Perkins Motor Operation and Maintenance Manual (English)

Perkins Motor Operation and Maintenance Manual (English)
SEBU8325-01
July 2012
Operation and
Maintenance
Manual
1104D (Mech) Industrial Engine
NK (Engine)
NL (Engine)
NM (Engine)
Important Safety Information
Most accidents that involve product operation, maintenance and repair are caused by failure to
observe basic safety rules or precautions. An accident can often be avoided by recognizing potentially
hazardous situations before an accident occurs. A person must be alert to potential hazards. This
person should also have the necessary training, skills and tools to perform these functions properly.
Improper operation, lubrication, maintenance or repair of this product can be dangerous and
could result in injury or death.
Do not operate or perform any lubrication, maintenance or repair on this product, until you have
read and understood the operation, lubrication, maintenance and repair information.
Safety precautions and warnings are provided in this manual and on the product. If these hazard
warnings are not heeded, bodily injury or death could occur to you or to other persons.
The hazards are identified by the “Safety Alert Symbol” and followed by a “Signal Word” such as
“DANGER”, “WARNING” or “CAUTION”. The Safety Alert “WARNING” label is shown below.
The meaning of this safety alert symbol is as follows:
Attention! Become Alert! Your Safety is Involved.
The message that appears under the warning explains the hazard and can be either written or
pictorially presented.
Operations that may cause product damage are identified by “NOTICE” labels on the product and in
this publication.
Perkins cannot anticipate every possible circumstance that might involve a potential hazard. The
warnings in this publication and on the product are, therefore, not all inclusive. If a tool, procedure,
work method or operating technique that is not specifically recommended by Perkins is used,
you must satisfy yourself that it is safe for you and for others. You should also ensure that the
product will not be damaged or be made unsafe by the operation, lubrication, maintenance or
repair procedures that you choose.
The information, specifications, and illustrations in this publication are on the basis of information that
was available at the time that the publication was written. The specifications, torques, pressures,
measurements, adjustments, illustrations, and other items can change at any time. These changes can
affect the service that is given to the product. Obtain the complete and most current information before
you start any job. Perkins dealers or Perkins distributors have the most current information available.
When replacement parts are required for this
product Perkins recommends using Perkins
replacement parts.
Failure to heed this warning can lead to premature failures, product damage, personal injury or
death.
SEBU8325-01
Table of Contents
Foreword ................................................................. 4
Safety Section
Safety Messages .................................................... 5
General Hazard Information ................................... 6
Burn Prevention ...................................................... 8
Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention .............. 8
Crushing Prevention and Cutting Prevention ........ 10
Before Starting Engine .......................................... 10
Engine Starting ..................................................... 10
Engine Stopping .................................................... 11
Electrical System ................................................... 11
Product Information Section
Model Views ......................................................... 13
Product Identification Information ........................ 18
Operation Section
Lifting and Storage ................................................ 20
Gauges and Indicators .......................................... 22
Features and Controls .......................................... 23
Engine Starting ..................................................... 24
Engine Operation .................................................. 27
Engine Stopping ................................................... 28
Cold Weather Operation ....................................... 29
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities .................................................... 33
Maintenance Interval Schedule ............................ 50
Warranty Section
Warranty Information ............................................ 79
Index Section
Index ..................................................................... 80
3
Table of Contents
4
Foreword
Foreword
Literature Information
This manual contains safety, operation instructions,
lubrication and maintenance information. This
manual should be stored in or near the engine area
in a literature holder or literature storage area. Read,
study and keep it with the literature and engine
information.
English is the primary language for all Perkins
publications. The English used facilitates translation
and consistency.
Some photographs or illustrations in this manual
show details or attachments that may be different
from your engine. Guards and covers may have
been removed for illustrative purposes. Continuing
improvement and advancement of product design
may have caused changes to your engine which are
not included in this manual. Whenever a question
arises regarding your engine, or this manual, please
consult with your Perkins dealer or your Perkins
distributor for the latest available information.
Safety
This safety section lists basic safety precautions.
In addition, this section identifies hazardous,
warning situations. Read and understand the basic
precautions listed in the safety section before
operating or performing lubrication, maintenance and
repair on this product.
Operation
Operating techniques outlined in this manual are
basic. They assist with developing the skills and
techniques required to operate the engine more
efficiently and economically. Skill and techniques
develop as the operator gains knowledge of the
engine and its capabilities.
The operation section is a reference for operators.
Photographs and illustrations guide the operator
through procedures of inspecting, starting, operating
and stopping the engine. This section also includes a
discussion of electronic diagnostic information.
Maintenance
The maintenance section is a guide to engine care.
The illustrated, step-by-step instructions are grouped
by service hours and/or calendar time maintenance
intervals. Items in the maintenance schedule are
referenced to detailed instructions that follow.
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Recommended service should be performed at the
appropriate intervals as indicated in the Maintenance
Interval Schedule. The actual operating environment
of the engine also governs the Maintenance Interval
Schedule. Therefore, under extremely severe,
dusty, wet or freezing cold operating conditions,
more frequent lubrication and maintenance than is
specified in the Maintenance Interval Schedule may
be necessary.
The maintenance schedule items are organized for
a preventive maintenance management program. If
the preventive maintenance program is followed, a
periodic tune-up is not required. The implementation
of a preventive maintenance management program
should minimize operating costs through cost
avoidances resulting from reductions in unscheduled
downtime and failures.
Maintenance Intervals
Perform maintenance on items at multiples of
the original requirement. We recommend that the
maintenance schedules be reproduced and displayed
near the engine as a convenient reminder. We also
recommend that a maintenance record be maintained
as part of the engine's permanent record.
Your authorized Perkins dealer or your Perkins
distributor can assist you in adjusting your
maintenance schedule to meet the needs of your
operating environment.
Overhaul
Major engine overhaul details are not covered in
the Operation and Maintenance Manual except
for the interval and the maintenance items in that
interval. Major repairs should only be carried out by
Perkins authorized personnel. Your Perkins dealer
or your Perkins distributor offers a variety of options
regarding overhaul programs. If you experience
a major engine failure, there are also numerous
after failure overhaul options available. Consult with
your Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor for
information regarding these options.
California Proposition 65 Warning
Diesel engine exhaust and some of its constituents
are known to the State of California to cause cancer,
birth defects, and other reproductive harm. Battery
posts, terminals and related accessories contain lead
and lead compounds. Wash hands after handling.
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5
Safety Section
Safety Messages
Safety Section
The Universal Warning label (2) is located on the
rear end of the valve mechanism cover. Refer to
illustration 2.
i02690461
Safety Messages
There may be several specific warning signs on your
engine. The exact location and a description of the
warning signs are reviewed in this section. Please
become familiar with all warning signs.
Ensure that all of the warning signs are legible. Clean
the warning signs or replace the warning signs if
the words cannot be read or if the illustrations are
not visible. Use a cloth, water, and soap to clean
the warning signs. Do not use solvents, gasoline, or
other harsh chemicals. Solvents, gasoline, or harsh
chemicals could loosen the adhesive that secures the
warning signs. The warning signs that are loosened
could drop off of the engine.
Replace any warning sign that is damaged or
missing. If a warning sign is attached to a part of the
engine that is replaced, install a new warning sign on
the replacement part. Your Perkins dealer or your
distributor can provide new warning signs.
(1) Universal Warning
Do not operate or work on this equipment unless
you have read and understand the instructions
and warnings in the Operation and Maintenance
Manuals. Failure to follow the instructions or
heed the warnings could result in serious injury
or death.
Illustration 1
Typical example
g01154807
6
Safety Section
General Hazard Information
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g01353108
Illustration 2
(1) Ether Warning Label
(2) Universal warning
(2) Ether
i02677370
General Hazard Information
Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such as
ether. Such use could result in an explosion and
personal injury.
Illustration 4
Illustration 3
g01154809
Typical example
The ether warning label (1) is located on the inlet
manifold cover. Refer to illustration 2.
g00104545
Attach a “Do Not Operate” warning tag or a similar
warning tag to the start switch or to the controls
before you service the equipment or before you
repair the equipment.
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7
Safety Section
General Hazard Information
When pressurized air and/or water is used for
cleaning, wear protective clothing, protective shoes,
and eye protection. Eye protection includes goggles
or a protective face shield.
The maximum air pressure for cleaning purposes
must be below 205 kPa (30 psi). The maximum
water pressure for cleaning purposes must be below
275 kPa (40 psi).
Fluid Penetration
Illustration 5
g00702020
Wear a hard hat, protective glasses, and other
protective equipment, as required.
Do not wear loose clothing or jewelry that can snag
on controls or on other parts of the engine.
Make sure that all protective guards and all covers
are secured in place on the engine.
Pressure can be trapped in the hydraulic circuit long
after the engine has been stopped. The pressure can
cause hydraulic fluid or items such as pipe plugs to
escape rapidly if the pressure is not relieved correctly.
Do not remove any hydraulic components or parts
until pressure has been relieved or personal injury
may occur. Do not disassemble any hydraulic
components or parts until pressure has been relieved
or personal injury may occur. Refer to the OEM
information for any procedures that are required to
relieve the hydraulic pressure.
Keep the engine free from foreign material. Remove
debris, oil, tools, and other items from the deck, from
walkways, and from steps.
Never put maintenance fluids into glass containers.
Drain all liquids into a suitable container.
Obey all local regulations for the disposal of liquids.
Use all cleaning solutions with care.
Report all necessary repairs.
Do not allow unauthorized personnel on the
equipment.
Illustration 6
g00687600
Perform maintenance on the engine with the
equipment in the servicing position. Refer to the
OEM information for the procedure for placing the
equipment in the servicing position.
Always use a board or cardboard when you check
for a leak. Leaking fluid that is under pressure can
penetrate body tissue. Fluid penetration can cause
serious injury and possible death. A pin hole leak can
cause severe injury. If fluid is injected into your skin,
you must get treatment immediately. Seek treatment
from a doctor that is familiar with this type of injury.
Pressure Air and Water
Containing Fluid Spillage
Pressurized air and/or water can cause debris
and/or hot water to be blown out. This could result in
personal injury.
Care must be taken in order to ensure that fluids
are contained during performance of inspection,
maintenance, testing, adjusting and repair of the
engine. Make provision to collect the fluid with a
suitable container before any compartment is opened
or before any component is disassembled.
Ensure that the power supply is disconnected before
you work on the bus bar or the glow plugs.
The direct application of pressurized air or
pressurized water to the body could result in personal
injury.
• Only use the tools that are suitable for collecting
fluids and equipment that is suitable for collecting
fluids.
8
Safety Section
Burn Prevention
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• Only use the tools that are suitable for containing
fluids and equipment that is suitable for containing
fluids.
Obey all local regulations for the disposal of liquids.
i02813488
Fire Prevention and Explosion
Prevention
i02143195
Burn Prevention
Do not touch any part of an operating engine.
Allow the engine to cool before any maintenance
is performed on the engine. Relieve all pressure
in the air system, in the hydraulic system, in the
lubrication system, in the fuel system, or in the
cooling system before any lines, fittings or related
items are disconnected.
Coolant
When the engine is at operating temperature, the
engine coolant is hot. The coolant is also under
pressure. The radiator and all lines to the heaters or
to the engine contain hot coolant.
Any contact with hot coolant or with steam can cause
severe burns. Allow cooling system components to
cool before the cooling system is drained.
Check the coolant level after the engine has stopped
and the engine has been allowed to cool.
Ensure that the filler cap is cool before removing the
filler cap. The filler cap must be cool enough to touch
with a bare hand. Remove the filler cap slowly in
order to relieve pressure.
Cooling system conditioner contains alkali. Alkali can
cause personal injury. Do not allow alkali to contact
the skin, the eyes, or the mouth.
Oils
Hot oil and hot lubricating components can cause
personal injury. Do not allow hot oil to contact the
skin. Also, do not allow hot components to contact
the skin.
Batteries
Electrolyte is an acid. Electrolyte can cause personal
injury. Do not allow electrolyte to contact the skin or
the eyes. Always wear protective glasses for servicing
batteries. Wash hands after touching the batteries
and connectors. Use of gloves is recommended.
Illustration 7
g00704000
All fuels, most lubricants, and some coolant mixtures
are flammable.
Flammable fluids that are leaking or spilled onto hot
surfaces or onto electrical components can cause
a fire. Fire may cause personal injury and property
damage.
A flash fire may result if the covers for the engine
crankcase are removed within fifteen minutes after
an emergency shutdown.
Determine whether the engine will be operated in an
environment that allows combustible gases to be
drawn into the air inlet system. These gases could
cause the engine to overspeed. Personal injury,
property damage, or engine damage could result.
If the application involves the presence of combustible
gases, consult your Perkins dealer and/or your
Perkins distributor for additional information about
suitable protection devices.
Remove all flammable combustible materials or
conductive materials such as fuel, oil, and debris from
the engine. Do not allow any flammable combustible
materials or conductive materials to accumulate on
the engine.
Store fuels and lubricants in correctly marked
containers away from unauthorized persons. Store
oily rags and any flammable materials in protective
containers. Do not smoke in areas that are used for
storing flammable materials.
Do not expose the engine to any flame.
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9
Safety Section
Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention
Exhaust shields (if equipped) protect hot exhaust
components from oil or fuel spray in case of a line,
a tube, or a seal failure. Exhaust shields must be
installed correctly.
Use caution when you are refueling an engine. Do
not smoke while you are refueling an engine. Do not
refuel an engine near open flames or sparks. Always
stop the engine before refueling.
Do not weld on lines or tanks that contain flammable
fluids. Do not flame cut lines or tanks that contain
flammable fluid. Clean any such lines or tanks
thoroughly with a nonflammable solvent prior to
welding or flame cutting.
Wiring must be kept in good condition. All electrical
wires must be correctly routed and securely attached.
Check all electrical wires daily. Repair any wires
that are loose or frayed before you operate the
engine. Clean all electrical connections and tighten
all electrical connections.
Eliminate all wiring that is unattached or unnecessary.
Do not use any wires or cables that are smaller than
the recommended gauge. Do not bypass any fuses
and/or circuit breakers.
Arcing or sparking could cause a fire. Secure
connections, recommended wiring, and correctly
maintained battery cables will help to prevent arcing
or sparking.
Inspect all lines and hoses for wear or for
deterioration. The hoses must be correctly routed.
The lines and hoses must have adequate support
and secure clamps. Tighten all connections to the
recommended torque. Leaks can cause fires.
Oil filters and fuel filters must be correctly installed.
The filter housings must be tightened to the correct
torque.
Illustration 9
g00704135
Gases from a battery can explode. Keep any open
flames or sparks away from the top of a battery. Do
not smoke in battery charging areas.
Never check the battery charge by placing a metal
object across the terminal posts. Use a voltmeter or
a hydrometer.
Incorrect jumper cable connections can cause
an explosion that can result in injury. Refer to
the Operation Section of this manual for specific
instructions.
Do not charge a frozen battery. This may cause an
explosion.
The batteries must be kept clean. The covers
(if equipped) must be kept on the cells. Use the
recommended cables, connections, and battery box
covers when the engine is operated.
Fire Extinguisher
Make sure that a fire extinguisher is available. Be
familiar with the operation of the fire extinguisher.
Inspect the fire extinguisher and service the fire
extinguisher regularly. Obey the recommendations
on the instruction plate.
Illustration 8
g00704059
10
Safety Section
Crushing Prevention and Cutting Prevention
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Lines, Tubes and Hoses
Do not bend high pressure lines. Do not strike high
pressure lines. Do not install any lines that are bent
or damaged. Do not clip any other items to the high
pressure lines.
Repair any lines that are loose or damaged. Leaks
can cause fires. Consult your Perkins dealer or your
Perkins distributor for repair or for replacement parts.
Check lines, tubes and hoses carefully. Do not use
your bare hand to check for leaks. Use a board or
cardboard to check for leaks. Tighten all connections
to the recommended torque.
Replace the parts if any of the following conditions
are present:
• End fittings are damaged or leaking.
When objects are struck, wear protective glasses in
order to avoid injury to the eyes.
Chips or other debris may fly off objects when objects
are struck. Before objects are struck, ensure that no
one will be injured by flying debris.
i02675470
Before Starting Engine
The initial start-up of a new engine or a engine that
has been serviced or repaired make provision to shut
the engine off, in order to stop an overspeed. This
may be accomplished by shutting off the air and/or
fuel supply to the engine.
Overspeed shutdown should occur automatically for
engines that are controlled electronically. If automatic
shutdown does not occur, press the emergency stop
button in order to cut the fuel and/or air to the engine.
• Outer coverings are chafed or cut.
• Wires are exposed.
Inspect the engine for potential hazards.
• Outer coverings are ballooning.
Before starting the engine, ensure that no one is on,
underneath, or close to the engine. Ensure that the
area is free of personnel.
• Flexible part of the hoses are kinked.
• Outer covers have embedded armoring.
• End fittings are displaced.
Make sure that all clamps, guards, and heat shields
are installed correctly. During engine operation, this
will help to prevent vibration, rubbing against other
parts, and excessive heat.
i02143194
Crushing Prevention and
Cutting Prevention
Support the component correctly when work beneath
the component is performed.
Unless other maintenance instructions are provided,
never attempt adjustments while the engine is
running.
If equipped, ensure that the lighting system for the
engine is suitable for the conditions. Ensure that all
lights work correctly, if equipped.
All protective guards and all protective covers must
be installed if the engine must be started in order
to perform service procedures. To help prevent an
accident that is caused by parts in rotation, work
around the parts carefully.
Do not bypass the automatic shutoff circuits. Do not
disable the automatic shutoff circuits. The circuits are
provided in order to help prevent personal injury. The
circuits are also provided in order to help prevent
engine damage.
See the Service Manual for repairs and for
adjustments.
i02678897
Engine Starting
Stay clear of all rotating parts and of all moving
parts. Leave the guards in place until maintenance
is performed. After the maintenance is performed,
reinstall the guards.
Keep objects away from moving fan blades. The fan
blades will throw objects or cut objects.
Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such as
ether. Such use could result in an explosion and
personal injury.
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11
Safety Section
Engine Stopping
If a warning tag is attached to the engine start switch
or to the controls, DO NOT start the engine or move
the controls. Consult with the person that attached
the warning tag before the engine is started.
All protective guards and all protective covers must
be installed if the engine must be started in order
to perform service procedures. To help prevent an
accident that is caused by parts in rotation, work
around the parts carefully.
Start the engine from the operator's compartment or
from the engine start switch.
Always start the engine according to the procedure
that is described in the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Engine Starting” topic in the Operation
Section. Knowing the correct procedure will help to
prevent major damage to the engine components.
Knowing the procedure will also help to prevent
personal injury.
To ensure that the jacket water heater (if equipped)
and/or the lube oil heater (if equipped) is working
correctly, check the water temperature gauge and the
oil temperature gauge during the heater operation.
Engine exhaust contains products of combustion
which can be harmful to your health. Always start the
engine and operate the engine in a well ventilated
area. If the engine is started in an enclosed area,
vent the engine exhaust to the outside.
Note: The engine is equipped with an automatic
device for cold starting for normal conditions of
operation. If the engine will be operated in very cold
conditions, then an extra cold starting aid may be
required. Normally, the engine will be equipped with
the correct type of starting aid for your region of
operation.
The engines are equipped with a glow plug starting
aid in each individual cylinder that heats the intake
air in order to improve starting.
i02678838
Engine Stopping
Stop the engine according to the procedure in
the Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Engine
Stopping (Operation Section)” in order to avoid
overheating of the engine and accelerated wear of
the engine components.
Use the Emergency Stop Button (if equipped) ONLY
in an emergency situation. Do not use the Emergency
Stop Button for normal engine stopping. After an
emergency stop, DO NOT start the engine until the
problem that caused the emergency stop has been
corrected.
Stop the engine if an overspeed condition occurs
during the initial start-up of a new engine or an engine
that has been overhauled. This may be accomplished
by shutting off the fuel supply to the engine and/or
shutting off the air supply to the engine.
i02176668
Electrical System
Never disconnect any charging unit circuit or battery
circuit cable from the battery when the charging unit
is operating. A spark can cause the combustible
gases that are produced by some batteries to ignite.
To help prevent sparks from igniting combustible
gases that are produced by some batteries, the
negative “−” jump start cable should be connected
last from the external power source to the negative
“−” terminal of the starting motor. If the starting motor
is not equipped with a negative “−” terminal, connect
the jump start cable to the engine block.
Check the electrical wires daily for wires that are
loose or frayed. Tighten all loose electrical wires
before the engine is started. Repair all frayed
electrical wires before the engine is started. See
the Operation and Maintenance Manual for specific
starting instructions.
Grounding Practices
Correct grounding for the engine electrical system
is necessary for optimum engine performance
and reliability. Incorrect grounding will result in
uncontrolled electrical circuit paths and in unreliable
electrical circuit paths.
Uncontrolled electrical circuit paths can result in
damage to main bearings, to crankshaft bearing
journal surfaces, and to aluminum components.
Engines that are installed without engine-to-frame
ground straps can be damaged by electrical
discharge.
To ensure that the engine and the engine electrical
systems function correctly, an engine-to-frame
ground strap with a direct path to the battery must be
used. This path may be provided by way of a direct
engine ground to the frame.
12
Safety Section
Electrical System
All grounds should be tight and free of corrosion. The
engine alternator must be grounded to the negative
“-” battery terminal with a wire that is adequate to
handle the full charging current of the alternator.
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13
Product Information Section
Model Views
Product Information
Section
Model Views
i02693072
Model View Illustrations
14
Product Information Section
Model Views
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1104 Engine Model Views
g01351713
Illustration 10
Typical example
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
Pulley
Alternator
Front Lifting Eye
Water Outlet
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
Valve Mechanism Cover
Rear Lifting Eye
Air Intake
Secondary Fuel Filter
(9) Fuel Injection Pump
(10) Oil Filter
(11) Crankshaft Pulley
(12) Water Pump
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15
Product Information Section
Model Views
g01352705
Illustration 11
(13)
(14)
(15)
(16)
Flywheel
Flywheel Housing
Oil Filler Cap
Exhaust Manifold
(17)
(18)
(19)
(20)
Turbocharger
Oil Gauge
Oil Pan
Starting motor
Note: The primary fuel filter may be mounted off the
engine.
(21) Oil Drain Plug
(22) Primary Fuel Filter
i04430909
Engine Description
The engines are available in the following types of
aspiration:
16
Product Information Section
Model Views
SEBU8325-01
• Turbocharged aftercooled
Table 1
1104D (Mech) Industrial Engine Specifications
• Turbocharged
Number of Cylinders
• Naturally aspirated
4 In-Line
Bore
Engine Specifications
105 mm (4.134 inch)
Stroke
Note: The front end of the engine is opposite the
flywheel end of the engine. The left and the right
sides of the engine are determined from the flywheel
end. The number 1 cylinder is the front cylinder.
Aspiration
127 mm (5.0 inch)
Naturally aspirated
Turbocharged
Turbocharged aftercooled
Compression Ratio
Displacement
NA 19.3:1
T, TA 18.2:1
4.4 L (268 in 3)
Firing Order
Rotation (flywheel end)
1 3 4 2
Counterclockwise
Valve Lash Setting (Inlet)
0.20 mm (0.008 inch)
Valve Lash Setting
(Exhaust)
0.45 mm (0.018 inch)
Engine Cooling and Lubrication
Illustration 12
g00984281
A typical example of the layout of the valves
(A) Inlet valves
(B) Exhaust valves
Emissions Control Systems
NK - Direct Diesel Injection
NL - Turbocharger, Direct Diesel Injection
NM - Turbocharger with Air to Air Charge Cooler,
Direct Diesel Injection
The cooling system consists of the following
components:
• Gear-driven centrifugal water pump
• Water temperature regulator which regulates the
engine coolant temperature
• Gear-driven oil pump (gear type)
• Oil cooler
The engine lubricating oil is supplied by a gear
type pump. The engine lubricating oil is cooled and
the engine lubricating oil is filtered. Bypass valves
provide unrestricted flow of lubrication oil to the
engine parts when oil viscosity is high. Bypass valves
can also provide unrestricted flow of lubrication oil
to the engine parts if the oil cooler should become
plugged or if the oil filter element should become
plugged.
Engine efficiency, efficiency of emission controls, and
engine performance depend on adherence to proper
operation and maintenance recommendations.
Engine performance and efficiency also depend on
the use of recommended fuels, lubrication oils, and
coolants. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Maintenance Interval Schedule” for more
information on maintenance items.
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Engine Service Life
Engine efficiency and maximum utilization of engine
performance depend on the adherence to proper
operation and maintenance recommendations. In
addition, use recommended fuels, coolants, and
lubricants. Use the Operation and Maintenance
Manual as a guide for required engine maintenance.
Expected engine life is generally predicted by the
average power that is demanded. The average power
that is demanded is based on fuel consumption of
the engine over a time period. Reduced hours of
operation at full throttle and/or operating at reduced
throttle settings result in a lower average power
demand. Reduced hours of operation will increase
the length of operating time before an engine
overhaul is required.
17
Product Information Section
Model Views
18
Product Information Section
Product Identification Information
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Product Identification
Information
i02680910
Engine Identification
Perkins engines are identified by a serial number.
This number is shown on a serial number plate that
is mounted on the left hand side of the engine block.
An example of an engine number is
NK12345U090001P.
Illustration 14
g01347465
Typical serial number plate
NK __________________________________________Type of engine
NK12345____________________________Engine List Number
U ____________________________Built in the United Kingdom
090001 ___________________________Engine Serial Number
P _____________________________________Year of Manufacture
Perkins dealers need these numbers in order to
determine the components that were included with
the engine. This permits accurate identification of
replacement part numbers.
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
Temporary Parts List number
List number
Serial number
Type
The Serial Number Plate (1) is located on the left side
of the cylinder block to the rear of the engine.
The following information is stamped on the Serial
Number Plate: Engine serial number, Model, and
Arrangement number.
i02677372
Reference Numbers
i02681468
Serial Number Plate
Information for the following items may be needed to
order parts. Locate the information for your engine.
Record the information in the appropriate space.
Make a copy of this list for a record. Keep the
information for future reference.
Record for Reference
Engine Model _______________________________________________
Engine Serial number _____________________________________
Engine Low Idle rpm ______________________________________
Engine Full Load rpm _____________________________________
Primary Fuel Filter _________________________________________
Water Separator Element ________________________________
Secondary Fuel Filter Element __________________________
Lubrication Oil Filter Element ___________________________
Illustration 13
Location of serial number plate
g01347087
Auxiliary Oil Filter Element _______________________________
SEBU8325-01
19
Product Information Section
Product Identification Information
Total Lubrication System Capacity _____________________
Total Cooling System Capacity _________________________
Air Cleaner Element _______________________________________
Fan Drive Belt ______________________________________________
Alternator Belt ______________________________________________
i02690481
Emissions Certification Film
Illustration 15
Typical example
g01350379
20
Operation Section
Lifting and Storage
SEBU8325-01
Operation Section
i04432996
Product Storage
Lifting and Storage
i02677363
Product Lifting
Perkins are not responsible for damage which may
occur when an engine is in storage after a period in
service.
Your Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor can
assist in preparing the engine for extended storage
periods.
Condition for Storage
The engine must be stored in a water proof building.
The building must be kept at a constant temperature.
Engines that are filled with Perkins ELC will have
coolant protection to an ambient temperature of
−36° C (−32.8° F). The engine must not be subjected
to extreme variations in temperature and humidity.
Storage Period
Illustration 16
g00103219
NOTICE
Never bend the eyebolts and the brackets. Only load
the eyebolts and the brackets under tension. Remember that the capacity of an eyebolt is less as the angle
between the supporting members and the object becomes less than 90 degrees.
When it is necessary to remove a component at an
angle, only use a link bracket that is properly rated for
the weight.
Use a hoist to remove heavy components. Use
an adjustable lifting beam to lift the engine. All
supporting members (chains and cables) should be
parallel to each other. The chains and cables should
be perpendicular to the top of the object that is being
lifted.
Some removals require lifting the fixtures in order to
obtain proper balance and safety.
To remove the engine ONLY, use the lifting eyes that
are on the engine.
Lifting eyes are designed and installed for specific
engine arrangements. Alterations to the lifting eyes
and/or the engine make the lifting eyes and the lifting
fixtures obsolete. If alterations are made, ensure
that proper lifting devices are provided. Consult your
Perkins dealer for information regarding fixtures for
proper engine lifting.
An engine can be stored for up to 6 months provided
all the recommendation are adhered to.
Storage Procedure
Keep a record of the procedure that has been
completed on the engine.
Note: Do not store an engine that has biodiesel in
the fuel system.
1. Ensure that the engine is clean and dry.
a. If the engine has been operated using biodiesel,
the system must be drained and new filters
installed. The fuel tank will require flushing.
b. Fill the fuel system with an acceptable fuel. For
more information on acceptable fuels refer to
this Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Fluid
recommendations”. Operate the engine for 15
minutes in order to remove all biodiesel from
the system.
2. Drain any water from the primary filter water
separator. Ensure that the fuel tank is full.
3. The engine oil will not need to be drained in
order to store the engine. Provided the correct
specification of engine oil is used the engine
can be stored for up to 6 months. For the
correct specification of engine oil refer to this
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Fluid
recommendations”.
4. Remove the drive belt from the engine.
SEBU8325-01
Sealed Coolant System
Ensure that the cooling system is filled with Perkins
ELC, or an antifreeze that meets “ASTM D6210”
specification.
Open Cooling System
Ensure that all cooling drain plugs have been
opened. Allow the coolant to drain. Install the drain
plugs. Place a vapor phase inhibitor into the system.
The coolant system must be sealed once the vapor
phase inhibitor has been introduced. The effect of the
vapor phase inhibitor will be lost if the cooling system
is open to the atmosphere.
For maintenance procedures refer to this Operation
and Maintenance Manual.
Monthly Checks
The crankshaft must be rotated in order to change
the spring loading on the valve train. Rotate the
crankshaft more than 180 degrees. Visibly check for
damage or corrosion to the engine.
Ensure that the engine is covered completely before
storage. Log the procedure in the record for the
engine.
21
Operation Section
Lifting and Storage
22
Operation Section
Gauges and Indicators
SEBU8325-01
Gauges and Indicators
1. Reduce the load and the engine rpm.
2. Inspect the cooling system for leaks.
i02677374
Gauges and Indicators
Your engine may not have the same gauges or all of
the gauges that are described. For more information
about the gauge package, see the OEM information.
Gauges provide indications of engine performance.
Ensure that the gauges are in good working order.
Determine the normal operating range by observing
the gauges over a period of time.
Noticeable changes in gauge readings indicate
potential gauge or engine problems. Problems may
also be indicated by gauge readings that change
even if the readings are within specifications.
Determine and correct the cause of any significant
change in the readings. Consult your Perkins dealer
or your Perkins distributor for assistance.
NOTICE
If no oil pressure is indicated, STOP the engine. If
maximum coolant temperature is exceeded, STOP
the engine. Engine damage can result.
Engine Oil Pressure – The oil pressure
should be greatest after a cold engine is
started. The typical engine oil pressure with
SAE10W30 is 207 to 413 kPa (30 to 60 psi) at rated
rpm.
A lower oil pressure is normal at low idle. If the load
is stable and the gauge reading changes, perform
the following procedure:
1. Remove the load.
2. Reduce engine speed to low idle.
3. Check and maintain the oil level.
Jacket Water Coolant Temperature –
Typical temperature range is 71 to 96°C
(160 to 205°F). The maximum allowable
temperature with the pressurized cooling system at
48 kPa (7 psi) is 110°C (230°F). Higher temperatures
may occur under certain conditions. The water
temperature reading may vary according to load. The
reading should never exceed the boiling point for the
pressurized system that is being used.
If the engine is operating above the normal range
and steam becomes apparent, perform the following
procedure:
3. Determine if the engine must be shut down
immediately or if the engine can be cooled by
reducing the load.
Tachometer – This gauge indicates engine
speed (rpm). When the throttle control lever
is moved to the full throttle position without
load, the engine is running at high idle. The engine is
running at the full load rpm when the throttle control
lever is at the full throttle position with maximum
rated load.
NOTICE
To help prevent engine damage, never exceed the
high idle rpm. Overspeeding can result in serious
damage to the engine. The engine can be operated
at high idle without damage, but should never be
allowed to exceed high idle rpm.
Ammeter – This gauge indicates the
amount of charge or discharge in the
battery charging circuit. Operation of the
indicator should be to the right side of “0” (zero).
Fuel Level – This gauge indicates the fuel
level in the fuel tank. The fuel level gauge
operates when the “START/STOP” switch
is in the “ON” position.
Service Hour Meter – The gauge indicates
operating time of the engine.
SEBU8325-01
23
Operation Section
Features and Controls
Features and Controls
i02690464
Fuel Shutoff
The fuel shutoff solenoid is located on the fuel
injection pump.
When the fuel shutoff solenoid is activated, the
solenoid moves to the “Open” position.
When the fuel shutoff solenoid is deactivated, the
solenoid moves to the “Closed” position.
24
Operation Section
Engine Starting
SEBU8325-01
Engine Starting
• Do not start the engine or move any of the controls
i02675151
Before Starting Engine
if there is a “DO NOT OPERATE” warning tag or
similar warning tag attached to the start switch or
to the controls.
• Ensure that the areas around the rotating parts are
clear.
Before the engine is started, perform the required
daily maintenance and any other periodic
maintenance that is due. Refer to the Operation
and Maintenance Manual, “Maintenance Interval
Schedule” for more information.
• For the maximum service life of the engine, make a
thorough inspection within the engine compartment
before the engine is started. Look for the following
items: oil leaks, coolant leaks, loose bolts, and
excessive dirt and/or grease. Remove any excess
dirt and/or grease buildup. Repair any faults that
were identified during the inspection.
• Inspect the cooling system hoses for cracks and
for loose clamps.
• Inspect the alternator and accessory drive belts for
cracks, breaks, and other damage.
• Inspect the wiring for loose connections and for
worn wires or frayed wires.
• Check the fuel supply. Drain water from the water
separator (if equipped). Open the fuel supply valve
(if equipped).
NOTICE
All valves in the fuel return line must be open before
and during engine operation to help prevent high fuel
pressure. High fuel pressure may cause filter housing
failure or other damage.
If the engine has not been started for several weeks,
fuel may have drained from the fuel system. Air
may have entered the filter housing. Also, when fuel
filters have been changed, some air pockets will be
trapped in the engine. In these instances, prime the
fuel system. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Fuel System - Prime” for more information
on priming the fuel system.
Engine exhaust contains products of combustion
which may be harmful to your health. Always start
and operate the engine in a well ventilated area
and, if in an enclosed area, vent the exhaust to the
outside.
• All of the guards must be put in place. Check for
damaged guards or for missing guards. Repair
any damaged guards. Replace damaged guards
and/or missing guards.
• Disconnect any battery chargers that are not
protected against the high current drain that
is created when the electric starting motor is
engaged. Check electrical cables and check the
battery for poor connections and for corrosion.
• Reset all of the shutoffs or alarm components (if
equipped).
• Check the engine lubrication oil level. Maintain the
oil level between the “MIN” mark and the “MAX”
mark on the engine oil level gauge.
• Check the coolant level. Observe the coolant level
in the header tank (if equipped). Maintain the
coolant level to the “FULL” mark on the header
tank.
• If the engine is not equipped with a header tank
maintain the coolant level within 13 mm (0.5 inch)
of the bottom of the filler pipe. If the engine is
equipped with a sight glass, maintain the coolant
level in the sight glass.
• Observe the air cleaner service indicator (if
equipped). Service the air cleaner when the yellow
diaphragm enters the red zone, or when the red
piston locks in the visible position.
• Ensure that any equipment that is driven by the
engine has been disengaged from the engine.
Minimize electrical loads or remove any electrical
loads.
SEBU8325-01
25
Operation Section
Engine Starting
i02678840
Starting the Engine
Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such as
ether. Such use could result in an explosion and
personal injury.
Refer to the OEM for your type of controls. Use the
following procedure to start the engine.
Note: If it is possible, first diagnose the reason for the
starting failure. Make any necessary repairs. If the
engine will not start only due to the condition of the
battery, either charge the battery, or start the engine
with jump start cables.
The condition of the battery can be rechecked after
the engine has been switched OFF.
NOTICE
Using a battery source with the same voltage as the
electric starting motor. Use ONLY equal voltage for
jump starting. The use of higher voltage will damage
the electrical system.
1. If equipped, move the throttle lever to the full
throttle position before you start the engine.
Do not reverse the battery cables. The alternator can
be damaged. Attach ground cable last and remove
first.
NOTICE
Do not crank the engine for more than 30 seconds.
Allow the electric starting motor to cool for two minutes
before cranking the engine again.
When using an external electrical source to start the
engine, turn the generator set control switch to the
“OFF” position. Turn all electrical accessories OFF before attaching the jump start cables.
2. Turn the engine start switch to the START position.
Hold the engine start switch in the START position
and crank the engine.
Ensure that the main power switch is in the OFF position before attaching the jump start cables to the engine being started.
3. When the engine starts, release the engine start
switch.
1. Turn the start switch to the OFF position. Turn off
all the engine's accessories.
4. If equipped, slowly move the throttle lever to the
low idle position and allow the engine to idle. Refer
to the Operation and Maintenance Manual, “After
Starting Engine” topic.
2. Connect one positive end of the jump start cable
to the positive cable terminal of the discharged
battery. Connect the other positive end of the jump
start cable to the positive cable terminal of the
electrical source.
5. If the engine does not start, release the engine
start switch and allow the electric starting motor to
cool. Then, repeat steps 2 through step 4.
6. Turn the engine start switch to the OFF position in
order to stop the engine.
i02678837
Starting with Jump Start
Cables
Improper jump start cable connections can cause
an explosion resulting in personal injury.
Prevent sparks near the batteries. Sparks could
cause vapors to explode. Do not allow jump start
cable ends to contact each other or the engine.
3. Connect one negative end of the jump start cable
to the negative cable terminal of the electrical
source. Connect the other negative end of the
jump start cable to the engine block or to the
chassis ground. This procedure helps to prevent
potential sparks from igniting the combustible
gases that are produced by some batteries.
4. Start the engine.
5. Immediately after the stalled engine is started,
disconnect the jump start cables in reverse order.
After jump starting, the alternator may not be able to
fully recharge batteries that are severely discharged.
The batteries must be replaced or charged to the
correct voltage with a battery charger after the engine
is stopped. Many batteries which are considered
unusable are still rechargeable. Refer to Operation
and Maintenance Manual, “Battery - Replace” and
Testing and Adjusting Manual, “Battery - Test”.
26
Operation Section
Engine Starting
SEBU8325-01
i02674934
After Starting Engine
Note: In temperatures from 0 to 60°C (32 to 140°F),
the warm-up time is approximately three minutes. In
temperatures below 0°C (32°F), additional warm-up
time may be required.
When the engine idles during warm-up, observe the
following conditions:
• Check for any fluid or for any air leaks at idle rpm
and at one-half full rpm (no load on the engine)
before operating the engine under load. This is not
possible in some applications.
• Operate the engine at low idle until all systems
achieve operating temperatures. Check all gauges
during the warm-up period.
Note: Gauge readings should be observed and
the data should be recorded frequently while the
engine is operating. Comparing the data over time
will help to determine normal readings for each
gauge. Comparing data over time will also help
detect abnormal operating developments. Significant
changes in the readings should be investigated.
SEBU8325-01
27
Operation Section
Engine Operation
Engine Operation
i02678851
Fuel Conservation Practices
i02678894
Engine Operation
Correct operation and maintenance are key factors
in obtaining the maximum life and economy of
the engine. If the directions in the Operation and
Maintenance Manual are followed, costs can be
minimized and engine service life can be maximized.
The engine can be operated at the rated rpm after the
engine reaches operating temperature. The engine
will reach normal operating temperature sooner
during a low engine speed (rpm) and during a low
power demand. This procedure is more effective than
idling the engine at no load. The engine should reach
operating temperature in a few minutes.
Gauge readings should be observed and the data
should be recorded frequently while the engine
is operating. Comparing the data over time will
help to determine normal readings for each gauge.
Comparing data over time will also help detect
abnormal operating developments. Significant
changes in the readings should be investigated.
The efficiency of the engine can affect the fuel
economy. Perkins design and technology in
manufacturing provides maximum fuel efficiency in
all applications. Follow the recommended procedures
in order to attain optimum performance for the life
of the engine.
• Avoid spilling fuel.
Fuel expands when the fuel is warmed up. The fuel
may overflow from the fuel tank. Inspect fuel lines for
leaks. Repair the fuel lines, as needed.
• Be aware of the properties of the different fuels.
Use only the recommended fuels.
• Avoid unnecessary idling.
Shut off the engine rather than idle for long periods of
time.
• Observe the air cleaner service indicator frequently.
Keep the air cleaner elements clean.
• Maintain the electrical systems.
One damaged battery cell will overwork the alternator.
This will consume excess power and excess fuel.
• Ensure that the drive belts are correctly adjusted.
The drive belts should be in good condition.
• Ensure that all of the connections of the hoses are
tight. The connections should not leak.
• Ensure that the driven equipment is in good
working order.
• Cold engines consume excess fuel. Utilize heat
from the jacket water system and the exhaust
system, when possible. Keep cooling system
components clean and keep cooling system
components in good repair. Never operate the
engine without water temperature regulators.
All of these items will help maintain operating
temperatures.
28
Operation Section
Engine Stopping
SEBU8325-01
Engine Stopping
i02678906
After Stopping Engine
i02677379
Stopping the Engine
Note: Before you check the engine oil, do not operate
the engine for at least 10 minutes in order to allow
the engine oil to return to the oil pan.
NOTICE
Stopping the engine immediately after it has been
working under load can result in overheating and accelerated wear of the engine components.
If the engine has been operating at high rpm and/or
high loads, run at low idle for at least three minutes
to reduce and stabilize internal engine temperature
before stopping the engine.
Avoiding hot engine shutdowns will maximize turbocharger shaft and bearing life.
Prior to stopping an engine that is being operated
at low loads, operate the engine at low idle for 30
seconds before stopping. If the engine has been
operating at highway speeds and/or at high loads,
operate the engine at low idle for at least three
minutes. This procedure will cause the internal
engine temperature to be reduced and stabilized.
Ensure that the engine stopping procedure is
understood. Stop the engine according to the shutoff
system on the engine or refer to the instructions that
are provided by the OEM.
• To stop the engine, turn the key to the OFF position.
i01903586
Emergency Stopping
• Check the crankcase oil level. Maintain the oil level
between the “MIN” mark and the “MAX” mark on
the oil level dipstick.
• If necessary, perform minor adjustments. Repair
any leaks and tighten any loose bolts.
• Note the required service interval. Perform
the maintenance that is in the Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Maintenance Interval
Schedule”.
• Fill the fuel tank in order to help prevent
accumulation of moisture in the fuel. Do not overfill
the fuel tank.
NOTICE
Only use antifreeze/coolant mixtures recommended in
the Refill Capacities and Recommendations topic that
is in this Operation and Maintenance Manual. Failure
to do so can cause engine damage.
• Allow the engine to cool. Check the coolant level.
• If freezing temperatures are expected, check the
coolant for the correct antifreeze protection. The
cooling system must be protected against freezing
to the lowest expected outside temperature. Add
the correct coolant/water mixture, if necessary.
• Perform all required periodic maintenance on all
driven equipment. This maintenance is outlined in
the instructions from the OEM.
NOTICE
Emergency shutoff controls are for EMERGENCY use
ONLY. DO NOT use emergency shutoff devices or
controls for normal stopping procedure.
The OEM may have equipped the application with
an emergency stop button. For more information
about the emergency stop button, refer to the OEM
information.
Ensure that any components for the external system
that support the engine operation are secured after
the engine is stopped.
SEBU8325-01
29
Operation Section
Cold Weather Operation
Cold Weather Operation
i02680008
Cold Weather Operation
• Install the correct specification of engine lubricant
before the beginning of cold weather.
• Check all rubber parts (hoses, fan drive belts, etc)
weekly.
• Check all electrical wiring and connections for any
fraying or damaged insulation.
Perkins Diesel Engines can operate effectively in
cold weather. During cold weather, the starting and
the operation of the diesel engine is dependent on
the following items:
• The type of fuel that is used
• The viscosity of the engine oil
• The operation of the glow plugs
• Optional Cold starting aid
• Keep all batteries fully charged and warm.
• Fill the fuel tank at the end of each shift.
• Check the air cleaners and the air intake daily.
Check the air intake more often when you operate
in snow.
• Ensure that the glow plugs are in working order.
Refer to Testing and Adjusting Manual, “Glow Plug
- Test”.
• Battery condition
This section will cover the following information:
• Potential problems that are caused by cold weather
operation
• Suggest steps which can be taken in order to
Personal injury or property damage can result
from alcohol or starting fluids.
Alcohol or starting fluids are highly flammable and
toxic and if improperly stored could result in injury
or property damage.
minimize starting problems and operating problems
when the ambient air temperature is between
0° to−40 °C (32° to 40 °F).
The operation and maintenance of an engine in
freezing temperatures is complex. This is because of
the following conditions:
Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such as
ether. Such use could result in an explosion and
personal injury.
• Weather conditions
• For jump starting with cables in cold weather,
• Engine applications
Recommendations from your Perkins dealer or
your Perkins distributor are based on past proven
practices. The information that is contained in
this section provides guidelines for cold weather
operation.
Hints for Cold Weather Operation
• If the engine will start, operate the engine until a
minimum operating temperature of 81 °C (177.8 °F)
is achieved. Achieving operating temperature will
help prevent the intake valves and exhaust valves
from sticking.
• The cooling system and the lubrication system
for the engine do not lose heat immediately upon
shutdown. This means that an engine can be shut
down for a period of time and the engine can still
have the ability to start readily.
refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Starting with Jump Start Cables.” for instructions.
Viscosity of the Engine Lubrication
Oil
Correct engine oil viscosity is essential. Oil viscosity
affects the amount of torque that is needed to
crank the engine. Refer to this Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Fluid Recommendations” for
the recommended viscosity of oil.
Recommendations for the Coolant
Provide cooling system protection for the lowest
expected outside temperature. Refer to this Operation
and Maintenance Manual, “Fluid Recommendations”
for the recommended coolant mixture.
30
Operation Section
Cold Weather Operation
SEBU8325-01
In cold weather, check the coolant often for the
correct glycol concentration in order to ensure
adequate freeze protection.
• Free operation of the valves is prevented.
Engine Block Heaters
• Pushrods are bent.
Engine block heaters (if equipped) heat the
engine jacket water that surrounds the combustion
chambers. This provides the following functions:
• Other damage to valve train components can
• Startability is improved.
• Warm up time is reduced.
An electric block heater can be activated once
the engine is stopped. An effective block heater
is typically a 1250/1500 W unit. Consult your
Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor for more
information.
Idling the Engine
When idling after the engine is started in cold
weather, increase the engine rpm from 1000 to 1200
rpm. This will warm up the engine more quickly.
Maintaining an elevated low idle speed for extended
periods will be easier with the installation of a hand
throttle. The engine should not be “raced” in order to
speed up the warm up process.
While the engine is idling, the application of a light
load (parasitic load) will assist in achieving the
minimum operating temperature. The minimum
operating temperature is 82 °C (179.6 °F).
Recommendations for Coolant
Warm Up
Warm up an engine that has cooled below normal
operating temperatures due to inactivity. This should
be performed before the engine is returned to full
operation. During operation in very cold temperature
conditions, damage to engine valve mechanisms can
result from engine operation for short intervals. This
can happen if the engine is started and the engine is
stopped many times without being operated in order
to warm up completely.
When the engine is operated below normal operating
temperatures, fuel and oil are not completely burned
in the combustion chamber. This fuel and oil causes
soft carbon deposits to form on the valve stems.
Generally, the deposits do not cause problems and
the deposits are burned off during operation at
normal engine operating temperatures.
When the engine is started and the engine is stopped
many times without being operated in order to warm
up completely, the carbon deposits become thicker.
This will cause the following problems:
• Valves become stuck.
result.
For this reason, when the engine is started,
the engine must be operated until the coolant
temperature is 71 °C (160 °F) minimum. Carbon
deposits on the valve stems will be kept at a minimum
and the free operation of the valves and the valve
components will be maintained.
In addition, the engine must be thoroughly warmed in
order to keep other engine parts in better condition
and the service life of the engine will be generally
extended. Lubrication will be improved. There will be
less acid and less sludge in the oil. This will provide
longer service life for the engine bearings, the piston
rings, and other parts. However, limit unnecessary
idle time to ten minutes in order to reduce wear and
unnecessary fuel consumption.
The Water Temperature Regulator and
Insulated Heater Lines
The engine is equipped with a water temperature
regulator. When the engine coolant is below the
correct operating temperature jacket water circulates
through the engine cylinder block and into the
engine cylinder head. The coolant then returns to the
cylinder block via an internal passage that bypasses
the valve of the coolant temperature regulator. This
ensures that coolant flows around the engine under
cold operating conditions. The water temperature
regulator begins to open when the engine jacket
water has reached the correct minimum operating
temperature. As the jacket water coolant temperature
rises above the minimum operating temperature the
water temperature regulator opens further allowing
more coolant through the radiator to dissipate excess
heat.
The progressive opening of the water temperature
regulator operates the progressive closing of the
bypass passage between the cylinder block and
head. This ensures maximum coolant flow to
the radiator in order to achieve maximum heat
dissipation.
Note: Perkins discourages the use of all air flow
restriction devices such as radiator shutters.
Restriction of the air flow can result in the following:
high exhaust temperatures, power loss, excessive
fan usage, and reduction in fuel economy.
SEBU8325-01
31
Operation Section
Cold Weather Operation
A cab heater is beneficial in very cold weather. The
feed from the engine and the return lines from the
cab should be insulated in order to reduce heat loss
to the outside air.
Insulating the Air Inlet and Engine
Compartment
When Group 2 diesel fuels are used the following
components provide a means of minimizing problems
in cold weather:
• Glow plugs (if equipped)
• Engine coolant heaters, which may be an OEM
option
When temperatures below −18 °C (−0 °F) will be
frequently encountered, an air cleaner inlet that
is located in the engine compartment may be
specified. An air cleaner that is located in the engine
compartment may also minimize the entry of snow
into the air cleaner. Also, heat that is rejected by the
engine helps to warm the intake air.
• Fuel heaters, which may be an OEM option
Additional heat can be retained around the engine by
insulating the engine compartment.
• A lower cloud point
• Fuel line insulation, which may be an OEM option
There are three major differences between Group
1 fuels and Group 2 fuels. Group 1 fuels have the
following different characteristics to Group 2 fuels.
• A lower pour point
i02683046
Fuel and the Effect from Cold
Weather
Note: Only use grades of fuel that are recommended
by Perkins. Refer to this Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Fluid Recommendations”.
The following fuels can be used in this series of
engine.
• Group 1
• Group 2
• Group 3
• Special Fuels
Perkins prefer only Group 1 and Group 2 fuels for
use in this series of engines.
Group 1 fuels are the preferred Group of Fuels for
general use by Perkins. Group 1 fuels maximize
engine life and engine performance. Group 1 fuels
are usually less available than Group 2 fuels.
Frequently, Group 1 fuels are not available in colder
climates during the winter.
Note: Group 2 fuels must have a maximum wear
scar of 650 micrometers (HFRR to ISO 12156-1).
Group 2 fuels are considered acceptable for issues
of warranty. This group of fuels may reduce the life
of the engine, the engine's maximum power, and the
engine's fuel efficiency.
• A higher energy per unit volume of fuel
Note: Group 3 fuels reduce the life of the engine. The
use of Group 3 fuels is not covered by the Perkins
warranty.
Group 3 fuels include Low Temperature Fuels and
Aviation Kerosene Fuels.
Special fuels include Biofuel.
The cloud point is a temperature that allows wax
crystals to form in the fuel. These crystals can cause
the fuel filters to plug.
The pour point is the temperature when diesel fuel
will thicken. The diesel fuel becomes more resistant
to flow through fuel lines, fuel filters,and fuel pumps.
Be aware of these facts when diesel fuel is
purchased. Consider the average ambient air
temperature for the engine's application. Engines that
are fueled in one climate may not operate well if the
engines are moved to another climate. Problems can
result due to changes in temperature.
Before troubleshooting for low power or for poor
performance in the winter, check the fuel for waxing.
Low temperature fuels may be available for engine
operation at temperatures below 0 °C (32 °F). These
fuels limit the formation of wax in the fuel at low
temperatures.
For more information on cold weather operation, refer
to the Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Cold
Weather Operation and Fuel Related Components in
Cold Weather”.
32
Operation Section
Cold Weather Operation
SEBU8325-01
i02678858
Fuel Related Components in
Cold Weather
Fuel Tanks
Condensation can form in partially filled fuel tanks.
Top off the fuel tanks after you operate the engine.
Fuel tanks should contain some provision for draining
water and sediment from the bottom of the tanks.
Some fuel tanks use supply pipes that allow water
and sediment to settle below the end of the fuel
supply pipe.
Some fuel tanks use supply lines that take fuel
directly from the bottom of the tank. If the engine is
equipped with this system, regular maintenance of
the fuel system filter is important.
Drain the water and sediment from any fuel storage
tank at the following intervals: weekly, service
intervals, and refueling of the fuel tank. This will help
prevent water and/or sediment from being pumped
from the fuel storage tank and into the engine fuel
tank.
Fuel Filters
A primary fuel filter is installed between the fuel
tank and the engine fuel inlet. After you change
the fuel filter, always prime the fuel system in order
to remove air bubbles from the fuel system. Refer
to the Operation and Maintenance Manual in the
Maintenance Section for more information on priming
the fuel system.
The location of a primary fuel filter is important in cold
weather operation. The primary fuel filter and the fuel
supply line are the most common components that
are affected by cold fuel.
Fuel Heaters
Note: The OEM may equip the application with fuel
heaters. If this is the case, the temperature of the fuel
must not exceed 73 °C (163 °F) at the fuel transfer
pump.
For more information about fuel heaters (if equipped),
refer to the OEM information.
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33
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
Maintenance Section
i04478615
Fluid Recommendations
Refill Capacities
i02682592
Refill Capacities
Because of government regulations regarding the
certification of exhaust emissions from the engine,
the lubricant recommendations must be followed.
Engine Manufacturers Association (EMA)
Oils
Lubrication System
The refill capacities for the engine crankcase
reflect the approximate capacity of the crankcase
or sump plus standard oil filters. Auxiliary oil filter
systems will require additional oil. Refer to the OEM
specifications for the capacity of the auxiliary oil filter.
Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Maintenance Section” for more information on
Lubricant Specifications.
Table 2
Engine
Refill Capacities
Compartment or System
Oil Pan(1)
(1)
General Lubricant Information
Minimum
Maximum
5 L (1.1658
Imp gal)
7 L
(1.5398
Imp gal)
The “Engine Manufacturers Association
Recommended Guideline on Diesel Engine Oil” is
recognized by Perkins. For detailed information
about this guideline, see the latest edition of EMA
publication, “EMA DHD -1”.
API Oils
The Engine Oil Licensing and Certification System by
the American Petroleum Institute (API) is recognized
by Perkins. For detailed information about this
system, see the latest edition of the “API publication
No. 1509”. Engine oils that bear the API symbol are
authorized by API.
These values are the approximate capacities for the oil pan
(aluminum) which includes the standard factory installed oil
filters. Engines with auxiliary oil filters and alternative oil pans
will require additional oil. Refer to the OEM specifications for
the capacity of the auxiliary oil filter and the engine oil pan.
Cooling System
Refer to the OEM specifications for the External
System capacity. This capacity information will
be needed in order to determine the amount of
coolant/antifreeze that is required for the Total
Cooling System.
Table 3
Typical API symbol
Engine
Refill Capacities
Compartment or System
Engine Only
Liters
7 L (1.5398
Imp gal)
External System Per OEM(1)
(1)
g00546535
Illustration 17
Diesel engine oils CC, CD, CD-2, and CE have
not been API authorized classifications since 1
January 1996. Table 4 summarizes the status of the
classifications.
Table 4
API Classifications
The External System includes a radiator or an expansion
tank with the following components: heat exchanger and
piping. Refer to the OEM specifications. Enter the value for the
capacity of the External System in this row.
Current
Obsolete
CH-4, , CI-4
CE, CC, CD
(1)
CD-2
(1)
The oil CD-2 is for a two-cycle diesel engine. Perkins does not
sell engines that utilize CD-2 oil.
34
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
Terminology
Certain abbreviations follow the nomenclature of
“SAE J754”. Some classifications follow “SAE J183”
abbreviations, and some classifications follow the
“EMA Recommended Guideline on Diesel Engine
Oil”. In addition to Perkins definitions, there are other
definitions that will be of assistance in purchasing
lubricants. Recommended oil viscosities can be found
in this publication, “Fluid Recommendations/Engine
Oil” topic (Maintenance Section).
Engine Oil
Commercial Oils
The performance of commercial diesel engine
oils is based on American Petroleum Institute
(API) classifications. These API classifications are
developed in order to provide commercial lubricants
for a broad range of diesel engines that operate at
various conditions.
Only use commercial oils that meet the following
classifications:
• API CH-4 CI-4
In order to make the correct choice of a commercial
oil, refer to the following explanations:
EMA DHD-1 – The Engine Manufacturers
Association (EMA) has developed lubricant
recommendations as an alternative to the API oil
classification system. DHD-1 is a Recommended
Guideline that defines a level of oil performance for
these types of diesel engines: high speed, four stroke
cycle, heavy-duty, and light duty. DHD-1 oils may
be used in Perkins engines when the following oils
are recommended: API CH-4, API CG-4, and API
CF-4. DHD-1 oils are intended to provide superior
performance in comparison to API CG-4 and API
CF-4.
DHD-1 oils will meet the needs of high performance
Perkins diesel engines that are operating in many
applications. The tests and the test limits that are
used to define DHD-1 are similar to the new API
CH-4 classification. Therefore, these oils will also
meet the requirements for diesel engines that require
low emissions. DHD-1 oils are designed to control the
harmful effects of soot with improved wear resistance
and improved resistance to plugging of the oil filter.
These oils will also provide superior piston deposit
control for engines with either two-piece steel pistons
or aluminum pistons.
SEBU8325-01
All DHD-1 oils must complete a full test program
with the base stock and with the viscosity grade of
the finished commercial oil. The use of “API Base
Oil Interchange Guidelines” are not appropriate for
DHD-1 oils. This feature reduces the variation in
performance that can occur when base stocks are
changed in commercial oil formulations.
DHD-1 oils are recommended for use in extended oil
change interval programs that optimize the life of the
oil. These oil change interval programs are based
on oil analysis. DHD-1 oils are recommended for
conditions that demand a premium oil. Your Perkins
dealer or your Perkins distributor has the specific
guidelines for optimizing oil change intervals.
API CH-4 – API CH-4 oils were developed in order to
meet the requirements of the new high performance
diesel engines. Also, the oil was designed to
meet the requirements of the low emissions diesel
engines. API CH-4 oils are also acceptable for use
in older diesel engines and in diesel engines that
use high sulfur diesel fuel. API CH-4 oils may be
used in Perkins engines that use API CG-4 and API
CF-4 oils. API CH-4 oils will generally exceed the
performance of API CG-4 oils in the following criteria:
deposits on pistons, control of oil consumption, wear
of piston rings, valve train wear, viscosity control,
and corrosion.
Three new engine tests were developed for the API
CH-4 oil. The first test specifically evaluates deposits
on pistons for engines with the two-piece steel piston.
This test (piston deposit) also measures the control
of oil consumption. A second test is conducted
with moderate oil soot. The second test measures
the following criteria: wear of piston rings, wear of
cylinder liners, and resistance to corrosion. A third
new test measures the following characteristics with
high levels of soot in the oil: wear of the valve train,
resistance of the oil in plugging the oil filter, and
control of sludge.
In addition to the new tests, API CH-4 oils have
tougher limits for viscosity control in applications that
generate high soot. The oils also have improved
oxidation resistance. API CH-4 oils must pass an
additional test (piston deposit) for engines that use
aluminum pistons (single piece). Oil performance is
also established for engines that operate in areas
with high sulfur diesel fuel.
All of these improvements allow the API CH-4
oil to achieve optimum oil change intervals. API
CH-4 oils are recommended for use in extended oil
change intervals. API CH-4 oils are recommended
for conditions that demand a premium oil. Your
Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor has specific
guidelines for optimizing oil change intervals.
SEBU8325-01
35
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
Some commercial oils that meet the API
classifications may require reduced oil change
intervals. To determine the oil change interval, closely
monitor the condition of the oil and perform a wear
metal analysis.
NOTICE
Failure to follow these oil recommendations can cause
shortened engine service life due to deposits and/or
excessive wear.
Total Base Number (TBN) and Fuel Sulfur
Levels for Direct Injection (DI) Diesel
Engines
The Total Base Number (TBN) for an oil depends on
the fuel sulfur level. For direct injection engines that
use distillate fuel, the minimum TBN of the new oil
must be ten times the fuel sulfur level. The TBN is
defined by “ASTM D2896”. The minimum TBN of the
oil is 5 regardless of fuel sulfur level. Illustration 18
demonstrates the TBN.
NOTICE
Operating Direct Injection (DI) diesel engines with fuel
sulphur levels over 0.5 percent will require shortened
oil change intervals in order to help maintain adequate
wear protection.
Table 5
Percentage of Sulfur in
the fuel
Oil change interval
Lower than 0.5
Normal
0.5 to 1.0
0.75 of normal
Greater than 1.0
0.50 of normal
Lubricant Viscosity Recommendations
for Direct Injection (DI) Diesel Engines
The correct SAE viscosity grade of oil is determined
by the minimum ambient temperature during
cold engine start-up, and the maximum ambient
temperature during engine operation.
Refer to Table 6 (minimum temperature) in order to
determine the required oil viscosity for starting a cold
engine.
Refer to Table 6 (maximum temperature) in order to
select the oil viscosity for engine operation at the
highest ambient temperature that is anticipated.
Generally, use the highest oil viscosity that is
available to meet the requirement for the temperature
at start-up.
Table 6
Illustration 18
g00799818
(Y) TBN by “ASTM D2896”
(X) Percentage of fuel sulfur by weight
(1) TBN of new oil
(2) Change the oil when the TBN deteriorates to 50 percent of
the original TBN.
Engine Oil Viscosity
EMA LRG-1
API CH-4
Viscosity Grade
Ambient Temperature
Minimum
Maximum
SAE 0W20
−40 °C (−40 °F)
10 °C (50 °F)
Use the following guidelines for fuel sulfur levels that
exceed 1.5 percent:
SAE 0W30
−40 °C (−40 °F)
30 °C (86 °F)
SAE 0W40
−40 °C (−40 °F)
40 °C (104 °F)
• Choose an oil with the highest TBN that meets one
SAE 5W30
−30 °C (−22 °F)
30 °C (86 °F)
SAE 5W40
−30 °C (−22 °F)
40 °C (104 °F)
SAE 10W30
−20 °C (−4 °F)
40 °C (104 °F)
SAE 15W40
−10 °C (14 °F)
50 °C (122 °F)
of these classifications: EMA DHD-1 and API CH-4.
• Reduce the oil change interval. Base the oil
change interval on the oil analysis. Ensure that the
oil analysis includes the condition of the oil and a
wear metal analysis.
Excessive piston deposits can be produced by an oil
with a high TBN. These deposits can lead to a loss
of control of the oil consumption and to the polishing
of the cylinder bore.
Synthetic Base Stock Oils
Synthetic base oils are acceptable for use in
these engines if these oils meet the performance
requirements that are specified for the engine.
36
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
Synthetic base oils generally perform better than
conventional oils in the following two areas:
• Synthetic base oils have improved flow at low
temperatures especially in arctic conditions.
• Synthetic base oils have improved oxidation
stability especially at high operating temperatures.
Some synthetic base oils have performance
characteristics that enhance the service life of the
oil. Perkins does not recommend the automatic
extending of the oil change intervals for any type of
oil.
Re-refined Base Stock Oils
Re-refined base stock oils are acceptable for
use in Perkins engines if these oils meet the
performance requirements that are specified by
Perkins. Re-refined base stock oils can be used
exclusively in finished oil or in a combination with
new base stock oils. The US military specifications
and the specifications of other heavy equipment
manufacturers also allow the use of re-refined base
stock oils that meet the same criteria.
The process that is used to make re-refined base
stock oil should adequately remove all wear metals
that are in the used oil and all the additives that
are in the used oil. The process that is used to
make re-refined base stock oil generally involves the
process of vacuum distillation and hydrotreating the
used oil. Filtering is adequate for the production of
high quality, re-refined base stock oil.
Lubricants for Cold Weather
When an engine is started and an engine is operated
in ambient temperatures below −20 °C (−4 °F), use
multigrade oils that are capable of flowing in low
temperatures.
These oils have lubricant viscosity grades of SAE
0W or SAE 5W.
When an engine is started and operated in ambient
temperatures below −30 °C (−22 °F), use a synthetic
base stock multigrade oil with an 0W viscosity grade
or with a 5W viscosity grade. Use an oil with a pour
point that is lower than −50 °C (−58 °F).
The number of acceptable lubricants is limited
in cold-weather conditions. Perkins recommends
the following lubricants for use in cold-weather
conditions:
SEBU8325-01
First Choice – Use oil with an EMA DHD-1
Recommended Guideline. Use a CH-4 oil that has
an API license. The oil should be either SAE 0W20,
SAE 0W30, SAE 0W40, SAE 5W30, or SAE 5W40
lubricant viscosity grade.
Second Choice – Use an oil that has a CH-4
additive package. Although the oil has not been
tested for the requirements of the API license, the oil
must be either SAE 0W20, SAE 0W30, SAE 0W40,
SAE 5W30, or SAE 5W40.
NOTICE
Shortened engine service life could result if second
choice oils are used.
Aftermarket Oil Additives
Perkins does not recommend the use of aftermarket
additives in oil. It is not necessary to use aftermarket
additives in order to achieve the engine's maximum
service life or rated performance. Fully formulated,
finished oils consist of base oils and of commercial
additive packages. These additive packages are
blended into the base oils at precise percentages in
order to help provide finished oils with performance
characteristics that meet industry standards.
There are no industry standard tests that evaluate
the performance or the compatibility of aftermarket
additives in finished oil. Aftermarket additives may
not be compatible with the finished oil's additive
package, which could lower the performance of the
finished oil. The aftermarket additive could fail to
mix with the finished oil. This could produce sludge
in the crankcase. Perkins discourages the use of
aftermarket additives in finished oils.
To achieve the best performance from a Perkins
engine, conform to the following guidelines:
• Select the correct oil, or a commercial oil that meets
the “EMA Recommended Guideline on Diesel
Engine Oil” or the recommended API classification.
• See the appropriate “Lubricant Viscosities” table in
order to find the correct oil viscosity grade for your
engine.
• At the specified interval, service the engine. Use
new oil and install a new oil filter.
• Perform maintenance at the intervals that are
specified in the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Maintenance Interval Schedule”.
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Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
Oil analysis
Some engines may be equipped with an oil sampling
valve. If oil analysis is required the oil sampling valve
is used to obtain samples of the engine oil. The oil
analysis will complement the preventive maintenance
program.
NOTICE
Frequently check the specific gravity of the coolant for
proper freeze protection or for anti-boil protection.
Clean the cooling system for the following reasons:
The oil analysis is a diagnostic tool that is used to
determine oil performance and component wear
rates. Contamination can be identified and measured
by using the oil analysis. The oil analysis includes
the following tests:
• Contamination of the cooling system
• The Wear Rate Analysis monitors the wear of the
NOTICE
Never operate an engine without water temperature
regulators in the cooling system. Water temperature
regulators help to maintain the engine coolant at the
proper operating temperature. Cooling system problems can develop without water temperature regulators.
engine's metals. The amount of wear metal and
type of wear metal that is in the oil is analyzed. The
increase in the rate of engine wear metal in the
oil is as important as the quantity of engine wear
metal in the oil.
• Tests are conducted in order to detect
contamination of the oil by water, glycol, or fuel.
• The Oil Condition Analysis determines the loss of
the oil's lubricating properties. An infrared analysis
is used to compare the properties of new oil to the
properties of the used oil sample. This analysis
allows technicians to determine the amount of
deterioration of the oil during use. This analysis
also allows technicians to verify the performance
of the oil according to the specification during the
entire oil change interval.
i04478616
Fluid Recommendations
(Coolant Information)
• Overheating of the engine
• Foaming of the coolant
Many engine failures are related to the cooling
system. The following problems are related to cooling
system failures: Overheating, leakage of the water
pump, and plugged radiators or heat exchangers.
These failures can be avoided with correct cooling
system maintenance. Cooling system maintenance is
as important as maintenance of the fuel system and
the lubrication system. Quality of the coolant is as
important as the quality of the fuel and the lubricating
oil.
Coolant is normally composed of three elements:
Water, additives, and glycol.
Water
Water is used in the cooling system in order to
transfer heat.
Cooling System Specifications
General Coolant Information
NOTICE
Never add coolant to an overheated engine. Engine
damage could result. Allow the engine to cool first.
NOTICE
If the engine is to be stored in, or shipped to an area
with below freezing temperatures, the cooling system
must be either protected to the lowest outside temperature or drained completely to prevent damage.
Distilled water or deionized water is
recommended for use in engine cooling systems.
DO NOT use the following types of water in cooling
systems: Hard water, softened water that has been
conditioned with salt, and sea water.
If distilled water or deionized water is not available,
use water with the properties that are listed in Table 7.
38
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
SEBU8325-01
• Freezing
Table 7
Acceptable Water
Property
Maximum Limit
Chloride (Cl)
40 mg/L
Sulfate (SO4)
100 mg/L
Total Hardness
170 mg/L
Total Solids
340 mg/L
Acidity
pH of 5.5 to 9.0
For a water analysis, consult one of the following
sources:
• Local water utility company
• Agricultural agent
• Cavitation of the water pump
For optimum performance, Perkins recommends a
1:1 mixture of a water/glycol solution.
Note: Use a mixture that will provide protection
against the lowest ambient temperature.
Note: 100 percent pure glycol will freeze at a
temperature of −23 °C (−9 °F).
Most conventional antifreezes use ethylene glycol.
Propylene glycol may also be used. In a 1:1 mixture
with water, ethylene and propylene glycol provide
similar protection against freezing and boiling. See
Tables 8 and 9.
Table 8
• Independent laboratory
Additives
Additives help to protect the metal surfaces of
the cooling system. A lack of coolant additives or
insufficient amounts of additives enable the following
conditions to occur:
• Corrosion
• Formation of mineral deposits
• Rust
• Scale
Ethylene Glycol
Concentration
Freeze
Protection
Boil
Protection
50 Percent
−36 °C (−33 °F)
106 °C (223 °F)
60 Percent
−51 °C (−60 °F)
111 °C (232 °F)
NOTICE
Do not use propylene glycol in concentrations that exceed 50 percent glycol because of the reduced heat
transfer capability of propylene glycol. Use ethylene
glycol in conditions that require additional protection
against boiling or freezing.
Table 9
• Foaming of the coolant
Many additives are depleted during engine operation.
These additives must be replaced periodically.
Additives must be added at the correct concentration.
Overconcentration of additives can cause the
inhibitors to drop out-of-solution. The deposits can
enable the following problems to occur:
• Formation of gel compounds
• Reduction of heat transfer
• Leakage of the water pump seal
• Plugging of radiators, coolers, and small passages
Glycol
Glycol in the coolant helps to provide protection
against the following conditions:
• Boiling
Propylene Glycol
Concentration
Freeze
Protection
Anti-Boil
Protection
50 Percent
−29 °C (−20 °F)
106 °C (223 °F)
To check the concentration of glycol in the coolant,
measure the specific gravity of the coolant.
Coolant Recommendations
The following two coolants are used in Perkins diesel
engines:
Preferred – Perkins Extended Life Coolant (ELC)
Acceptable – A commercial heavy-duty antifreeze
that meets “ASTM D4985” specifications
SEBU8325-01
39
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
• Automotive applications
NOTICE
Do not use a commercial coolant/antifreeze that only meets the ASTM D3306 specification. This type of
coolant/antifreeze is made for light automotive applications.
Perkins recommends a 1:1 mixture of water and
glycol. This mixture of water and glycol will provide
optimum heavy-duty performance as an antifreeze.
This ratio may be increased to 1:2 water to glycol if
extra freezing protection is required.
Note: A commercial heavy-duty antifreeze that
meets “ASTM D4985” specifications MAY require a
treatment with an SCA at the initial fill. Read the label
or the instructions that are provided by the OEM of
the product.
In stationary engine applications and marine engine
applications that do not require anti-boil protection
or freeze protection, a mixture of SCA and water
is acceptable. Perkins recommends a 6 percent to
8 percent concentration of SCA in those cooling
systems. Distilled water or deionized water is
preferred. Water which has the recommended
properties may be used.
Engines that are operating in an ambient temperature
above 43 °C (109.4 °F) must use SCA and water.
Engines that operate in an ambient temperature
above 43 °C (109.4 °F) and below 0 °C (32 °F) due
to seasonal variations consult your Perkins dealer
or your Perkins distributor for the correct level of
protection.
Table 10
Coolant Service Life
Coolant Type
Service Life
Perkins ELC
6,000 Service Hours or
Three Years
Commercial Heavy-Duty
Antifreeze that meets
“ASTM D4985”
3000 Service Hours or
Two Years
Perkins POWERPART
SCA
3000 Service Hours or
Two Years
Commercial SCA and
Water
3000 Service Hours or
Two Years
Extended Life Coolant (ELC)
Perkins provides Extended Life Coolant (ELC) for
use in the following applications:
• Heavy-duty spark ignited gas engines
• Heavy-duty diesel engines
The anti-corrosion package for ELC is different from
the anti-corrosion package for other coolants. ELC
is an ethylene glycol base coolant. However, ELC
contains organic corrosion inhibitors and antifoam
agents with low amounts of nitrite. Perkins ELC
has been formulated with the correct amount of
these additives in order to provide superior corrosion
protection for all metals in engine cooling systems.
ELC is available in a 1:1 premixed cooling solution
with distilled water. The Premixed ELC provides
freeze protection to −36 °C (−33 °F). The Premixed
ELC is recommended for the initial fill of the cooling
system. The Premixed ELC is also recommended for
topping off the cooling system.
ELC Concentrate is also available. ELC Concentrate
can be used to lower the freezing point to −51 °C
(−60 °F) for arctic conditions.
Containers of several sizes are available. Consult
your Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor for the
part numbers.
ELC Cooling System Maintenance
Correct additions to the Extended Life
Coolant
NOTICE
Use only Perkins products for pre-mixed or concentrated coolants.
Mixing Extended Life Coolant with other products reduces the Extended Life Coolant service life. Failure to
follow the recommendations can reduce cooling system components life unless appropriate corrective action is performed.
In order to maintain the correct balance between
the antifreeze and the additives, you must maintain
the recommended concentration of Extended Life
Coolant (ELC). Lowering the proportion of antifreeze
lowers the proportion of additive. This will lower the
ability of the coolant to protect the system from pitting,
from cavitation, from erosion, and from deposits.
NOTICE
Do not use a conventional coolant to top-off a cooling
system that is filled with Extended Life Coolant (ELC).
Do not use standard supplemental coolant additive
(SCA).
When using Perkins ELC, do not use standard SCA's
or SCA filters.
40
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
SEBU8325-01
ELC Cooling System Cleaning
Note: If the cooling system is already using ELC,
cleaning agents are not required to be used at
the specified coolant change interval. Cleaning
agents are only required if the system has been
contaminated by the addition of some other type of
coolant or by cooling system damage.
Clean water is the only cleaning agent that is required
when ELC is drained from the cooling system.
After the cooling system is drained and after the
cooling system is refilled, operate the engine while
the cooling system filler cap is removed. Operate
the engine until the coolant level reaches the normal
operating temperature and until the coolant level
stabilizes. As needed, add the coolant mixture in
order to fill the system to the specified level.
Changing to Perkins ELC
To change from heavy-duty antifreeze to the Perkins
ELC, perform the following steps:
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that all fluids are
contained during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting and the repair of the
product. Be prepared to collect the fluid with suitable
containers before opening any compartment or disassembling any component containing fluids.
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
mandates.
1. Drain the coolant into a suitable container.
2. Dispose of the coolant according to local
regulations.
3. Flush the system with clean water in order to
remove any debris.
NOTICE
Incorrect or incomplete flushing of the cooling system
can result in damage to copper and other metal components.
To avoid damage to the cooling system, make sure to
completely flush the cooling system with clear water.
Continue to flush the system until all the signs of the
cleaning agent are gone.
7. Drain the cooling system into a suitable container
and flush the cooling system with clean water.
Note: The cooling system cleaner must be thoroughly
flushed from the cooling system. Cooling system
cleaner that is left in the system will contaminate the
coolant. The cleaner may also corrode the cooling
system.
8. Repeat Steps 6 and 7 until the system is
completely clean.
9. Fill the cooling system with the Perkins Premixed
ELC.
ELC Cooling System Contamination
NOTICE
Mixing ELC with other products reduces the effectiveness of the ELC and shortens the ELC service life.
Use only Perkins Products for premixed or concentrate coolants. Failure to follow these recommendations can result in shortened cooling system component life.
ELC cooling systems can withstand contamination to
a maximum of ten percent of conventional heavy-duty
antifreeze or SCA. If the contamination exceeds ten
percent of the total system capacity, perform ONE of
the following procedures:
• Drain the cooling system into a suitable container.
4. Use Perkins cleaner to clean the system. Follow
the instruction on the label.
Dispose of the coolant according to local
regulations. Flush the system with clean water. Fill
the system with the Perkins ELC.
5. Drain the cleaner into a suitable container. Flush
the cooling system with clean water.
• Drain a portion of the cooling system into a suitable
6. Fill the cooling system with clean water and
operate the engine until the engine is warmed to
49° to 66°C (120° to 150°F).
container according to local regulations. Then, fill
the cooling system with premixed ELC. This should
lower the contamination to less than 10 percent.
• Maintain the system as a conventional Heavy-Duty
Coolant. Treat the system with an SCA. Change
the coolant at the interval that is recommended for
the conventional Heavy-Duty Coolant.
SEBU8325-01
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Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
Commercial Heavy-Duty Antifreeze and
SCA
NOTICE
Commercial Heavy-Duty Coolant which contains
Amine as part of the corrosion protection system must
not be used.
NOTICE
Never operate an engine without water temperature
regulators in the cooling system. Water temperature
regulators help to maintain the engine coolant at the
correct operating temperature. Cooling system problems can develop without water temperature regulators.
Check the antifreeze (glycol concentration) in
order to ensure adequate protection against boiling
or freezing. Perkins recommends the use of a
refractometer for checking the glycol concentration.
Perkins engine cooling systems should be tested
at 500 hour intervals for the concentration of
Supplemental Coolant Additive (SCA).
Additions of SCA are based on the results of the test.
An SCA that is liquid may be needed at 500 hour
intervals.
Refer to Table 11 for part numbers and for quantities
of SCA.
Table 13
Example Of The Equation For Adding The SCA To
The Heavy-Duty Coolant At The Initial Fill
Total Volume
of the Cooling
System (V)
Multiplication
Factor
Amount of SCA
that is Required
(X)
15 L (4 US gal)
× 0.045
0.7 L (24 oz)
Adding The SCA to The Heavy-Duty
Coolant For Maintenance
Heavy-duty antifreeze of all types REQUIRE periodic
additions of an SCA.
Test the antifreeze periodically for the concentration
of SCA. For the interval, refer to the Operation
and Maintenance Manual, “Maintenance Interval
Schedule” (Maintenance Section). Test the
concentration of SCA.
Additions of SCA are based on the results of the
test. The size of the cooling system determines the
amount of SCA that is needed.
Use the equation that is in Table 14 to determine the
amount of Perkins SCA that is required, if necessary:
Table 14
Equation For Adding The SCA To The Heavy-Duty
Coolant For Maintenance
Table 11
Perkins Liquid SCA
Part Number
Quantity
21825735
10
Adding the SCA to Heavy-Duty Coolant
at the Initial Fill
Commercial heavy-duty antifreeze that meets “ASTM
D4985” specifications MAY require an addition of
SCA at the initial fill. Read the label or the instructions
that are provided by the OEM of the product.
Use the equation that is in Table 12 to determine the
amount of Perkins SCA that is required when the
cooling system is initially filled.
Table 12
Equation For Adding The SCA To The Heavy-Duty
Coolant At The Initial Fill
V × 0.045 = X
V is the total volume of the cooling system.
X is the amount of SCA that is required.
Table 13 is an example for using the equation that
is in Table 12.
V × 0.014 = X
V is the total volume of the cooling system.
X is the amount of SCA that is required.
Table 15 is an example for using the equation that
is in Table 14.
Table 15
Example Of The Equation For Adding The SCA To
The Heavy-Duty Coolant For Maintenance
Total Volume
of the Cooling
System (V)
Multiplication
Factor
Amount of SCA
that is Required
(X)
15 L (4 US gal)
× 0.014
0.2 L (7 oz)
42
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
SEBU8325-01
Cleaning the System of Heavy-Duty
Antifreeze
Perkins cooling system cleaners are designed
to clean the cooling system of harmful scale
and corrosion. Perkins cooling system cleaners
dissolve mineral scale, corrosion products, light oil
contamination, and sludge.
• Clean the cooling system after used coolant is
drained or before the cooling system is filled with
new coolant.
• Clean the cooling system whenever the coolant is
contaminated or whenever the coolant is foaming.
i04478614
Fluid Recommendations
(Fuel Recommendations)
• Glossary
• ISO International Standards Organization
• ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials
• HFRR High Frequency Reciprocating Rig for
Lubricity testing of diesel fuels
• FAME Fatty Acid Methyl Esters
• CFR Co-ordinating Fuel Research
• LSD Low Sulfur Diesel
• ULSD Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel
• RME Rape Methyl Ester
• SME Soy Methyl Ester
• EPA Environmental Protection Agency of the
United States
General Information
NOTICE
Every attempt is made to provide accurate, up-to-date
information. By use of this document you agree that
Perkins Engines Company Limited is not responsible
for errors or omissions.
NOTICE
These recommendations are subject to change without notice. Contact your local Perkins distributor for
the most up-to-date recommendations.
Diesel Fuel Requirements
Perkins is not in a position to continuously evaluate
and monitor all worldwide distillate diesel fuel
specifications that are published by governments and
technological societies.
Table 16 provides a known reliable baseline in order
to judge the expected performance of distillate diesel
fuels that are derived from conventional sources.
Satisfactory engine performance is dependent on
the use of a good quality fuel. The use of a good
quality fuel will give the following results: long engine
life and acceptable exhaust emissions levels. The
fuel must meet the minimum requirements that are
stated in table 16.
NOTICE
The footnotes are a key part of the Perkins Specification for Distillate Diesel Fuel Table. Read ALL of the
footnotes.
SEBU8325-01
43
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
Table 16
Perkins Specification for Distillate Diesel Fuel
(1)
Property
UNITS
Requirements
“ASTM”Test
“ISO”Test
Aromatics
%Volume
35% maximum
D1319
“ISO”3837
Ash
%Weight
0.01% maximum
D482
“ISO”6245
Carbon Residue on
10% Bottoms
%Weight
0.35% maximum
D524
“ISO”4262
Cetane Number (2)
-
40 minimum
D613/D6890
“ISO”5165
Cloud Point
°C
The cloud point must
not exceed the lowest
expected ambient
temperature.
D2500
“ISO”3015
Copper Strip
Corrosion
-
No. 3 maximum
D130
“ISO”2160
Density at 15 °C
(59 °F) (3)
Kg / M
801 minimum and 876
maximum
No equivalent test
“ISO 3675 ”“ISO 12185”
Distillation
°C
10% at 282 °C
(539.6 °F) maximum
90% at 360 °C (680 °F)
maximum
D86
“ISO”3405
Flash Point
°C
legal limit
D93
“ISO”2719
Thermal Stability
-
Minimum of 80%
reflectance after aging
for 180 minutes at
150 °C (302 °F)
D6468
No equivalent test
Pour Point
°C
6 °C (42.8 °F) minimum
below ambient
temperature
D97
“ISO”3016
%mass
1% maximum
D5453/D26222
“ISO 20846 ”“ISO 20884”
“MM” “/S (cSt)”
The viscosity of the
fuel that is delivered to
the fuel injection pump.
“1.4 minimum/4.5
maximum”
D445
“ISO”3405
Water and sediment
% weight
0.1% maximum
D1796
“ISO”3734
Water
% weight
0.1% maximum
D6304
No equivalent test
Sediment
% weight
0.05% maximum
D473
“ISO”3735
Gums and Resins (6)
mg/100mL
10 mg per 100 mL
maximum
D381
“ISO”6246
Sulfur
(1)(4)
Kinematic Viscosity
(5)
3
2
(continued)
44
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
SEBU8325-01
(Table 16, contd)
Lubricity corrected
wear scar diameter at
60 °C (140 °F). (7)
mm
0.46 maximum
D6079
“ISO”12156-1
(1)
This specification includes the requirements for Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD). ULSD fuel will have ≤ 15 ppm (0.0015%) sulfur. Refer to
“ASTM D5453”, “ASTM D2622”, or “ISO 20846, ISO 20884” test methods. This specification includes the requirements for Low Sulfur
Diesel (LSD). LSD fuel will have ≤500 ppm (0.05%) sulfur. Refer to following:“ASTM 5453, ASTM D2622”, “ISO 20846”, and “ISO 20884
test methods”.
(2) A fuel with a higher cetane number is recommended in order to operate at a higher altitude or in cold weather.
(3) “Via standards tables, the equivalent API gravity for the minimum density of 801 kg / m 3 (kilograms per cubic meter) is 45 and for the
maximum density of 876 kg / m3 is 30”.
(4) Regional regulations, national regulations, or international regulations can require a fuel with a specific sulfur limit. Consult all applicable
regulations before selecting a fuel for a given engine application. Perkins fuel systems and engine components can operate on high sulfur
fuels. Fuel sulfur levels affect exhaust emissions. High sulfur fuels also increase the potential for corrosion of internal components.
Fuel sulfur levels above 0.5% may significantly shorten the oil change interval. For additional information, refer to this manual, “Fluid
recommendations (General lubricant Information)”.
(5) The values of the fuel viscosity are the values as the fuel is delivered to the fuel injection pumps. Fuel should also meet the minimum
viscosity requirement and the fuel should meet the maximum viscosity requirements at 40 °C (104 °F) of either the “ASTM D445” test
method or the “ISO 3104” test method. If a fuel with a low viscosity is used, cooling of the fuel may be required to maintain 1.4 cSt or
greater viscosity at the fuel injection pump. Fuels with a high viscosity might require fuel heaters in order to lower the viscosity to 4.5
cSt at the fuel injection pump.
(6) Follow the test conditions and procedures for gasoline (motor).
(7) The lubricity of a fuel is a concern with low sulfur and ultra low sulfur fuel. To determine the lubricity of the fuel, use the “ISO 12156-1
or ASTM D6079 High Frequency Reciprocating Rig (HFRR)” test. If the lubricity of a fuel does not meet the minimum requirements,
consult your fuel supplier. Do not treat the fuel without consulting the fuel supplier. Some additives are not compatible. These additives
can cause problems in the fuel system.
NOTICE
Operating with fuels that do not meet the Perkins recommendations can cause the following effects: Starting difficulty, poor combustion, deposits in the fuel injectors, reduced service life of the fuel system, deposits in the combustion chamber, and reduced service life of the engine.
Engines that are manufactured by Perkins are certified
with the fuel that is prescribed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Engines that are manufactured by Perkins are certified with the fuel that
is prescribed by the European Certification and other regulatory agencies. Perkins does not certify diesel
engines on any other fuel.
Note: The owner and the operator of the engine has
the responsibility of using the fuel that is prescribed
by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and
other appropriate regulatory agencies.
Diesel Fuel Characteristics
Perkins Recommendations
Cetane Number
Fuel that has a high cetane number will give a shorter
ignition delay. This will produce a better ignition
quality. Cetane numbers are derived for fuels against
proportions of cetane and heptamethylnonane in the
standard CFR engine. Refer to “ISO 5165” for the
test method.
Cetane numbers in excess of 45 are normally
expected from current diesel fuel. However, a cetane
number of 40 may be experienced in some territories.
The United States of America is one of the territories
that can have a low cetane value. A minimum cetane
value of 40 is required during average starting
conditions. A higher cetane value may be required
for operations at high altitudes or in cold-weather
operations.
Fuel with a low cetane number can be the root cause
of problems during cold start.
Viscosity
Viscosity is the property of a liquid of offering
resistance to shear or flow. Viscosity decreases with
increasing temperature. This decrease in viscosity
follows a logarithmic relationship for normal fossil
fuel. The common reference is to kinematic viscosity.
This is the quotient of the dynamic viscosity that is
divided by the density. The determination of kinematic
viscosity is normally by readings from gravity flow
viscometers at standard temperatures. Refer to “ISO
3104” for the test method.
The viscosity of the fuel is significant because fuel
serves as a lubricant for the fuel system components.
Fuel must have sufficient viscosity in order to
lubricate the fuel system in both cold temperatures
and hot temperatures. If the kinematic viscosity of the
fuel is lower than 1.4 cSt at the fuel injection pump
damage to the fuel injection pump can occur. This
damage can be excessive scuffing and seizure. Low
viscosity may lead to difficult hot restarting, stalling,
and loss of performance. High viscosity may result in
seizure of the pump.
SEBU8325-01
Perkins recommends kinematic viscosities of 1.4 and
4.5 cSt that is delivered to the fuel injection pump.
If a fuel with a low viscosity is used, cooling of the
fuel may be required to maintain 1.4 cSt or greater
viscosity at the fuel injection pump. Fuels with a high
viscosity might require fuel heaters in order to lower
the viscosity to 4.5 cSt at the fuel injection pump.
Density
Density is the mass of the fuel per unit volume
at a specific temperature. This parameter has a
direct influence on engine performance and a direct
influence on emissions. This determines the heat
output from a given injected volume of fuel. This is
quoted in the following kg/m3 at 15 °C (59 °F).
Perkins recommends a value of density of 841 kg/m3
in order to obtain the correct power output. Lighter
fuels are acceptable but these fuels will not produce
the rated power.
Sulfur
The level of sulfur is governed by emissions
legislations. Regional regulation, national regulations,
or international regulations can require a fuel with
a specific sulfur limit. The sulfur content of the fuel
and the fuel quality must comply with all existing local
regulations for emissions.
In some parts of the world and for some applications,
high sulfur fuels above 0.5% by mass might only be
available. Fuel with a high sulfur content can cause
engine wear. High sulfur fuel will have a negative
impact on emissions of particulates. High sulfur
fuel can be used if the local emissions legislation
will allow the use. High sulfur fuel can be used in
countries that do not regulate emissions.
When only high sulfur fuels are available, it will be
necessary that high alkaline lubricating oil is used in
the engine or that the lubricating oil change interval
is reduced. Refer to Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Fluid Recommendations (Lubricant
Information)” for information on sulfur in fuel.
Lubricity
This is the capability of the fuel to prevent pump
wear. The lubricity of the fluid describes the ability of
the fluid to reduce the friction between surfaces that
are under load. This ability reduces the damage that
is caused by friction. Fuel injection systems rely on
the lubricating properties of the fuel. Until fuel sulfur
limits were mandated, the lubricity of the fuel was
believed to be a function of fuel viscosity.
45
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
The lubricity has particular significance to the current
low viscosity fuel, low sulfur fuel, and low aromatic
fossil fuel. These fuels are made in order to meet
stringent exhaust emissions.
The lubricity of these fuels must not exceed wear scar
diameter of 0.46 mm (0.01811 inch). The fuel lubricity
test must be performed on an HFRR, operated at
60 °C (140 °F). Refer to “ISO 12156-1 ”.
NOTICE
The fuels system has been qualified with fuel having lubricity up to 0.46 mm (0.01811 inch) wear scar
diameter as tested by “ISO 12156-1 ”. Fuel with higher
wear scar diameter than 0.46 mm (0.01811 inch) will
lead to reduced service life and premature failure of
the fuel system.
In case of the fuels which do not meet specified
lubricity requirement appropriate lubricity additive can
be used to enhance the lubricity of the fuel.
Contact your fuel supplier for those circumstances
when fuel additives are required. Your fuel supplier
can make recommendations for additives to use and
for the proper level of treatment.
Distillation
This is an indication of the mixture of different
hydrocarbons in the fuel. A high ratio of light weight
hydrocarbons can affect the characteristics of
combustion.
Classification of the Fuels
Diesel engines have the ability to burn wide variety
of fuels. Below is a list of typically encountered
fuel specifications that have been assessed as to
their acceptability and are divided into following
categories:
Group 1: Preferred Fuels
The following fuel specifications are considered
acceptable.
Fuels meeting the requirements that are listed in the
table 16.
“EN590 - Grades A to F and class 0 to 4”
“ASTM D975 Grade No. 1-D and 2-D”
“JIS K2204 Grades 1, 2 & 3 & Special Grade 3”
acceptable provided lubricity ware scar diameter
does not exceed of 0.46 mm (0.01811 inch) as per
“ISO 12156-1”.
“BS2869 - Class A2 Off Highway Gas Oil, Red Diesel”
46
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
Note: The lubricity of these fuels must not exceed
wear scar diameter of 0.46 mm (0.01811 inch) as per
“ISO 12156-1”. Refer to “Lubricity”.
Group 2: Aviation Kerosene Fuels
Following kerosene and jet fuel specifications are
acceptable alternative fuels and may be used on a
contingency bases for emergency or continuous use,
where standard diesel fuel is not available and where
legislation allows their use:
“MIL-DTL-83133 NATO F34 (JP-8)”
“MIL-DTL-83133 NATO F35”
“MIL-DTL-5624 NATO F44 (JP-5)”
“MIL-DTL-38219 (USAF) (JP7)”
“NATO XF63”
“ASTM D1655 JET A”
“ASTM D1655 JET A1”
NOTICE
These fuels are only acceptable when used with appropriate lubricity additive and must meet minimum
requirements that are listed in table 16. The lubricity
of these fuels must not exceed wear scar diameter of
0.46 mm (0.01811 inch) as per “ISO 12156-1”. Refer
to “Lubricity”.
Note: Minimum cetane number of 40 is recommended
otherwise cold starting problems or light load misfire
might occur. Since jet fuel specifications do not
mention cetane requirements, Perkins recommends
that a fuel sample is taken to determine the cetane
number.
Note: Fuels must have minimum viscosity of 1.4
cSt delivered to the fuel injection pump. Cooling
of the fuel may be required to maintain 1.4 cSt or
greater viscosity at the fuel injection pump. Perkins
recommends that the actual viscosity of the fuel be
measured in order to determine if a fuel cooler is
needed. Refer to “Viscosity”.
Note: Rated power loss of up to 10 percent is
possible due to lower density and lower viscosity of
jet fuels compared to diesel fuels.
SEBU8325-01
Biodiesel Fuel
Biodiesel is a fuel that can be defined as mono-alkyl
esters of fatty acids. Biodiesel is a fuel that can be
made from various feedstock. The most commonly
available biodiesel in Europe is Rape Methyl Ester
(REM). This biodiesel is derived from rapeseed
oil. Soy Methyl Ester (SME) is the most common
biodiesel in the United States. This biodiesel is
derived from soybean oil. Soybean oil or rapeseed oil
are the primary feedstocks. These fuels are together
known as Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME).
Raw pressed vegetable oils are NOT acceptable for
use as a fuel in any concentration in compression
engines. Without esterification, these oils gel in the
crankcase and the fuel tank. These fuels may not be
compatible with many of the elastomers that are used
in engines that are manufactured today. In original
forms, these oils are not suitable for use as a fuel
in compression engines. Alternate base stocks for
biodiesel may include animal tallow, waste cooking
oils, or various other feedstocks. In order to use any
of the products that are listed as fuel, the oil must
be esterified.
Fuel made of 100 percent FAME is generally referred
to as B100 biodiesel or neat biodiesel.
Biodiesel can be blended with distillate diesel fuel.
The blends can be used as fuel. The most commonly
available biodiesel blends are B5, which is 5 percent
biodiesel and 95 percent distillate diesel fuel. B20,
which is 20 percent biodiesel and 80 percent distillate
diesel fuel.
Note: The percentages given are volume-based.
The U.S. distillate diesel fuel specification “ASTM
D975-09a” includes up to B5 (5 percent) biodiesel.
European distillate diesel fuel specification
“EN590:2010” includes up B7 (7 percent) biodiesel.
Note: Engines that are manufactured by Perkins
are certified by use of the prescribed Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA) and European Certification
fuels. Perkins does not certify engines on any other
fuel. The user of the engine has the responsibility
of using the correct fuel that is recommended by
the manufacturer and allowed by the EPA and other
appropriate regulatory agencies.
Specification Requirements
The neat biodiesel must conform to “EN14214”
or “ASTM D6751” (in the USA) and can only be
blended in mixture of up to 20 percent by volume in
acceptable mineral diesel fuel meeting requirements
that are listed in table 16 or the latest edition of
“EN590” and “ASTM D 975” commercial standards.
This blend is commonly known as B20.
SEBU8325-01
Biodiesel blends are denoted as “BXX” with “XX”
representing the content of neat biodiesel contained
in the blend with mineral diesel fuel (for example B5,
B10, B20).
In United States Biodiesel blends of B6 to B20 must
meet the requirements listed in the latest edition of
“ASTM D7467” (B6 to B20) and must be of an API
gravity of 30-45.
In North America biodiesel and biodiesel blends
must be purchased from the BQ-9000 accredited
producers and BQ-9000 certified distributors.
In other areas of the world, the use of biodiesel
that is BQ-9000 accredited and certified, or that is
accredited and certified by a comparable biodiesel
quality body to meet similar biodiesel quality
standards is required.
Engine Service Requirements with B20
47
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
Performance Related Issues with B20
Due to the lower energy content than the standard
distillate fuel B20 will cause a power loss in order
of 2 to 4 percent. In addition, over time the power
may deteriorate further due to deposits in the fuel
injectors.
Biodiesel and biodiesel blends are known to cause
an increase in fuel system deposits, most significant
of which are deposits within the fuel injector. These
deposits can cause a loss in power due to restricted
or modified fuel injection or cause other functional
issues associated with these deposits.
Note: Perkins T400012 Fuel Cleaner is most
effective in cleaning and preventing the formation
of deposits. Perkins Diesel Fuel Conditioner helps
to limit deposit issues by improving the stability of
biodiesel and biodiesel blends. Refer to “Perkins
Diesel Fuel System Cleaner” for more information.
Aggressive properties of biodiesel fuel may cause
debris in the fuel tank and fuel lines. The aggressive
properties of biodiesel will clean the fuel tank
and fuel lines. This cleaning of the fuel system
can prematurely block of the fuel filters. Perkins
recommends that after the initial usage of B20
biodiesel blended fuel the fuel filters must be replaced
at 50 hours.
General Requirements
Glycerides present in biodiesel fuel will also cause
fuel filters to become blocked more quickly. Therefore
the regular service interval should be reduced to 250
hours.
Due to poor oxidation stability and other potential
issues, it is strongly recommended that engines with
limited operational time either not use B20 biodiesel
blends or, while accepting some risk, limit biodiesel
blend to a maximum of B5. Examples of applications
that should limit the use of biodiesel are the following:
Standby generator sets and certain emergency
vehicles.
When biodiesel fuel is used, crank case oil and
aftertreatment systems may be influenced. This
influence is due to the chemical composition and
characteristics of biodiesel fuel, such as density and
volatility, and to chemical contaminants that can be
present in this fuel, such as alkali and alkaline metals
(sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium).
• Crankcase oil fuel dilution can be higher when
biodiesel or biodiesel blends are used. This
increased level of fuel dilution when using biodiesel
or biodiesel blends is related to the typically
lower volatility of biodiesel. In-cylinder emissions
control strategies utilized in many of the industrial
latest engine designs may lead to a higher level
of biodiesel concentration in the engine oil pan.
The long-term effect of biodiesel concentration in
crankcase oil is currently unknown.
• Perkins recommends the use of oil analysis in order
to check the quality of the engine oil if biodiesel
fuel is used. Ensure that the level of biodiesel in
the fuel is noted when the oil sample is taken.
Biodiesel has poor oxidation stability, which can result
in long-term problems in the storage of biodiesel.
Biodiesel fuel should be used within 6 months of
manufacture. Equipment should not be stored with
the B20 biodiesel blends in the fuel system for longer
than 3 months.
Perkins strongly recommends that seasonally
operated engines have the fuel systems, including
fuel tanks, flashed with conventional diesel fuel
before prolonged shutdown periods. An example of
an application that should seasonally flush the fuel
system is a combine harvester.
Microbial contamination and growth can cause
corrosion in the fuel system and premature plugging
of the fuel filter. Consult your supplier of fuel for
assistance in selecting appropriate antimicrobial
additive.
Water accelerates microbial contamination and
growth. When biodiesel is compared to distillate
fuels, water is naturally more likely to exist in the
biodiesel. It is therefore essential to check frequently
and if necessary, drain the water separator.
48
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
Materials such as brass, bronze, copper, led, tin, and
zinc accelerate the oxidation process of the biodiesel
fuel. The oxidation process can cause deposits
formation therefore these materials must not be used
for fuel tanks and fuel lines.
Fuel for Cold Weather Operation
The European standard “EN590” contains climate
dependant requirements and a range of options. The
options can be applied differently in each country.
There are five classes that are given to arctic climates
and severe winter climates. 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4.
Fuel that complies with “EN590 ” CLASS 4 can be
used at temperatures as low as −44 °C (−47.2 °F).
Refer to “EN590” for a detailed discretion of the
physical properties of the fuel.
The diesel fuel “ASTM D975 1-D” that is used in
the United States of America may be used in cold
temperatures that are below −18 °C (−0.4 °F).
In extreme cold ambient conditions, you may use
the aviation kerosene fuels that are specified in
“Classification of the Fuels”. These fuels are intended
to be used in temperatures that can be as low as
−54 °C (−65.2 °F). Refer to “Classification of the
Fuels” for detail and conditions of use of the aviation
kerosene fuels.
Mixing alcohol or gasoline with diesel fuel can produce an explosive mixture in the engine crankcase
or the fuel tank. Alcohol or gasoline must not be
used in order to dilute diesel fuel. Failure to follow
this instruction may result in death or personal injury.
There are many other diesel fuel specifications that
are published by governments and by technological
societies. Usually, those specifications do not review
all the requirements that are addressed in table 16.
To ensure optimum engine performance, a complete
fuel analysis should be obtained before engine
operation. The fuel analysis should include all of the
properties that are stated in the table 16.
SEBU8325-01
Aftermarket Fuel Additives
NOTICE
Perkins does not warrant the quality or performance
of non Perkins fluids and filters.
When auxiliary devices, accessories, or consumables
(filters, additives) which are made by other manufacturers are used on Perkins products, the Perkins warranty is not affected simply because of such use.
However, failures that result from the installation
or use of other manufacturers devices, accessories, or consumables are NOT Perkins defects.
Therefore, the defects are NOT covered under the
Perkins warranty.
Supplemental diesel fuel additives are not
recommended. This is due to potential damage to
the fuel system or the engine. Your fuel supplier
or the fuel manufacturer will add the appropriate
supplemental diesel fuel additives.
Perkins recognizes the fact that additives may
be required in some special circumstances. Fuel
additives need to be used with caution. Contact
your fuel supplier for those circumstances when
fuel additives are required. Your fuel supplier can
recommend the appropriate fuel additive and the
correct level of treatment.
Note: For the best results, your fuel supplier should
treat the fuel when additives are required. The treated
fuel must meet the requirements that are stated in
table 16.
Perkins Diesel Fuel System Cleaner
Perkins T400012 Fuel Cleaner is the only fuel cleaner
that is recommended by Perkins.
If biodiesel or biodiesel blends of fuel are to be
used, Perkins require the use of Perkins fuel cleaner.
For more information on the use of biodiesel and
biodiesel blends refer to “Biodiesel Fuel”.
Perkins fuel cleaner will remove deposits that can
form in the fuel system with the use of biodiesel and
biodiesel blends. These deposits can create a loss
of power and engine performance.
Once the fuel cleaner has been added to the fuel,
the deposits within the fuel system are removed
after 30 hours of engine operation. For maximum
results, continue to use the fuel cleaner for up to
80 hours. Perkins fuel cleaner can be used on an
on-going basis with no adverse impact on engine or
fuel system durability.
SEBU8325-01
Detailed instructions on the rate of which the fuel
cleaner must be use are on the container.
49
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
50
Maintenance Section
Maintenance Interval Schedule
SEBU8325-01
i04431375
Maintenance Interval Schedule
Turbocharger - Inspect .......................................... 75
Water Pump - Inspect ........................................... 78
Every 3000 Service Hours
Alternator Belt - Inspect/Adjust/Replace ............... 52
Fuel Injector - Test/Change ................................... 67
When Required
Battery - Replace ..................................................
Battery or Battery Cable - Disconnect ..................
Engine - Clean ......................................................
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Dual Element) Clean/Replace ....................................................
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Single Element) Inspect/Replace ..................................................
Fuel System - Prime .............................................
Severe Service Application - Check .....................
52
53
59
60
62
68
74
Daily
Cooling System Coolant Level - Check ................
Driven Equipment - Check ....................................
Engine Air Cleaner Service Indicator - Inspect .....
Engine Air Precleaner - Check/Clean ...................
Engine Oil Level - Check ......................................
Fuel System Primary Filter/Water Separator Drain ...................................................................
V-Belts - Inspect/Adjust/Replace ..........................
Walk-Around Inspection ........................................
69
76
77
Fuel Tank Water and Sediment - Drain ................. 72
Every 500 Service Hours
V-Belts - Inspect/Adjust/Replace .......................... 76
Every 500 Service Hours or 1 Year
53
58
59
60
64
68
70
73
74
Every 1000 Service Hours
Engine Valve Lash - Inspect/Adjust ...................... 66
Every 2000 Service Hours
Aftercooler Core - Inspect .....................................
Alternator - Inspect ...............................................
Engine Mounts - Inspect .......................................
Starting Motor - Inspect ........................................
Cooling System Coolant (Commercial Heavy-Duty) Change ............................................................... 54
Every 4000 Service Hours
Aftercooler Core - Clean/Test ............................... 51
Every 12 000 Service Hours or 6 Years
Cooling System Coolant (ELC) - Change ............. 55
57
59
62
63
64
Every 50 Service Hours or Weekly
Battery Electrolyte Level - Check ..........................
Cooling System Supplemental Coolant Additive
(SCA) - Test/Add .................................................
Crankcase Breather (Canister) - Replace .............
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Dual Element) Clean/Replace ....................................................
Engine Oil and Filter - Change .............................
Fuel System Primary Filter (Water Separator)
Element - Replace ..............................................
Fuel System Secondary Filter - Replace ..............
Hoses and Clamps - Inspect/Replace ..................
Radiator - Clean ....................................................
Every 3000 Service Hours or 2 Years
51
52
63
75
SEBU8325-01
51
Maintenance Section
Aftercooler Core - Clean/Test
i02690449
Aftercooler Core - Clean/Test
Personal injury can result from air pressure.
1. Remove the core. Refer to the OEM information
for the correct procedure.
Personal injury can result without following proper procedure. When using pressure air, wear a protective face shield and protective clothing.
2. Turn the aftercooler core upside-down in order to
remove debris.
Maximum air pressure at the nozzle must be less
than 205 kPa (30 psi) for cleaning purposes.
8. Dry the core with compressed air. Direct the air in
the reverse direction of the normal flow.
Personal injury can result from air pressure.
Personal injury can result without following proper procedure. When using pressure air, wear a protective face shield and protective clothing.
Maximum air pressure at the nozzle must be less
than 205 kPa (30 psi) for cleaning purposes.
3. Pressurized air is the preferred method for
removing loose debris. Direct the air in the
opposite direction of the fan's air flow. Hold the
nozzle approximately 6 mm (.25 inch) away from
the fins. Slowly move the air nozzle in a direction
that is parallel with the tubes. This will remove
debris that is between the tubes.
4. Pressurized water may also be used for cleaning.
The maximum water pressure for cleaning
purposes must be less than 275 kPa (40 psi). Use
pressurized water in order to soften mud. Clean
the core from both sides.
NOTICE
Do not use a high concentration of caustic cleaner to
clean the core. A high concentration of caustic cleaner
can attack the internal metals of the core and cause
leakage. Only use the recommended concentration of
cleaner.
9. Inspect the core in order to ensure cleanliness.
Pressure test the core. If necessary, repair the
core.
10. Install the core. Refer to the OEM information for
the correct procedure.
11. After cleaning, start the engine and accelerate
the engine to high idle rpm. This will help in the
removal of debris and drying of the core. Stop the
engine. Use a light bulb behind the core in order
to inspect the core for cleanliness. Repeat the
cleaning, if necessary.
i02690450
Aftercooler Core - Inspect
Note: Adjust the frequency of cleaning according to
the effects of the operating environment.
Inspect the aftercooler for these items: damaged fins,
corrosion, dirt, grease, insects, leaves, oil, and other
debris. Clean the aftercooler, if necessary.
For air-to-air aftercoolers, use the same methods that
are used for cleaning radiators.
5. Back flush the core with a suitable cleaner.
6. Steam clean the core in order to remove any
residue. Flush the fins of the aftercooler core.
Remove any other trapped debris.
7. Wash the core with hot, soapy water. Rinse the
core thoroughly with clean water.
Personal injury can result from air pressure.
Personal injury can result without following proper procedure. When using pressure air, wear a protective face shield and protective clothing.
Maximum air pressure at the nozzle must be less
than 205 kPa (30 psi) for cleaning purposes.
52
Maintenance Section
Alternator - Inspect
SEBU8325-01
After cleaning, start the engine and accelerate the
engine to high idle rpm. This will help in the removal
of debris and drying of the core. Stop the engine.
Use a light bulb behind the core in order to inspect
the core for cleanliness. Repeat the cleaning, if
necessary.
• Check the belt of cracks, splits, glazing, grease,
and splitting.
Inspect the fins for damage. Bent fins may be opened
with a “comb”.
Note: If parts of the aftercooler system are repaired
or replaced, a leak test is highly recommended.
Inspect these items for good condition: Welds,
mounting brackets, air lines, connections, clamps,
and seals. Make repairs, if necessary.
i02674959
Alternator - Inspect
Perkins recommends a scheduled inspection of
the alternator. Inspect the alternator for loose
connections and correct battery charging. Inspect the
ammeter (if equipped) during engine operation in
order to ensure correct battery performance and/or
correct performance of the electrical system. Make
repairs, as required.
Illustration 19
Check the alternator and the battery charger for
correct operation. If the batteries are correctly
charged, the ammeter reading should be very near
zero. All batteries should be kept charged. The
batteries should be kept warm because temperature
affects the cranking power. If the battery is too cold,
the battery will not crank the engine. When the
engine is not run for long periods of time or if the
engine is run for short periods, the batteries may not
fully charge. A battery with a low charge will freeze
more easily than a battery with a full charge.
Replace
g01251375
Typical example
Adjustment
This type of belt has an automatic belt tensioner.
Refer to Disassembly and Assembly manual,
“Alternator Belt - Remove and Install”.
i02675026
Battery - Replace
i02690445
Alternator Belt Inspect/Adjust/Replace
(Poly V-Belt)
Inspection
To maximize the engine performance, inspect the belt
(1) for wear and for cracking. Replace the belt if the
belt is worn or damaged.
• If the belt (1) has more than four cracks per
25.4000 mm (1 inch) the belt must be replaced.
Batteries give off combustible gases which can
explode. A spark can cause the combustible gases to ignite. This can result in severe personal injury or death.
Ensure proper ventilation for batteries that are in
an enclosure. Follow the proper procedures in order to help prevent electrical arcs and/or sparks
near batteries. Do not smoke when batteries are
serviced.
SEBU8325-01
53
Maintenance Section
Battery Electrolyte Level - Check
The battery cables or the batteries should not be
removed with the battery cover in place. The battery cover should be removed before any servicing is attempted.
All lead-acid batteries contain sulfuric acid which
can burn the skin and clothing. Always wear a face
shield and protective clothing when working on or
near batteries.
Removing the battery cables or the batteries with
the cover in place may cause a battery explosion
resulting in personal injury.
1. Remove the filler caps. Maintain the electrolyte
level to the “FULL” mark on the battery.
1. Switch the engine to the OFF position. Remove
all electrical loads.
2. Turn off any battery chargers. Disconnect any
battery chargers.
3. The NEGATIVE “-” cable connects the NEGATIVE
“-” battery terminal to the NEGATIVE “-” terminal
on the starting motor. Disconnect the cable from
the NEGATIVE “-” battery terminal.
4. The POSITIVE “+” cable connects the POSITIVE
“+” battery terminal to the POSITIVE “+” terminal
on the starting motor. Disconnect the cable from
the POSITIVE “+” battery terminal.
If the addition of water is necessary, use distilled
water. If distilled water is not available use clean
water that is low in minerals. Do not use artificially
softened water.
2. Check the condition of the electrolyte with a
suitable battery tester.
3. Install the caps.
4. Keep the batteries clean.
Clean the battery case with one of the following
cleaning solutions:
• A mixture of 0.1 kg (0.2 lb) of washing soda or
baking soda and 1 L (1 qt) of clean water
Note: Always recycle a battery. Never discard a
battery. Return used batteries to an appropriate
recycling facility.
• A mixture of 0.1 L (0.11 qt) of ammonia and 1 L
5. Remove the used battery.
Thoroughly rinse the battery case with clean water.
(1 qt) of clean water
6. Install the new battery.
i02675127
Note: Before the cables are connected, ensure that
the engine start switch is OFF.
7. Connect the cable from the starting motor to the
POSITIVE “+” battery terminal.
8. Connect the cable from the NEGATIVE “-” terminal
on the starting motor to the NEGATIVE “-” battery
terminal.
i02674900
Battery Electrolyte Level Check
When the engine is not run for long periods of time or
when the engine is run for short periods, the batteries
may not fully recharge. Ensure a full charge in order
to help prevent the battery from freezing. If batteries
are correctly charged, the ammeter reading should
be very near zero, when the engine is in operation.
Battery or Battery Cable Disconnect
The battery cables or the batteries should not be
removed with the battery cover in place. The battery cover should be removed before any servicing is attempted.
Removing the battery cables or the batteries with
the cover in place may cause a battery explosion
resulting in personal injury.
1. Turn the start switch to the OFF position. Turn the
ignition switch (if equipped) to the OFF position
and remove the key and all electrical loads.
2. Disconnect the negative battery terminal. Ensure
that the cable cannot contact the terminal. When
four 12 volt batteries are involved, two negative
connection must be disconnected.
54
Maintenance Section
Cooling System Coolant (Commercial Heavy-Duty) - Change
SEBU8325-01
• The fuel has entered the cooling system and the
3. Remove the positive connection.
4. Clean all disconnected connection and battery
terminals.
5. Use a fine grade of sandpaper to clean the
terminals and the cable clamps. Clean the items
until the surfaces are bright or shiny. DO NOT
remove material excessively. Excessive removal
of material can cause the clamps to not fit
correctly. Coat the clamps and the terminals with
a suitable silicone lubricant or petroleum jelly.
6. Tape the cable connections in order to help
prevent accidental starting.
7. Proceed with necessary system repairs.
8. In order to connect the battery, connect the
positive connection before the negative connector.
i02675519
Cooling System Coolant
(Commercial Heavy-Duty) Change
coolant is contaminated.
Note: When the cooling system is cleaned, only
clean water is needed.
Note: Inspect the water pump and the water
temperature regulator after the cooling system has
been drained. This is a good opportunity to replace
the water pump, the water temperature regulator and
the hoses, if necessary.
Drain
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pressure.
1. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.
Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in
order to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap.
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained
during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to
collect the fluid with suitable containers before opening any compartment or disassembling any component containing fluids.
Dispose of all fluids according to Local regulations and
mandates.
NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.
Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened
component life.
Clean the cooling system and flush the cooling
system before the recommended maintenance
interval if the following conditions exist:
• The engine overheats frequently.
• Foaming is observed.
• The oil has entered the cooling system and the
coolant is contaminated.
Illustration 20
g01356026
2. Open the drain cock or remove the drain plug (1)
on the engine. Open the drain cock or remove the
drain plug on the radiator.
Allow the coolant to drain.
SEBU8325-01
NOTICE
Dispose of used engine coolant or recycle. Various
methods have been proposed to reclaim used coolant
for reuse in engine cooling systems. The full distillation
procedure is the only method acceptable by Perkins to
reclaim the coolant.
For information regarding the disposal and the
recycling of used coolant, consult your Perkins dealer
or your Perkins distributor.
Flush
1. Flush the cooling system with clean water in order
to remove any debris.
2. Close the drain cock or install the drain plug in the
engine. Close the drain cock or install the drain
plug on the radiator.
NOTICE
Do not fill the cooling system faster than 5 L
(1.3 US gal) per minute to avoid air locks.
Cooling system air locks may result in engine damage.
3. Fill the cooling system with clean water. Install the
cooling system filler cap.
4. Start and run the engine at low idle until the
temperature reaches 49 to 66 °C (120 to 150 °F).
5. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.
Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in
order to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap. Open the drain cock or remove
the drain plug on the engine. Open the drain cock
or remove the drain plug on the radiator. Allow
the water to drain. Flush the cooling system with
clean water.
Fill
1. Close the drain cock or install the drain plug on the
engine. Close the drain cock or install the drain
plug on the radiator.
NOTICE
Do not fill the cooling system faster than 5 L
(1.3 US gal) per minute to avoid air locks.
Cooling system air locks may result in engine damage.
55
Maintenance Section
Cooling System Coolant (ELC) - Change
2. Fill the cooling system with Commercial
Heavy-Duty Coolant. Add Supplemental Coolant
Additive to the coolant. For the correct amount,
refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Fluid Recommendations” topic (Maintenance
Section) for more information on cooling system
specifications. Do not install the cooling system
filler cap.
3. Start and run the engine at low idle. Increase the
engine rpm to high idle. Run the engine at high
idle for one minute in order to purge the air from
the cavities of the engine block. Stop the engine.
4. Check the coolant level. Maintain the coolant level
within 13 mm (0.5 inch) below the bottom of the
pipe for filling. Maintain the coolant level in the
expansion bottle (if equipped) at the correct level.
5. Clean the cooling system filler cap. Inspect the
gasket that is on the cooling system filler cap. If
the gasket that is on the cooling system filler cap
is damaged, discard the old cooling system filler
cap and install a new cooling system filler cap. If
the gasket that is on the cooling system filler cap
is not damaged, use a suitable pressurizing pump
in order to pressure test the cooling system filler
cap. The correct pressure for the cooling system
filler cap is stamped on the face of the cooling
system filler cap. If the cooling system filler cap
does not retain the correct pressure, install a new
cooling system filler cap.
6. Start the engine. Inspect the cooling system for
leaks and for correct operating temperature.
i02675568
Cooling System Coolant (ELC)
- Change
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained
during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to
collect the fluid with suitable containers before opening any compartment or disassembling any component containing fluids.
Dispose of all fluids according to Local regulations and
mandates.
NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.
Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened
component life.
56
Maintenance Section
Cooling System Coolant (ELC) - Change
SEBU8325-01
Clean the cooling system and flush the cooling
system before the recommended maintenance
interval if the following conditions exist:
• The engine overheats frequently.
• Foaming is observed.
• The oil has entered the cooling system and the
coolant is contaminated.
• The fuel has entered the cooling system and the
coolant is contaminated.
Note: When the cooling system is cleaned, only
clean water is needed when the ELC is drained and
replaced.
Note: Inspect the water pump and the water
temperature regulator after the cooling system has
been drained. This is a good opportunity to replace
the water pump, the water temperature regulator and
the hoses, if necessary.
Drain
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pressure.
1. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.
Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in
order to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap.
Illustration 21
g01356026
Typical example
2. Open the drain cock or remove the drain plug (1)
on the engine. Open the drain cock or remove the
drain plug on the radiator.
Allow the coolant to drain.
NOTICE
Dispose of used engine coolant or recycle. Various
methods have been proposed to reclaim used coolant
for reuse in engine cooling systems. The full distillation
procedure is the only method acceptable by Perkins to
reclaim the coolant.
For information regarding the disposal and the
recycling of used coolant, consult your Perkins dealer
or your Perkins distributor.
Flush
1. Flush the cooling system with clean water in order
to remove any debris.
2. Close the drain cock or install the drain plug in the
engine. Close the drain cock or install the drain
plug on the radiator.
NOTICE
Do not fill the cooling system faster than 5 L
(1.3 US gal) per minute to avoid air locks.
Cooling system air locks may result in engine damage.
3. Fill the cooling system with clean water. Install the
cooling system filler cap.
SEBU8325-01
4. Start and run the engine at low idle until the
temperature reaches 49 to 66 °C (120 to 150 °F).
5. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.
Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in
order to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap. Open the drain cock or remove
the drain plug on the engine. Open the drain cock
or remove the drain plug on the radiator. Allow
the water to drain. Flush the cooling system with
clean water.
Fill
1. Close the drain cock or install the drain plug on the
engine. Close the drain cock or install the drain
plug on the radiator.
NOTICE
Do not fill the cooling system faster than 5 L
(1.3 US gal) per minute to avoid air locks.
57
Maintenance Section
Cooling System Coolant Level - Check
i02675588
Cooling System Coolant Level
- Check
Engines With a Coolant Recovery
Tank
Note: The cooling system may not have been
provided by Perkins. The procedure that follows
is for typical cooling systems. Refer to the OEM
information for the correct procedures.
Check the coolant level when the engine is stopped
and cool.
1. Observe the coolant level in the coolant recovery
tank. Maintain the coolant level to “COLD FULL”
mark on the coolant recovery tank.
Cooling system air locks may result in engine damage.
2. Fill the cooling system with Extended Life
Coolant (ELC). Refer to the Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Fluid Recommendations”
topic (Maintenance Section) for more information
on cooling system specifications. Do not install the
cooling system filler cap.
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pressure.
3. Start and run the engine at low idle. Increase the
engine rpm to high idle. Run the engine at high
idle for one minute in order to purge the air from
the cavities of the engine block. Stop the engine.
2. Loosen filler cap slowly in order to relieve any
pressure. Remove the filler cap.
4. Check the coolant level. Maintain the coolant level
within 13 mm (0.5 inch) below the bottom of the
pipe for filling. Maintain the coolant level in the
expansion bottle (if equipped) at the correct level.
5. Clean the cooling system filler cap. Inspect the
gasket that is on the cooling system filler cap. If
the gasket that is on the cooling system filler cap
is damaged, discard the old cooling system filler
cap and install a new cooling system filler cap. If
the gasket that is on the cooling system filler cap
is not damaged, use a suitable pressurizing pump
in order to pressure test the cooling system filler
cap. The correct pressure for the cooling system
filler cap is stamped on the face of the cooling
system filler cap. If the cooling system filler cap
does not retain the correct pressure, install a new
cooling system filler cap.
3. Pour the correct coolant mixture into the tank.
Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Refill Capacities and Recommendations” for
information on the correct mixture and type of
coolant. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Refill Capacities and Recommendations”
for the cooling system capacity. Do not fill the
coolant recovery tank above “COLD FULL” mark.
6. Start the engine. Inspect the cooling system for
leaks and for correct operating temperature.
Illustration 22
g00103639
58
Maintenance Section
Cooling System Supplemental Coolant Additive (SCA) - Test/Add
4. Clean filler cap and the receptacle. Reinstall the
filler cap and inspect the cooling system for leaks.
Note: The coolant will expand as the coolant heats
up during normal engine operation. The additional
volume will be forced into the coolant recovery tank
during engine operation. When the engine is stopped
and cool, the coolant will return to the engine.
Engines Without a Coolant
Recovery Tank
Check the coolant level when the engine is stopped
and cool.
SEBU8325-01
i02675604
Cooling System Supplemental
Coolant Additive (SCA) Test/Add
Cooling system coolant additive contains alkali.
To help prevent personal injury, avoid contact with
the skin and the eyes. Do not drink cooling system
coolant additive.
Test for SCA Concentration
Heavy-Duty Coolant/Antifreeze and SCA
NOTICE
Do not exceed the recommended six percent supplemental coolant additive concentration.
Use a Coolant Conditioner Test Kit in order to check
the concentration of the SCA.
Illustration 23
g00285520
Cooling system filler cap
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pressure.
1. Remove the cooling system filler cap slowly in
order to relieve pressure.
2. Maintain the coolant level within 13 mm (0.5 inch)
of the bottom of the filler pipe. If the engine is
equipped with a sight glass, maintain the coolant
level to the correct level in the sight glass.
3. Clean the cooling system filler cap and inspect the
gasket. If the gasket is damaged, discard the old
filler cap and install a new filler cap. If the gasket
is not damaged, use a suitable pressurizing pump
in order to pressure test the filler cap. The correct
pressure is stamped on the face of the filler cap. If
the filler cap does not retain the correct pressure,
install a new filler cap.
4. Inspect the cooling system for leaks.
Add the SCA, If Necessary
NOTICE
Do not exceed the recommended amount of supplemental coolant additive concentration. Excessive
supplemental coolant additive concentration can form
deposits on the higher temperature surfaces of the
cooling system, reducing the engine's heat transfer
characteristics. Reduced heat transfer could cause
cracking of the cylinder head and other high temperature components. Excessive supplemental coolant
additive concentration could also result in radiator
tube blockage, overheating, and/or accelerated water
pump seal wear. Never use both liquid supplemental
coolant additive and the spin-on element (if equipped)
at the same time. The use of those additives together
could result in supplemental coolant additive concentration exceeding the recommended maximum.
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pressure.
SEBU8325-01
59
Maintenance Section
Crankcase Breather (Canister) - Replace
1. Slowly loosen the cooling system filler cap in
order to relieve the pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap.
Note: Always discard drained fluids according to
local regulations.
2. If necessary, drain some coolant from the cooling
system into a suitable container in order to allow
space for the extra SCA.
3. Add the correct amount of SCA. Refer to the
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Refill
Capacities and Recommendations” for more
information on SCA requirements.
4. Clean the cooling system filler cap and inspect the
gasket. If the gasket is damaged, discard the old
filler cap and install a new filler cap. If the gasket
is not damaged, use a suitable pressurizing pump
in order to pressure test the filler cap. The correct
pressure is stamped on the face of the filler cap. If
the filler cap does not retain the correct pressure,
install a new filler cap.
3. Lubricate the O ring seal (2) on the new canister
with clean engine lubricating oil. Install the new
canister. Tighten the canister to 12 N·m (8 lb ft).
Do not overtighten the canister.
4. Remove the container. Dispose of the old canister
and any split oil in a safe place.
i02676008
Driven Equipment - Check
Refer to the OEM specifications for more information
on the following maintenance recommendations for
the driven equipment:
• Inspection
• Adjustment
• Lubrication
• Other maintenance recommendations
i02690442
Crankcase Breather (Canister)
- Replace
Perform any maintenance for the driven equipment
which is recommended by the OEM.
i02683047
Engine - Clean
NOTICE
Ensure that the engine is stopped before any servicing
or repair is performed.
Note: The breather assembly is not installed on all
engines.
Personal injury or death can result from high voltage.
Moisture can create paths of electrical conductivity.
Make sure that the electrical system is OFF. Lock
out the starting controls and tag the controls “DO
NOT OPERATE”.
NOTICE
Accumulated grease and oil on an engine is a fire hazard. Keep the engine clean. Remove debris and fluid
spills whenever a significant quantity accumulates on
the engine.
Illustration 24
g01350307
Typical example
1. Place a container under the canister (1).
2. Clean the outside of the canister. Use a suitable
tool in order to remove the canister.
NOTICE
Failure to protect some engine components from
washing may make your engine warranty invalid.
Allow the engine to cool for one hour before washing
the engine.
60
Maintenance Section
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Dual Element) - Clean/Replace
Periodic cleaning of the engine is recommended.
Steam cleaning the engine will remove accumulated
oil and grease. A clean engine provides the following
benefits:
• Easy detection of fluid leaks
SEBU8325-01
• Check the precleaner (if equipped) and the dust
bowl daily for accumulation of dirt and debris.
Remove any dirt and debris, as needed.
• Operating in dirty conditions may require more
frequent service of the air cleaner element.
• Maximum heat transfer characteristics
• The air cleaner element should be replaced at least
one time per year. This replacement should be
performed regardless of the number of cleanings.
• Ease of maintenance
Note: Caution must be used in order to prevent
electrical components from being damaged by
excessive water when the engine is cleaned. When a
pressure washer or steam cleaner is used to clean
the engine, a minimum distance of 300 mm (12 inch)
must be maintained between the components of the
engine and the jet nozzle of the pressure washer
or steam cleaner. Pressure washers and steam
cleaners should not be directed at any electrical
connectors or the junction of cables into the rear of
the connectors. Avoid electrical components such as
the alternator and the starter. Protect the fuel injection
pump from fluids in order to wash the engine.
i02690459
Engine Air Cleaner Element
(Dual Element) - Clean/Replace
NOTICE
Never run the engine without an air cleaner element
installed. Never run the engine with a damaged air
cleaner element. Do not use air cleaner elements with
damaged pleats, gaskets or seals. Dirt entering the
engine causes premature wear and damage to engine
components. Air cleaner elements help to prevent airborne debris from entering the air inlet.
Replace the dirty air cleaner elements with clean air
cleaner elements. Before installation, the air cleaner
elements should be thoroughly checked for tears
and/or holes in the filter material. Inspect the gasket
or the seal of the air cleaner element for damage.
Maintain a supply of suitable air cleaner elements
for replacement purposes.
Dual Element Air Cleaners
The dual element air cleaner contains a primary air
cleaner element and a secondary air cleaner element.
The primary air cleaner element can be used up
to six times if the element is properly cleaned and
properly inspected. The primary air cleaner element
should be replaced at least one time per year. This
replacement should be performed regardless of the
number of cleanings.
The secondary air cleaner element is not serviceable.
Refer to the OEM information for instructions in order
to replace the secondary air cleaner element.
When the engine is operating in environments that
are dusty or dirty, air cleaner elements may require
more frequent replacement.
NOTICE
Never service the air cleaner element with the engine
running since this will allow dirt to enter the engine.
Servicing the Air Cleaner Elements
Note: The air filter system may not have been
provided by Perkins. The procedure that follows
is for a typical air filter system. Refer to the OEM
information for the correct procedure.
If the air cleaner element becomes plugged, the air
can split the material of the air cleaner element.
Unfiltered air will drastically accelerate internal
engine wear. Refer to the OEM information for the
correct air cleaner elements for your application.
Illustration 25
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
g00736431
Cover
Primary air cleaner element
Secondary air cleaner element
Air inlet
1. Remove the cover. Remove the primary air
cleaner element.
SEBU8325-01
2. The secondary air cleaner element should be
removed and discarded for every three cleanings
of the primary air cleaner element.
Note: Refer to “Cleaning the Primary Air Cleaner
Elements”.
3. Cover the air inlet with tape in order to keep dirt
out.
4. Clean the inside of the air cleaner cover and body
with a clean, dry cloth.
5. Remove the tapefrom the air inlet. Install the
secondary air cleaner element. Install a primary
air cleaner element that is new or cleaned.
6. Install the air cleaner cover.
7. Reset the air cleaner service indicator.
Cleaning the Primary Air Cleaner
Elements
Refer to the OEM information in order to determine
the number of times that the primary filter element can
be cleaned. When the primary air cleaner element is
cleaned, check for rips or tears in the filter material.
The primary air cleaner element should be replaced
at least one time per year. This replacement should
be performed regardless of the number of cleanings.
61
Maintenance Section
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Dual Element) - Clean/Replace
Visually inspect the primary air cleaner element
before cleaning. Inspect air cleaner elements for
damage to the pleats, the seals, the gaskets and
the outer cover. Discard any damaged air cleaner
element.
Two methods may be used in order to clean the
primary air cleaner element:
• pressurized air
• Vacuum cleaning
Pressurized Air
Personal injury can result from air pressure.
Personal injury can result without following proper procedure. When using pressure air, wear a protective face shield and protective clothing.
Maximum air pressure at the nozzle must be less
than 205 kPa (30 psi) for cleaning purposes.
Pressurized air can be used to clean primary air
cleaner elements that have not been cleaned more
than three times. Use filtered, dry air with a maximum
pressure of 207 kPa (30 psi). Pressurized air will not
remove deposits of carbon and oil.
NOTICE
Do not tap or strike the air cleaner element.
Do not wash the primary air cleaner element.
Use low pressure (207 kPa; 30 psi maximum) pressurised air or vacuum cleaning to clean the primary
air cleaner element.
Take extreme care in order to avoid damage to the air
cleaner elements.
Do not use air cleaner elements that have damaged
pleats, gaskets or seals.
Refer to the OEM information in order to determine
the number of times that the primary air cleaner
element can be cleaned. Do not clean the primary
air filter element more than three times. The primary
air cleaner element must be replaced at least one
time per year.
Cleaning the air filter element will not extend the life
of the air filter element.
Illustration 26
g00281692
Note: When the primary air cleaner elements are
cleaned, always begin with the clean side (inside)
in order to force dirt particles toward the dirty side
(outside).
Aim the air hose so that air flows along the length of
the filter. Follow the direction of the paper pleats in
order to prevent damage to the pleats. Do not aim
the air directly at the face of the paper pleats.
Note: Refer to “Inspecting the Primary Air Cleaner
Elements”.
62
Maintenance Section
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Single Element) - Inspect/Replace
Vacuum Cleaning
SEBU8325-01
i02676010
Vacuum cleaning is a good method for removing
accumulated dirt from the dirty side (outside) of a
primary air cleaner element. Vacuum cleaning is
especially useful for cleaning primary air cleaner
elements which require daily cleaning because of a
dry, dusty environment.
Cleaning from the clean side (inside) with pressurized
air is recommended prior to vacuum cleaning the
dirty side (outside) of a primary air cleaner element.
Note: Refer to “Inspecting the Primary Air Cleaner
Elements”.
Inspecting the Primary Air Cleaner
Elements
Engine Air Cleaner
Element (Single Element) Inspect/Replace
Refer to Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Engine
Air Cleaner Service Indicator-Inspect”.
NOTICE
Never run the engine without an air cleaner element
installed. Never run the engine with a damaged air
cleaner element. Do not use air cleaner elements with
damaged pleats, gaskets or seals. Dirt entering the
engine causes premature wear and damage to engine
components. Air cleaner elements help to prevent airborne debris from entering the air inlet.
NOTICE
Never service the air cleaner element with the engine
running since this will allow dirt to enter the engine.
A wide variety of air cleaners may be installed for use
with this engine. Consult the OEM information for the
correct procedure to replace the air cleaner.
i02676011
Illustration 27
g00281693
Inspect the clean, dry primary air cleaner element.
Use a 60 watt blue light in a dark room or in a similar
facility. Place the blue light in the primary air cleaner
element. Rotate the primary air cleaner element.
Inspect the primary air cleaner element for tears
and/or holes. Inspect the primary air cleaner element
for light that may show through the filter material. If it
is necessary in order to confirm the result, compare
the primary air cleaner element to a new primary air
cleaner element that has the same part number.
Do not use a primary air cleaner element that has
any tears and/or holes in the filter material. Do not
use a primary air cleaner element with damaged
pleats, gaskets or seals. Discard damaged primary
air cleaner elements.
Engine Air Cleaner Service
Indicator - Inspect
Some engines may be equipped with a different
service indicator.
Some engines are equipped with a differential gauge
for inlet air pressure. The differential gauge for inlet
air pressure displays the difference in the pressure
that is measured before the air cleaner element and
the pressure that is measured after the air cleaner
element. As the air cleaner element becomes dirty,
the pressure differential rises. If your engine is
equipped with a different type of service indicator,
follow the OEM recommendations in order to service
the air cleaner service indicator.
The service indicator may be mounted on the air
cleaner element or in a remote location.
SEBU8325-01
63
Maintenance Section
Engine Air Precleaner - Check/Clean
i02690451
Engine Air Precleaner Check/Clean
Illustration 28
g00103777
Typical service indicator
Observe the service indicator. The air cleaner
element should be cleaned or the air cleaner element
should be replaced when one of the following
conditions occur:
• The yellow diaphragm enters the red zone.
• The red piston locks in the visible position.
Test the Service Indicator
Service indicators are important instruments.
Illustration 29
g00287039
Typical example
(1) Wing nut
(2) Cover
(3) Body
Remove wing nut (1) and cover (2). Check for an
accumulation of dirt and debris in body (3). Clean the
body, if necessary.
• Check for ease of resetting. The service indicator
After cleaning the precleaner, install cover (2) and
wing nut (1).
• Check the movement of the yellow core when the
Note: When the engine is operated in dusty
applications, more frequent cleaning is required.
should reset in less than three pushes.
engine is accelerated to the engine rated speed.
The yellow core should latch approximately at the
greatest vacuum that is attained.
If the service indicator does not reset easily, or if the
yellow core does not latch at the greatest vacuum,
the service indicator should be replaced. If the new
service indicator will not reset, the hole for the service
indicator may be restricted.
The service indicator may need to be replaced
frequently in environments that are severely dusty.
i02676012
Engine Mounts - Inspect
Note: The engine mounts may not have been
supplied by Perkins. Refer to the OEM information
for further information on the engine mounts and the
correct bolt torque.
Inspect the engine mounts for deterioration and for
correct bolt torque. Engine vibration can be caused
by the following conditions:
• Incorrect mounting of the engine
• Deterioration of the engine mounts
• Loose engine mounts
Any engine mount that shows deterioration should
be replaced. Refer to the OEM information for the
recommended torques.
64
Maintenance Section
Engine Oil Level - Check
SEBU8325-01
i02676018
i04478611
Engine Oil Level - Check
Engine Oil and Filter - Change
Hot oil and hot components can cause personal
injury. Do not allow hot oil or hot components to
contact the skin.
Hot oil and hot components can cause personal
injury. Do not allow hot oil or hot components to
contact the skin.
Do not drain the oil when the engine is cold. As the oil
cools, suspended waste particles settle on the bottom
of the oil pan. The waste particles are not removed
with the draining cold oil. Drain the crankcase with
the engine stopped. Drain the crankcase with the
oil warm. This draining method allows the waste
particles that are suspended in the oil to be drained
properly.
Failure to follow this recommended procedure will
cause the waste particles to be recirculated through
the engine lubrication system with the new oil.
Illustration 30
g01165836
Drain the Engine Oil
(Y) “MIN” mark. (X) “MAX” mark.
NOTICE
Perform this maintenance with the engine stopped.
Note: Ensure that the engine is either level or that
the engine is in the normal operating position in order
to obtain a true level indication.
Note: After the engine has been switched OFF, allow
the engine oil to drain to the oil pan before checking
the oil level.
1. Maintain the oil level between the “MIN” mark (Y)
and the “MAX” mark (X) on the engine oil dipstick.
Do not fill the crankcase above the “MAX” mark
(X).
NOTICE
Operating your engine when the oil level is above the
“FULL” mark could cause your crankshaft to dip into
the oil. The air bubbles created from the crankshaft
dipping into the oil reduces the oil's lubricating characteristics and could result in the loss of power.
2. Remove the oil filler cap and add oil, if necessary.
Clean the oil filler cap. Install the oil filler cap.
Illustration 31
g01356033
Oil drain plug
After the engine has been run at the normal operating
temperature, stop the engine. Use one of the
following methods to drain the engine crankcase oil:
• If the engine is equipped with a drain valve, turn the
drain valve knob counterclockwise in order to drain
the oil. After the oil has drained, turn the drain valve
knob clockwise in order to close the drain valve.
SEBU8325-01
65
Maintenance Section
Engine Oil and Filter - Change
• If the engine is not equipped with a drain valve,
remove the oil drain plug (1) in order to allow the
oil to drain. If the engine is equipped with a shallow
sump, remove the bottom oil drain plugs from both
ends of the oil pan.
After the oil has drained, the oil drain plugs should
be cleaned and installed. If necessary, renew the O
ring seal on the drain plug.
Some types of oil pans have oil drain plugs that are
on both sides of the oil pan, because of the shape of
the pan. This type of oil pan requires the engine oil to
be drained from both plugs.
Replace the Spin-on Oil Filter
NOTICE
Perkins oil filters are manufactured to Perkins specifications. Use of an oil filter that is not recommended
by Perkins could result in severe damage to the engine bearings, crankshaft, etc., as a result of the larger
waste particles from unfiltered oil entering the engine
lubricating system. Only use oil filters recommended
by Perkins.
Illustration 32
g01356034
(2) Filter head
(3) O ring seal
1. Remove the oil filter with a suitable tool.
3. Clean the sealing surface of the oil filter head (2).
Ensure that the union (4) in the oil filter head is
secure.
Note: The following actions can be carried out as
part of the preventive maintenance program.
4. Apply clean engine oil to the O ring seal (3) on
the oil filter.
2. Cut the oil filter open with a suitable tool. Break
apart the pleats and inspect the oil filter for metal
debris. An excessive amount of metal debris in
the oil filter may indicate early wear or a pending
failure.
NOTICE
Do not fill the oil filters with oil before installing them.
This oil would not be filtered and could be contaminated. Contaminated oil can cause accelerated wear to
engine components.
Use a magnet to differentiate between the ferrous
metals and the nonferrous metals that are found in
the oil filter element. Ferrous metals may indicate
wear on the steel and cast iron parts of the engine.
Nonferrous metals may indicate wear on the
aluminum parts, brass parts, or bronze parts of
the engine. Parts that may be affected include
the following items: main bearings, rod bearings,
turbocharger bearings, and cylinder heads.
Due to normal wear and friction, it is not
uncommon to find small amounts of debris in the
oil filter.
5. Install the oil filter. Tighten the oil filter by hand
according to the instructions that are shown on
the oil filter. Do not overtighten the oil filter.
Note: Some oil filters may be installed vertically.
Refer to illustration 33. Start at step (1) in order to
remove the oil filter and install the oil filter.
66
Maintenance Section
Engine Valve Lash - Inspect/Adjust
SEBU8325-01
Illustration 34
g01165836
(Y) “MIN” mark. (X) “MAX” mark.
4. Remove the oil level gauge in order to check the
oil level. Maintain the oil level between the “MIN”
and “MAX” marks on the engine oil dipstick.
Illustration 33
g02659217
Typical example
Fill the Engine Crankcase
1. Remove the oil filler cap. Refer to the Operation
and Maintenance Manual for more information on
lubricant specifications. Fill the crankcase with the
proper amount of oil. Refer to the Operation and
Maintenance Manual for more information on refill
capacities.
NOTICE
If equipped with an auxiliary oil filter system or a remote oil filter system, follow the OEM or filter manufacturer's recommendations. Under filling or overfilling
the crankcase with oil can cause engine damage.
NOTICE
To prevent crankshaft bearing damage, crank the engine with the fuel OFF. This will fill the oil filters before
starting the engine. Do not crank the engine for more
than 30 seconds.
i02171102
Engine Valve Lash Inspect/Adjust
This maintenance is recommended by Perkins as
part of a lubrication and preventive maintenance
schedule in order to help provide maximum engine
life.
NOTICE
Only qualified service personel should perform this
maintenance. Refer to the Service Manual or your authorized Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor for
the complete valve lash adjustment procedure.
Operation of Perkins engines with incorrect valve lash
can reduce engine efficiency, and also reduce engine
component life.
2. Start the engine and run the engine at “LOW
IDLE” for 2 minutes. Perform this procedure in
order to ensure that the lubrication system has
oil and that the oil filters are filled. Inspect the oil
filter for oil leaks.
Ensure that the engine can not be started while
this maintenance is being performed. To help prevent possible injury, do not use the starting motor
to turn the flywheel.
3. Stop the engine and allow the oil to drain back to
the sump for a minimum of 10 minutes.
Hot engine components can cause burns. Allow
additional time for the engine to cool before measuring/adjusting valve lash clearance.
Ensure that the engine is stopped before measuring
the valve lash. The engine valve lash can be
inspected and adjusted when the temperature of the
engine is hot or cold.
SEBU8325-01
67
Maintenance Section
Fuel Injector - Test/Change
Refer to Systems Operation/Testing and Adjusting,
“Engine Valve Lash - Inspect/Adjust” for more
information.
i02682385
Fuel Injector - Test/Change
The fuel injectors should not be cleaned as cleaning
with incorrect tools can damage the nozzle. The fuel
injectors should be renewed only if a fault with the
fuel injectors occurs. Some of the problems that may
indicate that new fuel injectors are needed are listed
below:
• The engine will not start or the engine is difficult
to start.
• Not enough power
Fuel leaked or spilled onto hot surfaces or electrical components can cause a fire.
NOTICE
Do not allow dirt to enter the fuel system. Thoroughly
clean the area around a fuel system component that
will be disconnected. Fit a suitable cover over disconnected fuel system component.
NOTICE
If a fuel injector is suspected of operating outside of
normal parameters it should be removed by a qualified
technician. The suspect fuel injector should be taken
to an authorised agent for inspection.
• The engine misfires or the engine runs erratically.
• High fuel consumption
• Black exhaust smoke
• The engine knocks or there is vibration in the
engine.
• Excessive engine temperature
Removal and Installation of the
Fuel Injectors
Work carefully around an engine that is running.
Engine parts that are hot, or parts that are moving,
can cause personal injury.
Make sure that you wear eye protection at all
times during testing. When fuel injection nozzles
are tested, test fluids travel through the orifices
of the nozzle tip with high pressure. Under this
amount of pressure, the test fluid can pierce the
skin and cause serious injury to the operator.
Always keep the tip of the fuel injection nozzle
pointed away from the operator and into the fuel
collector and extension.
NOTICE
If your skin comes into contact with high pressure fuel,
obtain medical assistence immediately.
Illustration 35
Typical fuel Injector
g01347499
Operate the engine at a fast idle speed in order to
identify the faulty fuel injector. Individually loosen and
tighten the union nut for the high pressure pipe to
each fuel injector. Do not loosen the union nut more
than half a turn. There will be little effect on the engine
speed when the union nut to the faulty fuel injection
nozzle is loosened. Refer to the Disassembly and
Assembly Manual for more information. Consult your
authorized Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor
for assistance.
68
Maintenance Section
Fuel System - Prime
SEBU8325-01
i04429191
NOTICE
Do not crank the engine continuously for more than
30 seconds. Allow the starting motor to cool for two
minutes before cranking the engine again.
Fuel System - Prime
If air enters the fuel system, the air must be purged
from the fuel system before the engine can be
started. Air can enter the fuel system when the
following events occur:
• The fuel tank is empty or the fuel tank has been
partially drained.
4. Cycle the throttle lever from the low idle position to
the high idle position three times. The cycle time
for the throttle lever is one second to six seconds
for one complete cycle.
• The fuel filter is replaced.
Note: In order to purge air from the fuel injection
pump on engines with a fixed throttle, the engine
should be run at full load for 30 seconds. The load
should then be decreased until the engine is at high
idle. The process should be repeated three times.
Repeating the process three times will assist in
removing trapped air from the fuel injection pump.
• A new injection pump is installed.
5. Check for leaks in the fuel system.
• The low-pressure fuel lines are disconnected.
• A leak exists in the low-pressure fuel system.
Use the following procedure in order to remove air
from the fuel system:
1. Turn the keyswitch to the RUN position. Leave the
keyswitch in the RUN position for 3 minutes. If
a manual purging screw is installed, the purging
screw should be slackened during priming the fuel
system.
i02699996
Fuel System Primary Filter
(Water Separator) Element Replace
Fuel leaked or spilled onto hot surfaces or electrical components can cause a fire. To help prevent possible injury, turn the start switch off when
changing fuel filters or water separator elements.
Clean up fuel spills immediately.
Illustration 36
g01003929
Injector nuts
2. Crank the engine with the throttle lever in the
CLOSED position until the engine starts.
Note: If necessary, loosen the union nuts (1) on the
fuel injection lines at the connection with the fuel
injector until fuel is evident. Stop cranking the engine.
Tighten the union nuts (1) to a torque of 30 N·m
(22 lb ft).
3. Start the engine and run the engine at idle for 1
minute.
NOTICE
Do not allow dirt to enter the fuel system. Thoroughly
clean the area around a fuel system component that
will be disconnected. Fit a suitable cover over disconnected fuel system component.
SEBU8325-01
69
Maintenance Section
Fuel System Primary Filter/Water Separator - Drain
9. Remove the container and dispose of the fuel
safely.
10. Open the fuel supply valve.
11. Prime the fuel system. Refer to the Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Fuel System - Prime” for
more information.
i02699081
Fuel System Primary
Filter/Water Separator - Drain
Fuel leaked or spilled onto hot surfaces or electrical components can cause a fire. To help prevent possible injury, turn the start switch off when
changing fuel filters or water separator elements.
Clean up fuel spills immediately.
Illustration 37
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
g01353878
Screw
Element
Bowl
Bottom cover
Drain
Sensor connection
1. Turn the fuel supply valve (if equipped) to the OFF
position.
2. Place a suitable container under the water
separator. Clean the outside of the water
separator.
3. Open the drain (5). Allow the fluid to drain into
the container.
4. Tighten the drain (5) by hand pressure only.
5. Hold the element (2) and remove the screw (1).
Remove the element and the bowl (3) from the
base. Discard the old element.
6. Clean the bowl (4). Clean the bottom cover (6).
7. Install the new O ring seal. Install the bottom cover
onto the new element. Install the assembly onto
the base.
8. Install the screw (1) and tighten the screw to a
torque of 8 N·m (6 lb ft).
NOTICE
The water separator is not a filter. The water separator separates water from the fuel. The engine should
never be allowed to run with the water separator more
than half full. Engine damage may result.
NOTICE
The water separator is under suction during normal
engine operation. Ensure that the drain valve is tightened securely to help prevent air from entering the fuel
system.
70
Maintenance Section
Fuel System Secondary Filter - Replace
SEBU8325-01
NOTICE
Do not allow dirt to enter the fuel system. Thoroughly
clean the area around a fuel system component that
will be disconnected. Fit a suitable cover over disconnected fuel system component.
Element filter
Turn the valves for the fuel lines (if equipped) to the
OFF position before performing this maintenance.
Place a tray under the fuel filter in order to catch
any fuel that might spill. Clean up any spilled fuel
immediately.
Illustration 38
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
g01353878
Screw
Element
Bowl
Bottom cover
Drain
Sensor connection
1. Place a suitable container below the water
separator.
2. Open the drain (5). Allow the fluid to drain into
the container.
3. When clean fuel drains from the water separator
close the drain (5). Tighten the drain by hand
pressure only. Dispose of the drained fluid
correctly.
i04478612
Fuel System Secondary Filter Replace
Fuel leaked or spilled onto hot surfaces or electrical components can cause a fire. To help prevent possible injury, turn the start switch off when
changing fuel filters or water separator elements.
Clean up fuel spills immediately.
Illustration 39
g01353856
(1) Filter bowl
(2) Drain
1. Close the valves for the fuel lines (if equipped).
2. Clean the outside of the fuel filter assembly. Open
the fuel drain (2) and drain the fuel into a suitable
container.
SEBU8325-01
71
Maintenance Section
Fuel System Secondary Filter - Replace
Spin-on filter
Turn the valves for the fuel lines (if equipped) to the
OFF position before performing this maintenance.
Place a tray under the fuel filter in order to catch
any fuel that might spill. Clean up any spilled fuel
immediately.
Illustration 40
g02659218
Typical example
(3) Filter head
(4) Element
(5) O ring seal
3. Remove the filter bowl (1) from the filter head
(3). Press on the element (4). Rotate the element
counterclockwise in order to release the element
for the filter bowl and remove the element from the
bowl. Discard the used element.
4. Remove the O ring (5) from the filter bowl and
clean the filter bowl. Check that the threads of the
filter bowl are not damaged.
Illustration 41
g01353858
5. Install a new O ring seal (5) to the filter bowl (1).
(1) Filter Head
(2) Spin-on filter
(3) Drain
6. Locate a new filter element (4) into the filter bowl
(1). Press on the element and rotate the element
clockwise in order to lock the element into the
filter bowl.
1. Clean the outside of the fuel filter assembly. Open
the fuel drain (3) and drain the fuel into a suitable
container.
7. Install the filter bowl (1) into the top of the filter
head (3).
2. Use a suitable tool in order to remove the spin-on
filter (2) from the filter head (1).
8. Tighten the filter bowl by hand until the filter bowl
contacts the filter head. Rotate the filter bowl
through 90 degrees.
3. Ensure that the fuel drain (3) on the new spin-on
filter is closed.
Note: Do not use a tool to tighten the filter bowl.
9. Open the valves for the fuel lines (if equipped).
72
Maintenance Section
Fuel Tank Water and Sediment - Drain
SEBU8325-01
Fuel Tank
Fuel quality is critical to the performance and to the
service life of the engine. Water in the fuel can cause
excessive wear to the fuel system.
Water can be introduced into the fuel tank when the
fuel tank is being filled.
Condensation occurs during the heating and cooling
of fuel. The condensation occurs as the fuel passes
through the fuel system and the fuel returns to the
fuel tank. This causes water to accumulate in fuel
tanks. Draining the fuel tank regularly and obtaining
fuel from reliable sources can help to eliminate water
in the fuel.
Drain the Water and the Sediment
Illustration 42
g02659219
Fuel tanks should contain some provision for draining
water and draining sediment from the bottom of the
fuel tanks.
Typical example
(4) O ring seal
4. Lubricate the sealing ring (4) with clean fuel oil.
5. Install the spin-on filter (2) into the top of the filter
head (1).
6. Tighten the spin-on filter by hand until the sealing
ring contacts the filter head. Rotate the spin-on
filter through 90 degrees.
7. Prime the fuel system. Refer to Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Fuel System - Prime”.
i02677376
Fuel Tank Water and Sediment
- Drain
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained
during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting, and repair of the product. Be prepared
to collect the fluid with suitable containers before
opening any compartment or disassembling any component containing fluids.
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
mandates.
Open the drain valve on the bottom of the fuel tank
in order to drain the water and the sediment. Close
the drain valve.
Check the fuel daily. Allow five minutes after the
fuel tank has been filled before draining water and
sediment from the fuel tank.
Fill the fuel tank after operating the engine in
order to drive out moist air. This will help prevent
condensation. Do not fill the tank to the top. The
fuel expands as the fuel gets warm. The tank may
overflow.
Some fuel tanks use supply pipes that allow water
and sediment to settle below the end of the fuel
supply pipe. Some fuel tanks use supply lines that
take fuel directly from the bottom of the tank. If
the engine is equipped with this system, regular
maintenance of the fuel system filter is important.
Fuel Storage Tanks
Drain the water and the sediment from the fuel
storage tank at the following intervals:
• Weekly
• Service intervals
• Refill of the tank
This will help prevent water or sediment from being
pumped from the storage tank into the engine fuel
tank.
SEBU8325-01
73
Maintenance Section
Hoses and Clamps - Inspect/Replace
If a bulk storage tank has been refilled or moved
recently, allow adequate time for the sediment to
settle before filling the engine fuel tank. Internal
baffles in the bulk storage tank will also help trap
sediment. Filtering fuel that is pumped from the
storage tank helps to ensure the quality of the fuel.
When possible, water separators should be used.
i02677365
Hoses and Clamps Inspect/Replace
Inspect all hoses for leaks that are caused by the
following conditions:
• Cracking
• Softness
• Loose clamps
Each installation application can be different. The
differences depend on the following factors:
• Type of hose
• Type of fitting material
• Anticipated expansion and contraction of the hose
• Anticipated expansion and contraction of the
fittings
Replace the Hoses and the Clamps
Refer to the OEM information for further information
on removing and replacing fuel hoses (if equipped).
The coolant system and the hoses for the coolant
system are not usually supplied by Perkins. The
following text describes a typical method of replacing
coolant hoses. Refer to the OEM information for
further information on the coolant system and the
hoses for the coolant system.
Replace hoses that are cracked or soft. Tighten any
loose clamps.
NOTICE
Do not bend or strike high pressure lines. Do not install bent or damaged lines, tubes or hoses. Repair
any loose or damaged fuel and oil lines, tubes and
hoses. Leaks can cause fires. Inspect all lines, tubes
and hoses carefully. Tighten all connections to the recommended torque.
Check for the following conditions:
• End fittings that are damaged or leaking
• Outer covering that is chafed or cut
• Exposed wire that is used for reinforcement
• Outer covering that is ballooning locally
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pressure.
1. Stop the engine. Allow the engine to cool.
2. Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in
order to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap.
Note: Drain the coolant into a suitable, clean
container. The coolant can be reused.
3. Drain the coolant from the cooling system to a
level that is below the hose that is being replaced.
• Flexible part of the hose that is kinked or crushed
4. Remove the hose clamps.
• Armoring that is embedded in the outer covering
5. Disconnect the old hose.
A constant torque hose clamp can be used in place
of any standard hose clamp. Ensure that the constant
torque hose clamp is the same size as the standard
clamp.
6. Replace the old hose with a new hose.
Due to extreme temperature changes, the hose will
harden. Hardening of the hoses will cause hose
clamps to loosen. This can result in leaks. A constant
torque hose clamp will help to prevent loose hose
clamps.
7. Install the hose clamps with a torque wrench.
Note: For the correct coolant, see this Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Fluid Recommendations”.
8. Refill the cooling system. Refer to the OEM
information for further information on refilling the
cooling system.
74
Maintenance Section
Radiator - Clean
SEBU8325-01
9. Clean the cooling system filler cap. Inspect the
cooling system filler cap's seals. Replace the
cooling system filler cap if the seals are damaged.
Install the cooling system filler cap.
10. Start the engine. Inspect the cooling system for
leaks.
i02335774
Radiator - Clean
The radiator is not usually supplied by Perkins. The
following text describes a typical cleaning procedure
for the radiator. Refer to the OEM information for
further information on cleaning the radiator.
After cleaning the radiator, start the engine. Allow
the engine to operate at low idle speed for three to
five minutes. Accelerate the engine to high idle. This
will help in the removal of debris and the drying of
the core. Slowly reduce the engine speed to low idle
and then stop the engine. Use a light bulb behind
the core in order to inspect the core for cleanliness.
Repeat the cleaning, if necessary.
Inspect the fins for damage. Bent fins may be opened
with a “comb”. Inspect these items for good condition:
Welds, mounting brackets, air lines, connections,
clamps, and seals. Make repairs, if necessary.
i02678846
Severe Service Application Check
Note: Adjust the frequency of cleaning according to
the effects of the operating environment.
Inspect the radiator for these items: Damaged fins,
corrosion, dirt, grease, insects, leaves, oil, and other
debris. Clean the radiator, if necessary.
Severe service is the application of an engine that
exceeds the current published standards for that
engine. Perkins maintains standards for the following
engine parameters:
• Performance such as power range, speed range,
and fuel consumption
Personal injury can result from air pressure.
Personal injury can result without following proper procedure. When using pressure air, wear a protective face shield and protective clothing.
Maximum air pressure at the nozzle must be less
than 205 kPa (30 psi) for cleaning purposes.
Pressurized air is the preferred method for removing
loose debris. Direct the air in the opposite direction
to the fan's air flow. Hold the nozzle approximately
6 mm (0.25 inch) away from the radiator fins. Slowly
move the air nozzle in a direction that is parallel with
the radiator tube assembly. This will remove debris
that is between the tubes.
Pressurized water may also be used for cleaning.
The maximum water pressure for cleaning purposes
must be less than 275 kPa (40 psi). Use pressurized
water in order to soften mud. Clean the core from
both sides.
Use a degreaser and steam for removal of oil and
grease. Clean both sides of the core. Wash the core
with detergent and hot water. Thoroughly rinse the
core with clean water.
If the radiator is blocked internally, refer to the OEM
Manual for information regarding flushing the cooling
system.
• Fuel quality
• Operational Altitude
• Maintenance intervals
• Oil selection and maintenance
• Coolant type and maintenance
• Environmental qualities
• Installation
• The temperature of the fluid in the engine
Refer to the standards for the engine or consult your
Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor in order to
determine if the engine is operating within the defined
parameters.
Severe service operation can accelerate component
wear. Engines that operate under severe conditions
may need more frequent maintenance intervals in
order to ensure maximum reliability and retention of
full service life.
Due to individual applications, it is not possible
to identify all of the factors which can contribute
to severe service operation. Consult your Perkins
dealer or your Perkins distributor for the unique
maintenance that is necessary for the engine.
SEBU8325-01
75
Maintenance Section
Starting Motor - Inspect
The operating environment, incorrect operating
procedures and incorrect maintenance procedures
can be factors which contribute to a severe service
application.
Environmental Factors
Ambient temperatures – The engine may be
exposed to extended operation in extremely
cold environments or hot environments. Valve
components can be damaged by carbon buildup if
the engine is frequently started and stopped in very
cold temperatures. Extremely hot intake air reduces
engine performance.
Quality of the air – The engine may be exposed
to extended operation in an environment that is
dirty or dusty, unless the equipment is cleaned
regularly. Mud, dirt and dust can encase components.
Maintenance can be very difficult. The buildup can
contain corrosive chemicals.
Buildup – Compounds, elements, corrosive
chemicals and salt can damage some components.
Altitude – Problems can arise when the engine is
operated at altitudes that are higher than the intended
settings for that application. Necessary adjustments
should be made.
Incorrect Operating Procedures
Check the starting motor for correct operation. Check
the electrical connections and clean the electrical
connections. Refer to the Systems Operation, Testing
and Adjusting Manual, “Electric Starting System Test” for more information on the checking procedure
and for specifications or consult your Perkins dealer
or your Perkins distributor for assistance.
i02677378
Turbocharger - Inspect
(If Equipped)
A regular visual inspection of the turbocharger is
recommended. Any fumes from the crankcase are
filtered through the air inlet system. Therefore,
by-products from oil and from combustion can collect
in the turbocharger compressor housing. Over time,
this buildup can contribute to loss of engine power,
increased black smoke and overall loss of engine
efficiency.
If the turbocharger fails during engine operation,
damage to the turbocharger compressor wheel
and/or to the engine may occur. Damage to the
turbocharger compressor wheel can cause additional
damage to the pistons, the valves, and the cylinder
head.
NOTICE
Turbocharger bearing failures can cause large quantities of oil to enter the air intake and exhaust systems.
Loss of engine lubricant can result in serious engine
damage.
• Extended operation at low idle
• Frequent hot shutdowns
• Operating at excessive loads
Minor leakage of oil into a turbocharger under extended low idle operation should not cause problems as
long as a turbocharger bearing failure has not occured.
• Operating at excessive speeds
• Operating outside the intended application
Incorrect Maintenance Procedures
• Extending the maintenance intervals
When a turbocharger bearing failure is accompanied
by a significant engine performance loss (exhaust
smoke or engine rpm up at no load), do not continue
engine operation until the turbocharger is renewed.
• Failure to use recommended fuel, lubricants and
coolant/antifreeze
i02678843
Starting Motor - Inspect
A visual inspection of the turbocharger can minimize
unscheduled downtime. A visual inspection of the
turbocharger can also reduce the chance for potential
damage to other engine parts.
Removal and Installation
Perkins recommends a scheduled inspection of the
starting motor. If the starting motor fails, the engine
may not start in an emergency situation.
Note: The turbochargers that are supplied are
nonserviceable.
76
Maintenance Section
V-Belts - Inspect/Adjust/Replace
For options regarding the removal, installation, and
replacement, consult your Perkins dealer or your
Perkins distributor. Refer to the Disassembly and
Assembly Manual, “Turbocharger - Remove and
Turbocharger - Install” for further information.
Inspecting
SEBU8325-01
i02690446
V-Belts - Inspect/Adjust/
Replace
Inspection
NOTICE
The compressor housing for the turbocharger must
not be removed from the turbocharger for cleaning.
The actuator linkage is connected to the compressor
housing. If the actuator linkage is moved or disturbed
the engine may not comply with emmissions legislation.
1. Remove the pipe from the turbocharger exhaust
outlet and remove the air intake pipe to the
turbocharger. Visually inspect the piping for the
presence of oil. Clean the interior of the pipes
in order to prevent dirt from entering during
reassembly.
2. Check for the presence of oil. If oil is leaking from
the back side of the compressor wheel, there is a
possibility of a failed turbocharger oil seal.
The presence of oil may be the result of extended
engine operation at low idle. The presence of oil
may also be the result of a restriction of the line
for the intake air (clogged air filters), which causes
the turbocharger to slobber.
3. Inspect the bore of the housing of the turbine
outlet for corrosion.
4. Fasten the air intake pipe and the exhaust outlet
pipe to the turbocharger housing.
Illustration 43
g01249073
Arrangement for the V-belts
To maximize the engine performance, inspect the
belts for wear and for cracking. Replace belts that are
worn or damaged.
For applications that require multiple drive belts,
replace the belts in matched sets. Replacing only
one belt of a matched set will cause the new belt to
carry more load because the older belt is stretched.
The additional load on the new belt could cause the
new belt to break.
If the belts are too loose, vibration causes
unnecessary wear on the belts and pulleys. Loose
belts may slip enough to cause overheating.
To accurately check the belt tension, a suitable gauge
should be used.
SEBU8325-01
77
Maintenance Section
Walk-Around Inspection
i02678854
Walk-Around Inspection
Inspect the Engine for Leaks and
for Loose Connections
A walk-around inspection should only take a few
minutes. When the time is taken to perform these
checks, costly repairs and accidents can be avoided.
Illustration 44
g01003936
Typical example
(1) Belt tension gauge
Fit the gauge (1) at the center of the longest free
length and check the tension. The correct tension for
a new belt is 535 N (120 lb). If the tension of the belt is
below 250 N (56 lb) adjust the belt to 535 N (120 lb).
If twin belts are installed, check the tension on both
belts and adjust the tension on the tightest belt.
For maximum engine service life, make a thorough
inspection of the engine compartment before starting
the engine. Look for items such as oil leaks or coolant
leaks, loose bolts, worn belts, loose connections and
trash buildup. Make repairs, as needed:
• The guards must be in the correct place. Repair
damaged guards or replace missing guards.
• Wipe all caps and plugs before the engine is
serviced in order to reduce the chance of system
contamination.
NOTICE
For any type of leak (coolant, lube, or fuel) clean up the
fluid. If leaking is observed, find the source and correct
the leak. If leaking is suspected, check the fluid levels
more often than recommended until the leak is found
or fixed, or until the suspicion of a leak is proved to be
unwarranted.
Adjustment
NOTICE
Accumulated grease and/or oil on an engine is a fire
hazard. Remove the accumulated grease and oil. Refer to this Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Engine - Clean” for more information.
• Ensure that the cooling system hoses are correctly
Illustration 45
g01003939
1. Loosen The alternator pivot bolt (2) and the bolt
(3).
2. Move the alternator in order to increase or
decrease the belt tension. Tighten the alternator
pivot bolt and the link bolt to 22 N·m (16 lb ft).(1).
Replace
Refer to Disassembly and Assembly manual for more
information.
clamped and that the cooling system hoses are
tight. Check for leaks. Check the condition of all
pipes.
• Inspect the water pump for coolant leaks.
Note: The water pump seal is lubricated by the
coolant in the cooling system. It is normal for a small
amount of leakage to occur as the engine cools down
and the parts contract.
Excessive coolant leakage may indicate the need
to replace the water pump seal. For the removal of
the water pump and the installation of water pump
and/or seal, refer to the Disassembly and Assembly
Manual, “Water Pump - Remove and Install” for more
information or consult your Perkins dealer or your
Perkins distributor.
78
Maintenance Section
Water Pump - Inspect
SEBU8325-01
• Inspect the lubrication system for leaks at the front
crankshaft seal, the rear crankshaft seal, the oil
pan, the oil filters and the rocker cover.
• Inspect the fuel system for leaks. Look for loose
fuel line clamps and/or tie-wraps.
• Inspect the piping for the air intake system and the
elbows for cracks and for loose clamps. Ensure
that hoses and tubes are not contacting other
hoses, tubes, wiring harnesses, etc.
• Inspect the alternator belts and any accessory
drive belts for cracks, breaks or other damage.
Belts for multiple groove pulleys must be replaced as
matched sets. If only one belt is replaced, the belt will
carry more load than the belts that are not replaced.
The older belts are stretched. The additional load on
the new belt could cause the belt to break.
• Drain the water and the sediment from the fuel
tank on a daily basis in order to ensure that only
clean fuel enters the fuel system.
• Inspect the wiring and the wiring harnesses for
loose connections and for worn wires or frayed
wires.
• Inspect the ground strap for a good connection and
for good condition.
• Disconnect any battery chargers that are not
protected against the current drain of the starting
motor. Check the condition and the electrolyte level
of the batteries, unless the engine is equipped with
a maintenance free battery.
• Check the condition of the gauges. Replace any
gauges that are cracked. Replace any gauge that
can not be calibrated.
i01907756
Water Pump - Inspect
A failed water pump may cause severe engine
overheating problems that could result in the following
conditions:
• Cracks in the cylinder head
• A piston seizure
• Other potential damage to the engine
Note: The water pump seal is lubricated by the
coolant in the cooling system. It is normal for a small
amount of leakage to occur as the engine cools down
and parts contract.
Visually inspect the water pump for leaks. Renew
the water pump seal or the water pump if there
is an excessive leakage of coolant. Refer to the
Disassembly and Assembly Manual, “Water Pump
- Remove and Install” for the disassembly and
assembly procedure.
SEBU8325-01
79
Warranty Section
Warranty Information
Warranty Section
Warranty Information
i02676009
Emissions Warranty
Information
This engine may be certified to comply with exhaust
emission standards and gaseous emission standards
that are prescribed by the law at the time of
manufacture, and this engine may be covered by an
Emissions Warranty. Consult your authorized Perkins
dealer or your authorized Perkins distributor in order
to determine if your engine is emissions certified and
if your engine is subject to an Emissions Warranty.
80
Index Section
SEBU8325-01
Index
E
A
After Starting Engine .............................................
After Stopping Engine............................................
Aftercooler Core - Clean/Test ................................
Aftercooler Core - Inspect......................................
Alternator - Inspect ................................................
Alternator Belt - Inspect/Adjust/Replace (Poly
V-Belt)..................................................................
Adjustment .........................................................
Inspection...........................................................
Replace..............................................................
26
28
51
51
52
52
52
52
52
B
Battery - Replace................................................... 52
Battery Electrolyte Level - Check .......................... 53
Battery or Battery Cable - Disconnect ................... 53
Before Starting Engine .................................... 10, 24
Burn Prevention....................................................... 8
Batteries............................................................... 8
Coolant................................................................. 8
Oils....................................................................... 8
C
Cold Weather Operation........................................ 29
Hints for Cold Weather Operation...................... 29
Idling the Engine ................................................ 30
Recommendations for Coolant Warm Up .......... 30
Recommendations for the Coolant .................... 29
Viscosity of the Engine Lubrication Oil............... 29
Cooling System Coolant (Commercial Heavy-Duty) Change ................................................................ 54
Drain .................................................................. 54
Fill ...................................................................... 55
Flush .................................................................. 55
Cooling System Coolant (ELC) - Change.............. 55
Drain .................................................................. 56
Fill ...................................................................... 57
Flush .................................................................. 56
Cooling System Coolant Level - Check ................. 57
Engines With a Coolant Recovery Tank............. 57
Engines Without a Coolant Recovery Tank........ 58
Cooling System Supplemental Coolant Additive
(SCA) - Test/Add.................................................. 58
Add the SCA, If Necessary ................................ 58
Test for SCA Concentration ............................... 58
Crankcase Breather (Canister) - Replace ............. 59
Crushing Prevention and Cutting Prevention ........ 10
D
Driven Equipment - Check..................................... 59
Electrical System .................................................... 11
Grounding Practices ........................................... 11
Emergency Stopping ............................................. 28
Emissions Certification Film .................................. 19
Emissions Warranty Information............................ 79
Engine - Clean....................................................... 59
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Dual Element) Clean/Replace ..................................................... 60
Cleaning the Primary Air Cleaner Elements ...... 61
Servicing the Air Cleaner Elements ................... 60
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Single Element) Inspect/Replace ................................................... 62
Engine Air Cleaner Service Indicator - Inspect...... 62
Test the Service Indicator................................... 63
Engine Air Precleaner - Check/Clean.................... 63
Engine Description ................................................ 15
Engine Cooling and Lubrication ......................... 16
Engine Service Life ............................................ 17
Engine Specifications......................................... 16
Engine Identification .............................................. 18
Engine Mounts - Inspect........................................ 63
Engine Oil and Filter - Change .............................. 64
Drain the Engine Oil........................................... 64
Fill the Engine Crankcase .................................. 66
Replace the Spin-on Oil Filter ............................ 65
Engine Oil Level - Check ....................................... 64
Engine Operation................................................... 27
Engine Starting ................................................ 10, 24
Engine Stopping ............................................... 11, 28
Engine Valve Lash - Inspect/Adjust ....................... 66
F
Features and Controls ........................................... 23
Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention .............. 8
Fire Extinguisher .................................................. 9
Lines, Tubes and Hoses .................................... 10
Fluid Recommendations........................................ 33
Engine Oil .......................................................... 34
General Lubricant Information ........................... 33
Fluid Recommendations (Coolant Information) ..... 37
Cooling System Specifications........................... 37
ELC Cooling System Maintenance .................... 39
Fluid Recommendations (Fuel
Recommendations).............................................. 42
Diesel Fuel Characteristics ................................ 44
Diesel Fuel Requirements.................................. 42
General Information ........................................... 42
SEBU8325-01
81
Index Section
Foreword ................................................................. 4
California Proposition 65 Warning ....................... 4
Literature Information........................................... 4
Maintenance ........................................................ 4
Maintenance Intervals.......................................... 4
Operation ............................................................. 4
Overhaul .............................................................. 4
Safety................................................................... 4
Fuel and the Effect from Cold Weather ................. 31
Fuel Conservation Practices.................................. 27
Fuel Injector - Test/Change ................................... 67
Removal and Installation of the Fuel Injectors ... 67
Fuel Related Components in Cold Weather .......... 32
Fuel Filters ......................................................... 32
Fuel Heaters ...................................................... 32
Fuel Tanks.......................................................... 32
Fuel Shutoff ........................................................... 23
Fuel System - Prime .............................................. 68
Fuel System Primary Filter (Water Separator)
Element - Replace ............................................... 68
Fuel System Primary Filter/Water Separator Drain .................................................................... 69
Fuel System Secondary Filter - Replace ............... 70
Element filter ...................................................... 70
Spin-on filter....................................................... 71
Fuel Tank Water and Sediment - Drain ................. 72
Drain the Water and the Sediment..................... 72
Fuel Storage Tanks ............................................ 72
Fuel Tank ........................................................... 72
Model View Illustrations......................................... 14
1104 Engine Model Views.................................. 14
Model Views .......................................................... 13
G
Hoses and Clamps - Inspect/Replace ................... 73
Replace the Hoses and the Clamps .................. 73
Safety Messages ..................................................... 5
(1) Universal Warning .......................................... 5
(2) Ether ............................................................... 6
Safety Section ......................................................... 5
Serial Number Plate .............................................. 18
Severe Service Application - Check ...................... 74
Environmental Factors ....................................... 75
Incorrect Maintenance Procedures .................... 75
Incorrect Operating Procedures......................... 75
Starting Motor - Inspect ......................................... 75
Starting the Engine ................................................ 25
Starting with Jump Start Cables ............................ 25
Stopping the Engine .............................................. 28
I
T
Important Safety Information ................................... 2
Table of Contents..................................................... 3
Turbocharger - Inspect (If Equipped)..................... 75
Inspecting........................................................... 76
Removal and Installation.................................... 75
Gauges and Indicators .......................................... 22
General Hazard Information .................................... 6
Containing Fluid Spillage ..................................... 7
Fluid Penetration.................................................. 7
Pressure Air and Water........................................ 7
H
L
Lifting and Storage ................................................ 20
M
Maintenance Interval Schedule ............................. 50
Maintenance Section ............................................. 33
O
Operation Section.................................................. 20
P
Product Identification Information ..........................
Product Information Section ..................................
Product Lifting........................................................
Product Storage.....................................................
Condition for Storage .........................................
18
13
20
20
20
R
Radiator - Clean ....................................................
Reference Numbers ..............................................
Record for Reference.........................................
Refill Capacities.....................................................
Cooling System..................................................
Lubrication System ............................................
74
18
18
33
33
33
S
V
V-Belts - Inspect/Adjust/Replace ...........................
Adjustment .........................................................
Inspection...........................................................
Replace..............................................................
76
77
76
77
82
Index Section
SEBU8325-01
W
Walk-Around Inspection ........................................
Inspect the Engine for Leaks and for Loose
Connections .....................................................
Warranty Information .............................................
Warranty Section ...................................................
Water Pump - Inspect............................................
77
77
79
79
78
Product and Dealer Information
Note: For product identification plate locations, see the section “Product Identification Information” in the Operation
and Maintenance Manual.
Delivery Date:
Product Information
Model:
Product Identification Number:
Engine Serial Number:
Transmission Serial Number:
Generator Serial Number:
Attachment Serial Numbers:
Attachment Information:
Customer Equipment Number:
Dealer Equipment Number:
Dealer Information
Name:
Branch:
Address:
Dealer Contact
Sales:
Parts:
Service:
Phone Number
Hours
©2012 Perkins Engines Company Limited
All Rights Reserved
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