GROUP TAB LOCATOR - Jeep

GROUP TAB LOCATOR - Jeep
GROUP TAB LOCATOR
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7
8E
8F
8I
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21
25
Maintenance Schedules
Cooling - 2.5L / 2.8L Diesel
Electronic Control Modules
Engine Systems
Ignition Control
Engine
Exhaust System and Turbocharger
Fuel System
Automatic Transmission - 545RFE
Emissions Control - 2.5L / 2.8L Turbo Diesel
Service Manual Comment Forms
(Rear of Manual)
MAINTENANCE SCHEDULES
KJ
0-1
MAINTENANCE SCHEDULES
TABLE OF CONTENTS
page
MAINTENANCE SCHEDULES FOR ALL
MARKETS EXCEPT U.S., CANADA and
MEXICO
DESCRIPTION — DIESEL ENGINES
.........1
MAINTENANCE SCHEDULES
FOR ALL MARKETS EXCEPT
U.S., CANADA and MEXICO
DESCRIPTION — DIESEL ENGINES
Maintenance Schedule Information not included in
this section, is located in the appropriate Owner’s
Manual.
There are two maintenance schedules that show
the required service for your vehicle.
First is Schedule “B”. It is for vehicles that are
operated under the conditions that are listed below
and at the beginning of the schedule.
• Extensive engine idling.
• Driving in dusty conditions.
• More than 50% of your driving is at sustained
high speeds during hot weather, above 32° C (90° F).
• Trailer towing.
• Taxi, police, or delivery service (commercial service).
NOTE: Most vehicles are operated under the conditions listed for Schedule (B(.
Second is Schedule “A”. It is for vehicles that are
not operated under any of the conditions listed under
Schedule 9B9.
Use the schedule that best describes your driving
conditions. Where time and mileage are listed, follow
the interval that occurs first.
CAUTION: Failure to perform the required maintenance items may result in damage to the vehicle.
At Each Stop for Fuel
• Check the engine oil level about 5 minutes after
a fully warmed engine is shut off. Checking the oil
level while the vehicle is on level ground will
improve the accuracy of the oil level reading. Add oil
only when the level is at or below the ADD or MIN
mark.
• Check the windshield washer solvent and add if
required.
Once a Month
• Check the tire pressure and look for unusual
wear or damage.
• Inspect the battery and clean and tighten the
terminals as required.
• Check the fluid levels of coolant reservoir, brake
master cylinder, power steering and transmission
and add as needed.
• Check all lights and all other electrical items for
correct operation.
At Each Oil Change
• Change the engine oil filter.
• Inspect the exhaust system.
• Inspect the brake hoses.
• Check the manual transmission fluid level — if
equipped.
• Check the coolant level, hoses, and clamps.
• Inspect engine accessory drive belts. Replace as
necessary.
• Inspect for the presence of water in the fuel filter/water separator unit.
• Rotate the tires.
Schedule “B”
Follow schedule “B” if you usually operate your
vehicle under one or more of the following conditions.
• Extensive engine idling.
• Driving in dusty conditions.
• More than 50% of your driving is at sustained
high speeds during hot weather, above 32° C (90° F).
• Trailer towing.
• Taxi, police, or delivery service (commercial service).
0-2
MAINTENANCE SCHEDULES
KJ
MAINTENANCE SCHEDULES FOR ALL MARKETS EXCEPT U.S., CANADA and MEXICO (Continued)
Kilometers
10 000 km
20 000 km
30 000 km
40 000 km
50 000 km
Change the engine oil and engine oil filter.
X
X
X
X
X
Inspect the ball joints.
X
X
X
X
X
Inspect engine accessory drive belt.
X
X
X
X
Replace engine accessory drive belt.
Inspect the engine air filter element.
Replace as necessary.
X
X
Replace the engine air filter element.
X
X
X
X
Replace the engine timing belt.
X
Inspect idler pulleys and timing belt
tensioner‡.
X
Replace fuel filter/water separator unit.
Inspect the brake linings.
X
X
Drain and refill the front and rear axle fluid.
X
X
X
X
X
X
Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid
and replace transmission main sump filter.
Kilometers
X
X
60 000 km
70 000 km
80 000 km
90 000 km
100 000 km
Change the engine oil and engine oil filter.
X
X
X
X
X
Inspect the ball joints.
X
X
X
X
X
Inspect engine accessory drive belt.
X
X
X
X
X
Replace engine accessory drive belt.
X
Inspect the engine air filter element.
Replace as necessary.
Replace the engine air filter element.
X
X
X
X
X
Inspect idler pulleys and timing belt
tensioner‡.
X
Replace the engine timing belt.
X
Inspect the brake linings.
X
X
X
X
X
Drain and refill the front and rear axle fluid.
X
X
X
Replace the fuel filter/water separator unit.
X
X
X
Drain and refill the transfer case fluid.
X
Drain and refill the automatic transmission
fluid and replace transmission main sump
filter.
X
MAINTENANCE SCHEDULES
KJ
0-3
MAINTENANCE SCHEDULES FOR ALL MARKETS EXCEPT U.S., CANADA and MEXICO (Continued)
Kilometers
110 000 km
120 000 km
130 000 km
140 000 km
150 000 km
160 000 km
Change the engine oil and
engine oil filter.
X
X
X
X
X
X
Inspect the ball joints.
X
X
X
X
X
X
Inspect the engine air filter
element. Replace as
necessary.
X
Replace the engine air filter
element.
Inspect engine accessory
drive belt.
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Replace engine accessory
drive belt.
X
Inspect the idler pulleys and
timing belt tensioner‡.
X
Replace the engine timing
belt.
X
Inspect the brake linings.
X
X
X
X
X
X
Drain and refill the front and
rear axle fluid.
X
X
X
Replace the fuel filter/water
separator unit.
X
X
X
Flush and replace the engine
coolant.
Drain and refill automatic
transmission fluid and replace
transmission filter (s).
Inspection and service should also be performed
anytime a malfunction is observed or suspected.
Retain all receipts.
‡ Replace if there is superficial wear, bearing clearance, or evident grease leak.
X
X
0-4
MAINTENANCE SCHEDULES
KJ
MAINTENANCE SCHEDULES FOR ALL MARKETS EXCEPT U.S., CANADA and MEXICO (Continued)
Schedule “A”
Kilometers
20 000 km
40 000 km
60 000 km
80 000 km
100 000 km
Change the engine oil and engine oil
filter.
X
X
X
X
X
Inspect the ball joints.
X
X
X
X
X
Inspect the brake linings.
Inspect the engine air filter element.
Replace as necessary.
X
X
X
Replace the engine air filter element.
Inspect the engine accessory drive belt.
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Replace the engine accessory drive
belt.
Replace the fuel filter/water separator
unit.
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Inspect idler pulleys, and timing belt
tensioner‡.
X
Replace the engine timing belt.
X
Inspect the transfer case fluid.
Kilometers
X
120 000 km
140 000 km
160 000 km
180 000 km
Change the engine oil and engine oil filter.
X
X
X
X
Inspect the ball joints.
X
X
X
X
Inspect the brake linings.
X
Inspect the engine accessory drive belt.
X
Inspect the engine air filter element. Replace
as necessary.
X
X
X
Replace the engine air filter element.
X
Replace the fuel filter/water separator unit.
X
Flush and replace the engine coolant.
Inspect the transfer case fluid.
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Drain and refill the transfer case fluid.
Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid
and replace transmission filter (s).
Inspection and service should also be performed
anytime a malfunction is observed or suspected.
Retain all receipts.
‡ Replace if there is superficial wear, bearing clearance, or evident grease leak.
X
X
WARNING: You can be badly injured working on or
around a motor vehicle. Do only that service work
for which you have the knowledge and the right
equipment. If you have any doubt about your ability
to perform a service job, take your vehicle to a
competent mechanic.
COOLING - 2.5L/2.8L TURBO DIESEL
KJ
7-1
COOLING - 2.5L/2.8L TURBO DIESEL
TABLE OF CONTENTS
page
COOLING - 2.5L/2.8L TURBO DIESEL
DESCRIPTION - COOLING SYSTEM . . . .
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING - COOLING
SYSTEM FLOW CHECK . . . . . . . . . . . .
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING - COOLING
SYSTEM AERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING - COOLING
SYSTEM LEAK TEST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING - ON-BOARD
DIAGNOSTICS (OBD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING - COOLING
SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.....1
.....1
.....1
.....2
page
STANDARD PROCEDURE - COOLING
SYSTEM - REVERSE FLUSHING . . . . . . . . . . . 7
CLEANING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
INSPECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
SPECIFICATIONS
SPECIFICATIONS - COOLING SYSTEM
CAPACITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
SPECIFICATIONS - TORQUE . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
ACCESSORY DRIVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
ENGINE
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
.....2
.....3
COOLING - 2.5L/2.8L TURBO
DIESEL
DESCRIPTION - COOLING SYSTEM
The cooling system regulates engine operating temperature. It allows the engine to reach normal operating temperature as quickly as possible, maintains
normal operating temperature and prevents overheating.
The cooling system also provides a means of heating the passenger compartment. The cooling system
is pressurized and uses a centrifugal water pump to
circulate coolant throughout the system. A separate
and remotely mounted, pressurized coolant tank
using a pressure/vent cap is used.
COOLING SYSTEM COMPONENTS
The cooling system consists of:
• Charge Air Cooler
• Electric Cooling Fans
• A aluminum-core radiator with plastic side
tanks
• A separate pressurized coolant tank
• A pressure/vent cap on the coolant tank
• Fan shroud
• Thermostat
• Coolant
• Low coolant warning lamp
• Coolant temperature gauge
• Water pump
• Hoses and hose clamps
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING - COOLING SYSTEM
FLOW CHECK
To determine whether coolant is flowing through
the cooling system, use the following procedures:
(1) If engine is cold, idle engine until normal operating temperature is reached. Then feel the upper
radiator hose. If it is hot, coolant is circulating.
WARNING: DO NOT REMOVE THE COOLING SYSTEM PRESSURE CAP WITH THE SYSTEM HOT AND
UNDER PRESSURE BECAUSE SERIOUS BURNS
FROM COOLANT CAN OCCUR.
(2) Remove pressure/vent cap when engine is cold,
idle engine until thermostat opens, you should
observe coolant flow while looking down in the coolant recovery pressure container. Once flow is
detected install the pressure/vent cap.
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING - COOLING SYSTEM
AERATION
Low coolant level in a cross flow radiator will
equalize in both tanks with engine off. With engine
at running and at operating temperature, the high
pressure inlet tank runs full and the low pressure
outlet tank drops, resulting in cooling system aeration. Aeration will draw air into the water pump
resulting in the following:
• High reading shown on the temperature gauge.
• Loss of coolant flow through the heater core.
• Corrosion in the cooling system.
7-2
COOLING - 2.5L/2.8L TURBO DIESEL
KJ
COOLING - 2.5L/2.8L TURBO DIESEL (Continued)
• Water pump seal may run dry, increasing the
risk of premature seal failure.
• Combustion gas leaks into the coolant can also
cause aeration.
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING - COOLING SYSTEM
LEAK TEST
WARNING: THE WARNING WORDS “DO NOT OPEN
HOT” ON THE RADIATOR PRESSURE CAP IS A
SAFETY PRECAUTION. WHEN HOT, PRESSURE
BUILDS UP IN COOLING SYSTEM. TO PREVENT
SCALDING OR INJURY, THE RADIATOR CAP
SHOULD NOT BE REMOVED WHILE THE SYSTEM
IS HOT OR UNDER PRESSURE.
With engine not running, remove pressure/vent cap
from the coolant recovery pressure container and
wipe the filler neck sealing seat clean. The coolant
level in the recovery pressure container should be
full.
Attach the Cooling System Tester 7700 or equivalent to the radiator, as shown in (Fig. 1) and apply
104 kPa (15 psi) pressure. If the pressure drops more
than 13.8 kPa (2 psi) in 2 minutes, inspect all points
for external leaks.
All radiator and heater hoses should be shaken
while at 104 kPa (15 psi), since some leaks occur only
while driving due to engine movement.
If there are no external leaks, after the gauge dial
shows a drop in pressure, detach the tester. Start
engine and run until the thermostat opens, allowing
the coolant to expand. Reattach the cooling system
tester. If the needle on the dial fluctuates it indicates
a combustion leak, usually a head gasket leak.
WARNING: WITH TOOL IN PLACE, PRESSURE WILL
BUILD UP RAPIDLY. EXCESSIVE PRESSURE BUILT
UP, BY CONTINUOUS ENGINE OPERATION, MUST
BE RELEASED TO A SAFE PRESSURE POINT.
NEVER PERMIT PRESSURE TO EXCEED 138 kPa
(20 psi).
If the needle on the dial does not fluctuate, raise
the engine rpm a few times. If an abnormal amount
of coolant or steam emits from the tailpipe, it may
indicate a coolant leak caused by a faulty head gasket, cracked engine block, or cracked cylinder head.
There may be internal leaks that can be determined by removing the oil dipstick. If water globules
appear intermixed with the oil it will indicate an
internal leak in the engine. If there is an internal
leak, the engine must be disassembled for repair.
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING - ON-BOARD
DIAGNOSTICS (OBD)
COOLING SYSTEM RELATED DIAGNOSTICS
The Engine Control Module (ECM) has been programmed to monitor certain cooling system components. If the problem is sensed in a monitored circuit
often enough to indicated an actual problem, a DTC
is stored. The DTC will be stored in the ECM memory for eventual display to the service technician.
(Refer to 25 - EMISSIONS CONTROL - DESCRIPTION).
ACCESSING DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODES
To read DTC’s and to obtain cooling system data,
(Refer to 25 - EMISSIONS CONTROL - DESCRIPTION).
ERASING TROUBLE CODES
After the problem has been repaired, use the
DRBIIIt scan tool to erase a DTC. Refer to the
appropriate Powertrain Diagnostic Procedures service information for operation of the DRBIIIt scan
tool.
Fig. 1 PRESSURE TESTING COOLING SYSTEM
1 - COOLANT PRESSURE TESTER
2 - COOLANT RECOVERY PRESSURE CONTAINER
COOLING - 2.5L/2.8L TURBO DIESEL
KJ
7-3
COOLING - 2.5L/2.8L TURBO DIESEL (Continued)
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING - COOLING SYSTEM
Establish what driving conditions caused the complaint. Abnormal loads on the cooling system such as
the following may be the cause:
(1) PROLONGED IDLE, VERY HIGH AMBIENT
TEMPERATURE, SLIGHT TAIL WIND AT IDLE,
SLOW TRAFFIC, TRAFFIC JAMS, HIGH SPEED
OR STEEP GRADES.
• Idle with A/C off when temperature gauge is at
end of normal range.
(2) TRAILER TOWING:
Consult Trailer Towing section of owners manual.
Do not exceed limits.
(3) RECENT SERVICE OR ACCIDENT REPAIR:
Determine if any recent service has been performed on vehicle that may effect cooling system.
This may be:
• Engine adjustments (incorrect timing)
• Slipping engine accessory drive belt
• Brakes (possibly dragging)
• Changed parts (incorrect water pump)
• Reconditioned radiator or cooling system refilling (possibly under filled or air trapped in system).
NOTE: If investigation reveals none of the previous
items as a cause for an engine overheating complaint, refer to following Cooling System Diagnosis
charts.
These charts are to be used as a quick-reference
only.
COOLING SYSTEM DIAGNOSIS-DIESEL ENGINE
CONDITION
POSSIBLE CAUSES
CORRECTION
TEMPERATURE GAUGE
READS LOW
1. Diesel engines, due to their
inherent efficiency are slower to
warm up than gasoline powered
engines, and will operate at lower
temperatures when the vehicle is
unloaded.
2. Is the temperature gauge
connected to the temperature gauge
coolant sensor on the engine?
3. Is the temperature gauge
operating OK?
4. Coolant level low in cold ambient
temperatures accompanied with poor
heater performance.
1. The low gauge reading may be
normal. Refer to thermostats in the
manual text for information. See
Thermostat Diagnosis-Diesel
Engine.
5. Improper operation of internal
heater doors or heater controls.
2. Check, the engine temperature
sensor connector in the engine
compartment.
3. Check gauge operation. Repair
as necessary.
4. Check coolant level in the
coolant tank. Inspect system for
leaks. Repair leaks as necessary.
Refer to the Coolant section for
WARNINGS and precautions
before removing the pressure cap.
5. Inspect heater and repair as
necessary. Refer to Heating and
Air Conditioning for procedures.
7-4
COOLING - 2.5L/2.8L TURBO DIESEL
KJ
COOLING - 2.5L/2.8L TURBO DIESEL (Continued)
CONDITION
TEMPERATURE GAUGE
READS HIGH. COOLANT
MAY OR MAY NOT BE LOST
OR LEAKING FROM
COOLING SYSTEM
POSSIBLE CAUSES
1. Trailer is being towed, a steep hill
is being climbed, vehicle is operated
in slow moving traffic, or engine is
being idled with very high ambient
(outside) temperature and the air
conditioning is on. Higher altitudes
could aggravate these conditions.
2. Temperature gauge reading
incorrectly.
3. Coolant low in coolant tank and
radiator.
4. Pressure cap not installed tightly. If
cap is loose, boiling point of coolant
will be lowered.
5. Poor seals at pressure/vent cap.
6. Freeze point of antifreeze not
correct. Mixture may be too rich.
7. Coolant not flowing through
system.
8. Radiator or A/C condenser fins are
dirty or clogged.
9. Radiator core is corroded or
plugged.
10. Aftermarket A/C installed without
proper A/C condenser.
11. Dragging Brakes.
12. Non-factory bug screen is being
used reducing air flow.
13. Thermostat partially or completely
shut. This is more prevalent on high
mileage vehicles.
14. Cylinder head gasket leaking.
15. Heater core leaking.
CORRECTION
1. This may be a temporary
condition and repair is not
necessary. Turn off the air
conditioning and attempt to drive
the vehicle without any of the
previous conditions. Observe the
temperature gauge. The gauge
should return to the normal range.
If the gauge does not return to
normal range, determine the
cause for the overheating and
repair.
2. Check gauge. Refer to I/P
group.
3. Check for coolant leaks and
repair as necessary.
4. Tighten cap.
5. (a) Check condition of cap and
cap seals. (b) Check condition of
coolant tank filler neck. Make sure
it does not leak pressure.
6. Check antifreeze. Adjust
antifreeze-to-water ratio as
required.
7. Check for coolant flow in
coolant tank with engine warm and
thermostat open. Coolant should
be observed flowing through the
tank. If flow is not observed,
determine reason for lack of flow
and repair as necessary.
8. Clean debris from radiator or
A/C condenser
9. Have radiator re-cored or
replaced.
10. Install proper A/C condenser.
11. Check and correct as
necessary.
12. Only a factory screen should
be used.
13. Check thermostat and replace
if necessary.
14. Check cylinder head gasket for
leaks.
15. Check heater core for leaks.
Repair as necessary.
COOLING - 2.5L/2.8L TURBO DIESEL
KJ
7-5
COOLING - 2.5L/2.8L TURBO DIESEL (Continued)
CONDITION
POSSIBLE CAUSES
TEMPERATURE GAUGE
READING IS INCONSISTENT
(FLUCTUATES, CYCLES OR
IS ERRATIC)
1. During cold weather operation,
with the heater blower in the high
position, the gauge reading may drop
slightly. Fluctuation is also influenced
by loads, outside temperature and
extended idle time with diesel
engines.
2. Temperature gauge or engine
mounted gauge sensor defective or
shorted. Also, corroded or loose
wiring in this circuit.
3. Gauge reading rises when vehicle
is brought to a stop after heavy use
(engine still running).
4. Gauge reading high after starting a
warm-up (hot) engine.
5. Coolant level low in the coolant
tank (air will build up in the cooling
system causing the thermostat to
open late).
6. Cylinder head gasket leaking
allowing exhaust gases to enter the
cooling system causing the
thermostat to open late.
7. Water pump impeller loose on
shaft.
8. Loose accessory drive belt (water
pump slipping).
9. Air leak on the suction side of the
water pump allowing air to build up in
the cooling system causing the
thermostat to open late.
PRESSURE CAP IS
BLOWING OFF STEAM
AND/OR COOLANT.
TEMPERATURE GAUGE
READING MAY BE ABOVE
NORMAL BUT NOT HIGH.
COOLANT LEVEL MAY BE
HIGH IN COOLANT TANK
COOLANT LOSS TO THE
GROUND WITHOUT
PRESSURE CAP BLOWOFF.
GAUGE IS READING HIGH
OR HOT
CORRECTION
1. A normal condition. No
correction is necessary.
2. Check operation of gauge and
repair as necessary.
3. A normal condition. No
correction needed. Gauge should
return to normal range after
vehicle is driven.
4. A normal condition. No
correction needed. Gauge should
return to normal after a few
minutes of engine operation.
5. Check and correct coolant
leaks.
6. (a) Check for cylinder head
gasket leaks with a commercially
available leak tester. (b) Check for
coolant in engine oil. Inspect for
white steam emitting from exhaust
system. Repair as necessary.
7. Check water pump and replace
as necessary.
8. Check and correct as
necessary.
9. Locate leak and repair as
necessary.
1. Pressure relief valve in pressure/
vent cap is defective.
1. Check condition of pressure/
vent cap and cap seals.
2. Head gasket leak or cracked
cylinder head.
2. Repair as necessary.
1. Coolant leaks in radiator, cooling
system hoses, water pump, or
engine.
1. Pressure test cooling system
and repair as necessary.
7-6
COOLING - 2.5L/2.8L TURBO DIESEL
KJ
COOLING - 2.5L/2.8L TURBO DIESEL (Continued)
CONDITION
POSSIBLE CAUSES
CORRECTION
HOSE OR HOSES
COLLAPSE WHEN ENGINE
IS COOLING
1. Vacuum created in cooling system
on engine cool-down is not being
relieved through pressure/vent cap.
1. Cap relief valve stuck. Replace
if necessary.
NOISY FAN
1. Cooling fan blades loose.
2. Cooling fan blades striking a
surrounding object.
3. Air obstructions at radiator or A/C
condenser.
1. Replace cooling fan assembly.
2. Locate point of fan blade
contact and repair as necessary.
3. Remove obstructions or clean
debris from radiator or A/C
condenser.
1. Radiator and/or A/C condenser is
restricted, obstructed or dirty (insects,
leaves, etc.)
1. Remove restriction or clean
debris from radiator or A/C
condenser.
2. Engine is overheating (heat may
be transferred from radiator to A/C
condenser. High Under hood
temperatures due to engine
overheating may also transfer heat to
A/C condenser).
3. The cooling system is equipped
with air seals at the radiator and/or
A/C condenser. If these seals are
missing or damaged, not enough air
flow will be pulled through the
radiator and A/C condenser.
2. Correct overheating condition.
1. Diesel engines, due to their
inherent efficiency are slower to
warm up than gasoline powered
engines, and will operate at lower
temperatures when the vehicle is
unloaded.
2. Coolant level low.
1. The lower gauge reading may
be normal.
INADEQUATE AIR
CONDITIONER
PERFORMANCE (COOLING
SYSTEM SUSPECTED)
INADEQUATE HEATER
PERFORMANCE. MAY BE
ACCOMPANIED BY LOW
GAUGE READING
3. Obstruction in heater hose fitting at
engine.
4. Heater hose kinked.
5. Water pump is not pumping water
to heater core. When the engine is
fully warmed up, both heater hoses
should be hot to the touch. If only
one of the hoses is hot the water
pump may not be operating correctly.
The accessory drive belt may also be
slipping causing poor water pump
operation.
3. Check for missing or damaged
air seals. Repair as necessary.
2. Pressure test cooling system.
Repair leaks as necessary.
3. Remove heater hoses and
check for obstructions. Repair as
necessary.
4. Locate kinked area. Repair as
necessary.
5. Refer to water pumps in this
group. Repair as necessary. If a
slipping belt is detected, refer to
Engine Accessory Drive Belts in
this group. Repair as necessary.
COOLING - 2.5L/2.8L TURBO DIESEL
KJ
7-7
COOLING - 2.5L/2.8L TURBO DIESEL (Continued)
CONDITION
POSSIBLE CAUSES
HEAT ODOR
1. Various heat shields are used at
certain drive line components. One or
more of these shields may be
missing.
2. Is temperature gauge reading
above the normal range?
3. Is the Cooling fan operating
correctly?
4. Has undercoating been applied to
any unnecessary components?
CORRECTION
1. Locate missing shields. Repair
or replace as necessary.
2. Refer to the previous
Temperature Gauge Reads High in
these Diagnostic Charts. Repair as
necessary.
3. Refer to Cooling System Fan in
this group for diagnosis. Repair as
necessary.
4. Clean undercoating as
necessary.
STEAM IS COMING FROM
FRONT OF VEHICLE NEAR
GRILL AREA WHEN
WEATHER IS WET, ENGINE
IS WARMED UP AND
RUNNING, AND VEHICLE IS
STATIONARY.
TEMPERATURE GAUGE IS
IN NORMAL RANGE
1. During wet weather, moisture
(snow, ice, or rain condensation) on
the radiator will evaporate when the
thermostat opens. This opening
allows heated water into the radiator.
When the moisture contacts the hot
radiator, steam may be emitted. This
usually occurs in cold weather with
no fan or air flow to blow it away.
1. Occasional steam emitting from
this area is normal. No repair is
necessary.
COOLANT ODOR
1. Coolant color is not necessarily an
indication of adequate corrosion or
temperature protection. Do not rely
on coolant color for determining
condition of coolant.
1. Refer to Coolant in this group
for antifreeze tests. Adjust
antifreeze-to-water ratio as
necessary.
COOLANT LEVEL CHANGES
IN COOLANT TANK.
TEMPERATURE GAUGE IS
IN NORMAL RANGE
1. Level changes are to be expected
as coolant volume fluctuates with
engine temperature. If the level in the
tank was between the HOT and
COLD marks at normal engine
operating temperature, the level
should return to within that range
after operation at elevated
temperatures.
1. This a normal condition. No
repair necessary.
STANDARD PROCEDURE - COOLING SYSTEM REVERSE FLUSHING
CAUTION: The cooling system normally operates at
97-to-110 kPa (14-to -16 psi) pressure. Exceeding
this pressure may damage the radiator or hoses.
Reverse flushing of the cooling system is the forcing of water through the cooling system. This is done
using air pressure in the opposite direction of normal
coolant flow. It is usually only necessary with very
dirty systems with evidence of partial plugging.
CHEMICAL CLEANING
If visual inspection indicates the formation of
sludge or scaly deposits, use a radiator cleaner
(Mopar Radiator Kleen or equivalent) before flushing.
This will soften scale and other deposits and aid the
flushing operation.
CAUTION: Be sure instructions on the container are
followed.
REVERSE FLUSHING RADIATOR
Disconnect the radiator hoses from the radiator fittings. Attach a section of radiator hose to the radiator bottom outlet fitting and insert the flushing gun.
Connect a water supply hose and air supply hose to
the flushing gun.
7-8
COOLING - 2.5L/2.8L TURBO DIESEL
KJ
COOLING - 2.5L/2.8L TURBO DIESEL (Continued)
CAUTION: The cooling system normally operates at
97-to-110 kPa (14- to-16 psi) pressure. Exceeding
this pressure may damage the radiator or hoses.
Allow the radiator to fill with water. When radiator
is filled, apply air in short blasts allowing radiator to
refill between blasts. Continue this reverse flushing
until clean water flows out through rear of radiator
cooling tube passages. For more information, refer to
operating instructions supplied with flushing equipment. Have radiator cleaned more extensively by a
radiator repair shop.
REVERSE FLUSHING ENGINE
Drain the cooling system (Refer to 7 - COOLING STANDARD PROCEDURE). Disconnect the radiator
upper hose from the radiator and attach the flushing
gun to the hose. Disconnect the radiator lower hose
from the water pump. Attach a lead away hose to the
water pump inlet fitting.
CAUTION: Be sure that the heater control valve is
closed (heat off). This is done to prevent coolant
flow with scale and other deposits from entering
the heater core.
Connect the water supply hose and air supply hose
to the flushing gun. Allow the engine to fill with
water. When the engine is filled, apply air in short
blasts, allowing the system to fill between air blasts.
Continue until clean water flows through the lead
away hose. For more information, refer to operating
instructions supplied with flushing equipment.
Remove the lead away hose, flushing gun, water
supply hose and air supply hose. Remove the thermostat housing (Refer to 7 - COOLING/ENGINE/ENGINE COOLANT THERMOSTAT - REMOVAL).
Install the thermostat and housing with a replace-
ment gasket (Refer to 7 - COOLING/ENGINE/ENGINE
COOLANT
THERMOSTAT
INSTALLATION). Connect the radiator hoses. Refill
the cooling system with the correct antifreeze/water
mixture (Refer to 7 - COOLING - STANDARD PROCEDURE).
CLEANING
Drain cooling system and refill with clean water.
Refer to procedures in this section. Run engine with
pressure/vent cap installed until upper radiator hose
is hot. Stop engine and drain water from system. If
water is dirty; fill, run, and drain system again, until
water runs clear.
INSPECTION
After performing a cleaning/flush procedure,
inspect all hoses, clamps and connections for deterioration and leaks. Inspect radiator and heater core for
leaks.
SPECIFICATIONS
SPECIFICATIONS - COOLING SYSTEM
CAPACITY
SPECIFICATIONS
DESCRIPTION
SPECIFICATION
Cooling System With
Auxiliary Heater
16.6 Liters (17.5 qts.)
Cooling System With Out
Auxiliary Heater
13.8 Liters (14.6 qts.)
SPECIFICATIONS - TORQUE
2.5L/2.8L DIESEL - TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS
DESCRIPTION
N·m
Ft. Lbs.
In. Lbs.
Accessory Drive Belt Idler
Bolt
53
39
—
Accessory Drive Belt
Tensioner Bolt
47.1
35
—
Cooling Fan Support Bolts
47.1
35
—
Thermostat Housing Bolts
27.5
21
—
Water Pump Housing Nuts
24.4
18
215
ACCESSORY DRIVE
KJ
7-9
ACCESSORY DRIVE
TABLE OF CONTENTS
page
page
ACCESSORY DRIVE
SPECIFICATIONS - ACCESSORY BELT
TENSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
BELT TENSIONERS
DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
REMOVAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
INSTALLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
DRIVE BELT
DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
OPERATION-ACCESSORY DRIVE BELT . . . . . . 11
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING - ACCESSORY
DRIVE BELT
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
REMOVAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
INSTALLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
IDLER PULLEYS
REMOVAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
INSTALLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
ACCESSORY DRIVE
SPECIFICATIONS - ACCESSORY BELT TENSION
ACCESSORY DRIVE
BELT
GAUGE
2.5L/2.8L DIESEL ENGINE
A/C Compressor/
Generator
Dynamic Tensioner
Power Steering Belt
Dynamic Tensioner
BELT TENSIONERS
DESCRIPTION
This engine is equipped with a spring loaded automatic belt tensioner (Fig. 1). This tensioner maintains constant belt tension at all times and requires
no maintenance or adjustment.
CAUTION: Do not attempt to check belt tension with
a belt tension gauge on vehicles equipped with an
automatic belt tensioner.
OPERATION
WARNING: THE AUTOMATIC BELT TENSIONER
ASSEMBLY IS SPRING LOADED. DO NOT ATTEMPT
TO DISASSEMBLE THE TENSIONER ASSEMBLY.
Fig. 1 ACCESSORY BELT ROUTING
1 - IDLER PULLEY
2 - GENERATOR
3 - IDLER PULLEY
4 - A/C COMPRESSOR
5 - COOLING FAN SUPPORT
6 - VIBRATION DAMPER
7 - BELT TENSIONER
8 - POWER STEERING PUMP
9 - ACCESSORY DRIVE BELT
10 - VISCOUS HEATER
7 - 10
ACCESSORY DRIVE
KJ
BELT TENSIONERS (Continued)
The automatic belt tensioner maintains correct belt
tension using a coiled spring within the tensioner
housing. The spring applies pressure to the tensioner
arm pressing the arm into the belt, tensioning the belt.
If a new belt is being installed, the arrow must be
within approximately 3 mm (1/8 in.) of indexing mark.
Belt is considered new if it has been used 15 minutes
or less. If this specification cannot be met, check for:
• The wrong belt being installed (incorrect length/
width)
• Worn bearings on an engine accessory (A/C compressor, power steering pump, water pump, idler pulley or generator)
• A pulley on an engine accessory being loose
• Misalignment of an engine accessory
• Belt incorrectly routed.
(2) Remove accessory drive belt (Fig. 2)(Refer to 7 COOLING/ACCESSORY DRIVE/DRIVE BELTS REMOVAL).
(3) Remove belt tensioner retaining bolt and
remove tensioner from bracket (Fig. 3).
REMOVAL
(1) Disconnect negative battery cable.
Fig. 3 BELT TENSIONER ASSEMBLY
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
- ACCESSORY BELT TENSIONER RETAINING BOLT
- POWER STEERING PUMP PULLEY
- BELT TENSIONER
- BRACKET
- POWER STEERING PUMP
- POWER STEERING PUMP RETAINING BOLTS
- POWER STEERING PUMP PULLEY RETAINING BOLTS
INSTALLATION
Fig. 2 ACCESSORY BELT ROUTING
1 - IDLER PULLEY
2 - GENERATOR
3 - IDLER PULLEY
4 - A/C COMPRESSOR
5 - COOLING FAN SUPPORT
6 - VIBRATION DAMPER
7 - BELT TENSIONER
8 - POWER STEERING PUMP
9 - ACCESSORY DRIVE BELT
10 - VISCOUS HEATER
(1) Install belt tensioner on bracket (Fig. 3).
Torque retaining bolt to 47.1N·m.
(2) Install accessory drive belt (Fig. 2)(Refer to 7 COOLING/ACCESSORY DRIVE/DRIVE BELTS INSTALLATION).
(3) Connect negative battery cable.
ACCESSORY DRIVE
KJ
DRIVE BELT
DESCRIPTION
The accessory drive belt is a serpentine type belt
(Fig. 4). Satisfactory performance of these belts
depends on belt condition and proper belt tension.
Fig. 4 ACCESSORY BELT ROUTING
1 - IDLER PULLEY
2 - GENERATOR
3 - IDLER PULLEY
4 - A/C COMPRESSOR
5 - COOLING FAN SUPPORT
6 - VIBRATION DAMPER
7 - BELT TENSIONER
8 - POWER STEERING PUMP
9 - ACCESSORY DRIVE BELT
10 - VISCOUS HEATER
OPERATION-ACCESSORY DRIVE BELT
The accessory drive belts form the link between
the engine crankshaft and the engine driven accessories.
7 - 11
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING - ACCESSORY
DRIVE BELT
VISUAL DIAGNOSIS
When diagnosing serpentine accessory drive belts,
small cracks that run across the ribbed surface of the
belt from rib to rib (Fig. 5), are considered normal.
These are not a reason to replace the belt. However,
cracks running along a rib (not across) are not normal. Any belt with cracks running along a rib must
be replaced (Fig. 5). Also replace the belt if it has
excessive wear, frayed cords or severe glazing.
Refer to ACCESSORY DRIVE BELT DIAGNOSIS
CHART for further belt diagnosis.
Fig. 5 BELT WEAR PATTERN
1 - NORMAL CRACKS BELT OK
2 - NOT NORMAL CRACKS REPLACE BELT
NOISE DIAGNOSIS
Noises generated by the accessory drive belt are
most noticeable at idle. Before replacing a belt to
resolve a noise condition, inspect all of the accessory
drive pulleys for alignment, glazing, or excessive end
play.
7 - 12
ACCESSORY DRIVE
KJ
DRIVE BELT (Continued)
ACCESSORY DRIVE BELT DIAGNOSIS CHART
CONDITION
RIB CHUNKING (One or more ribs
has separated from belt body)
RIB OR BELT WEAR
BELT SLIPS
LONGITUDAL BELT CRACKING
9GROOVE JUMPING9
(Belt does not maintain correct
position on pulley)
BELT BROKEN
(Note: Identify and correct problem
before new belt is installed)
POSSIBLE CAUSES
CORRECTION
1. Foreign objects imbedded in
pulley grooves.
1. Remove foreign objects from
pulley grooves. Replace belt.
2. Installation damage
2. Replace belt
1. Pulley misaligned
1. Align pulley(s)
2. Abrasive environment
2. Clean pulley(s). Replace belt if
necessary
3. Rusted pulley(s)
3. Clean rust from pulley(s)
4. Sharp or jagged pulley groove
tips
4. Replace pulley. Inspect belt.
5. Belt rubber deteriorated
5. Replace belt
1. Belt slipping because of
insufficient tension
1. Inspect/Replace tensioner if
necessary
2. Belt or pulley exposed to
substance that has reduced friction
(belt dressing, oil, ethylene glycol)
2. Replace belt and clean pulleys
3. Driven component bearing failure
(seizure)
3. Replace faulty component or
bearing
4. Belt glazed or hardened from
heat and excessive slippage
4. Replace belt.
1. Belt has mistracked from pulley
groove
1. Replace belt
2. Pulley groove tip has worn away
rubber to tensile member
2. Replace belt
1. Incorrect belt tension
1. Inspect/Replace tensioner if
necessary
2. Pulley(s) not within design
tolerance
2. Replace pulley(s)
3. Foreign object(s) in grooves
3. Remove foreign objects from
grooves
4. Pulley misalignment
4. Align component
5. Belt cordline is broken
5. Replace belt
1. Incorrect belt tension
1. Replace Inspect/Replace
tensioner if necessary
2. Tensile member damaged during
belt installation
2. Replace belt
3. Severe misalignment
3. Align pulley(s)
4. Bracket, pulley, or bearing failure
4. Replace defective component
and belt
ACCESSORY DRIVE
KJ
7 - 13
DRIVE BELT (Continued)
CONDITION
NOISE
(Objectionable squeal, squeak, or
rumble is heard or felt while drive
belt is in operation)
TENSION SHEETING FABRIC
FAILURE
(Woven fabric on outside,
circumference of belt has cracked or
separated from body of belt)
CORD EDGE FAILURE
(Tensile member exposed at edges
of belt or separated from belt body)
POSSIBLE CAUSES
CORRECTION
1. Incorrect belt tension
1. Inspect/Replace tensioner if
necessary
2. Bearing noise
2. Locate and repair
3. Belt misalignment
3. Align belt/pulley(s)
4. Belt to pulley mismatch
4. Install correct belt
5. Driven component induced
vibration
5. Locate defective driven
component and repair
1. Tension sheeting contacting
stationary object
1. Correct rubbing condition
2. Excessive heat causing woven
fabric to age
2. Replace belt
3. Tension sheeting splice has
fractured
3. Replace belt
1. Incorrect belt tension
1. Inspect/Replace tensioner if
necessary
2. Belt contacting stationary object
2. Replace belt
3. Pulley(s) out of tolerance
3. Replace pulley
4. Insufficient adhesion between
tensile member and rubber matrix
4. Replace belt
REMOVAL
INSTALLATION
NOTE: The belt routing schematics are published
from the latest information available at the time of
publication. If anything differs between these schematics and the Belt Routing Label, use the schematics on Belt Routing Label. This label is located
in the engine compartment.
NOTE: The belt routing schematics are published
from the latest information available at the time of
publication. If anything differs between these schematics and the Belt Routing Label, use the schematics on Belt Routing Label. This label is located
in the engine compartment.
CAUTION: DO NOT LET TENSIONER ARM SNAP
BACK TO THE FREEARM POSITION, SEVERE DAMAGE MAY OCCUR TO THE TENSIONER.
Belt tension is not adjustable. Belt adjustment is
maintained by an automatic ( spring load ) belt tensioner.
(1) Check condition of all pulleys.
Belt tension is not adjustable. Belt adjustment is
maintained by an automatic (spring loaded) belt tensioner.
(1) Disconnect negative battery cable.
(2) Rotate belt tensioner until it contacts its stop.
Remove belt, then slowly rotate the tensioner into
the freearm position.
CAUTION: When installing the serpentine accessory
drive belt, the belt MUST be routed correctly. If not,
the engine may overheat due to the water pump
rotating in the wrong direction.
7 - 14
ACCESSORY DRIVE
KJ
DRIVE BELT (Continued)
(2) Install new belt. Route the belt around all pulleys except the idler pulley (Fig. 6). Rotate the tensioner arm until it contacts its stop position. Route
the belt around the idler and slowly let the tensioner
rotate into the belt. Make sure the belt is seated onto
all pulleys (Fig. 6).
IDLER PULLEYS
REMOVAL
CAUTION: The retaining bolts on the idler pulleys
are left hand thread.
(1) Disconnect negative battery cable.
(2) Remove accessory drive belt (Refer to 7 COOLING/ACCESSORY DRIVE/DRIVE BELTS REMOVAL).
(3) Remove idler pulley retaining bolts and pulleys
(Fig. 7) (Fig. 8).
Fig. 6 ACCESSORY BELT ROUTING
1 - IDLER PULLEY
2 - GENERATOR
3 - IDLER PULLEY
4 - A/C COMPRESSOR
5 - COOLING FAN SUPPORT
6 - VIBRATION DAMPER
7 - BELT TENSIONER
8 - POWER STEERING PUMP
9 - ACCESSORY DRIVE BELT
10 - VISCOUS HEATER
Fig. 7 COOLING FAN SUPPORT
1
2
3
4
-
IDLER PULLEY
COOLING FAN SUPPORT
RETAINING BOLTS
ENGINE LIFT HOOK
ACCESSORY DRIVE
KJ
7 - 15
IDLER PULLEYS (Continued)
INSTALLATION
(1) Install idler pulleys and retaining bolts (Fig. 7)
(Fig. 8). Torque bolts to 53N·m.
(2) Install accessory drive belt (Refer to 7 - COOLING/ACCESSORY DRIVE/DRIVE BELTS - INSTALLATION).
(3) Connect negative battery cable.
Fig. 8 VIBRATION DAMPER AND IDLER PULLEY
1 - VIBRATION DAMPER/CRANKSHAFT PULLEY RETAINING
BOLTS
2 - VIBRATION DAMPER/CRANKSHAFT PULLEY
3 - IDLER PULLEY
7 - 16
ENGINE
KJ
ENGINE
TABLE OF CONTENTS
page
COOLANT
STANDARD PROCEDURE
STANDARD PROCEDURE—DRAINING
COOLING SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
STANDARD PROCEDURE - COOLING
SYSTEM FILLING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
STANDARD PROCEDURE - REFILLING
COOLING SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
COOLANT RECOVERY PRESS CONTAINER
DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
COOLING FAN
REMOVAL
REMOVAL - COOLING FAN . . . . . . . . . . .
REMOVAL - COOLING FAN SUPPORT . .
CLEANING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
INSPECTION
.......................
INSTALLATION
INSTALLATION - COOLING FAN . . . . . . .
INSTALLATION - COOLING FAN SUPPORT
COOLANT SYSTEM HOSES
REMOVAL
REMOVAL - UPPER RADIATOR HOSE . .
REMOVAL - HEATER CORE HOSES . . . .
INSTALLATION
INSTALLATION - UPPER RADIATOR HOSE
INSTALLATION – HEATER CORE HOSES
ENGINE COOLANT TEMP SENSOR
DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
REMOVAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
INSTALLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ENGINE COOLANT THERMOSTAT
DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . 16
. . . 17
. . . 17
. . . 17
. . . 17
.
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.
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.
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. 17
. 17
. 17
. 17
. . . 18
. . 18
. . . 18
. . . 18
. . 19
. . . 19
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.
.
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.
.
. 19
. 19
. 20
. 20
page
OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
REMOVAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
INSTALLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
FAN DRIVE VISCOUS CLUTCH
DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING - FAN DRIVE
VISCOUS CLUTCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
REMOVAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
INSTALLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RADIATOR
REMOVAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
INSTALLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
WATER PUMP
DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
REMOVAL - WATER PUMP . . . . . . . . . . . .
CLEANING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
INSTALLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RADIATOR PRESSURE CAP
DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING - COOLING
SYSTEM PRESSURE CAP. . . . . . . . . . .
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING - PRESSURE
RELIEF TEST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CLEANING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
INSPECTION
......................
HOSE CLAMPS
DESCRIPTION - HOSE CLAMPS
.......
OPERATION - HOSE CLAMPS . . . . . . . . .
. . . . 20
. . . . 20
. . . . 21
. . . . 21
. . . . 22
. . . . 22
. . . . 22
. . . . 23
. . . . 23
. . . . 24
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. 24
. 24
. 24
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. 25
. . . . 25
. . . . 25
. . . . 25
. . . . 25
. . . . 26
. . . . 26
. . . . 26
. . . . 27
. . . 20
COOLANT
STANDARD PROCEDURE
STANDARD PROCEDURE—DRAINING COOLING
SYSTEM
WARNING: DO NOT REMOVE THE CYLINDER
BLOCK DRAIN PLUGS OR LOOSEN THE RADIATOR
DRAINCOCK WITH SYSTEM HOT AND UNDER
PRESSURE. SERIOUS BURNS FROM COOLANT
CAN OCCUR.
(1) DO NOT remove radiator cap first. With engine
cold, raise vehicle on a hoist and locate radiator
draincock.
NOTE: Radiator draincock is located on the Right/
lower side of radiator facing to rear of vehicle.
(2) Attach one end of a hose to the draincock. Put
the other end into a clean container. Open draincock
and drain coolant from radiator. This will empty the
coolant reserve/overflow tank. The coolant does not
have to be removed from the tank unless the system
is being refilled with a fresh mixture. Remove radiator cap and continue draining cooling system.
ENGINE
KJ
7 - 17
COOLANT (Continued)
STANDARD PROCEDURE - COOLING SYSTEM
FILLING
Remove pressure/vent cap and fill system, using a
50/50 mix of Mopart Antifreeze/Coolant, 5
Year/100,000 Mile Formula and distilled water.
Continue filling system until full. Be careful not
to spill coolant on drive belts or the generator.
Fill coolant recovery pressure container to at least
the MAX mark with 50/50 solution. It may be necessary to add coolant to the coolant recovery pressure
container after three or four warm up/cool down
cycles to maintain coolant level between the MAX
and MIN mark. This will allow trapped air to be
removed from the system.
STANDARD PROCEDURE - REFILLING
COOLING SYSTEM
(1) Tighten the radiator draincock and the cylinder
block drain plug(s) (if removed).
CAUTION: Failure to purge air from the cooling system can result in an overheating condition and
severe engine damage.
(2) Fill system using a 50/50 mixture of ethyleneglycol antifreeze and low mineral content water, until
coolant remains in the bottom of the coolant reserve/
overflow. Install radiator cap.
(3) With heater control unit in the HEAT position,
operate engine with radiator cap in place.
(4) After engine has reached normal operating
temperature, shut engine off and allow it to cool.
When engine is cooling down, coolant will be drawn
into the radiator from the reserve/overflow tank.
(5) Add coolant to reserve/overflow tank as necessary. Only add coolant to the reserve/overflow
tank when the engine is cold. Coolant level in a
warm engine will be higher due to thermal
expansion.
COOLANT RECOVERY PRESS
CONTAINER
DESCRIPTION
This system works along with the radiator pressure cap. This is done by using thermal expansion
and contraction of the coolant to keep the coolant
free of trapped air. It provides:
• A volume for coolant expansion and contraction.
• A convenient and safe method for checking/adjusting coolant level at atmospheric pressure. This is
done without removing the radiator pressure cap.
• Some reserve coolant to the radiator to cover
minor leaks and evaporation or boiling losses.
As the engine cools, a vacuum is formed in the
cooling system of both the radiator and engine. Coolant will then be drawn from the coolant tank and
returned to a proper level in the radiator.
The coolant reservoir/overflow system has a radiator mounted pressurized cap, an overflow tube, and a
plastic coolant reservoir/overflow tank, mounted to
the right side of the cowl. It is mounted to the cowl
with two nuts on top, and a slide bracket on the bottom.
OPERATION
The pressure chamber keeps the coolant free of
trapped air, provides a volume for expansion and contraction, and provides a convenient and safe method
for checking and adjusting coolant level at atmospheric pressure. It also provides some reserve coolant to cover minor leaks, evaporation or boiling
losses. The overflow chamber allows coolant recovery
in case of an overheat.
COOLING FAN
REMOVAL
REMOVAL - COOLING FAN
(1) (Refer to 7 - COOLING/ENGINE/FAN DRIVE
VISCOUS CLUTCH - REMOVAL)
REMOVAL - COOLING FAN SUPPORT
(1) Disconnect negative battery cable.
(2) Remove fan drive viscous clutch and fan
assembly (Refer to 7 - COOLING/ENGINE/FAN
DRIVE VISCOUS CLUTCH - REMOVAL).
(3) Remove cooling fan support from engine block
(Fig. 1).
CLEANING
Clean the fan blades using a mild soap and water.
Do not use an abrasive to clean the blades.
INSPECTION
WARNING: DO NOT ATTEMPT TO BEND OR
STRAIGHTEN FAN BLADES IF FAN IS NOT WITHIN
SPECIFICATIONS.
CAUTION: If fan blade assembly is replaced
because of mechanical damage, water pump and
fan drive viscous clutch should also be inspected.
These components could have been damaged due
to excessive vibration.
7 - 18
ENGINE
KJ
COOLING FAN (Continued)
COOLANT SYSTEM HOSES
REMOVAL
REMOVAL - UPPER RADIATOR HOSE
(1) Drain cooling system (Refer to 7 - COOLING/
ENGINE/COOLANT - STANDARD PROCEDURE).
(2) Disconnect upper radiator hose from thermostat housing (Fig. 2).
(3) Disconnect upper radiator hose from radiator
and remove from vehicle (Fig. 2).
Fig. 1 COOLING FAN SUPPORT
1
2
3
4
-
IDLER PULLEY
COOLING FAN SUPPORT
RETAINING BOLTS
ENGINE LIFT HOOK
(1) Remove fan blade assembly from fan drive viscous clutch (four bolts).
(2) Lay fan on a flat surface with leading edge facing down. With tip of blade touching flat surface,
replace fan if clearance between opposite blade and
surface is greater than 2.0 mm (.090 inch). Rocking
motion of opposite blades should not exceed 2.0 mm
(.090 inch). Test all blades in this manner.
(3) Inspect fan assembly for cracks, bends, loose
rivets or broken welds. Replace fan if any damage is
found.
INSTALLATION
INSTALLATION - COOLING FAN
(1) (Refer to 7 - COOLING/ENGINE/FAN DRIVE
VISCOUS CLUTCH - INSTALLATION)
INSTALLATION - COOLING FAN SUPPORT
(1) Install cooling fan support to engine block (Fig.
1). Torque bolts to 47.1N·m.
(2) Install fan drive viscous clutch and fan assembly (Refer to 7 - COOLING/ENGINE/FAN DRIVE
VISCOUS CLUTCH - INSTALLATION).
(3) Connect negative battery cable.
Fig. 2 UPPER RADIATOR HOSE
1
2
3
4
-
FAN SHROUD
HOSE CLAMP
UPPER RADIATOR HOSE
THERMOSTAT HOUSING
REMOVAL - HEATER CORE HOSES
(1) Drain cooling system (Refer to 7 - COOLING/
ENGINE/COOLANT - STANDARD PROCEDURE).
(2) Remove engine cover from engine (Refer to 9 ENGINE COVER - REMOVAL).
(3) Disconnect heater core supply line at heater
core and viscous heater (Fig. 3). Remove hose from
vehicle.
(4) Disconnect heater core return line from heater
core and EGR cooler (Fig. 3). Remove hose from vehicle.
ENGINE
KJ
7 - 19
COOLANT SYSTEM HOSES (Continued)
ENGINE COOLANT TEMP
SENSOR
DESCRIPTION
The engine coolant temperature sensor threads
into a coolant passage in the cylinder head (Fig. 4).
New sensors have sealant applied to the threads.
Fig. 3 HEATER CORE COOLANT HOSES
1
2
3
4
5
-
HEATER CORE TO VISCOUS HEATER HOSE
MOUNTING STUD
HOSE CLAMP
HOSE CLAMP
HEATER CORE TO EGR COOLER HOSE
INSTALLATION
INSTALLATION - UPPER RADIATOR HOSE
(1) Install upper radiator hose on radiator and
thermostat housing (Fig. 2).
(2) Reposition hose clamps in proper position.
(3) Refill cooling system to proper level (Refer to 7
- COOLING/ENGINE/COOLANT - STANDARD PROCEDURE).
INSTALLATION – HEATER CORE HOSES
(1) Connect heater core supply hose to heater core
and viscous heater. Position hose clamps into proper
position.
(2) Connect heater core return hose to heater core
and EGR cooler. Position hose clamps into proper
position.
(3) Install engine cover to engine (Refer to 9 ENGINE COVER - INSTALLATION).
(4) Refill cooling system to proper level (Refer to 7
- COOLING/ENGINE/COOLANT - STANDARD PROCEDURE).
Fig. 4 CYLINDER HEAD ASSEMBLY
1 - CYLINDER HEAD BOLT
2 - GLOW PLUG
3 - COOLANT TEMPERATURE SENSOR
4 - CYLINDER HEAD ALIGNMENT DOWEL
5 - GLOW PLUG HARNESS
6 - CYLINDER LINER
7 - CYLINDER BLOCK
8 - CYLINDER HEAD GASKET
9 - CYLINDER HEAD
10 - ROCKER ARM ASSEMBLIES
OPERATION
The coolant temperature (ECT) sensor is a negative temperature coefficient (NTC) thermistor (resistance varies inversley with temperature). This means
at cold tempertures its resistance is high so the voltage signal will be high. As coolant temperture
increases, resistance decreases and the signal voltage
will be low. This allows the sensor to provide an analog voltage signal to the ECM.
7 - 20
ENGINE
KJ
ENGINE COOLANT TEMP SENSOR (Continued)
REMOVAL
INSTALLATION
WARNING: DO NOT REMOVE OR LOOSEN THE
COOLANT PRESSURE/VENT CAP, CYLINDER
BLOCK DRAIN PLUGS, OR THE DRAINCOCK WHEN
THE SYSTEM IS HOT AND UNDER PRESSURE
BECAUSE SERIOUS BURNS FROM THE COOLANT
CAN OCCUR.
(1) Install coolant temperature sensor in cylinder
head (Fig. 5).
(2) Connect coolant temperature sensor electrical
connector (Fig. 5).
(3) Refill cooling system. (Refer to 7 - COOLING/
ENGINE/COOLANT - STANDARD PROCEDURE)
(4) Connect negative battery cable.
(1) Disconnect negative battery cable.
(2) Drain the cooling system. (Refer to 7 - COOLING/ENGINE/COOLANT - STANDARD PROCEDURE)
(3) Disconnect coolant temperature sensor electrical connector (Fig. 5).
(4) Remove coolant temperature sensor from cylinder head (Fig. 5).
ENGINE COOLANT
THERMOSTAT
DESCRIPTION
A pellet-type thermostat controls the operating
temperature of the engine by controlling the amount
of coolant flow to the radiator (Fig. 6).
OPERATION
The thermostat starts to open at 80°C (176°F).
Above this temperature, coolant is allowed to flow to
the radiator. This provides quicker engine warmup
and overall temperature control.
The same thermostat is used for winter and summer seasons. An engine should not be operated without a thermostat, except for servicing or testing.
Operating without a thermostat causes other problems. These are: longer engine warmup time, unreliable warmup performance, increased exhaust
emissions and crankcase condensation. This condensation can result in sludge formation.
REMOVAL
NOTE: The thermostat is not serviced separately.
The thermostat and housing must be replaced as
an assembly.
Fig. 5 CYLINDER HEAD ASSEMBLY
1 - CYLINDER HEAD BOLT
2 - GLOW PLUG
3 - COOLANT TEMPERATURE SENSOR
4 - CYLINDER HEAD ALIGNMENT DOWEL
5 - GLOW PLUG HARNESS
6 - CYLINDER LINER
7 - CYLINDER BLOCK
8 - CYLINDER HEAD GASKET
9 - CYLINDER HEAD
10 - ROCKER ARM ASSEMBLIES
(1) Disconnect negative battery cable.
(2) Remove engine cover (Refer to 9 - ENGINE
COVER - REMOVAL).
(3) Partially drain cooling system (Refer to 7 COOLING/ENGINE/COOLANT - STANDARD PROCEDURE).
(4) Disconnect upper radiator hose and bypass
hoses at thermostat housing.
(5) Remove thermostat housing retaining bolts,
support bracket (2.8L) and housing from cylinder
head, discard gasket (Fig. 7).
ENGINE
KJ
7 - 21
ENGINE COOLANT THERMOSTAT (Continued)
Fig. 7 THERMOSTAT HOUSING ASSEMBLY
1
2
3
4
5
Fig. 6 THERMOSTAT HOUSING
1 - THERMOSTAT HOUSING GASKET
2 - THERMOSTAT HOUSING
3 - TURBOCHARGER OIL SUPPLY LINE BANJO BOLT
4 - THERMOSTAT HOUSING RETAINING BOLTS
5 - BRASS WASHER
6 - EXHAUST MANIFOLD GASKET
7 - EXHAUST MANIFOLD
8 - EXHAUST MANIFOLD HEATSHIELD
9 - EXHAUST MANIFOLD HEATSHIELD RETAINING BOLTS
10 - OIL RETURN HOSE
11 - HOSE CLAMPS
12 - EXHAUST MANIFOLD RETAINING NUTS
13 - TURBOCHARGER DOWNPIPE STUDS
14 - TURBOCHARGER DOWN PIPE GASKET
15 - TURBOCHARGER DOWNPIPE
16 - TURBOCHARGER DOWNPIPE RETAINING NUT
INSTALLATION
(1) Clean old gasket material from cylinder head
and thermostat housing.
(2) Install thermostat housing with gasket and
support bracket (2.8L) to cylinder head (Fig. 7).
Torque bolts to 27.5N·m.
(3) Connect coolant bypass hose and upper radiator hose to thermostat housing.
(4) Refill cooling system (Refer to 7 - COOLING/
ENGINE/COOLANT - STANDARD PROCEDURE).
-
THERMOSTAT HOUSING GASKET
THERMOSTAT HOUSING
RETAINING BOLTS
CYLINDER HEAD
CYLINDER HEAD COVER/INTAKE MANIFOLD
(5) Install engine cover (Refer to 9 - ENGINE
COVER - INSTALLATION).
(6) Connect negative battery cable.
FAN DRIVE VISCOUS CLUTCH
DESCRIPTION
CAUTION: If the viscous fan drive is replaced
because of mechanical damage, the cooling fan
blades should also be inspected. Inspect for fatigue
cracks, loose blades, or loose rivets that could
have resulted from excessive vibration. Replace fan
blade assembly if any of these conditions are
found. Also inspect water pump bearing and shaft
assembly for any related damage due to a viscous
fan drive malfunction.
The thermal viscous fan drive (Fig. 8) is a siliconefluid-filled coupling used to connect the fan blades to
the fan support bracket assembly. The coupling
allows the fan to be driven in a normal manner. This
is done at low engine speeds while limiting the top
speed of the fan to a predetermined maximum level
at higher engine speeds.
7 - 22
ENGINE
KJ
FAN DRIVE VISCOUS CLUTCH (Continued)
On the 2.5L Diesel engine, a viscous fan is standard.
Fig. 8 Viscous Fan Drive - Typical
1 - VISCOUS FAN DRIVE
2 - THERMOSTATIC SPRING
3 - MOUNTING NUT TO WATER PUMP HUB
OPERATION
A thermostatic bimetallic spring coil is located on
the front face of the viscous fan drive unit. This
spring coil reacts to the temperature of the radiator
discharge air. It engages the viscous fan drive for
higher fan speed if the air temperature from the
radiator rises above a certain point. Until additional
engine cooling is necessary, the fan will remain at
a reduced rpm regardless of engine speed. Normally less than three hundred (300) rpm.
Only when sufficient heat is present, will the viscous fan drive engage. This is when the air flowing
through the radiator core causes a reaction to the
bimetallic coil. It then increases fan speed to provide
the necessary additional engine cooling.
Once the engine has cooled, the radiator discharge
temperature will drop. The bimetallic coil again
reacts and the fan speed is reduced to the previous
disengaged speed.
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING - FAN DRIVE
VISCOUS CLUTCH
If the fan assembly free-wheels without drag (the
fan blades will revolve more than five turns when
spun by hand), replace the fan drive. This spin test
must be performed when the engine is cool.
For the following test, the cooling system must be
in good condition. It also will ensure against excessively high coolant temperature.
WARNING: BE SURE THAT THERE IS ADEQUATE
FAN BLADE CLEARANCE BEFORE DRILLING.
(1) Drill a 3.18-mm (1/8-in) diameter hole in the
top center of the fan shroud.
(2) Obtain a dial thermometer with an 8 inch stem
(or equivalent). It should have a range of -18° to
105°C (0° to 220° F). Insert thermometer through the
hole in the shroud. Be sure that there is adequate
clearance from the fan blades.
(3) Connect a tachometer and an engine ignition
timing light (timing light is to be used as a strobe
light).
(4) Block the air flow through the radiator. Secure
a sheet of plastic in front of the radiator (or air conditioner condenser). Use tape at the top to secure the
plastic and be sure that the air flow is blocked.
(5) Be sure that the air conditioner (if equipped) is
turned off.
WARNING: USE EXTREME CAUTION WHEN THE
ENGINE IS OPERATING. DO NOT STAND IN A
DIRECT LINE WITH THE FAN. DO NOT PUT YOUR
HANDS NEAR THE PULLEYS, BELTS OR FAN. DO
NOT WEAR LOOSE CLOTHING.
(6) Start the engine and operate at 2400 rpm.
Within ten minutes the air temperature (indicated on
the dial thermometer) should be up to 93° C (200° F).
Fan drive engagement should have started to occur
at between 91° to 96° C (195° to 205° F). Engagement is distinguishable by a definite increase in fan
flow noise (roaring). The timing light also will indicate an increase in the speed of the fan.
(7) When the air temperature reaches 93° C (200°
F), remove the plastic sheet. Fan drive disengagement should have started to occur at between 62° to
85° C (145° to 185° F). A definite decrease of fan
flow noise (roaring) should be noticed. If not, replace
the defective viscous fan drive unit.
REMOVAL
(1) Disconnect negative battery cable.
NOTE: The thermal viscous fan drive/fan blade
assembly is attached (threaded) to fan support.
(2) Remove fan blade/viscous fan drive assembly
from water pump using special tool 6958 spanner
wrench, by turning mounting nut counterclockwise
as viewed from front (Fig. 9) (Fig. 10). Threads on
viscous fan drive are RIGHT HAND.
(3) Do not attempt to remove fan/fan drive viscous
clutch assembly from vehicle at this time.
(4) Do not unbolt fan blade assembly from fan
drive viscous clutch at this time.
(5) Remove fan shroud to radiator bolts.
(6) Remove fan shroud and fan blade/fan drive viscous clutch assembly as a complete unit from vehicle.
ENGINE
KJ
7 - 23
FAN DRIVE VISCOUS CLUTCH (Continued)
(7) After removing fan blade/fan drive viscous
clutch assembly, do not place viscous clutch in horizontal position. If stored horizontally, silicone fluid in
the fan drive viscous clutch could drain into its bearing assembly and contaminate lubricant.
(8) Remove four bolts securing fan blade assembly
to fan drive viscous clutch.
INSTALLATION
(1) Assemble fan blade to viscous fan drive.
Tighten mounting bolts to 27 N·m (20 ft. lbs.) torque.
NOTE: The viscous fan and fan shroud must be
installed as an assembly.
Fig. 9 FAN DRIVE VISCOUS CLUTCH - TYPICAL
1 - SPECIAL TOOL 6958 SPANNER WRENCH
2 - FAN
(2) Gently lay fan and viscous drive into fan
shroud.
(3) Install the fan shroud to radiator mounting
bolt. Torque bolts to 5.5N·m.
(4) Thread the fan and viscous drive onto the fan
support and tighten nut using special tool 6958 spanner wrench.
(5) Connect negative battery cable.
RADIATOR
REMOVAL
Fig. 10 COOLING FAN AND VISCOUS CLUTCH
1 - COOLING FAN AND FAN DRIVE VISCOUS CLUTCH
ASSEMBLY
2 - FAN SUPPORT
(1) Disconnect negative battery cable.
(2) Drain cooling system (Refer to 7 - COOLING/
ENGINE - STANDARD PROCEDURE).
(3) Remove engine oil fill cap.
(4) Remove engine cover (Refer to 9 - ENGINE
COVER - REMOVAL).
(5) Remove air filter assembly from the engine bay.
(6) Recover and evacuate the refrigerant system
(Refer to 24 - HEATING & AIR CONDITIONING/
PLUMBING - STANDARD PROCEDURE) and (Refer
to 24 - HEATING & AIR CONDITIONING/PLUMBING - STANDARD PROCEDURE).
(7) Disconnect high side refrigerant line from the
upper radiator support bracket.
(8) Remove upper radiator support bracket retaining bolts and remove the support bracket.
(9) Remove high side refrigerant line retaining nut
and remove the line from the condenser assembly.
Position the line out of the way.
(10) Unbolt cooling fan from cooling fan support.
(11) Remove fan shroud retaining bolts and
remove the fan and shroud as an assembly.
(12) Disconnect charge air cooler hoses from the
charge air cooler.
(13) Disconnect engine coolant hoses from the radiator.
(14) Disconnect coolant reservoir hose from the
radiator.
7 - 24
ENGINE
KJ
RADIATOR (Continued)
(15) Remove low side refrigerant line retaining nut
and remove the line from the condenser assembly.
Position the line out of the way.
(16) Remove condenser assembly retaining bolts
and remove the condenser from the vehicle.
(17) Remove power steering cooler retaining bolts
and unclip the air deflectors from both sides of the
radiator (cooling module) assembly.
(18) Lift cooling module assembly out of the engine
bay.
(19) Remove radiator retaining bolts and remove
the cooling system module from vehicle.
(20) Separate charge air cooler from radiator.
INSTALLATION
(1) Install radiator on the charge air cooler and
install retaining bolts.
(2) Install radiator (cooling module) assembly in
the engine bay.
(3) Install power steering cooler retaining bolts
and clip the air deflectors on both sides of the radiator (cooling module) assembly.
(4) Install condenser assembly and retaining bolts.
(5) Install low side refrigerant line and retaining
nut.
(6) Connect coolant reservoir hose on the radiator.
(7) Connect engine coolant hoses on the radiator.
(8) Connect charge air cooler hoses on the charge
air cooler.
(9) Install fan and fan shroud assembly and
retaining bolts.
(10) Install cooling fan assembly to cooling fan
support.
(11) Install high side refrigerant line and retaining
nut.
(12) Install upper radiator support bracket and
retaining bolts.
(13) Connect high side refrigerant line on the
upper radiator support bracket.
(14) Evacuate and re-charge the refrigerant system (Refer to 24 - HEATING & AIR CONDITIONING/PLUMBING - STANDARD PROCEDURE).
(15) Install air filter assembly in the engine bay.
(16) Install engine cover (Refer to 9 - ENGINE
COVER - INSTALLATION).
(17) refill cooling system (Refer to 7 - COOLING/
ENGINE - STANDARD PROCEDURE).
(18) Connect negative battery cable.
WATER PUMP
DESCRIPTION
The water pump on the 2.5L/2.8L CRD diesel has a
die cast aluminum housing. It bolts to a aluminum
housing which attaches to the engine block.
OPERATION
The water pump is used to circulate coolant
through the cooling system. The coolant is pumped
through the engine block, cylinder head, heater core,
EGR cooler, viscous heater, and radiator.
REMOVAL - WATER PUMP
(1) Disconnect negative battery cable.
(2) Drain cooling system (Refer to 7 - COOLING/
ENGINE/COOLANT - STANDARD PROCEDURE).
(3) Remove timing belt inner and outer covers
(Refer to 9 - ENGINE/VALVE TIMING/TIMING
BELT / CHAIN COVER(S) - REMOVAL).
(4) Remove water pump retaining bolts and pump
(Fig. 11).
Fig. 11 WATER PUMP LOCATION
1
2
3
4
5
-
CYLINDER HEAD
ENGINE BLOCK
OIL COOLER
OIL FILTER HOUSING
WATER PUMP
CLEANING
Clean gasket mating surfaces as necessary.
KJ
ENGINE
7 - 25
WATER PUMP (Continued)
INSTALLATION
(1) Clean mating surfaces of water pump housing
and engine block as necessary.
(2) Place new o-ring in groove in water pump
housing. Install water pump and retaining bolts.
Torque bolts to 24.4N·m.
(3) Install both inner and outer timing belt covers
(Refer to 9 - ENGINE/VALVE TIMING/TIMING
BELT / CHAIN COVER(S) - INSTALLATION).
(4) Refill cooling system (Refer to 7 - COOLING/
ENGINE/COOLANT - STANDARD PROCEDURE).
(5) Connect negative battery cable.
RADIATOR PRESSURE CAP
DESCRIPTION
The cooling system pressure cap is located on the
coolant recovery pressure container. The cap construction includes; stainless steel swivel top, rubber
seals, and retainer, main spring, and a spring loaded
valve (Fig. 12).
through a connecting hose. If valve is stuck shut,
or the coolant recovery hose is pinched, the
radiator hoses will be collapsed on cool down.
Clean the vent valve (Fig. 12) and inspect coolant recovery hose routing, to ensure proper
sealing when boiling point is reached.
The gasket in the cap seals the filler neck, so that
vacuum can be maintained, allowing coolant to be
drawn back into the radiator from the reserve tank.
If the gasket is dirty or damaged, a vacuum
may not be achieved, resulting is loss of coolant
and eventual overheating due to low coolant
level in radiator and engine.
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING - COOLING SYSTEM
PRESSURE CAP
Dip the pressure cap in water. Clean any deposits
off the vent valve or its seat and apply cap to end of
the Pressure Cap Test Adaptor that is included with
the Cooling System Tester 7700. Working the
plunger, bring the pressure to 104 kPa (15 psi) on the
gauge. If the pressure cap fails to hold pressure of at
least 97 kPa (14 psi), replace the pressure cap.
CAUTION: The Cooling System Tester Tool is very
sensitive to small air leaks that will not cause cooling system problems. A pressure cap that does not
have a history of coolant loss should not be
replaced just because it leaks slowly when tested
with this tool. Add water to the tool. Turn tool
upside down and recheck pressure cap to confirm
that cap is bad.
Fig. 12 Cooling System Pressure Cap Filler Neck
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
-
OVERFLOW NIPPLE
MAIN SPRING
GASKET RETAINER
STAINLESS-STEEL SWIVEL TOP
RUBBER SEALS
VENT VALVE
PRESSURE BOTTLE
FILLER NECK
OPERATION
The cooling system is equipped with a pressure cap
that releases excessive pressure; maintaining a range
of 97-124 kPa (14-18 psi).
The cooling system will operate at higher than
atmospheric pressure. The higher pressure raises the
coolant boiling point thus, allowing increased radiator cooling capacity.
There is also a vent valve in the center of the cap.
This valve also opens when coolant is cooling and
contracting, allowing the coolant to return to cooling
system from coolant reserve system tank by vacuum
If the pressure cap tests properly while positioned
on Cooling System Tester (Fig. 13), but will not hold
pressure or vacuum when positioned on the filler
neck. Inspect the filler neck and cap top gasket for
irregularities that may prevent the cap from sealing
properly.
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING - PRESSURE
RELIEF TEST
The pressure cap upper gasket (seal) pressure
relief can be checked by removing the overflow hose
at the radiator filler neck nipple (Fig. 14). Attach the
Radiator Pressure Tool to the filler neck nipple and
pump air into the radiator. Pressure cap upper gasket should relieve at 69-124 kPa (10-18 psi) and hold
pressure at 55 kPa (8 psi) minimum.
7 - 26
ENGINE
KJ
RADIATOR PRESSURE CAP (Continued)
WARNING: IF VEHICLE HAS BEEN RUN RECENTLY,
WAIT 15 MINUTES BEFORE REMOVING CAP. THEN
PLACE A SHOP TOWEL OVER THE CAP AND WITHOUT PUSHING DOWN ROTATE COUNTERCLOCKWISE TO THE FIRST STOP. ALLOW FLUIDS TO
ESCAPE THROUGH THE OVERFLOW TUBE AND
WHEN THE SYSTEM STOPS PUSHING COOLANT
AND STEAM INTO THE CRS TANK AND PRESSURE
DROPS PUSH DOWN AND REMOVE THE CAP COMPLETELY. SQUEEZING THE RADIATOR INLET HOSE
WITH A SHOP TOWEL (TO CHECK PRESSURE)
BEFORE AND AFTER TURNING TO THE FIRST
STOP IS RECOMMENDED.
Fig. 13 Testing Cooling System Pressure Cap
1 - PRESSURE CAP
2 - PRESSURE TESTER
CLEANING
Use only a mild soap to clean the pressure cap.
INSPECTION
Hold the cap in your hand, top side up (Fig. 14).
The vent valve at the bottom of the cap should open.
If the rubber gasket has swollen, preventing the
valve from opening, replace the cap.
Hold the cleaned cap in your hand, upside down.
If any light can be seen between vent valve and the
rubber gasket, replace the cap. Do not use a
replacement cap that has a spring to hold the
vent shut.
A replacement cap must be of the type designed for
coolant reserve systems. This design ensures coolant
return to the radiator.
Fig. 14 Radiator Pressure Cap Filler Neck
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
-
OVERFLOW NIPPLE
MAIN SPRING
GASKET RETAINER
STAINLESS-STEEL SWIVEL TOP
RUBBER SEALS
VENT VALVE
PRESSURE BOTTLE
FILLER NECK
WARNING: THE WARNING WORDS “DO NOT OPEN
HOT” ON THE RADIATOR PRESSURE CAP IS A
SAFETY PRECAUTION. WHEN HOT, PRESSURE
BUILDS UP IN COOLING SYSTEM. TO PREVENT
SCALDING OR INJURY, THE RADIATOR CAP
SHOULD NOT BE REMOVED WHILE THE SYSTEM
IS HOT OR UNDER PRESSURE.
There is no need to remove the radiator cap at any
time except for the following purposes:
(1) Check and adjust coolant freeze point.
(2) Refill system with new coolant.
(3) Conducting service procedures.
(4) Checking for vacuum leaks.
HOSE CLAMPS
DESCRIPTION - HOSE CLAMPS
The cooling system utilizes spring type hose
clamps. If a spring type clamp replacement is necessary, replace with the original Mopart equipment
spring type clamp.
WARNING: CONSTANT TENSION HOSE CLAMPS
ARE USED ON MOST COOLING SYSTEM HOSES.
WHEN REMOVING OR INSTALLING, USE ONLY
TOOLS DESIGNED FOR SERVICING THIS TYPE OF
CLAMP, SUCH AS SPECIAL CLAMP TOOL (NUMBER
6094) (Fig. 15). SNAP-ON CLAMP TOOL (NUMBER
HPC-20) MAY BE USED FOR LARGER CLAMPS.
ALWAYS WEAR SAFETY GLASSES WHEN SERVICING CONSTANT TENSION CLAMPS.
ENGINE
KJ
HOSE CLAMPS (Continued)
CAUTION: A number or letter is stamped into the
tongue of constant tension clamps. If replacement
is necessary, use only a original equipment clamp
with matching number or letter (Fig. 15).
OPERATION - HOSE CLAMPS
The spring type hose clamp applies constant tension on a hose connection. To remove a spring type
hose clamp, only use constant tension clamp pliers
designed to compress the hose clamp.
Fig. 15 Spring Clamp Size Location
1 - SPRING CLAMP SIZE LOCATION
7 - 27
ELECTRONIC CONTROL MODULES
KJ
8E - 1
ELECTRONIC CONTROL MODULES
TABLE OF CONTENTS
page
page
ENGINE CONTROL MODULE
DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
STANDARD PROCEDURE - PCM/ECM/SKIM
PROGRAMMING - DIESEL
...............2
REMOVAL
.............................4
INSTALLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
ENGINE CONTROL MODULE
DESCRIPTION
The ECM is located in the left side of engine compartment attached to the left inner fender behind the
battery (Fig. 1).
monitoring is called on-board diagnostics. Certain criteria must be met for a diagnostic trouble code to be
entered into the ECM memory. The criteria may be a
range of: engine rpm, engine temperature, time or
other input signals to the ECM. If all of the criteria
for monitoring a system or circuit are met, and a
problem is sensed, then a DTC will be stored in the
ECM memory. It is possible that a DTC for a monitored circuit may not be entered into the ECM memory, even though a malfunction has occurred. This
may happen when the monitoring criteria have not
been met. The ECM compares input signal voltages
from each input device with specifications (the established high and low limits of the input range) that
are programmed into it for that device. If the input
voltage is not within the specifications and other
trouble code criteria are met, a DTC will be stored in
the ECM memory.
ECM OPERATING MODES
As input signals to the ECM change, the ECM
adjusts its response to the output devices. For example, the ECM must calculate a different fuel quantity
and fuel timing for engine idle condition than it
would for a wide open throttle condition. There are
several different modes of operation that determine
how the ECM responds to the various input signals.
Fig. 1 ENGINE CONTROL MODULE (ECM)
REMOVAL/INSTALL
1
2
3
4
5
-
ECM ELECTRICAL CONNECTORS
ENGINE CONTROL MODULE (ECM)
ECM MOUNTING BRACKET
ECM MOUNTING BRACKET MOUNTING STUDS
MOUNTING BRACKET RETAINING NUTS
OPERATION
The ECM has been programmed to monitor different circuits of the diesel fuel injection system. This
Ignition Switch On (Engine Off)
When the ignition is turned on, the ECM activates
the glow plug relay for a time period that is determined by engine coolant temperature, atmospheric
temperature and battery voltage.
Engine Start-Up Mode
The ECM uses the engine temperature sensor and
the crankshaft position sensor (engine speed) inputs
to determine fuel injection quantity.
Normal Driving Modes
Engine idle, warm-up, acceleration, deceleration
and wide open throttle modes are controlled based on
all of the sensor inputs to the ECM. The ECM uses
8E - 2
ELECTRONIC CONTROL MODULES
KJ
ENGINE CONTROL MODULE (Continued)
these sensor inputs to adjust fuel quantity and fuel
injector timing.
Limp-In Mode
If there is a fault detected with the accelerator
pedal position sensor, the ECM will set the engine
speed at 1100 RPM.
Overspeed Detection Mode
If the ECM detects engine RPM that exceeds 5200
RPM, the ECM will set a DTC in memory and illuminate the MIL until the DTC is cleared.
After-Run Mode
The ECM transfers RAM information to ROM and
performs an Input/Output state check.
MONITORED CIRCUITS
The ECM is able to monitor and identify most
driveability related trouble conditions. Some circuits
are directly monitored through ECM feedback circuitry. In addition, the ECM monitors the voltage
state of some circuits and compares those states with
expected values. Other systems are monitored indirectly when the ECM conducts a rationality test to
identify problems. Although most subsytems of the
engine control module are either directly or indirectly
monitored, there may be occasions when diagnostic
trouble codes are not immediately identified. For a
trouble code to set, a specific set of conditions must
occur and unless these conditions occur, a DTC will
not set.
DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODES
Each diagnostic trouble code (DTC) is diagnosed by
following a specific procedure. The diagnostic test
procedure contains step-by-step instruction for determining the cause of the DTC as well as no trouble
code problems. Refer to the appropriate Diesel Powertrain Diagnostic Manual for more information.
HARD CODE
A DTC that comes back within one cycle of the
ignition key is a hard code. This means that the
problem is current every time the ECM/SKIM checks
that circuit or function. Procedures in this manual
verify if the DTC is a hard code at the beginning of
each test. When the fault is not a hard code, an
intermittent test must be performed. NOTE: If the
DRBIIIt displays faults for multiple components (i.e.
ECT, VSS, IAT sensors) identify and check the
shared circuits for possible problems before continuing (i.e. sensor grounds or 5-volt supply circuits).
Refer to the appropriate schematic to identify shared
circuits. Refer to the appropriate Diesel Powertrain
Diagnostic Manual for more information.
INTERMITTENT CODE
A DTC that is not current every time the ECM/
SKIM checks the circuit or function is an intermittent code. Most intermittent DTCs are caused by
wiring or connector problems. Problems that come
and go like this are the most difficult to diagnose;
they must be looked for under specific conditions that
cause them. NOTE: Electromagnetic (radio)
interference can cause an intermittent system
malfunction. This interference can interrupt communication between the ignition key transponder and
the SKIM. The following checks may assist you in
identifying a possible intermittent problem:
• Visually inspect the related wire harness connectors. Look for broken, bent, pushed out, loose fitting
or corroded terminals.
• Visually inspect the related wire harness. Look
for chafed, pierced or partially broken wire.
• Refer to hotlines or technical service bulletins
that may apply.
Refer to the appropriate Diesel Powertrain Diagnostic Manual for more information.
ECM DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODES
IMPORTANT NOTE: Before replacing the ECM for
a failed driver, control circuit or ground circuit, be
sure to check the related component/circuit integrity
for failures not detected due to a double fault in the
circuit. Most ECM driver/control circuit failures are
caused by internal failures to components (i.e. relays
and solenoids) and shorted circuits (i.e. sensor pullups, drivers and ground circuits). These faults are
difficult to detect when a double fault has occurred
and only one DTC has set. If the DRBIIIt displays
faults for multiple components (i.e.VSS, ECT, Batt
Temp, etc.) identify and check the shared circuits for
possible problems before continuing (i.e. sensor
grounds or 5-volt supply circuits). Refer to the appropriate wiring diagrams to identify shared circuits.
Refer to the appropriate Diesel Powertrain Diagnostic Manual for more information.
STANDARD PROCEDURE - PCM/ECM/SKIM
PROGRAMMING - DIESEL
NOTE: Before replacing the PCM/ECM for a failed
driver, control circuit or ground circuit, be sure to
check the related component/circuit integrity for
failures not detected due to a double fault in the circuit. Most PCM/ECM driver/control circuit failures
are caused by internal component failures (i.e. relay
and solenoids) and shorted circuits (i.e. pull-ups,
drivers and switched circuits). These failures are
difficult to detect when a double fault has occurred
and only one DTC has set.
KJ
ELECTRONIC CONTROL MODULES
8E - 3
ENGINE CONTROL MODULE (Continued)
PCM/SKIM PROGRAMMING
When a PCM (JTEC) and the SKIM are replaced
at the same time perform the following steps in
order:
(1) Program the new PCM (JTEC)
(2) Program the new SKIM
(3) Replace all ignition keys and program them to
the new SKIM.
ECM/SKIM PROGRAMMING
When an ECM (Bosch) and the SKIM are replaced
at the same time perform the following steps in
order:
(1) Program the new SKIM
(2) Program the new ECM (Bosch)
PROGRAMMING THE ECM (Bosch)
(1) To program the VIN, connect the DRB IIIt and
turn the ignition on.
(2) Select Engine from the main menu. The DRB
IIIt will require the VIN to be entered before continuing.
(3) Select ENTER to update the VIN. The DRB
IIIt will display the updated VIN.
(4) If the engine is equipped with air conditioning,
the ECM A/C function must be enabled. Enable the
ECM A/C function as follows:
• Using the DRB IIIt select ENGINE, MISCELLANEOUS, then ENABLE/DISABLE A/C
• Push 1 to enable A/C. DRB IIIt screen should
display A/C Activated.
PROGRAMMING THE PCM (JTEC)
The SKIS Secret Key is an ID code that is unique
to each SKIM. This code is programmed and stored
in the SKIM, PCM and transponder chip (ignition
keys). When replacing the PCM it is necessary to
program the secret key into the new PCM using the
DRB IIIt. Perform the following steps to program the
secret key into the PCM.
(1) Turn the ignition switch on (transmission in
park/neutral).
(2) Use the DRB IIIt and select THEFT ALARM,
SKIM then MISCELLANEOUS.
(3) Select PCM REPLACED (GAS ENGINE).
(4) Enter secured access mode by entering the
vehicle four-digit PIN.
(5) Select ENTER to update PCM VIN.
NOTE: If three attempts are made to enter secure
access mode using an incorrect PIN, secured
access mode will be locked out for one hour. To
exit this lockout mode, turn the ignition to the RUN
position for one hour then enter the correct PIN.
(Ensure all accessories are turned off. Also monitor
the battery state and connect a battery charger if
necessary).
(6) Press ENTER to transfer the secret key (the
SKIM will send the secret key to the PCM).
(7) Press Page Back to get to the Select System
menu and select ENGINE, JTEC (diesel only), MISCELLANEOUS, and SRI MEMORY CHECK.
(8) The DRB IIIt will ask, Is odometer reading
between XX and XX? Select the YES or NO button on
the DRB IIIt. If NO is selected, the DRB IIIt will
read, Enter odometer Reading<From I.P. odometer>.
Enter the odometer reading from the Instrument
Panel and press ENTER.
PROGRAMMING THE SKIM
(1) Turn the ignition switch on (transmission in
park/neutral).
(2) Use the DRB IIIt and select THEFT ALARM,
SKIM then MISCELLANEOUS.
(3) Select PCM REPLACED (GAS ENGINE).
(4) Program the vehicle four-digit PIN into SKIM.
(5) Select COUNTRY CODE and enter the correct
country.
NOTE: Be sure to enter the correct country code. If
the incorrect country code is programmed into
SKIM, the SKIM must be replaced.
(6) Select YES to update VIN (the SKIM will learn
the VIN from the PCM).
(7) Press ENTER to transfer the secret key (the
PCM will send the secret key to the SKIM).
(8) Program ignition keys to SKIM.
NOTE: If the PCM and the SKIM are replaced at the
same time, all vehicle keys will need to be replaced
and programmed to the new SKIM.
PROGRAMMING IGNITION KEYS TO THE SKIM
(1) Turn the ignition switch on
park/neutral).
(2) Use the DRB IIIt and select
SKIM then MISCELLANEOUS.
(3) Select PROGRAM IGNITION
(4) Enter secured access mode
vehicle four-digit PIN.
(transmission in
THEFT ALARM,
KEY’S.
by entering the
NOTE: A maximum of eight keys can be learned to
each SKIM. Once a key is learned to a SKIM it (the
key) cannot be transferred to another vehicle.
If ignition key programming is unsuccessful, the
DRB IIIt will display one of the following messages:
Programming Not Attempted - The DRB IIIt
attempts to read the programmed key status and
there are no keys programmed into SKIM memory.
8E - 4
ELECTRONIC CONTROL MODULES
KJ
ENGINE CONTROL MODULE (Continued)
Programming Key Failed (Possible Used Key From
Wrong Vehicle) - SKIM is unable to program key due
to one of the following:
• faulty ignition key transponder
• ignition key is programmed to another vehicle.
8 Keys Already Learned, Programming Not Done SKIM transponder ID memory is full.
(5) Obtain ignition keys to be programmed from
customer (8 keys maximum).
(6) Using the DRB IIIt, erase all ignition keys by
selecting MISCELLANEOUS and ERASE ALL CURRENT IGN. KEYS.
(7) Program all ignition keys.
Learned Key In Ignition - Ignition key transponder
ID is currently programmed in SKIM memory.
REMOVAL
(1) Disconnect negative battery cable.
(2) Disconnect ECM electrical connectors (Fig. 2).
(3) Remove ECM bracket to inner fender retaining
nuts (Fig. 2).
(4) Remove ECM and bracket assembly from vehicle (Fig. 2).
(5) Separate ECM from bracket.
INSTALLATION
(1) Install ECM on bracket (Fig. 2).
(2) Position ECM and bracket assembly in vehicle
(Fig. 2).
(3) Install ECM bracket to inner fender retaining
nuts (Fig. 2).
(4) Connect ECM electrical connectors (Fig. 2).
(5) Connect negative battery cable.
Fig. 2 ENGINE CONTROL MODULE (ECM)
REMOVAL/INSTALL
1
2
3
4
5
-
ECM ELECTRICAL CONNECTORS
ENGINE CONTROL MODULE (ECM)
ECM MOUNTING BRACKET
ECM MOUNTING BRACKET MOUNTING STUDS
MOUNTING BRACKET RETAINING NUTS
ENGINE SYSTEMS
KJ
8F - 1
ENGINE SYSTEMS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
page
BATTERY
DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING - BATTERY . . . .
STANDARD PROCEDURE
STANDARD PROCEDURE - SPIRAL PLATE
BATTERY CHARGING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
...1
...1
...2
page
STANDARD PROCEDURE - USING MICRO
420 BATTERY TESTER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
...2
BATTERY
DESCRIPTION
Vehicles equipped with a diesel engine utilize a spiral wound plate designed battery with recombination
technology. This is a maintenance-free battery that is
capable of delivering more power than a conventional
battery. This additional power is required by a diesel
engine during cold cranking.
Spiral plate technology takes the elements of traditional batteries - lead and sulfuric acid - to the next
level. By tightly winding layers of spiral grids and
acid-permeated vitreous separators into cells, the
manufacturer has developed a battery with more
power and service life than conventional batteries the
same size. The spiral plate battery is completely, permanently sealed. Through gas recombination, hydrogen and oxygen within the battery are captured
during normal charging and reunited to form the
water within the electrolyte, eliminating the need to
add distilled water. Therefore, these batteries have
non-removable battery vent caps. Water cannot be
added to this battery.
The acid inside an spiral plate battery is bound
within the vitreous separators, ending the threat of
acid leaks. This feature allows the battery to be
installed in any position anywhere in the vehicle.
Spiral plate technology is the process by which the
plates holding the active material in the battery are
wound tightly in coils instead of hanging flat, like
conventional batteries. This design has a lower internal resistance and also increases the active material
surface area.
WARNING: NEVER EXCEED 14.4 VOLTS WHEN
CHARGING A SPIRAL PLATE BATTERY. PERSONAL
INJURY AND/OR BATTERY DAMAGE MAY RESULT.
Due to the maintanance-free design, distilled water
cannot be added to this battery. Therefore, if more
than 14.4 volts are used during the spiral plate battery charging process, water vapor can be exhausted
through the pressure-sensitive battery vents and lost
for good. This can permanently damage the spiral
plate battery. Never exceed 14.4 volts when charging
a spiral plate battery. Personal injury and/or battery
damage may result.
Batteries are used to store electrical energy potential in a chemical form. When an electrical load is
applied to the battery terminals, an electrochemical
reaction occurs within the battery. This reaction
causes the battery to discharge electrical current.
OPERATION
The battery is designed to store electrical energy in
a chemical form. When an electrical load is applied to
the terminals of the battery, an electrochemical reaction occurs. This reaction causes the battery to discharge electrical current from its terminals. As the
battery discharges, a gradual chemical change takes
place within each cell. The chemical changes within
the battery are caused by the movement of excess or
free electrons between the positive and negative
plate groups. This movement of electrons produces a
flow of electrical current through the load device
attached to the battery terminals.
The battery is vented to release excess hydrogen
gas that is created when the battery is being charged
or discharged. However, even with these vents,
hydrogen gas can collect in or around the battery. If
hydrogen gas is exposed to flame or sparks, it may
ignite. If the battery is equipped with removable cell
caps, add distilled water whenever the electrolyte
level is below the top of the plates. If the battery cell
caps cannot be removed, the battery must be
replaced if the electrolyte level becomes low.
8F - 2
ENGINE SYSTEMS
KJ
BATTERY (Continued)
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING - BATTERY
The battery must be completely charged and the
terminals should be properly cleaned and inspected
before diagnostic procedures are performed. Refer to
Battery System Cleaning for the proper cleaning procedures, and Battery System Inspection for the
proper battery inspection procedures. Refer to Standard Procedures for the proper battery charging procedures.
MICRO 420 BATTERY TESTER
The Micro 420 automotive battery tester is
designed to help the dealership technicians diagnose
the cause of a defective battery. Follow the instruction manual supplied with the tester to properly
diagnose a vehicle. If the instruction manual is not
available refer to the standard procedure in this section, which includes the directions for using the
Micro 420 battery tester.
STANDARD PROCEDURE
STANDARD PROCEDURE - SPIRAL PLATE
BATTERY CHARGING
Vehicles equipped with a diesel engine utilize a
unique spiral plate battery. This battery has a maximum charging voltage that must not be exceeded in
order to restore the battery to its full potential, failure to use the following spiral plate battery charging
procedure could result in damage to the battery or
personal injury.
Battery charging is the means by which the battery can be restored to its full voltage potential. A
battery is fully-charged when:
• Micro 420 battery tester indicates battery is OK.
• Open-circuit voltage of the battery is 12.65 volts
or above.
• Battery passes Load Test multiple times.
WARNING: IF THE BATTERY SHOWS SIGNS OF
FREEZING, LEAKING OR LOOSE POSTS, DO NOT
TEST, ASSIST-BOOST, OR CHARGE. THE BATTERY
MAY ARC INTERNALLY AND EXPLODE. PERSONAL
INJURY AND/OR VEHICLE DAMAGE MAY RESULT.
WARNING: IF THE BATTERY SHOWS SIGNS OF
FREEZING, LEAKING, LOOSE POSTS OR LOW
ELECTROLYTE LEVEL, DO NOT TEST, ASSISTBOOST, OR CHARGE. THE BATTERY MAY ARC
INTERNALLY AND EXPLODE. PERSONAL INJURY
AND/OR VEHICLE DAMAGE MAY RESULT.
WARNING: EXPLOSIVE HYDROGEN GAS FORMS IN
AND AROUND THE BATTERY. DO NOT SMOKE,
USE FLAME, OR CREATE SPARKS NEAR THE BATTERY. PERSONAL INJURY AND/OR VEHICLE DAMAGE MAY RESULT.
CAUTION: Always disconnect and isolate the battery negative cable before charging a battery.
Charge the battery directly at the battery terminals.
Do not exceed 14.4 volts while charging a battery.
WARNING: THE BATTERY CONTAINS SULFURIC
ACID, WHICH IS POISONOUS AND CAUSTIC. AVOID
CONTACT WITH THE SKIN, EYES, OR CLOTHING.
IN THE EVENT OF CONTACT, FLUSH WITH WATER
AND CALL A PHYSICIAN IMMEDIATELY. KEEP OUT
OF THE REACH OF CHILDREN.
A battery that will not accept a charge is faulty,
and must be replaced. Further testing is not
required. A fully-charged battery must be tested to
determine its cranking capacity. A battery that is fully-charged, but does not pass the Micro 420 or load
test, is faulty and must be replaced.
NOTE: Completely discharged batteries may take
several hours to accept a charge. Refer to Standard
Procedures for the proper battery charging procedures.
CAUTION: The battery should not be hot to the
touch. If the battery feels hot to the touch, turn off
the charger and let the battery cool before continuing the charging operation. Damage to the battery
may result.
After the battery has been charged to 12.6 volts or
greater, perform a load test to determine the battery
cranking capacity. Refer to Battery Diagnosis and
Testing for the proper battery test procedures. If the
battery will endure a load test, return the battery to
service. If the battery will not pass a load test, it is
faulty and must be replaced.
Clean and inspect the battery hold downs, tray,
terminals, posts, and top before completing battery
service. Refer to Battery System Cleaning for the
proper battery system cleaning procedures, and Battery System Inspection for the proper battery system
inspection procedures.
ENGINE SYSTEMS
KJ
8F - 3
BATTERY (Continued)
CHARGING A COMPLETELY DISCHARGED
BATTERY – SPIRAL PLATE BATTERY
The following procedure should be used to recharge
a completely discharged battery. Unless this procedure is properly followed, a good battery may be
needlessly replaced.
(1) Measure the voltage at the battery posts with a
voltmeter, accurate to 1/10 (0.10) volt (Fig. 1). Refer
to Battery Removal and Installation for access
instructions. If the reading is below ten volts, the
battery charging current will be low. It could take
several hours before the battery accepts a current
greater than a few milliamperes. Such low current
may not be detectable on the ammeters built into
many battery chargers.
Fig. 1 Voltmeter Accurate to 1/10 Volt (Connected)
(2) Disconnect and isolate the battery negative
cable. Connect the battery charger leads. Some battery chargers are equipped with polarity-sensing circuitry. This circuitry protects the battery charger and
the battery from being damaged if they are improperly connected. If the battery state-of-charge is too
low for the polarity-sensing circuitry to detect, the
battery charger will not operate. This makes it
appear that the battery will not accept charging current. See the instructions provided by the manufacturer of the battery charger for details on how to
bypass the polarity-sensing circuitry.
(3) Battery chargers vary in the amount of voltage
and current they provide. The amount of time
required for a battery to accept measurable charging
current at various voltages is shown in the Charge
Rate Table. If the charging current is still not measurable at the end of the charging time, the battery
is faulty and must be replaced. If the charging current is measurable during the charging time, the battery may be good and the charging should be
completed in the normal manner.
SPIRAL-PLATE BATTERY CHARGE RATE TABLE
Voltage
Minutes
14.4 volts maximum
up to 10 minutes
13.0 to 14 volts
up to 20 minutes
12.9 volts or less
up to 30 minutes
CHARGING TIME REQUIRED
The time required to charge a battery will vary,
depending upon the following factors:
• Battery Capacity - A completely discharged
heavy-duty battery requires twice the charging time
of a small capacity battery.
• Temperature - A longer time will be needed to
charge a battery at -18° C (0° F) than at 27° C (80°
F). When a fast battery charger is connected to a cold
battery, the current accepted by the battery will be
very low at first. As the battery warms, it will accept
a higher charging current rate (amperage).
• Charger Capacity - A battery charger that
supplies only five amperes will require a longer
charging time. A battery charger that supplies eight
amperes will require a shorter charging time.
• State-Of-Charge - A completely discharged battery requires more charging time than a partially
discharged battery. Electrolyte is nearly pure water
in a completely discharged battery. At first, the
charging current (amperage) will be low. As the battery charges, the specific gravity of the electrolyte
will gradually rise.
The Battery Charging Time Table gives an indication of the time required to charge a typical battery
at room temperature based upon the battery state-ofcharge and the charger capacity.
SPIRAL-PLATE BATTERY CHARGING TIME
TABLE
Charging
Amperage
Open Circuit
Voltage
12.25 to 12.49
5 Amps
8 Amps
Hours Charging @ 21°
C (70° F)
6 hours
3 hours
12.00 to 12.24
10 hours
5 hours
10.00 to 11.99
14 hours
7 hours
Below 10.00
18 hours
9 hours
8F - 4
ENGINE SYSTEMS
KJ
BATTERY (Continued)
STANDARD PROCEDURE - USING MICRO 420
BATTERY TESTER
NOTE: Multiple batteries connected in parallel must
have the ground cable disconnected to perform a
battery test. Failure to disconnect may result in
false battery test readings.
NOTE: When testing the battery in a PT Cruiser,
always test at the battery terminals
(4) Using the ARROW key select in or out of vehicle testing and press ENTER to make a selection.
(5) If not selected, choose the Cold Cranking Amp
(CCA) battery rating. Or select the appropriate battery rating for your area (see menu). The tester will
then run its self programmed test of the battery and
display the results. Refer to the test result table
noted below.
CAUTION: If REPLACE BATTERY is the result of the
test, this may mean a poor connection between the
vehicle’s cables and battery exists. After disconnecting the vehicle’s battery cables from the battery, retest the battery using the OUT-OF-VEHICLE
test before replacing.
Fig. 2 MIDTRONICS TESTER
Always use the Micro 420 Instruction Manual that
was supplied with the tester as a reference. If the
Instruction Manual is not available the following procedure can be used:
WARNING: ALWAYS WEAR APPROPRIATE EYE
PROTECTION AND USE EXTREME CAUTION WHEN
WORKING WITH BATTERIES.
BATTERY TESTING
(1) If testing the battery OUT-OF-VEHICLE, clean
the battery terminals with a wire brush before testing. If the battery is equipped with side post terminals, install and tighten the supplied lead terminal
stud adapters. Do not use steel bolts. Failure to properly install the stud adapters, or using stud adapters
that are dirty or worn-out may result in false test
readings.
(2) If testing the battery IN-THE-VEHICLE, make
certain all of the vehicle accessory loads are OFF,
including the ignition. The preferred test position
is at the battery terminal. If the battery is not
accessible, you may test using both the positive and
negative jumper posts. Select TESTING AT JUMPER
POST when connecting to that location.
(3) Connect the tester (Fig. 2) to the battery or
jumper posts, the red clamp to positive (+) and the
black clamp to negative (–).
(6) While viewing the battery test result, press the
CODE button and the tester will prompt you for the
last 4 digits of the VIN. Use the UP/DOWN arrow
buttons to scroll to the correct character; then press
ENTER to select and move to the next digit. Then
press the ENTER button to view the SERVICE
CODE. Pressing the CODE button a second time will
return you to the test results.
BATTERY TEST RESULTS
GOOD BATTERY
Return to service
GOOD - RECHARGE
Fully charge battery and
return to service
CHARGE & RETEST
Fully charge battery and
retest battery
REPLACE BATTERY
Replace the battery and
retest complete system
BAD-CELL REPLACE
Replace the battery and
retest complete system
NOTE: The SERVICE CODE is required on every
warranty claim submitted for battery replacement.
IGNITION CONTROL
KJ
8I - 1
IGNITION CONTROL
TABLE OF CONTENTS
page
CAMSHAFT POSITION SENSOR
DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . .
OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . .
REMOVAL
..............
INSTALLATION . . . . . . . . . . .
GLOW PLUG
DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . .
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page
OPERATION . . . .
REMOVAL
.....
INSTALLATION . .
GLOW PLUG RELAY
DESCRIPTION . .
OPERATION . . . .
........................2
........................2
........................3
........................4
........................4
...............2
CAMSHAFT POSITION
SENSOR
DESCRIPTION
The camshaft position (CMP) sensor is mounted in
the top of cylinder head cover/intake manifold at the
rear of the engine (Fig. 1) (Fig. 2) The CMP sensor is
a hall effect device.
Fig. 1 CAMSHAFT POSITION SENSOR
Fig. 2 CAMSHAFT POSITION (CMP) SENSOR
1 - CAMSHAFT POSITION (CMP) SENSOR
8I - 2
IGNITION CONTROL
KJ
CAMSHAFT POSITION SENSOR (Continued)
OPERATION
The CMP sensor is a hall effect switch. A tooth
made of a ferromagnetic material is attached to the
camshaft. When this tooth passes the CMP sensor an
electronic signal is created. This signal is then sent
to the engine control module (ECM). This signal is
used by the ECM to determine which cylinder has
just entered its compression phase.
REMOVAL
GLOW PLUG
DESCRIPTION
Glow plugs are used to help start a cold or cool
engine (Fig. 4). The glow plugs will heat up and glow
to heat the combustion chamber of each cylinder. An
individual glow plug is used for each cylinder. Each
glow plug is threaded into the left side of the cylinder
head below the cylinder head cover/intake manifold.
(1) Disconnect negative battery cable.
(2) Remove engine cover (Refer to 9 - ENGINE
COVER - REMOVAL).
(3) Disconnect CMP sensor electrical connector
(Fig. 3).
(4) Remove CMP sensor retaining bolt and remove
sensor from cylinder head cover/intake manifold (Fig.
3).
Fig. 4 GLOW PLUG
OPERATION
Each glow plug will momentarily draw approximately 25 amps of electrical current during the initial key “ON” cycle. This is on a cold or cool engine.
After heating the current draw will drop to approximately 9–12 amps per plug.
Total momentary cuurent draw for all four glow
plugs is approximately 100 amps on a cold engine
dropping to a total of approximately 40 amps after
the plugs are heated.
Electrical operation of the glow plugs is controlled
by two glow plug relays. Each glow plug relay controls two glow plugs. Refer to glow plug relays for
more information.
REMOVAL
Fig. 3 CAMSHAFT POSITION (CMP) SENSOR
1 - CAMSHAFT POSITION (CMP) SENSOR
INSTALLATION
(1) Lubricate O-ring on new CMP sensor and
install in cylinder head cover/intake manifold (Fig.
3).
(2) Install retaining bolts. Torque to 10.8N·m.
(3) Connect sensor electrical connector.
(4) Install engine cover (Refer to 9 - ENGINE
COVER - INSTALLATION).
(5) Connect negative battery cable.
(1) Disconnect negative battery cable.
(2) Remove generator (Refer to 8 - ELECTRICAL/
CHARGING/GENERATOR - REMOVAL).
(3) Disconnect glow plug electrical connectors (Fig.
6).
NOTE: The intake manifold inlet tube must be
removed to remove the cylinder # 3 glow plug (Fig.
5).
IGNITION CONTROL
KJ
GLOW PLUG (Continued)
Fig. 5 INTAKE MANIFOLD AIR INLET TUBE
1
2
3
4
- CYLINDER HEAD COVER/INTAKE MANIFOLD
- AIR INLET TUBE GASKET
- INTAKE MANIFOLD AIR INLET TUBE
- RETAINING BOLTS
(4) Remove glow plugs from cylinder head (Fig. 6).
INSTALLATION
(1) Install glow plugs into cylinder head (Fig. 6).
(2) Connect glow plug electrical connectors (Fig. 6).
(3) Install intake manifold air inlet tube (Fig. 5).
(4) Install generator (Refer to 8 - ELECTRICAL/
CHARGING/GENERATOR - INSTALLATION).
(5) Connect negative battery cable.
Fig. 6 CYLINDER HEAD ASSEMBLY
1 - CYLINDER HEAD BOLT
2 - GLOW PLUG
3 - COOLANT TEMPERATURE SENSOR
4 - CYLINDER HEAD ALIGNMENT DOWEL
5 - GLOW PLUG HARNESS
6 - CYLINDER LINER
7 - CYLINDER BLOCK
8 - CYLINDER HEAD GASKET
9 - CYLINDER HEAD
10 - ROCKER ARM ASSEMBLIES
8I - 3
8I - 4
IGNITION CONTROL
GLOW PLUG RELAY
DESCRIPTION
There are two glow plug relays. These relays are
located in the Power Distribution Center (PDC) in
the engine compartment (Fig. 7).
Fig. 7 GLOW PLUG RELAYS
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
- A/C COMPRESSOR CLUTCH RELAY
- VISCOUS HEATER RELAY
- ASD RELAY
- GLOW PLUG (3 + 4) RELAY #2
- CLUTCH SWITCH OVERRIDE RELAY
- GLOW PLUG (1 + 2) RELAY #1
- STARTER RELAY
- FUEL HEATER RELAY
KJ
OPERATION
When the ignition (key) switch is place in the ON
position, a signal is sent to the ECM relating current
engine coolant temperature. This signal is sent from
the engine coolant temperature sensor.
After receiving this signal, the ECM will determine
if, when and for how long of a period the glow plug
relays should be activated. This is done before, during and after the engine is started. Whenever the
glow plug relays are activated, it will control the 12
volt 100 amp circuit for the operation of the four
glow plugs. Each relay control two glow plugs.
The Glow Plug lamp is tied to this circuit. Lamp
operation is also controlled by the ECM.
With a cold engine, the glow plug relays and glow
plugs may be activated for a maximum time of 200
seconds. Refer to the following Glow Plug Control
chart for a temperature/time comparison of the glow
plug relay operation.
In this chart, Pre-Heat and Post-Heat times are
mentioned. Pre-Heat is the amount of time the glow
plug relay control circuit is activated when the ignition (key) is switched ON, without the engine running. Post-Heat is the amount of time the glow plug
relay control circuit is activated after the engine is
operated. The Glow Plug lamp will not be activated
during the post-heat cycle.
Engine
Coolant
Temperature
9Key ON9
Wait-To
Start Lamp
9ON9
(Seconds)
Pre-Heat
Cycle (Glow
Plugs On
Seconds)
Post-Heat
Cycle
(Seconds)
-30C
10 SEC.
35 SEC.
200 SEC.
-10C
10 SEC.
23 SEC.
180 SEC.
+10C
1 SEC.
21 SEC.
160 SEC.
+30C
1 SEC.
20 SEC.
140 SEC.
+40C
1 SEC.
19 SEC.
70 SEC.
+70C
1 SEC.
16 SEC.
20 SEC.
ENGINE
KJ
9-1
ENGINE
TABLE OF CONTENTS
page
ENGINE - 2.5L/2.8L TURBO DIESEL
DESCRIPTION
DESCRIPTION - 2.5L/2.8L COMMON RAIL
DIESEL ENGINE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
DESCRIPTION - ENGINE COVER . . . . . . . . . . 3
REMOVAL
REMOVAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
REMOVAL - ENGINE COVER . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
INSTALLATION
INSTALLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
INSTALLATION - ENGINE COVER . . . . . . . . . . 6
SPECIFICATIONS
SPECIFICATIONS - 2.8L COMMON RAIL
DIESEL ENGINE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
SPECIFICATIONS - TORQUE . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
SPECIAL TOOLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
CYLINDER HEAD
STANDARD PROCEDURE
STANDARD PROCEDURE - VALVE
SERVICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
STANDARD PROCEDURE - MEASURING
PISTON PROTRUSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
REMOVAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
CLEANING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
INSPECTION
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
INSTALLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
CAMSHAFT OIL SEAL(S)
REMOVAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
INSTALLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
CAMSHAFT(S)
DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
REMOVAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
INSTALLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
CYLINDER HEAD COVER
DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
REMOVAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
INSTALLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
ROCKER ARMS
DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
REMOVAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
INSTALLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
HYDRAULIC LIFTERS
DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
REMOVAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
INSPECTION
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
INSTALLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
page
ENGINE BLOCK
DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CRANKSHAFT
DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
STANDARD PROCEDURE - CHECKING
CRANKSHAFT END PLAY . . . . . . . . . .
REMOVAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
INSTALLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CRANKSHAFT MAIN BEARINGS
REMOVAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
INSTALLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CRANKSHAFT OIL SEAL - FRONT
REMOVAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
INSTALLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CRANKSHAFT OIL SEAL - REAR
REMOVAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
INSTALLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CYLINDER LINERS
DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
REMOVAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
INSPECTION
.....................
INSTALLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PISTON & CONNECTING ROD
DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
STANDARD PROCEDURE - PISTON RING
FITTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
REMOVAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
INSPECTION
.....................
INSTALLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VIBRATION DAMPER
REMOVAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
INSTALLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
INTERNAL VACUUM PUMP
DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
REMOVAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
INSTALLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ENGINE COVER - FRONT
DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
REMOVAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
INSTALLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
OIL
DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
OIL FILTER ADAPTER
DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
OIL PAN
REMOVAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
INSTALLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . 28
. . . . . 28
. . . . . 28
. . . . . 28
. . . . . 28
. . . . . 30
. . . . . 31
. . . . . 32
. . . . . 33
. . . . . 34
. . . . . 35
. . . . . 35
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. 35
. 35
. 36
. 36
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. 37
. 37
. 39
. 40
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. . . . . 42
. . . . . 42
. . . . . 42
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. . . . . 43
. . . . . 43
. . . . . 44
. . . . . 44
. . . . . 45
. . . . . 45
. . . . . 45
9-2
ENGINE
OIL PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE
DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
REMOVAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
INSTALLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
OIL PRESSURE SENSOR/SWITCH
DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
OIL PUMP
REMOVAL
REMOVAL - OIL PUMP PICKUP TUBE . . . . .
REMOVAL - OIL PUMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
INSTALLATION
INSTALLATION - OIL PUMP PICKUP TUBE .
INSTALLATION - OIL PUMP . . . . . . . . . . . . .
OIL JET
DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
REMOVAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
INSTALLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
INTAKE MANIFOLD
DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
REMOVAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
INSTALLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
EXHAUST MANIFOLD
REMOVAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
INSTALLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VALVE TIMING
STANDARD PROCEDURE - LOCKING ENGINE
90 DEGREES AFTER TDC . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
KJ
. 46
. 47
. 47
. 47
. 47
. 47
. 48
. 48
. 48
. 49
. 49
. 50
. 50
. 50
. 50
. 50
. 50
. 50
BALANCE SHAFT
DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
REMOVAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
INSTALLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TIMING BELT / CHAIN COVER(S)
REMOVAL
REMOVAL - TIMING BELT INNER COVER
REMOVAL - TIMING BELT OUTER COVER
INSTALLATION
INSTALLATION - TIMING BELT INNER
COVER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
INSTALLATION - TIMING BELT OUTER
COVER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TIMING BELT IDLER PULLEY
REMOVAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
INSTALLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TIMING BELT/CHAIN AND SPROCKET(S)
REMOVAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
INSTALLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TIMING BELT/CHAIN TENSIONER & PULLEY
REMOVAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
INSTALLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ADJUSTMENTS
ADJUSTMENT - TIMING BELT TENSIONER
.
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. 51
. 51
. 51
. 51
. . . 52
. . 53
. . . 54
. . . 54
. . . 54
. . . 55
. . . 55
. . . 56
. . . 57
. . . 58
. 58
ENGINE
KJ
ENGINE - 2.5L/2.8L TURBO
DIESEL
DESCRIPTION
DESCRIPTION - 2.5L/2.8L COMMON RAIL
DIESEL ENGINE
The 2.5 Liter (2500cc) and 2.8L (2800cc) four-cylinder “common rail” direct injection engines are very
simular in design and operability with a few differences. The 2.5L is the engine of choise from the manual transmission and the 2.8L for the automatic
transmission. Both 4 cylinder “common rail” direct
injection engines are an in-line overhead valve
design. The engines utilize a cast iron cylinder block
and an aluminum cylinder head with four valves per
cylinder and dual overhead cam shafts. Both engins
are turbocharged and intercooled. Differences include
a longer crankshaft gear, larger cylinder bore and
larger intake ducts in the cylinder head of the 2.8L.
The 2.8L is also equipped with a EGR cooler. (Fig. 1).
DESCRIPTION
DESCRIPTION
9-3
SPECIFICATION
Cylinder Compression
Difference Between
Cylinders
5 Bar
Cooling System
Water Cooling
Injection Pump
Rotary Pump and
Electronically Managed
Lubrication
Pressure Lubricated By
Rotary Pump
Minimum Oil Pressure
(Warm)
0.7 Bar at Idle
2 Bar at 3800 rpm
Engine Rotation
Clockwise Viewed From
Front Cover
SPECIFICATION
Displacement
2.5L (2499 cc)
Displacement
2.8L (2900cc)
Bore - 2.5L
92.00 mm
Bore - 2.8L
94.00 mm
Stroke
94.00
Compression Ratio
17.5:1
Vacuum at Idle
700 mm/Hg (27.5 In/Hg)
Belt Tension
Automatic Belt Tensioner
Thermostat Opening
80°C ± 2°C
Generator Rating
Denso 12V-95A
Cooling System Capacity
13.8 Liters W/O Auxiliary
Heater
16.6 Liters With Auxiliary
Heater
Engine Oil Capacity
6.0L W/Filter Change
Timing System
Belt Driven DOHC
Overhead Camshafts
Air Intake
Dry Filter With
Turbocharger and Charge
Air Cooler
Fuel Supply
Vane Pump Incorporated
In Injection Pump
Fuel System
Direct Fuel Injection
Common Rail System
Combustion Cycle
4 Stroke
Fig. 1 2.5L/2.8L COMMON RAIL DIESEL ENGINE
DESCRIPTION - ENGINE COVER
The engine cover is made of plastic and used cosmetically to cover the top of the engine (Fig. 2).
REMOVAL
REMOVAL
(1) Disconnect negative battery cable.
(2) Disconnect under hood lamp from the hood
assembly.
(3) With assistance from another person, remove
the hood assembly from the vehicle.
(4) Drain cooling system (Refer to 7 - COOLING/
ENGINE/COOLANT - STANDARD PROCEDURE).
(5) Remove engine cover (Refer to 9 - ENGINE REMOVAL).
9-4
ENGINE
KJ
ENGINE - 2.5L/2.8L TURBO DIESEL (Continued)
(6) Remove air filter assembly from the engine bay.
(7) Recover refrigerant from A/C system (Refer to
24 - HEATING & AIR CONDITIONING/PLUMBING
- STANDARD PROCEDURE).
(8) Disconnect high side refrigerant line from the
upper radiator support bracket.
(9) Remove upper radiator support bracket retaining bolts and remove the support bracket.
(10) Remove high side refrigerant line retaining
nut and remove the line from the condenser assembly. Position the line out of the way.
(11) Remove cooling fan and fan drive viscous
clutch assembly.
(12) Remove fan shroud retaining bolts and
remove fan assembly and shroud together.
(13) Disconnect charge air cooler hoses from
charge air cooler.
(14) Disconnect engine coolant hoses from engine
assembly.
(15) Disconnect coolant reservoir hose from radiator.
(16) Remove low side refrigerant line retaining nut
and remove line from the condenser assembly. Position the line out of the way.
(17) Remove condenser assembly retaining bolts
and remove condenser from the vehicle.
(18) Remove power steering cooler retaining bolts
and unclip air deflectors from both sides of the radiator (cooling module) assembly.
(19) Lift cooling module assembly out of the engine
bay.
(20) Remove charge air cooler hose from the intake
manifold.
(21) Remove high side refrigerant line from A/C
compressor and remove high side line from the
engine bay.
(22) Remove coolant reservoir retaining nuts and
clips retaining electrical harness, position reservoir
aside to allow access to remaining hoses.
(23) Disconnect remaining hoses from coolant reservoir and remove reservoir from the engine bay.
(24) Remove accessory drive belt from the engine
(Refer to 7 - COOLING/ACCESSORY DRIVE/DRIVE
BELTS - REMOVAL).
(25) Accessing bolts through the pump pulley,
remove power steering pump retaining bolts and
position pump aside with lines still attached.
(26) Remove engine cover mounting bracket
retaining bolts and remove the bracket from the top
of the engine.
(27) Disconnect four large electrical connectors
near the rear of the right front fenderwell.
(28) Disconnect heater core inlet and outlet hoses
from the heater core.
(29) Remove generator from engine (Refer to 8 ELECTRICAL/CHARGING/GENERATOR - REMOVAL). This will provide access to the wires beneath it.
(30) Remove low side refrigerant line retaining
nuts from accumulator and compressor and remove
from engine bay.
(31) Trace engine wiring and disconnect electrical
connectors and tie straps one at a time untill all wiring is disconnected from the engine assembly. When
all the engine electrical harness is disconnected fold
the harness over the left front fenderwell.
(32) Remove coolant elbow retaining bolts from
rear of the water pump.
(33) Disconnect coolant hoses leading from the
coolant elbow and remove coolant elbow from engine.
(34) Remove oil cooler adapter.
(35) Raise and support the vehicle.
(36) Remove oil filter and adaptor assemby.
(37) Remove starter motor from engine (Refer to 8
- ELECTRICAL/STARTING/STARTER MOTOR REMOVAL).
(38) Remove chassis ground wire above starter
mounting location on the engine block.
(39) Remove exhaust inlet pipe retaining bolts and
disconnect exhaust pipe from turbocharger.
(40) Remove transmission to engine retaining
bolts.
(41) Lower vehicle.
(42) Connect a suitable lifting device to engine
assembly.
(43) Remove right side engine mount from engine
block.
(44) Disconnect crankshaft position sensor, located
on the right rear of the engine.
(45) Disconnect oil pressure sensor, located
between the engine block and the turbocharger.
Make certain everything is disconnected from the
engine assembly.
(46) Place a floor jack under the transmission to
support the transmission.
(47) With engine and transmission supported by a
lifting device carefully separate the engine from the
transmission.
(48) Lift the engine assembly out of the engine
bay.
ENGINE
KJ
9-5
ENGINE - 2.5L/2.8L TURBO DIESEL (Continued)
REMOVAL - ENGINE COVER
(1) Remove oil fill cap and oil dipstick.
(2) Carefully lift engine engine cover from corners
to remove from mounting bracket (Fig. 2).
Fig. 2 ENGINE COVER REMOVAL/INSTALLATION
1 - ENGINE COVER BRACKET
2 - ENGINE COVER
3 - RETAINING BOLTS
INSTALLATION
INSTALLATION
(1) Install engine assembly in the engine bay.
(2) Line up the transmission input shaft with the
corresponding hole in the clutch assembly (2.5L).
Install the transmission assembly on the engine
block mounted dowel pins (2.8L) if possible. If this
proves to difficult removal of the transmission may
be required.
(3) Connect oil pressure sensor, located between
the engine block and the turbocharger.
(4) Connect crankshaft position sensor, located on
the right rear of the engine.
(5) Install right side engine mount on the engine
block.
(6) Disconnect lifting device from the engine
assembly.
(7) Raise and support the vehicle.
(8) Install all transmission to engine retaining
bolts.
(9) Install exhaust inlet pipe and retaining bolts.
(10) Install chassis ground wire above starter
mounting location on the engine block.
(11) Install starter motor on the engine.
(12) Install oil filter and cooler assembly.
(13) Lower vehicle.
(14) Install oil cooler adapter.
(15) Install coolant elbow and retaining bolts and
connect the hoses leading from it.
(16) Trace engine wiring and connect electrical
connectors and tie straps one at a time until all wiring is connected on engine assembly.
(17) Install low side refrigerant line.
(18) Install generator on the engine (Refer to 8 ELECTRICAL/CHARGING/GENERATOR - INSTALLATION).
(19) Connect heater core inlet and outlet hoses at
heater core.
(20) Connect four large electrical connectors near
rear of the right front fenderwell.
(21) Install engine cover mounting bracket and
retaining bolts.
(22) Accessing bolts through the pump pulley,
install the power steering pump and retaining bolts.
(23) Install accessory drive belt (Refer to 7 COOLING/ACCESSORY DRIVE/DRIVE BELTS INSTALLATION).
(24) Install coolant reservoir and connect hoses.
(25) Install coolant reservoir retaining nuts.
(26) Install high side refrigerant line on compressor.
(27) Install charge air cooler hose on intake manifold.
(28) Install cooling module assembly in the engine
bay.
(29) Install power steering cooler and retaining
bolts and clip the air deflectors on both sides of the
radiator (cooling module) assembly.
(30) Install condenser assembly and retaining
bolts.
(31) Install low side refrigerant line and retaining
nut.
(32) Connect coolant reservoir hose on radiator.
(33) Connect engine coolant hoses on engine.
(34) Connect charge air cooler hoses on charge air
cooler.
(35) Install fan shroud with cooling fan assembly
inside the shroud and install the shroud retaining
bolts.
(36) Connect cooling fan and fan drive viscous
clutch assembly to fan support.
(37) Install high side refrigerant line and retaining
nut.
9-6
ENGINE
KJ
ENGINE - 2.5L/2.8L TURBO DIESEL (Continued)
(38) Install upper radiator support bracket and
retaining bolts.
(39) Connect high side refrigerant line on the
upper radiator support bracket.
(40) Charge refrigerant system (Refer to 24 HEATING & AIR CONDITIONING/PLUMBING STANDARD PROCEDURE).
(41) Install air filter assembly.
(42) Install engine cover (Refer to 9 - ENGINE
COVER - REMOVAL).
(43) Install engine oil fill cap.
(44) Fill cooling system (Refer to 7 - COOLING/
ENGINE/COOLANT - STANDARD PROCEDURE).
(45) With assistance from another person, install
hood assembly on the vehicle.
(46) Connect under hood lamp on the hood assembly.
(47) Connect negative battery cable.
INSTALLATION - ENGINE COVER
(1) Align engine cover with mounting bracket.
Push down firmly on all four corners of engine cover
to snap in place (Fig. 2).
(2) Install oil dipstick tube.
(3) Install oil fill cap.
SPECIFICATIONS
DESCRIPTION
SPECIFICATION
CRANKSHAFT
Front Journal Diameter
Nominal
62.985-63.005 mm
-0.25
62.735-62.755 mm
Front Bearing Diameter
Nominal
63.045-63.074 mm
-0.25
62.795-62.824 mm
Clearance Between
Journal and Bearing
0.040-0.089 mm
Center Journal Diameter
Nominal
63.005-63.020 mm
-0.25
62.755-62.770 mm
Center Bearing Diameter
Nominal
63.005-63.020 mm
-0.25
62.755-62.770 mm
Clearance Between
Journal and Bearing
0.008-0.051 mm
Rear Journal Diameter
Nominal
89.980-90.000 mm
-0.25
89.730-99.750 mm
Rear Bearing Diameter
SPECIFICATIONS - 2.8L COMMON RAIL
DIESEL ENGINE
ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS
DESCRIPTION
SPECIFICATION
Type
R2816K3.05A
Number of Cylinders
4
Bore
94 mm
Stroke
94 mm
Displacement
2800cc
Injection Order
1-3-4-2
Compression Ratio
17.5:1 (± 0.5)
Maximum Power
105kW (140 HP) @ 4000
RPM
Peak Torque
320Nm (32.6 kgm) @
2000 RPM
Cylinder Compression
(Max. Difference Between
Cylinders)
5 Bar
Minimum Oil Pressure
(Warm)
0.7 Bar @ Idle
2 Bar @ 3800 RPM
Nominal
90.045-90.065 mm
-0.25
89.795-89.815 mm
Clearance Between
Journal and Bearing
0.045-0.080 mm
Connecting Rod Journal
Nominal
53.940-53.955 mm
-0.25
53.690-53.705 mm
Connecting Rod Bearing
Nominal
53.977-54.016 mm
-0.25
53.727-53.766 mm
Clearance Between
Journal and Bearing
0.022-0.076 mm
Crankshaft End Play
End Play
0.080-0.280 mm
Adjustment
Thrust Washers
Thrust Washers Available
2.31-2.36 mm
2.41-2.46 mm
2.51-2.56 mm
Carrier with thrust
washers installed
27.670-27.820 mm
ENGINE
KJ
9-7
ENGINE - 2.5L/2.8L TURBO DIESEL (Continued)
DESCRIPTION
SPECIFICATION
DESCRIPTION
MAIN BEARING CARRIERS
Internal Diameter
Front
67.025-67.050 mm
Center
66.670-66.690 mm
Rear
85.985-86.005 mm
Type
Full Floating
Pin Diameter
31.990-31.996 mm
32.000-32.004
Clearance
0.010-0.020 mm
0.004-0.012
LINERS
Internal Diameter
93.997-94.015 mm
Protrusion
0.00-0.05 mm
Adjustment
Shims
Available Shims
0.15 mm
0.17 mm
0.20 mm
0.23 mm
0.25 mm
CYLINDER HEAD
Minimum Thickness
94.95-95.05 mm
Gasket Thickness
1.32 mm ± 0.08, 0
notches
SPECIFICATION
PISTON PINS
PISTON RINGS
Clearance in Groove
Top
0.078-0.137 mm
Second
0.065-0.110 mm
Oil Control
0.035-0.080 mm
Fitted Gap
Top
0.30-0.45 mm
Second
0.30-0.50 mm
Oil Control
0.25-0.50 mm
CAMSHAFT
Journal Diameter–Front
29.960-29.980 mm
Bearing Clearance
0.03-0.08 mm
1.42 mm ± 0.08, 1 notch
Journal Diameter–Center
39.250-39.270 mm
1.52 mm ± 0.08, 2
notches
Bearing Clearance
0.03-0.08 mm
Journal Diameter–Rear
39.250-39.270 mm
Bearing Clearance
0.03-0.08 mm
CONNECTING RODS
Small End Bearing
Internal Diameter
32.035-32.050 mm
Large End Internal
Diameter
53.977-54.016 mm
HYDRAULIC LIFTER
Outside Diameter
11.994 ± 0.006 mm
VALVES
Intake Valve
PISTONS
Skirt Diameter (measured
at approximately 10 mm
above the bottom of the
skirt)
93.912-93.928 mm
Piston Clearance
Opens
15.6° ± 2° A.T.D.C.
Closes
64.4° ± 2° A.B.D.C.
Exhaust Valve
Opens
66° ± 2° B.B.D.C.
0.010-0.022 mm
Closes
32° ± 2° A.T.D.C.
Top of Piston to Cylinder
Head
0.69-0.83 mm
Face Angle
Piston Potrusion
0.49-0.60 Fit Gasket
Number (1.32), 0 notches
or holes
0.61-0.70 Fit Gasket
Number (1.42), 1 notch
or hole
0.71-0.83 Fit Gasket
Number (1.52), 2 notches
or holes
Intake
45° 25’-55° 35’
Exhaust
45° 25’-45° 35’
Head Diameter
Intake
32.30-32.50 mm
Exhaust
30.80-31.00 mm
Head Stand Down
Intake
1.08-1.34 mm
Exhaust
0.99-1.25 mm
Stem Diameter
Intake
5.952-5.970 mm
Exhaust
5.942-5.960 mm
9-8
ENGINE
KJ
ENGINE - 2.5L/2.8L TURBO DIESEL (Continued)
DESCRIPTION
SPECIFICATION
Clearance in Guide
Intake
0.030-0.060 mm
Exhaust
0.040-0.070 mm
VALVE GUIDE
Inside Diameter
6.00-6.012 mm
Fitted Height
Intake
14.5-15.0 mm
Exhaust
16.5-17.0 mm
VALVE SPRINGS
Free Length
45.26 mm
Fitted Length
38.00 mm
Load at Fitted Length
182 ± 5-10% Kg
Load at Top of Lift
395 ± 5% Kg
DESCRIPTION
SPECIFICATION
Number of Coils
8
LUBRICATION
Pressure Relief Valve
Opens
6.50 bar
Pressure Relief Valve
Spring-Free Length
51.5 mm
OIL PUMP
Outer Rotor End Float
0.060-0.160 mm
Inner Rotor End Float
0.060-0.160 mm
Outer Rotor to Body
Diameter Clearance
0.130-0.240 mm
Rotor Body to Drive Gear
Clearance (pump not
fitted)
0.90-1.50 mm
SPECIFICATIONS - TORQUE
2.5L/2.8L DIESEL TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS
DESCRIPTION
N·m
Ft. Lbs.
In. Lbs.
Oil Pump Bolts
10.8
8
96
Vacuum Pump Bolts
10.8
8
96
Crankshaft Gear Bolts
10.8
8
96
Crankshaft Position
Sensor Bolts
10.8
8
96
Flywheel Bolts - 2.5L
3 stages, 50N·m
clockwise then 25N·m
plus 90° cross sequence
37/18
—
Flywheel Bolts - 2.8L
3 stages, 50N·m
clockwise then 25N·m
plus 60° cross sequence
37/18
—
Reluctor Wheel Bolts
14.6
11
130
Rear Main Bearing
Support Bolts
27.5
21
240
Oil Cooler to Engine Block
Bolt
47.1
35
—
Oil Cooler Mounting Stud
50
37
—
Water Pump Housing Nuts
24.4
18
212
Balance Shaft Bolts
32.4
24
—
Oil Jet Bolts
10.8
8
96
Cylinder Head Bolts Refer to the Service
Procedure
Connecting Rod Bolts Refer to the Service
Procedure
ENGINE
KJ
ENGINE - 2.5L/2.8L TURBO DIESEL (Continued)
DESCRIPTION
N·m
Ft. Lbs.
In. Lbs.
Oil Pump Pick-up Tube
32.4
24
—
Oil Pan Bolts
11.8
8
96
Structural Support to
Engine and Transmission
Bolts
45.1
33
—
Crankshaft Hub Bolt
275
203
—
Crankshaft Pulley Bolts
32.4
24
—
Front Engine Cover Bolts
6
—
53
Transmission to Engine
Bolts
83.4
62
—
Cylinder Head Cover /
Intake Manifold Bolts
24.5
18
—
Camshaft Timing Access
Bolts
24.5
18
—
Camshaft Access Plugs
80
59
—
Oil Separator Bolts
10.8
8
96
Camshaft Position Sensor
Bolt
10.8
8
96
Boost Pressure / Intake
Air Temp. Sensor Bolts
5.4
—
48
Accessory Drive Bracket
Bolts
45.1
33
—
Accessory Drive Belt Idler
Pulley Bolt
53
39
—
Vacuum Line Fitting Bolt
56.9
42
—
Fuel Pump Nuts
27.5
21
—
Fuel Line Fittings at Pump
27.5
21
—
Fuel Rail Retaining Bolts
24.5
18
217
8mm
10.8
8
96
10mm
45.1
33
—
3mm
6
—
54
8mm
10.8
8
96
Engine Mount Bracket to
Cylinder Head Bolts
45.1
33
—
Structural Support to
Engine and Transmission
Bolts
45.1
33
Intake Inlet Tube Bolts
10.1
8
89
Camshaft Sprocket Bolts
108
80
—
Camshaft Timing Access
Bolts
24.5
18
212
Inner Timing Belt Cover
Bolts
Outer Timing Belt Cover
Bolts
9-9
9 - 10
ENGINE
KJ
ENGINE - 2.5L/2.8L TURBO DIESEL (Continued)
DESCRIPTION
N·m
Ft. Lbs.
In. Lbs.
Timing Belt Idler Pulley
Bolt
47.1
35
—
Timing Belt Tensioner Bolt
29.4
22
—
Fuel Injection Pump Gear
Nut
88.3
65
—
Fuel Injection Pump
Retaining Nuts
24.4
18
212
Engine Lift Hook Bolts
45.1
33
—
Thermostat Housing Bolts
24.5
18
—
Turbocharger Oil Supply
Line Fitting
24.5
18
217
Turbocharger Oil Return
Line Bolts
10.8
—
96
Exhaust Manifold Nuts
32.4
24
—
Exhaust Manifold Heat
Shield
24.5
18
217
Exhaust Manifold
Heatshield Bolts
27.5
21
—
EGR Valve Nuts
32.4
24
—
Coolant Pipe to EGR
Valve Bolts
32.4
24
—
Turbocharger Downpipe
Nuts
32.4
24
—
Turbocharger Bracket
Bolts
47.1
35
—
Vibration Damper to
Crankshaft Hub Bolts
27.5
21
—
Crankshaft Support Bolts
44.1
33
—
Turbocharger to Exhaust
Manifold Nuts
32.4
24
—
ENGINE
KJ
9 - 11
ENGINE - 2.5L/2.8L TURBO DIESEL (Continued)
SPECIAL TOOLS
VM.1050 CRANKSHAFT REAR SEAL INSTALLER
VM.1052 INTAKE CAMSHAFT ALIGNMENT PIN
VM.1054 RELIEF VALVE REMOVER/CENTRAL
CARRIER PIN REMOVER/INSTALLER
VM.1055 CAMSHAFT/HIGH PRESSURE INJECTION
PUMP GEAR HOLDER
VM.1056 BALANCE SHAFT LOCKING PIN
VM.1053 EXHAUST CAMSHAFT ALIGNMENT PIN
9 - 12
ENGINE
KJ
ENGINE - 2.5L/2.8L TURBO DIESEL (Continued)
VM.1062 POWER STEERING PUMP INSTALLER
VM.1059 OIL PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE INSTALLER
VM.1060 OIL JET REMOVER /INSTALLER
VM.1063 FUEL INJECTOR REMOVER
VM.1061 FRONT COVER AND FRONT OIL SEAL
INSTALLER
ENGINE
KJ
9 - 13
ENGINE - 2.5L/2.8L TURBO DIESEL (Continued)
VM.1064 POWER STEERING PUMP GEAR
REMOVER
VM.1067 HIGH PRESSURE PUMP REMOVER
VM.1069 CRANKSHAFT REM/INSTALL SLEEVE
VM.1065 PISTON RING COMPRESSOR
VM.1070 FLYWHEEL LOCKING TOOL
VM.1066 VALVE COVER ALIGNMENT PINS
9 - 14
ENGINE
KJ
ENGINE - 2.5L/2.8L TURBO DIESEL (Continued)
VM.1072 COMPRESSION TESTER ADAPTER
VM.1075 FLYWHEEL ALIGNMENT PINS
VM.8872 TDC LOCATING PIN
VM.1073 CRANKSHAFT FRONT BEARING
REMOVER/INSTALLER
VM.8873 90 DEGREES AFTER TDC LOCATING PIN
VM.1074 TIMING BELT RETAINER
ENGINE
KJ
9 - 15
CYLINDER HEAD
STANDARD PROCEDURE
STANDARD PROCEDURE - VALVE SERVICE
This procedure is done with the engine cylinder
head removed from the block.
DISASSEMBLY
(1) Remove the engine cylinder head from the cylinder block. Refer to cylinder head removal and
installation in this section.
(2) Use Valve Spring Compressor Tool and compress each valve spring.
(3) Remove the valve locks, retainers, and springs.
(4) Use a smooth stone or a jewelers file to remove
any burrs on the top of the valve stem, especially
around the groove for the locks.
(5) Remove the valves, and place them in a rack in
the same order as removed.
VALVE CLEANING
(1) Clean all carbon deposits from the combustion
chambers, valve ports, valve stems, valve stem
guides and head.
(2) Clean all grime and gasket material from the
engine cylinder head machined gasket surface.
INSPECTION
(1) Inspect for cracks in the combustion chambers
and valve ports.
(2) Inspect for cracks on the exhaust seat.
(3) Inspect for cracks in the gasket surface at each
coolant passage.
(4) Inspect valves for burned, cracked or warped
heads.
(5) Inspect for scuffed or bent valve stems.
(6) Replace valves displaying any damage.
(7) Check valve spring height (Fig. 3).
VALVE REFACING
(1) Use a valve refacing machine to reface the
intake and exhaust valves to the specified angle.
(2) After refacing, a margin of at least 4.52-4.49
mm (.178-.177 inch) must remain (Fig. 4). If the margin is less than 4.49 mm (.177 inch), the valve must
be replaced.
Fig. 3 VALVE SPRING CHART
P1
P2
P3
LOAD Kg
0.00
182-5
+10%
395±5%
H1
H2
HEIGHT mm
45.26
38.00
H3
28.20
STATE
FREE LENGTH
VALVE CLOSED
VALVE OPEN
VALVE SEAT REFACING
(1) Install a pilot of the correct size in the valve
guide bore. Reface the valve seat to the specified
angle with a good dressing stone. Remove only
enough metal to provide a smooth finish.
(2) Use tapered stones to obtain the specified seat
width when required.
VALVE STAND DOWN
Valve stand down is to maintain the adequate compression ratio.
(1) Invert cylinder head.
(2) Fit each valve to its respective valve guide.
(3) Using a straight edge and feeler gauge, check
valve head stand down: Inlet valve head stand down
1.08 to 1.34 mm (.042 to .052 ins.) and exhaust valve
stand down .99 to 1.25 mm (.035 to .049 ins.).
(4) If valve head stand down is not in accordance
with above, discard original valves, check stand down
with new valves and recut valve seat inserts to
obtain correct stand down.
9 - 16
ENGINE
KJ
CYLINDER HEAD (Continued)
VALVE GUIDES
(1) Valve Guides height requirement.
(2) Measurement A (Fig. 5): 16.50 - 17.00 mm.
Measurment B : 14.50 - 15.00 mm.
Fig. 5 VALVE GUIDE HEIGHT
VALVE STEM-TO-GUIDE CLEARANCE
MEASUREMENT
Fig. 4 VALVE SPECS.
MEASUREMENT
A
B
C
INTAKE
7.940-7.960
8.00-8.015
1.08-1.34
D
2.2 ± 0.08
E
F
G
H
I
L
1.80-2.20
2.73-3.44
41.962-41.985
42.070-42.086
7.14-7.19
3.11-3.26
EXHAUST
7.922-7.940
8.000-8.015
0.990-1.250
+0.07
2.09
20.09
1.65-2.05
2.45-3.02
35.964-35.987
36.050-36.066
7.00-7.05
3.10-3.25
(1) Measure and record internal diameter of valve
guides. Valve guide internal diameter is 8.0 to 8.015
mm (.3149 to .3155 ins.).
(2) Measure valve stems and record diameters.
Intake valve stem diameter 7.94 to 7.96 mm (.3125 to
.3133 in). Exhaust valve stem diameter 7.92 to 7.94
mm (.3118 to .31215 in).
(3) Subtract diameter of valve stem from internal
diameter of its respective valve guide to obtain valve
stem clearance in valve guide. Clearance of inlet
valve stem in valve guide is .040 to .075 mm (.0015
to .0029 in). Clearance of exhaust valve stem in valve
guide is .060 to .093 mm (.0023 to .0036 in).
(4) If valve stem clearance in valve guide exceeds
tolerances, new valve guides must be installed.
ENGINE
KJ
9 - 17
CYLINDER HEAD (Continued)
STANDARD PROCEDURE - MEASURING
PISTON PROTRUSION
(1) Use special tool VM.1010 with dial indicator
special tool VM.1013 (Fig. 6).
Fig. 6 PISTON PROTRUSION
(2) Bring the piston of cylinder no. 1 exactly to top
dead center.
(3) Zero the dial indicator on the cylinder block
mating surface.
(4) Setup the dial indicator on the piston crown
(above the center of the piston pin) 5mm (1/8 in.) from
the edge of the piston and note the measurement.
(5) Repeat the procedure with the rest of the cylinders.
(6) Establish the thickness of the steel gasket by
averaging the four piston potrusion readings.
Measure Dimension (mm)
0.49-0.60
Cylinder Head Gasket
Thickness (mm)
1.32
No Holes or Notches
Piston Clearance (mm)
0.72-0.83
Measure Dimension (mm)
0.61-0.70
Cylinder Head Gasket
Thickness (mm)
1.42
1 Hole or Notch
Piston Clearance (mm)
0.72-0.81
Measure Dimension (mm)
0.71-0.83
Cylinder Head Gasket
Thickness (mm)
1.52
2 Holes or Notches
Piston Clearance (mm)
0.69-0.81
REMOVAL
(1) Disconnect negative battery cable.
(2) Remove engine cover and bracket (Refer to 9 ENGINE COVER - REMOVAL).
(3) Drain cooling system (Refer to 7 - COOLING/
ENGINE/COOLANT - STANDARD PROCEDURE).
(4) Remove radiator core support.
(5) Remove cooling fan and fan drive viscous
clutch assembly (Refer to 7 - COOLING/ENGINE/
FAN DRIVE VISCOUS CLUTCH - REMOVAL).
(6) Remove accessory drive belt (Refer to 7 COOLING/ACCESSORY DRIVE/DRIVE BELTS REMOVAL).
(7) Remove accessory drive belt tensioner and both
idler pulleys, Idler pulley bolts are L.H. thread.(Refer to 7 - COOLING/ACCESSORY DRIVE/BELT
TENSIONERS - REMOVAL).
(8) Remove power steering pump pulley.
(9) Remove front engine lift bracket.
(10) Remove cooling fan support (Refer to 7 COOLING/ENGINE/RADIATOR FAN - REMOVAL).
(11) Remove generator and support bracketing(Refer to 8 - ELECTRICAL/CHARGING/GENERATOR REMOVAL).
(12) Remove viscous heater.
(13) Remove vibration damper.
(14) Remove throttle cable assembly and set aside.
(15) Disconnect main engine wiring harness connectors from right inner wheel housing.
(16) Disconnect main engine wiring harness ancillary components and set harness aside.
(17) Remove air cleaner housing.
(18) Disconnect EGR cooler assembly water inlet
pipe.
(19) Remove EGR cooler from exhaust manifold
(2.8L), Disconnect coolant pipe (2.5L).(Refer to 25 EMISSIONS CONTROL/EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION/VALVE COOLER - REMOVAL).
(20) Remove exhaust manifold heat shield (Fig. 7).
(21) Remove turbocharger heat shield retaining
bolt and position shield aside (Fig. 9).
(22) Remove turbocharger oil feed line from turbocharger (Fig. 9).
(23) Raise and support vehicle.
(24) Disconnect exhaust stabilizer bracket at lower
exhaust manifold (Fig. 9).
(25) Disconnect exhaust system bracket at transmission crossmember.
(26) Lower the vehicle and remove the exhaust
manifold retaining nuts.
(27) Slide the exhaust manifold and turbocharger
off of exhaust manifold studs (Fig. 9).
(28) Remove coolant hoses at thermostat housing.
9 - 18
ENGINE
KJ
CYLINDER HEAD (Continued)
(31) Disconnect fuel pump high pressure line at
fuel rail (Refer to 14 - FUEL SYSTEM/FUEL INJECTION/FUEL INJECTOR - REMOVAL).
(32) Disconnect oil dip stick tube from intake manifold.
(33) Disconnect brake booster line bracket from
intake manifold and set aside.
(34) Remove fuel injectors (Refer to 14 - FUEL
SYSTEM/FUEL INJECTION/FUEL INJECTOR REMOVAL).
CAUTION: Before removing the cylinder head cover/intake manifold or timing belt the engine must put at 90°
after TDC. Failure to do so could result in valve and/or
piston damage during reassembly. (Refer to 9 ENGINE/VALVE TIMING - STANDARD PROCEDURE)
(35) Remove timing belt outer cover (Refer to 9 ENGINE/VALVE TIMING/TIMING BELT / CHAIN
COVER(S) - REMOVAL).
(36) Remove timing belt (Refer to 9 - ENGINE/
VALVE
TIMING/TIMING
BELT/CHAIN
AND
SPROCKETS - REMOVAL).
(37) Using VM.1055, remove both camshaft gears
(Fig. 8).
Fig. 7 THERMOSTAT HOUSING
1 - THERMOSTAT HOUSING GASKET
2 - THERMOSTAT HOUSING
3 - TURBOCHARGER OIL SUPPLY LINE BANJO BOLT
4 - THERMOSTAT HOUSING RETAINING BOLTS
5 - BRASS WASHER
6 - EXHAUST MANIFOLD GASKET
7 - EXHAUST MANIFOLD
8 - EXHAUST MANIFOLD HEATSHIELD
9 - EXHAUST MANIFOLD HEATSHIELD RETAINING BOLTS
10 - OIL RETURN HOSE
11 - HOSE CLAMPS
12 - EXHAUST MANIFOLD RETAINING NUTS
13 - TURBOCHARGER DOWNPIPE STUDS
14 - TURBOCHARGER DOWN PIPE GASKET
15 - TURBOCHARGER DOWNPIPE
16 - TURBOCHARGER DOWNPIPE RETAINING NUT
(29) Disconnect fuel return hose from fuel injectors
and set aside (Refer to 14 - FUEL SYSTEM/FUEL
INJECTION/FUEL INJECTOR - REMOVAL).
(30) Remove fuel injector pressure lines (Refer to
14 - FUEL SYSTEM/FUEL INJECTION/FUEL
INJECTOR - REMOVAL).
Fig. 8 CAMSHAFT GEAR REMOVAL/INSTALLATION
1
2
3
4
5
-
TIMING BELT INNER COVER
CAMSHAFT SPROCKET
IDLER PULLEYS
CAMSHAFT SPROCKET
VM.1055
ENGINE
KJ
9 - 19
CYLINDER HEAD (Continued)
(38) Remove timing belt inner cover (Refer to 9 ENGINE/VALVE TIMING/TIMING BELT / CHAIN
COVER(S) - REMOVAL).
(39) Remove cylinder head cover/intake manifold
(Refer to 9 - ENGINE/CYLINDER HEAD/CYLINDER HEAD COVER(S) - REMOVAL).
(40) Remove rocker arm and lifter assemblies from
cylinder head. Be sure to keep in same order as
removed.
(41) Remove cylinder head cover/intake manifold
gasket from cylinder head.
(42) Disconnect glow plug and engine coolant temperature electrical connectors.
(43) Remove turbocharger outlet to charge air
cooler hose.
(44) Remove cylinder head bolts.
(45) Remove cylinder head assembly from engine
block (Fig. 9).
CLEANING
Thoroughly clean the engine cylinder head and cylinder block mating surfaces. Clean the intake and
exhaust manifold and engine cylinder head mating
surfaces. Remove all gasket material and carbon.
Check to ensure that no coolant or foreign material
has fallen into the tappet bore area.
Remove the carbon deposits from the combustion
chambers and top of the pistons.
Fig. 9 CYLINDER HEAD ASSEMBLY
INSPECTION
Use a straightedge and feeler gauge to check the
flatness of the engine cylinder head and block mating
surfaces.
The minimum cylinder head thickness is 89.95mm
(3.541 in.).
INSTALLATION
CAUTION: Piston protrusion must be measured to
determine cylinder head gasket thickness if one or
more cylinder liners have been replaced (Refer to 9 ENGINE/CYLINDER HEAD - STANDARD PROCEDURE).
NOTE: If cylinder liner(s) have not been removed,
the same thickness head gasket that was removed
can be used.
1 - CYLINDER HEAD BOLT
2 - GLOW PLUG
3 - COOLANT TEMPERATURE SENSOR
4 - CYLINDER HEAD ALIGNMENT DOWEL
5 - GLOW PLUG HARNESS
6 - CYLINDER LINER
7 - CYLINDER BLOCK
8 - CYLINDER HEAD GASKET
9 - CYLINDER HEAD
10 - ROCKER ARM ASSEMBLIES
(1) Clean and inspect gasket mating surfaces.
(2) Position correct head gasket on engine block.
(3) Place cylinder head on engine block.
9 - 20
ENGINE
KJ
CYLINDER HEAD (Continued)
CAUTION: New cylinder head bolts must be used.
(4) Tighten cylinder head bolts following procedure
below.
Cylinder Head Bolt Torquing Procedure
(1) Lubricate cylinder head bolts with engine oil.
(2) Torque bolts to 30N·m in numerical starting
with bolt #1 (Fig. 10).
(3) Tighten all bolts an additional 50°, starting
with bolt #4 then 5-6-7-8-9-10-1-2-3-11-12-13-14-1516-17-18 (Fig. 10).
(4) Finally tighten all bolts an additional 75° in
numerical order starting with bolt #1 (Fig. 10).
Fig. 11 THERMOSTAT HOUSING
Fig. 10 CYLINDER HEAD TORQUE SEQUENCE
(5) Slide exhaust manifold and turbocharger on
exhaust manifold studs (Fig. 11).
(6) Install exhaust manifold retaining nuts. Torque
nuts to 32.4N·m.
(7) Install exhaust manifold heat shield. Torque
bolts to 27.5N·m.
(8) Install turbocharger outlet to charge air cooler
pipe.
(9) Install upper radiator hose.
(10) Connect glow plug and coolant temperature
sensor electrical connectors.
(11) Install new cylinder head cover/intake manifold gasket.
(12) Install rocker arm and lifter assemblies.Be
sure to put rocker arm and lifter assemblies in
same location as removed.
(13) Install cylinder head cover/intake manifold(Refer to 9 - ENGINE/CYLINDER HEAD/CYLINDER HEAD COVER(S) - INSTALLATION).
1 - THERMOSTAT HOUSING GASKET
2 - THERMOSTAT HOUSING
3 - TURBOCHARGER OIL SUPPLY LINE BANJO BOLT
4 - THERMOSTAT HOUSING RETAINING BOLTS
5 - BRASS WASHER
6 - EXHAUST MANIFOLD GASKET
7 - EXHAUST MANIFOLD
8 - EXHAUST MANIFOLD HEATSHIELD
9 - EXHAUST MANIFOLD HEATSHIELD RETAINING BOLTS
10 - OIL RETURN HOSE
11 - HOSE CLAMPS
12 - EXHAUST MANIFOLD RETAINING NUTS
13 - TURBOCHARGER DOWNPIPE STUDS
14 - TURBOCHARGER DOWN PIPE GASKET
15 - TURBOCHARGER DOWNPIPE
16 - TURBOCHARGER DOWNPIPE RETAINING NUT
(14) Install timing belt inner cover (Refer to 9 ENGINE/VALVE TIMING/TIMING BELT / CHAIN
COVER(S) - INSTALLATION).
(15) Using VM.1055, install both camshaft gears
and tighten bolts finger tight.
(16) Install timing belt (Refer to 9 - ENGINE/
VALVE
TIMING/TIMING
BELT/CHAIN
AND
SPROCKETS - INSTALLATION).
ENGINE
KJ
9 - 21
CYLINDER HEAD (Continued)
(17) Using VM.1055, torque cam gear retaining
bolts to 108 N·m. (Fig. 12).
Fig. 12 CAMSHAFT GEAR REMOVAL/INSTALLATION
1
2
3
4
5
-
TIMING BELT INNER COVER
CAMSHAFT SPROCKET
IDLER PULLEYS
CAMSHAFT SPROCKET
VM.1055
(18) Install timing belt outer cover (Refer to 9 ENGINE/VALVE TIMING/TIMING BELT / CHAIN
COVER(S) - INSTALLATION).
(19) Remove crankshaft and both camshaft
locking pins at this time (Refer to 9 - ENGINE/
VALVE TIMING - STANDARD PROCEDURE) .
(20) Install fuel injectors (Refer to 14 - FUEL SYSTEM/FUEL
INJECTION/FUEL
INJECTOR
INSTALLATION).
(21) Install brake booster line bracket to intake
manifold.
(22) Install oil dip stick tube to intake manifold.
(23) Connect fuel pump high pressure line to fuel
rail.
(24) Install fuel injector pressure lines.
(25) Connect fuel return hose to fuel injectors.
(26) Connect engine coolant hoses to thermostat
housing.
(27) Raise vehicle.
(28) Reconnect exhaust system bracket at transmission crossmember.
(29) Connect exhaust stabilizer bracket to lower
exhaust manifold (Fig. 11).
(30) Install turbocharger oil feed line to turbocharger.
(31) Lower vehicle.
(32) Install turbocharger heat shield.
(33) Install exhaust manifold heat shield.
(34) Install EGR cooler assembly and connect
engine coolant hoses.
(35) Install air cleaner housing.
(36) Install main engine wiring harness and connect all ancillary electrical components.
(37) Install throttle cable assembly.
(38) Install viscous heater.
(39) Install vibration damper.
(40) Install generator (Refer to 8 - ELECTRICAL/
CHARGING/GENERATOR - INSTALLATION).
(41) Install cooling fan support (Refer to 7 COOLING/ENGINE/RADIATOR FAN - INSTALLATION).
(42) Install front engine lift bracket.
(43) Install power steering pump pulley.
(44) Install accessory drive belt tensioner and both
idler pulleys. Idler pulley retaining bolts are L.
H. Thread.
(45) Install accessory drive belt (Refer to 7 COOLING/ACCESSORY DRIVE/DRIVE BELTS INSTALLATION).
(46) Install cooling fan and fan drive viscous clutch
assembly (Refer to 7 - COOLING/ENGINE/FAN
DRIVE VISCOUS CLUTCH - INSTALLATION).
(47) Install upper radiator core support.
(48) Refill cooling system (Refer to 7 - COOLING/
ENGINE/COOLANT - STANDARD PROCEDURE).
(49) Install engine cover and bracket (Refer to 9 ENGINE COVER - INSTALLATION).
(50) Connect negative battery cable.
(51) Start engine and inspect for leaks (Refer to 14
- FUEL SYSTEM - WARNING).
CAMSHAFT OIL SEAL(S)
REMOVAL
(1) Disconnect negative battery cable.
(2) Remove cooling fan and fan drive viscous
clutch assembly (Refer to 7 - COOLING/ENGINE/
FAN DRIVE VISCOUS CLUTCH - REMOVAL).
(3) Remove accessory drive belt (Refer to 7 COOLING/ACCESSORY DRIVE/DRIVE BELTS REMOVAL).
(4) Remove fan support (Refer to 7 - COOLING/
ENGINE/RADIATOR FAN - REMOVAL).
(5) Remove vibration damper.
(6) Remove outer timing belt cover (Refer to 9 ENGINE/VALVE TIMING/TIMING BELT / CHAIN
COVER(S) - REMOVAL).
9 - 22
ENGINE
KJ
CAMSHAFT OIL SEAL(S) (Continued)
WARNING: Before removing the timing belt the
engine must put at 90° after TDC. Failure to do so
could result in valve and/or piston damage during
reassembly. (Refer to 9 - ENGINE/VALVE TIMING STANDARD PROCEDURE)
(7) Remove timing belt (Refer to 9 - ENGINE/
VALVE
TIMING/TIMING
BELT/CHAIN
AND
SPROCKETS - REMOVAL).
(8) Using VM.1055, remove both camshaft gears
(Fig. 13).
(8) Install accessory drive belt (Refer to 7 - COOLING/ACCESSORY DRIVE/DRIVE BELTS - INSTALLATION).
(9) Install cooling fan and fan drive viscous clutch
assembly (Refer to 7 - COOLING/ENGINE/FAN
DRIVE VISCOUS CLUTCH - INSTALLATION).
(10) Connect negative battery cable.
CAMSHAFT(S)
DESCRIPTION
The camshafts are made of gray cast iron with
eight machined lobes and four bearing journals (Fig.
14).
Fig. 14 CAMSHAFTS
1 - INTAKE CAMSHAFT
2 - EXHAUST CAMSHAFT
Fig. 13 CAMSHAFT GEAR REMOVAL/INSTALLATION
1
2
3
4
5
-
TIMING BELT INNER COVER
CAMSHAFT SPROCKET
IDLER PULLEYS
CAMSHAFT SPROCKET
VM.1055
(9) Remove both camshaft oil seals.
INSTALLATION
(1) Install new camshaft oil seal using VM.1057.
(2) Install camshaft sprockets and tighten retaining bolts finger tight.
(3) Install timing belt (Refer to 9 - ENGINE/
VALVE
TIMING/TIMING
BELT/CHAIN
AND
SPROCKETS - INSTALLATION).
(4) Torque camshaft sprockets to 108 N·m using
VM.1055 to hold sprockets (Fig. 13).
(5) Install outer timing belt cover (Refer to 9 ENGINE/VALVE TIMING/TIMING BELT / CHAIN
COVER(S) - INSTALLATION).
(6) Install vibration damper.
(7) Install cooling fan support (Refer to 7 - COOLING/ENGINE/RADIATOR FAN - INSTALLATION).
OPERATION
When the camshaft rotates the lobes actuate the
hydraulic lifters and rocker arms, forcing downward
on the rocker arms which opens the valves.
REMOVAL
(1) Disconnect negative battery cable.
(2) Remove engine cover and bracket (Refer to 9 ENGINE - REMOVAL).
(3) Drain cooling system (Refer to 7 - COOLING/
ENGINE/COOLANT - STANDARD PROCEDURE).
(4) Remove cooling fan and fan drive viscous
clutch assembly (Refer to 7 - COOLING/ENGINE/
FAN DRIVE VISCOUS CLUTCH - REMOVAL).
(5) Remove accessory drive belt (Refer to 7 COOLING/ACCESSORY DRIVE/DRIVE BELTS REMOVAL).
(6) Remove cooling fan support (Refer to 7 COOLING/ENGINE/RADIATOR FAN - REMOVAL).
(7) Remove vibration damper.
(8) Remove generator (Refer to 8 - ELECTRICAL/
CHARGING/GENERATOR - REMOVAL).
ENGINE
KJ
9 - 23
CAMSHAFT(S) (Continued)
CAUTION: Before removing the cylinder head cover/
intake manifold or timing belt the engine must put
at 90° after TDC. Failure to do so could result in
valve and/or piston damage during reassembly.
(Refer to 9 - ENGINE/VALVE TIMING - STANDARD
PROCEDURE)
(9) Remove timing belt outer cover (Refer to 9 ENGINE/VALVE TIMING/TIMING BELT / CHAIN
COVER(S) - REMOVAL).
(10) Remove timing belt (Refer to 9 - ENGINE/
VALVE
TIMING/TIMING
BELT/CHAIN
AND
SPROCKETS - REMOVAL).
(11) Remove timing belt inner cover (Refer to 9 ENGINE/VALVE TIMING/TIMING BELT / CHAIN
COVER(S) - REMOVAL).
(12) Remove cylinder head cover/intake manifold
(Refer to 9 - ENGINE/CYLINDER HEAD/CYLINDER HEAD COVER(S) - REMOVAL).
(13) With cylinder head cover/intake manifold on
work bench, remove plugs at rear of cylinder head
cover/intake manifold.
(14) Remove camshaft oil seals (Fig. 15).
(15) Remove snapring and thrust washer from
camshaft (Fig. 15).
(16) Slide camshaft through access hole at rear of
cylinder head cover/intake manifold.
INSTALLATION
(1) Lubricate camshafts with Mopart Engine Oil
Supplement, or equivalent.
(2) Carefully install camshafts into access holes in
rear of cylinder head cover/intake manifold.
(3) Install thrust washer, snapring, and camshaft
oil seal (Fig. 15).
(4) Install access hole plugs and gaskets at rear of
cylinder head cover/intake manifold. Torque plugs to
80N·m.
(5) Install cylinder head cover/intake manifold on
engine block (Refer to 9 - ENGINE/CYLINDER
HEAD/CYLINDER HEAD COVER(S) - INSTALLATION).
(6) Install timing belt inner cover (Refer to 9 ENGINE/VALVE TIMING/TIMING BELT / CHAIN
COVER(S) - INSTALLATION).
(7) Install timing belt (Refer to 9 - ENGINE/
VALVE
TIMING/TIMING
BELT/CHAIN
AND
SPROCKETS - INSTALLATION).
Fig. 15 CAMSHAFT ASSEMBLY
1
2
3
4
5
6
-
INTAKE CAMSHAFT
SNAPRING
CAMSHAFT OIL SEAL
THRUST WASHER
CYLINDER HEAD COVER/INTAKE MANIFOLD
EXHAUST MANIFOLD
(8) Install timing belt outer cover (Refer to 9 ENGINE/VALVE TIMING/TIMING BELT / CHAIN
COVER(S) - INSTALLATION).
(9) Install generator (Refer to 8 - ELECTRICAL/
CHARGING/GENERATOR - INSTALLATION).
(10) Install vibration damper.
(11) Install cooling fan support (Refer to 7 - COOLING/ENGINE/RADIATOR FAN - INSTALLATION).
(12) Install accessory drive belt (Refer to 7 COOLING/ACCESSORY DRIVE/DRIVE BELTS INSTALLATION).
(13) Install cooling fan and fan drive viscous clutch
assembly (Refer to 7 - COOLING/ENGINE/FAN
DRIVE VISCOUS CLUTCH - INSTALLATION).
(14) Refill cooling system (Refer to 7 - COOLING/
ENGINE/COOLANT - STANDARD PROCEDURE).
(15) Connect negative battery cable.
9 - 24
ENGINE
CYLINDER HEAD COVER
DESCRIPTION
The cylinder head cover is made of cast aluminum
and is also the intake manifold on this engine (Fig.
16).
Fig. 16 CYLINDER HEAD COVER/INTAKE
MANIFOLD
REMOVAL
CAUTION: Before removing the cylinder head cover/
intake manifold the engine must put at 90° after
TDC. Failure to do so could result in valve and/or
piston damage during reassembly. (Refer to 9 ENGINE/VALVE TIMING - STANDARD PROCEDURE)
(1) Disconnect negative battery cable.
(2) Remove engine cover and bracket (Refer to 9 ENGINE - REMOVAL).
(3) Drain cooling system (Refer to 7 - COOLING/
ENGINE/COOLANT - STANDARD PROCEDURE).
(4) Remove cooling fan and fan drive viscous drive
assembly (Refer to 7 - COOLING/ENGINE/FAN
DRIVE VISCOUS CLUTCH - REMOVAL).
(5) Remove accessory drive belt (Refer to 7 COOLING/ACCESSORY DRIVE/DRIVE BELTS REMOVAL).
(6) Remove cooling fan support (Refer to 7 COOLING/ENGINE/RADIATOR FAN - REMOVAL).
(7) Remove generator (Refer to 8 - ELECTRICAL/
CHARGING/GENERATOR - REMOVAL).
KJ
CAUTION: Before removing the cylinder head cover/
intake manifold or timing belt the engine must put
at 90° after TDC. Failure to do so could result in
valve and/or piston damage during reassembly.
(Refer to 9 - ENGINE/VALVE TIMING - STANDARD
PROCEDURE)
(8) Rotate engine until 90° after TDC is reached.
Install both camshaft locking pins and the crankshaft
locking pin. (Refer to 9 - ENGINE/VALVE TIMING STANDARD PROCEDURE)
(9) Remove outer timing belt cover (Refer to 9 ENGINE/VALVE TIMING/TIMING BELT / CHAIN
COVER(S) - REMOVAL).
(10) Remove timing belt (Refer to 9 - ENGINE/
VALVE
TIMING/TIMING
BELT/CHAIN
AND
SPROCKETS - REMOVAL).
(11) Remove inner timing belt cover (Refer to 9 ENGINE/VALVE TIMING/TIMING BELT / CHAIN
COVER(S) - REMOVAL).
(12) Disconnect camshaft position sensor, boost
pressure/intake air temperature sensor, EGR solenoid, and fuel pressure sensor electrical connectors.
(13) Disconnect vacuum lines at EGR solenoid.
(14) Position electrical harness out of way.
(15) Remove fuel injectors (Refer to 14 - FUEL
SYSTEM/FUEL INJECTION/FUEL INJECTOR REMOVAL).
(16) Remove fuel rail (Refer to 14 - FUEL SYSTEM/FUEL DELIVERY/FUEL RAIL - REMOVAL).
(17) Remove oil dipstick tube retaining bolt at
intake manifold inlet.
(18) Disconnect oil separator outlet hose at separator.
(19) Remove turbo inlet tube retaining bolt at
intake manifold.
(20) Disconnect EGR tube at intake manifold inlet
tube.
(21) Remove cylinder head cover/intake manifold
retaining bolts (Fig. 17).
(22) Lift cylinder head cover/intake manifold from
cylinder head (Fig. 17).
NOTE: When removing rocker arm and lifter assemblies, be sure to keep them in order as they were
removed from the cylinder head. Always keep lifters
in an upright position when removed from cylinder
head.
(23) Remove rocker arm and lifter assemblies from
cylinder head.
(24) Remove cylinder head cover/intake manifold
gasket from cylinder head.
INSTALLATION
(1) Clean and inspect sealing surfaces.
(2) Install new gasket on cylinder head.
ENGINE
KJ
9 - 25
CYLINDER HEAD COVER (Continued)
Fig. 17 CYLINDER HEAD COVER/INTAKE
MANIFOLD ASSEMBLY
1
2
3
4
5
-
CYLINDER
CYLINDER
CYLINDER
CYLINDER
CYLINDER
HEAD
HEAD
HEAD
HEAD
HEAD
COVER/INTAKE MANIFOLD BOLTS(LONG)
COVER/INTAKE MANIFOLD
Fig. 18 CYLINDER HEAD COVER ALIGNMENT
STUDS VM.1066
1 - CYLINDER HEAD COVER/INTAKE MANIFOLD STUDS
VM.1066
2 - CYLINDER HEAD
COVER/INTAKE MANIFOLD GASKET
COVER/INTAKE MANIFOLD BOLTS(SHORT)
(3) Install rocker arm and lifter assemblies in cylinder head. Be sure to put rocker arm and lifter
assemblies in same location as removed.
(4) Install cylinder head cover/intake manifold
alignment studs in cylinder head (Fig. 18).
(5) Install cylinder head cover/intake manifold
over alignment stud.
NOTE: Be sure to lubricate cylinder head cover/intake manifold retaining bolts with engine oil before
assembly. If new bolts are being installed, DO NOT
lubricate before assembly.
(6) Install two cylinder head cover/intake manifold
retaining bolts and tighten finger tight.
(7) Remove alignment studs and install remaining
retaining bolts. Tighten retaining bolts finger tight.
(8) Torque cylinder head cover/intake manifold
retaining bolts following procedure below.
CYLINDER HEAD COVER/INTAKE MANIFOLD
TIGHTENING PROCEDURE
• Alternate between bolts #11 and #16 to seat cylinder head cover/intake manifold on cylinder head
(Fig. 19). Torque bolts to 7 N·m.
• Torque all cylinder head cover/intake manifold
retaining bolts to 25 N·m in numerical order starting
with #1 and ending with #16 (Fig. 19).
Fig. 19 CYLINDER HEAD COVER/INTAKE
MANIFOLD TIGHTENING SEQUENCE
(9) Connect EGR tube at intake manifold inlet
tube. Torque clamp to 10.8 N·m.
(10) Install turbo inlet tube retaining bolt at
intake manifold. Torque bolt to 27.5 N·m.
9 - 26
ENGINE
KJ
CYLINDER HEAD COVER (Continued)
(11) Connect oil separator outlet hose at separator.
(12) Install oil dipstick tube retaining bolt at
intake manifold inlet. Torque bolt to 10 N·m.
(13) Install power steering pump reservoir in
bracket.
(14) Install fuel rail (Refer to 14 - FUEL SYSTEM/
FUEL DELIVERY/FUEL RAIL - INSTALLATION).
(15) Install fuel injectors and fuel injector supply
lines (Refer to 14 - FUEL SYSTEM/FUEL INJECTION/FUEL INJECTOR - INSTALLATION).
(16) Connect vacuum lines at EGR solenoid.
(17) Connect camshaft position sensor, boost pressure/intake air temperature sensor, EGR solenoid,
and fuel pressure sensor electrical connectors.
(18) Install inner timing belt cover (Refer to 9 ENGINE/VALVE TIMING/TIMING BELT / CHAIN
COVER(S) - INSTALLATION).
(19) Install timing belt (Refer to 9 - ENGINE/
VALVE
TIMING/TIMING
BELT/CHAIN
AND
SPROCKETS - INSTALLATION).
(20) Install outer timing belt cover (Refer to 9 ENGINE/VALVE TIMING/TIMING BELT / CHAIN
COVER(S) - INSTALLATION).
(21) Remove crankshaft and both camshaft locking
pins (Refer to 9 - ENGINE/VALVE TIMING - STANDARD PROCEDURE).
(22) Install vibration damper.
(23) Install generator (Refer to 8 - ELECTRICAL/
CHARGING/GENERATOR - INSTALLATION).
(24) Install cooling fan support (Refer to 7 COOLING/ENGINE/RADIATOR FAN - INSTALLATION).
(25) Install accessory drive belt (Refer to 7 COOLING/ACCESSORY DRIVE/DRIVE BELTS INSTALLATION).
(26) Install cooling fan and fan drive viscous clutch
assembly (Refer to 7 - COOLING/ENGINE/FAN
DRIVE VISCOUS CLUTCH - INSTALLATION).
(27) Refill cooling system (Refer to 7 - COOLING/
ENGINE/COOLANT - STANDARD PROCEDURE).
(28) Install engine cover and bracket (Refer to 9 ENGINE - INSTALLATION).
(29) Connect negative battery cable.
ROCKER ARMS
DESCRIPTION
The rocker arms are made of stamped steel (Fig. 20).
OPERATION
The rocker arms are used as a link between the
camshaft and valves. As the camshaft rotates the
lobes of the camshafts apply downward pressure on
the rocker arms. This pressure is then transmitted to
the valves which causes the valves to open.
Fig. 20 CYLINDER HEAD ASSEMBLY
1 - CYLINDER HEAD BOLT
2 - GLOW PLUG
3 - COOLANT TEMPERATURE SENSOR
4 - CYLINDER HEAD ALIGNMENT DOWEL
5 - GLOW PLUG HARNESS
6 - CYLINDER LINER
7 - CYLINDER BLOCK
8 - CYLINDER HEAD GASKET
9 - CYLINDER HEAD
10 - ROCKER ARM ASSEMBLIES
REMOVAL
(1) Disconnect negative battery cable.
(2) Drain cooling system (Refer to 7 - COOLING/
ENGINE/COOLANT - STANDARD PROCEDURE).
(3) Remove cooling fan and fan drive viscous
clutch assembly (Refer to 7 - COOLING/ENGINE/
FAN DRIVE VISCOUS CLUTCH - REMOVAL).
(4) Remove accessory drive belt (Refer to 7 COOLING/ACCESSORY DRIVE/DRIVE BELTS REMOVAL).
(5) Remove cooling fan support (Refer to 7 COOLING/ENGINE/RADIATOR FAN - REMOVAL).
(6) Remove vibration damper.
(7) Remove outer timing belt cover (Refer to 9 ENGINE/VALVE TIMING/TIMING BELT / CHAIN
COVER(S) - REMOVAL).
(8) Remove timing belt (Refer to 9 - ENGINE/
VALVE
TIMING/TIMING
BELT/CHAIN
AND
SPROCKETS - REMOVAL).
ENGINE
KJ
9 - 27
ROCKER ARMS (Continued)
(9) Remove inner timing belt cover (Refer to 9 ENGINE/VALVE TIMING/TIMING BELT / CHAIN
COVER(S) - REMOVAL).
(10) Remove cylinder head cover/intake manifold
(Refer to 9 - ENGINE/CYLINDER HEAD/CYLINDER HEAD COVER(S) - REMOVAL).
(11) Remove rocker arms from lifters (Fig. 21).
(10) Install cooling fan support (Refer to 7 - COOLING/ENGINE/RADIATOR FAN - INSTALLATION).
(11) Install accessory drive belt (Refer to 7 COOLING/ACCESSORY DRIVE/DRIVE BELTS INSTALLATION).
(12) Install cooling fan and fan drive viscous clutch
assembly (Refer to 7 - COOLING/ENGINE/FAN
DRIVE VISCOUS CLUTCH - INSTALLATION).
(13) Refill cooling system (Refer to 7 - COOLING/
ENGINE/COOLANT - STANDARD PROCEDURE).
(14) Connect negative battery cable.
HYDRAULIC LIFTERS
DESCRIPTION
Valve lash is controlled by hydraulic tappets
located inside the cylinder head, in tappet bores
below the camshafts (Fig. 22).
Fig. 21 ROCKER ARM ASSEMBLY
1
2
3
4
5
-
ROCKER ARM ASSEMBLY
CYLINDER HEAD COVER/INTAKE MANIFOLD
HYDRAULIC LIFTER
CYLINDER HEAD
VALVE
INSTALLATION
(1) Clean and inspect gasket sealing surfaces.
(2) Install new gasket on cylinder head.
(3) Lubricate lifter ball end of lifter(s), valve(s),
and rocker arm roller(s) with Mopart Engine Oil
Supplement or equivlalent.
(4) Connect rocker arm(s) to lifter and reposition
on valve(s).
(5) Install cylinder head cover/intake manifold
(Refer to 9 - ENGINE/CYLINDER HEAD/CYLINDER HEAD COVER(S) - INSTALLATION).
(6) Install inner timing belt cover (Refer to 9 ENGINE/VALVE TIMING/TIMING BELT / CHAIN
COVER(S) - INSTALLATION).
(7) Install timing belt (Refer to 9 - ENGINE/
VALVE
TIMING/TIMING
BELT/CHAIN
AND
SPROCKETS - INSTALLATION).
(8) Install outer timing belt cover (Refer to 9 ENGINE/VALVE TIMING/TIMING BELT / CHAIN
COVER(S) - INSTALLATION).
(9) Install vibration damper.
Fig. 22 CYLINDER HEAD ASSEMBLY
1 - CYLINDER HEAD BOLT
2 - GLOW PLUG
3 - COOLANT TEMPERATURE SENSOR
4 - CYLINDER HEAD ALIGNMENT DOWEL
5 - GLOW PLUG HARNESS
6 - CYLINDER LINER
7 - CYLINDER BLOCK
8 - CYLINDER HEAD GASKET
9 - CYLINDER HEAD
10 - ROCKER ARM ASSEMBLIES
9 - 28
ENGINE
KJ
HYDRAULIC LIFTERS (Continued)
REMOVAL
(1) (Refer to 9 - ENGINE/CYLINDER HEAD/
ROCKER ARM / ADJUSTER ASSY - REMOVAL)
INSPECTION
Clean each lifter assembly in cleaning solvent to
remove all varnish and sludge deposits. Inspect for
indications of scuffing on the side and base of each
lifter body.
INSTALLATION
(1) (Refer to 9 - ENGINE/CYLINDER HEAD/
ROCKER ARM / ADJUSTER ASSY - INSTALLATION)
ENGINE BLOCK
DESCRIPTION
The 2.5L/2.8L CRD Diesel engine uses a cast iron
engine block with wet cast iron cylinder liners (Fig.
23).
Fig. 24 CRANKSHAFT ASSEMBLY TYPICAL
Fig. 23 ENGINE BLOCK
CRANKSHAFT
DESCRIPTION
The crankshaft for the 2.5L and the 2.8L is a
forged steel type design with five main bearing journals. The crankshaft is located at the bottom of the
engine block and is held in place with three main
bearing supports (Fig. 24). There is a difference
between crankshafts on the 2.5L and the 2.8L. The
2.5L has a smooth front surface, where as the 2.8L
has a groove. The crankshafts ARE NOT interchangeable.
OPERATION
The crankshaft transfers force generated by combustion within the cylinder bores to the flywheel or
flexplate.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
-
CRANKSHAFT SUPPORT HALVE
MAIN BEARING HALVE
CRANKSHAFT
MAIN BEARING HALVE
CRANKSHAFT SUPPORT HALVE
MAIN BEARING SUPPORT BOLTS
WASHERS
STANDARD PROCEDURE - CHECKING
CRANKSHAFT END PLAY
(1) Mount a dial indicator to a stationary point at
rear of engine. Locate the probe perpendicular
against the flywheel (Fig. 25).
(2) Move the crankshaft all the way to the front of
its travel.
(3) Zero the dial indicator.
(4) Move the crankshaft all the way to the rear
and read dial indicator. For crankshaft end play
clearances (Refer to 9 - ENGINE - SPECIFICATIONS) .
REMOVAL
(1) Remove engine from vehicle (Refer to 9 ENGINE - REMOVAL).
(2) Mount engine on an engine stand.
ENGINE
KJ
9 - 29
CRANKSHAFT (Continued)
(6) Remove timing belt inner cover (Refer to 9 ENGINE/VALVE TIMING/TIMING BELT / CHAIN
COVER(S) - REMOVAL).
(7) Remove cylinder head cover/intake manifold
(Refer to 9 - ENGINE/CYLINDER HEAD/CYLINDER HEAD COVER(S) - REMOVAL).
(8) Remove cylinder head (Refer to 9 - ENGINE/
CYLINDER HEAD - REMOVAL).
(9) Remove flywheel.
(10) Remove rear main bearing support/adapter
plate retaining bolts and remove adapter plate (Fig.
26).
(11) Remove rear main bearing support by threading two retaining bolts in holes provided. Tighten
bolts equally to push main bearing support out of
block (Fig. 26).
Fig. 25 CHECKING CRANKSHAFT ENDPLAY
1 - FLYWHEEL RETAINING BOLTS
2 - DIAL INDICATOR
3 - FLYWHEEL
4 - TRANSMISSION ADAPTER PLATE BOLT
5 - TRANSMISSION ADAPTER PLATE
6 - REAR MAIN BEARING SUPPORT
7 - O-RING
8 - O-RING
9 - ALIGNMENT DOWEL
10 - CRANKSHAFT
11 - RELUCTOR WHEEL
12 - RELUCTOR WHEEL RETAINING BOLTS
13 - REAR MAIN BEARING SUPPORT RETAINING BOLTS
14 - TRANSMISSION ADAPTER PLATE BOLT
15 - DIAL INDICATOR
16 - FLEXPLATE ADAPTER
17 - FLEXPLATE ADAPTER RETAINING BOLTS
18 - ALIGNMENT DOWEL
(3) Drain engine oil and remove oil filter.
(4) Remove timing belt outer cover (Refer to 9 ENGINE/VALVE TIMING/TIMING BELT / CHAIN
COVER(S) - REMOVAL).
(5) Remove timing belt (Refer to 9 - ENGINE/
VALVE
TIMING/TIMING
BELT/CHAIN
AND
SPROCKETS - REMOVAL).
Fig. 26 REAR MAIN BEARING SUPPORT REMOVAL
1 - BOLTS
2 - REAR MAIN BEARING SUPPORT
3 - CRANKSHAFT
(12) Remove front engine cover (Refer to 9 ENGINE/ENGINE BLOCK/ENGINE COVER REMOVAL).
(13) Remove crankshaft sprocket.
(14) Remove oil pan (Refer to 9 - ENGINE/LUBRICATION/OIL PAN - REMOVAL).
(15) Remove oil pump pickup tube (Refer to 9 ENGINE/LUBRICATION/OIL PUMP - REMOVAL).
9 - 30
ENGINE
KJ
CRANKSHAFT (Continued)
(16) Remove balance shaft assembly (Refer to 9 ENGINE/VALVE TIMING/BALANCE SHAFT REMOVAL).
(17) Remove oil jets (Refer to 9 - ENGINE/LUBRICATION/OIL JET - REMOVAL).
(18) Remove piston and connecting rod assemblies
(Refer to 9 - ENGINE/ENGINE BLOCK/PISTON &
CONNECTING ROD - REMOVAL).
(19) Slide special tool VM.1069 on crankshaft (Fig.
27).
Fig. 28 CRANKSHAFT SUPPORT RETAINERS/
BALANCE SHAFT OIL FEED
1 - CRANKSHAFT SUPPORT RETAINERS/BALANCE SHAFT OIL
FEED
2 - O-RINGS (3)
3 - ENGINE BLOCK
4 - CRANKSHAFT SUPPORT RETAINER/BALANCE SHAFT OIL
FEED REMOVER - INSTALLER VM.1054
Fig. 27 CRANKSHAFT SLEEVE VM.1069
1 - CRANKSHAFT SLEEVE VM.1069
2 - ENGINE BLOCK
(20) Using special tool VM.1054, remove crankshaft support retainers and o-rings (Fig. 28).
(21) Slide crankshaft out rear of engine block.
INSTALLATION
(1) Install crankshaft in engine block. Be sure to
align oil holes in crankshaft supports and
engine block.
(2) Install crankshaft support retainers (Fig. 29).
(3) Remove special tool VM.1069 from crankshaft
(Fig. 27).
(4) Install crankshaft sprocket.
(5) Install front engine cover (Refer to 9 ENGINE/ENGINE BLOCK/ENGINE COVER INSTALLATION).
(6) Install rear main bearing support in engine
block (Fig. 26). Be sure to align oil hole in rear
main bearing support with hole in block.
(7) Install adapter plate and retaining bolts.
Torque bolts to 27.5N·m.
Fig. 29 CRANKSHAFT SUPPORT RETAINERS/
BALANCE SHAFT OIL FEED ALIGNMENT PINS
1 - ENGINE BLOCK
2 - ALIGNMENT PINS VM 1079
ENGINE
KJ
CRANKSHAFT (Continued)
(8) Install flywheel.
(9) Install piston and connecting rod assemblies
(Refer to 9 - ENGINE/ENGINE BLOCK/PISTON &
CONNECTING ROD - INSTALLATION).
(10) Install oil jets (Refer to 9 - ENGINE/LUBRICATION/OIL JET - INSTALLATION).
(11) Install balance shaft assembly (Refer to 9 ENGINE/VALVE TIMING/BALANCE SHAFT INSTALLATION).
(12) Install oil pump pickup tube (Refer to 9 ENGINE/LUBRICATION/OIL PUMP - INSTALLATION).
(13) Install oil pan (Refer to 9 - ENGINE/LUBRICATION/OIL PAN - INSTALLATION).
(14) Install cylinder head (Refer to 9 - ENGINE/
CYLINDER HEAD - INSTALLATION).
(15) Install cylinder head cover/intake manifold
(Refer to 9 - ENGINE/CYLINDER HEAD/CYLINDER HEAD COVER(S) - INSTALLATION).
(16) Install timing belt inner cover (Refer to 9 ENGINE/VALVE TIMING/TIMING BELT / CHAIN
COVER(S) - INSTALLATION).
(17) Install timing belt (Refer to 9 - ENGINE/
VALVE
TIMING/TIMING
BELT/CHAIN
AND
SPROCKETS - INSTALLATION).
(18) Install timing belt outer cover (Refer to 9 ENGINE/VALVE TIMING/TIMING BELT / CHAIN
COVER(S) - INSTALLATION).
(19) Install engine in vehicle.
(20) Fill engine oil with proper oil to correct level.
CRANKSHAFT MAIN
BEARINGS
REMOVAL
The engine must be removed from vehicle and completely disassembled to replace the front main bearing.
CRANKSHAFT MAIN BEARINGS
NOTE: Identify the correct crankshaft by noting the
smooth surface on the front of the 2.5L crankshaft
and the groove on the front of the 2.8L crankshaft.
(1) With crankshaft assembly removed from
engine.
(2) Remove crankshaft supports from crankshaft
and remove bearing halves from supports (Fig. 30).
Fig. 30 CRANKSHAFT ASSEMBLY
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
-
CRANKSHAFT SUPPORT HALVE
MAIN BEARING HALVE
CRANKSHAFT
MAIN BEARING HALVE
CRANKSHAFT SUPPORT HALVE
MAIN BEARING SUPPORT BOLTS
WASHERS
9 - 31
9 - 32
ENGINE
KJ
CRANKSHAFT MAIN BEARINGS (Continued)
CRANKSHAFT FRONT MAIN BEARING
(1) Using special tool VM.1073 push front main
bearing out of front of engine block (Fig. 31).
Fig. 31 FRONT MAIN BEARING REMOVAL
1 - VM.1073
2 - FRONT CRANKSHAFT MAIN BEARING
3 - ENGINE BLOCK
INSTALLATION
CRANKSHAFT MAIN BEARINGS
NOTE: Identify the correct crankshaft by noting the
smooth surface on the front of the 2.5L crankshaft
and the groove on the front of the 2.8L crankshaft.
(1) Install bearing halves in crankshaft supports.
(2) Lubricate crankshaft and main bearings with
clean engine oil.
(3) Install crankshaft supports on crankshaft (Fig.
32). Torque bolts to 44.1N·m.
Fig. 32 CRANKSHAFT ASSEMBLY
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
-
CRANKSHAFT SUPPORT HALVE
MAIN BEARING HALVE
CRANKSHAFT
MAIN BEARING HALVE
CRANKSHAFT SUPPORT HALVE
MAIN BEARING SUPPORT BOLTS
WASHERS
ENGINE
KJ
9 - 33
CRANKSHAFT MAIN BEARINGS (Continued)
FRONT CRANKSHAFT MAIN BEARING
CRANKSHAFT OIL SEAL - FRONT
(1) Using special tool VM.1073, push front crankshaft main bearing in engine block (Fig. 33).
REMOVAL
(1) Disconnect negative battery cable.
(2) Remove cooling fan and fan drive viscous
clutch assembly (Refer to 7 - COOLING/ENGINE/
FAN DRIVE VISCOUS CLUTCH - REMOVAL).
(3) Remove accessory drive belt (Refer to 7 COOLING/ACCESSORY DRIVE/DRIVE BELTS REMOVAL).
(4) Remove cooling fan support (Refer to 7 COOLING/ENGINE/RADIATOR FAN - REMOVAL).
(5) Remove vibration damper/crankshaft pulley
(Refer to 9 - ENGINE/ENGINE BLOCK/VIBRATION
DAMPER - REMOVAL).
(6) Remove outer timing belt cover (Refer to 9 ENGINE/VALVE TIMING/TIMING BELT / CHAIN
COVER(S) - REMOVAL).
(7) Remove timing belt (Refer to 9 - ENGINE/
VALVE
TIMING/TIMING
BELT/CHAIN
AND
SPROCKETS - REMOVAL).
(8) Remove timing belt inner cover (Refer to 9 ENGINE/VALVE TIMING/TIMING BELT / CHAIN
COVER(S) - REMOVAL).
Fig. 33 FRONT MAIN BEARING INSTALLATION
1 - FRONT CRANKSHAFT MAIN BEARING
2 - ENGINE BLOCK
3 - SPECIAL TOOL VM.1073
NOTE: Crankshaft hub retaining bolt has left hand
thread.
(2) Be sure oil hole in bearing lines up with oil gallery in engine block (Fig. 34).
Fig. 34 FRONT MAIN BEARING ALIGNMENT
1 - ENGINE BLOCK
2 - OIL HOLE IN BEARING
3 - FRONT CRANKSHAFT MAIN BEARING
(3) Reassemble engine and install in vehicle.
Fig. 35 FRONT ENGINE COVER
1
2
3
4
5
6
-
CRANKSHAFT HUB RETAINING BOLT
FRONT COVER RETAINING BOLTS
FRONT COVER
ENGINE BLOCK
FRONT ENGINE COVER ALIGNMENT DOWEL
CRANKSHAFT HUB
9 - 34
ENGINE
KJ
CRANKSHAFT OIL SEAL - FRONT (Continued)
(9) Remove crankshaft hub.
(10) Remove front engine cover (Fig. 35) (Refer to
9 - ENGINE/ENGINE BLOCK/ENGINE COVER REMOVAL) .
(11) With cover on work bench, pry out old seal.
INSTALLATION
CAUTION: Do Not use a hammer to install the
crankshaft oil seal.
NOTE: To prevent potential oil leaks, DO NOT touch
the front crankshaft inner seal. Always handle the
seal from the outer diameter.
(1) Clean engine block and front engine cover sealing surfaces.
(2) Install crankshaft oil seal on VM.1061 (Fig.
36).
(3) Place sleeve for VM.1061 on pressbench as
shown (Fig. 36).
(4) Position VM.1061 and press in new seal into
front engine cover (Fig. 36).
(5) Install front engine cover on engine (Refer to 9
- ENGINE/ENGINE BLOCK/ENGINE COVER INSTALLATION).
(6) Install crankshaft hub and retaining bolt.
Torque bolt to 304N·m.
(7) Install timing belt inner cover (Refer to 9 ENGINE/VALVE TIMING/TIMING BELT / CHAIN
COVER(S) - INSTALLATION).
(8) Install timing belt (Refer to 9 - ENGINE/
VALVE
TIMING/TIMING
BELT/CHAIN
AND
SPROCKETS - INSTALLATION).
(9) Install timing belt outer cover (Refer to 9 ENGINE/VALVE TIMING/TIMING BELT / CHAIN
COVER(S) - INSTALLATION).
(10) Install vibration damper/crankshaft pulley
(Refer to 9 - ENGINE/ENGINE BLOCK/VIBRATION
DAMPER - INSTALLATION).
Fig. 36 VM.1061 PLACEMENT
1
2
3
4
-
VM.1061
FRONT ENGINE COVER
PRESS BENCH
SLEEVE FROM VM.1061
(11) Install cooling fan support (Refer to 7 - COOLING/ENGINE/RADIATOR FAN - REMOVAL).
(12) Install accessory drive belt (Refer to 7 COOLING/ACCESSORY DRIVE/DRIVE BELTS INSTALLATION).
(13) Install cooling fan and fan drive viscous clutch
assembly (Refer to 7 - COOLING/ENGINE/FAN
DRIVE VISCOUS CLUTCH - INSTALLATION).
(14) Connect negative battery cable.
ENGINE
KJ
9 - 35
CRANKSHAFT OIL SEAL REAR
CYLINDER LINERS
REMOVAL
The cylinder wall liner used on this engine is of
the wet design. O-rings are used to seal the liner to
the engine block.
This must be done with either the engine or transmission removed from vehicle.
(1) Remove flywheel assembly.
(2) Pry out old crankshaft oil seal.
INSTALLATION
DESCRIPTION
REMOVAL
(1) Remove engine from vehicle.
(2) With engine completely disassembled, use special tool VM.1001 to remove liner assembly (Fig. 38).
NOTE: To prevent potential oil leaks, DO NOT touch
the rear crankshaft inner seal. Always handle the
seal from the outer diameter.
(1) Using special tool VM.1050, install rear crankshaft oil seal in rear main bearing support (Fig. 37).
Fig. 38 CYLINDER LINER REMOVER
Fig. 37 REAR CRANKSHAFT OIL SEAL
INSTALLATION USING VM.1050
1
2
3
4
-
SPECIAL TOOL VM.1050
REAR MAIN BEARING SUPPORT
OIL PAN
ENGINE TO TRANSMISSION ADAPTER PLATE
(2) Install engine or tranmission in vehicle.
9 - 36
ENGINE
KJ
CYLINDER LINERS (Continued)
(3) Tighten bolt on VM.1001 to remove liner from
block (Fig. 39).
Fig. 40 LINER INSPECTION
Fig. 39 CYLINDER LINER REMOVAL
1 - SPECIAL TOOL VM.1001
2 - CYLINDER LINER
3 - ENGINE BLOCK
(4) Remove shims from cylinder liner or cylinder
block recess. Keep shims with each cylinder liner.
INSPECTION
The cylinder walls should be checked for out-ofround and taper with a dial bore gauge. The cylinder
bore out-of-round is 0.100 mm (.0039 in.) maximum
and cylinder bore taper is 0.100 mm (.0039 in.) maximum. If the cylinder walls are badly scuffed or
scored, new liners should be installed and honed, and
new pistons and rings fitted.
Measure the cylinder bore at three levels in directions A and B (Fig. 40). Top measurement should be
10 mm (3/8 in.) down and bottom measurement
should be 10 mm (3/8 in.) up from the bottom bore.
INSTALLATION
(1) Carefully clean liner and engine block, and
degrease the engine block where it comes into contact
with the liners. Install the liners in the engine block
as shown, rotating them back and forth by 45° in
order to guarantee correct positioning (Fig. 41).
NOTE: All Measurements Must Be Taken On the
High Pressure Pump Side.
Fig. 41 LINER INSTALLATION
1
2
3
4
5
-
CYLINDER LINER
SHIMS
O-RINGS
BLOCK LEDGE
ENGINE BLOCK
(2) Measure the liner recess relative to block deck
with a dial indicator mounted on a special tool
VM-1010 A.. Zero dial gauge on block deck.
(3) Move dial gauge to cylinder liner record reading on dial gauge.
(4) Remove liner and special tool.
(5) Then select the correct shim thickness to give
proper protrusion (0.00 - 0.05 mm).
(6) Fit the shim and the O-rings onto the liner.
ENGINE
KJ
9 - 37
CYLINDER LINERS (Continued)
(7) Lubricate the lower liner location in the block.
(8) Fit the liners in the crankcase making sure
that the shim is positioned correctly in the seat. Lock
the liners in position using special tool (VM.1076)
and bolts (Fig. 42).
Fig. 42 LINER CLAMP LOCATION
1 - ENGINE BLOCK
2 - LINER RETAINER VM.1076
3 - CYLINDER LINER
Fig. 43 PISTON AND CONNECTING ROD ASSEMBLY
(9) Recheck the liner protrusion. It should be 0.00
- 0.05 mm.
(10) Reassemble engine.
(11) Install engine in vehicle.
PISTON & CONNECTING ROD
DESCRIPTION
The pistons are of a free floating design. Oil jets in
the engine block lubricate and cool the piston and pin
assembly. The connecting rods have a pressed in
place wrist pin bushing which is lubricated by the oil
jets (Fig. 43).
STANDARD PROCEDURE - PISTON RING
FITTING
(1) Wipe cylinder bore clean. Insert ring and push
down with piston to ensure it is square in bore. The
ring gap measurement must be made with the ring
positioning at least 12 mm (0.50 in.) from bottom of
cylinder bore (Fig. 44). Check gap with feeler gauge.
Top compression ring gap .30 to .45mm (.0118 to
.0177 in.). Second compression ring gap .30 to .45mm
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
-
PISTON PIN
PISTON
SNAP RING
PAINTED CONNECTING ROD ALIGNMENT NUMBERS
CONNECTING ROD BOLT
CONNECTING ROD BEARING
CONNECTING ROD
SNAP RING
(.0118 to .0177 in.). Oil control ring gap .25 to .50mm
(.0098 to .0196 in.).
(2) If ring gaps exceed dimension given, new rings
or cylinder liners must be fitted. Keep piston rings in
piston sets.
(3) Check piston ring to groove clearance (Fig. 45).
Top compression ring gap .080 to .130mm (.0031 to
.0051 in.). Second compression ring gap .070 to
.110mm (.0027 to .0043 in.). Oil control ring gap .040
to .080mm (.0015 to .0031 in.).
REMOVAL
(1) Disconnect negative battery cable.
(2) Remove cylinder head (Refer to 9 - ENGINE/
CYLINDER HEAD - REMOVAL).
(3) Raise vehicle on hoist.
9 - 38
ENGINE
KJ
PISTON & CONNECTING ROD (Continued)
NOTE: Be careful not to nick or scratch crankshaft
journals
(9) After removal, install bearing cap on the mating rod and mark pistons with matching cylinder
number when removed from engine block.
PISTON PIN - REMOVAL
(1) Secure connecting rods in a soft jawed vice.
(2) Remove 2 snap rings securing piston pin (Fig.
46).
(3) Push piston pin out of piston and connecting
rod (Fig. 46).
Fig. 44 RING END GAP MEASUREMENT
1 - FEELER GAUGE
Fig. 45 PISTON RING TO GROOVE CLEARANCE
(4) Remove oil pan (Refer to 9 - ENGINE/LUBRICATION/OIL PAN - REMOVAL).
(5) Remove oil pump pickup tube.(Refer to 9 ENGINE/LUBRICATION/OIL PUMP - REMOVAL)
(6) Remove balance shaft assembly (Refer to 9 ENGINE/VALVE TIMING/BALANCE SHAFT REMOVAL).
(7) Remove top ridge of cylinder bores with a ridge
reamer before removing pistons from cylinder block.
Be sure to keep top of pistons covered during
this operation.
(8) Piston and connecting rods must be removed
from top of cylinder block. Rotate crankshaft so that
each connecting rod is centered in cylinder bore.
Fig. 46 PISTON AND CONNECTING ROD ASSEMBLY
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
-
PISTON PIN
PISTON
SNAP RING
CONNECTING
CONNECTING
CONNECTING
CONNECTING
SNAP RING
ROD ALIGNMENT NUMBERS
ROD BOLT
ROD BEARING
ROD
PISTON RING - REMOVAL
(1) ID mark on face of top and second piston rings
must point toward piston crown.
ENGINE
KJ
9 - 39
PISTON & CONNECTING ROD (Continued)
(2) Using a suitable ring expander, remove top and
second piston rings (Fig. 47).
(3) Without loosening connecting rod bolts, tighten
all bolts to 88N·m.
(4) Check and record internal diameter of crank
end of connecting rod.
CAUTION: When changing connecting rods, DO
NOT use a stamp to mark the cylinder location.
Identify the connecting rods and caps location
using a paint marker. All four must have the same
weight and the same number. Replacement connecting rods will only be supplied in sets of four
(Fig. 48).
Connecting rods are supplied in sets of four since
they all must be of the same weight category. Max
allowable weight difference is 5 gr.
Fig. 47 PISTON RINGS - REMOVAL/INSTALLATION
NOTE: Lightly heat the piston in oven. Insert piston
pin in position and secure it with provided snap
rings.
(3) Remove upper oil ring side rail, lower oil ring
side rail and then the oil expander from piston.
(4) Carefully clean carbon from piston crowns,
skirts and ring grooves ensuring the 4 oil holes in
the oil control ring groove are clear.
INSPECTION
PISTONS
(1) Piston Diameter: Size: 91.912-91.928mm
(3.6185-3.6192 in.) Maximum wear limit .05mm
(.0019 in.).
(2) Check piston pin bores in piston for roundness.
Make 3 checks at 120° intervals. Maximum out of
roundness .05mm (.0019in.).
(3) The piston diameter should be measured
approximately 15 mm (.590 in.) up from the base.
(4) Skirt wear should not exceed 0.1 mm (.00039
in.).
(5) The clearance between the cylinder liner and
piston
should
not
exceed
0.065-0.083
mm
(.0025-.0032 in.).
CONNECTING RODS
CAUTION: When assembling the connecting rod, be
sure that the pawl on each of the connecting rod
caps is facing the rear (fly wheel) side of the engine
(Fig. 48).
(1) Assemble bearing shells and bearing caps to
their respective connecting rods ensuring that the
serrations on the cap and reference marks are
aligned (Fig. 48).
(2) Tighten connecting cap bolts to 29 N·m (21 ft.
lbs.) plus 60°.
Fig. 48 CONNECTING ROD IDENTIFICATION
1
2
3
4
5
-
CONNECTING ROD PAWL
CONNECTING ROD
PAINTED CYLINDER IDENTIFIER
CONNECTING ROD BEARINGS
CONNECTING ROD
After having coated threads with Molyguard,
tighten con rod bolts to 29 N·m (21 ft. lbs.) plus 60°.
PISTON PINS
(1) Measure the diameter of piston pin in the center and both ends.
(2) Piston pin diameter is 31.992 to 31.996mm
(1.259524 in to 1.259681 in.).
9 - 40
ENGINE
KJ
PISTON & CONNECTING ROD (Continued)
INSTALLATION
PISTON RINGS - INSTALLATION
PISTON PIN INSTALLATION
(1) Install rings on the pistons using a suitable
ring expander (Fig. 50).
(1) Secure connecting rod in soft jawed vice.
(2) Lubricate piston pin and piston with clean
engine oil.
(3) Position piston on connecting rod (Fig. 49).
CAUTION: Ensure arrow on piston crown and the
bearing cap numbers on the connecting rod are on
the opposite side.
(4) Install piston pin (Fig. 49).
(5) Install clips in piston to retain piston pin (Fig.
49).
Fig. 50 PISTON RINGS-INSTALLATION
(2) Top compression ring is tapered and chromium
plated. The second ring is of the scraper type and
must be installed with scraping edge facing bottom of
the piston. The third is an oil control ring. Ring gaps
must be positioned, before inserting piston into the
liners, as follows.
(3) Top ring gap must be positioned at the #3 position (looking at the piston crown from above) (Fig.
51).
(4) Second piston ring gap should be positioned at
the #1 position (Fig. 51).
(5) Oil control ring gap should be positioned at the
#2 position (Fig. 51).
Fig. 49 PISTON AND CONNECTING ROD ASSEMBLY
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
-
PISTON PIN
PISTON
SNAP RING
CONNECTING
CONNECTING
CONNECTING
CONNECTING
SNAP RING
ROD ALIGNMENT NUMBERS
ROD BOLT
ROD BEARING
ROD
(6) Remove connecting rod from vice.
Fig. 51 PISTON RING GAP LOCATION
3 - TOP COMPRESSION RING GAP POSITION
1 - SECOND COMPRESSION RING GAP POSITION
2 - OIL CONTROL RING GAP POSITION
(6) When assembling pistons check that components are installed in the same position as before disassembly, determined by the numbers stamped on
the crown of individual pistons. Engine cylinders are
numbered starting from gear train end of the engine.
ENGINE
KJ
9 - 41
PISTON & CONNECTING ROD (Continued)
Face arrow on top of piston toward front of
engine. Therefore, the numbers stamped on connecting rod big end should face toward the injection
pump side of engine. To insert piston into cylinder
use a ring compressor as shown in (Fig. 52).
the next stage to 30N·m (22 ft.lb.) plus 60°. Then
torque to 88N·m (65 ft.lb).
INSTALLATION
(1) Before installing pistons, and connecting rod
assemblies into the bore, be sure that compression
ring gaps are staggered so that neither is in line with
oil ring rail gap (Fig. 51).
(2) Before installing the ring compressor, make
sure the oil ring expander ends are butted together.
(3) Immerse the piston head and rings in clean
engine oil, slide the ring compressor, over the piston
and tighten (Fig. 52). Ensure position of rings
does not change during this operation.
(4) Face arrow on piston towards front of engine.
NOTE: Be careful not to nick crankshaft journals.
(5) Rotate crankshaft so that the connecting rod
journal is on the center of the cylinder bore. Insert
rod and piston into cylinder bore and guide rod over
the crankshaft journal.
Fig. 53 PISTON AND CONNECTING ROD
INSTALLATION
1
2
3
4
-
PISTON AND CONNECTING ROD ASSEMBLY
FOUR DIGIT NUMBER
CONNECTING ROD BOLT
FOUR DIGIT NUMBER
(8) Install cylinder head (Refer to 9 - ENGINE/
CYLINDER HEAD - INSTALLATION).
(9) Install balance shaft assembly (Refer to 9 ENGINE/VALVE TIMING/BALANCE SHAFT INSTALLATION).
(10) Install oil pump pickup tube (Refer to 9 ENGINE/LUBRICATION/OIL PUMP - INSTALLATION).
(11) Install oil pan (Refer to 9 - ENGINE/LUBRICATION/OIL PAN - INSTALLATION).
(12) Connect negative battery cable.
Fig. 52 PISTON INSTALLATION USING VM.1065
1 - PISTON
2 - VM.1065 PISTON RING COMPRESSOR
3 - ENGINE BLOCK
(6) Tap the piston down in cylinder bore, using a
hammer handle. At the same time, guide connecting
rod into position on connecting rod journal.
(7) Install connecting rod caps (Fig. 53). Install rod
bolts and torque to 10N·m (88 lbs. in.). Torque bolts
VIBRATION DAMPER
REMOVAL
(1) Disconnect negative battery cable.
(2) Remove viscous cooling fan and shrowd (Refer
to 7 - COOLING/ENGINE/FAN DRIVE VISCOUS
CLUTCH - REMOVAL).
(3) Remove accessory drive belt (Refer to 7 COOLING/ACCESSORY DRIVE/DRIVE BELTS REMOVAL).
9 - 42
ENGINE
KJ
VIBRATION DAMPER (Continued)
(4) Remove vibration damper retaining bolts and
damper (Fig. 54).
Fig. 55 VACUUM PUMP
Fig. 54 VIBRATION DAMPER
1 - VIBRATION DAMPER/CRANKSHAFT PULLEY RETAINING
BOLTS
2 - VIBRATION DAMPER/CRANKSHAFT PULLEY
3 - IDLER PULLEY
INSTALLATION
(1) Install vibration damper and retaining bolts.
Torque bolts to 27.5N·m.
(2) Install accessory drive belt (Refer to 7 - COOLING/ACCESSORY DRIVE/DRIVE BELTS - INSTALLATION).
(3) Install viscous fan and fan shrowd (Refer to 7 COOLING/ENGINE/FAN
DRIVE
VISCOUS
CLUTCH - INSTALLATION).
(4) Connect negative battery cable.
INTERNAL VACUUM PUMP
DESCRIPTION
The diesel engine uses a internal vacuum pump.
This vacuum pump is mounted in the front of the
engine block under the engine front cover (Fig. 55).
The vacuum pump is driven by a sprocket on the
crankshaft.
REMOVAL
(1) Disconnect negative battery cable.
(2) Remove cooling fan and fan drive viscous
clutch assembly (Refer to 7 - COOLING/ENGINE/
FAN DRIVE VISCOUS CLUTCH - REMOVAL).
(3) Remove accessory drive belt (Refer to 7 COOLING/ACCESSORY DRIVE/DRIVE BELTS REMOVAL).
(4) Remove cooling fan support (Refer to 7 COOLING/ENGINE/RADIATOR FAN - REMOVAL).
(5) Remove vibration damper/crankshaft pulley
(Refer to 9 - ENGINE/ENGINE BLOCK/VIBRATION
DAMPER - REMOVAL).
(6) Remove outer timing belt cover (Refer to 9 ENGINE/VALVE TIMING/TIMING BELT / CHAIN
COVER(S) - REMOVAL).
(7) Remove timing belt (Refer to 9 - ENGINE/
VALVE
TIMING/TIMING
BELT/CHAIN
AND
SPROCKETS - REMOVAL).
(8) Remove timing belt inner cover (Refer to 9 ENGINE/VALVE TIMING/TIMING BELT / CHAIN
COVER(S) - REMOVAL).
NOTE: Crankshaft hub has LHD thread.
(9) Remove crankshaft hub.
(10) Remove front engine cover (Refer to 9 ENGINE/ENGINE BLOCK/ENGINE COVER REMOVAL).
(11) Remove crankshaft sprocket (Fig. 56).
(12) Remove vacuum pump (Fig. 56).
INSTALLATION
NOTE: Verify the 3 blades on the vacuum pump are
in place and correctly assembled. The tapered edge
should be on the outer side. Make sure the pump
rotates before installation.
(1) Lubricate vacuum pump components and
install in engine block (Fig. 57). Torque bolts to
10.8N·m.
(2) Install crankshaft sprocket. Torque bolts to
10.8N·m.
ENGINE
KJ
9 - 43
INTERNAL VACUUM PUMP (Continued)
Fig. 56 OIL PUMP AND VACUUM PUMP
1
2
3
4
5
-
VACUUM PUMP
CRANKSHAFT SPROCKET
OIL PUMP
ENGINE BLOCK
CRANKSHAFT
(3) Install front engine cover (Refer to 9 ENGINE/ENGINE BLOCK/ENGINE COVER INSTALLATION).
(4) Install front crankshaft hub. Torque bolt to
304N·m.
(5) Install timing belt inner cover (Refer to 9 ENGINE/VALVE TIMING/TIMING BELT / CHAIN
COVER(S) - INSTALLATION).
(6) Install timing belt (Refer to 9 - ENGINE/
VALVE
TIMING/TIMING
BELT/CHAIN
AND
SPROCKETS - INSTALLATION).
(7) Install timing belt outer cover (Refer to 9 ENGINE/VALVE TIMING/TIMING BELT / CHAIN
COVER(S) - INSTALLATION).
(8) Install vibration damper/crankshaft pulley
(Refer to 9 - ENGINE/ENGINE BLOCK/VIBRATION
DAMPER - INSTALLATION).
(9) Install cooling fan support (Refer to 7 - COOLING/ENGINE/RADIATOR FAN - INSTALLATION).
(10) Install accessory drive belt (Refer to 7 COOLING/ACCESSORY DRIVE/DRIVE BELTS INSTALLATION).
(11) Install cooling fan and fan drive viscous clutch
assembly (Refer to 7 - COOLING/ENGINE/FAN
DRIVE VISCOUS CLUTCH - INSTALLATION).
(12) Connect negative battery cable.
ENGINE COVER - FRONT
DESCRIPTION
The front engine cover on this engine is a stamped
steel cover which covers the oil pump and vacuum
pump.
REMOVAL
Fig. 57 VACUUM PUMP COMPONENTS
1 - VACUUM PUMP BODY
2 - VACUUM PUMP BLADE TAPERED EDGE
3 - VACUUM PUMP BLADE
(1) Disconnect negative battery cable.
(2) Remove cooling fan and fan drive viscous
clutch assembly (Refer to 7 - COOLING/ENGINE/
FAN DRIVE VISCOUS CLUTCH - REMOVAL).
(3) Remove accessory drive belt (Refer to 7 COOLING/ACCESSORY DRIVE/DRIVE BELTS REMOVAL).
(4) Remove cooling fan support (Refer to 7 COOLING/ENGINE/RADIATOR FAN - REMOVAL).
(5) Remove vibration damper (Refer to 9 ENGINE/ENGINE BLOCK/VIBRATION DAMPER REMOVAL).
(6) Remove timing belt outer cover (Refer to 9 ENGINE/VALVE TIMING/TIMING BELT / CHAIN
COVER(S) - REMOVAL).
9 - 44
ENGINE
KJ
ENGINE COVER - FRONT (Continued)
CAUTION: Before removing the cylinder head cover/
intake manifold or timing belt the engine must put
at 90° after TDC. Failure to do so could result in
valve and/or piston damage during reassembly.
(Refer to 9 - ENGINE/VALVE TIMING - STANDARD
PROCEDURE)
(7) Remove timing belt (Refer to 9 - ENGINE/
VALVE
TIMING/TIMING
BELT/CHAIN
AND
SPROCKETS - REMOVAL).
(8) Remove timing belt inner cover (Refer to 9 ENGINE/VALVE TIMING/TIMING BELT / CHAIN
COVER(S) - REMOVAL).
NOTE: Crankshaft hub has left hand thread.
(9) Remove crankshaft hub.
(10) Remove front engine cover (Fig. 58).
INSTALLATION
(1) Clean engine block and front engine cover sealing surfaces.
(2) Apply a continous 3mm bead of Silicone Sealer
to cover, install within 10 minutes. Torque bolts to
11.8N·m. (Fig. 58).
(3) Install crankshaft hub. Torque bolt to 304N·m.
(4) Install timing belt inner cover (Refer to 9 ENGINE/VALVE TIMING/TIMING BELT / CHAIN
COVER(S) - INSTALLATION).
(5) Install timing belt (Refer to 9 - ENGINE/
VALVE
TIMING/TIMING
BELT/CHAIN
AND
SPROCKETS - INSTALLATION).
(6) Install timing belt outer cover (Refer to 9 ENGINE/VALVE TIMING/TIMING BELT / CHAIN
COVER(S) - INSTALLATION)
(7) Install vibration damper (Refer to 9 - ENGINE/
ENGINE BLOCK/VIBRATION DAMPER - INSTALLATION).
(8) Install cooling fan support (Refer to 7 - COOLING/ENGINE/RADIATOR FAN - INSTALLATION).
(9) Install accessory drive belt (Refer to 7 - COOLING/ACCESSORY DRIVE/DRIVE BELTS - INSTALLATION).
Fig. 58 FRONT ENGINE COVER
1
2
3
4
5
6
-
CRANKSHAFT HUB RETAINING BOLT
FRONT COVER RETAINING BOLTS
FRONT COVER
ENGINE BLOCK
FRONT ENGINE COVER ALIGNMENT DOWEL
CRANKSHAFT HUB
(10) Install cooling fan and fan drive viscous clutch
assembly (Refer to 7 - COOLING/ENGINE/FAN
DRIVE VISCOUS CLUTCH - INSTALLATION).
(11) Connect negative battery cable.
OIL
DESCRIPTION
Refer to the appropriate owner manual for oil specifications.
ENGINE
KJ
9 - 45
OIL FILTER ADAPTER
OIL PAN
DESCRIPTION
REMOVAL
An oil filter adapter is used on this vehicle to relocate the oil filter for easier access when servicing
(Fig. 59).
(1) Disconnect negative battery cable.
(2) Remove engine cover (Refer to 9 - ENGINE REMOVAL).
NOTE: When installing engine support fixture, care
must be taken not to damage the hood ajar switch
mounted to the right inner fender.
Fig. 59 OIL FILTER ADAPTER
1 - WATER PUMP HOUSING STUDS
2 - WATER PUMP HOUSING RETAINING NUTS
3 - O-RING
4 - O-RING
5 - O-RING
6 - OIL FILTER ADAPTER TO OIL COOLER RETAINING BOLT
7 - LOCK WASHER
8 - OIL FILTER ADAPTER TO ENGINE BLOCK RETAINING BOLT
9 - OIL COOLER ASSEMBLY
10 - OIL COOLER TO ENGINE BLOCK RETAINING BOLT
11 - OIL FILTER ADAPTER ASSEMBLY
12 - ENGINE BLOCK
(3) Install engine support fixture, special tool
#8534.
(4) Raise vehicle on hoist.
(5) Remove both front wheel and tire assemblies.
(6) Remove front skid plate (if equipped).
(7) Drain engine oil.
(8) Remove front axle assembly (Refer to 3 - DIFFERENTIAL & DRIVELINE/FRONT AXLE REMOVAL).
(9) Loosen both engine mount through bolts.
(10) Lower vehicle.
(11) Raise engine using support fixture, special
tool #8534, until the viscous fan almost touches the
fan shroud.
(12) Raise vehicle on hoist.
(13) Support the front cradle assembly with a suitable lifting devise.
(14) Mark the front cradle to under body position
to assure proper alignment during assembly.
(15) Remove both inner rail cradle alignment bolts
in the front wheel housing.
(16) Loosen both power steering gear retaining
bolts, leave the retaining nuts on the bolts.
(17) Loosen both front cradle mounting bolts.
(18) Loosen both rear cradle mounting bolts.
(19) Remove all oil pan retaining bolts and lower
oil pan (Fig. 60).
(20) Lower front cradle using the suitable lifting
devise until enough clearance is obtained to remove
the oil pan.
INSTALLATION
(1) Clean oil pan and sealing surfaces. Inspect oil
pan and engine block.
(2) Install oil pan, gasket, and retaining bolts (Fig.
60).
(3) Torque oil pan bolts to 11.8N·m (104 lbs.in.)..
(4) Raise the front cradle using a suitable lifting
devise and align the cradle with the underbody
marks made during the removal procedure.
(5) Torque the cradle mounting bolts to 122 N·m
(90 lbs. ft.).
(6) Torque the inner rail mounting bolts to 47 N·m
(35 lbs. ft.).
9 - 46
ENGINE
KJ
OIL PAN (Continued)
(13) Install front axle skid plate (if equipped)(Refer
to 13 - FRAME & BUMPERS/FRAME/FRONT SKID
PLATE - INSTALLATION).
(14) Install both front wheel and tire assemblies(Refer to 22 - TIRES/WHEELS/WHEELS - STANDARD PROCEDURE) tighten to 115–155 N·m
(85–115 lbs. ft.).
NOTE: When removing engine support fixture, care
must be taken not to damage the hood ajar switch
mounted to the right inner fender well (if equipped).
(15) Lower the vehicle and remove the engine support fixture.
(16) Refill engine to proper level with the correct
viscosity engine oil.
(17) Connect negative battery cable.
(18) Start engine and inspect for leaks.
(19) Install engine cover (Refer to 9 - ENGINE INSTALLATION).
(20) Perform complete front wheel alignment
(Refer to 2 - SUSPENSION/WHEEL ALIGNMENT STANDARD PROCEDURE).
OIL PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE
DESCRIPTION
The oil pressure relief valve mounts in the front of
the engine block and is used to control oil flow
through the engines lubrication system (Fig. 61).
Fig. 60 OIL PAN AND PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE
1 - STRUCTURAL SUPPORT TO ENGINE BLOCK RETAINING
BOLT
2 - STRUCTURAL SUPPORT
3 - OIL PAN
4 - STRUCTURAL SUPPORT TO TRANSMISSION ADAPTER
PLATE RETAINING BOLT
5 - OIL PRESSURE SWITCH
6 - OIL PRESSURE SWITCH ADAPTER
7 - OIL PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE PLUNGER
8 - OIL PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE SPRING
9 - O-RING
10 - OIL PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE CAP
11 - OIL PAN GASKET
12 - OIL PAN RETAINING BOLTS
(7) Torque the steering gear mounting bolts to
162N·m (120 lbs. ft.).
(8) Remove the cradle support devise and lower
the vehicle.
(9) Lower the engine using support fixture, special
tool #8534, until the engine mount through bolts are
seated in the cradle.
(10) Raise the vehicle.
(11) Torque engine mount through bolts to 88N·m
(65 lbs. ft.).
(12) Install front axle assembly(Refer to 3 - DIFFERENTIAL & DRIVELINE/FRONT AXLE INSTALLATION).
Fig. 61 OIL PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE
1
2
3
4
-
O-RING
OIL PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE CAP
OIL PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE SPRING
OIL PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE PLUNGER
ENGINE
KJ
9 - 47
OIL PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE (Continued)
REMOVAL
(1) Remove engine oil pan (Refer to 9 - ENGINE/
LUBRICATION/OIL PAN - REMOVAL).
(2) Using special tool VM.1054, remove oil pressure relief valve from engine block (Fig. 62).
Fig. 63 OIL PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE
INSTALLATION
1
2
3
4
-
VM.1059
OIL PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE
ENGINE BLOCK
OIL PUMP
OIL PRESSURE SENSOR/
SWITCH
DESCRIPTION
The oil pressure switch is located on the right side
of the engine block. The switch screws into the
engines main oil gallery.
Fig. 62 OIL PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE REMOVAL
1
2
3
4
-
VM.1054
OIL PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE
ENGINE BLOCK
OIL PUMP
INSTALLATION
(1) Thoroughly clean all components and relief
valve pocket in cylinder block.
(2) Lubricate all oil pressure relief valve components with engine oil.
(3) Install oil pressure relief valve plunger, spring,
and cap.
(4) Using special tool VM.1059, push oil pressure
relief valve cap in untill flush with engine block (Fig.
63).
(5) Install oil pan (Refer to 9 - ENGINE/LUBRICATION/OIL PAN - INSTALLATION).
OPERATION
The oil pressure sensor uses three circuits. They
are:
• A signal circuit to the ECM.
• A sensor ground circuit through the ECM.
• A 5 volt reference circuit from the ECM.
The oil pressure sensor returns a voltage signal
back to the ECM relating oil pressure. Ground for
the sensor is supplied by the ECM.
OIL PUMP
REMOVAL
REMOVAL - OIL PUMP PICKUP TUBE
(1) Disconnect negative battery cable.
(2) Raise vehicle on hoist.
9 - 48
ENGINE
KJ
OIL PUMP (Continued)
(3) Remove oil pan (Refer to 9 - ENGINE/LUBRICATION/OIL PAN - REMOVAL).
(4) Remove oil pump pickup tube retaining bolt
and pull pickup tube from engine block (Fig. 64)
(8) Remove timing belt inner cover (Refer to 9 ENGINE/VALVE TIMING/TIMING BELT / CHAIN
COVER(S) - REMOVAL).
(9) Remove front engine cover (Refer to 9 ENGINE/ENGINE BLOCK/ENGINE COVER REMOVAL).
(10) Remove crankshaft sprocket (Fig. 65).
(11) Remove oil pump retaining bolts and remove
pump from engine block (Fig. 65).
Fig. 64 OIL PUMP PICKUP TUBE ASSEMBLY
1 - BALANCE SHAFT
2 - OIL JET RETAINING BOLT
3 - OIL JET
4 - ENGINE BLOCK
5 - CRANKSHAFT
6 - O- RING(S)
7 - BALANCE SHAFT RETAINING BOLTS
8 - OIL DIPSTICK TUBE RETAINER
9 - RUBBER BUSHING
10 - RETAINING BOLT
REMOVAL - OIL PUMP
(1) Disconnect negative battery cable.
(2) Remove cooling fan and fan drive viscous
clutch assembly (Refer to 7 - COOLING/ENGINE/
FAN DRIVE VISCOUS CLUTCH - REMOVAL).
(3) Remove accessory drive belt (Refer to 7 COOLING/ACCESSORY DRIVE/DRIVE BELTS REMOVAL).
(4) Remove cooling fan support (Refer to 7 COOLING/ENGINE/RADIATOR FAN - REMOVAL).
(5) Remove vibration damper (Refer to 9 ENGINE/ENGINE BLOCK/VIBRATION DAMPER REMOVAL).
(6) Remove timing belt outer cover (Refer to 9 ENGINE/VALVE TIMING/TIMING BELT / CHAIN
COVER(S) - REMOVAL).
(7) Remove timing belt (Refer to 9 - ENGINE/
VALVE
TIMING/TIMING
BELT/CHAIN
AND
SPROCKETS - REMOVAL).
Fig. 65 OIL PUMP AND VACUUM PUMP
1
2
3
4
5
-
VACUUM PUMP
CRANKSHAFT SPROCKET
OIL PUMP
ENGINE BLOCK
CRANKSHAFT
INSTALLATION
INSTALLATION - OIL PUMP PICKUP TUBE
(1) Lubricate o-ring on oil pump pickup tube with
engine oil.
(2) Install pickup tube in engine block and install
retaining bolt. Torque bolt to 32.4N·m. (Fig. 64).
(3) Install oil pan (Refer to 9 - ENGINE/LUBRICATION/OIL PAN - INSTALLATION).
(4) Refill engine oil to proper level.
(5) Connect negative battery cable.
INSTALLATION - OIL PUMP
(1) Lubricate oil pump rotor with engine oil.
(2) Install oil pump in bore in engine block.
ENGINE
KJ
9 - 49
OIL PUMP (Continued)
(3) Install oil pump retaining bolts. Torque bolts to
10.8N·m.
(4) Install crankshaft sprocket. Torque bolts to
10.8N·m.
(5) Install front engine cover (Refer to 9 ENGINE/ENGINE BLOCK/ENGINE COVER INSTALLATION).
(6) Install timing belt inner cover (Refer to 9 ENGINE/VALVE TIMING/TIMING BELT / CHAIN
COVER(S) - INSTALLATION).
(7) Install timing belt (Refer to 9 - ENGINE/
VALVE
TIMING/TIMING
BELT/CHAIN
AND
SPROCKETS - INSTALLATION).
(8) Install timing belt outer cover (Refer to 9 ENGINE/VALVE TIMING/TIMING BELT / CHAIN
COVER(S) - INSTALLATION).
(9) Install vibration damper (Refer to 9 - ENGINE/
ENGINE BLOCK/VIBRATION DAMPER - INSTALLATION).
(10) Install cooling fan support (Refer to 7 COOLING/ENGINE/RADIATOR FAN - INSTALLATION).
(11) Install accessory drive belt (Refer to 7 COOLING/ACCESSORY DRIVE/DRIVE BELTS INSTALLATION).
(12) Install cooling fan and fan drive viscous clutch
assembly (Refer to 7 - COOLING/ENGINE/FAN
DRIVE VISCOUS CLUTCH - INSTALLATION).
(13) Connect negative battery cable.
REMOVAL
CAUTION: Use caution when removing and installing oil jets. Damage to oil jet nozzle could cause
severe engine damage.
NOTE: Remove oil jets before removing piston,
crankshaft liners.
(1) Disconnect negative battery cable.
(2) Raise vehicle on hoist.
(3) Remove oil pan (Refer to 9 - ENGINE/LUBRICATION/OIL PAN - REMOVAL).
(4) Using special tool VM.1060 to hold oil jet.
Remove oil jet retaining bolt and remove oil jet from
engine block (Fig. 67).
OIL JET
DESCRIPTION
There are four oil jets installed in the engine block.
These oil jets are used to cool and lubricate the piston assemblies (Fig. 66).
Fig. 67 OIL JET REMOVAL/INSTALLATION
Fig. 66 OIL JET ASSEMBLY
1 - RETAINING BOLT
2 - OIL JET
3 - O-RING
1
2
3
4
-
SPECIAL TOOL VM.1060
OIL JET
CONNECTING ROD
CRANKSHAFT
9 - 50
ENGINE
KJ
OIL JET (Continued)
INSTALLATION
CAUTION: Use caution when removing and installaing oil jets. Damage to oil jet nozzle could cause
severe engine damage.
NOTE: Carefully install the oil jets After assembling
the engine liners, crankshaft and pistons.
(1) Lubricate o-ring on oil jet.
(2) Using special tool VM.1060, install oil jet in
engine block (Fig. 67).
(3) Install oil jet retaining bolt. Torque bolt to
10.8N·m.
(4) Install oil pan (Refer to 9 - ENGINE/LUBRICATION/OIL PAN - INSTALLATION).
(5) Refill engine oil to proper level.
(6) Connect negative battery cable.
INTAKE MANIFOLD
DESCRIPTION
(Refer to 9 - ENGINE/CYLINDER HEAD/CYLINDER HEAD COVER(S) - DESCRIPTION)
REMOVAL
(1) (Refer to 9 - ENGINE/CYLINDER HEAD/CYLINDER HEAD COVER(S) - REMOVAL)
INSTALLATION
(1) (Refer to 9 - ENGINE/CYLINDER HEAD/CYLINDER HEAD COVER(S) - INSTALLATION)
EXHAUST MANIFOLD
REMOVAL
(1) (Refer to 11 - EXHAUST SYSTEM/TURBOCHARGER
SYSTEM/TURBOCHARGER
REMOVAL)
INSTALLATION
(1) (Refer to 11 - EXHAUST SYSTEM/TURBOCHARGER SYSTEM/TURBOCHARGER - INSTALLATION)
VALVE TIMING
STANDARD PROCEDURE - LOCKING ENGINE
90 DEGREES AFTER TDC
(1) Disconnect negative battery cable.
(2) Rotate engine by hand until special tool
VM.8873 can be install in engine to transmission
adapter plate on right side of engine, looking at the
engine from the flywheel. This will lock the engine at
90° after TDC.
(3) Remove engine cover (Refer to 9 - ENGINE
COVER - REMOVAL).
(4) Remove EGR valve and EGR cooler to exhaust
manifold retaining nuts.
(5) Reposition EGR valve assembly out of way.
(6) Remove plug in cylinder head cover/intake
manifold and insert VM.1053 to lock exhaust camshaft in position.
(7) Remove generator (Refer to 8 - ELECTRICAL/
CHARGING/GENERATOR - REMOVAL).
(8) Remove plug in cylinder head cover/intake
manifold and insert VM.1052 to lock intake camshaft
in position.
(9) At this point the timing belt can be removed
for service.
(10) After engine service is completed and timing
belt reinstalled, remove both camshaft locking pins
from cylinder head cover/intake manifold.
(11) Install both camshaft access plugs.
(12) Remove 90° after TDC engine locking pin.
(13) Install generator (Refer to 8 - ELECTRICAL/
CHARGING/GENERATOR - INSTALLATION).
(14) Install engine cover (Refer to 9 - ENGINE
COVER - INSTALLATION).
(15) Connect negative battery cable.
ENGINE
KJ
BALANCE SHAFT
DESCRIPTION
The 2.5L and 2.8L Common Rail Diesel engine is
equipped with two nodular cast iron balance shafts
in a cast aluminum carrier. The balance shaft assembly is mounted to the engine block (Fig. 68).
Fig. 68 OIL PICK-UP TUBE AND BALANCE SHAFT
ASSEMBLY
1 - BALANCE SHAFT RETAINING BOLTS
2 - BALANCE SHAFT ASSEMBLY
3 - OIL JET RETAINING BOLT
4 - OIL JET
5 - CENTRAL CARRIER PINS
6 - ENGINE BLOCK
7 - CENTRAL CARRIER PIN O-RINGS
8 - OIL PUMP PICK UP TUBE O-RINGS
9 - OIL PUMP PICK-UP TUBE
10 - OIL PICK UP TUBE RETAINING BOLT
OPERATION
The balance shaft is driven by the crankshaft. The
balance shafts are connected by heelical gears. The
dual-counter rotating shafts decrease second order
vertical shaking forces caused by component movement.
9 - 51
REMOVAL
(1) Disconnect negative battery cable.
(2) Raise vehicle on hoist.
(3) Remove oil pan (Refer to 9 - ENGINE/LUBRICATION/OIL PAN - REMOVAL).
(4) Remove oil pump pickup tube (Refer to 9 ENGINE/LUBRICATION/OIL PUMP - REMOVAL).
(5) Remove balance shaft assembly (Fig. 69).
Fig. 69 OIL PICK-UP TUBE AND BALANCE SHAFT
ASSEMBLY
1 - BALANCE SHAFT RETAINING BOLTS
2 - BALANCE SHAFT ASSEMBLY
3 - OIL JET RETAINING BOLT
4 - OIL JET
5 - CENTRAL CARRIER PINS
6 - ENGINE BLOCK
7 - CENTRAL CARRIER PIN O-RINGS
8 - OIL PUMP PICK UP TUBE O-RINGS
9 - OIL PUMP PICK-UP TUBE
10 - OIL PICK UP TUBE RETAINING BOLT
INSTALLATION
(1) Before installation of the balance shaft assembly, the # 1 cylinder must be brought to TDC. Using
special tool VM.8872, roll engine over by hand until
tool can be inserted into engine to transmission
adpater plate locking flywheel from turning. Once
the # 1 cylinder is brought to TDC, the balance shaft
assembly can be installed (Fig. 70).
9 - 52
ENGINE
KJ
BALANCE SHAFT (Continued)
Fig. 70 TDC ALIGNMENT
1
2
3
4
5
6
-
ENGINE BLOCK
STARTER
STRUCTURAL SUPPORT
TDC ALIGNMENT PIN
ENGINE OIL PICK UP TUBE
BALANCE SHAFT ASSEMBLY
(2) With balance shaft assembly on work bench.
Insert special tool VM.1056 into balance shaft assembly (Fig. 71). This will ensure proper balance shaft
and crankshaft timing after assembly.
(3) Install balance shaft assembly and retaining
bolts. Torque bolts to 32.4N·m.
(4) Install oil pump pickup tube (Refer to 9 ENGINE/LUBRICATION/OIL PUMP - INSTALLATION).
(5) Install oil pan (Refer to 9 - ENGINE/LUBRICATION/OIL PAN - INSTALLATION).
(6) Refill engine oil to proper level.
(7) Connect negative battery cable.
Fig. 71 BALANCE SHAFT ALIGNMENT PIN VM.1056
1 - VM.1056
2 - BALANCE SHAFT ASSEMBLY
TIMING BELT / CHAIN
COVER(S)
REMOVAL
REMOVAL - TIMING BELT INNER COVER
(1) Disconnect negative battery cable.
(2) Remove engine cover (Refer to 9 - ENGINE
COVER - REMOVAL).
(3) Remove cooling fan and fan drive viscous
clutch assembly (Refer to 7 - COOLING/ENGINE/
FAN DRIVE VISCOUS CLUTCH - REMOVAL).
(4) Remove accessory drive belt (Refer to 7 COOLING/ACCESSORY DRIVE/DRIVE BELTS REMOVAL).
(5) Remove cooling fan support (Refer to 7 COOLING/ENGINE/RADIATOR FAN - REMOVAL).
(6) Remove vibration damper (Refer to 9 ENGINE/ENGINE BLOCK/VIBRATION DAMPER REMOVAL).
ENGINE
KJ
9 - 53
TIMING BELT / CHAIN COVER(S) (Continued)
(7) Remove timing belt outer cover (Refer to 9 ENGINE/VALVE TIMING/TIMING BELT / CHAIN
COVER(S) - REMOVAL).
(8) Remove timing belt (Refer to 9 - ENGINE/
VALVE
TIMING/TIMING
BELT/CHAIN
AND
SPROCKETS - REMOVAL).
(9) Remove timing belt idler pulleys (Refer to 9 ENGINE/VALVE TIMING/TIMING BELT IDLER
PULLEY - REMOVAL).
(10) Using special tool VM.1055, remove camshaft
sprockets (Fig. 72).
Fig. 73 TIMING BELT COVER - INNER
Fig. 72 CAMSHAFT SPROCKET REMOVAL/
INSTALLATION
1
2
3
4
5
-
TIMING BELT INNER COVER
CAMSHAFT SPROCKET
IDLER PULLEYS
CAMSHAFT SPROCKET
VM.1055
(11) Remove timing belt tensioner (Refer to 9 ENGINE/VALVE
TIMING/TMNG
BELT/CHAIN
TENSIONER&PULLEY - REMOVAL).
(12) Remove injection pump sprocket (Refer to 14 FUEL SYSTEM/FUEL DELIVERY/FUEL INJECTION PUMP - REMOVAL).
(13) Remove timing belt inner cover retaining bolts
and remove cover (Fig. 73).
REMOVAL - TIMING BELT OUTER COVER
(1) Disconnect negative battery cable.
(2) Remove engine cover (Refer to 9 - ENGINE
COVER - REMOVAL).
(3) Remove cooling fan and fan drive viscous
clutch assembly (Refer to 7 - COOLING/ENGINE/
FAN DRIVE VISCOUS CLUTCH - REMOVAL).
1 - BANJO FITTING
2 - BRASS WASHERS
3 - FUEL INLET LINE
4 - FUEL OUTLET LINE
5 - BANJO FITTING
6 - INJECTION PUMP RETAINING NUT
7 - INJECTION PUMP
8 - MOUNTING STUDS
9 - INNER TIMING COVER SEAL
10 - INNER TIMING COVER
11 - RETAINING BOLT
12 - RETAINING BOLT
13 - RETAINING BOLT
14 - HOSE CLAMP
15 - CYLINDER HEAD COVER/INTAKE MANIFOLD
16 - FUEL RETURN LINE TO INJECTION PUMP
17 - HOSE CLAMP
18 - FUEL RETURN JUNCTION BLOCK RETAINING BOLT
19 - FUEL RETURN JUNCTION BLOCK
(4) Remove accessory drive belt (Refer to 7 COOLING/ACCESSORY DRIVE/DRIVE BELTS REMOVAL).
(5) Remove cooling fan support (Refer to 7 COOLING/ENGINE/RADIATOR FAN - REMOVAL).
(6) Remove vibration damper (Refer to 9 ENGINE/ENGINE BLOCK/VIBRATION DAMPER REMOVAL).
9 - 54
ENGINE
KJ
TIMING BELT / CHAIN COVER(S) (Continued)
(7) Remove timing belt outer cover retaining bolts
and remove cover (Fig. 74).
(10) Install cooling fan support (Refer to 7 COOLING/ENGINE/RADIATOR FAN - INSTALLATION).
(11) Install accessory drive belt (Refer to 7 COOLING/ACCESSORY DRIVE/DRIVE BELTS INSTALLATION).
(12) Install cooling fan and fan drive viscous clutch
assembly (Refer to 7 - COOLING/ENGINE/FAN
DRIVE VISCOUS CLUTCH - INSTALLATION).
(13) Install engine cover (Refer to 9 - ENGINE
COVER - INSTALLATION).
(14) Connect negative battery cable.
INSTALLATION - TIMING BELT OUTER COVER
Fig. 74 TIMING BELT OUTER COVER
1 - TIMING BELT
2 - TIMING BELT OUTER COVER
3 - TIMING BELT OUTER COVER RETAINING BOLTS
INSTALLATION
(1) Install timing belt outer cover seal and cover.
Torque 3mm bolts to 10.8N·m and 8mm bolts to
10.8N·m.
(2) Install vibration damper (Refer to 9 - ENGINE/
ENGINE BLOCK/VIBRATION DAMPER - INSTALLATION).
(3) Install cooling fan support (Refer to 7 - COOLING/ENGINE/RADIATOR FAN - INSTALLATION).
(4) Install accessory drive belt (Refer to 7 - COOLING/ACCESSORY DRIVE/DRIVE BELTS - INSTALLATION).
(5) Install cooling fan and fan drive viscous clutch
assembly (Refer to 7 - COOLING/ENGINE/FAN
DRIVE VISCOUS CLUTCH - INSTALLATION).
(6) Install engine cover (Refer to 9 - ENGINE
COVER - INSTALLATION).
(7) Connect negative battery cable.
INSTALLATION - TIMING BELT INNER COVER
(1) Install timing belt inner cover to engine front
cover seal.
(2) Install timing belt inner cover to cylinder head
cover gaskets.
(3) Install timing belt inner cover and retaining
bolts. Torque 10mm bolts to 47.1N·m and 8mm bolts
to 10.8N·m.
(4) Install injection pump sprocket (Refer to 14 FUEL SYSTEM/FUEL DELIVERY/FUEL INJECTION PUMP - INSTALLATION).
(5) Install camshaft sprockets. Torque bolts to
108N·m.
(6) Install timing belt idler pulleys (Refer to 9 ENGINE/VALVE TIMING/TIMING BELT IDLER
PULLEY - INSTALLATION).
(7) Install timing belt and tensioner (Refer to 9 ENGINE/VALVE TIMING/TIMING BELT/CHAIN
AND SPROCKETS - INSTALLATION).
(8) Install timing belt outer cover (Refer to 9 ENGINE/VALVE TIMING/TIMING BELT / CHAIN
COVER(S) - INSTALLATION).
(9) Install vibration damper (Refer to 9 - ENGINE/
ENGINE BLOCK/VIBRATION DAMPER - INSTALLATION).
TIMING BELT IDLER PULLEY
REMOVAL
(1) Disconnect negative battery cable.
(2) Remove engine cover (Refer to 9 - ENGINE
COVER - REMOVAL).
(3) Remove cooling fan and fan drive viscous
clutch assembly (Refer to 7 - COOLING/ENGINE/
FAN DRIVE VISCOUS CLUTCH - REMOVAL).
(4) Remove accessory drive belt (Refer to 7 COOLING/ACCESSORY DRIVE/DRIVE BELTS REMOVAL).
(5) Remove cooling fan support (Refer to 7 COOLING/ENGINE/RADIATOR FAN - REMOVAL).
(6) Remove vibration damper (Refer to 9 ENGINE/ENGINE BLOCK/VIBRATION DAMPER REMOVAL).
(7) Remove timing belt outer cover (Refer to 9 ENGINE/VALVE TIMING/TIMING BELT / CHAIN
COVER(S) - REMOVAL).
(8) Remove timing belt (Refer to 9 - ENGINE/
VALVE
TIMING/TIMING
BELT/CHAIN
AND
SPROCKETS - REMOVAL).
ENGINE
KJ
9 - 55
TIMING BELT IDLER PULLEY (Continued)
NOTE: Idler pulley retaining bolts are left hand
thread.
(9) Remove timing belt idler pulleys (Fig. 75).
(5) Install cooling fan support (Refer to 7 - COOLING/ENGINE/RADIATOR FAN - INSTALLATION).
(6) Install accessory drive belt (Refer to 7 - COOLING/ACCESSORY DRIVE/DRIVE BELTS - INSTALLATION).
(7) Install cooling fan and fan drive viscous clutch
assembly (Refer to 7 - COOLING/ENGINE/FAN
DRIVE VISCOUS CLUTCH - INSTALLATION) .
(8) Install engine cover (Refer to 9 - ENGINE
COVER - INSTALLATION).
(9) Connect negative battery cable.
TIMING BELT/CHAIN AND
SPROCKET(S)
REMOVAL
CAUTION: BEFORE REMOVING THE TIMING BELT,
THE ENGINE MUST BE PLACED AT 90° AFTER TDC.
FAILURE TO DO SO MAY RESULT IN VALVE
AND/OR PISTON DAMAGE DURING ASSEMBLY.
(Refer to 9 - ENGINE/VALVE TIMING - STANDARD
PROCEDURE)
Fig. 75 TIMING BELT AND SPROCKETS
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
-CAMSHAFT SPROCKETS
- INJECTION PUMP SPROCKET
- INJECTION PUMP SPROCKET RETAINING NUT
- TIMING BELT
- TIMING BELT TENSIONER RETAINING BOLT
- TIMING BELT TENSIONER
- TENSIONER ALIGNMENT PIN
- IDLER PULLEY
- CAMSHAFT SPROCKET RETAINING BOLT
INSTALLATION
(1) Install timing belt idler pulleys. Torque bolts to
47.1N·m.
(2) Install timing belt (Refer to 9 - ENGINE/
VALVE
TIMING/TIMING
BELT/CHAIN
AND
SPROCKETS - INSTALLATION).
(3) Install timing belt outer cover (Refer to 9 ENGINE/VALVE TIMING/TIMING BELT / CHAIN
COVER(S) - INSTALLATION).
(4) Install vibration damper (Refer to 9 - ENGINE/
ENGINE BLOCK/VIBRATION DAMPER - INSTALLATION).
(1) Disconnect negative battery cable.
(2) Remove engine cover (Refer to 9 - ENGINE
COVER - REMOVAL).
(3) Remove cooling fan and fan drive viscous
clutch assembly (Refer to 7 - COOLING/ENGINE/
FAN DRIVE VISCOUS CLUTCH - REMOVAL).
(4) Remove accessory drive belt (Refer to 7 COOLING/ACCESSORY DRIVE/DRIVE BELTS REMOVAL).
(5) Remove cooling fan support (Refer to 7 COOLING/ENGINE/RADIATOR FAN - REMOVAL).
(6) Bring piston #1 to TDC, turn crankshaft until
notch on the crankshaft hub is at the 12 o’clock position.
(7) Looking at the engine from the belt side, rotate
the crankshaft 90° clockwise.
(8) Install the 90° alignment pin into the crankcase threaded hole on the right side of the engine to
lock the crankcase (make sure the crankshaft does
not rotate).
(9) Remove vibration damper (Refer to 9 ENGINE/ENGINE BLOCK/VIBRATION DAMPER REMOVAL).
(10) Paint mark the crankshaft hub and the oil
pump cover (this will be useful during the timing
check).
(11) Remove the alternator.
(12) Remove the intake and exhaust camshaft
plugs from the camshaft cover, to introduce the camshaft timing pins (if the engine is timed correctly, the
pins can be installed).
9 - 56
ENGINE
KJ
TIMING BELT/CHAIN AND SPROCKET(S) (Continued)
(13) Remove timing belt outer cover (Refer to 9 ENGINE/VALVE TIMING/TIMING BELT / CHAIN
COVER(S) - REMOVAL).
(14) Loosen timing belt tensioner and remove timing belt (Fig. 76).
INSTALLATION
(1) With both camshaft alignment pins still
installed and the engine locked at 90° after TDC, verify that the camshaft gears are loose.
(2) Align timing mark on high pressure injection
pump gear with timing mark on cover (Fig. 77).
Fig. 77 INJECTION PUMP GEAR TIMING MARKS
1 - TIMING MARK ON COVER
2 - TIMING MARK ON INJECTION PUMP SPROCKET
3 - INJECTION PUMP SPROCKET
Fig. 76 TIMING BELT AND SPROCKETS
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
-CAMSHAFT SPROCKETS
- INJECTION PUMP SPROCKET
- INJECTION PUMP SPROCKET RETAINING NUT
- TIMING BELT
- TIMING BELT TENSIONER RETAINING BOLT
- TIMING BELT TENSIONER
- TENSIONER ALIGNMENT PIN
- IDLER PULLEY
- CAMSHAFT SPROCKET RETAINING BOLT
(15) Remove the intake and exhaust camshaft
alignment pins.
(16) Loosen camshaft gears using special tool VM
1055 to retain the gears when removing bolts.
(17) Use camshaft bolt to rotate the intake camshafts until the intake alignment hole lines up with
the hole on the camshaft cover. Install alignment pin
VM 1052 and tighten with a wrench (repeat the operation for the exhaust camshaft alignment using
alignment pin VM 1053).
NOTE: DO NOT remove the timing belt from the
package until it’s ready to be installed. DO NOT
expose timing belt to oil, grease or water contamination. DO NOT crimp belt at a sharp angle. DO
NOT clean belt, pulleys or tensioner with solvent.
Check that pulleys and bearings are not seized or
damage before installing belt.
(3) Install timing belt on crankshaft hub and fix it
with special tool VM 1074, then around high pressure injection pump, idler pulley, intake camshaft
gear, exhaust camshaft gear, idler pulley, and water
pump gear.
(4) Adjust the timing belt tensioner (turn it clockwise), lining up the center notch with the aluminum
cover dowel pin. Tighten the retaining bolt to
28N·m.(Refer to 9 - ENGINE/VALVE TIMING/TMNG
BELT/CHAIN TENSIONER&PULLEY - ADJUSTMENTS).
NOTE: To uniform the belt tension, with special tool
VM 1055, slightly turn the intake camshaft pulley
counterclockwise.
ENGINE
KJ
9 - 57
TIMING BELT/CHAIN AND SPROCKET(S) (Continued)
(5) Tighten the camshaft gear bolts to 60N·m
while holding the gears with special tool VM 1055.
(6) Remove intake and exhaust alignment pins.
(7) Torque camshaft gear bolts to 108N·m while
holding gears with special tool VM 1055 (Refer to 9 ENGINE/VALVE TIMING - STANDARD PROCEDURE).
(8) Remove engine locking pin from engine block.
(9) Install timing belt outer cover (Refer to 9 ENGINE/VALVE TIMING/TIMING BELT / CHAIN
COVER(S) - INSTALLATION).
WARNING: IF CAMSHAFT COVER WAS REMOVED
WAIT 30 MINUTES BEFORE ROTATING CRANKSHAFT.
(4) Remove accessory drive belt (Refer to 7 COOLING/ACCESSORY DRIVE/DRIVE BELTS REMOVAL).
(5) Remove cooling fan support (Refer to 7 COOLING/ENGINE/RADIATOR FAN - REMOVAL).
(6) Remove vibration damper (Refer to 9 ENGINE/ENGINE BLOCK/VIBRATION DAMPER REMOVAL).
(7) Remove timing belt outer cover (Refer to 9 ENGINE/VALVE TIMING/TIMING BELT / CHAIN
COVER(S) - REMOVAL).
(8) Loosen and remove timing belt tensioner (Fig.
78).
(10) Rotate the engine clockwise 2 revolutions
(looking at engine from the belt side).
(11) Carefully line up the crankshaft hub painted
mark with the oil pump cover mark.
(12) Check that the intake and exhaust camshaft
alignment pins can be installed.
WARNING: IF THE CAMSHAFT ALIGNMENT PINS
CAN NOT BE INSTALLED AT THIS TIME, REPEAT
THE PROCEDURE FROM THE BEGINNING.
(13) Install the camshaft plugs.
(14) Install vibration damper (Refer to 9 ENGINE/ENGINE BLOCK/VIBRATION DAMPER INSTALLATION).
(15) Install the alternator.
(16) Install cooling fan support (Refer to 7 COOLING/ENGINE/RADIATOR FAN - INSTALLATION).
(17) Install accessory drive belt (Refer to 7 COOLING/ACCESSORY DRIVE/DRIVE BELTS INSTALLATION).
(18) Install cooling fan and fan drive viscous clutch
assembly (Refer to 7 - COOLING/ENGINE/FAN
DRIVE VISCOUS CLUTCH - INSTALLATION).
(19) Install engine cover (Refer to 9 - ENGINE
COVER - INSTALLATION).
(20) Connect negative battery cable.
TIMING BELT/CHAIN
TENSIONER & PULLEY
REMOVAL
(1) Disconnect negative battery cable.
(2) Remove engine cover (Refer to 9 - ENGINE
COVER - REMOVAL).
(3) Remove cooling fan and fan drive viscous
clutch assembly (Refer to 7 - COOLING/ENGINE/
FAN DRIVE VISCOUS CLUTCH - REMOVAL).
Fig. 78 TIMING BELT AND SPROCKETS
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
-CAMSHAFT SPROCKETS
- INJECTION PUMP SPROCKET
- INJECTION PUMP SPROCKET RETAINING NUT
- TIMING BELT
- TIMING BELT TENSIONER RETAINING BOLT
- TIMING BELT TENSIONER
- TENSIONER ALIGNMENT PIN
- IDLER PULLEY
- CAMSHAFT SPROCKET RETAINING BOLT
9 - 58
ENGINE
KJ
TIMING BELT/CHAIN TENSIONER & PULLEY (Continued)
INSTALLATION
NOTE: DO NOT remove the timing belt from the
package until it’s ready to be installed. DO NOT
expose timing belt to oil, grease or water contamination. DO NOT crimp belt at a sharp angle. DO
NOT clean belt, pulleys or tensioner with solvent.
Check that pulleys and bearings are not seized or
damage before installing belt.
(1) Install timing belt tensioner and retaining bolt.
(2) Adjust timing belt tensioner (Refer to 9 ENGINE/VALVE
TIMING/TMNG
BELT/CHAIN
TENSIONER&PULLEY - ADJUSTMENTS).
(3) Install timing belt outer cover (Refer to 9 ENGINE/VALVE TIMING/TIMING BELT / CHAIN
COVER(S) - INSTALLATION).
(4) Install vibration damper (Refer to 9 - ENGINE/
ENGINE BLOCK/VIBRATION DAMPER - INSTALLATION).
(5) Install cooling fan support (Refer to 7 - COOLING/ENGINE/RADIATOR FAN - INSTALLATION).
(6) Install accessory drive belt (Refer to 7 - COOLING/ACCESSORY DRIVE/DRIVE BELTS - INSTALLATION).
(7) Install cooling fan and fan drive viscous clutch
assembly (Refer to 7 - COOLING/ENGINE/FAN
DRIVE VISCOUS CLUTCH - INSTALLATION).
(8) Install engine cover (Refer to 9 - ENGINE
COVER - INSTALLATION).
(9) Connect negative battery cable.
ADJUSTMENTS
ADJUSTMENT - TIMING BELT TENSIONER
(1) With timing belt outer cover removed and timing belt installed.
(2) Loosen timing belt tensioner (Fig. 79).
(3) Align timing belt tensioner alignment pointer
as shown and torque timing belt tensioner retaining
bolt to 34.7N·m. (Fig. 80).
Fig. 80 TIMING BELT TENSIONER ALIGNMENT
1
2
3
4
-
TENSIONER SPRING
1MM ALIGNMENT POINTER OVERLAP
TENSIONER ALIGNMENT POINTER
TENSIONER ASSEMBLY
(4) Rotate engine 2 complete revolution and then
recheck tensioner alignment. Readjust tensioner
alignment as necessary.
Fig. 79 TIMING BELT TENSIONER ADJUSTMENT
1
2
3
4
5
-
TIMING BELT IDLER PULLEY
ENGINE FRONT COVER
CRANKSHAFT HUB
TIMING BELT TENSIONER
TIMING BELT
EXHAUST SYSTEM AND TURBOCHARGER
KJ
11 - 1
EXHAUST SYSTEM AND TURBOCHARGER
TABLE OF CONTENTS
page
EXHAUST SYSTEM AND TURBOCHARGER
DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SPECIFICATIONS - TORQUE . . . . . . . . .
EXHAUST PIPE
REMOVAL
.......................
INSTALLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MUFFLER
REMOVAL
.......................
INSTALLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
HEAT SHIELDS
DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CHARGE AIR COOLER AND PLUMBING
REMOVAL
REMOVAL - CAC INLET HOSE . . . . . .
......1
......2
......2
......2
......2
......3
page
REMOVAL - CAC OUTLET HOSE . .
INSTALLATION
INSTALLATION - CAC INLET HOSE .
INSTALLATION - CAC OUTLET HOSE
TURBOCHARGER
DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
REMOVAL
.....................
CLEANING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
INSTALLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
........4
........4
.......4
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.5
.5
.7
.8
.9
......4
......4
EXHAUST SYSTEM AND
TURBOCHARGER
DESCRIPTION
The basic exhaust system consists of an engine
exhaust manifold, turbocharger, exhaust down pipe,
exhaust pipe, exhaust heat shield(s), muffler and
exhaust tailpipe
The exhaust system uses a single muffler.
The exhaust system must be properly aligned to
prevent stress, leakage and body contact. If the system contacts any body panel, it will transfer objectionable noises originating from the engine to the
body.
When inspecting an exhaust system, critically
inspect for cracked or loose joints, stripped screw or
bolt threads, corrosion damage and worn, cracked or
broken hangers. Replace all components that are
badly corroded or damaged. DO NOT attempt to
repair.
When replacement is required, use original equipment parts (or equivalent). This will assure proper
alignment and provide acceptable exhaust noise levels.
CAUTION: Avoid application of rust prevention compounds or undercoating materials to exhaust system floor pan exhaust heat shields. Light overspray
near the edges is permitted. Application of coating
will result in excessive floor pan temperatures and
objectionable fumes.
11 - 2
EXHAUST SYSTEM AND TURBOCHARGER
KJ
EXHAUST SYSTEM AND TURBOCHARGER (Continued)
SPECIFICATIONS - TORQUE
2.5L/2.8L DIESEL - TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS
DESCRIPTION
N·m
Ft. Lbs.
In. Lbs.
Exhaust Manifold Nuts
36
28
—
Exhaust Manifold Heat
Shield Bolts
27.5
21
—
Turbocharger Bracket
Bolts
47.1
35
—
Turbocharger Downpipe
Nuts
32.4
24
—
Turbocharger Oil Supply
Line Fitting
24.5
18
215
Turbocharger Oil Return
Line bolts
10.8
—
96
Turbocharger to Exhaust
Manifold Nuts
32.4
24
—
EXHAUST PIPE
REMOVAL
(1) Raise vehicle on hoist.
(2) Remove exhaust pipe to muffler and tail pipe
assembly retaining nuts.
(3) Remove exhaust pipe to turbocharger downpipe
retaining bolts (Fig. 1).
(4) Using a suitable pry bar, remove exhaust pipe
from rubber exhaust hangers (Fig. 2).
(5) Lower exhaust pipe from vehicle.
INSTALLATION
(1) Install exhaust pipe in vehicle and attach rubber exhaust hangers to exhaust pipe (Fig. 2).
(2) Using a new gasket, connect exhaust pipe to
turbocharger downpipe (Fig. 1). Torque bolts to
32.4N·m.
(3) Install exhaust pipe to muffler and tailpipe
assembly retaining nuts. Torque nuts to 32.4N·m.
(4) Lower vehicle from hoist.
MUFFLER
REMOVAL
(1) Raise vehicle on hoist.
(2) Remove exhaust pipe to muffler and tailpipe
assembly retaining nuts (Fig. 3).
(3) Using a suitable pry bar, pry muffler and
tailpipe assembly out of exhaust hanger (Fig. 3).
(4) Remove muffler and tailpipe assembly from
vehicle.
Fig. 1 EXHAUST PIPE REMOVAL/INSTALLATION
1
2
3
4
-
RETAINING NUTS
EXHAUST PIPE TO TURBO DOWNPIPE GASKET
EXHAUST PIPE RETAINING BOLT
EXHAUST PIPE
EXHAUST SYSTEM AND TURBOCHARGER
KJ
11 - 3
MUFFLER (Continued)
INSTALLATION
(1) Install muffler and tailpipe assembly in vehicle
and attach to exhaust hangers (Fig. 3).
(2) Install muffler and tailpipe assembly to
exhaust pipe retaining nuts. Torque nuts to 32.4N·m.
(3) Lower vehicle from hoist.
Fig. 2 EXHAUST PIPE HANGERS
1 - EXHAUST PIPE
2 - RUBBER EXHAUST HANGERS
3 - TRANSMISSION CROSSMEMBER
Fig. 3 MUFFLER AND TAILPIPE ASSEMBLY
1 - RETAINING NUT
2 - ATTACHING STUD LOCATION
3 - MUFFLER AND TAILPIPE ASSEMBLY
4 - MUFFLER AND TAILPIPE HANGER LOCATIONS
11 - 4
EXHAUST SYSTEM AND TURBOCHARGER
KJ
HEAT SHIELDS
DESCRIPTION
Heat shields are needed to protect both the vehicle
and the environment from the high temperatures
developed by the catalytic converter. The catalytic
converter releases additional heat into the exhaust
system. Under severe operating conditions, the temperature increases in the area of the converter. Such
conditions can exist when the engine misfires or otherwise does not operate at peak efficiency (Fig. 4).
Fig. 4 Front and Rear Floor Pan Heat Shields
Typical
1 - REAR FLOOR PAN HEAT SHIELD
2 - HEAT SHIELD RETAINING NUTS
3 - FRONT FLOOR PAN HEAT SHIELD
CHARGE AIR COOLER AND
PLUMBING
REMOVAL
REMOVAL - CAC INLET HOSE
(1) Open and support hood of vehicle.
(2) Loosen hose clamps at both ends of charge air
cooler (CAC) inlet hose (Fig. 5).
(3) Remove CAC inlet hose from turbocharger and
CAC.
REMOVAL - CAC OUTLET HOSE
(1) Raise and support hood on vehicle.
(2) Loosen hose clamps at both ends of charge air
cooler (CAC) outlet hose (Fig. 6).
(3) Remove hose from CAC and intake manifold
inlet (Fig. 6).
Fig. 5 CHARGE AIR COOLER INLET HOSE
1
2
3
4
-
CHARGE AIR COOLER
HOSE CLAMP
CHARGE AIR COOLER INLET HOSE
HOSE CLAMP
INSTALLATION
INSTALLATION - CAC INLET HOSE
(1) Install charge air cooler (CAC) inlet hose on
turbocharger and CAC (Fig. 5).
(2) Tighten hose clamps (Fig. 5).
(3) Close hood.
INSTALLATION - CAC OUTLET HOSE
(1)
CAC
(2)
(Fig.
Install charge air cooler (CAC) outlet hose on
and intake manifold inlet.
Tighten both hose clamp on CAC outlet hose
6).
EXHAUST SYSTEM AND TURBOCHARGER
KJ
11 - 5
CHARGE AIR COOLER AND PLUMBING (Continued)
The turbocharger is an exhaust-driven supercharger which increases the pressure and density of
the air entering the engine. With the increase of air
entering the engine, more fuel can be injected into
the cylinders, which creates more power during combustion.
The turbocharger assembly consists of four (4)
major component systems (Fig. 7) (Fig. 8):
• Turbine section
• Compressor section
• Bearing housing
• Wastegate
Fig. 6 CHARGE AIR COOLER OUTLET HOSE
1
2
3
4
5
-
CHARGE AIR COOLER
HOSE CLAMP
INTAKE MANIFOLD INLET
HOSE CLAMP
CHARGE AIR COOLER OUTLET HOSE
(3) Close hood.
TURBOCHARGER
DESCRIPTION
CAUTION: The turbocharger is a performance part
and must not be tampered with. The wastegate
bracket is an integral part of the turbocharger. Tampering with the wastegate components can reduce
durability by increasing cylinder pressure and thermal loading due to incorrect inlet and exhaust manifold pressure. Poor fuel economy and failure to
meet regulatory emissions laws may result. Increasing the turbocharger boost WILL NOT increase
engine power.
Fig. 7 Turbocharger Operation
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
-
TURBINE SECTION
EXHAUST GAS
BEARING HOUSING
COMPRESSOR SECTION
INLET AIR
COMPRESSED AIR TO ENGINE
EXHAUST GAS
EXHAUST GAS TO EXHAUST PIPE
OPERATION
Exhaust gas pressure and energy drive the turbine, which in turn drives a centrifugal compressor
that compresses the inlet air, and forces the air into
the engine through the charge air cooler and plumbing. Since heat is a by-product of this compression,
the air must pass through a charge air cooler to cool
the incoming air and maintain power and efficiency.
Increasing air flow to the engine provides:
• Improved engine performance
• Lower exhaust smoke density
• Improved operating economy
• Altitude compensation
• Noise reduction.
11 - 6
EXHAUST SYSTEM AND TURBOCHARGER
KJ
TURBOCHARGER (Continued)
Fig. 8 Turbocharger Wastegate Actuator
1 - TURBOCHARGER
2 - DIAPHRAGM
3 - WASTE GATE ACTUATOR
The turbocharger also uses a wastegate (Fig. 9),
which regulates intake manifold air pressure and
prevents over boosting at high engine speeds. When
the wastegate valve is closed, all of the exhaust gases
flow through the turbine wheel. As the intake manifold pressure increases, the wastegate actuator opens
the valve, diverting some of the exhaust gases away
from the turbine wheel. This limits turbine shaft
speed and air output from the impeller.
The turbocharger is lubricated by engine oil that is
pressurized, cooled, and filtered. The oil is delivered
to the turbocharger by a supply line that is tapped
into the block. The oil travels into the bearing housing, where it lubricates the shaft and bearings (Fig.
10). A return pipe at the bottom of the bearing housing, routes the engine oil back to the crankcase.
Fig. 9 Wastegate Operation
1 - SIGNAL LINE
2 - EXHAUST BYPASS VALVE
3 - WASTEGATE
4 - EXHAUST
5 - TURBINE
6 - EXHAUST BYPASS VALVE
7 - WASTEGATE
8 - EXHAUST
9 - TURBINE
10 - SIGNAL LINE
EXHAUST SYSTEM AND TURBOCHARGER
KJ
11 - 7
TURBOCHARGER (Continued)
TURBOCHARGER (COOL DOWN( CHART
Driving
Load
Condition
Fig. 10 Turbocharger Oil Supply and Drain
1 - BEARINGS
2 - OIL SUPPLY (FROM ENGINE BLOCK)
3 - OIL RETURN (TO OIL PAN)
The most common turbocharger failure is bearing
failure related to repeated hot shutdowns with inadequate “cool-down” periods. A sudden engine shut
down after prolonged operation will result in the
transfer of heat from the turbine section of the turbocharger to the bearing housing. This causes the oil
to overheat and break down, which causes bearing
and shaft damage the next time the vehicle is
started.
Letting the engine idle after extended operation
allows the turbine housing to cool to normal operating temperature. The following chart should be used
as a guide in determining the amount of engine idle
time required to sufficiently cool down the turbocharger before shut down, depending upon the type
of driving and the amount of cargo.
Turbocharger
Idle Time (in
minutes)
Temperature
Before Shut
Down
Stop & Go
Empty
Cool
Less than 1
Stop & Go
Medium
Warm
1
Highway
Speeds
Medium
Warm
2
City Traffic
Max.
GCWR
Warm
3
Highway
Speeds
Max.
GCWR
Warm
4
Uphill Grade
Max.
GCWR
Hot
5
REMOVAL
(1) Disconnect negative battery cable.
(2) Remove engine cover (Refer to 9 - ENGINE REMOVAL).
(3) Remove air cleaner assembly (Fig. 11).
(4) Remove air inlet hose from turbocharger (Fig.
11).
(5) Remove charge air cooler inlet hose from tubocharger and reposition out of way.
(6) Drain cooling system.
(7) Remove coolant recovery pressure container
(Refer to 7 - COOLING/ENGINE/COOLANT RECOVERY PRESS CONTAINER - REMOVAL).
(8) Disconnect both EGR cooler coolant hoses at
cooler (Fig. 12).
(9) Remove EGR valve to exhaust manifold retaining nuts (Fig. 12).
(10) Remove EGR cooler to exhaust manifold
retaining bolt (Fig. 12).
11 - 8
EXHAUST SYSTEM AND TURBOCHARGER
KJ
TURBOCHARGER (Continued)
Fig. 11 TURBOCHARGER INLET HOSE FROM AIR CLEANER
1 - TURBOCHARGER INLET HOSE
2 - AIR CLEANER HOUSING
(11) Reposition EGR cooler out of way.
(12) Remove exhaust manifold heat shield retaining bolts and remove heat shield (Fig. 13).
(13) Disconnect turbocharger oil supply line at turbocharger (Fig. 13).
(14) Raise vehicle on hoist.
(15) Disconnect exhaust pipe at turbocharger down
pipe.
(16) Disconnect turbocharger oil return line at turbocharger (Fig. 13).
(17) Lower vehicle.
(18) Remove accessory drive belt (Refer to 7 COOLING/ACCESSORY DRIVE/DRIVE BELTS REMOVAL).
(19) Remove viscous heater (Refer to 24 - HEATING & AIR CONDITIONING/PLUMBING/ELECTRIC COOLANT PUMP - REMOVAL).
3 - TURBOCHARGER INLET HOSE
4 - TURBOCHARGER
(20) Remove the thermostat housing (Refer to 7 COOLING/ENGINE/ENGINE COOLANT THERMOSTAT - REMOVAL).
(21) Remove exhaust manifold retaining nuts and
remove exhaust manifold and turbocharger assembly
from vehicle (Fig. 13).
(22) Remove turbocharger to exhaust manifold
retaining nuts and separate turbocharger from
exhaust manifold (Fig. 14).
CLEANING
All old gaskets should be inspected for any tears or
signs of prior leakage. If any gaskets show such indications, they should be replaced with new gaskets.
All gasket mating surfaces must be cleaned of old
gasket material to produce a smooth and dirt free
sealing surface for the new gasket.
KJ
EXHAUST SYSTEM AND TURBOCHARGER
11 - 9
TURBOCHARGER (Continued)
Fig. 12 EGR VALVE, COOLER, AND COMPONENTS
1 - COOLANT HOSE
2 - HOSE RETAINER
3 - RETAINING BOLT
4 - EGR VALVE RETAINING NUTS
5 - EGR VALVE
6 - EGR VALVE GASKET
7 - HOSE CLAMP
8 - COOLANT HOSE
9 - HOSE CLAMP
10 - EGR COOLER TO EXHAUST MANIFOLD RETAINING BOLT
(2.8L)
11 - EGR COOLER (2.8L)
12 - EGR COOLER TO EGR VALVE RETAINING BOLTS (2.8L)
13 - EGR COOLER TO EGR VALVE GASKET (2.8L)
14 - HOSE CLAMP
INSTALLATION
(1) Connect turbocharger to exhaust manifold with
new gasket (Fig. 14). Torque retaining nuts to
32.4N·m.
NOTE: After Tightening The Exhaust Manifold To
Specification Using a Diagonal-Cross Pattern,
Retrace The Pattern Checking The Correct Torque
Value Again.
(2) Install exhaust manifold and turbocharger
assembly with new gasket in position on studs in cylinder head (Fig. 13). Install retaining nuts and
torque to 36N·m.
Fig. 13 EXHAUST MANIFOLD AND COMPONENTS
1 - THERMOSTAT HOUSING GASKET
2 - THERMOSTAT HOUSING
3 - TURBOCHARGER OIL SUPPLY LINE BANJO BOLT
4 - THERMOSTAT HOUSING RETAINING BOLTS
5 - BRASS WASHER
6 - EXHAUST MANIFOLD GASKET
7 - EXHAUST MANIFOLD
8 - EXHAUST MANIFOLD HEAT SHIELD
9 - EXHAUST MANIFOLD HEAT SHIELD RETAINING BOLTS
10 - OIL RETURN HOSE
11 - HOSE CLAMPS
12 - EXHAUST MANIFOLD RETAINING NUTS
13 - TURBOCHARGER DOWN PIPE STUDS
14 - TURBOCHARGER DOWN PIPE GASKET
15 - TURBOCHARGER DOWN PIPE
16 - TURBOCHARGER DOWN PIPE RETAINING NUT
(3) Install thermostat housing (Refer to 7 - COOLING/ENGINE/ENGINE COOLANT THERMOSTAT INSTALLATION).
(4) Install viscous heater (Refer to 24 - HEATING
& AIR CONDITIONING/PLUMBING/ELECTRIC
COOLANT PUMP - INSTALLATION).
(5) Install accessory drive belt (Refer to 7 - COOLING/ACCESSORY DRIVE/DRIVE BELTS - INSTALLATION).
(6) Raise vehicle on hoist.
11 - 10
EXHAUST SYSTEM AND TURBOCHARGER
KJ
TURBOCHARGER (Continued)
Fig. 14 EXHAUST MANIFOLD AND
TURBOCHARGER ASSEMBLY
1 - EGR VALVE MOUNTING STUDS
2 - EXHAUST MANIFOLD
3 - TURBOCHARGER TO EXHAUST MANFOLD MOUNTING
STUDS
4 - TURBOCHARGER ASSEMBLY
5 - TURBOCHARGER OIL RETURN FITTING ATTACHING BOLT
6 - TURBOCHARGER OIL RETURN FITTING
7 - OIL RETURN FITTING GASKET
8 - RETAINING NUT
9 - TURBOCHARGER TO EXHAUST MANIFOLD GASKET
(7) Connect turbocharger oil return line at turbocharger (Fig. 13).
(8) Connect exhaust pipe at turbocharger downpipe.
(9) Lower vehicle from hoist.
(10) Connect oil supply line at turbocharger (Fig.
13). Torque banjo fitting to 24.5N·m.
(11) Install exhaust manifold heat shield (Fig. 13).
Torque retaining bolts to 27.5N·m.
(12) Reposition EGR cooler and or EGR valve
assembly on exhaust manifold (Fig. 12). Torque
retaining nuts and bolt to 32.4N·m.
(13) Connect EGR pipe to EGR valve. Tighten
bolts to 32.4N·m.
(14) Connect EGR cooler coolant hoses at cooler
(2.8L) (Fig. 12).
(15) Install coolant recovery pressure container
(Refer to 7 - COOLING/ENGINE/COOLANT RECOVERY PRESS CONTAINER - INSTALLATION).
(16) Refill cooling system (Refer to 7 - COOLING/
ENGINE - STANDARD PROCEDURE).
(17) Connect charge air cooler inlet hose at turbocharger.
(18) Install air cleaner assembly (Fig. 11).
(19) Connect air inlet hose to turbocharger (Fig.
11).
(20) Install engine cover (Refer to 9 - ENGINE INSTALLATION).
(21) Connect negative battery cable.
FUEL SYSTEM
KJ
14 - 1
FUEL SYSTEM
TABLE OF CONTENTS
page
FUEL SYSTEM - 2.5L/2.8L TURBO DIESEL
DESCRIPTION - DIESEL FUEL DELIVERY
SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
WARNING - HIGH FUEL SYSTEM PRESSURE
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING - AIR IN FUEL
SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING - FUEL SUPPLY
RESTRICTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
...1
..1
...1
page
STANDARD PROCEDURE
STANDARD PROCEDURE - PRIMING FUEL
SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
STANDARD PROCEDURES - CLEANING
FUEL SYSTEM COMPONENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
SPECIFICATIONS - TORQUE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
FUEL DELIVERY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
FUEL INJECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
...2
FUEL SYSTEM - 2.5L/2.8L
TURBO DIESEL
DESCRIPTION - DIESEL FUEL DELIVERY
SYSTEM
The fuel system on the 2.5L / 2.8L Common Rail
Diesel Engine uses a fuel injection pump and an
Electronic Control Module (ECM).
The fuel delivery system consists of the:
• Accelerator pedal
• Air cleaner housing/element
• Fuel filter/water separator
• Fuel heater
• Fuel heater relay
• Fuel injection pump
• Fuel injectors
• Fuel tank
• Fuel tank filler/vent tube assembly
• Fuel tank filler tube cap
• Fuel tank module containing the rollover valve
and a fuel gauge sending unit (fuel level sensor).
• Fuel tubes/lines/hoses
• High-pressure fuel injector lines
• Low-pressure fuel supply lines
• Low-pressure fuel return line
• Overflow valve
• Quick-connect fittings
• Water draining
WARNING - HIGH FUEL SYSTEM PRESSURE
WARNING: HIGH-PRESSURE FUEL LINES DELIVER
FUEL UNDER EXTREME PRESSURE FROM THE
INJECTION PUMP TO THE INJECTORS. THIS
MAYBE AS HIGH AS 1600BAR (23,200PSI). USE
EXTREME CAUTION WHEN INSPECTING FOR HIGHPRESSURE FUEL LEAKS. FUEL UNDER THIS
AMOUNT OF PRESSURE CAN PENETRATE SKIN
CAUSING PERSONAL INJURY OR DEATH. INSPECT
HIGH-PRESSURE FUEL LEAKS WITH A SHEET OF
CARDBOARD. WEAR SAFETY GOGGLES AND ADEQUATE PROTECTIVE CLOTHING WHEN SERVICING
FUEL SYSTEM.
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING - AIR IN FUEL
SYSTEM
Air will enter the fuel system whenever fuel supply
lines, separator filters, injection pump, high-pressure
lines or injectors are removed or disconnected. Air
trapped in the fuel system can result in hard starting, a rough running engine, engine misfire, low
power, excessive smoke and fuel knock.
Inspect the fuel system from the fuel tank to the
injectors for loose connections (Refer to 14 - FUEL
SYSTEM - WARNING). Leaking fuel is an indicator
of loose connections or defective seals. Air can also
enter the fuel system between the fuel tank and the
fuel/lift pump. Inspect the fuel tank and fuel lines for
damage that might allow air into the system.
With the DRBIIIt connected to the vehicle, select
Engine and the select Sensor Display. Page down to
view Fuel Pressure Set Point and Actual Fuel Pressure. Start the engine and observe the Fuel Pressure
Set Point and the Actual Fuel Pressure. If the Actual
Fuel Pressure Oscillates above and below the Fuel
Pressure Set Point in a regular cycle, inspect the fuel
system for air intrusion.
If the Actual Fuel Pressure gradually drops below
the Fuel Pressure Set Point then spikes well above
the Fuel Pressure Set Point, replace the fuel pressure solenoid (Refer to 14 - FUEL SYSTEM/FUEL
INJECTION/FUEL
PRESSURE
SOLENOID
REMOVAL).
14 - 2
FUEL SYSTEM
KJ
FUEL SYSTEM - 2.5L/2.8L TURBO DIESEL (Continued)
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING - FUEL SUPPLY
RESTRICTIONS
LOW-PRESSURE LINES
Fuel supply line restrictions or a defective fuel/lift
pump can cause starting problems and prevent
engine from accelerating. The starting problems
include; low power and/or white fog like exhaust.
Test all fuel supply lines for restrictions or blockage, including the fuel filter. Flush or replace as necessary.
HIGH-PRESSURE LINES
CAUTION: High pressure lines cannot contact each
other or other components. Do not attempt to weld
high-pressure fuel lines or to repair lines that are
damaged. High pressure lines must be replaced at
each disassembly. Use only recommended lines
when replacement of high-pressure fuel line is necessary.
Restricted (kinked or bent) high-pressure lines can
cause starting problems, poor engine performance,
engine mis-fire and white smoke from exhaust (Refer
to 14 - FUEL SYSTEM - WARNING).
STANDARD PROCEDURE
STANDARD PROCEDURE - PRIMING FUEL
SYSTEM
NOTE: DO NOT force or pull up hard on the plunger
when priming the fuel system. Damage to the
plunger or fuel filter/water separate will result.
The fuel system must be primed if the fuel system
has been serviced. This is done using the fuel primer
plunger located at the top of the fuel filter/water separator.
(1) With service completed on the fuel system.
(2) Unscrew fuel system primer plunger by
unscrewing it counterlockwise (Fig. 1).
(3) Pull primer up out of bore until it stops (Fig.
1).
(4) Pump primer plunger up and down until air
bubbles cannot be seen in fuel filter cap at the bottom of the fuel filter/water separator (Fig. 1).
Fig. 1 FUEL FILTER PRIMING PLUNGER
1 - FUEL FILTER PRIMING PLUNGER
2 - AIR BLEED
3 - FUEL FILTER / WATER SEPARATOR
STANDARD PROCEDURES - CLEANING FUEL
SYSTEM COMPONENTS
CAUTION: Cleanliness cannot be overemphasized
when handling or replacing diesel fuel system components. This especially includes the fuel injectors,
high-pressure fuel lines, fuel rail, and fuel injection
pump. Very tight tolerances are used with these
parts. Dirt contamination could cause rapid part
wear and possible plugging of fuel injector nozzle
tip holes. This in turn could lead to possible engine
misfire. Always wash/clean any fuel system component thoroughly before disassembly and then air
dry. DO NOT wire brush injector nozzles when
cleaning. Cap or cover any open part after disassembly. Before assembly, examine each part for
dirt, grease or other contaminants and clean if necessary. When installing new parts, lubricate them
with clean engine oil or clean diesel fuel only.
FUEL SYSTEM
KJ
FUEL SYSTEM - 2.5L/2.8L TURBO DIESEL (Continued)
SPECIFICATIONS - TORQUE
2.5L / 2.8L DIESEL - TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS
DESCRIPTION
N·m
Ft. Lbs.
In. Lbs.
Crankshaft Position
Sensor Bolt
10.8
8
96
Boost Pressure / Intake
Air Temperature Sensor
Bolts
5.4
—
48
High Pressure Injection
Pump Nuts
24.4
18
—
Fuel Line Fittings at Pump
27.5
21
—
High Pressure Injection
Pump Sprocket Nut
88.3
65
—
Fuel Injector Retaining
Bolts
32.4
24
—
High Pressure Fuel Lines
22
17
194
Fuel Rail Bolts
24.5
18
—
14 - 3
14 - 4
FUEL DELIVERY
KJ
FUEL DELIVERY
TABLE OF CONTENTS
page
FUEL FILTER / WATER SEPARATOR
DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
REMOVAL
..........................
INSTALLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
WATER IN FUEL SENSOR
DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
REMOVAL
..........................
INSTALLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
FUEL RAIL
DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
REMOVAL
..........................
INSTALLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
FUEL LINES
DESCRIPTION
DESCRIPTION
.....................
DESCRIPTION - HIGH PRESSURE FUEL
LINES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
OPERATION - HIGH PRESSURE FUEL LINES
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING - HIGH
PRESSURE FUEL LINES . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.4
.4
.4
.5
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.6
.6
.6
.6
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.6
.6
.7
.8
...8
...9
..9
...9
FUEL FILTER / WATER
SEPARATOR
DESCRIPTION
The fuel filter/water separator assembly is located
in the left rear corner of the engine compartment
(Fig. 1).
OPERATION
The fuel filter/water separator protects the fuel
injection pump by removing water and contaminants
from the fuel. The construction of the filter/separator
allows fuel to pass through it, but helps prevent
moisture (water) from doing so. Moisture collects at
the bottom of the canister.
Refer to the maintenance schedules for the recommended fuel filter replacement intervals.
For draining of water from canister, refer to Fuel
Filter/Water Separator Removal/Installation section.
A Water-In-Fuel (WIF) sensor is part of the fuel filter cap. Refer to Water-In-Fuel Sensor Description/
Operation.
The fuel heater is also part of the fuel filter cap.
Refer to Fuel Heater Description/Operation.
page
FUEL INJECTION PUMP
DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
REMOVAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
INSTALLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
FUEL TANK MODULE
DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
REMOVAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
INSTALLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
FUEL LEVEL SENDING UNIT / SENSOR
DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING - FUEL LEVEL
SENDING UNIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
REMOVAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
INSTALLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
FUEL HEATER
DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
REMOVAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
INSTALLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
FUEL PRESSURE SOLENOID
DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
REMOVAL
(1) Disconnect negative battery cable.
(2) Drain fuel filter/water separator assembly by
loosening drain at bottom of fuel filter cap.
(3) Remove two fuel lines from the water separator
(Fig. 2). Loosen retaining clamps and slide the hose
from barbed fittings (Fig. 2).
(4) Remove fuel water separator retaining nuts
and carefully slide separator off its mounting studs
(Fig. 3). Use care not to spill excess fuel or damage
electrical connections, located on the bottom of the
assembly.
(5) Disconnect electrical connectors located on the
bottom of the separator assembly.
(6) Remove fuel water separator from the engine
bay.
FUEL DELIVERY
KJ
14 - 5
FUEL FILTER / WATER SEPARATOR (Continued)
Fig. 2 FUEL FILTER/WATER SEPARATOR FUEL
LINES
1
2
3
4
-
HOSE CLAMP
HOSE CLAMP
FUEL INLET LINE TO FUEL FILTER/WATER SEPARATOR
FUEL OUTLET LINE TO INJECTION PUMP
Fig. 1 FUEL FILTER / WATER SEPARATOR
1 - FUEL FILTER / WATER SEPARATOR ASSEMBLY
2 - WATER-IN-FUEL SENSOR
3 - FUEL HEATER
INSTALLATION
(1) Position fuel water separator in the engine bay
and connect the electrical connectors located on the
bottom of the separator assembly.
(2) Install fuel water separator on its mounting
studs and install the retaining nuts (Fig. 3).
(3) Install two fuel lines on the water separator
(Fig. 2).
(4) Prime fuel system using the fuel priming
plunger (Refer to 14 - FUEL SYSTEM - STANDARD
PROCEDURE).
(5) Connect negative battery cable.
Fig. 3 FUEL FILTER/WATER SEPARATOR REMOVAL
AND INSTALLATION
1
2
3
4
5
-
FUEL FILTER/WATER SEPARATOR BRACKET
BRACKET RETAINING NUTS
FUEL FILTER/WATER SEPARATOR RETAINING NUTS
FUEL FILTER/WATER SEPARATOR
WATER DRAIN
14 - 6
FUEL DELIVERY
WATER IN FUEL SENSOR
DESCRIPTION
The WIF sensor is located in the bowl assembly of
the fuel filter/water separator (Fig. 4).
KJ
(4) Unscrew WIF sensor from fuel filter cap at bottom fuel filter/water separator assembly.
INSTALLATION
(1) Install WIF sensor into fuel filter cap hand
tight.
(2) Connect WIF sensor electrical connector (Fig.
4).
(3) Prime fuel system using fuel priming plunger
(Refer to 14 - FUEL SYSTEM - STANDARD PROCEDURE)
(4) Connect negative battery cable.
FUEL RAIL
DESCRIPTION
WARNING: HIGH - PRESSURE FUEL LINE DELIVER
DIESEL FUEL UNDER EXTREME PRESSURE FROM
THE INJECTION PUMP TO THE FUEL INJECTORS.
THIS MAY BE AS HIGH AS 1600BAR (23,200PSI).
USE EXTREME CAUTION WHEN INSPECTING FOR
HIGH - PRESSURE FUEL LEAKS. FUEL UNDER
THIS AMOUNT OF PRESSURE CAN PENETRATE
SKIN CAUSING PERSONAL INJURY OR DEATH.
INSPECT FOR HIGH - PRESSURE LEAKS WITH A
SHEET OF CARDBOARD. WEAR SAFETY GOGGLES AND ADEQUATE PROTECTIVE CLOTHING
WHEN SERVICING FUEL SYSTEM.
The fuel rail is mounted to the cylinder head cover/
intake manifold (Refer to 14 - FUEL SYSTEM WARNING) (Fig. 5).
Fig. 4 FUEL FILTER / WATER SEPARATOR
1 - FUEL FILTER / WATER SEPARATOR ASSEMBLY
2 - WATER-IN-FUEL SENSOR
3 - FUEL HEATER
OPERATION
The sensor sends an input to the Engine Control
Module (ECM) when it senses water in the fuel filter/
water separator. As the water level in the filter/separator increases, the resistance across the WIF
sensor decreases. This decrease in resistance is sent
as a signal to the ECM and compared to a high
water standard value. Once the value reaches 30 to
40 kilohms, the ECM will activate the water-in-fuel
warning lamp. This all takes place when the ignition
key is initially put in the ON position.
REMOVAL
(1) Disconnect negative battery cable.
(2) Drain fuel filter/water separator assembly by
loosening drain at bottom of fuel filter cap.
(3) Disconnect WIF sensor electrical connector
(Fig. 4).
OPERATION
WARNING: HIGH - PRESSURE LINES DELIVER DIESEL FUEL UNDER EXTREME PRESSURE FROM
THE INJECTION PUMP TO THE FUEL INJECTORS.
THIS MAY BE AS HIGH AS 1600BAR (23,200 PSI.).
USE EXTREME CAUTION WHEN INSPECTING FOR
HIGH - PRESSURE FUEL LEAKS. FUEL UNDER
THIS AMOUNT OF PRESSURE CAN PENETRATE
SKIN CAUSING PERSONAL INJURY OR DEATH.
INSPECT FOR HIGH — PRESSURE FUEL LEAKS
WITH A SHEET OF CARDBOARD. WEAR SAFETY
GOGGLES AND ADEQUATE PROTECTIVE CLOTHING WHEN SERVICING FUEL SYSTEM.
The fuel rail stores the fuel for the injectors at
high pressure. At the same time, the pressure oscillations which are generated due to the high-pressure
pump delivery and the injection of fuel are dampened
by the rail volume.
The fuel rail is common to all cylinders, hence it’s
name “common rail”. Even when large quantities of
FUEL DELIVERY
KJ
14 - 7
FUEL RAIL (Continued)
Fig. 5 FUEL SYSTEM COMPONENTS
1
2
3
4
5
6
-
FUEL INJECTOR RETURN LINE
WASHER
FUEL INJECTOR
INJECTOR ASSEMBLY LUBRACATION POINT
HIGH PRESSURE FUEL LINE
FUEL RAIL
fuel are extracted, the fuel rail maintains a constant
inner pressure. This ensures that the injection pressure remains constant from the moment the injector
opens.
REMOVAL
WARNING: HIGH - PRESSURE LINES DELIVER DIESEL FUEL UNDER EXTREME PRESSURE FROM
THE INJECTION PUMP TO THE FUEL INJECTORS.
THIS MAY BE AS HIGH AS 1600BAR (23,200 PSI.).
USE EXTREME CAUTION WHEN INSPECTING FOR
7 - FUEL RAIL PRESSURE SENSOR
8 - HIGH PRESSURE FUEL RAIL SUPPLY LINE
9 - INJECTION PUMP HIGH PRESSURE OUTLET
10 - FUEL PRESSURE SOLENOID
11 - FUEL PRESSURE RETURN INLET
HIGH - PRESSURE FUEL LEAKS. FUEL UNDER
THIS AMOUNT OF PRESSURE CAN PENETRATE
SKIN CAUSING PERSONAL INJURY OR DEATH.
INSPECT FOR HIGH — PRESSURE FUEL LEAKS
WITH A SHEET OF CARDBOARD. WEAR SAFETY
GOGGLES AND ADEQUATE PROTECTIVE CLOTHING WHEN SERVICING FUEL SYSTEM.
(1) Disconnect negative battery cable.
(2) Remove engine cover and bracket assembly
(Refer to 9 - ENGINE COVER - REMOVAL).
(3) Disconnect fuel pressure sensor electrical connector (Fig. 6).
14 - 8
FUEL DELIVERY
KJ
FUEL RAIL (Continued)
(4) Disconnect fuel rail return line at fuel rail (Fig.
6).
(5) Disconnect fuel high pressure line from injection pump to fuel rail at fuel rail.
(6) Disconnect fuel high pressure line from fuel
rail to fuel injector at fuel rail (Fig. 6).
(7) Remove fuel rail retaining bolts and remove
rail from cylinder head cover/intake manifold (Fig. 6).
INSTALLATION
WARNING: HIGH - PRESSURE LINES DELIVER DIESEL FUEL UNDER EXTREME PRESSURE FROM
THE INJECTION PUMP TO THE FUEL INJECTORS.
THIS MAY BE AS HIGH AS 1600BAR (23,200 PSI.).
USE EXTREME CAUTION WHEN INSPECTING FOR
HIGH - PRESSURE FUEL LEAKS. FUEL UNDER
THIS AMOUNT OF PRESSURE CAN PENETRATE
SKIN CAUSING PERSONAL INJURY OR DEATH.
INSPECT FOR HIGH — PRESSURE FUEL LEAKS
WITH A SHEET OF CARDBOARD. WEAR SAFETY
GOGGLES AND ADEQUATE PROTECTIVE CLOTHING WHEN SERVICING FUEL SYSTEM.
(1) Install fuel rail on cylinder head cover/intake
manifold (Fig. 6). Torque retaining bolts to 27.5N·m.
(Refer to 14 - FUEL SYSTEM - WARNING)
(2) Connect injector high pressure fuel lines at fuel
rail (Fig. 6).
(3) Connect fuel rail high pressure fuel line at fuel
rail.
(4) Connect fuel rail fuel return line at fuel rail
(Fig. 6).
(5) Connect fuel pressure sensor electrical connector (Fig. 6).
(6) Install engine cover and bracket assembly
(Refer to 9 - ENGINE COVER - INSTALLATION).
(7) Connect negative battery cable.
FUEL LINES
DESCRIPTION
DESCRIPTION
Fig. 6 FUEL SYSTEM COMPONENTS
1 - FUEL INJECTOR RETURN LINE
2 - FUEL INJECTOR
3 - RETAINING BOLT
4 - INJECTOR RETAINER
5 - HIGH PRESSURE FUEL LINE
6 - FUEL RAIL RETAINING BOLT
7 - FUEL RAIL RETURN LINE
8 - FUEL PRESSURE SENSOR
9 - FUEL RAIL
10 - BOOST PRESSURE/INTAKE AIR TEMPERATURE SENSOR
All fuel lines up to the fuel injection pump are considered low-pressure. This includes the fuel lines
from the fuel tank to the fuel injection pump. The
fuel return lines and the fuel drain lines are also
considered low-pressure lines. High-pressure lines
are used between the fuel injection pump and the
fuel injectors (Refer to 14 - FUEL SYSTEM - WARNING). Also refer to High-Pressure Fuel Lines
Description/Operation (Refer to 14 - FUEL SYSTEM/
FUEL DELIVERY/FUEL LINES - OPERATION).
FUEL DELIVERY
KJ
14 - 9
FUEL LINES (Continued)
DESCRIPTION - HIGH PRESSURE FUEL LINES
NOTE: High Pressure Fuel Lines Must Be Replaced
At Each Disassembly.
(Refer to 14 - FUEL SYSTEM - WARNING). The
high-pressure fuel lines are used between the fuel
injection pump and the fuel injector rail, and
between the fuel injection rail and fuel injectors. All
other fuel lines are considered low-pressure lines
OPERATION - HIGH PRESSURE FUEL LINES
WARNING: HIGH - PRESSURE LINES DELIVER DIESEL FUEL UNDER EXTREME PRESSURE FROM
THE INJECTION PUMP TO THE FUEL INJECTORS.
THIS MAY BE AS HIGH AS 1600BAR (23,200 PSI.).
USE EXTREME CAUTION WHEN INSPECTING FOR
HIGH - PRESSURE FUEL LEAKS. FUEL UNDER
THIS AMOUNT OF PRESSURE CAN PENETRATE
SKIN CAUSING PERSONAL INJURY OR DEATH.
INSPECT FOR HIGH — PRESSURE FUEL LEAKS
WITH A SHEET OF CARDBOARD. WEAR SAFETY
GOGGLES AND ADEQUATE PROTECTIVE CLOTHING WHEN SERVICING FUEL SYSTEM.
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING - HIGH PRESSURE
FUEL LINES
WARNING: HIGH - PRESSURE LINES DELIVER DIESEL FUEL UNDER EXTREME PRESSURE FROM
THE INJECTION PUMP TO THE FUEL INJECTORS.
THIS MAY BE AS HIGH AS 1600BAR (23,200 PSI.).
USE EXTREME CAUTION WHEN INSPECTING FOR
HIGH - PRESSURE FUEL LEAKS. FUEL UNDER
THIS AMOUNT OF PRESSURE CAN PENETRATE
SKIN CAUSING PERSONAL INJURY OR DEATH.
INSPECT FOR HIGH — PRESSURE FUEL LEAKS
WITH A SHEET OF CARDBOARD. WEAR SAFETY
GOGGLES AND ADEQUATE PROTECTIVE CLOTHING WHEN SERVICING FUEL SYSTEM.
High-pressure fuel line leaks can cause starting
problems and poor engine performance.
Start the engine. Carefully move the cardboard
over the high-pressure fuel lines and check for fuel
spray onto the cardboard (Fig. 7). If a high-pressure
line connection is leaking, Replace damaged,
restricted or leaking high-pressure fuel lines with the
correct replacement line.
NOTE: High Pressure Fuel Lines To Injectors Must
Be Replaced At Each Disassembly.
CAUTION: The high-pressure fuel lines cannot contact each other or other components. Do not
attempt to weld high-pressure fuel lines or to repair
lines that are damaged. If lines are ever kinked or
bent, they must be replaced. Use only the recommended lines when replacement of high-pressure
fuel line is necessary.
High-pressure fuel lines deliver fuel under
extremely high pressure from the high pressure
pump to the fuel injectors (Refer to 14 - FUEL SYSTEM - WARNING). The lines expand and contract
from the high-pressure fuel pulses generated during
the injection process. All high-pressure fuel lines are
of the same length and inside diameter. Correct highpressure fuel line usage and installation is critical to
smooth engine operation.
Fig. 7 Typical Test for Leaks with Cardboard
1 - HIGH-PRESSURE LINE
2 - CARDBOARD
3 - FITTING
CAUTION: The high-pressure fuel lines cannot contact each other or other components. Do not
attempt to weld high-pressure fuel lines or to repair
lines that are damaged. Only use the recommended
lines when replacement of high-pressure fuel line is
necessary.
14 - 10
FUEL DELIVERY
FUEL INJECTION PUMP
DESCRIPTION
A radial-piston pump is used as the high pressure
pump for fuel pressure generation (Refer to 14 FUEL SYSTEM - WARNING) (Fig. 8).
KJ
(6) Remove charge air cooler outlet hose to intake
manifold.
(7) Remove fan support assembly (Refer to 7 COOLING/ENGINE/RADIATOR FAN - REMOVAL).
(8) Remove timing belt outer cover (Refer to 9 ENGINE/VALVE TIMING/TIMING BELT / CHAIN
COVER(S) - REMOVAL).
(9) Using special tool VM.1055, remove high pressure injection pump sprocket retaining nut (Fig. 9).
Fig. 8 FUEL INJECTION PUMP
1 - FUEL INJECTION PUMP
2 - INJECTION PUMP PRESSURE SOLENOID
REMOVAL
WARNING: HIGH - PRESSURE LINES DELIVER DIESEL FUEL UNDER EXTREME PRESSURE FROM
THE INJECTION PUMP TO THE FUEL INJECTORS.
THIS MAY BE AS HIGH AS 1600BAR (23,200 PSI.).
USE EXTREME CAUTION WHEN INSPECTING FOR
HIGH - PRESSURE FUEL LEAKS. FUEL UNDER
THIS AMOUNT OF PRESSURE CAN PENETRATE
SKIN CAUSING PERSONAL INJURY OR DEATH.
INSPECT FOR HIGH — PRESSURE FUEL LEAKS
WITH A SHEET OF CARDBOARD. WEAR SAFETY
GOGGLES AND ADEQUATE PROTECTIVE CLOTHING WHEN SERVICING FUEL SYSTEM.
(1) Disconnect negative battery cable.
(2) Remove engine cover and bracket(Refer to 9 ENGINE - REMOVAL).
(3) Evacuate A/C system (Refer to 24 - HEATING
& AIR CONDITIONING/PLUMBING - STANDARD
PROCEDURE).
(4) Remove accessory drive belt (Refer to 7 COOLING/ACCESSORY DRIVE/DRIVE BELTS REMOVAL).
(5) Remove cooling fan and fan shroud.
Fig. 9 INJECTION PUMP SPROCKET RETAINING
NUT REMOVAL/INSTALLATION
1
2
3
4
-
IDLER PULLEY
TIMING BELT
VM.1055
INJECTION PUMP SPROCKET
NOTE: The use of special tool VM.1067 will allow
you to remove the high pressure injection pump
without removing the timing belt from the engine.
This will allow you to remove and install the high
pressure injection pump without altering injection
pump timing.
(10) Install feet from VM.1067 in injection pump
sprocket as shown (Fig. 10).
(11) Install inner flange of special tool VM.1067 on
injection pump sprocket as shown (Fig. 11). Secure
flange to feet in injection pump sprocket with allen
bolts supplied with tool.
(12) Screw the high pressure injection pump
sprocket holding plate assembly into flange of
VM.1067 (Fig. 12) Using left hand threaded bolt supplied, secure holding plate assembly to timing belt
inner cover.
(13) Disconnect A/C lines at compressor.
FUEL DELIVERY
KJ
14 - 11
FUEL INJECTION PUMP (Continued)
Fig. 10 VM.1067 FEET INSTALLATION
1
2
3
4
5
-
OUTER TIMING BELT SEALING SURFACE
TIMING BELT
TIMING BELT SPROCKET
FEET FOR SPECIAL TOOL VM.1067
INNER TIMING BELT COVER
(14) Remove intake inlet tube at intake manifold.
(15) Remove high pressure injection pump to fuel
rail high pressure line.
(16) Disconnect high pressure injection pump fuel
pressure solenoid electrical connector.
(17) Disconnect fuel supply and return lines at
high pressure injection pump (Fig. 13).
(18) Remove alternator to intake manifold bracket.
(19) Remove vacuum line bracket from intake
manifold.
(20) Remove high pressure injection pump retaining nuts and remove pump (Fig. 13).
INSTALLATION
WARNING: HIGH - PRESSURE LINES DELIVER DIESEL FUEL UNDER EXTREME PRESSURE FROM
THE INJECTION PUMP TO THE FUEL INJECTORS.
THIS MAY BE AS HIGH AS 1600BAR (23,200 PSI.).
USE EXTREME CAUTION WHEN INSPECTING FOR
HIGH - PRESSURE FUEL LEAKS. FUEL UNDER
THIS AMOUNT OF PRESSURE CAN PENETRATE
SKIN CAUSING PERSONAL INJURY OR DEATH.
INSPECT FOR HIGH — PRESSURE FUEL LEAKS
WITH A SHEET OF CARDBOARD. WEAR SAFETY
Fig. 11 VM.1067 INSTALLATION
1
2
3
4
-
TIMING BELT
INJECTION PUMP SPROCKET
FLANGE OF VM.1067
INNER TIMING BELT COVER
GOGGLES AND ADEQUATE PROTECTIVE CLOTHING WHEN SERVICING FUEL SYSTEM.
NOTE: If Engine Timing Is Of Concern,(Refer to 9 ENGINE/VALVE TIMING/TIMING BELT/CHAIN AND
SPROCKETS - INSTALLATION) or (Refer to 9 ENGINE/VALVE
TIMING/TMNG
BELT/CHAIN
TENSIONER&PULLEY - ADJUSTMENTS).
(1) Loosen bolt in center of injection pump holding
plate and slide high pressure injection pump through
the accessory bracket into the injection pump
sprocket.
(2) Install high pressure high pressure injection
pump retaining nuts (Fig. 13). Torque nuts to
27.5N·m.
(3) Unscrew injection pump holding plate (part of
VM.1067) from inner timing belt cover and remove
(Fig. 12).
(4) Install high pressure injection pump sprocket
retaining nut to hold sprocket in place.
(5) Remove flange and feet (both part of VM.1067)
from high pressure injection pump sprocket (Fig. 10)
(Fig. 11).
14 - 12
FUEL DELIVERY
KJ
FUEL INJECTION PUMP (Continued)
Fig. 12 INJECTION PUMP/GEAR REMOVAL USING
VM.1067
1 - TIMING BELT
2 - INNER TIMING BELT COVER
3 - INJECTION PUMP SPROCKET HOLDING PLATE ASSEMBLY
PART OF VM.1067
4 - INJECTION PUMP SPROCKET
(6) Using special tool VM.1055 (Fig. 9), torque
high pressure injection pump sprocket retaining nut
to 88.3N·m.
(7) Connect fuel pressure solenoid electrical connector.
(8) Connect fuel supply and return lines at high
pressure injection pump (Fig. 13). (Refer to 14 FUEL SYSTEM - WARNING).
(9) Install outer timing belt cover (Refer to 9 ENGINE/VALVE TIMING/TIMING BELT / CHAIN
COVER(S) - INSTALLATION).
(10) Install fan support assembly (Refer to 7 COOLING/ENGINE/RADIATOR FAN - INSTALLATION).
(11) Install accessory drive belt (Refer to 7 COOLING/ACCESSORY DRIVE/DRIVE BELTS INSTALLATION).
(12) Install cooling fan and shroud assembly.
(13) Install charge air cooler outlet hose.
(14) Install engine cover and bracket (Refer to 9 ENGINE - INSTALLATION).
(15) Connect negative battery cable.
(16) Evacuate and recharge A/C system (Refer to
24 - HEATING & AIR CONDITIONING/PLUMBING
- STANDARD PROCEDURE).
Fig. 13 FUEL INJECTION PUMP REMOVAL/
INSTALLATION
1 - BANJO FITTING
2 - BRASS WASHERS
3 - FUEL INLET LINE
4 - FUEL OUTLET LINE
5 - BANJO FITTING
6 - INJECTION PUMP RETAINING NUT
7 - INJECTION PUMP
8 - MOUNTING STUDS
9 - INNER TIMING COVER SEAL
10 - INNER TIMING COVER
11 - RETAINING BOLT
12 - RETAINING BOLT
13 - RETAINING BOLT
14 - HOSE CLAMP
15 - CYLINDER HEAD COVER/INTAKE MANIFOLD
16 - FUEL RETURN LINE TO INJECTION PUMP
17 - HOSE CLAMP
18 - FUEL RETURN JUNCTION BLOCK RETAINING BOLT
19 - FUEL RETURN JUNCTION BLOCK
FUEL DELIVERY
KJ
FUEL TANK MODULE
DESCRIPTION
The fuel pump module assembly is located in the
fuel tank. The assembly is divided into 2–sections,
upper and lower. The lower section is locked to the
bottom of the fuel tank. The complete assembly contains the following components:
• A separate fuel pick-up, or inlet filter
• A lockring to retain upper section of pump module to tank
• A rollover valve
• A soft gasket between tank flange and module
• A fuel gauge sending unit (fuel level sensor)
• Two fuel line connections (supply and return)
The fuel gauge sending unit may be serviced separately.
REMOVAL
Fuel tank removal is not required for fuel
tank module removal. Access is from rear cargo
area.
(1) Disconnect negative battery cable.
(2) Four cargo holdown clamps are located inside
the vehicle on the floor of the rear cargo area.
Remove the 2 rearward mounted clamps by drilling
out the clamp rivets.
(3) Fold carpeting forward to gain access to fuel
tank module access plate (Fig. 14).
(4) Remove 4 fuel pump module access plate nuts
(Fig. 14).
(5) While applying heat with a heat gun, carefully
pry up the fuel tank module access plate. Take care
not to bend plate.
(6) Thoroughly clean area around top of tank module to prevent contaminants from entering fuel tank
or lines.
(7) Disconnect fuel supply and return lines at fuel
tank module by pressing 2 buttons at sides of fittings.
(8) Disconnect fuel tank module electrical connector.
(9) Remove module lockring using a brass drift
and a hammer (counter-clockwise).
(10) Carefully lift upper section of fuel tank module from fuel tank exposing connections (Fig. 15)(lift
upper section from tank slowly until rubber
gasket can be retained. If not, the gasket will
fall into fuel tank.)
(11) Disconnect electrical connector at bottom of
upper tank module section (Fig. 15).
(12) Disconnect both fuel lines at bottom of upper
tank module section (Fig. 15).
(13) Remove upper section of fuel tank module.
(14) Using an approved gas holding tank, drain
fuel tank through tank module opening. If only
Fig. 14 ACCESS PLATE
1
2
3
4
-
FLOORPAN AT REAR
FUEL PUMP MODULE ACCESS PLATE
NUTS (4)
OPENING TO PUMP MODULE
Fig. 15 FUEL TANK MODULE
1 - FUEL TANK CHECK (CONTROL) VALVE
2 - QUICK-CONNECT FITTINGS
3 - ELECTRICAL CONNECTOR
14 - 13
14 - 14
FUEL DELIVERY
KJ
FUEL TANK MODULE (Continued)
upper section of tank module is being serviced,
draining fuel tank is not necessary. If any other
fuel tank component is being serviced, the tank
must be completely drained.
(15) To remove lower section of tank module:
(a) Using finger pressure, push on elastic release
tab while sliding lock tab upward (Fig. 16).
(b) The sides of lower tank module are equipped
with tension springs (Fig. 16). These springs hold
module to bottom of the fuel tank in 2 formed
guides (Fig. 17). Release module assembly from
these 2 guides by sliding toward right side of fuel
tank.
(c) Lift assembly fom fuel tank.
Fig. 17 FUEL TANK MODULE GUIDES (IN FUEL
TANK)
1 - FUEL TANK (INSIDE/LOWER)
2 - FUEL TANK MODULE GUIDES
Fig. 16 LOWER SECTION - FUEL PUMP MODULE
1 - LOWER SECTION - FUEL PUMP MODULE
2 - RELEASE LOCK AND TAB
3 - TENSION SPRINGS
INSTALLATION
CAUTION: Whenever fuel tank module is serviced,
pump module gasket must be replaced.
(1) Position lower section of fuel pump module
assembly into fuel tank.
(2) The bottom of fuel tank has 2 formed guides.
Lock module assembly into these 2 guides by sliding
toward left side of fuel tank.
(3) Push down on plastic tab to lock module to fuel
tank guides.
(4) Connect fuel supply and return lines to bottom
of upper tank module section.
(5) Connect electrical connector to bottom of upper
tank module section.
(6) Position tank module into fuel tank. Notch on
module must be facing rear of tank.
(7) Position lock ring to module. Tap lockring
using a brass drift and hammer (clockwise) until
rotated up to built-on stops.
(8) Attach (snap on) 2 fuel filter fuel lines to top of
fuel pump module.
(9) Fill fuel tank with fuel.
(10) Start engine and check for fuel leaks.
(11) Apply silicone sealant to bottom of fuel pump
module metal access plate.
(12) Install fuel pump module metal access plate
and 4 nuts. Tighten nuts to 3 N·m (26 in. lbs.)
torque.
(13) Position carpet and install 2 new cargo clamp
rivets into each cargo holdown clamp.
FUEL DELIVERY
KJ
FUEL LEVEL SENDING UNIT /
SENSOR
DESCRIPTION
The fuel gauge sending unit (fuel level sensor) is
attached to the side of the lower fuel tank module.
The sending unit consists of a float, an arm, and a
variable resistor track (card).
OPERATION
For Fuel Gauge Operation: A constant current
source of approximately 32 milliamps is supplied to
the resistor track on the fuel gauge sending unit.
This is fed directly from the Engine Control Module
(ECM). NOTE: For diagnostic purposes, this 12V
power source can only be verified with the circuit opened (fuel tank module electrical connector unplugged). With the connectors
plugged, output voltages will vary from about
0.6 volts at FULL, to about 8.6 volts at EMPTY
(about 8.6 volts at EMPTY for Jeep models, and
about 7.0 volts at EMPTY for Dodge Truck models). The resistor track is used to vary the voltage
(resistance) depending on fuel tank float level. As
fuel level increases, the float and arm move up,
which decreases voltage. As fuel level decreases, the
float and arm move down, which increases voltage.
The varied voltage signal is returned back to the
ECM through the sensor return circuit.
Both of the electrical circuits between the fuel
gauge sending unit and the ECM are hard-wired (not
multi-plexed). After the voltage signal is sent from
the resistor track, and back to the ECM, the ECM
will interpret the resistance (voltage) data and send
a message across the multi-plex bus circuits to the
instrument panel cluster. Here it is translated into
the appropriate fuel gauge level reading. Refer to
Instrument Panel for additional information.
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING - FUEL LEVEL
SENDING UNIT
The fuel level sending unit contains a variable
resistor (track). As the float moves up or down, electrical resistance will change. Refer to Instrument
Panel and Gauges for Fuel Gauge testing. To test the
gauge sending unit only, it must be removed from
vehicle. The unit is a separate part of the lower fuel
tank module section. Refer to Fuel Tank Module
Removal/Installation for procedures (remove only the
upper section of the fuel pump module). Measure the
resistance across the sending unit terminals. With
float in up position, resistance should be 20 ohms (+/5%). With float in down position, resistance should be
270 ohms (+/- 5%).
14 - 15
REMOVAL
The fuel level sending unit (fuel level sensor) and
float assembly is located on the side of the lower section of the fuel tank module. The lower section of the
fuel tank module is located within the fuel tank.
(1) Remove lower section of fuel tank module from
fuel tank (Refer to 14 - FUEL SYSTEM/FUEL
DELIVERY/FUEL TANK MODULE - REMOVAL).
(2) To remove sending unit from tank module, lift
on plastic locking tab (Fig. 18) while sliding sending
unit upwards.
(3) Disconnect electrical connector from bottom of
upper section of fuel tank module. Separate necessary sending unit wiring.
Fig. 18 FUEL LEVEL SENDING UNIT
1 - LIFT TAB HERE FOR REMOVAL
2 - FUEL LEVEL SENDING UNIT
3 - LOWER SECTION OF PUMP MODULE
INSTALLATION
(1) Connect necessary wiring into electrical connectors.
(2) Position sending unit to tank module. Slide and
snap into place.
(3) Install lower section of fuel tank module. (Refer
to 14 - FUEL SYSTEM/FUEL DELIVERY/FUEL
TANK MODULE - INSTALLATION)
14 - 16
FUEL DELIVERY
FUEL HEATER
DESCRIPTION
The fuel heater is used to prevent diesel fuel from
waxing and plugging the fuel filter during cold
weather operation. The fuel heater is located in the
fuel filter cap of the fuel filter/water separator
assembly (Fig. 19).
KJ
Voltage to operate the fuel heater is supplied from
the ignition (key) switch and through the fuel heater
relay. Refer to the following Fuel Heater Relay for
additional information. The fuel heater and fuel
heater relay are not controlled by the Engine
Control Module (ECM).
REMOVAL
(1) Disconnect negative battery cable.
(2) Disconnect fuel heater and WIF sensor electrical connectors.
(3) Drain fuel filter/water separator assembly into
a suitable container by loosening drain at bottom of
fuel filter cap.
(4) Remove fuel filter cap from bottom of filter
assembly.
(5) Remove fuel heater retaining screws and
remove heater assembly from fuel filter cap (Fig. 20).
Fig. 19 FUEL FILTER / WATER SEPARATOR
1 - FUEL FILTER / WATER SEPARATOR ASSEMBLY
2 - WATER-IN-FUEL SENSOR
3 - FUEL HEATER
Fig. 20 FUEL HEATER ASSEMBLY
OPERATION
The element inside the heater assembly is made of
a Positive Temperature Coefficient (PTC) material,
and has power applied to it by the fuel heater relay
anytime the ignition key is in the “on” position. PTC
material has a high resistance to current flow when
its temperature is high, which means that it will not
generate heat when the temperature is above a certain value. When the temperature is below 7°C (45°
F), the resistance of the PTC element is lowered, and
allows current to flow through the fuel heater element warming the fuel. When the temperature is
above 29°C (85° F), the PTC element’s resistance
rises, and current flow through the heater element
stops.
1 - FUEL FILTER CAP ASSEMBLY
2 - FUEL HEATER RETAINING SCREWS
3 - FUEL HEATER ASSEMBLY
INSTALLATION
(1) Install fuel heater assembly in fuel filter cap.
Tighten retaining screws.
(2) Install fuel filter cap on fuel filter assembly.
(3) Connect fuel heater and WIF sensor electrical
connectors.
(4) Prime fuel system using the fuel priming
plunger. (Refer to 14 - FUEL SYSTEM - STANDARD
PROCEDURE)
(5) Connect negative battery cable.
FUEL DELIVERY
KJ
FUEL PRESSURE SOLENOID
DESCRIPTION
The fuel pressure solenoid is attached to the rear
of the injection pump (Refer to 14 - FUEL SYSTEM WARNING) (Fig. 21).
Fig. 21 FUEL INJECTION PUMP
1 - FUEL INJECTION PUMP
2 - INJECTION PUMP PRESSURE SOLENOID
14 - 17
OPERATION
The fuel pressure solenoid sets the correct pressure
in the fuel rail as a function of engine loading and
maintains it at the proper level. If the rail pressure
is excessive, the solenoid opens and a portion of the
fuel returns from the fuel rail to the fuel tank via a
return line. If the rail pressure is too low, the solenoid closes and seals off the high-pressure stage from
the low-pressure stage (Refer to 14 - FUEL SYSTEM
- WARNING).
14 - 18
FUEL INJECTION
KJ
FUEL INJECTION
TABLE OF CONTENTS
page
CRANKSHAFT POSITION SENSOR
DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
REMOVAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
INSTALLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ACCELERATOR PEDAL POSITION SENSOR
DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
REMOVAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
INSTALLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
BOOST PRESSURE SENSOR
DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING - BOOST
PRESSURE/INTAKE AIR TEMPERATURE
SENSOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
REMOVAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
INSTALLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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page
INTAKE AIR TEMPERATURE SENSOR
DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
REMOVAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
INSTALLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
FUEL INJECTOR
DESCRIPTION
FUEL INJECTOR . . . . . . . . . . . . .
OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
REMOVAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
INSTALLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
FUEL PRESSURE SENSOR
DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
REMOVAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
INSTALLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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CRANKSHAFT POSITION
SENSOR
DESCRIPTION
The crankshaft position sensor is mounted in the
right rear of the engine block below the turbocharger
(Fig. 1). This sensor is used to detect engine speed.
OPERATION
The crankshaft position sensor is a magnetic
pickup type sensor that generates an A/C signal. The
sensor contains a permanent magnet and a coil of
wire. The sensor generates an A/C signal each time a
notch in the reluctor wheel on the crankshaft passes
across the permanent magnet. The ECM calculates
engine speed based on the frequency of the A/C signal.
REMOVAL
(1) Disconnect negative battery cable.
(2) Raise vehicle on houst.
(3) Remove exhaust pipe to turbocharger down
pipe retaining bolts and lower exhaust pipe from turbocharger downpipe.
(4) Disconnect crankshaft position sensor electrical
connector.
(5) Remove crankshaft position sensor retaining
bolt and remove sensor from engine block (Fig. 2).
Fig. 1 CRANKSHAFT POSITION SENSOR
INSTALLATION
(1) Lubricate o-ring on crankshaft position sensor
and install sensor in engine block (Fig. 2).
(2) Install crankshaft position sensor retaining bolt
(Fig. 2). Torque bolt to 10.8N·m.
(3) Connect crankshaft position sensor electrical
connection.
FUEL INJECTION
KJ
14 - 19
CRANKSHAFT POSITION SENSOR (Continued)
Fig. 3 ACCELERATOR PEDAL POSITION SENSOR
ASSEMBLY
Fig. 2 CRANKSHAFT POSITION (CKP) SENSOR
REMOVAL/INSTALL
1
2
3
4
-
RETAINING BOLT
WASHER
CRANKSHAFT POSITION (CKP) SENSOR
ENGINE BLOCK
(4)
pipe.
(5)
(6)
Connect exhaust pipe to turbocharger downTorque bolts to 32.4N·m.
Lower vehicle from hoist.
Connect negative battery cable.
ACCELERATOR PEDAL
POSITION SENSOR
DESCRIPTION
The Accelerator Pedal Position Sensor is a variable
resistor that provides the ECM with an input signal
(voltage) (Fig. 3). The signal represents throttle blade
position. As the position of the accelerator pedal
changes, the resistance of the sensor changes (Fig. 4).
REMOVAL
(1) Disconnect negative battery cable.
(2) Disconnect accelerator pedal position
electrical connector (Fig. 5).
(3) Remove accelerator pedal position
assembly mounting bolts (Fig. 5).
(4) Open accelerator pedal position sensor
bly and disconnect accelerator cable (Fig. 6).
(5) Remove accelerator pedal position
assembly.
sensor
sensor
assemsensor
Fig. 4 ACCELERATOR PEDAL POSITION SENSOR
ASSEMBLY OPEN
INSTALLATION
(1) Connect accelerator cable to accelerator pedal
position sensor assembly and close cover.
(2) Attach accelerator pedal position sensor assembly to mounting bracket.
(3) Connect sensor electrical connector.
(4) Connect negative battery cable
14 - 20
FUEL INJECTION
KJ
ACCELERATOR PEDAL POSITION SENSOR (Continued)
BOOST PRESSURE SENSOR
DESCRIPTION
The boost pressure/ intake air temperature sensor
is mounted to the top of the intake manifold. The
sensor allows the ECM to monitor air pressure
within the intake manifold. This sensor is also used
to monitor the intake air temperature (Fig. 7).
Fig. 5 ACCELERATOR PEDAL POSITION SENSOR
1 - RETAINING BOLTS
2 - ACCELERATOR CABLE
3 - ACCELERATOR PEDAL POSITION SENSOR BRACKET
4 - ACCELERATOR PEDAL POSITION SENSOR
5 - ACCELERATOR PEDAL POSITION SENSOR ELECTRICAL
SENSOR
Fig. 7 BOOST PRESSURE SENSOR / INTAKE AIR
TEMPERATURE SENSOR
OPERATION
When the intake manifold pressure is low sensor
voltage output is 0.25-1.8 volts at the ECM. When
the intake manifold pressure is high due to turbo
boost, sensor voltage output is 2.0-4.7 volts. The sensor receives a 5-volts reference from the ECM. Sensor
ground is also provides by the ECM. The ECM uses
boost pressure combined with intake air temerature
to determine the volume of air entering the engine.
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING - BOOST
PRESSURE/INTAKE AIR TEMPERATURE
SENSOR
Fig. 6 ACCELERATOR PEDAL POSITION SENSOR
ASSEMBLY OPEN
If the boost pressure sensor fails, the ECM records
a DTC into memory and continues to operate the
engine in one of the three limp-in modes. When the
ECM is operating in this mode, a loss of power will
be present, as if the turbocharger was not operating.
The best method for diagnosing faults with the boost
pressure sensor is with the DRB IIIt scan tool. Refer
to the Diesel Powertrain Diagnostic Manual for more
information.
FUEL INJECTION
KJ
14 - 21
BOOST PRESSURE SENSOR (Continued)
Refer to On-Board Diagnostics in Emissions Control System for a list of Diagnostic Trouble Codes
(DTC’s) for certain fuel system components.
INTAKE AIR TEMPERATURE
SENSOR
REMOVAL
DESCRIPTION
(1) Disconnect negative battery cable.
(2) Remove engine cover and bracket assembly
(Refer to 9 - ENGINE COVER - REMOVAL).
(3) Disconnect sensor electrical connector (Fig. 8).
(4) Remove retaining bolts and remove sensor from
cylinder head cover/intake manifold (Fig. 8).
The boost pressure/ intake air temperature sensor
is mounted to the top of the intake manifold. The
sensor allows the ECM to monitor air pressure
within the intake manifold. This sensor is also used
to monitor the intake air temperature (Fig. 9).
Fig. 9 BOOST PRESSURE SENSOR / INTAKE AIR
TEMPERATURE SENSOR
OPERATION
Fig. 8 SENSOR LOCATIONS
1 - BOOST PRESSURE/INTAKE AIR TEMPERATURE SENSOR
2 - FUEL PRESSURE SENSOR
INSTALLATION
(1) Install sensor and retaining bolts into cylinder
head cover/intake manifold (Fig. 8). Torque to 5.4
N·m.
(2) Connect sensor electrical connector (Fig. 8).
(3) Install engine cover and bracket assembly
(Refer to 9 - ENGINE COVER - INSTALLATION).
(4) Connect negative battery cable.
The intake air temperature sensor is a negative
temperature coefficient (NTC) thermistor (resistance
varies inversly with temperature). This means at
cold air temperature its resistance is high, sothe voltage signal will be high. As intake air temperature
increases, sensor resistance decreases and the signal
voltage will be low. This allows the sensor to provide
an analog voltage signal (0.2-4.8 volts) to the ECM.
REMOVAL
(1) (Refer to 14 - FUEL SYSTEM/FUEL INJECTION/BOOST PRESSURE SENSOR - REMOVAL)
INSTALLATION
(1) (Refer to 14 - FUEL SYSTEM/FUEL INJECTION/BOOST PRESSURE SENSOR - INSTALLATION)
14 - 22
FUEL INJECTION
FUEL INJECTOR
DESCRIPTION
KJ
•
•
•
•
Injector
Injector
Injector
Injector
closed (with high pressure applied)
opens (start of injection)
opened fully
closes (end of injection)
FUEL INJECTOR
WARNING: HIGH - PRESSURE FUEL LINE DELIVER
DIESEL FUEL UNDER EXTREME PRESSURE FROM
THE INJECTION PUMP TO THE FUEL INJECTORS.
THIS MAY BE AS HIGH AS 1600BAR (23,200PSI).
USE EXTREME CAUTION WHEN INSPECTING FOR
HIGH - PRESSURE FUEL LEAKS. FUEL UNDER
THIS AMOUNT OF PRESSURE CAN PENETRATE
SKIN CAUSING PERSONAL INJURY OR DEATH.
INSPECT FOR HIGH - PRESSURE LEAKS WITH A
SHEET OF CARDBOARD. WEAR SAFETY GOGGLES AND ADEQUATE PROTECTIVE CLOTHING
WHEN SERVICING FUEL SYSTEM.
(Refer to 14 - FUEL SYSTEM - WARNING) There
are individual fuel injectors for all four cylinders.
These fuel injectors are used to spray fuel into the
combustion chamber (Fig. 10).
Fig. 11 INJECTOR COMPONENTS
Fig. 10 FUEL INJECTOR
1
2
3
4
-
FUEL INJECTOR
NOZZLE
FUEL INLET FITTING
ELECTRICAL CONNECTION
OPERATION
(Refer to 14 - FUEL SYSTEM - WARNING) The
injector operation can be subdivided into four operating states with the engine running and the highpressure pump generating pressure:
1 - INJECTOR CLOSED (AT-REST STATUS)
2 - ELECTRICAL CONNECTION
3 - TRIGGERING ELEMENT (SOLENOID VALVE)
4 - FUEL INLET (HIGH PRESSURE) FROM THE RAIL
5 - VALVE BALL
6 - BLEED ORIFICE
7 - FEED ORIFICE
8 - VALVE CONTROL CHAMBER
9 - VALVE CONTROL PLUNGER
10 - FEED PASSAGE TO THE NOZZLE
11 - NOZZLE NEEDLE
Injector closed (with high pressure applied)
With the injector closed (at-rest state), the solenoid
valve is not energized and is therefore closed. With
the bleed orifice closed, the valve spring forces the
FUEL INJECTION
KJ
14 - 23
FUEL INJECTOR (Continued)
armature’s ball onto the bleed-orifice seat. The rail’s
high pressure build up in the valve control chamber,
and the same pressure is also present in the nozzle’s
chamber volume. The rail pressure applied at the
control plunger’s end face, together with the force of
the nozzle spring, maintain the nozzle in the closed
position against the opening forces applied to its
pressure stage (Fig. 11).
Injector opens (start of injection)
The solenoid valve is energized with the pickup
current which serves to ensure that it open quickly.
The force exerted by the triggered solenoid now
exceeds that of the valve spring and the armature
opens the bleed orifice. Almost immediately, the highlevel pick-up current is reduced to the lower holding
current required for the electromagnet. This is possible due to the magnetic circuit’s air gap now being
smaller. When the bleed orifice opens, fuel can flow
from the valve control chamber into the cavity situated above it, and from there via the fuel return to
the tank. The bleed orifice prevents complete pressure balance, and the pressure in the valve control
chamber sinks as a result. This leads to the pressure
in the valve-control chamber being lower than that in
the nozzle’s chamber volume which is still at the
same pressure level as the rail. The reduced pressure
in the valve-control chamber causes a reduction in
the force exerted on the control plunger, the nozzle
needle opens as a result, and injection starts (Fig.
11).
Injector opens fully
The control plunger reaches its upper stop where it
remains supported by a cushion of fuel which is generated by the flow of fuel between the bleed and feed
orifices. The injector nozzle has now opened fully,
and the fuel is injected into the combustion chamber
at a pressure almost equal to that in the fuel rail
(Fig. 11).
Injector closes (end of injection)
As soon as the solenoid valve is no longer triggered, the valve spring forces the armature downwards and the ball closes the bleed orifice. The
armature is a 2–piece design. Here, although the
armature plate is guided by a driver shoulder in its
downward movement, it can “overspring” with the
return spring so that it exerts no downwards-acting
forces on the armature and the ball. The closing of
the bleed orifice lead to pressure build up in the control chamber via the input from the feed orifice. This
pressure is the same as that in the rail and exerts an
increased force on the control plunger through its
end face. This force, together with that of the spring,
now exceeds the force exerted by the chamber volume
and the nozzle needle closes. Injection ceases as soon
as the nozzle needle comes up against its bottom stop
again (Fig. 11).
REMOVAL
WARNING: HIGH - PRESSURE FUEL LINE DELIVER
DIESEL FUEL UNDER EXTREME PRESSURE FROM
THE INJECTION PUMP TO THE FUEL INJECTORS.
THIS MAY BE AS HIGH AS 1600BAR (23,200PSI).
USE EXTREME CAUTION WHEN INSPECTING FOR
HIGH - PRESSURE FUEL LEAKS. FUEL UNDER
THIS AMOUNT OF PRESSURE CAN PENETRATE
SKIN CAUSING PERSONAL INJURY OR DEATH.
INSPECT FOR HIGH - PRESSURE LEAKS WITH A
SHEET OF CARDBOARD. WEAR SAFETY GOGGLES AND ADEQUATE PROTECTIVE CLOTHING
WHEN SERVICING FUEL SYSTEM.
(1) Disconnect negative battery cable.
(2) Remove engine cover (Refer to 9 - ENGINE REMOVAL).
(3) Disconnect injector electrical connector.
(4) Remove fuel return line from injector (Fig. 12).
(5) Remove fuel injector high pressure line (Refer
to 14 - FUEL SYSTEM - WARNING) (Fig. 12).
(6) Remove fuel injector retainer and retaining
bolt (Fig. 12).
NOTE: DO NOT use a wire brush to clean the fuel
injector or nozzle. Possible restriction of the injector needle may result.
(7) Remove fuel injector from cylinder head (Fig.
12).
INSTALLATION
WARNING: HIGH - PRESSURE LINES DELIVER DIESEL FUEL UNDER EXTREME PRESSURE FROM
THE INJECTION PUMP TO THE FUEL INJECTORS.
THIS MAY BE AS HIGH AS 1600BAR (23,200 PSI.).
USE EXTREME CAUTION WHEN INSPECTING FOR
HIGH - PRESSURE FUEL LEAKS. FUEL UNDER
THIS AMOUNT OF PRESSURE CAN PENETRATE
SKIN CAUSING PERSONAL INJURY OR DEATH.
INSPECT FOR HIGH — PRESSURE FUEL LEAKS
WITH A SHEET OF CARDBOARD. WEAR SAFETY
GOGGLES AND ADEQUATE PROTECTIVE CLOTHING WHEN SERVICING FUEL SYSTEM.
NOTE: DO NOT use a brush to clean around the
injector nozzle. DO NOT lubricate area around injector nozzle. The injector may become restricted with
debris.
14 - 24
FUEL INJECTION
KJ
FUEL INJECTOR (Continued)
FUEL PRESSURE SENSOR
DESCRIPTION
WARNING: HIGH - PRESSURE FUEL LINE DELIVER
DIESEL FUEL UNDER EXTREME PRESSURE FROM
THE INJECTION PUMP TO THE FUEL INJECTORS.
THIS MAY BE AS HIGH AS 1600BAR (23,200PSI).
USE EXTREME CAUTION WHEN INSPECTING FOR
HIGH - PRESSURE FUEL LEAKS. FUEL UNDER
THIS AMOUNT OF PRESSURE CAN PENETRATE
SKIN CAUSING PERSONAL INJURY OR DEATH.
INSPECT FOR HIGH - PRESSURE LEAKS WITH A
SHEET OF CARDBOARD. WEAR SAFETY GOGGLES AND ADEQUATE PROTECTIVE CLOTHING
WHEN SERVICING FUEL SYSTEM.
The fuel rail pressure sensor screws into the fuel
rail at the top of the engine (Fig. 13).
Fig. 12 FUEL SYSTEM COMPONENTS
1 - FUEL INJECTOR RETURN LINE
2 - FUEL INJECTOR
3 - RETAINING BOLT
4 - INJECTOR RETAINER
5 - HIGH PRESSURE FUEL LINE
6 - FUEL RAIL RETAINING BOLT
7 - FUEL RAIL RETURN LINE
8 - FUEL PRESSURE SENSOR
9 - FUEL RAIL
10 - BOOST PRESSURE/INTAKE AIR TEMPERATURE SENSOR
NOTE: Be sure the copper washer is installed on
end of injector before installing in cylinder head.
(1) Apply antiseize compound to injector body.
(2) Install fuel injector in cylinder head.
(3) Install fuel injector high pressure line (Refer to
14 - FUEL SYSTEM - WARNING) (Fig. 12).
(4) Install fuel injector retainer and bolt (Fig. 12).
Torque bolt to 32.4 N·m.
(5) Install fuel return line to injector (Fig. 12).
(6) Connect fuel injector electrical connector.
(7) Install engine cover and bracket assembly
(Refer to 9 - ENGINE COVER - INSTALLATION).
(8) Connect negative battery cable.
Fig. 13 SENSOR LOCATIONS
1 - BOOST PRESSURE/INTAKE AIR TEMPERATURE SENSOR
2 - FUEL PRESSURE SENSOR
FUEL INJECTION
KJ
14 - 25
FUEL PRESSURE SENSOR (Continued)
OPERATION
INSTALLATION
WARNING: AVOID ALL CONTACT WITH FUEL
SPRAY. THE INJECTION PUMP SUPPLIES HIGHPRESSURE FUEL TO EACH INDIVIDUAL INJECTOR
THROUGH HIGH-PRESSURE LINES. FUEL UNDER
THIS AMOUNT OF PRESSURE CAN PENETRATE
SKIN AND CAUSE PERSONAL INJURY. WEAR
SAFETY GOGGLES AND ADEQUATE PROTECTIVE
CLOTHING WHEN SERVICING FUEL SYSTEM.
WARNING: HIGH - PRESSURE LINES DELIVER DIESEL FUEL UNDER EXTREME PRESSURE FROM
THE INJECTION PUMP TO THE FUEL INJECTORS.
THIS MAY BE AS HIGH AS 1600BAR (23,200 PSI.).
USE EXTREME CAUTION WHEN INSPECTING FOR
HIGH - PRESSURE FUEL LEAKS. FUEL UNDER
THIS AMOUNT OF PRESSURE CAN PENETRATE
SKIN CAUSING PERSONAL INJURY OR DEATH.
INSPECT FOR HIGH — PRESSURE FUEL LEAKS
WITH A SHEET OF CARDBOARD. WEAR SAFETY
GOGGLES AND ADEQUATE PROTECTIVE CLOTHING WHEN SERVICING FUEL SYSTEM.
The fuel flows to the fuel pressure sensor through
an opening in the rail, the end of which is sealed off
by the sensor diaphram. Pressurized fuel reaches the
sensor’s diaphram through a blind hole. The sensor
element (semiconductor device) for converting the
pressure to an electric signal is mounted on this diaphram. The signal generated by the sensor is sent to
the ECM.
REMOVAL
(1) Disconnect negative battery cable.
(2) Remove engine cover (Refer to 9 - ENGINE
COVER - REMOVAL).
(3) Disconnect fuel pressure sensor electrical connector (Fig. 13).
(4) Remove fuel pressure sensor from fuel rail (Fig.
13).
(1) Install fuel pressure sensor in fuel rail (Fig.
13).
(2) Connect fuel pressure sensor electrical connector (Fig. 13).
(3) Install engine cover (Refer to 9 - ENGINE
COVER - INSTALLATION).
(4) Connect negative battery cable.
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION - 545RFE
KJ
21 - 1
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION - 545RFE
TABLE OF CONTENTS
page
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION - 545RFE
........1
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION - 545RFE
TABLE OF CONTENTS
page
page
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION - 545RFE
DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING - AUTOMATIC
TRANSMISSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING - ROAD
TESTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING - HYDRAULIC
PRESSURE TEST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
SCHEMATICS AND DIAGRAMS
HYDRAULIC SCHEMATICS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
SPECIFICATIONS
TRANSMISSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
HOLDING CLUTCHES
DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
INPUT CLUTCH ASSEMBLY
DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DISASSEMBLY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ASSEMBLY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SHIFT MECHANISM
DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SOLENOID SWITCH VALVE
DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TORQUE CONVERTER
OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TRANSMISSION SOLENOID/TRS ASSEMBLY
DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
REMOVAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
INSTALLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VALVE BODY
DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION 545RFE
smoother 4-2 kickdowns at high speeds to provide
2nd gear passing performance over a wider highway
cruising range. An additional overdrive ratio (0.67:1)
is also provided for greater fuel economy and less
NVH at highway speeds.
The hydraulic portion of the transmission consists
of the transmission fluid, fluid passages, hydraulic
valves, and various line pressure control components.
The primary mechanical components of the transmission consist of the following:
• Three multiple disc input clutches
• Three multiple disc holding clutches
• Five hydraulic accumulators
• Three planetary gear sets
• Dual Stage Hydraulic oil pump
• Valve body
• Solenoid pack
DESCRIPTION
The 545RFE automatic transmission is a sophisticated, multi-range, electronically controlled transmission which combines optimized gear ratios for
responsive performance, state of the art efficiency
features and low NVH. Other features include driver
adaptive shifting and three planetary gear sets to
provide wide ratio capability with precise ratio steps
for optimum driveability. The three planetary gear
sets also make available a unique alternate second
gear ratio. The primary 2nd gear ratio fits between
1st and 3rd gears for normal through-gear accelerations. The alternate second gear ratio (2prime) allows
. . . . 30
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21 - 2
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION - 545RFE
KJ
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION - 545RFE (Continued)
The TCM is the “heart” or “brain” of the electronic
control system and relies on information from various direct and indirect inputs (sensors, switches, etc.)
to determine driver demand and vehicle operating
conditions. With this information, the TCM can calculate and perform timely and quality shifts through
various output or control devices (solenoid pack,
transmission control relay, etc.).
TRANSMISSION IDENTIFICATION
Transmission identification numbers are stamped
on the left side of the case just above the oil pan
sealing surface (Fig. 1). Refer to this information
when ordering replacement parts. A label is attached
to the transmission case above the stamped numbers.
The label gives additional information which may
also be necessary for identification purposes.
Fig. 1 Transmission Part And Serial Number
Location
1 - IDENTIFICATION NUMBERS (STAMPED)
GEAR RATIOS
The 545RFE gear ratios are:
1st . . . . . .
2nd . . . . . .
2nd Prime
3rd . . . . . .
4th . . . . . .
5th . . . . . .
Reverse . .
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3.00:1
1.67:1
1.50:1
1.00:1
0.75:1
0.67:1
3.00:1
OPERATION
The 545RFE offers full electronic control of all
automatic up and downshifts, and features real-time
adaptive closed-loop shift and pressure control. Electronic shift and torque converter clutch controls help
protect the transmission from damage due to high
temperatures, which can occur under severe operating conditions. By altering shift schedules, line pressure, and converter clutch control, these controls
reduce heat generation and increase transmission
cooling.
To help reduce efficiency-robbing parasitic losses,
the transmission includes a dual-stage transmission
fluid pump with electronic output pressure control.
Under most driving conditions, pump output pressure greatly exceeds that which is needed to keep the
clutches applied. The 545RFE pump-pressure control
system monitors input torque and adjusts the pump
pressure accordingly. The primary stage of the pump
works continuously; the second stage is bypassed
when demand is low. The control system also monitors input and output speed and, if incipient clutch
slip is observed, the pressure control solenoid duty
cycle is varied, increasing pressure in proportion to
demand.
A high-travel torque converter damper assembly
allows earlier torque converter clutch engagement to
reduce slippage. Needle-type thrust bearings reduce
internal friction. The 545RFE is packaged in a onepiece die-cast aluminum case. To reduce NVH, the
case has high lateral, vertical and torsional stiffness.
It is also designed to maximize the benefit of the
structural dust cover that connects the bottom of the
bell housing to the engine bedplate, enhancing overall power train stiffness. Dual filters protect the
pump and other components. A pump return filter is
added to the customary main sump filter. Independent lubrication and cooler circuits assure ample
pressure for normal transmission operation even if
the cooler is obstructed or the fluid cannot flow due
to extremely low temperatures.
The hydraulic control system design (without electronic assist) provides the transmission with PARK,
REVERSE, NEUTRAL, SECOND, and THIRD gears,
based solely on driver shift lever selection. This
design allows the vehicle to be driven (in “limp-in”
mode) in the event of a electronic control system failure, or a situation that the Transmission Control
Module (TCM) recognizes as potentially damaging to
the transmission.
The TCM also performs certain self-diagnostic
functions and provides comprehensive information
(sensor data, DTC’s, etc.) which is helpful in proper
diagnosis and repair. This information can be viewed
with the DRB scan tool.
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION - 545RFE
KJ
21 - 3
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION - 545RFE (Continued)
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING
rections are completed, hydraulic pressure checks
should be performed.
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING - AUTOMATIC
TRANSMISSION
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING - ROAD TESTING
CAUTION: Before attempting any repair on a
545RFE automatic transmission, check for Diagnostic Trouble Codes with the DRBT scan tool.
Transmission malfunctions may be caused by these
general conditions:
• Poor engine performance
• Improper adjustments
• Hydraulic malfunctions
• Mechanical malfunctions
• Electronic malfunctions
Diagnosis of these problems should always begin
by checking the easily accessible variables: fluid level
and condition, gearshift cable adjustment. Then perform a road test to determine if the problem has been
corrected or if more diagnosis is necessary. If the
problem persists after the preliminary tests and cor-
Before road testing, be sure the fluid level and control cable adjustments have been checked and
adjusted if necessary. Verify that all diagnostic trouble codes have been resolved.
Observe engine performance during the road test.
A poorly tuned engine will not allow accurate analysis of transmission operation.
Operate the transmission in all gear ranges. Check
for shift variations and engine flare which indicates
slippage. Note if shifts are harsh, spongy, delayed,
early, or if part throttle downshifts are sensitive.
Slippage indicated by engine flare, usually means
clutch, overrunning clutch, or line presure problems.
A slipping clutch can often be determined by comparing which internal units are applied in the various gear ranges. The Clutch Application chart
provides a basis for analyzing road test results.
CLUTCH APPLICATION CHART
SLP
UD
OD
R
2C
4C
P-PARK
L/R
OVERRUNNING
ON
R–REVERSE
ON
ON
N-NEUTRAL
ON
D-OVERDRIVE
FIRST
ON
SECOND
ON
SECOND PRIME
ON
THIRD
ON
ON*
ON
ON*
ON
ON
ON
ON
ON
ON
FOURTH
ON
FIFTH
ON
ON
ON
LIMP-IN
ON
ON
2-FIRST
ON
SECOND
ON
ON
LIMP-IN
ON
ON
1-LOW
ON
*L/R clutch is on only with the output shaft speed below 150 rpm.
21 - 4
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION - 545RFE
KJ
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION - 545RFE (Continued)
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING - HYDRAULIC
PRESSURE TEST
An accurate tachometer and pressure test gauges
are required. Test Gauge C-3293-SP has a 300 psi
range and is used at all locations where pressures
exceed 100 psi.
Pressure Test Port Locations
Only two pressure ports are supplied on the transmission case. The torque converter clutch apply and
release ports are located on the right side of the
transmission case (Fig. 2).
Fig. 3 Pressure Tap Locations
Fig. 2 Torque Converter Pressure Locations
1
2
3
4
5
-
TCC RELEASE
TO COOLER
TCC APPLY
FROM COOLER
LINE PRESSURE SENSOR
To determine the line pressure, there are two available methods. The DRBt scan tool can be used to
read line pressure from the line pressure sensor. The
second method is to install Line Pressure Adapter
8259 (Fig. 4) into the transmission case and then
install the pressure gauge and the original sensor
into the adapter. This will allow a comparison of the
DRBt readings and the gauge reading to determe the
accuracy of the line pressure sensor. The DRBt line
pressure reading should match the gauge reading
within ±10 psi.
In order to access any other pressure tap locations,
the transmission oil pan must be removed, the pressure port plugs removed and Valve Body Pressure
Tap Adapter 8258-A (Fig. 5) installed. The extensions
supplied with Adapter 8258-A will allow the installation of pressure gauges to the valve body. Refer to
(Fig. 3) for correct pressure tap location identification.
Fig. 4 Line Pressure Adapter 8259
1
2
3
4
-
LINE PRESSURE SENSOR PORT
LINE PRESSURE SENSOR
TOOL 8259
PRESSURE TAP
KJ
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION - 545RFE
21 - 5
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION - 545RFE (Continued)
NOTE: The 545RFE utilizes closed loop control of
pump line pressure. The pressure readings may
therefore vary greatly but should always follow line
pressure.
Some common pressures that can be measured to
evaluate pump and clutch performance are the
upshift/downshift pressures and the garage shift
pressures. The upshift/downshift pressure for all
shifts except the 4-5 shift is 120 psi. The upshift
pressure for the 4-5 shift is 130 psi. The garage shift
pressure when performing a N-R shift is 220 psi. The
garage shift pressure for the R-N and N-1 shifts is
120 psi.
Fig. 5 Valve Body Pressure Tap Adapter 8258-A
1 - 545RFE TRANSMISSION
2 - TOOL 8258-A
TEST PROCEDURE
All pressure readings should be taken with the
transmission fluid level full, transmission oil at the
normal operating temperature, and the engine at
1500 rpm. Check the transmission for proper operation in each gear position that is in question or if a
specific element is in question, check the pressure
readings in at least two gear positions that employ
that element. Refer to the Hydraulic Schematics at
the rear of this section to determine the correct pressures for each element in a given gear position.
21 - 6
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION - 545RFE
KJ
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION - 545RFE (Continued)
SCHEMATICS AND DIAGRAMS
HYDRAULIC FLOW IN PARK/NEUTRAL
HYDRAULIC SCHEMATICS
KJ
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION - 545RFE
21 - 7
HYDRAULIC FLOW IN NEUTRAL OVER 8MPH
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION - 545RFE (Continued)
21 - 8
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION - 545RFE
KJ
HYDRAULIC FLOW IN REVERSE
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION - 545RFE (Continued)
KJ
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION - 545RFE
21 - 9
HYDRAULIC FLOW IN REVERSE BLOCK
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION - 545RFE (Continued)
21 - 10
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION - 545RFE
KJ
HYDRAULIC FLOW IN FIRST GEAR (FROM N OR OD)
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION - 545RFE (Continued)
KJ
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION - 545RFE
21 - 11
HYDRAULIC FLOW IN FIRST GEAR (AFTER LAUNCH FROM REST)
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION - 545RFE (Continued)
21 - 12
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION - 545RFE
KJ
HYDRAULIC FLOW IN FIRST GEAR (FROM K/D)
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION - 545RFE (Continued)
KJ
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION - 545RFE
21 - 13
HYDRAULIC FLOW IN SECOND GEAR
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION - 545RFE (Continued)
21 - 14
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION - 545RFE
KJ
HYDRAULIC FLOW IN SECOND GEAR EMCC
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION - 545RFE (Continued)
KJ
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION - 545RFE
21 - 15
HYDRAULIC FLOW IN SECOND PRIME GEAR
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION - 545RFE (Continued)
21 - 16
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION - 545RFE
KJ
HYDRAULIC FLOW IN SECOND PRIME GEAR EMCC
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION - 545RFE (Continued)
KJ
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION - 545RFE
21 - 17
HYDRAULIC FLOW IN DIRECT GEAR
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION - 545RFE (Continued)
21 - 18
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION - 545RFE
KJ
HYDRAULIC FLOW IN DIRECT GEAR (FAILSAFE)
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION - 545RFE (Continued)
KJ
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION - 545RFE
21 - 19
HYDRAULIC FLOW IN DIRECT GEAR EMCC
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION - 545RFE (Continued)
21 - 20
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION - 545RFE
KJ
HYDRAULIC FLOW IN FOURTH
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION - 545RFE (Continued)
KJ
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION - 545RFE
21 - 21
HYDRAULIC FLOW IN FOURTH EMCC
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION - 545RFE (Continued)
21 - 22
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION - 545RFE
KJ
HYDRAULIC FLOW IN FIFTH
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION - 545RFE (Continued)
KJ
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION - 545RFE
21 - 23
HYDRAULIC FLOW IN FIFTH EMCC
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION - 545RFE (Continued)
21 - 24
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION - 545RFE
KJ
HYDRAULIC FLOW IN MANUAL LOW OR AUTOSTICK 1ST
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION - 545RFE (Continued)
KJ
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION - 545RFE
21 - 25
HYDRAULIC FLOW IN MANUAL SECOND
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION - 545RFE (Continued)
21 - 26
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION - 545RFE
KJ
HYDRAULIC FLOW IN MANUAL SECOND (FAILSAFE)
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION - 545RFE (Continued)
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION - 545RFE
KJ
21 - 27
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION - 545RFE (Continued)
SPECIFICATIONS
Component
TRANSMISSION
GENERAL
Component
Metric
Inch
Output Shaft End Play
0.22-0.55
mm
0.009-0.021
in.
Input Shaft End Play
0.46-0.89
mm
0.018-0.035
in.
2C Clutch Pack
Clearance
0.455-1.335
mm
0.018-0.053
in.
4C Clutch Pack
Clearance
0.770-1.390
mm
0.030-0.055
in.
L/R Clutch Pack
Clearance
1.00-1.74
mm
OD Clutch Pack
Clearance
1.103-1.856
mm
Metric
Inch
UD Clutch Pack
Clearance
0.84-1.54
mm
0.033-0.061
in.
Reverse Clutch Pack
Clearance
0.81-1.24
mm
0.032-0.049
in.
Recommended fluid
MoparT ATF +4
GEAR RATIOS
1ST
3.00:1
2ND
1.67:1
2ND Prime
1.50:1
3RD
1.0:1
0.039-0.069
in.
4TH
0.75:1
5TH
0.67:1
0.043-0.073
in.
REVERSE
3.00:1
TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS
DESCRIPTION
N·m
Ft. Lbs.
In. Lbs.
Fitting, cooler line at trans
17.5
-
155
Bolt, torque convertor
31
23
-
Bolt/nut, crossmember
68
50
-
Bolt, driveplate to crankshaft
75
55
-
Bolt, oil pan
11.8
-
105
Screw, primary fluid filter
4.5
-
40
Bolt, oil pump
28.2
-
250
Bolt, oil pump body to cover
4.5
-
40
Screw, plate to oil pump body
4.5
-
40
Bolt, valve body to case
11.8
-
105
Plug, pressure test port
5.1
-
45
Bolt, reaction shaft support
11.8
-
105
Screw, valve body to transfer plate
5.6
-
50
Screw, solenoid module to transfer plate
5.7
-
50
Screw, accumulator cover
4.5
-
40
Screw, detent spring
4.5
-
40
Bolt, input speed sensor
11.8
-
105
Bolt, output speed sensor
11.8
-
105
Bolt, line pressure sensor
11.8
-
105
Bolt, extension housing
54
40
-
Valve, cooler return filter bypass
4.5
-
40
Screw, manual valve cam retaining
4.5
-
40
Bolt, manual lever
28.2
-
250
21 - 28
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION - 545RFE
KJ
HOLDING CLUTCHES
DESCRIPTION
Three hydraulically applied multi-disc clutches are
used to hold some planetary geartrain components
stationary while the input clutches drive others. The
2C, 4C, and Low/Reverse clutches are considered
holding clutches. The 2C and 4C clutches are located
in the 4C retainer/bulkhead (Fig. 6), while the Low/
Reverse clutch is located at the rear of the transmission case (Fig. 7).
Fig. 6 2C and 4C Clutches
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
-
SEAL
2C PISTON
PLATE
DISC
2C BELLEVILLE SPRING
SNAP-RING
SNAP-RING (SELECT)
8 - REACTION PLATE
9 - SNAP-RING
10 - RETURN SPRING
11 - SEAL
12 - 4C PISTON
13 - 4C RETAINER/BULKHEAD
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION - 545RFE
KJ
HOLDING CLUTCHES (Continued)
Fig. 7 Low/Reverse Clutch
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
-
SNAP-RING (SELECT)
REACTION PLATE
DISC
PLATE
L/R CLUTCH RETAINER
SEAL
PISTON
8 - SEAL
9 - BELLEVILLE SPRING
10 - RETAINER
11 - SNAP-RING
12 - OVERRUNNING CLUTCH
13 - SNAP-RING
21 - 29
21 - 30
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION - 545RFE
KJ
HOLDING CLUTCHES (Continued)
OPERATION
OPERATION
2C CLUTCH
The three input clutches are responsible for driving
different components of the planetary geartrain.
The 2C clutch is hydraulically applied in second
and fifth gear by pressurized fluid against the 2C
piston. When the 2C clutch is applied, the reverse
sun gear assembly is held or grounded to the transmission case by holding the reaction planetary carrier.
UNDERDRIVE CLUTCH
The underdrive clutch is hydraulically applied in
first, second, second prime, and third (direct) gears
by pressurized fluid against the underdrive piston.
When the underdrive clutch is applied, the underdrive hub drives the input sun gear.
4C CLUTCH
The 4C clutch is hydraulically applied in second
prime and fourth gear by pressurized fluid against
the 4C clutch piston. When the 4C clutch is applied,
the reaction annulus gear is held or grounded to the
transmission case.
OVERDRIVE CLUTCH
The overdrive clutch is hydraulically applied in
third (direct), fourth, and fifth gears by pressurized
fluid against the overdrive/reverse piston. When the
overdrive clutch is applied, the overdrive hub drives
the reverse carrier/input annulus assembly.
LOW/REVERSE CLUTCH
The Low/Reverse clutch is hydraulically applied in
park, reverse, neutral, and first gear, only at low
speeds, by pressurized fluid against the Low/Reverse
clutch piston. When the Low/Reverse clutch is
applied, the input annulus assembly is held or
grounded to the transmission case.
INPUT CLUTCH ASSEMBLY
DESCRIPTION
Three hydraulically applied input clutches are used
to drive planetary components. The underdrive, overdrive, and reverse clutches are considered input
clutches and are contained within the input clutch
assembly (Fig. 8) and (Fig. 9). The input clutch
assembly also contains:
• Input shaft
• Input hub
• Clutch retainer
• Underdrive piston
• Overdrive/reverse piston
• Overdrive hub
• Underdrive hub
REVERSE CLUTCH
The reverse clutch is hydraulically applied in
reverse gear by pressurized fluid against the overdrive/reverse piston. When the reverse clutch is
applied, the reaction annulus gear is driven.
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION - 545RFE
KJ
INPUT CLUTCH ASSEMBLY (Continued)
Fig. 8 Input Clutch Assembly - Part 1
1 - INPUT CLUTCH HUB
2 - O-RING SEALS
3 - SEAL
4 - SNAP-RING
5 - SNAP-RING
6 - UD BALANCE PISTON
7 - SNAP-RING
8 - UD PISTON
9 - SPRING
10 - DISC
11 - UD CLUTCH
12 - PLATE
13 - CLUTCH RETAINER
14 - SEAL
15 - OD/REV PISTON
16 - BELLEVILLE SPRING
17 - SNAP-RING
18 - SEAL RINGS
19 - INPUT SHAFT
20 - LUBRICATION CHECK VALVE AND SNAP-RING
21 - 31
21 - 32
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION - 545RFE
KJ
INPUT CLUTCH ASSEMBLY (Continued)
Fig. 9 Input Clutch Assembly - Part 2
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
-
BEARING NUMBER 3
OD HUB/SHAFT
SNAP-RING (WAVE)
REV/OD REACTION PLATE
BEARING NUMBER 4
SNAP-RING (FLAT)
REVERSE HUB/SHAFT
REVERSE CLUTCH
REVERSE REACTION PLATE
10 - SNAP-RING (SELECT)
11 - PLATE
12 - DISC
13 - OD CLUTCH
14 - SNAP-RING (TAPERED)
15 - UD/OD REACTION PLATE
16 - SNAP-RING (FLAT)
17 - UD HUB/SHAFT
18 - BEARING NUMBER 2
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION - 545RFE
KJ
21 - 33
INPUT CLUTCH ASSEMBLY (Continued)
DISASSEMBLY
(1) Remove the reverse reaction plate selective
snap-ring from the input clutch retainer (Fig. 10).
(2) Remove the reverse reaction plate from the
input clutch retainer.
(3) Remove the reverse hub and reverse clutch
pack from the input clutch retainer.
(4) Remove the number 4 bearing from the overdrive hub.
(5) Remove the overdrive hub from the input
clutch retainer (Fig. 10).
(6) Remove the number 3 bearing from the underdrive hub.
(7) Remove the OD/reverse reaction plate snapring from the input clutch retainer.
(8) Remove the underdrive hub, overdrive clutch,
and overdrive reaction plate from the input clutch
retainer (Fig. 10).
NOTE: The overdrive friction discs and steel discs
are thicker than the matching components in the
underdrive and reverse clutches.
Fig. 10 Input Clutch Assembly - Part 2
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
-
BEARING NUMBER 3
OD HUB/SHAFT
SNAP-RING (WAVE)
REV/OD REACTION PLATE
BEARING NUMBER 4
SNAP-RING (FLAT)
REVERSE HUB/SHAFT
REVERSE CLUTCH
REVERSE REACTION PLATE
10 - SNAP-RING (SELECT)
11 - PLATE
12 - DISC
13 - OD CLUTCH
14 - SNAP-RING (TAPERED)
15 - UD/OD REACTION PLATE
16 - SNAP-RING (FLAT)
17 - UD HUB/SHAFT
18 - BEARING NUMBER 2
21 - 34
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION - 545RFE
KJ
INPUT CLUTCH ASSEMBLY (Continued)
(9) Remove the number 2 bearing from the input
clutch hub.
(10) Remove the overdrive clutch wave snap-ring
from the input clutch retainer.
(11) Remove the UD/OD reaction plate tapered
snap-ring from the input clutch retainer.
(12) Remove the UD/OD reaction plate from the
input clutch retainer.
(13) Remove the UD/OD reaction plate flat snapring from the input clutch retainer (Fig. 10).
(14) Remove the underdrive clutch pack from the
input clutch retainer (Fig. 12).
(15) Using Spring Compressor 8251, compress the
UD/OD balance piston and remove the snap-ring
from the input clutch hub (Fig. 11).
(16) Remove the UD/OD balance piston and piston
return spring from the input clutch retainer (Fig. 12).
(17) Remove the underdrive piston from the input
clutch retainer (Fig. 12).
NOTE: Both the UD/OD balance piston and the
underdrive piston have seals molded onto them. If
the seal is damaged, do not attempt to install a new
seal onto the piston. The piston/seal must be
replaced as an assembly.
(18) Remove the input clutch retainer tapered
snap-ring.
(19) Separate input clutch retainer from input
clutch hub.
(20) Separate OD/reverse piston from input clutch
hub retainer (Fig. 12).
Fig. 11 Compressing UD/OD Balance Piston Using
Tool 8251
1 - PRESS
2 - TOOL 8251
3 - BALANCE PISTON
(21) Remove all seals and o-rings from the input
shaft and input hub. The o-rings on the input hub
are color coded. Be sure to make note of which o-ring
belongs in which location.
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION - 545RFE
KJ
INPUT CLUTCH ASSEMBLY (Continued)
Fig. 12 Input Clutch Assembly - Part 1
1 - INPUT CLUTCH HUB
2 - O-RING SEALS
3 - SEAL
4 - SNAP-RING
5 - SNAP-RING
6 - UD BALANCE PISTON
7 - SNAP-RING
8 - UD PISTON
9 - SPRING
10 - DISC
11 - UD CLUTCH
12 - PLATE
13 - CLUTCH RETAINER
14 - SEAL
15 - OD/REV PISTON
16 - BELLEVILLE SPRING
17 - SNAP-RING
18 - SEAL RINGS
19 - INPUT SHAFT
20 - LUBRICATION CHECK VALVE AND SNAP-RING
21 - 35
21 - 36
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION - 545RFE
KJ
INPUT CLUTCH ASSEMBLY (Continued)
ASSEMBLY
(1) Install all new seals and o-rings onto the input
shaft and input hub. The o-rings on the input hub
are color coded. Be sure to install the correct o-ring
in the correct location.
(2) Check the transmission lubrication check valve
located in the input shaft using shop air. The valve
should only allow air flow in one direction. If the
valve allows no air flow, or air flow in both directions, the valve will need to be replaced.
(3) Lubricate all seals with Mopart ATF +4, Automatic Transmission Fluid, prior to installation.
(4) Assemble the OD/reverse piston onto the input
clutch hub (Fig. 13).
(5) Assemble the input clutch retainer onto the
input clutch hub.
(6) Install the input clutch retainer tapered snapring with tapered side up onto the input clutch hub.
Fig. 13 Input Clutch Assembly - Part I
1 - INPUT CLUTCH HUB
2 - O-RING SEALS
3 - SEAL
4 - SNAP-RING
5 - SNAP-RING
6 - UD BALANCE PISTON
7 - SNAP-RING
8 - UD PISTON
9 - SPRING
10 - DISC
11 - UD CLUTCH
12 - PLATE
13 - CLUTCH RETAINER
14 - SEAL
15 - OD/REV PISTON
16 - BELLEVILLE SPRING
17 - SNAP-RING
18 - SEAL RINGS
19 - INPUT SHAFT
20 - LUBRICATION CHECK VALVE AND SNAP-RING
KJ
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION - 545RFE
21 - 37
INPUT CLUTCH ASSEMBLY (Continued)
(7) Install Piston Guides 8504 into the input clutch
retainer (Fig. 14) and onto the input clutch hub to
guide the inner and outer underdrive piston seals
into position.
(11) Install the UD/OD balance piston into the
input clutch retainer and the underdrive piston.
(12) Using Spring Compressor 8251, compress the
UD/OD return spring pack and secure the piston in
place with the snap-ring (Fig. 16).
Fig. 14 Install Underdrive Piston Using Tool 8504
1 - TOOL 8504
(8) Install the underdrive piston into the input
clutch retainer and over the input clutch hub (Fig.
13).
(9) Install the UD/OD balance piston return spring
pack into the input clutch retainer.
(10) Install Piston Guide 8252 into the input
clutch retainer (Fig. 15) to guide the UD/OD balance
piston seal into position inside the underdrive piston.
Fig. 15 Install Balance Piston Using Tool 8252
1 - TOOL 8252
Fig. 16 Compressing UD/OD Balance Piston Using
Tool 8251
1 - PRESS
2 - TOOL 8251
3 - BALANCE PISTON
(13) Install the underdrive clutch pack into the
input clutch retainer (Fig. 13).
(14) Install the UD/OD reaction plate lower flat
snap-ring (Fig. 17). The correct snap-ring can be
identified by the two tabbed ears.
(15) Install the UD/OD reaction plate into the
input clutch retainer. The reaction plate is to be
installed with the big step down.
(16) Install the UD/OD reaction plate upper
tapered snap-ring with tapered side up.
(17) Install the input clutch assembly into Input
Clutch Pressure Fixture 8260 (Fig. 18). Mount a dial
indicator to the assembly, push down on the clutch
discs and zero the indicator against the underdrive
clutch discs (Fig. 19). Apply 20 psi of air pressure to
the underdrive clutch and record the dial indicator
reading. Measure and record UD clutch pack measurement in four (4) places, 90° apart. Take average
of four measurements and compare with UD clutch
pack clearance specification. The correct clutch clearance is 0.84-1.54 mm (0.033-0.061 in.). The reaction
plate is not selective. If the clutch clearance is not
within specification, replace the reaction plate along
with all the friction and steel discs.
21 - 38
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION - 545RFE
KJ
INPUT CLUTCH ASSEMBLY (Continued)
Fig. 17 Input Clutch Assembly - Part II
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
-
BEARING NUMBER 3
OD HUB/SHAFT
SNAP-RING (WAVE)
REV/OD REACTION PLATE
BEARING NUMBER 4
SNAP-RING (FLAT)
REVERSE HUB/SHAFT
REVERSE CLUTCH
REVERSE REACTION PLATE
(18) Install the overdrive clutch pack into the
input clutch retainer (Fig. 17). The overdrive steel
separator plates can be identified by the lack of the
half-moon cuts in the locating tabs.
(19) Install the overdrive clutch wavy snap-ring
with the two tabbed ears into the input clutch
retainer.
(20) Install the OD/reverse reaction plate into the
input clutch retainer. The reaction plate is non-directional (Fig. 17).
(21) Install the OD/reverse reaction plate flat
snap-ring into the input clutch retainer.
10 - SNAP-RING (SELECT)
11 - PLATE
12 - DISC
13 - OD CLUTCH
14 - SNAP-RING (TAPERED)
15 - UD/OD REACTION PLATE
16 - SNAP-RING (FLAT)
17 - UD HUB/SHAFT
18 - BEARING NUMBER 2
(22) Mount a dial indicator to the assembly and
zero the indicator against the OD/reverse reaction
plate (Fig. 20). Apply 20 psi of air pressure to the
overdrive clutch and record the dial indicator reading. Measure and record OD clutch pack measurement in four (4) places, 90° apart. Take average of
four measurements and compare with OD clutch
pack clearance specification.Verify that the clutch
clearance is 1.103-1.856 mm (0.043-0.073 in.). The
reaction plate is not selective. If the clutch clearance
is not within specification, replace the reaction plate
along with all the friction and steel discs.
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION - 545RFE
KJ
21 - 39
INPUT CLUTCH ASSEMBLY (Continued)
Fig. 20 Measuring OD Clutch Clearance
1 - TOOL C-3339
2 - OD/REV REACTION PLATE
Fig. 18 Input Clutch Assembly Mounted on Tool
8260
1 - INPUT CLUTCH ASSEMBLY
2 - TOOL 8260
(26) Mount a dial indicator to the assembly, push
down on the clutch discs, pull up on the reaction
plate to ensure the plate is properly seated and zero
the indicator against the reverse clutch discs (Fig.
21). Apply 20 psi of air pressure to the reverse clutch
and record the dial indicator reading. Measure and
record Reverse clutch pack measurement in four (4)
places, 90° apart. Take average of four measurements
and compare with Reverse clutch pack clearance
specification. The correct clutch clearance is 0.58-1.47
mm (0.023-0.058 in.). Adjust as necessary. Install the
chosen snap-ring and re-measure to verify selection.
Fig. 19 Measuring UD Clutch Clearance
1 - TOOL C-3339
2 - UNDERDRIVE CLUTCH PACK
(23) Install the reverse clutch pack into the input
clutch retainer (Fig. 17).
(24) Install the reverse reaction plate into the
input clutch retainer.
(25) Install the reverse reaction plate selective
snap-ring into the input clutch retainer.
Fig. 21 Measuring Reverse Clutch Clearance
1 - TOOL C-3339
2 - REVERSE CLUTCH PACK
21 - 40
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION - 545RFE
KJ
INPUT CLUTCH ASSEMBLY (Continued)
(27) Remove the reverse clutch pack from the
input clutch retainer.
(28) Install the number 2 bearing onto the underdrive hub with outer race against the hub with petroleum jelly.
(29) Install the underdrive hub into the input
clutch retainer.
(30) Install the number 3 bearing into the overdrive hub with the outer race against the hub with
petroleum jelly.
(31) Install the overdrive hub into the input clutch
retainer.
(32) Install the number 4 bearing into the reverse
hub with outer race against the hub with petroleum
jelly.
(33) Install the reverse hub into the input clutch
retainer.
(34) Install the complete reverse clutch pack.
(35) Install the reverse reaction plate and snapring.
(36) Push up on reaction plate to allow reverse
clutch to move freely.
SOLENOID SWITCH VALVE
DESCRIPTION
The Solenoid Switch Valve (SSV) is located in the
valve body and controls the direction of the transmission fluid when the L/R-TCC solenoid is energized.
OPERATION
The Solenoid Switch Valve controls line pressure
from the LR-TCC solenoid. In 1st gear, the SSV will
be in the downshifted position, thus directing fluid to
the L/R clutch circuit. In 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th
gears, the solenoid switch valve will be in the
upshifted position and directs the fluid into the
torque converter clutch (TCC) circuit.
When shifting into 1st gear, a special hydraulic
sequence is performed to ensure SSV movement into
the downshifted position. The L/R pressure switch is
monitored to confirm SSV movement. If the movement is not confirmed (the L/R pressure switch does
not close), 2nd gear is substituted for 1st. A DTC will
be set after three unsuccessful attempts are made to
get into 1st gear in one given key start.
SHIFT MECHANISM
DESCRIPTION
The gear shift mechanism provides six shift positions which are:
• Park (P)
• Reverse (R)
• Neutral (N)
• Drive (D)
• Manual second (2)
• Manual low (1)
OPERATION
MANUAL LOW (1) range provides FIRST gear
only. Overrun braking is also provided in this range.
MANUAL SECOND (2) range provides FIRST and
SECOND gear only.
DRIVE range provides FIRST, SECOND, THIRD
and OVERDRIVE FOURTH and FIFTH gear ranges.
The shift into OVERDRIVE FOURTH and FIFTH
gear range occurs only after the transmission has
completed the shift into D THIRD gear range. No
further movement of the shift mechanism is required
to complete the 3-4 or 4-5 shifts.
The FOURTH and FIFTH gear upshifts occurs
automatically when the overdrive selector switch is
in the ON position. An upshift to FOURTH and
FIFTH gears may not occur or may be delayed in
some of the possible shift schedules. (Refer to 8 ELECTRICAL/ELECTRONIC
CONTROL
MODULES/TRANSMISSION CONTROL MODULE OPERATION)
TORQUE CONVERTER
OPERATION
The converter impeller (Fig. 22) (driving member),
which is integral to the converter housing and bolted
to the engine drive plate, rotates at engine speed.
The converter turbine (driven member), which reacts
from fluid pressure generated by the impeller, rotates
and turns the transmission input shaft.
TURBINE
As the fluid that was put into motion by the impeller blades strikes the blades of the turbine, some of
the energy and rotational force is transferred into the
turbine and the input shaft. This causes both of them
(turbine and input shaft) to rotate in a clockwise
direction following the impeller. As the fluid is leaving the trailing edges of the turbine’s blades it continues in a “hindering” direction back toward the
impeller. If the fluid is not redirected before it strikes
the impeller, it will strike the impeller in such a
direction that it would tend to slow it down.
STATOR
Torque multiplication is achieved by locking the
stator’s over-running clutch to its shaft (Fig. 23).
Under stall conditions (the turbine is stationary), the
oil leaving the turbine blades strikes the face of the
stator blades and tries to rotate them in a counterclockwise direction. When this happens the over-running clutch of the stator locks and holds the stator
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION - 545RFE
KJ
21 - 41
TORQUE CONVERTER (Continued)
Fig. 22 Torque Converter Fluid Operation - Typical
1 - APPLY PRESSURE
2 - THE PISTON MOVES SLIGHTLY FORWARD
3 - RELEASE PRESSURE
4 - THE PISTON MOVES SLIGHTLY REARWARD
from rotating. With the stator locked, the oil strikes
the stator blades and is redirected into a “helping”
direction before it enters the impeller. This circulation of oil from impeller to turbine, turbine to stator,
and stator to impeller, can produce a maximum
torque multiplication of about 2.4:1. As the turbine
begins to match the speed of the impeller, the fluid
that was hitting the stator in such as way as to
cause it to lock-up is no longer doing so. In this condition of operation, the stator begins to free wheel
and the converter acts as a fluid coupling.
TORQUE CONVERTER CLUTCH (TCC)
In a standard torque converter, the impeller and
turbine are rotating at about the same speed and the
stator is freewheeling, providing no torque multiplication. By applying the turbine’s piston and friction
material to the front cover, a total converter engagement can be obtained. The result of this engagement
is a direct 1:1 mechanical link between the engine
and the transmission.
The clutch can be engaged in second, third, fourth,
and fifth gear ranges depending on overdrive control
switch position. If the overdrive control switch is in
the normal ON position, the clutch will engage after
the shift to fourth gear, and above approximately 72
km/h (45 mph). If the control switch is in the OFF
position, the clutch will engage after the shift to
Fig. 23 Stator Operation
1 - DIRECTION STATOR WILL FREE WHEEL DUE TO OIL
PUSHING ON BACKSIDE OF VANES
2 - FRONT OF ENGINE
3 - INCREASED ANGLE AS OIL STRIKES VANES
4 - DIRECTION STATOR IS LOCKED UP DUE TO OIL PUSHING
AGAINST STATOR VANES
third gear, at approximately 56 km/h (35 mph) at
light throttle.
The TCM controls the torque converter by way of
internal logic software. The programming of the software provides the TCM with control over the L/R-CC
21 - 42
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION - 545RFE
KJ
TORQUE CONVERTER (Continued)
Solenoid. There are four output logic states that can
be applied as follows:
• No EMCC
• Partial EMCC
• Full EMCC
• Gradual-to-no EMCC
NO EMCC
Under No EMCC conditions, the L/R Solenoid is
OFF. There are several conditions that can result in
NO EMCC operations. No EMCC can be initiated
due to a fault in the transmission or because the
TCM does not see the need for EMCC under current
driving conditions.
PARTIAL EMCC
Partial EMCC operation modulates the L/R Solenoid (duty cycle) to obtain partial torque converter
clutch application. Partial EMCC operation is maintained until Full EMCC is called for and actuated.
During Partial EMCC some slip does occur. Partial
EMCC will usually occur at low speeds, low load and
light throttle situations.
FULL EMCC
During Full EMCC operation, the TCM increases
the L/R Solenoid duty cycle to full ON after Partial
EMCC control brings the engine speed within the
desired slip range of transmission input speed relative to engine rpm.
GRADUAL-TO-NO EMCC
This operation is to soften the change from Full or
Partial EMCC to No EMCC. This is done at midthrottle by decreasing the L/R Solenoid duty cycle.
TRANSMISSION SOLENOID/
TRS ASSEMBLY
DESCRIPTION
The transmission solenoid/TRS assembly is internal to the transmission and mounted on the valve
body assembly (Fig. 24). The assembly consists of six
solenoids that control hydraulic pressure to the six
friction elements (transmission clutches), and the
torque converter clutch. The pressure control solenoid is located on the side of the solenoid/TRS assembly. The solenoid/TRS assembly also contains five
pressure switches that feed information to the TCM.
OPERATION
SOLENOIDS
Solenoids are used to control the L/R, 2C, 4C, OD,
and UD friction elements. The reverse clutch is con-
Fig. 24 Transmission Solenoid/TRS Assembly
1
2
3
4
5
6
-
PRESSURE CONTROL SOLENOID
TRANSMISSION RANGE SELECTOR PLATE
23-WAY CONNECTOR
SOLENOID PACK
TRANSMISSION RANGE SENSOR
VALVE BODY
trolled by line pressure and the position of the manual valve in the valve body. All the solenoids are
contained within the Solenoid and Pressure Switch
Assembly. The solenoid and pressure switch assembly
contains one additional solenoid, Multi-Select (MS),
which serves primarily to provide 2nd and 3rd gear
limp-in operation.
The solenoids receive electrical power from the
Transmission Control Relay through a single wire.
The TCM energizes or operates the solenoids individually by grounding the return wire of the solenoid as
necessary. When a solenoid is energized, the solenoid
valve shifts, and a fluid passage is opened or closed
(vented or applied), depending on its default operating state. The result is an apply or release of a frictional element.
The MS and UD solenoids are normally applied to
allow transmission limp-in in the event of an electrical failure.
The continuity of the solenoids and circuits are
periodically tested. Each solenoid is turned on or off
depending on its current state. An inductive spike
should be detected by the TCM during this test. If no
spike is detected, the circuit is tested again to verify
the failure. In addition to the periodic testing, the
solenoid circuits are tested if a speed ratio or pressure switch error occurs.
PRESSURE SWITCHES
The TCM relies on five pressure switches to monitor fluid pressure in the L/R, 2C, 4C, UD, and OD
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION - 545RFE
KJ
21 - 43
TRANSMISSION SOLENOID/TRS ASSEMBLY (Continued)
hydraulic circuits. The primary purpose of these
switches is to help the TCM detect when clutch circuit hydraulic failures occur. The switches close at 23
psi and open at 11 psi, and simply indicate whether
or not pressure exists. The switches are continuously
monitored by the TCM for the correct states (open or
closed) in each gear as shown in the following chart:
GEAR
L/R
2C
4C
UD
OD
R
OP
OP
OP
OP
OP
P/N
CL
OP
OP
OP
OP
1ST
CL*
OP
OP
CL
OP
2ND
OP
CL
OP
CL
OP
2ND
PRIME
OP
OP
CL
CL
OP
D
OP
OP
OP
CL
CL
4TH
OP
OP
CL
OP
CL
5TH
OP
CL
OP
OP
CL
*L/R is closed if output speed is below 100 rpm in
Drive and Manual 2. L/R is open in Manual 1.
A Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC) will set if the
TCM senses any switch open or closed at the wrong
time in a given gear.
REMOVAL
(1) Remove the valve body from the transmission
(Fig. 25).
(3) Separate the transmission solenoid/TRS assembly from the valve body.
Fig. 26 Transmission Solenoid/TRS Assembly
Screws
1 - SOLENOID PACK BOLTS (15)
INSTALLATION
(1) Place TRS selector plate in the PARK position.
(2) Position the transmission solenoid/TRS assembly onto the valve body. Be sure that both alignment
dowels are fully seated in the valve body and that
the TRS switch contacts are properly positioned in
the selector plate
(3) Install the screws to hold the transmission
solenoid/TRS assembly onto the valve body.
(4) Tighten the solenoid assembly screws adjacent
to the arrows cast into the bottom of the valve body
first. Tighten the screws to 5.7 N·m (50 in.lbs.).
(5) Tighten the remainder of the solenoid assembly
screws to 5.7 N·m (50 in.lbs.).
(6) Install the valve body into the transmission.
VALVE BODY
DESCRIPTION
Fig. 25 Valve Body Bolts
1 - VALVE BODY TO CASE BOLT (6)
(2) Remove the screws holding the transmission
solenoid/TRS assembly onto the valve body (Fig. 26).
The valve body consists of a cast aluminum valve
body, a separator plate, and a transfer plate. The
valve body contains valves and check balls that control fluid delivery to the torque converter clutch,
bands, and frictional clutches. The valve body contains
the following components (Fig. 27) and (Fig. 28):
• Solenoid switch valve
• Manual valve
• Low/reverse switch valve
• 5 Accumulators
• 7 check balls
21 - 44
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION - 545RFE
KJ
VALVE BODY (Continued)
Fig. 27 Valve Body Components
1
2
3
4
5
-
LOW/REVERSE ACCUMULATOR
LOW/REVERSE SWITCH VALVE
UPPER VALVE BODY
MANUAL VALVE
SOLENOID SWITCH VALVE
6
7
8
9
-
OVERDRIVE ACCUMULATOR
UNDERDRIVE ACCUMULATOR
4C ACCUMULATOR
2C ACCUMULATOR
OPERATION
NOTE: Refer to the Hydraulic Schematics for a
visual aid in determining valve location, operation
and design.
SOLENOID SWITCH VALVE
Fig. 28 Check Ball Locations
The Solenoid Switch Valve (SSV) controls the direction of the transmission fluid when the L/R-TCC solenoid is energized.
The Solenoid Switch Valve controls line pressure
from the LR-TCC solenoid. In 1st gear, the SSV will
be in the downshifted position, thus directing fluid to
the L/R clutch circuit. In 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and fifth
gears, the solenoid switch valve will be in the
upshifted position and directs the fluid into the
torque converter clutch (TCC) circuit.
When shifting into 1st gear, a special hydraulic
sequence is performed to ensure SSV movement into
the downshifted position. The L/R pressure switch is
monitored to confirm SSV movement. If the move-
KJ
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION - 545RFE
21 - 45
VALVE BODY (Continued)
ment is not confirmed (the L/R pressure switch does
not close), 2nd gear is substituted for 1st. A DTC will
be set after three unsuccessful attempts are made to
get into 1st gear in one given key start.
MANUAL VALVE
The manual valve is a relay valve. The purpose of
the manual valve is to direct fluid to the correct circuit needed for a specific gear or driving range. The
manual valve, as the name implies, is manually operated by the driver with a lever located on the top of
the valve body. The valve is connected mechanically
by a cable to the gearshift mechanism. The valve is
held in each of its positions by a roller detent spring
(Fig. 29) that engages the “roostercomb” of the TRS
selector plate.
LOW/REVERSE SWITCH VALVE
The low/reverse switch valve allows the low/reverse
clutch to be operated by either the LR/CC solenoid or
the MS solenoid.
Fig. 29 TRS Selector Plate and Detent Spring
1 - TRS SELECTOR PLATE
2 - DETENT SPRING
3 - CLUTCH PASSAGE SEALS
EMISSIONS CONTROL - 2.5L/2.8L TURBO DIESEL
KJ
25 - 1
EMISSIONS CONTROL - 2.5L/2.8L TURBO DIESEL
TABLE OF CONTENTS
page
page
EMISSIONS CONTROL - 2.5L/2.8L TURBO
DIESEL
DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
SPECIFICATIONS - TORQUE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
ON-BOARD DIAGNOSTICS
.................3
EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION
............7
EMISSIONS CONTROL 2.5L/2.8L TURBO DIESEL
Fuel Pressure: High fuel pressure is controlled by
the fuel injection pump, fuel pressure solenoid, and
fuel pressure sensor. The ECM uses inputs from the
sensor and solenoid to calculate and determine if a
high fuel pressure problem exists.
Fuel Injector Malfunctions: The ECM can determine if a fuel injector has an electrical problem. The
fuel injectors on the diesel engine are controlled by
the ECM.
DESCRIPTION
The 2.5L/2.8L diesel Engine Control Module (ECM)
controls many different circuits in the fuel injection
pump and engine systems. If the ECM senses a problem with a monitored circuit that indicates an actual
problem, a Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC) will be
stored in the ECM’s memory, and eventually may
illuminate the MIL (Malfunction Indicator Lamp)
constantly while the key is on. If the problem is
repaired, or is intermittent, the ECM will erase the
DTC after 40 warm-up cycles without the fault
detected. A warm-up cycle consists of starting the
vehicle when the engine is cold, then the engine is
warmed up to a certain temperature, and finally, the
engine temperature falls to a normal operating temperature, then the key is turned off.
Certain criteria must be met for a DTC to be
entered into ECM memory. The criteria may be a
specific range of engine rpm, engine or fuel temperature and/or input voltage to the ECM. A DTC indicates that the ECM has identified an abnormal
signal in a circuit or the system.
There are several operating conditions that the
ECM does not monitor and set a DTC for. Refer to
the following Monitored Circuits and Non–Monitored
Circuits in this section.
ECM MONITORED SYSTEMS
The ECM can detect certain problems in the electrical system.
Open or Shorted Circuit – The ECM will not
distinguish between an open or a short to ground,
however the ECM can determine if there is excessive
current on a circuit, such as a short to voltage or a
decrease in component resistance.
Output Device Current Flow – The ECM senses
whether the output devices are electrically connected.
If there is a problem with the circuit, the ECM
senses whether the circuit is open, shorted to ground
(–), or shorted to (+) voltage.
ECM NON–MONITORED SYSTEMS
The ECM does not monitor the following circuits,
systems or conditions that could have malfunctions
that result in driveability problems. A DTC will not
be displayed for these conditions.
Cylinder Compression: The ECM cannot detect
uneven, low, or high engine cylinder compression.
Exhaust System: The ECM cannot detect a
plugged, restricted or leaking exhaust system.
Vacuum Assist: Leaks or restrictions in the vacuum circuits of the Exhaust Gas Recirculation System (EGR) are not monitored by the ECM.
ECM System Ground: The ECM cannot determine a poor system ground. However, a DTC may be
generated as a result of this condition.
ECM/PCM Connector Engagement: The ECM
cannot determine spread or damaged connector pins.
However, a DTC may be generated as a result of this
condition.
HIGH AND LOW LIMITS
The ECM compares input signals from each input
device. There are high and low limits that are programmed into the ECM for that device. If the inputs
are not within specifications and other DTC criteria
are met, a DTC will be stored in memory. Other DTC
criteria might include engine rpm limits or input
voltages from other sensors or switches. The other
inputs might have to be sensed by the ECM when it
senses a high or low input voltage from the control
system device in question.
25 - 2
EMISSIONS CONTROL - 2.5L/2.8L TURBO DIESEL
KJ
EMISSIONS CONTROL - 2.5L/2.8L TURBO DIESEL (Continued)
SPECIFICATIONS - TORQUE
2.5L / 2.8L DIESEL - TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS
DESCRIPTION
N·m
Ft. Lbs.
In. Lbs.
EGR Pipe to EGR Bolts
32.4
24
—
EGR Pipe to Exhaust
Manifold Bolt
24.5
18
—
EGR Cooler to EGR Valve
Bolts
32.4
24
—
EGR Cooler to Exhaust
Manifold Bolt
24.5
18
—
EGR Valve Nuts
32.4
24
—
ON-BOARD DIAGNOSTICS
KJ
25 - 3
ON-BOARD DIAGNOSTICS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
page
ON-BOARD DIAGNOSTICS
DESCRIPTION - DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE
CODES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
ON-BOARD DIAGNOSTICS
DESCRIPTION - DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODES
On the following pages, a list of DTC’s is provided
for the 2.5L/2.8L diesel engine. A DTC indicates that
the ECM has recognized an abnormal signal in a circuit or the system. A DTC may indicate the result of
a failure, but most likely will not identify the failed
component directly. Refer to the appropriate diagnostic manual for more information on diagnosis of trouble codes.
ACCESSING DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODES
A stored DTC can be displayed through the use of
the DRB IIIt scan tool. The DRB IIIt connects to the
data link connector. The data link connector is
located under the instrument panel near bottom of
the steering column
ERASING TROUBLE CODES
After the problem has been repaired, use the DRB
IIIt scan tool to erase a DTC.
ENGINE CONTROL MODULE (ECM) - DRBIIIT CODES
Generic Scan Tool Code
DRB IIIT Scan Tool Display
P0070
Ambient Air Temperature Circuit Signal Voltage Too High
Ambient Air Temperature Circuit Signal Voltage Too Low
P0100
Mass Air Flow Sensor Plausibility
Mass Air Flow Sensor Plausibility Positive Area
Mass Air Flow Sensor Signal Voltage Too High
Mass Air Flow Sensor Signal Voltage Too Low
Mass Air Flow Sensor Supply Voltage Too High Or Low
P0105
Barometric Pressure Circuit Signal Voltage To High
Barometric Pressure Circuit Signal Voltage To Low
P0110
Intake Air Temperature Sensor Circuit Signal Too High
Intake Air Temperature Sensor Circuit Signal Too Low
P0115
Engine Coolant Temperature Sensor Circuit Engine Is Cold Too Long
Engine Coolant Temperature Sensor Circuit Voltage To Low
Engine Coolant Temperature Sensor Circuit Voltage To High
P0190
Fuel Pressure Sensor Circuit MALF Signal Voltage Too High
Fuel Pressure Sensor Circuit MALF Signal Voltage Too Low
25 - 4
ON-BOARD DIAGNOSTICS
KJ
ON-BOARD DIAGNOSTICS (Continued)
Generic Scan Tool Code
DRB IIIT Scan Tool Display
P0195
Oil Temperature Sensor Circuit MALF Signal Voltage Too High
Oil Temperature Sensor Circuit MALF Signal Voltage Too Low
P0201
Cylinder 1 Injector Circuit Current Decrease
Cylinder 1 Injector Circuit Load Drop
Cylinder 1 Injector Circuit Overcurrent High Side
Cylinder 1 Injector Circuit Overcurrent Low Side
P0202
Cylinder 2 Injector Circuit Current Decrease
Cylinder 2 Injector Circuit Load Drop
Cylinder 2 Injector Circuit Overcurrent High Side
Cylinder 2 Injector Circuit Overcurrent Low Side
P0203
Cylinder 3 Injector Circuit Current Decrease
Cylinder 3 Injector Circuit Load Drop
Cylinder 3 Injector Circuit Overcurrent High Side
Cylinder 3 Injector Circuit Overcurrent Low Side
P0204
Cylinder 4 Injector Circuit Current Decrease
Cylinder 4 Injector Circuit Load Drop
Cylinder 4 Injector Circuit Overcurrent High Side
Cylinder 4 Injector Circuit Overcurrent Low Side
P0235
Boost Pressure Sensor Plausibility
Boost Pressure Sensor Signal Voltage Too Low
Boost Pressure Sensor Signal Voltage Too High
Boost Pressure Sensor Signal Voltage Too High Or Low
P0335
CKP Position Sensor Circuit Dynamic Plausibility
CKP Position Sensor Circuit Overspeed Recognition
CKP Position Sensor Circuit Static Plausibility
P0340
CMP Position Sensor Circuit CMP/CKP Sync. Failure
CMP Position Sensor Circuit Dynamic Plausibility
CMP Position Sensor Circuit Fuel Shut-Off Activated
CMP Position Sensor Circuit Signal Frequency Too High
CMP Position Sensor Circuit Static Plausibility
P0380
Glow Plug Circuit A Open Circuit
Glow Plug Circuit A Short Circuit
P0403
EGR Solenoid Circuit Open Circuit
EGR Solenoid Circuit Short Circuit
P0480
Fan 1 Control Circuit Open Circuit
Fan 1 Control Circuit Short Circuit
P0481
Fan 2 Control Circuit Open Circuit
Fan 2 Control Circuit Short Circuit
ON-BOARD DIAGNOSTICS
KJ
ON-BOARD DIAGNOSTICS (Continued)
Generic Scan Tool Code
DRB IIIT Scan Tool Display
P0500
Vehicle Speed Sensor Frequency Too High
Vehicle Speed Sensor Frequency High Level Duration
Vehicle Speed Sensor Plausibility
Vehicle Speed Sensor Signal Voltage Too High
P0514
Battery Temperature Sensor Circuit Signal Voltage Too High
P0520
Oil Pressure Sensor Circuit MALF Signal Voltage Too High
Oil Pressure Sensor Circuit MALF Signal Voltage Too Low
Oil Pressure Sensor Circuit MALF Signal Voltage Too Low or High
P0530
A/C Pressure Sensor Circuit Plausibility
A/C Pressure Sensor Circuit Signal Voltage Too High
A/C Pressure Sensor Circuit Signal Voltage Too Low
A/C Pressure Sensor Circuit Supply Voltage Too High Or Low
P0560
System Voltage Too High
System Voltage Too Low
P0579
Speed Control Switch Signal Circuit Voltage Too High
Speed Control Switch Signal Circuit Voltage Too Low
P0606
ECM Error Gate Array - Communication
ECM Error Gate Array - Communication Not Verified
ECM Error Gate Array - Quantity Stop
ECM Error Gate Array - Has Occurred
ECM Error Redundant Overrun Monitoring
P0615
Starter Relay Circuit Open Circuit
Starter Relay Circuit Short Circuit
P0620
Generator Field Control MALF Open Circuit
Generator Field Control MALF Short Circuit
P0641
Sensor Reference Voltage A CKT Voltage Too High
Sensor Reference Voltage A CKT Voltage Too Low
P0645
A/C Clutch Relay Circuit Open Circuit
A/C Clutch Relay Circuit Short Circuit
P0651
Sensor Reference Voltage B CKT Voltage Too Low
Sensor Reference Voltage B CKT Voltage Too High
P0685
ECM/PCM Relay Control Circuit Shuts Off Too Early
ECM/PCM Relay Control Circuit Shuts Off Too Late
P0703
Brake Switch Signal Circuits Incorrect Can Message
Brake Switch Signal Circuits Plausibility With Redundant Contact
P1130
Fuel Rail Pressure Malfunction Small Leakage Detected
Fuel Rail Pressure Malfunction Small Leakage Detected
25 - 5
25 - 6
ON-BOARD DIAGNOSTICS
KJ
ON-BOARD DIAGNOSTICS (Continued)
Generic Scan Tool Code
DRB IIIT Scan Tool Display
P1131
Fuel Pressure Solenoid Open Circuit
Fuel Pressure Solenoid Short Circuit
P1206
Calculated Injector Voltage #1 Too Low
Calculated Injector Voltage #2 Too Low
P1511
Battery Sense Line 1 Voltage Too High
Battery Sense Line 1 Voltage Too Low
P1601
Capacitor Voltage 1 Voltage Too High
Capacitor Voltage 1 Voltage Too Low
P1602
Capacitor Voltage 2 Voltage Too High
Capacitor Voltage 2 Voltage Too Low
P1605
Ignition Switch Plausibility
P1610
Voltage Regulator Signal Voltage Too High
Voltage Regulator Signal Voltage Too Low
P1680
EEPROM Plausibility Checksum Error
EEPROM Plausibility Code Word Incorrect Or Missing
EEPROM Plausibility Communication Error
EEPROM Plausibility Variation Number Error
EEPROM Plausibility VIN Checksum Error
EEPROM Plausibility VIN Write Error
P1685
SKIM System Invalid Key Code Received
SKIM System Invalid Secret Key In EEPROM
SKIM System Key Communication Timed Out
SKIM System SKIM Error
SKIM System Write Access To EEPROM Failure
P1696
EEPROM Communication Error
EEPROM Communication Not Verified
EEPROM Quanity Stop
EEPROM Recovery Occured
EEPROM Redundant Overrun Monitoring
P1703
P2120
Brake Switch Signal CKTS Plaus. With Redundant Contact After
Initialization
Acc. Pedal Position Sensor 1 CKT Plausibility
Acc. Pedal Position Sensor 1 CKT Plausibility With Brake Switch
Acc. Pedal Position Sensor 1 CKT Plausibility With Potentiometer
Acc. Pedal Position Sensor 1 CKT Signal Voltage Too High
Acc. Pedal Position Sensor 1 CKT Signal Voltage Too Low
Acc. Pedal Position Sensor 1 CKT Signal Voltage Too High or Low
EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION
KJ
25 - 7
EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION
TABLE OF CONTENTS
page
EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION
DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . .
OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VALVE
DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . .
OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
REMOVAL
...............
INSTALLATION . . . . . . . . . . . .
..............7
..............7
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.8
.8
.8
EXHAUST GAS
RECIRCULATION
DESCRIPTION
The EGR system reduces oxides of nitrogen (NOx)
in the engine exhaust. This is accomplished by allowing a predetermined amount of hot exhaust gas to
recirculate and dilute the incoming charge air.
A malfunctioning EGR system can cause engine
stumble, sags, or hesitation, rough idle, engine stalling and poor driveability.
OPERATION
The system consists of:
• An EGR valve assembly. The valve is located on
the right side of the engine above the exhaust manifold.
• An EGR solenoid.The EGR solenoid controls the
“on time” of the EGR valve.
• The ECM operates the EGR solenoid. The ECM
is located in the left-rear side of the engine compartment.
• The vacuum pump supplies vacuum for the EGR
solenoid and the EGR valve. This pump also supplies
vacuum for operation of the power brake booster and
the heating and air conditioning system. The pump is
located internally in the front of the engine block and
is driven by the crankshaft gear.
• Vacuum lines and hoses connect the various
components.
page
VALVE COOLER
DESCRIPTION
REMOVAL
..
INSTALLATION
SOLENOID
DESCRIPTION
REMOVAL
..
INSTALLATION
..........................9
...........................9
..........................9
..........................9
...........................9
..........................9
When the ECM supplies a variable ground signal
to the EGR solenoid, EGR system operation starts to
occur. The ECM will monitor and determine when to
supply and remove this variable ground signal. This
will depend on inputs from the engine coolant temperature, throttle position and engine speed sensors.
When the variable ground signal is supplied to the
EGR solenoid, vacuum from the vacuum pump will
be allowed to pass through the EGR solenoid and on
to the EGR valve with a connecting hose.
Exhaust gas recirculation will begin in this order
when:
• The ECM determines that EGR system operation is necessary.
• The engine is running to operate the vacuum
pump.
• A variable ground signal is supplied to the EGR
solenoid.
• Variable vacuum passes through the EGR solenoid to the EGR valve.
• The inlet seat (poppet valve) at the bottom of
the EGR valve opens to dilute and recirculate
exhaust gas back into the intake manifold.
• The EGR Cooler (2.8L) further cools the hot
exhaust gasses before recirculation
The EGR system will be shut down by the ECM
after 60 seconds of continuous engine idling to
improve idle quality.
25 - 8
EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION
VALVE
DESCRIPTION
The EGR system consists of (Fig. 1):
• EGR valve
• Vacuum hoses
• EGR cooler - (2.8L)
• EGR solenoid
KJ
OPERATION
The EGR system reduces oxides of nitrogen (NOx)
in engine exhaust. Formation of NOx increases proportionally with combustion temperature. To reduce
the emission of these oxides, the cylinder temperature must be lowered. The system allows a predetermined amount of hot exhaust gas to recirculate and
dilute the incoming charge air. The diluted air mixture reduces peak flame temperature during combustion.
REMOVAL
(1) Remove engine cover.
(2) Partially drain cooling system.
(3) Disconnect vacuum line at EGR valve (Fig. 1).
(4) Disconnect coolant hoses at EGR valve (Fig. 1).
(5) Remove the EGR pipe to exhaust manifold bolt
retaining bolt (2.5L).
(6) Disconnect tube at rear of EGR valve cooler
(2.8L) (Fig. 1).
(7) Remove EGR valve cooler to exhaust manifold
retaining bolt (2.8L) (Fig. 1).
(8) Remove EGR valve to exhaust manifold retaining bolt (Fig. 1).
(9) Remove EGR valve (2.5L) and cooler assembly
(2.8L) from vehicle.
(10) Remove EGR valve to cooler retaining bolts
(2.8L) and separate EGR valve from cooler.
INSTALLATION
Fig. 1 EGR VALVE, COOLER, AND COMPONENTS
1 - COOLANT HOSE
2 - HOSE RETAINER
3 - RETAINING BOLT
4 - EGR VALVE RETAINING NUTS
5 - EGR VALVE
6 - EGR VALVE GASKET
7 - HOSE CLAMP
8 - COOLANT HOSE
9 - HOSE CLAMP
10 - EGR COOLER TO EXHAUST MANIFOLD RETAINING BOLT
(2.8L)
11 - EGR COOLER (2.8L)
12 - EGR COOLER TO EGR VALVE RETAINING BOLTS (2.8L)
13 - EGR COOLER TO EGR VALVE GASKET (2.8L)
14 - HOSE CLAMP
(1) Connect EGR valve to cooler with new gasket
(2.8L). Torque bolts to 32.4N·m.
(2) Install EGR valve/cooler assembly on EGR
valve mounting studs with new gasket (Fig. 1).
(3) Install EGR valve retaining nuts (Fig. 1).
Torque nuts to 32.4N·m.
(4) Install EGR pipe with new gasket to EGR
valve bolts (2.5L). Torque bolts to 32.4N·m.
(5) Install EGR pipe or cooler to exhaust manifold
retaining bolts (Fig. 1). Torque bolt to 24.5N·m.
(6) Connect tube at rear of EGR cooler (2.8L).
(7) Connect EGR cooler coolant hoses (2.8L).
(8) Connect vacuum line at EGR valve.
(9) Refill cooling system.
(10) Install engine cover.
EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION
KJ
25 - 9
VALVE COOLER
SOLENOID
DESCRIPTION
DESCRIPTION
The EGR valve on the 2.8L engine uses a cooler to
cool the exhaust gases before they return to the
intake manifold (Fig. 2). The EGR cooler attaches to
the EGR valve and is cooled with engine coolant.
The EGR solenoid is mounted in the left-rear of the
engine compartment (Fig. 3). The EGR solenoid
serves two different functions. One is to control vacuum bleed-off of the EGR valve. The other is to control the “on time” of the EGR valve.
Fig. 3 EGR SOLENOID
Fig. 2 EGR VALVE, COOLER, AND COMPONENTS
1 - COOLANT HOSE
2 - HOSE RETAINER
3 - RETAINING BOLT
4 - EGR VALVE RETAINING NUTS
5 - EGR VALVE
6 - EGR VALVE GASKET
7 - HOSE CLAMP
8 - COOLANT HOSE
9 - HOSE CLAMP
10 - EGR COOLER TO EXHAUST MANIFOLD RETAINING BOLT
(2.8L)
11 - EGR COOLER (2.8L)
12 - EGR COOLER TO EGR VALVE RETAINING BOLTS (2.8L)
13 - EGR COOLER TO EGR VALVE GASKET (2.8L)
14 - HOSE CLAMP
REMOVAL
(1) (Refer to 25 - EMISSIONS CONTROL/EXHAUST
GAS RECIRCULATION/VALVE - REMOVAL)
INSTALLATION
(1) (Refer to 25 - EMISSIONS CONTROL/EXHAUST
GAS RECIRCULATION/VALVE - INSTALLATION)
1
2
3
4
5
-
EGR SOLENOID VACUUM SUPPLY LINE
EGR SOLENOID MOUNT
EGR SOLENOID ELECTRICAL CONNECTOR
EGR SOLENOID
VACUUM LINE TO EGR VALVE
REMOVAL
(1)
(2)
(Fig.
(3)
3).
(4)
3).
Disconnect negative battery cable.
Disconnect EGR solenoid electrical connector
3).
Disconnect both vacuum lines at solenoid (Fig.
Remove EGR solenoid from rubber mount (Fig.
INSTALLATION
(1)
(2)
(3)
3).
(4)
Install EGR solenoid in rubber mount (Fig. 3).
Connect EGR solenoid vacuum lines (Fig. 3).
Connect EGR solenoid electrical connector (Fig.
Connect negative battery cable.
SERVICE MANUAL COMMENTS
What errors(s) have you found?
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Dealership Technician
Dealer Code:
Retail Customer
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Manual Title, Year, Number and Page: _________________________________________________
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All comments become property of DaimlerChrysler Corporation and may be used without compensation.
8
DaimlerChrysler Corporation
Attn. Publications Dept.
CIMS 486-02-70
800 Chrysler Drive
Auburn Hills, MI 48326-2757
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