Agilent 11982A Manual

Agilent 11982A Manual
Agilent 11982A
Amplified Lightwave Converter
Operation and Service Manual
© Copyright
Agilent Technologies 2000
All Rights Reserved. Reproduction, adaptation, or translation without prior written
permission is prohibited,
except as allowed under copyright laws.
Agilent Part No. 11982-90014
Printed in USA
July 2000
Agilent Technologies
Lightwave Division
1400 Fountaingrove Parkway
Santa Rosa, CA 95403-1799,
USA
(707) 577-1400
Notice.
The information contained in
this document is subject to
change without notice. Companies, names, and data used
in examples herein are fictitious unless otherwise noted.
Agilent Technologies makes
no warranty of any kind with
regard to this material, including but not limited to, the
implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a
particular purpose. Agilent
Technologies shall not be liable for errors contained herein
or for incidental or consequential damages in connection with the furnishing,
performance, or use of this
material.
Restricted Rights Legend.
Use, duplication, or disclosure by the U.S. Government
is subject to restrictions as set
forth in subparagraph (c) (1)
(ii) of the Rights in Technical
Data and Computer Software
clause at DFARS 252.227-7013
for DOD agencies, and subparagraphs (c) (1) and (c) (2)
of the Commercial Computer
Software Restricted Rights
clause at FAR 52.227-19 for
other agencies.
Warranty.
This Agilent Technologies
instrument product is warranted against defects in
material and workmanship for
a period of one year from date
of shipment. During the warranty period, Agilent Technologies will, at its option, either
repair or replace products
which prove to be defective.
For warranty service or repair,
this product must be returned
to a service facility designated by Agilent Technologies. Buyer shall prepay
shipping charges to Agilent
Technologies and Agilent
Technologies shall pay shipping charges to return the
product to Buyer. However,
Buyer shall pay all shipping
charges, duties, and taxes for
products returned to Agilent
Technologies from another
country.
Agilent Technologies warrants that its software and
firmware designated by Agilent Technologies for use with
an instrument will execute its
programming instructions
when properly installed on
that instrument. Agilent Technologies does not warrant that
the operation of the instrument, or software, or firmware
will be uninterrupted or errorfree.
Limitation of Warranty.
The foregoing warranty shall
not apply to defects resulting
from improper or inadequate
maintenance by Buyer, Buyersupplied software or interfacing, unauthorized modification or misuse, operation
outside of the environmental
specifications for the product,
or improper site preparation
or maintenance.
No other warranty is
expressed or implied. Agilent
Technologies specifically disclaims the implied warranties
of merchantability and fitness
for a particular purpose.
Exclusive Remedies.
The remedies provided herein
are buyer's sole and exclusive
remedies. Agilent Technolo-
ii
❍ The OFF symbols
are used to mark the
positions of the instrument power line
switch.
gies shall not be liable for any
direct, indirect, special, incidental, or consequential damages, whether based on
contract, tort, or any other
legal theory.
The CE mark is a registered trademark of
the European Community.
Safety Symbols.
CAUTION
The caution sign denotes a
hazard. It calls attention to a
procedure which, if not correctly performed or adhered
to, could result in damage to
or destruction of the product.
Do not proceed beyond a caution sign until the indicated
conditions are fully understood and met.
The CSA mark is a registered trademark of
the Canadian Standards Association.
The C-Tick mark is a
registered trademark
of the Australian Spectrum Management
Agency.
WARNING
The warning sign denotes a
hazard. It calls attention to a
procedure which, if not correctly performed or adhered
to, could result in injury or
loss of life. Do not proceed
beyond a warning sign until
the indicated conditions are
fully understood and met.
The instruction manual symbol. The product is marked with this
warning symbol when
it is necessary for the
user to refer to the
instructions in the
manual.
The laser radiation
symbol. This warning
symbol is marked on
products which have a
laser output.
The AC symbol is used
to indicate the
required nature of the
line module input
power.
| The ON symbols are
used to mark the positions of the instrument
power line switch.
ISM1-A
This text denotes the
instrument is an
Industrial Scientific
and Medical Group 1
Class A product.
Typographical Conventions.
The following conventions are
used in this book:
Key type for keys or text
located on the keyboard or
instrument.
Softkey type for key names that
are displayed on the instrument’s screen.
Display type for words or
characters displayed on the
computer’s screen or instrument’s display.
User type for words or charac-
ters that you type or enter.
Emphasis type for words or
characters that emphasize
some point or that are used as
place holders for text that you
type.
General Safety Considerations
General Safety Considerations
This product has been designed and tested in accordance with IEC Publication 61010-1, Safety Requirements for Electrical Equipment for Measurement,
Control and Laboratory Use, and has been supplied in a safe condition. The
instruction documentation contains information and warnings that must be
followed by the user to ensure safe operation and to maintain the product in a
safe condition.
WARNING
If this instrument is not used as specified, the protection provided by
the equipment could be impaired. This instrument must be used in a
normal condition (in which all means for protection are intact) only.
WARNING
No operator serviceable parts inside. Refer servicing to qualified
personnel. To prevent electrical shock, do not remove covers.
WARNING
To prevent electrical shock, disconnect the Agilent 11982A from
mains before cleaning. Use a dry cloth or one slightly dampened with
water to clean the external case parts. Do not attempt to clean
internally.
WARNING
This is a Safety Class 1 product (provided with a protective earthing
ground incorporated in the power cord). The mains plug shall only be
inserted in a socket outlet provided with a protective earth contact.
Any interruption of the protective conductor inside or outside of the
product is likely to make the product dangerous. Intentional
interruption is prohibited.
WARNING
For continued protection against fire hazard, replace line fuse only
with same type and ratings, (type T 0.315A/250V for 100/120V
operation and 0.16A/250V for 220/240V operation). The use of other
fuses or materials is prohibited. Verify that the value of the linevoltage fuse is correct.
• For 100/120V operation, use an IEC 127 5×20 mm, 0.315 A, 250 V, Agilent
part number 2110-0449.
• For 220/240V operation, use an IEC 127 5×20 mm, 0.16 A, 250 V, Agilent
Technologies part number 2110-0448.
iii
General Safety Considerations
CAUTION
Before switching on this instrument, make sure that the line voltage selector
switch is set to the line voltage of the power supply and the correct fuse is
installed. Assure the supply voltage is in the specified range.
CAUTION
This product is designed for use in Installation Category II and Pollution
Degree 2 per IEC 1010 and 664 respectively.
CAUTION
VENTILATION REQUIREMENTS: When installing the product in a cabinet, the
convection into and out of the product must not be restricted. The ambient
temperature (outside the cabinet) must be less than the maximum operating
temperature of the product by 4°C for every 100 watts dissipated in the
cabinet. If the total power dissipated in the cabinet is greater than 800 watts,
then forced convection must be used.
CAUTION
Always use the three-prong ac power cord supplied with this instrument.
Failure to ensure adequate earth grounding by not using this cord may cause
instrument damage.
CAUTION
Do not connect ac power until you have verified the line voltage is correct.
Damage to the equipment could result.
CAUTION
This instrument has autoranging line voltage input. Be sure the supply voltage
is within the specified range.
Measurement accuracy—it’s up to you!
Fiber-optic connectors are easily damaged when connected to dirty or damaged cables
and accessories. The Agilent 11982A front-panel OPTICAL OUT connector is no exception. When you use improper cleaning and handling techniques, you risk expensive
instrument repairs, damaged cables, and compromised measurements.
Before you connect any fiber-optic cable to the Agilent 11982A, refer to “Cleaning Connections for Accurate Measurements” on page 1-9.
iv
Contents
1 General Information
Description of the Agilent 11982A Lightwave Converter 1-2
Accessories 1-4
Agilent 11982A Specifications and Characteristics 1-5
Serial Numbers 1-8
Cleaning Connections for Accurate Measurements 1-9
Electrostatic Discharge Information 1-19
2 Installation and Preparation for Use
Preparing the Agilent 11982A for Use 2-2
Power Cords 2-7
Turning on the Agilent 11982A 2-9
3 Time-Domain Measurements
Connecting the Agilent 11982A to an Oscilloscope 3-2
Changing the Oscilloscope Display Units to Watts of Optical Power 3-4
4 Verification and Service Information
Performing a Verification Check of the Agilent 11982A 4-2
Returning the Instrument for Service 4-4
Agilent Technologies Service Offices 4-7
Service Information 4-8
Contents-1
1
Description of the Agilent 11982A Lightwave Converter 1-2
Accessories 1-4
Agilent 11982A Specifications and Characteristics 1-5
Serial Numbers 1-8
Cleaning Connections for Accurate Measurements 1-9
Electrostatic Discharge Information 1-19
General Information
General Information
Description of the Agilent 11982A Lightwave Converter
Description of the Agilent 11982A Lightwave
Converter
The Agilent 11982A lightwave converter converts an optical signal to an electrical signal. The Agilent 11982A combines a PIN photodetector for the optical-to-electrical conversion. The electrical signal is amplified with a low-noise
preamplifier. The Agilent 11982A provides a general purpose optical-to-electrical converter for lightwave frequency-domain and time-domain measurements and can be used with oscilloscopes, spectrum analyzers, and network
analyzers.
The Agilent 11982A covers the wavelengths from 1200 to 1600 nm with dc to
15 GHz (optical) modulating bandwidth. Its 300 volts/watt (nominal) conversion gain and 0.05% input optical reflections, significantly improves sensitivity
for characterizing lightwave devices. Each converter comes with a calibration
chart of instrument-specific data for frequency response and responsivity to
enable correct and accurate measurements.
Figure 1-1. Agilent 11982A Lightwave Converter
1-2
General Information
Description of the Agilent 11982A Lightwave Converter
Frequency-Domain Measurements with the
Agilent 11982A
Used with an electrical spectrum analyzer, the Agilent 11982A displays optical
modulation power as a function of frequency. Intensity modulation, distortion,
and laser intensity noise can also be displayed and measured. Using frequency-response corrections, you can predict and observe the effects of laser
modulation on a system.
Using the Agilent 11982A with an Agilent 11980A fiber-optic interferometer,
you can measure laser linewidth. With a gateable modulation source, measurements of chirp and frequency modulation of single-line lasers can also be
made.
Time-Domain Measurements with the Agilent 11982A
Combining the dc-coupled Agilent 11982A with an Agilent 83480 or Infiniium
DCA gives you capability for optical eye-pattern and impulse-response measurements. Use the results to verify optical and opto-electronic components
and optical system level performance. The Agilent 11982A provides dc coupling with 20 dB electrical gain and 15 GHz bandwidth. The Agilent 83480series and Infiniium DCA have a wide range of bandwidths, low jitter, and the
averaging and persistence features needed for time-domain measurements.
The Agilent 83480 gives you a wide range of time-domain characterization
capabilities including automated eye-diagram measurements, auto-aligning
SONET/SDH masks, repeatable extinction-ratio measurements, and Agilent
Technologies’ Eyeline mode for eye analysis.
Extinction ratio is a critical performance specification for digital optical transmitters. The Agilent 11982A’s combination of bandwidth and sensitivity make
it extremely useful for eye-diagram measurements, including extinction ratio.
However, for best extinction ratio accuracy and repeatability, the combination
of the Agilent Infiniium DCA mainframe with an Agilent 86103A, 86105A,
86106A, or 86109A plug-in module is recommended.
See Chapter 3, “Time-Domain Measurements” for more information about eye
pattern, extinction ratio, and impulse measurements.
1-3
General Information
Accessories
Accessories
Accessories
The Agilent 11982A has a variety of connector interfaces available. You must
specify one of the following connector interfaces when ordering your
Agilent 11982A:
Connector
Interfaces
•
•
•
•
•
Diamond® HMS-10 Connector Interface (Option 011)
PC/FC Connector Interface (Option 012)
DIN 47256 Connector Interface (Option 013)
ST Connector Interface (Option 014)
Biconic Connector Interface (Option 015)
1-4
General Information
Agilent 11982A Specifications and Characteristics
Agilent 11982A Specifications and
Characteristics
Table 1-1 lists specification, characteristics, typical performance, and nominal values. The distinction between these terms is described as follows:
• Specifications describe warranted performance over the temperature range
0°C to +55°C (unless otherwise noted). All specifications apply after the instrument’s temperature has been stabilized after 30 minutes of continuous operation.
• Characteristics provide useful information by giving functional, but nonwarranted, performance parameters. Characteristics are printed in italics.
• Typical Performance, where listed, is not warranted, but indicates performance which most units will meet.
• Nominal Value indicates the expected, but not warranted, value of the parameter.
1-5
General Information
Agilent 11982A Specifications and Characteristics
Table 1-1. Agilent 11982A Specifications and Characteristics
Wavelength Range (characteristic)
1,200 nm to 1,600 nm
Bandwidth (characteristic)
dc to 15 GHz (optical)
dc to 11 GHz (electrical)
Full Width Half Maximum
(Calculated from FWHM=0.44/BW optical)
29.4 ps
Conversion Gain
> 200 V/W, 300 V/W nominal
dc responsivitya
Accuracy of provided value
±20%
b
Noise Equivalent Power (characteristic)
30 pW
Input Return Loss
(characteristic with HMS-10 connector)
23 dB
Aberrations (characteristic)
±20% peak-to-peak
Hz
c
Corrected RF Frequency Response
dc to 22 GHz
20° to 30°C
±2.2 dBd
0° to 55°C
±4.7 dBd
Harmonic Distortion, Output
<–10 dBm
> 41 dBd below fundamental
Maximum Safe Optical Input Power
Average
10 mW (+10 dBm)
Maximum Operating Optical Input Power
Peak
1.5 mW (+1.76 dBm)
Output Voltage Range
Into 50Ω
> 700 mV
Output Offset Voltage
Into 50Ω
< 1 mV
Output Electrical Return Loss
(characteristic)
0.1 to 12 GHz
> 11 dB d
12 to 22 GHz
> 9 dB d
a. Plus or minus the connector variation.
b. Equivalent to 3.7 µW in a 15 GHz bandwidth.
c. Corrections can be obtained from the lightwave personality ROM card or the Agilent 11982A Calibration
Chart.
d. Refers to electrical power units.
1-6
General Information
Agilent 11982A Specifications and Characteristics
Table 1-2. Agilent 11982A Specifications and Characteristics
GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS
Temperature Range
Operating
0°C to +55°C
Storage
–40°C to +55°C
EMI Compatibility
Conducted and radiated emissions are in compliance with the
requirements of FTZ 1046, CISPR Pub. 11 (1975), and MILSTD-461C, Part 7, Methods CE03 and RE02.
Power Requirements
100, 120, 220, or 240 Vac (±10%), 47 to 63 Hz
Power consumption < 75 VA
Weight
3.76 kg (8.4 lb)
Dimensions
A= 213 mm (8.39 inch)
B= 102 mm (4.02 inch)
C= 368 mm (14.49 inch)
FRONT-PANEL INPUT/OUTPUT
Optical Input Connector
(front panel)
Single-mode fiber connectors: Diamond® HMS-10, FC/PC,
ST Biconic, or DIN
Output Connector
(front panel)
APC 3.5 mm, male, 50Ω (nominal)
1-7
General Information
Serial Numbers
Serial Numbers
Agilent Technologies makes frequent improvements to its products to
enhance their performance, usability, or reliability, and to control costs. Agilent Technologies service personnel have access to complete records of design
changes to each type of equipment, based on the equipment’s serial number.
Whenever you contact Agilent Technologies about your lightwave converter,
have the complete serial number available to ensure obtaining the most complete and accurate information possible.
A mylar serial-number label is attached to the rear of the lightwave converter.
It contains the serial number and the options installed in the lightwave converter. The serial number has two parts: the prefix (the first four numbers and
a letter), and the suffix (the last five numbers). See Figure 1-2.
Figure 1-2. Typical Serial Number Label
The first four numbers of the prefix are a code that identifies the date of the
last major design change that is incorporated in your lightwave converter. The
letter identifies the country in which the unit was manufactured. The five-digit
suffix is a sequential number and is different for each unit.
The option section of the serial label contains the option number(s) of the
lightwave converter option(s).
Whenever you specify the serial number or refer to it in obtaining information
about your lightwave converter, be sure to use the complete number, including the full prefix and the suffix.
1-8
General Information
Cleaning Connections for Accurate Measurements
Cleaning Connections for Accurate
Measurements
Today, advances in measurement capabilities make connectors and connection techniques more important than ever. Damage to the connectors on calibration and verification devices, test ports, cables, and other devices can
degrade measurement accuracy and damage instruments. Replacing a damaged connector can cost thousands of dollars, not to mention lost time! This
expense can be avoided by observing the simple precautions presented in this
book. This book also contains a brief list of tips for caring for electrical connectors.
Choosing the Right Connector
A critical but often overlooked factor in making a good lightwave measurement is the selection of the fiber-optic connector. The differences in connector types are mainly in the mechanical assembly that holds the ferrule in
position against another identical ferrule. Connectors also vary in the polish,
curve, and concentricity of the core within the cladding. Mating one style of
cable to another requires an adapter. Agilent Technologies offers adapters for
most instruments to allow testing with many different cables. Figure 1-3 on
page 1-10 shows the basic components of a typical connectors.
The system tolerance for reflection and insertion loss must be known when
selecting a connector from the wide variety of currently available connectors.
Some items to consider when selecting a connector are:
• How much insertion loss can be allowed?
• Will the connector need to make multiple connections? Some connectors are
better than others, and some are very poor for making repeated connections.
• What is the reflection tolerance? Can the system take reflection degradation?
• Is an instrument-grade connector with a precision core alignment required?
• Is repeatability tolerance for reflection and loss important? Do your specifica-
1-9
General Information
Cleaning Connections for Accurate Measurements
tions take repeatability uncertainty into account?
• Will a connector degrade the return loss too much, or will a fusion splice be required? For example, many DFB lasers cannot operate with reflections from
connectors. Often as much as 90 dB isolation is needed.
Figure 1-3. Basic components of a connector.
Over the last few years, the FC/PC style connector has emerged as the most
popular connector for fiber-optic applications. While not the highest performing connector, it represents a good compromise between performance, reliability, and cost. If properly maintained and cleaned, this connector can
withstand many repeated connections.
However, many instrument specifications require tighter tolerances than most
connectors, including the FC/PC style, can deliver. These instruments cannot
tolerate connectors with the large non-concentricities of the fiber common
with ceramic style ferrules. When tighter alignment is required, Agilent
Technologies instruments typically use a connector such as the Diamond
HMS-10, which has concentric tolerances within a few tenths of a micron. Agilent Technologies then uses a special universal adapter, which allows other
cable types to mate with this precision connector. See Figure 1-4.
1-10
General Information
Cleaning Connections for Accurate Measurements
Figure 1-4. Universal adapters to Diamond HMS-10.
The HMS-10 encases the fiber within a soft nickel silver (Cu/Ni/Zn) center
which is surrounded by a tough tungsten carbide casing, as shown in
Figure 1-5.
Figure 1-5. Cross-section of the Diamond HMS-10 connector.
The nickel silver allows an active centering process that permits the glass fiber
to be moved to the desired position. This process first stakes the soft nickel
silver to fix the fiber in a near-center location, then uses a post-active staking
to shift the fiber into the desired position within 0.2 µm. This process, plus the
keyed axis, allows very precise core-to-core alignments. This connector is
found on most Agilent Technologies lightwave instruments.
1-11
General Information
Cleaning Connections for Accurate Measurements
The soft core, while allowing precise centering, is also the chief liability of the
connector. The soft material is easily damaged. Care must be taken to minimize excessive scratching and wear. While minor wear is not a problem if the
glass face is not affected, scratches or grit can cause the glass fiber to move
out of alignment. Also, if unkeyed connectors are used, the nickel silver can be
pushed onto the glass surface. Scratches, fiber movement, or glass contamination will cause loss of signal and increased reflections, resulting in poor return
loss.
Inspecting Connectors
Because fiber-optic connectors are susceptible to damage that is not immediately obvious to the naked eye, poor measurements result without the user
being aware. Microscopic examination and return loss measurements are the
best way to ensure good measurements. Good cleaning practices can help
ensure that optimum connector performance is maintained. With glass-toglass interfaces, any degradation of a ferrule or the end of the fiber, any stray
particles, or finger oil can have a significant effect on connector performance.
Where many repeat connections are required, use of a connector saver or
patch cable is recommended.
Figure 1-6 shows the end of a clean fiber-optic cable. The dark circle in the
center of the micrograph is the fiber’s 125 µm core and cladding which carries
the light. The surrounding area is the soft nickel-silver ferrule. Figure 1-7
shows a dirty fiber end from neglect or perhaps improper cleaning. Material is
smeared and ground into the end of the fiber causing light scattering and poor
reflection. Not only is the precision polish lost, but this action can grind off the
glass face and destroy the connector.
Figure 1-8 shows physical damage to the glass fiber end caused by either
repeated connections made without removing loose particles or using
improper cleaning tools. When severe, the damage of one connector end can
be transferred to another good connector endface that comes in contact with
the damaged one. Periodic checks of fiber ends, and replacing connecting
cables after many connections is a wise practice.
The cure for these problems is disciplined connector care as described in the
following list and in “Cleaning Connectors” on page 1-16.
1-12
General Information
Cleaning Connections for Accurate Measurements
Use the following guidelines to achieve the best possible performance when
making measurements on a fiber-optic system:
• Never use metal or sharp objects to clean a connector and never scrape the
connector.
• Avoid matching gel and oils.
Figure 1-6. Clean, problem-free fiber end and ferrule.
Figure 1-7. Dirty fiber end and ferrule from poor cleaning.
1-13
General Information
Cleaning Connections for Accurate Measurements
Figure 1-8. Damage from improper cleaning.
While these often work well on first insertion, they are great dirt magnets. The
oil or gel grabs and holds grit that is then ground into the end of the fiber.
Also, some early gels were designed for use with the FC, non-contacting connectors, using small glass spheres. When used with contacting connectors,
these glass balls can scratch and pit the fiber. If an index matching gel or oil
must be used, apply it to a freshly cleaned connector, make the measurement,
and then immediately clean it off. Never use a gel for longer-term connections
and never use it to improve a damaged connector. The gel can mask the extent
of damage and continued use of a damaged fiber can transfer damage to the
instrument.
• When inserting a fiber-optic cable into a connector, gently insert it in as
straight a line as possible. Tipping and inserting at an angle can scrape material
off the inside of the connector or even break the inside sleeve of connectors
made with ceramic material.
• When inserting a fiber-optic connector into a connector, make sure that the fiber end does not touch the outside of the mating connector or adapter.
• Avoid over tightening connections.
Unlike common electrical connections, tighter is not better. The purpose of
the connector is to bring two fiber ends together. Once they touch, tightening
only causes a greater force to be applied to the delicate fibers. With connectors that have a convex fiber end, the end can be pushed off-axis resulting in
misalignment and excessive return loss. Many measurements are actually
improved by backing off the connector pressure. Also, if a piece of grit does
happen to get by the cleaning procedure, the tighter connection is more likely
to damage the glass. Tighten the connectors just until the two fibers touch.
1-14
General Information
Cleaning Connections for Accurate Measurements
• Keep connectors covered when not in use.
• Use fusion splices on the more permanent critical nodes. Choose the best connector possible. Replace connecting cables regularly. Frequently measure the
return loss of the connector to check for degradation, and clean every connector, every time.
All connectors should be treated like the high-quality lens of a good camera.
The weak link in instrument and system reliability is often the inappropriate
use and care of the connector. Because current connectors are so easy to use,
there tends to be reduced vigilance in connector care and cleaning. It takes
only one missed cleaning for a piece of grit to permanently damage the glass
and ruin the connector.
Measuring insertion loss and return loss
Consistent measurements with your lightwave equipment are a good indication that you have good connections. Since return loss and insertion loss are
key factors in determining optical connector performance they can be used to
determine connector degradation. A smooth, polished fiber end should produce a good return-loss measurement. The quality of the polish establishes
the difference between the “PC” (physical contact) and the “Super PC” connectors. Most connectors today are physical contact which make glass-to-glass
connections, therefore it is critical that the area around the glass core be clean
and free of scratches. Although the major area of a connector, excluding the
glass, may show scratches and wear, if the glass has maintained its polished
smoothness, the connector can still provide a good low level return loss connection.
If you test your cables and accessories for insertion loss and return loss upon
receipt, and retain the measured data for comparison, you will be able to tell in
the future if any degradation has occurred. Typical values are less than 0.5 dB
of loss, and sometimes as little as 0.1 dB of loss with high performance connectors. Return loss is a measure of reflection: the less reflection the better
(the larger the return loss, the smaller the reflection). The best physically
contacting connectors have return losses better than 50 dB, although 30 to
40 dB is more common.
1-15
General Information
Cleaning Connections for Accurate Measurements
Visual inspection of fiber ends
Visual inspection of fiber ends can be helpful. Contamination or imperfections
on the cable end face can be detected as well as cracks or chips in the fiber
itself. Use a microscope (100X to 200X magnification) to inspect the entire
end face for contamination, raised metal, or dents in the metal as well as any
other imperfections. Inspect the fiber for cracks and chips. Visible imperfections not touching the fiber core may not affect performance (unless the
imperfections keep the fibers from contacting).
WARNING
Always remove both ends of fiber-optic cables from any instrument,
system, or device before visually inspecting the fiber ends. Disable all
optical sources before disconnecting fiber-optic cables. Failure to do
so may result in permanent injury to your eyes.
Cleaning Connectors
The procedures in this section provide the proper steps for cleaning fiberoptic cables and Agilent Technologies universal adapters. The initial cleaning,
using the alcohol as a solvent, gently removes any grit and oil. If a caked-on
layer of material is still present, (this can happen if the beryllium-copper sides
of the ferrule retainer get scraped and deposited on the end of the fiber during
insertion of the cable), a second cleaning should be performed. It is not
uncommon for a cable or connector to require more than one cleaning.
CAUTION
Agilent Technologies strongly recommends that index matching compounds
not be applied to their instruments and accessories. Some compounds, such as
gels, may be difficult to remove and can contain damaging particulates. If you
think the use of such compounds is necessary, refer to the compound
manufacturer for information on application and cleaning procedures.
Table 1-3. Cleaning Accessories
Item
Agilent Part Number
Pure isopropyl alcohol
—
Cotton swabs
8520-0023
Small foam swabs
9300-1223
Compressed dust remover (non-residue)
8500-5262
1-16
General Information
Cleaning Connections for Accurate Measurements
Table 1-4. Dust Caps Provided with Lightwave Instruments
Item
Agilent Part Number
Laser shutter cap
08145-64521
FC/PC dust cap
08154-44102
Biconic dust cap
08154-44105
DIN dust cap
5040-9364
HMS10/dust cap
5040-9361
ST dust cap
5040-9366
To clean a non-lensed connector
CAUTION
Do not use any type of foam swab to clean optical fiber ends. Foam swabs can
leave filmy deposits on fiber ends that can degrade performance.
1 Apply pure isopropyl alcohol to a clean lint-free cotton swab or lens paper.
Cotton swabs can be used as long as no cotton fibers remain on the fiber end
after cleaning.
2 Clean the ferrules and other parts of the connector while avoiding the end of
the fiber.
3 Apply isopropyl alcohol to a new clean lint-free cotton swab or lens paper.
4 Clean the fiber end with the swab or lens paper.
Do not scrub during this initial cleaning because grit can be caught in the
swab and become a gouging element.
5 Immediately dry the fiber end with a clean, dry, lint-free cotton swab or lens
paper.
6 Blow across the connector end face from a distance of 6 to 8 inches using
filtered, dry, compressed air. Aim the compressed air at a shallow angle to the
fiber end face.
Nitrogen gas or compressed dust remover can also be used.
1-17
General Information
Cleaning Connections for Accurate Measurements
CAUTION
Do not shake, tip, or invert compressed air canisters, because this releases
particles in the can into the air. Refer to instructions provided on the
compressed air canister.
7 As soon as the connector is dry, connect or cover it for later use.
If the performance, after the initial cleaning, seems poor try cleaning the connector again. Often a second cleaning will restore proper performance. The
second cleaning should be more arduous with a scrubbing action.
To clean an adapter
The fiber-optic input and output connectors on many Agilent Technologies
instruments employ a universal adapter such as those shown in the following
picture. These adapters allow you to connect the instrument to different types
of fiber-optic cables.
Figure 1-9. Universal adapters.
1 Apply isopropyl alcohol to a clean foam swab.
Cotton swabs can be used as long as no cotton fibers remain after cleaning. The
foam swabs listed in this section’s introduction are small enough to fit into
adapters.
Although foam swabs can leave filmy deposits, these deposits are very thin, and
the risk of other contamination buildup on the inside of adapters greatly outweighs the risk of contamination by foam swabs.
2 Clean the adapter with the foam swab.
3 Dry the inside of the adapter with a clean, dry, foam swab.
4 Blow through the adapter using filtered, dry, compressed air.
Nitrogen gas or compressed dust remover can also be used. Do not shake, tip,
or invert compressed air canisters, because this releases particles in the can
into the air. Refer to instructions provided on the compressed air canister.
1-18
General Information
Electrostatic Discharge Information
Electrostatic Discharge Information
Electrostatic discharge (ESD) can damage or destroy electronic components.
All work on electronic assemblies should be performed at a static-safe work
station. Figure 1-10 shows an example of a static-safe work station using two
types of ESD protection:
• Conductive table-mat and wrist-strap combination.
• Conductive floor-mat and heel-strap combination.
Both types, when used together, provide a significant level of ESD protection.
Of the two, only the table-mat and wrist-strap combination provides adequate
ESD protection when used alone.
To ensure user safety, the static-safe accessories must provide at least 1 MΩ of
isolation from ground. Refer to Table 1-5 on page 1-21 for information on
ordering static-safe accessories.
WARNING
These techniques for a static-safe work station should not be used
when working on circuitry with a voltage potential greater than
500 volts.
1-19
General Information
Electrostatic Discharge Information
Figure 1-10. Example of a Static-Safe Work Station
Reducing Damage Caused by ESD
The following suggestions may help reduce ESD damage that occurs during
testing and servicing operations.
• Before connecting any coaxial cable to an analyzer connector for the first time
each day, momentarily ground the center and outer conductors of the cable.
• Personnel should be grounded with a resistor-isolated wrist strap before touching the center pin of any connector and before removing any assembly from the
unit.
• Be sure that all instruments are properly earth-grounded to prevent a buildup
of static charge.
1-20
General Information
Electrostatic Discharge Information
Test Equipment
Use and ESD
• Before connecting any coaxial cable to an instrument connector for the first
time each day, momentarily short the center and outer conductors of the cable
together.
• Personnel should be grounded with a 1 MΩ resistor-isolated wrist-strap before
touching the center pin of any connector and before removing any assembly
from the instrument.
• Be sure that all instruments are properly earth-grounded to prevent build-up
of static charge.
Table 1-5 on page 1-21 lists static-safe accessories that can be obtained from
Agilent Technologies by using the Agilent part numbers shown.
Static-Safe Accessories
Table 1-5. Static-Safe Accessories
Agilent Part Number
Description
9300-0797
Set includes: 3M static control mat 0.6 m× 1.2 m (2 ft × 4 ft) and
4.6 cm (15 ft) ground wire. (The wrist-strap and wrist-strap cord are
not included. They must be ordered separately.)
9300-0980
Wrist-strap cord 1.5 m (5 ft)
9300-1383
Wrist-strap, color black, stainless steel, without cord, has four
adjustable links and a 7 mm post-type connection.
9300-1169
ESD heel-strap (reusable 6 to 12 months).
1-21
2
Preparing the Agilent 11982A for Use 2-2
Initial Inspection 2-2
Connecting the Agilent 11982A to a Power Source
Power Requirements 2-4
Setting the Line Voltage Selector 2-4
Checking the Fuse 2-5
Power Cable 2-6
Power Cords 2-7
Turning on the Agilent 11982A 2-9
2-4
Installation and Preparation for Use
Installation and Preparation for Use
Preparing the Agilent 11982A for Use
Preparing the Agilent 11982A for Use
Initial Inspection
Inspect the Agilent 11982A shipping container for damage. If the shipping
container or cushioning material is damaged, keep it until you have verified
that the contents are complete and you have tested the lightwave converter
mechanically and electrically.
The Agilent 11982A is packed within a carton as shown in Figure 2-1 on
page 2-3. Table 2-1 on page 2-3 contains the description and part numbers of
the packaging materials. Table 2-2 on page 2-3 contains the accessories
shipped with the lightwave converter. If the contents are incomplete or if the
lightwave converter does not pass the verification test (this procedure is provided in Chapter 4, “Verification and Service Information”), notify the nearest
Agilent Technologies office. If the shipping container is damaged or the cushioning material shows signs of stress, also notify the carrier. Keep the shipping
materials for the carrier’s inspection. The Agilent Technologies office will
arrange for repair or replacement without waiting for a claim settlement.
If the shipping materials are in good condition, retain them for possible future
use. You may wish to ship the lightwave converter to another location or to
return it to Agilent Technologies for service. See “Returning the Instrument
for Service” on page 4-4.
2-2
Installation and Preparation for Use
Preparing the Agilent 11982A for Use
Figure 2-1. Agilent 11982A Packaging
Table 2-1. Packaging Materials
Item
Description
Agilent Part Number
1
Outer Carton
9211-6485
2
Foam Pad Set
9220-4805
Table 2-2. Accessories Supplied with the Agilent 11982A (but not shown)
Description
Agilent Part Number
Comments
Adapter, SMA (f) to (f)
1250-1158
Shipped with the lightwave converter.
Power cable
See Table 2-3 on page 2-4
Shipped with the lightwave converter.
2-3
Installation and Preparation for Use
Preparing the Agilent 11982A for Use
Connecting the Agilent 11982A to a Power Source
The lightwave converter is a portable instrument and requires no physical
installation other than connection to a power source.
CAUTION
Do not connect ac power until you have verified that the line voltage is correct,
the proper fuse is installed, and the line voltage selector switch is properly
positioned, as described in the following paragraphs. Damage to the equipment
could result.
Power Requirements
Table 2-3. Agilent 11982A Power Requirements
Characteristic
Requirement
Input Voltage
100, 120, 220, or 240 V (±10%)
Frequency
47 to 63 Hz
Power
75 VA (maximum)
Setting the Line Voltage Selector
Use the following procedure to set the Agilent 11982A’s voltage selector to the
voltage range (100, 120, 220, or 240 V) corresponding to the available ac voltage.
CAUTION
Before connecting the lightwave converter to the power source, you must set
the rear-panel voltage selector correctly to adapt the lightwave converter to the
power source. An improper selector setting can damage the lightwave
converter when it is turned on.
1 Pry open the fuse holder door with a small screwdriver.
2-4
Installation and Preparation for Use
Preparing the Agilent 11982A for Use
Figure 2-2. Opening the Fuse Holder Door
CAUTION
You must remove the voltage tumbler to change the voltage selector. Rotating
the voltage tumbler while it is in the line module damages the line module.
2 Remove the voltage tumbler (the voltage tumbler is not attached to the unit).
3 Replace the voltage tumbler so the desired line voltage value shows through
the small opening in the fuse holder door.
Checking the Fuse
The recommended fuse is a 0.5 A, 250 V, slow blow, Agilent Technologies part
number 2110-0202.
The line fuse is housed in a small container next to the voltage tumbler (see
Figure 2-3 on page 2-6). The spare fuse is stored below the line fuse.
To check the fuse, insert the tip of a screwdriver on the side of the container
and gently pull outward to remove the container.
If the fuse is defective or missing, install a new fuse in the proper position and
reinsert the fuse container.
2-5
Installation and Preparation for Use
Preparing the Agilent 11982A for Use
Figure 2-3. Selecting the Line Voltage Value and Checking the Fuse
Power Cable
The lightwave converter is equipped with a three-wire power cable, in accordance with international safety standards. When connected to an appropriate
power line outlet, this cable grounds the instrument cabinet.
WARNING
Failure to ground the lightwave converter properly can result in
personal injury. Before turning on the lightwave converter, you must
connect its protective earth terminals to the protective conductor of
the main power cable. Insert the main power cable plug only into a
socket outlet that has a protective earth contact. DO NOT defeat the
earth-grounding protection by using an extension cable, power cable,
or autotransformer without a protective ground conductor. If you are
using an autotransformer, make sure its common terminal is
connected to the protective earth contact of the power source outlet
socket.
Various power cables are available to connect the lightwave converter to the
types of ac power outlets unique to specific geographic areas. The cable
appropriate for the area to which the lightwave converter is originally shipped
is included with the unit. You can order additional ac power cables for use in
different areas. “Power Cords” on page 2-7 lists the available ac power cables,
illustrates the plug configurations, and identifies the geographic area in which
each cable is appropriate.
2-6
Installation and Preparation for Use
Power Cords
Power Cords
Plug Type
Cable Part
No.
Plug Description
Length
(in/cm)
Color
Country
250V
8120-1351
Straight *BS1363A
90/228
Gray
8120-1703
90°
90/228
Mint Gray
United Kingdom,
Cyprus, Nigeria,
Zimbabwe,
Singapore
8120-1369
Straight *NZSS198/ASC
79/200
Gray
87/221
Mint Gray
250V
90°
8120-0696
250V
125V
250V
Australia, New
Zealand
8120-1689
Straight *CEE7-Y11
79/200
Mint Gray
8120-1692
90°
79/200
Mint Gray
8120-2857p
Straight (Shielded)
79/200
Coco Brown
8120-1378
Straight *NEMA5-15P
90/228
Jade Gray
8120-1521
90°
90/228
Jade Gray
8120-1992
Straight (Medical) UL544
96/244
Black
East and West
Europe, Saudi
Arabia, So. Africa,
India (unpolarized
in many nations)
United States,
Canada, Mexico,
Philippines,
Taiwan
8120-2104
Straight *SEV1011
79/200
Mint Gray
Switzerland
8120-2296
1959-24507
79/200
Mint Gray
Type 12 90°
220V
8120-2956
Straight *DHCK107
79/200
Mint Gray
8120-2957
90°
79/200
Mint Gray
Denmark
* Part number shown for plug is the industry identifier for the plug only. Number shown for
cable is the Agilent Technologies part number for the complete cable including the plug.
2-7
Installation and Preparation for Use
Power Cords
Plug Type
Cable Part
No.
Plug Description
Length
(in/cm)
Color
Country
250V
8120-4211
Straight SABS164
79/200
Jade Gray
8120-4600
90°
79/200
Republic of South
Africa
India
100V
8120-4753
Straight MITI
90/230
8120-4754
90°
90/230
Dark Gray
Japan
* Part number shown for plug is the industry identifier for the plug only. Number shown for
cable is the Agilent Technologies part number for the complete cable including the plug.
2-8
Installation and Preparation for Use
Turning on the Agilent 11982A
Turning on the Agilent 11982A
With the power cable inserted into the line module, turn the lightwave converter unit on by pressing the line switch. The green light-emitting diode
(LED) should light. If the LED should fail to light, see Chapter 4, “Verification
and Service Information”.
Figure 2-4. The Agilent 11982A Front Panel
Table 2-4. Agilent 11982A Front-Panel Features
Index Number
Description
1
Line Switch.
2
Light-emitting diode (LED).
3
RF OUTPUT connector.
4
OPTICAL INPUT connector (with the interface connector removed).
5
Ferrule.
2-9
3
Connecting the Agilent 11982A to an Oscilloscope 3-2
Changing the Oscilloscope Display Units to Watts of Optical Power
Time-Domain Measurements
3-4
Time-Domain Measurements
Connecting the Agilent 11982A to an Oscilloscope
Connecting the Agilent 11982A to an
Oscilloscope
To connect the Agilent 11982A to an oscilloscope, perform the following steps:
1 If you have not done so already, read Chapter 2, “Installation and Preparation
for Use” for instructions about connecting the Agilent 11982A to an ac power
supply.
2 Connect an SMA or APC 3.5 mm adapter to the Agilent 11982A RF OUTPUT.
Note
The SMA female-to-female adapter that is shipped with the Agilent 11982A has been
provided as a "connector saver." Connecting cables to the SMA adapter instead of
directly to the Agilent 11982A’s RF OUTPUT connector avoids excessive wear of the RF
OUTPUT connector.
3 Connect the RF OUTPUT of the Agilent 11982A to the selected input channel of
the oscilloscope with an SMA or semi-rigid coax cable.
4 Clean the optical connectors. “Cleaning Connections for Accurate
Measurements” on page 1-9.
5 Connect the optical connector interface to the OPTICAL INPUT. Notice that the
connector interface has a small protrusion. This protrusion fits in the slot of the
OPTICAL INPUT connector.
6 Attach the fiber-optic cable to the connector interface.
7 Connect the laser source to the fiber-optic cable.
8 Turn on the equipment. The lightwave converter should warm up for
30 minutes before use.
3-2
Time-Domain Measurements
Connecting the Agilent 11982A to an Oscilloscope
CAUTION
Do not exceed the maximum input to the Agilent 11982A’s OPTICAL INPUT. The
maximum input power is shown on the front panel of the Agilent 11982A.
NOTE
Consult the oscilloscope documentation for information about calibrating and operating
the oscilloscope.
3-3
Time-Domain Measurements
Changing the Oscilloscope Display Units to Watts of Optical Power
Changing the Oscilloscope Display Units to
Watts of Optical Power
Since an oscilloscope displays voltage, a conversion factor must be used so the
oscilloscope read out is in watts. For the oscilloscope to display optical power,
the voltage responsivity (also called the conversion gain) of the
Agilent 11982A must be taken into account. The probe attenuation field is not
available with some oscilloscopes. The oscilloscope display can still be converted to watts by dividing the oscilloscope’s reading (in volts) by the responsivity.
To change the oscilloscope’s display units to watts, you must perform the following steps:
1 Determine the responsivity of your Agilent 11982A for the wavelength of the
source. The responsivity of the Agilent 11982A is on the Agilent 11982A
Calibration Chart shipped with your instrument and shown in Figure 3-1 on
page 3-5. The responsivity is calibrated at two wavelengths: 1300 nm and
1550 nm.
2 Determine the reciprocal of the responsivity.
3 Enter the reciprocal of the responsivity in the oscilloscope’s probe attenuation
field.
3-4
Time-Domain Measurements
Changing the Oscilloscope Display Units to Watts of Optical Power
Figure 3-1. The Agilent 11982A Calibration Chart
Table 3-1. The Agilent 11982A Calibration Chart
Index Number
Description
1
Serial number of the Agilent 11982A.
2
Calibration date of the Agilent 11982A.
3
Frequency response of the Agilent 11982A in dB.
4
The amplitude corrections at specific frequencies.
5
Responsivity at 1300 nm and 1550 nm wavelengths.
3-5
4
Performing a Verification Check of the Agilent 11982A
If the Agilent 11982A verification check fails 4-3
Returning the Instrument for Service 4-4
Preparing the instrument for shipping 4-4
Agilent Technologies Service Offices 4-7
Service Information 4-8
General Information 4-8
Adjustment Procedure 4-10
Troubleshooting 4-11
Replacement Procedures 4-12
Replaceable Parts 4-16
Part Ordering Information 4-16
4-2
Verification and Service Information
Verification and Service Information
Performing a Verification Check of the Agilent 11982A
Performing a Verification Check of the
Agilent 11982A
To verify the dc responsivity and functionality of the Agilent 11982A, use the
following procedure. Remember that the fiber-optic connections must be
clean.
1 Connect a laser with a wavelength of 1300 or 1550 nm (approximate) to an
optical power meter, and measure the output power of the laser.
2 Connect the RF OUTPUT of the Agilent 11982A lightwave converter to a 50Ω load
in parallel with a voltmeter (for example, an Agilent 3456A digital voltmeter).
3 Using the dc volts setting, measure the output voltage across the 50Ω load from
the Agilent 11982A without the laser connected to its input. This voltage
represents the output offset voltage and it should be within the specifications
in Table 1-1 on page 1-6.
4 Connect the laser to the OPTICAL INPUT of the Agilent 11982A lightwave
converter.
5 Using the dc volts setting, measure the output voltage across the 50Ω load from
the Agilent 11982A with the laser connected to its input.
6 Subtract the result of Step 3 from Step 5.
7 Compute the dc responsivity for the Agilent 11982A by dividing the voltage
from Step 6 by the optical power.
Note
If necessary, convert the scale of the voltage or watts so that the units are comparable.
For example, divideµV byµW, not V byµW.
Compare this to the value provided on the Agilent 11982A Calibration Chart
for your unit. It should be within the tolerance specified in Table 1-1 on
page 1-6.
4-2
Verification and Service Information
Performing a Verification Check of the Agilent 11982A
If the Agilent 11982A verification check fails
If the Agilent 11982A does not pass the verification check, you should recheck
what was being done when the problem occurred. A few minutes spent performing some simple checks may save waiting for your instrument to be
repaired. Before calling Agilent Technologies or returning the unit for service,
please make the following checks:
1 Is the rear-panel voltage selector switch set correctly?
2 Is the line fuse good?
3 Does the line socket have power?
4 Is the unit plugged in to the proper ac power source?
5 Is the unit turned on? Check that the green light-emitting diode (LED) next to
the line switch is on, indicating that the power supply is on.
6 If other equipment, cables, and connectors are being used with the
Agilent 11982A, are they connected properly and operating correctly?
7 Review the procedure for the test being performed when the problem
appeared. Are all the settings correct?
8 Are the connectors clean? See “Cleaning Connections for Accurate
Measurements” on page 1-9 for more information about cleaning the
connectors.
If the Agilent 11982A still fails, you have two options:
• Return the lightwave converter to Agilent Technologies for repair; if the lightwave converter is still under warranty or is covered by an Agilent Technologies
maintenance contract, it will be repaired under the terms of the warranty or
plan (the warranty is at the front of this manual). If the lightwave converter is
no longer under warranty or is not covered by an Agilent Technologies maintenance plan, Agilent Technologies will notify you of the cost of the repair after
examining the unit. See “Returning the Instrument for Service” on page 4-4 for
more information.
• Repair it yourself. See “Service Information” on page 4-8.
4-3
Verification and Service Information
Returning the Instrument for Service
Returning the Instrument for Service
The instructions in this section show you how to properly return the instrument for repair or calibration. Always call the Agilent Technologies Instrument
Support Center first to initiate service before returning your instrument to a
service office. This ensures that the repair (or calibration) can be properly
tracked and that your instrument will be returned to you as quickly as possible. Call this number regardless of where you are located. Refer to “Agilent
Technologies Service Offices” on page 4-7 for a list of service offices.
Agilent Technologies Instrument Support Center . . . . . . . . . . . (800) 403-0801
If the instrument is still under warranty or is covered by an Agilent Technologies maintenance contract, it will be repaired under the terms of the warranty
or contract (the warranty is at the front of this manual). If the instrument is
no longer under warranty or is not covered by an Agilent Technologies maintenance plan, Agilent Technologies will notify you of the cost of the repair after
examining the unit.
When an instrument is returned to a Agilent Technologies service office for
servicing, it must be adequately packaged and have a complete description of
the failure symptoms attached. When describing the failure, please be as specific as possible about the nature of the problem. Include copies of additional
failure information (such as the instrument failure settings, data related to
instrument failure, and error messages) along with the instrument being
returned.
Preparing the instrument for shipping
1 Write a complete description of the failure and attach it to the instrument.
Include any specific performance details related to the problem. The following
4-4
Verification and Service Information
Returning the Instrument for Service
information should be returned with the instrument.
• Type of service required.
• Date instrument was returned for repair.
• Description of the problem:
• Whether problem is constant or intermittent.
• Whether instrument is temperature-sensitive.
• Whether instrument is vibration-sensitive.
• Instrument settings required to reproduce the problem.
• Performance data.
• Company name and return address.
• Name and phone number of technical contact person.
• Model number of returned instrument.
• Full serial number of returned instrument.
• List of any accessories returned with instrument.
2 Cover all front or rear-panel connectors that were originally covered when you
first received the instrument.
CAUTION
Cover electrical connectors to protect sensitive components from electrostatic
damage. Cover optical connectors to protect them from damage due to physical
contact or dust.
CAUTION
Instrument damage can result from using packaging materials other than the
original materials. Never use styrene pellets as packaging material. They do not
adequately cushion the instrument or prevent it from shifting in the carton.
They may also cause instrument damage by generating static electricity.
3 Pack the instrument in the original shipping containers. Original materials are
available through any Agilent Technologies office. Or, use the following
guidelines:
• Wrap the instrument in antistatic plastic to reduce the possibility of damage
caused by electrostatic discharge.
• For instruments weighing less than 54 kg (120 lb), use a double-walled, corrugated cardboard carton of 159 kg (350 lb) test strength.
• The carton must be large enough to allow approximately 7 cm (3 inches) on
all sides of the instrument for packing material, and strong enough to accommodate the weight of the instrument.
• Surround the equipment with approximately 7 cm (3 inches) of packing material, to protect the instrument and prevent it from moving in the carton. If
packing foam is not available, the best alternative is S.D-240 Air Cap™ from
4-5
Verification and Service Information
Returning the Instrument for Service
Sealed Air Corporation (Commerce, California 90001). Air Cap looks like a
plastic sheet filled with air bubbles. Use the pink (antistatic) Air Cap™ to
reduce static electricity. Wrapping the instrument several times in this material will protect the instrument and prevent it from moving in the carton.
4 Seal the carton with strong nylon adhesive tape.
5 Mark the carton “FRAGILE, HANDLE WITH CARE”.
6 Retain copies of all shipping papers.
4-6
Verification and Service Information
Agilent Technologies Service Offices
Agilent Technologies Service Offices
Before returning an instrument for service, call the Agilent Technologies
Instrument Support Center at (800) 403-0801, visit the Test and Measurement
Web Sites by Country page at http://www.tm.agilent.com/tmo/country/English/
index.html, or call one of the numbers listed below.
Agilent Technologies Service Numbers
Austria
01/25125-7171
Belgium
32-2-778.37.71
Brazil
(11) 7297-8600
China
86 10 6261 3819
Denmark
45 99 12 88
Finland
358-10-855-2360
France
01.69.82.66.66
Germany
0180/524-6330
India
080-34 35788
Italy
+39 02 9212 2701
Ireland
01 615 8222
Japan
(81)-426-56-7832
Korea
82/2-3770-0419
Mexico
(5) 258-4826
Netherlands
020-547 6463
Norway
22 73 57 59
Russia
+7-095-797-3930
Spain
(34/91) 631 1213
Sweden
08-5064 8700
Switzerland
(01) 735 7200
United Kingdom
01 344 366666
United States and Canada
(800) 403-0801
4-7
Verification and Service Information
Service Information
Service Information
This section describes how to service the Agilent 11982A. It contains the following service information:
•
•
•
•
•
General Information.
Adjustment Procedure.
Troubleshooting.
Replacement Procedures.
Replaceable Parts.
General Information
Serial-Number
Information
Whenever you contact Agilent Technologies about your lightwave converter,
have the complete serial number and option designation available. This will
ensure that you obtain accurate service information. See “Serial Numbers” on
page 1-8 for more information.
Manual Updating
Supplement
Manual Updating Supplements are periodically produced by the Agilent Technologies to maintain manual accuracy. The updating supplement provides service information that has not yet been incorporated into a revised manual. If a
Manual Updating Supplement has been produced for a specific version of the
manual, it will be shipped with the manual.
Any changes that affect information in this manual are documented in the
Manual Updating Supplement for this manual. This may include information
for instruments manufactured after this manual was printed. The Manual
Updating Supplement may also contain information for correcting errors in
the manual.
To keep your manual as accurate as possible, periodically request the latest
Manual Updating Supplement from your nearest Agilent Technologies Service
Office.
4-8
Verification and Service Information
Service Information
Safety
Considerations
Before servicing this lightwave converter, familiarize yourself with the safety
markings on the instrument and the safety instructions in this manual. This
instrument has been manufactured and tested according to international
safety standards. To ensure safe operation of the instrument and the personal
safety of the user and service personnel, the cautions and warnings in this
manual must be heeded.
Refer to the summary of safety considerations at the front of this manual. Individual chapters also contain detailed safety notation.
WARNING
Failure to ground the lightwave converter properly can result
in personal injury, as well as instrument damage.
Before turning on the lightwave converter, connect a threewire power cable with a standard IEC 320-C13 (CEE 22-V)
inlet plug to the lightwave converter power receptacle. The
power cable outlet plug must be inserted into a power-line
outlet socket that has a protective earth-contact. DO NOT
defeat the earth-grounding protection by using an extension
cable, power cable, or autotransformer without a protective
ground conductor.
If you are using an autotransformer, make sure its common terminal
is connected to the protective ground conductor of its power-source
outlet socket.
Reliability
Considerations
The lightwave-converter input circuitry can be damaged by power levels that
exceed the maximum safe input-level specifications. Table 1-1 on page 1-6
provides the input specifications. To prevent input damage, these specified
levels must not be exceeded.
Protection from
Electrostatic
Discharge
Electrostatic discharge (ESD) can damage or destroy electronic components.
All work on electronic assemblies should be performed at a static-safe work
station. See “Electrostatic Discharge Information” on page 1-19 for more information on preventing ESD.
Required Service
Tools
Table 4-1 on page 4-10 lists the tools that may be required to service the
Agilent 11982A.
4-9
Verification and Service Information
Service Information
Table 4-1. Required Tools
Description
Agilent Part Number
Check Digit
Small Pozidriv screwdriver
8710-0899
0
Large Pozidriv screwdriver
8710-0900
4
Wire cutter
8710-0012
9
Long-nose pliers
8710-0030
1
5/16 nut driver
8720-0015
3
3/8 nut driver
8720-0005
1
7 mm nut driver
8710-1217
8
Adjustment Procedure
The only adjustment for the Agilent 11982A is the +5.7 V dc voltage supply. To
adjust the power supply, use an Agilent 3456A digital multimeter (or equivalent) to measure the dc output voltage at the power supply terminals. If the dc
output voltage is not within tolerance, adjust the power supply.
WARNING
Only trained service personnel should perform measurements inside
the instrument chassis. Use extreme care; the exposed terminals on
the power supply transformer carry ac line voltage; you can be killed
or seriously injured if you contact them when power is applied.
1 On the power supply board, connect the multimeter between the –OUT
terminal (ground) and the +OUT terminal of E2 on the dc power supply.
2 Measure the power supply output voltage. The voltage reading should be
+5.7 V dc ±50 mV.
Note
The +5 V power supply circuit has current-limiting and overvoltage control. If the +5 V
power supply is adjusted above +5.8 V (approximate), the +5 V power supply will shutdown.
4-10
Verification and Service Information
Service Information
3 If the voltage reading is not +5.7 V dc, adjust the +5V ADJ potentiometer (R12)
for a reading of +5.7 V dc ±50 mV.
Troubleshooting
The main functional blocks of the Agilent 11982A are the power supply, the
photodetector and the electrical amplifier unit.
Figure 4-1. Agilent 11982A Block Diagram
The
Photodetector and
the Electrical
Amplifier Unit
Modulated light enters the photodetector through a single mode fiber frontpanel connector. Light is collimated, then focused onto a PIN photodetector.
Photons are absorbed in the photodetector. Electron-hole pairs are generated
by the light, which produces the photocurrent. The photocurrent is amplified
by the dc to 22 GHz preamplifier. If the photodetector and electrical amplifier
unit fails, the Agilent 11982A must be returned to Agilent Technologies for
service.
Troubleshooting
the Power Supply
If the +5 V power supply output voltage is low, the power supply could be in a
current-limiting or overvoltage crowbar mode. If the power supply is too low,
use the R12 potentiometer to decrease the voltage, then cycle the power of
the Agilent 11982A. Decreasing the voltage and cycling the power may bring
the power supply back to normal operation. If the power supply output voltage
cannot be brought within tolerance, disconnect the power supply from the
photodetector and electrical amplifier unit, and recheck the +5 V power supply. If the power supply is still low, replace the power supply. If the power sup4-11
Verification and Service Information
Service Information
ply is operational, suspect the photodetector and the electrical amplifier unit.
The amplifier unit and the optical input connector cannot be replaced; if
defective, the Agilent 11982A must be returned to Agilent Technologies for
service.
The –12 V and +12 V power supplies are not adjusted. The voltages on the
power supply terminals are described in Table 4-2.
Table 4-2. Voltages on the dc Power Supply Terminals
Terminal
Description
Voltage
E2, –OUT
Common ground
0 V dc
E2, +OUT
+5 V power supply
+5.7 V dc ±50 mV
E1, –OUT
–12 V power supply
–12 V dc (approximate)
E1, COM
Common ground
0 V dc
E1, +OUT
+12 V power supply
+12 V dc (approximate)
Replacement Procedures
This section contains the replacement procedures for the following assemblies:
• RF Cable and RF connector.
• AC cable assembly.
• Power supply.
Note
The optical input connector and the amplifier unit must be replaced by Agilent Technologies. If the optical input connector or the photodetector and electrical amplifier unit fail,
the Agilent 11982A must be sent to Agilent Technologies for service.
4-12
Verification and Service Information
Service Information
CAUTION
This instrument contains static-sensitive components. Read “Electrostatic
Discharge Information” on page 1-19 before removing any assemblies.
Replacing the RF
Cable or the RF
Connector
When replacing the RF cable or RF output connectors, use the appropriate
torque value. See Table 4-3.
CAUTION
Avoid bending or distorting any semirigid cables when removing or reinstalling
assemblies. Before removing an assembly, always loosen both ends of any
semirigid cable attached to the assembly. When reinstalling cables, tighten to
specified torque only. If a torque-measuring tool is not available, make
semirigid cable connections finger-tight only. Do not overtighten!
Note
Replacing the RF cable or the RF connector may cause the Agilent 11982A to no longer
meet the specifications and characteristics shown in Table 1-1 on page 1-6. The RF cable
and RF connector must be replaced carefully to minimize the risk of the Agilent 11982A
failing specifications. To be sure that it does meet specifications, you should return the
Agilent 11982A to Agilent Technologies for recalibration.
Table 4-3. Torque Values
Replacing the ac
Cable Assembly
Description
Tool Size
Torque
Nut RF OUTPUT SMA
connectors
1/2 inch
25 inch-pounds
SMA cable connections
5/16 inch
10 inch-pounds
The ac cable assembly consists of the line module, the line switch, and the
cable harness. When replacing the ac cable assembly, unsolder the connections to the dc power supply. Remove the line module. Remove the line switch.
See Figure 4-2 on page 4-14 and Table 4-4 on page 4-14 when installing a new
ac cable assembly.
4-13
Verification and Service Information
Service Information
Figure 4-2. Wiring Diagram for the Line Module
Table 4-4. Line Module to DC Power Supply Connections
Index Number
Cable Attachment
(from the Line Module)
Cable Color
1
ac power harness
White/brown/gray
2
ac power harness
Gray
3
dc power supply (labeled 5)
White
4
dc power supply (labeled 4)
Yellow
5
dc power supply (labeled 3)
Orange
6
dc power supply (labeled 2)
Red
7
dc power supply (labeled 1)
Blue
8
ac power harness
White/gray/red
9
ac power harness
White/gray
10
(Terminal solder lug) bottom of rear panel
—
4-14
Verification and Service Information
Service Information
Replacing the
Power Supply
Unsolder the connections to the dc power supply. Remove the four screws
that attach the power supply to the chassis. Use Figure 4-3 and Table 4-5
when installing a new power supply.
Figure 4-3. Wiring Diagram for the Power Supply Terminals
Table 4-5. DC Power Supply Terminal Connections
Index Number
Cable Attachment
Cable Color
1
E2 +OUT to the photodetector and electrical amplifier
unit
Red
2
E1 –OUT to the photodetector and electrical amplifier
unit
Green
3
E2 –OUT to E1 COM
Black
4
RF coax cable shielding to E2 –OUT
—
RF coax cable inner conductor to E2 +OUT
—
5
E1 +OUT to LED anode
Orange
6
E1 COM to LED cathode
Yellow
4-15
Verification and Service Information
Service Information
Replaceable Parts
This section contains information for identifying and ordering replacement
assemblies and mechanical parts for the Agilent 11982A lightwave converter.
Replaceable Parts Table 4-6 on page 4-19 lists information for each major assembly and for each
Table Format
major mechanical and electrical part that is not part of a major assembly.
Table 4-7 on page 4-21 lists information for the Agilent 11982A replaceable
hardware. The following information is listed in Table 4-6 and Table 4-7:
1 Item number of callout in Figure 4-4 on page 4-18, Figure 4-5 on page 4-20, or
Figure 4-6 on page 4-20.
2 Agilent Technologies part number.
3 Part number check digit (CD).
4 Description of the assembly.
Part Ordering Information
To order an assembly or mechanical part listed in this chapter, quote the Agilent Technologies part number and the check digit, and indicate the quantity
required. The check digit is used to verify the correct part number. The check
digit will ensure accurate processing of your order.
To order a part that is not listed, include the following information with the
order:
• Lightwave converter model number.
• Lightwave converter serial number.
• Description of where the part is located, what it looks like, and its function (if
known).
• Quantity needed.
Parts can be ordered by addressing the order to the nearest Agilent Technologies office. Customers within the USA can also use either the direct mail-order
system or the direct phone-order system described below. The direct phoneorder system has a toll-free phone number available.
4-16
Verification and Service Information
Service Information
Direct Mail-Order Within the USA, Agilent Technologies can supply parts through a direct mailSystem
order system. Advantages of using the system are as follows:
• Direct ordering and shipment from Agilent Technologies.
• No maximum or minimum on any mail order. (There is a minimum order
amount for parts ordered through a local Agilent Technologies office when the
orders require billing and invoicing.)
• Prepaid transportation. (There is a small handling charge for each order.)
• No invoices.
To provide these advantages, a check or money order must accompany each
order. Mail-order forms and specific ordering information are available
through your local Agilent Technologies office.
Direct PhoneOrder System
Within the USA, a phone order system is available for regular and hotline
replacement parts service. A toll-free phone number is available, and Mastercard and Visa are accepted.
Regular Orders
The toll-free phone number, (800) 227-8164, is available Monday through Friday, 6 am to 5 pm (Pacific time). Regular orders have a 4-day delivery time.
Hotline Orders
Hotline service is available 24 hours a day, 365 days a year, for emergency
parts ordering. The toll-free phone number, (800) 227-8164, is available Monday through Friday, 6 am to 5 pm (Pacific time). After-hours and on holidays,
call (415) 968-2347.
To cover the cost of freight and special handing, there is an additional hotline
charge on each order (three line items maximum per order). Hotline orders
are normally delivered the next business day after they are ordered.
4-17
Verification and Service Information
Service Information
Figure 4-4. Agilent 11982A Assembly Level Replaceable Parts
4-18
Verification and Service Information
Service Information
Table 4-6. Assembly-Level Replaceable Parts
Index
Number
Agilent Part Number
1
5021-5814
5
REAR FRAME
2
08449-00002
5
PANEL, REAR
3
11982-00003
9
INSULATOR
CD
Description
4
11982-00004
0
DECK
5
5021-5830
5
SIDE STRUT
6
5086-7863
4
PHOTODETECTOR AND ELECTRICAL
AMPLIFIER UNIT
7
08673-60040
9
RF CONNECTOR
8
11982-00001
7
FRONT PANEL, DRESS
9
1990-1238
8
LED, GREEN
85680-40004
6
LED MOUNT (NOT SHOWN)
10
5001-0538
8
TRIM, SIDE
11
5021-8413
6
FRONT FRAME
11982-00002
8
FRONT PANEL, SUB (NOT SHOWN)
12
5041-8803
0
TRIM, TOP
13
5062-3805
6
SIDE COVER
14
11982-20002
0
CABLE, RF
15
11982-60001
3
DC CABLE ASSEMBLY (INCLUDES THE RF
COAX CABLE)
16
0950-2099
6
POWER SUPPLY
17
11982-60002
4
AC CABLE ASSEMBLY (INCLUDES THE
LINE SWITCH AND LINE MODULE)
5041-8801
8
FOOT, BOTTOM FRONT (NOT SHOWN)
1460-1345
5
TILT STANDS FOR FRONT FEET (NOT
SHOWN)
5041-8822
3
FOOT, BOTTOM REAR (NOT SHOWN)
5062-3729
3
TOP COVER (NOT SHOWN)
5062-3887
4
BOTTOM COVER (NOT SHOWN)
2110-0202
1
FUSE (NOT SHOWN)
0890-0732
2
SHRINK TUBING (NOT SHOWN)
1400-0249
0
TY-RAP (NOT SHOWN)
4-19
Verification and Service Information
Service Information
Figure 4-5. Agilent 11982A Replaceable Hardware
Figure 4-6. Back of Front Frame
4-20
Verification and Service Information
Service Information
Table 4-7. Replaceable Hardware
Index
Number
Agilent Part Number
CD
Description
1
0515-1331
5
SCREW, MACH M4.0 X 6MM FLAT-HD
2
0515-0866
9
SCREW, MACH M3.0 X 8MM PAN-HD
3
0515-1090
3
SCREW, MACH M3.5 X 8MM PAN-HD
4
0515-0889
6
SCREW, MACH M3.5 X 6MM FLAT-HD
5
0380-0019
7
STANDOFFS (NUTS AND LOCK
WASHERS ARE INCLUDED WITH THE
AC CABLE ASSEMBLY)
6
0535-0082
3
HEX NUT WITH LOCK WASHER, 7 MM
7
2190-0016
3
LOCK WASHER
8
2950-0001
8
HEX NUT, 3/8 X 32
4-21
Index
A
E
ac power cables, 2-6
accessories
connector interfaces, 1-4
shipped with the lightwave converter, 2-3
adjustment procedure, 4-10
Agilent Technologies
maintenance contract, 4-3
offices, 4-7
assembly-level replaceable parts, 4-18
electrostatic discharge, 1-19
accessories, 1-19
precautions, 1-19
protection, 1-19
EMI compatibility, 1-7
ESD, 1-19
reducing damage caused by ESD, 1-20
static-safe work station, 1-19
B
before servicing the Agilent 11982A, 4-3
Biconic connector interface, 1-4
C
cabinet, cleaning, iii
changing the oscilloscope display units to
watts, 3-4
characteristics, 1-5
check digit, 4-16
checking the fuse, 2-5
classification, product, iii
cleaning
adapters, 1-18
cabinet, iii
fiber-optic connections, 1-9, 1-17
non-lensed connectors, 1-17
compressed dust remover, 1-16
connecting the Agilent 11982A to an oscilloscope, 3-2
connector
care, 1-9
interfaces, 1-4
cotton swabs, 1-16
crowbar, overvoltage mode, 4-11
current-limiting, 4-11
D
description
Agilent 11982A lightwave converter, 1-2
Diamond connector interface, 1-4
DIN 47256 connector interface, 1-4
dust caps, 1-17
F
fiber optics
cleaning connections, 1-9
connectors, covering, 4-5
foam swabs, 1-16
front-panel features, 2-9
fuse, 2-5
values, iii
fuse holder door, 2-5
H
hotline orders, 4-17
I
IEC Publication 61010-1, iii
initial inspection, 2-2
input
connector, 1-9
voltage, 2-4
instrument, returning for service, 4-4
L
light-emitting diode, 2-9
lightwave converter, 1-2
line frequency, 2-4
line voltage
range, 2-4
selector, 2-4
line-power
cables, 2-7
low voltage
servicing, 4-11
Index-1
Index
M
manual updating supplement, 4-8
measurement accuracy, iv
measuring responsivity, 4-2
O
opening the fuse holder door, 2-5
OPTICAL OUT connector, iv
overvoltage, servicing, 4-11
P
packaging, 2-2
for shipment, 4-5
part ordering information, 4-16
PC/FC connector interface, 1-4
power cable, 2-6
power requirements, 2-4
power supply
adjustment, 4-10
service, 4-15
R
regular orders, 4-17
reliability considerations, 4-9
repair options, 4-3
replaceable parts, 4-16
replacement procedures, 4-12
replacing
the ac cable assembly, 4-13
the line module, 4-13
the power supply, 4-15
responsivity
determining, 4-2
testing, 4-2
returning for service, 4-4
RF cable or connector, servicing, 4-13
S
safety, iii
considerations, 4-9
laser classification, iii
sales and service offices, 4-7
serial numbers, 1-8
service, 4-4
Index-2
assembly-level parts, 4-18
information, 4-8
options, 4-3
power supply replacement, 4-15
returning for, 4-4
sales and service offices, 4-7
tools, 4-9
servicing
low voltage, 4-11
optical input connector, 4-12
photodetector and electrical amplifier unit,
4-12
troubleshooting, 4-11
shipping
container, 2-2
procedure, 4-4
specifications and characteristics, 1-5–1-7
ST connector interface, 1-4
swabs, 1-16
T
temperature range, 1-7
testing the responsivity, 4-2
torque, 4-13
troubleshooting, servicing, 4-11
turning on the lightwave converter, 2-9
V
VA power requirements, 2-4
verification of the Agilent 11982A, 4-2
verification test, failing, 4-3
voltage
range, 2-4
tumbler, 2-5
volts, 3-4
W
warranty, 4-3
wavelength range, 1-6
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