder head, remove the
generator (GEN) (10346). Refer to Section 06.
7.
If removing the RH cylinder head, remove the
idler pulley.
1 – Remove the bolt.
2 – Remove the idler pulley.
8.
If removing the RH cylinder head, remove the
generator bracket.
1 – Remove the three bolts.
2 – Remove the generator bracket.
02-22
ESG-642
ENGINE REPAIR (Continued)
!
CAUTION: If components are to be
reinstalled, they must be installed in the same
position. Mark the components for location.
9.
Remove the six rocker arms (6564).
1 – Remove the six bolts.
2 – Remove the six rocker arms.
NOTE: Refer to Section 05-12 for cylinder head
temperature sensor removal and installation if
needed.
02-23
ESG-642
ENGINE REPAIR (Continued)
10. Remove the six push rods (6565).
11. Remove and discard the eight cylinder head
bolts.
02-24
ESG-642
ENGINE REPAIR (Continued)
12. Remove the cylinder head and the head gasket
(6051). Discard the head gasket and head
bolts.
02-25
ESG-642
ENGINE REPAIR (Continued)
Cylinder Head
Installation
!
WARNING: DO NOT SMOKE OR
CARRY LIGHTED TOBACCO OR OPEN FLAME
OF ANY TYPE WHEN WORKING ON OR NEAR
ANY FUEL-RELATED COMPONENTS. HIGHLY
FLAMMABLE MIXTURES ARE ALWAYS
PRESENT AND CAN BE IGNITED, RESULTING
IN POSSIBLE PERSONAL INJURY.
1.
02-26
Install a new head gasket on the cylinder blocks
(6010) with the small hole to the front of the
engine and position the cylinder head.
ESG-642
ENGINE REPAIR (Continued)
2.
!
CAUTION: Head bolts are torque to
yield. To obtain proper torque specification
always use new cylinder head bolts,
otherwise may cause engine failure.
NOTE: Lubricate the new cylinder head bolts
with engine oil prior to installation.
Install the four new (A) short cylinder head bolts
and the four new (B) long cylinder head bolts.
02-27
ESG-642
ENGINE REPAIR (Continued)
3.
NOTE: Make sure to tighten the cylinder head
bolts in three steps, using two operations. The
head bolts are to be tighten following the next
3 steps. When this operation is complete the 3
steps in sequence #4 must be followed.
Tighten the cylinder head bolts in three stages
in the sequence shown:
• Stage 1: 20 Nm (14 lb/ft).
• Stage 2: 40 Nm (29 lb/ft).
• Stage 3: 50 Nm (36 lb/ft).
4.
!
CAUTION: Do not loosen all of the
cylinder head bolts at one time. Each
cylinder head bolt must be loosened and
the final tightening completed prior to
working on the next bolt in the sequence.
In the sequence shown, loosen the cylinder
head bolt three turns, then tighten the (A) short
cylinder head bolt or (B) long cylinder head
bolt to the specification indicated, and then
further tighten the cylinder head bolt to the (C)
degrees indicated.
02-28
ESG-642
ENGINE REPAIR (Continued)
NOTE: Refer to location note made during removal
and make sure components are installed in the
correct location.
5.
NOTE: Lubricate the push rods with engine oil
prior to installation.
Install the six push rods.
02-29
ESG-642
ENGINE REPAIR (Continued)
6.
Install the six rocker arms.
1 – Position the six rocker arms.
2 – Install the six bolts.
30 - 40 Nm (22 - 29 lb/ft)
41 - 43 Nm (31 - 39 lb/ft)
7.
If valve train components have been replaced,
inspect the valve clearance.
8.
If installing the RH cylinder head, install the
generator bracket.
1 – Position the generator bracket.
2 – Install the two long bolts.
3 – Install the short bolt.
41 - 43 Nm (31 - 39 lb/ft)
02-30
ESG-642
ENGINE REPAIR (Continued)
9.
If installing the RH cylinder head, install the
idler pulley.
1 – Position the idler pulley.
47 - 63 Nm
(35 - 46 lb/ft)
2 – Install the bolt.
10. If installing the RH cylinder head, install the
generator.
11. Install the ignition coil pack (if necessary).
Refer to procedures in Section 3. Torque bolts
to 5-6 Nm (48 in/lbs).
40 - 55 Nm (30 - 40 lb/ft)
12. If installing the LH cylinder head, install idler
pulley bracket.
1 – Position the idler pulley bracket.
2 – Start the bracket bolts.
3 – Install the three idler pulley bracket bolts.
21 - 29 Nm
(16 - 21 lb/ft)
13. Install idler pulley. Refer to Section 02-72.
14. Install the exhaust manifold. Refer to the
procedure in this section.
15. Inspect the LH valve cover gasket for damage.
Replace if necessary.
1 – Position the LH valve cover.
2 – Install the three bolts.
3 – Install the two stud bolts.
8 - 11.5 Nm (71 - 102 lb/in)
16. Install the lower intake manifold. Refer to the
procedure in this section.
02-31
ESG-642
ENGINE REPAIR (Continued)
Valve Cover – LH
Removal
1.
Disconnect the following:
1 – Oil filler extension tube if equipped.
2 – PCV breather tube.
2.
02-32
Disengage the spark plug routing clips at the
valve cover studs.
ESG-642
ENGINE REPAIR (Continued)
3.
Remove the valve cover bolts and the valve
cover.
4.
Inspect the valve cover gasket. Replace if
necessary.
02-33
ESG-642
ENGINE REPAIR (Continued)
Valve Cover – LH
Installation
1.
02-34
Follow the removal procedure in reverse order.
ESG-642
ENGINE REPAIR (Continued)
Valve Cover – RH
Removal
1.
02-35
Pull the PCV valve out of the valve cover.
ESG-642
ENGINE REPAIR (Continued)
2.
Disconnect the vacuum supply line at the
intake manifold.
3.
Remove the transmission support bracket
retaining nut and pull the bracket away from
the stud if equipped.
02-36
ESG-642
ENGINE REPAIR (Continued)
FRONT OF ENGINE
4.
Remove the spark plug routing clips at the
valve cover studs.
5.
Remove the ignition coil pack. Refer to
procedures in Section 3.
02-37
ESG-642
ENGINE REPAIR (Continued)
6.
FRONT OF ENGINE
02-38
Remove the retaining bolts and the valve cover.
The gasket is removed with the cover.
ESG-642
ENGINE REPAIR (Continued)
Valve Cover – RH
Installation
1.
Install the valve cover. Make sure the gasket
is serviceable. Replace if necessary. Follow the
removal procedure in reverse order. Torque 812 Nm (71-106 lb/in) (5 bolts).
2.
Install the ignition coil pack. Refer to
procedures in Section 3. Torque to 5-6 Nm (48
lb/in) (3 bolts).
FRONT OF ENGINE
Valve Spring and Valve Spring Retainer
Special Tool(s)
Valve Spring Compressor
T81P-6513-A
Special Service Tools called for by the procedures
can be obtained by calling:
1-800-ROTUNDA (1-800-768-8632).
Removal.
1.
02-39
Remove the valve cover. Refer to the procedure
in this section.
ESG-642
ENGINE REPAIR (Continued)
2.
Rotate the crankshaft (6303) until the piston
(6108) for the valve being worked on is at the
top of its stroke with both the (A) intake valve
(6507) and the (B) exhaust valve (6505) closed.
3.
Hold the valve in the cylinder head.
• Remove the spark plug, if necessary.
• Apply a minimum of 965 kPa (140 psi) of
compressed air to the cylinder to hold valve.
NOTE: If the components are to be reinstalled, they
must be installed in the same position. Mark the
components for location.
!
CAUTION: If a valve drops into the
cylinder, remove the cylinder head. Refer to the
procedure in this section.
4.
Remove the rocker arms.
1 – Remove the bolts.
2 – Remove the rocker arms.
02-40
ESG-642
ENGINE REPAIR (Continued)
5.
Use Valve Spring Compressor to compress the
valve springs.
6.
Remove the following:
1– Remove the valve spring retainer key
(6518).
2 – Remove the valve spring retainer (6514).
3 – Remove the valve spring (6513).
4 – Remove and discard the valve stem seal
(6571).
5 – Remove the valve spring seat.
6 – Secure the valve to keep it from dropping.
7.
02-41
Inspect the components, replace if necessary.
Refer to Section 01.
ESG-642
ENGINE REPAIR (Continued)
Installation
1.
NOTE: Components removed should be
marked for location. Make sure components
are installed in the correct location.
NOTE: Lubricate parts with engine oil prior to
assembly.
Follow the removal procedure in reverse
order.
30 - 40 Nm (22 - 29 lb/ft)
Valve Tappet
Removal
NOTE: If removing more than one valve tappet
(6500), mark components removed for proper
location.
1.
Remove the upper and lower intake manifolds.
Refer to the procedure in this section.
2.
Remove the valve cover. Refer to the procedure
in this section.
02-42
ESG-642
ENGINE REPAIR (Continued)
3.
Remove the rocker arms.
1 – Remove the bolts.
2 – Remove the rocker arms.
4.
02-43
Remove the push rods.
ESG-642
ENGINE REPAIR (Continued)
5.
Remove the valve tappet guide and valve
tappet.
1.
NOTE: Components removed should be
marked for location. Make sure components
are installed in the correct location.
Valve Tappet
Installation
10 - 14 Nm (7.5 - 10 lb/ft)
NOTE: Lubricate the valve tappet with engine
oil before installing.
Follow the removal procedure in reverse
order.
02-44
ESG-642
ENGINE REPAIR (Continued)
2.
Install push rods.
3.
Install rocker arms and bolts.
4.
Install valve cover and gasket.
5.
Install upper and lower intake manifolds.
1.
Remove the oil level indicator tube (6754).
30 - 40 Nm (22 - 29 lb/ft)
Exhaust Manifold – LH
Removal
1– Remove the oil level indicator tube bracket
nut.
2 – Remove the oil level indicator tube.
3 – Remove and discard the oil level indicator
tube O-ring.
02-45
ESG-642
ENGINE REPAIR (Continued)
2.
Disconnect the LH heated oxygen sensor
(HO2S) electrical connector if so equipped.
3.
Remove the LH exhaust manifold and the LH
exhaust manifold gasket (9448).
1– Remove the three LH exhaust manifold stud
bolts.
2 – Remove the three LH exhaust manifold
bolts.
3 – Remove the LH exhaust manifold.
4 – Remove and discard the LH exhaust
manifold gasket.
Installation of Exhaust Manifold – LH
1.
NOTE: Tighten in the sequence shown.
Follow the removal procedure in reverse
order.
20 - 30 Nm (15 - 22 lb/ft)
02-46
ESG-642
ENGINE REPAIR (Continued)
Exhaust Manifold – RH
Removal
1.
Disconnect the RH heated oxygen sensor
(HO2S) electrical connector if so equipped.
2.
Remove the RH exhaust manifold and the RH
exhaust manifold gasket.
1– Remove the two RH exhaust manifold stud
bolts.
2 – Remove the four RH exhaust manifold
bolts.
3 – Remove the RH exhaust manifold.
4 – Remove and discard the RH exhaust
manifold gasket.
Installation
1.
NOTE: Tighten in the sequence shown.
Follow the removal procedure in reverse
order.
20 - 30 Nm (15 - 22 lb/ft)
02-47
ESG-642
ENGINE REPAIR (Continued)
Special Tool(s)
Crankshaft Damper Remover
T58P-6316-D
Vibration Damper Remover
Adapter
T82L-6316-B
Special Service Tools called for by the procedures
can be obtained by calling:
1-800-ROTUNDA (1-800-768-8632).
Removal of Crankcase Damper
1.
Remove the drive belt, if necessary.
2.
Remove the fan and shroud.
3.
Raise and support the vehicle when applicable.
02-48
ESG-642
ENGINE REPAIR (Continued)
4.
NOTE: Mark the crankshaft pulley and damper
position.
Remove the crankshaft pulley.
5.
02-49
Remove the crankshaft damper. A puller will
be needed.
ESG-642
ENGINE REPAIR (Continued)
Installation
! CAUTION: Mating parts must make contact
to each other within 4 minutes and connecting
bolts must be torqued within 15 minutes after
applying sealant. Failure to follow this
procedure can cause future oil leakage.
• Use silicone gasket and sealant F6AZ-19562-AA
or equivalent meeting Ford specification WSEM4G323-A6.
NOTE: Sealant must be removed and area cleaned
with solvant if above instructions are not followed.
140-180 Nm (103-132 lb/ft)
• Use metal surface cleaner F4AZ-19A536-RA or
equivalent meeting Ford specification WSEM5B292-A.
1.
Apply a bead of sealant to the keyway in the
crankshaft damper and use Vibration Damper
Installer Adapter to install the crankshaft
damper.
• Use Silicone Gasket and Sealant F6AZ19562-A or equivalent meeting Ford
specification WSE-M4G323-A6.
02-50
ESG-642
ENGINE REPAIR (Continued)
2.
NOTE: Crankshaft pulley position on the
crankshaft damper was marked before
removal. Return it to the same position and
install the crankshaft pulley.
3.
Install the fan blade assembly.
02-51
ESG-642
ENGINE REPAIR (Continued)
Crankcase Front Oil Seal
Special Tool(s)
Special Tool(s)
Front Crankcase Seal Installer/
Cover Aligner
T88T-6701-A
Seal Remover
T92C-6700-CH
Front Crankcase Seal Replacer
T94P-6701-AH
Vibration Damper Remover
Adapter
T82L-6316-B
Special Service Tools called for by the procedures
can be obtained by calling:
1-800-ROTUNDA (1-800-768-8632).
Removal of Front Crankshaft Oil Seal
1.
Remove the crankshaft damper. Refer to the
procedure in this Section.
2.
Use Seal Remover to remove the crankshaft
front oil seal. Discard the seal.
1.
Inspect the crankshaft damper and engine front
cover for damage that might cause the front
crankshaft oil seal to fail.
Installation of Front Crankshaft Oil Seal
02-52
ESG-642
ENGINE REPAIR (Continued)
2.
NOTE: Lubricate parts with engine oil before
assembly.
Use the (A) Front Crankshaft Seal Replacer
(spacer), (B) Front Crankshaft Seal Installer/
Cover Aligner and (D) Vibration Damper
Remover Adapter to install the (C) front
crankshaft oil seal.
3.
Install the crankshaft damper. Refer to the
procedure in this section.
Crankshaft Rear Oil Seal
Special Tool(s)
Impact Slide Hammer
T50T-100-A
Rear Crankshaft Seal Remover
T95P-6701-EH
Special Service Tools called for by the procedures
can be obtained by calling:
1-800-ROTUNDA (1-800-768-8632).
Rear Main Seal Replacer
T82L-6701-A
02-53
ESG-642
ENGINE REPAIR (Continued)
Removal of Rear Crankshaft Oil Seal
2.
Remove the flywheel (6375).
3.
Use (A) Rear Crankshaft Seal Remover and
Impact Slide hammer to remove the (B)
crankshaft rear oil seal.
02-54
ESG-642
ENGINE REPAIR (Continued)
Installation of Rear Crankshaft Oil Seal
1.
NOTE: Lubricate the crankshaft rear oil seal
lips with engine oil prior to installation.
Use (A) Rear Main Seal Replacer to install the
(B) crankshaft rear oil seal.
2.
73 - 87 Nm (54 - 63 lb/ft)
02-55
Install the flywheel.
ESG-642
ENGINE REPAIR (Continued)
Oil Pump
Removal
1.
Remove the oil bypass filter (6714).
2.
Remove the six oil pump bolts.
3.
Remove the (A) oil pump drive gear, (B) oil
pump driven gear, (C) oil pump O-ring and (D)
oil pump and filter body (6603). Discard the
(C) oil pump O-ring.
02-56
ESG-642
ENGINE REPAIR (Continued)
Installation of Oil Pump
1.
Follow the removal procedure in reverse
order.
20 - 30 Nm (15 - 22 lb/ft)
8 - 11 Nm
(71 - 97 lb/in)
NOTE: Lubricate parts with engine oil before
assembly.
8 - 11 Nm
(71 - 97 lb/in)
NOTE: If new oil filter is used, fill filter with fresh oil
before installation to help prevent oil starvation to
bearings.
10 - 15 Nm (7.5 - 39 lb/ft)
1.
02-57
Install oil filter using clean motor oil on mating
gasket and tighten to specification.
ESG-642
ENGINE REPAIR (Continued)
Flywheel
Removal
1.
Remove the transmission or P.T.O.
2.
Remove the six flywheel bolts.
1.
Position the flywheel on the crankshaft and
install the retaining bolts.
2.
Install the transmission or P.T.O.
Installation of Flywheel
74 - 87 Nm (54 - 64 lb/ft)
02-58
ESG-642
ENGINE REPAIR (Continued)
Oil Pan
Removal
1.
Disconnect the battery ground cable.
2.
Remove the fan shroud and fan.
3.
Remove the bolt retaining the dipstick tube
support bracket to the transmission converter
housing.
4.
Drain the oil pan.
5.
Remove the engine mount retaining nuts (right
side shown, left side similar).
02-59
ESG-642
ENGINE REPAIR (Continued)
6.
Remove the bolt retaining the oil pan to the
right side of the transmission converter housing
or SAE housing.
7.
Remove the bolts retaining the oil pan to the
left side of the transmission converter housing.
8.
Remove the remaining retaining bolts and the
oil pan. Remove and discard the oil pan seal.
02-60
ESG-642
ENGINE REPAIR (Continued)
Installation of Oil Pan
! CAUTION: Mating parts must make contact
to each other within 4 minutes and connecting
bolts must be torqued within 15 minutes after
applying sealant. Failure to follow this
procedure can cause future oil leakage.
• Use silicone gasket and sealant F6AZ-19562-AA
or equivalent meeting Ford specification WSEM4G323-A6.
NOTE: Sealant must be removed and area cleaned
with solvant if above instructions are not followed.
• Use metal surface cleaner F4AZ-19A536-RA or
equivalent meeting Ford specification WSEM5B292-A.
1.
Clean mating surfaces on the oil pan and the
cylinder block.
2.
Apply a bead of Silicone Gasket and Sealant
as shown in the illustration.
3.
Follow removal procedure in reverse order.
4.
Tighten the oil pan retaining bolt in two stages
in the sequence shown.
• Stage 1: 4-5 Nm (35-44 lb/in).
• Stage 2: 9-12 Nm (79-106 lb/in).
02-61
ESG-642
ENGINE REPAIR (Continued)
Oil Pump Screen Cover and Tube
Removal
1.
Remove the oil pan. Refer to the procedure in
this Section.
2.
Remove the retaining bolts and the oil pump
screen cover and tube. Discard the gasket.
02-62
ESG-642
ENGINE REPAIR (Continued)
Installation of Oil Pump Screen Cover and Tube
1.
Install the oil pump screen cover and tube. Use
a new gasket.
2.
Install the oil pan. Refer to the procedure in
this section.
1.
! CAUTION: The cylinder heads must be
removed prior to removal of the oil baffle
assembly. Failure to observe this caution
can result in severe engine damage.
20-30 Nm (15-22 lb/ft)
Crankshaft Main/Piston Rod Bearings
Removal
Remove the cylinder heads. Refer to the
procedure in this Section.
2.
Remove the oil pan. Refer to the procedure in
this Section.
3.
Remove the oil pump screen cover and tube.
Refer to the procedure in this Section.
02-63
ESG-642
ENGINE REPAIR (Continued)
4.
Remove the oil baffle assembly.
5.
Remove the main bearing cap or piston rod
cap. Rotate the crankshaft, as required, to
access the rod caps. To check main or rod
bearing clearances, refer to Section 01.
!
02-64
CAUTION: Discard all main and rod bolts
and replace. Bolts are torque to yield. The
use of used bolts may result in improper
torque setting and could cause engine
failure.
ESG-642
ENGINE REPAIR (Continued)
Installation of Crankshaft Main/Piston Rod Bearings
1.
On a main bearing cap, locate the arrows that
indicate the cap location and direction of
installation. On a rod cap, locate the bearing
insert notches which must align when the cap
is installed.
2.
Install the main bearing cap or rod cap, as
required.
1 – Tighten the main bearing cap retaining
bolts in two stages:
• 50 Nm (37 lb/ft).
• 115-125 degrees.
2 – Tighten the rod cap bolts retaining bolts in
three stages:
• 20-25 Nm (15-18 lb/ft).
• 40-45 Nm (29-33 lb/ft).
• 90-120 degrees.
!
02-65
CAUTION: All main and rod bolts are
torque-to-yield. Discard and replace. The
use of used bolts could cause engine
failure.
ESG-642
ENGINE REPAIR (Continued)
3.
Install the oil baffle assembly.
4.
Install oil pump screen cover and tube. Refer
to this Section.
5.
Install oil pan. Refer to this Section.
NOTE: Always use new cylinder head bolts.
40-50 Nm (30-37 lb/ft)
6.
Install cylinder heads. Refer to this Section.
1.
Disconnect the battery ground cable. Drain
coolant from radiator.
2.
Remove the water pump. Refer to this Section.
3.
Rotate the crankshaft until the damper timing
mark aligns with the top dead center indicator.
Engine Front Cover
Removal
02-66
ESG-642
ENGINE REPAIR (Continued)
5.
Mark the crankshaft damper and pulley for
alignment reference. Remove the crankshaft
pulley.
6.
Remove the crankshaft damper. A puller will
be needed.
02-67
ESG-642
ENGINE REPAIR (Continued)
7.
Disconnect the wiring at the crankshaft position
sensor.
8.
Remove crankshaft position sensor (CKP).
9.
At the front of the oil pan, remove a retaining
bolt from the left and right side of the oil pan.
02-68
ESG-642
ENGINE REPAIR (Continued)
10. Disconnect the wiring at the camshaft
synchronizer.
11. Remove the two screws (6B288) from stator
assy. and remove stator assy. (6B288).
12. Index shaft by marking synchronizer housing
to front cover.
13. Remove retaining bolt (N808826).
14. Remove chamshaft synchronizer assembly.
15. Remove the accessory drive belt idler pulley.
02-69
ESG-642
ENGINE REPAIR (Continued)
16. Remove the accessory drive belt tensioner.
NOTE: For ease of handling, remove oil filter.
NOTE: If new front cover is being installed,
remove oil filter and pump from cover. Refer to
this Section.
17. Remove the water pump mounting studs.
Discard the studs.
18. Remove the engine front cover (6019) and the
engine front cover gasket (6020). discard the
gasket.
19. NOTE: When cleaning, use care to prevent
debris from falling into the oil pan.
Clean the mating surfaces on the oil pan and
the cylinder block. Use Metal parts Cleaner
F4AZ-19A536-RA or equivalent meeting Ford
specifications WSE-M5B292-A.
02-70
ESG-642
ENGINE REPAIR (Continued)
Installation of Engine Front Cover
! CAUTION: Mating parts must make contact
to each other within 4 minutes and connecting
bolts must be torqued within 15 minutes after
applying sealant. Failure to follow this
procedure can cause future oil leakage.
• Use silicone gasket and sealant F6AZ-19562-AA
or equivalent meeting Ford specification WSEM4G323-A6.
NOTE: Sealant must be removed and area cleaned
with solvant if above instructions are not followed.
• Use metal surface cleaner F4AZ-19A536-RA or
equivalent meeting Ford specification WSEM5B292-A.
1.
Apply a bead of Silicone Gasket and Sealant
at the oil pan to block seam.
2.
Install the engine front cover gasket.
3.
Apply a second bead of sealant along the edge
of the engine front cover gasket at the oil pan
to block seam.
4.
Apply a bead of sealant on the oil pan flange.
5.
Install the front cover. Position the lower edge
of the cover on the oil pan and tip upward into
position.
NOTE: If new front cover was used, reinstall
oil pump and filter. Refer to this Section.
6.
Install the new water pump studs. The correct
stud will be supplied with pre-applied Loctite â
NOTE: Make sure the Loctite â end of the stud
is installed in the engine. Refer to this Section.
8 - 12 Nm (71 - 106 lb/in)
02-71
ESG-642
ENGINE REPAIR (Continued)
3.
T-12
3
T-11
1
11
2
Torque Specs:
Bolt #1,2,6,7,8A,10,11,12 & 13 = 20-30 Nm
(15-22 lb/ft).
Stud #3, 4, 5 & 9A = 6-8 Nm.
1 - Install studs torque to 6-8 Nm.
2 - Install front cover gasket (-6020-).
3 - Install front cover & oil pump assy.
(-6F008-).
4 - Install water pump gasket (-8507-).
5 - Install water pump assy. (-8501-).
6 - Install remaining fasteners.
7 - Torque all bolts and nuts to 20-30 Nm
(15-22 lb/ft) making sure to follow the
sequence as shown above.
T-8
13 T-3
1
T-9 10
9A
T-7
3
A
8A
4
T-4
T-6
5 T-10
T-5
4
7
T-13
2
6 T-2
Water Pump assembly
NOTE:
order.
3T-3
T-#
Indicates the torque sequence
1 Cylinder Block Assy.
2 Water Pump Assy. (8501).
3 Front Cover & Oil Pump Assy. (6F008).
2
T-1
HOLE NO.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
3,4,5,9
W/P
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
4 Wire Retention Hole.
5
T-2
F/C PART NO.
X
N805112
X
N805112
N805757
N804853
N805757
N605908
N808217
N804852
N804853
X
N804839
X
W701885
N605908
N605908
N804745
5 Water Pump Gasket (8507).
4.2L ENGINE APPLICATIONS
PART NAME
DESCRIPTION
Stud Bolt
M8 X 1.25 X 98
Stud Bold
M8 X 1.25 X 98
Stud
M8 x 1.25 X 137
Stud
M8 X 1.25 X 156
Stud
M8 X 1.25 X 137
Bolt
M8 X 1.25 X 38
Bolt
M8 X 1.25 X 117.5
Stud Bolt
M8 X 1.25 X 160.3
Stud
M8 X 1.25 X 156
Bolt
M8 X 1.25 X 105
Socket Head Cap Screw
M8 X 1.25 X 19.5
Bolt
M8 X 1.25 X 38
Bolt
M8 X 1.25 X 38
Nut
M8 X 1.25
02-72
HEX SIZE
(15mm Hex)
(15mm Hex)
(N/A)
(N/A)
(N/A)
(10mm Hex)
(10mm Hex)
(15mm Hex)
(N/A)
(10mm Hex)
(N/A)
(10mm Hex)
(10mm Hex)
(15mm Hex)
ESG-642
ENGINE REPAIR (Continued)
4.
Install the accessory drive belt tensioner.
5.
Install the accessory drive belt idler pulley.
48-64 Nm (35-47 lb/ft)
48-64 Nm (35-47 lb/ft)
02-73
ESG-642
ENGINE REPAIR (Continued)
6.
Install a new O-ring on the synchronizer and
make sure the oil pump intermediate shaft is
installed with the lock ring into the synchronizer.
7.
NOTE: The arrow on the alignment tool must
point as shown in the illustration. Make sure
piston number one is at top dead center on
intake stroke.
2.3-3.5 Nm (20.4-27.5 lb/in)
Install the synchronizer, remove the alignment
tool and install the camshaft position sensor.
02-74
ESG-642
ENGINE REPAIR (Continued)
8.
Install the oil pan retaining bolts.
9.
Install crankshaft position sensor (CKP).
• Torque hold down bolts to Nm ( lb/in).
9-12 Nm (79-106 lb/ft)
10. Connect the wiring at the CKP.
02-75
ESG-642
ENGINE REPAIR (Continued)
11. Install the crankshaft damper.
• An installation tool will be required. Refer to
Special Tools at front of this section.
140-180 Nm (103-13 lb/ft)
12. Align the crankshaft pulley and install the
retaining bolts.
13. Install the water pump, refer to the procedure
in this section.
02-76
ESG-642
ENGINE REPAIR (Continued)
Timing Chain/Balance Shaft
Removal
1.
Remove the front cover. Refer to the procedure
in this section.
2.
Remove the synchronizer drive gear.
02-77
ESG-642
ENGINE REPAIR (Continued)
3.
Remove the crankshaft sprocket, camshaft
sprocket and timing chain as an assembly.
4.
! CAUTION: Use care when removing
balance shaft as not to bump or score
balance shaft bearings. May cause balance
shaft failure.
Remove the balance shaft drive gear.
02-78
ESG-642
ENGINE REPAIR (Continued)
5.
Remove the timing chain vibration damper.
6.
Remove the thrust plate retaining screws and
the balance shaft.
02-79
ESG-642
ENGINE REPAIR (Continued)
Installation
8-14 Nm (71-124 lb/ft)
1.
! CAUTION: Use care when removing
balance shaft as not to bump or score
balance shaft bearings. May cause balance
shaft failure.
Lubricate the balance shaft bearings with
Engine Assembly Lubricant D9AZ-19579-D or
equivalent meeting Ford specification ESRM88C80-A and install the balance shaft.
02-80
ESG-642
ENGINE REPAIR (Continued)
2.
Install the timing chain vibration damper.
3.
Install the balance shaft drive gear.
40-50 Nm (30-37 lb/ft)
• The timing marks on the drive and driven
gear must align.
02-81
ESG-642
ENGINE REPAIR (Continued)
4.
Install the crankshaft sprocket, camshaft
sprocket and timing chain as an assembly.
• Timing marks on the gears and keyways on
the shafts must align.
5.
Install the synchronizer drive gear.
6.
Install the front cover. Refer to the procedure
in this section.
40-50 Nm (30-37 lb/ft)
02-82
ESG-642
ENGINE REPAIR (Continued)
Camshaft
Removal
1.
Remove the following components. Refer to the
procedures in this section.
• Upper and lower intake manifolds.
• Valve covers.
• Push rods, tappet guides and tappets.
• Front cover.
• Timing chain and sprockets.
2.
02-83
Remove the balance shaft drive gear.
ESG-642
ENGINE REPAIR (Continued)
3.
!
CAUTION: Use care when removing
cam as not to bump or score cam bearings.
May cause cam bearing failure.
Remove the thrust plate retaining screws and
the camshaft.
02-84
ESG-642
ENGINE REPAIR (Continued)
Installation
1.
8-14 Nm (71-124 lb/in)
! CAUTION: Use care when removing
cam as not to bump or score cam bearings.
May cause cam bearing failure.
Lubricate the camshaft bearings, lobes and
journals with Engine Assembly Lubrication
D9AZ-19579-D or equivalent meeting Ford
specification ESR-M88C80-A. Install the
camshaft.
2.
40-50 Nm (30-37 lb/ft)
02-85
Install the timing chain vibration damper.
ESG-642
ENGINE REPAIR (Continued)
3.
Install the balance shaft drive gear.
• The timing marks on the drive gear and driven
gear must align.
4.
Install the following components. Refer to the
procedures in this section.
• Timing chain.
• Front cover.
• Tappets, tappet guides and push rods.
• Valve covers.
• Lower and upper intake manifolds.
02-86
ESG-642
REMOVAL
Engine
Special Tool(s)
Engine Lifting Bracket
014-00730 or Equivalent
Special Service Tools called for by the procedures
can be obtained by calling:
1-800-ROTUNDA (1-800-768-8632).
Removal of Engine
1.
Disconnect the battery gound cable.
2.
Remove the retaining bolt and the lower core
support.
3.
Remove the routing bracket retaining bolt and
the engine oil dipstick tube.
4.
Remove the upper intake manifold. Refer to
Intake Manifold – Upper this section.
5.
Remove the lower intake manifold. Refer to
Intake Manifold – Lower this section.
6.
Remove the accessory drive belt.
7.
Set the power steering pump aside if equipped.
1 – Disconnect the low-pressure line at the
power steering pump.
2 – Remove the pump retaining bolts.
8.
Set the radiator lower hose aside.
1 – Cut the clamp.
2 – Disconnect the hose at the water pump.
02-87
ESG-642
REMOVAL (Continued)
9.
Drain the engine oil.
!
WARNING: PROTECT ENVIRONMENT. IT IS ILLEGAL TO POLLUTE
DRAINS, WATER COURSES OR SOIL. USE
AUTHORIZED FACILITY FOR DISPOSAL. IF
IN DOUBT, CONTACT YOUR LOCAL
AUTHORITY FOR ADVICE.
10. Remove the starter.
11. Remove the torque converter access cover
and the torque converter retaining nuts. Rotate
the crankshaft to access the retaining nuts.
• Remove PTO if equipped.
12. Remove the engine oil pan-to-transmission
retaining bolts on the left side.
NOTE: Remove SAE housing and adaptor
plate if equipped.
13. Remove the engine oil pan-to-transmission
retaining bolts on the right side.
• See note in Step 12 above.
14. Remove the nuts retaining the exhaust pipe at
the exhaust manifolds.
15. Remove the shift cable routing bracket retaining
bolt (if so equipped).
02-88
ESG-642
REMOVAL (Continued)
16. Remove the engine mount retaining nuts. (Left
side shown).
17. Install the engine lifting equipment.
18. Remove the transmission dipstick tube for
automatic transmissions.
1 – Position the drain pan.
2 – Remove the transmission-to-engine
retaining bolt at the dipstick tube bracket.
3 – Remove the tube.
4 – Discard the O-ring.
19. Remove the transmission-to-engine retaining
bolts.
20. Remove the engine.
02-89
ESG-642
DISASSEMBLY
Engine
Special Tool(s)
Special Tool(s)
Camshaft Bearing Set
T65L-6250-A
Seal Remover
T92c-6700-CH
Connecting Rod Guide Tool
T93P-6136-A
Syncro Positioning Tool
T89P-12200-A
Crankshaft Damper Remover
T58P-6316-D
Vibration Damper Remover
Adapter
T82L-6316-B
Cylinder Ridge Reamer
T64L-6011-EA
Special Service Tools called for by the procedures
can be obtained by calling:
1-800-ROTUNDA (1-800-768-8632).
02-90
ESG-642
DISASSEMBLY (Continued)
Gears
1.
02-91
Remove the flywheel and rear cover plate and
mount the engine (6007) on a suitable
workstand.
ESG-642
DISASSEMBLY (Continued)
2.
Remove the water pump pulley (8509).
3.
Remove the drive belt idler pulley (8678).
02-92
ESG-642
DISASSEMBLY (Continued)
4.
02-93
Remove the generator mounting bracket.
ESG-642
DISASSEMBLY (Continued)
5.
Remove the engine mounts.
6.
Remove the heated exhaust gas oxygen
(HO2S) sensors (left side shown; right side
similar).
02-94
ESG-642
DISASSEMBLY (Continued)
7.
Remove the engine lifting eyes (left side shown;
right side similar).
8.
Remove the oil level indicator tube.
02-95
ESG-642
DISASSEMBLY (Continued)
9.
Remove the exhaust manifolds (left side shown;
right side similar). Discard the gaskets. Same
procedure for optional center dump exhaust
manifolds.
10. Remove the valve covers (left side shown; right
side similar).
NOTE: Remove the ignition coil pack (if
necessary). Refer to Section 3.
11. NOTE: The location of each rocker arm seat,
rocker arm and pushrod should be identified.
When the engine is assembled, each
component should be installed in its original
position.
Remove the rocker arms, rocker arm seats and
push rods.
02-96
ESG-642
DISASSEMBLY (Continued)
12. Remove the cylinder heads and head gaskets
(left side shown; right side similar). Discard the
head gaskets and bolts.
13. NOTE: Identify the location of each valve
tappet. When the engine is assembled, make
sure each valve tappet is installed in its original
position.
Remove the tappet guides and valve tappets.
02-97
ESG-642
DISASSEMBLY (Continued)
14. Remove the heater outlet water tube.
15. Remove the crankshaft synchronizer.
02-98
ESG-642
DISASSEMBLY (Continued)
16. NOTE: The crankshaft pulley (6312) and
damper are a balanced assembly. Mark the
components for alignment before removal.
Remove the crankshaft pulley.
17. Remove the retaining bolt and the crankshaft
damper.
• A puller will be needed to remove the damper
from the crankshaft.
02-99
ESG-642
DISASSEMBLY (Continued)
18. Remove the oil bypass filter and the engine oil
cooler (6A642) (if so equipped).
19. Remove the oil pan (6675) and the oil pan rear
seal.
02-100
ESG-642
DISASSEMBLY (Continued)
20. Remove the oil pump screen cover and tube
(6622). Discard the oil pan gasket (6710).
21.
! CAUTION: Before this step is started,
both cylinder heads must be removed to
prevent lower block from distorting.
Remove the oil pan baffle.
02-101
ESG-642
DISASSEMBLY (Continued)
22. Remove the water pump (8501).
23. Remove the engine front cover. Discard the
gasket.
24. Remove the following:
1 – Synchronizer drive gear.
2 – Camshaft sprocket.
3 – Crankshaft sprocket.
4 – Timing chain.
5 – Balance shaft drive gear.
25. Remove the timing chain vibration damper.
02-102
ESG-642
DISASSEMBLY (Continued)
26. Remove the balance shaft.
27. Remove the camshaft.
28. NOTE: Mark the location of each piston,
connecting rod bearing (6211) and connecting
rod cap. When the engine is assembled, each
component should be installed in its original
position. Discard all bolts and replace with now
bolts.
Inspect the top of each cylinder bore and, if
necessary, remove the ridge or carbon
deposits. Remove the pistons.
02-103
ESG-642
DISASSEMBLY (Continued)
29. Remove the crankshaft and main bearings.
Discard the crankshaft rear oil seal (6701) and
all bolts and replace with new bolts and oil seal.
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY OF SUBASSEMBLIES
Cylinder Blocks
Special Tool(s)
Camshaft Bearing Set
T65L-6250-A
Special Service Tools called for by the procedures
can be obtained by calling:
1-800-ROTUNDA (1-800-768-8632).
02-104
ESG-642
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY OF SUBASSEMBLIES (Continued)
Disassembly
1.
Use the Camshaft Bearing Set to remove the
four camshaft bearings.
2.
Use the Camshaft Bearing Set to remove the
two engine dynamic balance shaft bearings.
3.
If so equipped, remove the block heater.
4.
NOTE: For cleaning purposes, plugs should
be removed.
If necessary, remove plugs and dowels:
• Cylinder block dowels (A).
• Oil gallery plugs (B).
• Water jacket plugs (C).
02-105
ESG-642
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY OF SUBASSEMBLIES (Continued)
Assembly
NOTE: Moving components must be lubricated with
engine oil before assembly.
NOTE: Components with oil holes must be properly
aligned with oil feed holes.
25 - 40 Nm (19 - 29 lb/ft)
1.
If necessary, install plugs and dowels:
• Cylinder block dowels (A).
• Oil gallery plugs (B).
• Water jacket plugs (C).
2.
If so equipped, install the block heater.
3.
Use the Camshaft Bearing Set to install the
two dynamic balance shaft bearings.
4.
Use the Camshaft Bearing Set to install the
four camshaft bearings.
02-106
ESG-642
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY OF SUBASSEMBLIES (Continued)
5.
Install the (A) engine dynamic balance shaft
bearing cover and the (B) camshaft bearing
cover.
Cylinder Head
Special Tool(s)
Valve Spring Compressor
T81P-6513-A
Special Service Tools called for by the procedures
can be obtained by calling:
1-800-ROTUNDA (1-800-768-8632).
NOTE: If components are to be installed, they must
be installed in the same positions. Mark
components removed for correct location.
Disassembly of Cylinder Head
1.
Remove the spark plugs (12405).
2.
Use Valve Spring Compressor to compress the
valve springs.
02-107
ESG-642
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY OF SUBASSEMBLIES (Continued)
3.
Remove the following:
1 – Remove the valve spring retainer key.
2 – Remove the valve spring retainer.
3 – Remove the valve spring.
4 – Remove and discard the valve stem seal.
5 – Remove the valve spring seat.
6 – Remove the valve.
Assembly of Cylinder Head
1.
NOTE: Lubricate parts with engine oil before
installing.
Follow the disassembly procedure in reverse
order.
ASSEMBLY
Engine
Special Tool(s)
Special Tool(s)
Camshaft Bearing Set
T65L-6250-A
Front Crankshaft Seal Replacer
T94P-6701-AH
Connecting Rod Guide
T93P-6136-A
Piston Ring Compressor
D81L-6002-C or Equivalent
Front Crankshaft Seal
Installer/Aligner
T88T-6701-A
(Continued)
Special Service Tools called for by the procedures
can be obtained by calling:
1-800-ROTUNDA (1-800-768-8632).
02-108
ESG-642
DISASSEMBLY (Continued)
Special Tool(s)
Rear Main Seal Replacer
T82L-6701-A
Vibration Damper Remover
Adapter
T82L-6316-B
Special Service Tools called for by the procedures
can be obtained by calling:
1-800-ROTUNDA (1-800-768-8632).
Assembly of Engine
1.
Install the upper crankshaft main bearings
(6333) in the cylinder block.
• The third bearing from the front of the engine
is the thrust bearing.
02-109
ESG-642
ASSEMBLY (Continued)
2.
Install the lower crankshaft main bearings in
the bearing caps.
• The third bearing from the front of the engine
is the thrust bearing.
3.
Install the crankshaft.
• Lubricate the main bearings and crankshaft
journals with Engine Assembly Lubricant
D9AZ-19579-D or equivalent meeting Ford
specification ESR-M88C80-A.
• Make sure the Woodruff key is installed in
the end of the crankshaft.
02-110
ESG-642
ASSEMBLY (Continued)
! CAUTION: Mating parts must make contact
to each other within 4 minutes and connecting
bolts must be torqued within 15 minutes after
applying sealant. Failure to follow this
procedure can cause future oil leakage.
• Use silicone gasket and sealant F6AZ-19562-AA
or equivalent meeting Ford specification WSEM4G323-A6.
4-6 Nm (0.157-0.236 in)
NOTE: Sealant must be removed and area cleaned
with solvant if above instructions are not followed.
• Use metal surface cleaner F4AZ-19A536-RA or
equivalent meeting Ford specification WSEM5B292-A.
4.
Clean the mating surfaces on the rear main
bearing cap and the cylinder block.
• Apply a small amount of Silicone Gasket
and Sealant in the location shown in the
illustration.
5.
Install the main bearing caps.
1 – Arrows on the bearing caps indicate
installation direction and location.
2 – Tighten the main cap retaining bolts (two)
and stud bolts (six) in two stages:
• Stage 1: 50 Nm (37 lb/ft).
• Stage 2: 115-125 degrees.
NOTE: Main cap retaining bolts and stud bolts are
torque-to-yield. Discard and replace with new.
• Refer to this Section for installation procedures.
02-111
ESG-642
ASSEMBLY (Continued)
6.
8-14 Nm
(71-124 lb/in)
! CAUTION: Use extreme care installing
camshaft to prevent scoring or scuffing
cam bearings. May cause bearing failure.
• Lubricate the camshaft.
• Lubricate the camshaft bearings, lobes and
journals with Engine Assembly Lubricant
D9AZ-19579-D or equivalent meeting Ford
specification ESR-M88C80-A.
• Install the camshaft and tighten (2) bolts to
specification.
8-14 Nm (71-124 lb/in)
7.
!
CAUTION: Use extreme care installing
balance shaft to prevent scoring or scuffing
balance shaft bearings. May cause bearing
failure.
• Lubricate the balance shaft bearings with
Engine Assembly Lubricant D9AZ-19579-D
or equivalent meeting Ford specification
ESR-M88C80-A.
• Install the balance shaft and tighten (2) bolts
to specification.
02-112
ESG-642
ASSEMBLY (Continued)
8.
Install the timing chain vibration damper.
9.
Install the balance shaft drive gear.
8-14 Nm
(71-124 lb/in)
• Timing marks on the drive and driven gear
must align.
02-113
ESG-642
ASSEMBLY (Continued)
10. Install the crankshaft sprocket, camshaft
sprocket and timing chain as an assembly.
• Timing marks on gears and keyways on
shafts must align.
11. Install the synchronizer drive gear.
40-50 Nm (30-37 lb/ft)
02-114
ESG-642
ASSEMBLY (Continued)
12. Install the bearing in the piston connecting rod
and rod cap.
• Lubricate the connecting rod bearings and
crankshaft journals with Engine Assembly
Lubricant D9AZ-19579-D or equivalent
meeting Ford specification ESR-M88C80-A.
• Lubricate the cylinder walls with clean engine
oil and install the pistons. The arrow on the
top of the piston must face the front of the
engine and the notches in the bearing shells
must align.
• Install connecting rod caps.
NOTE: Bolts are torque-to-yield. Discard and
replace with new.
• Refer to this Section for installation
procedures.
13. NOTE: All timing marks must be aligned with
the number one piston at TDC.
Turn the crankshaft to position the number one
piston at top dead center (TDC). After setting
at (TDC) the crankshaft must not be turned
until camshaft synchronizer is installed.
02-115
ESG-642
ASSEMBLY (Continued)
20-30 Nm (14-22 lb/ft)
14. Install the engine front cover.
• Use a new gasket.
20-30 Nm (14-22 lb/ft)
15. Install the water pump.
20-30 Nm (14-22 lb/ft)
• Use a new gasket.
16. Install the oil baffle assembly.
40-50 Nm (30-37 lb/ft)
02-116
ESG-642
ASSEMBLY (Continued)
17. Install the oil pump screen cover and tube.
20-30 Nm (14-22 lb/ft)
• Use a new gasket.
40-50 Nm (30-37 lb/ft)
! CAUTION: Mating parts must make contact
to each other within 4 minutes and connecting
bolts must be torqued within 15 minutes after
applying sealant. Failure to follow this
procedure can cause future oil leakage.
• Use silicone gasket and sealant F6AZ-19562-AA
or equivalent meeting Ford specification WSEM4G323-A6.
1
NOTE: Sealant must be removed and area cleaned
with solvant if above instructions are not followed.
• Use metal surface cleaner F4AZ-19A536-RA or
equivalent meeting Ford specification WSEM5B292-A.
18. Clean mating surfaces on oil pan and cylinder
block. Use Metal Parts Cleaner F4AZ-19A536RA or equivalent meeting Ford specification
WSE-M5B292-A.
• Apply a bead of Silicone Gasket and Sealant
at position 1 as shown in the illustration.
Apply a bead along engine block the entire
surface where oil pan mates to block and at
each end of crank oil pan seal.
1
02-117
ESG-642
ASSEMBLY (Continued)
19. Install the rear seal and oil pan.
1 – Tighten the oil pan retaining bolts in two
stages in the sequence shown.
• Stage 1: 4-5 Nm (36-44 lb/in).
• Stage 2: 9-12 Nm (80-106 lb/in).
20. Install a new “O”-ring on the synchronizer and
make sure the oil pump intermediate shaft is
installed with the lock ring into the synchronizer.
• Lubricate “O”-ring with WSE-M2C908-A oil
prior to installation.
02-118
ESG-642
ASSEMBLY (Continued)
2.3-3.5 Nm (20.4-27.5 lb/in)
21. NOTE: The arrow on the alignment tool must
point as shown in the illustration. Make sure
piston number one is at top dead center on
intake stroke.
Install the synchronizer, remove the alignment
tool and install the camshaft position sensor.
20-30 Nm (15-22 lb/ft)
22. Install the coolant water heater outlet tube
assembly (refer to cooling system Section 05
of auxiliary system section).
• Use a new O-ring.
• Lubricate “O”-ring with WSE-M2C908-A oil
prior to installation.
8-11.5 Nm (71-102 lb/in)
02-119
ESG-642
ASSEMBLY (Continued)
23. Install the valve tappets and tappet guides.
10-14 Nm (88-124 lb/in)
• Lubricate the tappet bore and tappet roller
with Engine Assembly Lubricant D9AZ19579-D or equivalent meeting Ford
specification ESR-M88C80-A.
24. Install the cylinder heads.
1 – Use new gaskets and cylinder head bolts.
2 – Tighten the cylinder head bolts in three
stages in the sequence shown:
• Stage 1: 20 Nm (14 lb/ft).
• Stage 2: 40 Nm (29 lb/ft).
• Stage 3: 50 Nm (36 lb/ft).
3 – The bolts must be loosen and retighten.
Following procedure in Step 25 next page.
02-120
ESG-642
ASSEMBLY (Continued)
25.
20-30 Nm (15-22 lb/ft)
! CAUTION: Do not loosen all of the
cylinder head bolts at one time. Each
cylinder head bolt must be loosened and
the final tightening completed prior to
working on the next bolt in the sequence.
In the sequence shown, loosen the cylinder
head bolt three turns, then tighten the (A) short
cylinder head bolt or (B) long cylinder head bolt
to the specification indicated, and then further
tighten the cylinder head bolt to the (C) degrees
indicated.
40-50 Nm (30-36 lb/ft)
30-40 Nm (22-30 lb/ft)
26. Install the rocker arms, rocker arm seats and
push rods in the following positions:
1 – Lubricate the ends of the push rods and
rocker arm seats with Engine Assembly
Lubricant D9AZ-19579-D or equivalent
meeting Ford specification ESR-M88C80A.
• Number 1 – intake and exhaust.
• Number 2 – exhaust.
• Number 3 – intake.
• Number 4 – exhaust.
• Number 6 – intake.
27. Rotate the crankshaft 180 degrees.
02-121
ESG-642
ASSEMBLY (Continued)
30-40 Nm (22-30 lb/ft)
8-11.5 Nm (71-102 lb/in)
28. Install the remaining push rods, rocker arms
and rocker arm seats.
• Number 2 – intake.
• Number 3 – exhaust.
• Number 4 – intake.
• Number 5 – intake and exhaust.
• Number 6 – exhaust.
29. Install the valve covers.
NOTE: Install the ignition coil pack (if
necessary). Refer to Section 3. Torque 5-6 Nm
(48 lb/in) (3 bolts).
30. Install the exhaust manifolds.
• Use a new gasket.
20-30 Nm (15-22 lb/ft)
02-122
ESG-642
ASSEMBLY (Continued)
31. Install the engine oil level indicator tube.
• Use a new O-ring.
A “O’’ Ring
B Tube Assy.
C Cylinder Block
C
A
1 – Lubricate “O’’ Ring with WSE-M2C908-A
oil prior to installation.
B
2 – Tube must be seated within 2mm of engine
block.
B
3 – Install outboard of spark plug wires.
A
32. Install the engine lifting eyes (left side shown;
right side similar).
20-30 Nm (15-22 lb/ft)
02-123
ESG-642
ASSEMBLY (Continued)
33. Install the crankshaft front seal (6700).
• A seal installer will be needed.
34. Install the crankshaft damper and the damper
retaining bolt.
• An installation tool will be required.
140-180 Nm (103-132 lb/ft)
35. Install the water pump pulley.
22-28 Nm (16-21 lb/ft)
02-124
ESG-642
ASSEMBLY (Continued)
36. Install the idler pulley mounting and support
brackets.
22-28 Nm (16-21 lb/ft)
41-55 Nm
(30-41 lb/ft)
34. Install the generator mounting bracket and belt
idler pulley.
47-63 Nm (35-46 lb/ft)
20-30 Nm (15-22 lb/ft)
40-55 Nm (30-41 lb/ft)
02-125
ESG-642
ASSEMBLY (Continued)
38. Align and install the crankshaft pulley.
26-38 Nm (19-28 lb/ft)
39. Install the oil bypass filter and engine oil cooler
(if so equipped).
02-126
ESG-642
ASSEMBLY (Continued)
40. Install the exhaust gas oxygen (HO2S)
sensors.
NOTE: There may only be one HO2S sensor
depending upon application.
36-46 Nm (27-34 lb/ft)
41. Install the engine mounts.
02-127
ESG-642
ASSEMBLY (Continued)
42. Remove the engine from the stand and install
the rear oil seal.
• A seal installer will be required.
43. Install the rear cover plate and flywheel.
73-87 Nm (54-64 lb/ft)
02-128
ESG-642
INSTALLATION
Engine
Special Tool(s)
Engine Lifting Bracket
014-00730 or Equivalent
Special Service Tools called for by the procedures
can be obtained by calling:
1-800-ROTUNDA (1-800-768-8632).
Installation
1.
Install the engine.
2.
Install the transmission or PTO-to-engine
retaining bolts, if so equipped.
3.
Install the transmission dipstick tube. Use a
new “O”-ring.
• Lubricate “O”-ring with WSE-M2C908-A oil
prior to installation.
40-55 Nm (30-41 lb/ft)
4.
Remove the engine lifting equipment.
5.
Raise the vehicle.
6.
Install the engine mount retaining nuts. (Left
as shown).
7.
Install the shift cable routing bracket retaining
bolt, if so equipped.
1 – Position the wiring harness and engage
the routing clips.
2 – Connect the wiring at the daytime running
lamp module, if so equipped.
3 – Connect the wiring at the horn, if so
equipped.
4 – Connect the wiring at the front air bag
sensor, if so equipped.
02-129
ESG-642
INSTALLATION (Continued)
38-51 Nm (28-38 lb/ft)
38-51 Nm (28-38 lb/ft)
8.
Install the engine oil pan to the transmission
retaining bolts on the right side.
9.
Install the nuts retaining the exhaust pipe at
the exhaust manifolds.
10. Install the engine oil pan to the transmission
retaining bolts on the left side.
11. Install the (C) torque converter access cover
and the (B) torque converter retaining nuts.
Turn the (A) crankshaft to access the retaining
nuts studs.
12. Install the starter.
13. Connect the radiator lower hose.
02-130
ESG-642
INSTALLATION (Continued)
14. Install the power steering pump, if so equipped.
1 – Install the pump retaining bolts.
2 – Connect the low-pressure line at the power
steering pump.
3 – Fill pump with appropriate fluid.
15. Install the accessory drive belt.
16. Install the lower intake manifold. Refer to Intake
Manifold – Lower.
17. Install the upper intake manifold. Refer to Intake
Manifold – Upper.
18. Install the routing bracket retaining bolt and the
engine oil dipstick tube.
19. Add the correct amount of oil to the engine and
the transmission.
02-131
ESG-642
SPECIFICATIONS
General Specifications
Item
General Specifications
Specification
Displacement (Liters)
4.2
Number of Cylinders
6
Bore mm (Inch)
Stroke mm (Inch)
Item
Camshaft Specifications (Continued)
96.8325 (3.81)
95 (3.74)
Spark Plug (Motorcraft):
Gas AGSF-42 FCM
1.12mm (.044 in)
Dual Fuel AGSF-42 FCM
1.12mm (.044 in)
LPG & NG AGSF-42 FCM
1.12mm (.044 in)
Firing Order
Oil Capacity with
Oil Filter – L (Qt)
Oil Pressure
(Hot 2500 RPM)
Engine Oil XO-10W30-QSP
or -DSP
40-125 PSI
NOTE: Ford Power Products industrial engines are
designed to perform with engine oils that are
licensed by the American Petroleum Institute (API),
and oils carrying the most current API classification
should be used.
Valve Spring Installed
Length mm (Inch)
39.8-41.6
(1.566-1.637)
Runout mm (Inch)
0.05 (0.002)
Journal Diameter
mm (Inch)
52.108-52.082
(2.0515-2.0505)
50.5 (1.99)
Exhaust mm (Inch)
50.5 (1.99)
Valve Gap With
Collapsed Tappet
mm (Inch)
96.80 (3.81)
Out-of-Round
mm (Inch)
0.050 (0.002)
Taper Limit mm (Inch)
0.050 (0.002)
Main Journal Diameter
Standard mm (Inch)
(2.5182-2.5190)
0.25 mm (0.010 Inch)
Undersize mm (Inch)
Lobe Lift
6.22 (0.245)
Exhaust mm (Inch)
6.57 (0.259)
Lobe Wear Limit
Intake mm (Inch)
0.127 (0.005)
Exhaust mm (Inch)
0.127 (0.005)
02-132
63.963-63.983
(2.5182-2.5190)
0.03 (0.0012)
Taper Limit mm (Inch)
0.016 (0.0006)
(Continued)
Camshaft Specifications
63.983-64.003
Out-of-Round Limit
mm (Inch)
Runout mm (Inch)
2.15-4.69
(0.08465-0.18465)
Intake mm (Inch)
152.0 (6.00)
Standard mm (Inch)
Valve Spring Free Length
Intake mm (Inch)
0.025 (0.001)
Crankshaft Specifications
General Specifications
8.682-8.662
(0.3418-0.3410)
0.025-0.015
(0.001-0.0006)
Cylinder Bore Diameter
ESE-M2C153-E
Valve stem Diameter
Exhaust mm (Inch)
Journal-to-Bearing
Clearance mm (Inch)
Head Gasket Surface
Flatness per 0.08
(0.003) mm (Inch)
5.7 (6.0)
5 qt. Pan + 1 qt. Filter
Specification
0.025-0.150
(0.001-0.006)
Cylinder Block Specifications
9.17:1
Item
End Play Wear Limit
mm (Inch)
Out-of-Round Limit
mm (Inch)
1-4-2-5-3-6
Compression Ratio
Specification
0.05 (0.002)
ESG-642
SPECIFICATIONS (Continued)
General Specifications
Item
Torque Specifications
Specification
Description
Connecting Rod Journal Diameter
Standard mm (Inch)
58.682-58.702
(2.3103-2.3111)
0.25 mm (0.010 Inch)
Undersize mm (Inch)
58.662-58.682
(2.3095-2.3103)
0.50 mm (0.020 Inch)
Undersize mm (Inch)
58.632-58.652
(2.3083-2.3091)
Taper Limit mm (Inch)
0.016 (0.0006)
Out-of-Round Limit
mm (Inch)
0.030 (0.0012)
Crankshaft Eng Play
mm (Inch)
0.007-0.20
(0.00003-0.00787)
Connecting Rod Specifications
Bend for Each 25 mm
(1.97 Inches) mm (Inch)
Side Clearance
Maximum mm (Inch)
0.04 (0.0015)
0.11-0.49 (0.0047-0.01929)
0.36 max (0.014 max)
Piston Specifications
Piston Diameter
Standard mm (Inch)
96.795 (3.81)
Piston-to-Bore
Clearance mm (Inch)
0.018-0.044
(0.000709-0.00173)
Piston Ring to Land
Clearnace mm (Inch)
0.030-0.080
(0.00122-0.00315)
Compression Ring
mm (Inch)
1.54-1.52 top
(0.060-0.059)
1.54-1.52 bottom
(0.060-0.059)
Ring Gap
Compression Ring
mm (Inch)
0.25-0.41
(0.00098-0.00161)
0.38-0.64
(0.00149-0.0025)
Oil Ring mm (Inch)
0.15-165 (0.0059-0.0064)
Lubrication System Specifications
Oil Pump
Oil Pump Gear Radial
Clearance (Idler and
Drive) mm (Inch)
0.125-0.050
(0.0055-0.002)
Oil Pump Gear End Height
(Extends Below Housing)
mm (Inch)
0.085-0.010
(0.0033-0.0004)
Oil Capacity
With Oil Filter L (Qt)
6.1-6.6 (6.5-7)
Without Oil Filter L (Qt)
5.8-6.1 (5)
Total (Dry Engine) L (Qt)
6.1-6.6 (6)
Nm
Lb/Ft
Lb/In
A/C Compressor Bracket48
35
–
to-Cylinder Head Bolts
A/C Compressor Bracket48
35
–
to-Cylinder Head Nut
A/C Compressor Bracket25
18
–
to-Cylinder Stud Bolt
Accelerator Cable
8-11
6-8
–
Bracket Nut and Bolt
Accelerator Cable
10
–
89
Bracket-to-Intake
Manifold Bolts
Accessory Drive Belt
48-64
35-47
–
Tensioner Bolt
Accessory Drive Belt
48-64
35-47
–
Idler Pulley Bolt
Battery Positive Cable
9-12
7-8
–
Nut
Belt Idler Pulley Bolts
55
41
–
Belt Tensioner Bolt
55
40
–
Camshaft Position
3
–
27
Sensor Bolts
Camshaft Position
40-50
30-36
–
Sensor Drive Gear Bolt
Camshaft Synchronizer25
18
–
to-Front-Cover Bolt
Camshaft Synchronizer
45
33
–
Drive Gear-to-Camshaft
Camshaft Thrust Plate
8-14
–
71-124
Bolts
1
Connecting Rod Bolts
–
Page–02-65
Coolant Recovery
5
–
44
Reservoir-to-Bracket Bolts
Coolant recover reservoir
bracket-to-GOP bolts
9
–
80
Crankshaft Damper Bolt
140-180 103-132
–
Crankshaft Pulley Bolts
26-38
19-28
–
Cylinder Head Bolts2
Page–02-119 –
Drive Belt Tensioner Bolts
25
18
–
Engine Coolant By-Pass
8-11.5
–
71-102
Hose
Engine Exhaust Gas
36-46
27-34
–
Oxygen (HO2S) Sensor
Engine Cylinder Head
9-11
–
80-95
Temperature (ECHT)
Sensor
Engine Dynamic Balance
8-14
6-10
–
Shaft Thrust Plate Bolts
Engine Front Cover Bolt
20-30
14-22
–
Engine Front Cover Stud
20-30
15-22
–
Bolt
Engine Front Cover
20-30
15-22
–
Socket Head Cap Screw
Engine Lifting Eye Nuts
20-30
15-22
–
Engine Mount
68-92
51-67
–
Through-Bolts
(Continued)
02-133
ESG-642
SPECIFICATIONS (Continued)
Torque Specifications
Torque Specifications
Description
Nm
Lb/Ft
Lb/In
Engine-to-Transmission
Bolts
Exhaust Flange Nuts
Exhaust Manifold Bolts
and Stud Bolts2
Exhaust Manifold-toCylinder Head Nuts
Exhaust Manifold Studs
Flywheel Bolts
Flywheel-to-Crankshaft
Bolts
Front Cover-to-Cylinder
Block Bolts
Fuel Injection Supply
Manifold Bolts
Fuel Pressure Dampener
Screws
Fuel Pressure Relief
Valve
Fuel Pressure Relief
Valve
Fuel Pressure Relief
Valve
Fuel Pressure Relief
Valve Cap
Fuel Supply Manifold
Bolts
Generator Nuts and Bolts
Generator Positive
Cable Nut
Generator Bracket Short
Bolt
Generator Bracket Long
Bolts
Generator Bracket-toCylinder Head Bolts
Generator Positive Cable
Nut
Head Bolts1
Heater Water Outlet Tube
Bolt
Idler Bracket Bolt & Nuts
Idler Pulley
Idler Pulley – 4.2L
Idler Pulley Bolt
Ignition Coil
Bolts (3)
Intake Manifold (Lower)
(Upper)
Main Bearing Brace Nuts
Main Bearing Cap Bolts
40
30
–
40
20-30
30
15-22
–
–
25
18
–
8
73-87
80
–
54-63
59
71
–
–
25
18
–
8-11.5
–
70-102
3-4.5
2.5-3
–
7
–
62
7.75
5.5
–
7.75
–
68.6
0.6
–
5
10
–
89
20-30
10
15-22
–
–
89
20-30
15-22
–
40-55
30-41
–
40
30
–
10
_
89
8-11
6-8
–
25
41-55
55
47-63
18
30-41
40
35-46
–
–
–
–
5-6
Page 02-20
Page 02-16
40-55
30-40
50
37
48
–
–
Description
Oil Bypass Filter
Oil Filter Adapter Bolts
(8 mm)
Oil Filter Adapter Bolts
(6 mm)
Oil Galley Plugs
Oil Level Indicator Tube
Bracket Nut
Oil Level Indicator Tubeto-Cyl. Head Bolt
Oil Baffle Nuts
Oil Pan Drain Plug
Oil Pan to Cylinder Block
Bolts
Oil Pan to Transmission
Oil Pickup Tube-to-Cyl.
Block Bolts
Oil Pickup Tube-to-Oil
Pan Baffle Nut
Oil Pressure Sensor
Oil Pump Screen Cover
and Tube Bolts
Oil Pump Screen Cover
and Tube Nut
Power Steering Pressure
Tube to Pump Nut
Power Steering Pump
Bolts
Power Steering Pump
Bracket-to-Water
Power Steering Pump
Bracket-to-Generator
Bracket Bolts
Power Steering Reservoir
Bolts
Radiator Fan Shroudto-Radiator Bolts
Rocker Arm Bolts
Rod Cap Bolts
Spark Plugs
Synchronizer Drive Gear
Bolt
Synchronizer Hold
Down Bolt
Synchronizer Stator
Asy. Screws
Tappet Guide Plate Bolts
Timing Chain Tensionerto-Cyl. Block Bolts
Timing Chain Vibration
Damper Bolts
(Continued)
Nm
Lb/Ft
Lb/In
10-15
20-30
7.5-11
15-22
–
–
8-11
–
71-97
25-40
20-30
19-29
15-22
–
–
10
–
89
40-50
26
9-12
30-37
19
–
–
–
80-106
38-51
25
28-38
18
–
–
48
35
–
11-16
20-30
9-11
15-22
–
–
40-50
30-37
–
40
30
–
22-28
17-20
–
20
15
–
20
15
–
9-12
–
80-106
9
–
80
30-40
10-20
40-50
22-29
–
–
30-37
–
–
84-180
–
20-30
15-22
–
2.5-3.5
–
10-14
12
7.5-10
9
20.427.5
–
–
8-14
–
71-124
1
(Continued)
02-134
ESG-642
SPECIFICATIONS (Continued)
Torque Specifications
Description
Nm
Lb/Ft
Lb/In
Throttle Body Nuts & Bolts
Torque Converter-toFlywheel Nuts
Transmission-to-Engine
Retaining Bolts
Valve Cover Bolts and
Stud Bolts
Valve Cover-to-Cyl.
(LH) & (RH)
Valve Cover-to-Cyl. Head
Stud Bolt (LH) & (RH)
Water Outlet Tube-toFront Water Pump Bolt
Water Pump Bolts
Water Pump Stud Bolt
Water Pump Nuts
Water Pump Pulley Bolts
Water Temperature
Indicator Sender Unit
42 Pin Connector Bolt
42 Pin Connector Bracket
Hold Down Bolt
10
36
–
27
89
–
40-55
30-41
–
8-11.5
–
71-102
10
10
–
–
89
89
10
–
89
20-30
8-12
20-30
22-28
14-19
15-22
–
15-22
16-21
10-14
–
71-106
–
–
–
10
4-5.6
–
-
89
35-50
1 Refer to the procedure for torque specification and
sequence.
2 Refer to the procedure for the tightening sequence.
02-135
Auxiliary Systems – Ignition
IGNITION INDEX
SUBJECT
PAGE
SUBJECT
Introduction ................................................................... 03-3
How to Find Electrical Concerns ................................. 03-3
Troubleshooting Tools .................................................. 03-3
Test Lamp ..................................................................... 03-4
Self-Powered Test Lamp .............................................. 03-4
Continuity Check (Locating open circuits) .................. 03-4
Troubleshooting Wiring harness and
Connector Hidden Concerns ..................................... 03-6
Electrical Symbols ....................................................... 03-7
PAGE
Engine Surges Symptom ........................................... 03-22
Lack of Power or Sluggish Symptom ....................... 03-24
Detonation/Spark Knock Symptom .......................... 03-25
Rough, Unstable, or Incorrect Idle,
Stalling Symptom ..................................................... 03-26
Excessive Fuel Consumption Symptom .................. 03-28
Description And Operation (ECM) .............................. 03-8
Operation ..................................................................... 03-8
Run Mode, Transient Mode, Overspeed Mode ........... 03-9
Electronic Engine Controls .......................................... 03-9
Inputs to the ECM Effecting the Ignition ....................... 03-9
Crankshaft Position Sensor (CKP Sensor) .................. 03-9
Cranking Mode .......................................................... 03-10
Fuel Select Switch ..................................................... 03-10
Throttle Position Sensor (TP Sensor) ........................ 03-10
Camshaft Position Sensor (CMP Sensor) ................. 03-11
Cylinder Head Temperature Sensor
(CHT Sensor) ........................................................... 03-11
Heated Oxygen Sensor (HO2S) ................................ 03-11
Intake Air Temperature Sensor (IAT Sensor) ............. 03-12
Electronic Control Module (ECM) Outputs ................ 03-12
Ignition Coil Pack ....................................................... 03-12
Engine Idle Speed ..................................................... 03-13
Idle Air Control (IAC) Motor ....................................... 03-13
Operations ................................................................. 03-13
IAC Diagnostics ......................................................... 03-13
Dieseling, Run-on Symptom ...................................... 03-29
Backfire Symptom ..................................................... 03-30
Hesitation, Sag, Stumble Symptom .......................... 03-31
Cuts Out, Misses Symptom ....................................... 03-33
Ignition System Diagnosing And Testing .................. 03-35
NOTE: Defective Trouble Codes (DTC), how to retrieve and
remove, see Section 08-26
Ignition Secondary System Resistance Checks ....... 03-35
Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC) 42 For High
Voltage And DTC 32 For Low Voltage From
(HO2S) Sensor ......................................................... 03-36
Circuit Description ..................................................... 03-36
Conditions for Setting the DTC .................................. 03-36
Conditions for Clearing the DTC
(Resetting the MIL) ................................................... 03-36
Exhaust Gas Oxygen (HO2S) Sensor ....................... 03-36
Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC) 43 Engine
Cylinder Head Temperature Low Voltage And
(DTC) 33 for High Voltage ........................................ 03-37
Circuit Description ..................................................... 03-37
Conditions for Setting the DTC .................................. 03-37
Actions Taken When the DTC Sets ............................ 03-37
Conditions for Clearing the DTC
(Resetting the MIL) ................................................... 03-37
Diagnostic Aids .......................................................... 03-37
Intake Air Temperature Sensor Circuit ....................... 03-38
Circuit Description ..................................................... 03-38
Actions Taken When the DTC Sets ............................ 03-38
Conditions for Clearing the DTC
(Resetting the MIL) ................................................... 03-38
Diagnostic Aids .......................................................... 03-38
Intake Air Temperature (IAT) Sensor .......................... 03-38
Throttle Position (TP) Sensor ..................................... 03-39
Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) ........................... 03-40
Circuit Description ..................................................... 03-40
Conditions for Setting the DTC .................................. 03-40
Actions Taken When the DTC Sets ............................ 03-40
Conditions for Clearing the DTC
(Resetting the MIL) ................................................... 03-40
Description And Operation (ICM) .............................. 03-14
Starting Mode ............................................................ 03-14
ECT Effects ................................................................ 03-14
IAT Effects .................................................................. 03-14
Overspeed Protection ................................................ 03-14
Engine Protection ...................................................... 03-14
Starter Lockout ........................................................... 03-14
Tachometer Output ..................................................... 03-14
Table 1: Input/Output Function ................................... 03-15
Harness Connector Pinout Description ..................... 03-16
Octane Select Operation ........................................... 03-17
Distributorless Ignition System Description
And Operation ........................................................... 03-18
Service Adjustments And Checks ............................. 03-18
Diagnosis Equipment ................................................ 03-18
Diagnosing ................................................................ 03-18
Preliminary Checks ................................................... 03-19
Visual/Physical Check ............................................... 03-19
Intermittent Problems ................................................. 03-19
Hard Start Symptom .................................................. 03-20
03-1
03
Auxiliary Systems – Ignition
SUBJECT
PAGE
MST, CHT & IAT Sensor Data .................................... 03-41
Engine Cranks But Doesn’t Start .............................. 03-42
Circuit Description ..................................................... 03-42
Diagnostic Aids .......................................................... 03-42
Test Description ......................................................... 03-42
Circuit Test Table ........................................................ 03-42
Wiring Schematic – 4.2L & 2.5L Alternator, Gauges,
Ignition and Discrete Governing .............................. 03-48
Wiring Assembly – 4.2L DLX ICM ............................. 03-49
Wiring Assembly – To 9D930 .................................... 03-50
Wiring Assembly – To 14324 ..................................... 03-50
Wiring Assembly – To ECM ....................................... 03-51
Pedal Switch – Drive-By-Wire .................................... 03-52
First Version Foot Pedal Assembly ............................ 03-52
Drive-By-Wire Food Pedal Wiring Harness ............... 03-53
Second Version Foot Pedal Assembly ....................... 03-53
Wiring Schematic – 4.2L & 2.5L Alternator, Gauges,
Ignition and Drive-By-Wire ....................................... 03-54
Removal and Installation of ECM / ICM ..................... 03-55
Spark Plug Wire Routing ........................................... 03-56
General Specifications .............................................. 03-56
Torque Specifications ................................................ 03-56
03-2
Auxiliary Systems – Ignition
INTRODUCTION
Step 6: Verify the repair.
COLOR ABBREVIATIONS
BL
BK
BR
DB
DG
GN
GY
LB
LG
Blue
Black
Brown
Dark Blue
Dark Green
Green
Gray
Light Blue
Light Green
N
O
PK
P
R
T
W
Y
• Operate the system as in Step 1 and check that
your repair has removed all symptoms without
creating any new symptoms.
Natural
Orange
Pink
Purple
Red
Tan
White
Yellow
Some engine circuits may need special test
equipment and special procedures. See the Service
Manual and other service books for details. You will
find the circuits in this manual to be helpful with
those special test procedures.
Troubleshooting Tools
NOTE: Whenever a wire is labeled with two colors,
the first color listed is the basic color of the wire,
and the second color listed is the stripe marking of
the wire.
Jumper Wire
This is a test lead used to connect two points of a
circuit. A Jumper Wire can bypass an open in a
wire to complete a circuit.
How to Find Electrical Concerns
Troubleshooting Steps
WARNING: NEVER USE A JUMPER WIRE
ACROSS
LOADS
(MOTORS,
ETC.)
CONNECTED BETWEEN HOT AND GROUND.
THIS DIRECT BATTERY SHORT MAY CAUSE
INJURY OR FIRE.
These six steps present an orderly method of
troubleshooting.
Step 1: Verify the concern.
Voltmeter
• Operate the complete system to check the
accuracy and completeness of the customer’s
complaint.
A DC Voltmeter measures circuit voltage. Connect
negative (- or black) lead to ground, and positive
(+ or red) lead to voltage measuring point.
Step 2: Narrow the concern.
Ohmmeter
• Using a DVOM, narrow down the possible causes
and locations of the concern to pinpoint the exact
cause.
• Read the description about the components and
study the wiring schematic. You should then know
enough about the circuit operation to determine
where to check for the trouble.
Step 3: Test the cause.
• Use electrical test procedures to find the specific
cause of the symptoms.
Figure 1 – Resistance Check
Step 4: Verify the cause.
An Ohmmeter shows the resistance between two
connected points (Figure 1).
• Confirm that you have found the correct cause
by connecting jumper wires and/or temporarily
installing a known good component and operating
the circuit.
Step 5: Make the repair.
• Repair or replace the inoperative component.
03-3
Auxiliary Systems – Ignition
INTRODUCTION (Continued)
Test Lamp
Figure 2 – Test Lamp
A Test Light is a 12-volt bulb with two test leads
(Figure 2).
Uses: Voltage Check, Short Check.
Figure 4 – Switch Circuit Check and
Voltage Check
Self-Powered Test Lamp
In an inoperative circuit with a switch in series with
the load, jumper the terminals of the switch to power
the load. If jumpering the terminals powers the
circuit, the switch is inoperative (Figure 4).
Continuity Check (Locating open circuits)
Connect one lead of test lamp to a known good
ground or the negative (-) battery terminal. Test for
voltage by touching the other lead to the test point.
The bulb goes on when the test point has voltage
(Figure 4).
Figure 3 – Continuity Check
The Self-Powered Test Lamp is a bulb, battery and
set of test leads wired in series (Figure 3). When
connected to two points of a continuous circuit, the
bulb glows.
Uses: Continuity Check, Ground Check.
CAUTION: When using a self-powered test
lamp or ohmmeter, be sure power is off in circuit
during testing. Hot circuits can cause
equipment damage and false readings.
03-4
Auxiliary Systems – Ignition
INTRODUCTION (Continued)
example, in Figure 5 with a ground at X, the
bulb goes out when C1 or C2 is
disconnected, but not after disconnecting
C3. This means the short is between C2 and
C3.
Figure 5 – Short Check
Figure 6 – Ground Check
A fuse that repeatedly blows is usually caused by
a short to ground. It’s important to be able to locate
such a short quickly (Figure 5).
1.
Turn off everything powered through the fuse.
2.
Disconnect other loads powered through the
fuse:
• Motors: disconnect motor connector
(Connector C4 in Figure 5).
• Lights; remove bulbs.
3.
Turn the Ignition Switch to RUN (if necessary)
to power fuse.
4.
Connect one Test Lamp lead to the hot end of
the blown fuse. Connect the other lead to
ground. The bulb should glow, showing power
to fuse. (This step is just a check to be sure
you have power to the circuit).
5.
Disconnect the test lamp lead that is connected
to ground, and reconnect it to the load side of
the fuse at the connector of the disconnected
component. (In Figure 5, connect the test lamp
lead to connector C4).
• If the Test Lamp is off, the short is in the
disconnected component.
• If the Test Lamp goes on, the short is in the
wiring. You must find the short by
disconnecting the circuit connectors, one at
a time, until the Test Lamp goes out. For
03-5
Turn on power to the circuit. Perform a Voltage
Check between the suspected inoperative ground
and the frame. Any indicated voltage means that
the ground is inoperative (Figure 6).
Turn off power to the circuit. Connect one lead of a
Self-Powered Test Lamp or Ohmmeter to the wire
in question and the other lead to a known ground. If
the bulb glows, the circuit ground is OK (Figure 6).
The circuit schematics in this manual make it easy
to identify common points in circuits. This knowledge
can help narrow the concern to a specific area. For
example, if several circuits fail at the same time,
check for a common power or ground connection.
If part of a circuit fails, check the connections
between the part that works and the part that
doesn’t work.
For example, if the low beam headlamps work, but
the high beams and the indicator lamp don’t work,
then the power and ground paths must be good.
Since the dimmer switch is the component that
switches this power to the high beam lights and
the indicator, it is most likely the cause of failure.
Auxiliary Systems – Ignition
INTRODUCTION (Continued)
Troubleshooting Wiring Harness and
Connector Hidden Concerns
The following illustrations are known examples of
wiring harness, splices and connectors that will
create intermittent electrical concerns. The
concerns are hidden and can only be discovered
by a physical evaluation as shown in each
illustration.
NOTE: When servicing gold plated terminals in a
connector, only replace with gold plated terminals
designed for that connector.
Operate the system
and flex the harness
at splice.
03-6
Auxiliary Systems – Ignition
INTRODUCTION (Continued)
Electrical Symbols
03-7
Auxiliary Systems – Ignition
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (ECM)
WARNING: WHEN CARRYING OUT
SERVICE OPERATIONS ON AN ENGINE
EQUIPPED WITH DISTRIBUTORLESS
IGNITION. FOLLOW ALL THE USUAL
SAFETY MEASURES TO PREVENT THE
POSSIBILITY OF ELECTRIC SHOCKS
SHOULD BE FOLLOWED.
The Manifold Absolute Pressure Sensor (MAP
sensor):
• Monitors atmospheric pressure at start up to
adjust timing for altitude.
• During operation monitors engine vacuum which
is proportional to its load and adjust timing
accordingly.
NOTE: High tension voltage produced by a
distributorless ignition system is higher than for a
conventional ignition system. It is in excess of
55,000 Volts.
The throttle position sensor (TP sensor):
• Sends the engine control module a signal
indicating the throttle plate angle.
Description
• Is the main input to the engine control module from
the driver.
The idle air control valve (IAC):
• Controls bypass air around the throttle plate at
low speeds.
The ESG 642 engine uses a Distributorless Ignition
System (DIS) to ignite the fuel/air mixture at the
correct time and sequence based upon the input it
receives. The brain of this system is an Engine
Control Module (ECM). The ECM has the capability
at the OEM option to protect the engine from over
heating and low oil pressure. Inputs are sensors or
switches that feed the ECM information. The ECM
is used on EFI engines, and the ICM is used on
carbureated engines.
• Is controlled by the engine control module.
The camshaft position sensor (CMP sensor):
• Sends the engine control module a signal
indicating camshaft position used for fuel
synchronization.
The crankshaft position sensor (CKP sensor):
• Sends the engine control module a signal
indicating crankshaft position.
• Engine Cylinder Head Temperature Sensor (CHT)
Input.
• Camshaft Position Sensor (CMP) Input.
• Crankshaft Position Sensor (CKP) Input.
• Intake Air Temperature Sensor (IAT) Input.
• Heated Oxygen Sensor (H02S) Input.
• Manifold Absolute Pressure Sensor (MAP) Input.
• Throttle Position Sensor (TP Sensor) Input.
• Fuel Select Switch
• Manifold Skin Temperature (MST sensor)
• Is essential for calculating spark timing.
The intake air temperature sensor (IAT sensor):
• Sends the engine control module a signal
indicating the temperature of the air entering the
engine.
• Resistance decreases as temperature increases.
The heated oxygen sensor (HO2S):
• Has the ability to create a voltage signal
dependent on exhaust oxygen content.
From these inputs, the ECM computes spark
strategy (spark advance) and fuel mixture (air/fuel)
to obtain optimum engine performance for correct
load conditions.
• Provides feedback information to the engine
control module used to calculate fuel delivery.
The cylinder heat temperature (CHT sensor):
• Is mounted into the back of the cylinder head and
is not connected to any coolant passages.
• Sends a signal to the engine control module
indicating the cylinder head temperature.
Operation
The engine control module needs the following
information to calibrate the engine properly:
• Crankshaft position.
• Engine RPM.
• Engine temperature.
• Air temperature.
• Engine load and altitude.
• Fuel select switch.
The manifold skin temperature sensor (MST
sensor):
• Sends the engine control module a signal
indicating the temperature of the outer skin of the
intake manifold.
• Resistance decreases as temperature increases.
03-8
Auxiliary Systems – Ignition
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (ECM) (Continued)
The Fuel Select Switch
Crankshaft Position Sensor (CKP Sensor)
In the event that the engine is operated on alternate
fuels such as natural gas, compressed natural gas
(CNG), or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), timing
can be modified with a Fuel Select Switch.
The CKP sensor is a magnetic transducer mounted
on the engine block adjacent to a pulse wheel
located on the crankshaft. By monitoring the
crankshaft mounted pulse wheel A , the CKP is
the primary sensor for ignition information to the
ECM. The pulse wheel located behind the
crankshaft pulley B , has a total of 35 teeth spaced
10 degrees apart with one empty space C for a
missing tooth. An A/C voltage signal is generated
which increases with engine rpm and provides
engine speed and crankshaft position information
to the ECM. By monitoring the pulse wheel, the CKP
sensor signal indicates crankshaft position and
speed information to the ECM. The CKP sensor is
also able to identify piston travel in order to
synchronize the ignition system and provide a way
of tracking the angular position of the crankshaft
relative to a fixed reference for the CKP sensor
configuration.
NOTE: Fuel select switch is supplied by customer.
• Sends a signal to the ECM to adjust base timing
for alternate fuel
• Is manually controlled.
With this system, the ECM monitors the engine
load, speed, operating temperature, air intake
temperature, oxygen in exhaust for emissions and
throttle position and decides what degree of spark
advance is correct for all of the operating conditions.
Because timing is set for life inherently in the design
of the engine, and there are no moving parts in the
ignition system itself, no maintenance is required
except for periodic spark plug checks. The system
provides for fixed spark advance at start-up, for
cold weather starting, and for “average value”
default settings in case of component failure.
Particular attention has been given to spark
optimization for excellent fuel economy and power
in the warm-up mode.
A
B
The spark plugs are paired so that one plug fires
during the compression stroke and its companion
plug fires during the exhaust stroke. The next time
that coil is fired, the plug that was on exhaust will
be on compression, and the one that was on
compression will be on exhaust. The spark in the
exhaust cylinder is wasted but little of the coil
energy is lost.
A
Pulse Wheel (Part Crankshaft Pulley).
Run Mode
B
Crankshaft Damper (Face Down) 6312.
The ECM interprets engine speed above 250 RPM
as Run Mode.
C
Gap in Teeth (Provides position reference for
number one piston
C
The Base Spark Advance (BSA) is calculated by
the (ECM) module processing the engine speed
and load plus sensors mentioned in operation of
this section and Fuel Select Switch.
Inputs to the ECM Effecting the Ignition
The spark strategy is based on sensors and
manifold vacuum input to the ECM module, which
include the following inputs:
Crankshaft Position Sensor (CKP Sensor).
03-9
Auxiliary Systems – Ignition
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (ECM) (Continued)
Cranking Mode
Overspeed Mode
Cranking mode is the area of engine operating
speed within which the ignition timing is at a static
position. The static spark advance is fixed at 10
degrees BTDC up to 250 RPM.
If the engine speed exceeds 4000 RPM the ignition
and fuel are shut off. Ignition key must be recycled
to restart engine.
Electronic Engine Controls
B
C
Refer to the Electronic Fuel Injection System
Diagnostic Service Manual 1 FPP-194-306 or
Section 08 of this manual.
A
E
D
Throttle Position Sensor (TP Sensor)
F
G
The throttle position (TP sensor) is a rotary
potentiometer that provides a signal to the ECM
that is linearly proportional to the throttle plate/shaft
position. The sensor housing has a three-blade
electrical connector that may be gold plated. The
gold plating increases corrosion resistance on
terminals and increases connector durability. The
TP sensor is mounted on the throttle body. As the
TP sensor is rotated by the throttle shaft, four
operating conditions are determined by the ECM
from the TP sensor. Those conditions are closed
throttle (includes idle or deceleration), part throttle
(includes cruise or moderate acceleration), wide
open throttle (includes maximum acceleration), and
throttle angle rate.
H
I
K
J
M
L
P
O
N
Q
R
AA0266-E
A CKP Sensor
K TDC 2 and 6
B Missing Tooth 60° BTDC
L
C TDC
M 60° BTDC
D Spark
N TDC 1 and 5
E 10° BTDC
O TDC 3 and 4
F Coil 1
P 1 and 5
G Coil 2
Q Crankshaft Wheel
H Coil 3
R Note: This diagram
does not correlate to
any timing marks that
may be on the engine
front cover or
dampener.
I IDM
J
CKP Sensor
Missing Tooth
Typical TP Sensor.
Transient Mode
This function is to provide a limp in mode whenever
certain components fail. The engine will run but at
a set timing and batch fuel delivery. This mode will
stay in effect until problem is corrected or ignition
turned off and back on if an intermittent problem.
ECM Replacement
Make sure correct program is installed before
replacing ECM. To download or upload program for
validation use interface cable.
Installation of ECM/ICM
Refer to page 03-55 of this section.
03-10
Auxiliary Systems – Ignition
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (ECM) (Continued)
Camshaft Position Sensor (CMP Sensor)
The CMP sensor detects the position of the
camshaft and identifies when piston No. 1 is on its
compression stroke. A signal is then sent to the
engine control module (ECM) and used for
synchronizing sequential fuel injection. The Input
circuit to the ECM is referred to as the CMP input
or circuit.
The CHT sensor is installed in the aluminum
cylinder head and measures the metal temperature.
The CHT sensor communicates an overheating
condition to the ECM. The ECM would then initiate
a cooling strategy based on information from the
CHT sensor. A cooling system failure such as low
coolant or coolant loss could cause an overheating
condition. As a result, damage to major engine
components could occur. Using a CHT sensor and
cooling strategy would prevent damage by allowing
air cooling of the engine and limp home capability.
Cylinder Heat Temperature (CHT) Sensor.
Heated Oxygen Sensor (HO2S)
Typical Hall-Effect Sensor.
Cylinder Head Temperature Sensor (CHT
Sensor)
The cylinder head temperature (CHT) sensor is a
thermistor device in which resistance changes with
temperature. The electrical resistance of a
thermistor decreases as temperature increases,
and increases as temperature decreases. The
varying resistance affects the voltage drop across
the sensor terminals and provides electrical signals
to the ECM corresponding to temperature.
Thermistor-type sensors are considered passive
sensors. A passive sensor is connected to a voltage
divider network so that varying the resistance of
the passive sensor causes a variation in total
current flow.
Voltage that is dropped across a fixed resistor in
series with the sensor resistor determines the
voltage signal at the ECM. This voltage signal is
equal to the reference voltage minus the voltage
drop across the fixed resistor.
The heated oxygen sensor (HO2S) detects the
presence of oxygen in the exhaust and provides a
variable voltage according to the amount of oxygen
detected. A high concentration of oxygen (lean air/
fuel ratio) in the exhaust provides a low voltage
signal less than 0.4 volt. A low concentration of
oxygen (rich air/fuel ratio) produces a high voltage
signal greater than 0.6 volt. The HO2S provides
feedback to the ECM indicating air/fuel ratio in order
to achieve a near stoichiometric air/fuel ratio of
14.7;1 during closed loop engine operation. The
HO2S generates a voltage between 0.0 and 1.1
volts.
Embedded with the sensing element is the HO2S
heater. The heating element heats the sensor to
temperatures of 800°C (1400°F). At approximately
300°C (600°F) the engine can enter closed loop
operation. The VPWR circuit supplies voltage to the
heater and the ECM will complete the ground when
the proper conditions occur. The 6 ohm heater
design used by Ford Power Products is not
interchangeable with new style 3.3 ohm new fast
light off (FLO) HO2S heater.
03-11
Auxiliary Systems – Ignition
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (ECM) (Continued)
C
E
D
B
A
F
G
I
J
H
Heated Oxygen Sensor (HO2S)
A
Positive Elec Term
F
B
Insulator
G Heating Element
C
Graphite Seal & Contact
H
Exhaust Manifold
D
Housing
I
Shield
E
Exhaust Gases
J
0.0-1.1 Volt Signal High Voltage - Over 0.6 (Rich)
Low Voltage - Under 0.4 (Lean)
Intake Air Temperature (IAT)
Wire Terminals
Electronic Control Module (ECM) Outputs
Ignition Coil Pack
Intake Air Temperature Sensor (IAT Sensor)
The IAT sensors are thermistor devices in which
resistance changes with temperature. The electrical
resistance of a thermistor decreases as the
temperature increases, and increases as the
temperature decreases. The varying resistance
affects the voltage drop across the sensor
terminals and provides electrical signals to the ECM
corresponding to temperature.
The coil is turned on (i.e. coil charging), then turned
off by the ECM, thus firing two spark plugs at once.
One is for the cylinder which is to be fired (on
compression stroke) and the other goes to the
mating cylinder which is on the exhaust stroke. The
next time the coil is fired the situation is reversed.
The next pair of spark plugs will fire according to
the engine firing order, etc.
Ignition timing is adjusted constantly by the ECM
module. Many factors, including all the sensor
inputs, affect the final ignition setting.
Thermistor-type sensors are considered passive
sensors. A passive sensor is connected to a voltage
divider network so that varying the resistance of
the passive sensor causes a variation in total
current flow.
Voltage that is dropped across a fixed resistor in a
series with the sensor resistor determines the
voltage signal at the ECM. This voltage signal is
equal to the reference voltage minus the voltage
drop across the fixed resistor.
The IAT sensor provides air temperature information
to the ECM. The ECM uses the air temperature
information as a correction factor in the calculation
of fuel, spark and mass air flow.
The IAT sensor provides a quicker temperature
change response time than the CHT sensor.
03-12
C1
A
C2
A Coil Power B+ Volts
C2 Coil Pack #2
C1 Coil Pack #1
C3 Coil Pack #3
C3
Firing Order: 1-4-2-5-3-6
Mating or Companion Cylinder: 1 & 5, 3 & 4, and 2 & 6.
Auxiliary Systems – Ignition
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (ECM) (Continued)
Ignition Coil Pack Removal
Engine Idle Speed
1.
Disconnect the wire harness connector
(YU1L-12060-AA).
2.
! CAUTION: Spark plug wires must be
connected to the proper ignition coil
terminal. Mark plug wire locations before
removing them.
To control engine idle speed, some engines utilize
an idle air control valve. This valve is attached to
the intake manifold and controls airflow when engine
is idling and throttle plate is closed.
3.
Squeeze the locking tabs and remove each of
the six ignition wires.
4.
Remove the 3 mounting bolts and the coil pack.
2.
The ECM controls idle speed by controlling the
amount of bypassed air, this is done by changing
the valve opening. Idle speed will be increased
during cold engine warm-up.
IAC Motor
Ignition Coil Pack Removal
1.
With the intake mounted valve, air enters the intake
through the valve behind the throttle plate.
AIR FLOW
Reverse removal procedures. Tighten the
mounting nuts to 5-6 Nm (44-53 lb/in).
DIAPHRAGM
!
CAUTION: Spark plug wires must be
connected to the proper ignition coil
terminal.
VALVE BODY
SOLENOID
AIR FLOW
IAC DIAGNOSTICS
Condition
• Idle Air Control (IAC) Circuit
Malfunction.
Possible Source
• IAC circuit open.
• IAC circuit short to PWR.
• IAC circuit short to GND.
• Damaged IAC valve.
• Vacuum leak.
• IAC valve stuck.
Action
• CHECK IAC circuit.
• REPLACE IAC.
• CHECK engine for vacuum
leaks. Refer to Section 01.
• CLEAN or REPLACE as
needed.
• Idle Air Control (IAC)
Overspeed.
• IAC circuit short to GND.
• Damaged IAC valve.
• CHECK IAC circuit.
• Idle Air Control (IAC)
Underspeed.
• IAC circuit open.
• IAC circuit short to PWR.
• Air inlet is plugged.
• Damaged IAC solenoid.
• CHECK IAC circuit.
• Clean as needed.
• REPLACE IAC.
Diagnosis Aids: The IAC solenoid resistance is from 6 to 13 ohms.
Disconnect IAC valve and look for no change in engine rpm as an indication of a stuck
or damaged valve.
03-13
Auxiliary Systems – Ignition
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION IGNITION CONTROL MODULE (ICM)
Starting Mode
Module enters start mode at first application of
power. No spark is applied for first turn of crankshaft.
Timing is fixed at 10 degrees BTDC. Dwell is fixed
at 10 degrees of crankshaft rotation. Start mode
remains in effect until 10 turns of the crankshaft @
500 rpm. If drops below 500 rpm at any time, turn
counter is reset. Once 10 turns are made @ 500
rpm or greater, module is set to run mode. In
transitioning to run mode, calculated timing values
are ramped into system during approximately 3.5
revolutions to ensure transition. Dwell is determined
with a base value plus a correction factor based
on system voltage.
having to meet these conditions provides an
opportunity for the engine to restart if the failure
still exists which caused the engine to stall. Over
temperature reaction is experienced when
temperature reaches 250°F. Low oil pressure
reaction is experienced when oil pressure drops
below 6 psi +/- 1.5 psi. Oil pressure switch position
is normally open when engine is off. This is the
same strategy that is in the ECM.
Starter Lockout
Starter lockout relay control open drain (switch to
ground). Activated once engine is in the run mode and
has reached 600 RPM. Will not allow start until ignition
voltage to module is switched off and back on.
ECT Effects
Tachometer Output
Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT) is monitored
and a correction factor is applied to engine timing
based on one of three 1 X 8 tables. OCT1 selects
which timing table will be used for correction.
Intake Air Temperature (IAT) is monitored and a
correction factor is applied to engine timing based
on one of three 1 X 8 tables. OCT1 selects which
timing table will be used for correction.
Tachometer output will be from auxiliary output #2,
which is accessed through the five pin connector
terminal E. The pulses per revolution will be
determined by the number of cylinders the ICM will
control. The four cylinder ICM will output 2 pulses
per revolution, the six cylinder ICM output 3 pulses
per revolution, the eight cylinder output 4 pulses
per revolution, and the ten cylinder 5 pulses per
revolution. The intention of this is to allow for use of
a conventional tachometer from this output.
MAP Sensor Effects
Ignition Control Module (ICM)
IAT Effects
The MAP signal is used by the ECM as an
indication of engine load. This information is used
to control spark advance and air/fuel ratio. The MAP
signal is also used at KOEO to indicate barometric
pressure. This information is used for altitude
compensation when establishing spark advance
and air/fuel ratio.
D
C
Overspeed Protection
Module contains an RPM limit that is set at 4000
RPM. Reaction is the module will be shut off, stalling
the engine. Key must cycle from run to off to start
in order to restart engine. Note: this strategy must
be compatible with governor controllers.
A
Engine Protection
Reaction for overtemp (based on ECT or CHT
input) and low oil pressure (based on oil pressure
switch input) the module will be shut off, stalling
the engine. Key must cycle from run to off to start
in order to restart engine. Engine protection
becomes active after 240 crankshaft revolutions
and when 800 rpm is exceeded. The purpose of
03-14
A
5 Pin Auxiliary Connector (Round)
B
10 Pin Main Connector (Oblong)
C
Ignition Control Module
D
Vacuum Port (5/32’’ I.D.) MAP Sensor
B
Auxiliary Systems – Ignition
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (ICM) (Continued)
TABLE 1: Input/Output Function
I/O
Description
I
Battery Power (Vgt +V)
Main Pin G
ICM supply voltage. Operational range is 6-24v.
Ignition supply voltage is monitored and a correction factor is
applied to assure proper dwell period.
I
Power Ground
Main Pin H
Main ground circuit.
I
Crankshaft position sensor
Main Pins A-B
Indicates crankshaft position and engine RPM.
O
Coil Drivers
main Pins C-J-K
Controls switching of coils.
I
Octane select 1 (analog)
States = Open, Ground, or V+
Main Pin F
The OCT1 input is used to select one of three timing maps and
can be globally modified using OCT2. The following inputs are
used for fuel selection: Open = Gasoline, Grounded = LPG,
12V = NG.
I
Octane select 2 (analog)
Stages = Open, Ground, or V+
Main Pin E
The OCT2 input selects a constant to be added or subtracted
from entire ignition timing map. The following inputs are used
for ignition map modification: Open = no action, Grounded =
subtract 3 degrees from table, 12V = add 5 degrees to table.
I
Engine Coolant Temperature or
Cylinder Head Temperature Sensor
(analog). Main Pin D
Used to indicate an overheated condition. ICM responds with
engine protection function (stalls engine). Also used to modify
timing when higher than normal coolant temperatures are
experienced.
I
Oil pressure input (digital)
States = open, ground
Aux. Pin C
Used to indicate a low oil pressure condition. ICM responds
with engine protection function (stalls engine). The oil
pressure switch is normally open when engine is off or the oil
pressure is low (6 psi +/- 1.5).
I
Aux. input #1 (analog)
States = Ground, V+, or float
Aux. Pin A
Undefined.
Possible use could be an application select if ICM is to contain
multiple calibrations (example 1.3L, 2.0L, 2.5L, 4.2L).
I
Aux. input #2 (analog)
Aux. Pin B
Defined as Intake Air Temperature (IAT) input. To control
ignition timing based on intake temperature. Need to determine
location of sensor in intake air stream.
O
Aux. output #1 (open drain)
Aux. Pin D
Starter lockout relay control energizes relay which opens
starter solenoid circuit once engine is in run mode and has
reached 600 RPM. This will also not allow a re-start until ignition
voltage to module is switched off and back on. Same strategy as
in ECM.
O
Aux. output #2 (open drain)
Aux. Pin E
Tachometer signal on all application (relay control). Possible
uses for output is tach signal, relay control, malfunction indicator
lamp. Could flash MIL to indicate source of problem.
I / O = Input / Output.
03-15
Auxiliary Systems – Ignition
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (ICM) (Continued)
HARNESS CONNECTOR PINOUT
DESCRIPTION
TABLE 2: ICM Deluxe Pinout
Main Connector (10 Pin) Terminals
I/O
Conn
Pin
Description
4.2L Deluxe
I
Main
A
Crank + (signal input)
X
I
Main
B
Crank - / ECT – (signal return)
X
I
Main
C
Coil 3 driver – cyl >>
2+6
I
Main
D
ECT + (signal input)
X
I
Main
E
OCT2 select input – Ground, V+, or float. Selects
constant added or subtracted from timing.
X
I
Main
F
OCT1 select input – Ground, V+, or float.
Selects from 3 fuel tables.
X
I
Main
G
Vigt +V supply voltage. Operational range 6 - 24V.
X
I
Main
H
Power ground
X
O
Main
J
Coil 1 driver – cyl >>
1+5
O
Main
K
Coil 2 driver – cyl >>
3+4
Auxiliary Connector (5 Pin) Terminals
I
Aux
A
Aux input #1 (digital) – Ground, +V, or float.
Undefined.
X
I
Aux
B
Aux input #2 (analog) – Defined as IAT. To control
ignition timing based on intake temperature.
X
I
Aux
C
Oil pressure input – Switched to open. Reaction
is stall engine.
X
O
Aux
D
Aux output #1 (open drain) – Starter lockout
relay control.
X
O
Aux
E
Aux output #2 (open drain) – Tach signal or
relay control.
X
I / O = Input / Output
03-16
Auxiliary Systems – Ignition
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (ICM) (Continued)
OCTANE SELECT OPERATION
OCT1: Used to select ignition table for fuel type.
Input can be V+, ground, or open. Fuel choices are
LPG, Natural Gas. The ICM Deluxe is backwards
compatible with ICM Basic.
OCT2: Used to choose constant to add or subtract
from selected timing table.
TABLE 3: Operation of ICM- Deluxe Platform
Normal Operation
Fuel
OCT1
Circuit 674 (BR-W)
OCT2
Circuit 72 (Y-BK)
Timing Effect
Gasoline
Open
Open
Base Gasoline
LPG
Ground
Open
Base LPG
NG
12V
Open
Base NG
To Globally Modify Ignition Timing Table
OCT2
Circuit 72 (Y-BK)
Timing Effect
Open
No Effect on Base Timing
Ground
Retard 3 Degrees Globally
12V
Advance 5 Degrees Globally
03-17
Auxiliary Systems – Ignition
DISTRIBUTORLESS IGNITION SYSTEM DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
Service Adjustments And Checks
Ignition Timing Check
1. Each 400 hours of engine operation remove the
spark plugs and clean and adjust the electrode.
Base timing cannot be checked. It is constantly
being adjusted electronically. To check timing, FPP
engineers must be contacted for further
instructions.
2. Clean and visually check spark plug high tension
leads, check for secure fit, and replace if
necessary.
Diagnostic Equipment
NOTE: When instructed to check, point timing light
on crankshaft pulley and note degree BTDC that
pointer is in alignment with.
To accurately diagnose DIS, certain diagnostic
equipment and tools are required. In addition, the
suggested diagnostic equipment may make the job
easier and more convenient.
FRONT
TIMING
POINTER
TDC
ATDC
BTDC
Prior to diagnosing DIS, obtain the following test
equipment or equivalent.
• Spark tester, neon bulb type (Champion CT-436).
There is no need to disconnect a plug wire; just
place this spark tester on a spark plug wire to
determine if spark is being provided to the plug.
This is especially useful for those hard-to-reach
plug wires.
NOTE: When using the spark plug firing indicator,
place the grooved end as close as possible to the
plug boot. Very weak or no flashing may be caused
by a fouled plug.
• Spark tester, gap type (special service tool D81P6666-A).
ROTATION
CRANKSHAFT TIMING MARKS
!
CAUTION: There should be no wires spliced
to the main wire harness for source of power
or RPM signal unless pre-approved by Ford
Power Products. Altering of wire harness may
cause lack of power, no start, or erratic running.
NOTE: Do not use an incandescent test lamp to
check CKPS- or CKPS+ circuits. The lamp will
prevent the circuit from operating.
Connect this gap type spark tester between any
spark plug wire and engine ground to instantly
determine if spark is being provided to the plug. A
spark plug with a broken side electrode is not
sufficient to check for spark and may lead to
incorrect results.
• Volt-ohmmeter (Rotunda 014-00575).
A volt-ohmmeter is essential for gathering system
operating data during diagnosis, testing, and
engine servicing procedures. This digital volt
ohmmeter (DVOM) can also be used for general
purpose electrical troubleshooting on conventional
starting and charging systems.
• 12-volt timing light (Rotunda Model Number 164R0257).
This timing light uses an inductive pickup for
convenience and safety on 12 volt systems, and
suitable for DIS ignitions.
03-18
Auxiliary Systems – Ignition
PRELIMINARY CHECKS
Before using this section, perform the MIL DTC
Retrieval Procedure and verify all of the following
items:
• The engine control module (ECM) and the
malfunction indicator lamp are operating correctly.
• There are no DTC(s) stored.
Verify the customer complaint and refer to the
appropriate symptom chart. Perform the procedure
included in the symptom chart.
Intermittent Problems
Important: An intermittent problem may or may
not turn on the malfunction indicator lamp (MIL) or
store a DTC. Do not use the Diagnostic Trouble
Code (DTC) charts for intermittent problems. The
fault must be present to locate the problem. MIL
and DTC information is found in Section 08 of this
manual.
Most intermittent problems are caused by faulty
electrical connections or wiring. Perform a careful
visual/physical check for the following conditions:
Visual/Physical Check
Several of the symptom procedures call for a careful
visual/physical check. This can often lead to
repairing a problem without performing
unnecessary steps. Use the following guidelines
when performing a visual/physical check:
Inspect unit for modifications or aftermarket
equipment that can contribute to symptom, verify
that all electrical and mechanical loads or
accessory equipment is “OFF’’ or disconnected
before performing diagnosis.
• Inspect engine fluids for correct levels and
evidence of leaks.
• Inspect vacuum hoses for damage, leaks, cracks,
kinks and proper routing, inspect intake manifold
sealing surface for a possible vacuum leak.
• Inspect PCV valve for proper installation and
operation.
• Inspect all wires and harnesses for proper
connections and routing, bent or broken
connector pins, burned, chafed, or pinched wires,
corrosion, and verify harness grounds are clean
and tight.
• Inspect engine control module (ECM), sensors
and actuators for physical damage.
• Inspect ECM grounds for cleanliness, tightness
and proper location.
• Poor mating of the connector halves or a terminal
not fully seated in the connector (backed out).
• Improperly formed or damaged terminals.
• Improper contact tension. All connector terminals
in the problem circuit should be carefully checked.
• Poor terminal-to-wire connections. This requires
removing the terminal from the connector body
to check.
• Improperly installed aftermarket equipment or
accessories.
Operate the engine with accessories “OFF’’ and a
suitable multimeter connected to the suspected
circuit. An abnormal voltage when the malfunction
occurs is a good indication that there is a fault in
the circuit being monitored.
To check ECM for loss of diagnostic code memory,
disconnect the MAP sensor connector and idle the
engine until the MIL illuminates. Perform MIL DTC
Retrieval Procedure. DTC 14 should be stored and
kept in memory when the ignition is turned “OFF’’.
If not, the ECM is faulty. When this test is completed,
make sure that you clear DTC 14 from memory.
An intermittent MIL with no stored DTC(s) may be
caused by the following:
• DIS ignition coil shorted to ground and arcing at
ignition wires or plugs.
• MIL circuit to ECM shorted to ground.
• Inspect fuel system for adequate fuel level, and
fuel quality (concerns such as proper octane,
contamination, winter/summer blend).
• Inspect intake air system and air filter for
restrictions.
• Poor ECM grounds.
• Keep alive memory wire doesn’t have a constant
12V.
03-19
Auxiliary Systems – Ignition
HARD START SYMPTOM
Step
Action
Value(s)
Yes
No
DEFINITION: Engine cranks, but does not start for a long time. Does eventually run, or may start but immediately
stalls.
Was a visual/physical check performed?
Go to
Visual/Physical
1
Go to Step 2
Check
Perform MIL DTC retrieval procedure.
Refer to DTC
Ignition “ON”, engine not running, short STI
chart, perform
2
connector to ground. (Purple and white wire).
component and
Do any fault codes flash and display?
circuit test as
required.
Go to Step 3
Check cylinder head temperature sensor (CHT) for
shift in value.
1. Measure the engine temperature and note the
value.
3
2. Check the resistance of the engine CHTS
temperature sensor.
3. Refer to Temperature vs. Resistance chart for
resistance specifications.
Is the actual resistance near the resistance value in
Go to Step 4
the chart for the temperature that was noted?
Go to Step 5
4
Replace the CHT sensor.
Is the action complete?
Verify repair
Go to Step 5
Locate and repair high resistance or improper
5
connection in the CHTS signal circuit or the ECM
grounds.
Was a problem found?
Verify repair
Go to Step 6
Check for a faulty, plugged, or incorrectly installed
6
PCV valve.
Was a problem found?
Verify repair
Go to Step 7
Inspect the secondary ignition wires. Check for the
following conditions:
• Verify that the resistance of all ignition wires is
less than the specified value.
• Verify that ignition wires are correctly routed to
7
eliminate cross-firing.
• Verify that ignition wires are not arcing to ground.
Spraying the secondary ignition wires with a light
mist of water may help locate an intermittent
problem (key “ON”, engine running).
Refer to
Was a problem found?
Page 03-35
Verify repair
Go to Step 8
Check for proper ignition voltage output with a
8
suitable spark tester.
Was a problem found?
Verify repair
Go to Step 9
1. Remove the spark plugs and check for gas or oil
fouling, cracks, wear, improper gap, burned
electrodes or heavy deposits.
9
2. If spark plugs are fouled, the cause of fouling
must be determined before replacing the spark
plugs.
Was a problem found?
Verify repair
Go to Step 10
Check the ECM grounds to verify that they are clean
10
and tight. (Refer to the ECM wiring diagram.)
Was a problem found?
Verify repair
Go to Step 11
03-20
Auxiliary Systems – Ignition
HARD START SYMPTOM (Continued)
Step
11
12
13
14
15
16
Action
1. Check the ignition coil secondary resistance.
2. Replace the coil if it is not within the specified
range of resistance.
Did the coil require replacement?
Check the electronic governor operation including
the TPS function. (Refer to Fuel Section).
Check for water or alcohol contaminated fuel.
Was a problem found?
Inspect the fuel delivery system to determined if
there is a problem with fuel delivery.
Was a problem found?
Check for the following engine mechanical problems
(refer to Section 01 of this Manual):
• Low compression
• Leaking cylinder head gasket
• Worn camshaft
• Camshaft drive belt slipped or stripped.
Was a problem found?
1 . Review all diagnostic procedures within this table.
2. If all procedures have been completed and no
malfunctions have been found, review/inspect the
following:
• Visual/physical inspection, including fuel quality
check
• All electrical connections within a suspected
circuit and/or system.
3. If a problem is found, repair as necessary.
Was a problem found?
03-21
Value(s)
Yes
No
Refer to
Page 03-35
Verify repair
Go to Step 12
Verify repair
Go to Step 13
Verify repair
Go to Step 14
Verify repair
Go to Step 15
Verify repair
Go to Step 16
Verify repair
Contact Ford
Power Products
Customer
Service Center
Technical
support Hotline
1-800-521-0370
Auxiliary Systems – Ignition
ENGINE SURGES SYMPTOM
Step
Action
Value(s)
Yes
No
DEFINITION: Engine power variation under steady throttle setting. Feels like the engine speeds up and slows down
with no change in the governor switch or throttle position.
Was a visual/physical check performed?
Go to
Visual/Physical
1
Go to Step 2
Check
Perform MIL DTC retrieval procedure.
Refer to DTC
Ignition “ON”, engine not running, short STI
chart, perform
2
connector to ground.
component and
Do any fault codes flash and display?
circuit test as
required.
Go to Step 3
NOTE: Make sure engine is closed loop before
proceeding.
Check the heated oxygen sensor (H02S) operation.
The H02S should respond quickly to different
throttle positions. If it doesn’t, check for silicone or
other contaminants from fuel or use of improper
3
RTV sealant. The sensor may have a white
powdery coating. Silicone contamination sends a
rich exhaust signal which causes the ECM to
command an excessively lean air/fuel mixture.
Was a problem found?
Verify repair
Go to Step 4
Inspect the fuel delivery system to determine if there
4
is a problem with fuel delivery.
Was a problem found?
Verify repair
Go to Step 5
Check electronic governor operation including
throttle position sensor function. (Refer to Fuel
5
System in this Manual.)
Was a problem found?
Verify repair
Go to Step 6
Check items that can cause an engine to run rich.
6
(Refer to DTC 42)
Was a problem found?
Verify repair
Go to Step 7
Check items that can cause the engine to run lean.
7
(Refer to DTC 32.)
Was a problem found?
Verify repair
Go to Step 8
Check for proper ignition voltage output with a
8
suitable spark tester.
Was a problem found?
Verify repair
Go to Step 9
Check the ECM grounds to verify that they are clean
9
and tight. Refer to the ECM wiring diagram.
Was a problem found?
Verify repair
Go to Step 10
Inspect the secondary ignition wires. Check for the
following conditions:
• Verify that the resistance of all ignition wires is
less than the specified value.
• Verify that ignition wires are correctly routed to
10
eliminate cross-firing.
• Verify that ignition wires are not arcing to ground.
Spraying the secondary ignition wires with a light
mist of water may help locate an intermittent
problem (key “ON”, engine running).
Refer to
Was a problem found?
Page 03-35
Verify repair
Go to Step 11
03-22
Auxiliary Systems – Ignition
ENGINE SURGES SYMPTOM (Continued)
Step
11
12
13
14
15
16
Action
1. Check the ignition coil secondary resistance.
2. Replace the coil if it is not within the specified
value.
Did the coil require replacement?
1 . Remove the spark plugs and check for gas or oil
fouling, cracks, wear, improper gap, burned
electrodes, heavy deposits or improper heat
range.
2. If spark plugs are fouled, the cause of fouling
must be determined before replacing the spark
plugs.
Was a problem found?
1. Check the injector connectors.
2. If any of the connectors are connected at an
improper cylinder, correct as necessary.
Was a problem found?
Visually/physically check vacuum hoses for splits,
kinks, and proper connections and routing.
Was a problem found?
Check the exhaust system for a possible restriction:
Damaged or collapsed pipe :
Internal muffler failure.
Was a problem found?
1 . Review all diagnostic procedures within this table.
2. If all procedures have been completed and no
malfunctions have been found, review/inspect the
following:
• Visual/physical inspection, including fuel quality
check
• All electrical connections within a suspected
circuit and/or system.
3. If a problem is found, repair as necessary.
Was a problem found?
03-23
Value(s)
Refer to
Page 03-35
Yes
No
Verify repair
Go to Step 12
Verify repair
Go to Step 13
Verify repair
Go to Step 14
Verify repair
Go to Step 15
Verify repair
Go to Step 16
Verify repair
Contact Ford
Power Products
Customer
Service Center
Technical
Support Hotline
1-800-521-0370
Auxiliary Systems – Ignition
LACK OF POWER OR SLUGGISH SYMPTOM
Step
Action
Value(s)
Yes
No
DEFINITION: Engine delivers less than expected power. Little or no increase in speed when throttle position is
increased.
Was a visual/physical check performed?
Go to
Visual/Physical
1
Go to Step 2
Check
1. Remove and check air filter element for dirt or
2
restrictions.
2. Replace the air filter element if necessary.
Was a repair required?
Verify repair
Go to Step 3
Perform MIL DTC retrieval procedure.
Refer to DTC
Ignition “ON”, engine not running, short STI
chart, perform
3
connector to ground.
component and
Do any fault codes flash and display?
circuit test as
required.
Go to Step 4
Check for proper ignition voltage output with a
4
suitable spark tester.
Was a problem found?
Verify repair
Go to Step 5
1. Remove the spark plugs and check for gas or oil
fouling, cracks, wear, improper gap, burned
electrodes, heavy deposits or improper heat
5
range.
2. If spark plugs are fouled, the cause of fouling
must be determined before replacing the spark
plugs.
Was a problem found?
Verify repair
Go to Step 6
Inspect the fuel delivery system to determine if there
6
is a problem with fuel delivery.
Was a problem found?
Verify repair
Go to Step 7
7
Check for water or alcohol contaminated fuel.
Was a problem found? ‘
Verify repair
Go to Step 8
Check the ECM grounds to verify that they are clean
8
and tight. (Refer to the ECM wiring diagram.)
Was a problem found?
Verify repair
Go to Step 9
Check the exhaust system for a possible restriction:
9
• Damaged or collapsed pipe
• Internal muffler failure
Was a problem found?
Verify repair
Go to Step 10
Check for the following engine mechanical problems
(refer to Section 01 of this Manual):
• Low compression
• Leaking cylinder head gasket
• Worn camshaft
10
• Camshaft drive chain worn, slipped or stripped
• Is speed select switch actualy switching
• Is the preset RPM being obtained
• Is actuator responding
Was a problem found?
Verify repair
Go to Step 11
1 . Review all the diagnostic procedures within this
table.
2. If all procedures have been completed and no
malfunctions have been found, review/inspect the
11
following:
Contact Ford
• Visual/physical inspection, including fuel quality
Power Products
check.
Customer
• All electrical connections within a suspected
Service Center
circuit and/or system.
Technical
Was a problem found?
Verify repair
Support Hotline
1-800-521-0370
03-24
Auxiliary Systems – Ignition
DETONATION/SPARK KNOCK SYMPTOM
Step
Action
Value(s)
Yes
No
DEFINITION: A mild to severe ping, usually worse under acceleration. The engine makes sharp metallic knocks
that change with throttle opening.
Was a visual/physical check performed?
Go to
Visual/Physical
1
Go to Step 2
Check
Perform MIL DTC retrieval procedure:
Refer to DTC
Ignition “ON”, engine not running, short STI
chart, perform
2
connector to ground.
component and
Do any fault codes flash and display?
circuit test as
required.
Go to Step 3
1. If no fault codes display from MIL light and there
are no engine mechanical faults, fill the fuel tank
with a known quality gasoline that has a minimum
3
octane rating of 87.
2. Re-evaluate the engine performance.
Verify repair
Is detonation present?
Go to Step 4
Check for obvious overheating problems:
• Low engine coolant.
• Restricted air flow to radiator, or restricted water
4
flow through radiator.
• Incorrect coolant solution. It should be a 50/50 mix
of approved antifreeze/water.
If a problem is found, repair as necessary.
Was a problem found?
Verify repair
Go to Step 5
Inspect the fuel delivery system to determine if there
5
is a problem with fuel delivery.
Was a problem found?
Verify repair
Go to Step 6
Check items that can cause an engine to run lean.
6
(Refer to DTC 32.)
Was a problem found?
Verify repair
Go to Step 7
7
Check spark plugs for proper heat range. (Refer to
specification in the back of this section.)
Verify repair
Go to Step 8
1. Remove excessive carbon buildup with a top
engine cleaner. Refer to instructions on the top
8
engine cleaner can.
2. Re-evaluate engine performance.
Is detonation still present?
Go to Step 9
Verify repair
Check for an engine mechanical problem. Perform a
9
cylinder compression check. (Refer to Section 01
of this Manual.)
Was a problem found?
Verify repair
Go to Step 10
1. Review all the diagnostic procedures within this
table.
2. If all procedures have been completed and no
malfunctions have been found, review/inspect the
10
following:
Contact Ford
• Visual/physical inspection, including fuel quality
Power Products
check
Customer
• All electrical connections within a suspected
Service Center
circuit and/or system
Technical
Was a problem found?
Verify repair
Support Hotline
1-800-521-0370
03-25
Auxiliary Systems – Ignition
ROUGH, UNSTABLE, OR INCORRECT IDLE, STALLING SYMPTOM
Step
Action
Value(s)
Yes
No
DEFINITION: Engine runs unevenly at idle. If severe, the engine may shake. Engine idle speed may vary in RPM.
Either condition may be severe enough to stall the engine.
Check for rough, unstable or incorrect idle, or stalling
condition. Ensure that the following conditions are
1
present:
• Engine fully warm
• Accessories are “OFF”.
Does engine run rough, idle fluctuate, or stall?
Go to Step 2
Perform a visual/physical check, including ignition
2
coil and secondary ignition wire connections.
Was a problem found?
Verify repair
Go to Step 3
Perform MIL DTC retrieval procedure:
Refer to DTC
Ignition “ON”, engine not running, short STI
chart, perform
3
connector to ground.
component and
Do any fault codes flash and display?
circuit test as
required.
Go to Step 4
NOTE: Make sure engine is closed loop before
proceeding.
Check the heated oxygen sensor (HO2S) operation:
The H02S should respond quickly to different throttle
positions. If it doesn’t, check for silicone or other
contaminants from fuel or use of improper RTV
4
sealant. The sensor may have a white powdery
coating which is silicone contamination. Silicone
contamination sends a rich exhaust signal which
causes the ECM to command an excessively lean
air/fuel mixture. Replace HO2S.
Was a problem found?
Verify repair
Go to Step 5
Inspect the fuel delivery system to determine if there
5
is a problem with fuel delivery.
Was a problem found?
Verify repair
Go to Step 6
Inspect the secondary ignition wires. Check for the
following conditions:
• Verify that the resistance of all ignition wires is
less than the specified value.
• Verify that ignition wires are correctly routed to
6
eliminate cross-firing.
• Verify that ignition wires are not arcing to ground.
Spraying the secondary ignition wires with a light
mist of water may help locate an intermittent
problem (key “ON”, engine running).
Refer to
Was a problem found?
Page 03-35
Verify repair
Go to Step 7
Check for proper ignition voltage output with a
7
suitable spark tester.
Was a problem found?
Verify repair
Go to Step 8
1. Check ignition coil secondary resistance.
8
2. Replace the coil if it is not within the specified
Refer to
Did the coil require replacement?
Page 03-35
Verify repair
Go to Step 9
1 . Remove the spark plugs and check for gas or oil
fouling, cracks, wear, improper gap, burned
electrodes or heavy deposits.
9
2. If spark plugs are fouled, the cause of fouling
must be determined before replacing the spark
plugs.
Was a problem found?
Verify repair
Go to Step 10
03-26
Auxiliary Systems – Ignition
ROUGH, UNSTABLE, OR INCORRECT IDLE, STALING SYMPTOM (Continued)
Step
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
Action
Check the ECM grounds to verify that they are clean
and tight. (Refer to the ECM wiring diagram.)
Was a problem found?
Check the items that can cause the engine to run
rich. (Refer to DTC 42.)
Was a problem found?
Check items that can cause the engine to run lean.
(Refer to DTC 32.)
Was a problem found?
Check the injector connections. If any of the injector
connections are connected to an incorrect cylinder,
correct as necessary.
Was a problem found?
Visually/physically check the vacuum hoses for
splits, kinks, and proper connections and routing.
Was a problem found?
Check the exhaust system for a possible restriction:
• Damaged or collapsed pipe
• Internal muffler failure.
Was a problem found?
Check for a faulty, plugged, or incorrectly installed
PCV valve.
Was a problem found?
Check the following engine mechanical problems
(refer to Section 01 of this Manual):
• Low compression
• Leaking cylinder head gasket
• Worn camshaft
• Sticking or leaking valves
• Valve timing
• Broken valve springs
• Camshaft drive chain worn, slipped or stripped.
Was a problem found?
1. Check for faulty motor mounts. (Refer to
Section 01 of this Manual.)
2. If a problem is found, repair as necessary.
Was a problem found?
1 . Review all diagnostic procedures within this table.
2. If all procedures have been completed and no
malfunctions have been found, review/inspect the
following:
• Visual/physical inspection, including fuel quality
check
• All electrical connections within a suspected
circuit and/or system.
3. If a problem is found, repair as necessary.
Was a problem found?
03-27
Value(s)
Yes
No
Verify repair
Go to Step 11
Verify repair
Go to Step 12
Verify repair
Go to Step 13
Verify repair
Go to Step 14
Verify repair
Go to Step 15
Verify repair
Go to Step 16
Verify repair
Go to Step 17
Verify repair
Go to Step 18
Verify repair
Go to Step 19
-
-
-
-
Verify repair
Contact Ford
Power Products
Customer
Service Center
Technical
Support Hotline
1-800-521-0370
Auxiliary Systems – Ignition
EXCESSIVE FUEL CONSUMPTION SYMPTOM
Step
Action
Value(s)
Yes
DEFINITION: Fuel economy is noticeably lower than expected. Also, economy is noticeably lower than
one time previously.
Was a visual/physical check performed?
1
Go to Step 2
Perform MIL DTC retrieval procedure:
Refer to DTC
Ignition “ON”, engine not running, short STI
chart, perform
2
connector to ground.
component and
Do any fault codes flash and display?
circuit test as
required.
Visually/physically check: Vacuum hoses for splits,
3
kinks, and improper connections and routing.
Was a problem found?
Verify repair
Remove and check the air filter element for dirt or
4
restrictions.
Was a problem found?
Verify repair
1. Remove the spark plugs and check for gas or oil
fouling, cracks, wear, improper gap, burned
electrodes, or heavy deposits.
5
2. If spark plugs are fouled, the cause of fouling
must be determined before replacing the spark
plugs.
Was a problem found?
Verify repair
6
Check for low engine coolant level.
Was a problem found?
Verify repair
Check for an incorrect or faulty engine thermostat.
7
(Refer to the Cooling Section of this Manual.)
Verify repair
Check for low engine compression. (Refer to
Section 01 of this Manual.)
Was a problem found?
Verify repair
Check for excessive exhaust system back-pressure.
Possible problems could be:
9
• Damaged or collapsed pipe
• Internal muffler failure.
Was a problem found?
Verify repair
Check the air intake system and the crankcase for
10
air leaks.
Was a problem found?
Verify repair
1. Review all the diagnostic procedures within this
table.
2. If all procedures have been completed and no
malfunctions have been found, review/inspect the
11
following:
• Visual/physical inspection, including fuel quality
check
• All connections within a suspected circuit and/or
system.
Was a problem found?
Verify repair
03-28
No
it was at
Go to
Visual/Physical
Check
Go to Step 3
Go to Step 4
Go to Step 5
Go to Step 6
Go to Step 7
Go to Step 8
Go to Step 9
Go to Step 10
Go to Step 11
Contact Ford
Power Products
Customer
Service Center
Technical
Support Hotline
1-800-521-0370
Auxiliary Systems – Ignition
DIESELING, RUN-ON SYMPTOM
Step
Action
Value(s)
Yes
No
DEFINITION: Engine continues to run after key is turned “OFF”, but runs very rough. If engine runs smoothly,
check the ignition switch and adjustment.
Was a visual/physical check performed?
Go to
Visual/Physical
1
Go to Step 2
Check
Perform MIL DTC retrieval procedure:
Refer to DTC
Ignition “ON”, engine not running, short STI connecchart, perform
2
tor to ground.
component and
Do any fault codes flash and display?
circuit test as
required.
Go to Step 3
Check for a short between B+ and the ignition feed
3
circuit.
Was a problem found?
Verify repair
Go to Step 4
1 . Review all diagnostic procedures within this table.
2. If all procedures have been completed and no
malfunctions have been found, review/inspect the
following:
Contact Ford
4
• Visual/physical inspection, including fuel quality
Power Products
check.
Customer
• All electrical connections within a suspected
Service Center
circuit and/or system.
Technical
Was a problem found?
Verify repair
Support Hotline
1-800-521-0370
03-29
Auxiliary Systems – Ignition
BACKFIRE SYMPTOM
Step
Action
Value(s)
Yes
No
DEFINITION: Fuel ignites in the intake manifold, or in the exhaust system, making a loud popping noise.
1
Was a visual/physical check performed?
Go to Visual/
Go to Step 2
Physical Check
Perform MIL DTC retrieval procedure:
Refer to DTC
Ignition “ON”, engine not running, short STI
chart, perform
2
connector to ground.
component and
Do any fault codes flash and display?
circuit test as
required.
Go to Step 3
Check for proper ignition voltage output with a
3
suitable spark tester.
Was a problem found?
Verify repair
Go to Step 4
1 . Remove the spark plugs and check for gas or oil
fouling, cracks, wear, improper gap, burned
electrodes or heavy deposits.
4
2. If spark plugs are fouled, the cause of fouling
must be determined before replacing the spark
plugs.
Was a problem found?
Verify repair
Go to Step 5
Inspect the secondary ignition wires. Check for the
following conditions:
• Verify that the resistance of all ignition wires is
less than the specified value.
• Verify that ignition wires are correctly routed to
5
eliminate cross-firing.
• Verify that ignition wires are not arcing to ground.
spraying the secondary ignition wires with a light
mist of water may help locate an intermittent
problem (ignition “ON”, engine running).
Refer to
Was a problem found?
Page 03-35
Verify repair
Go to Step 6
Check for an intermittent ignition system malfunction:
• Intermittent crankshaft position sensor signal.
6
• Intermittent ignition feed circuit or sensor ground
circuit to the crankshaft position sensor.
Was a problem found?
Verify repair
Go to Step 7
Inspect the fuel delivery system to determined if
7
there is a problem with fuel delivery.
Was a problem found?
Verify repair
Go to Step 8
Check for the following engine mechanical problems
(refer to Section 01 of this Manual):
• Low compression
• Leaking cylinder head gasket
8
• Worn camshaft
• Incorrect valve timing
• Sticking or leaking valves
• Camshaft drive chain worn, slipped or stripped.
Was a problem found?
Verify repair
Go to Step 9
Check the intake and exhaust manifold(s) for casting
9
flash.
Was a problem found?
Verify repair
Go to Step 10
1. Review all the diagnostic procedures within this table.
2. If all procedures have been completed and no
malfunctions have been found, review/inspect the
10
following:
Contact Ford
• Visual/physical inspection, including fuel quality
Power Products
check
Customer
• All electrical connections within a suspected
Service Center
circuit and/or system
Technical
Was a problem found?
Verify repair
Support Hotline
1-800-521-0370
03-30
Auxiliary Systems – Ignition
HESITATION, SAG, STUMBLE SYMPTOM
Step
Action
Value(s)
Yes
No
DEFINITION: Momentary lack of response as the throttle is opened. Can occur at any engine speed. Usually
most pronounced when first trying to accelerate the engine. May cause the engine to stall if severe enough.
Was a visual/physical check performed?
Go to
Visual/Physical
1
Go to Step 2
Check
Perform MIL DTC retrieval procedure:
Refer to DTC
Ignition “ON”, engine not running, short STI
chart, perform
2
connector to ground.
component and
Do any fault codes flash and display?
circuit test as
required.
Go to Step 3
NOTE: Make sure engine is closed loop before
proceeding.
Check the heated oxygen sensor (HO2S) operation
(page 03-26 of this section): The HO2S should respond
quickly to different throttle positions. If it doesn’t, check
for silicone or other contaminants from fuel or use of
3
improper RTV sealant. The sensor may have a white
powdery coating which is silicone contamination.
Silicone contamination sends a rich exhaust signal
which causes the ECM to command an excessively
lean air/fuel mixture. Replace HO2S.
Was a problem found?
Verify repair
Go to Step 4
Inspect the fuel delivery system to determine if there
4
is a problem with fuel delivery.
Fuel Pressure
Was a problem found?
62-64 PSI
Verify repair
Go to Step 5
Check electronic governor operation including
5
throttle position sensor function. (Refer to Fuel
Section of this Manual)
Was a problem found?
Verify repair
Go to Step 6
Check items that can cause an engine to run rich.
6
(Refer to DTC 42.)
Was a problem found?
Verify repair
Go to Step 7
Check items that can cause the engine to run lean.
7
(Refer to DTC 32.)
Was a problem found?
Verify repair
Go to Step 8
Check for proper ignition voltage output with a
8
suitable spark tester.
Was a problem found?
Verify repair
Go to Step 9
Inspect the secondary ignition wires. Check for the
following conditions:
• Verify that the resistance of all ignition wires is
less than the specified value.
• Verify that ignition wires are correctly routed to
9
eliminate cross-firing.
• Verify that ignition wires are not arcing to ground.
Spraying the secondary ignition wires with a light
mist of water may help locate an intermittent
problem (key “ON”, engine running).
Refer to
Was a problem found?
Page 03-35
Verify repair
Go to Step 10
03-31
Auxiliary Systems – Ignition
HESITATION, SAG, STUMBLE SYMPTOM (Continued)
Step
10
11
12
13
14
15
Action
1. Check the ignition coil secondary resistance.
2. Replace the coil if it is not within the specified
value.
Did the coil require replacement?
1 . Remove the spark plugs and check for gas or oil
fouling, cracks, wear, improper gap, burned
electrodes or heavy deposits.
2. If spark plugs are fouled, the cause of fouling
must be determined before replacing the spark
plugs.
Was a problem found?
Check the ECM grounds to verify that they are clean
and tight. Refer to the ECM wiring diagram.
Was a problem found?
Visually/physically check vacuum hoses for splits,
kinks, and proper connections and routing.
Was a problem found?
Check for a faulty, plugged, or incorrectly installed
PCV valve.
Was a problem found?
1 . Review all diagnostic procedures within this table.
2. If all procedures have been completed and no
malfunctions have been found, review/inspect the
following:
• Visual/physical inspection, including fuel quality
check
• All electrical connections within a suspected
circuit and/or system.
3. If a problem is found, repair as necessary.
Was a problem found?
03-32
Value(s)
Refer to
Page 03-35
Yes
No
Verify repair
Go to Step 11
Verify repair
Go to Step 12
Verify repair
Go to Step 13
Verify repair
Go to Step 14
Verify repair
Go to Step 15
Verify repair
Contact Ford
Power Products
Customer
Service Center
Technical
Support Hotline
1-800-521-0370
Auxiliary Systems – Ignition
CUTS OUT, MISSES SYMPTOM
Step
Action
Value(s)
Yes
No
DEFINITION: Steady pulsation or jerking that follows engine speed; usually more pronounced as engine load
increases.
Check for incorrect idle speed. Ensure that the
following conditions are present:
1
• Engine fully warm
• Accessories are “OFF”.
Does engine cut out or miss?
Go to Step 2
Perform a visual/physical check, including ignition
2
coil and secondary ignition wire connections.
Was a problem found?
Verify repair
Go to Step 3
Perform MIL DTC retrieval procedure:
Refer to DTC
Ignition “ON”, engine not running, short STI
chart, perform
3
connector to ground.
component and
Do any fault codes flash and display?
circuit test as
required.
Go to Step 4
Check the heated oxygen sensor (HO2S) operation:
The HO2S should respond quickly to different throttle
positions. If it doesn’t, check for silicone or other
contaminants from fuel or use of improper RTV
4
sealant. The sensor may have a white powdery
coating which is silicone contamination. Silicone
contamination sends a rich exhaust signal which
causes the ECM to command an excessively lean
air/fuel mixture. Replace HO2S.
Was a problem found?
Verify repair
Go to Step 5
Check the ECM grounds to verify that they are clean
5
and tight. (Refer to the ECM wiring diagram.)
Was a problem found?
Verify repair
Go to Step 6
Check the items that can cause the engine to run
6
rich. (Refer to DTC 42.)
Was a problem found?
Verify repair
Go to Step 7
Check items that can cause the engine to run lean.
7
(Refer to DTC 32.)
Was a problem found?
Verify repair
Go to Step 8
Inspect the fuel delivery system to determine if there
8
is a problem with fuel delivery.
Was a problem found?
Verify repair
Go to Step 9
Inspect the secondary ignition wires. Check for the
following conditions:
• Verify the resistance of all ignition wires is less
than the specified value
• Verify that ignition wires are correctly routed to
9
eliminate cross-firing
• Verify that ignition wires are not arcing to ground.
Spraying the secondary ignition wires with a light
mist of water may help to locate an intermittent
problem (ignition “ON”, engine running).
Refer to
Was a problem found?
Page 03-35
Verify repair
Go to Step 10
1. Check ignition coil secondary resistance.
10
2. Replace the coil if it is not within the specified
range of resistance.
Refer to
Was a problem found?
Page 03-35
Verify repair
Go to Step 11
03-33
Auxiliary Systems – Ignition
CUTS OUT, MISSES SYMPTOM (Continued)
Step
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
Action
Check for proper ignition voltage output with a
suitable spark tester.
Was a problem found?
Check the injector connections. If any of the injector
connections are connected to an incorrect cylinder,
correct as necessary.
Was a problem found?
1. Remove spark plugs and check for gas or oil
fouling, cracks, wear, improper gap, burned
electrodes or heavy deposits.
2. If spark plugs are fouled, the cause of fouling
must be determined before replacing the spark
plugs.
Was a problem found?
Visually/physically check the vacuum hoses for
splits, kinks, and improper connections and routing.
Was a problem found?
Check the exhaust system for a possible restriction:
• Damaged or collapsed pipe
• Internal muffler failure.
Was a problem found?
Check for a faulty, plugged, or incorrectly installed
PCV valve.
Was a problem found?
Check the following engine mechanical problems
(refer to Section 01 of this Manual):
• Low compression
• Leaking cylinder head gasket
• Worn camshaft
• Sticking or leaking valves
• Valve timing
• Broken valve springs
• Camshaft drive belt slipped or stripped.
Was a problem found?
1. Check for faulty motor mounts.
2. If a problem is found, repair as necessary.
Was a problem found?
1. Review all diagnostic procedures within this table.
2. If all procedures have been completed and no
malfunctions have been found, review/inspect the
following:
• Visual/physical inspection, including fuel quality
check.
• All electrical connections within a suspected
circuit and/or system.
3. If a problem is found, repair as necessary.
Was a problem found?
03-34
Value(s)
Yes
No
Verify repair
Go to Step 12
Verify repair
Go to Step 13
Verify repair
Go to Step 14
Verify repair
Go to Step 15
Verify repair
Go to Step 16
Verify repair
Go to Step 17
Verify repair
Go to Step 18
Verify repair
Go to Step 19
Verify repair
Contact Ford
Power Products
Customer
Service Center
Technical
Support Hotline
1-800-521-0370
Auxiliary Systems – Ignition
IGNITION SYSTEM DIAGNOSING AND TESTING
1. Check the following circuits with the volt
ohmmeter per the following chart.
IGNITION SECONDARY SYSTEM RESISTANCE CHECKS
Test No.
1
2
3
4
Test Connections
Pin Nos.
Coil
Secondary
Towers 1-5
Coil
Secondary
Towers 4-3
Coil
Secondary
Towers 2-6
Ends of Each
Spark Plug
Wire
DVOM Set
Selection
Ohm
Reading
Ohms
14,000
Description of Circuit
Ohm
14,000
Coil Secondary Circuit
Ohm
14,000
Coil Secondary Circuit
Ohm
6,000 to 16,000
Spark Plug Wire Resistance
(approx. 6,000 Ohms
per foot)
03-35
Coil Secondary Circuit
Auxiliary Systems – Ignition
IGNITION SYSTEM DIAGNOSING AND TESTING (Continued)
HEATED OXYGEN SENSOR (HO2S)
Action Taken When the DTC Sets
DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODE (DTC) 32-42
• The ECM will illuminate the malfunction indicator
lamp (MIL).
• The ECM will switch to open loop fuel control.
A
Conditions for Clearing the DTC (Resetting
the MIL)
570G BK-W
• The DTC can be cleared from memory by
disconnecting the battery for 5 minutes.
34 LB-O
74 GY-LB
89 O
S10
S5
S1
• If a personal computer (PC) is connected to the
engine, the DTC can be cleared from memory by
hitting the “C” key while in the View Sensor Data
screen.
K1
EXHAUST GAS OXYGEN (HO2S) SENSOR
359 GY-R
X2
F
E2
E
B2
D
C
B
A
Heated Oxygen Sensor
(HO2S) Connector
D
Signal Return
B
Engine Control Module
(ECM)
E
Sensor Signal
C
VPWR (B+)
F
Power Ground
A
Circuit Description
A
Lean Air/Fuel
Mixture
The ECM supplies a voltage of about 0.45 volts to
the heated oxygen sensor. This may read as low
as 0.32 volts with a 10 megohm digital voltmeter.
The oxygen sensor varies the voltage within a range
of about 1 volt if the exhaust is rich, down through
about 0. 10 volts if the exhaust is lean. A cold sensor
causes an open loop operation.
B
Stoichiometry
If the senor pigtail wiring, connector, or terminal is
damaged the entire oxygen sensor assembly must
be replaced. Do not attempt to repair the wiring,
connector, or terminals. In order for the sensor to
function properly, it must have a clean air reference
provided to it. This clean air reference is obtained
by way of the signal return wire. Any attempt to
repair the wires, connector, or terminals could result
in the obstruction of the air reference and degrade
the sensor performance.
Conditions for Setting the DTC
• KOER.
• HO2S sensor voltage is greater than or equal to
0.65 volts or less than or equal to 0.20 volts for
20 consecutive seconds.
C
B
C
Rich Air/Fuel
Mixture
Describe:
• Heated exhaust gas oxygen (HO2S) sensor is a
zirconium dioxide-type voltage generating sensor
that converts oxygen levels in exhaust to a voltage
signal.
• The HO2S sensor switches between
approximately 0.10 and one volt. In lean
conditions, the HO2S sensor generates a low
voltage signal of less than 0.4 volts. In rich
conditions, the HO2S sensor generates a high
voltage signal greater than 0.6 volts.
• The ECM uses this input to determine if the air/
fuel mixture is lean or rich.
• The HO2S sensor does not operate until it reaches
an operating temperature between 300°- 850°C
(572°-1562°F).
• HO2S sensors are equipped with a heating
element and begin operating at lower exhaust
temperatures.
03-36
Auxiliary Systems – Ignition
IGNITION SYSTEM DIAGNOSING AND TESTING (Continued)
ENGINE CYLINDER HEAD
TEMPERATURE SENSOR (CHT)
DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODE (DTC) 33-43
359G
GY-R
GY-R
• The ECM will illuminate the malfunction indicator
lamp (MIL).
S5
B
• The ECM will force the CHT sensor to a 50° F
default value.
A
1
359
NOTE: Complete list of temperature sensor
characteristics found on page 03-30 of this section.
GY-R
2
1102
Conditions for Clearing the DTC (Resetting
the MIL)
Y-LG
Y-LG
B2
D2
C
E
B
Engine Cylinder Head
Temperature Sensor
Connector
Ground (B-)
C
Engine Control
Module (ECM)
A
Actions Taken When the DTC Sets
• The DTC can be cleared from memory by
disconnecting the battery for 5 minutes.
D
D
Sensor Ground
E
Sensor Signal
• If a personal computer (PC) is connected to the
engine, the DTC can be cleared from memory by
hitting the “C” key while in the View Sensor Data
screen.
Diagnostic Aids
Circuit Description
The engine cylinder head temperature (CHT)
sensor is a termistor which measures the
temperature of the engine cylinder head. The ECM
supplies a ground circuit 359, Gray/Red from the
sensor and monitors a voltage signal (circuit to
1102, Yellow/Lt. Green) to the sensor. When the
engine coolant is cold, the sensor resistance is high
and the ECM will monitor a high signal voltage at
the CHT signal circuit. If the engine cylinder head
is warm, the sensor resistance is lower, causing
the ECM to monitor a lower voltage. DTC 43 will
set when the ECM detects an excessively low
signal voltage, and DTC 33 when the ECM detects
an excessively high signal voltage.
The (CHT) sensor shares the same ground with
other sensors. Check the ground circuit 359 (Gray/
Red) if other DTCs are also set.
Inspect the harness connectors for backed-out
terminals, improper mating, broken locks,
improperly formed or damaged terminals, and poor
terminal-to-wire connections. Inspect the wiring
harness for damage. If the harness appears to be
OK, back probe the CHT sensor connector with a
digital voltmeter and observe the voltage while
moving connectors and wiring harnesses related
to the CHT sensor. A change in the voltmeter
display will indicate the location of the fault.
NOTE: Refer to Section 08.
Conditions for Setting the DTC
• KOEO or KOER.
• CHT sensor signal is less than or equal to 0.22
volts or greater than 4.93 volts.
• Above conditions are present for a least 3
consecutive seconds.
03-37
Auxiliary Systems – Ignition
IGNITION SYSTEM DIAGNOSING AND TESTING (Continued)
INTAKE AIR TEMPERATURE (IAT) SENSOR
CIRCUIT (AIR CHARGE)
Conditions for Clearing the DTC (Resetting
the MIL)
DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODE (DTC) 35-45
• The DTC can be cleared from memory by
disconnecting the battery for 5 minutes.
• If a personal computer (PC) is connected to the
engine, the DTC can be cleared from memory by
hitting the “C’’ key while in the View Sensor Data
Screen.
B
359A
A
C
359
Diagnostic Aids
GY-R
The IAT sensor shares the same ground with the
Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) sensor and the
CHTS. Check the ground circuit 359 (Gray/Red) if
these DTCs are also set.
C
D
F
E
A
Intake Air Temperature
Sensor (IAT) Connector
D
Engine Control
Module (ECM)
B
MAP and ECT Sensors
E
Sensor Ground
C
42 Pin Connector
F
IAT Sensor
Signal
Inspect the harness connectors for backed-out
terminals, improper mating, broken locks,
improperly formed or damaged terminals, and poor
terminal-to-wire connections. Inspect the wiring
harness for damage. If the harness appears to be
OK, backprobe the IAT sensor connector with a
paper clip and DVOM and observe the voltage while
moving connectors and wiring harnesses related
to the IAT sensor.
Circuit Description
The intake air temperature (IAT) sensor is a
thermistor which measure the temperature of the
air entering the engine. The ECM supplies a ground
(circuit 359, Gray/Red) to the sensor and receives
a voltage signal (circuit 743, Gray) from the sensor.
When the intake air is cold, the sensor resistance
is high and the ECM will monitor a high signal
voltage at the IAT signal circuit. If the intake air is
warm, the sensor resistance is lower, causing the
ECM to monitor a lower voltage. DTC 35 will set
when the ECM detects an excessively high signal
voltage and DTC 45 for excessively low signal
voltage on the intake air temperature sensor signal
circuit.
A change in the voltmeter display will indicate the
location of the fault.
INTAKE AIR TEMPERATURE (IAT) SENSOR
A
A
Conditions for Setting the DTC
• DTC 35 < 0.12V for > 2.64 sec.
Low Air
Temperature
B
B
High Air
Temperature
• DTC 45 > 4.96V for < 2.64 sec.
• IAT sensor is a type of thermistor that converts
air temperature to a voltage signal.
Actions Taken When the DTC Sets
• Output is a variable voltage signal which typically
ranges from 0.3 volt to 4.5 volts.
• The ECM will illuminate the malfunction indicator
lamp (MIL).
• As air temperature increases, the IAT resistance
decreases.
• The ECM will force the ECT sensor to a 50°F
default value.
• At -40°F (CHT) resistance is + 269K ohms.
• At 77’°F (CHT) resistance is + 29K ohms.
• At 248°F (CHT) resistance is + 1.2K ohms.
03-38
Auxiliary Systems – Ignition
IGNITION SYSTEM DIAGNOSING AND TESTING (Continued)
THROTTLE POSITION (TP) SENSOR
DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODE (DTC) 12-22
GY-R
E
BR-W
GY-W
A
Throttle Position (TP)
Sensor Connector
B
Signal Return
C
TP Sensor Signal
D
MAP TP 5V Reference
E
Electronic
Governor
F
Electronic Governor
Connector
G
PWM Throttle
Control
H
Power Feed
J
Engine Control
Module (ECM)
K
42 Pin Connector
Pin #31 (VREF +5V)
(BARBER COLMAN)
A
F
361H R
359F GY-R
S01
S5
351D BR-W
264 W-LB
355B GY-W
359 GY-R
361G R
S3
351B
351 BR-W
B2
B
C1
C
Circuit 359:
K-Off = 0V
KOEO = Ground
KOER = Ground
K
R1
A2
D
Circuit 355:
K-Off = 0V
KOEO = 1.5+/KOER = 1.5V to
4.8V
G
K1
H
Circuit 351:
K-Off = 0V
KOEO = 5V
KOER = 5V
• TP signal is 4.9V or more (22).
Circuit Description
The throttle position (TP) sensor is a potentiometer
which is attached to the throttle plate shaft inside
the electronic governor or the stock Ford throttle
body. The ECM provides a 5V reference voltage to
the TP sensor between terminal A (Grey/Red, circuit
359F) and terminal C (Brown/White, circuit 351D)
of the electronic governor. A TP signal is returned
to the ECM from terminal B (Grey/White, circuit
355B) of the electronic governor. The TP signal
varies from about 1.5V at idle to 4.8V at WOT. The
TP signal is an important input used by the ECM
for fuel control and other engine-control functions.
DTC 12 will set when the ECM detects low voltage
and DTC 22 for excessively high voltage.
Conditions for Setting the DTC
• KOEO or KOER.
• TP signal is < 0.31V (12).
J
• Above conditions are present for at least 2
consecutive seconds.
Actions Taken When the DTC Sets
• The ECM illuminates the (MIL).
• The ECM forces the throttle to default position of
6% open.
Conditions for Clearing the DTC (Resetting the
MIL)
• The DTC can be cleared from memory by
disconnecting the battery for 5 minutes.
• If a personal computer (PC) is connect to the
engine, the DTC can be cleared from memory by
hitting the “C” key while in the View Sensor Data
screen.
03-39
Auxiliary Systems – Ignition
IGNITION SYSTEM DIAGNOSING AND TESTING (Continued)
MANIFOLD ABSOLUTE PRESSURE (MAP)
SENSOR
DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODE (DTC) 14-24
A
an indication of engine load. This information is used
to control spark advance and air/fuel ratio. The MAP
signal is also used at KOEO to indicate barometric
pressure. This information is used for altitude
compensation when establishing spark advance
and air/fuel ratio. DTC 14 will set with a low voltage
to ECM and DTC 24 will set with a high voltage to
ECM.
Conditions for Setting the DTC
359B GY-R
• KOEO or KOER.
F
G
S3
• MAP signal is significantly lower than estimated
by the ECM.
E
B
C
A
Manifold Absolute Pressure
Sensor (MAP) Connector
B
• Above conditions are present for at least 2
consecutive seconds.
D
E
Engine Control
Module (ECM)
Signal Return
F
To CHT and
IAT Sensors
C
Map Signal
G
To TP Sensor
D
5V Map Reference
Action Taken When the DTC Sets
• The ECM illuminates the malfunction indicator
lamp (MIL).
• The ECM uses an estimated MAP value based
on throttle position and engine rpm.
Conditions for Clearing the DTC (Resetting
the MIL)
Circuit 359:
K-Off = 0V
KOEO = Ground
KOER = Ground
• The DTC can be cleared from memory by
disconnecting the battery for 5 minutes.
• If a personal computer (PC) is connected to the
engine, the DTC can be cleared from memory by
hitting the “C” key while in the View Sensor Data
screen.
Circuit 358:
K-Off = 0V
KOEO = 4.8V
KOER = 1V (at idle) 4.8V (at Wide Open Throttle)
Circuit 351:
K-Off = 0V
KOEO = 5V
KOER = 5V
Circuit Description
The manifold absolute pressure (MAP) sensor
responds to changes in intake manifold pressure
(vacuum). The ECM provides a 5V reference
voltage to the MAP sensor between terminal A
(Grey/Yellow, circuit 359K) and terminal C (Brown/
White, circuit 351C) of the MAP sensor. A MAP
signal is returned to the ECM from terminal B (Lt.
Green/Black, circuit 358) of the MAP sensor. The
MAP signal varies from about 1V at idle (high
vacuum) to 4.8V with KOEO or at WOT (low
vacuum). The MAP signal is used by the ECM as
03-40
Auxiliary Systems – Ignition
MST, CHT & IAT SENSOR DATA
Temperature Sensor Characteristics
TEMPERATURE
NOM R,
NOM E OUT
(C)
(F)
(OHMS)
(VOLTS)
-40
-40
925,021
4.54
-35
-31
673,787
4.50
-30
-22
496,051
4.46
-25
-13
368,896
4.41
-20
-4
276,959
4.34
-15
5
209,816
4.25
-10
14
160,313
4.15
-5
23
123,485
4.02
0
32
95,851
3.88
5
41
74,914
3.71
10
50
58,987
3.52
15
59
46,774
3.32
20
68
37,340
3.09
25
77
30,000
2.86
30
86
24,253
2.62
35
95
19,716
2.39
40
104
16,113
2.15
45
113
13,236
1.93
50
122
10,926
1.72
55
131
9,061
1.52
60
140
7,548
1.34
65
149
6,332
1.18
70
158
5,335
1.04
75
167
4,515
.91
80
176
3,837
.79
85
185
3,274
.70
90
194
2,804
.61
95
203
2,411
.53
100
212
2,080
.47
105
221
1,801
.41
110
230
1,564
.36
115
239
1,363
.32
120
248
1,191
.28
125
257
1,044
.25
130
266
918
.22
135
275
809
.19
140
284
715
.17
145
293
633
.15
150
302
563
.14
Voltage values calculated for VREF=5 volts (may vary 15% due to sensor
and VREF variations).
03-41
Auxiliary Systems – Ignition
ENGINE CRANKS BUT DOESN’T START
Circuit Description
Diagnostic Aids
The electronic distributorless ignition system uses
a six-tower coil pack to provide spark distribution.
In the coil pack, two adjacent coil towers share a
common coil and are called a matched pair. The
matched pairs in this application are cylinders 1
and 5, 2 and 6, and 4 and 3 cylinders.
An intermittent problem may be caused by a poor
connection, rubber-through wire insulation, or a
wire broken inside the insulation. Check for the
following items:
During crank, the ECM monitors the Crankshaft
Position Signal (CKP) signal. The CKP signals is
used to determine which cylinder will fire first. After
the CKP signal has been processed by the ECM, it
will command all six injectors to allow a shot of fuel
for all the cylinders. This is known as batch fire and
occurs anytime while in open loop.
• Poor connection or damaged harness. Inspect
the ECM harness and connectors for improper
mating, broken locks, improperly formed or
damaged terminals, poor terminal-to-wire
connections, or a damaged harness.
Coil pack with crack or split at bottom of one or
more coils may be caused by broken secondary
wire or inoperative spark plug.
Engine Cranks But Doesn’t Start Circuit Test
NOTE: Check fuel pressure and confirm within 60 to 68 PSI before proceeding with test. If unacceptable pressure,
start Circuit Test at Step 28. Also check for spark and air before proceeding.
Step
1
2
3
4
Action
Perform Visual/Physical check. Verify that all
accessories are “OFF’’.
Was a Visual/Physical check performed?
Perform MIL DTC retrieval procedure.
If any DTC(s) are present, repair before proceeding.
Is action complete (MIL circuit operation normal and
DTC(s) if present repaired)?
Attempt to start the engine.
Does the engine start?
Check the ECM power relay for proper connection.
If no problem is found, replace the relay with a
known good relay.
Does engine run?
Does engine run with original relay reinstalled?
5
03-42
Value(s)
Yes
Go to Step 2
Go to Step 3
Verify repair
and test engine
for proper
operation at all
temperatures
Remove
replacement
relay and install
original relay.
Go to Step 5
Keep original
power relay
installed, verify
repair and Go to
MIL DTC retrieval
procedure if
required.
No
Perform
Visual/Physical
Check
Refer to
MIL Circuit
Diagnosis
Before going to
Step 4, go to
Step 26, 27 & 28
If OK come back
to Step 4
Go to Step 4
Remove
replacement
relay and install
original relay.
Go to Step 7
Remove
original relay
and reinstall
replacement
relay.
Go to Step 6
Auxiliary Systems – Ignition
ENGINE CRANKS BUT DOESN’T START CIRCUIT TEST (Continued)
Step
Action
Value(s)
Does engine run once again with replacement relay
installed?
6
7
Check the Fuel Pump relay for proper connection. If
no problem is found, replace the relay with a known
“good” relay.
Does engine run?
Does engine run with original relay reinstalled?
8
Does engine run once again with replacement relay
installed?
9
10
11
12
13
14
1 . Ignition “ON”.
2. Remove ECM relay and Fuel Pump relay from
connectors.
3. Use a grounded test lamp to verify that B+ is
available at the ECM relay and Fuel Pump relay
connectors.
Was B+ available at both connectors?
Repair open in ECM relay or Fuel Pump relay feed
circuit.
Is action complete (engine operation normal)?
1. Ignition “OFF”
2. Disconnect the ECM connectors
3. Ignition “ON”
4. Probe the ignition feed circuit at the ECM harness
connector with a test light to ground.
Is the test light “ON”?
Probe the battery feed circuit at the ECM harness
connector with a test light to ground.
Is the test light “ON”?
1. Check for a faulty ECM ground or a poor ground
connection at the ECM.
2. If a problem is found, repair as necessary.
Was a problem found?
03-43
Yes
Leave
replacement
relay installed,
verify repair
and Go to MIL
DTC retrieval
procedure if
required
Remove
replacement
relay.and install
original relay
Keep original
relay installed,
verify repair
and Go to MIL
DTC retrieval
procedure if
required
Leave
replacement
relay installed,
Verify repair.
Go to MIL DTC
retrieval
procedure if
required
No
Go to Step 7
Remove
replacement
relay and install
original relay
Go to Step 8
Remove
original relay
and reinstall
replacement
relay.
Go to Step 9
Go to Step 10
Go to Step 12
Verify repair.
Go to MIL DTC
retrieval
procedure if
required
Go to Step 11
Go to Step 13
Go to Step 15
Go to Step 14
Verify repair.
Go to MIL DTC
retrieval
procedure if
required
Go to Step 16
Go to Step 12
Go to Step 13
Auxiliary Systems – Ignition
ENGINE CRANKS BUT DOESN’T START CIRCUIT TEST (Continued)
Step
Action
Value(s)
15
Locate and repair open or short to ground in ECM
ignition feed circuit.
Was a problem found?
16
Locate and repair open or short to ground in ECM
battery feed circuit.
Was a problem found?
17
Install replacement ECM.
Does engine start and run?
Does engine start and run?
18
Does engine start and run with replacement ECM
installed?
19
20
21
22
23
24
1. Ignition “OFF”.
2. Disconnect CKP Sensor connector.
3. With a test light to ground, probe the harness
connector ignition feed terminal.
Is the light “ON”?
Check the ignition feed wire from the CKP sensor to
the ECM for a short to ground or open circuit and
repair as required.
Is the action complete?
1. Ignition “ON”.
2. At the CKP harness connector, connect a test
light between the ignition and ground terminals.
Is the light “ON”?
Check the CKP sensor ground circuit for an open or
short to voltage.
Was a problem found?
Check the signal circuit between the CKP sensor
and the ECM for a short to ground, short to voltage,
or an open.
Was a problem found?
Replace the CKP sensor.
Is the action complete?
25
03-44
Yes
Verify repair.
Go to MIL DTC
retrieval
procedure if
required
Verify repair.
Go to MIL DTC
retrieval
procedure if
required
Remove
replacement
ECM and install
original ECM
Keep original
ECM installed,
Verify repair
and Go to MIL
DTC retrieval
procedure if
required
Leave
replacement
ECM installed,
Verify repair
and Go to MIL
DTC retrieval
procedure if
required
Go to Step 22
Verify repair.
Go to MIL DTC
retrieval
procedure if
required
Go to Step 24
Verify repair.
Go to MIL DTC
retrieval
procedure if
required.
Verify repair.
Go to MIL DTC
retrieval
procedure if
required
Verify repair.
Go to MIL DTC
retrieval
procedure if
required
No
Go to Step 16
Go to Step 17
Go to Step 18
Remove
original ECM
and reinstall
replacement
ECM.
Go to Step 19
Go to Step 20.
(or Go to Step
26 if Steps
20-25 have
already been
performed)
Go to Step 21
Go to Step 22
Go to Step 23
Go to Step 24
Go to Step 25
Go to Step 17
Auxiliary Systems – Ignition
ENGINE CRANKS BUT DOESN’T START CIRCUIT TEST (Continued)
Step
26
27
Action
Value(s)
1. Test the fuel for water, alcohol, or other possible
contamination.
2. If a problem is found, clean the fuel system and
correct the contaminated fuel condition as
necessary. Replace the fuel filter and replace any
injectors that are not delivering fuel.
Was a problem found?
1. Ignition “OFF”, install a suitable fuel pressure
gauge at the fitting on the fuel rail.
2. Ignition “ON”, observe the fuel pressure.
Is the fuel pressure within the specified values, and
does it hold steady?
Is any fuel pressure indicated?
-
28
29
30
31
32
33
62-64 PSI
1 . Ignition “OFF”.
2. Install a test noid light at the injector harness
connectors. (CAUTION: Do not apply battery
voltage (B+) directly to the fuel injector electrical
connector terminals. The solenoids may be
damaged internally in a matter of seconds.)
3. Ignition “ON”, crank engine.
Does the light blink at each injector when the engine
is cranked?
Check for B+ at coil connector. (Refer to
Distributorless Ignition System Diagnosis.)
1 . Ignition “OFF”.
2. Disconnect coil harness connector
3. Ignition “ON”.
4. Measure voltage at coil connector between B+
Coil feed and ground (or use test light between
feed and ground).
5. Ignition “OFF”.
Was voltage equal to the specified value (or is test
light “ON”)?
Locate and repair open or short in coil ignition feed
circuit.
Was a problem found?
Perform spark test.
1. Ignition “OFF”.
2. Connect coil harness connector
3. Connect the end of one of the secondary spark
plug wires to a suitable spark tester
4. Ignition “ON”.
5. Observe the spark tester while the engine is
cranking.
6. Ignition “OFF”.
Was a crisp blue spark observed? (Only one or two
sparks followed by no result is considered the same
as “No Spark”.)
Test the other 5 spark plug wires by using the test in
Step 29 at each spark plug wire.
When the engine is cranked, was a crisp blue spark
observed? (Only one or two sparks followed by no
result is the same as “No Spark”.)
03-45
B+
Yes
No
Verify repair.
Go to MIL DTC
retrieval
procedure if
required
Go to Step 27
Go to Step 29
Go to Fuel
System
Electrical test
Go to Step 28
Go to Fuel
System
Diagnostic test
Go to Step 30
Go to Step 40
Go to Step 32
Verify repair,
Go to MIL DTC
retrieval
procedure if
required
Go to Step 31
Go to Step 32
Verify repair,
Go to MIL DTC
retrieval
procedure if
required
Go to Step 33
Go to Step 35
Go to Step 34
Auxiliary Systems – Ignition
ENGINE CRANKS BUT DOESN’T START CIRCUIT TEST (Continued)
Step
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
Action
Value(s)
Inspect and test the secondary ignition spark plug
wires. Check for the following conditions:
• Verify that the resistance of all ignition wires is
less than the specified value.
• Verify that ignition wires are correctly routed to
eliminate cross-firing.
• Verify that ignition wires are not arcing to ground.
• Spraying the secondary ignition wires with’ a light
mist of water may help locate an intermittent
problem (key “ON”, engine running).
Was a problem found?
1. Check the ignition coil primary resistance.
2. Replace the coil if it is not within the specified
range of resistance.
Did the coil require replacement?
1. Check the ignition coil secondary resistance.
2. Replace the coil if it is not within the secondary
range of resistance.
Did the coil require replacement?
1 . Remove the spark plugs and check for gas or oil
fouling, cracks, wear, improper gap, burned
electrodes or heavy deposits.
2. If spark plugs are fouled, the cause of fouling
must be determined before replacing the spark
plugs.
Was a problem found?
Check the electronic governor operation including
the TPS function.
Was a problem found?
Check for the following engine mechanical problems.
• Camshaft timing chain or gear slipped or stripped
• Low compression
• Leaking cylinder head gasket
• Worn camshaft
• Leaking or sticky valves or rings
• Excessive valve deposits
• Weak valve springs
• Damaged, plugged or restricted exhaust system
Is the action complete?
1. Check injectors wire circuit.
2. Check ECM ground and wire circuit.
Was problem found?
1. Replace ECM with known good one.
Does the noid light blink at each injector while
cranking?
1. Replace new ECM with old one.
Does the noid light blink at each injector while
cranking?
03-46
Refer to
Page 03-35
Refer to
Page 03-35
Refer to
Page 03-35
Yes
Verify repair.
Go to MIL DTC
retrieval
procedure if
required
Verify repair.
Go to MIL DTC
retrieval
procedure if
required
Verify repair.
Go to MIL DTC
retrieval
procedure if
required
Verify repair.
Go to MIL DTC
retrieval
procedure if
required
Verify repair.
Go to MIL DTC
retrieval
procedure if
required
No
Go to Step 35
Go to Step 36
Go to Step 37
Go to Step 38
Go to Step 39
Verify repair.
Go to MIL DTC
retrieval
procedure if
required
Go to Step 40
Verify repair.
Go to Step 41
Go to Step 42
Check ECM
connector pins
and wire harness
Go to Step 43
Go to Step 43
Auxiliary Systems – Ignition
ENGINE CRANKS BUT DOESN’T START CIRCUIT TEST (Continued)
Step
43
Action
Value(s)
1. Review all diagnostic procedures within this table.
2. If all procedures have been completed and no
malfunctions have been found, review/inspect the
following:
• Visual/Physical inspection, including fuel quality
check
• All electrical connections within a suspected
circuit and/or system.
3. If a problem is found, repair as necessary.
Was a problem found?
03-47
Yes
Verify repair.
Go to MIL DTC
retrieval
procedure if
required
No
Contact Ford
Power Products
Customer
Service Center
Technical
Support Hotline
1-800-521-0370
Auxiliary Systems – Ignition
Wiring Schematic – 4.2L & 2.5L Alternator, Gauges, Ignition and
Discrete Governing
03-48
DESCRIPTION
5 PIN CONNECTOR
TACH OUTPUT / AUX OUT 2
STARTER LOCKOUT
OIL PSI SWITCH INPUT
AUXILIARY INPUT 2
AUXILIARY INPUT 1
10 PIN CONNECTOR
COIL “A”
COIL “B”
GROUND
POWER (+)
FUEL SELECT
OCTANE SELECT
CYLINDER HEAD TEMP
COIL “C”
SIGNAL RETURN
CRANK SENSOR
CAV
LTR
E
D
C
B
A
K
J
H
G
F
E
D
C
B
A
CIRCUIT
NUMBER
71
113
253
915
693
850
851
57
16A
647
72
1102
852
350A
349
03-49
T-O
T-W
B-W
R-G
BR-W
4-BK
GR-R
Y-BR
GR
B
WIRE
COLOR
B-LG
Y-LB
Y-BK
PB-LB
O
B
GR
Y-BR
G-R
Y-BK
BR-W
R-G
BK-W
T-W
T-O
O
PK-LB
Y-BK
Y-LB
B-G
DESCRIPTION
10 PIN CONNECTOR
TACH LINE/COIL OUTPUT
TACH LINE/COIL OUTPUT
T-O
T-W
TACH PICK-UP CONNECTOR
CIRCUIT
NUMBER
96
95
DESCRIPTION
CIRCUIT
10 PIN CONNECTOR
NUMBER
FUEL SELECT
674
POWER (+)
16
AUXILIARY INPUT 1
693
GROUND
57
STARTER INTERLOCK LOOP
32A
STARTER INTERLOCK LOOP
32
AUX. OUPUT/TACH OUTPUT
71
STATOR LOCKOUT AUX. OUT
42
AUXILIARY INPUT 2
915
OCTANE SELECT
72
R-LB
BK
B-LG
R-LB
BR-W
Y-BK
R-LG
PK-LB
O
Y-BK
WIRE
COLOR
BR-W
R-LG
O
BK
R-LB
R-LB
B-LG
LB-R
PK-LB
Y-BK
CAV
LTR
B
A
WIRE
COLOR
T-O
T-W
TO ENGINE
SYSTEM
(HARNESS
-14324-)
CAV
LTR
K
J
H
G
F
E
D
C
B
A
TO
ENGINE
SYSTEM
(HARNESS
-14324-)
Auxiliary Systems – Ignition
Wiring Assembly 4.2L DLX ICM
R-LB
R-LB
Y-LB
Auxiliary Systems – Ignition
16 PIN CONNECTOR
From Wire Harness XU1L-12A690-BA to 9D930
42 PIN CONNECTOR
From Wire Harness XU1L-12A690-BA to 14324
03-50
Auxiliary Systems – Ignition
ECM CONNECTORS
From Wire Harness XU1L-12A690-BA to ECM
03-51
Auxiliary Systems – Ignition
Drive-By-Wire Foot Pedal Switch
Circuit Description
The Pedal Position (PP) sensor is a potentiometer
which is attached to the pedal assembly pivot shaft.
The ECM provides a 5V reference voltage to the
PP sensor between terminal A (Grey/Red, circuit
359) and terminal C (Brown/White, circuit 351B) of
the pedal assembly. A PP signal is returned to the
ECM from terminal B (Grey/White, circuit 355) of
the pedal assembly. The PP signal varies from about
.7 or .8V at idle to 4.8V at WOT. The PP signal is an
important input used by the ECM for RPM control.
DTC 13 will set when the ECM detects low voltage
and DTC 23 for excessively high voltage. DTC 16.
Typical Foot Pedal Switch
The Idle Validation Switch (IVS) is an off/on switch
(normally opened), with 12V as a power supply from
the ignition switch, on Circuit 361. When the IVS
fails or is out of adjustment, it will set DTC 16. This
code will be set when the Pedal Position (PP)
sensor is out of set range while IVS off, damaged,
misadjusted, IVS malfunction, damaged wiring,
electrical failure or mechanical failure.
First Version Foot Pedal
L
M
E
A
F
361 R
359A GY-R
359A GY-R
•
151 LB-BK
33
B
B2
307 BK-Y
31
25
D
151 LB-BK
A1
H
351
14
C
S#5 GY-R
Pedal Position (PP)
Sensor Connector
B
Signal Return
C
PP Sensor Signal
D
PP 5V Reference
E
Pedal Assembly
F
Connector for Idle Validation
Switch M
G
Pedal Assembly
Switch Return Signal
H
Power Feed From
Ignition Switch
J
42-Pin Connector
L
Connector for A
M
Idle Validation
Switch
355 GY-W 351B BR-W
•
•
A
G
S#3 BR-W
A2
J
307 BK-Y
K2
ECM
Circuit 359:
K-Off = 0V
KOEO = Ground
KOER = Ground
Circuit 355:
K-Off = 0V
KOEO = + 0.70V
KOER = + 0.70V
to 4.8V
Circuit 351:
K-Off = 0V
KOEO = 5V
KOER = 5V
03-52
Circuit 307:
K-Off = 0V
KOEO = 0V (w/foot pedal at rest)
0V (w/foot pedal at rest)
KOER 12V (w/foot pedal depressed)
Auxiliary Systems – Ignition
Drive-By-Wire Foot Pedal Wiring Harness – F8JL-12B476-AA
Circuit
Number
Circuit Description
Color
Wire
Size
361
VPWR (+) 12
R
20
359
Signal Return
GY-R
20
355
Drive by Wire Input
GY-W
20
351
VREF (+) 5V
B-W
20
307
Governor Select #2
BK-Y
20
Second Version Foot Pedal
1
2
3
A
1
2
3
4
4
A
Enlarged View
1
Signal Return
2
PP Sensor Signal
3
PP 5V Reference
4
Pedal Assembly Switch
Return Signal (Ground)
5
Power Feed From
Ignition Switch
5
5
Enlarged View
Circuit 359:
K-Off = 0V
KOEO = Ground
KOER = Ground
NOTE: All wires connect to the
42 Pin Connector as previous
pedal on Page 03-52.
A
Circuit 355:
K-Off = 0V
KOEO = + 0.70V
KOER = + 0.70V
to 4.8V
Circuit 351:
K-Off = 0V
KOEO = 5V
KOER = 5V
03-53
Circuit 307:
K-Off = 0V
KOEO = 12V (w/foot pedal at rest)
12V (w/foot pedal at rest)
KOER 0V (w/foot pedal depressed)
Auxiliary Systems – Ignition
Wiring Schematic – 4.2L & 2.5L Alternator, Gauges, Ignition – Drive-By-Wire
03-54
Auxiliary Systems – Ignition
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION INSTRUCTIONS OF ECM/ICM
NOTE: Make sure correct program is installed
before condeming ECM. To download or upload
program for validation, use Interface
Communication Cable Part Number F8JL-9A820AA. Call your nearest FPP Distributor listed in the
back of this manual.
Engine Control Module (ECM)
Electronic Engine Management System
By Ford Power Products
Removal:
1.
Remove the negative (ground) battery cable.
2.
Loosen the bolts (2) and remove the wire
connectors (2).
A
NOTE: Remove the vacuum hose from the ICM
3.
C
B
Remove the module hold down bolts (4).
Installation:
!
CAUTION: The installation instruction for
the ECM & ICM must be followed or potential
failure of component is likely.
A
ECM
B
NOTE: If the ECM or ICM’s was not installed
correctly when servicing, please call FPP
Customer Service (800) 521-0370.
Connector Port for A thru K (Connector
#12034391)
C
Connector Port L thru Y (Connector #12034400)
1.
Install the ECM or ICM in a vertical position
with the electrical connectors facing downward.
Ignition Control Module (ICM)
NOTE: The mounting location should be away from
all heat source in an area that will not exceed 180°F.
2.
Install the hold down bolts (4) and tighten for
ICM 8-10 Nm (71-88 lb/in). The ECM bolts (4)
tighten to .8 Nm (15 lb/in).
3.
Insert the two wire connectors using great care
not to bend or push out the terminals.
D
C
NOTE: The connectors are keyed for correct
installation always apply a small amount of dielectric
grease to the face of the connectors.
4.
A
Tighten the ECM connector bolts (2) to .8-2.5
Nm (15-19 lb/in).
NOTE: When the program has been changed on
an ECM, please mark on the outside of ECM cover
the date, program installed, and initial.
A
5 Pin Auxiliary Connector (Round)
B
10 Pin Main Connector (Oblong)
5.
Re-connect the vacuum hose on the ICM.
C
Ignition Control Module
6.
Re-connect the negative (ground) battery
cable.
D
Vacuum Port (5/32’’ I.D.) MAP Sensor
03-55
B
Auxiliary Systems – Ignition
SPECIFICATIONS
Spark Plug Wire Routing
Torque Specifications
Description
Nm
Lb/Ft
Lb/In
Air Intake Sensor
8-10
-
71-89
Camshaft Position
Sensor Bolts (2)
2.3-3.5
-
20.4-27.5
Camshaft
Synchronizer Bolt (1)
20-30
15-22
-
Crankshaft Position
Sensor
2-4
-
18-36
Cylinder Head
Temperature Sensor
9-11
-
80-95
.8
-
15
.8-2.5
-
15-19
Engine Control
Module Mounting
Bolts
Engine Control
Module Wire
Connector
Foot Pedal Mounting
Bolts
General Specifications
Item
Specification
Base Timing
10 Degrees Before Top
Dead Center
Firing Order
1-4-2-5-3-6
Spark Plug Gap mm (Inch)
Replacement Spark Plug
(Either Side)
Lubricant – Silicone
Dielectric Compund
Motorcraft WA-10
D7AZ-19A331-A
1.12 (.44 in.)
Motorcraft
AGSF-42FCM
ESE-M1C171-A
03-56
Non-Ford, Use OEM
Specifications
Heated Oxygen
Sensor
36-46
27-34
-
Idle Air Control
(IAC) Valve
11
-
84
Ignition Coil Nuts and
Stud Bolt
8-11
-
71-97
Ignition Control
Module Mounting
Bolts
8-10
-
71-88
Manifold Skin
Temperature Sensor
8-10
-
71-88
Spark Plugs
10-20
8-14
-
Throttle Position
Sensor
2.8-3.4
-
25-30
42 Pin Connector
Bolt
4-5.6
-
35.50
Auxiliary Systems – Fuel
FUEL INDEX
SUBJECT
PAGE
SUBJECT
PAGE
FUEL SYSTEM DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
Fuel Tank ...................................................................... 04-3
Fuels ............................................................................ 04-3
Fuel Filter ..................................................................... 04-3
Fuel Pump .................................................................... 04-3
Fuel Pump Relay ......................................................... 04-3
Fuel Pressure Regulator ............................................. 04-4
Fuel Return Line .......................................................... 04-4
Damper Assembly ....................................................... 04-4
Fuel Injectors ............................................................... 04-4
Fuel Rail ....................................................................... 04-4
Throttle Body ................................................................ 04-4
Option: Electronic Governors ....................................... 04-4
Fuel Pressure Relief Valve .......................................... 04-4
FUEL SYSTEM DIAGNOSTIC AND TESTING
Electrical ................................................................... 04-18
Fuel Pump Relay ...................................................... 04-18
Fuel Supply Pressure ............................................... 04-18
Service Check Chart ................................................. 04-19
General Information .................................................. 04-19
Flooding .................................................................... 04-19
Hard Start .................................................................. 04-19
Stalling ...................................................................... 04-19
Rough Idle ................................................................ 04-19
Surging Above Idle ................................................... 04-19
Poor Acceleration ..................................................... 04-20
Inconsistant Idle Speed ............................................ 04-20
Reduced Power Output ............................................ 04-20
GENERAL PROCEDURES
Pressure Relief ........................................................... 04-5
Coupling – Spring Lock .............................................. 04-6
Fittings – Push Connect .............................................. 04-9
Fittings – R-Clip ........................................................ 04-11
ACTUATOR
Barber Coleman Governor Actuator ......................... 04-21
Precision Governor Actuator .................................... 04-21
Electronic Variable Speed Governing Drive By
Wire (Electronic Throttle Control – EFI .................... 04-21
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
Fuel Injectors ............................................................ 04-14
Supply Manifold – Fuel Injection .............................. 04-15
Pressure Relief Valve ............................................... 04-17
LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS (LPG) & NATURAL GAS
(NG)
Fuel Lockout Relay ................................................... 04-22
Fuel Lockout Connector ........................................... 04-22
Dry Fuel Modulator ................................................... 04-23
Manifold Skin Temp Connector ................................ 04-23
DFT, CHT, ECT & IAT Sensor Data ........................... 04-24
Fuel Flow Diagram for LPG ...................................... 04-25
System Operation – LPG .......................................... 04-26
Fuel Systems – Field Calibrations/General .............. 04-26
Fuel Flow Diagram for Natural Gas .......................... 04-27
System Operation – Natural Gas .............................. 04-28
Specifications ........................................................... 04-29
04-1
04
Auxiliary Systems – Fuel
04-2
Auxiliary Systems – Fuel
FUEL SYSTEM DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
The fuel system is designed to deliver fuel safely,
and an adequate supply as demanded. All
connections are designed to prevent leaks and to
prevent lines from working loose. The delivery
system consists of a fuel tank, filter, pump, pressure
regulator, damper assembly, fuel rail, and injectors.
Fuel Flow Diagram for Gasoline/Petrol EFI
J
I
A
G
B
H
C
D
F
E
A
Fuel Tank
E
Fuel Pump Relay
H
Damper Assembly
B
Gasoline
F
Fuel Pressure Regulator &
Fuel Filter
I
Fuel Injectors
C
Fuel Filter
G
Return Fuel Line to Fuel Tank
J
Fuel Rail
D
Fuel Pump
D. Fuel pump:
A. Fuel tanks:
• The DOEM or OEM supplies tanks.
• Have a fuel outlet and return inlet.
• The gas cap must be vented.
! CAUTION: The electric fuel pump MUST
NOT be mounted directly on the engine
assembly, as engine vibration will shorten the
life of the pump.
B. Fuels: The following fuels must all be
UNLEADED AND CLEAN:
• Gasoline/petrol: This engine is designed to operate
on unleaded 87 or 89 octane gasoline.
• Gasohol/Ethanol: A mixture of gasoline and
ethanol (grain alcohol) containing up to 10%
ethanol by volume with properly formulated
cosolvents and other necessary additives. Blends
index of 87 or 89.
• Gasohol/Methanol: A mixture of gasoline and
alcohol (wood alcohol, etc.) containing up to 5%
methanol by volume with properly formulated
cosolvents and other necessary additives. Blends
index of 87 or 89.
• Inlet tube (7.9mm / 5/16 in.).
• Is a high-pressure fuel pump.
• Mounted on the frame rail, not on the engine.
• Must be mounted in packed foam.
• Is powered by B+ through a relay.
• Positive spade 5/16 in. is larger in size compared
to negative spade 1/4 in.
• Outlet tube (7.9mm / 5/16 in.) located at the
electrical connector end of pump.
E. Fuel pump relay:
• Powered by B+ from ECM.
• Controlled by the ECM.
• Directs B+ to fuel pump.
• Is identical and interchangable with the power,
starter, and alternate fuel relays.
C. Fuel filter:
• Low pressure.
• In-line type that has 20 micron filtration.
• Non serviceable.
• Must be replaced as needed.
04-3
Auxiliary Systems – Fuel
FUEL SYSTEM DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
F. Fuel pressure regulator and filter:
• Fuel enters through (7.9mm / 5/16 in.) inlet tube
located at center of the end of the regulator with
return outlet tube.
• Controls the fuel pressure at a constant 441 + or
-10 kPa (64 psi + or -1.5 psi) to the fuel rail.
• Directs excess fuel through the return outlet tube
(9.5mm / 3/8 in.) located off center of end with
inlet tube.
• Contains a fuel filter (filter media PMS 120 high
capacity pleated phenolic treated paper) that
cannot be serviced. Must replace complete unit
to service.
• Directs fuel out the single outlet tube (9.5mm / 3/
8 in.) located at center of opposite end of regulator.
The fuel charging and controls system consist of
the:
• Throttle body (9E926).
• Fuel charging wiring.
• Fuel pressure relief valve (9H321).
• Fuel injectors.
The fuel charging and controls system is:
• A sequential, multiport fuel injection (SFI) system.
• Pulse-width modulated.
The Actuator (throttle body):
NOTE: Cannot be serviced; must be replaced when
plugged or inoperative.
• Controls air supply to the upper intake manifold
(9424) by positioning the throttle plate at different
angles from wide open throttle, to partially opened
at idle.
G. Fuel return line:
• Fuel returning to tank is under pressure and may
be as high as 689 kPa (100 psi) if the line is
blocked.
• Excess fuel supplied by the fuel pump but not
needed by the engine is returned to the fuel tank.
! CAUTION: Do not force the throttle plate
open. This may cause permanent damage to the
actuator.
• Is not adjustable.
• Cannot be cleaned.
H. Damper assembly:
• Absorbs high-pressure spikes caused by shut
downs from high RPM and high demand of fuel
under a sudden full load.
• Must be mounted within 100mm from fuel rail.
NOTE: These two types of governors are controlled
by pre-determined setting electronically set in the
ECM. These settings are not adjustable. They can
only be programmed by authorized personnel only.
Contact your local FPP Distributor listed in the back
of this manual for information.
I. Fuel injectors (6 injectors):
• Sequential multiport fuel injectors.
• Batch fired during crank at start up.
• Solenoid operated electrically controlled by the
ECM.
• Positioned so their tips direct fuel just ahead of
the engine intake valves.
• Atomize the fuel as the fuel is delivered.
• Are deposit resistance. Do not clean.
The fuel pressure relief valve:
• Is a Schrader valve.
• Located on the fuel rail.
• Used to inspect and relieve fuel pressure.
NOTE: Cannot be serviced; must be replaced when
plugged or inoperative.
• Can be replaced.
J. Fuel rail:
• Attaches to the lower intake manifold.
• Receives fuel from the fuel supply line.
• Delivers fuel to the 6 injectors.
• Must be replaced as a complete unit if it fails.
• Holds the pressure test/relief Schrader valve.
04-4
Auxiliary Systems – Fuel
GENERAL PROCEDURES
Pressure Relief
!
WARNING: DO NOT SMOKE OR
CARRY LIGHTED TOBACCO OR OPEN FLAME
OF ANY TYPE WHEN WORKING ON OR NEAR
ANY FUEL-RELATED COMPONENT. HIGHLY
FLAMMABLE MIXTURES ARE ALWAYS
PRESENT AND MAY BE IGNITED, RESULTING
IN POSSIBLE PERSONAL INJURY.
Special Tool(s)
Fuel Pressure Gauge
310-012 (T80L-9974-B)
!
WARNING: FUEL IN THE FUEL SYSTEM
REMAINS UNDER HIGH PRESSURE EVEN
WHEN THE ENGINE IS NOT RUNNING.
BEFORE SERVICING OR DISCONNECTING
ANY OF THE FUEL LINES OR FUEL SYSTEM
COMPONENTS, THE FUEL SYSTEM
PRESSURE MUST BE RELIEVED TO PREVENT
ACCIDENTAL SPRAYING OF FUEL, CAUSING
PERSONAL INJURY OR A FIRE HAZARD.
Special Service Tools called for by the procedures
can be obtained by calling:
1-800-ROTUNDA (1-800-768-8632).
1. Remove the Schrader valve cap and install the
Fuel Pressure Gauge.
! WARNING: PLACE OR STORE ALL FUEL
IN A SUITABLE CONTAINER THAT COMPLIES
WITH OSHA REQUIREMENTS AND IS FM
APPROVED TO HELP PREVENT FIRES OR
EXPLOSION WHICH COULD RESULT IN
PERSONAL INJURY.
2. Open the manual valve slowly on the Fuel
Pressure Gauge and relieve the fuel pressure.
•
04-5
This will drain some fuel out of the system.
Auxiliary Systems – Fuel
GENERAL PROCEDURES (Continued)
Pressure Relief (Continued)
Special Tool(s)
Special Service Tools called for by the procedures
can be obtained by calling:
1-800-ROTUNDA (1-800-768-8632).
Fuel Storage Tanker
164-R3202 or equivalent
Coupling – Spring Lock
Disconnect spring lock.
Special Tool(s)
Spring Lock Coupler Tool
310-D004 (D87L-9280-A) or
equivalent
Special Service Tools called for by the procedures
can be obtained by calling:
1-800-ROTUNDA (1-800-768-8632).
Disconnect Tool (1/2 inch)
310-D005 (D87L-9280-B) or
equivalent
!
WARNING: DO NOT SMOKE OR
CARRY LIGHTED TOBACCO OR OPEN FLAME
OF ANY TYPE WHEN WORKING ON OR NEAR
ANY FUEL-RELATED COMPONENT. HIGHLY
FLAMMABLE MIXTURES ARE ALWAYS
PRESENT AND MAY BE IGNITED, RESULTING
IN POSSIBLE PERSONAL INJURY.
! WARNING: FUEL IN THE FUEL SYSTEM
REMAINS UNDER HIGH PRESSURE EVEN
WHEN THE ENGINE IS NOT RUNNING.
BEFORE SERVICING OR DISCONNECTING
ANY OF THE FUEL LINES OR FUEL SYSTEM
COMPONENTS, THE FUEL SYSTEM
PRESSURE MUST BE RELIEVED TO PREVENT
ACCIDENTAL SPRAYING OF FUEL, CAUSING
PERSONAL INJURY OR A FIRE HAZARD.
1. Disconnect the battery ground cable.
2. Relieve the fuel pressure. For additional
information, refer to Pressure Relief in this
section.
04-6
Auxiliary Systems – Fuel
GENERAL PROCEDURES (Continued)
3. Remove the fuel tube clip.
4. Install the Disconnect Tool.
5. Close and push the Disconnect Tool into the
open side of the cage.
6. Separate the fitting.
04-7
Auxiliary Systems – Fuel
GENERAL PROCEDURES (Continued)
7. Remove the Disconnect Tool.
Connect Spring Lock
1. Connect the fitting.
2.
04-8
•
Inspect and clean both the coupling ends.
•
Lubricate the O-rings with clean engine oil
meeting Ford specification WSSMN2C153-F.
•
Connect the fitting.
•
Pull on the fitting ot make sure it is fully
engaged.
•
Install the safety clip.
Connect the battery ground cable.
Auxiliary Systems – Fuel
GENERAL PROCEDURES (Continued)
Fittings – Push Connect
Special Tool(s)
Special Service Tools called for by the procedures
can be obtained by calling:
1-800-ROTUNDA (1-800-768-8632).
Fuel Line Disconnect Tool
310-S039 (T90T-9550-S)
Disconnect
!
WARNING: DO NOT SMOKE OR
CARRY LIGHTED TOBACCO OR OPEN FLAME
OF ANY TYPE WHEN WORKING ON OR NEAR
ANY FUEL-RELATED COMPONENT. HIGHLY
FLAMMABLE MIXTURES ARE ALWAYS
PRESENT AND MAY BE IGNITED, RESULTING
IN POSSIBLE PERSONAL INJURY.
!
WARNING: FUEL IN THE FUEL SYSTEM
REMAINS UNDER HIGH PRESSURE EVEN
WHEN THE ENGINE IS NOT RUNNING.
BEFORE SERVICING OR DISCONNECTING
ANY OF THE FUEL LINES OR FUEL SYSTEM
COMPONENTS, THE FUEL SYSTEM
PRESSURE MUST BE RELIEVED TO PREVENT
ACCIDENTAL SPRAYING OF FUEL, CAUSING
PERSONAL INJURY OR A FIRE HAZARD.
1. Disconnect the battery ground cable.
2. Relieve the fuel pressure. For additional
information, refer to Pressure Relief in this
section.
3. Disconnect the safety clip from the male hose.
04-9
Auxiliary Systems – Fuel
GENERAL PROCEDURES (Continued)
4. Install the Fuel Line Disconnect Set and push
into the fitting.
5. Separate the fittings.
• Inspect for damage.
• Clean the fittings.
Connect
1. Connect the fitting.
•
Lubricate the tube end with clean engine oil
meeting Ford specification WSS-M2C153F to easy assembly.
•
Align the tube to the fitting and push until
you hear a click.
2. First pull on the fitting to make sure it is fully
engaged, then install the safety clip.
3. Connect the battery ground cable.
04-10
Auxiliary Systems – Fuel
GENERAL PROCEDURES (Continued)
Fittings – R-Clip
!
WARNING: DO NOT SMOKE OR
CARRY LIGHTED TOBACCO OR OPEN FLAME
OF ANY TYPE WHEN WORKING ON OR NEAR
ANY FUEL-RELATED COMPONENT. HIGHLY
FLAMMABLE MIXTURES ARE ALWAYS
PRESENT AND MAY BE IGNITED, RESULTING
IN POSSIBLE PERSONAL INJURY.
!
WARNING: FUEL IN THE FUEL SYSTEM
REMAINS UNDER HIGH PRESSURE EVEN
WHEN THE ENGINE IS NOT RUNNING.
BEFORE SERVICING OR DISCONNECTING
ANY OF THE FUEL LINES OR FUEL SYSTEM
COMPONENTS, THE FUEL SYSTEM
PRESSURE MUST BE RELIEVED TO PREVENT
ACCIDENTAL SPRAYING OF FUEL, CAUSING
PERSONAL INJURY OR A FIRE HAZARD.
!
CAUTION: Do not use any tools. The use
of tools may cause a deformity in the clip
components which may cause fuel leaks.
1. Disconnect the battery.
2. Relieve the fuel pressure. For additional
information, refer to Pressure Relief in this
section.
3. Remove the shipping tab by bending downward.
4. Spread the hairpin clip legs and push the clip
into the fitting.
04-11
Auxiliary Systems – Fuel
GENERAL PROCEDURES (Continued)
5. Separate the fitting from the tube.
Connect
1. Inspect the fitting and the tube for damage.
Remove any dirt or obstructions.
2. Apply a light coat of clean engine oil meeting
Ford specification WSS- M2C153-F to the male
tube end.
3. Insert the hairpin clip into the fitting.
4. Align the tube and the fitting.
04-12
Auxiliary Systems – Fuel
GENERAL PROCEDURES (Continued)
5. Insert the tube in the fitting and push together
until a click is heard.
6. Pull on the connection to make sure it is fully
engaged.
7. Connect the battery.
04-13
Auxiliary Systems – Fuel
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
Fuel Injectors
Removal
!
WARNING: DO NOT SMOKE OR
CARRY LIGHTED TOBACCO OR OPEN FLAME
OF ANY TYPE WHEN WORKING ON OR NEAR
ANY FUEL-RELATED COMPONENT. HIGHLY
FLAMMABLE MIXTURES ARE ALWAYS
PRESENT AND MAY BE IGNITED, RESULTING
IN POSSIBLE PERSONAL INJURY.
! WARNING: FUEL IN THE FUEL SYSTEM
REMAINS UNDER HIGH PRESSURE EVEN
WHEN THE ENGINE IS NOT RUNNING.
BEFORE WORKING ON OR DISCONNECTING
ANY OF THE FUEL LINES OR FUEL SYSTEM
COMPONENTS, THE FUEL SYSTEM
PRESSURE MUST BE RELIEVED. FAILURE TO
FOLLOW THESE INSTRUCTIONS MAY
RESULT IN PERSONAL INJURY.
1. Disconnect the battery ground cable.
2. Relieve fuel pressure. For additional
information, refer to this section.
3. Remove the fuel injection supply manifold
(9F792). For additional information, refer to
Supply Manifold – Fuel Injection in this section.
4.
! CAUTION: The fuel injectors (9F593)
are deposit-resistant. Do not clean the fuel
injectors.
Remove the fuel injector retaining clips and the
fuel injectors. Inpsect the fuel injector O-rings
and, if necessary, install new O-rings.
Installation
1.
! CAUTION: Install the injector clips in
the uppermost groove of the fuel injectors.
NOTE: Lubricate new O-rings with clean engine
oil, XO-10W30-QSP or DSP or equivalent
meeting Ford specification WSS-M2C153-G, to
aid installation.
To install, reverse the removal procedure.
2. Connect the battery ground cable.
04-14
Auxiliary Systems – Fuel
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
Supply Manifold – Fuel Injection
!
WARNING: DO NOT SMOKE OR
CARRY LIGHTED TOBACCO OR OPEN FLAME
OF ANY TYPE WHEN WORKING ON OR NEAR
ANY FUEL-RELATED COMPONENT. HIGHLY
FLAMMABLE MIXTURES ARE ALWAYS
PRESENT AND MAY BE IGNITED, RESULTING
IN POSSIBLE PERSONAL INJURY.
! WARNING: FUEL IN THE FUEL SYSTEM
REMAINS UNDER HIGH PRESSURE EVEN
WHEN THE ENGINE IS NOT RUNNING.
BEFORE WORKING ON OR DISCONNECTING
ANY OF THE FUEL LINES OR FUEL SYSTEM
COMPONENTS, THE FUEL SYSTEM
PRESSURE MUST BE RELIEVED. FAILURE TO
FOLLOW THESE INSTRUCTIONS MAY
RESULT IN PERSONAL INJURY.
1. Disconnect the battery ground cable.
2. Relieve fuel pressure. For additional
information, refer to this section.
3. Remove the upper intake manifold (9424). For
additional information, refer to Section 02.
4.
! CAUTION: After disconnecting, plug
the fuel lines to prevent leakage.
Disconnect the fuel lines. For additional
information, refer to this section.
5. NOTE: One fuel injector is shown, all are similar.
Disconnect the six fuel injector electrical
connectors.
6. Remove the fuel injection supply manifold
(9F792).
1. Remove the bolts.
2. Remove the fuel injection supply manifold.
04-15
Auxiliary Systems – Fuel
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
7. Inspect the two O-rings from each fuel injector.
Install new O-rings as needed.
Installation
1. NOTE: Lubricate new O-rings with clean engine
oil, XO-5W20-QSP or DSP or equivalent
meeting Ford specification WSS-M2C153-G, to
aid installation.
To install, reverse the removal procedure. The
injectors are pushed into lower intake manifold.
Use care aligning all injectors into each hole
before applying downward pressure on the
supply manifold until each of the injectors are
completely seated.
2. Connect the battery ground cable.
04-16
Auxiliary Systems – Fuel
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
Pressure Relief Valve
!
WARNING: DO NOT SMOKE OR
CARRY LIGHTED TOBACCO OR OPEN FLAME
OF ANY TYPE WHEN WORKING ON OR NEAR
ANY FUEL-RELATED COMPONENT. HIGHLY
FLAMMABLE MIXTURES ARE ALWAYS
PRESENT AND MAY BE IGNITED, RESULTING
IN POSSIBLE PERSONAL INJURY.
!
WARNING: FUEL IN THE FUEL SYSTEM
REMAINS UNDER HIGH PRESSURE EVEN
WHEN THE ENGINE IS NOT RUNNING.
BEFORE WORKING ON OR DISCONNECTING
ANY OF THE FUEL LINES OR FUEL SYSTEM
COMPONENTS, THE FUEL SYSTEM
PRESSURE MUST BE RELIEVED. FAILURE TO
FOLLOW THESE INSTRUCTIONS MAY
RESULT IN PERSONAL INJURY.
1. Disconnect the battery ground cable.
2. Relieve fuel pressure. For additional
information, refer to this Section.
3. Remove the fuel pressure relief valve (9H321)
with the fuel pressure relief valve cap (9H323).
Installation
1. To install, reverse the removal procedure.
NOTE: Use teflon tape on threads using caution
not to allow tape particles to enter fuel system. Do
not use in excess.
2. Connect the battery ground cable.
04-17
Auxiliary Systems – Fuel
FUEL SYSTEM DESCRIPTION AND TESTING
Electrical
1. Connect the positive lead of a voltmeter to the
pump power wire, circuit 787 (PK-BK) from pin
#5 of 42 pin connector, and the negative lead to
a known good ground.
2. Turn on the ignition switch.
3. The voltmeter should read 12 volts, for 3
seconds. If not, check the power supply from
the fuel pump relay to the pump, and the ground
wire between pump and engine cylinder block.
Circuit 361A –> Splice #1 –> Power Relay Circuit
361A
K- Off = 0V
KOEO = B+
KOER = B+
Crank = B+
4. Once you have established the integrity of the
power supply and ground to the pump, if it still
will not operate, replace the pump assembly.
Fuel Supply and Pressure
If a problem with fuel supply or delivery is
suspected, first ensure that there is fuel in the tank.
Next ensure that the in line filter between the fuel
tank and the pump is clean. Once these items have
been checked and verified, proceed as follows:
1. Connect a pressure gauge onto the pressure
relief valve at the fuel rail.
2. Turn on the ignition switch, but do not start the
engine.
3. The pump should “click’’ rapidly for 3 seconds,
and pressure should built to, and level off at 64
PSI.
NOTE: Ignition switch may have to be cycled
twice to build pressure to 64 psi.
4. If pressure fails to come up, check for an
obstruction in the supply line from the tank to
the pump, and between the pump and fuel rail.
Fuel Pump Relay
Circuit 926A –> ECM Pin P3
K- Off = 0V
KOEO = B+
KOER = BCrank = BCircuit 787A –> Splice #11 –> ECM 238 DG-Y
18g @ Pin F3: Also #42 Pin Conn @ Pin 05
K- Off = 0V
KOEO = B+ (3 seconds)
KOER = B+
Crank = B+
Circuit 37C –> Splice #01 –> 42 Pin Conn @
Pin 09
B+ all times
5. If pressure starts to drop off, block return line
to fuel tank. Recycle ignition switch and
recheck pressure. If pressure continues to drop
off, check for leaks in line or a leaking injector(s).
6. Ensure that the fuel cap vent is operating
properly. The vent should allow air to enter the
tanks as fuel is removed. Correct any
obstruction or restriction found.
NOTE: If no obstruction is found, and the electrical
supply, ground, and fuel supply to the pump as
described above, are verified all right, replace the
pump assembly.
7. Start the engine and allow it to come up to
operating temerature.
8. Fuel pressure should be maintained at 62 PSI.
04-18
Auxiliary Systems – Fuel
FUEL SYSTEM DESCRIPTION AND TESTING (Continued)
NOTE: If all of the above checks have been carried
out, and fuel pressure cannot be maintained,
replace the fuel pump assembly.
SERVICE CHECK CHART
9. If fuel pressure cannot be maintained, verify that
all of the above checks have been carried out.
CONDITION
Insufficient fuel delivery
POSSIBLE SOURCE
ACTION
• Clogged pump filter, plugged fuel tank vent,
pressure regulator, or fuel filter.
• A break or restriction in fuel lines.
• Clogged fuel pump, pressure regulator or
fuel tank vent/cap.
• Replace as needed.
• Repair fuel line or remove restriction.
Pump not operating
• Inoperative or damaged pump, loose ground,
or improper wiring.
• Faulty fuel pump relay.
• Replace pump.
• Inspect all monting or wiring.
• Replace fuel pump relay.
Flooding
• Leaking injector
• Pressure regulator malfunction.
• Air leak on inlet side of pump due to holes in
fuel line or loose fittings.
• Replace injector.
• Replace pressure regulator.
• Replace fuel line, and tighten fittings (apply a
sealer, if necessary).
Fuel pump leaks
• Fuel line fitting connections at pump are
loose or dirty.
• Tighten and clean all connections at pump.
• Repair or replace as needed.
General Information
Flooding
Water and dirt that accumulate in the fuel tank can
cause a restricted fuel line, filter, or malfunction of
the fuel pump. Condensation, which is the greatest
source of water entering the fuel tank, is formed by
moisture in the air when it strikes the cold interior
walls of the fuel tank.
When flooding occurs disconnect power to fuel
pump relay and start engine. When engine stops
re-connect relay and re-start engine.
If the accumulation of dirt and water in the filter is
excessive, the fuel tank should be removed and
flushed, and the line from the fuel pump to the tank
should be blown out. Air leakage in the fuel inlet
line can cause low fuel pump pressure and volume.
A restricted fuel tank vent can cause low fuel pump
pressure and volume and can result in collapsed
inlet hoses or a collapsed fuel tank. High or low
pressure are the two most likely fuel pump troubles
that will affect engine performance. Low pressure
will cause a lean mixture and fuel starvation at high
speeds, and excessive pressure will cause high
fuel consumption and possible flooding.
Hard Starting
Dripping fuel injectors, blocked air intake passage,
low fuel volume or pressure. Repair, adjust or replace
components as necessary.
Stalling
Improper air/fuel supply IAC malfunctioning or an
idle speed set too low causes an engine to stall.
NOTE: Idle speed is set by using a computer. Refer
to Diagnostic Manual. Correct these systems as
necessary. The stalling problem may be due to a
loose throttle shaft in the bore of the throttle body.
Repair as necessary. Throttle body icing (7.2°C/
45°F and lower) is also a cause of stalling.
Rough Idle
If a problem seems to occur in one engine cylinder,
the ignition system or a fuel injector may be at fault.
If the problem seems to occur in all engine cylinders,
then the problem could be either fuel or ignition.
Check the fuel system first. Dirt or water in the gas
tank, leaks in the fuel lines, ECM, or a defective
fuel pump. Observation, pressure test and volume
tests on the fuel system show whether the fuel
system is the cause of the problem.
An improper air/fuel supply can cause rough idle.
Adjust, repair, or replace.
Surging Above Idle
Surging above idle may be caused by a fuel
pressure too low, due to faulty cylinder head
temperature sensor CHTS or faulty fuel pressure
regulator, restricted fuel passages, faulty fuel pump,
governors, or ECM. Adjust, clean, or replace as
necessary.
04-19
Auxiliary Systems – Fuel
FUEL SYSTEM DESCRIPTION AND TESTING (Continued)
Fuel Pump
Poor Acceleration or Load Response Time
Poor acceleration may be caused by a mixture
being too rich or too lean. If a rich mixture is the
cause of poor acceleration, the fault may be fuel
pressure, faulty injector, or injectors, IAT, CHTS,
fuel pump, fuel pressure regulator. Repair or replace
as necessary.
Large Spade 5/16”
B+ (12V)
F8JL-9A350-AA
Harness
42 Pin
Connector
Pin #5
PK-BK
>
Fuel Outlet
If a lean mixture is the cause of poor acceleration,
the fault may be low fuel pressure, faulty fuel
pressure regulator, fuel pump. Air leaks are also
responsible for a lean mixture causing poor
acceleration. Leaks may occur at the actuator to
the intake manifold, upper intake to lower intake, or
the lower intake manifold to the cylinder head.
Cracks in the assemblies or worn gaskets cause
these air leaks. Clean, repair or replace as
necessary.
Inconsistant Idle Speed
BK
B- Small
Spade 1/4”
Fuel Inlet
B+ VPWR
K-Off = OV
KOEO = VPWR (B+) for 3 seconds
KOER = VPWR (B+)
Crank = VPWR (B+)
B- Ground
Inconsistant idle speed is mostly a throttle-related
problem. A sticking throttle shaft, or a loose shaft
in the actuator body or bore can cause inconsistent
idle speed. A faulty idle air control motor (IAC) will
also cause the problem. Repair, replace or adjust
as necessary.
Reduced Power Output
Reduced power output may be caused by a throttle
plate not opening fully, or low fuel pressure. Clean,
adjust, repair, or replace as necessary.
04-20
Auxiliary Systems – Fuel
Actuator
Two types of actuators are available as options for
electronic variable speed governing – EFI. Either a
Barber Coleman or Precision Governor Actuator
are available.
Barber Coleman Phase II Governor Actuator
The ECM can, within the operating parameters, be
programmed to accept up to four engine speeds.
The speed is selected by means of a remote toggle
switch.
ALL ACTUATORS (DRY FUEL MODULATOR)
361H R
S01
264 W-LB
361H VPWR
R1
K1
04-21
Precision Governor Actuator
Auxiliary Systems – Fuel
Liquid Petroleum Gas and Natural Gas (LPG & NG)
Fuel Lockout Relay
18
361E R
570J BK-W 16
Fuel Lockout Connector (Closed Loop)
TO
FUEL
LOCKOUT
NOTE: Alternate fuel select switch is supplied by
customer. All test must be completed with fuel select
switch in the alternate fuel position.
NOTE: Make all following checks with connector
connected to relay and back probe wire circuits
with paper clip.
NOTE: Fuel Lockout solenoid is supplied by
customer.
Circuit 570J –> Fuel Lockout Relay
K-Off = 0V
KOEO = Ground = Bad relay - ECM - Wiring
KOER = Ground
Circuit 361E –> Splice #1
Circuit 242 –> ECM Connector Pin #P2
K- Off = 0V
KOEO = B- (Ground)
KOER = Ground
Circuit 570J –> To Fuel Lockout Relay
K-Off = 0V
KOEO =
Same voltage if unit has fuel
KOER =
lockout solenoid
Circuit 570H –> Splice #10 –> 42 Pin Connector
Pin 34 or 42
K-Off = BKOEO = BKOER = BCircuit 361C –> Splice #1
K-Off = 0V
KOEO = 12V Fuse or wiring
KOER = 12V Fuse
04-22
Auxiliary Systems – Fuel
Liquid Petroleum Gas and Natural Gas (LPG & NG)
BK-Y 20
225
359D GY-R 20
Manifold Skin Temp Connector
361F R 18
77 DB-Y 18
Dry Fuel Modulator Connector
TO
MANIFOLD
SKIN TEMP
TO
DRY FUEL
MODULATOR
NOTE: For future application controls alternate fuel
closed loop system.
Manifold skin temperature reads manifold surface
(SKIN) temperature.
Circuit 77 –> R-2
K-Off = 0V
KOEO = N/A
KOER = N/A
Circuit 359D –> Splice #5 –> ECM Pin #B2
K-Off = 0V
KOEO = 5V
KOER = 5V
Circuit 361F –> Splice #1
K-Off = 0V
KOEO = N/A
KOER = N/A
Circuit 225 –> ECM Pin #D3
K-Off = 0V
KOED
Use chart on Page 04-24
KOER
for volt reading
NOTE: Check for Ohm reading across the two pins
of DFT sensor unplugged per chart on Page 0424.
04-23
Auxiliary Systems – Fuel
MST, CHT, ECT & IAT SENSOR DATA
Temperature Sensor Characteristics
TEMPERATURE
NOM R,
NOM E OUT
(C)
(F)
(OHMS)
(VOLTS)
-40
-40
925,021
4.54
-35
-31
673,787
4.50
-30
-22
496,051
4.46
-25
-13
368,896
4.41
-20
-4
276,959
4.34
-15
5
209,816
4.25
-10
14
160,313
4.15
-5
23
123,485
4.02
0
32
95,851
3.88
5
41
74,914
3.71
10
50
58,987
3.52
15
59
46,774
3.32
20
68
37,340
3.09
25
77
30,000
2.86
30
86
24,253
2.62
35
95
19,716
2.39
40
104
16,113
2.15
45
113
13,236
1.93
50
122
10,926
1.72
55
131
9,061
1.52
60
140
7,548
1.34
65
149
6,332
1.18
70
158
5,335
1.04
75
167
4,515
.91
80
176
3,837
.79
85
185
3,274
.70
90
194
2,804
.61
95
203
2,411
.53
100
212
2,080
.47
105
221
1,801
.41
110
230
1,564
.36
115
239
1,363
.32
120
248
1,191
.28
125
257
1,044
.25
130
266
918
.22
135
275
809
.19
140
284
715
.17
145
293
633
.15
150
302
563
.14
Voltage values calculated for VREF=5 volts (may vary 15% due to sensor
and VREF variations).
04-24
Auxiliary Systems – Fuel
FUEL SYSTEM DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
Fuel Flow Diagram for LPG
R
VACUUM CONNECTOR
Q
VACUUM OPERATED
ON/OFF SWITCH
MIXER
B
C
AIR INTAKEA
C
VAPORIZER
REGULATOR
D
P
LPG
FUEL LINE
FUEL LINE
M
SOLENOID
FUEL LINE
FUEL LINE
FUEL N
FILTER
FUELO
TANK
F
INLET
OUTLET
SHUT
OFF VALVE
L
E
ENGINE
G
KEY
K
COOLANT
H
HOSES
BATTERY
I
J SWITCH
IGNITION
A
Air Intake
E
Engine
I
Battery
M
Solenoid
B
Mixer
F
Outlet
J
Ignition Switch
N
Fuel Filter
C
Fuel Line
G
Inlet
K
Key
O
Fuel Tank
D
Vaporizer Regulator
H
Coolant Hoses
L
Shut Off Valve
P
LPG
VAPORIZER/REGULATOR
Type: 2 stage
Max. inlet pressure:
Primary outlet pressure:
Secondary outlet pressure:
Fuel inlet connection:
Fuel outlet connection:
Coolant connections:
Fuel outlet hose:
Coolant hose:
2150 kPa
10.3 kPa
0.37 kPa
1/4 NPTF
1 NPTF
3/8 NPTF
19.1 mm inside dia.
15.8 mm inside dia.
THROTTLE BODY – FORD
Type:
Angle of operation:
Bore:
Throttle linkage connection:
Retaining studs spacing:
POWER PRODUCTS
Butterfly plate
75° total movement
27.0 mm dia.
6.35 mm dia. ball
76.2 mm
MIXER
Type:
Air inlet bore:
Fuel inlet connection:
Mixture outlet bore:
Vacuum pipe nipple:
Vacuum Operated
On/Off Switch
R
Vacuum Connector
Air valve venturi
77.8 mm diameter
3/4 NPTF
60.3 mm diameter
6.35 mm outside
diameter
SHUT-OFF VALVE
Type:
Max. working pressure:
Inlet connection:
Outlet connection:
Coil:
Double poppet valve
2150 kPa
1/4 NPTF
1/4 NPTF
12V 6W
SAFETY SWITCH
Type:
Vacuum operated
FUEL
Fuel:
Fuel Specifications:
04-25
Q
Liquefied Petroleum
Gas (LPG)
EN 589 (European)
HO-5 (USA)
Auxiliary Systems – Fuel
SYSTEM OPERATION – LPG
!
WARNING:
!
WHEN INSTALLING ANY LIQUID PETROLEUM GAS/FUEL
SYSTEMS, FOLLOW ALL COUNTRY AND LOCAL CODES.
IN THE USA FOLLOW ALL REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS
MANDATED BY THE NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION
ASSOCIATION, INC. INCLUDING NEPA 37, NFPA 52, AND NFPA
58, PLUS ANY OTHER STANDARDS. YOU CAN OBTAIN COPIES
FROM YOUR LOCAL FIRE DEPARTMENT.
FOR CANADIAN CODES SEE NATIONAL STANDARDS OF
CANADA.
IN THE UNITED KINGDOM FOLLOW THE CODE OF PRACTICE
ELEVEN PRODUCED BY THE LPG/NG ASSOCIATION.
Since your LPG & NG units are not purchased
through Ford Power Products, they are not
calibrated specifically to your application. It is a
requirement that each of these units are calibrated
by the customer within the acceptable limits
provided by Ford Power Products Engineering.
**Development testing is underway to provide the
customer with appropriate guidelines to
successfully calibrate their LPG & NG fuel
systems. Recommendations may include but are
not be limited to: air-fuel ratios, exhaust
temperatures, and mixer/regulator orientation.**
High pressure liquefied Petroleum Gas passes
through a solenoid operated fuel shut-off valve into
an engine coolant heated vaporizer/regulator unit
where it is converted into a low pressure gas. This
gas is then fed into the carburetor body/mixer where
a vacuum operated gas metering valve ensures
that the correct air-to-fuel ratio is maintained.
When the engine is switched off, the electrical
supply to the fuel shut-off solenoid is disconnected
and the valve closes, cutting off the high pressure
fuel supply to the vaporizer/regulator. The electrical
supply to fuel shut-off valve passes through a
vacuum operated safety switch. Should the engine
stall, the vacuum switch opens and cuts off the
electrical supply to the fuel shut-off valve. When
starting the engine, there is sufficient vacuum
present, even at cranking speed, to close the safety
switch.
FUEL SYSTEMS – FIELD CALIBRATIONS/
GENERAL
When performing field calibrations on LPG & NG
systems, it should be noted that improper fuel
calibrations and/or improper hardware installation
may result in decreased durability/life of the cylinder
head valve train. Validation testing on the valve train
was conducted in a controlled laboratory
environment with proper air-fuel distribution and
proper air-fuel ratios which fall within acceptable
ranges.
04-26
Auxiliary Systems – Fuel
FUEL SYSTEM DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
Fuel Flow Diagram for Natural Gas
VACUUM C
CONNECTOR
F
VAPORIZER
REGULATOR
E
MIXER
B
AIR INTAKEA
FUEL LINE
FUEL LINE
FUEL LINE
ENGINE
D
Air Intake
D
Engine
G
Shut Off Valve
B
Mixer
E
Regulator
H
Fuel Filter
C
Fuel Line
F
Vacuum
Connector
I
Fuel Tank
REGULATOR – 5.0 kPa Inlet, 1.5 kPa Outlet
This is to be supplied by the OEM to suit the
operating conditions (gas supply pressure).
THROTTLE BODY – FORD
PRODUCTS
Type:
Angle of operation:
Bore:
Throttle linkage connection:
Retaining studs spacing:
POWER
Butterfly plate
75° total movement
27.0 mm dia.
6.35 mm dia. ball
68.26 mm
FUEL LINE
H
FUEL FILTER
FUEL ITANK
G VALVE
SHUT OFF
C
A
MIXER
Type:
Air inlet bore:
Fuel inlet connection:
Mixture outlet bore:
Max. inlet pressure:
J
NG
J
NG
SHUT-OFF VALVE
Type:
Double poppet valve
Max. working pressure:
2150 kPa
Inlet connection:
3/4 NPTF
Outlet connection:
3/4 NPTF
Coil:
12V 6W
SAFETY SWITCH
Type:
FUEL
Fuel:
Fuel Specifications:
Air valve venturi
77.8 mm diameter
3/4 NPTF
60.3 mm diameter
1.5 kPa
04-27
Vacuum operated
Natural Gas
38.7 MJ/m3 (UK)
39.0 MJ/m3 (USA)
Auxiliary Systems – Fuel
FUEL SYSTEM DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
SYSTEM OPERATION – NATURAL GAS
!
WARNING:
!
WHEN INSTALLING ANY NATURAL GAS/FUEL SYSTEMS,
FOLLOW ALL COUNTRY AND LOCAL CODES.
IN THE USA FOLLOW ALL REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS
MANDATED BY THE NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION
ASSOCIATION, INC. INCLUDING NEPA 37, NFPA 52, AND NFPA
58, PLUS ANY OTHER STANDARDS. YOU CAN OBTAIN COPIES
FROM YOUR LOCAL FIRE DEPARTMENT.
FOR CANADIAN CODES SEE NATIONAL STANDARDS OF
CANADA.
Should the engine stall, the loss of vacuum will close
the fuel shut-off valve. When starting the engine,
there is sufficient vacuum present, even at cranking
speed, to open the fuel shut-off valve.
The system is similar to the LPG system, except a
convertor (vaporizer) is not used, and the coolant
connections are also not needed. A regulator is
required and must be supplied by the OEM to suit
the mains gas supply pressure.
IN THE UNITED KINGDOM FOLLOW THE CODE OF PRACTICE
ELEVEN PRODUCED BY THE LPG/NG ASSOCIATION.
Natural gas passes through a vacuum operated
fuel shut-off valve into a regulator unit where it is
converted into a low pressure gas. This gas is then
fed into the mixer where a vacuum operated gas
metering valve ensures that the correct air-to-fuel
ratio is maintained.
When the engine is switched off, vacuum supply
to the fuel shut-off vacuum is disconnected and
the valve closes, cutting off the fuel supply to the
regulator.
04-28
Auxiliary Systems – Fuel
SPECIFICATIONS
General Specifications
Item
Fluid/Lubrication
Specification
Engine oil XO-10W30-QSP
or DSP
Specification
WSS-M2C153-G
Torque Specifications
Description
42 Pin Engine Wiring Harness
Electrical Connector Bolt
Fuel Injection Supply Manifold
Bolts
Fuel Pressure Relief Valve
Throttle Body Nuts and Bolts
Nm
Lb/In
4-5.6
35-50
8-11.5
7.75
10
71-102
69
89
Pressure
Fuel Pump
Normal
441 kPa
(64 psi)
Maximum
451 kPa
(66 psi)
Minimum
431 kPa
(62 psi)
NOTE: Fuel pump has capability to produce 100+ PSI.
04-29
Auxiliary Systems – Cooling
COOLING INDEX
SUBJECT
PAGE
SUBJECT
Cooling System, Description And Operation ............. 05-3
Engine Cooling ............................................................ 05-3
The Coolant Fan ........................................................... 05-4
Coolant Flow ................................................................ 05-4
The Radiator ................................................................ 05-4
The Radiator Cap ........................................................ 05-4
Recycled Coolant ........................................................ 05-4
Unsatisfactory Coolant Materials ................................ 05-4
Water Temperature Sending Unit ................................ 05-4
Block Heater ................................................................ 05-4
PAGE
Cooling System, Diagnosing And Testing ................ 05-19
General Test Procedures ........................................... 05-19
Cooling System Pressure Test ................................... 05-20
Engine Cooling .......................................................... 05-22
Visual Inspection Chart .............................................. 05-22
Inspection and Verification ......................................... 05-22
Symptom Chart .......................................................... 05-22
Pinpoint Tests ............................................................. 05-23
Component Tests ....................................................... 05-29
Pressure Test ............................................................. 05-29
Cap – Pressure Relief ............................................... 05-30
Thermostat ................................................................. 05-30
Thermostat Test – Thermostat Removed ................... 05-30
Radiator Leak Test, Removed From Vehicle ..............05-31
Engine Cylinder Head Temperature (CHT)
Sensor ...................................................................... 05-31
Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC) 43 Engine
Cylinder Head Temperature Low Voltage and
DTC 33 for High Voltage .......................................... 05-31
Circuit Description ..................................................... 05-31
Conditions for Setting the DTC .................................. 05-31
Actions Taken When the DTC Sets ............................ 05-32
Conditions for Clearing the DTC
(Resetting the MIL) ................................................... 05-32
Diagnostic Aids .......................................................... 05-32
Temperature Sensor Characteristics ......................... 05-33
V-Ribbed Serpentine Drive Belt ................................. 05-34
Visual Inspection ........................................................ 05-34
Symptom Chart .......................................................... 05-34
4.2L Belt, Drive Tensioner/Belt Length Indicator ....... 05-35
Drive Belt Misalignment ............................................. 05-35
General Procedures ..................................................... 05-5
Cooling System Draining, Filling & Flushing .............. 05-5
Filling ........................................................................... 05-7
Flushing – Engine & Radiator ..................................... 05-8
Flushing – Heater Core ............................................... 05-9
Cooling System, Removal And Installation .............. 05-10
Radiator Hose ............................................................ 05-10
Thermostat ................................................................. 05-10
With or Without Heater or Dry Fuel
Evaporator Plumbing ............................................... 05-11
Installation of Heater Water Inlet Tube ....................... 05-11
Installation of Water Heater Outlet
Tube Assembly with by-pass Hose .......................... 05-11
Cylinder Head Temperature Sensor .......................... 05-12
Cooling Fan ............................................................... 05-13
Fan Drive Belt ............................................................ 05-13
Removal And Installation .......................................... 05-14
Belt Tensioner ............................................................ 05-14
Belt Idler Pulley .......................................................... 05-15
Block Heater .............................................................. 05-16
Water Pump ............................................................... 05-18
Specifications ............................................................. 05-36
05-1
05
Auxiliary Systems – Cooling
05-2
Auxiliary Systems – Cooling
COOLING SYSTEM, DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
Engine Cooling
• Water temperature indicator sender unit (10884).
Walter C. Avrea, the owner of patents 3,601,181
and RE27,965, has granted Ford Motor Company
rights with respect to cooling systems covered by
these patents.
• Water thermostat and gasket assembly.
• Upper radiator hose (8B275).
• Lower radiator hose (8B273).
The cooling system components are:
• Bypass hose and heater hose system.
• Block heater (6A051).
Degas bottle:
• Engine coolant temperature sensor (ECT sensor)
(12A648).
• Radiator degas bottle (8A080).
• Fan blade (8600).
– Holds surplus coolant when hot.
• Fan clutch (8A616).
– De-aerates the system reducing engine hot
spots.
• Fan shroud (8146).
– Location for service fill.
• Radiator (8005).
– Allows coolant expansion and system
pressurization [110 kPa (16 psi)].
• Radiator cap (8100).
• Radiator degas bottle (8A080).
– Air separation during operation.
• Radiator draincock (8115).
– Replenishes coolant to system.
05-3
Auxiliary Systems – Cooling
COOLING SYSTEM, DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
The Coolant Fan:
Recycled coolant:
– The fan blade can either draw or push air through
the radiator to help cool the system coolant.
Coolant flow is as follows:
• Use recycled engine coolant produced by Ford
approved processes. Not all coolant recycling
processes produce coolant which meets Ford
specification ESE-M97B44-A or WSS-M97B44D, and use of such a coolant may harm engine
and cooling system components.
• The water pump (8501) circulates the coolant.
Unsatisfactory coolant materials:
• From the water pump to the engine block and the
cylinder heads (6049) to the thermostat.
• Alcohol-type antifreeze does not provide adequate
water pump lubrication.
– The fan clutch is a thermostatic-controlled clutch
that controls the fan drive.
– Thermostat closed, the coolant returns to the
water pump through bypass hose.
– Has a lower boiling point.
– Provides reduced antifreeze protection.
– Thermostat open, the coolant flows back to the
radiator.
! CAUTION: Alkaline brine solutions will
cause serious engine cooling system damage.
– To the radiator for heat rejection then back to
the lower radiator hose.
! CAUTION: Do not nuse. 100,000 mile, red
in color antifreeze, it is not compatable with
copper radiators.
– From the lower radiator hose (8286) to the water
pump.
The water temperature indicator sender unit:
The Radiator:
– Provides a signal to the temperature gauge.
– The radiator allows excess heat to be transferred
to the air.
The block heater:
– The radiator can be serviced.
• Is an optional electrical heating element installed
in a core plug opening.
The Radiator Cap:
– Uses a standard 110v electrical supply.
– Maintains 16 lbs. pressure.
– Keeps the engine coolant warm during cold
weather.
– Coolant under pressure.
• Raises the boiling point of the coolant
• Helps prevent vapor locks in engine block and
cooling system.
Coolant:
• Use a 50/50 mix of Ethylene Glycol Permanent
Antifreeze and water. This mixture is to be used
year-round with temperatures above -34.4°C
(-30°F).
05-4
Auxiliary Systems – Cooling
GENERAL PROCEDURES
Cooling System Draining, Filling and Flushing
Draining
!
WARNING: NEVER REMOVE THE
PRESSURE RELIEF CAP WHILE THE ENGINE
IS OPERATING OR WHEN THE COOLING
SYSTEM IS HOT. MAY CAUSE PERSONAL
INJURY OR DAMAGE TO COOLING SYSTEM
OR ENGINE. TO AVOID HAVING SCALDING
HOT COOLANT OR STEAM BLOW OUT OF
THE DEGAS BOTTLE WHEN REMOVING THE
PRESSURE RELIEF CAP, WAIT UNTIL THE
ENGINE HAS COOLED DOWN TO AT LEAST
43.3°C (110°F).
05-5
1.
Wrap a thick cloth around the pressure relief
cap and turn it slowly one-half turn
counterclockwise. Stepping back while the
pressure is released from the cooling system.
2.
When you are sure all the pressure has been
released, (still with a cloth) turn
counterclockwise and remove the pressure
relief cap.
Auxiliary Systems – Cooling
GENERAL PROCEDURES (Continued)
! CAUTION: The coolant must be recovered
in a suitable, clean container for reuse. If the
coolant is contaminated it must be recycled or
disposed of properly.
NOTE: About 80% of coolant capacity can be
recovered with the engine in the vehicle. Dirty, rusty
or contaminated coolant requires replacement.
3. Place a suitable container below the radiator
draincock (8115). If equipped, disconnect the
coolant return hose at the fluid cooler.
4. Open the radiator draincock.
5. Remove the cylinder drain plug, if equipped, to
drain the coolant from the cylinder block (6010).
1. Place a drain pan below the cylinder block.
2. Remove the drain plugs.
05-6
Auxiliary Systems – Cooling
GENERAL PROCEDURES (Continued)
6. When the coolant is drained, make sure drain
plugs are installed and tight.
20 Nm (15 lb. ft.)
7. Close the radiator draincock when finished.
Filling
1. Add the proper engine coolant mixture to the
degas bottle or radiator.
2. Move the temperature blend selector to the full
warm position when equipped.
3. Run the engine until it reaches operating
temperature.
05-7
Auxiliary Systems – Cooling
GENERAL PROCEDURES (Continued)
4. Add the proper engine coolant mixture to the
degas bottle or radiator until the coolant level is
between the “COOLANT FILL LEVEL’’ marks.
NOTE: Systems without degas bottle fill radiator
up to 1 inch below the filler neck.
5. Turn off the engine and allow the cooling system
to cool.
6. Repeat Steps 1 through 5 until the degas bottle/
radiator level is OK.
Flushing – Engine and Radiator
Special Tool(s)
Coolant System Drain/Flush/
Fill. 164-R3673
Flush Kit Hardware Package
164-R3658 or equivalent
Special Service Tools called for by the procedures
can be obtained by calling:
1-800-ROTUNDA (1-800-768-8632).
Drain Kit
164-R3662 or equivalent
05-8
Auxiliary Systems – Cooling
GENERAL PROCEDURES (Continued)
1.
!
WARNING: DO NOT OPEN THE
COOLING SYSTEM WHILE IT IS HOT OR
WHILE THE ENGINE IS RUNNING. FAILURE
TO FOLLOW THESE INSTRUCTIONS MAY
RESULT IN PERSONAL INJURY.
Drain the cooling system. For additional
information, refer to Draining in this section.
2. Remove the water thermostat (8575).
3. Install the water hose connection (8592) without
the water thermostat.
4. Use cooling system Flush-All, Flush Kit
Hardware Package and Drain Kit to flush the
engine and radiator.
5. When flushing operation is complete, install the
water thermostat.
6. Back flush the heater core (18476) if necessary.
For additional information, refer to Flushing –
Engine and Radiator in this section.
7. Fill the cooling system. For additional
information, refer to Filling in this section.
Flushing – Heater Core
1.
!
WARNING: DO NOT OPEN THE
COOLING SYSTEM WHILE IT IS HOT OR
WHILE THE ENGINE IS RUNNING. FAILURE
TO FOLLOW THIESE INSTRUCTIONS MAY
RESULT IN PERSONAL INJURY.
Partially drain the cooling system. For additional
information, refer to Draining in this section.
2. Use cooling system Flush-All, Flush Kit
Hardware Package and Drain Kit to back flush
the heater core. Use Ford Premium Cooling
System Flush F1AZ-19A503-A or equivalent
meeting Ford specification ESR-M14P7-A.
3. When flushing operation is complete, fill the
cooling system. For additional information, refer
to Filling in this section.
05-9
Auxiliary Systems – Cooling
COOLING SYSTEM, REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
Radiator Hose
Removal
Radiator hoses should be replaced whenever they
become cracked, rotted or have a tendency to
collapse.
C
D
Drain the radiator into appropriate container then
loosen the clamps at each end of the hose to be
removed. Slide the hose off the radiator connection
and the engine water outlet connection (upper
hose) or the water pump connection (lower hose).
1
Installation
Position the clamps at least 1/8 inch from each end
of the hose. Coat the connection areas with an
approved water-resistant sealer and slide the hose
on the connection. Make sure the clamps are
beyond the bead and placed in the center of the
clamping surface of the connections. Tighten the
clamps. Fill the radiator with the recommended
permanent antifreeze and water mixture. Operate
the engine for several minutes, then check the
hoses and connections for leaks.
1
Coolant Outlet Connection
3
Vent Pin
2 Thermostat
2. Install thermostat 2 into coolant outlet
connection 1 rotating in a clockwise or counterclockwise direction, to engage cam on
thermostat securely. Thermostat vent pin 3
should be located at the 1 o’clock C or 11
o’clock D position.
Thermostat
Removal
! WARNING: AVOID INJURY FROM HOT
COOLANT WHEN ENGINE IS HOT.
1. Allow the engine to cool down until the coolant
has lowered in temperature to below 110°F.
Sub-Assembly
2. Drain the radiator so that the coolant level is
below the thermostat.
3. Disconnect upper radiator hose form the
thermostat housing.
5
Thermostat Housing Gasket
6
Hold Down Bolt
7
Thermostat Housing Sub Assembly
8
Lower Intake
Manifold (Front)
4. Remove the coolant outlet housing retainer bolts
and remove housing. Remove the thermostat
and gasket.
3. Install water outlet connection/thermostat subassembly 7 and gasket 5 to lower intake
manifold 8.
Installation
4. Install two hold down bolts and washers 6 and
rundown to specified torque. (8 Nm then rotate
55-65 degrees).
Check the thermostate before installing it, following
the procedure under Thermostat Test – Thermostat
Removed.
1. Clean the coolant outlet housing and manifold
gasket surfaces. Coat a new gasket with water
resistant sealer.
5. Connect upper radiator hose and clamp to
coolant connector.
6. Fill cooling system with a 50/50 mixture of
Ethylene Glycol (green or green/yellow in color
not red) and water.
05-10
Auxiliary Systems – Cooling
COOLING SYSTEM, REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
With or Without Heater or Dry Fuel
Evaporator Plumbing
Installation of Water Heater Return Tube
Assembly with by-pass Hose
Installation of Heater Water Inlet Tube (18696)
1. Install new “O’’ ring E on portion of tube that fits
into intake manifold. Lubricate “O’’ ring E with
ESE-M99B144-B Surfactant or other approved
lubricant. Insert tube into hole located at the left
rear of lower intake manifold.
A
D
E
C
A
D
B
A
Hold Down Bolt
B Outlet Tube
C
Indicates direction of
coolant flow
D
Lower Intake
Manifold (Rear)
A
Bypass Tube
E
Bypass Hole
B
Inlet Tube Hole
F
Hold Down Bolt
C
“O” Ring
G
Heater Tube
D
Water Pump
H Heater Water Return Tube
1. Install new “O’’ ring C on portion of tube going
into water pump B and lubricate “O’’ ring C with
ESE-M99B144-B Surfactant or other approved
lubricant.
E “O” Ring
Start hold down bolt A through flange and into
intake manifold. Torque hold down bolt to 8-11.5
Nm.
2. Install rubber cap and clamp on outlet B tube if
not using LPG Fuel or cab heater.
3. When running on LPG fuel or using a cab heater
perform the following. Install heater hose 19mm
(3/4 in) (customer to supply and cut to proper
length) from the water inlet tube B to either the
cab heater inlet or the LPG evaporator inlet.
4. Follow step 5 in the next process installation of
water heater outlet tube assembly with bypass
hose.
2. Insert tube H into hole in upper portion of water
pump B.
3. Align hold down flange and insert bolt F. Torque
bolt to 8-11.5 Nm.
4. Attach the by-pass hose E along with two hose
clamps to bypass tube A and to Heater Water
Return Tube H that is directed toward
Thermostat/Water Outlet Connector and
connect.
5. Attach heater hose (5/8 in.) to Heater Tube G
of Heater Water Return Tube Assembly.
(Customer to supply and cut to proper length).
5. Fill cooling system with 50/50 mixture of
Ethylene Glycol (green or green/yellow in color,
not red) and water.
05-11
NOTE: If heater hose is not needed, cap outlet
G with rubber cap (5/8 in.) and hose clamp.
Auxiliary Systems – Cooling
COOLING SYSTEM, REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
Cylinder Head Temperature Sensor
A
Cylinder Head Temp Sensor (CHT) Torque 9-11 Nm.
B
Cylinder Head Asy. – LH.
C
Front of Engine.
Removal (Located rear of left cylinder head B).
1. Disconnect wire connector.
2. Remove sensor A.
Installation
1. Install sensor dry.
NOTE: Without any sealer on threads.
! CAUTION: Do not over torque. May
damage sensor.
2. Torque to 9-11 Nm.
3. Reconnect wire connector.
05-12
Auxiliary Systems – Cooling
COOLING SYSTEM, REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
Cooling Fan
Removal
Installation
Remove fan drive belt. Refer to fan drive belt
removal on this page. Remove the screws and
washer assemblies attaching the fan and pulley to
the water pump hub. Remove the fan and pulley.
Position the fan and pulley on the water pump hub.
Install the lock washer and screws and torque the
capscrews to specifications (55 Nm). Install drive
belt. Refer to fan drive belt installation on this page.
Fan Drive Belt
Removal
1. With engine off, using a 1/2" breaker bar, pry
against the tension of the tensioner.
2. Rotate the tensioner counterclockwise and
remove the drive belt.
Installation
NOTE: View looking at crankshaft from front of engine.
Pulley
Crankshaft
Water Pump
Alternator
Idler – (Large)
Tensioner
Idler – (Small)
Power Steering
Rotation
CW
CCW
CW
CW
CCW
CW
CW
Installation
1. To install, reverse the removal procedure. Refer
to component locations for drive belt routing.
05-13
Auxiliary Systems – Cooling
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
Belt Tensioner
Removal
1. Remove the drive belt (8620). For additional
information, refer to Belt in this section.
2. Remove the belt tensioner.
1. Remove the bolt.
2. Remove the belt tensioner.
Installation
1. To install, reverse the removal procedure.
05-14
Auxiliary Systems – Cooling
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
Belt Idler Pulley
Removal
1. Remove the drive belt (8620) off of the belt idler
pulley (8678). For additional information, refer
to Belt in this section.
2. NOTE: The belt idler pulley shown is for a
vehicle with air conitioning; the belt idler pulley
for a vehicle without air conditioning is ribbed.
Remove the bolt and the belt idler pulley.
Installation
1. To install, reverse the removal procedure.
47-83 Nm
(35-48 lb. ft.)
05-15
Auxiliary Systems – Cooling
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
Block Heater
Removal
1. Disconnect battery ground cable.
2. Drain the cooling system. For additional
information, refer to Draining in this section.
3. Disconnect the A block heater wire extension
(6B019) from the B block heater wiring (6B018)
and remove.
4. Raise and support the vehicle.
5. Disconnect the A block heater wiring from the
B block heater (6A051) and remove.
05-16
Auxiliary Systems – Cooling
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
6. Remove the block heater.
1. NOTE: Do not loosen the block heater
retaining screw more than necessary for
removal.
Loosen the block heater retaining screw.
2. Twist and slide the block heater to release
the retainer clip and remove. Discard the
retainer clip.
Installation
1. To install, reverse the removal procedure.
NOTE: Clean the inside diameter of the cylinder
block hole machined surface and hole entrance.
NOTE: To ease installation, coat the block
heater seal and the cylinder block hole with
Premium Long Life Grease XG-1-C or
equivalent meeting Ford specification ESAM1C75-B.
1.6-1.8 Nm
(14-16 lb. in.)
2. Tighten retaining screw 1.6-1.8 Nm (14-16 lb.
in.).
3. Refill engine cooling system.
4. Connect battery ground cable.
5. Start engine and check for leaks.
05-17
Auxiliary Systems – Cooling
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
Water Pump
Removal
3
NOTE: A small amount of antifreeze coming out
the water pump weep hole may be normal.
1. Drain the cooling system. For additional
information, refer to Draining in this section.
13 T-3
1
3
A
8A
9A
T-7
4
5
T-5
4
7
T-9
6
T-4
2. Remove the drive belt. For additional
information, refer to Belt in this section.
T-6
T-8
3. Remove the cooling fan and pulley. For
additional information, refer to Cooling Fan in
this section.
2
T-2
4. Remove the Water Heater Return Tube
Assembly. For additional information refer to
Water Heater Outlet Tube in this section.
3T-3
5. Remove the bolts and nuts from water pump.
6. Remove water pump.
2
T-1
Installation
5
T-2
Torque Specs:
Bolt #1,2,6,7,8A,10,11,12 & 13 = 20-30 Nm.
Stud #3, 4, 5 & 9A = 6-8 Nm.
1 - Install studs torque to 6-8 Nm.
2 - Install front cover gasket (-6020-).
3 - Install front cover & oil pump assy.
(-6F008-).
4 - Install water pump gasket (-8507-).
5 - Install water pump assy. (-8501-).
6 - Install remaining fasteners.
7 - Torque all bolts and nuts to 20-30 Nm
making sure to follow the sequence as
shown above.
NOTE:
order.
T-#
Indicates the torque sequence
1 Cylinder Block Assy.
2 Water Pump Assy. (8501).
3 Front Cover & Oil Pump Assy. (6F008).
4 Wire Retention Hole.
1. Clean all gasket surface on the front cover.
Clean gasket surface on water pump if not
replacing with a new one.
2. Align water pump and water pump gasket to
engine front cover.
3. Install all water pump bolts and nuts finger tight.
4. Torque all bolts and nuts to specification and in
the sequence as illustrated.
5. Replace Water Heater Return Tube Assembly.
For additional information refer to Water Heater
Tube Assembly in this section.
6. Replace Cooling Fan. For additional information
refer to Fan in this section.
7. Replace Drive Belt. For additional information
refer to Belt in this section.
8. Fill cooling system with approved type and
mixture of antifreeze. For additonal information
refer to Filling in this section.
5 Water Pump Gasket (8507).
05-18
Auxiliary Systems – Cooling
COOLING SYSTEM, DIAGNOSING AND TESTING
Diagnosis
Most vehiles use an ethylene glycol base antifreeze
solution to which the manufacturers have added a
dye color. The dye color makes the antifreeze
solution an excellent leak detector. If this type of
solution is not being used in the cooling system, a
vegetable dye may be added to aid in locating
external leakage.
Refer to the following Diagnosis Chart for cooling
system problems, their possible cause and
recommended correction. Refer to the pertinent
part for testing and repair.
The most frequent cooling system complaints are
leakage and overheating. Either of these problems
will soon render the vehicle inoperable.
NOTE: A small amount of antifreeze coming out
the water pump weep hole may be normal.
CONDITION
• Loss of coolant.
POSSIBLE SOURCE
ACTION
• Pressure cap and gasket.
• Inspect washer gasket and test. Replace only if cap will not hold
pressure to specification
• Pressure test system.
• Inspect hose, hose connection, radiator, edges of cooling system
gaskets, core plugs and drain plugs, transmission oil cooler lines,
water pump, heater system components. Repair or replace as
required.
• Disassembly engine as necessary – check for: cracked intake
manifold, blown head gaskets, warped head or block gasket
surfaces, cracked cylinder head or cylinder block.
• Leakage.
• Internal leakage.
• Engine overheats.
• Low coolant level.
• Loose fan belt.
• Pressure cap.
• Radiator obstruction.
• Closed thermostat.
• Fan drive clutch.
• Ignition.
• Temp. gauge.
• Engine.
• Coolant mixture.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
• Engine fails to reach
normal operating
temperature.
• Open thermostat.
• Temperature gauge.
• Test, replace if necessary.
• Check electrical circuits and repair as required.
Fill as required. Check for coolant loss.
Replace belt or tensioner as required.
Test. replace if necessary.
Remove bugs, leaves, etc.
Test, replace if necessary.
Test, replace if necessary.
Check timing and timing advance. Adjust as required.
Check electrical circuits and repair as required.
Check water pump and block for blockage.
1/2 water and 1/2 permanent antifreeze mixture.
General Test Procedures
Visual Inspection
Check for leakage at:
1. All hoses and hose connections.
2. Radiator seams, radiator core, and radiator drain
petcock.
Examine oil dipstick for evidence of coolant
contaminated engine oil (white milky appearance).
Check radiator for evidences of oil in coolant
(leakage at transmission oil cooler).
3. All block core plugs and drain plugs.
4. Edges of all cooling system gaskets.
5. Transmission oil cooler.
6. Water pump shaft and bushing.
NOTE: A small amount of antifreeze coming out the
water pump weep hole may be normal.
05-19
Auxiliary Systems – Cooling
COOLING SYSTEM, DIAGNOSING AND TESTING (Continued)
Cooling System Visual Test
3. Inspect the coolant in both the radiator and the
degas bottle for coolant color:
Special Tool(s)
Battery/Anti-Freeze Tester
014-R1060 or equivalent
• Clear, light green or blue indicates higher
water content than required
• Dark brown indicates unauthorized stop leak
may have been used. Use cooling system
Stop Leak Powder E6AZ-19558-A or
equivalent meeting Ford specification ESEM99B170-A only.
Special Service Tools called for by the procedures
can be obtained by calling:
1-800-ROTUNDA (1-800-768-8632).
!
WARNING: NEVER REMOVE THE
PRESSURE RELIEF CAP WHILE THE ENGINE
IS OPERATING OR WHEN THE COOLING
SYSTEM IS HOT. MAY CAUSE PERSONAL
INJURY OR DAMAGE TO COOLING SYSTEM
OR ENGINE. TO AVOID HAVING SCALDING
HOT COOLANT OR STEAM BLOW OUT OF
THE DEGAS BOTTLE WHEN REMOVING THE
PRESSURE RELIEF CAP, WAIT UNTIL THE
ENGINE HAS COOLED DOWN TO AT LEAST
110°F.
1.
2.
Wrap a thick cloth around the pressure relief
cap and turn it slowly one-half turn
counterclockwise. Stepping back while the
pressure is released from the cooling system.
When you are sure all the pressure has been
released, (still with a cloth) turn
counterclockwise and remove the pressure
relief cap.
• A light or reddish-brown color indicates rust
in the cooling system. Flush the system and
refill with the correct mixture of water and
Premium Engine Coolant (green in color),
E2FZ-19549-AA or equivalent meeting Ford
specification ESE-M97B44-A.
• An irridescent sheen on top of the coolant
indicates a trace of oil is entering the cooling
system.
• A milky-brown color indicates that oil is
entering the cooling system.
• The causes of the leak might be:
– A blown head gasket (6051).
– A cracked or warped cylinder head (6049).
– A crack in the engine oil gallery and the
cooling passageways.
• If engine coolant is present in the engine oil,
the cause of the leak might be:
– A blown head gasket.
!
CAUTION: If there is engine coolant in
the engine oil the cause must be corrected
and the oil changed or engine damage may
occur.
!
CAUTION: If there is coolant in the
transmission fluid, the cause must be
corrected or transmission damage may
occur.
NOTE: Check the engine coolant in the degas
bottle and radiator (8005) if vehicle has been
allowed to reach normal operating temperature.
This will make sure sufficient engine coolant
exchange has occurred.
– A cracked or warped cylinder head.
– A crack in the engine oil gallery and cooling
passageways.
• If engine coolant is present in the transmission
fluid, the cause might be:
– A leaking radiator.
– A leaking auxiliary fluid cooler.
• A reddish milky appearance indicates
transmission fluid is entering the system.
The causes of the leak might be:
– A leaking radiator.
– A leaking auxiliary fluid cooler.
05-20
Auxiliary Systems – Cooling
COOLING SYSTEM, DIAGNOSING AND TESTING (Continued)
4. If the engine coolant appearance is good, test
the engine coolant range with the battery and
antifreeze tester:
• Maximum ratio is 60/40 (antifreeze/water).
• Minimum ratio is 45/55 (antifreeze/water).
5. Check the engine coolant system conditions:
• If the engine cooling fluid is low, add specified
coolant mixture only.
• If the engine coolant fluid tests weak, add
straight engine coolant until the readings are
within acceptable levels.
• If the engine coolant tests strong, remove
some of the engine coolant and add water
until readings are within acceptable levels.
05-21
Auxiliary Systems – Cooling
COOLING SYSTEM, DIAGNOSING AND TESTING (Continued)
Engine Cooling
Visual Inspection Chart
Special Tool(s)
Mechanical
• Leaks
• Damaged hoses
• Loose/damaged hose
clamps
• Damaged water thermostat
gasket
• Damaged head gaskets
• Damaged intake manifold
gasket
• Damaged water pump
• Damaged radiator
• Damaged degas bottle
• Damaged heater core
• Damaged fan/fan clutch
Radiator/Heater Core Pressure
Tester
014-R1072 or equivalent
Rotunda 73 Digital Multimeter
105-R0051 or equivalent
Electrical
• Damaged engine coolant
temperature sensor
• Damaged wiring
Special Service Tools called for by the procedures
can be obtained by calling:
1-800-ROTUNDA (1-800-768-8632).
Inspection and Verification
1. Verify the customer’s concern by operating the
engine to duplicate the condition.
2. Inspect to determine if any of the following
mechanical or electrical concerns apply.
3. If the inspection reveals an obvious concern
that can be readily identified, repair as
necessary.
4. If the concern remains after the inspection,
determine the symptom(s) and go to the
Symptom Chart.
Symptom Chart
Condition
• Loss of Coolant
• The Engine Overheats
Possible Source
• Radiator.
• Water pump seal.
• Radiator hoses.
• Heater hoses/tubes.
• Heater core.
• Engine gaskets.
• Degas bottle.
• Water thermostat.
• Water pump.
• Internal engine coolant leak.
• Radiator.
• Heater core.
• Cooling fan.
• Pressure relief cap.
• Water thermostat.
• The Engine Does Not Reach
Normal Operating Temperature
• The Block Heater (6A051)
• Block heater power cable.
Does Not Operate Properly
05-22
Action
• GO to Pinpoint Test A.
• GO to Pinpoint Test B.
• GO to Pinpoint Test C.
• GO to Pinpoint Test D.
Auxiliary Systems – Cooling
COOLING SYSTEM, DIAGNOSING AND TESTING (Continued)
Pinpoint Tests
PINPOINT TEST A: LOSS OF COOLANT
TEST CONDITIONS
TEST DETAILS/RESULTS/ACTIONS
A1 CHECK THE ENGINE COOLANT LEVEL
NOTE: Allow the engine to cool before checking the engine coolant level.
2 Visually check the engine coolant level at the
degas bottle.
• Is the engine coolant level within
specification?
Yes
GO to A2.
No
REFILL the engine coolant as necessary. GO
to A6.
A2 CHECK THE PRESSURE RELIEF CAP
1 Perform the Pressure Relief Cap Test. For
additional information, refer to Component
Tests, Cap-Pressure Relief in this section.
• Is pressure relief cap OK?
Yes
GO to A3.
A3
No
INSTALL a new pressure relief cap. TEST the
system for normal operation.
CHECK THE ENGINE COOLANT FOR INTERNAL LEAK
1 Inspect the engine coolant in degas bottle for
signs of transmission fluid or engine oil.
• Is oil or transmission fluid evident in coolant?
Yes
If engine oil or transmission fluid is evident,
REPAIR or INSTALL a new radiator as
necessary.
No
GO to A4.
(Continued)
05-23
Auxiliary Systems – Cooling
COOLING SYSTEM, DIAGNOSING AND TESTING (Continued)
PINPOINT TEST A: LOSS OF COOLANT (Continued)
A4
TEST CONDITIONS
TEST DETAILS/RESULTS/ACTIONS
CHECK THE ENGINE AND THE TRANSMISSION FOR COOLANT
1 Remove the oil level dipsticks (6750) from the
engine and the transmission.
• Is coolant evident in oil or transmission fluid?
Yes
If coolant is in engine, GO to Section 01. If
coolant is in transmission (7003), INSTALL a
new radiator or REPAIR as necessary. GO to
Transmission Service Manual to repair the
automatic transmission1.
No
GO to A5.
A6 CHECK THE COOLANT RECOVERY SYSTEM
1
! WARNING: NEVER REMOVE THE
PRESSURE RELIEF CAP WHILE THE
ENGINE IS OPERATING OR WHEN THE
COOLING SYSTEM IS HOT. MAY CAUSE
PERSONAL INJURY OR DAMAGE TO
COOLING SYSTEM OR ENGINE. TO AVOID
HAVING SCALDING HOT COOLANT OR
STEAM BLOW OUT OF THE DEGAS
BOTTLE WHEN REMOVING THE PRESSURE
RELIEF CAP, WAIT UNTIL THE ENGINE HAS
COOLED DOWN TO AT LEAST 110°F.
2 Wrap a thick cloth around the pressure relief cap
and turn it slowly one-half turn counterclockwise.
Stepping back while the pressure is released
from the cooling system.
3 When you are sure all the pressure has been
released, (still with a cloth) turn counterclockwise
and remove the pressure relief cap.
4 Inspect the pressure relief cap for foreign
material between the sealing gasket and the
diaphragm.
5 Pressure test cap using tool ST1474-A.
• Is a 7 lb. pressure maintained?
• Is the pressure relief cap OK?
Yes
GO to A7.
No
CLEAN or INSTALL a new pressure relief cap.
TEST the system for normal operation. GO to
A1.
1
Can be purchased separately.
05-24
Auxiliary Systems – Cooling
COOLING SYSTEM, DIAGNOSING AND TESTING (Continued)
PINPOINT TEST A: LOSS OF COOLANT (Continued)
TEST CONDITIONS
A7 CHECK THE DEGAS BOTTLE
TEST DETAILS/RESULTS/ACTIONS
1 NOTE: The engine must be cool when coolant
is added to the degas bottle.
Add coolant to the degas bottle until fluid is
between the coolant fill level marks.
• Does the degas bottle leak?
Yes
INSTALL a new degas bottle. TEST the system
for normal operation.
No
PERFORM the cooling system pressure test.
For additional information, refer to Component
Tests, Pressure Test in this section. REPAIR as
necessary. TEST the system for normal
operation.
PINPOINT TEST B: THE ENGINE OVERHEATS
TEST CONDITIONS
TEST DETAILS/RESULTS/ACTIONS
B1 CHECK THE ENGINE COOLANT LEVEL
NOTE: If the engine is hot, allow the engine to cool before proceeding.
1
! WARNING: NEVER REMOVE THE
PRESSURE RELIEF CAP WHILE THE
ENGINE IS OPERATING OR WHEN THE
COOLING SYSTEM IS HOT. MAY CAUSE
PERSONAL INJURY OR DAMAGE TO
COOLING SYSTEM OR ENGINE. TO AVOID
HAVING SCALDING HOT COOLANT OR
STEAM BLOW OUT OF THE DEGAS
BOTTLE WHEN REMOVING THE PRESSURE
RELIEF CAP, WAIT UNTIL THE ENGINE HAS
COOLED DOWN TO AT LEAST 110°F.
2 Wrap a thick cloth around the pressure relief cap
and turn it slowly one-half turn counterclockwise.
Stepping back while the pressure is released
from the cooling system.
3 When you are sure all the pressure has been
released, (still with a cloth) turn counterclockwise
and remove the pressure relief cap.
4 Check the engine coolant level at the degas bottle.
• Is the engine coolant OK?
Yes
GO to B2.
No
REFILL the engine coolant at the degas bottle.
GO to Pinpoint Test A.
(Continued)
05-25
Auxiliary Systems – Cooling
COOLING SYSTEM, DIAGNOSING AND TESTING (Continued)
PINPOINT TEST B: THE ENGINE OVERHEATS (Continued)
TEST CONDITIONS
B2 CHECK THE COOLANT CONDITION
TEST DETAILS/RESULTS/ACTIONS
1 Check the coolant for contaminants such as rust,
corrosion, or discoloration.
• Is the coolant condition OK?
Yes
GO to B3.
No
FLUSH the engine cooling system. For additional
information, refer to Flushing – Engine and Radiator
in this section. TEST the system for normal operation.
B3 CHECK FOR AN AIRFLOW OBSTRUCTION
1 Inspect the radiator for obstructions such as leaves
or dirt.
• Is there an obstruction?
Yes
REMOVE the obstruction. CLEAN the radiator. TEST
the system for normal operation.
No
GO to B4.
B4 CHECK THE HEATER CORE OPERATION AND/OR LPG EVAPORATOR
1 Install the pressure relief cap.
(Continued)
05-26
Auxiliary Systems – Cooling
COOLING SYSTEM, DIAGNOSING AND TESTING (Continued)
PINPOINT TEST B: THE ENGINE OVERHEATS (Continued)
TEST CONDITIONS
TEST DETAILS/RESULTS/ACTIONS
B4 CHECK THE HEATER CORE OPERATION AND/OR LPG EVAPORATOR (Continued)
3 As the engine starts to heat up, feel the inlet and
outlet heater water hoses (18472). They should feel
approximately the same after three or four minutes.
• Is the outlet heater water and/or LPG evaporation
hose approximately the same temperature as the
inlet heater water hose?
Yes
GO to B5.
No
TURN the engine off. REPAIR or INSTALL a new heater
core or clear the LPG evaporation coolant passage
way. TEST the system for normal operation.
B5 CHECK THE WATER THERMOSTAT OPERATION
1 Start the engine and allow the engine to run for ten
minutes.
2 Feel the inlet and outlet heater water hoses and the
underside of the upper radiator hose (8260).
• Are the upper radiator hose and the heater water
hoses cold?
Yes
INSTALL a new water thermostat. TEST the system
for normal operation.
No
Go to B6.
B6 CHECK THE COOLING FAN OPERATION
1 Perform the cooling fan component tests. For additional
information, refer to the Component Tests in this
section.
• Is the cooling fan operation OK?
Yes
GO to Section 01 for diagnosis and testing of the
engine.
No
INSTALL a new component determined to be faulty.
For additional information, refer to Fan – Blade, Clutch
and Shroud in this section. TEST the system for normal
operation.
(Continued)
05-27
Auxiliary Systems – Cooling
COOLING SYSTEM, DIAGNOSING AND TESTING (Continued)
PINPOINT TEST C: THE ENGINE DOES NOT REACH NORMAL OPERATING TEMPERATURE
TEST CONDITIONS
C1 CHECK THE ENGINE TEMPERATURE
TEST DETAILS/RESULTS/ACTIONS
1 Start the engine and allow the engine to idle for ten
minutes.
Feel the inlet and heater water hoses and the
underside of the upper radiator hose.
• Are the upper radiator hose and the heater water
hoses cold?
Yes
INSTALL a new water thermostat.
No
Test and diagnose the engine coolant temperature
gauge.
PINPOINT TEST C: THE BLOCK HEATER DOES NOT OPERATE PROPERLY
TEST CONDITIONS
D1 CHECK THE POWER CABLE
TEST DETAILS/RESULTS/ACTIONS
3 Check resistance in circuits 1, 2, and 3 of the block
heater.
• Is the resistance in circuits 1, 2, and 3 less than 5
ohms?
Yes
INSTALL a new block heater.
No
INSTALL a new power cable. TEST the system for
normal operation.
05-28
Auxiliary Systems – Cooling
COOLING SYSTEM, DIAGNOSING AND TESTING (Continued)
Component Tests
6. NOTE: If the plunger of the pump is depressed
too fast, an erroneous pressure reading will
result.
Pressure Test
Slowly depress the plunger of the pressure test
pump until the pressure gauge reading stops
increasing and note the highest pressure
reading obtained.
1. Turn the engine OFF.
2.
! WARNING: NEVER REMOVE THE
PRESSURE RELIEF CAP WHILE THE
ENGINE IS OPERATING OR WHEN THE
COOLING SYSTEM IS HOT. MAY CAUSE
PERSONAL INJURY OR DAMAGE TO
COOLING SYSTEM OR ENGINE. TO AVOID
HAVING SCALDING HOT COOLANT OR
STEAM BLOW OUT OF THE DEGAS
BOTTLE
WHEN
REMOVING
THE
PRESSURE RELIEF CAP, WAIT UNTIL THE
ENGINE HAS COOLED DOWN TO AT
LEAST 43°C (110°F).
3.
4.
Wrap a thick cloth around the pressure relief
cap and turn it slowly one-half turn
counterclockwise. Stepping back while the
pressure is released from the cooling system.
When you are sure all the pressure has been
released, (still with a cloth) turn
counterclockwise and remove the pressure
relief cap.
7. If the pressure relief cap does not hold
pressure, remove and wash the pressure relief
cap in clean water to dislodge all foreign
particles from the gaskets. Check the sealing
surface in the filler neck.
7. If 48 kPa (7 psi) cannot be reached, install a
new pressure relief cap. If more than 83 kPa
(12 psi) shows on gauge, install a new pressure
relief cap.
9. NOTE: If the pressure drops, check for leaks
at the engine to heater core hoses, engine to
LPG evaporator hose, engine to radiator hoses,
water valve hose (if applicable), oil cooler return
tube gasket (6N789), radiator and heater core
or other system components and connections.
Any leaks which are found must be corrected
and the system rechecked.
Pressurize the engine cooling system as
described in Step 4 (using a pressure relief cap
that operates within the specified upper and
lower pressure limits). Observe the gauge
reading for approximately two minutes. For
additional information, refer to Specifications in
this section. Pressure should not drop during
this time.
Check the engine coolant level. For additional
information, refer to Cooling System Draining,
Filling and Flushing in this section.
10. Release the system pressure by loosening the
pressure relief cap. Check the engine coolant
level and replenish, if necessary, with the
correct engine coolant mixture. For additional
information, refer to Cooling System Draining,
Filling and Bleeding in this section.
5. Connect Radiator Heater Core Pressure Tester
to the degas bottle nipple and overflow hose.
Install a pressure test pump to the quickconnect fitting of the test adapter.
05-29
Auxiliary Systems – Cooling
COOLING SYSTEM, DIAGNOSING AND TESTING (Continued)
Cap – Pressure Relief
1.
! WARNING: NEVER REMOVE THE
PRESSURE RELIEF CAP WHILE THE
ENGINE IS OPERATING OR WHEN THE
COOLING SYSTEM IS HOT. MAY CAUSE
PERSONAL INJURY OR DAMAGE TO
COOLING SYSTEM OR ENGINE. TO AVOID
HAVING SCALDING HOT COOLANT OR
STEAM BLOW OUT OF THE DEGAS
BOTTLE
WHEN
REMOVING
THE
PRESSURE RELIEF CAP, WAIT UNTIL THE
ENGINE HAS COOLED DOWN TO AT
LEAST 110°F.
2.
Wrap a thick cloth around the pressure relief
cap and turn it slowly one-half turn
counterclockwise. Stepping back while the
pressure is released from the cooling system.
3.
When you are sure all the pressure has been
released, (still with a cloth) turn
counterclockwise and remove the pressure
relief cap.
Inspect the pressure relief cap and seals for
damage or deterioration. Replace the pressure
relief cap if necessary.
5. NOTE: If the plunger of the pressure tester is
depressed too fast, an incorrect pressure
reading will result.
Slowly pump the pressure tester until the
pressure gauge stops increasing and note the
highest pressure reading. Release pressure
and repeat test. Install a new pressure relief
cap if the pressure is not 48 kPa (7 psi).
Thermostat
The water thermostat should be replaced only after
the following test has been performed.
Thermostat Test – Thermostat Removed
!
WARNING: USE CAUTION WORKING
WITH HOT BOILING WATER AND WEAR
APPROPRIATE PROTECTIVE GEAR. MAY
CAUSE BODILY HARM.
Remove the thermostat and immerse it in boiling
water. Replace the thermostat if it does not open
at least 0.230" after one minute at 212°F.
4. Fit the pressure relief cap to Radiator/Heater
Core Pressure Tester Kit using the aftermarket
adapter.
If the problem being investigated is the inability of
the cooling system to reach normal operating
temperature, the thermostat should be checked for
leakage. This may be done by holding the
thermostat up to a lighted background. Leakage of
light all around the thermostat valve (thermostat at
room temperature) indicates that the thermostat is
unacceptable and should be replaced. It is possible,
on some thermostats, that a slight leakage of light
at one or two locations on the perimeter of the valve
may be detected. This should be considered normal.
05-30
Auxiliary Systems – Cooling
COOLING SYSTEM, DIAGNOSING AND TESTING (Continued)
Radiator Leak Test, Removed From
Vehicle
! CAUTION: Never leak test an aluminum
radiator in the same water that copper/brass
radiators are tested in. Flux and caustic cleaners
may be present in the cleaning tank and they
will damage aluminum radiators.
1.
Always install plugs in the oil cooler fittings
before leak-testing or cleaning any radiator.
2.
Clean the radiator before leak-testing to avoid
contamination of the tank.
DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODE (DTC) 43
ENGINE CYLINDER HEAD
TEMPERATURE LOW VOLTAGE AND DTC
33 FOR HIGH VOLTAGE
359G
B
GY-R
A
Y-LG
3.
Leak-test the radiator in clean water with 138
kPa (20 psi) air pressure.
ENGINE CYLINDER HEAD TEMPERATURE
(CHT) SENSOR
C
E
B
Engine Cylinder Head
Temperature Sensor
Connector
Ground (B-)
C
Engine Control
Module (ECM)
A
D
D
Sensor Ground
E
Sensor Signal
Circuit Description
• Engine cylinder head temperature (CHT) sensor
is a type of thermistor that converts engine
temperature to an electrical voltage signal.
• The electrical resistance of the (CHT) sensor
changes with temperature. As engine coolant
temperature increases, the (CHT) resistance
decreases.
• Output is a variable voltage signal which typically
ranges from 0.3 volt to 4.5 volts.
• At -40°F (CHT) resistance is approximately 269K
ohms.
• At 77°F (CHT) resistance is approximately 29K
ohms.
• At 248°F (CHT) resistance is approximately 1.2K
ohms.
The engine cylinder head temperature (CHT)
sensor is a termistor which measures the
temperature of the engine cylinder head. The ECM
supplies a ground (circuit 359, Gray/Red) from the
sensor and monitors voltage signal (circuit to 1102,
Yellow/Lt. Green) to the sensor. When the engine
coolant is cold, the sensor resistance is high and
the ECM will monitor a high signal voltage at the
CHT signal circuit. If the engine cylinder head is
warm, the sensor resistance is lower, causing the
ECM to monitor a lower voltage. DTC 43 will set
when the ECM detects an excessively low signal
voltage, and DTC 33 when the ECM detects an
excessively high signal voltage.
Conditions for Setting the DTC
• KOEO or KOER.
• CHT sensor signal is less than or equal to 0.22
volts or greater than 4.93 volts.
• Above conditions are present for a least 3
consecutive seconds.
NOTE: Complete list of temperature sensor
characteristics can be found on page 05-34 of this
section.
05-31
Auxiliary Systems – Cooling
COOLING SYSTEM, DIAGNOSING AND TESTING (Continued)
Actions Taken When the DTC Sets
• The ECM will illuminate the malfunction indicator
lamp (MIL).
• The ECM will force the CHT sensor to a 50° F
default value.
NOTE: Complete list of temperature sensor
characteristics found on page 05-34 of this section.
Conditions for Clearing the DTC
(Resetting the MIL)
• The DTC can be cleared from memory by
disconnecting the battery ground cable for 5 to 20
minutes.
NOTE: Touching the two disconnected battery
cables will only clear the trouble codes from the
PC not from the ECM.
• If a personal computer (PC) is connected to the
engine, the DTC can be cleared from memory by
hitting the “C” key while in the View Sensor Data
screen.
Diagnostic Aids
The (CHT) sensor shares the same ground with
other sensors. Check the ground circuit 359 (Gray)
if other DTCs are also set.
Inspect the harness connectors for backed-out
terminals, improper mating, broken locks,
improperly formed or damaged terminals, and poor
terminal-to-wire connections. Inspect the wiring
harness for damage. If the harness appears to be
OK, back probe the CHT sensor connector with a
digital voltmeter and observe the voltage while
moving connectors and wiring harnesses related
to the CHT sensor. A change in the voltmeter
display will indicate the location of the fault.
NOTE: For installation and removal procedures for
the CHT, refer to page 05-12 of this section.
05-32
Auxiliary Systems – Cooling
MST, CHT, ECT & IAT SENSOR DATA
Temperature Sensor Characteristics
TEMPERATURE
NOM R,
NOM E OUT
(C)
(F)
(OHMS)
(VOLTS)
-40
-40
925,021
4.54
-35
-31
673,787
4.50
-30
-22
496,051
4.46
-25
-13
368,896
4.41
-20
-4
276,959
4.34
-15
5
209,816
4.25
-10
14
160,313
4.15
-5
23
123,485
4.02
0
32
95,851
3.88
5
41
74,914
3.71
10
50
58,987
3.52
15
59
46,774
3.32
20
68
37,340
3.09
25
77
30,000
2.86
30
86
24,253
2.62
35
95
19,716
2.39
40
104
16,113
2.15
45
113
13,236
1.93
50
122
10,926
1.72
55
131
9,061
1.52
60
140
7,548
1.34
65
149
6,332
1.18
70
158
5,335
1.04
75
167
4,515
.91
80
176
3,837
.79
85
185
3,274
.70
90
194
2,804
.61
95
203
2,411
.53
100
212
2,080
.47
105
221
1,801
.41
110
230
1,564
.36
115
239
1,363
.32
120
248
1,191
.28
125
257
1,044
.25
130
266
918
.22
135
275
809
.19
140
284
715
.17
145
293
633
.15
150
302
563
.14
Voltage values calculated for VREF=5 volts (may vary 15% due to sensor
and VREF variations).
05-33
Auxiliary Systems – Cooling
COOLING SYSTEM DIAGNOSING AND TESTING (Continued)
V-Ribbed Serpentine Drive Belt
Cracks Across Ribs
Chunks of Rib Missing
Symptom Chart
Condition
• Drive belt cracking
• Drive belt chunking.
• Drive belt noise or squeal.
Possible Source
• Worn out.
• Overheated
• Chemical or oil spilled on belt.
• Pulley misalignment.
• Excessive pulley groove runout.
• Damaged drive belt tensioner
(6B209).
• Fluid or contamination on the
drive belt.
• Excessive A/C head pressure.
05-34
Action
• REPLACE the drive belt;
Refer to Belt in this section.
• DETERMINE from which
pulley the noise originates.
CHECK that area with a
straightedge and LOOK for
for accessory pulley to be
out of position in the fore/aft
direction or at an angle to the
straightedge. REPLACE the
pulley or the component;
• Replace belt tensioner.
• CLEAN or REPLACE the
drive belt; Refer to Belt this
section.
Auxiliary Systems – Cooling
COOLING SYSTEM DIAGNOSING AND TESTING (Continued)
4.2L Belt, Drive Tensioner/Belt Length
Indicator
under certain conditions, when the engine is
running. If the tensioner meets this criteria, it should
be assumed to be a good tensioner.
Drive Belt Misalignment
!
CAUTION: Incorrect drive belt installation
will cause excessive drive belt wear and may
cause the drive belt to come off the drive
pulleys.
Non-standard replacement drive belts may track
differently or improperly. If a replacement drive belt
tracks improperly, replace it with an original
equipment drive belt to avoid performance failure
or loss of belt.
Item
1
2
Part Number
–
–
3
4
–
–
With the engine running, check drive belt tracking.
If the A edge of the drive belt rides beyond the edge
of the pulleys, noise and premature wear may
occur. Make sure the B drive belt rides correctly
on the pulley. If a drive belt tracking condition exists,
proceed with the following:
Description
Belt Length Indicator
Acceptable Belt Installation
and Wear Range
Belt Replacement Range
Belt Tension Relief Point (Use
1/2 Inch Ratchet)
Automatic tensioners are calibrated at the factory
to provide the correct amount of tension to the belt.
Unless a spring within the tensioner assembly
breaks or some other mechanical part of the
tensioner fails, there is no need to check tensioners
for proper tension.
The only mechanical check that need be made, if
you have any doubt about the tensioner function,
would be to remove the belt in the area of the
tensioner, to avoid belt contact, then using the proper
tool, rotate the tensioner from its relaxed position
throught its full stroke and back to the relaxed
position to assure that there is no “stick, grab, bind,”
and to assure that there is tension on the spring. It
is a normal condition for the tensioner to be moving,
Visually check the drive belt tensioner for damage,
especially the mounting pad surface. If the drive
belt tensioner is not installed correctly, the mounting
surface pad will be out of position. This will result in
a chirp or squeal noises.
• With the engine running, visually observe the
grooves in the pulleys (not the pulley flanges or
pulley front surfaces) for excessive wobble.
Replace components as required.
• Check all accessories, mounting brackets and
the drive belt tensioner for any interference that
would prevent the component from mounting
properly. Correct any interference condition and
recheck belt tracking.
• Tighten all accessories, mounting brackets, and
drive belt tensioner retaining hardware to
specification. Recheck the drive belt tracking.
05-35
Auxiliary Systems – Cooling
SPECIFICATIONS
Torque Specifications
General Specifications
Description
Belt Idler Pulley Bolt (4.2L)
Drive Belt Tensioner Bolt (4.2L)
Item
Specification
Drive Belt
6 Ribs
16.4 (17.3)
Capacity 4.2L L1 (qts)
Coolant Mixture With Water
50%2
Pressure Relief Cap Opening
Pressure kPa (psi)
110 (16)
Radiator Pressure Test
138 kPa (20 psi)
Water Pump Pulley Ratio
1.2
Water Thermostat Start To
Open Temperature C (F)
86.7-90.6°C (188-195°F)
Water Thermostat Full Open
Temperature C (F)
97.8-101.7°C (208-215°F)
Lubrication & Sealants
Ford Premium Cooling
System Flush
ESR-M14P7-A
F1AZ-19A503-A
Pipe Sealant with Teflonâ
D8AZ-19554-A
WSK-M2G350-A2
Premium Long Life Grease
XG-1-C
ESA-M1C75-B
Stop Leak Powder
E6AZ-19558-A
ESE-M99B170
1
2
Description
Nm
Block Heater
1.6-1.8
Cylinder Head Temperature
Sensor
9-11
Fan Assembly To Fan
Clutch Bolts
17
Fan Assembly and Fan
Clutch To Water Pump
55
Fan Shroud Screws
9
Degas Bolts
9
Radiator Draincock
0.7-1.4
Radiator Support Bracket
Bolts
30
Transmission Fluid Cooler
Fittings
20
Water Inlet and Outlet
Connection Bolts
9
Water Pump Bolts
20-30
Water Pump Pulley Bolts
20-30
Includes radiator coolant recovery reservoir fluid level
between the “COOLANT FILL LEVEL’’ lines.
Ford Premium Engine Coolant (green in color) E2FZ19549-AA or -B (Canada: Motorcraft CXC-8-B, Oregon:
F5FZ-19549) Recycled Coolant or equivalent meeting
Ford specification ESE-M97B44-A.
HOLE NO.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
3,4,5,9
W/P
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
WATER PUMP AND FRONT COVER FASTENERS
F/C PART NO.
PART NAME
DESCRIPTION
X
N805112
Stud Bolt
M8 X 1.25 X 98
X
N805112
Stud Bold
M8 X 1.25 X 98
N805757
Stud
M8 x 1.25 X 137
N804853
Stud
M8 X 1.25 X 156
N805757
Stud
M8 X 1.25 X 137
N605908
Bolt
M8 X 1.25 X 38
N808217
Bolt
M8 X 1.25 X 117.5
N804852
Stud Bolt
M8 X 1.25 X 160.3
N804853
Stud
M8 X 1.25 X 156
X
N804839
Bolt
M8 X 1.25 X 105
X W701885
Socket Head Cap Screw
M8 X 1.25 X 19.5
N605908
Bolt
M8 X 1.25 X 38
N605908
Bolt
M8 X 1.25 X 38
N804745
Nut
M8 X 1.25
NOTE: Bolt information on installation page this section.
05-36
Nm
55
55
Lb-Ft
40
40
Lb-Ft
–
Lb-In
14-16
–
80-95
13
–
41
–
–
–
–
80
80
6-12
22
–
15
–
–
15-22
15-22
80
–
–
HEX SIZE
(15mm Hex)
(15mm Hex)
(N/A)
(N/A)
(N/A)
(10mm Hex)
(10mm Hex)
(15mm Hex)
(N/A)
(10mm Hex)
(N/A)
(10mm Hex)
(10mm Hex)
(15mm Hex)
Auxiliary Systems – Charging
CHARGING INDEX
SUBJECT
PAGE
Generator ...................................................................... 06-3
Generator Diagnosis And Testing ............................... 06-4
Voltage Regulator and Back of Generator ................... 06-4
Visual Inspection .......................................................... 06-4
Generator Output Test .................................................. 06-5
Symptom Chart ............................................................ 06-6
Pinpoint Tests ............................................................... 06-7
Generator Removal And Installation ........................ 06-13
Regulator Removal ................................................... 06-13
Battery Mounting And Cables ................................... 06-15
Removal and Installation ........................................... 06-15
Battery Removal and Installation .............................. 06-15
Service Procedures ................................................... 06-16
Battery Charging ........................................................ 06-16
Maintenance-Free and Low-Maintenance
Batteries ................................................................... 06-16
Cleaning and Inspection ........................................... 06-17
Clamp Puller .............................................................. 06-18
Battery Clamp Spreader ............................................ 06-18
Terminal Cleaning Brush ........................................... 06-18
Carrier ........................................................................ 06-18
06
Wiring Schematic ....................................................... 06-19
Specifications ............................................................. 06-20
06-1
Auxiliary Systems – Charging
06-2
Auxiliary Systems – Charging
GENERATOR, INTEGRAL REAR MOUNT REGULATOR, INTERNAL FAN
TYPE DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
Generator
Circuit Description
With the key in the RUN position, voltage is applied
through the charge indicator lamp “I” circuit to the
voltage regulator. This turns the voltage regulator
on allowing current to flow from the battery sense
“A” circuit to the generator field coil. When the engine
(6007) is started, the generator (10346) begins to
generate alternating (AC) current which is
converted to direct (DC) current by the rectifier
internal to the generator. This current is then
supplied to the electrical system through the Battery
Positive voltage (B+) terminal located on the rear
of the generator.
Battery Positive Voltage (B+) Output
The generator output circuit 38 (BK/O) is supplied
through the battery positive voltage (B+) output
connection to the battery and electrical system. The
B+ circuit is hot at all times. This circuit is protected
by a 12 gage fuse link.
“I” Circuit
The “I” circuit, or ignition switch (11572), circuit 904
(LG/R) is used to turn on the voltage regulator. This
circuit is closed with the ignition switch in the RUN
position. This circuit is also used to turn the charge
indicator lamp on if there is a fault in the charging
system operation or associated wiring circuits.
Once the generator begins generating current, a
voltage signal is taken from the stator and fed back
to the voltage regulator “S” circuit, turning off the
charge indicator/lamp.
“A” Circuit
With the system functioning normally, the generator
output current is determined by the voltage at the
“A” circuit. This voltage is compared to a set voltage
internal to the voltage regulator, and the voltage
regulator controls the generator field current to
maintain proper generator output. The set voltage
will vary with temperature and is typically higher in
the winter than in the summer, allowing for better
battery recharge.
CAUTION: The “A” circuit is electrically
hot at all times.
The “A” circuit, or battery sense circuit, circuit 36
(Y/W) is used to sense the battery voltage. This
voltage is used by the voltage regulator to determine
the output. This circuit is also used to supply power
to the field coil. This circuit is protected by a 15
amp fuse in the power distribution box or a fuse
link.
2
“S” Circuit
3
The “S” circuit, or stator circuit, circuit 4 (W/BK) is
used to feed back a voltage signal from the
generator to the voltage regulator. This voltage,
typically 1/2 battery voltage when the generator is
operating, is used by the voltage regulator to turn
off the charge indicator lamp.
1
1
Generator Regulator 10316
2
Generator 10346
3
Generator Pulley 10344
06-3
Auxiliary Systems – Charging
GENERATOR DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING
*
after alternator harness at
* Located
green/red wire to ignition switch.
Voltage Regulator and Back of Generator
NOTE: The generator (main) wiring diagram
(14305) for the engine, is found at the back of this
section.
Before performing generator tests on the unit, note
conditions such as: slow cranking, dead battery,
charge indicator lamp stays on with engine running,
etc. This information will aid in isolating the part of
the system causing the symptom.
Item
Part Number
Description
1
–
Mounting Screws (Ground
Connection) (4 req’d). Tighten
to 1.7-2.8 Nm (15-25 In-Lb)
(Part of 10316).
2
–
Brush Holder Screw (Test Point
“F’’) (Part of 10316).
3
–
Brush Holder Screw (Test Point
“A’’) (Part of 10316).
4
LG-R
I Circuit 904 (Part of 14305).
5
W-B
S Circuit 4 (Part of 14305).
6
Y-W
A Circuit 36 (Part of 14305).
7
10328
Rotor Slip Ring.
Visual Inspection
Preliminary checks to the charging system should
be made regardless of the fault condition. These
checks include:
1. Check battery posts and cable terminals for
clean and tight connections. Clean the posts and
the cables to ensure good electrical contact.
2. Check for secure connections at the generator
output, regulator, and engine ground. Also
check the connection at the load distribution
point (starter relay).
06-4
Auxiliary Systems – Charging
GENERATOR DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Generator Voltage Test
3. Check the fuses/fuse links and wiring to the
generator to ensure that they are not burned
or damaged. This condition, resulting in an open
circuit or high resistance, can cause erratic or
intermittent charging system concerns.
1. Switch the tester to the voltmeter function.
2. Connect the positive lead to the generator Aterminal connector and the negative lead to
ground.
4. Check the battery voltage. If the voltage is less
than 12.3 volts with the engine and all accessories
off, charge battery before proceeding.
3. Turn off all electrical accessories.
4. With the engine running at 2000 rpm, check the
generator voltage.
In order to check the generator, the use of Rotunda
Starting and Charging System Tester 078-00005
(VAT-40) [Rotunda Tools (1-800-578-7375)] or
equivalent, is recommended.
5. Voltage should be between 13.0-15.5 volts.
NOTE: If voltage is not within specifications,
refer to symptom chart in this Section.
Generator Output Test
NOTE: Refer to the test equipment user’s manual
for complete directions on examining the charging
system.
1. Switch the tester to ammeter function.
2. Connect the positive and negative leads of the
tester to the battery.
3. Connect current probe to generator B+ output
lead Circuit 38 (BK/O) (to measure generator
output).
4. With the engine running at 2000 rpm, adjust
the VAT-40 or equivalent load bank to determine
the output of the generator. Generator output
should be greater than values given in graph
below. If not, refer to symptom chart in this
Section.
06-5
Auxiliary Systems – Charging
GENERATOR DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING
SYMPTOM CHART
CONDITION
POSSIBLE SOURCE
ACTION
• Dead battery. Battery will not stay
charged. Slow crank. Low battery
voltage. No generator output
• Key-off battery drain.
• Open/voltage drop in B+, Circuit 38
(BK/O), 290, and 37.
• Open/voltage drop in A, Circuit 36 (Y/W).
• Open/high resistance in I, Circuit 904
(LG/R).
• Voltage regulator.
• Generator.
• Go to Pinpoint Test A.
• Indicator lamp on with engine running.
• Open A, Circuit 36 (Y/W).
• Shorted I, Circuit 904 (LG/R).
• Open/high resistance in S, Circuit 4
(W/BK).
• Voltage regulator.
• Generator.
• Go to Pinpoint Test B.
• Indicator lamp flickers or intermittent.
• Loose connection to generator, voltage
regulator battery.
• Loose fuse or poor connection in Circuit
36 (Y/W).
• Loose brush holder screw.
• Voltage regulator.
• Generator
• Go to Pinpoint Test C.
• Battery overcharging (Battery voltage
greater than 15.5 volts).
• Voltage drop in A, Circuit 36 (Y/W).
• Voltage drop in I, Circuit 904 (LG/R).
• Poor ground.
• Voltage regulator.
• Generator.
• Go to Pinpoint Test D.
• Indicator lamp off, key on, engine not
running.
• Open/high resistance in I, Circuit 904
(LG/R).
• Burned out bulb.
• Poor ground.
• S, Circuit 4 (W/BK) shorted to B+.
• Voltage regulator.
• Generator.
• Go to Pinpoint Test E.
• Generator noisy.
•
•
•
•
•
• Go to Pinpoint Test F.
• Indicator lamp on, key off.
• Lamp circuit, (GY/W) shorted to B+.
• Improper lamp circuit wiring.
Accessory drive belt.
Accessory brackets.
Bent generator pulley.
Generator.
Other components.
06-6
• Go to Pinpoint Test H.
Auxiliary Systems – Charging
GENERATOR DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Pinpoint Tests
All voltage measurements are referenced to the
negative (-) battery post unless otherwise specified.
connections may damage the voltage regulator
or fuses/fuse links.
CAUTION: Do not make jumper
connections except as directed. Improper
All “key ON” measurements are made with the
engine not running unless directed to “start engine.”
PINPOINT TEST A: DEAD BATTERY/NO GENERATOR OUTPUT
TEST STEP
A1
RESULT
CHECK FOR KEY-OFF DRAIN
• Turn key to OFF position.
• Turn off all accessories.
• Connect an ammeter or test lamp between the
negative (-) battery cable and the negative battery
post.
• Is current drain less than 100 mA (or test lamp
off)?
A2
No
Check fuse link in Circuit
38, 290, and 37 and
REPLACE if required. If OK,
REPAIR open in Circuits 38,
290, and 37.
Yes
No
GO to A4.
Check fuse link in Circuit
38, 290, and 37 and
REPLACE if required. If
OK, REPAIR open in
Circuits 38, 290, and 37.
Yes
No
GO to A5.
GO to A11.
Yes
No
GO to A6.
REPAIR open or high
resistance in Circuit 904
(LG/R).
Yes
GO to A7.
No
REPAIR excess voltage
drop in Circuit 36 (Y/W).
CHECK fuses or fuse link
and connectors in Circuit 36
and SERVICE as required.
Yes
No
GO to A8.
GO to A11.
CHECK VOLTAGE DROP IN A CIRCUIT
• Measure voltage drop between test point A on the
voltage regulator and the positive (+) battery post.
• Is voltage drop less than 0.25 volts?
A7
GO to A3.
CHECK FOR OPEN I CIRCUIT
• Turn key to ON position.
• Measure voltage at wiring harness I terminal, Circuit
904 (LG/R).
NOTE: Voltage regulator must be connected to wiring
harness for this test.
• Is voltage greater than 1 volt?
A6
Yes
CHECK FOR OPEN FIELD CIRCUIT
• Measure voltage at test point F on the voltage regulator.
• Is voltage at test point F equal to battery voltage?
A5
GO to A2.
Check to ensure that the
key switch is functioning
properly, and that all lights
and accessories are “off”
with the key switch in the
“off” position.
CHECK FOR OPEN A CIRCUIT
• Measure voltage at test point A on the voltage regulator.
• Is voltage at test point A equal to battery voltage?
A4
Yes
No
CHECK FOR OPEN B+ CIRCUIT
• Measure voltage at B+ terminal on the back of the
generator. Circuit 38 (BK/O).
• Is voltage at B+ terminal equal to battery voltage?
A3
ACTION TO TAKE
CHECK FIELD TURN-ON
• Measure voltage at test point F on the voltage regulator.
• Is voltage at test point F less than 2 volts?
06-7
Auxiliary Systems – Charging
GENERATOR DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
PINPOINT TEST A: DEAD BATTERY/NO GENERATOR OUTPUT (Continued)
TEST STEP
A8
RESULT
CHECK FOR SHORTED RECTIFIER
• Remove one-pin S connector from generator.
• Measure voltage between the S terminal on the back of
the generator and ground.
• Measure voltage between the positive (+) battery
terminal and the S terminal on the back of the
generator.
• Is either voltage reading greater than 1 volt?
A9
Install S connector.
Start engine.
Turn on headlights or any accessory.
With engine running at 2000 RPM, measure voltage
drop between the B+ terminal on the back of the
generator and the positive (+) battery post.
• Is voltage drop less than 0.5 volt?
REPLACE generator.
GO to A9.
Yes
No
GO to A10.
REPAIR excess voltage
drop in Circuits 38, 290,
and 37.
CHECK fuse link in Circuits
38, 290, and 37 and the
connections between the
battery and under-hood
fuse box.
Yes
REPLACE voltage
regulator.
No
REPLACE generator.
Yes
No
REPLACE generator.
CHECK for worn brushes
(less than 8mm long) or
open brush leads and
REPLACE if required. If OK
REPLACE voltage regulator.
CHECK FOR OPEN STATOR PHASE
• Connect test point F on the voltage regulator to the
negative (-) batter post using a jumper wire.
• Repeat Generator Output Test.
• Is generator output greater than the minimum
output specified?
A11
Yes
No
CHECK VOLTAGE DROP IN B+ CIRCUIT
•
•
•
•
A10
ACTION TO TAKE
CHECK FOR OPEN/SHORTED FIELD
•
•
•
•
Remove generator.
Remove voltage regulator.
Measure resistance between the generator slip rings.
Is resistance greater than 10 ohms OR less than 1
ohm?
PINPOINT TEST B: INDICATOR LAMP ON, ENGINE RUNNING
TEST STEP
B1
RESULT
CHECK FOR OPEN A CIRCUIT
• Measure voltage at test point A on the voltage
regulator.
• Is voltage at test point A equal to battery voltage?
B2
Yes
No
GO to B2.
CHECK fuse or fuse link in
Circuit 36 and REPLACE if
required. If OK, REPAIR
open in Circuit 36 (Y/W).
Yes
REPAIR short to ground in
Circuit 904 (LG/R).
GO to B3.
CHECK FOR SHORTED I CIRCUIT
• Remove three-pin voltage regulator connector.
• Turn key to ON position
• Is indicator lamp on?
B3
ACTION TO TAKE
No
CHECK S CIRCUIT FUNCTION
• Install voltage regulator connector.
• Remove one-pin S connector.
• Connect wiring harness S terminal, Circuit 4 (W/BK) to
the positive (+) battery post using a jumper wire.
• Is indicator lamp on?
Yes
No
06-8
REMOVE jumper wire. GO
to B4.
REMOVE jumper wire. GO
to B5.
Auxiliary Systems – Charging
GENERATOR DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
PINPOINT TEST B: INDICATOR LAMP ON, ENGINE RUNNING (Continued)
TEST STEP
B4
RESULT
CHECK FOR OPEN S CIRCUIT
• Remove three-pin S voltage regulator connector.
• Measure wiring resistance between the one-pin S
connector and the S (center) pin of the voltage
regulator connector.
• Is resistance greater than 1 ohm?
B5
Yes
REPAIR open or excess
resistance in Circuit 4
(W/BK).
No
CHECK for loose or bent
pin in voltage regulator or
connector. If OK, REPLACE voltage regulator.
Yes
No
GO to B6.
GO to Pinpoint Test A to
find the cause of low
generator output.
Yes
GO to Pinpoint Test D to
find the cause of high
output voltage.
REPLACE voltage
generator.
CHECK STATOR OUTPUT VOLTAGE
• Start engine.
• Measure voltage at the S terminal on the back of the
generator.
• Is voltage at least 1/2 of battery voltage?
B6
ACTION TO TAKE
CHECK GENERATOR OUTPUT VOLTAGE
• Measure voltage at the B+ terminal on the back of the
generator with the engine running at 2000 RPM and all
accessories turned off.
• Is voltage greater than 15.5 volts?
No
PINPOINT TEST C: INDICATOR LAMP FLICKERS/INTERMITTENT
TEST STEP
C1
RESULT
CHECK FOR LOOSE CONNECTIONS
• Check these connections for corrosion, loose or bent
pins, or loose eyelets:
– Three-pin voltage regulator connector.
– One-pin S connector.
– Generator B+ eyelet.
– Battery cables
• Are all connections clean and tight?
C2
No
CLEAN or REPAIR
connections as required.
Yes
No
GO to C3.
GO to C5.
Yes
REPAIR loose fuse
connection.
No
GO to C4.
Yes
REPLACE voltage
regulator. If problem still
exists, REPLACE generator.
GO to C4.
CHECK A CIRCUIT CONNECTIONS
• With engine running, connect test point A on the
voltage regulator to the positive (+) battery post using
a jumper wire.
• Does indicator lamp flicker?
C5
GO to C2.
CHECK FOR LOOSE A CIRCUIT FUSE
• Start engine.
• Check the generator fuse loose connection by wiggling
the fuse with the engine running.
• Does indicator lamp flicker?
C4
Yes
CHECK FOR FIELD CIRCUIT DRAIN
• Turn key to OFF position.
• Measure voltage at test point F on the voltage regulator.
• Is voltage at test point F equal to battery voltage?
C3
ACTION TO TAKE
No
CHECK BRUSH HOLDER SCREWS
• Remove generator from unit.
• Check the brush holder screws, located on the voltage
regulator (test points F and A).
• Are the brush holder screws tight?
Yes
No
06-9
GO to C6.
TIGHTEN screws to
specification. 2.8-4.0 Nm
(25-35 In-Lb).
Auxiliary Systems – Charging
GENERATOR DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
PINPOINT TEST C: INDICATOR LAMP FLICKERS/INTERMITTENT (Continued)
TEST STEP
C6
RESULT
ACTION TO TAKE
CHECK FOR GROUNDED SLIP RING
• Remove voltage regulator.
• Measure resistance from each generator slip ring to
the generator housing.
• Is resistance from either slip ring to housing less
than 200 ohms?
Yes
If grease or dirt has
accumulated near the slip
rings, CLEAN the slip rings
and RECHECK resistance.
If still less than 200 ohms,
REPLACE generator.
REPLACE voltage
regulator.
No
PINPOINT TEST D: CHARGING VOLTAGE HIGH
TEST STEP
D1
RESULT
CHECK VOLTAGE DROP IN A CIRCUIT
• Turn key to ON position.
• Measure voltage between test point A on the voltage
regulator and the positive (+) battery post.
• Is voltage drop less than 0.25 volt?
D2
No
REPAIR excess voltage
drop in Circuit 36 (Y/W).
CHECK fuse or fuse link
and connections in Circuit
36 and SERVICE as
required.
Yes
No
GO to D3.
REPAIR high resistance in
Circuit 904 (LG/R).
Yes
GO to D4.
No
CLEAN or REPAIR
grounds as required.
Yes
Generator is OK, REPLACE voltage regulator.
CLEAN or REPAIR grounds
as required.
CHECK FOR FIELD CIRCUIT DRAIN
• Turn key to OFF position.
• Measure voltage at test point F on the voltage
regulator.
• Is voltage at test point F equal to battery voltage?
D5
GO to D2.
CHECK FOR POOR GROUND
• Check for poor ground connections between voltage
regulator and generator, generator and engine, or
engine and battery.
• Are all ground connections clean and tight?
D4
Yes
CHECK VOLTAGE DROP IN I CIRCUIT
• Measure voltage at wiring harness I terminal, Circuit
904 (LG/R).
NOTE: Voltage regulator must be connected to wiring
harness for this test.
• Is voltage greater than 1 volt?
D3
ACTION TO TAKE
No
CHECK FOR GROUNDED SLIP RING
• Remove generator from vehicle.
• Remove voltage regulator.
• Measure resistance from each generator slip ring to
the generator housing.
• Is resistance from either slip ring to housing less
than 200 ohms?
Yes
No
06-10
If grease or dirt has
accumulated near the slip
rings, CLEAN the slip rings
and RECHECK resistance.
If still less than 200 ohms,
REPLACE generator.
REPLACE voltage
regulator.
Auxiliary Systems – Charging
GENERATOR DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
PINPOINT TEST E: INDICATOR LAMP OFF, KEY ON, ENGINE NOT RUNNING
TEST STEP
E1
RESULT
CHECK FOR OPEN I CIRCUIT
• Remove three-pin voltage regulator connector.
• Turn key to ON position.
• Measure voltage at wiring harness I terminal, Circuit
904 (LG/R).
• Is voltage greater than 0 volts?
E2
GO to E2.
No
REPAIR open in Circuit 904
(LG/R).
Yes
REMOVE jumper wire. GO
to E3.
REPLACE bulb or REPAIR
high resistance in bulb
socket or Circuit 904
(LG/R).
No
CHECK FOR POOR GROUNDS
• Check for poor ground connections between voltage
regulator and generator, generator and engine, or
engine and battery.
• Are all ground connections clean and tight?
E4
Yes
CHECK FOR BURNED OUT BULB
• Connect wiring harness I terminal, Circuit 904 (LG/R)
to ground with a jumper wire.
• Is indicator lamp on?
E3
Yes
GO to E4.
No
CLEAN or REPAIR
grounds as required.
Yes
SERVICE Circuit 4 (W/BK).
Circuit should be hot only
when engine is running.
CHECK for swapped wires
in voltage regulator
connector.
GO to E5.
CHECK S CIRCUIT WIRING
• Remove one-pin S connector from generator.
• Measure voltage at wiring harness S terminal, Circuit 4
(W/BK).
• Is voltage greater than 0 volts?
No
E5
ACTION TO TAKE
CHECK FOR SHORTED RECTIFIER
• Measure voltage at the S terminal on the back of the
generator.
• Is voltage greater than 1 volt?
Yes
If lamp is on with one-pin S
connector removed,
REPLACE generator.
REPLACE voltage regulator.
No
PINPOINT TEST F: GENERATOR NOISY
TEST STEP
F1
ACTION TO TAKE
CHECK FOR ACCESSORY-DRIVE NOISE
• Check the drive belt to make sure that it is installed
properly and is not damaged.
• Check the accessory mounting brackets for loose
bolts or out of alignment condition.
• Check for a bent pulley.
• Is accessory drive OK?
F2
RESULT
Yes
No
GO to F2.
SERVICE accessory drive
as required.
Yes
Generator is OK. INSTALL
original part. CHECK other
accessories to find the
cause of the noise.
REPLACE generator.
SUBSTITUTE KNOWN GOOD GENERATOR
• Remove generator and replace with a known good
generator.
• Is noise present with known good part?
No
06-11
Auxiliary Systems – Charging
GENERATOR DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
PINPOINT TEST G: RADIO FREQUENCY
TEST STEP
G1
RESULT
VERIFY RADIO FREQUENCY
•
•
•
•
Start engine.
Tune radio to a station where interference is present.
Remove three-pin voltage regulator connector.
Is accessory drive OK?
Yes
Generator is OK.
Interference is occurring
elsewhere in the electrical
system.
Go to G2.
No
G2
ACTION TO TAKE
SUBSTITUTE KNOWN GOOD GENERATOR
• Remove generator and replace with a known good
generator.
• Is interference present with known good part?
Yes
Generator is OK.
Interference is occurring
elsewhere in the electrical
system.
REPLACE generator.
No
PINPOINT TEST H: INDICATOR LAMP ON, KEY OFF
TEST STEP
H1
RESULT
ACTION TO TAKE
CHECK LAMP CIRCUIT WIRING
• Turn key to OFF position.
• Remove three-pin voltage regulator connector.
• Measure voltage at wiring harness I terminal, Circuit
904 (LG/R).
• Is voltage greater than 0 volts?
Yes
SERVICE Circuit 904
(LG/R). Circuit should be
hot in RUN position only.
No
SERVICE instrumentation
system. Indicator lamp
circuit is finding a path to
ground at a point other
than the generator.
06-12
Auxiliary Systems – Charging
GENERATOR REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
!
WARNING: BATTERIES NORMALLY
PRODUCE EXPLOSIVE GASES WHICH CAN
CAUSE PERSONAL INJURY. THEREFORE, DO
NOT ALLOW FLAMES, SPARKS OR LIGHTED
SUBSTANCES TO COME NEAR THE BATTERY.
WHEN CHARGING OR WORKING NEAR A
BATTERY, ALWAYS SHIELD YOUR FACE AND
PROTECT YOUR EYES. ALWAYS PROVIDE
VENTILATION. WHEN LIFTING A PLASTICCASED BATTERY, EXCESSIVE PRESSURE ON
THE END WALLS COULD CAUSE ACID TO
SPEW THROUGH THE VENT CAPS,
RESULTING IN PERSONAL INJURY. LIFT WITH
A BATTERY CARRIER OR WITH YOUR HANDS
ON OPPOSITE CORNERS.
!
WARNING: KEEP BATTERIES OUT OF
REACH OF CHILDREN. BATTERIES CONTAIN
SULFURIC ACID. AVOID CONTACT WITH SKIN,
EYES OR CLOTHING. ALSO, SHIELD YOUR
EYES WHEN WORKING NEAR THE BATTERY
TO
PROTECT
AGAINST
POSSIBLE
SPLASHING OF THE ACID SOLUTION. IN
CASE OF ACID CONTACT WITH THE SKIN,
EYES OR CLOTHING, FLUSH IMMEDIATELY
WITH WATER FOR A MINIMUM OF FIFTEEN
MINUTES. IF ACID IS SWALLOWED, DRINK
LARGE QUANTITIES OF MILK OR WATER,
FOLLOWED BY MILK OF MAGNESIA,
A
BEATEN EGG, OR VEGETABLE OIL. CALL A
PHYSICIAN IMMEDIATELY.
Installation
1. Position the generator on the generator bracket.
2. Install the bolts and tighten to 40-55 Nm (30 40 ft-lb).
3. Install the drive belt over the generator pulley.
4. Install the drive belt over tensioner as outlined
in Section 05.
5. Connect generator voltage regulator wiring to
the voltage regulator. Tighten generator Battery
Positive Voltage (B+) wire attaching nut to 9-12
Nm (6.5-9 ft-lb).
6. Install wiring connector bracket.
7. Install snow/ice shield.
8. Connect battery ground cable.
Regulator
Removal
1. NOTE: for ease or removal and installation of
regulator, remove the generator from engine as
described above.
Remove the four screws (T20 Torx type head)
attaching the voltage regulator to the generator
housing. Remove the voltage regulator with
generator brush holder (10351) attached, from
the generator.
Generator
Removal
1
1. Disconnect battery ground cable (14301).
2. Remove snow/ice shield.
3. Disconnect the generator voltage regulator
wiring (14305) to the voltage regulator.
4. Remove wiring connector bracket.
2
5. Loosen the drive belt tensioner (613209) and
remove the drive belt.
6. Remove the bolts holding the generator to the
generator bracket (10A313).
3
7. Remove the generator from the generator
bracket.
06-13
1
Slip Rings 10328
2
Regulator 10316 and Brush
Holder Assembly 10347
3
Screw 4 Req’d.
Tighten to 2.3-3.4 Nm
(20-30 In-Lb)
Auxiliary Systems – Charging
GENERATOR REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
2. Hold the voltage regulator in one hand and pry
off the cap covering the A screw head with a
screwdriver.
3. Remove two screws (T20 Torx type head)
attaching the regulator to the generator brush
holder. Separate the regulator from generator
brush holder.
Installation
1. Replace generator brush holder to voltage
regulator and install attaching screws.
2. Replace cap on the head of the A terminal
screw.
3. Depress the generator brushes in the generator
brush holder.
• Hold the generator brushes in position by
inserting a standard size paper clip (or
equivalent) through both the location hole in
the voltage regulator and through the holes
in the generator brush holders.
1
4. Install the voltage regulator and generator brush
holder to the generator with attaching screws.
• Remove paper clip (or equivalent) from the
regulator.
2
3
5. Install generator following installation in this
section.
1
Voltage Regulator 10316
2
Generator Brush Holder 10347
3
Screw (2 Req’d) Tighten to 2.8-4.0 Nm
(25-35 In-Lb)
NOTE: Only the regulator, brush holder and
generator pulley are serviceable. If the generator
needs further service, it must be replaced as an
assembly.
06-14
Auxiliary Systems – Charging
BATTERY MOUNTING AND CABLES
!
WARNING: WHEN LIFTING PLASTICCASED BATTERY, EXCESSIVE PRESSURE ON
THE END WALLS COULD CAUSE ACID TO
SPEW THROUGH THE VENT CAPS,
RESULTING IN PERSONAL INJURY, DAMAGE
TO THE VEHICLE OR BATTERY. LIFT WITH A
BATTERY CARRIER OR WITH YOUR HANDS
ON OPPOSITE CORNERS.
3.
! CAUTION: When lifting a plastic-cased
battery (10655), excessive pressure on the
end walls could cause acid to spew through
the vent caps, resulting in personal injury,
damage to the vehicle or battery. Lift with a
battery carrier or with your hands on
opposite corners.
Remove battery from vehicle or equipment.
!
WARNING: KEEP OUT OF REACH OF
CHILDREN. BATTERIES CONTAIN SULFURIC
ACID. AVOID CONTACT WITH SKIN, EYES, OR
CLOTHING. ALSO, SHIELD YOUR EYES WHEN
WORKING NEAR THE BATTERY TO PROTECT
AGAINST POSSIBLE SPLASHING OF THE
ACID SOLUTION. IN CASE OF ACID CONTACT
WITH SKIN OR EYES, FLUSH IMMEDIATELY
WITH WATER FOR A MINIMUM OF 15 MINUTES
AND GET PROMPT MEDICAL ATTENTION. IF
ACID IS SWALLOWED, DRINK LARGE
QUANTITIES OF MILK OR WATER, FOLLOWED
BY MILK OF MAGNESIA, A BEATEN EGG, OR
VEGETABLE OIL. CALL A PHYSICIAN
IMMEDIATELY.
Installation
1. NOTE: The battery terminal cleaning operation
shown in the following illustration is typical for
all vehicles and equipment.
Clean cable terminals and battery hold down
clamp with a wire brush. Replace all cables or
parts that are worn or frayed.
Removal and Installation
Environmental Protection
Ford Motor Company strongly recommends that
lead-acid batteries (10655) be returned to an
authorized recycling facility for disposal.
2. Clean battery tray (10732) with a wire brush
and scraper.
3. Place battery in battery tray with positive and
negative terminals in same position as previous
battery (10653).
4. Assemble and tighten battery hold down clamp
so battery is secure. Do not tighten excessively.
5. Secure cables (battery to starter relay cable
(14300) first) to proper terminals. Tighten to 710 Nm (5-7 lb-ft). Apply petroleum jelly to
terminals.
Battery
Removal
1. Remove battery cables from battery terminals
(battery ground cable (14301) first).
2. Remove battery hold down clamp (10718).
06-15
Auxiliary Systems – Charging
BATTERY MOUNTING AND CABLES (Continued)
Service Procedures
Maintenance-Free and Low-Maintenance
Batteries
Battery Charging
NOTE: If excessive gassing or electrolyte spewing
occurs during the charge, discontinue charging.
The battery (10655) has reached serviceable
charge. If the battery will not accept at least 5A
after 20 minutes of charging, replace the battery.
!
WARNING: WEAR SAFETY GLASSES.
BATTERY CHARGING CAN BE DANGEROUS.
WHILE BEING CHARGED, THE BATTERY
PRODUCES A POTENTIALLY EXPLOSIVE
MIXTURE OF HYDROGEN AND OXYGEN
GASSES. KEEP SPARKS, FLAMES AND
LIGHTED CIGARETTES AWAY FROM
BATTERIES. IN CASE OF ACID CONTACT WITH
SKIN, EYES OR CLOTHING, FLUSH
IMMEDIATELY WITH LARGE AMOUNTS OF
WATER. GET MEDICAL ATTENTION.
Inspect and service any of the following pre-existing
conditions before recharging a discharged battery.
• Loose drive belt (8620).
• Pinched or grounded generator voltage regulator
wiring (14305).
• Loose connections of the generator voltage
regulator wiring at the generator (GEN)(10346)
or voltage regulator (VR)(10316).
• Loose or corroded connections at battery,
grounded starter motor cutout relay (11433) or
engine (6007).
• Excessive battery drain due to any of the following
conditions on some types of equipment:
– Compartment lamp (15702), glove compartment
and interior lamps (13776) remaining energized
(damaged or misadjusted switch, glove
compartment left open, etc.).
– Lamp switch (13713) continuously on.
Cold batteries will not readily accept a charge.
Therefore, batteries should be allowed to warm up
to approximately 5°C (41°F) before charging. This
may require four to eight hours at room temperature
depending on the initial temperature and battery
size.
A battery which has been completely discharged
may be slow to accept a charge initially, and in some
cases may not accept charge at the normal charger
setting. When batteries are in this condition, charging
can be started by use of the dead battery switch
on chargers so equipped.
To determine whether a battery is accepting a
charge, follow charger manufacturer’s instructions
for use of dead battery switch. If switch is the springloaded type, it should be held in the ON position for
up to three minutes.
After releasing switch and with charger still on,
measure battery voltage. If it shows 12 volts or
higher, the battery is accepting a charge and is
capable of being recharged. However, it may
require up to two hours of charging with batteries
colder than 5°C (41°F) before charging rate is high
enough to show on the charger ammeter. It has
been found that all non-damaged batteries can be
charged by this procedure. If a battery cannot be
charged by this procedure, it should be replaced.
A rapid recharge procedure has been developed
for recharging batteries that only need a quick
recharge. This can be due to battery in-service nostart battery failures (vehicles will not crank due to
low battery state of charge) or battery discharged
in vehicle due to key-off loads.
The battery can be rapidly recharged by using either
of the following methods.
• Perform a two-hour charge using 20A constant
current (manual setting on charger).
• Perform a two-hour charge using a constant
potential (automatic setting on charger).
06-16
Auxiliary Systems – Charging
BATTERY MOUNTING AND CABLES (Continued)
Cleaning and Inspection
Tools
!
WARNING: KEEP OUT OF REACH OF
CHILDREN. BATTERIES CONTAIN SULFURIC
ACID. AVOID CONTACT WITH SKIN, EYES, OR
CLOTHING. ALSO, SHIELD YOUR EYES WHEN
WORKING NEAR THE BATTERY TO PROTECT
AGAINST POSSIBLE SPLASHING OF THE
ACID SOLUTION. IN CASE OF ACID CONTACT
WITH SKIN OR EYES, FLUSH IMMEDIATELY
WITH WATER FOR A MINIMUM OF 15 MINUTES
AND GET PROMPT MEDICAL ATTENTION. IF
ACID IS SWALLOWED, DRINK LARGE
QUANTITIES OF MILK OR WATER, FOLLOWED
BY MILK OF MAGNESIA, A BEATEN EGG, OR
VEGETABLE OIL. CALL A PHYSICIAN
IMMEDIATELY.
Keeping the battery (10655) top clean and dry
reduces the need for service and extends battery
life. Also, make certain the cable clamps are tightly
fastened to the battery posts. If corrosion is found,
disconnect the cables and clean clamps and posts
with a wire brush. Neutralize the corrosion with a
solution of baking soda and water. After installing
cables, apply a small quantity of Premium LongLife Grease XG-1-C or -K or equivalent grease
meeting Ford specification ESA-M1C75-B to each
battery post to help prevent corrosion.
The battery cleaning operation shown in the
following illustration is typical for all vehicles and
equipment.
Anyone working with a battery (10655) needs the
proper tools. Using the right tools will prevent
damage to the battery, battery cables and battery
hold down clamp (10718).
Tools and equipment manufactured for servicing
batteries (10653) have parts insulated to help
prevent arcing should the tool be dropped or placed
accidentally between a terminal and some other
contact surface.
Pliers
! CAUTION: Always remove the negative
cable first to prevent possible arcing possibly
damaging other electrical components.
Battery pliers have jaws specifically designed for
gripping cable clamp bolts securely. Care should
be taken when removing or replacing the cable
clamp bolts so that the battery terminal is not
subjected to any excessive lateral or twisting
forces. Such forces could cause major damage to
the internal components of the battery, and leakage
at the terminals.
The battery terminal removal operation shown in
the following illustration is typical for all vehicles
and equipment.
06-17
Auxiliary Systems – Charging
BATTERY MOUNTING AND CABLES (Continued)
Clamp Puller
Terminal Cleaning Brush
! CAUTION: Always remove the negative
cable first to prevent possible arcing possibly
damaging other electrical components.
The terminal cleaning brush is designed with units
to clean both tapered battery terminal and the mating
surface of the cable clamp. Refer to illustration
under Battery Installation.
Use a clamp puller to remove a cable clamp from
the battery terminal. With the jaws gripping the
underside of the cable clamp, pull the clamp up by
means of pressure exerted against the top of the
battery terminal. Proper use of this tool avoids the
damaging lateral or twisting forces that result when
using a pry bar or pliers.
Battery Clamp Spreader
The spreader is used to expand the cable clamp
after it has been removed from the terminal and the
clamp bolt has been loosened. The cable clamp
can then be easily placed in its correct position
completely on the terminal.
The battery clamp spreading operation shown in
the following illustration is typical for all vehicles
and equipment.
Carrier
!
WARNING: GRIPPING THE END WALLS
ON THE PLASTIC-CASED BATTERY COULD
CAUSE ELECTROLYTE TO SPEW FROM SOME
OF THE CELLS, RESULTING IN PERSONAL
INJURY AND POSSIBLE CAUSE DAMAGE TO
SOME OF THE INTERNAL COMPONENTS.
Use a suitable battery carrier for lifting and
transporting the battery. The illustration shows a
clamp-type carrier used to grip the sidewalls of the
container just below the lip of the cover. The carrier
is used on the sidewalls, rather than the end walls,
since the sidewalls have additional strength from
the inner cell partitions. This is particularly important
with the plastic-cased battery which has end walls
that are flexible.
The battery removal operation shown in the
following illustration is typical for all vehicles and
equipment.
06-18
Auxiliary Systems – Charging
Wiring Schematic – 4.2L & 2.5L Alternator, Gauges, Ignition and
Discrete Governing
06-19
Auxiliary Systems – Charging
SPECIFICATIONS
GENERATOR PARTS CROSS-REFERENCE
GENERATOR MOUNTING
SPECIFICATIONS
Base Part #
TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS
Description
Nm
Mounting Bolts (2)
40-55
30-40
–
-
15.26
Regulator Attachment Screw (4) 1.7-2.8
Battery Wire Attaching Nut (1)
9-12
6007
Lb-Ft Lb-In
6B209
8620
ROTUNDA EQUIPMENT
Tool Number
078-00005
BATTERY TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS
Description
Nm
Lb-Ft Lb-In
Battery Cable Bolts
7-10
5-7
–
Battery Hold-Down
Bracket Bolt
10-14
7-10
–
5-11
–
44-97
10-14
7-10
–
Generator voltage Regulator
Wiring Nut and Washer
(Ranger with 2.3L Engine)
Relay Cable-to-Body Panel
Screws (Ranger and Explorer)
06-20
Engine
Drive Belt Tensioner
Drive Belt
Engine Air Cleaner
Intake Tube
10A313
Generator Bracket
Alternator Mounting
Parts
10316
Drive Belt Tensioner
Alternator Mounting
10344
Generator Pulley
Alternator Pulley
10346
Generator
Alternator
10351
Generator Brush
Holder
14301
Battery Ground
14305
Generator Voltage
Regulator Wiring
Description
VAT-40 Starting/charging Tester
Old Part Name
9A624
6.5-9 78-108
CHARGING SYSTEM SPECIAL SERVICE
TOOLS/EQUIPMENT
Part Name
Auxiliary Systems – Starter
STARTER INDEX
SUBJECT
PAGE
Starter, Permanent Magnet Description
And Operation ............................................................. 07-3
Sequence Of Operation ............................................... 07-3
Starter Lockout Relay .................................................. 07-3
Road Service ............................................................... 07-4
Jump Starting ............................................................... 07-4
Negative Grounded Battery ......................................... 07-4
Starter, Permanent Magnet Diagnosis And
Testing ......................................................................... 07-5
Starter Load Test .......................................................... 07-5
Bench Tests .................................................................. 07-5
Starter No-Load Test .................................................... 07-6
Starter Lock-Out Relay ................................................ 07-6
System Inspection ........................................................ 07-7
Symptom Chart ............................................................ 07-7
Evaluation Procedure 1 ............................................... 07-8
Evaluation Procedure 2 ............................................... 07-8
Diagnosis And Testing ................................................. 07-9
General Procedures .................................................... 07-9
Starter, Permanent Magnet Removal
And Installation ......................................................... 07-10
Switch – Relay Solenoid ........................................... 07-11
Starter Motor Removal ............................................... 07-11
Installation ................................................................ 07-12
Starter, Permanent Magnet Specifications .............. 07-16
07
Starter System Special Tools .................................... 07-16
07-1
Auxiliary Systems – Starter
07-2
Auxiliary Systems – Starter
STARTER, PERMANENT MAGNET DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
6. The current flows to the motor, and the drive
pinion gear drives the flywheel and the engine
crankshaft.
The function of the starting system is to crank the
engine at a speed fast enough to permit the engine
to start. Heavy cables, connectors, and switches
are used in the starting system because of the large
current required by the starter while it is cranking
the engine. The amount of resistance in the starting
circuit must be kept to an absolute minimum to
provide maximum current for starter operation. A
discharged or damaged battery, loose or corroded
connections, or partially broken cables will result
in slower than normal cranking speeds, and may
even prevent the starter from cranking the engine.
7. As current flows to the motor, the solenoid pull
in coil is bypassed.
8. The hold-in coil keeps the drive pinion gear
engaged with the flywheel.
9. The gear remains engaged until the ignition
switch is released from the START position.
The starting system includes the permanent
magnet gear-reduction starter motor with a
solenoid-actuated drive, the battery, a remote
control starter switch (part of the ignition switch),
the starter relay, the heavy circuit wiring, and may
include starter lock-out, controlled by the ECM
through a starter lockout relay.
NOTE: When the ECM is programmed to lock
starter out when the engine is over 400 rpm (600
rpm for ICM) the following sequence takes place:
Starter Lockout Relay
See page 07-6 for further details.
Starter Motor Assy 11001
1. During start up with key in the on position 12V
(B+) is applied to relay through circuit 16A (RLG) 16G.
Sequence Of Operation
1. The ignition switch is turned to the START
position.
2. With ignition switch turned to the crank position,
current flows from ignition switch to relay circuit
32A (R-LB) 16G through relay and out circuit
32 (R-LB) 16G to starter solenoid.
2. A remote starter relay is energized, which
provides voltage to the starter solenoid. The
starter solenoid is energized, creating a
magnetic field in the solenoid coil.
3. The starter than should respond as in steps 2
through 9 in sequence of operation circuit 113
(4-LB) 18G is connected to the ECM L3
terminal. The ECM keeps circuit 113 open until
it reads 400+ engine rpm. Over 400 rpm the
ECM grounds circuit 113 causing the relay to
open circuits 32A and 32. This will prevent
starter engagement while engine is running.
3. The iron plunger core is drawn into the solenoid
coil.
4. A lever connected to the drive assembly
engages the drive pinion gear to the flywheel
ring rear.
NOTE: An overrunning clutch in the drive assembly
protects the starter from the excessive speeds
during the brief period before the driver releases
the ignition switch from the START position (as the
engine starts).
5. When the iron plunger core is all the way into
the coil, its contact disc closes the circuit
between the battery and the motor terminals.
07-3
Auxiliary Systems – Starter
STARTER, PERMANENT MAGNET DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
(Continued)
BATTERY AND COULD CAUSE AN
EXPLOSION. REFER TO WARNING AT THE
BEGINNING OF THE JUMP STARTING
PROCEDURE.
Field Service
For cases of a starter that cranks the engine very
slowly, connect a 12-volt booster battery to the
system.
WARNING: WHEN SERVICING STARTER
OR PERFORMING OTHER UNDERHOOD
WORK IN THE VICINITY OF THE STARTER, BE
AWARE THAT THE HEAVY GAUGE BATTERY
INPUT LEAD AT THE STARTER SOLENOID IS
“ELECTRICALLY HOT” AT ALL TIMES.
Jump Starting
To avoid damage to the vehicle or equipment and
battery or the possibility of personal injury, follow
these instructions and precautions:
!
WARNING: HYDROGEN AND OXYGEN
GASES ARE PRODUCED DURING NORMAL
BATTERY OPERATION. THIS GAS MIXTURE
CAN EXPLODE IF FLAMES, SPARKS OR
LIGHTED TOBACCO ARE BROUGHT NEAR
THE BATTERY. WHEN CHARGING OR USING
A BATTERY IN AN ENCLOSED SPACE,
ALWAYS PROVIDE VENTILATION AND SHIELD
YOUR EYES.
! WARNING: KEEP OUT OF REACH OF
CHILDREN. BATTERIES CONTAIN SULFURIC
ACID. AVOID CONTACT WITH SKIN, EYES OR
CLOTHING. ALSO, SHIELD) YOUR EYES WHEN
WORKING NEAR THE BATTERY TO PROTECT
AGAINST POSSIBLE SPLASHING OF THE
ACID SOLUTION. IN CASE OF ACID CONTACT
WITH SKIN, EYES OR CLOTHING, FLUSH
IMMEDIATELY WITH WATER FOR A MINIMUM
OF 15 MINUTES. IF ACID IS SWALLOWED,
DRINK LARGE QUANTITIES OF MILK OR
WATER, FOLLOWED BY MILK OF MAGNESIA,
A BEATEN EGG, OR VEGETABLE OIL. CALL
A PHYSICIAN IMMEDIATELY.
NOTE: Be sure to disconnect battery negative
cable before servicing starter.
2. Make jumper cable connections.
a. Connect one end of first jumper cable to
positive (+) 1 terminal of discharged battery
and other end of positive (+) 2 terminal of
booster battery.
b. Connect one end of second jumper cable to
negative (-) 3 terminal of booster battery.
Connect other end to an engine bolthead or
good metallic contact spot on engine 4 of
equipment to be started. NOT TO NEGATIVE
(-) BATTERY TERMINAL.
c. Make sure jumper cables are not in way of
moving engine parts.
d. Start engine of vehicle with good battery. Run
engine at a moderate speed.
e. Start engine of vehicle with discharged
battery. Follow starting instructions in the
Owner Guide.
CAUTION: Do not disconnect the battery
of the vehicle to be started. Disconnecting the
battery could damage the vehicle’s electronic
system.
Negative Grounded Battery
WARNING:TO AVOID INJURY, USE
PARTICULAR CARE WHEN CONNECTING A
BOOSTER BATTERY TO A DISCHARGED
BATTERY.
3. Completely discharged batteries may require
an electrical load to initialize charging.
1. Position vehicles or equipment so jumper cables
will reach, being careful that vehicles do not
touch.
4. Remove cables in exact REVERSE sequence.
Begin by removing negative (-) cable from
engine of vehicle 4 that had discharged battery.
WARNING: MAKING THE FINAL CABLE
CONNECTION
COULD
CAUSE
AN
ELECTRICIAL
S PA R K
NEAR
THE
If the starter does not turn the engine over, even
with the booster battery attached, refer to On Vehicle
Testing.
07-4
Auxiliary Systems – Starter
STARTER, PERMANENT MAGNET DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING
Starter Load Test
Conduct this test if the starter cranks slowly and it
is desired to compare current to specifications.
reading on voltmeter. This test is accomplished
by disconnecting push-on connector “S’’ at
starter relay and by connecting a remote control
starter switch from positive battery terminal to
“S’’ terminal starter relay.
1. Connect Rotunda Starting and Charging Tester
078-00005 or equivalent. Make sure that current
is not flowing thorugh ammeter and heavy-duty
carbon pile rheostat portion of circuit (rheostat
at maximum counterclockwise position).
3. Stop cranking engine and reduce resistance of
carbon pile until voltmeter indicates same
reading as that obtained while starter cranked
the engine. The ammeter will indicate starter
current draw under load. Check this with value
listed in Specifications.
2. Disconnect load from engine. Place
transmission or transaxle in NEUTRAL. Crank
engine with ignition off, and determine exact
1
Bench Tests
5. If the voltage is lower than the 11.0 volts, or the
amperage is higher than 70 amps, replace the
starter motor.
! CAUTION: Make sure that the starter is
securely mounted in bench vise while
energizing, as starter will move or jump.
NOTE: Service parts for rebuilding permanet
magnet starter are not available from Ford Power
Products.
1. Connect a fully charged battery, Rotunda
Starting and Charging Tester 078-00005, or
equivalent. Make sure that the battery and
starter motor are grounded.
2. Engage the remote starter switch.
3. The starter motor should eject the starter drive
and run smoothly. If the starter motor does not
run smoothly, replace it.
4. While the starter motor is running, check the
voltmeter and ammeter.
1
Rotunda 1-800-578-7375
07-5
Auxiliary Systems – Starter
STARTER, PERMANENT MAGNET DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Starter No-Load Test
! CAUTION: Make sure that the starter is
securely mounted in bench vise while
energizing, as starter will move or jump.
NOTE: All readings are made with connector
attached to relay and back probing connector using
a paper clip and fully charged battery.
Starter Lock-out Relay
Normal Area to Check
Function
Specs. (Out of Specs.)
Circuit 16A –> Splice #2 –> 42 Pin Connector #01
K- Off =
KOEO =
KOER =
Crank =
0V
B+
B+
B+
Check fuse and wiring
Check fuse and wiring
Ignition switch or wiring
Circuit 32 –> 42 Pin Connector #13
K- Off =
KOEO =
KOER =
Crank =
0V
0V
0V
B+
Wiring
Ignition switch & wiring
Ignition switch & wiring
Ignition switch & wiring
Circuit 32A –> 42 Pin Connector #15
K- Off =
KOEO =
KOER =
Crank =
0V
0V
0V
B+
Wiring
Ignition or wiring
Ignition or wiring
Ignition or wiring
Circuit 113 –> ECM Connector Pin #L-3
K- Off =
KOEO =
KOER Grd.=
Crank =
07-6
0V
B+
0V
B+
ECM or wiring
Relay or ECM
ECM or wiring
Auxiliary Systems – Starter
STARTER, PERMANENT MAGNET DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
System Inspection
NOTE: Be sure to disconnect battery negative
cable before servicing starter.
!
CAUTION: When disconnecting the plastic
hardshell connector at the solenoid “S”
terminal, grasp the plastic connector and pull
lead off. DO NOT pull separately on lead wire.
1. Inspect starting system for loose connections.
2. If system does not operate properly, note
condition and continue diagnosis using the
symptom chart.
WARNING: WHEN SERVICING STARTER OR
PERFORMING OTHER WORK IN THE VICINITY
OF THE STARTER, BE AWARE THAT THE
HEAVY GAUGE BATTERY INPUT LEAD AT THE
STARTER SOLENOID IS “ELECTRICALLY
HOT” AT ALL TIMES.
SYMPTOM
CONDITION
Starter solenoid does not pull in and
starter does not crank (audible click may
or may not be heard).
!
WARNING: WHEN WORKING IN AREA OF THE
STARTER, BE CAREFUL TO AVOID TOUCHING
HOT EXHAUST COMPONENTS.
CHART
POSSIBLE SOURCE
• Open fuse.
• Low battery.
• Defective remote relay.
• Open circuit or high resistance in
external feed circuit to starter solenoid.
• Defective starter.
• Defective neutural park switch.
Unusual starter noise during starter
overrun.
• Starter not mounted flush (cocked).
• Noise from other components.
• Ring gear tooth damage or excessive
ring gear runout.
• Defective starter.
ACTION
• Check fuse continuity.
• Refer to appropriate battery service
manual.
• Go to Test B. (Page 07-8).
• Go to Test A. (Page 07-8).
• Replace starter. See removal and
installation procedure this section.
• Replace switch.
• Realign starter on transmission bell
housing or SAE housing.
• Investigate other powertrain accessory
noise contributors.
• Replace flywheel ring gear.
• Replace starter. See removal and
installation procedure this section.
Starter cranks but engine does not start.
• Problem in fuel system.
• Problem in ignition system.
• Engine-related problem.
• Refer to fuel system section.
• Refer to ignition system section.
• Refer to Section 01, Diagnosis and Testing.
Starter cranks slowly.
• Low battery.
• High resistance or loose connections in
starter solenoid battery feed or ground
circuit.
• Ring gear runout excessive.
• Defective starter.
• Charge or replace battery.
• Check that all connections are secure.
• Shorted ignition switch.
• Battery cable touching solenoid “S”
terminal (defective or mispositioned
cable).
• Defective starter.
• Replace ignition switch.
• Replace or relocate cable.
• Hydrolocked cylinder.
• Remove all plugs one at a time while
checking for fluid in cylinders.
• Repair as needed. Refer to Section 01.
Starter remains engaged and runs with
engine.
Starter clicks and engages but engine will
not crank.
• Seized main or rod bearing.
07-7
• Replace ring gear.
• Replace starter. See removal and
installation procedure this section.
• Replace starter. See removal and
installation procedure this section.
Auxiliary Systems – Starter
STARTER, PERMANENT MAGNET DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Evaluation Procedure 1
solenoid “S” terminal as described under
“Removal and Installation” in this section.
NOTE: Remove plastic safety cap on starter
solenoid and disconnect hardshell connector at
CHECK STARTER MOTOR – TEST A
TEST STEP
A1
RESULT
CHECK FOR VOLTAGE TO STARTER
• Key OFF, Transmission in Neutral, PTO disengaged.
• Check for voltage between starter B+ terminal and
starter drive housing.
• Is voltage OK? (12-12.45V).
A2
ACTION TO TAKE
Yes
Go to A2.
CHECK wire connections
between battery and starter
solenoid and the ground
circuit for open or short.
No
CHECK STARTER MOTOR
• Key OFF, Transmission in Neutral, PTO disengaged.
• Connect one end of a jumper wire to the starter B+
terminal and momentarily touch the other end to
solenoid “S” terminal.
• Does starter crank?
Yes
CHECK connections from
output of starter relay to “S”
terminal for open or short.
No
Defective starter.
REPLACE starter.
Evaluation Procedure 2
CHECK RELAY – TEST B
TEST STEP
B1
RESULT
CHECK STARTER RELAY
• Key in START. Transmission in Neutral, PTO disengaged.
• Is case ground OK?
B2
B3
ACTION TO TAKE
CHECK VOLTAGE AT STARTER RELAY START
TERMINAL
• Key in START. Transmission in Neutral, PTO disengaged.
• Check for voltage between relay start terminal and case
ground.
• Is voltage OK? (12-12.45 V).
Yes
No
Go to B2.
REPAIR ground. GO to B2.
Yes
GO to B3.
Open circuit or high
resistance exits in external
circuit wiring or components. Check the following:
– All circuit connections
including plastic hardshell connector at
solenoid “S” terminal to
make sure it is not
broken or distorted.
– Ignition switch.
– Neutral switch or manual
lever position sensor.
No
CHECK STARTER TERMINAL
• Key in START. Transmission in Neutral, PTO disengaged.
• Check for voltage at output terminal of remote relay.
• Is voltage OK?
Yes
No
07-8
REFER to Starter System
Diagnosis in this section.
Defective starter relay.
REMOVE and REPLACE
relay.
Auxiliary Systems – Starter
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING
Pinion and Ring Gear Wear Patterns
B
B
B
C
A
A
2
1
1
D
A
3
2
SMALL WEAR PATTERN
3
MILLED GEARS
A Armature Gear
A
Armature Gear
A
Armature Gear
B Flywheel Gear
B
Flywheel Gear
B
Flywheel Gear
C
Milled Condition Excessive Wear
on 3 or 3 Teeth
Milled Tooth Metal Build-up Will
Not Permit Engagement
NORMAL WEAR PATTERN
D
General Procedures
Starter Drive and Flywheel Ring Gear
Inspection
1. Check the wear patterns on the (A) starter drive
(11350) and the (B) flywheel ring gear. If the
wear pattern is normal, install the starter motor;
refer to Starter Motor in this section.
2. If the (A) starter drive gear and the flywheel ring
gear are not fully meshing or the gears are (B)
milled or damaged, replace the starter motor;
refer to Starter Motor in this section. Replace
the flywheel ring gear.
07-9
Auxiliary Systems – Starter
STARTER, PERMANENT MAGNET REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
H
J
B+
K
L
G
F
C
B+
D
E
M
A
!
CAUTION: A jumper wire must not be
installed between the large round electrical
terminal and the solenoid blade terminal at the
starter. If done, voltage is generated to the
solenoid by the spinning starter after release
of the start key or button, causing the starter to
remain engaged, resulting in failure.
B
D
Solenoid Blade Terminal or Post/Nut Connection
E
Nut
F
Starter Relay
G
Starter Cable
H
Battery Positive Cable
A
Permanent Magnet Starter
J
#12 Gauge Wire (Red) E9SF-11A004-AB
B
Terminal Cover
K
B+ 12 Volt Battery Supply Terminal
L
B+ when relay is energized from ignition switch in crank
position to “S’’ Terminal
“S’’ Terminal
C
M
“M’’ Terminal Positive Brush Connector
Starter Motor Solenoid
07-10
Auxiliary Systems – Starter
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
Switch – Relay Solenoid
Removal
WARNING: WHEN CARRYING OUT
MAINTENANCE ON THE STARTER SYSTEM
BE AWARE THAT HEAVY GAUGE LEADS ARE
CONNECTED DIRECTLY TO THE BATTERY.
MAKE SURE PROTECTIVE CAPS ARE IN
PLACE WHEN MAINTENANCE IS COMPLETE.
FAILURE TO FOLLOW THIS PROCEDURE MAY
RESULT IN PERSONAL INJURY.
1. Disconnect the battery ground cable (14301).
2. Remove the insulator.
3. Disconnect the starter motor solenoid relay
switch wires and cables.
•
Disconnect the engine control sensor wiring
terminal.
•
Remove the starter motor solenoid relay
switch terminal nuts.
•
Remove the wiring.
4. Remove the starter motor solenoid relay switch
(11450).
07-11
•
Remove the bolts.
•
Remove the starter solenoid relay switch.
Auxiliary Systems – Starter
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
Installation
WARNING: WHEN CARRYING OUT
MAINTENANCE ON THE STARTER SYSTEM
BE AWARE THAT HEAVY GAUGE LEADS OR
CONNECTED DIRECTLY TO THE BATTERY.
MAKE SURE PROTECTIVE CAPS ARE IN
PLACE WHEN MAINTENANCE IS COMPLETE.
FAILURE TO FOLLOW THESE INSTRUCTIONS
MAY RESULT IN PERSONAL INJURY.
1. Follow the removal procedure in reverse order.
2.
Reconnect battery ground cable.
Starter Motor
Removal
WARNING: WHEN CARRYING OUT
MAINTENANCE ON THE STARTER SYSTEM
BE AWARE THAT HEAVY GAUGE LEADS OR
CONNECTED DIRECTLY TO THE BATTERY.
MAKE SURE PROTECTIVE CAPS ARE IN
PLACE WHEN MAINTENANCE IS COMPLETE.
FAILURE TO FOLLOW THESE INSTRUCTIONS
MAY RESULT IN PERSONAL INJURY.
1. Disconnect the battery ground cable (14301).
07-12
Auxiliary Systems – Starter
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
2. Raise and support the vehicle or equipment.
3. Remove the starter motor solenoid terminal
cover (11N087).
4. Disconnect the starter motor electrical
connections.
1. Remove the two nuts.
2. Remove the battery cable.
3. Remove the starter solenoid wire.
5. Remove the nut and the starter motor ground
cable when equipped.
07-13
Auxiliary Systems – Starter
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
6. Remove the starter.
1. Remove the bolt and stub bolt.
2. Remove the starter.
7. Remove the stud bolt, bolts and the starter.
Installation
WARNING: WHEN CARRYING OUT
MAINTENANCE ON THE STARTER SYSTEM
BE AWARE THAT HEAVY GAUGE LEADS ARE
CONNECTED DIRECTLY TO THE BATTERY.
MAKE SURE PROTECTIVE CAPS ARE IN
PLACE WHEN MAINTENANCE IS COMPLETE.
FAILURE TO FOLLOW THESE INSTRUCTIONS
MAY RESULT IN PERSONAL INJURY.
NOTE: It is recommended that wiring service kit
F2PZ-11K162-A be used, which includes a 70 inch
long #12 gauge wire, a terminal nut, a terminal cover,
four tie wraps and insulation instructions.
1. Install the starter motor.
1. Position the starter motor.
2. Install the bolts.
07-14
Auxiliary Systems – Starter
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
2. Connect the starter motor electrical
connections.
1. Position the starter solenoid wire.
2. Position the battery cable.
3. Install the nuts.
3. Install the starter motor solenoid termial cover.
4. Connect the battery ground cable.
07-15
Auxiliary Systems – Starter
STARTER, PERMANENT MAGNET SPECIFICATIONS
TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS
Description
Nm
Lb-In
Brush Plate Screw 2.3-3.4
20-30
Mounting Bolt
20.3-27
15-20 (Lb-Ft)
Solenoid Bolt
5.1-9.6
45-85
Starting Circuit
Max. Voltage Drop
(Engine Temp.
Normal) Volts
0.5
Terminal Nut “M’’
10-14
84-120
Terminal Nut “B’’
10-14
84-120
Through-Bolt
5.0-9.5
45-84
Starter Motor
Motor
Diameter
Current
Draw Under
Normal
Load
Normal
Engine
Cranking
Speed
Starter Brushes
Min. Stall
Torque @
5 Volts
Max.
Load
No
Load
Mfg. Length
Spring Tension
mm
Inches
Amps
RPM
Nm
Lb-Ft
Amps
Amps
mm
Inches
N
oz.
108
4
130-220
140-220
14.7
11.0
800
70 + 10
16.8
0.66
18
64
Maximum commutator runout is 0.12mm (0.005 inch). Maximum starting circuit voltage drop (battery positive terminal to starter
terminal) at normal engine temperature is 0.5 volt.
STARTING SYSTEM SPECIAL SERVICE
TOOLS/EQUIPMENT
ROTUNDA EQUIPMENT
Tool Number
078-00005
Description
VAT-40 Starting/charging Tester
Special Service Tools called for by the procedures
can be obtained by calling:
1-800-ROTUNDA (1-800-768-8632).
07-16
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
ELECTRONICS & DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODES INDEX
SUBJECT
PAGE
Idle Air Control (IAC) Valve Detail Sheet ....................... 08-3
Camshaft Position Sensor (CMP) (Hall Effect) .............. 08-4
CMP Detail Sheet .......................................................... 08-5
Manifold Absolute Pressure Sensor (MAP) .................. 08-6
MAP Detail Sheet .......................................................... 08-7
Throttle Position Sensor (TP) ......................................... 08-8
TP Detail Sheet .............................................................. 08-9
Heated Oxygen Sensor (HO2S) .................................. 08-10
HO2S Detail Sheet ...................................................... 08-11
Intake Air Temperature Sensor (IAT) ........................... 08-12
IAT Detail Sheet ........................................................... 08-13
Manifold Skin Temperature Sensor (MST) .................. 08-14
MST Detail Sheet ......................................................... 08-15
Engine Cylinder Head Temperature Sensor (CHT) .... 08-16
CHT Detail Sheet ......................................................... 08-17
Injector Assembly ........................................................ 08-18
Injector Detail Sheet .................................................... 08-19
Crankshaft Position Sensor (CKP) (VR) ...................... 08-20
(VR) CKP Detail Sheet ................................................ 08-21
Fuel Pump Relay (FP) ................................................. 08-22
Fuel Pump Relay Detail Sheet .................................... 08-23
Specifications .............................................................. 08-24
SUBJECT
PAGE
Diagnostic Trouble Codes (Continued)
Trouble Code 52 .......................................................... 08-78
Trouble Code 53 .......................................................... 08-80
Trouble Code 54 .......................................................... 08-82
Trouble Code 55 .......................................................... 08-83
Trouble Code 56 .......................................................... 08-84
Trouble Code 57 .......................................................... 08-85
Trouble Code 61 .......................................................... 08-86
Trouble Code 62 .......................................................... 08-87
Trouble Code 65 .......................................................... 08-88
Diagnostic Trouble Codes
Malfunction .................................................................. 08-25
Chart Notes .................................................................. 08-26
Other Descriptions ....................................................... 08-28
Trouble Code 11 .......................................................... 08-29
Trouble Code 12 .......................................................... 08-30
Trouble Code 13 .......................................................... 08-32
Trouble Code 14 .......................................................... 08-34
Trouble Code 15 .......................................................... 08-36
Trouble Code 16 .......................................................... 08-38
Trouble Code 17 .......................................................... 08-40
Trouble Code 21 .......................................................... 08-42
Trouble Code 22 .......................................................... 08-44
Trouble Code 23 .......................................................... 08-46
Trouble Code 24 .......................................................... 08-48
Trouble Code 25 .......................................................... 08-50
Trouble Code 26 .......................................................... 08-52
Trouble Code 27 .......................................................... 08-54
Trouble Code 31 .......................................................... 08-56
Trouble Code 32 .......................................................... 08-58
Trouble Code 33 .......................................................... 08-60
Trouble Code 35 .......................................................... 08-62
Trouble Code 37 .......................................................... 08-64
Trouble Code 41 .......................................................... 08-66
Trouble Code 42 .......................................................... 08-68
Trouble Code 43 .......................................................... 08-70
Trouble Code 45 .......................................................... 08-72
Trouble Code 47 .......................................................... 08-74
Trouble Code 51 .......................................................... 08-76
08
08-1
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
08-2
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
IDLE AIR CONTROL (IAC) VALVE
Part Description
The Engine Control Module (ECM) modulates the
position of the IAC solenoid to regulate the air flow
which controls engine RPM at idle.
AIR FLOW
DIAPHRAGM
VALVE BODY
SOLENOID
AIR FLOW
ECM
ECM
PIN # G-3
PIN # K-1
•
•
265 LG-W
361J G-R
PINS LOCATED ON ALL HARNESS CONNECTORS
VIEWED INTO MATING SURFACE
08-3
IDLE AIR CONTROL
SOLENOID HARNESS
CONNECTOR
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
CAMSHAFT POSITION SENSOR (CMP) (HALL EFFECT)
Part Description
Cylinder Identification (CID)
This device provides cylinder identification
information to the Engine Control Module (ECM)
for fuel synchronization. The sensor contains a Halleffect device, an integrated circuit, and a magnet.
An air gap between the magnet and the Hall device
allows the tooth (and space) mounted on a rotating
vane to pass between them. This results in a
change in the flux density reaching the Hall device.
As a tooth nears the centerline of the sensor, a
threshold (Firepoint) is reached where the output
voltage changes state from low to high. When the
trailing edge of the tooth nears the centerline of
the sensor, the output reaches a second threshold
(operate point) and returns to a low state. This
sensor (as shown) was designed to be installed in
the bore originally provided for the distributor on
the 3.8L engine; other mountings are used on the
4.2L, 5.4L and 6.8L engines. A single tooth vane is
used on all applications.
This input provides camshaft position information
for determining the position of cylinder #1, which
is required for phasing fuel injection and ignition
coil synchronization.
08-4
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
CAMSHAFT POSITION SENSOR (CMP) (HALL EFFECT) (Continued)
ECM
CMP
SENSOR
PIN # B-2
•
359C GY-R
PIN # J-1
•
282 DB-O
ECM
SPLICE #5
PIN # B-2
PIN # J-1
•
•
359 GY-R
•
359C GY-R 18
282 DB-O 20
08-5
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
MANIFOLD ABSOLUTE PRESSURE SENSOR (MAP)
Part Description
The MAP sensor consists of a pressure sensing
element (capacitor) and signal conditioning
electronics. The capacitor has a vacuum/pressure
reference which results in one surface (diaphragm)
of the capacitor being partially deflected. Further
changes in pressure produce corresponding
changes in the deflection of the diaphragm and
therefore a change in capacitance. This capacitance
change is converted to a frequency by the
conditioning electronics.
MAP sensor.
Specifications
• Range of Measurement: 12-105 kPa
• Measurement Accuracy: + 1.7 kPa
• Sensor Response Time: 3 to 15 msec.
• Resolution: 0.1 kPa max.
Present design: Silicon Capacitive Absolute
Pressure (SCAP) Sensor with a maximum
operating temperature of 100°C. The output is a
50% duty cycle wave form whose frequency is
proportional to the pressure input.
08-6
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
MANIFOLD ABSOLUTE PRESSURE SENSOR (MAP) (Continued)
ECM
PIN # B-2
•
PIN # B-1
•
PIN # A-2
•
ECM
PIN #B2
•
PIN #B1
•
CIR #359 (GY-R)
CIR #358 (LG-BK)
<<
A
<<
B
C
PIN #A2
•
CIR #351C (BR-W)
<<
08-7
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
THROTTLE POSITION SENSOR (TP)
Part Description
The TP sensor is a rotary potentiometer that uses
a variable resistive element which is packaged
inside a plastic housing with either a three terminal
pigtail connector or integral connector. The resistive
element varies linearly and is directly proportional
to the throttle plate angle. The Engine Control
Module (ECM) applies reference voltage and
ground to the sensor and monitors the sensor’s ratio
metric output voltage to determine precise throttle
position.
TP sensor (typical).
Specifications
• Range of Measurement: 0 to 85° (angular)
• Measurement Accuracy: + 2% of VREF
• Resolution: 0.5° max.
08-8
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
THROTTLE POSITION SENSOR (TP) (Continued)
ECM
RESISTANCE: SIGNAL & SIGNAL RETURN
(ECM DISCONNECTED)
ECM
SIGNAL RETURN
PIN # B-2
TPS INPUT
PIN # C-1
VREF (+5V)
PIN # A-2
•
•
359 (GY-R)
<<
359F (GY-R)
355 (GY-W)
<<
355B (GY-W)
•
351 (BR-W)
<<
351D (BR-W)
PINS LOCATED ON ALL HARNESS
CONNECTORS VIEWED INTO MATING SURFACE
08-9
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
HEATED OXYGEN SENSOR (HO2S)
Part Description
The 4-wire HO2S indicates whether the air/fuel ratio
is rich or lean with respect to stoichiometry.
The signal from this sensor contains valid air/fuel
ratio in formation only when the sensor element
has reached its normal operating temperature.
The 4-wire HO2S also has an isolated case ground
which goes to Signal Return (SIGRTN) either in
the processor (as a dedicated HO2S ground) or
as a jumper to SIGRTN in the wiring harness.
Screw-in Thread
Housing
Protective
Cap
Connection
ICAD
Clamping
Contact
Sleeve
Ceramic
Insulator
Contact
Spring
Gasket
Protective Tube
Exhaust Gas
Intake Slots
Air Space
External Electrical
Ceramic Sensor
Conductive Layer
Contact
Body
Bushing
Internal Electrical
Conductive Layer
HO2S sensor (typical).
Specifications
• Accuracy of Measurement: + 1.5%
• Operating Temp. Range: 350°C to 850°
(sensor tip)
• Sensor Response Time: 300 to 1500 msec.
• Heater Current Draw: 1 A steady state
• Voltage Output:
– -500 to 300 mV (lean exhaust gas)
– 600 to 1100 mV (rich exhaust gas)
08-10
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
HEATED OXYGEN SENSOR (HO2S) (Continued)
ECM
HO2SGND
(4 WIRE)
VPWR
ECM
POWER GROUND
PIN # B-2
PIN # K-1
SIGNAL RETURN
PIN # X-2
VPWR BATT (+)
PIN # E-2
•
•
359 GY-R <<
361 G-R <<
89 O 18
34 LB-O 18
•
•
570 BK-W <<
74 GY-LB <<
570 G-BK 18
74 GY-LB 20
08-11
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
INTAKE AIR TEMPERATURE SENSOR (IAT)
Part Description
The IAT sensor is a temperature sensitive resistor
(thermistor) which interfaces with a resistor network
internal to the Engine Control Module (ECM/ICM)
to provide a ratio metric output voltage inversely
proportional to intake air, or air charge mixture
temperature.
The sensor is mounted in the air intake assembly
or threaded into a cylinder runner of the intake
manifold. It provides the strategy with intake air
temperature information. The sensor input is used
as a density corrector for air flow calculations, to
proportion the cold enrichment fuel flow, and to
modify spark advance.
The sensor element is 0.095 inch diameter disc
thermistor with soldered leads and a plastic
protective coating. The thermistor resistance varies
non-linearly and inversely with respect to
temperature. The element is packaged in a brass
bulb housing or molded plastic housing with a
protective cap which optimizes response time, and
a two terminal integral natural-colored nylon plastic
connector.
IAT sensor (typical).
Specifications
• Range of Measurement:
-40°C / -40°F to 125°C / 57°F
• Measurement Accuracy: + 3°C
• Resolution: 0.6°C max.
• Output Range: 4.8% min. to 91% max. of VREF
• Current Draw: < 5 mA from VREF
• Load Impedance: > 100 kohms
08-12
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
INTAKE AIR TEMPERATURE SENSOR (IAT) (Continued)
ECM/ICM
ECM
PIN
# D-1
PIN
# D-1
•
RESISTANCE: SIGNAL & SIGNAL RETURN
(ECM/ICM DISCONNECTED
•
PIN
PIN# #B-2
B-2
ECM
PIN # D-1
PIN # B-2
•
•
743 GY 20
359 GY-R << 359E GY-R 18
IAT Detail Sheet
08-13
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
MANIFOLD SKIN TEMPERATURE SENSOR (MST)
Part Description
NOTE: The MST is the same in appearance and
specification as the brass IAT.
The MST sensor is a temperature sensitive resistor
(thermistor) which interfaces with a resistor network
internal to the Engine Control Module (ECM) or
Ignition Control Module (ICM) to provide a ratio
metric output voltage inversely proportional to the
outside air very close to the lower intake manifold.
The sensor is screwed into a mounting bracket
located at the right rear of the lower intake manifold.
It provides the strategy with skin temperature of
the lower intake manifold monitoring the air right
next to the manifold. The sensor input is used as a
density corrector for air flow calculations, and to
proportion the cold enrichment fuel flow, and to
modify spark.
MST sensor (typical).
Specifications
• Range of Measurement:
-40°C / -40°F to 125°C / 57°F
• Measurement Accuracy: + 3°C
The sensor element is a 0.095 inch diameter disc
thermistor with soldered leads and a plastic
protective coating. The thermistor resistance varies
non-linearly and inversely with respect to
temperature. The element is packaged in a brass
bulb housing with a protective cap which optimizes
response time, and a two terminal integral naturalcolored nylon plastic connector.
• Resolution: 0.6°C max.
• Output Range: 4.8% min. to 91% max. of VREF
• Current Draw: < 5 mA from VREF
• Load Impedance: > 100 kohms
08-14
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
MANIFOLD SKIN TEMPERATURE SENSOR (MST) (Continued)
ECM/ICM
MST
ECM
PIN
# B-2
PIN
# D-1
•
RESISTANCE: SIGNAL & SIGNAL RETURN
(ECM/ICM DISCONNECTED
•
PIN
PIN# #D-3
B-2
ECM
PIN # D-3
PIN # B-2
•
•
225 BK-Y 20
359 GY-R << 359D GY-R 20
MST Detail Sheet
08-15
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
ENGINE CYLINDER HEAD TEMPERATURE SENSOR (CHT)
Part Description
The CHT sensor is a temperature sensitive resistor
(thermistor) which interfaces with a resistor network
internal to the Engine Module (ECM) to provide a
ratio metric output voltage inversely proportional
to engine coolant temperature.
The sensor is threaded into the rear of the right
cylinder head of engine to read cylinder head
temperature. For engine control applications, the
signal is used to modify ignition timing and air/fuel
ratio. The output is used to control a coolant
temperature indicator.
The sensor element is a 0.095 inch diameter disc
thermistor with soldered leads and a plastic
protective coating. The thermistor resistance varies
non-linearly and inversely with respect to
temperature. The element is packaged in a brass
bulb housing or molded plastic housing with a two
terminal integral brown nylon plastic connector.
CHT sensor (typical).
Specifications
• Range of Measurement:
-40°C / -40°F to 125°C / 257°F
• Measurement Accuracy: + 3°C
• Response Time: 10 sec. max. for full range
• Resolution: 0.6°C max.
• Output Range: 4.8% min. to 91% max. of VREF
• Current Draw: < 5 mA from VREF
• Load Impedance: > 100 k ohms
08-16
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
ENGINE CYLINDER HEAD TEMPERATURE SENSOR (CHT) (Continued)
ECM / ICM
1102
•
359
RESISTANCE: SIGNAL & SIGNAL RETURN
(ECM / ICM DISCONNECTED)
•
ECM
PIN #B-2
PIN #D-2
•
•
359 GY-R 20
1102 Y-LG 20
ICM
B <<
D <<
359 GY-R 20
1102 Y-LG 20
10 PIN
CONNECTOR
08-17
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
INJECTOR ASSEMBLY
Part Description
The fuel injectors are electromechanical devices
that meter and atomize the fuel delivered to the
engine. With Multiport Fuel Injection (MFI), the
injectors are mounted in the lower manifold and
are positioned so that their tips are directing fuel
just upstream of the intake valves. The injector is a
solenoid that actuates a normally closed ON/OFF
needle valve assembly. The valve assembly (pintle)
sits above a fixed size orifice (seat). The fuel
pressure regulator maintains a constant pressure
on the fuel; therefore, fuel flow to the engine is
regulated only by how long the solenoid is
energized. An electrical signal from the Engine
Control Module (ECM) activates the solenoid,
causing the pintle to move off its seat allowing the
fuel to flow through the orifice. Atomization of the
fuel is obtained by contouring the needle to cause
fuel separation.
MFI injector design prevents lean flow tendencies
that are caused by injector tip deposit formations.
!
CAUTION: Do not apply battery voltage to
the injectors during any type of diagnostics.
MFI Fuel Injector (typical).
08-18
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
INJECTOR ASSEMBLY (Continued)
ECM
PIN # K-1
361G (R)
CYL 1
CYL 2
CYL 3
VPWR
555 (T)
INJ 1
PIN # S-3
PIN # S-2
PIN # S-1
PIN # W-2
PIN # Y-3
PIN # T-1
556 (W)
557 (BR-Y)
560 (LG-O)
559 (T-BK)
558 (BR-LB)
INJ 2
INJECTOR
VEHICLE HARNESS
CONNECTOR SFI
INJ 3
INJ 6
INJ 5
INJ 4
FRONT OF ENGINE
CYL 4
CYL 5
Single Injector Resistance
Specification Table
ALL ENGINES
11.0 - 18.0W
08-19
CYL 6
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
CRANKSHAFT POSITION SENSOR (CKP) (VARIABLE RELUCTANCE)
Part Description
The Variable Reluctance (VR) sensor reacts to
variations in flux density created by a rotating (361 tooth) wheel attached to the crankshaft. The
sensor contains a coil wire, a magnet, and a pole
piece. The changing flux field induces an A/C
voltage to the CKP sensor. One A/C cycle is
generated for each tooth on the wheel. Normally, a
zero detector circuit (located in the signal
conditioning electronics) is used to convert the
A/C signal into a digital pulse. This sensor is used
on all Electronic Ignition High Data Rate (EI HDR)
applications (4.6L shown) to provide basic spark
timing data for the Engine Control Module (ECM).
CKP Sensor (typical).
08-20
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
CRANKSHAFT POSITION SENSOR (CKP) (VARIABLE RELUCTANCE)
(Continued)
COIL
MAGNET
GEAR
POLE PIECE
MISSING TOOTH REGION
LOW-RESISTANCE POSITION OF VRS SENSOR
COIL
MAGNET
GEAR
POLE PIECE
HIGH-RESISTANCE POSITION OF VRS SENSOR
VARIABLE
RELUCTANCE
SENSOR (VRS)
HARD SHELL
CONNECTOR
36-1 TOOTH
TRIGGER WHEEL
ECM
PIN #H-2
PIN #G-1
ICM
•
•
350 (GY) 20
349 (DB) 20
10 PIN
CONNECTOR
B
A
•
VARIABLE
RELUCTANCE
SENSOR (VRS)
SPLICE #4
350 (GY)
349 (DB)
08-21
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
FUEL PUMP RELAY (FP)
Part Description
The Fuel Pump Relay is a Normally Open relay
that supplies voltage to the electric fuel pump. When
the ignition key is turned to the START or RUN
position, the Engine Control Module (ECM) grounds
the control pin which activates the relay (closes
the contacts) and sends voltage to the fuel pump.
If the ECM does not receive a RPM signal
(indicating the engine is running) within 1 second,
the ground on the control pin will be removed and
the fuel pump will turn off.
The Fuel Pump Monitor (FPM) circuit is wired into
the fuel pump circuit and allows the ECM to monitor
failures in the secondary circuit.
5
4
1
2
3
1 - Not Used
2 - 926A
3 - 37C
4 - 361A
5 - 787A
FP Relay (typical).
08-22
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
FUEL PUMP RELAY (Continued)
Hot at
All Times
Hot In
Start or Run B+
Hot
in Start
Resistor
Wire
Hot at
All Times B+
3
4
1
Fuel
Pump
Relay
•
Power
Relay
5
2
ECM
Self
Test
Connector
Fuel
Pump
FPM
238
1 - Not Used
2 - 926A
3 - 37C
4 - 361A
5 - 787A
42 PIN
CONNECTOR
37C Y 16
PIN # 05
•
•
PIN # F3
•
787A PK-BK 16
PIN # P3
•
•
926A LB-O 16
PIN # 09
ECM
PIN # K1
361A R 16
08-23
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
SPECIFICATIONS
Torque Specifications
Description
Nm
Lb/Ft
Lb/In
Air Intake Sensor
8-10
-
71-89
Camshaft Position
Sensor Bolts (2)
2.3-3.5
-
20.4-27.5
Camshaft
Synchronizer Bolt (1)
20-30
15-22
-
Crankshaft Position
Sensor
2-4
-
18-36
Cylinder Head
Temperature Sensor
9-11
-
80-95
.8
-
15
.8-2.5
-
15-19
Engine Control
Module Mounting
Bolts
Engine Control
Module Wire
Connector
Foot Pedal Mounting
Bolts
Non-Ford, Use OEM
Specifications
Heated Oxygen
Sensor
36-46
27-34
-
Idle Air Control
(IAC) Valve
11
-
84
Ignition Coil Nuts and
Stud Bolt
8-11
-
71-97
Ignition Control
Module Mounting
Bolts
8-10
-
71-88
Manifold Skin
Temperature Sensor
8-10
-
71-88
Spark Plugs
10-20
8-14
-
Throttle Position
Sensor
2.8-3.4
-
25-30
42 Pin Connector
Bolt
4-5.6
-
35.50
08-24
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
ECM Diagnostic Trouble Codes
The following table lists the Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC’s) supported by this application. If
any DTC’s not listed here are flashed by the Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL) or displayed on a
PC, there may be a software error. Notify Ford Power Products Customer Service Center if any
DTC’s are displayed that are not included in the following table.
Code
11
12
Name
13
All systems OK
Low Throttle Position
Sensor Voltage
Low Accelerator Pedal
14
15
16
Low manifold pressure
Low manifold temp.
Pedal Switch Failure
17
DBW Actuator Unstable
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
31
32
Overspeed
High Throttle Position
High Drive by wire
High Manifold Pressure
High manifold surface temp.
Initial TPS over Max
DBW idle failure
Low fuel pump voltage
Heated Oxygen Sensor
(HO2S) Low Voltage
High engine temp
High intake air temp
DBW decay failure
High fuel pump voltage
Heated Oxygen Sensor
(HO2S) High Voltage
Low engine temp
Low intake air temp, IAT
wiring problem
DBW rise failure
Low Oil Pressure
Crankshaft sensor error
Camshaft sensor error
Program fault
Program fault
Program fault
Program fault
Low system voltage
High system voltage
Intake manifold leak
33
35
37
41
42
43
45
47
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
61
62
65
Detects this problem
Effect
TPS: worn, bad, disconnected, wiring damaged
Safety Level
Shutdown
I
Limp Home
Set code/open loop
Set code/open loop
II
II
II
Accelerator Pedal Position Sensor: bad, disconnected, worn out,
Sensor Voltage wiring damaged
MAP sensor: bad, bad wiring, disconnected
MST sensor: disconnected sensor, damaged wiring, electrical failure
Pedal Position Sensor: out of set range while IVS off, damaged, mis-adjusted,
IVS malfunction, damaged wiring, electrical failure, mechanical failure
Actuator: broken spring, dirt in bore, uneven operation, ECM malfunction,
TPS problem.
Engine over 4000 RPM
TPS: faulty, tampering, tampering with wires, damaged wiring, electrical failure
Pedal Position Sensor: too high, short-circuited by tampering
MAP sensor: defective, vacuum leak, electrical failure
MST sensor: defective, damaged wiring, electrical failure
Actuator: foreign object in bore, e.g. ice, tampering
Actuator: throttle plate moving while foot pedal in idle position, e.g. unstable
Fuel pump: no voltage, wiring from harness bypassed
Limp Home
II
Shutdown
Shutdown
Shutdown
Shutdown
Set code/open loop
Set code/open loop
no start
Shutdown
Set code/open loop
I
I
I
I
II
II
I
I
II
HO2S sensor: defective, damaged wiring, electrical failure
CHT at 240°F
IAT sensor: wiring problem in wrong location, bad plumbing, engine overheats
Actuator: Throttle plate stuck open
Fuel pump: on when not requested
Set code/open loop
Shutdown
Set code/open loop
Shutdown
Shutdown or no start
II
I
II
I
II
HO2S sensor: defective, damaged wiring, electrical failure
CHT at 230°F
Set code/open loop
Set code/open loop
II
II
IAT sensor: unplugged, bad wiring, or intake plumbing installed incorrectly
Actuator: Throttle plate not opening or stuck
Oil pressure: low
CKP
CMP
ECM: malfunction
ECM: malfunction
ECM: malfunction
ECM: malfunction
Alternator: malfunction, alt. belt missing, alternator disconnected
Alternator: voltage exceeding 18 volts
Vacuum leak, IAC motor stuck causing engine rpm over foot pedal command
Set code/open loop
Shutdown
Shutdown2
Set code
Set code
Set code
Set code
Set code
Set code
Set code
Shutdown3
Shutdown
II
I
II
II
II
I
I
I
I
II
II
I
NOTE: Bold Print denotes 4.2 Drive By Wire engine safety features.
Safety Concern
I
Protects operator
II
Protects engine/powertrain (if enabled)
Glossary
CHT
HO2S
ECM
IAC
IVS
MST
TPS
Cylinder Head temperature sensor
Heated exhaust gas oxygen sensor
Engine control module
Idle air control motor
Idle validation switch
Manifold surface temp
Throttle Position Sensor
08-25
software selectable
software selectable
3
software selectable
1
2
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
Chart Notes
• NO ACTION means DTC will be stored and MIL illuminated, but engine performance will not
be intentionally affected by calibration as a result of the stored DTC.
• MIL = Malfunction Indicator Lamp.
• DTC = Diagnostic Trouble Code.
• HO2S = Heated Oxygen sensor. Closed loop fuel control is based on HEGO readings.
• OPEN LOOP = Fuel metering is not influenced by the HO2S sensor.
• SOFTWARE SELECTABLE means OEM has choice of action A or B as a result of a stored
DTC.
A. Shuts off engine.
B. NO ACTION.
• The following DTC’s are SOFTWARE SELECTABLE:
DTC 43 – Over maximum coolant temperature or cylinder head temperature.
DTC 51 – Low oil pressure.
DTC 62 – Over maximum voltage.
• DTC’s may be extracted using either the MIL or a computer. DTC’s can only be retrieved with
key on / engine off. (KOEO).
• When extracting DTC’s via the MIL, the following apply:
– When the Self Test Input (STI) circuit is grounded to begin flashing the DTCs, there is a
5 second delay before the DTC’s begin flashing.
– The STI circuit is a white wire with a purple stripe, exiting pin H3 from the ECM. It
branches off to terminal A of the 6 pin diagnostic connector.
– Flashing MIL is on for 0.4 second an off for 0.4 second.
– 1.2 seconds MIL off time between digits of two digit DTC’s.
– 2.4 seconds MIL off time between DTC’s.
– Each DTC repeated 3 times before flashing next stored DTC.
– Up to 6 DTC’s can be stored.
– Once all stored DTC’s are flashed, process repeats with first stored DTC.
– DTC’s are flashed in the order in which they were set.
• If no DTC is stored, a DTC 11 is flashed, indicating all systems are OK.
• All stored DTC’s, except DTC 11, will illuminate the MIL during engine operation.
08-26
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
08-27
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
Other Descriptions
MALFUNCTION PROCESS DESCRIPTION
When a malfunction occurs for DTC’s with the limp home mode feature, a DTC will be set, the
MIL will illuminate and the corrective action (limp home mode/default values) will be initiated.
This will continue as long as the engine runs without being shut off. If the malfunction occurs
and then corrects itself while the engine is continuously running, the DTC will be stored, the
MIL will remain illuminated and the engine will continue to run in the limp home mode until shut
off and restarted. Once restarted, the malfunction does not reoccur, the engine will resume in a
normal operating mode. Below is a description of possible scenarios.
Scenario 1: Hard DTC (malfunction occurs and stays): Engine running > malfunction occurs
> set DTC + turn on MIL + ECM corrective action (limp home mode) > DTC + MIL + limp home
mode continues until engine is shut off > engine shut off then restarted > malfunction continues
> DTC remains + MIL remains on + ECM corrective action continues.
Scenario 2: Intermittent DTC set (malfunction occurs but corrects itself): Engine running >
malfunction occurs > set DTC + turn on MIL + ECM corrective action (limp home mode) >
malfunction corrects itself > DTC + MIL + limp home mode continues until engine is shut off >
engine shut off then restarted > no malfunction > DTC + MIL continue but engine returns to
normal operation.
• Limp Home Mode: When an input to the ECM is outside of an established range, the
appropriate DTC sets. The ECM will then ignore the errant input signal, and carry on its
functions as best it can via default, calculated or estimated values. An engine operating under
these conditions is said to be in limp home mode.
• Engines are calibrated to run as smoothly as possible during limp home mode. However,
engine performance during limp home mode varies according to which DTC is set.
• Overspeed protection – Hard coded for 4000 rpm. There is a concern of the effect of high
engine speeds on attached components (example: flywheels and fans). If engine reaches this
hard coded maximum rpm, engine will be shut off and DTC 21 will be set.
HOW TO CLEAR CODES
Conditions for Clearing the DTC (Resetting the MIL)
• The DTC can be cleared from memory by disconnecting the battery for 20 minutes.
• If a personal computer (PC) is connected to the engine, the DTC can be cleared from memory
by hitting the “C” key while in the View Sensor Data screen.
08-28
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
Diagnostic Trouble Code 11
NOTES
This is an all clear trouble code. It is a code to let the technician know all
systems are OK.
08-29
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
Diagnostic Trouble Code 12
NOTES
361H
S01
351D
359F
S03
S05
361G
359
DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODE (DTC) 12 THROTTLE
POSITION (TP) SENSOR LOW VOLTAGE
Circuit Description
The throttle position (TP) sensor is a potentiometer which is attached to
the throttle plate shaft inside the electronic governor. The ECM provides
a 5V reference voltage to the TP sensor between terminal A (Grey/
Red, circuit 359F) and terminal C (Brown/White, circuit 351D) of the
electronic governor. A TP signal is returned to the ECM from terminal B
(Grey/White, circuit 355) of the electronic governor. The TP signal varies
from about 1.0V at idle to 4.8V at WOT. The TP signal is an important
input used by the ECM for fuel control and other engine-control functions.
Conditions for Setting the DTC
• KOEO or KOER.
• TP signal is 0.3V or less.
• Above conditions are present for at least 2 consecutive seconds.
08-30
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
Diagnostic Trouble Code 12
Actions Taken When the DTC Sets
• The ECM illuminates the malfunction indicator lamp (MIL).
• The ECM forces the throttle to a default position of 6% open.
• The ECM will shut down engine when using DBW. Engine can be restarted after recycling ignition switch.
NOTE: Drive By Wire: When code is set the engine may shut down. It can be restarted but will shut down
again as long as the code is present.
DTC 12 – Throttle Position Sensor Low Voltage
Step
1
2
Action
Are you using a personal computer (PC) to perform this diagnosis?
1. KOEO. Check the 5V reference signal from the ECM.
2. Check the voltage between terminals A and C on the electronic
governor. Is the voltage within the specified values?
8
1. KOEO. Check the TP signal to the ECM.
2. Using a DVOM to pins A and B of the three-wire pigtail on the electronic
governor. While observing the voltage reading, operate the engine
throughout the widest available range of speeds (ideally, from idle to
WOT). NOTE: If a PC is available, you can observe TP voltage on the
engine data screen instead of using a DVOM.
Does the voltage vary between the specified values?
1. Disconnect ECM connector A thru K.
2. Disconnect the TP sensor connector.
3. Check for shorts or opens on circuit 355 between the TP sensor
connector and the ECM connector.
Were any shorts or opens found?
Check circuit 355 for a poor terminal connection at the ECM.
Does the terminal need to be replaced?
1. Disconnect ECM connector A thru K.
2. Check for a short or open on circuits 351D and 359F.
Were any shorts or opens found?
Check circuits 351D and 359F for poor terminal connections at the ECM.
Does either terminal need to be replaced?
Replace the electronic governor. Is the repair complete and engine
operating to specifications?
9
Install replacement ECM.
Is system operation normal with replacement ECM installation?
10
Is the repair complete (system operation normal with original ECM
reinstalled)?
11
Is the repair complete (system operation normal with replacement ECM
reinstalled)?
3
4
5
6
7
08-31
Values
Yes
Go to Diagnostic
System Check before
continuing at Step 2
Go to Step 2
4.9-5.1V
Go to Step 3
Go to Step 6
Approx. 1V
at idle to 4.8V
at WOT
Go to Step 4
Repair the wiring.
Re-test.
Repair the terminal.
Re-test.
Repair the wiring.
Re-test.
Repair the terminal.
Re-test.
Re-test.
Remove replacement
ECM and install original
ECM. Go to Step 10.
Keep original ECM
installed. Re-test.
Leave replacement ECM
installed. Re-test.
No
Go to Step 8
Go to Step 5
Go to Step 9
Go to Step 7
Go to Step 7
Remove & replace
electronic governor.
Go to Step 9
Remove original
ECM and reinstall
replacement ECM.
Go to Step 11.
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
Diagnostic Trouble Code 13 (DBW)
NOTES
Connector for (PP) Sensor
Idle Validation Switch
Pedal Assembly
Pedal Position (PP)
Connector for Idle
Validation
Sensor Connector
Switch
361 R
359A GY-R
355 GY-W 351B BR-W
•
•
359A GY-R
33
Signal
Return
S#5 GY-R
B2
•
151 LB-BK
307 BK-Y
351
14
31
PP Sensor
C
Signal
5V
DPP
Reference
151 LB-BK
A1
Power Feed From
Ignition Switch
25
S#3 BR-W
A2
Pedal Assembly Switch
GSignal
Return
42-Pin Connector
307 BK-Y
K2
ECM
DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODE (DTC) 13 ACCELERATOR
PEDAL POSITION (APP) SENSOR LOW VOLTAGE
Circuit Description
The Accelerator Pedal Position (APP) sensor is a potentiometer which
is attached to the accelerator pedal pivot shaft. The ECM provides a 5V
reference voltage to the APP sensor between terminal A (Grey/Red,
circuit 359A) and terminal C (Brown/White, circuit 351B) APP. An APP
sensor signal is returned to the ECM from terminal B (Grey/White, circuit
355) of the electronic governor. The APP sensor signal varies from about
1.0V at idle to 4.8V at WOT. The APP signal is an important input used
by the ECM for fuel control and engine RPM.
Conditions for Setting the DTC
• KOEO or KOER.
• APP signal is 0.3V or less.
Actions Taken When the DTC Sets
• The ECM illuminates the malfunction indicator lamp (MIL).
• The ECM forces the APP internally to a default position of 0.235V
(limp home mode).
08-32
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
Diagnostic Trouble Code 13
Trouble Shooting:
• Potentiometer in APP sensor is bad, bad DBW harness or connectors, electrical failure, APP sensor
signal is 0.3V or less.
DTC 13 – Accelerator Pedal Position Sensor Low Voltage
Step
1
Action
Are you using a personal computer (PC) to perform this diagnosis?
7
1. KOEO. Check the 5V reference signal from the ECM.
2. Check the voltage between terminals A and C on the APP sensor.
Is the voltage within the specified values?
1. KOEO. Check the APP sensor signal to the ECM.
2. Start the engine.
3. Using a DVOM to pins A and B of the three-wire pigtail on the APP check
voltage. While observing the voltage reading, step down on the AP and
operate the engine throughout the widest available range of speeds
(ideally, from idle to WOT). NOTE: If a PC is available, you can observe
AP voltage on the engine data screen instead of using a DVOM.
4. Shut the engine off.
Does the voltage vary between the specified values?
1. Disconnect ECM connector A thru K.
2. Disconnect the AP sensor connector.
3. Check for shorts or opens on circuit 355/355B, 351B/151 between the
APP sensor connector and the ECM connector.
Were any shorts or opens found?
Check circuit 355, 351B/151 and 359A/359 for a poor terminal connection
at the ECM & 42 Pin Connector.
Does the terminal need to be replaced?
Replace the AP assembly.
1. Clear code.
2. Retest. Did code reset?
Install replacement ECM.
Is system operation normal with replacement ECM installation?
8
Is the repair complete (system operation normal with original ECM
reinstalled)?
2
3
4
5
6
9
Is the repair complete (system operation normal with replacement ECM
reinstalled)?
08-33
Values
Yes
Go to Diagnostic
System Check before
continuing at Step 2
Go to Step 2
4.9-5.1V
Go to Step 3
Go to Step 6
Approx. 1V
at idle to 4.8V
at WOT
Go to Step 8
Go to Step 4
Repair the wiring.
Re-test.
Go to Step 5
Repair the terminal.
Re-test.
Go to Step 6
Install original AP
assembly. Re-test.
Remove replacement
ECM and install original
ECM. Go to Step 10.
Keep original ECM
installed. Re-test.
Leave replacement ECM
installed. Re-test.
No
Remove original
ECM and reinstall
replacement ECM.
Go to Step 9.
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
Diagnostic Trouble Code 14
NOTES
359B
CHT
IAT
Sensors
S05
S13
359
DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODE (DTC) 14 MANIFOLD
ABSOLUTE PRESSURE (MAP) SENSOR LOW VOLTAGE
Circuit Description
The manifold absolute pressure (MAP) sensor responds to changes in
intake manifold pressure (vacuum). The ECM provides a 5V reference
voltage to the MAP sensor between terminal A (Grey/Red, Circuit 359K)
and terminal C (Brown/White, circuit 351C) of the MAP sensor. A MAP
signal is returned to the ECM from terminal B (Lt.. Green/Black, circuit
358) of the MAP sensor. The MAP signal varies from about 1V at idle
(high vacuum) to 4.8V with KOEO or at WOT (low vacuum). The MAP
signal is used by the ECM as an indication of engine load. This information
is used to control spark advance and air/fuel ratio. The MAP signal is
also used at KOEO to indicate barometric pressure. This information is
used for altitude compensation when establishing spark advance and
air/fuel ratio.
Conditions for Setting the DTC
• KOEO or KOER.
• MAP signal is significantly lower than estimated by the ECM.
• Above conditions are present for at least 2 consecutive seconds.
Actions Taken When the DTC Sets
• The ECM illuminates the malfunction indicator lamp (MIL).
• The ECM uses an estimated MAP value based on throttle position and
engine rpm.
08-34
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
Diagnostic Trouble Code 14
DTC 14 – Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) Sensor Low Voltage
Step
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
Action
Are you using a personal computer (PC) to perform this diagnosis?
1. KOEO. Check the 5V reference signal from the ECM.
2. Disconnect the MAP sensor electrical connector.
3. Check the voltage between terminals A and C on the MAP sensor
electrical connector. Is the voltage within the specified values?
Check the MAP signal to the ECM:
1. Reconnect the MAP sensor electrical connector.
2. No load on engine.
3. KOER.
4. Using a suitable backprobing technique, measure the voltage between
terminals A and B at the MAP sensor. NOTE: If a PC is available, you
can observe TP voltage on the engine data screen instead of using a
DVOM.
5. While observing the voltage reading, increase the engine speed from idle
to WOT. Does the voltage vary between the specified values?
1. Ignition OFF.
2. Disconnect ECM connector A thru K.
3. Disconnect the MAP sensor connector.
4. Check for shorts or opens on circuit 358 (Lt. Green/Black) between the
MAP sensor connector and the ECM connector.
Were any shorts or opens found?
Check circuit 358 for a poor terminal connection at the ECM.
Does the terminal need to be replaced?
1. Disconnect ECM connector A thru K.
2. Check for a short or open on circuits 351C (Brown/White) and 359B
(Grey/Red). Were any shorts or opens found?
Check circuits 351C and 359B for poor terminal connections at the ECM.
Does either terminal need to be replaced?
Replace the MAP sensor. Is the repair complete?
Install replacement ECM. Is the system operation normal with
replacement ECM?
Is the repair complete (system operation normal with original ECM
reinstalled)?
Is the repair complete (system operation normal with replacement ECM
reinstalled)?
08-35
Values
Yes
Go to Diagnostic System
Check before continuing
at Step 2.
Go to Step 2
4.9-5.1V
Go to Step 3
Go to Step 6
Approx. 1V at
idle to approx.
4.0V at WOT
Go to Step 4
Go to Step 8
Repair the wiring.
Re-test.
Repair the terminal.
Re-test.
No
Go to Step 5
Go to Step 9
Repair the wiring.
Go to Step 7
Re-test.
Repair the terminal.
Go to Step 9
Re-test.
Re-test.
Remove replacement
ECM and install original
ECM. Go to Step 10.
Remove original
Keep original ECM
ECM and reinstall
installed. Re-test.
replacement ECM.
Go to Step 11.
Leave replacement ECM
installed. Re-test.
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
Diagnostic Trouble Code 15
359D
NOTES
S #5
MAP and CHT
Sensors
Manifold Skin
Temperature
(MST) Sensor
Connector
225 BK-Y
D3
DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODE (DTC) 15 MANIFOLD SKIN
TEMPERATURE LOW VOLTAGE
Circuit Description
The manifold skin temperature (MST) sensor is a thermistor which
measures the temperature of the air next to the intake manifold of engine.
The ECM supplies a ground (circuit 359 and 359D, Grey/Red) from the
sensor. When the skin temperature air is cold, the sensor resistance is
high and the ECM will monitor a high signal voltage at the MST signal
circuit. If the skin temperature air is warm, the sensor resistance is
lower, causing the ECM to monitor a lower voltage. DTC 15 will set
when the ECM detects an excessively low signal voltage on the skin
temperature sensor signal circuit.
Conditions for Setting the DTC
• KOEO or KOER.
• MST sensor signal is < 0.22V.
• Above conditions are present for at least > 2.64 consecutive seconds.
Actions Taken When the DTC Sets
• The ECM will illuminate the malfunction indicator lamp (MIL).
• The ECM will force the MST sensor to a 50°F default value.
• The fuel system will go into open loop.
Trouble Shooting
• MST is malfunctioning bad, wiring or connectors, or electrical failure.
08-36
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
Diagnostic Trouble Code 15
Diagnostic Aids
NOTES
ECT, CHT, IAT & MST Sensors
The MST sensor shares the same ground with the
Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) sensor and the
Cylinder Head Temperature (CHT) sensor. Check
the ground circuit 359 (Grey/Red) if this DTC is set.
Inspect the harness connectors for backed-out
terminals, improper mating, broken locks, improperly
formed or damaged terminals, and poor terminal-towire connections. Inspect the wiring harness for
damage. If the harness appears to be OK,
backprobe the MST sensor connector with a digital
voltmeter and observe the voltage while moving
connectors and wiring harnesses related to the MST
sensor.
A change in the voltage reading will indicate the
location of the fault. Unplug MST sensor and using
and OHM meter, read resistance value. It should be
close to intake air temperature reading.
°C
°F
OHMS
Volts
Temperature vs. Ohm or Volts Values (approx.)
100
212
2,080
.47
80
176
3,837
.79
60
140
7,548
1.34
45
113
13,236
1.93
35
95
19,716
2.39
25
77
30,000
2.86
15
59
46,774
3.32
5
41
74,914
3.71
-5
23
123,485
4.02
-15
5
209,816
4.25
-30
-22
496,051
4.46
-40
-40
925,021
4.54
Voltage values calculated for VREF=5 volts (may
vary + 15% due to sensor and VREF variations).
DTC 15 –Manifold Skin Temperature Low Voltage
Step
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Action
Are you using a personal computer (PC) to perform this diagnosis?
1. Ignition OFF.
2. Disconnect the MST sensor electrical connector.
3. Check Ohm value across the two pins of the MST. Is it within specs of
above chart?
1. KOEO.
2. With a DVOM check for ground on circuit 359D (Grey/Red) cavity 1.
Is there a ground?
Check for an open on circuit 359D (Grey/Red) and
repair as necessary. Was a repair necessary?
1. Reconnect the MST sensor electrical connector.
2. With a suitable backprobing technique measure the voltage between
cavity 2, circuit 225 (BK-Y) and ground.
Is the voltage greater than the specified value?
Check for a short to voltage on circuit 225 (BK-Y) and repair as
necessary. Was a repair necessary?
Replace the MST sensor Is the repair complete?
Install replacement ECM. Is system operation normal with replacement
ECM installed?
Is the repair complete (system operation normal with original ECM
reinstalled)?
Is the repair complete (system operation normal with replacement ECM
reinstalled)?
08-37
Values
4.9V
Yes
Go to Diagnostic System
Check before continuing
at Step 2.
Go to Step 2
Go to Step 3
Go to Step 7
Go to Step 4
Go to Step 3
Re-test
Go to Step 4
Go to Step 7
Go to Step 6
Re-test
Re-test
Remove replacement
ECM and install original
ECM. Go to Step 9
Go to Step 8
Keep original ECM
installed. Re-test.
Leave replacement ECM
installed. Re-test.
No
Remove original
ECM and reinstall
replacement ECM.
Go to Step 10
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
Diagnostic Trouble Code 16 (DBW)
NOTES
Connector for (PP) Sensor
Idle Validation Switch
Pedal Assembly
Pedal Position (PP)
Connector for Idle
Validation
Sensor Connector
Switch
361 R
359A GY-R
355 GY-W 351B BR-W
•
•
359A GY-R
33
Signal
Return
S#5 GY-R
B2
•
151 LB-BK
14
PP Sensor
C
Signal
151 LB-BK
A1
307 BK-Y
351
Power Feed From
Ignition Switch
31
25
5V
DPP
Reference
S#3 BR-W
A2
Pedal Assembly Switch
GSignal
Return
42-Pin Connector
307 BK-Y
K2
ECM
DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODE (DTC) 16 IDLE
VERIFICATION SWITCH FAILURE
Circuit Description
The idle validation switch (IVS) is an off/on switch (normally open) with
12V as a power supply from the ignition switch on circuit 361 (R). When
the accelerator pedal is depressed the switch the switch is closed
sending a 12V signal to the ECM on circuit 307 (BK-Y) through the 42
pin connector, pin 25. From the 42 pin connector to the ECM pin K2. The
IVS signal is very important input used by the ECM to aid in the control
of the engine RPM.
Conditions for Setting the DTC
• KOEO or KOER.
• The accelerator pedal position (APP) sensor is < 0.8V with the IVS
closed.
• The APP sensor is > 1.54V with the IVS opened.
• Above conditions are present for at least > 0.032 consecutive seconds.
Actions Taken When the DTC Sets
• The ECM will illuminate the malfunction indicator lamp (MIL).
• The APP sensor internally is forced to 0.235V.
• The ECM will react to a limp home mode allowing the machine to be
driven at a very low speed.
08-38
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
Diagnostic Trouble Code 16 (DBW)
Trouble shooting
• The APP out of set range while IVS off, is damaged or misadjusted. The IVS malfunction, has damaged
wiring, encounters an electrical or mechanical failure.
DTC 16 – Idle Verification Switch
Step
1
2
3
4
5
6
Action
Are you using a personal computer (PC) to perform this diagnosis?
1. KOEO. Check circuit 361 (R) for B+.
2. Is voltage within specification?
Repair wire on circuit 361 (R). Is repair complete?
Values
VPWR (B+)
1. KOEO. Check voltage at circuit 307 (BK-Y).
2. Is voltage within specification?
1. Step on AP. Check voltage again. Circuit 307 (BK-Y).
2. Is the voltage within specification?
Check for a shut or open circuit 307 at ECM pin 2 for 12 volts.
7
Check APP sensor follow steps from DTC 13. Does APP check OK
8
Replace ECM.
9
Is system operation normal with replacement ECM installation?
10
Is the repair complete (system operation normal with original ECM
reinstalled)?
11
Is the repair complete (system operation normal with replacement ECM
reinstalled)?
08-39
0V
Yes
Go to Diagnostic System
Check before continuing
at Step 2.
Go to Step 4
Re-test
Replace APP.
Re-test
VPWR (B+)
Go to Step 6
VPWR (B+)
Go to Step 7
Go to Step 8
Re-test
Remove replacement
ECM and install original
ECM. Go to Step 10.
Keep original ECM
installed. Re-test.
Leave replacement ECM
installed. Re-test.
No
Go to Step 2
Go to Step 3
Go to Step 5
Replace APP.
Re-test
Replace the wiring
307. Re-test
Replace AP
assembly. Re-test
Remove original
ECM and reinstall
replacement ECM.
Go to Step 11
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
Diagnostic Trouble Code 17 (DBW)
NOTES
361H
S01
359D
359F
S03
S05
361G
Throttle
Control
Power
Feed
VPWR
DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODE (DTC) 17 ACTUATOR
UNSTABLE
Circuit Description
The electronic governor consists of a throttle body, an electronicallyactuated throttle plate, and a built-in throttle position (TP) sensor. There
are two pigtails that exist the governor body. The 3-wire pigtail connects
the TP sensor to the ECM. Refer to “Throttle Position (TP) Sensor” for
more information.
The 2-wire pigtail carries the throttle signal from the ECM to the governor.
Desired engine speeds are stored in the configuration program for each
specific application, and can be changed with the ECM calibration
software. When the accelerator pedal is depressed a signal is sent from
the APP sensor to the ECM, the ECM responds by sending the
appropriate signal to the governor. This is a pulse-width modulated
(PWM) signal which cannot be read with conventional diagnostic tools
such as a voltmeter. A 12-volt signal which can be read as a steady
12V with a DVOM, is pulsed on and off at a high rate of speed by the
ECM through circuit 264 (W-LB) pin R-1. The width of the “on” pulse
determines the amount of throttle opening. The ECM grounds the VPWR
current sent through the governor with the appropriate pulse width base
on the position of the accelerator pedal.
08-40
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
Diagnostic Trouble Code 17 (DBW)
Conditions for Setting DTC
• KOER
• Two or more opposing differences of normalized TPS signals which exceed 0.98V within 0.5 consecutive
seconds.
Actions Taken When the DTC Sets
• The ECM will shut down the engine. Engine can be restarted after cycling ignition switch off for 20
seconds.
• The ECM will light the MIL.
Trouble Shooting
• The actuator may not be operating. ECM is programmed incorrectly, ECM malfunctions and bad ground.
DTC 17 – Actuator Unstable
Step
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Action
Values
Are you using a personal computer (PC) to perform this diagnosis?
1. Disconnect electronic governor electrical connector.
2. KOEO check for voltage at circuit 361H. Was voltage within specification?
Using a DVOM check circuit 361H and 264 for open or to ground.
Was a problem found?
Check that ECM has correct program to match application.
Is the correct program installed?
Replace the electronic governor. Is the repair complete and engine
operating to specifications?
VPWR (B+)
Varies per
manufacture
Yes
Go to Diagnostic
System Check before
continuing at Step 2
Go to Step 3
Complete repair and
Re-test.
Go to Step 5
Re-test
Remove replacement
ECM and install original
ECM. Go to Step 7
Is system operation normal with replacement ECM install?
Is the repair complete. Does system operate normal with original ECM?
Is the repair complete?
Is the system operation normal with replacement ECM?
08-41
No
Go to Step 2
Repair wire and
re-test.
Go to Step 4
Install correct
program.
Re-test.
Remove &
replace electronic
governor with
original.
Go to Step 6
Remove original
ECM and re-insall
Keep original ECM
replacement ECM.
installed.
Go to Step 8
Re-test.
Leave replacement ECM
installed.
Re-test.
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
Diagnostic Trouble Code 21
NOTES
S06
•
359C
S05
359
S17
DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODE (DTC) 21 OVERSPEED
Circuit Description
The ECM monitors engine speed through the crankshaft position (CKP)
sensor. If the engine speed reaches 4000 RPM, the fuel is immediately
removed to shut off the engine. DTC 21 will set at this time. The engine
may be restarted after the ignition switch is cycled off and back on.
Conditions for Setting the DTC
• KOER..
• Engine reaches a threshold at 4000 RPM.
Actions Taken When the DTC Sets
• The ECM illuminates the malfunction indicator lamp (MIL).
• The engine will shut off.
08-42
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
Diagnostic Trouble Code 21
DTC 21 – Overspeed
Step
1
Action
Are you using a personal computer (PC) to perform this diagnosis?
3
Check for obstructions in the throttle, crack in the intake manifold or vacuum
leak that would produce WOT and repair as necessary. Was a repair
necessary?
Install replacement ECM.
Is system operation normal with replacement ECM installed?
4
Is the repair complete (system operation normal with original ECM
reinstalled)?
2
5
Is the repair complete (system operation normal with replacement ECM
reinstalled)?
08-43
Values
Yes
Go to Diagnostic System
Check before continuing.
No
Go to Step 2
Go to Step 3
Re-test.
Remove replacement
ECM and install original
ECM. Go at Step 4.
Remove original
Keep original ECM
ECM and reinstall
installed. Re-test.
Leave replacement ECM replacement ECM.
Go to Step 5.
installed. Re-test.
Leave replacement ECM
installed. Re-test.
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
Diagnostic Trouble Code 22
NOTES
361H
S01
351D
359
S03
S05
361G
359
DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODE (DTC) 22 THROTTLE
POSITION (TP) SENSOR HIGH VOLTAGE
Circuit Description
The throttle position (TP) sensor is a potentiometer which is attached to
the throttle plate shaft inside the electronic governor. The ECM provides
a 5V reference voltage to the TP sensor between terminal A (Grey/
Red, circuit 359F) and terminal C (Brown/White, circuit 351D) of the
electronic governor. A TP signal is returned to the ECM from terminal B
(Grey/White, circuit 355) of the electronic governor. The TP signal varies
from about 1.0V at idle to 4.8V at WOT. The TP signal is an important
input used by the ECM for fuel control and other engine-control functions.
Conditions for Setting the DTC
• KOEO or KOER.
• TP signal is 4.9V or more.
• Above conditions are present for at least 2 consecutive seconds.
Actions Taken When the DTC Sets
• The ECM illuminates the malfunction indicator lamp (MIL).
• When DBW the ECM will shut the engine down. Engine can be restarted
by recycling the ignition switch.
08-44
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
Diagnostic Trouble Code 22
DTC 22 – Throttle Position Sensor High Voltage
Step
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Action
Are you using a personal computer (PC) to perform this diagnosis?
1. KOEO. Check the 5V reference signal from the ECM.
2. Check the voltage between terminals A and C on the electronic
governor. Is the voltage within the specified values?
1. KOEO. Check the TP signal to the ECM.
2. Start the engine.
3. Using a DVOM to pins A and B of the three-wire pigtail on the electronic
governor. While observing the voltage reading, operate the engine
throughout the widest available range of speeds (ideally, from idle to
WOT). NOTE: If a PC is available, you can observe TP voltage on the
engine data screen instead of using a DVOM.
4. Shut the engine off.
Does the voltage vary between the specified values?
1. Disconnect ECM connector A thru K.
2. Disconnect the TP sensor connector.
3. Check for shorts or opens on circuit 355 between the TP sensor
connector and the ECM connector.
Were any shorts or opens found?
Check circuit 355 for a poor terminal connection at the ECM.
Does the terminal need to be replaced?
1. Disconnect ECM connector A thru K.
2. Check for a short or open on circuits 351B and 359C.
Were any shorts or opens found?
Check circuits 351D and 359F for poor terminal connections at the ECM.
Does either terminal need to be replaced?
Replace the electronic governor.
Is the repair complete and engine operating to specifications?
9
Install replacement ECM.
Is system operation normal with replacement ECM installed?
10
Is the repair complete (system operation normal with original ECM
reinstalled)?
11
Is the repair complete (system operation normal with replacement ECM
reinstalled)?
08-45
Values
Yes
Go to Diagnostic
System Check before
continuing at Step 2
Go to Step 2
4.9-5.1V
Go to Step 3
Go to Step 6
Approx. 1V
at idle to 4.8V
at WOT
Go to Step 4
Repair the wiring.
Re-test.
Repair the terminal.
Re-test.
Repair the wiring.
Re-test.
Repair the terminal.
Re-test.
Re-test.
Remove replacement
ECM and install original
ECM. Go to Step 10.
Keep original ECM
installed. Re-test.
Leave replacement ECM
installed. Re-test.
No
Go to Step 8
Go to Step 5
Go to Step 9
Go to Step 7
Go to Step 7
Remove & replace
electronic governor
with original.
Go to Step 9.
Remove original
ECM and reinstall
replacement ECM.
Go to Step 11.
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
Diagnostic Trouble Code 23 (DBW)
NOTES
Connector for (PP) Sensor
Idle Validation Switch
Pedal Assembly
Pedal Position (PP)
Connector for Idle
Validation
Sensor Connector
Switch
361 R
359A GY-R
355 GY-W 351B BR-W
•
•
359A GY-R
33
Signal
Return
S#5 GY-R
B2
•
151 LB-BK
14
PP Sensor
C
Signal
151 LB-BK
A1
307 BK-Y
351
Power Feed From
Ignition Switch
31
25
5V
DPP
Reference
S#3 BR-W
A2
Pedal Assembly Switch
GSignal
Return
42-Pin Connector
307 BK-Y
K2
ECM
DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODE (DTC) 23 APP SENSOR
HIGH VOLTAGE
Circuit Description (APP)
The Accelerator Pedal Position (APP) sensor is a potentiometer which
is attached to the accelerator pedal pivot shaft. The ECM provides a 5V
reference voltage to the APP sensor between terminal A (Grey/Red,
circuit 359A) and terminal C (Brown/White, circuit 351B) APP. An APP
sensor signal is returned to the ECM from terminal B (Grey/White, circuit
355) of the electronic governor. The APP sensor signal varies from about
1.0V at idle to 4.8V at WOT. The APP signal is an important input used
by the ECM for fuel control and engine RPM.
Conditions for Setting the DTC
• KOEO or KOER.
• APP signal is 4.9V or more.
• Above conditions are present for at least 2 consecutive seconds.
08-46
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
Diagnostic Trouble Code 23
Actions Taken When the DTC Sets
• The ECM illuminates the malfunction indicator lamp (MIL).
• The ECM forces the PPS internally to 0.235V.
• The ECM will shutdown engine. Engine can be restarted after cycling ignition switch.
DTC 23 – Accelerator Pedal Position Sensor Low Voltage
Step
1
Action
Are you using a personal computer (PC) to perform this diagnosis?
7
1. KOEO. Check the 5V reference signal from the ECM.
2. Check the voltage between terminals A and C on the APP sensor.
Is the voltage within the specified values?
1. KOEO. Check the APP sensor signal to the ECM.
2. Start the engine.
3. Using a DVOM to pins A and B of the three-wire pigtail on the APP check
voltage. While observing the voltage reading, step down on the AP and
operate the engine throughout the widest available range of speeds
(ideally, from idle to WOT). NOTE: If a PC is available, you can observe
AP voltage on the engine data screen instead of using a DVOM.
4. Shut the engine off.
Does the voltage vary between the specified values?
1. Disconnect ECM connector A thru K.
2. Disconnect the AP sensor connector.
3. Check for shorts or opens on circuit 355/355B, 351B/151 between the
APP sensor connector and the ECM connector.
Were any shorts or opens found?
Check circuit 355, 351B/151 and 359A/359 for a poor terminal connection
at the ECM & 42 Pin Connector.
Does the terminal need to be replaced?
Replace the AP assembly.
1. Clear code.
2. Retest. Did code reset?
Install replacement ECM.
Is system operation normal with replacement ECM installation?
8
Is the repair complete (system operation normal with original ECM
reinstalled)?
2
3
4
5
6
9
Is the repair complete (system operation normal with replacement ECM
reinstalled)?
08-47
Values
Yes
Go to Diagnostic
System Check before
continuing at Step 2
Go to Step 2
4.9-5.1V
Go to Step 3
Go to Step 6
Approx. 1V
at idle to 4.8V
at WOT
Go to Step 8
Go to Step 4
Repair the wiring.
Re-test.
Go to Step 5
Repair the terminal.
Re-test.
Go to Step 6
Install original AP
assembly. Re-test.
Remove replacement
ECM and install original
ECM. Go to Step 10.
Keep original ECM
installed. Re-test.
Leave replacement ECM
installed. Re-test.
No
Remove original
ECM and reinstall
replacement ECM.
Go to Step 9.
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
Diagnostic Trouble Code 24
NOTES
359B
CHT
IAT
Sensors
S05
S03
359
DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODE (DTC) 24 MANIFOLD
ABSOLUTE PRESSURE (MAP) SENSOR HIGH VOLTAGE
Circuit Description
The manifold absolute pressure (MAP) sensor responds to changes in
intake manifold pressure (vacuum). The ECM provides a 5V reference
voltage to the MAP sensor between terminal A (Grey/Red, Circuit 359K)
and terminal C (Brown/White, circuit 351C) of the MAP sensor. A MAP
signal is returned to the ECM from terminal B (Lt.. Green/Black, circuit
358) of the MAP sensor. The MAP signal varies from about 1V at idle
(high vacuum) to 4.8V with KOEO or at WOT (low vacuum). The MAP
signal is used by the ECM as an indication of engine load. This information
is used to control spark advance and air/fuel ratio. The MAP signal is
also used at KOEO to indicate barometric pressure. This information is
used for altitude compensation when establishing spark advance and
air/fuel ratio.
Conditions for Setting the DTC
• KOEO or KOER.
• MAP signal is significantly higher than that estimated by the ECM.
• Above conditions are present for at least 2 consecutive seconds.
Actions Taken When the DTC Sets
• The ECM illuminates the malfunction indicator lamp (MIL).
• The ECM uses an estimated MAP value based on throttle position and
engine rpm.
08-48
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
Diagnostic Trouble Code 24
Diagnostic Aids
The MAP sensor share the same ground with the Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT) sensor and the
Intake Air Temperature (IAT) sensor. Check the ground circuit 359 (Gray/Red-Gray/Yellow) if these DTC’s
are also set.
Inspect the harness connectors for backed-out terminals, improper mating, broken locks, improperly formed
or damaged terminals, and poor terminal-to-wire connections. Inspect the wiring harness for damage.
DTC 24 – Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) Sensor High Voltage
Step
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
Action
Are you using a personal computer (PC) to perform this diagnosis?
Values
Yes
Go to Diagnostic System
Check before continuing
at Step 2.
No
Go to Step 2
1. Disconnect the MAP sensor electrical connector.
2. KOEO.
3. Check the voltage between terminals A and C on the MAP sensor
4.9-5.1V
Go to Step 3
Go to Step 6
electrical connector. Is the voltage within the specified values?
1. Reconnect the MAP sensor electrical connector.
2. KOER with no load on engine.
3. Using a suitable backprobing technique, measure the voltage between
Approx. 1V at
terminals A and B at the MAP sensor.
4. While observing the voltage reading, increase the engine speed from idle idle to approx.
Go to Step 4
4.8V at WOT
Go to Step 8
to WOT. Does the voltage vary between the specified values?
1. Ignition OFF.
2. Disconnect ECM connector A thru K.
3. Disconnect the MAP sensor connector.
4. Check for an open or short to ground on circuit 358 (Lt. Green/Black)
between the MAP sensor connector and the ECM connector and repair
Re-test.
Go to Step 5
as necessary. Was a repair necessary?
Check circuit 358, (Lt. Green/Black) for a poor terminal connection at the
Re-test.
Go to Step 9
ECM and repair if necessary. Was a repair necessary?
1. Disconnect ECM connector A thru K.
2. Check for a and open or short to ground on circuits 351C (Brown/White)
and 359B (Grey/Red) between the MAP sensor connector and the
ECM connector and repair as necessary.
Re-test.
Go to Step 7
Was a repair necessary?
Check circuits 351C (Brown/White) and 359B (Grey/Red) for a poor
terminal connection at the ECM and repair if necessary.
Re-test.
Go to Step 9
Was a repair necessary?
Replace the MAP sensor. Is the repair complete?
Re-test.
Install replacement ECM. Is system operation normal with replacement
Remove replacement
ECM installed?
ECM and install original
ECM. Go to Step 10.
Is the repair complete (system operation normal with original ECM
Keep original ECM
Remove original
reinstalled)?
installed. Re-test.
ECM and reinstall
replacement ECM.
Go to Step 11.
Is the repair complete (system operation normal with replacement ECM
Leave replacement ECM
reinstalled)?
installed. Re-test.
08-49
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
Diagnostic Trouble Code 25
NOTES
359E
S #5
MAP and
CHT Sensors
Manifold Skin
Temperature
(MST) Sensor
Connector
225 BK-Y
D3
DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODE (DTC) 25 MANIFOLD SKIN
TEMPERATURE HIGH VOLTAGE
Circuit Description
The manifold skin temperature (MST) sensor is a thermistor which is
used to calculate the temperature of the air entering the cylinder. The
ECM provides a ground (circuit 359E, Grey/Red) from the sensor and
supplies 5V reference signal on circuit 255 (BK-Y). When the intake air
is cold, the sensor resistance is high and the ECM will monitor a high
signal voltage at the MST signal circuit. If the intake air is warm, the
sensor resistance is lower, causing the ECM to monitor a lower voltage.
DTC 35 will set when the ECM detects an excessively high signal voltage
on the intake air temperature sensor signal circuit.
Conditions for Setting the DTC
• KOEO or KOER.
• MST sensor signal is > 4.96V.
• Above conditions are present for at least > 2.64 consecutive seconds.
Actions Taken When the DTC Sets
• The ECM will illuminate the malfunction indicator lamp (MIL).
• The ECM will force the MST sensor to a 50°F default value.
• The fuel system will go into open loop.
Trouble shooting
• MST is malfunctioning, bad wiring or connections, electrical failure.
08-50
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
Diagnostic Trouble Code 25
ECT, CHT, IAT & MST Sensors
Diagnostic Aids
The sensor shares the same ground with the
Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) sensor and the
Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT) sensor. Check
the ground circuit 359E and 359 (Grey/Red-Grey/
Yellow) if these DTC’s are also set.
Inspect the harness connectors for backed-out
terminals, improper mating, broken locks, improperly
formed or damaged terminals, and poor terminal-towire connections. Inspect the wiring harness for
damage. If the harness appears to be OK,
backprobe the sensor connector with a digital
voltmeter and observe the voltage while moving
connectors and wiring harnesses related to the MST
sensor.
A change in the voltage reading will indicate the
location of the fault.
°C
°F
OHMS
Volts
Temperature vs. Ohm or Volts Values (approx.)
100
212
2,080
.47
80
176
3,837
.79
60
140
7,548
1.34
45
113
13,236
1.93
35
95
19,716
2.39
25
77
30,000
2.86
15
59
46,774
3.32
5
41
74,914
3.71
-5
23
123,485
4.02
-15
5
209,816
4.25
-30
-22
496,051
4.46
-40
-40
925,021
4.54
Voltage values calculated for VREF=5 volts (may
vary + 15% due to sensor and VREF variations).
DTC 25 – Manifold Skin Temperature High Voltage
Step
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Action
Are you using a personal computer (PC) to perform this diagnosis?
1. Ignition OFF.
2. Disconnect the MST sensor electrical connector.
3. Check Ohm value across the two pins of the MST. Is it within specs of
above chart?
1. KOEO.
2. With a DVOM check for ground on circuit 359E (Grey/Red) cavity 1.
Is there a ground?
Check for an open on circuit 359E (Grey/Red) and
repair as necessary. Was a repair necessary?
1. Reconnect the MST sensor electrical connector.
2. With a suitable backprobing technique measure the voltage between
cavity 2, circuit 225 (BK-Y) and ground.
Is the voltage greater than the specified value?
Check for a short to ground or open on circuit 255 (BK-Y) and repair as
necessary. Was a repair necessary?
Replace the MST sensor. Is the repair complete?
Install replacement ECM. Is system operation normal with replacement
ECM installed?
Is the repair complete (system operation normal with original ECM
reinstalled)?
Is the repair complete (system operation normal with replacement ECM
reinstalled)?
08-51
Values
4.9V
Yes
Go to Diagnostic System
Check before continuing
at Step 2.
Go to Step 2
Go to Step 3
Go to Step 7
Go to Step 4
Go to Step 2
Re-test
Go to Step 5
Go to Step 6
Go to Step 7
Re-test
Re-test
Remove replacement
ECM and install original
ECM. Go to Step 9
Go to Step 7
Keep original ECM
installed. Re-test.
Leave replacement ECM
installed. Re-test.
No
Remove original
ECM and reinstall
replacement ECM.
Go to Step 10
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
Diagnostic Trouble Code 26
NOTES
361H
S01
351D
359F
S03
361G
S05
359
DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODE (DTC) 26 THROTTLE
POSITION (TP) SENSOR HIGH VOLTAGE AT START UP
Circuit Description
The throttle position (TP) sensor is a potentiometer which is attached to
the throttle plate shaft inside the electronic governor. The ECM provides
a 5V reference voltage to the TP sensor between terminal A (Grey/
Red, circuit 359F) and terminal C (Brown/White, circuit 351D) of the
electronic governor. A TP signal is returned to the ECM from terminal B
(Grey/White, circuit 355) of the electronic governor. The TP signal varies
from about 1.0V at idle to 4.8V at WOT. The TP signal is an important
input used by the ECM for fuel control and other engine-control functions.
Conditions for Setting the DTC
• KOEO or KOER.
• TP signal at start up is > 1.39V.
• Above conditions are present for at least 2 consecutive seconds.
08-52
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
Diagnostic Trouble Code 26
Actions Taken When the DTC Sets
• The ECM illuminates the malfunction indicator lamp (MIL).
• The ECM will not allow engine to start.
Trouble shooting
• Check for ice or foreign object in actuator. Check actuator for tampering.
DTC 26 – Throttle Position Sensor High Voltage At Start Up
Step
1
Action
Are you using a personal computer (PC) to perform this diagnosis?
5
Key off. Check actuator for ice build up or foreign objects stuck in throttle
plate. Check for bent throttle plate. Check ECM ground.
Were any problems found?
NOTE: Ice can build up even at 45°F with the right conditions.
KOEO. Check the 5V reference signal from the ECM on circuit 351D / 351.
Where any shorts or opens found?
KOEO. Check the signal return circuit 355 from TPS to ECM pin C-1
for signal valve.
Replace the electronic governor. Is the repair complete and engine
operating to specification? NOTE: Do not attempt to disassemble the
actuator. This will void the warranty.
6
Install replacement ECM.
Is system operation normal with replacement ECM installed?
2
3
4
7
8
Is the repair complete (system operation normal with original ECM
reinstalled)?
Is the repair complete (system operation normal with replacement ECM
reinstalled)?
08-53
Values
5V
1V to 1.1V
Yes
Go to Diagnostic
System Check before
continuing at Step 2
Repair as needed.
Re-test & start engine.
Repair the wiring and
retest.
Clear DTC. Restart
engine. Retest.
Re-test.
Remove replacement
ECM and install original
ECM. Go to Step 7.
Keep original ECM
installed. Re-test.
Leave replacement ECM
installed. Re-test.
No
Go to Step 2
Go to Step 3
Go to Step 4
Go to Step 5
Remove & replace
electronic governor
with original.
Go to Step 6.
Remove original
ECM and reinstall
replacement ECM.
Go to Step 8.
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
Diagnostic Trouble Code 27
NOTES
361H
S01
351D
359F
S03
S05
361G
359
DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODE (DTC) 27 DRIVE BY WIRE
IDLE FAILURE
Circuit Description
The throttle position (TP) sensor is a potentiometer which is attached to
the throttle plate shaft inside the electronic governor. The ECM provides
a 5V reference voltage to the TP sensor between terminal A (Grey/
Red, circuit 359F) and terminal C (Brown/White, circuit 351D) of the
electronic governor. A TP signal is returned to the ECM from terminal B
(Grey/White, circuit 355) of the electronic governor. The TP signal varies
from about 1.0V at idle to 4.8V at WOT. The TP signal is an important
input used by the ECM for fuel control and other engine-control functions.
Conditions for Setting the DTC
• KOER.
• For DBW with IAC only, actuators is moving while idle validation switch
is off (opened) for more than 1 second.
• Normalized TPS > 0.1V for more than 0.1 second when engine has
been idling for at least 1 second.
Actions Taken When the DTC Sets
• The ECM illuminates the malfunction indicator lamp (MIL).
• The ECM shuts down the engine. The engine can be restarted by
recycling the ignition switch.
08-54
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
Diagnostic Trouble Code 27
DTC 27 – Drive By Wire Idle Failure
Step
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
Action
Are you using a personal computer (PC) to perform this diagnosis?
NOTE: This test cannot be made without a PC or a very high tech DVOM.
Values
Yes
Go to Diagnostic
System Check before
continuing at Step 2
No
Go to Step 2
Visually check for dirt or carbon in the throat of the actuator or on the
throttle plate.
Clean with a carb
Is there any dirt or carbon?
cleaner. Re-test.
Go to Step 3
Is the normalized TPS > 0.1V above ECM set point for more than 0.1 second
when engine has been at idle for at least 1 second?
Go to Step 4
Re-start.
Does the ECM have correct program for this application?
If needed
The program can be checked by using the monitoring screen on your PC. contact FPP or
OEM for
Download correct
correct program.
Go to Step 5
program & re-test.
Using EEMS/SERV program read graph for throttle body position (TPS) in
relation to the ECM set point.
Are graph lines close together but not even?
Go to Step 6
Re-test.
1. Disconnect battery ground.
2. Disconnect ECM connector L-Y.
3. Check for a short or open on circuit 264 (W-LB), circuit 361H (R),
and 361G (R).
Repair wire. Reconnect
Where any shorts or opens found?
battery and re-test.
Go to Step 7
Check circuits 264 (W-LB) and 361G and 361H (R) for poor terminal
Repair or replace
connectors at ECM.
terminals. Reconnect
Do any of the terminals need to be repaired or replaced?
battery. Re-test.
Go to Step 8
Remove & replace
Replace the electronic governor. Is the repair complete and engine
electronic governor
operating to specifications?
with original.
Go to Step 9.
Re-test.
Remove replacement
Install replacement ECM.
ECM and install original
Is system operation normal with replacement ECM installed?
ECM. Go to Step 10.
Remove original
Is the repair complete (system operation normal with original ECM
ECM and reinstall
reinstalled)?
Keep original ECM
replacement ECM.
installed. Re-test.
Go to Step 11.
Is the repair complete (system operation normal with replacement ECM
Leave replacement ECM
reinstalled)?
installed. Re-test.
08-55
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
Diagnostic Trouble Code 31
NOTES
361A
S11
42
Pin
Connector
S08
42
Pin
Connector
Starter
Relay
S01
361G
DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODE (DTC) 31 FUEL PUMP LOW
VOLTAGE
Circuit Description
When the ignition switch is first turned on, the ECM energizes the fuel
pump relay which applies power to the fuel pump. The fuel pump relay
will remain active as long as the engine is running or cranking. If the fuel
pump is not active the ECM will receive no signal. This condition may
indicate a problem with the relay or the wiring.
Conditions for Setting the DTC
• KOER or KOEO.
• Fuel pump voltage is > 4.9V below ignition voltage for at least 2
consecutive seconds.
Actions Taken When the DTC Sets
• The ECM illuminates the malfunction indicator lamp (MIL).
08-56
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
Diagnostic Trouble Code 31
Diagnostic Aids
Inspect the harness connectors for backed-out terminals, improper mating, broken locks, improperly formed
or damaged terminals, and poor terminal-to-wire connections. Inspect the wiring harness for damage. If the
harness appears to be OK, backprobe the fuel pump relay connector with a digital voltmeter and observe
the voltage while moving connectors and wiring harnesses related to the fuel pump relay. A change in the
fuel pump voltage display will indicate the location of the fault.
DTC 31 – Fuel Pump Low Voltage
Step
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Action
Are you using a personal computer (PC) to perform this diagnosis?
1. Ignition OFF.
2. Remove the fuel pump relay.
3. KOEO.
4. Connect a DVOM from cavity 86 to ground. Does the DVOM show battery
voltage?
Repair the open or short to ground in circuit 361A (Red) between the
ECM and the fuel pump relay. Is the repair complete?
Connect a DVOM from cavity 85 to ground. Does the DVOM show battery
voltage?
Repair the open or short to ground in circuit 926A (Lt. Blue/Orange)
between the ECM and the fuel pump relay. Is the repair complete?
Connect a DVOM from cavity 87 to ground.
Do you have battery voltage?
Repair the open or short to ground in circuit 37 (Yellow) between the
ECM and the ignition. Is the repair complete?
Connect the DVOM (ohms) from cavity 30 to ground.
Do you have continuity?
Repair the open or short to ground in circuit 787 (Pink/Black) and circuit
238A (Dk. Green/Yellow) between the ECM and the fuel pump relay.
Is the repair complete?
Connect a DVOM between cavity 87 to cavity 30. Does the DVOM show
battery voltage?
Replace the fuel pump relay. Is the repair complete?
Install replacement ECM. Is system operation normal with replacement
ECM installed?
13
Is the repair complete (system operation normal with original ECM
reinstalled)?
14
Is the repair complete (system operation normal with replacement ECM
reinstalled)?
08-57
Values
VPWR (B+)
Yes
Go to Diagnostic System
Check before continuing
at Step 2.
No
Go to Step 2
Go to Step 4
Go to Step 3
Re-test.
VPWR (B+)
Go to Step 6
Go to Step 5
Re-test.
Go to Step 8
Go to Step 7
Re-test.
Go to Step 10
Go to Step 9
Re-test.
Go to Step 11
Re-test.
Remove replacement
ECM and install original
ECM. Go to Step 13
Keep original ECM
installed. Re-test.
Leave replacement ECM
installed. Re-test.
Go to Step 12
Remove original
ECM and reinstall
replacement ECM.
Go to Step 14
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
Diagnostic Trouble Code 32
NOTES
S01
S05
S10
361G
DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODE (DTC) 32 HO2S SENSOR
(LOW VOLTAGE) STUCK LEAN
Circuit Description
The ECM supplies a voltage of about 0.45 volts to the heated exhaust
gas oxygen sensor. This may read as low as 0.32 volts with a 10 megohm
digital voltmeter. The oxygen sensor varies the voltage within a range of
about 1 volt if the exhaust is rich, down through about 0.10 volts if the
exhaust is lean. A cold sensor causes an open loop operation.
If the sensor pigtail wiring, connector, or terminal is damaged the entire
oxygen sensor assembly must be replaced. Do not attempt to repair
the wiring, connector, or terminals. In order for the sensor to function
properly, it must have a clean air reference provided to it. This clean air
reference is obtained by way of the signal return wire. Any attempt to
repair the wires, connector, or terminals could result in the obstruction
of the air reference and degrade the sensor performance.
Conditions for Setting the DTC
• KOER and in closed loop.
• HO2S sensor voltage is less than or equal to 0.20 volts for 20
consecutive seconds.
Actions Taken When the DTC Sets
• The ECM illuminates the malfunction indicator lamp (MIL).
• The ECM will switch to open loop fuel control.
08-58
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
Diagnostic Trouble Code 32
Diagnostic Aids
Even small amounts of water delivered to the fuel injectors can cause a lean condition.
A misfiring cylinder will result in unburned oxygen in the exhaust which can cause a lean condition.
A plugged fuel filter can cause a lean condition.
Inspect the harness connectors for backed-out terminals, improper mating, broken locks, improperly formed
or damaged terminals, and poor terminal-to-wire connections. Inspect the wiring harness for damage. If the
harness appears to be OK, go to diagnostic chart below.
DTC 32 – HO2S Sensor (Low Voltage) Stuck Lean
Step
1
2
3
4
Action
Are you using a personal computer (PC) to perform this diagnosis?
1. Let the sensor cool.
2. KOEO.
3. With a DVOM check the voltage between the signal circuit 74 (GY-LB)
and the return circuit 89A (O) on the HO2S Sensor.
NOTE: If a PC is available, you can observe HO2S voltage on the
engine data screen instead of using a DVOM.
Is the sensor voltage approximate to the specified value?
1. Disconnect the HO2S sensor electrical connector.
2. Check the sensor signal circuity 74 (GY-LB) for a short to ground and
repair if necessary.
Was a repair necessary?
Replace HO2S.
Is system working to specification?
5
Install replacement ECM.
Is system operation normal with replacement ECM installed?
6
Is the repair complete (system operation normal with original ECM
reinstalled)?
7
Is the repair complete (system operation normal with replacement ECM
reinstalled)?
08-59
Values
0.45V
Yes
Go to Diagnostic System
Check before continuing
at Step 2.
Go to Step 2
Go to Diagnostic Aids
Go to Step 3
Re-test
Go to Step 4
Remove
replacement HO2S
and install original.
Go to Step 5
Re-test
Remove replacement
ECM and install original
ECM Go to Step 6
Keep original ECM
installed. Re-test.
Leave replacement ECM
installed. Re-test
No
Remove original
ECM and reinstall
replacement ECM
Go to Step 7
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
Diagnostic Trouble Code 33
NOTES
S05
359G
GY-R
Engine
Cylinder Head
Temperature
(CHT)
359 GY-R
1102
Y-LG
33
42 Pin
Connector
DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODE (DTC) 33 ENGINE
CYLINDER HEAD TEMPERATURE HIGH VOLTAGE
NOTE: This is a software serviceable DTC.
Circuit Description
The cylinder head temperature (CHT) sensor is a thermistor which
measures the temperature of the cylinder head in the engine. The ECM
supplies a ground circuit 359G (Grey/Red-Grey/Yellow) to the sensor
and supplies a 5V signal circuit 1102 (Yellow/Lt. Green) to the sensor.
When the engine coolant is cold, the sensor resistance is high and the
ECM will monitor a high signal voltage at the CHT signal circuit. If the
cylinder head is warm, the sensor resistance is lower, causing the ECM
to monitor a lower voltage. DTC 33 will set when the ECM detects an
excessively low signal voltage on the engine cylinder head temperature
sensor signal circuit.
Conditions for Setting the DTC
• KOEO or KOER.
• CHT sensor signal is < 0.22V.
• Above conditions are present for a least 3 consecutive seconds.
Actions Taken When the DTC Sets
• MIL blinks at 230°F + .36V.
• The ECM will force the ECT sensor to a 50°F default value.
• The ECM illuminates the malfunction indicator lamp (MIL) when
temperature reaches 240°F + 0.32V and will shut engine down if
software selected.
08-60
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
Diagnostic Trouble Code 33
ECT, CHT, IAT & MST Sensors
Diagnostic Aids
The CHT sensor shares the same ground with the
Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) sensor and the
Intake Air Temperature (IAT) sensor. Check the
ground circuit 359 (Grey/Red-Green) if these DTC’s
are also set.
Inspect the harness connectors for backed-out
terminals, improper mating, broken locks, improperly
formed or damaged terminals, and poor terminal-towire connections. Inspect the wiring harness for
damage. If the harness appears to be OK, backprobe
the CHT sensor connector with a digital voltmeter
and observe the voltage while moving connectors
and wiring harnesses related to the CHT sensor.
A change in the CHT display will indicate the location
of the fault.
°C
°F
OHMS
Volts
Temperature vs. Ohm or Volts Values (approx.)
100
212
2,080
.47
80
176
3,837
.79
60
140
7,548
1.34
45
113
13,236
1.93
35
95
19,716
2.39
25
77
30,000
2.86
15
59
46,774
3.32
5
41
74,914
3.71
-5
23
123,485
4.02
-15
5
209,816
4.25
-30
-22
496,051
4.46
-40
-40
925,021
4.54
Voltage values calculated for VREF=5 volts (may
vary + 15% due to sensor and VREF variations).
DTC 33 – (4.2L) Engine Cylinder Head Temperature High Voltage
Step
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Action
Are you using a personal computer (PC) to perform this diagnosis?
1. Ignition OFF.
2. Disconnect the CHT sensor electrical connector.
3. Check ohm value across the two pins of the CHT. Is it within specs of
above chart?
1. KOEO.
2. With a DVOM, measure the voltage on circuit 359G (Grey/Yellow)
cavity 1.
Is the voltage greater then the specified value?
Check for a short to voltage on circuit 359G (Grey/Yellow-Grey/Red) and
repair as necessary. Was a repair necessary?
1. Reconnect the CHT sensor electrical connector.
2. With a suitable backprobing technique measure the voltage between
cavity 2, circuit 1102 (Y-LG) and ground.
Is the voltage greater than the specified value?
Check for a short to voltage on circuit 1102 (Y-LG) and repair as
necessary. Was a repair necessary?
Replace the CHT sensor Is the repair complete?
Install replacement ECM. Is system operation normal with replacement
ECM installed?
Is the repair complete (system operation normal with original ECM
reinstalled)?
Is the repair complete (system operation normal with replacement ECM
reinstalled)?
08-61
Values
4.9V
4.9V
Yes
Go to Diagnostic System
Check before continuing
at Step 2.
Go to Step 2
Go to Step 3
Go to Step 7
Go to Step 4
Go to Step 5
Re-test
Go to Step 8
Go to Step 7
Go to Step 6
Re-test
Re-test
Remove replacement
ECM and install original
ECM. Go to Step 8
Go to Step 8
Keep original ECM
installed. Re-test.
Leave replacement ECM
installed. Re-test.
No
Remove original
ECM and reinstall
replacement ECM.
Go to Step 9
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
Diagnostic Trouble Code 35
NOTES
S05
359E
GY-R
Intake Air
Temperature
(IAT) Sensor
Connector
MAP and CHT
Sensors
359 GY-R
33
42 Pin
Connector
743 GY
D1
B2
DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODE (DTC) 35 INTAKE AIR
TEMPERATURE HIGH VOLTAGE
Circuit Description
The intake air temperature (IAT) sensor is a thermistor which measure
the temperature of the air entering the engine. The ECM supplies a ground
(circuit 359, Grey/Red) from the sensor and sends a 5V signal (circuit
743, Grey) to the sensor. When the intake air is cold, the sensor
resistance is high and the ECM will monitor a high signal voltage at the
IAT signal circuit. If the intake air is warm, the sensor resistance is
lower, causing the ECM to monitor a lower voltage. DTC 35 will set
when the ECM detects an excessively high signal voltage on the intake
air temperature sensor signal circuit.
Conditions for Setting the DTC
• KOEO or KOER.
• IAT sensor signal is > 4.96V.
• Above conditions are present for at least 3 consecutive seconds.
Actions Taken When the DTC Sets
• The ECM will illuminate the malfunction indicator lamp (MIL).
• The ECM will force the IAT sensor to a 50°F default value.
08-62
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
Diagnostic Trouble Code 35
ECT, CHT, IAT & MST Sensors
Diagnostic Aids
The IAT sensor shares the same ground with the
Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) sensor and the
Cylinder Head Temperature (ECT) sensor. Check
the ground circuit 359 (Grey/Red-Grey/Yellow) if
these DTC’s are also set.
Inspect the harness connectors for backed-out
terminals, improper mating, broken locks, improperly
formed or damaged terminals, and poor terminal-towire connections. Inspect the wiring harness for
damage. If the harness appears to be OK,
backprobe the IAT sensor connector with a digital
voltmeter and observe the voltage while moving
connectors and wiring harnesses related to the IAT
sensor.
A change in the voltage reading will indicate the
location of the fault.
°C
°F
OHMS
Volts
Temperature vs. Ohm or Volts Values (approx.)
100
212
2,080
.47
80
176
3,837
.79
60
140
7,548
1.34
45
113
13,236
1.93
35
95
19,716
2.39
25
77
30,000
2.86
15
59
46,774
3.32
5
41
74,914
3.71
-5
23
123,485
4.02
-15
5
209,816
4.25
-30
-22
496,051
4.46
-40
-40
925,021
4.54
Voltage values calculated for VREF=5 volts (may
vary + 15% due to sensor and VREF variations).
DTC 35 – Intake Air Temperature High Voltage
Step
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Action
Are you using a personal computer (PC) to perform this diagnosis?
1. Ignition OFF.
2. Disconnect the IAT sensor electrical connector.
3. Check ohm value across the two pins of the IAT. Is it within specs of
above chart?
1. KOEO.
2. With a DVOM check for ground on circuit 359E (Grey/Red) cavity 1.
Is there a ground?
Check for an open on circuit 359E (Grey/Red) and
repair as necessary. Was a repair necessary?
1. Reconnect the IAT sensor electrical connector.
2. With a suitable backprobing technique measure the voltage between
cavity 2, circuit 743 (Grey) and ground.
Is the voltage greater than the specified value?
Check for a short to voltage on circuit 743 (Grey) and repair as
necessary. Was a repair necessary?
Replace the IAT sensor Is the repair complete?
Install replacement ECM. Is system operation normal with replacement
ECM installed?
Is the repair complete (system operation normal with original ECM
reinstalled)?
Is the repair complete (system operation normal with replacement ECM
reinstalled)?
08-63
Values
4.9V
Yes
Go to Diagnostic System
Check before continuing
at Step 2.
Go to Step 2
Go to Step 3
Go to Step 7
Go to Step 5
Go to Step 4
Re-test
Go to Step 5
Go to Step 6
Go to Step 7
Re-test
Re-test
Remove replacement
ECM and install original
ECM. Go to Step 9
Go to Step 8
Keep original ECM
installed. Re-test.
Leave replacement ECM
installed. Re-test.
No
Remove original
ECM and reinstall
replacement ECM.
Go to Step 10
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
Diagnostic Trouble Code 37
NOTES
DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODE (DTC) 37 DRIVE BY WIRE
DECAY FAILURE
Circuit Description
The throttle position (TP) sensor is a potentiometer which is attached to
the throttle plate shaft inside the electronic governor. The ECM provides
a 5V reference voltage to the TP sensor between terminal A (Grey/
Red, circuit 359C) and terminal C (Brown/White, circuit 351B) of the
electronic governor. A TP signal is returned to the ECM from terminal B
(Grey/White, circuit 355) of the electronic governor. The TP signal varies
from about 1.0V at idle to 4.8V at WOT. The TP signal is an important
input used by the ECM for fuel control and other engine-control functions.
Conditions for Setting the DTC
• KOER.
• Throttle plate stuck open.
• Normalized TPS > TPS set point + 0.5V for at least 1 second when not
at idle.
• Above conditions are present for at least 1 second.
Actions Taken When the DTC Sets
• The ECM illuminates the malfunction indicator lamp (MIL).
• The ECM shuts down the engine. The engine can be restarted by
recycling the ignition switch.
08-64
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
Diagnostic Trouble Code 37
DTC 37 – Drive By Wire Decay Failure
Step
1
2
3
4
Action
Are you using a personal computer (PC) to perform this diagnosis?
NOTE: This test cannot be made without a PC or a very high tech DVOM.
Visually check for dirt or carbon in the throat of the actuator or on the
throttle plate.
Is there any dirt or carbon?
Is the normalized TPS within specification of the TPS set point?
Does the ECM have the correct program for this application?
8
Using EEMS/SERV program, read graph for throttle body position (TPS) in
relation to the ECM set point.
Are graph lines close together but not even?
1. Disconnect battery ground.
2. Disconnect ECM connector L-Y.
3. Check for a short or open on circuit 264 (W-LB), circuit 361H (R)
and 361G (R).
Where any shorts or opens found?
Check circuits 264 (W-LB) and 361G (R) for poor terminal connectors
at ECM.
Do any of the terminals need to be repaired or replaced?
Replace the electronic governor. Is the repair complete and engine
operating to specifications?
9
Install replacement ECM.
Is system operation normal with replacement ECM installed?
10
Is the repair complete (system operation normal with original ECM
reinstalled)?
5
6
7
11
Is the repair complete (system operation normal with replacement ECM
reinstalled)?
08-65
Values
Normalized TPS
< TPS set point.
If needed
contact FPP or
OEM for
correct program.
Yes
Go to Diagnostic
System Check before
continuing at Step 2
No
Go to Step 2
Clean with a carb
cleaner. Re-test.
Go to Step 3
Re-test.
Go to Step 5
Go to Step 6
Repair wire. Reconnect
battery and re-test.
Repair or replace
terminals. Reconnect
battery. Re-test.
Re-test.
Remove replacement
ECM and install original
ECM. Go to Step 10.
Keep original ECM
installed. Re-test.
Leave replacement ECM
installed. Re-test.
Download correct
program & re-test.
Re-test.
Go to Step 6
Go to Step 8
Remove & replace
electronic governor
with original.
Go to Step 9.
Remove original
ECM and reinstall
replacement ECM.
Go to Step 11.
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
Diagnostic Trouble Code 41
NOTES
361A
S11
S08
S01
42 Pin
Connector
42 Pin
Connector
238
361G
DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODE (DTC) 41 FUEL PUMP HIGH
VOLTAGE
Circuit Description
When the ignition switch is first turned on, the ECM energizes the fuel
pump relay which applies power to the fuel pump. The fuel pump relay
will remain active as long as the engine is running or cranking. If the fuel
pump is active when the ECM is not commanding it then DTC 41 will
set. This condition indicates a problem with the relay or the wiring.
Conditions for Setting the DTC
• KOEO.
• Fuel pump voltage is active when the ECM is not commanding it.
• Above conditions must be met for at least 2 consecutive seconds.
Actions Taken When the DTC Sets
• The ECM illuminates the malfunction indicator lamp (MIL).
• The drive by wire engine will shut down and/or will not start.
08-66
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
Diagnostic Trouble Code 41
Diagnostic Aids
Inspect the harness connectors for backed-out terminals, improper mating, broken locks, improperly formed
or damaged terminals, and poor terminal-to-wire connections. Inspect the wiring harness for damage.
DTC 41 – Fuel Pump High Voltage
Step
1
Action
Are you using a personal computer (PC) to perform this diagnosis?
10
1. KOEO.
2. Connect a DVOM from the ECM connector back probe K1 to ground.
Does the DVOM show battery voltage?
Repair the open or short to ground in circuit 361A & 361G (Red) between
the ECM and the fuel pump relay. Is the repair complete?
Connect a DVOM from cavity 85 to ground. Recycle ignition switch to
KOEO. Does the DVOM show battery voltage?
Repair the open or short to ground in circuit 926A (Lt. Blue/Orange)
between the ECM and the fuel pump relay. Is the repair complete?
Connect a DVOM from circuit 37 at fuel pump relay to ground. Does the
DVOM show battery voltage?
Repair the open or short to ground in circuit 37 (Yellow) between the
ECM and the ignition. Is the repair complete?
Connect the DVOM from F3 to ground. Recycle ignition switch to KOEO.
Do you have battery + for 3 seconds?
Repair the open or short to ground in circuit 787 (Pink/Black) and
circuit 238 (Dk. Green/Yellow) between the ECM and the fuel pump
relay. Is the repair complete?
Install replacement ECM. Is system operation normal with replacement
ECM installed?
11
Is the repair complete (system operation normal with original ECM
reinstalled)?
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
12
Is the repair complete (system operation normal with replacement ECM
reinstalled)?
08-67
Values
Yes
Go to Diagnostic System
Check before continuing
at Step 2.
Go to Step 2
B+
Go to Step 4
Go to Step 3
B+
Re-test.
B+ (3 sec.)
Go to Step 6
B+
Re-test.
B+
Go to Step 8
B+
Re-test.
B+ (3 sec.)
Go to Step 10
B+ (3 sec.)
Re-test.
Remove replacement
ECM and install original
ECM. Go to Step 11.
Keep original ECM
installed. Re-test.
Leave replacement ECM
installed. Re-test.
No
Go to Step 5
Go to Step 7
Go to Step 9
Remove original
ECM and reinstall
replacement ECM.
Go to Step 12
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
Diagnostic Trouble Code 42
NOTES
S01
S05
S10
361G
DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODE (DTC) 42 HO2S SENSOR
(HIGH VOLTAGE) STUCK RICH
Circuit Description
The ECM supplies a voltage of about 0.45 volts to the heated exhaust
gas oxygen sensor. This may read as low as 0.10 volts with a 10 megohm
digital voltmeter. The oxygen sensor varies the voltage within a range of
about 1 volt if the exhaust is rich, down through about 0.10 volts if the
exhaust is lean. A cold sensor causes an open loop operation.
If the sensor pigtail wiring, connector, or terminal is damaged the entire
oxygen sensor assembly must be replaced. Do not attempt to repair
the wiring, connector, or terminals. In order for the sensor to function
properly, it must have a clean air reference provided to it. This clean air
reference is obtained by way of the signal return wire. Any attempt to
repair the wires, connector, or terminals could result in the obstruction
of the air reference and degrade the sensor performance. There must
be no crimp connectors in the wiring.
Conditions for Setting the DTC
• KOER and in closed loop.
• HO2S sensor voltage is greater than or equal to 0.65 volts for 20
consecutive seconds.
Actions Taken When the DTC Sets
• The ECM will illuminate the malfunction indicator lamp (MIL).
• The ECM will switch to open fuel control.
08-68
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
Diagnostic Trouble Code 42
Diagnostic Aids
A leaking or malfunctioning fuel injector can cause the system to go rich.
A misfiring cylinder will result in unburned oxygen in the exhaust which can cause a lean condition.
An intermittent throttle position sensor output will cause the system to go rich due to a false indication of
the engine accelerating.
Inspect the oxygen sensor for silicone contamination from fuel or the use of improper room temperature
vulcanizing (RTV) sealant. The sensor may have a white powdery coating which may result in a high but
false voltage signal (rich exhaust indication).
Inspect the harness connectors for backed-out terminals, improper mating, broken locks, improperly formed
or damaged terminals, and poor terminal-to-wire connections. Inspect the wiring harness for damage. If the
harness appears to be OK, go to diagnostic chart below.
DTC 42 – HO2S Sensor (High Voltage) Stuck Rich
Step
1
2
3
4
Action
Are you using a personal computer (PC) to perform this diagnosis?
1. Let the sensor cool.
2. KOEO.
3. With a suitable backprobing technique, measure the voltage between the
signal circuit 74 (Grey/Lt. Blue) and the return circuit 89A (Orange).
NOTE: If a PC is available, you can observe HO2S voltage on the
engine data screen instead of using a DVOM.
Is the HO2S voltage below the specified value?
1. Disconnect the HO2S sensor electrical connector.
2. Check the sensor signal circuit 74 (Grey/Lt. Blue) for an open or a short
to ground and repair if necessary.
Was a repair necessary?
Replace HO2S.
Is system working to specification?
5
Install replacement ECM.
Is system operation normal with replacement ECM installed?
6
Is the repair complete (system operation normal with original ECM
reinstalled)?
7
Is the repair complete (system operation normal with replacement ECM
reinstalled)?
08-69
Values
0.45V
Yes
Go to Diagnostic System
Check before continuing
at Step 2.
Go to Step 2
Go to Diagnostic Aids.
Go to Step 3
System OK
Go to Step 4
Remove
replacement HO2S
and install original.
Go to Step 5
Re-test
Remove replacement
ECM and install original
ECM Go to Step 6
Keep original ECM
installed. Re-test.
Leave replacement ECM
installed. Re-test
No
Remove original
ECM and reinstall
replacement ECM
Go to Step 7
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
Diagnostic Trouble Code 43
NOTES
S05
359G
GY-R
Engine
Cylinder Head
Temperature
(CHT)
359 GY-R
1102
Y-LG
33
42 Pin
Connector
DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODE (DTC) 43 ENGINE
CYLINDER HEAD TEMPERATURE LOW VOLTAGE
Circuit Description
The engine cylinder head temperature sensor is a thermistor which
measures the temperature of the cylinder head on the engine. The ECM
supplies a ground (circuit 359G, Grey/Red-Grey/Yellow) from the sensor
and sends a 5V signal (circuit 1102 Y-LG) to the sensor. When the engine
cylinder head is cold, the sensor resistance is high and the ECM will
monitor a high signal voltage at the CHT signal circuit. If the engine
cylinder head is warm, the sensor resistance is lower, causing the ECM
to monitor a lower voltage. DTC 43 will set when the ECM detects an
excessively high signal voltage on the engine cylinder head temperature
sensor signal circuit.
Conditions for Setting the DTC
• KOEO or KOER.
• ECT sensor signal is < 0.32V.
• Above conditions are present for at least 3 consecutive seconds.
Actions Taken When the DTC Sets
• The ECM will illuminate the malfunction indicator lamp (MIL).
• The ECM will set code 43 and go into open loop.
08-70
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
Diagnostic Trouble Code 43
ECT, CHT, IAT & MST Sensors
Diagnostic Aids
The CHT sensor shares the same ground with the
Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) sensor and the
Intake Air Temperature (IAT) sensor. Check the
ground circuit 359 (Grey/Red-Grey/Yellow) if these
DTC’s are also set.
Inspect the harness connectors for backed-out
terminals, improper mating, broken locks,
improperly formed or damaged terminals, and poor
terminal-to-wire connections. Inspect the wiring
harness for damage. If the harness appears to be
OK, backprobe the CHT sensor connector with a
digital voltmeter and observe the voltage while
moving connectors and wiring harnesses related
to the CHT sensor.
A change in the CHT display will indicate the
location of the fault.
°C
°F
OHMS
Volts
Temperature vs. Ohm or Volts Values (approx.)
100
212
2,080
.47
80
176
3,837
.79
60
140
7,548
1.34
45
113
13,236
1.93
35
95
19,716
2.39
25
77
30,000
2.86
15
59
46,774
3.32
5
41
74,914
3.71
-5
23
123,485
4.02
-15
5
209,816
4.25
-30
-22
496,051
4.46
-40
-40
925,021
4.54
Voltage values calculated for VREF=5 volts (may
vary + 15% due to sensor and VREF variations).
DTC 43 – (4.2L) Cylinder Head Temperature Low Voltage (DVOM Diagnostic Method)
Step
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Action
1. Key off. Disconnect the CHT sensor connection.
2. Check ohm value across the two pins of the CHT. Is it within specs of
above chart?
1. KOEO.
2. With a DVOM measure the voltage from the CHT sensor connector circuit,
1102 (Y-LG) to ground. Is the voltage greater than the specified value?
Locate and repair the open or short to ground in circuit 1102 (Y-LG)
between the CHT sensor connector and the ECM.
Is the repair complete?
Measure the voltage across the CHT sensor connector between cavity
1 and cavity 2. Is the voltage greater than the specified value?
Locate and repair the open or short to ground in circuit 359 (Grey/RedGrey/White, between the CHT sensor connector and the ECM.
Is the repair complete?
1. Connect the CHT sensor connector to the sensor.
2. With a suitable backprobing technique, measure the voltage across the
CHT sensor connector between cavity 1 and cavity 2.
Is the voltage less than the specified value?
Replace the CHT sensor.
Is the repair complete?
Install replacement ECM.
Is system operation normal with replacement ECM installed?
Is the repair complete (system operation normal with original ECM
reinstalled)?
Is the repair complete (system operation normal with replacement ECM
reinstalled)?
08-71
Values
0V
Yes
No
Go to Step 2
Go to Step 7
Go to Step 4
Go to Step 3
Re-test.
0V
Re-test.
Go to Step 5
Re-test.
5V
Go to Step 8
Re-test
Remove replacement
ECM and install original
ECM. Go to Step 9
Keep original ECM
installed. Re-test.
Leave replacement ECM
installed. Re-test.
Go to Step 7
Remove original
ECM and reinstall
replacement ECM.
Go to Step 10
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
Diagnostic Trouble Code 45
NOTES
359E
GY-R
Intake Air
Temperature
(IAT) Sensor
Connector
S05
MAP and CHT
Sensors
359 GY-R
33
42 Pin
Connector
743 GY
D1
B2
DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODE (DTC) 45 INTAKE AIR
TEMPERATURE HIGH VOLTAGE
Circuit Description
The intake air temperature (IAT) sensor is a thermistor which measures
the temperature of the air entering the engine. The ECM supplies a ground
(circuit 359E, Grey/Red) from the sensor. When the intake air is cold,
the sensor resistance is high and the ECM will monitor a high signal
voltage at the IAT signal circuit. If the intake air is warm, the sensor
resistance is lower, causing the ECM to monitor a lower voltage. DTC
45 will set when the ECM detects an excessively low signal voltage on
the intake air temperature sensor signal circuit.
Conditions for Setting the DTC
• KOEO or KOER.
• IAT sensor signal is > 4.96V.
• Above conditions are present for at least 3 consecutive seconds.
Actions Taken When the DTC Sets
• The ECM will illuminate the malfunction indicator lamp (MIL).
• The ECM will force the IAT sensor to a 50°F default value.
08-72
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
Diagnostic Trouble Code 45
ECT, CHT, IAT & MST Sensors
Diagnostic Aids
The IAT sensor shares the same ground with the
Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) sensor and the
Cylinder Head Temperature (CHT) sensor. Check
the ground circuit 359 (Grey/Red) if these DTC’s are
also set.
Inspect the harness connectors for backed-out
terminals, improper mating, broken locks, improperly
formed or damaged terminals, and poor terminal-towire connections. Inspect the wiring harness for
damage. If the harness appears to be OK, backprobe
the IAT sensor connector with a digital voltmeter and
observe the voltage while moving connectors and
wiring harnesses related to the IAT sensor.
A change in the voltage reading will indicate the
location of the fault.
°C
°F
OHMS
Volts
Temperature vs. Ohm or Volts Values (approx.)
100
212
2,080
.47
80
176
3,837
.79
60
140
7,548
1.34
45
113
13,236
1.93
35
95
19,716
2.39
25
77
30,000
2.86
15
59
46,774
3.32
5
41
74,914
3.71
-5
23
123,485
4.02
-15
5
209,816
4.25
-30
-22
496,051
4.46
-40
-40
925,021
4.54
Voltage values calculated for VREF=5 volts (may
vary + 15% due to sensor and VREF variations).
DTC 45 – Intake Air Temperature Low Voltage
Step
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Action
Check ohm value across the two pins of the IAT. Is within specs of above
chart?
1. KOEO. Disconnect the IAT sensor connector.
2. With a DVOM measure the voltage from the IAT sensor connector, cavity
2 (circuit 743) to ground. Is the voltage greater than the specified value?
Locate and repair the open or short to ground in circuit 743 (Grey)
between the IAT sensor connector and the ECM. Is the repair complete?
Measure the voltage across the IAT sensor connector between cavity 1
and cavity 2. Is the voltage greater than the specified value?
Locate and repair the open or short to ground in circuit 359 / 359E (Grey/
Red) between the IAT sensor connector and the ECM. Is the repair
complete?
1. Connect the IAT sensor connector to the sensor.
2. With a suitable backprobing technique, measure the voltage across the
IAT sensor connector between cavity 1 and cavity 2.
Is the voltage less than the specified value?
Replace the IAT sensor. Is the repair complete?
Install replacement ECM.
Is the system operation normal with replacement ECM installed?
Is the repair complete (system operation normal with original ECM
reinstalled)?
Is the repair complete (system operation normal with replacement ECM
reinstalled)?
08-73
Values
0V
Yes
No
Go to Step 2.
Go to Step 7
Go to Step 4
Go to Step 2
Re-test.
0V
Re-test.
Go to Step 5
Re-test.
5V
Go to Step 8
Re-test.
Remove replacement
ECM and install original
ECM. Go to Step 9.
Keep original ECM
installed. Re-test.
Leave replacement ECM
installed. Re-test.
Go to Step 7
Remove original
ECM and reinstall
replacement ECM.
Go to Step 10.
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
Diagnostic Trouble Code 47
NOTES
DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODE (DTC) 47 DRIVE BY WIRE
RISE FAILURE
Circuit Description
The throttle position (TP) sensor is a potentiometer which is attached to
the throttle plate shaft inside the electronic governor. The ECM provides
a 5V reference voltage to the TP sensor between terminal A (Grey/
Red, circuit 359C) and terminal C (Brown/White, circuit 351B) of the
electronic governor. A TP signal is returned to the ECM from terminal B
(Grey/White, circuit 355) of the electronic governor. The TP signal varies
from about 1.0V at idle to 4.8V at WOT. The TP signal is an important
input used by the ECM for fuel control and other engine-control functions.
Conditions for Setting the DTC
• KOER.
• Actuator is lower than the commanded position by the ECM.
• TPS set point > normalized TPS + 0.5V for at least 2 consecutive
seconds when not at idle.
Actions Taken When the DTC Sets
• The ECM illuminates the malfunction indicator lamp (MIL).
• The ECM shuts down the engine. The engine can be restarted by
recycling the ignition switch.
08-74
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
Diagnostic Trouble Code 47
DTC 47 – Drive By Wire Rise Failure
Step
1
2
3
4
Action
Are you using a personal computer (PC) to perform this diagnosis?
NOTE: This test cannot be made without a PC or a very high tech DVOM.
Visually check for dirt or carbon in the throat of the actuator or on the
throttle plate.
Is there any dirt or carbon?
Is the TPS set point > normalized TPS + 0.5V for at least 2 consecutive
seconds when not at idle?
Does the ECM have the correct program for this application?
8
Using EEMS/SERV program either view the monitor screen or read the
graph for throttle body position (TPS) in relation to the ECM set point.
Are graph lines close together but not even?
1. Disconnect battery ground.
2. Disconnect ECM connector L-Y.
3. Check for a short or open on circuit 264 (W-LB), circuit 361H (R),
and 361G (R).
Where any shorts or opens found?
Check circuits 264 (W-LB) and 361G (R) for poor terminal connectors
at ECM.
Do any of the terminals need to be repaired or replaced?
Replace the electronic governor. Is the repair complete and engine
operating to specifications?
9
Install replacement ECM.
Is system operation normal with replacement ECM installed?
10
Is the repair complete (system operation normal with original ECM
reinstalled)?
5
6
7
11
Is the repair complete (system operation normal with replacement ECM
reinstalled)?
08-75
Values
If needed
contact FPP or
OEM for
correct program.
Yes
Go to Diagnostic
System Check before
continuing at Step 2
Go to Step 2
Clean with a carb
cleaner. Re-test.
Go to Step 3
Go to Step 4
Re-start.
Go to Step 5
Download correct
program & re-test.
Go to Step 6
Repair wire. Reconnect
battery and re-test.
Repair or replace
terminals. Reconnect
battery. Re-test.
Re-test.
Remove replacement
ECM and install original
ECM. Go to Step 10.
Keep original ECM
installed. Re-test.
Leave replacement ECM
installed. Re-test.
No
Re-test.
Go to Step 7
Go to Step 8
Remove & replace
electronic governor
with original.
Go to Step 9.
Remove original
ECM and reinstall
replacement ECM.
Go to Step 11.
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
Diagnostic Trouble Code 51
NOTES
To Oil
Pressure
Switch
253 DG-W
DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODE (DTC) 51 LOW OIL
PRESSURE
NOTE: This is a software selectable DTC.
Circuit Description
The ECM monitors the oil pressure through circuit 253 (Dk. Green/White)
from the oil pressure switch. If the oil pressure gets below an established
pressure value the oil pressure switch will close to ground and the oil
pressure light will come on. This action will set DTC 51.
Conditions for Setting the DTC
• KOER.
• Engine must be above 850 RPM’s and 250 crankshaft rotations must
have occurred.
• Oil switch must be closed to ground for at least 2.0 consecutive
seconds.
Actions Taken When the DTC Sets
• The ECM will illuminate the malfunction indicator lamp (MIL).
• Software selectable: The ECM will shut down the engine. The engine
can be restarted by recycling ignition switch.
08-76
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
Diagnostic Trouble Code 51
Diagnostic Aids
Check that the ECM has the correct governing program.
Inspect the harness connectors for backed-out terminals, improper mating, broken locks, improperly formed
or damaged terminals, and poor terminal-to-wire connections. Inspect the wiring harness for damage. If
the harness appears to be OK, go to diagnostic chart below.
DTC 51 – Low Oil Pressure
Step
5
Action
1. Ignition OFF.
2. Disconnect the circuit 253 (Dk. Green/White) oil pressure switch wire
from the oil pressure switch.
3. With a DVOM, measure the continuity on circuit 253 (Dk. Green/
White). Is there continuity?
Locate and repair the short to ground in circuit 253 (Dk. Green/White)
between the oil pressure switch and the ECM connector, cavity J3.
Is the repair complete?
1. KOER.
2. Connect a DVOM to the oil pressure switch post and ground.
Is there continuity?
Replace the oil pressure switch.
Is the repair complete?
Install replacement ECM.
Is system operation normal with replacement ECM installed?
6
Is the repair complete (system operation normal with original
ECM reinstalled)?
1
2
3
4
7
Is the repair complete (system operation normal with replacement
ECM reinstalled)?
08-77
Values
Yes
Go at Step 2
No
Go to Step 3
Re-test.
Go to Step 4
Re-test.
Remove replacement
ECM and install original
ECM. Go to Step 6.
Keep original ECM
installed. Re-test.
Leave replacement ECM
installed. Re-test.
Go to Step 5
Remove original
ECM and reinstall
replacement ECM.
Go to Step 7.
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
Diagnostic Trouble Code 52
•
NOTES
S06
359C
S05
359
S17
DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODE (DTC) 52 CRANKSHAFT
POSITION SENSOR EXTRA/MISSING PULSES
Circuit Description
The reference signal is produced by the crankshaft position (CKP)
sensor. During one crankshaft revolution, a predetermined number of
crankshaft pulses will be produced. The ECM uses the reference signal
to calculate engine RPM and crankshaft position. The ECM constantly
monitors the number of pulses on the reference circuit and compares
them to the number of camshaft position signal pulses being received.
If the ECM receives an incorrect number of pulses on the reference
circuit, DTC 52 will set.
Conditions for Setting the DTC
• KOER.
• Extra or missing pulses are checked for after very 35 pulses.
Actions Taken When the DTC Sets
• The ECM will illuminate the malfunction indicator lamp (MIL).
• The ECM will turn off the injectors and ignition for a minimum of one
crankshaft rotation and wait for a valid pattern before turning the
injectors and ignition back on. If a valid pattern is not available the
engine will not start.
• The ECM will shutdown engine if the crankshaft pattern is lost.
08-78
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
Diagnostic Trouble Code 52
Diagnostic Aids
Inspect the harness connectors for backed-out terminals, improper mating, broken locks, improperly formed
or damaged terminals, and poor terminal-to-wire connections. Inspect the wiring harness for damage. If the
harness appears to be OK, go to diagnostic chart below.
DTC 52 – Crank Position Extra/Missing Pulses
Step
1
2
Action
Are you using a personal computer (PC) to perform this diagnosis?
Attempt to start the engine.
Does the engine start?
8
9
Is the repair complete (system operation normal with original
ECM reinstalled)?
10
Is the repair complete (system operation normal with replacement
ECM reinstalled)?
4
5
6
7
Yes
Go to Diagnostic System
Check before continuing
at Step 2.
Go to Step 3
1. KOEO. Disconnect the ECM and the CKP sensor.
2. Check for an open or a short to ground in the CKP reference circuit 350
(Grey) between the sensor connector and the ECM harness connector.
Repair as necessary. Was a repair necessary?
1. Reconnect the ECM and the CKP sensor.
2. Connect a DVOM to measure the voltage on the CKP reference circuit,
terminal H2, at the ECM connector.
3. Observe the voltage while cranking the engine.
Is the voltage near the specified value?
Check the connections at the CKP sensor and replace the terminals
if necessary. Was a repair necessary?
Replace the CKP sensor.
Is the repair complete?
Check the connections at the ECM and replace the terminals if
necessary. Was a repair necessary?
Install replacement ECM.
Is system operation normal with replacement ECM installed?
3
Values
08-79
2.5v
No
Go to Step 2
Go to Engine Cranks
But Will Not Run
Re-test.
Go to Step 4
Re-test.
Go to Step 5
Re-test.
Go to Step 6
Re-test.
Re-test.
Remove replacement
ECM and install original
ECM. Go to Step 9.
Keep original ECM
installed. Re-test.
Leave replacement ECM
installed. Re-test.
Go to Step 8
Remove original
ECM and reinstall
replacement ECM.
Go to Step 10.
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
Diagnostic Trouble Code 53
NOTES
359C
S05
359
S17
DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODE (DTC) 53 CAMSHAFT
POSITION SENSOR ILLEGAL PATTERN
Circuit Description
The camshaft position (CMP) sensor signal is produced by the CMP
sensor pulses when the engine is running and CKP sync pulses are
also being received. The ECM uses the CMP signal pulses to initiate
sequential fuel injection. The ECM constantly monitors the number of
pulses on the CMP signal circuit and compares the number of CMP
pulses to the number of CKP reference pulses received. If the ECM
receives an incorrect number of pulses on the CMP reference circuit,
DTC 53 will set. The engine will perform with little or no degradation in
perceived performance.
Conditions for Setting the DTC
• KOER.
• The correct number of crankshaft pulses (70) are not detected between
each CKP pulse.
Actions Taken When the DTC Sets
• The ECM illuminates the malfunction indicator lamp (MIL).
• The ECM will default to the previously established injection sequence.
08-80
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
Diagnostic Trouble Code 53
Diagnostic Aids
Inspect the harness connectors for backed-out terminals, improper mating, broken locks, improperly formed
or damaged terminals, and poor terminal-to-wire connections. Inspect the wiring harness for damage. If the
harness appears to be OK, go to diagnostic chart below.
DTC 53 – Camshaft Position Sensor Illegal Pattern
Step
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Action
Are you using a personal computer (PC) to perform this diagnosis?
1. Disconnect the CMP sensor.
2. Measure the voltage between the sensor signal circuit 282 (Dk. Blue/
Orange) and the sensor ground circuit 359C (Grey/Red) at the CMP
sensor connector.
Does the voltage measure near the specified value?
Check the sensor signal circuit 282 (Dk. Blue/Orange) and the sensor
ground circuit 359 (Grey/Red) for an open or short to ground and
repair as necessary.
Was a repair necessary?
Check for poor connections at the ECM and repair if necessary.
Was a repair necessary?
1. Connect the CMP sensor.
2. With a DVOM, backprobe the CMP sensor signal circuit, terminal J1,
while cranking the engine.
Does the voltage toggle between the specified value?
Replace the camshaft position sensor.
Is the repair complete?
Install replacement ECM.
Is system operation normal with replacement ECM installed?
Is the repair complete (system operation normal with original
ECM reinstalled)?
Is the repair complete (system operation normal with replacement
ECM reinstalled)?
08-81
Values
4-6V
4-0V
Yes
Go to Diagnostic System
Check before continuing
at Step 2.
Go to Step 2
Go to Step 5
Go to Step 3
Re-test.
Go to Step 4
Re-test.
Go to Step 5
Go to Step 7
Go to Step 6
Re-test.
Remove replacement
ECM and install original
ECM. Go to Step 8.
No
Remove original
Keep original ECM
ECM and reinstall
installed. Re-test the
replacement ECM.
system.
Go to Step 9.
Leave replacement ECM
installed. Re-test.
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
Diagnostic Trouble Code 54
DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODE (DTC) 54 ECM FAULT ILLEGAL OPERATION
Circuit Description
The ECM continuously monitors electrical signals form the engine. If for some reason the ECM receives
an illegal instruction it then executes an “exception handling code”, the ECM will then go to a default
program and return to normal operation, but it will set DTC 54 and will need to be replaced.
Conditions for Setting the DTC
• KOEO or KOER.
Action Taken When the DTC Sets
• The ECM will illuminate the malfunction indicator lamp (MIL).
Diagnostic Aids
Inspect the harness connectors for backed-out terminals, improper mating, broken locks, improperly formed
or damaged terminals, and poor terminal-to-wire connections. Inspect the wiring harness for damage.
Check for shorts or open in the spark plug wires.
DTC 54 – ECM Fault Illegal Operation
Step
1
Action
Are you using a personal computer (PC) to perform this diagnosis?
3
Check the MIL or the PC engine data screen.
Are any other DTC’s set?
Install replacement ECM.
Is system operation normal with replacement ECM installed?
4
Is the repair complete (system operation normal with original ECM
reinstalled)?
2
5
Is the repair complete (system operation normal with replacement ECM
reinstalled)?
08-82
Values
Yes
Go to Diagnostic System
Check before continuing
at Step 2.
Go to applicable DTC.
Remove replacement
ECM and install original
ECM. Go at Step 4.
Keep original ECM
installed. Re-test.
Leave replacement ECM
installed. Re-test.
No
Go to Step 2
Go to Step 3
Remove original
ECM and reinstall
replacement ECM.
Go to Step 5.
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
Diagnostic Trouble Code 55
DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODE (DTC) 55 ECM FAULT ILLEGAL INTERRUPTION
Circuit Description
The ECM continuously monitors electrical signals form the engine. If for some reason the ECM receives
an illegal interruption from one of those signals it then executes an “exception handling code”, the ECM will
then go to a default program and return to normal operation, but it will set DTC 55 and will need to be
replaced.
Conditions for Setting the DTC
• KOEO or KOER.
Action Taken When the DTC Sets
• The ECM will illuminate the malfunction indicator lamp (MIL).
Diagnostic Aids
Inspect the harness connectors for backed-out terminals, improper mating, broken locks, improperly formed
or damaged terminals, and poor terminal-to-wire connections. Inspect the wiring harness for damage.
DTC 55 – ECM Fault Illegal Interruption
Step
1
Action
Are you using a personal computer (PC) to perform this diagnosis?
3
Check the MIL or the PC engine data screen.
Are any other DTC’s set?
Install replacement ECM.
Is system operation normal with replacement ECM installed?
4
Is the repair complete (system operation normal with original ECM
reinstalled)?
2
5
Is the repair complete (system operation normal with replacement ECM
reinstalled)?
08-83
Values
Yes
Go to Diagnostic System
Check before continuing
at Step 2.
Go to applicable DTC.
Remove replacement
ECM and install original
ECM. Go at Step 4.
Keep original ECM
installed. Re-test.
Leave replacement ECM
installed. Re-test.
No
Go to Step 2
Go to Step 3
Remove original
ECM and reinstall
replacement ECM.
Go to Step 5.
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
Diagnostic Trouble Code 56
DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODE (DTC) 56 ECM FAULT – COMPUTER OPERATING
PROPERLY (COP) FAILURE
Circuit Description
The ECM continuously monitors electrical signals form the engine. Under normal operation the ECM will
store numbers into memory. If this does not happen, the ECM will execute an “exception handling routine”
and rest itself from the beginning. This is a “watch dog timer” function. If DTC 56 is set, the ECM will have
to be replaced.
Conditions for Setting the DTC
• KOEO or KOER.
Action Taken When the DTC Sets
• The ECM will illuminate the malfunction indicator lamp (MIL).
Diagnostic Aids
Inspect the harness connectors for backed-out terminals, improper mating, broken locks, improperly formed
or damaged terminals, and poor terminal-to-wire connections. Inspect the wiring harness for damage.
DTC 56 – ECM Fault Computer COP Failure
Step
1
Action
Are you using a personal computer (PC) to perform this diagnosis?
3
Check the MIL or the PC engine data screen.
Are any other DTC’s set?
Install replacement ECM.
Is system operation normal with replacement ECM installed?
4
Is the repair complete (system operation normal with original ECM
reinstalled)?
2
5
Is the repair complete (system operation normal with replacement ECM
reinstalled)?
08-84
Values
Yes
Go to Diagnostic System
Check before continuing
at Step 2.
Go to applicable DTC.
Remove replacement
ECM and install original
ECM. Go at Step 4.
Keep original ECM
installed. Re-test.
Leave replacement ECM
installed. Re-test.
No
Go to Step 2
Go to Step 3
Remove original
ECM and reinstall
replacement ECM.
Go to Step 5.
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
Diagnostic Trouble Code 57
DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODE (DTC) 56 ECM FAULT – COMPUTER OPERATING
PROPERLY (COP) FAILURE
Circuit Description
The ECM continuously monitors electrical signals form the engine. Under normal operation the ECM will
store numbers into memory. If this does not happen, the ECM will execute an “exception handling routine”
and rest itself from the beginning. This is a “watch dog timer” function. If DTC 57 is set, the ECM will have
to be replaced.
Conditions for Setting the DTC
• KOEO or KOER.
Action Taken When the DTC Sets
• The ECM will illuminate the malfunction indicator lamp (MIL).
Diagnostic Aids
Inspect the harness connectors for backed-out terminals, improper mating, broken locks, improperly formed
or damaged terminals, and poor terminal-to-wire connections. Inspect the wiring harness for damage.
DTC 57 – ECM Fault Computer COP Failure
Step
1
Action
Are you using a personal computer (PC) to perform this diagnosis?
3
Check the MIL or the PC engine data screen.
Are any other DTC’s set?
Install replacement ECM.
Is system operation normal with replacement ECM installed?
4
Is the repair complete (system operation normal with original ECM
reinstalled)?
2
5
Is the repair complete (system operation normal with replacement ECM
reinstalled)?
08-85
Values
Yes
Go to Diagnostic System
Check before continuing
at Step 2.
Go to applicable DTC.
Remove replacement
ECM and install original
ECM. Go at Step 4.
Keep original ECM
installed. Re-test.
Leave replacement ECM
installed. Re-test.
No
Go to Step 2
Go to Step 3
Remove original
ECM and reinstall
replacement ECM.
Go to Step 5.
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
Diagnostic Trouble Code 61
DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODE (DTC) 61 SYSTEM VOLTAGE LOW
Circuit Description
The ECM monitors the system voltage through circuit 361 (Red) terminal K1 (power feed) and circuit 37
(Yellow) terminal F2 (battery feed). DTC 61 will set whenever the ECM detects a voltage that is below a
calibrated value.
Conditions for Setting the DTC
• KOER.
• Engine RPM is greater than 700.
• System voltage is less than or equal to 8.0V for at least 2 consecutive seconds.
Action Taken When the DTC Sets
• The ECM will illuminate the malfunction indicator lamp (MIL).
Diagnostic Aids
The DTC sets when an accessory is operated, check for a poor connection or excessive current draw.
Excessive current draw can be a result of a short circuit or partial short circuit due to corrosion, moisture
or chafed insulation.
DTC 61 – System Voltage Low
Step
1
Action
Are you using a personal computer (PC) to perform this diagnosis?
6
Using a DVOM, measure the battery voltage at the battery.
Is the battery voltage less than the specified value?
1. Ignition OFF.
2. Disconnect the ECM connector A thru K.
3. With a DVOM, measure the battery voltage at the ECM connector,
terminal F2. Is it approximately equal to the battery voltage?
Check for fault connections at the ECM harness terminals and repair
if necessary. Was a repair necessary?
Check for an open battery feed circuit 37 (Yellow) to the ECM and repair
if necessary.
Was a repair necessary?
Install replacement ECM.
Is system operation normal with replacement ECM installed?
7
Is the repair complete (system operation normal with original ECM
reinstalled)?
8
Is the repair complete (system operation normal with replacement ECM
reinstalled)?
2
3
4
5
08-86
Values
Yes
Go to Diagnostic System
Check before continuing
at Step 2.
No
< 8.0V
Go to Step 3
Go to Step 2
Change the battery,
the go to Step 3
VPWR (B+)
Go to
Diagnostic Aids.
Go to Step 4.
Re-test.
Go to Step 5
Re-test.
Remove replacement
ECM and install original
ECM. Go to Step 7.
Go to Step 6
Keep original ECM
installed. Re-test.
Leave replacement ECM
installed. Re-test.
Remove original
ECM and reinstall
replacement ECM.
Go to Step 8.
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
Diagnostic Trouble Code 62
DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODE (DTC) 62 SYSTEM VOLTAGE HIGH
NOTE: This is a software selectable DTC.
Circuit Description
The ECM monitors the system voltage through circuit 361 (Red) terminal K1 (power feed) and circuit 37
(Yellow) terminal F2 (battery feed). DTC 62 will set whenever the ECM detects a voltage that is above a
calibrated value.
Conditions for Setting the DTC
• KOER.
• Engine RPM is greater than 700.
• System voltage is more than or equal to 18.0V for at least 2 consecutive seconds.
Action Taken When the DTC Sets
• The ECM will illuminate the malfunction indicator lamp (MIL).
• The ECM will shut down engine. Engine can be restarted by recycling ignition switch.
Diagnostic Aids
The DTC sets when an accessory is operated, check for a poor connection or excessive current draw.
Excessive current draw can be a result of a short circuit or partial short circuit due to corrosion, moisture
or chafed insulation.
DTC 62 – System Voltage High
Step
1
2
3
Action
Are you using a personal computer (PC) to perform this diagnosis?
Using a DVOM, measure the battery voltage at the battery.
Is the battery voltage greater than the specified value?
1. Charge the battery and clean the battery terminals.
2. Clean the battery ground cable connection if corrosion is indicated.
Is the battery voltage less than the specified value?
5
1. Turn off all electrical accessories, if applicable.
2. Start the engine.
Is the ignition voltage more than 8 volts ?
Install replacement ECM.
Is system operation normal with replacement ECM installed?
6
Is the repair complete (system operation normal with original ECM
reinstalled)?
7
Is the repair complete (system operation normal with replacement ECM
reinstalled)?
4
08-87
Values
Yes
Go to Diagnostic System
Check before continuing
at Step 2.
Go to Step 2
VPWR (B+)
Go to Step 4
Go to Step 3
VPWR (B+)
Replace battery.
Go to Step 4
Verify that the
alternator is functioning
correctly.
Remove replacement
ECM and install original
ECM. Go to Step 6.
Keep original ECM
installed. Re-test.
Leave replacement ECM
installed. Re-test.
No
Go to Step 5
Remove original
ECM and reinstall
replacement ECM.
Go to Step 7.
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
Diagnostic Trouble Code 65
NOTES
Installation of Upper Intake Manifold
MUSTANG
TYPE
Installation of Lower Intake Manifold
DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODE (DTC) 65 INTAKE
MANIFOLD LEAK
Circuit Description
The ESG 642 intake manifold is in two parts, upper and lower, and
made of aluminum. The lower intake bolts down to the cylinder heads
and is sealed with a gasket for each cylinder head. The upper intake
bolts to the lower with a gasket, spacer, and gasket to make the seal. A
throttle body is bolted to the intake mounted with a gasket to form a
seal. The throttle plate mounted inside the throttle body controls the
amount of air entering into the intake manifold. The two parts of the
intake manifold are made of tubes or runners to control the air flow to
each cylinder evenly. With some application idle air control motor is
mounted on either the throttle body or upper intake manifold. This IAC is
mated up to a gasket to form an air tight seal.
08-88
Auxiliary Systems – EFI & Ignition Electronics
Diagnostic Trouble Code 65
Conditions for Setting the DTC
• KOER.
• IAC and actuator duty cycles are at their minimums, start up gain phase-in = 1 and rpm > (set +300).
• Above conditions are present for at least 2.6 seconds.
• Driving machine and letting up on gas to gear down.
Actions Taken When the DTC Sets
• The ECM illuminates the malfunction indicator lamp (MIL).
• The ECM shuts down the engine. The engine can be restarted by recycling the ignition switch.
Trouble Shooting:
• Check PCV system for leaks.
• Check IAC motor stuck open.
• Check booster brake system for leaks.
• Check intake manifold for gasket leaks.
DTC 65 – Intake Manifold Leak
Step
1
2
3
Action
Are you using a personal computer (PC) to perform this diagnosis?
Visually check: For vacuum leaks
• Vacuum hoses.
• Intake manifold gaskets.
• IAC motor stuck open.
• PCV system.
• Brake booster.
Are any of the above components causing a vacuum leak?
Using a vacuum gage, check engine vacuum at idle.
Is vacuum within specification?
5
6
Is the repair complete (system operation normal with original ECM
reinstalled)?
7
Yes
Go to Diagnostic System
Check before continuing
at Step 2.
Make necessary repairs
and re-test.
Using a PC confirm correct program is downloaded into ECM.
Is the program correct?
Install replacement ECM. Is system operation normal with replacement
ECM installed?
4
Values
Is the repair complete (system operation normal with replacement ECM
reinstalled)?
08-89
18 to 24 inch.
and steady.
Go to Step 3
Replace ECM. Go to
Step 5
Remove replacement
ECM and install original
ECM. Go to Step 6
Keep original ECM
installed. Re-test.
Leave replacement ECM
installed. Re-test.
No
Go to Step 2
Go to Step 3
Find leak and repair
as necessary.
Re-test.
Download correct
program. Re-test.
Remove original
ECM and reinstall
replacement ECM.
Go to Step 7
Auxiliary Systems – Metrics
METRICS INDEX
SUBJECT
PAGE
Metrics .......................................................................... 09-3
Introduction .................................................................. 09-3
Nomenclature for Bolts ................................................ 09-3
Bolt Strength Identification ........................................... 09-4
Hex Nut Strength Identification .................................... 09-4
Other Types of Parts ..................................................... 09-5
English/Metric Conversion .......................................... 09-6
Decimal and Metric Equivalents .................................. 09-7
Torque Conversion ...................................................... 09-8
J1930 Terminology List ................................................ 09-9
Response Form .......................................................... 09-19
09
09-1
Auxiliary Systems – Metrics
09-2
Auxiliary Systems – Metrics
METRICS
Introduction
Most threaded fasteners are covered by specifications that define required mechanical properties, such
as tensile strength, yield strength, proof load and hardness. These specifications are carefully
considered in initial selection of fasteners for a given application. To ensure continued satisfactory
vehicle performance, replacement fasterners used should be of the correct strength, as well as the
correct nominal diameter, thread pitch, length, and finish.
Most original equipment fasteners (English or Metric system) are identified with markings or numbers
indicating the strength of the fastener. These markings are described in the pages that follow. Attention
to these markings is important ot ensure that the proper replacement fastenres are used.
Further, some metric fasteners, especially nuts, are colored blue. This metric blue identification is in
most cases a temporary aid for production start-up, and color will generally revert to normal black or
bright after start-up.
English or Metric system fasteners are available through your Ford Parts and Service operation.
Nomenclature for Bolts
English System
Bolt, 1/2-13x1
Metric System
Bolt, M12-1.75x25
09-3
Auxiliary Systems – Metrics
METRICS (Continued)
Bolt Strength Identification
English System
English (Inch) bolts: Identification marks correspond to bolt strength, increasing number of slashes
represent increasing strength.
Metric System
Metric bolts: Identification class numbers correspond to bolt strength, increasing numbers represent
increasing strength. Common metric fastener bolt strength property are 9.8 and 10.9 with the class
identification embossed on the bolt head.
Hex Nut Strength Identification
09-4
Auxiliary Systems – Metrics
METRICS (Continued)
Other Types of Parts
Metric identification schemes vary by type of part, most often a variation of that used of bolts and nuts.
Note that many types of English and Metric fasteners carry no special identification if they are otherwise
unique.
09-5
Auxiliary Systems – Metrics
METRICS (Continued)
English/Metric Conversion
09-6
Auxiliary Systems – Metrics
METRICS (Continued)
Decimal and Metric Equivalents
09-7
Auxiliary Systems – Metrics
METRICS (Continued)
Torque Conversion
09-8
Auxiliary Systems – Metrics
J1930 TERMINOLOGY LIST
NOTE: Certain Ford Component names have been changed in this Service Manual to conform to Society
of Automotive Engineers (SAE) directive J1930.
SAE J1930 standardizes automotive component names for all vehicle manufacturers.
New Term
Accelerator Pedal
Air Cleaner
Air Cleaner Element
Air Cleaner Housing
Air Cleaner Housing Cover
New Acronym
AP
ACL
ACL Element
ACL Housing
ACL Housing Cover
Air Conditioning
Air Conditioning Clutch
Air Conitioning Cycling Switch
A/C
A/C Clutch
A/C Cycling Switch
Air Conditioning Sensor
A/C Sensor
Air Conditioning System
Automatic Transaxle
A/C System
A/T
Automatic Transmission
A/T
Barometric Pressure
Barometric Pressure Sensor
BARO
BARO Sensor
Battery Positive Voltage
Camshaft Position
Camshaft Position Sensor
B+
CMP
CMP Sensor
Canister
Carburetor
Central Multiport Fuel Injection
Canister
CARB
Central MFI
Charge Air Cooler
CAC
Closed Loop
Closed Throttle Position
Closed Throttle Position Switch
Clutch Pedal Position
Clutch Pedal Position Switch
CL
CTP
CTP Switch
CPP
CPP Switch
Compact Disc Read Only Memory
CDROM
09-9
Old Terms (Acronyms)
– Accelerator
– Thermac Air Cleaner
– Air Cleaner Element (ACL Element)
– Air Cleaner Housing (ACH)
– Air Cleaner Housing Cover (ACL
Housing Cover)
– Air Conditioning (AC)
– Air Conditioning Clutch (ACC)
– Air Conditioning Cycling Switch
(ACCS)
– Air Conditioning Sensor (A/C
Sensor)
– Air Conditioning System (SCS)
– Electronic Automatic Transaxle
(EATX)
– Electronic Automatic Transmission
(EATX)
– Barometric Pressure (BARO)
– Absolute Pressure Sensor (APS)
– Barometric Pressure Sensor (BP
Sensor)
– Battery Positive Voltage (B+)
– Snyc Pickup
– Camshaft Position Sensor (CPS)
– Camshaft Sensor
– Cylinder Identification Sensor
(Cylinder ID Sensor) (CID)
– Canister
– Feed Back Carburetor (FBC)
– Central Multiport Fuel Injection
(CMFI)
– Fuel Injection (FI)
– After Cooler
– Inter Cooler
– Closed Loop System (CLS)
– Closed Throttle Position (CTP)
– Closed Throttle Switch
– Clutch Pedal Position (CPP)
– Clutch Engage Switch (CES)
– Clutch Start Switch
– Clutch Switch
– Compact Disc Read Only Memory
(CDROM)
Auxiliary Systems – Metrics
J1930 TERMINOLOGY LIST
New Term
Continuous Fuel Injection
New Acronym
CFI
Continuous Fuel Injection system
Continuous Trap Oxidizer
CFI System
CTOX
Crankshaft Position
CKP
Crankshaft Position Sensor
CKP Sensor
Data Link Connector
DLC
Diagnostic Test Mode
Diagnostic Trouble Code
Differential Pressure Feedback Gas
Recirculation System
Direct Fuel Injection
DTM
DTC
Differential Pressure
Feedback EGR
System
DFI
Distributor Ignition
DI
Distributor Ignition Capacitor
Distributor Igniition Control Module
DI Capacitor
Distributor ICM
Distributor Ignition System
DI System
Early Fuel Evaporation
Electrically Erasable Programmable
Read Only Memory
EFE
EEPROM
09-10
Old Terms (Acronyms)
– Continuous Injection System (CIS)
– Continuous Injection System –
Electronic (Continuous Injection
System-E) (CIS-E)
– Fuel Injection (FI)
– K-Jetronic
– KE-Jetronic
– KE-Motronic
– Continuous Injection System (CIS)
– Continuous Trap Oxidizer (CTO)
– Trap Oxidizer – Continuous (TOC)
– Crankshaft Position (CP)
– Position Indicator Pulse (PIP)
– Crankshaft Position Sensor (CPS)
– Crank Angle Sensor
– Assembly Line Communications
Link (ALCL)
– Assembly Line Diagnostic Link
(ALDL)
– Self Test Connector
– Vehicle In Process Connector (VIP
Connector)
– Modes
– Self Test Codes
– Differential Pressure Feedback
EGR System
– Direct Injection (DI)
– Direct Injection – Diesel (DID)
– Fuel Injection (FI)
– Capacitive Discharge Ignition (CDI)
– Closed Bowl Distributor
– Electronic Ignition (EI) (with
Distributor)
– Electronic Spark Advance Control
(ESAC)
– High Energy Ignition (HEI)
– Remote Mount Thick Film Ignition
(Remote Mount TFI)
– Thick Film Ignition (TFI)
– Condenser
– Electronic Distributor Ignition
System Module (EDIS Module)
– Electronic Distributor Ignition
System (EDIS)
– Early Fuel Evaporation (EFE)
– Electrically Erasable Programmable
Read Only Memory (E2PROM)
Auxiliary Systems – Metrics
J1930 TERMINOLOGY LIST
New Term
Electronic Continuous Fuel Injeciton
System
Electronic Engine Control
Electronic Ignition
Electronic Ignition System
Engine Control
Engine Control Module
Engine Coolant Level
Engine Coolant Level Indicator
Engine Coolant Temperature
Engine Coolant Temperature Sensor
Engine Coolant Temperature Switch
Engine Speed
Engine Speed Sensor
Erasable Programmable Read Only
Memory
Evaporative Emission
Evaporative Emission Canister
Evaporative Emission Canister Purge
Evaporative Emission Canister
Purge Valve
Evaporative Emission System
Exhaust Gas Recirculation
New Acronym
Electrnic CFI
System
Old Terms (Acronyms)
– Continuous Injection System –
Electronic (Continuous Injection
System-E) (CIS-E)
Electronic EC
– Electronic Engine Control (EEC)
EI
– Computer Controlled Coil Ignition
(C3I)
– Distributorless Ignition (DLI)
– Electronic Ignition (EI) (without
Distributor)
– Integrated Direct Ignition (IDI)
EI System
– Direct Ignition System (DIS)
– Distributorless Ignition System (DIS)
– Electronic Distributorless Ignition
System (EDIS)
EC
– Electronic Engine Control (EEC)
ECM
– Engine Control Module (ECM)
ECL
– Engine Coolant Level (ECL)
ECL Indicator
– Engine Coolant Level Indicator
ECT
– Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT)
ECT Sensor
– Coolant Temperature Sensor (CTS)
– Engine Coolant Temperature Sender
(ECT Sender)
ECT Switch
– Coolant Temperature Switch (CTS)
RPM
– Crankshaft Speed
– Revolutions Per Minute (RPM)
RPM Sensor
– Crankshaft Speed Sensor
EPROM
– Erasable Programmable Read Only
Memory (EPROM)
EVAP
– Evaporative Emission (EVAP)
EVAP Canister
– Canister
– Charcoal Canister
EVAP Canister Purge – EVAP CANP
– Canister Purge (CANP)
EVAP Canister
– Canister Purge Valve
Purge Valve
– Canister Purge Vacuum Switching
Valve (Canister Purge VSV)
– Duty Solenoid for Purge Valve
– Evaporative Emission Purge Valve
(EVAP Purge Valve)
– Vacuum Solenoid Valve (Canister)
(VSV)
– Vacuum Solenoid Valve (EVAP) (VSV)
EVAP System
– Evaporation Emission Control System
(EECS)
EGR
– Digital Exhaust Gas Recirculation
(Digital EGR)
09-11
Auxiliary Systems – Metrics
J1930 TERMINOLOGY LIST
New Term
Exhaust Gas Recirculation
Backpressure Transducer
Exhaust Gas Recirculation Diagnostic
Valve
Exhaust Gas Recirculation System
Exhaust Gas Recirculation Temperature
Exhaust Gas Recirculation Temperature
Sensor
Exhaust Gas Recirculation Thermal
Vacuum Valve
Exhaust Gas Recirculation Vacuum
Regulator Solenoid
Exhaust Gas Recirculation Vacuum
Regulator Valve
Exhaust Gas Recirculation Valve
Exhaust Gas Recirculation Valve
Control
Exhaust Gas Recirculation Valve
Position Sensor
Fan Control
New Acronym
EGR Backpressure
Transducer
EGR Diagnositc
Old Terms (Acronyms)
– Backpressure Transducer
EGR System
EGRT
EGRT Sensor
– EGR System
– EGR Temperatur
– Recirculated Exhaust Gas
Temperature Sensor (REGTS)
– EGR Thermal Vacuum Valve
(EGR TVV)
– EGR Vacuum Regulator Solenoid
Solenoid (EVR Solenoid)
– EGR Vacuum Regulator Valve
Valve (EVRV)
– EGR Valve (EGRV)
– EGR Valve Control (EGRVC)
Fan Control Module
Fan Control Relay
FC Module
FC Relay
Feedback Pressure Exhaust Gas
Recirculation
Feedback Pressure Exhaust Gas
Recirculation Sensor
Flash Electrically Erasable
Programmable Read Only Memory
Flash Erasable Programmable Read
Only Memory
Flexible Fuel
Flexible Fuel Sensor
Feedback Pressure
EGR
Feedback Pressure
EGR Sensor
FEEPROM
– EGR Valve Position Sensor
(EVP Sensor)
– Electro-Drive Fan Control (EDF
Control)
– Engine Coolant Fan Control
– High Electro-Drive Fan Control
(HEDF Control)
– Radiator Fan Control
– Fan Control Module
– Fan Motor Control Relay
– Radiator Fan Relay
– Pressure Feedback Exhaust Gas
Recirculation
– Pressure Feedback Exhaust Gas
Recirculation (PFE) Sensor
– Flash EEPROM
FEPROM
– Flash EPROM
FF
FF Sensor
Fourth Gear
Fuel Level Sensor
Fuel Pressure
4GR
Fuel Level Sensor
Fuel Pressure
– Flexible Fuel (FF)
– Alcohol Concntration Sensor
– Fuel Concentration Sensor
– Fuel Quality Sensor
– Percent Alcohol Sensor
– Variable Fuel Sensor
– Fourth Gear (4GR)
– Fuel Sensor
– Fuel Pressure
EGR TVV
EGR Vacuum
Regulator Solenoid
EGR Vacuum
Regulator Valve
EGR Valve
EGR Valve Control
EGR Valve Position
Sensor
FC
09-12
– EGR Diagnostic Valve
Auxiliary Systems – Metrics
J1930 TERMINOLOGY LIST
New Term
Fuel Pressure Regulator
Fuel Pump
Fuel Pump Module
New Acronym
Fuel Pressure
Regulator
FP
FP Module
Fuel Pump Relay
Fuel Trim
Generator
Governor
Governor Control Module
Ground
Heated Oxygen Sensor
FP Relay
FT
GEN
Governor
GCM
GND
HO2S
High Speed Fan Control Switch
Idle Air Control
High Speed FC
Switch
IAC
Idle Air Control Thermal Valve
Idle Air Control Valve
IAC Thermal Valve
IAC Valve
Idle Speed Control
Idle Speed Control Actuator
ISC
ISC Actuator
Idle Speed Control Solenoid Vacuum
ISC Solenoid
Vacuum Valve
Ignition Control
IC
Ignition Control Module
ICM
Indirect Fuel Injection
IFI
Inertia Fuel Shutoff
Inertia Fuel Shutoff Switch
IFS
IFS Switch
Intake Air
IA
09-13
Old Terms (Acronyms)
– Fuel Regulator
– Fuel Pump (FP)
– Fuel Module
– Fuel Sender
– Fuel Tank Unit
– In Tank Module
– Fuel Pump Relay
– Adaptive Fuel Strategy
– Alternator (ALT)
– Governor
– Governor Electronic Module (GEM)
– Ground (GRD)
– Heated Exhaust Gas Oxygen
Sensor (HEGO Sensor)
– Heated Oxygen Sensor (HOS)
– High Speed Fan Control Switch
(High Speed FC Switch)
– Idle Air Bypass Control
– Idle Speed Control (ISC)
– idle Speed Control Bypass Air
(ISC BPA)
– Fast Idle Thermo Valve
– Air Valve
– Fast Idle Thermo Valve
– Idle Air Control Valve (IACV)
– Throttle Opener
– Idle Speed Control Actuator (ISC
Acutator)
– Throttle Opener Vacuum Switching
Valve (Throttle Opener VSV)
– Vacuum Solenoid Valve (Throttle)
(VSV)
– Electronic Spark Advance (ESA)
– Electronic Spark Timing (EST)
– Distributorless Ignition System
Module (DIS Module)
– Thick Film Ignition Module (TFI
Module)
– Fuel Injection (FI)
– Indirect Fuel Injection (IDFI)
– Indirect Diesel Injection (IDI)
– Inertia Fuel Shutoff (IFS)
– Inertia Switch
– Inertia Fuel – Shutoff Switch
– Intake Air
Auxiliary Systems – Metrics
J1930 TERMINOLOGY LIST
New Term
Intake Air Duct
Intake Air System
Intake Air Temperature
New Acronym
IA Duct
IA System
IAT
Intake Air Temperature Sensor
IAT Sensor
Keep Alive Random Access Memory
Knock Sensor
Long Term Fuel Trim
Keep Alive RAM
KS
Long Term FT
Low Speed Fan Control Switch
Malfunction Indicator Lamp
Low Speed FC
Switch
MIL
Manifold Absolute Pressure
Manifold Absolute Pressure Sensor
MAP
MAP Sensor
Manifold Differential Pressure
MDP
Manifold Differential Pressure Sensor
Manifold Surface Temperature
Manifold Vacuum Zone
Manifold Vacuum Zone Switch
Mass Air Flow
MDP Sensor
MST
MVZ
MVZ Switch
MAF
Mass Air Flow Sensor
MAF Sensor
Mixture Control
MC
Mixture Control Solenoid
MC Solenoid
09-14
Old Terms (Acronyms)
– Intake Air Duct
– Air Intake System
– Air Charge Temperature (ACT)
– Manifold Air Temperature (MAT)
– Throttle Body Temperature (TBT)
– Vane Air Temperature (VAT)
– Air Temperature Sensor (ATS)
– Intake Air Temperature Sensor
(IATS)
– Manifold Air Temperature Sensor
(MATS)
– Keep Alive Memory (KAM)
– Detonation Sensor (DS)
– Block Learn Matrix (BLM)
– Block Learn Memory (BLM)
– Block Learn Multiplier (BLM)
– Low Speed Fan Control Switch
(Low Speed FC Switch)
– Check Engine
– Service Engine Soon
– Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP)
– Intake Manifold Absolute Pressure
Sensor
– Manifold Absolute Pressure Sensor
(MAPS)
– Pressure Sensor (P-Sensor)
– Manifold Differential Pressure
(MDP)
– Vacuum Sensor (VAC Sensor)
– Manifold Surface Temperature (MST)
– Manifold Vacuum Zone (MVZ)
– Vacuum Switches
– Air Flow Control (AFC)
– Air Flow Meter
– Air Flow Meter
– Air Flow Sensor (AFS)
– Hot Wire Anemometer
– Feed Back Control (FBC)
– Mixture Control (M/C)
– Mixture Control Solenoid (MCS)
Auxiliary Systems – Metrics
J1930 TERMINOLOGY LIST
New Term
Multiport Fuel Injection
New Acronym
MFI
Nonvolatile Random Access Memory
NVRAM
Oil Pressure Sensor
Oil Pressure Switch
On-Board Diagnostic
Open Loop
Oxidation Catalytic Converter
Oil Pressure Sensor
Oil Pressure Switch
OBD
OL
OC
Oxygen Sensor
O2S
Park/Neutral Position
Park/Neutral Position Switch
PNP
PNP Switch
Periodic Trap Oxidizer
Positive Crankcase Ventilation
Positive Crankcase Ventilation (Valve)
PTOX
PCV
PCV Valve
Power Steering Pressure
Power Steering Pressure Switch
PSP
PSP Switch
Powertrain Control Module
PCM
09-15
Old Terms (Acronyms)
– D-Jetronic
– Digital Fuel Injection (EFI)
– Electronic Fuel Injection (EFI)
– Fuel Injection (FI)
– L-Jetronic
– LH-Jetronic
– Motronic
– Multipoint Injection (MPI)
– Multiport Injection (MPI)
– Port Fuel Injection (PFI)
– Programmed Fuel Injection (PGMFI)
– Tuned Port Injection (TPI)
– Keep Alive Memory (KAM)
– Nonvolatile Memory (NVM)
– Oil Pressure Sender
– Oil Pressure Switch
– Self Test
– Open Loop (OL)
– Continuous Oxidation Catalyst
(COC)
– Oxidation Catalyst (OC)
– Exhaust Gas Oxygen Sensor (EGO
Sensor, EGOS)
– Exhaust Gas Sensor (EGS)
– Exhaust Oxygen Sensor (EOS)
– Lambda
– Oxygen Sensor (O2 Sensor, OS)
– Park/Neutral (P/N)
– Neutral Drive Switch (NDS)
– Neutral Gear Switch (NGS)
– Neutral Position Switch (NPS)
– Neutral Safety Switch
– Trap Oxidizer – Periodic (TOP)
– Positive Crankcase Ventilation (PCV)
– Positive Crankcase Ventilation (PCV)
Valve)
– Power Steering Pressure (PSP)
– Power Steering Pressure Switch
(P/S Pressure Switch, PSPS)
– Electronic Control Assembly (ECA)
– Electronic Control Unit 4 (ECU4)
– Electronic Engine Control
Processor (EEC Processor)
– Microprocessor Control Unit (MCU)
– Single Board Engine Control (SBEC)
– Single Module Engine Control
(SMEC)
Auxiliary Systems – Metrics
J1930 TERMINOLOGY LIST
New Term
Pressure Transducer Exhaust Gas
Recirculation System
Programmable Rad Only Memory
Pulsed Secondary Air Injection
Pulsed Secondary Air Injection Valve
Random Access Memory
Read Only Memory
Relay Module
Scan Tool
Secondary Air Injection
Secondary Air Injection Bypass
Secondary Air Injection Bypass Valve
Secondary Air Injection Check Valve
Secondary Air Injection Control Valve
Secondary Air Injection Diverter
Secondary Air Injection Pump
Secondary Air Injection Switching
Valve
Sequential Multiport Fuel Injection
Service Reminer Indicator
Short term Fuel Trim
Smoke Puff Limiter
Supercharger
Supercharger Bypass
Supercharger Bypass Solenoid
New Acronym
Old Terms (Acronyms)
Pressure Transducer – Pressure Transducer EGR System
EGR System
PROM
– Programmable Read Only Memory
(PROM)
PAIR
– Air Injection Reactor (AIR)
– Air Injection Valve (AIV)
– Pulsair
– Thermactor II
PAIR Valve
– Reed Valve
RAM
– Random Access Memory (RAM)
ROM
– Read Only Memory (ROM)
RM
– Integrated Relay Module
ST
– Scan Tool
AIR
– Air Injection (AI)
– Air Injection Reactor (AIR)
– Thermac
– Thermactor
AIR Bypass
– Air Management 1 (AM1)
– Secondary Air Injection Bypass
(AIRB)
– Thermator Air Bypass (TAB)
AIR Bypass Valve
– Secondary Air Bypass Valve (SABV)
AIR Check Valve
– Secondary Air Check Valve
AIR Control Valve
– Air Control Valve
– Secondary Air Check Valve (SACV)
AIR Diverter
– Air Management 2 (AM2)
– Secondary Air Injection Diverter
(AIRD)
– Thermactor Air Diverter (TAD)
AIR Pump
– Air Injection Pump (AIP)
AIR Switching Valve – Secondary Air Switching Valve
(SASV)
SFI
– Fuel Injection (FI)
– Sequential Electronic Fuel Injection
(SEFI)
– Sequental fuel Injection (SFI)
SRI
– Check Engine
– Engine Maintenance Reminder
(EMR)
– Oxygen Sensor Indicator (OXS)
– Service Engine Soon
Short Term FT
– Integrator (INT)
SPL
– Smoke Puff Limiter (SPL)
SC
– Supercharger (SC)
SCB
– Surpercharger Bypass (SCB)
SCB Solenoid
– Supercharger Bypass Solenoid
(SBS)
09-16
Auxiliary Systems – Metrics
J1930 TERMINOLOGY LIST
New Term
System Readiness Test
Thermal Vacuum Valve
Third Gear
Three Way Catalytic Converter
New Acronym
SRT
TVV
3GR
TWC
Three Way + Oxidation Catalytic
Converter
Throttle Body
Throttle Body Fuel Injection
TWC + OC
Throttle Position
Throttle Position Sensor
TP
TP Sensor
Throttle Position Switch
Torque Converter Clutch
TP Switch
TCC
Torque Converter Clutch Relay
Torque Converter Clutch Solenoid Valve
Transmission Control Module
Transmission Range
TCC Relay
TCC Solenoid Valve
TCM
TR
Transmission Range Sensor
TR Sensor
Transmission Range Switch
TR Switch
Turbocharger
Vehicle Speed Sensor
TC
VSS
Voltage Regulator
Volume Air Flow
VR
VAF
Volume Air Flow Sensor
VAF Sensor
Warm Up Oxidation Catalytic Converter
Warm Up Three Way Catalytic Converter
Wide Open Throttle
Wide Open Throttle Switch
WU-OC
WU-TWC
WOT
WOT Switch
TB
TBI
09-17
Old Terms (Acronyms)
– System Readiness Test (SRT)
– Thermal Vacuum Switch (TVS)
– Third Gear (3GR)
– Three Way Catalytic Converter
(TWC)
– Dual Bed
– Fuel Charging Station
– Central Fuel Injection (CFI)
– Electronic Fuel Injection (EFI)
– Fuel Injection (FI)
– Monotronic
– Single Point Injection (SPI)
– Throttle Position (TP)
– Throttle Position Sensor (TP)
– Throttle Potentiometer
– Throttle Position Switch (TPS)
– Converter Clutch Control (CCC)
– Converter Clutch Override (CCO)
– Viscous Converter Clutch (VCC)
– Lock Up Relay
– Lock Up Solenoid Valve (LUS)
– Transmission Control Module
– Park, Reverse, Neutral, Drive, Low
(PRNDL)
– Selection Lever Position (SLP)
– Transmission Range Selection (TRS)
– Manual Lever Position Sensor (MLP
Sensor)
– Manual Range Position Switch
(MRPS)
– Transmission Position Switch
– Transmisison Range Selection Switch
(TRSS)
– Turbo
– Distance Sensor
– Pulse Generator (PG)
– Voltage Regulator (VR)
– Air Flow Control (AFC)
– Air Flow Meter
– Vane Air Flow
– Aif Flow Meter
– Air Flow Sensor (AFS)
– Light Off Catalyst
– Light Off Catalyst
– Full Throttle
– Wide Open Throttle Switch (WOTS)
Auxiliary Systems – Metrics
09-18
Auxiliary Systems – Metrics
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