Graupner GmbH & Co. KG ZKZ-MX-12 ComputerSystem Graupner HoTT Programming Manual

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Graupner GmbH & Co. KG ZKZ-MX-12 ComputerSystem Graupner HoTT Programming Manual | Manualzz
33112.mx-12 HoTT.2.gb
H O P P I N G . T E L E M E T R Y . T R A N S M I S S I O N
mx-12
H O P P I N G . T E L E M E T R Y . T R A N S M I S S I O N
GRAUPNER GMBH & CO. KG
POSTFACH 1242
D-73220 KIRCHHEIM/TECK
GERMANY
Modifications and availability reserved. Graupner products
are only available through model shops. We will gladly
inform you of your nearest stockist. We accept no liability
for printing errors.
http://www.graupner.de
Printed in Germany PN.PG-02
33112_Um_mx12_HoTT_2_GB.indd 1
Although we have carefully checked the information contained in these instructions and
checked that it is correct, we can accept no liability of any kind for mistakes, incomplete
information and printing errors. Graupner reserves the right to alter the characteristics
and features of the software and hardware at any time and without prior notification.
Programming Manual
06.06.2011 19:46:36
Contents
Guarantee certificate
General Information
Safety Notes .................................................................. 3
Safety notes and handling instructions relating
to Nickel-Metal-Hydride rechargeable batteries ............ 8
Foreword...................................................................... 10
Description of radio control set .................................... 11
Recommended battery chargers ................................. 13
Transmitter power supply ............................................. 14
Receiver power supply ................................................ 16
Environmental protection notes ................................... 16
Adjusting the stick length ............................................. 17
Opening the transmitter case ...................................... 17
Changing the stick mode ............................................. 18
Description of transmitter............................................. 20
Transmitter controls ............................................... 20
Rear of transmitter................................................. 21
Optional headphone socket................................... 21
PC socket .............................................................. 21
Data socket ........................................................... 21
DSC (Direct Servo Control) ................................... 22
Data storage / card slot ......................................... 22
Screen and keypad ............................................... 24
Operating the “Data Terminal” ............................... 25
Short-cuts .............................................................. 25
Language selection, screen contrast..................... 26
On-screen warnings .............................................. 28
On-screen function fields....................................... 28
Position indicator, rotary controls CTRL 7 + 8 ....... 29
Input lock ............................................................... 29
Using the transmitter for the first time .......................... 30
Using the receiver for the first time .............................. 32
Installation notes.......................................................... 34
Receiving system power supply ............................ 35
Definition of terms ....................................................... 38
Switch and transmitter control assignment .................. 39
Contents
2
33112_Um_mx12_HoTT_2_GB.indd 2
Digital trims .................................................................. 40
Fixed-wing model aircraft............................................. 42
Receiver socket sequence .................................... 43
Model helicopters ........................................................ 46
Receiver socket sequence .................................... 47
Program descriptions
Setting up a new model memory ................................. 48
“Model memories” ...................................................... 52
“Base settings” (model)
Fixed-wing model aircraft ...................................... 56
Binding receivers............................................. 61
Range-checking .............................................. 62
Model helicopter .................................................... 64
Binding receivers............................................. 70
Range-checking .............................................. 71
“Servo settings”.......................................................... 72
“Transmitter control settings”
Fixed-wing model aircraft ...................................... 74
Model helicopter .................................................... 76
Throttle limit function ....................................... 79
Basic idle setting ............................................. 79
“D/R Expo”
Fixed-wing model aircraft ...................................... 82
Model helicopter .................................................... 84
“Phase trim” (fixed-wing) ............................................ 86
What is a mixer? .......................................................... 88
“Wing mixer”.............................................................. 88
“Heli mixer” ................................................................ 94
Setting up throttle and collective pitch curves ..... 100
Auto-rotation setting ............................................ 104
General notes re. freely programmable mixers .......... 106
“Free mixers” ........................................................... 107
Examples............................................................. 111
“Swashplate mixers”............................................... 112
“Servo display” ......................................................... 113
“Basic settings” ........................................................ 114
“Fail-Safe” ................................................................. 116
“Telemetry” ............................................................... 117
Setting & Data view ............................................. 118
Satellite operation with two receivers ............ 126
Simple data view ................................................. 128
RF status view ..................................................... 130
Voice trigger ........................................................ 131
“Trainer mode” ......................................................... 134
Wiring diagrams .................................................. 137
Wireless HoTT system ........................................ 138
“Info display” ........................................................... 142
Programming examples
Introduction ................................................................ 144
Fixed-wing model aircraft
First steps ............................................................ 146
Including an electric power system ..................... 150
E-motor and up-aileron using Ch1 stick .............. 152
Operating timers .................................................. 155
Use of flight phases ............................................. 156
Servos running in parallel .................................... 157
Deltas and flying wings .............................................. 158
F3A models ............................................................... 162
Model helicopters ...................................................... 166
Appendix
Appendix.................................................................... 174
Conformity declaration............................................... 177
FCC Information ........................................................ 178
Guarantee certificate ................................................. 179
Servicestellen / Service / Service après-vente
Graupner-Zentralservice
Graupner GmbH & Co. KG
Henriettenstrasse 94 - 96
D-73230 Kirchheim
Servicehotline
(+49) 0 18 05 47 28 76*
Montag - Freitag
9:30-11:30 + 13:00-15:00 Uhr
Belgie/Belgique/Nederland
Jan van Mouwerik
Slot de Houvelaan 30
NL 3155 Maasland VT
(+31) 10 59 13 59 4
Luxembourg
Kit Flammang
129, route d’Arlon
L 8009 Strassen
(+35) 23 12 23 2
Ceská Republika
Slovenská Republika
RC Service Z. Hnizdil
Letecka 666/22
CZ 16100 Praha 6 - Ruzyne
(+42) 2 33 31 30 95
Schweiz
Graupner Service
Wehntalerstrasse 37
CH 8181 Höri
(+41) 43 26 66 58 3
Espana
Anguera Hobbies
C/Terrassa 14
E 43206 Reus (Tarragona).
(+34) 97 77 55 32 0
[email protected]
Sverige
Baltechno Electronics
Box 5307
S 40227 Göteborg
(+46) 31 70 73 00 0
France
Graupner France
Gérard Altmayer
86, rue St. Antoine
F 57601 Forbach-Oeting
(+33) 3 87 85 62 12
United Kingdom
Graupner Service
Brunel Drive
GB, NEWARK, Nottinghamshire
NG242EG
(+44) 16 36 61 05 39
Italia
GiMax
Via Manzoni, no. 8
I 25064 Gussago
(+39) 030 25 22 73 2
*
0,14 Cent / Minute aus dem
Festnetz der deutschen
T-Com. Abweichende Preise
für Anrufe aus Mobilfunknetzen oder aus dem Festnetz
anderer Anbieter möglich.
Wir gewähren auf dieses Erzeugnis eine Garantie von
This product is warrantied for
Sur ce produit nous accordons une garantie de
Die Fa. Graupner GmbH & Co. KG, Henriettenstraße 94 - 96,
D-73230 Kirchheim/Teck gewährt ab dem Kaufdatum auf
dieses Produkt eine Garantie von 24 Monaten. Die Garantie
gilt nur für die bereits beim Kauf des Produktes vorhandenen
Material- oder Funktionsmängel. Schäden, die auf Abnützung,
Überlastung, falsches Zubehör oder unsachgemäße Behandlung zurückzuführen sind, sind von der Garantie ausgeschlossen. Die gesetzlichen Rechte und Gewährleistunsansprüche
des Verbrauchers werden durch diese Garantie nicht berührt.
Bitte überprüfen Sie vor einer Reklamation oder Rücksendung
das Produkt genau auf Mängel, da wir Ihnen bei Mängelfreiheit
die entstandenen Unkosten in Rechnung stellen müssen.
24
Monaten
months
mois
Garantie-Urkunde
Warranty certificate / Certificat de garantie
mx-12 HoTT Set
Order No. 33112
Graupner GmbH & Co. KG, Henriettenstraße 94 - 96. D-73230
Kirchheim/Teck, Germany guarantees this product for a period
of 24 months from date of purchase. The guarantee applies
only to such material or operational defects witch are present
at the time of purchase of the product. Damage due to wear,
overloading, incompetent handling or the use of incorrect
accessories is not covered by the guarantee. The user´s legal
rights and claims under guarantee are not affected by this
guarantee. Please check the product carefully for defects before you are make a claim or send the item to us, since we are
obliged to make a charge for our cost if the product is found to
be free of faults.
Übergabedatum:
Date of purchase/delivery:
Date d’achat :
La société Graupner GmbH & Co. KG, Henriettenstraße 9496, D-73230 Kirchheim/Teck, accorde sur ce produit une
garantie de 24 mois à compter de la date d’achat. La garantie
ne s’applique qu’aux défauts de matériel et de fonctionnement
du produit acheté. Les dommages dus à une usure, à une
surcharge, à l’emploi d’accessoires non compatibles ou à
une manipulation non conforme sont exclus de la garantie.
Cette garantie ne remet pas en cause les droits légaux des
consommateurs. Avant toute réclamation ou retour de matériel,
vérifiez précisément les défauts ou vices constatés, car si le
matériel est conforme et qu’aucun défaut n’a été constaté par
nos services, nous nous verrions contraints de facturer le coût
de cette intervention.
Firmenstempel und Unterschrift des Einzelhändlers:
Stamp and signature of dealer:
Cachet et signature du détaillant :
Name des Käufers:
Owner´s name:
Nom de I`acheteur :
Straße, Wohnort:
Complete address:
Adresse complète :
Guarantee certificate 179
06.06.2011 19:46:54
Safety Notes
Please read carefully!
We all want you to have many hours of pleasure in our
mutual hobby of modelling, and safety is an important
aspect of this. It is absolutely essential that you read
right through these instructions and take careful note
of all our safety recommendations. We also strongly
recommend that you register without delay at http://
www.graupner.de/en/service/product_registration, as
this ensures that you automatically receive the latest
information relating to your product by e-mail.
If you are a beginner to the world of radio-controlled
model aircraft, boats and cars, we strongly advise that
you seek out an experienced modeller in your field, and
ask him or her for help and advice.
If you ever dispose of this transmitter, these instructions
must be passed on to the new owner.
Application
This radio control system may only be used for the
purpose for which the manufacturer intended it, i. e. for
operating radio-controlled models which do not carry humans. No other type of use is approved or permissible.
Safety notes
SAFETY IS NO ACCIDENT
and
RADIO-CONTROLLED MODELS
ARE NOT PLAYTHINGS
Even small models can cause serious personal injury
and damage to property if they are handled incompetently, or if an accident occurs due to the fault of others.
Technical problems in electrical and mechanical systems can cause motors to rev up or burst into life unexpectedly, with the result that parts may fly off at great
speed, causing considerable injury.
Short-circuits of all kinds must be avoided at all times.
Short-circuits can easily destroy parts of the radio control system, but even more dangerous is the acute risk
of fire and explosion, depending on the circumstances
and the energy content of the batteries.
Aircraft and boat propellers, helicopter rotors, open
gearboxes and all other rotating parts which are driven
by a motor or engine represent a constant injury hazard.
Do not touch these items with any object or part of your
body. Remember that a propeller spinning at high speed
can easily slice off a finger! Ensure that no other object
can make contact with the driven components.
Never stand in the primary danger zone, i. e. in the rotational plane of the propeller or other rotating parts, when
the motor is running or the drive battery is connected.
Please note that a glowplug engine or electric motor
could burst into life accidentally if the receiving system
is switched on when you are transmitting the transmitter.
To be on the safe side, disconnect the fueltank or the
flight battery.
Protect all electronic equipment from dust, dirt, damp,
and foreign bodies. Avoid subjecting the equipment
to vibration and excessive heat or cold. Radio control
equipment should only be used in “normal” ambient
temperatures, i. e. within the range -15°C to +55°C.
Avoid subjecting the equipment to shock and pressure.
Check the units at regular intervals for damage to cases
and leads. Do not re-use any item which is damaged or
has become wet, even after you have dried it out thoroughly.
Use only those components and accessories which
we expressly recommend. Be sure to use only genuine
matching Graupner connectors of the same design with
contacts of the same material.
When deploying cables ensure that they are not under
strain, are not tightly bent (kinked) or broken. Avoid
sharp edges, as they can chafe through insulating
materials.
Before you use the system, check that all connectors
are pushed home firmly. When disconnecting components, pull on the connectors themselves – not on the
wires.
It is not permissible to carry out any modifications to the
RC system components, as any such changes invalidate
both your operating licence and your insurance cover.
Installing the receiving system
In a model aircraft the receiver must be packed in soft
foam and stowed behind a stout bulkhead, and in a
model boat or car it should be protected effectively from
dust and spray.
The receiver must not make direct contact with the
fuselage, hull or chassis at any point, otherwise motor
vibration and landing shocks will be transmitted directly
to it. When installing the receiving system in a model
with a glowplug or petrol engine, be sure to install all
the components in well-protected positions, so that no
exhaust gas or oil residues can reach the units and
get inside them. This applies above all to the ON / OFF
switch, which is usually installed in the outer skin of the
model.
Secure the receiver in such a way that the aerial, servo
leads and switch harness are not under any strain. The
receiver aerial should be at least 5 cm away from all
large metal parts and any wiring which is not connected
directly to the receiver. This includes steel and carbon
fibre components, servos, electric motors, fuel pumps,
cabling of all kinds, etc..
Ideally the receiver should be installed well away from
Safety Notes
33112_mx12_HoTT_2_GB.indd Abs2:3
3
06.06.2011 19:39:13
Safety Notes
any other installed equipment in the model, but in an
easily accessible position. Under no circumstances allow servo leads to run close to the aerial, far less coiled
round it!
Ensure that cables are fastened securely, so that they
cannot move close to the receiver aerial when the model
is flying.
Deploying the receiver aerial(s)
The receiver and its aerials should be installed as far
away as possible from all kinds of power system. If your
model has a carbon fibre fuselage, the aerial tips must
always be deployed outside the fuselage. The orientation
of the aerial(s) is not critical, but we recommend installing them vertically (upright) in the model. If the receiver
features aerial diversity (two aerials), the second aerial
should be arranged at 90° to the first.
Installing the servos
Always install servos using the vibration-damping
grommets supplied. The rubber grommets provide some
degree of protection from mechanical shock and severe
vibration.
Installing control linkages
The basic rule is that all linkages should be installed in
such a way that the pushrods move accurately, smoothly
and freely. It is particularly important that all servo output
arms can move to their full extent without fouling or rubbing on anything, or being obstructed mechanically at
any point in their travel.
It is essential that you should be able to stop your motor
at any time. With a glow motor this is achieved by adjusting the throttle so that the barrel closes completely when
you move the throttle stick and trim to their end-points.
4
Ensure that no metal parts are able to rub against each
other, e. g. when controls are operated, when parts
rotate, or when motor vibration affects the model. Metalto-metal contact causes electrical “noise” which can
interfere with the correct working of the receiver.
Directing the transmitter aerial
Transmitter field strength is at a minimum in an imaginary line extending straight out from the transmitter
aerial. It is therefore fundamentally misguided to “point”
the transmitter aerial at the model with the intention of
obtaining good reception.
When several radio control systems are in use on adjacent channels, the pilots should always stand together in
a loose group. Pilots who insist on standing away from
the group endanger their own models as well as those
of the other pilots.
However, if two or more pilots operating 2.4 GHz radio
control systems stand closer together than 5 m, the
down-link channel may be swamped, triggering a very
premature range warning. If this should occur, walk
away from the other pilots until the range warning
ceases again.
Pre-flight checking
Before you switch on the receiver, ensure that the throttle stick is at the stop / idle end-point.
Always switch on the transmitter first,
and only then the receiver.
Always switch off the receiver first,
and only then the transmitter.
If you do not keep to this sequence, i. e. if the receiver
is at any time switched on when “its” transmitter is
switched OFF, then the receiver is wide open to signals
from other transmitters and any interference, and may
respond. The model could then carry out uncontrolled
movements, which could easily result in personal injury
or damage to property.
Please take particular care if your model is fitted with
a mechanical gyro: before you switch your receiver off,
disconnect the power supply to ensure that the motor
cannot run up to high speed accidentally.
As it runs down, the gyro can generate such a high
voltage that the receiver picks up apparently valid
throttle commands, and the motor could respond by
unexpectedly bursting into life.
Range checking
Before every session check that the system works properly
in all respects, and has adequate range. Secure the model
adequately, and ensure that no persons are standing in
front of the model.
Carry out at least one complete function check on the
ground, followed by a complete simulated flight, in order
to show up any errors in the system and the model’s
programming. Be sure to read the notes on pages 62
and 71 in this regard.
When operating a model, i. e. when flying or driving,
do not operate the transmitter without the aerial fitted.
Check that the transmitter aerial is firmly seated.
Operating your model aircraft, helicopter, boat or car
Never fly directly over spectators or other pilots, and
take care at all times not to endanger people or animals.
Keep well clear of high-tension overhead cables. Never
operate your model boat close to locks and full-size vessels. Model cars should never be run on public streets or
motorways, footpaths, public squares etc..
Safety Notes
33112_mx12_HoTT_2_GB.indd Abs2:4
06.06.2011 19:39:25
Checking the transmitter and receiver batteries
It is essential to stop using the radio control system and
recharge the batteries well before they are completely
discharged. In the case of the transmitter this means –
at the very latest – when the message “battery needs
charging” appears on the screen, and you hear an
audible warning signal.
It is vital to check the state of the batteries at regular
intervals – especially the receiver pack. When the battery is almost flat you may notice the servos running
more slowly, but it is by no means safe to keep flying or
running your model until this happens. Always replace or
recharge the batteries in good time.
Keep to the battery manufacturer’s instructions, and
don’t leave the batteries on charge for longer than
stated. Do not leave batteries on charge unsupervised.
Never attempt to recharge dry cells, as they may explode.
Rechargeable batteries should always be recharged before every session. When charging batteries it is important to avoid short-circuits. Do this by first connecting the
banana plugs on the charge lead to the charger, taking
care to maintain correct polarity. Only then connect the
charge lead to the transmitter or receiver battery.
Disconnect all batteries and remove them from your
model if you know you will not be using it in the near
future.
Capacity and operating times
This rule applies to all battery types: capacity diminishes
with each charge. At low temperatures the battery’s
internal resistance rises, and capacity falls. This means
that its ability to deliver current and maintain voltage is
reduced.
Frequent charging, and / or the use of maintenance
programs, tends to cause a gradual reduction in battery
capacity. We recommend that you check the capacity of
all your rechargeable batteries at least every six months,
and replace them if their performance has fallen off
significantly.
Use only genuine Graupner rechargeable batteries!
Suppressing electric motors
All conventional (brushed) electric motors generate
sparks between the commutator and the brushes, which
cause more or less serious interference to the radio
control system, depending on the type of motor. If an
RC system is to work correctly, it is therefore important
to suppress the electric motors, and in electric-powered
models it is essential that every motor should be effectively suppressed. Suppressor filters reliably eliminate
such interference, and should always be fitted where
possible.
Please read the notes and recommendations supplied
by the motor manufacturer.
Refer to the main Graupner FS catalogue or the Internet
website at www.graupner.de for more information on
suppressor filters.
must be chosen to suit the size of the electric motor it is
required to control.
There is always a danger of overloading and possibly
damaging the speed controller, but you can avoid this by
ensuring that the controller’s current-handling capacity is
at least half the motor’s maximum stall current.
Particular care is called for if you are using a “hot” (i. e.
upgrade) motor, as any low-turn motor (small number of
turns on the winding) can draw many times its nominal
current when stalled, and the high current will then burn
out the speed controller.
Electrical ignition systems
Ignition systems for internal combustion engines can
also produce interference, which has an adverse effect
on the working of the radio control system.
Electrical ignition systems should always be powered by
a separate battery – not the receiver battery.
Be sure to use effectively suppressed spark plugs and
plug caps, and shielded ignition leads.
Keep the receiving system an adequate distance away
from the ignition system.
Servo suppressor filter for extension leads
Order No. 1040
Servo suppressor filters are required if you are obliged
to use long servo extension leads, as they eliminate the
danger of de-tuning the receiver. The filter is connected
directly to the receiver input. In very difficult cases a
second filter can be used, positioned close to the servo.
Static charges
Lightning causes magnetic shock waves which can
interfere with the operation of a radio control transmitter
even if the thunderstorm actually occurs several kilometres away. For this reason …
… cease flying operations immediately if you notice
an electrical storm approaching. Static charges
through the transmitter aerial can be life-threatening!
Using electronic speed controllers
The basic rule is that the electronic speed controller
Caution
• In order to fulfil the FCC RF radiation regulations
Safety Notes
33112_mx12_HoTT_2_GB.indd Abs2:5
5
06.06.2011 19:39:25
Safety Notes
•
•
•
•
applicable to mobile transmitting apparatus, the
equipment’s aerial must be at least 20 cm from any
person when the system is in use. We therefore do
not recommend using the equipment at a closer
range than 20 cm.
Ensure that no other transmitter is closer than 20 cm
from your equipment, in order to avoid adverse
effects on the system’s electrical characteristics and
radiation pattern.
The radio control system should not be operated
until the Country setting has been set correctly at
the transmitter. This is essential in order to fulfil the
requirements of various directives - FCC, ETSI, CE
etc. Please refer to the instructions for your particular
transmitter and receiver for details of this procedure.
Check all working systems and carry out at least one
full range check on the ground before every flight, in
order to show up any errors in the system and the
model’s programming.
Never make any changes to the programming of the
transmitter or receiver whilst operating a model.
Care and maintenance
Don’t use cleaning agents, petrol, water or other solvents to clean your equipment. If the case, the aerial etc.
gets dirty, simply wipe the surfaces clean with a soft dry
cloth.
Components and accessories
As manufacturers, the company of Graupner GmbH &
Co. KG recommends the exclusive use of components
and accessories which have been tested by Graupner
and approved for their capability, function and safety. If
you observe this rule, Graupner accepts responsibility
for the product.
6
Graupner cannot accept liability for non-approved
components or accessories made by other manufacturers. It is not possible for Graupner to assess
every individual item manufactured by other companies, so we are unable to state whether such parts
can be used without incurring a safety risk.
Liability exclusion / Compensation
It is not possible for Graupner to ensure that the user
observes the installation and operation instructions, and
the recommended conditions and methods when installing, operating, using and maintaining the radio control
components. For this reason Graupner denies all liability
for loss, damages or costs which arise through misuse
or mishandling of this equipment, or are connected with
such use in any way.
Unless obliged by law, Graupner’s obligation to pay compensation, regardless of the legal argument employed,
is limited to the invoice value of that quantity of Graupner products which were immediately involved in the
event in which the damage occurred, unless the company is deemed to have unlimited liability on account of
deliberate or gross negligence.
The sole purpose of this manual is to provide information; it is subject to amendment without prior notification.
Graupner accepts no responsibility or liability for errors
or inaccuracies which may occur in the information
section of this manual.
Environmental protection
This symbol on the product, in the operating instructions
or the packaging indicates that the product must not be
discarded via the normal household refuse at the end
of its useful life. Instead it must be taken to a collection
point for the recycling of electrical and electronic apparatus.
The materials can be re-used according to their identification code. You can make an important contribution to
the protection of our shared environment by recycling
old equipment and making use of its
basic materials.
Dry and rechargeable batteries must
be removed from the device and taken
to the appropriate collection point.
Please ask your local authority for
the location of your nearest waste
disposal site.
Safety Notes
33112_mx12_HoTT_2_GB.indd Abs2:6
06.06.2011 19:39:25
For your notes
33112_mx12_HoTT_2_GB.indd Abs56:7
7
06.06.2011 19:39:25
Safety notes and handling instructions relating to Nickel-Metal-Hydride rechargeable
batteries
As with all sophisticated technical products, it is vitally
important that you observe the following safety notes
and handling instructions if you wish the equipment to
operate safely and reliably for an extended period.
Safety notes
• Rechargeable batteries are not playthings, and must
be kept well away from children.
Store rechargeable batteries out of the reach of children.
• Check that the batteries are in perfect, serviceable
condition before every use. Do not re-use defective or
damaged batteries.
• Rechargeable batteries must be used within the
specified limits stated for the corresponding cell type.
• Do not heat, incinerate or short-circuit rechargeable batteries, and never charge them with excessive currents or reversed polarity.
• Never use rechargeable batteries consisting of
parallel-wired cells, combinations of old and new
cells, cells of different construction, size, capacity, make, brand or cell type.
• Batteries installed inside equipment should always be
removed from the device when it is not in use and not
about to be used. Always keep equipment switched
off in order to avoid deep-discharged cells. Batteries
must be recharged in good time.
• The battery to be charged should be placed on a
non-inflammable, heat-resistant, non-conductive
surface for the whole of the charge period. Keep
inflammable and volatile objects and materials well
clear of the charging area.
• Batteries must always be supervised when on
charge. Never exceed the maximum fast-charge cur8
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
rent specified for the cell type in use.
If the battery heats up to more than 60°C whilst on
charge, halt the charge process immediately and
allow the pack to cool down to about 30°C.
Never recharge a battery which is already charged,
hot, or not completely discharged.
Do not make any modifications to batteries. Never
solder or weld directly to cells.
If incorrectly handled, rechargeable batteries are at
risk of combustion, explosion, corrosive action and
burns. Suitable extinguishing materials include fire
blankets, CO2 fire extinguishers and sand.
Escaped electrolyte is corrosive - do not allow it to
contact skin or eyes. In an emergency rinse the area
immediately with plenty of clean water before seeking
medical help.
The cells’ air vents must never be blocked or sealed,
e. g. by solder. When soldering, the iron temperature
should not exceed 220°C, and each joint should be
completed in less than twenty seconds.
To avoid cell deformation, do not exert excessive
mechanical pressure on battery cells.
If a battery should be accidentally overcharged, use
the following procedure:
Simply disconnect the battery and leave it on a noninflammable surface (e. g. stone floor) until it has
cooled down. Never hold the battery in your hand, as
there is a risk that cells might explode.
Always observe the recommended rates for charging
and discharging.
General information
The capacity of your rechargeable battery diminishes
with every charge / discharge process. Stored batteries
may eventually exhibit reduced capacity.
Storage
Batteries should not be stored in a completely discharged state. Store them in a dry enclosed space at an
ambient temperature of +5°C to +25°C. If you are storing
a battery for a period longer than four weeks, ensure
that the cell voltage does not fall below 1.2 V
Balancing individual battery cells
• To balance new battery cells, i. e. to bring them all
to the same state of charge, charge them at what
is known as the ‘normal’ rate until they are full. As a
general guideline a fully discharged battery needs to
be charged for a period of twelve hours at a current
corresponding to one tenth of the capacity printed on
the cell label (the “1/10C” method). After this treatment all the cells will be fully charged, and exhibit
the same voltage. This method of balancing battery
cells should be repeated after every ten fast-charge
processes, so that the cells are repeatedly balanced;
this helps to ensure an extended useful life for your
batteries.
• If you have the facilities to discharge individual cells,
we recommend that you make use of this before
every charge process. Otherwise the battery pack
should be run down to a discharge voltage of 0.9
V per cell. For example, this corresponds to a final
discharge voltage of 3.6 V in the case of the four-cell
pack used in the transmitter.
Charging
Ni-MH batteries should only be charged using the specified currents, charge times and temperature range, and
should be supervised constantly when on charge. If you
do not have access to a suitable fast charger, i. e. one
Safety Notes
33112_mx12_HoTT_2_GB.indd Abs57:8
06.06.2011 19:39:25
which allows you to set the charge current accurately,
then the battery should always be recharged using the
“normal” charge rate of 1/10C; see the example stated
above.
Wherever possible, transmitter batteries should
always be recharged at the 1/10C rate, in order to
avoid differences in cell states. The charge current
must never exceed the maximum permissible value
stated in the transmitter instructions.
Fast charging
• If your battery charger includes the facility to adjust
the Delta Peak charge cut-off voltage, set this value
to 5 mV per cell. However, most chargers are set to
a fixed cut-off value of 15 … 20 mV per cell, which
makes them suitable for use with both NiCd and
NiMH batteries. If you are not sure about this, please
refer to the operating instructions supplied with your
charger, or ask at your local model shop whether
your charger is also suitable for Ni-MH packs. If in
any doubt, charge your batteries at half the stated
maximum charge current.
Discharging
All rechargeable batteries sold by Graupner and GMRacing are suitable for a maximum continuous current
load of 6C … 13C, according to battery type (refer to the
manufacturer’s specification!). The higher the continuous
current load, the shorter the batteries’ useful life.
• Use your battery until its performance falls off, or until
the low voltage warning is triggered.
Caution:
When stored for a long period, the cell voltage should
not be allowed to fall below 1.2 V. This means that
you may have to recharge the battery before stor-
ing it.
• Reflex charging and charge / discharge (cycle)
programs shorten the effective life of batteries unnecessarily, and are only suitable for checking battery
quality or “reviving” relatively old cells. It also makes
no sense to charge / discharge a battery before using
it - unless you simply wish to check its quality.
Disposal of exhausted dry and rechargeable batteries
The German Battery Order places a legal requirement
on every consumer to return all used and exhausted
dry cells and rechargeable batteries. It is prohibited to
dispose of these items in the ordinary domestic waste.
At no charge to the user, old dry and rechargeable
batteries can be surrendered at local authority collection points, Graupner retail outlets, and any other shop
where dry and rechargeable batteries of the same type
are sold. You can also send batteries supplied by us to
the following address - with adequate pre-paid postage
- for disposal:
Graupner GmbH & Co. KG
Service: Gebrauchte Batterien (Used batteries)
Henriettenstr. 94 - 96
D-73230 Kirchheim unter Teck
You can make an important contribution to environmental protection in this way.
Caution:
Damaged batteries may require special packaging before despatch, as some contain highly toxic materials!!!!!
Safety Notes
33112_mx12_HoTT_2_GB.indd Abs57:9
9
06.06.2011 19:39:25
mx-12
the latest generation of radio control technology
HoTT (Hopping Telemetry Transmission) is the synthesis of expertise, engineering and world-wide testing by
professional pilots. The equipment operates on the 2.4
GHz band, and offers bi-directional communication between transmitter and receiver via a down-link channel
integrated into the receiver.
The mx-12 HoTT RC system is based on the Graupner/JR mc-24 computer radio control system which
was introduced back in 1997. It has been developed
specifically for the beginner, but the mx-12 HoTT is
still capable of controlling all current model types without problem - whether fixed-wing model or helicopter,
model boat or car.
In the area of fixed-wing models and helicopters it is
often necessary to employ complex mixer functions
for the control surfaces or the swashplate actuation
system. Computer technology enables you to activate
a vast range of functions to cope with special model
requirements – just by pressing a button. With the mx12 HoTT all you do is select the appropriate model
type, and the software then presents you automatically
with the appropriate mixer and coupling functions. This
means that the transmitter requires no additional modules in order to implement complex coupled functions,
and you can forget all about old-fashioned mechanical
mixers in the model. The mx-12 HoTT provides an
extremely high level of safety and reliability in use.
The mx-12 HoTT offers ten model memories, each
of which can store model settings for different flight
phases. Individual phases can be called up in flight
simply by operating a switch, so that you can try out
various settings quickly and without risk. This can be
for test purposes or for varying parameters for different
phases of flight.
10
The large graphic screen makes operating the transmitter a simple, intuitive process. Mixers and other
functions can be displayed in graphic form, and this is
extraordinarily helpful.
The beginner quickly becomes familiar with the different
functions thanks to the clear, logically arranged program
structure. Four-way buttons to left and right of the highcontrast screen are used to enter settings, allowing the
user to exploit all the options he needs, in accordance
with his experience in handling radio-controlled models.
In theory the Graupner HoTT process allows more than
200 models to be operated simultaneously. Although in
practice the mixed operation of different technical systems in the 2.4 GHz ISM band – as required by the approval regulations – reduces this number considerably.
Generally, however, it will always be possible to operate
even more models simultaneously on the 2.4 GHz band
than on the 35 / 40 MHz frequency bands which we
have used to date. However, the actual limiting factor –
as it has always been – is likely to remain the size of the
(air-) space available. The simple fact that no frequency
control procedure is necessary equates to an enormous
gain in safety, especially at flying sites such as gliding
slopes where groups of pilots may be distributed over a
large area, with nobody in overall control.
The integral Telemetry menu provides a simple means
of accessing data and programming HoTT receivers.
For example, this method can be used to map receiver
outputs, distribute control functions to multiple servos,
and match servo travels and directions to each other.
This manual describes each menu in detail, and also
provides dozens of useful tips, notes and programming
examples to complement the basic information. More
general modelling terms, such as Transmitter controls,
Dual-Rates, Butterfly (Crow) and many others, are all
explained in the manual.
Please refer to the Appendix for additional information
on the HoTT system. This manual concludes with the
transmitter’s conformity declaration and guarantee
certificate.
Please read the safety notes and the technical information. We recommend that you read right through the
instructions with great care, and check all the functions
as described in the text. This can be carried out simply
by connecting servos to the supplied receiver, and
watching their response as you program the transmitter. However, please read the notes on page 20 in this
regard. This is the quickest method of becoming familiar
with the essential procedures and functions of the mx12 HoTT.
Always handle your radio-controlled model with a
responsible attitude to avoid endangering yourself and
others.
The Graupner team wishes you great pleasure and success with your mx-12 HoTT - a radio control system of
the latest generation.
Kirchheim-Teck, June 2011
Introduction
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mx-12
Computer System
Six-channel radio control set with Graupner HoTT 2.4 GHz technology (Hopping Telemetry Transmission)
Graupner HoTT technology offers excellent reliability in use, with bi-directional communication between transmitter and receiver, integrated telemetry
and ultra-fast response times.
Simplified programming technology with four-way
push-buttons.
High-contrast eight-line graphic screen with blue
backlighting for ultra-clear display of all set-up
parameters and telemetry data. A micro-SD memory
card can be used to back-up model data and store
telemetry data.
12-bit / 4096-step channel signal resolution for
extremely fine control characteristics.
• Micro-computer radio control system exploiting the
latest Graupner HoTT 2.4 GHz technology
• Bi-directional communication between transmitter
and receiver
• Five different languages
German and English; subsequent software updates
will offer French, Italian and Spanish.
• Ultra-fast response times through direct, ultra-reliable
data transmission from the main processor to the
2.4 GHz RF module. No additional delay caused by
detours through a module processor.
• Telemetry menu for displaying telemetry data, and
programming receiver outputs and optional sensors.
• Telemetry display shows numerous programming and
analysis functions directly on the transmitter screen.
• Speech output possible using optional speech output
module, Order No. 33001.71
• User-selectable servo cycle times for digital servos,
min. 10 ms
• Short, folding aerial
• Methods of operation and programming based on the
proven concepts of the mc-19 to mc-24
• High-contrast graphic screen with blue backlighting
ensures perfect monitoring of set-up parameters,
such as model type, model memory, timers and
operating voltage.
• Function encoder with two four-way buttons for simplified programming and accurate settings
• Key-Lock function to guard against accidental operation.
• Three programmable flight phases
• Ten model memories, with storage of all modelspecific programming and set-up parameters
Description of radio control set
33112_mx12_HoTT_2_GB.indd Abs4:11
11
06.06.2011 19:39:25
mx-12
Computer System
Six-channel radio control set with Graupner HoTT 2.4 GHz technology (Hopping Telemetry Transmission)
• Four switches (two three-way switches, one two-way
switch and one momentary switch), plus two digital
controls - already installed and extremely versatile
• Unrestricted assignment of all switches to switched
functions simply by operating the appropriate switch
• Storage of model memories using the latest batteryfree back-up system
• Six control functions with simplified, very convenient
assignment of transmitter controls for auxiliary functions, such as switches and proportional controls
• Convenient mode selector provides simple method
of changing the stick mode (modes 1 - 4, e. g. throttle
right / throttle left).
When you change modes, all the affected settings
are switched at the same time.
• Graphical servo display provides a straightforward
overview of the servo set-up, and a swift method of
checking servo travels
• Receiver output swap
• Comprehensive programs for fixed-wing model
aircraft and helicopters:
Fixed-wing menu for: 1 AIL, 2 AIL, 2 AIL + 2 FLAP, Vtail, delta / flying wing, two elevator servos
Fixed-wing mixer: diff aile, diff.flaps, ail ¼ rudd, ail
¼ flaps, brake ¼ elev, brake ¼ flap, brake ¼ aile,
elev ¼ flap, elev ¼ aile, flap ¼ elev, flap ¼ aile
and diff. reduction
• Heli menu: 1-point, 2-point, 3-point and 4-point
linkages (1 servo, 2 servo, 3sv(2roll), 3sv(140°),
3sv(2nick (pitch-axis)), 4 SV (90°))
• Swashplate limiter
• Servo travel adjustment +/- 150% for all servo outputs, variable separately for each side (Single Side
12
•
•
•
•
•
•
Servo Throw)
Variable sub-trim, range +/- 125%, for adjusting the
neutral position of all servos
Servo reverse, programmable for all servos
EXPO / DUAL-RATE system, separately variable, can
be switched in-flight, flight phase programmable
Stopwatch / count-down timer with alarm function
Model memory copy function
Integral DSC socket for use with flight simulators and
Trainer systems
• More than 200 systems can be operated simultaneously
• Future-proof update capability using data interface
General features of the HoTT system
• Simple, ultra-fast binding of transmitter and receiver
• Multiple receivers can be bound per model for parallel operation
• Extremely fast re-binding, even at maximum range
• Two-receiver satellite operation using special cable
connection
• Range-check and warning function
• Receiver low-voltage warning on transmitter screen
• Ultra-wide receiver operating voltage range: 3.6 V to
8.4 V (fully operational down to 2.5 V)
• Fail-Safe
• Unrestricted channel assignment (channel-mapping),
mixer functions and all servo settings programmable
in the Telemetry menu
• Up to four servos can be actuated simultaneously
as a block, with a servo cycle time of 10 ms (digital
servos only)
• Optimised frequency hopping and broad channel
spread for maximum interference rejection
• Intelligent data transmission with corrective function
• Real-time telemetry analysis
Description of radio control set
33112_mx12_HoTT_2_GB.indd Abs4:12
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The set Order No. 33112 contains:
mx-12 HoTT micro-computer transmitter with integral
4NH-2000 RX RTU flat-pack Ni-MH transmitter battery (specification reserved), Graupner GR-12 HoTT
bi-directional receiver, switch harness and plug-type
battery charger
Order
No.
Description
220 V mains conn.
12 V DC connect.
NiCd
Ni-MH
LiPo
Lead-ac.
Integral charge. lead
Recommended battery chargers (optional)
6407
6411
6425
6427
6455
x
x
x
x
x
Suitable for
the following
battery types
6463
6464
6466
6468
6470
Multilader 3
Ultramat 8
Twin Charger
Multilader 3
Multilader 7E
Ultramat 12 plus
Pocket
Ultramat 14 plus
Ultra Trio plus 14
Ultramat 16S
Ultramat 18
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
Specification, mx-12 HoTT transmitter
Specification, GR-12 HoTT receiver
Frequency band
2,4 … 2,4835 GHz
Operating voltage
3,6 … 8,4 V
Modulation
FHSS
Current drain
ca. 70 mA
Transmitter power
see country setting, page 115
Frequency band
2,4 … 2,4835 GHz
Control functions
Six functions; four with trims
Modulation
FHSS
Temperature range
-10 … +55 °C
Aerial
Aerial
folding
Operating voltage
3,4 … 6 V
approx. 145 mm long,
approx. 115 mm encapsulated and approx. 30 mm
active
Current drain
approx. 180 mA
Servo sockets
6
Dimensions
approx. 190 x 195 x 90 mm
Sensor socket
1 (instead of servo 5)
Weight
approx. 770 g with transmitter
battery
Temperature range
approx. -15° … +70 °C
Dimensions
approx. 36 x 21 x 10 mm
Weight
approx. 7 g
x
x
x
x
To recharge the mx-16iFS system you will also need the transmitter
charge lead, Order No. 3022, and the receiver battery charge lead,
Order No. 3021, unless stated otherwise in the table.
For details of additional battery chargers, and details of the chargers
listed here, please refer to the main Graupner FS catalogue, or our
Internet site at www.graupner.de.
Accessories
Order No. Description
1121
Neckstrap, 20 mm wide
70
Neckstrap, 30 mm wide
3097
Wind-shield for hand-held transmitter
Trainer leads for mx-12 HoTT:
see page 137
Replacement parts
Order No.
Description
2498.4FBEC 4NH-2000 RX RTU, flat-pack
33800
HoTT transmitter aerial
Description of radio control set
33112_mx12_HoTT_2_GB.indd Abs4:13
13
06.06.2011 19:39:26
Operating Notes
Transmitter power supply
The mx-12 HoTT transmitter is fitted as standard with
a high-capacity rechargeable 4NH-2000 RX RTU Ni-MH
battery (Order No. 2498.4FBEC) (specification reserved). When delivered, the standard rechargeable
battery is not charged.
When you are using the transmitter you can monitor
the battery voltage on the LCD screen. If the voltage of
the transmitter battery falls below a certain point, you
will hear an audible warning signal. The screen then
displays a message reminding you that the transmitter
battery needs to be recharged.
0:00
GRAUBELE
stop
#01
0:00
batter y Flug
needs «normal »
charging!!
4.7V 10%
K78 HoTT
x
Mx
0.0V
0:22h
Always recharge the transmitter battery in good time.
When you see this message, cease operations immediately and recharge the transmitter battery.
Charging the transmitter battery
The rechargeable Ni-MH transmitter battery can be
recharged with the battery charger (Order No. 33116.2)
supplied in the set, using the charge socket located on
the right-hand side of the transmitter. Leave the battery
inside the transmitter for charging, to avoid premature
damage to the internal battery socket.
As an approximate guideline a discharged battery
should be charged for twelve hours at a current corresponding to one tenth of the capacity printed on the
pack. If you are using the standard transmitter battery
and the charger supplied in the set, this current is
14
200 mA.
The transmitter must be switched “OFF” for the whole
period of the charge process. Never switch on the
transmitter when it is still connected to the charger; even
a very brief interruption in the process can cause the
charge voltage to rise to the point where the transmitter
is immediately damaged. For this reason check carefully
that all connectors are secure, and are making really
good contact.
Polarity of the mx-12 HoTT charge socket
Commercially available battery charge leads produced
by other manufacturers are often made up with the opposite polarity. For this reason it is essential to use only
the genuine Graupner charge lead, Order No. 3022.
Using automatic battery chargers
Although the standard transmitter charge socket is protected against reversed polarity, it is still possible to use
suitable chargers to fast-charge the transmitter battery.
If possible, set the delta peak voltage difference of your
fast charger to a value in the range 10 mV … 20 mV or
equivalent, as described in the charger’s instructions;
this ensures that it is suitable for fast-charging Ni-MH
cells.
First connect the banana plugs on the charge lead
to the charger, and only then connect the other end
of the charge lead to the charge socket on the transmitter. When the charge lead is connected to the
transmitter, never allow the bare ends of the plugs to
touch! To avoid damage to the transmitter, the charge
current must never exceed 1 A. If necessary, limit the
current on the charger itself.
Removing the transmitter battery
To remove the transmitter battery, first disengage the
cover over the battery compartment on the back of the
transmitter, then lift it off:
Remove the battery, then carefully pull on the power
lead to disconnect the transmitter battery connector.
Installing the transmitter battery
Hold the connector attached to the transmitter battery
in such a way that the black or brown wire faces the
aerial, and the unused socket of the battery connector
is on the side facing the bottom, then push the battery
connector onto the three pins projecting out of the inside
of the transmitter, in the direction of the
circuit board. (The battery connector is
protected against reversed polarity by
two chamfered edges; see illustration). Polarity of
transmitter battery
Finally place the battery in the comconnector
partment, and close the cover.
Operating Notes
33112_mx12_HoTT_2_GB.indd Abs5:14
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Battery timer, bottom left corner of the screen
This timer displays the cumulative operating time of the
transmitter since the last time the transmitter battery
was charged.
This timer is automatically reset to “0:00” when the
transmitter detects that the voltage of the transmitter
battery is significantly higher than the last time it was
switched on, e. g. as a result of a charge process.
GRAUBELE
#01
6.1V 99%
0:00h
0:00
stop
flt
0:00
«normal »
K78 HoTT
0.0V
Mx
Operating Notes
33112_mx12_HoTT_2_GB.indd Abs5:15
15
06.06.2011 19:39:26
Operating Notes
Receiver power supply
A wide range of rechargeable four-cell and five-cell NiMH
batteries varying in capacity is available for use as the
receiver power supply. If you are using digital servos we
recommend that you use a five-cell (6 V) pack of generous capacity. If your model is fitted with a mixture of
digital and analogue servos, it is important to check the
maximum permissible operating voltage of all the types.
The PRX unit, Order No. 4136, provides a stabilised
receiver power supply with a user-variable voltage from
one or two receiver batteries; see Appendix.
For reasons of safety battery boxes or dry cells should
never be used.
The voltage of the airborne power supply is displayed on
the transmitter screen while the model is flying:
GRAUBELE
#01
5.2V 51%
2:22h
0:00
stop
flt
0:00
«normal »
K78 HoTT
5.5V
M
If the voltage falls below the pre-set warning threshold 3.8 Volt as standard, but variable in the Telemetry menu;
see page 126 - a visual and audible low-voltage warning
is triggered.
Nevertheless it is important to check the state of the
batteries at regular intervals. Don’t put off charging
the batteries until the warning signal is triggered.
Note:
Please refer to the main Graupner FS catalogue or visit
the Internet site at www.graupner.de for full details of
batteries, chargers, measuring equipment and battery
monitor units.
16
Charging the receiver battery
The charge lead, Order No. 3021, can be connected
directly to the NC receiver battery for charging. If the
battery is installed in a model and you have installed one
of the following switch harnesses: Order No. 3046, 3934
or 3934.1 or 3934.3, the battery can be charged via the
separate charge socket, or the charge socket which is
built into the switch. The switch on the switch harness
must be left at the “OFF” position for charging.
Polarity of the receiver battery connector
General notes on battery charging
• Observe the recommendations provided by the
charger manufacturer and the battery manufacturer
at all times.
• Keep to the maximum permissible charge current
stated by the battery manufacturer.
• The maximum charge current for the transmitter
battery is 1.5 A. Limit the charge current to this value
on the charger.
• If you wish to charge the transmitter battery at a
current higher than 1.5 A, you must first remove the
pack from the transmitter, otherwise you risk damaging the circuit board through overloading the conductor tracks, and / or overheating the battery.
• Carry out a series of test charges to ensure that the
automatic charge termination circuit works correctly
with your battery. This applies in particular if you
wish to charge the standard Ni-MH battery using an
automatic charger designed for Ni-Cd batteries.
• You may need to adjust the Delta Peak trigger voltage, if your charger provides this option.
• Do not discharge the battery or carry out a battery
maintenance program via the integral charge socket.
The charge socket is not suitable for this application.
• Always connect the charge lead to the charger first,
and only then to the transmitter or receiver battery.
Observing this rule eliminates the danger of accidental short-circuits between the bare contacts of the
charge lead plugs.
• If the battery becomes hot when on charge, it is time
to check the pack’s condition. Replace it if necessary,
or reduce the charge current.
• Never leave batteries unsupervised when on
charge.
Environmental protection notes
Important information on the disposal of dry and
rechargeable batteries:
The German Battery Order places a legal requirement
on every consumer to return all used and exhausted
dry cells and rechargeable batteries. It is prohibited to
dispose of these items in the ordinary domestic waste.
At no charge to the user, old dry and rechargeable
batteries can be surrendered at local authority collection points, Graupner retail outlets, and any other shop
where dry and rechargeable batteries of the same type
are sold. You can also send batteries supplied by us to
the following address - with adequate pre-paid postage
- for disposal:
Graupner GmbH & Co. KG
Service: Gebrauchte Batterien (Used batteries)
Henriettenstr. 94 - 96
D-73230 Kirchheim unter Teck
You can make an important contribution to environmental protection in this way.
Operating Notes
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Adjusting stick length
Both sticks are infinitely variable in length over a broad
range, enabling you to set them to suit your personal
preference.
Hold the bottom half of the knurled grip firmly, and
unscrew the top section:
Now screw the stick top in or out (shorter or longer) to
the length you prefer before tightening the top and bottom sections against each other to fix the stick top.
Opening the transmitter case
Please read the following notes carefully before you
open the transmitter. If you have no experience in such
matters, we recommend that you ask your nearest
Graupner Service Centre to carry out the work for you.
The transmitter should only be opened in the following
cases:
• When a self-neutralising stick needs to be converted
to non-neutralising action, or a non-neutralising stick
to a self-neutralising action.
• If you wish to adjust the stick centring spring tension.
Before opening the transmitter check that it is switched
off (move Power switch to “OFF”).
Open the battery compartment and remove the transmitter battery as described on the previous double page,
together with any micro-SD card already installed.
After this, use a PH1-size cross-point screwdriver to
undo the six screws recessed into the back panel of the
transmitter, as shown in the illustration:
Arrangement of the case back screws
Hold the two case sections together with your hand, and
turn the unit over to allow these six screws to fall out
onto the table. Now carefully raise the case back and
fold it open to the right, as if you were opening a book.
C A UT I O N
Two multi-core cables connect the lower shell to the
transmitter electronics located in the top section.
Please take great care not to damage this cable!
Important:
• Do not modify the transmitter circuit in any way,
as this invalidates your guarantee and official approval for the system.
• Do not touch any part of the circuit boards with
any metal object. Avoid touching the contacts
with your fingers.
• Never switch the transmitter on while the case is
open.
Please note the following points when closing the
transmitter:
• Make sure that no cables are jammed between the
transmitter case sections when you close the back.
• Check that the two case sections fit together flush all
round before fitting the retaining screws. Never force
the two case components together.
• Fit the case screws in the existing threads, and tighten them gently. Over-tightening them will strip the
threads in the plastic.
• Remember to re-connect the battery.
Operating Notes
33112_mx12_HoTT_2_GB.indd Abs5:17
17
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Operating Notes
Converting the dual-axis stick units
Self-centring action
Either or both sticks can be converted from self-neutralising to non self-neutralising action: start by opening the
transmitter as described on the previous page.
If you wish to change the standard stick unit arrangement, start by locating the screw on the left-hand stick
unit shown circled in white in the photo below.
Folding aerial
Adjuster screws for stick centring force
Self-centring screw
Note:
The right-hand stick unit is of mirror-image construction,
i. e. the screw you require is located on the right, below
centre.
Do not touch transmitter circuit board
Self-centring screw
Brake springs
Brake springs
Adjuster screws
Adjuster screws
Right-hand stick unit
Charge socket
Left-hand stick unit
Turn this screw clockwise until the stick on that side
moves freely from one end-stop to the other; alternatively unscrew it until the stick is fully self-centring again.
Do not touch transmitter circuit board
Memory card slot
18
Operating Notes
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06.06.2011 19:39:28
Brake spring and ratchet
You can alter the braking force of the stick by adjusting
the outer of the two screws circled in white in the next
picture; adjusting the inner screw alters the strength of
the ratchet:
Stick centring force
The centring force of the sticks is also variable to suit
your preference. The adjustment system is located
adjacent to the centring springs; see the white circles in
the following photo.
You can set the preferred centring spring force by rotating the corresponding adjuster screw using a cross-point
screwdriver:
• Turn to the right = harder spring tension;
• Turn to the left = softer spring tension.
vertical
Note:
The right-hand stick unit is of mirror-image construction,
i. e. the screw you require is located on the right, below
centre.
horizontal
Note:
The right-hand stick unit is of mirror-image construction,
i. e. the screw you require is located on the right, below
centre.
Operating Notes
33112_mx12_HoTT_2_GB.indd Abs5:19
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Description of transmitter
Transmitter controls
Attaching the transmitter neckstrap
You will find a strap lug mounted in the centre of the
front face of the mx-12 HoTT transmitter, as shown in
the drawing on the right. This lug is positioned in such a
way that the transmitter is perfectly balanced even when
suspended from a neckstrap.
Order No. 1121
Neckstrap, 20 mm wide
Order No. 70
Neckstrap, 30 mm wide
Central Status LED
Aerial with folding / rotating base
Neckstrap lug
Rotary proportional control CTRL 8
Rotary proportional control CTRL 7
Carry handle
3-position switch SW 4/5
2-position momentary
switch SW 1
3-possition switch SW 6/7
2-position switch SW 3
Left-hand stick
Right-hand stick
Trim
Important note:
In the transmitter’s standard form any servos connected
to the receiver can initially only be operated using the
dual-axis sticks. For maximum flexibility, all the other
transmitter controls (CTRL 7 … 8, SW 1, 3 … 7) are
“free” in software terms, and can be assigned to any
channels you like, enabling you to set up the system to
suit your personal preference or the requirements of a
particular model. This is carried out in the “contr set.”
menu, as described on pages 74 (fixed-wing models)
and 76 (model helicopters).
20 Description of transmitter
33112_mx12_HoTT_2_GB.indd Abs6:20
Trim
ON / OFF switch
Right-hand four-way button
Left-hand four-way button
LCD screen
06.06.2011 19:39:31
Case screw
Case screw
Option well for speech output
module Order No. 33001.71
Data socket for connecting
Smart-Box, Order No. 33700
DSC socket for connecting
flight simulators and for Teacher
mode
Three-pin socket for connecting transmitter to a PC
Case screw
Case screw
Transmitter battery
charge socket
Battery compartment cover
Case screw
Case screw
Optional headphone socket
If you install the optional speech output module, Order
No. 33001.71, and replace the name plate, it is possible
to connect a standard commercial earphone or headphones fitted with a 3.5 mm barrel plug (not included in
the set) to the central socket.
Signals and voice messages associated with the Telemetry menu are generated via this optional socket, as
are the transmitter’s audible signals. As standard these
messages are spoken in the German language. For
more details please see the section entitled “Voice” in
the section “SECRET MODE” starting on page 26, and
“Telemetry” on page 131.
The volume of the headphone output can be adjusted
in the “Voice volume” line of the “Basic Settings” menu;
see page 115.
Three-pin “PC” socket
This socket can be used to connect the transmitter to a
PC running Windows XP, Vista or 7 using the optional
USB adapter, Order No. 7168.6 and the connecting
lead, Order No. 6466.S.
The software required at the PC, including a suitable
USB driver, can be found in the Download section for
the corresponding product at www.graupner.de.
Once you have installed the software required, you can
also update the transmitter via this connection.
Data socket
For connecting the optional Smart-Box, Order No. 33700.
For more details about the Smart-Box please refer to the
main Graupner FS catalogue, or refer to that product on
the Internet at www.graupner.de.
Description of transmitter
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DSC
Data storage
Direct Servo Control
Card slot
The original function of this socket was for “Direct Servo
Control”, and that’s why the abbreviation is still in use.
However, for technical reasons “direct servo control” is
no longer possible with the HoTT system using a diagnosis lead.
The mx-12 HoTT transmitter’s standard two-pole DSC
socket is now used as a Trainer (buddy box) socket
(Teacher or Pupil), and as an interface for flight simulators.
For the DSC connection to work you must check the
following:
1. Carry out any adjustments required in the appropriate menus:
See page 134 for information on setting up the mx12 HoTT transmitter to work as part of a Trainer system.
2. ALWAYS leave the transmitter’s On / Off switch in
the “OFF” position when using a flight simulator, and
when using the mx-12 HoTT transmitter as a Pupil unit in a Trainer system, for only in this position is
the RF section of the transmitter module switched off
(no RF signal) even when the DSC lead is plugged
in. At the same time the transmitter’s current drain is
reduced slightly.
The central Status LED should now glow a constant red, and the abbreviation “DSC” appears in the
transmitter’s base display on the left, below the model number. At the same time the display of telemetry
symbols is suppressed:
22
PUPIL
#11
DSC
6.0V 99%
0:01h
stop
0:00
flt
0:00
«normal »
HoTT
0.0V
The transmitter is now ready for use.
In contrast, when the mx-12 HoTT is used in
Teacher mode, the transmitter must be switched on
before the appropriate cable is plugged in.
3. Connect the other end of the connecting lead to the
appropriate apparatus, taking into account the operating instructions supplied with that device.
Important:
Ensure that all connectors are firmly seated in
their sockets.
Note regarding flight simulators:
The range of flight simulators available commercially
is now very wide, and you may find that it is necessary
to swap over certain contacts at the barrel connector
or the DSC module. This work must be carried out by a
Graupner Service Centre.
micro-SD and micro-SDHC
When you switch off the mx-12 HoTT transmitter and
remove the battery compartment cover, you will see the
card slot for memory cards (of the micro-SD and microSDHC type) in the right-hand side of the compartment:
Any standard commercial micro-SD memory card with a
capacity of up to 2 GB can be used, and also any microSDHC card of up to 32 GB. However, the manufacturer
recommends the use of memory cards with capacities
up to only 4 GB, as these are completely adequate in all
normal circumstances.
The memory cards for which the transmitter is intended
are familiar from their use in digital cameras and mobile
telephones. Place the card in the slot with the contacts
facing up, towards the back panel, and push it in until it
locks. Re-install the battery and close the battery compartment; the transmitter can now be switched on again.
The base display shows a stylised memory card symbol
to indicate that a memory card is present:
Description of transmitter
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GRAUBELE
#01
5.2V 50%
3:33h
0:00
stop
flt
0:00
«normal »
K78 HoTT
5.5V
M
Note:
If there is an SD card installed, withdraw it BEFORE you
remove the transmitter’s back panel, otherwise there is a
risk that you will damage the card.
Data recording / storage
The process of saving data on the SD card is coupled to
the flight timer: if the timer is started, then data saving
commences - provided that a suitable memory card
is in the card slot, and a telemetry connection to the
receiver exists - and ceases again when the flight timer
is stopped. The flight timer is started and stopped as described in the “Timers” section on page 59 for fixed-wing
models, and pages 67 and 68 for model helicopters.
When data is being recorded, the card symbol
flashes constantly and slowly.
When data is being written to the memory card, the
memory card symbol swells from left to right to indicate
the process.
When a data storage process is concluded, you will find
an (empty) “Models” folder and a “Log-Data” folder on
the memory card. The latter contains the log files, stored
in sub-folders named “Model name”, using the format
0001.bin, 0002.bin etc. However, if a model memory
has not yet been named, then you will find the associated log files in a sub-folder named “NoName” when
you remove the memory card from the transmitter and
insert it in the card slot of a PC or laptop. If you wish,
the standard - fixed - date of creation can be changed
on the PC using a suitable program, and the data can
subsequently be analysed on a compatible PC using
the PC program available on the Download page for the
transmitter at www.graupner.de.
Importing voice files
As mentioned in the section entitled “Optional headphone socket” on page 21, signals and messages associated with the Telemetry menu can be generated via the
optional speech output module, Order No. 33001.71, in
addition to the transmitter’s audible signals. As standard
these telemetry messages are spoken in the German
language. The messages are grouped together to form
a language pack and stored in the transmitter’s internal
memory, but this can be replaced at any time by a language pack in a different language. For more details on
this please refer to the section entitled “HIDDEN MODE”
starting on page 26.
Importing and exporting model memories
Any model memories can be copied onto a memory
card in the transmitter, or copied from the card into the
transmitter, so that you can exchange data between
identical transmitters, and also back up your data. For
more information please see the “Model memories”
section starting on page 52.
Note:
Some of the special characters used in certain model
names cannot be accepted due to specific limitations
of the FAT or FAT32 file system used by memory cards.
During the copy process they are replaced by a tilde (~)
character.
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Screen and keypad
Visual display of the trim lever positions; alternatively - if rotary controls CTRL 7 or 8 are operated - display of the current
settings of these two controls
Model name
Model type display
(fixed-wing / helicopter)
See page 28 for possible warnings
Stopwatch in min:sec
(count-up / count-down)
Model memory 1 … 10
Left-hand four-way button
ef cd leaf through
ef pressed briefly together:
switches to Servo display
menu
Right-hand four-way button
ef cd
leaf through / alter values
SET Select / Confirm
ESC = interrupt / back
ESC pressed for about one
second; Switches to the
Telemetry menu, and
back to the base display
Simultaneous brief press of
ef or cd = CLEAR
Battery voltage and charge state in %
(If voltage falls below a particular level, a warning display
appears - see pictures on right-hand page; at the same time
a warning signal is emitted.)
Battery operating time since
last battery charge, in hr:min
24
Flight timer in min:sec
(count-up / count-down)
Receiver power supply voltage
Flight phase name
Switching between
flight phases using switch
Signal strength indicator
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Operating the “Data Terminal”
Input buttons ESC, SET, CLEAR,
symbols
On-screen telemetry symbols
The active model memory is not yet “bound”
Not flashing: RF switched off at transmitter
Flashing aerial symbol:
The last receiver bound to the active model is
inactive, or out of range
>M x No telemetry signal detected
Signal strength display
>M
Display of Pupil signal strength on the Teacher
>P
transmitter’s screen.
Buttons to the left of the screen
• ESC button
Pressing the ESC button returns you step by step
within the function select system, taking you right
back to the basic display. If you make a change in the
meantime, the change is retained.
If pressed for about one seconds in the base display,
ESC opens and closes the Telemetry menu.
• Arrow buttons ef cd
1. Pressing one of these buttons allows you to leaf
through lists, such as the Model Select or MultiFunction list, always moving in the direction of the
arrow; the arrow buttons are also used to move
through menu lines within menus.
2. Simultaneously pressing the ef buttons switches from the base transmitter display, and from almost any menu position, into the “Servo display”
menu.
Short-Cuts
Buttons to the right of the screen
• SET button
1. Starting from the base screen display - as it appears when you switch the transmitter on - a brief
press of the SET button takes you to the multifunction menus. You can also call up a selected
menu using the SET button.
2. Within the set-up menus you can activate (confirm) and disable the corresponding set-up fields
by pressing the SET button.
• Arrow buttons ef cd
1. “Leafs through” the multi-function menu and the
menu lines within the set-up menus, in the same
manner as the left-hand four-way arrow buttons.
2. Selects and adjusts parameters in set-up fields after you have activated them by pressing the SET
button; the buttons fc and ed are assigned
the same function in each case, i. e. it makes absolutely no difference which of the two buttons
you use.
3. A brief simultaneous press of the cd or ef
buttons resets an altered parameter value in the
active input field to the default value (CLEAR).
Notes:
If you switch the transmitter off and then immediately
on again, you may find that the four-way buttons have
no effect. This is not a fault! Switch the transmitter off
again, and wait a few seconds before switching it on
once more.
You can call up particular menus or options directly using the following button combinations:
• CLEAR
A brief simultaneous press of the cd or ef buttons of the right-hand four-way button resets an altered parameter value in the active input field to the
default value.
• “Servo display”
A brief simultaneous press of the ef buttons of the
left-hand four-way button switches from the transmitter’s base display, and from almost any menu position, to the “Servo display”, menu; see page 113.
• “Telemetry”
Press the central ESC button of the left-hand fourway button for about one second at the transmitter’s
base display; see section starting on page 117.
• “HIDDEN MODE”
(language selection and contrast)
Simultaneously press the arrow buttons cd of the
left-hand four-way button AND the central SET button of the right-hand four-way button; see next double-page.
• Input lock
Can be activated and disabled at the transmitter’s basic display by simultaneously holding the ESC and
SET buttons pressed in for about two seconds.
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HIDDEN MODE
Language selection and screen contrast
The “HIDDEN MODE” (VERSTECKTER MODUS) menu
of the mx-12 HoTT transmitter can be accessed from
virtually any menu position by holding the arrow buttons cd of the left-hand four-way button and the SET
button of the right-hand four-way button pressed in; after
about one second this display appears:
¿VERSTECKTER MODUS¿
0
KONTRAST
DEUTSCH
SPRACHE
ANSAGEN
DEUTSCH
CONTRAST
In the “CONTRAST” (KONTRAST) line you can adjust
the screen contrast to suit your preference by briefly
pressing the central SET button of the right-hand fourway button, as described in full on page 114 / 115. With
a second press of the SET or ESC button you return to
the line select point.
In the …
LANGUAGE
… (SPRACHE) line below it, which you can access by
pressing the arrow button d of the left-hand or righthand four-way button, you can select your preferred
language.
¿VERSTECKTER MODUS¿
0
KONTRAST
DEUTSCH
SPRACHE
ANSAGEN
DEUTSCH
26
Activate the value field by pressing the central SET button of the right-hand four-way button:
¿VERSTECKTER MODUS¿
0
KONTRAST
DEUTSCH
SPRACHE
ANSAGEN
DEUTSCH
Now replace the default language “DEUTSCH” (German) with your preferred language using the arrow
buttons of the right-hand four-way button. For example:
¿ HIDDEN MODE ¿
0
CONTRAST
ENGLISH
LANGUAGE
VOICE
DEUTSCH
If you change the language, all the settings stored in the
transmitter are retained in full. When this manual went to
press, the following two languages were available:
• German
• English
• French
The languages Italian and Spanish will be made available later on the Download page of the transmitter at
www.graupner.de in the form of an update.
VOICE MESSAGES
As mentioned in the section entitled “Optional headphone socket” on page 21, signals and messages
associated with the Telemetry menu can be generated
via the optional speech output module, in addition to the
transmitter’s audible signals. As standard these telemetry messages are spoken in the German language.
The messages are grouped together to form a language
pack and stored in the transmitter’s internal memory, but
it can be replaced at any time by a language pack in a
different language.
When this manual went to press, the following languages were available:
• German
• English
• French
The languages Italian and Spanish will be made available later on the Download page of the transmitter at
www.graupner.de in the form of additional voice files.
The active voice package can be replaced using either
the PC program which can be found on the transmitter’s
Download page at ww.graupner.de, or using an SD card,
as described below.
Preparation
If you have not already done so, insert your SD or
SDHC card in the transmitter, as described on page 22.
When you switch the transmitter on, it immediately creates a “VoiceFile” folder on the memory card.
Remove the prepared memory card from the transmitter,
and insert it in a suitable card reader. Connect this to
your PC or laptop, and copy the voice package, typically
“voice_gb.vdf”, into this folder; this is the file which you
previously downloaded from the transmitter’s Download
page. Remove the memory card from the card reader,
and insert it in the transmitter once more. Switch the
transmitter on with RF switched off:
Description of transmitter
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RF ON/OFF?
ON OFF
Changing the language
Use the arrow buttons of the left or right-hand four-way
button to move to the “VOICE” line:
¿ HIDDEN MODE ¿
0
CONTRAST
ENGLISH
LANGUAGE
VOICE
DEUTSCH
Confirm your choice by pressing the central SET button
of the right-hand four-way button once more: the selected voice package is now loaded into the transmitter’s
memory:
¿ HIDDEN MODE ¿
0
CONTRAST
ENGLISH
LANGUAGE
VOICE
ENGLISH
22/100%
I
The loading process is finished when the progress bar
at the bottom edge of the screen disappears:
Activate voice output by pressing the central SET button
of the right-hand four-way button:
¿ HIDDEN MODE ¿
0
CONTRAST
ENGLISH
LANGUAGE
VOICE
DEUTSCH
Now use the arrow buttons of the right-hand four-way
button to replace the default language “DEUTSCH”
(German) with the language of your choice. For example:
¿ HIDDEN MODE ¿
0
CONTRAST
ENGLISH
LANGUAGE
VOICE
ENGLISH
¿ HIDDEN MODE ¿
0
CONTRAST
ENGLISH
LANGUAGE
VOICE
ENGLISH
dure.
• If the warning …
SD-CARD
INSERT
OK
… appears, then there is no memory card in the card
slot, or the card cannot be read.
• If the warning …
MISSING
IMPORT
DATA
OK
… appears, then there is no suitable voice file on the
SD card you have inserted.
Finally switch the transmitter off to conclude the procedure.
All the settings stored in the transmitter are retained in
full even after you have switched languages.
Notes:
• If the warning message …
RF
MUST BE
OFF
OK
… appears, then the transmitter’s RF section is still
active. Switch this section off in the “RF module” line
of the “Basic settings” menu, and repeat the proceDescription of transmitter
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Warnings
On-screen function fields
Warnings
SEL, STO, SYM, ASY,
,
The bottom line of the screen displays function fields
which vary according to the menu selected.
BIND N/A
OK
RF ON/OFF?
ON OFF
batter y
needs
charging
fail safe
setup
t.b.d
MISSING
IMPORT
DATA
OK
28
“Binding not present”
No receiver is bound to the
currently active model memory. You can move directly
to the appropriate option by
briefly pressing the SET
button.
Do you want the RF signal to
be “ON” or “OFF?
Battery must be charged
Operating voltage too low
Fail-Safe not yet set up
No suitable voice files found
on the memory card
throttle
too
high !
The throttle stick (or helicopter
limiter) is set too far in the
direction of full-throttle
RF
MUST BE
OFF
OK
Request to switch off the RF
section
(voice files can only be loaded
with the RF section switched
off)
CAN‘T
RECEIVE
DATA
OK
no
student
signal
No bound receiver in range.
No connection between
Teacher and Pupil transmitters
SEL STO SYM ASY
SD-CARD
INSERT
OK
No SD or SDHC memory card
in the card slot, or card cannot
be read.
TRAINER
Wireless Link
ACT
INH
A “wireless Trainer connection” was used before the
transmitter was last switched off; do you wish that connection to be continued (ACT), or switched OFF (INH)?
The function fields are activated by pressing the SET
button.
Function fields
• SEL select
• STO store (e. g. transmitter control position)
• SYM
adjust values symmetrically
• ASY
adjust values asymmetrically
•
Switch symbol field
(assigning switches of all kinds)
•
Switch to second page (next menu)
within a menu
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Position display
Input lock
Rotary proportional controls CTRL 7 and 8
As soon as you operate one of the two rotary controls
CTRL 7 + 8 on the centre console, a small symbol appears to the right of the two vertical position indicators:
At the same time the position display of the two central
vertical bars switches for the duration of the actuation
from the display of the current trim position to the current position of the rotary controls CTRL 7 + 8.
As you would expect, the left-hand bar represents the
position of the left-hand rotary control CTRL 7, and the
right-hand bar reflects the position of CTRL 8 (however,
both horizontal bars continue to show the current position of the corresponding transmitter stick trim levers):
GRAUBELE
#01
5.2V 50%
3:33h
stop
flt
0:00
0:00
To prevent programming errors, it is possible to lock the
four-way buttons, and with them access to all the set-up
options, from the base display of the mx-12 HoTT
transmitter by pressing the ESC and SET buttons simultaneously for about two seconds. This is indicated by an
inverted key symbol at the centre point of the trim bars:
GRAUBELE
#01
5.2V 50%
3:33h
0:00
stop
flt
0:00
«normal »
K78 HoTT
5.5V
M
The lock is immediately active, but the control system
remains ready for use.
Pressing the ESC and SET buttons again for about two
seconds disengages the lock: the next time you switch
the transmitter on, the lock is also disengaged.
K78 HoTT
M RX0.0V
About two seconds after you cease operating one of the
two rotary controls, the screen reverts to a display of the
current position of the four trim levers for the two dualaxis stick units.
Description of transmitter
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Using the transmitter for the first time
Preliminary notes regarding the mx-12 HoTT transmitter
For more information please visit our Internet site at www.graupner.de
Preliminary notes
Within this period you can switch off the RF signal if required by moving the black field to the right using the c
In theory the Graupner HoTT system permits the simulor f arrows of the right-hand four-way button; when you
taneous operation of more than 200 models.
do this, ON should appear normal, and OFF in inverse
However, in practice the mixed operation of different
technical systems in the 2.4 GHz ISM band - as required form (black background).
by the approval regulations - reduces this number
RF ON/OFF?
considerably. Generally, however, it will always be posON OFF
sible to operate even more models simultaneously on
the 2.4 GHz band than on the 35 / 40 MHz frequency
You can now switch the RF module off by pressing the
bands which we have used to date. However, the actual
central SET button of the right-hand four-way button.
limiting factor - as it has always been - is likely to remain
Until this point the central LED glowed blue, but it now
the size of the (air-) space available. The simple fact that
changes to red, and at the same time the screen switchno frequency control procedure is necessary - a great
es to the transmitter’s base display:
convenience in itself - equates to an enormous gain in
0:00
GRAUBELE
stop
safety, especially at flying sites where groups of pilots
#01
flt
0:00
may be distributed over a large area, with nobody in
overall control.
5.2V 50%
K78 HoTT
Battery charged?
0.0V
0:33h
M
When you take receipt of your transmitter, the battery
will be in the discharged state, so you must first charge
The symbol combination means that the currently
it as described on page 14. If you do not do this, the
active model memory is already “bound” to a Graupner
battery will soon fall below the
HoTT receiver, but there is currently no connection with
batter y
pre-set threshold voltage, and
needs
this receiver. (In our example we - of course - switched
you will see and hear a warncharging
off the RF signal!)
ing signal to remind you to
In contrast, if you switch the transmitter on without
recharge it.
switching off the RF signal, the central LED glows an
Switching the transmitter on
intense blue, and the symbolic transmitter mast flashes.
When you switch the transmitter on, the following display At the same time the transmitter emits an audible warnappears in the centre of the transmitter screen for about
ing until a connection is made with the corresponding
two seconds:
receiver. Once this connection exists, a field strength
indicator appears instead of the “x” at the base of the
RF ON/OFF?
, and the visual and
symbolic aerial, for example
ON OFF
audible warnings cease.
30
At the right of the same line a display in the same format
appears when a telemetry connection is made, showing
the strength of the telemetry signal picked up from the
receiver (>M ) together with the actual voltage of the
receiver power supply.
appears, and
However, if the symbol combination
the central LED glows a constant red, the currently active model memory is not “bound” to any receiver.
Low-voltage warning
If the transmitter voltage falls below a particular value,
a visual and audible low-voltage warning is generated.
The default value is 4.7 V, but this can be varied in the
“Basic Settings” menu (page 114).
Firmware update
Firmware updates for the transmitter are carried out at
the owner’s discretion using the three-pin PC interface
on the back of the transmitter, in conjunction with a PC
running Windows XP, Vista or 7. It is essential to check
the state of charge of the transmitter battery before
any update; recharge it to be on the safe side, and
be sure to back up all stored model memories before carrying out the update, so that you can restore
the data if necessary.
To connect the transmitter to a PC you also require the
optional USB adapter, Order No. 7168.6 and the connecting lead, Order No. 6466.S.
The latest software and information can be found in the
Download section for the corresponding product at www.
graupner.de.
Note:
Once you have registered your transmitter at http://
graupner.de/de/service/produktregistrierung you will
automatically be informed of new updates by e-mail as
Using the transmitter for the first time
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they become available.
Important notes:
• The transmitter included in the set is prepared at
the factory with the correct settings for most European countries (except France).
If you wish to operate the RC system in France,
you MUST first set the Country setting on the
transmitter to “FRANCE” mode; see page 115. IT
IS PROHIBITED to use the system IN FRANCE
using the Universal / EUROPE mode!
• You can operate up to six servos using the mx12 HoTT transmitter and the receiver supplied in
the set, which is already bound to the transmitter.
However, in the interest of maximum possible
flexibility, control channels 5 and 6 are not assigned to transmitter controls by default; this
also helps to eliminate the danger of inadvertently using them incorrectly. For the same reason
virtually all the mixers are inactive by default. For
more details of this please refer to page 74 (fixedwing model) or 76 (helicopter).
• The basic procedure for programming a new
model memory can be found on page 48, and in
the programming examples starting on page 144.
• When switching on, binding or setting up the radio control system, please ensure at all times
that the transmitter aerial is an adequate distance
from the receiver aerials. If the transmitter aerial is too close to the receiver aerials, the receiver
will be swamped, and the red LED on the receiver will begin to glow. At the same time the downlink channel will stop working. As a result the
field strength bars on the transmitter screen are
replaced by “x”, and the receiver battery voltage
is displayed as 0.0 V. At the same time the radio
control system switches to Fail-Safe mode.
If this should happen, simply increase the distance between transmitter and receiver until the
displays revert to “normal”.
Using the transmitter for the first time
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Using the receiver for the first time
Preliminary notes regarding the GR-12 receiver
For more information please visit the Internet at www.graupner.de.
Receiving system
Temperature warning
If the temperature of the receiver falls below a limit value
The mx-12 HoTT radio control set includes a GR-12
set on the receiver (the default is -10°C), or exceeds
2.4 GHz bi-directional receiver which is suitable for conthe upper warning threshold, which is also set on the
nection to a maximum of six servos.
receiver (the default is +70°C), the transmitter generates
In order to create a connection to the transmitter, the
a warning in the form of steady beeps at intervals of
Graupner HoTT receiver must first be “bound” to “its”
about one second.
model memory in “its” Graupner HoTT transmitter; this
procedure is known as “binding”. However, binding is
Firmware update
only necessary once for each receiver / model memory
Firmware updates for the receiver are carried out using
combination (see pages 61 or 70), and has already
the receiver’s telemetry socket - in the case of the GRbeen carried out at the factory for model memory 1
12 receiver supplied as standard in the set this is servo
using the components supplied in the set. You therefore
socket 5, which is also marked with a “T” - in conjunction
only need to carry out the “binding” process with adwith a PC running Windows XP, Vista or 7. To connect
ditional receivers, or if you switch to a different model
the receiver to a PC you require the separately available
memory. The procedure can also be repeated whenever
USB interface, No. 7168.6 and the adapter lead, Order
you wish - for instance, if you change the transmitter.
No. 7168.6A. The latter - like all other connecting leads
For this reason, if you connect the GR-12 HoTT receiver
- must always be connected to the GR-12 receiver with
supplied in the set to a power supply and switch it on,
the brown or black wire facing up.
the integral LED briefly lights up green, and then goes
The latest software and information can be found in the
out again, assuming that “its” transmitter is not in range,
Download area for the corresponding product at www.
or is switched off. If a connection is made, the LED
graupner.de.
glows a constant green.
Note:
Note:
Once you have registered your transmitter at http://
If the LED glows a constant green, but the receiver
graupner.de/de/service/produktregistrierung you will
responds neither to the SET button nor to control comautomatically be informed of new updates by e-mail as
mands, then please check the polarity of your receiver
they become available.
power supply.
Servo connections and polarity
Receiver voltage display
The servo sockets of Graupner HoTT receivers are
Once a telemetry connection exists, the actual voltage
numbered. The connector system is polarised: look for
of the receiver power supply is displayed on the rightthe small chamfers when inserting the connectors, and
hand side of the transmitter screen.
on no account force the plugs into the sockets.
The power supply is through-connected via all the num32
bered sockets. If there is no vacant servo socket, it is
also possible to connect the power supply via a Y-lead,
Order No. 3936.11, in parallel with a servo.
Do not connect the battery to these sockets with
reversed polarity, as this is likely to ruin the receiver
and any devices connected to it.
The function of each individual channel is determined by
the transmitter you are using, rather than by the receiver.
The throttle servo socket is defined by the radio control
system, and may differ according to the make and type.
For example, in the case of Graupner radio control
systems the throttle function is assigned to channel 1 for
fixed-wing models, and channel 6 for helicopters.
Servo socket 5: “SERVO” or “SENSOR”
The servo socket 5, which is marked with an additional
“T” …
Servo
OR
sensor
… can be used not only to update the receiver by connecting the adapter lead, Order No. 7168.6A, but also to
connect a telemetry sensor.
However, to ensure that the receiver correctly detects
the device connected to this socket, servo socket 5
MUST be reset from “SERVO” to “SENSOR” and vice
versa to suit the device. This is carried out in the “Telemetry” menu on the “RX CURVE” page of the “SETTING & DATA VIEW” sub-menu. See the section starting
on page 118 for more details:
Using the receiver for the first time
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RX CURVE
CURVE1 CH
:
02
TYPE :
A
CURVE2 CH
:
05
TYPE :
A
CURVE3 CH
:
04
TYPE :
B
5CH FUNCTION:SERVO
On this menu page locate the “>” symbol at the left-hand
edge of the screen, use the d arrow button of the left or
right-hand four-way button to move it to the bottom line,
and then press the central SET button of the right-hand
four-way button:
RX CURVE
CURVE1 CH
:
02
TYPE :
A
CURVE2 CH
:
05
TYPE :
A
CURVE3 CH
:
04
TYPE :
B
5CH FUNCTION:SERVO
Now select the alternative “SENSOR” setting using one
of the two arrow buttons cd of the right-hand four-way
button:
RX CURVE
CURVE1 CH
:
02
TYPE :
A
CURVE2 CH
:
05
TYPE :
A
CURVE3 CH
:
04
TYPE :
B
5CH FUNCTION:SENSOR
A further press of the central SET button of the righthand four-way button concludes your choice. Now press
the central ESC button of the left-hand four-way button
repeatedly until you return to the transmitter’s base
display.
Concluding notes:
• The much higher servo resolution of the HoTT system results in a substantially more direct response
compared with previous technologies. Please take a
little time to become accustomed to the finer control
characteristics offered by the system!
• If you wish to use a speed controller with integral
BEC* system in parallel with a separate receiver battery, in most cases (depending on the speed controller) the positive terminal (red wire) must be removed
from the three-pin connector, as shown in the diagram. Be sure to read the appropriate notes in the instructions supplied with your speed controller before
doing this.
Carefully raise the central lug of the connector slightred
ly (1), withdraw the red
1
wire (2) and insulate the
bare contact with tape
3
2
to avoid possible short
circuits (3).
out with an already bound receiver, if the transmitter is
switched on, and if the associated model memory is active, then the LED lights up green after a short interval to
indicate that your transmitter / receiving system is ready
for use once more.
Please note the following:
Resetting the receiver resets ALL the settings
stored in the receiver to the default settings, with
the exception of the binding information! If you
carry out a reset by mistake, this means that you
will have to restore all the receiver settings entered
using the Telemetry menu.
On the other hand, a deliberate RESET is particularly useful if you wish to “re-house” a receiver in a
different model, as it represents an easy method of
avoiding the transference of unsuitable settings.
Observe the installation notes regarding the receiver, receiver aerial and servos, which you will find on
page 34.
Reset
If you wish to carry out a receiver reset, locate the SET
button on the top of the receiver and hold it in while you
connect its power supply; release the button again.
If the reset is carried out with the transmitter switched
off, or if the receiver is not already bound, the receiver
LED flashes red slowly after about two or three seconds; at this stage it is immediately possible to initiate a
binding process at the transmitter. If the reset is carried
*
Battery Elimination Circuit
Using the receiver for the first time
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Installation Notes
Installing the receiver
Regardless of which Graupner receiving system you are
using, the procedure is always the same:
Please note that the receiver aerials must be arranged
at least 5 cm away from all large metal parts and leads
which are not attached or connected directly to the
receiver. This includes steel and carbon fibre components, servos, fuel pumps, cables of all sorts, etc. Ideally
the receiver should be installed in an easily accessible
position in the model, away from all other installed
components. Under no circumstances run servo leads
immediately adjacent to the receiver aerials, far less coil
them round it!
Tests have shown that a vertical (upright) position of a
single aerial produces the best results when long approaches are flown with a model. If the receiver features
a diversity aerial system (two aerials), the second aerial
should be deployed at an angle of 90° to the first.
The servo sockets of Graupner receivers are numbered.
The power supply is through-connected via all the numbered sockets, and in principle can be connected to any
of the servo sockets. It is also possible to connect the
power supply via a Y-lead, Order No. 3936.11, in parallel
with a servo.
The function of each individual channel is determined
by the transmitter in use, rather than by the receiver.
However, it is possible to alter the channel assignment
(mapping) by changing the programming in the Telemetry menu. Nevertheless, we recommend that you carry
out this process using the “Receiver output” option; see
page 60 or 69.
The following section contains notes and helpful
ideas on installing radio control components in the
model:
1. Wrap the receiver in foam rubber at least 6 mm thick.
Fix the foam round the receiver using rubber bands,
to protect it from vibration, hard landings and crash
damage.
2. All switches must be installed in a position where
they will not be affected by exhaust gases or vibration. The switch toggle must be free to move over its
full range of travel.
3. Always install servos using the vibration-damping
grommets and tubular metal spacers supplied. The
rubber grommets provide some degree of protection
from mechanical shock and severe vibration. Don’t
over-tighten the servo retaining screws, as this will
compress the grommets and thereby reduce the vibration protection they afford. The system offers good
security and vibration protection for your servos, but
only if the servo retaining screws are fitted and tightened properly. The drawing below shows how to install a servo correctly. The brass spacers should be
pushed into the rubber grommets from the underside.
chanical linkage can obstruct the servo’s movement.
The sequence in which the servos are connected to the
receiver is dictated by the model type. Please see the
socket assignments listed on pages 43 and 47.
Be sure to read the additional safety notes on pages 3
… 9.
If the receiver is ever switched on when the transmitter
is off, the servos may carry out uncontrolled movements.
You can avoid this by switching the system on in this
order:
Always switch the transmitter on first,
then the receiver.
When switching the system off:
Always switch the receiver off first,
then the transmitter.
When programming the transmitter you must always
ensure that any electric motors in the system cannot
possibly burst into life accidentally, and that an I.C.
engine fitted with an automatic starter cannot start
unintentionally. In the interests of safety it is always best
to disconnect the flight battery, or cut off the fuel supply.
Servo mounting lug
Retaining screw
Rubber grommet
Tubular brass spacer
4. The servo output arms must be free to move over
their full arc of travel. Ensure that no parts of the me34
Installation Notes
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Receiving system power supply
A reliable power supply is one of the basic essentials for
reliable model control. Free-moving pushrods, a fullycharged battery, battery connecting leads of adequate
cross-section, minimal transfer resistance at the connectors etc. all help to minimise energy consumption, but
if you have attended to all this, and the receiver voltage displayed on the transmitter screen still collapses
repeatedly, or is generally (too) low, then please note the
following:
The first point to check is that your batteries are always
fully charged at the start of each flying session. Check
that contacts and switches are low in resistance. It is a
good idea to measure the voltage drop over the installed
switch harness under load, as even a new, heavy-duty
switch can cause a voltage drop of up to 0.2 Volt. Ageing
effects and oxidation of the contacts can increase this
several times over. Constant vibration and movement
at the contacts also “gnaws away” at the contacts, and
tends to produce a creeping increase in transfer resistance.
It is also true that even small servos, such as the Graupner/JR DS-281, can draw currents of up to 0.75 Ampere
when stalled (mechanically obstructed). Just four servos
of this type in a “foamy” can therefore place a load of up
to 3 Amps on the airborne power supply ...
For this reason you should always choose a receiver
battery which constantly delivers an adequate voltage,
i. e. which does not collapse under severe load. To “calculate” the necessary battery capacity we recommend
as a starting point that you provide 350 mAh for each
analogue servo, and at least 500 mAh for each digital
servo.
For example, a 1400 mAh battery would represent an
absolute minimum as the power supply for a receiving
system with a total of four analogue servos. When making your calculations, however, please bear the receiver
in mind as well, as it draws a current of around 70 mA
due to its bi-directional function.
Regardless of these considerations, it is generally
advisable to connect the power supply to the receiver
using two leads. For example, you could use a switch
or voltage regulator with two power supply leads running to the receiver. You might install a Y-lead, Order
No. 3936.11, between lead and receiver, as shown in
the diagram below, if you wish to use one or both of the
receiver sockets to connect a servo, speed controller,
etc. The dual connection at the switch or voltage regulator not only reduces the risk of a cable fracture, but
also ensures a more even energy supply to the servos
connected to the receiver.
For example, many of these servos respond to the high
voltage with a clearly audible “rumble”.
It is therefore important to check the specification of the
servos you intend to use before you make the decision
to use five-cell packs.
Four-cell Ni-MH battery packs
Traditional four-cell packs are a good choice for powering your Graupner HoTT receiving system, provided that
you observe the conditions described above, i. e. you
must ensure that the packs have adequate capacity and
maintain their voltage well.
Two-cell Nanophosphate® (A123) batteries
Taking into account the current situation, these new cells
are now regarded as the optimum choice for receiver
packs. A123 cells can be fast-charged in conjunction
with a suitable battery charger, and are protected by a
metal case and therefore comparatively robust. It is also
true that a much higher number of charge / discharge
cycles is attributed to this cell type than, for example,
to LiPo cells. The nominal voltage of 6.6 Volt of a twocell Nanophosphate® pack presents no problems to
Graupner HoTT receivers, nor to those servos, speed
controllers, gyros, etc. which are expressly approved for
use at these higher voltages. Please note, however,
that virtually all servos, speed controllers, gyros etc.
sold in the past, and also most of those currently
available, are only approved for use on an operating
voltage in the range 4.8 to 6 Volt. If you wish to connect these devices to the receiver, it is essential to use
a stabilised regulated power supply, such as the PRX,
Order No. 4136; see Appendix. If you neglect this, there
is a danger that the connected devices will quickly suffer
permanent damage
Five-cell NiMH battery packs
Five-cell batteries offer a wider margin of safety in terms
of voltage compared with four-cell packs. However,
please note that not all servos available on the market
can tolerate the voltage of a five-cell pack (in the longterm), especially when the battery is freshly charged.
Two-cell LiPo battery packs
For a given capacity LiPo batteries are a great deal
lighter than the battery types described above, but they
are more susceptible to mechanical stress and damage
due to their lack of a metal case. Moreover LiPo batteries only have a limited ability to be fast-charged, and
Auxiliary function
Y-lead,
Order No. 3936.11
PRX stabilised
receiver power supply,
Order No. 4136
Installation Notes
33112_mx12_HoTT_2_GB.indd Abs54:35
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06.06.2011 19:39:35
generally do not survive such a high number of charge
/ discharge cycles as is claimed for other batteries,
such as Nanophosphate® types. The comparatively
high nominal voltage of 7.4 Volt of a two-cell LiPo pack
presents no problems to Graupner HoTT receivers, nor
to those servos, speed controllers, gyros, etc. which are
expressly approved for use at these higher voltages.
Please note, however, that virtually all servos, speed
controllers, gyros etc. sold in the past, and also
most of those currently available, are only approved
for use on an operating voltage in the range 4.8 to 6
Volt. If you wish to connect these devices to the receiver, it is essential to use a stabilised regulated power
supply, such as the PRX, Order No. 4136; see Appendix.
If you neglect this, there is a danger that the connected
devices will quickly suffer permanent damage.
36
Installation Notes
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For your notes
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Definition of terms
Control functions, transmitter controls, function inputs, control channels, mixers, switches, control switches
To make it easier for you to understand the mx-12
HoTT manual, the following section contains definitions
of many terms which crop up again and again in the
remainder of the text.
Control function
The term “control function” can be thought of as the
signal generated for a particular function which needs
to be controlled - initially independent of its subsequent
progress through the transmitter. In the case of fixedwing model aircraft the control functions include throttle,
rudder and aileron, whereas collective pitch, roll and
pitch-axis are typical of those used for helicopters. The
signal of a control function may be assigned directly, or
to several control channels simultaneously via mixers.
A typical example of the latter is separate aileron servos, or pairs of roll-axis or pitch-axis servos in a model
helicopter. The essential feature of a control function is its
influence on the mechanical travel of the corresponding
servo.
Transmitter control
The term “transmitter control” refers to the mechanical
elements on the transmitter which are operated directly
by the pilot. Their movements in turn generate corresponding movements in the servos, speed controllers
etc. at the receiver end. The transmitter controls include
the following:
• The two dual-axis stick units for the control functions
1 to 4; for both model types (“fixed-wing” and “helicopter”) these four functions can be interchanged in any
way you wish using the “Mode” function, e. g. throttle
left or right, without having to re-connect the servos.
The dual-axis stick function for throttle (or airbrakes) is
often referred to as the Ch 1 (Channel 1) control.
• The two rotary proportional controls CTRL 7 + 8
38
• The switches SW 4/5 and 6/7, and CTRL 9 and 10
• The switches SW 1 and 3, if they have been assigned
to a control channel in the “Transmitter control
settings” menu.
When a proportional transmitter control is operated, the
servo or servos follow the position of the control directly,
whereas a switched channel provides just the two or
three set servo positions.
Function input
This is an imaginary point on the signal path, and must
not be considered the same as the point on the circuit
board where the transmitter control is connected! The
two menus “Stick mode” and “Transmitter control
settings” affect the course of the signal “after” this point,
and it is possible (and likely) that there will be differences
between the number of the transmitter control (as stated
above) and the number of the subsequent control channel.
Control channel
There is a point on the signal path where the signal contains all the control information required for a particular
servo – this may be directly generated by a transmitter
control or indirectly via a mixer – and from this point on
we call the signal a “control channel”. This signal is only
affected by any adjustments carried out in the “Servo
settings” menu before leaving the transmitter via the RF
module. Once picked up at the receiver, this signal may
be modified by any settings made in the Telemetry menu
before finally passing to the corresponding servo in the
model.
Mixer
The transmitter’s software includes a wide range of mixer
functions. Their purpose is to enable a control function to
affect multiple servos at the branching point of the mixer
input, or alternatively to allow several control functions
to affect one servo. For more information please refer to
the numerous mixer functions as described in the section
starting on page 88 of the manual.
Switch
The standard toggle switch SW 3, the two three-position
switches SW 4/5 and 6/7 and the momentary button
SW 1 can also be incorporated into the programming of
the transmitter controls. However, all these switches are
also generally intended for switching program options,
e. g. starting and stopping timers, switching mixers on
and off, transferring control in Trainer mode etc. Each
physical switch function can be assigned to as many
functions as you wish. Numerous examples are described in the manual.
Transmitter control switch
It is often desirable to switch a function on or off automatically at a particular position of another transmitter
control, e. g. at a defined position of one of the dual-axis
sticks. Typical examples are switching a stopwatch on
and off to allow you to record the motor run time, extending spoilers automatically (and many others). The mx12 HoTT software includes a total of two (three - for
helicopters) “control switches” of this type.
Two transmitter control switches are available for the Ch
1 stick in each model memory, both for fixed-wing model
aircraft and helicopters. For helicopters a third is present
in the form of the throttle limiter; see the right-hand side
and page 67.
This manual includes a range of instructive examples
which make programming as simple as child’s play.
Please refer to the programming examples in the section
starting on page 144.
Definition of terms
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Assigning switches and control switches
The basic procedure
At many points in the program there is the option of
using a switch (SW 1, 3 … 7) or a control switch (G1 …
3; see below) to operate a function, or to switch between
settings, such as the DUAL RATE / EXPO function, flight
phase programming, mixers and more. The mx-12
HoTT allows you to assign several functions to a single
switch.
The process of assigning switches is exactly the same
in all the relevant menus, and we will explain the basic
programming procedure at this point so that you can
concentrate on the special features when reading the
detailed menu descriptions.
A switch symbol appears in the bottom line of the screen
at all programming points where switches can be assigned:
Move to the appropriate column using the arrow buttons
of the left or right four-way button.
This is the procedure for assigning a switch:
1. Briefly press the SET button of the right-hand fourway button. The following message appears on the
screen:
push desired switch
into position ON
2. Now simply move the switch you wish to use to the
“ON” position, press the push-button, or move the
Ch 1 stick from the “OFF” position in the direction of
“ON”. Please note: the so-called control switches assigned to this transmitter control (see right) carry out
the task of an ON / OFF switch in software; the same
applies to the throttle limiter (see page 79) which is
available in the “Helicopter” model type. This com-
pletes the assignment process.
Changing the direction of switching:
If the switch turns out to work in the wrong direction, you
can correct it as follows: move the switch to the desired
OFF position, activate switch assignment once more
and assign the switch again, this time with the switch
direction you prefer.
Erasing a switch:
Activate the switch symbol as described under Point 2, then briefly press the button combination cd or ef of the right-hand four-way button
(CLEAR) simultaneously.
Transmitter control switches
Many functions are best controlled automatically by a
particular (freely programmable) position of the Ch 1
transmitter stick (or the throttle limiter in the case of helicopters), rather than by a conventional physical switch.
Typical applications:
• Automatically switching an on-board glowplug energizer on and off according to the throttle position of
the Ch 1 stick (“G1” or “G2”). In this case the switch
for the plug energizer is controlled by a mixer at the
transmitter.
• Automatically switching a stopwatch on and off to
record the pure “flight time” of a model helicopter; this
is accomplished using the “G3” switch of the throttle limiter.
• Automatically switching the “AIL ¼ RUD” mixer off
when the airbrakes are extended, in order to keep
the wings parallel with the ground when landing on
a slope face, without the (usually coupled) rudder affecting the model’s heading.
• Automatically extending landing flaps with coupled elevator trim adjustment on the landing approach, as
soon as the throttle stick is reduced below the set
threshold point.
• Automatically switching a stopwatch on and off in order to time the run of an electric motor.
For both model types the mx-12 HoTT transmitter’s
software caters for these purposes with two “control
switches” of this type; they can be assigned to the Ch 1
stick: “G1” is switched on at around -80% of full travel,
while “G2” is switched on at around +80%. The Helicopter program also includes an extra control switch “G3” on
the throttle limiter close to the 100% point; see page 79.
All these control switches can be included without
restriction in the free programming of the switches, i. e.
they can be assigned to a function instead of a physical
switch. This means that you are able to assign one of
the control switches G1 … G2 (or G1 … G3) instead
of a physical switch at any point in the software where
switches are assigned. All you have to do is move the
Ch 1 stick or the throttle limiter control (by default the
rotary proportional control CTRL 7) from the desired
“OFF” position in the direction of “ON”.
Assigning switches and control switches
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Digital trims
Description of function, and Ch 1 cut-off trim
40
1. Fixed-wing models
The Ch 1 trim features a special cut-off trim which is
designed for glowplug motors: you initially use the trim
lever in the usual way to select a reliable idle setting for
the motor.
If you now move the Ch 1 trim lever to its end-point in
the direction of “motor cut-off”, pushing the lever in a
single movement, a marker appears on the screen in the
last position. You can now return to the idle setting for
starting the motor simply by pushing the stick one click
in the direction of “open throttle”.
2. Model helicopters
In helicopter mode the Ch 1 trim has another feature in
addition to “cut-off trim”, as described under “Fixed-wing
models” on the left; this time in conjunction with the
“Throttle limit function” (see page 79): while the throttle
limit slider is in the bottom half of its travel, i. e. in the
“start-up range”, the Ch 1 trim lever acts as idle trim on
the throttle limit, and the idle trim is displayed on the
screen:
Last idle position
Current trim position
GRAUBELE
#01
Last idle position
Current trim position
stop
flt
Throttle limit control
0:00
0:00
Ch 1 trim lever
GRAUBELE
#01
5.2V 50%
3:33h
stop
flt
0:00
0:00
K78
2.4
M RX0.0V
Idle direction
Digital trims with visual and audible indicators
Both the dual-axis stick units are fitted with digital trim
systems. When you give the trim lever a brief push (one
“click”), the neutral position of the associated stick channel changes by one increment. If you hold the trim lever
in one direction, the trim value changes continuously in
the corresponding direction with increasing speed.
The degree of trim offset is also “audible”, as the pitch of
the tone changes to reflect the setting. When you are flying a model, you can find the trim centre position easily
without having to look at the screen: if you over-run the
centre setting, the trim stays in the centre position for a
moment.
The current trim values are automatically stored when
you switch from one model memory to another. The digital trims are also stored separately for each flight phase
within a model memory, with the exception of the “Ch 1”
(Channel 1) trim, which is the throttle / airbrake trim on a
fixed-wing model.
The Ch 1 trim includes another special function which
makes it easy to re-locate the idle throttle setting of a
glowplug motor.
However, since the trim functions described in these
instructions only affect the “Motor off” direction, the trim
display on the transmitter’s screen will vary according
to your individual set stick mode, i. e. the “forward” or
“back” throttle / collective pitch minimum position of the
Ch 1 stick, and also according to “left stick” or “right
stick” for throttle / collective pitch. The illustrations in
these instructions always refer to “Throttle / Collective
pitch right” for both model types, and to “Throttle back”
for fixed-wing models and “Collective pitch forward” for
model helicopters.
Trim at motor OFF position
The cut-off trim feature is disabled if you enter “none” or
“none / inv” in the “Motor at Ch 1” line within the “Basic
settings” menu (page 56 / 57).
Note:
Since this trim function is only effective in the “Motor off” direction, the above illustration will not apply if
you change the direction of the Ch 1 stick for throttle
minimum from “back” (which is reflected in the illustration above) to “forward” in the “Motor at Ch1” line of the
“Basic settings” menu.
5.2V 50%
3:33h
K78
2.4
M RX0.0V CTRL 7
Trim at motor OFF position
In contrast to a fixed-wing model aircraft, this display is
suppressed if the throttle limit control is moved to the
“right” half of its travel.
GRAUBELE
#01
5.2V 50%
3:33h
stop
flt
0:00
0:00
Throttle limit control
K78
M RX0.0V
2.4 CTRL 7
Note regarding helicopters:
The Ch 1 trim only affects the throttle servo and not the
collective pitch servos; it also works evenly over the full
stick travel. Please note that the helicopter throttle servo
must be connected to receiver output 6 (see Receiver
socket assignment, page 47).
Digital trims
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For your notes
33112_mx12_HoTT_2_GB.indd Abs44:41
41
06.06.2011 19:39:36
Fixed-wing model aircraft
This program provides convenient support for normal
model aircraft with up to two aileron servos and two flap
servos, V-tail models, flying wings and deltas with two
elevon (aileron / elevator) servos and two flap servos.
The majority of power models and gliders belong to the
“normal” tail type with one servo each for elevator, rudder, ailerons and throttle or electronic speed controller
(airbrakes on a glider). There is also the special model
type “2 EL Sv” which provides a means of connecting
two elevator servos to channels 3 and 6 in parallel.
If your model features two separate aileron servos (and
also in some cases two flap servos), the aileron travel of
both pairs of control surfaces can be set up with differential movement in the “Wing mixers” menu, i. e. the
down-travel can be set independently of the up-travel.
Finally the program caters for camber-changing flaps,
which can be operated by any of the transmitter controls
“CTRL 7 … 10”. Alternatively a phase-specific trim is
available for flaps, ailerons and elevator in the “Phase
trim” menu.
If the model features a V-tail instead of a conventional
tail, you need to select the tail type “V-tail” in the “Basic
settings” menu, as this automatically superimposes the
elevator and rudder control functions in such a way that
each tail panel can be actuated by a separate servo.
For deltas and flying wings it is easy to set up mixed
elevons, i. e. the aileron and elevator functions can be
carried out via common control surfaces at the trailing
edge of the right and left wing. As standard the program
contains the appropriate mixer functions for the two
servos.
Up to three flight phases can be programmed in each of
the ten model memories.
The digital trim positions are stored separately for each
flight phase, with the exception of the Ch 1 trim. The Ch
1 trim provides a simple means of re-locating the correct
idle throttle setting.
Two timers are available at all times when flying. The
screen also displays the transmitter operating time since
the battery was last charged.
All the transmitter controls (CTRL) and switches (SW)
can be assigned to virtually any of the inputs 5 and 6 in
the “Transmitter control settings” menu.
“Dual Rate” and “Exponential” can be programmed
separately for aileron, rudder and elevator, giving two
modes of control.
Depending on the model type you have selected, the
“Wing mixers” menu presents you with up to twelve
additional pre-defined mixers and coupling functions
which you can simply select and set up when necessary,
in addition to three free mixers:
1. Aileron differential (switchable)
2. Flap differential (switchable)
3. Aileron ¼ rudder (switchable)
4. Aileron ¼ flap (switchable)
5. Airbrake ¼ elevator (switchable)
6. Airbrake ¼ flap (switchable)
7. Airbrake ¼ aileron (switchable)
8. Elevator ¼ flap (switchable)
9. Elevator ¼ aileron (switchable)
10. Flap ¼ elevator (switchable)
11. Flap ¼ aileron (switchable)
12. Differential reduction
Airbrake-Function 1
n
Airbrake
Ail e r o
dde
r
A il
left
Airbrake
Flap
Airbrake
Elevator
r Flap
Elevator Flap
right
left
Rudder/Elevator
V-Tail
F la p
E le v ator
right
Fl a p
Ailero
n Rudder
A ileron
F la p
A il e r o n
F la p E
va
Ele to
le
v a tor
n
er
Ele v
Ru
Aileron
Flap
Ail e r o
on
n
Fl a p
ato
r
Ai
l
o
er
F la
A il e r o n
Airbrake
Flap
Airbrake
Elevator
Aileron
p
R u dder
E le v at or A ileron
42
Fixed-wing model aircraft
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Installation notes
The servos MUST be connected to the receiver
outputs in the following order:
Outputs not required are simply left vacant.
Please note the following points in particular:
• If you are using only one aileron servo, receiver output 5 (right aileron) is left unused; it can also be used
for another purpose if you select “1 AIL” in the “Basic
settings” menu.
• If you are using only one flap servo, receiver output 1
(right flap) MUST be left unused, assuming that you
have selected “2 FL” in the “Basic settings” menu.
Please also read the information on the following
pages.
Powered and unpowered fixed-wing model aircraft,
with up to two ailerons …
… and “normal” tail type
Free, or auxiliary function
Receiver power supply
Telemetry sensor or right aileron
Rudder
Elevator
Ailerons or left aileron
Receiver power supply
Airbrakes - or throttle servo or
speed controller (electric model)
… and “V-tail” tail type
… with two elevon and two flap / elevator servos
Free, or auxiliary function
Receiver power supply
Telemetry sensor or right aileron
Right rudder / elevator
Left rudder / elevator
Ailerons or left aileron
Receiver power supply
Airbrakes - or throttle servo or
speed controller (electric model)
... and “2 elevator servos” tail type
2nd elevator
Receiver power supply
Telemetry sensor or right aileron
Rudder
1st elevator
Ailerons or left aileron
Receiver power supply
Airbrakes - or throttle servo or
speed controller (electric model)
Left flap (aileron) / elevator
Receiver power supply
Right flap (aileron) / elevator
Free or rudder
Right elevon (aileron / elevator)
Left elevon (aileron / elevator)
Receiver power supply
Airbrakes - or throttle servo or
speed controller (electric model)
Unpowered model gliders with two aileron and two
flap servos …
… and “normal” tail type
Left flap
Receiver power supply
Right aileron
Rudder
Elevator
Left aileron
Receiver power supply
Powered and unpowered delta / flying wing models
…
Right flap
… and “V-tail” tail type
… with two elevon servos
Free, or auxiliary function
Receiver power supply
Free or telemetry sensor or aux. function
Free or rudder
Right elevon (aileron / elevator)
Left elevon (aileron / elevator)
Receiver power supply
Airbrakes - or throttle servo or
speed controller (electric model)
Left flap
Receiver power supply
Right aileron
Right rudder / elevator
Left rudder / elevator
Left aileron
Receiver power supply
Right flap
Fixed-wing models: receiver assignment
33112_mx12_HoTT_2_GB.indd Abs17:43
43
06.06.2011 19:39:36
As there are several possible combinations of servo
orientation and control surface linkage, you may find that
the direction of rotation of one or more servos is incorrect. Use the following table to solve the problem.
Model
type
V-tail
Delta,
flying
wing
Servo rotating in
wrong direction
Remedy
Rudder and elevator
reversed
Reverse servos 3 + 4 in
the “servo set.” menu
Rudder correct,
elevator reversed
Swap over servos 3 + 4
at the receiver
Elevator correct,
rudder reversed
Reverse servos 3 + 4 in
the “servo set.” menu,
AND swap over at the
receiver
Elevator and ailerons Reverse servos 2 + 3 in
reversed
the “servo set.” menu
Elevator correct,
ailerons reversed
Reverse servos 2 + 3 in
the “servo set.” menu,
AND swap over at the
receiver
Ailerons correct,
elevator reversed
Swap over servos 2 + 3
at the receiver
All menus which are relevant to fixed-wing models are
marked with an “aeroplane” symbol in the “Program
descriptions”:
This means that you can easily skip irrelevant menus
when programming a fixed-wing model aircraft.
44
Fixed-wing models: receiver assignment
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For your notes
33112_mx12_HoTT_2_GB.indd Abs18:45
45
06.06.2011 19:39:36
Model helicopters
The continued development of model helicopters and
helicopter components, such as gyros, speed governors,
rotor blades etc., has led to the current position where
helicopters are capable of sophisticated 3-D aerobatics.
In contrast, if you are a beginner to helicopter flying, you
need a simple set-up so that you can quickly get started
on the initial stages of hovering practice, and then
gradually learn to exploit all the options provided by the
mx-12 HoTT.
The helicopter program of the mx-12 HoTT can cope
with all current model helicopters equipped with 1 … 4
servos for collective pitch control, entirely regardless of
whether they are powered by a fuel-driven or electric
motor.
Each model memory can include two flight phases
plus auto-rotation, and two flight timers are constantly
available. At the same time the screen also displays the
period which has elapsed since the last charge process.
You can return to the correct idle position for the digital
Ch 1 trim simply by pressing a button.
“Dual Rate” and “Exponential” are available for roll,
pitch-axis and tail rotor; they can be coupled together,
programmed and switched on and off, giving two modes
of control.
All the transmitter controls (CTRL) and switches (SW)
can be assigned in almost any way to inputs 5 … 6 in
the “Transmitter control settings” menu.
In addition to three linear mixers, which can be assigned
to any functions and can also be switched on and off,
the “Helicopter mixers” menu provides five-point curves
for the collective pitch, throttle and tail rotor mixers,
variable separately for each flight phase; these provide
non-linear mixer characteristics.
1. Collective pitch
2. Ch 1 ¼ throttle
3. Ch 1 ¼ tail rotor
Such advanced features are not needed by the beginner, who will initially simply set the hover point to coin-
Collective
Pitch Curve
Channel 1
46
cide with the centre point of the stick arc, and adjust the
collective pitch travel as required.
Moreover the “Heli mixers” menu offers additional
set-up options in the “Gyro” line, plus a “swashplate
limiter”.
The mixer inputs for collective pitch, roll and pitch-axis
can then be adjusted in the “Swashplate mixers” menu.
The throttle limit function in the “Transmitter control
settings” menu provides an effective means of starting
the motor in any flight phase. By default the proportional
rotary control CTRL 7 is assigned to this input, and this
control function determines the maximum throttle servo
position, i. e. the trim lever controls the motor over the
idle range. Only when this rotary knob is turned in the direction of full-throttle do the programmed throttle curves
take effect. If you have set up the two timers, they also
start recording the flight time automatically at this point.
See page 79 for more information on this.
Channel
1
Tail Rotor
Throttle
Model helicopters
33112_mx12_HoTT_2_GB.indd Abs19:46
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Note for modellers upgrading from earlier Graupner
systems:
Compared with the previous receiver channel sequence,
servo socket 1 (collective pitch servo) and servo socket
6 (throttle servo) have been interchanged. The servos
must be connected to the receiver output sockets in the
order shown at bottom right. Outputs not required are
simply left vacant. For more information on the different
types of swashplate, please refer to the “Basic settings”
menu described on page 64 / 65.
Installation notes
The servos MUST be connected to the receiver
outputs in the order shown on this page:
Outputs not required are simply left vacant.
Please note the additional information on the following pages.
… with four swashplate servos
Throttle or speed governor
Receiver power supply
Pitch-axis 2 servo
Tail rotor servo (gyro system)
Pitch-axis 1 servo
Roll 1 servo
Receiver power supply
Roll 2 servo
All menus which are relevant to model helicopters are
marked with a “helicopter” symbol in the “Program
descriptions”:
This means that you can easily skip irrelevant menus
when programming a model helicopter.
Note:
To be able to exploit all the convenience and safety
features of the throttle limiter (see section starting on
page 79), the speed controller should be connected to
receiver output “6”. See page 96 for more details.
Receiver assignment for model helicopters …
… with one to three swashplate servos
Throttle or speed governor
Receiver power supply
Telemetry sensor or gyro gain
Tail rotor servo (gyro system)
Pitch-axis 1 servo
Roll 1 servo
Receiver power supply
Collective pitch or roll 2
or pitch-axis 2 servo
Model helicopters: receiver assignment
33112_mx12_HoTT_2_GB.indd Abs20:47
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06.06.2011 19:39:36
Detailed description of programming
Reserving a new memory
If you have already read through the manual to this
point, you will undoubtedly have made your first attempt
at programming the system already. Even so, it is important to describe each menu here in detail, to ensure that
you have comprehensive instructions for each application you are likely to encounter.
In this section we start with setting up a “free” model
memory prior to “programming” a new model:
GRAUBELE
#01
6.1V 99%
0:00h
stop
flt
0:00
0:00
K78 HoTT
0.0V
M
From the basic display press the central SET button of
the right-hand four-way button to move to the “Multifunction list”. (You can return to the basic screen at any
time by pressing the central ESC button of the left-hand
four-way button.) By default the menu point “Model
memory” is displayed inverse (black background) and is
therefore active when you first call up the multi-function
select menu after switching the transmitter on. If this is
not the case, select the “Model memory” menu using
the arrow buttons (cd, ef) of the left or right-hand
four-way button, then briefly press the central SET button of the right-hand four-way button:
mod.mem.
ser vo set.
D/R expo
wing mixer
ser vo disp
fail-safe
48
base sett.
contr set.
phase trim
free mixer
basic sett
telemetr y
select model
clear model
copy mod–>mod
expor t to SD
impor t from SD
=>
=>
=>
=>
=>
Now press the central SET button of the right-hand fourway button once more to move on to the “select model”
sub-menu.
01
02
03
04
05
06
R06
¿¿free¿¿
¿¿free¿¿
¿¿free¿¿
¿¿free¿¿
¿¿free¿¿
In the transmitter’s default state the first model memory
is already initialised with the “Fixed-wing model” model
type, and the receiver supplied in the set is “bound” to
it. This is indicated by the receiver code displayed at top
right of the screen; in the example above this is R06. If,
on the other hand, the model memory is “unbound”, you
will see “---”.
The remainder of the model memories are not yet
occupied, and are “unbound”; these are entitled
“ÄÄfreeÄÄ”. If you want to set up a fixed-wing model,
then you can immediately start the programming procedure after leaving the “select model” sub-menu and
the “Model memory” menu by pressing the central
ESC button of the left-hand four-way button each time
… alternatively you can select one of the free model
memories using the left or right-hand four-way button …
01
02
03
04
05
06
R06
¿¿free¿¿
¿¿free¿¿
¿¿free¿¿
¿¿free¿¿
¿¿free¿¿
... and then briefly press the central SET button of the
right-hand four-way button to confirm your choice.
After this you are invited to select the basic model type,
i. e. either “Fixed-wing” or “Helicopter”:
Sel model type
( empty mod mem )
Use the e or f button of the left or right-hand four-way
button to select the appropriate basic model type, then
press the central SET button of the right-hand fourway button to confirm your choice. Your chosen model
memory is now initialised with the selected basic model
type, and the screen switches back to the basic display.
The model memory is now reserved for that use.
However, if you wish to get started with a helicopter,
then use the c or d button of the left or right-hand
four-way button to select one of the model memories
marked as “ÄÄfreeÄÄ”, and confirm your choice with
a brief press of the central SET button of the right-hand
four-way button. You are now requested to define the
basic model type, i. e. either “fixed-wing” or “helicopter”.
Use the c or d button of the left or right four-way
button to select the corresponding symbol, then again
Program description: reserving a new memory
33112_mx12_HoTT_2_GB.indd Abs21:48
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press the central SET button of the right-hand four-way
button briefly in confirmation. This initialises the chosen
model type for the model memory you have just selected, and you can now start programming your model
in this memory.
It is now only possible to change this memory to a different model type if you first erase the model memory
(“Model memory” menu, page 52).
Notes:
• If you wish to erase the model memory which is currently active in the basic display, you will have to define one of the two model types “fixed-wing” or “helicopter” immediately after completing the erase
procedure. You cannot avoid making this choice by
switching the transmitter off. If you wish to remove
a model memory which you inadvertently occupied,
you can simply erase it from a different model memory.
However, if you erase a model memory which is not
currently active, after the procedure you will see the
memory marked as “ÄÄfreeÄÄ” under Model Select.
• After the selected model memory has been initialised with your preferred basic model type, the screen
shifts to the newly reserved model memory. At the
same time the following warning appears for a few
seconds …
BIND N/A
OK
… as an indication that this memory has not yet been
bound to a receiver. A brief press of the central SET
button of the right-hand four-way button takes you di-
rectly to the corresponding option. For more detailed
information on binding a receiver please refer to pages 61 and 70.
• The warning “BIND. n/v” just described is now followed for a few seconds by this warning …
fail safe
setup
t.b.d
… as an indication that no Fail-Safe settings have
been entered. For more information on this please refer to page 116.
• If the warning …
throttle
too
high !
… appears on the screen, move the throttle stick (or
the limiter - by default the rotary knob CTRL 7 - if setting up a helicopter) back to idle. This warning only
appears in accordance with the settings you have entered in the “Motor at Ch1” or “Collective pitch min.”
section of the “Basic settings” menu, as described
on pages 56 and 67. If you are setting up a non-powered fixed-wing model, enter “none” or “none/inv” at
this point; this disables the throttle warning message,
and makes available the “Brake ¼ NN *“ mixers in
the “Wing mixers” menu, which would otherwise be
suppressed; you should also do this if you wish to
use servo socket 1 for the second flap servo.
• If the transmitter’s model memories are already occupied, then a pictogram of the selected model type appears in the appropriate model memory, followed by
*
NN = Nomen Nominandum (name to be stated)
a blank line, or the model’s name if a name has already been entered in the “Basic settings” menu
(pages 56 and 64), together with an indicator that the
memory is bound to a receiver, if appropriate.
• If the battery voltage is too low, the software prevents
you switching model memories in the interests of
safety. In this case the screen displays this message:
not possible now
voltage too low
Basically there are now four different options for assigning the four control functions aileron, elevator, rudder
and throttle / airbrakes (fixed-wing model), and roll,
pitch-axis, tail rotor and throttle / collective pitch (model
helicopter) to the two primary dual-axis sticks. Which of
these options is adopted depends on the personal preference of the individual model pilot. This function is set
in the “Stick mode” line for the currently active model
memory in the “Basic settings” menu (page 56 or 64):
mod Name
stick mode
motor at C1
tail type
aile/flap
1
no
normal
1aile
As mentioned earlier, for maximum flexibility the transmitter controls 5 and 6 are by default not assigned to
transmitter controls, and can be assigned to any channels you like; this also helps to avoid accidental mishandling.
This means that in the default state of the equipment
only those servos connected to receiver outputs 1
… 4 can usually be controlled by the two dual-axis
Program description: reserving a new memory
33112_mx12_HoTT_2_GB.indd Abs21:49
49
06.06.2011 19:39:36
sticks, whereas servos connected to sockets 5 and 6
remain steadfastly at their centre position. If you set
up a new model helicopter, servo 6 may also respond to
some extent to the controls - depending on the position
of the throttle limiter CTRL 7. For both model types this
situation only changes once you have carried out the
appropriate assignments in the “Transmitter control
settings” menu.
If you wish to use a newly initialised model memory,
then this MUST first be “bound” to a (further) receiver
before any servos connected to the receiver can be controlled from the transmitter. For more information on this
please refer to the “Binding” section on pages 61 and 70.
You will find a description of the basic steps for programming a fixed-wing model aircraft in the Programming
Examples section starting on page 144; for model
helicopters the equivalent section starts on page 166.
The following menu descriptions are arranged in the
order that they are listed in the individual menus in the
multi-function list.
50
Program description: reserving a new memory
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For your notes
33112_mx12_HoTT_2_GB.indd Abs22:51
51
06.06.2011 19:39:37
Model memories
Calling up a model, erasing a model, copying model ¼ model
The section on pages 24 and 25 explains the basic
method of using the buttons, while the previous two
double-pages explains how to move to the Multi-function
list and reserve a new model memory. At this point we
wish to start with the “normal” description of the individual menu points in the sequence in which they occur
on the transmitter itself. For this reason we start with the
menu …
select model
Model memory
If you now briefly press the SET button again, you move
to the “Call up model” sub-menu:
mod.mem.
ser vo set.
D/R expo
wing mixer
ser vo disp
fail-safe
base sett.
contr set.
phase trim
free mixer
basic sett
telemetr y
The transmitter can store up to ten complete sets of
model data, including the digital trim values set by the
four trim levers. The trims are automatically stored,
which means that the settings you have carefully established through test-flying are never lost when you swap
models. A pictogram of the selected model type, and - if
you have entered a model name in the “Basic settings”
menu (pages 56 and 64) - the name appears in all three
sub-menus of the “Model memory” menu following the
model number.
If necessary, use the arrow buttons of the left or righthand four-way button to select the “Model memory”
menu, then briefly press the SET button of the righthand four-way button:
clear model
select model
clear model
copy mod–>mod
expor t to SD
impor t from SD
01
02
03
04
05
06
GRAUBELE
ULTIMATE
STARLET
BELL47G
¿¿free¿¿
¿¿free¿¿
R06
R06
R06
–––
Now use the arrow buttons cd of the left or right-hand
four-way button to select from the list the model memory
you wish to use, and confirm your selection by pressing
the SET button. Pressing ESC takes you back to the
previous menu page without switching models.
Notes:
• If the warning message “Throttle too high” appears
when you switch models, the throttle or collective
pitch stick (Ch 1), or the throttle limiter, is positioned
too far towards full-throttle.
• If the battery voltage is too low, it may not be possible
to switch model memories for safety reasons. In this
case the screen displays the following message:
not possible now
voltage too low
52
=>
=>
=>
=>
=>
select model
clear model
copy mod–>mod
Modellt to
senden
expor
SD
Modellt from
empfangen
impor
SD
=>
=>
=>
=>
=>
Use the arrow buttons cd of the left or right-hand fourway button to select the “clear model” sub-menu, then
press the SET button.
Select the model to be erased using the arrow buttons
cd of the left or right-hand four-way button, …
model
01
02
03
04
05
to be cleared:
R06
GRAUBELE
R06
ULTIMATE
R06
STARLET
–––
BELL47G
¿¿frei ¿¿
… then press the SET button again; the program responds with the security query:
model
GRAUBELE
01
to be erased ?
NO
YES
If you answer NO, the process is interrupted, and you
are returned to the previous screen page. If you answer
YES with the f button of the left or right-hand four-way
button and confirm your choice with the SET button,
then the selected model memory is erased.
Program description: model memories
33112_mx12_HoTT_2_GB.indd Abs23:52
06.06.2011 19:39:37
Caution:
The erasure process is irrevocable. All data in the
selected model memory is reset to the factory
default settings.
Note:
If you wish to erase the currently active model memory
in the basic display, you will be required to define the
model type “Helicopter” or “Fixed-wing” immediately.
However, if you erase a non-active model memory, then
the message “ÄÄfreeÄÄ” appears in the Model select
menu.
copy model ¼ model
Use the arrow buttons cd of the left or right-hand
four-way button to select the “copy model ¼ model”
sub-menu, then press the SET button.
select model
clear model
copy mod–>mod
Modellt to
senden
expor
SD
Modellt from
empfangen
impor
SD
=>
=>
=>
=>
=>
Select the model to be copied using the arrow buttons
cd of the left or right-hand four-way button …
copy from model:
01
GRAUBELE
ULTIMATE
02
03
STARLET
04
BELL47G
¿¿frei ¿¿
05
R06
R06
R06
–––
… then briefly press the SET button of the right-hand
four-way button in the “Copy to model” window. You can
now select the target memory using the arrow buttons
cd of the left or right-hand four-way button, and confirm your choice with SET. Alternatively you can interrupt
the process with ESC. It is possible to overwrite a model
memory which already contains model data.
copy to model:
01
GRAUBELE
ULTIMATE
02
03
STARLET
04
BELL47G
¿¿free ¿¿
05
R06
R06
R06
–––
When you confirm the selected model memory by pressing the SET button, the security query appears:
model
01
ULTIMATE
¿¿free ¿¿
03
to be copied ?
NO
YES
Selecting NO interrupts the process, and returns you to
the previous page. If you select YES with the f button,
and confirm your choice by pressing the SET button,
then the selected model is copied into the chosen target
model memory.
Note:
When you copy a model memory, the binding data is
copied together with the model data, so that a receiving
system bound to the original model memory can also
be operated with the copy of the memory, i. e. it does not
require another binding process.
Export to SD
Use the arrow buttons cd of the left or right-hand fourway button to select the “Export to SD” sub-menu, then
press the SET button.
select model
clear model
copy mod–>mod
expor t to SD
Modellt from
empfangen
impor
SD
=>
=>
=>
=>
=>
Use the arrow buttons cd of the left or right-hand fourway button to select the model to be exported:
expor t
01
02
03
04
05
to SD-CARD:
GRAUBELE
ULTIMATE
STARLET
BELL47G
¿¿frei ¿¿
R06
R06
R06
–––
When you confirm the selected model memory with
a brief press of the SET button, the following security
query appears:
model
01
ULTIMATE
SD-CARD
expor t ?
NO
YES
You can interrupt the process with NO; if you do this,
you are returned to the starting screen. However, if you
select YES with the f button, and confirm your choice
by pressing the SET button, then the selected model is
Program description: model memories
33112_mx12_HoTT_2_GB.indd Abs23:53
53
06.06.2011 19:39:37
copied to the SD card.
Notes:
• If the warning …
SD-CARD
INSERT
OK
•
•
•
•
•
54
… appears instead of a model selection, there is no
SD card in the card slot; see page 22.
When you copy a model memory, the binding data is
copied along with the model data, so that the receiving system associated with the original model memory can also be operated using the SAME transmitter
and the copied memory without repeating the binding procedure.
An exported fixed-wing model is stored on the memory card under \\Models\mx-12 with the format “aModelname.mdl” and a model helicopter with the format
“hModelname.mdl”. However, if you export a “nameless” model, then you will find its data stored on the
memory card under “a-” and “hNoName.mdl”.
Since the mx-12 HoTT does not feature a real-time
clock, the model data are stored on the memory card
with a fixed creation date. However, if you wish to
change the date manually, you can do so on the PC
using a suitable program.
Some of the special characters used in certain model names cannot be accepted due to specific limitations of the FAT or FAT32 file system used by memory cards. During the copy process they are replaced
by a tilde (~) character.
If the memory card already contains a model file of
the same name, it will be overwritten without warning.
Import from SD
Use the arrow buttons cd of the left or right-hand fourway button to select the “Import from SD” sub-menu,
then briefly press the SET button.
select model
clear model
copy mod–>mod
expor t to SD
impor t from SD
=>
=>
=>
=>
=>
Use the arrow buttons cd of the left or right-hand fourway button to select the model to be imported from the
SD memory card:
impor t from SD-CARD:
00/01/01
ALPINA
00/01/01
EXTRA
00/01/01
COBRA
00/01/01
BELL47G
¿¿frei ¿¿
05
Notes:
• The export date displayed to the right of the model
name is shown in the format “Year/Month/Day”.
• Since the mx-12 HoTT does not feature a real-time
clock, the model data are stored on the memory card
with a fixed creation date. However, if you wish to
change the date manually, you can do so on the PC
using a suitable program.
When you do this, and briefly press the SET button of
the right-hand four-way button again, an “Import to model:” window is displayed. Use the arrow buttons cd of
the left or right-hand four-way button to select the target
memory, confirm your choice with SET, or press ESC
to interrupt the process. An occupied memory can be
overwritten:
impor t
01
02
03
04
05
to model :
GRAUBELE
ULTIMATE
STARLET
BELL47G
¿¿free ¿¿
E06
E06
E06
–––
When you confirm the selected model memory by
pressing the SET button, the following security query is
displayed:
model
01
03
impor t ?
NO
ULTIMATE
¿¿free¿¿
YES
You can interrupt the process with NO; if you do this, you
are returned to the starting screen. However, if you use
the f button to select YES, and confirm your choice
by pressing the SET button, then the selected model is
imported into the selected model memory.
Notes:
• If the warning …
SD-CARD
INSERT
OK
… appears instead of a model selection, there is no
SD card in the card slot; see page 22.
• When you import a model memory, the binding data
Program description: model memories
33112_mx12_HoTT_2_GB.indd Abs23:54
06.06.2011 19:39:37
is copied along with the model data, so that the receiving system associated with the original model
memory can also be operated using the SAME transmitter and the copied memory without repeating the
binding procedure.
Program description: model memories
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55
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Base settings
Basic model-specific settings for fixed-wing model aircraft
Before you start programming specific parameters,
some basic settings must be entered which apply only
to the currently active model memory. Select the “Basic
settings” (basic model settings) menu using the arrow
buttons of the left or right-hand four-way button, then
press the central SET button of the right-hand four-way
button:
base sett.
contr set.
phase trim
free mixer
basic sett
telemetr y
model name
stick mode
“MODE 1” (Throttle at right stick)
left aileron
right aileron
idle
elev. down
idle
elev. up
“MODE 3” (Throttle at right stick) “MODE 4” (Throttle at left stick)
idle
left rudder
right rudder
idle
elev. down
right aileron
right rudder
right aileron
left aileron
full throttle
left aileron
Motor Vollgas
left rudder
elev. down
elev. up
0123456789 : ;
?
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNO
PQRSTUVWXYZ
full throttle
right rudder
elev. up
Press the SET button of the right-hand four-way button
to move to the next screen page, where you can select
characters to assemble the model name. You can enter
up to nine characters to define a model name:
“MODE 2” (Throttle at left stick)
full throttle
left rudder
elev. down
right aileron
no
normal
1aile
left aileron
1
right rudder
mod name
stick mode
motor at C1
tail type
aile/flap
left rudder
mod.mem.
ser vo set.
D/R expo
wing mixer
ser vo disp
fail-safe
to select the desired character, then move to the next
position in the name by pressing the arrow button f of
the right-hand four-way button, or its central SET button,
where you can select the next character.
Simultaneously pressing thecd or ef buttons of the
right-hand four-way button (CLEAR) inserts a space at
that point.
You can move to any character position within the input
field using the ef buttons of the right-hand four-way
button.
Pressing the central ESC button of the left-hand fourway button returns you to the previous menu page.
The model name entered in this way appears in the
basic display, and also in the sub-menus of the “Model
memory” menu.
mod name
GRAUBELE
stick mode
1
no
motor at C1
tail type
normal
aile/flap
1aile
Press the SET button to highlight the current stick mode
(black background). Now use the arrow buttons of the
right-hand four-way button to select one of the options
1 to 4.
Simultaneously pressing the cd buttons or the ef
buttons of the right-hand four-way button (CLEAR)
returns the display to stick mode “1”.
Pressing the SET button again disables the select field
once more, so that you can switch lines.
motor at C1
GRAUBELE
mod name
stick mode
1
no
motor at C1
tail type
normal
aile/flap
1aile
elev. up
Basically there are four possible ways of arranging the
principal control functions of a fixed-wing model on the
two dual-axis sticks: the primary functions are aileron,
elevator, rudder and throttle (or airbrakes). Which of
model name GRAUB
these options you select depends on your individual
preferences and flying style.
Use the arrow buttons of the left-hand four-way button
56 Program description: base settings - fixed-wing model
33112_mx12_HoTT_2_GB.indd Abs24:56
Use the arrow buttons cd of the left or right-hand fourway button to move to the “Stick mode” line. You will see
the select field framed:
When you select “motor at C1” using the arrow buttons
cd of the left or right-hand four-way button, you will
see the corresponding input field framed. Press the
central SET button of the right-hand four-way button to
highlight the current setting. Now use the arrow buttons
of the right-hand four-way button to switch between the
06.06.2011 19:39:37
four possible options:
“idle fr.”: The idle position of the throttle / airbrake
stick (C1) is forward, i. e. away from the pilot.
The throttle warning message “Throttle too
high”, see page 28, and the – following – option “cut off” are activated. In the “Wing
mixer” menu the “Brake ¼ NN *” mixers are
disabled.
“idle re.”: The idle position of the throttle / airbrake
stick (C1) is back, i. e. towards the pilot.
The throttle warning message “Throttle too
high”, see page 28, and the – following – option “cut off” are activated. In the “Wing
mixer” menu the “Brake ¼ NN *” mixers are
disabled.
“no”:
The brake system is “retracted” in the forward position of the throttle / brake stick. In
the “Wing mixer” menu the “Brake ¼ NN *”
mixers are activated.
The throttle warning message “Throttle too
high”, see page 28, and the option “cut off”
are disabled.
„no/inv“
The brake system is “retracted” in the back
position of the throttle / brake stick. In the
“Wing mixer” menu the “Brake ¼ NN *”
mixers are activated.
The throttle warning message “Throttle too
high”, see page 28, and the option “cut off”
are disabled.
Notes:
• During the programming process it is important
to ensure that any internal-combustion engine or
*
NN = Nomen Nominandum (name to be stated)
electric motor cannot start running accidentally.
The safe option is always to disconnect the fuel
supply or the flight battery.
• Depending on your choice in this menu, the Ch 1 trim
acts “normally” (over the full control travel), or just
at the idle end of the range, i. e. only at the “back” or
“forward” end of the stick travel.
• Please note the Cut-off trim function, which is described on page 40.
cut off
Note:
This menu line is suppressed if you choose “none” or
“none/inv” in the “Motor at Ch 1” line.
Depending on your selected setting for “Idle forward
/ rear” in the “motor at C1” line, you can select in this
menu line a “Motor OFF” position which can be called
up using a switch. The default settings are -100% for the
throttle servo position, and +150% for the transmitter
control position.
GRAUBELE
mod name
stick mode
1
idle re.
motor at C1
cut off –100% +150% –––
tail type
normal
STO
If you wish to change the pre-set value for the “Motor
OFF” position of the throttle servo, press the central SET
button of the right-hand four-way button. The current
setting is highlighted (black background). Now use the
arrow buttons of the right-hand four-way button to enter
a value at which the motor is reliably “off”, but without
stalling the throttle servo. For example, -125%:
GRAUBELE
mod name
stick mode
1
idle re.
motor at C1
cut off –125% +150% –––
tail type
normal
STO
The - high - pre-set value in the centre column ensures
that the motor can be stopped using the switch (yet to
be assigned in the right-hand column) over the full range
of travel of the throttle stick.
However, if you prefer to set your own individual limit,
i. e. the point after which it is possible to switch to the
Motor OFF position, move the throttle / collective pitch
stick to the desired position, then press the central SET
button of the right-hand four-way button:
GRAUBELE
mod name
stick mode
1
idle re.
motor at C1
cut off –125% +100% –––
tail type
normal
STO
Note:
You can obtain a switching threshold of more than
+100% by temporarily increasing the travel of servo 1
to more than 100% in the “Servo settings” menu, then
returning it to the original value after storing the switching threshold.
In the right-hand column you can now assign a switch
which can be used (in an emergency) to cut the motor.
We recommend one of the two self-centring momentary
buttons SW 1:
Program description: base settings - fixed-wing model
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57
06.06.2011 19:39:37
GRAUBELE
mod name
stick mode
1
idle re.
motor at C1
cut off –125% +100% 1
tail type
normal
STO
tail type
GRAUBELE
mod name
stick mode
1
idle re.
motor on C1
cut off –125% +100% 1
tail type
normal
„Delt/FlW“:
„2elev sv“:
The mixed elevon (aileron and elevator) control system requires two or four
separate servos, one or two in each wing.
However, the elevator trim only affects
servos 2 + 3, even if you select “2ail2fl” see below.
This option is designed for model aircraft
with one or two aileron servos and two
elevator servos. When the elevator stick
is moved, the servo connected to receiver
output 6 moves in parallel with servo 3.
The elevator trim lever affects both servos.
Note regarding “2elev sv”:
In this mode a transmitter control which
is assigned to input 6 in the “Transmitter
control settings” menu is de-coupled
from servo “6”; this is for safety reasons.
When you select “tail type” using the arrow buttons cd
of the left or right-hand four-way button, you will see the
corresponding input field framed. Press the central SET
Ailerons / Camber-changing flaps
button of the right-hand four-way button to highlight the
current setting. Now use the arrow buttons of the rightstick mode
1
hand four-way button to select the option which matches
idle re.
motor at C1
your model:
cut off –125% +100% 1
„normal“:
This setting caters for all models in which
tail type
normal
each of the functions elevator and rudder
aile/flap
1aile
is operated by one servo.
„V-tail“:
The elevator and rudder functions are
When you select the “Aileron / Flap” line using the arrow
operated by two control surfaces set in a
V-shape, each controlled by a separate
buttons cd of the left or right-hand four-way button,
servo. The two-way coupling function for
you will see the corresponding input field framed. Press
the rudder and elevator control systems
the central SET button of the right-hand four-way butis automatically carried out by the transton to highlight the current setting. Now use the arrow
mitter software. If necessary, the ratio
buttons of the right-hand four-way button to select one of
of rudder travel to elevator travel can be
the three options, which are.
adjusted in the “Dual Rate” menu (page
82).
58 Program description: base settings - fixed-wing model
33112_mx12_HoTT_2_GB.indd Abs24:58
“1aile”
“2aile”
“2ail2fl”
Both ailerons are actuated by a single
servo.
Each aileron is actuated by one servo.
Each aileron is actuated by a separate
servo; there are also one or two camberchanging flap servos.
Note:
The “2AL 2FL” option is only available
with the tail types “normal” and “V-tail”,
and only if “none” or “none/inv” has been
selected in the “Motor at Ch 1” line.
The mixers and associated adjustment facilities which
appear in the “Wing mixers” menu (see section starting on page 88) vary according to the data you enter
here. The software provides a maximum of twelve
ready-made mixers for up to two aileron servos and two
camber-changing flap servos.
Note:
If your model is equipped with only one flap servo, you
should still select “2ail2fl”, but leave the “AIL ¼ FL”
mixer in the “Wing mixer” menu, which is described on
page 91, at 0%. In contrast, all the other wing mixers
can be used in the usual way. The second flap socket
which is now “vacant” must ON NO ACCOUNT be used
for any other purpose!
06.06.2011 19:39:37
timer
Two timers are shown in the basic display: one stopwatch and one flight timer:
GRAUBELE
#01
6.1V 99%
0:00h
stop
flt
0:00
0:00
K78 HoTT
0.0V
M
You can assign a physical switch or a control switch to
these two timers in the right-hand column of the “timer”
line, indicated by the switch symbol
at the bottom
edge of the screen.
idle re.
motor at C1
cut off –125% +100% 1
tail type
normal
aile/flap
2aile
timer
0:00 –––
The assigned switch starts both timers, and also halts
the stopwatch.
The method of assigning a physical switch or a control
switch is described on page 39.
The flight timer, and the saving of telemetry data on
a memory card fitted in the card slot (see page 22),
always starts simultaneously with the stopwatch, but
continues to run even when the stopwatch is halted
(switched off). It can only be stopped by pressing the
central ESC button of the left-hand four-way button
when the stopwatch is already halted.
Once the timers are stopped, you can reset both timers
to their initial value by simultaneously pressing the cd
or ef buttons of the right-hand key (CLEAR).
Switching between “count-up” and “count-down”
Count-up timer (stopwatch function)
If you assign a switch and start the stopwatch with the
initial value of “0:00”, the timer runs up until the maximum of 180 minutes and 59 seconds, then re-starts at
0:00.
Count-down timer (alarm timer function)
You can select a starting time within the range 0 to 180
minutes in the left-hand minutes field, and a starting
time within the range 0 to 59 seconds in the right-hand
seconds field. Any combination of times can also be
selected.
Simultaneously pressing the cd or ef buttons of the
right-hand four-way button (CLEAR) resets any settings
you have made to “0” or “00”.
idle re.
motor at C1
cut off –125% +100% 1
tail type
normal
aile/flap
2aile
timer
3
0:00
Procedure
1. Select the desired input field using the arrow buttons
ef of the left or right-hand four-way button.
2. Press SET in the centre of the right-hand four-way
button.
3. Select the required time in the highlighted minutes
and seconds fields using the arrow buttons of the
right-hand four-way button.
4. Press the central SET button to conclude the input
process.
5. Once you have switched back to the basic display
by pressing the central ESC button of the left-hand
four-way button the required number of times, press
the cd or ef buttons of the right-hand four-way
button (CLEAR) simultaneously, with the stopwatch
stopped, to switch the stopwatch to the “Timer” function; see top right in the following illustration:
GRAUBELE
#01
6.1V 99%
0:00h
stop
flt
10:01
0:00
K78 HoTT
0.0V
M
When you operate the assigned switch, the stopwatch
now starts from the set initial value, counting down
(“Timer function”). When the set time has elapsed, the
timer does not stop, but continues to run so that you can
read off the time elapsed after reaching zero. To make
this clear, the over-run time is shown highlighted (black
background).
Sequence of sounds
30 sec. before zero: triple beep
single beep every two seconds
20 sec. before zero: double beep
single beep every two seconds
10 sec. before zero: single beep
single beep every second
5 sec. before zero: single beep every second at higher
rate
zero: longer beep; display switches to
inverse video
Program description: base settings - fixed-wing model
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59
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The “alarm timer” is reset by simultaneously pressing
the cd or ef buttons of the right-hand four-way button (CLEAR), once you have halted the timer.
Note:
A count-down timer is indicated in the basic display by
a flashing colon (:) between the minutes field and the
seconds field.
Phase 2 and Phase 3
You will automatically be in the “normal” flight phase 1
unless you have already assigned a switch to phases 2
or 3.
Both the number and name of this flight phase are fixed
permanently as “normal”, and cannot be changed. For
this reason the “normal” phase is simply concealed, i. e.
it is not displayed as phase 1.
tail type
aile/flap
timer
phase 2
phase 3
normal
2aile
10:01
3
takeoff –––
speed –––
It is also important to understand that the flight phases
have their own inherent priorities which need to be observed, particularly when assigning individual switches.
The underlying scheme can be described as follows:
• If all assigned flight phase switches are closed or
open, the “normal” flight phase is active.
• If only one switch is closed, then the flight phase assigned to the currently closed switch is active.
• If two switches are closed, then the flight phase with
the lower phase number is active.
60
For example, this would be phase 2 if the switch assigned to phase 3 is also closed.
• As a result you may wish to take the inherent phase
priorities into account when assigning names to the
flight phases; see below.
• At the servo end the transition does not occur
“abruptly”, but with a fixed transition period of about
one second.
Programming
When you select “phase 2” or “phase 3” using the arrow
buttons cd of the left or right-hand four-way button,
the “Name” field for that flight phase is already framed.
If the default name does not seem appropriate, press
the central SET button of the right-hand four-way button,
and the current setting is shown highlighted. Now use
the arrow buttons of the right-hand four-way button to
select an appropriate name from those available. Press
the SET button to conclude the input process.
Now press the f button of the left or right-hand fourway button to move to the right-hand column at the bot,
tom of the screen, indicated by the switch symbol
and briefly press the central SET button. You can now
assign a switch to the phase as described on page 39.
We recommend one of the two three-position switches
SW 4/5 or SW 6/7, in each case starting from the centre
toggle position.
For more information on flight phase programming
please refer to page 86, in the section entitled “Phase
trim”.
Receiver output
For maximum flexibility in terms of receiver socket
assignment, the mx-12 HoTT software provides the
means to swap over the servo outputs 1 to max. 6;
this is carried out on the second page of the “Receiver
output” sub-menu.
aile/flap
timer
phase 2
phase 3
receiv out
10:01
takeoff
speed
2aile
3
7
6
Press the central SET button of the right-hand four-way
button to move to the next page of the display. Here you
can assign the “control channels” for servos 1 … 6 to
any receiver output you wish to use. However, please
note that the display in “Servo display” - which you can
access from virtually any menu position by simultaneously pressing the e and f buttons of the left-hand
four-way button - refers exclusively to the “control channels”, i. e. the outputs are NOT swapped over.
S
S
S
S
S
1
2
3
4
5
output
output
output
output
output
1
2
3
4
5
Use the arrow buttons cd of the left or right-hand fourway button to select the servo / output combination you
wish to change, then press the central SET button of
the right-hand four-way button. Now you can assign the
desired servo (S) to the selected output using the right-
Program description: base settings - fixed-wing model
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06.06.2011 19:39:38
hand arrow buttons, and confirm your choice with SET
… or alternatively press the cd or ef buttons of the
right-hand four-way button (CLEAR) simultaneously to
revert to the default sequence.
Please note that any subsequent changes to servo
settings, such as servo travel, Dual Rate / Expo, mixers
etc., must be carried out according to the original
(default) receiver socket sequence.
Note:
It is also possible to distribute the control functions
amongst as many receivers as you wish, using the
channel-mapping function in the mx-12 HoTT’s integral Telemetry menu, or even to assign the same control
function to multiple receiver outputs. For example, you
might wish to actuate each aileron with two servos instead of just one, etc. However, we strongly recommend
that you use only one of the two options, as a combination will soon lead to confusion.
rx bind
Graupner HoTT receivers have to be “instructed” to
communicate exclusively with a particular model (i. e.
model memory) of a Graupner HoTT transmitter. This
process is known as “binding”, and is only necessary
once for each new combination of receiver and model. It
can be repeated at any time.
Important note:
When carrying out the binding procedure, please
ensure that the transmitter aerial is always an
adequate distance from the receiver aerials: keeping
the aerials about 1 m apart is safe in this respect.
Otherwise you risk a failed connection to the downlink channel, and consequent malfunctions.
“Binding” multiple receivers to one model
If necessary, it is possible to bind more than one receiver to a single model. This is accomplished by initially
binding the receivers individually, as described in the
next section. When operating the system, please note
that only the receiver which was bound last will
establish a telemetry link to the transmitter. For this
reason all telemetry sensors installed in the model must
be connected to this receiver, since only the last bound
receiver is able to transmit their data via the down-link
channel. The second, and all other receivers, run in
parallel to the receiver last bound to the transmitter, but
completely independently of it; they operate in Slave
mode with the down-link channel switched off.
“Binding” transmitter and receiver
Use the arrow buttons cd of the left or right-hand fourway button to move to the “rx bind” line:
timer
phase 2
phase 3
receiv out
rx bind
10:01
takeoff
speed
screen in the frame of the “rx bind” line, instead of the
three “---”:
timer
phase 2
phase 3
receiv out
rx bind
–––
If you have not already done so, switch on the power
supply to your receiver now: the green LED on the
receiver flashes once briefly, then goes out.
Press and hold the SET button on the receiver until the
green LED starts to flash.
Briefly press the central SET button of the right-hand
four-way button to initiate the so-called binding process
between a receiver and the current model memory. At
the same time the word “BINDING” starts flashing on the
3
7
6
BINDING
If the receiver LED glows a constant green within about
ten seconds, then the binding process has been completed successfully; you can now release the receiver’s
SET button.
Your model / receiver combination is now ready for use.
In parallel with this the screen displays the code number
for the receiver now “bound” to this model memory. For
example:
timer
phase 2
phase 3
receiv out
rx bind
3
7
6
10:01
takeoff
speed
10:01
takeoff
speed
3
7
6
R06
Conversely, if the green LED on the receiver flashes
for longer than about ten seconds, then the binding
process has failed. In parallel with this the screen will
display three “---” once more. If this should occur, alter
the relative position of the aerials, and repeat the whole
procedure.
Program description: base settings - fixed-wing model
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range test
The integral range-check reduces the transmitter’s output power in such a way that you can test the system’s
operation at a distance of up to about fifty metres.
Carry out the range-check of the Graupner HoTT
system in accordance with the following instructions. We
recommend that you ask a friend to help with rangechecking.
1. Install the receiver in the model as required, preferably after completing the binding process with the
transmitter.
2. Switch the radio control system on and wait until the
green LED on the receiver glows. Now you can observe the servo movements.
3. Place the model on a flat surface (paving, close-mown
grass or earth), with the receiver aerials at least
15 cm above the ground. This means that you may
have to place the model on a raised object for the period of the check.
4. Hold the transmitter at hip-height, and away from your
body. However, do not point the aerial straight at the
model; instead rotate and / or angle the tip of the aerial so that it is vertical while you carry out the check.
5. If you have not already done so, use the arrow buttons cd of the left or right-hand four-way button to
move to the “Test range” line, and initiate range-check
mode by pressing the central SET button of the righthand four-way button:
62
phase 2
phase 3
receiv out
rx bind
range test
takeoff
speed
7
6
R06
99sec
When you start the range-check, the transmitter’s
output power is significantly reduced, and the blue
LED on the aerial base starts to flash. At the same
time the time display on the transmitter screen starts
counting down, and a double beep sounds every five
seconds.
From five seconds before the end of the range-check
you will hear a triple beep every second. When the
99 seconds of the range-check period have elapsed,
the transmitter switches back to full power, and the
blue LED glows constantly once more.
6. Within this period walk away from the model, moving
the sticks all the while. If at any point within a distance
of about fifty metres you notice a break in the connection, attempt to reproduce it.
7. If the model is fitted with a motor, switch it on in order
to check the system’s interference rejection.
8. Walk further away from the model until you no longer
have full control over it.
9. At this point wait until the test period has elapsed, with
the model still switched on and ready for use. When
the range-check period is over, the model should respond again to control commands. It this is not 100%
the case, do not use the system. Contact your nearest
Service Centre of Graupner GmbH & Co. KG.
10.Carry out the range-check before every flight, and
simulate all the servo movements which are likely to
occur in a typical flight. To ensure safe operation of
the model, the range must always be at least fifty metres on the ground.
Caution:
Never initiate a range-check when you are actually
operating a model!
RF transmit
In this menu line you can manually switch the transmitter’s RF transmission on and off again for a specific
model for the current period that the transmitter is
switched on. For example, you might wish to do this to
save power when demonstrating the programming of a
model. If you switch the transmitter off with the RF
module switched off, next time you switch the transmitter on it will be switched back on again.
Use the arrow buttons cd of the left or right-hand fourway button to move to the “RF module” line, and press
the central SET button of the right-hand four-way button
to activate the value window:
phase 3
speed 6
receiv out
rx bind
R06
range test
99sec
RF transmit
OFF
Now you can use the right-hand arrow buttons to switch
between OFF and ON. Press the central SET button
of the right-hand four-way button again to conclude the
input.
Program description: base settings - fixed-wing model
33112_mx12_HoTT_2_GB.indd Abs24:62
06.06.2011 19:39:38
For your notes
33112_mx12_HoTT_2_GB.indd Abs59:63
63
06.06.2011 19:39:38
Base settings
Basic model-specific settings for model helicopters
roll
throttle
throttle
tail rotor
pitch axis
pitch axis
roll
STAR
throttle
tail rotor
Motor/Pitch
Use the arrow buttons cd of the left or right-hand fourway button to select the “Stick mode” line; the select
field is now framed:
STARLET
mod name
stick mode
1
1 ser vo
swashplate
cut off –100% +150% –––
right
rotor direct
Briefly press the SET button: the current stick mode
appears highlighted. Now use the arrow buttons of the
right-hand four-way button to choose one of the options
1 to 4.
By simultaneously pressing the cd or ef buttons
of the right-hand four-way button (CLEAR) the display
reverts to stick mode “1”.
A further brief press on the SET button disables the
select field again, so that you can change to a different
line.
Swashplate type
STARLET
mod name
stick mode
1
1 ser vo
swashplate
cut off –100% +150% –––
right
rotor direct
pitch axis
throttle
tail rotor
roll
pitch axis
Use the arrow buttons of the left-hand four-way button
64 Program description: base settings - model helicopter
33112_mx12_HoTT_2_GB.indd Abs25:64
throttle
pitch axis
tail rotor
pitch axis
throttle
“MODE 3” (Throttle at right stick) “MODE 4” (Throttle at left stick)
roll
model name
throttle
roll
pitch axis
roll
0123456789 : ;
?
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNO
PQRSTUVWXYZ
“MODE 1” (Throttle at right stick) “MODE 2” (Throttle at left stick)
tail rotor
Press the SET button of the right-hand four-way button
to move to the next screen page, where you can select
characters to assemble the model name. You can enter
up to nine characters to define a model name:
Stick mode
Basically there are four possible ways of arranging the
principal control functions of a model helicopter on
the two dual-axis sticks: the primary functions are roll,
pitch-axis, tail rotor and throttle / collective pitch. Which
of these options you select depends on your individual
preferences and flying style:
tail rotor
mod name
stick mode
1
1 ser vo
swashplate
cut off –100% +150% –––
right
rotor direct
roll
Model name
roll
base sett.
contr set.
heli mixer
swashp. mix
basic sett
telemetr y
tail rotor
mod.mem.
ser vo set.
D/R expo
free mixer
ser vo disp
fail-safe
to select the desired character. Press one of the arrow
buttons ef of the right-hand four-way button, or its
central SET button, to move to the next position in the
name, at which point you can again select a character.
Simultaneously pressing the cd or ef buttons of the
right-hand four-way button (CLEAR) inserts a space at
that point. You can move to any character position within
the input field using the ef buttons of the right-hand
four-way button.
You can return to the previous menu page by briefly
pressing the central ESC button of the left-hand fourway button.
The model name entered in this way appears in the
basic display, and also in the sub-menus of the “Model
memory” menu point.
tail rotor
Before you start programming specific parameters,
some basic settings must be entered which apply only
to the currently active model memory. Select the “Basic
settings” (Basic model settings) menu using the arrow
buttons of the left or right-hand four-way button, and
press the central SET button of the right-hand four-way
button:
pitch axis
You will require a particular program variant to suit the
number of servos which operate the collective pitch
function.
Select “Swashplate” with the arrow buttons cd of the
left or right-hand four-way button, and the select field
06.06.2011 19:39:38
is framed. Press the SET button: the current number of
collective pitch servos is highlighted on the screen. You
can now determine the required variant using the arrow
buttons of the right-hand four-way button:
“1 servo”:
The swashplate is tilted by one roll servo
and one pitch-axis servo. Collective pitch
is controlled by one separate servo.
The “Swashplate mixer” menu point is
suppressed in the multi-function menu if
you select “1 servo” as the swashplate
type. This is because model helicopters
with only one collective pitch servo are
controlled WITHOUT transmitter mixers
for the swashplate functions collective
pitch, pitch-axis and roll.
“2 servo”:
The swashplate is moved axially by two
roll servos for collective pitch control;
pitch-axis control is de-coupled by a
mechanical compensating rocker.
“3sv(2rol)”: A symmetrical three-point swashplate
linkage using three linkage points arranged equally at 120°, actuated by one
pitch-axis servo (front or rear) and two
roll servos (left and right). For collective
pitch control all three servos move the
swashplate axially.
“3sv(140)”: Asymmetrical three-point swashplate linkage using three linkage points, connected
to one pitch servo (rear) and two roll
servos (front left and right). For collective
pitch control all three servos move the
swashplate axially.
“3sv(2nic)”: A symmetrical three-point linkage as
above, but rotated through 90°, i. e. one
roll servo on one side, and two pitch-axis
servos front and rear.
Four-point swashplate linkage using two
roll and two pitch-axis servos.
“4sv(90)”:
Note re. “4Sv (90°):
As can be seen in the receiver assignment on page 47, the second pitch-axis
servo is connected to output 5. For this
reason the “Gyro” option, which is
assigned to output 5 as standard for systems with 1 … 3 collective pitch servos,
is suppressed in the “Helimix” menu and
the line of the same name in the “Transmitter control settings” menu.
Simultaneously pressing the cd or ef buttons of the
right-hand four-way button (CLEAR) resets the swashplate type to “1 servo”.
2
3
1
Swashplate type: 3 servos (140°)
2
3
1
Swashplate type: 3 servos (pitch-axis)
1
3
Swashplate type: 1 servo
2
Swashplate type: 4 servos (90°), 2 pitch / 2 roll
2
Swashplate type: 2 servos
2
5
3
1
2
1
Note:
With the exception of the “1 servo” pre-set, the swashplate mixer ratios are set in the “Swashplate mixers”
menu; see page 112.
Swashplate type: 3 servos (2 roll)
Program description: base settings - model helicopter
33112_mx12_HoTT_2_GB.indd Abs25:65
65
06.06.2011 19:39:38
Cut off
As part of the auto-rotation set-up procedure of the
mx-12 HoTT transmitter’s Helicopter program there is
the option to define a “motor OFF” position for the throttle servo or speed controller for use in an emergency.
However, if you set an idle position in the “Throttle” line
instead of an emergency OFF position - for example, in
order to avoid having to re-start the engine after every
practice auto-rotation landing - then this option is not
available. In this case we recommend that you use the
“Motor stop” option described below as the emergency
OFF solution. Depending on the option (“forward / back”)
you have selected in the “Collective pitch minimum”
line, you can define a “Motor OFF” position in this menu
line which can be called up by operating a switch. The
default settings are -100% for the “Motor OFF” position
of the throttle servo and +150% for the throttle curve:
STARLET
mod name
stick mode
1
3sv(2rol)
swashplate
cut off –125% +150% –––
right
rotor direct
STO
The - high - pre-set value in the centre column ensures
that the motor can be stopped over the maximum possible range of the throttle curve using the switch which
has yet to be assigned in the right-hand column.
However, if you prefer to set your own individual limit,
i. e. the point after which it is possible to switch to the
motor OFF position, move the throttle / collective pitch
stick to the position you desire, than press the central
SET button of the right-hand four-way button:
STARLET
mod name
stick mode
1
3sv(2rol)
swashplate
cut off –125% +100% –––
right
rotor direct
STO
STARLET
mod name
stick mode
1
3sv(2rol)
swashplate
cut off –100% +150% –––
right
rotor direct
STO
If you wish to change the pre-set value for the “Motor
OFF” position of the throttle servo, press the central SET
button of the right-hand four-way button. The current
setting is highlighted. Now use the arrow buttons of the
right-hand four-way button to enter a value at which the
motor is reliably “off”, but without stalling the throttle
servo. For example: -125%:
66
Note:
You can obtain a switching threshold of more than
+100% by temporarily increasing the travel of servo 1
to more than 100% in the “Servo settings” menu, then
returning it to the original value after storing the switching threshold.
STARLET
mod name
stick mode
1
3sv(2rol)
swashplate
cut off –125% +100% 1
right
rotor direct
STO
Direction of rotation of main rotor
STARLET
mod name
stick mode
1
3sv(2rol)
swashplate
cut off –125% +100% 1
right
rotor direct
In the “Rotor direction” line you enter the direction of
rotation of the main rotor using the arrow buttons of the
right-hand four-way button, after pressing the central
SET button:
“right”: the main rotor spins clockwise as viewed from
above.
“left”:
the main rotor spins anti-clockwise as viewed
from above.
Simultaneously pressing the cd or ef buttons of the
right-hand four-way button (CLEAR) switches to “right”.
In the right-hand column you can now assign a switch
which can be used (in an emergency) to cut the motor.
We recommend the self-centring momentary button
SW 1:
Program description: base settings - model helicopter
33112_mx12_HoTT_2_GB.indd Abs25:66
06.06.2011 19:39:38
Press the central SET button of the right-hand four-way
button, and the direction of operation of the throttle /
collective pitch stick is highlighted. Now you can select
the required variant using the arrow buttons of the righthand four-way button:
Pitch
Timers
Two timers are shown in the basic display: one stopwatch and one flight timer.
STARLET
#02
6.1V 99%
0:00h
right-hand
rotation
0:00
0:00
K78 HoTT
0.0V
M
left-hand
rotation
The program requires this information in order to set up
the mixers to work in the correct “sense”; this applies to
the mixers which compensate for rotor torque and motor
power. You will find these in the “Helicopter mixer”
menu:
Pitch
Ch1 ¼ throttle
Ch1 ¼ tail rotor
Collective pitch min.
stick mode
1
3sv(2rol)
swashplate
cut off –125% +100% 1
right
rotor direct
pitch min
rear
In the “Collective pitch min.” line you can set up the
direction of operation of the throttle / collective pitch
stick to suit your preference. This setting is crucial to the
correct operation of all the other options in the helicopter
program which affect the throttle and collective pitch
functions, i. e. the throttle curve, idle trim, tail rotor mixer
etc.
33112_mx12_HoTT_2_GB.indd Abs25:67
stop
flt
A physical switch or a control switch - e. g. the control
switch G3 located on the throttle limiter - can be assigned to these two timers in the “Timers” line …
The meaning is as follows:
“front”: minimum collective pitch when the collective
pitch stick (Ch 1) is “forward” (away from you);
“rear”: minimum collective pitch when the collective
pitch stick (Ch 1) is “back” (towards you).
Simultaneously pressing the cd or ef buttons of the
right-hand four-way button (CLEAR) returns the collective pitch min. position to “rear”.
3sv(2rol)
swashplate
cut off –125% +100% 1
right
rotor direct
pitch min
rear
timer
0:00 –––
… using the switch symbol
at the bottom right-hand
side of the screen. The assigned switch starts both timers, and also halts the stopwatch.
The method of assigning a physical switch or a control
Note:
switch is described on page 39.
• The Ch 1 trim always affects the throttle servo only.
The flight timer, and the saving of telemetry data on a
memory card inserted in the card slot (see page 22)
• By default what is known as the “throttle limiter” is set
always starts simultaneously with the stopwatch, but
(see page 79); this limits the travel of the throttle sercontinues to run even when the stopwatch is halted
vo in the direction of maximum throttle, acting sepa(switched off). It can only be stopped by pressing the
rately from the collective pitch servos. This point can
central ESC button of the left-hand four-way button with
be programmed using the “Lim” input in the “Transthe stopwatch halted.
mitter control settings” menu.
Once stopped, both timers can be reset to the initial
value by simultaneously pressing the cd buttons of
Program description: base settings - model helicopter 67
06.06.2011 19:39:38
the right-hand four-way button (CLEAR).
Switching between “count-up” and “count-down”
Count-up timer (stopwatch function)
If you assign a switch and start the stopwatch with the
initial value of “0:00”, the timer runs up until the maximum of 180 minutes and 59 seconds, then re-starts at
0:00.
Count-down timer (timer function)
In the left-hand minutes field you can select a starting
time within the range 0 to 180 minutes; in the right-hand
seconds field the range is 0 to 59 seconds. Any combination of times can also be selected.
Simultaneously pressing the cd buttons of the righthand four-way button (CLEAR) resets any settings you
have entered to “0” or “00”.
3sv(2rol)
swashplate
cut off –125% +100% 1
right
rotor direct
pitch min
rear
timer
10:01 G3
Procedure
1. Select the desired input field using the arrow buttons
ef of the left or right-hand four-way button.
2. Press SET in the centre of the right-hand four-way
button.
3. Select the required time in the highlighted minutes
and seconds fields using the arrow buttons of the
right-hand four-way button.
4. Press the central SET button to conclude the input
process.
68
5. Switch back to the basic display by repeatedly pressing the central ESC button of the left-hand four-way
button. With the stopwatch halted, press the cd
buttons of the right-hand four-way button simultaneously (CLEAR) to switch the stopwatch to the “Timer”
function; see top right in the next illustration:
STARLET
#02
6.1V 99%
0:00h
stop
flt
10:01
0:00
K78 HoTT
0.0V
M
If you now operate the assigned switch, the stopwatch
starts from the set initial value, counting down (“Timer
function”). When the set time has elapsed, the timer
does not stop, but continues to run to allow you to read
off the time elapsed after reaching zero. To make this
clear, the over-run time is shown highlighted (black
background).
Sequence of sounds
30 sec. before zero: triple beep
single beep every two seconds
20 sec. before zero: double beep
single beep every two seconds
10 sec. before zero: single beep
single beep every second
5 sec. before zero: single beep every second at higher
rate
zero: longer beep; display switches to
inverse video
The “alarm timer” is reset by simultaneously pressing
the cd or ef buttons of the right-hand four-way but-
ton (CLEAR) after you have halted the timer.
Note:
A count-down timer is indicated in the basic display by
a flashing colon (:) between the minutes field and the
seconds field.
Phase 2
You will automatically be in the “normal” flight phase 1
unless you have already assigned a switch to phase 2 or
auto-rotation.
Both the number and name of this flight phase are fixed
permanently as “normal”, and cannot be changed. For
this reason the “normal” phase is simply concealed, i. e.
it is not displayed as phase 1.
cut off –125% +100% 1
rotor direct
right
rear
pitch min
10:01 G3
timer
phase 2
hover –––
It is also important to understand that the flight phases
have their own inherent priorities which need to be observed, particularly when assigning individual switches.
The underlying scheme can be described as follows:
• If all assigned flight phase switches are closed or
open, the “normal” flight phase is active.
• If only one switch is closed, then the flight phase assigned to the currently closed switch is active.
• The “auto-rotation phase” ALWAYS has precedence
over all other flight phases, regardless of the priorities outlined above. When the auto-rotation phase
is selected, the switch is always made WITHOUT
DELAY.
Program description: base settings - model helicopter
33112_mx12_HoTT_2_GB.indd Abs25:68
06.06.2011 19:39:38
• With this in mind, you may wish to alter the default
flight phase name “Hover” for flight phase 2 to take
the inherent priorities into account; see below.
• At the servo end the transition does not occur
“abruptly”, but with a fixed transition period of about
one second.
Programming
When you select “Phase 2” using the arrow buttons cd
of the left or right-hand four-way button, the “Name” field
for that flight phase is already framed.
If the default name does not seem appropriate, press
the central SET button of the right-hand four-way button,
and the current setting is shown highlighted. Now use
the arrow buttons of the right-hand four-way button to
select an appropriate name from those available. Press
the SET button to conclude the input process.
Now press the f button of the left or right-hand fourway button to move to the right-hand column, at the
bottom of the screen indicated by the switch symbol
, and press the central SET button. You can now assign
a switch to the phase as described on page 39.
For more information on flight phase programming
please refer to page 94, in the section entitled “Flight
phase specific settings for collective pitch, throttle and
tail rotor”.
Auto-rotation
rotor direct
pitch min
timer
phase 2
autorotat.
right
rear
10:01 G3
hover 5
–––
The name “Auto-rotation” is permanently assigned to
Phase 3, and CANNOT be altered. The only available
option is to assign a switch to it using the switch symbol
at the right of the screen.
For more information on programming flight phases
please refer to the “Helicopter mixers” section starting
on page 94.
Receiver output
For maximum flexibility in terms of receiver socket
assignment, the mx-12 HoTT software provides the
means to swap over the servo outputs 1 to max. 6;
this is carried out on the second page of the “Receiver
output” sub-menu.
pitch min
timer
phase 2
autorotat.
receiv out
rear
10:01 G3
hover 5
4
Press the central SET button of the right-hand four-way
button to move to the next page of the display. Here you
can assign the transmitter’s six “control channels” to
any receiver output you wish to use, i. e. servo sockets
1 … 6. However, please note that the display in “Servo
display” - which you can access from virtually any
menu position by simultaneously pressing the e and f
buttons of the left-hand four-way button - refers exclusively to the “control channels”, i. e. the outputs are NOT
swapped over.
S
S
S
S
S
1
2
3
4
5
output
output
output
output
output
1
2
3
4
5
Use the arrow buttons cd of the left or right-hand fourway button to select the servo / output combination you
wish to change, then press the central SET button of
the right-hand four-way button. Now you can assign the
desired servo (S) to the selected output using the righthand arrow buttons, and confirm your choice with SET
… or alternatively press the cd or ef buttons of the
right-hand four-way button (CLEAR) simultaneously to
revert to the default sequence.
Please note that any subsequent changes to servo
settings, such as servo travel, Dual Rate / Expo, mixers
etc., must be carried out according to the original
(default) receiver socket sequence.
Typical application:
In the helicopter program of the mx-12 HoTT the
outputs for one collective pitch servo and the throttle
servo have been interchanged compared to all earlier
GRAUPNER/JR mc-systems. The throttle servo is now
assigned to receiver output “6” and the collective pitch
servo to output “1”. However, you may wish to retain the
earlier configuration.
Program description: base settings - model helicopter
33112_mx12_HoTT_2_GB.indd Abs25:69
69
06.06.2011 19:39:38
S
S
S
S
S
S
6
2
3
4
5
1
output
output
output
output
output
output
1
2
3
4
5
6
Note:
It is also possible to distribute the control functions
amongst as many receivers as you wish, using the
channel-mapping function in the mx-12 HoTT’s
integral Telemetry menu, or even to assign the same
control function to multiple receiver outputs. However,
we strongly recommend that you use only one of the two
options, as a combination will soon lead to confusion.
rx bind
(Bound receiver)
Graupner HoTT receivers have to be “instructed” to
communicate exclusively with a particular model (i. e.
model memory) of a Graupner HoTT transmitter. This
process is known as “binding”, and is only necessary
once for each new combination of receiver and model. It
can be repeated at any time.
Important note:
When carrying out the binding procedure, please
ensure that the transmitter aerial is always an
adequate distance from the receiver aerials: keeping
the aerials about 1 m apart is safe in this respect.
Otherwise you risk a failed connection to the downlink channel, and consequent malfunctions.
“Binding” multiple receivers to one model
If necessary, it is possible to bind more than one re70
ceiver to a single model. This is accomplished by initially
binding the receivers individually, as described in the
next section.
When operating the system, please note that only
the receiver which was bound last will establish a
telemetry link to the transmitter. For this reason all telemetry sensors installed in the model must be connected to this receiver, since only the last bound receiver
is able to transmit their data via the down-link channel.
The second, and all other receivers, run in parallel to
the receiver last bound to the transmitter, but completely
independently of it; they operate in Slave mode with the
down-link channel switched off.
“Binding” transmitter and receiver
Use the arrow buttons cd of the left or right-hand fourway button to move to the “rx bind” line:
timer
phase 2
autorotat.
receiv out
rx bind
10:01 G3
hover 5
4
–––
If you have not already done so, switch on the power
supply to your receiver now: the green LED on the
receiver flashes once briefly, then goes out.
Press and hold the SET button on the receiver until the
green LED starts to flash.
Briefly press the central SET button of the right-hand
four-way button to initiate the so-called binding process
between a receiver and the current model memory. At
the same time the word “BINDING” starts flashing on the
screen in the frame of the “rx bind” line, instead of the
three “---”:
timer
phase 2
autorotat.
receiv out
rx bind
10:01 G3
hover 5
4
BINDING
If the receiver LED glows a constant green within about
ten seconds, then the binding process has been completed successfully; you can now release the receiver’s
SET button.
Your model / receiver combination is now ready for use.
In parallel with this the screen displays the code number
for the receiver now “bound” to this model memory. For
example:
timer
phase 2
autorotat.
receiv out
rx bind
10:01 G3
hover 5
4
R06
Conversely, if the green LED on the receiver flashes
for longer than about ten seconds, then the binding
process has failed. In parallel with this the screen will
display three “---” once more. If this should occur, alter
the relative position of the aerials, and repeat the whole
procedure.
Program description: base settings - model helicopter
33112_mx12_HoTT_2_GB.indd Abs25:70
06.06.2011 19:39:39
Range test
The integral range-check reduces the transmitter’s output
power in such a way that you can test the system’s
operation at a distance of up to about fifty metres.
Carry out the range-check of the Graupner HoTT system
in accordance with the following instructions. We recommend that you ask a friend to help with range-checking.
1. Install the receiver in the model as required, preferably after completing the binding process with the
transmitter.
2. Switch the radio control system on and wait until the
green LED on the receiver glows. Now you can observe the servo movements.
3. Place the model on a flat surface (paving, close-mown
grass or earth), with the receiver aerials at least 15
cm above the ground. This means that you may have
to place the model on a raised object for the period of
the check.
4. Hold the transmitter at hip-height, and away from your
body. Do not point the aerial straight at the model; instead rotate and / or angle the aerial tip so that it is
vertical while you carry out the check.
5. If you have not already done so, use the arrow buttons cd of the left or right-hand four-way button
to move to the “Test range” line, and initiate rangecheck mode by pressing the central SET button of
the right-hand four-way button:
phase 2
autorotat.
receiv out
rx bind
range test
speed
5
4
R06
99sec
When you start the range-check, the transmitter’s
output power is significantly reduced, and the blue
LED on the aerial base starts to flash. At this point
the time display on the transmitter screen starts
counting down, and a double beep sounds every five
seconds.
From five seconds before the end of the range-check
you will hear a triple beep every second. When the
99 seconds of the range-check period have elapsed,
the transmitter switches back to full power, and the
blue LED glows constantly once more.
6. Within this period walk away from the model, moving
the sticks all the while. If at any point within a distance
of about fifty metres you notice a break in the connection, attempt to reproduce it.
7. If the model is fitted with a motor, switch it on in order
to check the system’s interference rejection.
8. Walk further away from the model until you no longer
have full control over it.
9. At this point wait until the test period has elapsed,
with the model still switched on and ready for use.
When the range-check period is over, the model
should respond again to control commands. It this is
not 100% the case, do not use the system. Contact
your nearest Graupner Service Centre.
10.Carry out a range-check before every flight, and simulate all the servo movements which are likely to occur in a typical flight. To ensure safe operation of the
model, the range must always be at least fifty metres
on the ground.
RF transmit
In this menu line you can manually switch the transmitter’s RF transmission on and off again for a specific
model for the period that the transmitter is currently
switched on. For example, you might wish to do this to
save power when demonstrating the programming of a
model. If you switch the transmitter off with the RF
module switched off, next time you switch the transmitter on it will be switched back on again.
Use the arrow buttons cd of the left or right-hand fourway button to move to the “RF transmit” line, and press
the central SET button of the right-hand four-way button
to activate the value window:
autorotat.
receiv out
rx bind
range test
RF transmit
4
R06
99sec
ON
Now you can use the right-hand arrow buttons to switch
between OFF and ON. Press the central SET button
of the right-hand four-way button again to conclude the
input.
Caution:
Never initiate a range-check when you are actually
operating a model!
Program description: base settings - model helicopter
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Servo settings
Servo direction, centre, travel
S1
S2
S3
S4
S5
rev
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
cent
100% 100%
100% 100%
100% 100%
100% 100%
100% 100%
trav +
In this menu you can adjust parameters which only affect the servo connected to a particular receiver output,
namely the direction of servo rotation, neutral point and
servo travel. Always start with the servo setting in the
left-hand column.v
Basic procedure:
1. Use the arrow buttons cd of the left or right-hand
four-way button to select the relevant servo (1 to 6).
2. If necessary, use the arrow buttons ef of the left or
right-hand four-way button to select the desired column, and move the associated transmitter control
away from its centre position if you wish to define an
asymmetrical setting.
3. Press the central SET button of the right-hand fourway button, and the corresponding input field is highlighted (black background).
4. Set the appropriate value using the arrow buttons of
the right-hand four-way button.
5. Press the central SET button of the right-hand fourway button to conclude the input process.
6. Simultaneously pressing the arrow buttons cd or
ef of the right-hand four-way button (CLEAR) resets any settings you have entered to the default value.
receiver output socket to which a particular servo(s) is
connected, assuming that these have not been swapped
over. This means that changing the stick mode does not
affect the numbering of the servos.
Column 2 “Rev.”
The direction of servo rotation can be adjusted to suit
the actual installation in your model. This means that
you don’t need to concern yourself with servo directions
when installing the mechanical linkages in the model,
as you can reverse them as and when necessary. The
direction of rotation is indicated by the symbols “=>” and
“<=”. Be sure to set the direction of servo rotation before
you make adjustments to the remaining options!
Simultaneously pressing the arrow buttons cd or ef
of the right-hand four-way button (CLEAR) resets the
direction of rotation to “=>”.
normal
normal
reversed
Column 3 “Centre”
The facility to offset the servo travel centre is intended
for adjusting servos whose centre setting is not standard
(servo centre point at 1.5 ms or 1500 µs), and also for
minor adjustments, e. g. when fine-tuning the neutral
position of the model’s control surfaces.
The neutral position can be shifted over the range
-125% to +125% of normal servo travel, within the
maximum servo travel of +/- 150%, regardless of the
trim lever position and any mixers you have set up. The
setting affects the associated servo directly, independently of all other trim and mixer settings.
However, please note that an extreme shift of the servo’s
neutral point may result in servo travel to one side of
neutral only, as total servo travel is limited to +/- 150%
for both electronic and mechanical reasons.
Simultaneously pressing the arrow buttons cd or ef
of the right-hand four-way button (CLEAR) resets the
value in the highlighted input field to “0%”.
Ser vo travel
%
25
-1
tre adjustment
Cen
+1
25
%
reversed
Important:
The numbers in the servo designations refer to the
72
Program description: servo settings
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Column 4 “- Servo travel +”
In this column you can adjust servo travel symmetrically
or asymmetrically (different each side of neutral). The
adjustment range is 0 … 150% of normal servo travel.
The reference point for the set values is the setting in
the “Centre” column.
To set symmetrical travel, i. e. to adjust travel equally on
both sides of neutral, move the associated transmitter
control (stick, proportional rotary knob or switch) to a
position in which the marking frame encloses both sides
of the travel setting.
directly by a stick channel, or by means of any type of
mixer function.
Note:
You may need to assign a transmitter control to a servo
which is connected to one of the control channels 5
and 6; this is accomplished in the “Transmitter control
settings” menu; see next page.
Important:
In contrast to the “Transmitter control settings” menu,
this setting affects the servo directly, regardless of how
the control signal for this servo is generated, i. e. either
Servo travel
To set up asymmetrical travel, move the associated
transmitter control (stick, rotary proportional knob or
switch) to the side to be adjusted, so that the marking
frame only encloses the value you wish to change.
Press the central SET button of the right-hand four-way
button to activate value adjustment; the value field is
now highlighted. Use the arrow buttons of the right-hand
four-way button to change the values. A further brief
press on the central SET button of the right-hand fourway button concludes the input process.
Simultaneously pressing the arrow buttons cd or ef
of the right-hand four-way button (CLEAR) resets the
parameter in the highlighted input field to 100%.
The graph alongside
shows an example of
asymmetrical servo
travel, with a setting of
-50% and +150%.
Transmitter control travel
Program description: servo settings
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Transmitter control settings
Basic procedures for assigning transmitter controls and switches
I5 free
I6 free
+100% +100%
+100% +100%
tr v
+
In addition to the two dual-axis stick units for the control
functions 1 to 4, the mx-12 HoTT is fitted as standard
with a range of supplementary controls:
• Two rotary proportional controls: CTRL 7 and 8.
These are included in the menu as “ctrl 7” and “ctrl 8”.
• Two three-position switches: SW 4/5 or CTRL 9 and
SW 6/7 or CTRL 10. These are assigned in this menu
as “ctrl 9” and “ctrl 10” respectively.
• One two-position switch: SW 3. This is indicated in
the menu by “3” plus a switch symbol, which indicates the direction of operation of the switch.
• One momentary switch: SW 1. This is indicated by
“1” plus a switch symbol and direction indicator, as
mentioned above.
The two dual-axis stick units directly affect the servos
connected to receiver outputs 1 … 4 (assuming that you
have set up a newly initialised model memory with the
model type “Fixed-wing model”). In contrast, the “supplementary” transmitter controls listed above are inactive
when the transmitter is in its default state (as delivered).
As already mentioned on page 20, this means that the
transmitter in its basic form only controls servos connected to receiver outputs 1 … 4 using the primary
sticks - even when you have initialised a new model
memory with the model type “Fixed-wing model” and
“bound” it to the receiver you intend to install. Any servos connected to receiver sockets 5 and 6 simply stay
74
at their centre point when you operate the associated
transmitter controls.
This may seem rather inconvenient at first sight, but
it is the only way to ensure that you can select any of
the “supplementary” transmitter controls for any task
you like, and that you are not required deliberately to
“program away” the transmitter controls which are not
required for a particular model.
Any superfluous transmitter control will have an
effect on your model if you operate it by mistake unless it is inactive, i. e. unless no function is assigned to it.
That is why you can select these “supplementary” transmitter controls with complete freedom in the “Transmitter
control settings” menu and assign them to any function
input (see page 38) you like, as this method ensures
that the transmitter meets your own requirements
exactly. This also means that each of these transmitter
controls can be assigned to several functions simultaneously. For example, the same toggle switch SW X,
which you assign to an input in this menu, can also be
assigned as the On / Off switch controlling the “Timers”
in the “Basic settings” menu.
The basic procedure:
1. Select the appropriate input I5 … I6 using the arrow
buttons cd of the left or right-hand four-way button.
2. If necessary, use the arrow buttons ef of the left
or right-hand four-way button to switch to the desired
column.
3. Press the central SET button of the right-hand fourway button, and the corresponding input field is highlighted.
4. Operate the transmitter control you wish to use, and
set the desired value using the arrow buttons of the
right-hand four-way button.
5. Press the central SET button of the right-hand fourway button to conclude the input process.
6. Simultaneously pressing the cd or ef buttons of
the right-hand four-way button (CLEAR) resets any
settings you have entered to the appropriate default
value.
Column 2 “Assigning transmitter controls and
switches”
Select one of the function inputs 5 to 6 using the cd
buttons of the right-hand four-way button.
Press the central SET button of the right-hand four-way
button to activate the assignment facility.
I5 free
+100% +100%
+100% +100%
frei desired
E6 operate
+100%
E7 switch
frei or+100%
control
tr v
+
Now move the appropriate transmitter control (CTRL
7 to 10), or operate the selected switch (SW 1 and 3).
Note that the rotary proportional controls are not detected until they have moved a few “ratchet clicks”, i. e. they
need to be operated for slightly longer. If the travel is not
sufficient for the transmitter to detect it, move the control
in the opposite direction.
If you assign one of the two-position switches, then this
control channel works like an On / Off switch. It is then
possible to switch to and fro between two end-point
values using this simple switch, e. g. motor ON / OFF.
The three-position switches SW 4/5 and 6/7, which you
Program description: transmitter control settings - fixed-wing model
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will find in the “Transmitter control settings” menu as
“Control 9” and “Control 10”, provide a centre position in
addition to the two end-points.
Simultaneously pressing the cd or ef buttons of
the right-hand four-way button (CLEAR) with the switch
assignment activated - see illustration above - resets the
input to “free”.
Tips:
• When assigning the switches please take care to set
them to the appropriate direction of travel, and ensure that all inputs not required are left at or set to
“free”, to eliminate the possibility of errors if unused
transmitter controls are operated accidentally.
• You can alter the effective end-points of an assigned
switch by adjusting servo travel, as described in the
next section.
The screen now displays either the transmitter control
number or the switch number, followed by a switch symbol which indicates the direction of operation, e. g.:
I5
+100% +100%
3
I6 ctrl 7 +100% +100%
tr v
+
Column 3 “-Travel+”
In this column the transmitter control can be adjusted
symmetrically or asymmetrically, i. e. different to either
side. The available range is +/-125% of the normal servo
travel.
Use the arrow buttons cd of the left or right-hand fourway button to select one of the inputs 5 or 6.
If you wish to set up symmetrical travel, i. e. the same in
both directions, move the associated transmitter control
(rotary proportional controls CTRL 7 or 8 or switches
4/5 and 6/7) to a position at which the marking frame
encloses both sides of the travel setting:
+100% +100%
I5
3
I6 ctrl 7 +100% +100%
tr v
+
If you wish to set up asymmetrical travel, i. e. different for
both directions, move the associated transmitter control
(rotary proportional control or switch) to a position at
which the marking frame encloses the side of the travel
setting you wish to change:
I5
+100% +100%
3
I6 ctrl 7 +100% +100%
tr v
+
hand four-way button to alter the values:
+100% +100%
I5
3
I6 ctrl 7 +111% +111%
tr v
+
I5
+100% +100%
3
+88% +111%
I6 ctrl 7
tr v
+
Press the central SET button of the right-hand four-way
button once more to conclude the input process.
Negative and positive parameter values are possible;
this enables you to set the appropriate direction of
movement of the transmitter control or its direction of
effect to suit your model.
Simultaneously pressing the arrow buttons cd or ef
of the right-hand four-way button (CLEAR) resets the
altered parameter in the highlighted input field to +100%.
Important:
In contrast to servo travel adjustments, changing the
transmitter travel setting affects all mixer and coupling
inputs derived from it, i. e. in the final analysis all the
servos which can be operated using the associated
transmitter control.
Press the central SET button of the right-hand four-way
button to activate the value setting; the value field is now
shown highlighted. Use the arrow buttons of the rightProgram description: transmitter control settings - fixed-wing model
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Transmitter control settings
Basic procedures for assigning transmitter controls and switches
+100% +100%
gyr free
+100% +100%
thr free
lim ctrl 7 +100% +100%
tr v
+
In addition to the two dual-axis stick units for the control
functions 1 to 4, the mx-12 HoTT is fitted as standard
with a range of supplementary controls:
• Two rotary proportional controls: CTRL 7 and 8.
These are included in the menu as “ctrl 7” and “ctrl 8”.
• Two three-position switches: SW 4/5 or CTRL 9 and
SW 6/7 or CTRL 10. These are assigned in this menu
as “ctrl 9” and “ctrl 10” respectively.
• One two-position switch: SW 3. This is indicated in
the menu by “3” plus a switch symbol, which indicates the direction of operation of the switch.
• One momentary switch: SW 1. This is indicated by
“1” plus a switch symbol and direction indicator, as
mentioned above.
The two dual-axis stick units directly affect servos
connected to receiver outputs 1 … 4 and 6 (assuming
that you have set up a newly initialised model memory
with the model type “Helicopter”). In contrast, the “supplementary” transmitter controls listed above are inactive
when the transmitter is in its default state (as delivered).
The exception is the rotary proportional knob CTRL 7
(throttle limiter), which acts upon servo 6 by default.
As already mentioned on page 20, this means that the
transmitter in its basic form only controls servos connected to receiver outputs 1 … 4 using the primary
sticks, plus servo 6 - depending on the position of the
throttle limiter - even when you have initialised a new
76
model memory with the model type “Helicopter” and
“bound” it to the receiver you intend to install. Any servo
connected to receiver socket 5 simply stays at its centre
point when you operate the associated transmitter
controls.
This may seem rather inconvenient at first sight, but
it is the only way to ensure that you can select any of
the “supplementary” transmitter controls for any task
you like, and that you are not required deliberately to
“program away” the transmitter controls which are not
required for a particular model.
Any superfluous transmitter control will have an
effect on your model if you operate it by mistake,
unless it is inactive, i. e. unless no function is assigned to it.
That is why you can select these “supplementary” transmitter controls with complete freedom in the “Transmitter
control settings” menu, and assign them to any function
input (see page 38) you like, as this method ensures
that the transmitter meets your own requirements
exactly. This also means that each of these transmitter
controls can be assigned to several functions simultaneously. For example, the same toggle switch SW X which
you assign to an input in this menu, can also be assigned as the On / OFF switch controlling the “Timers” in
the “Basic settings” menu.
Note:
For model helicopters input 6 must always be left “free”.
Please see the section entitled “Throttle” on the next
double-page.
The basic procedure
1. Select the appropriate input I5 … I6 using the arrow
buttons cd of the left or right-hand four-way button.
2. If necessary, use the arrow buttons ef of the left
or right-hand four-way button to switch to the desired
column.
3. Press the central SET button of the right-hand fourway button, and the corresponding input field is highlighted.
4. Operate the transmitter control you wish to use, and
set the desired value using the arrow buttons of the
right-hand four-way button.
5. Press the central SET button of the right-hand fourway button to conclude the input process.
6. Simultaneously pressing the cd or ef buttons of
the right-hand four-way button (CLEAR) resets any
settings you have entered to the appropriate default
value.
Column 2 “Assigning transmitter controls and
switches”
Select one of the function inputs gyro, throttle or lim
using the cd buttons of the left or right-hand four-way
button.
Press the central SET button of the right-hand four-way
button to activate the assignment facility.
lim ctrl 7 +100% +100%
+100% +100%
Gasoperate
frei desired
+100%
Gyrswitch
frei or+100%
control
tr v
+
Now move the appropriate transmitter control (CTRL 7
to 10), or operate the selected switch (SW 1 or 3). Note
that the rotary proportional controls are not detected
until they have moved a few “ratchet clicks”, i. e. they
Program description: transmitter control settings – model helicopter
33112_mx12_HoTT_2_GB.indd Abs28:76
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need to be operated for slightly longer. If the travel is not
sufficient for the transmitter to detect it, move the control
in the opposite direction.
If you assign one of the two-position switches, then this
control channel works like an On / Off switch. It is then
possible to switch to and fro between two end-point
values using this simple switch, e. g. motor ON / OFF.
The three-position switches SW 4/5 and 6/7, which you
will find in the “Transmitter control settings” menu as
“CTRL 9” and “CTR 10”, provide a centre position in
addition to the two end-points.
Simultaneously pressing the cd or ef buttons of
the right-hand four-way button (CLEAR) with the switch
assignment activated - see illustration above - resets the
input to “free”.
Tips:
• When assigning the switches please take care to set
them to the appropriate direction of travel, and ensure that all inputs not required are left at or set to
“free”, to eliminate the possibility of errors if unused
transmitter controls are operated accidentally.
• You can alter the effective end-points of an assigned
switch by adjusting servo travel as described in the
next section.
The screen now displays either the transmitter control
number or the switch number, followed by a switch symbol which indicates the direction of operation, e. g.:
3
+100% +100%
gyr
+100% +100%
thr free
lim ctrl 7 +100% +100%
tr v
+
Column 3 “-Travel+”
In this column the transmitter control can be adjusted
symmetrically or asymmetrically, i. e. different to either
side. The available range is +/-125% of the normal servo
travel.
Use the arrow buttons cd of the left or right-hand
four-way button to select one of the inputs gyro, throttle
or lim.
If you wish to set up symmetrical travel, i. e. the same in
both directions, move the associated transmitter control
(rotary proportional control or switches 4/5 and 6/7) to a
position at which the marking frame encloses both sides
of the travel setting:
3
gyr
+100% +100%
thr free
+100% +100%
lim ctrl 7 +100% +100%
tr v
+
If you wish to set up asymmetrical travel, i. e. different for
both directions, move the associated transmitter control
(rotary proportional control or switch) to a position at
which the marking frame encloses the side of the travel
setting you wish to change:
3
+100% +100%
gyr
+100% +100%
thr free
lim ctrl 7 +100% +100%
tr v
+
Press the central SET button of the right-hand four-way
button to activate the value setting; the value field is now
shown highlighted. Use the arrow buttons of the righthand four-way button to alter the values:
+100% +100%
3
gyr
+100% +100%
thr free
lim ctrl 7 +111% +111%
tr v
+
gyr
+100% +100%
3
+100% +100%
thr free
+88% +111%
lim ctrl 7
tr v
+
Press the central SET button of the right-hand four-way
button to conclude the input process.
Negative and positive parameter values are possible;
this enables you to set the appropriate direction of
movement of the transmitter control or its direction of
effect to suit your model.
Simultaneously pressing the arrow buttons cd or ef
of the right-hand four-way button (CLEAR) resets the
altered parameter in the highlighted input field to +100%.
Program description: transmitter control settings – model helicopter
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Important:
In contrast to servo travel adjustments, changing the
transmitter travel setting affects all mixer and coupling
inputs derived from it, i. e. in the final analysis all the
servos which can be operated using the associated
transmitter control.
„Gyr“
“Throttle”
gyr free
+100% +100%
thr free
+100% +100%
lim ctrl 7 +100% +100%
tr v
+
If the gyro you are using features infinitely variable gain
control, then you can pre-set the static gyro effect by
setting an “offset” within the range +/-125%, separately
for each flight phase, in the “Gyro” line of the “Helicopter
mixers” menu - see the section starting on page 98.
Once you have entered these pre-defined - static - gain
settings (set separately for each flight phase in the
“Helicopter mixers” menu), you can use a transmitter
control such as the rotary proportional control CTRL 8
to vary gyro gain around the set “offset point”; all you
have to do is assign that transmitter control in the “Gyro”
line of this menu: in the centre position of the transmitter
control this corresponds to the setting selected in the
“Helicopter mixers” menu (see section starting on page
98). If the transmitter control is moved from this centre
point in the direction of full travel, gyro gain is increased;
towards the opposite end-point it is reduced. This is
a fast, simple method of fine-tuning gyro gain when
the model is in flight - perhaps to suit varying weather
conditions - or alternatively to find the optimum setting.
In software terms you can also limit the gain range to
both sides by restricting the transmitter control travel.
However, please be sure to read the set-up notes
provided with your gyro before carrying out these
adjustments, as you could render your helicopter
uncontrollable if you make a mistake.
78
gyr ctrl 8 +100% +100%
thr free
+100% +100%
lim ctrl 7 +100% +100%
tr v
+
In principle all transmitter controls (rotary proportional
knob) and switches present on the transmitter can be
assigned to the individual inputs within the Helicopter
program.
However, please note that all inputs available in this
menu are already pre-defined for helicopter-specific
functions, and for this reason cannot always be used
without restriction.
For example, the receiver sequence printed on page 47
shows that the throttle servo (or the speed controller of
an electric-powered model helicopter) must be connected to receiver output “6”, i. e. control channel “6” is
reserved for motor speed control.
However, in contrast to a fixed-wing aircraft, the throttle servo or speed controller is not directly controlled
by the throttle stick or any other transmitter control, but
via a complex mixer system - see “Helicopter mixers”
menu, starting on page 94. The “throttle limit function”
(described on the next page) also has an influence on
this mixer system.
Assigning a transmitter control or switch in the “Throttle” line, or its supplementary control signal, would only
unnecessarily “confuse” this complex mixer system.
For this reason the “Throttle” input MUST always
be left “free” when you are programming a model
helicopter.
Program description: transmitter control settings – model helicopter
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Throttle limit function
“Lim” input
By default the “lim” input is assigned to the rotary proportional control CTRL 7, which is located at top left on
the transmitter:
gyr ctrl 8 +100% +100%
thr free
+100% +100%
lim ctrl 7 +100% +100%
tr v
+
This pre-defined assignment eliminates the need to
program two flight phases - “with idle-up” and “without
idle-up” - as are often used by other radio control systems for this purpose, since the method of raising the
system rotational speed below the hover point is more
flexible with the mx-12 HoTT program, and can be
fine-tuned more accurately than using the conventional
“idle-up” function. However, if you prefer to program your
helicopter “with idle-up”, then switch off the “throttle limit”
function, described below, by setting the “Lim” input to
“free”.
Meaning and application of “throttle limit”
As mentioned previously under “Throttle”, the power
output of the engine or motor of a model helicopter is
not controlled directly using the throttle (Ch 1) stick - in
contrast to fixed-wing model aircraft. Instead it is controlled indirectly by the throttle curve settings which you set
up in the “Helicopter mixers” menu. Alternatively the
throttle is controlled by the speed controller if the unit
you are using is a governor or regulator.
Note:
Naturally it is possible to set up different throttle curves
to suit different stages of flight using flight phase pro-
33112_mx12_HoTT_2_GB.indd Abs28:79
gramming.
By their very nature, both methods of controlling power
have the same result, i. e. that a helicopter’s motor never
gets anywhere near its idle speed during “normal” flying,
so it is impossible to start or stop the motor easily unless
some other means is used.
The “Throttle limiter” function solves this problem in
an elegant manner: a separate transmitter control - as
standard this is the rotary proportional control CTRL 7
located at top left on the transmitter - is employed to limit
the setting of the throttle servo or the speed controller,
which means that you can throttle right back to the idle
position. At this setting the trim of the throttle / collective
pitch stick assumes control, and can be used to switch
off an electric motor directly. At the other extreme, the
throttle servo or speed controller can, of course, only
reach its full-throttle position if you release full servo
travel using the throttle limit control. That is why the
“lim” input is reserved in the Helicopter program for the
“Throttle limiter” function.
For this reason the right-hand positive value in the
“Travel” column must be large enough to ensure that it
does not limit the full-throttle setting available via the
throttle curve settings when the throttle limit control is at
its maximum position. Usually this means a value in the
range +100% to +125%. The left-hand negative value in
the “Travel” column should be set in such a way that the
throttle limit control reliably cuts the electric motor, or
closes the throttle to the point where you can cut the I.C.
motor using the (digital) Ch 1 trim. For this reason you
should leave this value at +100%, at least for the time
being.
This variable “limiting” of throttle travel provides a
convenient means of starting and stopping the motor.
However, it also gives an additional level of safety if, for
example, you have to carry your helicopter to the flight
line with the motor running: you simply move the control
to its minimum position, and this prevents any accidental
movement of the Ch 1 stick affecting the throttle servo.
If the carburettor is too far open (or the speed controller
not at “stop”) when you switch the transmitter on, you
will hear an audible warning, and the screen displays
the message:
throttle
too
high !
Tip:
You can call up the “Servo display” menu to check the
influence of the throttle limit slider. This menu can be
accessed from virtually any menu points by simultaneously pressing the ef buttons of the left-hand four-way
button. Bear in mind that servo output 6 controls the
throttle servo on the mx-12 HoTT.
Basic idle setting
Start by turning the throttle limiter - by default the rotary
proportional knob CTRL 7 located at top left on the
transmitter - clockwise to its end-point. Move the throttle / collective pitch stick to the maximum position, and
ensure that a standard throttle curve is active in the
“Channel 1 ¼ throttle” sub-menu of the …
“Heli mixer”
(page 94 … 105)
… menu. If you have already altered the standard
throttle curve which is present when you first initialise a
model memory, then this should be reset to the values
“Point 1 = -100%”, “Point 3 = 0%” and “Point 5 = +100%”
- at least temporarily.
Program description: transmitter control settings – model helicopter 79
06.06.2011 19:39:39
ch1
thr
input
output
point 3
0%
0%
0%
To complete this basic set-up you still have to adjust the
idle trim range to coincide with point “1” of the throttle
curve. This is accomplished by setting point “1” of the
“Ch 1 ¼ throttle” mixer in the “Heli mixer” menu to a
value of about -65 to -70%:
ch1
Note:
Since the throttle trim lever has no effect when the throttle limiter is open, its position is not relevant at this point.
Now - without starting the glow motor - adjust the
mechanical linkage of the throttle servo so that the
carburettor barrel is fully open; if necessary, carry out
fine-tuning using the travel setting for servo 6 in the
“Servo settings” menu.
Close the throttle limiter completely by turning the rotary
proportional knob CTRL 7 anti-clockwise to its endpoint. Use the trim lever of the throttle / collective pitch
stick to move the trim position marker to the motor OFF
position (see illustration in the right-hand column of the
next page).
Note:
In contrast, when the throttle limiter is closed, the position of the throttle / collective pitch stick is not relevant;
it can therefore be left in the maximum collective pitch
position, i. e. the throttle linkage can be adjusted between full-throttle (throttle limiter open) and “motor OFF”
(throttle limiter closed) using just the throttle limiter.
thr
–100%
input
output
–66%
point 1 –66%
To check that the setting is exact, i. e. that there is a
seamless transition from idle trim to the throttle curve,
you need to close the throttle limiter and move the
collective pitch stick to and fro slightly at the minimum
end-point. When you do this, the throttle servo must not
move! In any case fine-tuning must be carried out with
the model flying.
The motor is always started with the throttle limiter
completely closed; this has the effect that the idle speed
is adjusted solely using the trim lever of the throttle /
collective pitch stick.
Throttle limit in conjunction with the digital trim
When used with the throttle limit control CTRL 7, the
Ch 1 trim places a marker at the set idle position of the
motor; at this point the motor can be stopped using the
trim. If the trim is in its end-range (see screen-shot: top
picture in the right-hand column), then a single click
Now, with the throttle limiter closed, adjust the mechaniimmediately takes you back to the marker, i. e. to the
cal throttle linkage so that the carburettor is just fully
pre-set idle position (see also page 40).
closed. However, do check carefully that the throttle
The cut-off trim only acts as idle trim in the left-hand half
servo is not stalled at either of its extreme end-points
of the travel of the throttle limit control, i. e. the marker is
(full-throttle / motor OFF).
only set and stored within this range.
80 Program description: transmitter control settings – model helicopter
33112_mx12_HoTT_2_GB.indd Abs28:80
Last idle position
Current trim position
GRAUBELE
#01
5.2V 50%
3:33h
stop
flt
Throttle limit cont
0:00
0:00
K78
2.4
M RX0.0V
CTRL 7
Trim at motor OFF posit
For this reason the Ch 1 trim display is also completely
suppressed as soon as the throttle limit control is moved
to the right of the centre position.
GRAUBELE
#01
5.2V 50%
3:33h
stop
flt
0:00
0:00
Throttle limit contro
K78
M RX0.0V
2.4 CTRL 7
Note:
Since this trim function is only effective in the “Motor
off” direction, the illustration above changes if you alter
the transmitter control direction for the collective pitch
minimum position of the Ch 1 stick from “back” (reflected
in the picture above) to “forward” in the “Collective pitch
min.” line of the “Basic settings” menu. In the same
way the effects shown in the illustration swap sides if
you change the stick mode from collective pitch right
(reflected in the pictures above) to collective pitch left in
the “Stick mode” line of the “Basic settings” menu; see
page 67.
06.06.2011 19:39:39
For your notes
33112_mx12_HoTT_2_GB.indd Abs58:81
81
06.06.2011 19:39:39
D/R Expo
Switchable control characteristics for aileron, elevator and rudder
Use the arrow buttons of the left or right-hand four-way
button to leaf through to the “D/R Expo” menu point of
the multi-function menu:
mod. mem.
ser vo set.
D/R expo
wing mixer
ser vo disp
fail-safe
base sett.
contr set.
phase trim
free mixer
basic sett
telemetr y
A press on the central SET button of the right-hand fourway button opens this menu point:
aile 100%
elev 100%
rudd 100%
0%
0%
0%
DUAL
EXPO
–––
–––
–––
The Dual Rate / Expo function provides a means of
switching to reduced control travels, and of influencing
the travel characteristics, for aileron, elevator and rudder
(control functions 2 ... 4).
Dual Rate works in a similar way to transmitter control
travel adjustment in the “Transmitter control settings”
menu, i. e. it affects the corresponding stick function, regardless of whether that function controls a single servo
or multiple servos via any number of complex mixer and
coupling functions.
For each switch position the servo travels can be set to
any value within the range 0 to 125% of full travel.
Expo works in a different way. If you set a value greater
than 0%, exponential provides fine control of the model
around the centre position of the primary control func82
tions (aileron, elevator and rudder), without forfeiting
full travel at the end-points of stick movement. If you set
a value lower than 0%, travel is increased around the
neutral position, and diminishes towards the extremes of
travel. The degree of “progression” can therefore be set
to any value within the range -100% to +100%, where
0% equates to normal, linear control characteristics.
Another application for exponential is to improve the
linearity of rotary-output servos, which are the standard
nowadays. With a rotary servo the movement of the
control surface is inevitably non-linear, as the linear
movement of the output disc or lever diminishes progressively as the angular movement increases, i. e. the
rate of travel of the control surface declines steadily
towards the extremes, dependent upon the position of
the linkage point on the output disc or lever. You can
compensate for this effect by setting an Expo value
greater than 0%, with the result that the angular travel of
the output device increases disproportionately as stick
travel increases.
Like Dual Rates, the Expo setting applies directly to the
corresponding stick function, regardless of whether that
function controls a single servo or multiple servos via
any number of complex mixer and coupling functions.
The Dual Rate and Expo functions can be switched on
and off together if you assign a switch to the function.
The result of this is that Dual Rates and Expo can be
controlled simultaneously using a single switch, and
this can be advantageous - especially with high-speed
models.
Flight phase dependent Dual-Rate and Expo settings
If you have assigned a switch and - if you wish - a more
appropriate name to one of the phases 2 and 3 in the
“Base settings” menu (see page 60), then this appears
at bottom left, e. g. “normal”. If necessary, operate the
associated switch in order to switch between the flight
phases.
The basic set-up procedure
1. Switch to the desired flight phase, and then select
the desired line “aile”, “elev” or “rudd” using the arrow
buttons cd of the left or right-hand four-way button.
2. If necessary, use the ef buttons of the left or righthand four-way button to select the desired column.
3. Press the central SET button of the right-hand fourway button: the corresponding input field is now highlighted (black background).
4. Set the desired value using the arrow buttons of the
right-hand four-way button.
5. Press the central SET button of the right-hand fourway button to conclude the input process.
6. Simultaneously press the cd or ef buttons of
the right-hand four-way button (CLEAR) to reset any
changed settings to the default values.
Dual Rate function
If you wish to switch between two possible D/R settings, use the f button of the left or right-hand four-way
button to move to the right-hand column, marked at the
bottom edge of the screen with the switch symbol
,
then press the central SET button …
aile 100%
HR
push100%
desired
SR
into 100%
position
normal
DUAL
–––
0%
0%
–––
switch
–––
0%
ON
EXPO
Dual Rate / Expo - fixed-wing model
33112_mx12_HoTT_2_GB.indd Abs29:82
06.06.2011 19:39:39
Caution:
For safety reasons the Dual Rate value should always
be at least 20% of total control travel.
Examples of different Dual Rate values:
normal
DUAL
EXPO
3
3
–––
Simultaneously pressing the cd or ef buttons of the
right-hand four-way button (CLEAR) resets an altered
value in the highlighted input field to 0%.
Servo travel
Servo travel
Servo travel
+11%
+22%
0%
Dual Rate = 20%
Dual Rate = 50%
Dual Rate = 100%
aile 100%
elev 100%
rudd 100%
Examples of different Expo values:
Stick deflection
Servo travel
Exponential function
If you wish to switch between two settings, use the f
button of the left or right-hand four-way button to move
to the right-hand column, marked at the bottom edge of
the screen with the switch symbol
, then press the
central SET button and assign a switch to the function,
as described in the section “Assigning switches and
control switches” on page 39. The assigned switch appears on the screen together with a switch symbol which
Stick deflection
Stick deflection
Expo = –100%, DR = 50%
Expo = +100%, DR = 50%
Expo = +100%, DR = 125%
Servo travel
Stick deflection
Stick deflection
e. g. “switch back”:
88%
aile
77%
elev
rudd 100%
0%
0%
0%
normal
DUAL
EXPO
3
3
–––
and after moving switch “3” to the “forward” position:
aile 122%
elev 111%
rudd 100%
+11%
+22%
0%
normal
DUAL
EXPO
3
3
–––
Expo = –100%
Expo = +50%
Expo = +100%
Stick deflection
Servo travel
Stick deflection
Servo travel
Stick deflection
Combined Dual Rate and Expo
If you enter values for both Dual Rates and Expo, the
two functions are superimposed as follows:
Servo travel
indicates the direction of operation when you move the
switch.
For example, the system enables you to fly with a linear
curve characteristic in the one switch position, and to
pre-set a value other than 0% in the other switch position.
Select the right-hand column, marked with EXPO at
the bottom edge of the screen, in order to change the
Dual-Rate value for each of the two switch positions in
the highlighted field, using the arrow buttons of the righthand four-way button.
Servo travel
… and assign a physical switch as described in the section “Assigning switches and control switches” on page
39. The assigned switch appears on the screen together
with a switch symbol which indicates the direction of
operation of the switch. Select the left-hand column,
marked DUAL at the bottom edge of the screen, and set
the values for each of the two switch positions separately in the highlighted field using the arrow buttons of
the right-hand four-way button.
Simultaneously pressing the cd or ef buttons of the
right-hand four-way button (CLEAR) resets an altered
value in the highlighted field to 100%.
Stick deflection
In these examples the Dual Rate value is 100% in each
case.
Dual Rate / Expo - fixed-wing model
33112_mx12_HoTT_2_GB.indd Abs29:83
83
06.06.2011 19:39:40
D/R Expo
Switchable control characteristics for roll, pitch-axis and tail rotor
roll
nick
tail
100%
100%
100%
DUAL
0%
0%
0%
–––
–––
–––
EXPO
The Dual Rate / Expo function provides a means of
switching to reduced control travels, and influencing the
travel characteristics, for the roll, pitch-axis and tail rotor
servos (control functions 2 … 4).
A separate curve for control function 1 (motor / collective
pitch) can be set individually for throttle, collective pitch
and tail rotor in the “Helicopter mixers” menu. These
curves feature up to five separately programmable
points; see the sections starting on page 94 and 169.
Dual Rate works in a similar way to transmitter control
travel adjustment in the “Transmitter control settings”
menu, i. e. it affects the corresponding stick function, regardless of whether that function controls a single servo
or multiple servos via any number of complex mixer and
coupling functions.
For each switch position the servo travels can be set to
any value within the range 0 to 125% of full travel.
Expo works in a different way. If you set a value greater
than 0%, exponential provides fine control of the model
around the centre position of the primary control functions (roll, pitch-axis and tail rotor), without forfeiting full
travel at the end-points of stick movement. If you set
a value lower than 0%, travel is increased around the
neutral position, and diminishes towards the extremes of
travel. The degree of “progression” can be set within the
range -100% to +100%, where 0% equates to normal,
linear control characteristics.
84
Another application for exponential is to improve the
linearity of rotary-output servos, which are the standard
nowadays. With a rotary servo the movement of the
control surface is inevitably non-linear, as the linear
movement of the output disc or lever diminishes progressively as the angular movement increases, i. e. the
rate of travel of the control surface declines steadily
towards the extremes, dependent upon the position of
the linkage point on the output disc or lever. You can
compensate for this effect by setting an Expo value
greater than 0%, with the result that the angular travel of
the output device increases disproportionately as stick
travel increases.
Like Dual Rates, the Expo setting applies directly to the
corresponding stick function, regardless of whether that
function controls a single servo or multiple servos via
any number of complex mixer and coupling functions.
The Dual Rate and Expo functions can also be switched
on and off together if you assign a switch to the function. The result of this is that Dual Rates and Expo can
be controlled simultaneously using a single switch, and
this can be advantageous - especially with high-speed
models.
Flight phase dependent Dual-Rate and Expo settings
If you have assigned a switch and - if you wish - a more
appropriate name to one of the phases 2 or Auto-rotation in the “Basic settings” menu (see page 68 and 69),
then this appears at bottom left, e. g. “normal”. If necessary, operate the associated switch in order to switch
between the flight phases.
The basic set-up procedure
1. Switch to the desired flight phase, and then select
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
the desired line “Roll”, “Pitch” or “Tail” using the arrow
buttons cd of the left or right-hand four-way button.
If necessary, use the ef buttons of the left or righthand four-way button to select the desired column.
Press the central SET button of the right-hand fourway button: the corresponding input field is now highlighted (black background).
Set the desired value using the arrow buttons of the
right-hand four-way button.
Press the central SET button of the right-hand fourway button to conclude the input process.
Simultaneously press the cd or ef buttons of
the right-hand four-way button (CLEAR) to reset any
changed settings to the default values.
Dual Rate function
If you wish to switch between two possible D/R settings, use the f button of the left or right-hand four-way
button to move to the right-hand column, marked at the
bottom edge of the screen with the switch symbol
,
press the central SET button …
0% –––
roll
100%
0% –––
100%
Nick
push desired switch
100%
0% –––
Heck
into position ON
DUAL
EXPO
… and assign a physical switch as described in the section “Assigning switches and control switches” on page
39. The assigned switch appears on the screen together
with a switch symbol which indicates the direction of
operation of the switch.
Select the left-hand column, marked DUAL at the bottom
Program description: Dual Rate / Expo – model helicopter
33112_mx12_HoTT_2_GB.indd Abs30:84
06.06.2011 19:39:40
Examples of different Dual Rate values:
Servo travel
Servo travel
Servo travel
Dual Rate = 20%
Dual Rate = 50%
Dual Rate = 100%
+11%
+22%
0%
normal
DUAL
EXPO
3
3
–––
Stick deflection
Simultaneously pressing the cd or ef buttons of the
right-hand four-way button (CLEAR) resets an altered
value in the highlighted input field to 0%.
88%
77%
100%
0%
0%
0%
normal
DUAL
EXPO
3
3
–––
and after moving switch “3” to the “forward” position:
Stick deflection
Servo travel
Servo travel
Exponential function
If you wish to switch between two settings, use the f
button of the left or right-hand four-way button to move
to the right-hand column, marked at the bottom edge of
the screen with the switch symbol
, then press the
central SET button and assign a switch to the function,
as described in the section “Assigning switches and
control switches” on page 39. The assigned switch appears on the screen together with a switch symbol which
indicates the direction of operation when you move the
switch.
For example, the system enables you to fly with a linear
curve characteristic in the one switch position, and to
pre-set a value other than 0% in the other switch posi-
roll
nick
tail
Expo = –100%
Expo = +50%
Expo = +100%
Stick deflection
Servo travel
Stick deflection
Stick deflection
Stick deflection
e. g. “switch back”:
Examples of different Expo values:
Stick deflection
Expo = –100%, DR = 50%
Expo = +100%, DR = 50%
Expo = +100%, DR = 125%
Servo travel
100%
100%
100%
roll
nick
tail
Caution:
For safety reasons the Dual Rate value should always
be at least 20% of total control travel.
Combined Dual Rate and Expo
If you enter values for both Dual Rates and Expo, the
two functions are superimposed as follows:
Servo travel
tion.
Select the right-hand column, marked with EXPO at
the bottom edge of the screen, in order to change the
Dual-Rate value for each of the two switch positions in
the highlighted field, using the arrow buttons of the righthand four-way button.
Servo travel
edge of the screen, and set the values for each of the
two switch positions separately in the highlighted field
using the arrow buttons cd or ef of the right-hand
four-way button.
Simultaneously press the cd or ef buttons of the
right-hand four-way button (CLEAR) resets an altered
value in the highlighted field to 100%.
Stick deflection
122%
111%
100%
+11%
+22%
0%
normal
DUAL
EXPO
roll
nick
tail
Stick deflection
In these examples the Dual Rate value is 100% in each
case.
3
3
–––
Program description: Dual Rate / Expo – model helicopter
33112_mx12_HoTT_2_GB.indd Abs30:85
85
06.06.2011 19:39:40
Phase trim
Flight phase-specific trims for flaps, ailerons and elevator
If you have not assigned a switch to phases 2 or 3 in
the “Basic settings” menu, i. e. you have not assigned
switches to these alternative phases, you automatically
remain in flight phase 1 - “normal”.
The number and name (“normal”) of this flight phase
are permanently assigned, and cannot be altered. For
this reason the “normal” phase is not stated as Phase
1 “normal” in the “Basic settings” menu; it is simply
concealed.
tail type
aile/flap
timer
phase 2
phase 3
normal
2aile
10:01
3
takeoff –––
speed –––
If you select the “Phase trim” menu with this basic
arrangement, you will find just the “normal” line on the
screen, whose pre-set values of 0% are not usually
altered.
P H A S E T R I M
¿normal
0%
0%
0%
FLA
AIL
ELE
Note:
In this menu you will have at least one control function
(ELE), and a maximum of three functions (ELE, AIL and
FLA), available for phase-specific trim settings, depending on the settings you have entered in the “Aileron /
flap” line of the “Basic settings” menu (see page 58).
86
If you wish to enter values other than “0”, e. g. to have
more lift at launch, or to be able to fly more slowly
when thermalling, or faster when flying speed tasks, but
WITHOUT having to change the basic settings each
time, then you need to use alternative flight phases. This
is done by activating “Phase 2” and, if necessary, “Phase
3” in the “Basic settings” menu.
This is accomplished by moving to the “Basic settings”
menu and assigning a switch to the selected phase or
phases. If you decide to use one of the three-position
switches SW 4/5 or 6/7 as the phase switch, then it is
advisable to assign it to the “Speed” phase and “Launch”
phase at the extremes, with “normal” at the centre position.
Notes:
• At the centre position of SW 4/5 or 6/7 the switch
symbols on the screen should look as in the picture
at top right.
• Please note the priorities of the individual flight phases, as described in detail on page 60.
The default name for “Phase 2” is “Launch”, and that for
“Phase 3” is “Speed”. However, you can assign your own
choice of names at any time by selecting the appropriate
line, pressing the central SET button of the right-hand
four-way button, and selecting one of the following
names in the highlighted field using the arrow buttons of
the right-hand four-way button.
• take off
• thermal
• dist(ance)
• speed
• acro
• landing
• air-tow
• test
aile/flap
timer
phase 2
phase 3
receiv out
10:01
takeoff
speed
2aile
3
7
6
These names will appear in the transmitter’s basic
display …
GRAUBELE
#01
5.2V 51%
2:22h
0:00
stop
flt
0:00
«normal »
K78 HoTT
M
5.5V
… and in the “Phase trim” menu - see lower picture.
Setting up flight phase trims
In the “Phase trim” menu you can adjust the trims for the
previously selected flight phases.
The first step is to use the phase switch you have
already assigned to move to the phase which you wish
to adjust (the “*” at far left indicates the currently active
phase).
P H A S E T R I M
0%
0%
0%
takeoff
0%
0%
0%
speed
0%
0%
0%
¿normal
FLA
AIL
ELE
Program description: Phase trim – fixed-wing model
33112_mx12_HoTT_2_GB.indd Abs31:86
06.06.2011 19:39:40
Select the desired control surface function using the
arrow buttons ef of the left or right-hand four-way button, then press the central SET button of the right-hand
four-way button. The trim values in the highlighted value
field can now be adjusted using the arrow-buttons of the
right-hand four-way button.
You can activate each phase by operating the assigned
phase select switch or switches. Note that the servos
do not change from one setting to another abruptly;
they move smoothly with a transition time of around one
second.
With this option, which works in a similar way to transmitter control sub-trim or offset settings with other radio
control systems, it is possible to set values within the
range -99% to +99%. However, typical values are normally in single figures or low double figures.
P H A S E T R I M
normal
0%
0%
0%
takeoff
+8%
4% +2%
¿ speed
–7% –5% –3%
FLA
AIL
ELE
If you have made any changes, simultaneously pressing
the cd or ef buttons of the right-hand four-way button (CLEAR) resets them to the default value of 0%.
Note:
In this menu you will have at least one control function
(ELE), and a maximum of three functions (ELE, AIL and
FLA), available for phase-specific trim settings, depending on the settings you have entered in the “Aileron /
flap” line of the “Basic settings” menu (see page 58).
Program description: Phase trim – fixed-wing model
33112_mx12_HoTT_2_GB.indd Abs31:87
87
06.06.2011 19:39:40
What is a mixer?
Fixed-wing mixers
The basic function
In many models it is often desirable to use a mixer to
couple various control systems, e. g. to link the ailerons
and rudder, or to inter-connect a pair of servos where
two control surfaces are actuated by separate servos. In
all these cases the signal which flows directly from the
“output” of a transmitter stick to the associated servo
is “bled off” at a particular point - this effect can also
be “concealed” in transmitter control options such as
“D/R Expo” or “Transmitter control settings” - and
the derived signal is then processed in such a way that
it affects the “input” of another control channel, and
therefore eventually another receiver output.
For more information please refer to the general notes
on “Free mixers” in the section of this manual starting on
page 106.
Example: V-tail mixer
4,8 V
C 577
Servo
C 577
4,8 V
Right rudder / elevator
Servo
4
Left rudder / elevator
Best.-Nr. 4101
er
dd
Ru
er
dd r
Ru vato
Ele
4
Control channels
(receiver outputs)
r
V-tail mixer
Best.-Nr. 4101
3
Ru
Ele dder
vat
or
3
o
vat
Ele
Control function inputs
Elevator stick
Rudder stick
The mx-12 HoTT transmitter software contains a
large number of pre-programmed coupling functions as
standard, designed to mix together two (or more) control
channels. The mixer required in this example is supplied “ready-made” in the software, and just has to be
activated in the “tail” line of the “Basic settings” menu in
the form of “V-tail”.
The software also includes three freely programmable
linear mixers in the fixed-wing and helicopter programs,
all of which can be used in each model memory.
diff aile.
diff flaps
ail rudd
ail flaps
brak elev
brak flap
brak aile
elev flap
elev aile
elev
flap
aile
flap
diff–red
–––
–––
–––
–––
–––
–––
–––
–––
–––
–––
–––
(The display varies according to the information you
have entered in the “Motor at Ch 1” and “Ail / Flap” lines
in the “Basic settings” menu. The selection above
shows the maximum number of options, and equates to
the setting “No (motor)” and “2AIL 2FL”).
The mx-12 HoTT transmitter’s program contains a series of pre-programmed coupling functions, and all you
have to do is set the mixer ratios and (optionally) assign
a switch. The number of pre-programmed mixer functions in the mixer list will vary according to the pre-set
“model type” (tail type, number of wing servos, with or
without motor - see the section starting on page 56). For
example, if your model is not fitted with camber-changing flaps, and you have not entered any flap servos in
the “Basic settings” menu, the software automatically
suppresses all the flap mixers, as are the “Brake ¼ NN
*“ mixers if you enter “Idle forward” or “Idle back” in the
“Motor at Ch 1” line. This makes the menus clearer and
easier to understand, and also avoids potential programming errors.
*
88
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
NN = Nomen Nominandum (name to be stated)
Program description: wing mixers – fixed-wing model
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Notes:
• There are various alternative methods of positioning
the camber-changing flaps; these include:
a) settling on just one position per flight phase, simply by setting appropriate trim values in the “Phase trim” menu, as described on the preceding
double-page;
b) controlling the flaps manually using any transmitter control assigned to “Input 6” (in the “Transmitter control settings” menu - see page 74), after
setting the basic flap positions in the “Phase trim”
menu, as described earlier. Ideally the transmitter control would be one of the rotary proportional
controls CTRL 7 or 8.
The selected transmitter control directly operates
the two flap servos connected to receiver outputs
6 and 1, assuming that you have specified flaps in
the “Ail. / Flap” line of the “Basic settings” menu.
The same control determines the flap setting of
the ailerons via the percentage value entered in
the “FL ¼ AIL” mixer line.
However, for finer control of the flap positions, we
recommend that you reduce their travel to about
25% in the “E6” line of the “Transmitter control
settings” menu.
c) It is also possible to leave the default setting of
“0%” in the appropriate line of the “FL ¼ AIL”
menu, and to assign the same transmitter control to both input 6 and input 5 in the “Transmitter
control settings” menu. The magnitude of the effect on the two pairs of wing flaps can then be adjusted using the servo travel adjustment facility.
• If the Ch 1 stick is assigned to input 1 as standard,
it will be de-coupled by the software if two camber-
changing flaps are defined; this is intentional, as it
eliminates the danger of errors when a flap command
is given. In this case the only type of brake function
available is the Butterfly or Crow arrangement; see
page 92.
The basic programming procedure
1. Use the cd buttons of the left or right-hand fourway button to select the desired mixer.
2. Use the f button of the left or right-hand four-way
button to move to the right-hand column, marked
at the bottom edge of the
by the switch symbol
screen.
3. Press the central SET button of the right-hand fourway button; the corresponding input field is now highlighted (black background).
4. Use the arrow buttons of the right-hand four-way button to set the desired value, and assign the switch if
necessary, as described on page 39.
With the exception of the “Diff. red.” line, negative and
positive parameter values are possible; this may be
necessary to obtain the correct direction of servo rotation (control surface deflection).
Simultaneously pressing the cd or ef buttons of
the right-hand four-way button (CLEAR) resets an altered value to the default value.
5. Press the central SET button of the right-hand fourway button to conclude the input process.
Mixer neutral point
The neutral point of the mixers …
Aileron ¼ NN *
Elevator ¼ NN *
Elevator ¼ NN *
*
(offset)
… is by default the zero point of the transmitter control,
i. e. that is the point at which they have no effect. At the
end-point of the transmitter control the full mixer value is
applied.
The default neutral point (“offset”) of the mixers …
Airbrake ¼ NN *
… at which the airbrakes are always retracted, is the
forward position of the Ch 1 stick (throttle / airbrakes)
if you select “none” in the “Motor at Ch 1” line of the
“Basic settings” menu, and is the back position of the
Ch 1 stick if you select “none/inv”.
diff aile
(differential aileron travel)
Aileron differential compensates for an unwanted sideeffect which occurs when ailerons are deflected: the
problem known as “adverse yaw”. When ailerons are
deflected, the drag generated by the down-going aileron
is greater than that produced by the up-going aileron.
The differential drag causes a yawing motion around the
vertical axis in the opposite direction to the desired turn.
This effect is much more pronounced in model gliders
with high aspect ratio wings than in power models with
their much shorter moment arms, and usually has to be
countered by giving a simultaneous rudder deflection in
the opposite direction to the yaw. However, this in turns
causes additional drag and reduces the aircraft’s efficiency even further.
Aileron differential reduces the angular travel of the
down-going aileron relative to the up-going aileron, and
this reduces the drag and therefore the adverse yaw.
However, electronic differential can only be applied
if each aileron is actuated by its own servo, usually
mounted in the wings themselves. The shorter pushrods
also result in virtually slop-free aileron linkages with
NN = Nomen Nominandum (name to be stated)
Program description: wing mixers – fixed-wing model
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reliable centring.
Mechanical solutions are also possible, but they usually
have to be “designed in” when the model is built, and the
degree of differential cannot be altered subsequently.
In any case significant mechanical differential tends to
cause additional slop in the control system. Electronic
differential offers several important advantages:
0% (normal)
50% (differential)
100% (split)
Note:
Although it is possible to enter negative values in order
to reverse the direction of servo rotation, this is not usually necessary if the correct channels are used.
diff flaps
(Camber-changing flap differential)
The aileron / flap mixer (see below) is designed to
superimpose an aileron function on the flaps. Flap
differential works like aileron differential, and produces
a reduced flap movement in the down-direction when
these surfaces are used as supplementary ailerons.
The adjustment range of -100% to +100% makes it
possible to set the correct direction of differential regardless of the direction of rotation of the servo. “0%”
corresponds to a normal linkage, i. e. the servo travel is
the same up and down. A setting of “-100%” or “+100%”
means that the down-travel of the flaps is reduced to
zero when an aileron command is given (“split” setting).
Simultaneously pressing the cd or ef buttons of the
right-hand four-way button (CLEAR) resets an altered
value to 0%.
Program description: wing mixers – fixed-wing model
It is easily possible to vary the degree of differential
without affecting the travel of the up-going aileron. At
one extreme it is possible to suppress the down-aileron
deflection completely, i. e. only the up-going aileron
moves at all, and this arrangement is sometimes called
the “split” setting. Split ailerons not only tend to suppress
adverse yaw, but can even generate positive yaw, which
means that the model yaws in the direction of the turn
when an aileron command is given. In the case of large
model gliders, smooth turns can then be flown using
ailerons alone, which with most models of this type is
usually by no means the case.
The adjustment range of -100% to +100% makes it possible to set the correct direction of differential regardless
of the direction of rotation of the aileron servos. “0%”
90
corresponds to a normal linkage, i. e. no differential,
while “-100%” or “+100%” represents the “split” function.
For aerobatic flying it is necessary to set low absolute
differential values, to ensure that the model rotates
exactly along its longitudinal axis when an aileron
command is given. Moderate values around -50% or
+50% are typical for making thermal turns easier to fly.
The split setting (-100%, +100%) is popular with slope
flyers, when ailerons alone are often used for turning the
model.
Simultaneously pressing the cd or ef buttons of the
right-hand four-way button (CLEAR) resets an altered
value to 0%.
33112_mx12_HoTT_2_GB.indd Abs32:90
Note:
Negative values are not usually necessary if the correct
channels are used.
ail ¼ rudd
(Aileron ¼ rudder)
In this case the rudder automatically “follows” when an
aileron command is given, and the mixer ratio (degree of
following) can be set by the user. Coupled aileron / rudder (also known as “combi-switch”) is especially useful
for suppressing adverse yaw in conjunction with aileron
differential, and this combination usually makes smooth
turns very easy to fly. Naturally, the rudder can still be
controlled separately by means of its dedicated stick.
The adjustment range of +/- 150% enables the user to
set up the correct direction of travel according to the
direction of rotation of the flap servos. If an (optional)
non-centring switch (SW 3 … 7) is assigned to this function, the mixer can be turned on and off in flight, so that
you can control the ailerons and rudder separately if and
when you so desire.
Simultaneously pressing the cd or ef buttons of the
right-hand four-way button (CLEAR) resets an altered
value to 0%.
This mixer is usually set up in such a way that the rudder deflects automatically to the side of the up-going
aileron; a setting around 50% is likely to be approximately correct.
06.06.2011 19:39:40
ail ¼ flaps
(Aileron ¼ flap)
brak ¼ elev
(Airbrake ¼ elevator)
brak ¼ flap
(Airbrake ¼ flap)
or
This mixer feeds a variable amount of the aileron signal
into the flap channel. When an aileron command is
given, the flaps “follow” the ailerons, although usually
through a smaller angle, i. e. the mixer ratio is generally less than 100%. The adjustment range of -150%
to +150% allows the user to set up the flap direction to
match that of the ailerons.
The flaps should not deflect more than about 50% of the
(mechanical) travel of the ailerons.
Simultaneously pressing the cd or ef buttons of the
right-hand four-way button (CLEAR) resets an altered
value to 0%.
Note:
If your model is equipped with only one flap servo, you
should still select “2FL” in the “aile/flap” line of the “Basic settings” menu (see page 58) but leave the “Ail ¼
Flap” mixer at 0%. In contrast, all the other wing mixers
can be used in the usual way.
Extending any form of airbrakes usually generates an
unwanted change in airspeed; this is especially marked
when a butterfly (crow) braking system is deployed (see
next page).
This mixer feeds a corrective signal to the elevator to
compensate for such an effect. The adjustment range is
-150% to +150%.
Simultaneously pressing the cd or ef buttons of the
right-hand four-way button (CLEAR) resets an altered
value to 0%.
“Usual” values are generally in single to low double
figures. It is essential to check and adjust this setting at
a safe height, and it is also important to ensure that the
model does not slow down too much when the airbrakes
are extended. The danger is that you might need to
retract the brakes again on the landing approach when
you realise the model will “land short”; if its airspeed is
too low when you retract the brakes, the model will just
fall to the ground at that point.
When you operate the brake function (Ch 1 stick), both
flap servos move together for the landing approach; the
mixer ratio can be set to any value in the range -150% to
+150%. Down-flap is usually selected.
Simultaneously pressing the cd or ef buttons of the
right-hand four-way button (CLEAR) resets an altered
value to 0%.
At this point you select the value which causes the flaps
to deflect down as far as possible when the airbrake
function is deployed. However, please ensure that none
of the servos concerned strikes its mechanical endstops (servos stalled). To achieve this, you may need
to limit the servo travel(s) using the “Travel -/+” option,
which is found on the “RX SERVO” display page of the
“Telemetry” menu.
Program description: wing mixers – fixed-wing model
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brak ¼ aile
(Airbrake ¼ aileron)
When you operate the brake function, both aileron
servos move together for the landing approach; the
mixer ratio can be set to any value in the range -150%
to +150%.
Simultaneously pressing the cd or ef buttons of the
right-hand four-way button (CLEAR) resets an altered
value to 0%.
Note:
It can also be useful to deflect both ailerons up slightly
when the airbrakes are extended; in most cases this
significantly reduces the risk of a tip-stall.
Combination of the “Brake ¼ NN *” mixers:
“Crow” or “Butterfly” setting
If you have set up all three airbrake mixers for your
model, it is then possible to program a special configuration known as the “crow” or “butterfly” arrangement for
glide path control. In the butterfly setting both ailerons
are deflected up by a moderate amount, and both flaps
down by the maximum possible amount. The third mixer
provides elevator trim to counteract any unwanted pitch
trim change and maintain the model’s airspeed at a
safe level. This is necessary to avoid the danger of the
model slowing up excessively; if the landing approach is
*
92
started too soon, and has to be extended by retracting
the airbrakes again, the model could then stall abruptly.
This inter-action between the flaps, ailerons and elevator
is used to control the glide angle on the landing approach. Optionally the butterfly setting can also be used
without the airbrakes or spoilers; nowadays this is very
commonly used for sports and competition aircraft.
Note:
If your model features full-span (strip) ailerons which
also double as camber-changing flaps, the two mixers “Brake ¼ aileron” and “Brake ¼ elevator” can be
combined for glide path control. In this case up-flap is
applied, but the flaps can still be controlled as ailerons.
Elevator pitch trim compensation is generally required.
If you have programmed aileron differential, the response of the ailerons will inevitably be adversely
affected by the extreme “up” deflection of the ailerons
in the butterfly setting, because the differential travel
reduces or entirely suppresses the down-aileron deflection. However, the “up” travel of the ailerons is also
greatly restricted because they are already at or close to
their “up” end-point. The remedy here is to apply “differential reduction”, which is explained in its own section
later.
NN = Nomen Nominandum (name to be stated)
elev ¼ flap
(Elevator ¼ flap)
The flaps can be used to enhance the effect of the elevator in tight turns and aerobatics, and this mixer feeds
part of the elevator signal to the flap servos. The mixer
direction must be set so that the flaps move down when
up-elevator is applied, and vice versa.
Simultaneously pressing the cd or ef buttons of the
right-hand four-way button (CLEAR) resets an altered
value to 0%.
The “usual” settings for this mixer are in the low two-digit
range.
elev ¼ aile
(Elevator ¼ aileron)
This mixer allows the ailerons to reinforce the elevator
response in the same way as the previous mixer.
Simultaneously pressing the cd or ef buttons of the
right-hand four-way button (CLEAR) resets an altered
value to 0%.
The adjustment range is +/- 150%. For this mixer the
Program description: wing mixers – fixed-wing model
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“usual” settings are again in the low two-digit range.
flap ¼ elev
flap ¼ aile
(Flap ¼ aileron)
(Flap ¼ elevator)
When the camber-changing flaps are lowered, either
using “Phase trim” or by means of a transmitter control
assigned to input “6”, a pitch trim change (up or down)
may occur. Alternatively it may be desirable for slight
down-elevator to be applied automatically when the
flaps are raised by a small amount, in order to increase
the model’s basic airspeed. This mixer can be used to
achieve both purposes.
When the flaps are deployed, this mixer causes the
elevator setting to be corrected automatically in proportion to the flap deflection.
The adjustment range is +/- 150%. For this mixer the
“usual” settings are in the single to low two-digit range.
Simultaneously pressing the cd or ef buttons of the
right-hand four-way button (CLEAR) resets an altered
value to 0%.
This mixer causes a variable proportion of the flap signal
to be mixed in with the aileron channels 2 and 5 so that
the ailerons follow the movement of the flaps, albeit
normally with a smaller deflection.
The adjustment range is +/- 150%. For this mixer the
“usual” settings are around 50%.
Simultaneously pressing the cd or ef buttons of the
right-hand four-way button (CLEAR) resets an altered
value to 0%.
Note:
If you assign a transmitter control to inputs 5 and 6 in
the “Transmitter control settings” menu for adjusting the flap positions, then you should leave the value
for this mixer at 0%. See the notes on page 89 in this
regard.
diff red
(Differential reduction)
The problem of reduced aileron response in the butterfly configuration has been mentioned earlier: if aileron
differential is employed, the aileron response on the
landing approach may be adversely affected through
the extreme “up” deflection of the ailerons, permitting
virtually no further up-movement; on the other hand
the “down” travel has already been reduced by the
programmed differential setting. The overall result is
significantly reduced aileron response compared with
the normal setting of the control surfaces.
In this case you really should use “differential reduction” if at all possible. This reduces the degree of aileron
differential when you invoke the butterfly setting using
the airbrake stick. Differential is reduced progressively,
or even eliminated altogether, as the airbrake stick is
moved towards its end-point.
A value of 0% at this point means that the full programmed aileron differential is retained. A value of 100%
means that the aileron differential is completely eliminated at the maximum butterfly setting, i. e. when the
airbrakes and other glide path control surfaces are fully
extended. If you set a value above 100%, the aileron
differential is eliminated even before full travel of the
airbrake stick is reached.
The adjustment range is 0 to 150%.
Simultaneously pressing the cd or ef buttons of the
right-hand four-way button (CLEAR) resets an altered
value to 0%.
Program description: wing mixers – fixed-wing model
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Helicopter mixers
Flight phase-specific mixers for collective pitch, throttle and tail rotor
In the “Basic settings” menu a method of switching
flight phases can be activated by assigning the appropriate switches to “Phase 2” and / or “Auto-rotation”. You
can then switch between the phases “normal” and a
second phase - to which you can assign a more appropriate name yourself, if necessary - using one of the
non-centring switches SW 3 … 7; a further switch then
selects “Auto-rotation”. However, auto-rotation always
has precedence over the other two phases; see
pages 68 / 69.
If you have not yet assigned switches for the flight
phases, you should do so now. Use the arrow buttons of
the left-hand four-way button to move to the right-hand
symbol at the bottom
column, marked by the switch
of the screen, then press the central SET button of the
right-hand four-way button. The switches are assigned
as described on page 39:
rotor direct
pitch min
timer
phase 2
autorotat.
right
rear
10:01 C3
hover 5
4
Phase 1 always bears the designation “normal”. Both
the number and name of this phase are permanently
assigned, and cannot be altered. For this reason the
“normal” phase is not stated as Phase 1 in the “Basic
settings” menu; it is simply concealed.
By default “Phase 2” is assigned the phase name “hover”, but you can change these at any time if you prefer:
press the central SET button with the right-hand fourway button, and use the arrow buttons of the right-hand
four-way button to select one of the following names:
94
•
•
•
•
•
hover
acro
acro 3D
speed
test
Description of the helicopter mixers
Five-point curves are available for setting up the control
characteristics of “collective pitch”, “Ch 1 ¼ throttle” and
“Ch 1 ¼ tail rotor”. Using these curves it is possible to
program non-linear mixer ratios along the travel of the
transmitter stick for these mixers. Move to the display
page for setting 5-point curves by pressing the central
SET button of the right-hand four-way button (see
below).
In contrast, the mixers “Ch 1 ¼ throttle” and “Ch 1 ¼
tail rotor” are not required for the “Auto-rotation” flight
phase (described in the section starting on page 104);
instead they are automatically switched to a (user-variable) pre-defined value.
A value must be entered in the “Gyro” line: press the
central SET button of the right-hand four-way button,
then enter a value in the highlighted field using the arrow
buttons of the right-hand four-way button - in a similar
fashion to changing the transmitter centre position or
the offset position with other radio control systems. This
set-up facility is rounded off with the “Swashplate limit”
option: this restricts the maximum travel of the swashplate servos to the value you set, in the form of a limiter.
All these options are required for the basic process of
setting up a model helicopter.
Altered parameters can be reset to the corresponding
default values at any time by simultaneously pressing
the cd or ef buttons of the right-hand four-way
button (CLEAR).
The name of the currently selected flight phase is
displayed in the “Helicopter mixers” menu as well as
in the transmitter’s basic display; this is designed to
ensure that any changes you make actually apply to
the appropriate flight phase. Note that the servos do not
change from one setting to another abruptly; they move
smoothly with a transition time of around one second.
This does not apply to auto-rotation: when you switch
INTO auto-rotation, the change takes place immediately.
If you operate the switch selected for a particular flight
phase, the associated flight phase is superimposed at
the left-hand bottom edge of the screen, e. g. “normal”.
ptch
ch1
thro
tail
ch1
gyro
swash lim.
normal
0%
off
SEL
Now you can program the settings for this flight phase.
Basic programming procedure
1. Use the arrow buttons cd of the left or right-hand
four-way button to select the desired option.
2. Press the central SET button of the right-hand fourway button, and the screen switches to the set-up
page (
symbol at the bottom edge of the screen),
or the corresponding input field is highlighted (black
background).
3. Define the mixer values using the arrow buttons of
the right-hand four-way button, moving the throttle /
collective pitch stick at the same time if necessary.
4. Simultaneously pressing the cd or ef buttons of
Program description: helicopter mixers – model helicopter
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the right-hand four-way button (CLEAR) resets an altered value to the default value.
5. Press the central SET button of the right-hand fourway button to conclude the input process.
ptch
(Collective pitch (ch1 ¼ pitch))
Select the “Collective pitch” line using the arrow buttons
cd of the left or right-hand four-way button, then press
the central SET button of the right-hand four-way button:
ptch
input
output
point 3
normal
0%
0%
0%
The control curve can be based on a maximum of
five nodes, known as “reference points”, which can be
placed along the length of the control travel; separate
curves can be programmed for each flight phase.
However, in most cases it is sufficient to use a smaller
number of reference points when defining the collective
pitch curve. As a basic rule we recommend that you
start with the three default reference points offered by
the software. These three points, i. e. the two end-points
“Point 1” (collective pitch minimum) and “Point 5” (collective pitch maximum), and “Point 3”, exactly in the centre
of the travel, initially describe a linear characteristic
for the collective pitch curve; this is represented in the
picture above.
The programming procedure in detail
The throttle / collective pitch stick can now be used to
move the vertical line in the graph between the two
end-points “Point 1” and “Point 5”; at the same time the
momentary position of the stick is displayed in numeric
form in the “Input” line (-100% to +100%).
The point where the vertical line crosses the curve is
termed the “Output”, and this point can be varied within
the range -125% and +125% at a maximum of five
reference points. The control signal, modified in this way,
affects the collective pitch servos only. In the picture on
the left the stick is exactly at the 0% position at “Point
3”, and also generates an output signal of 0% due to the
linear nature of the graph.
By default only points “1” (collective pitch minimum at
-100%), “3” (hover point at 0%) and “5” (collective pitch
maximum at +100% travel) are active.
To set a point you use the associated stick to move the
vertical line to the point you wish to change. The number
and current curve value of this point are displayed in
the bottom line in the left-hand half of the screen in the
“Point” line. The arrow buttons of the right-hand four-way
button can now be used to change the current curve
value in the highlighted field to any value within the
range -125% to +125%, without affecting the adjacent
points.
+75%.
However, the optional points “2” and “4” can also be
activated. In the next example we activate point “2” at
-50% …
ptch
input
output
point 2
normal
–50%
–12%
deact
… and point “4” at +50% …
ptch
input
output
point 4
normal
+50%
+88%
deact
This is accomplished using the stick to move the vertical
line to the appropriate area. As soon as the message
“inactive” appears in the highlighted value field, you can
activate the associated point with the arrow buttons of
the right-hand four-way button; it can then be adjusted in
the same manner as the other points …
ptch
ptch
input
output
point 3
normal
input
output
point 4
normal
0%
+75%
+75%
In this example we have moved reference point “3” to
+50%
–50%
–50%
… or reset to “inactive” by simultaneously pressing the
cd or ef buttons of the right-hand four-way button
Program description: helicopter mixers – model helicopter
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ch1 ¼ thro
(CLEAR).
Points “1” and “5”, however, CANNOT be disabled.
ch1
Note:
The following illustration, and all the other pictures on
this page, show a control curve which we prepared for
illustration purposes only. Please note that the curve
characteristics by no means represent real collective
pitch curves!
input
output
point 3
normal
ptch
input
output
point 3
normal
0%
–50%
–50%
Typical collective pitch curves for different flight phases:
Output
-100%
-100%
-100%
1
96
+100%
Output
+100%
Output
+100%
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
Control travel
Control travel
Control travel
Hover
Aerobatics
3D
5
(throttle curve)
thro
0%
0%
0%
Helicopter with glow engine or electric motor and
STANDARD SPEED CONTROLLER
This setting only affects the control curve of the throttle
servo or speed controller.
The method of setting up a throttle curve for a model
helicopter fitted with a speed governor or regulator is
discussed later.
The throttle curve can be defined using up to five points,
in a similar way to the collective pitch curve (see previous
page).
• In all cases the control curve must be set up in such
a way that the throttle is fully open, or the speed
controller of an electric helicopter is at full power, at
the end-point of the throttle / collective pitch stick,
(exception: auto-rotation - see page 104).
• The hover point is normally located at the centre of
the stick travel, and the throttle setting should be
adjusted relative to the collective pitch curve in such
a way that the correct system rotational speed is
obtained at this point.
• At the minimum position of the throttle / collective
pitch stick the throttle curve should initially be set up
so that the (glow) motor runs at a distinctly higher
speed compared to the idle setting, with the clutch
reliably engaged.
In all flight phases the motor (glow or electric) is
started and stopped using the throttle limiter (see
below).
If you are used to a different radio control system which
uses two separate flight phases for this - “with idle-up”
and “without idle-up”; therefore incurring the “loss” of
one complete flight phase - please note that the throttle limiter renders this complication superfluous, as the
increased system rotational speed below the hover point
in the mx-12 HoTT program is more flexible, and can
be fine-tuned more accurately, than the “idle-up” system
used with earlier mc radio control systems.
Ensure that the throttle limiter is closed before you start
the glow motor, i. e. the throttle can only be adjusted
within its idle range using the idle trim. Be sure to read
the safety notes on page 102 which refer to this. If the
idle is set too high when you switch the transmitter on,
you will see and hear a clear warning!
0:00
STARLET
stop
throttle Flug
#02
0:00
too «normal »
!
HoTT
5.2V 99% high K78
5.5V
2:22h
M
The following three diagrams show typical 3-point throttle
curves for different flight phases, such as hover, aerobatics and 3-D flying.
Program description: helicopter mixers – model helicopter
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Typical throttle curves for different flight phases:
+100%
Output
Output
+100%
Output
+100%
-100%
-100%
-100%
1
2
3
4
5
Control travel
Hover
1
2
3
4
Control travel
Aerobatics
5
1
2
3
4
5
Control travel
3D
Notes on using the “Throttle limit” function:
• We strongly recommend that you make use of the
throttle limit function (“Transmitter control settings”
menu, page 79). When you use this function the throttle servo is completely disconnected from the throttle / collective pitch stick when the proportional throttle limit control is at its left-hand end-point; the motor
runs at idle and only responds to the Ch 1 trim. This
feature enables you to start the motor from within any
flight phase.
Once the motor is running, turn the throttle limiter
slowly to the opposite end-point, so that full control
of the throttle servo is returned to the throttle / collective pitch stick. It is important that the throttle limiter
should not restrict the throttle servo at its upper endpoint; you can avoid this by setting the control travel
to +125% in the “Lim” line of the “Transmitter control
settings” menu.
• Since electric motors by their nature require no idle
setting, the only important point when setting up an
electric-powered model helicopter is that the adjustment range of the throttle limiter should be set significantly higher and lower than the adjustment range of
the speed controller, which is usually from -100% to
+100%. It may therefore be necessary to set the “Travel” value of the throttle limiter to an appropriate point
33112_mx12_HoTT_2_GB.indd Abs33:97
in the “Lim” line of the “Transmitter control settings”
menu. However, the throttle curve itself has to be finetuned with the helicopter in flight, just like a glow-powered machine.
• Releasing the full throttle range, and imposing the
throttle limiter again, trips the switching threshold of
the control switch “C3” (i. e. in either direction); this
switch can be used for automatically starting and
stopping the stopwatch to record the flight time, or
some similar purpose; see page 39.
When you select auto-rotation, the mixer automatically switches the value to a variable pre-set value;
see the section starting on page 104.
contrast to the usual socket sequence - and the throttle
curve adjusted so that it can simply assume the role of
the “usual” transmitter control.
In this case the “throttle curve” only determines the
nominal rotational speed of the speed controller, and this
nominal value is required to remain constant over the full
range of collective pitch; for this reason a horizontal line
should be set in the “Ch 1 ¼ throttle” mixer, i. e. every
(collective pitch) input value results in the same (“throttle”) output value. The “height” of the line in the graph
determines the nominal system rotational speed.
Initially, then, reference point “3” should be erased, and
reference points “1” (input = -100%) and “5” (input =
+100%) set to the same value; for example:
Helicopter with speed GOVERNOR (REGULATOR)
In contrast to speed controllers, which simply adjust powthro
ch1
er output in the same way as a carburettor, speed goverinput
–100%
nors maintain a constant rotational speed in the system
output
+30%
which they regulate; they accomplish this by adjusting the
point 1 +30%
power output as required. In the case of a glow-powered
normal
helicopter the governor automatically controls the throttle
servo; in an electric-powered machine the governor does
the same with the speed controller. For this reason speed The value to be set varies according to the speed governor you are using, and also to the desired nominal
governors do not require a classic throttle curve; they
rotational speed; you may wish to vary it, of course, in the
just need a pre-set rotational speed. Once this is set, the
various flight phases.
system rotational speed does not alter unless the system
When you select auto-rotation, the mixer automaticalls for more power from the motor than is available.
cally switches the value to a variable pre-set value;
Connect your speed governor to receiver output 6
see the section starting on page 104.
instead of the throttle servo, and adjust the throttle curve
as described in the following section. This ensures that
the throttle curve can assume the role of the “usual”
transmitter control.
However, if you wish to be able to exploit the convenience and safety features of the throttle limiter, the speed
governor should be connected to receiver output 6 - in
Program description: helicopter mixers – model helicopter 97
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Ch1 ¼ tail rotor
Ch1
(static torque compensation)
tail
input
output
point 3
normal
input
output
point 3
normal
0%
0%
0%
The default setting is a torque compensation curve with a
uniform linear mixer input of 0%, as is required for a gyro
sensor operating in “heading lock mode”; see illustration
above.
Important Note:
It is absolutely essential to read and observe the
set-up instructions supplied with your gyro before
entering any settings at this point, as a mistake here
could render your helicopter uncontrollable.
If you use your gyro sensor in “normal” operating mode,
or if the gyro only offers “normal mode”, then you should
set up the mixer as follows:
The tail rotor control curve can be defined using up to
five points, in a similar way to the collective pitch curve
(see previous page). You can therefore modify the mixer
at any time when required, and enter symmetrical or
asymmetrical mixer inputs both above and below the
hover point. However, please ensure at the outset that
you have entered the correct direction of main rotor rotation in the “Basic settings” menu.
98
CH1
tail
0%
0%
0%
Starting from -30% at Point 1 and +30% at Point 5, this
mixer should be set up in such a way that the helicopter
does not rotate around the vertical (yaw) axis (i. e. does
not deviate from the hover heading) during a long vertical
climb or descent, due to the change in torque of the main
rotor. At the hover the yaw trim should be set using the
(digital) tail rotor trim lever only.
For a reliable torque compensation setting it is essential
that the collective pitch and throttle curves have been set
up correctly, i. e. that main rotor speed remains constant
over the full range of collective pitch.
When you select auto-rotation, this mixer is automatically switched off.
Gyro
(adjusting gyro gain)
Most modern gyro systems feature proportional, infinitely variable adjustment of gyro gain as well as a means
of selecting either of two different methods of working
from the transmitter.
If the gyro you wish to use features at least one of these
options, then it offers you the possibility of pre-setting
both “normal” gyro effect and - if available - “heading
lock mode”, and also of flying normal, slow circuits with
maximum gyro stabilisation, but reducing the gyro effect
for high-speed circuits and aerobatics. This is generally
similar to the transmitter control centre adjustment or
offset adjustment provided by other radio control sys-
tems.
We recommend that you set up switchable flight phases
for this, and set different gain settings for each phase in
the “Gyro” line; values between -125% and +125% are
possible.
ptch
ch1
thro
tail
ch1
gyro
swash lim.
normal
0%
off
SEL
Based on the offset values determined for each flight
phase, gyro gain can be varied proportionally by means
of a transmitter control assigned in the “Gyro” line of the
“Transmitter control settings” menu (see page 78).
This could be CTRL 8, which would provide infinitely
variable gyro gain control:
• At the centre position of this transmitter control
the gyro effect always corresponds to the settings
selected here.
• If you turn the rotary proportional control CTRL 8,
which we are using in our example, in the direction of
full travel (away from centre), the gyro gain increases
accordingly …
• … and diminishes again if you turn it in the direction
of the opposite end-point.
Important Note:
It is absolutely essential to read and observe the
set-up instructions supplied with your gyro before
entering any settings at this point, as a mistake here
could render your helicopter uncontrollable.
Program description: helicopter mixers – model helicopter
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Adjusting the gyro sensor
If you wish to set up a gyro to achieve maximum possible stabilisation of the helicopter around the vertical
axis, please note the following points:
• The mechanical control system should be as freemoving and accurate (slop-free) as possible.
• There should be no “spring” or “give” in the tail rotor
linkage.
• You must use a powerful and - above all - fast servo
for the tail rotor.
When the gyro sensor detects a deviation in yaw, the
faster it adjusts the thrust of the tail rotor, the further the
gyro gain adjuster can be advanced without the tail of
the model starting to oscillate, and the better the machine’s stability around the vertical axis. If the corrective
system is not fast enough, there is a danger that the
model’s tail will start to oscillate even at low gyro gain
settings, and you then have to reduce gyro gain further
using the rotary proportional control CTRL 8, as used
in our example, to adjust the pre-set “Gyro” value to
eliminate the oscillation.
If the model is flying forward at high speed, or hovering
in a powerful headwind, the net result of the stabilising
effect of the vertical fin combined with the gyro’s stabilising effect may be an over-reaction which manifests itself
as tail oscillation. In order to obtain optimum stabilisation
from a gyro in all flight situations, you should make use
of the facility to adjust gyro gain from the transmitter.
Swashplate limiter
ptch
ch1
thro
tail
ch1
gyro
swash lim.
normal
0%
off
SEL
This function acts like a circular mechanical gate acting
upon the swashplate control stick, restricting its range
of travel - which is usually rectangular - to a circular
pattern. This is designed to solve the following problem:
if the helicopter is set up in such a way that the roll and
pitch-axis travels extend to the maximum possible in
mechanical terms, e. g. for 3-D helicopter flying, then at
simultaneous full travel of roll and pitch-axis the actual
movement of the swashplate is higher (theoretically
141%). In this situation the mechanical swashplate system may strike its end-stops, and in the extreme case
the ball-links may even be forced off the linkage balls.
In the mx-12 HoTT transmitter a software function has
the effect of limiting the overall swashplate travel, i. e. the
tilt angle of the swashplate between 100% (the travel
is limited to the value which can be reached by one
function - roll or pitch-axis - alone) and 149% (no limiting
in force) is switched “off” (the function is completely
disabled). Swashplate limiting can also be adjusted to
suit individual models and flight phases.
This software solution is far more flexible than a physical
limiter disc attached to the stick unit, and such a disc
can only be used in any case if the roll and pitch-axis
functions are controlled by one of the two primary sticks.
The sketch alongside shows the effect of the limiter at a
setting of 100%: the dotted area of travel is cut off, and
appears as a dead zone. If
this function is used, you
should leave “Dual Rate”
at 100%, and you should
not set Dual Rate values
greater than 100%, otherwise travel will be limited on
the roll or pitch-axis individually if the swashplate
limiter is set to 100%.
Adjustment range: 100 ... 149% and “off”.
Program description: helicopter mixers – model helicopter
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99
06.06.2011 19:39:41
Adjusting the throttle and collective pitch curves
A practical procedure
Note:
The hover point should always be set to the centre
position of the throttle / collective pitch stick.
Idle setting and throttle curve
Note:
Since electric power systems by their nature require no
idle setting, it is not necessary to adjust the idle value.
However, the matching of the throttle and collective pitch
curve(s) must still be carried out as described here, in a
similar way to a glow-powered helicopter.
The idle setting is adjusted solely using the trim lever
of the Ch 1 function, with the throttle limiter closed, as
described in detail on pages 79 to 80.
Reference point 1 of the throttle curve defines the throttle
setting when the helicopter is in a descent, but without
affecting the hover setting.
This is a case where you can exploit flight phase programming to use different throttle curves. An increased
system rotational speed below the hover point proves to
be useful in certain circumstances; for example, for fast,
steep landing approaches with greatly reduced collective
pitch, and for aerobatics.
+100%
The diagram shows a curve with
a slightly altered throttle setting
below the hover point at the centre of stick travel.
OUTPUT
Although the throttle and collective pitch control systems
are based on separate servos, they are always operated
in parallel by the throttle / collective pitch stick (except
when auto-rotation is invoked). The Helicopter program
automatically couples the functions in the required way.
In the mx-12 HoTT program the trim lever of control
function 1 only affects the throttle servo, i. e. it acts as
idle trim (see “Digital trims” on page 40).
The process of adjusting “throttle” and collective pitch
correctly, i. e. setting the motor’s power curve to match
the collective pitch setting of the main rotor blades,
is the most important aspect of setting up any model
helicopter. The program of the mx-12 HoTT provides
independent adjustment facilities for the throttle, collective pitch and torque compensation curves.
These curves can be defined using a maximum of five
reference points. To define the control curves all you
have to do is set individual values for these five points in
order to determine each control curve.
However, before you set up the throttle / collective pitch
function it is important to adjust the mechanical linkages
to all the servos accurately, in accordance with the setup notes provided by the helicopter manufacturer.
-100%
1
2
3
4
5
Control travel
Different throttle curves are programmed for each flight
phase, so that you can use the optimum set-up both for
hovering and aerobatics:
• Low system rotational speed with smooth, gentle
control response and low noise at the hover.
• Higher speed for aerobatics with motor power settings
close to maximum. In this case the throttle curve also
has to be adjusted in the hover range.
The basic set-up procedure
Although the mx-12 HoTT transmitter provides a
broad range of adjustment for the collective pitch and
throttle curves, it is essential that you first adjust all
the mechanical linkages in the model according to the
information supplied by the helicopter manufacturer, i. e.
all the system linkages should already be approximately
correct in mechanical terms. If you are not sure of how
to do this, any experienced helicopter pilot will be glad to
help you with the basic set-up.
The throttle linkage must be adjusted in such a way
that the throttle is just at the “fully open” position at the
full-throttle setting, or the speed controller of an electric
helicopter is set to full-power. When the throttle limiter
is at the idle position, the Ch 1 trim lever should just be
able to close the throttle completely, without the servo
striking its mechanical end-stop (quick throttle adjustment using the “digital trim”: see page 40). With an
electric helicopter the motor should stop reliably when
the throttle limiter is closed.
Take your time, and carry out these adjustments very
carefully by adjusting the mechanical linkage and / or
changing the linkage point on the servo output arm or
the throttle lever. Only when you are confident that all is
well should you think about fine-tuning the throttle servo
using the transmitter’s electronic facilities.
Caution:
Read all you can about motors and helicopters, so
that you are aware of the inherent dangers and the
cautionary measures required before you attempt to
start the motor for the first time!
With the basic set-up completed, it should be possible to
start the motor in accordance with the operating instructions supplied with it, and adjust the idle setting using
the trim lever of the throttle / collective pitch stick. The
idle position which you set is indicated in the transmitter’s basic screen display by a horizontal bar in the
display of the Ch 1 trim lever’s position. Refer to page 40
100 Program description: helicopter mixers – model helicopter
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3
4
OUTPUT
OUTPUT
+100%
Hover
point
-100%
2
3
4
5
Control travel
2. The model lifts off below the centre point.
+100%
OUTPUT
a) Rotational speed too high
Remedy: on the “Ch 1
¼ throttle” graphic page,
reduce the throttle opening
by reducing the value at
Point 3.
Hover
point
-100%
1
2
4
5
3
4
Control travel
+100%
5
Control travel
1
3
Important:
It is important to persevere with this adjustment procedure until the model hovers at the correct rotational
speed at the centre point of the throttle / collective pitch
stick. All the other model settings depend upon the correct setting of these parameters!
-100%
b) Rotational speed too high
Remedy: on the “Collective pitch” graphic page,
increase the blade pitch
angle for collective pitch
by increasing the value at
Point 3.
2
Control travel
Hover
point
2
Hover
point
already fully open and no further power increase is possible (this assumes that the motor is correctly adjusted),
then you should reduce the maximum blade pitch angle
at full deflection of the collective pitch stick, i. e. the value
at Point 5. Conversely, if motor speed rises during the
vertical climb, you should increase the pitch angle. This
is done on the “Collective pitch” graphic page by moving
the vertical line to Point 5 using the collective pitch stick,
and changing its value accordingly using the arrow buttons cd of the right-hand four-way button.
OUTPUT
1
+100%
1
+100%
-100%
1. The model does not lift off until the collective
pitch stick is above the centre point.
a) Rotational speed too low
Remedy: on the “Ch 1
¼ throttle” graphic page,
increase the value at Point
3.
b) Rotational speed too low
Remedy: on the “Collective
pitch” graphic page, reduce the blade pitch angle
by reducing the value at
Point 3.
OUTPUT
of this manual for a full explanation of the digital trims.
Around the mid-point of the collective pitch stick the
model should lift off the ground and hover at approximately the rotational speed you wish to use. If this is not
the case, correct the settings as follows:
5
The standard set-up
The remainder of the standard adjustment procedure
is completed on the basis of the fundamental set-up
which you have just carried out, i. e. we now assume that
the model hovers in normal flight at the centre point of
the throttle / collective pitch stick, with the correct rotor
speed. This means that your model helicopter is capable
of hovering and also flying circuits in all phases whilst
maintaining a constant system rotational speed.
The climb setting
The combination of throttle hover setting, collective pitch
setting for the hover and the maximum collective pitch
setting (Point 5) now provides you with a simple method
of achieving constant system rotational speed from the
hover right to maximum climb.
Start by placing the model in an extended vertical climb,
holding the collective pitch stick at its end-point: motor
speed should not alter compared with the hover setting.
If motor speed falls off in the climb, when the throttle is
This diagram shows the changes
to the collective pitch maximum
value only.
Hover
point
-100%
1
2
3
4
5
Control travel
Now bring the model back to the hover, which again
should coincide with the mid-point of the Ch 1 stick.
If you find that the collective pitch stick now has to be
moved from the mid-point in the direction of “higher”,
then you should correct this deviation by slightly increasing the collective pitch angle at the hover - i. e. Point
3 - until the model again hovers at the stick centre point.
Conversely, if the model hovers below the mid-point, correct this by reducing the pitch angle once more.
You may find that it is also necessary to correct the
throttle opening at the hover point (Point 3) in the “Ch 1
¼ throttle” menu.
Program description: helicopter mixers – model helicopter 101
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This diagram only shows the
change in the hover point, i. e. collective pitch minimum and maximum have been left at -100% and
+100% respectively.
OUTPUT
+100%
-100%
1
2
3
4
5
Control travel
Continue adjusting these settings until you really do
achieve constant main rotor speed over the full control
range between hover and climb.
The descent adjustment should now be carried out from
a safe height by fully reducing collective pitch to place
the model in a descent from forward flight; adjust the collective pitch minimum value (Point 1) so that the model
descends at an angle of 60 … 80°. This is done on the
“Collective pitch” graphic page by moving the vertical
line to Point 1 using the collective pitch stick, and adjusting the value accordingly using the arrow buttons of the
right-hand four-way button.
OUTPUT
+100%
As an example, this diagram
shows the changes in the collective pitch minimum value only.
Hover
point
-100%
1
2
3
4
5
Control travel
Once the model descends reliably as described, adjust
the value for “Throttle minimum” - the value of Point 1 on
the graph of the “Ch 1 ¼ throttle” mixer - so that system
rotational speed neither increases nor declines. This
completes the set-up procedure for throttle and collective pitch.
Important final notes
Before you start the motor, check carefully that the throttle limiter is completely closed, so that the throttle can
be controlled by the Ch 1 trim lever alone. If the throttle
is too far open when you switch the transmitter on, you
will see and hear a warning. If you ignore this and start
the motor with the throttle too far advanced, there is a
danger that the motor will immediately run up to speed
after starting, and the centrifugal clutch will at once
engage.
For this reason you should:
always grasp the rotor head firmly
when starting the motor.
However, if you accidentally start the motor with the
throttle open, the rule is this:
Don’t panic!
Hang on to the rotor head regardless!
Don’t let go!
Immediately reduce the throttle limiter, even though
there may be a risk of damaging the helicopter’s drive
train, because:
it is vital that YOU ensure
that the helicopter cannot possibly
move off by itself in an uncontrolled manner.
The cost of repairing a clutch, a gearbox or even the
motor itself is negligible compared with the damage
which a model helicopter can cause if its spinning rotor
blades are allowed to wreak havoc.
Make sure that nobody else is standing
in the primary hazard zone around the helicopter.
You must never switch abruptly from idle to the flight setting by suddenly increasing system rotational speed, as
this would cause the rotor to accelerate quickly, resulting
in premature wear of the clutch and gear train. The main
rotor blades are generally free to swivel, and they may
be unable to keep pace with such swift acceleration, in
which case they might respond by swinging far out of
their normal position, perhaps resulting in a boom strike.
Once the motor is running, you should s l o w l y increase system rotational speed using the throttle limiter.
102 Program description: helicopter mixers – model helicopter
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For your notes 103
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Helicopter mixers
Auto-rotation settings
Auto-rotation allows full-size and model helicopters to
land safely in a crisis, i. e. if the power plant should fail.
It can also be used if the tail rotor should fail, in which
case cutting the motor and carrying out an auto-rotation
landing is the only possible way of avoiding a highspeed uncontrollable rotation around the vertical axis,
invariably terminating in a catastrophic crash. And that is
the reason why switching INTO auto-rotation occurs with
zero delay.
When you switch to the auto-rotation phase the helicopter mixers change as shown in this screen shot:
ptch
thro
tail
gyro
swash lim.
Autorot
–90%
0%
0%
off
SEL
During an auto-rotation descent the main rotor is not
driven by the motor; it is kept spinning only by the
airflow through the rotor disc caused by the speed of the
descent. The rotational energy stored in the still spinning
rotor can be consumed to allow the machine to flare out,
but this can only be done once. For this reason “autos”
are only likely to be successful if the pilot has plenty of
experience in handling model helicopters, and has also
set up the appropriate functions with great care.
Once you have sufficient experience you should practise
auto-rotation landings at regular intervals, not only so
that you can demonstrate your all-round flying skill by
flying the manoeuvre in competitions, but also so that
you are in a position to land the helicopter undamaged
from a great height if the motor should fail. For this
purpose the program provides a range of adjustment fa-
cilities which are designed to help you fly your helicopter
in its unpowered state. Please note that the auto-rotation
setting takes the form of a complete fourth flight phase,
for which all the adjustment facilities are available which
can be varied separately for all flight phases, especially
trims, collective pitch curve settings etc.
ptch
(Collective pitch curve (Ch1 ¼ pitch))
In powered flight the maximum blade pitch angle is
limited by the motor power which is available; however,
in auto-rotation the angle is only limited by the point
at which the airflow over the main rotor blades breaks
away. Nevertheless, to provide sufficient upthrust even
when rotational speed is falling off, it is necessary to
set a greater maximum collective pitch value. Press the
central SET button of the right-hand four-way button
to select the graph page of “Collective pitch”, and then
move the vertical line to Point 5 using the transmitter
stick. Start by setting a value which is about 10 to 20%
higher than your normal collective pitch maximum. Do
NOT set a much higher value compared with normal
flight initially, because collective pitch control will then
differ too greatly from the machine’s usual response
after you have thrown the switch. The danger is that you
will over-control the helicopter, and it may balloon up
again during the flare following the auto-rotation descent. If this happens, the rotational speed of the main
rotor will quickly decline to the point where it collapses,
and the helicopter ends up crashing to the ground from
a considerable height. Later, after a few trial autos, you
may wish to adjust the value again.
Under certain circumstances the collective pitch minimum setting may also differ from the normal flight setting; this depends on your piloting style for normal flying.
In any case you must set a sufficiently generous collec-
tive pitch minimum value at Point 1 to ensure that your
model can be brought from forward flight at moderate
speed into a descent of around 60 ... 70° when collective pitch is reduced to minimum. Most helicopter pilots
already use such a setting for normal flying, and if this
applies to you, you can simply adopt the same value.
If you normally allow your model to “fall” at a shallower
angle, increase the value for “Point 1”, and vice versa.
Approach angle
in strong
wind
in moderate
wind
no wind
Approach angle
under varying wind
conditions.
75°
60°
45°
For auto-rotation the collective pitch stick itself may not
be positioned right at the bottom of its travel; typically it
will be between the hover position and the bottom endpoint, giving the pilot scope for correction if necessary,
i. e. the chance to adjust the model’s pitch inclination
using the pitch-axis control.
You can shorten the approach by pulling back slightly on
the pitch-axis stick and gently reducing collective pitch,
or alternatively extend the approach by pushing forward
on the pitch-axis stick and gently increasing collective
pitch.
Throttle
(throttle curve)
In a competition the pilot is expected to cut the motor
completely, but for practice purposes this is certainly
inconvenient, as after every practice “auto” landing you
would have to start the motor again.
104 Program description: helicopter mixers / auto-rotation settings
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For practice, then, you should set the value in this line
so that the motor runs at a reliable idle during autorotation, but without the clutch engaging, so that you
can open the throttle immediately to recover from an
emergency; for an electric helicopter the motor should
be reliably “off”.
Tail rotor
(static torque compensation)
For normal flying the tail rotor is set up in such a way
that it compensates for motor torque when the helicopter is hovering. This means that it already generates
a certain amount of thrust even in its neutral position.
The level of thrust is then varied by the tail rotor control
system, and also by the various mixers which provide all
manner of torque compensation, while the tail rotor trim
is also used to compensate for varying weather conditions, fluctuations in system rotational speed and other
influences.
However, in an auto-rotation descent the main rotor
spins according to the windmill principle, i. e. it is not
driven by the motor, and therefore there is no torque
effect for which compensation is required, i. e. which
the tail rotor would have to correct. For this reason all
the appropriate mixers are automatically switched off in
auto-rotation mode.
However, the basic tail rotor setting therefore has to be
different for auto-rotation, as the compensatory thrust
described above is no longer required:
Stop the motor and place the helicopter horizontal on
the ground. With the transmitter and receiving system
switched on, select the “Auto-rotation” flight phase.
Fold both tail rotor blades down and change the blade
pitch angle to zero degrees in the “Tail rotor” line. Viewed
from the rear, the tail rotor blades should now lie parallel
to each other.
Depending on the friction and running resistance of the
gearbox, you may find that the fuselage still yaws slightly
in an auto-rotation descent. If necessary, the relatively
slight torque which causes this effect must then be
corrected by adjusting the tail rotor blade pitch angle.
This value will always be a small figure between zero
degrees and a pitch angle opposed to the direction of
tail rotor pitch required for normal flight.
Program description: helicopter mixers / auto-rotation settings 105
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General notes regarding freely programmable mixers
The two menus “Fixed-wing mixers” and “Helicopter
mixers”, as described on the preceding pages, contain
a wide range of ready-programmed coupling functions.
The basic meaning of mixers has already been explained on page 88, together with the principle on which
they work. In the following section you will find information relating to “free mixers”:
In addition to the pre-programmed mixers mentioned
above, the mx-12 HoTT offers three freely programmable linear mixers which can be used in every model
memory; their inputs and outputs can be selected to suit
your exact requirements.
Any control function (1 to 6), or what is known as a
“switch channel” (see below), can be assigned as the
input signal of a “free mixer”. The signal present at the
control channel, and passed to the mixer input, is determined by the transmitter control and any control characteristics as defined, for example, in the “D/R Expo” and
“Transmitter control settings” menus.
The mixer output acts upon a freely selectable control
channel (1 to max. 6 - depending on receiver type).
Before the signal is passed to the associated servo, the
only influences which can act upon it are those defined
in the “Servo settings” menu, i. e. the servo reverse,
centre and travel functions.
One control function can be set up to affect several
mixer inputs simultaneously, if, for example, you wish to
arrange several mixers to operate in parallel.
Conversely it is possible for several mixer outputs to
affect one and the same control channel.
The following description of the free mixers includes
examples of such arrangements.
In software terms the default setting for any “free mixer”
is that it is constantly switched on, but it is also possible
to assign an optional ON / OFF switch to it. However,
since there are so many functions to which switches can
potentially be assigned, you should take care not to assign dual functions to particular switches accidentally.
The two important mixer parameters are as follows:
• … the mixer ratio, which defines the extent to which
the input signal acts on the output of the control
channel which is programmed as the mixer output.
• … the neutral point, which is also termed the
“offset”. The offset is that point on the travel of a
transmitter control (stick, rotary proportional knob
CTRL 7 or 8 and SW 1, 3 … 7) at which the mixer
has no influence on the control channel connected
to its output. Normally this is the centre point of the
transmitter control, but the offset can be placed at
any point on the control’s travel.
Switch channel “S” as mixer input
In some cases a constant control signal is all that is
required as the mixer output; a typical application would
be for slight up-elevator trim when an aero-tow coupling
is closed - completely independently of the normal
elevator trim.
If you then assign a switch, you can switch to and fro
between the two mixer end-points, and adjust the supplementary elevator trim deflection by altering the mixer
ratio.
To identify this special arrangement, this mixer input
control function is designated “S” for “switch channel”
in the software. If you do not want the “target channel”
to be affected by the “normal” transmitter control, the
control can be de-coupled from the function input of
the associated control channel by entering “free” in the
“Transmitter control settings” menu; see pages 74
and 76. The following menu description again includes
an example which makes this function clear.
Now use the arrow buttons of the left or right-hand fourway button to leaf through to the “Free mixers” menu
point of the multi-function menu:
mod. mem.
ser vo set.
D/R expo
wing mixer
ser vo disp
fail-safe
base sett.
contr set.
phase trim
free mixer
basic sett
telemetr y
mod. mem.
ser vo set.
D/R expo
free mixer
ser vo disp
fail-safe
base sett.
contr set.
heli mixer
swashp.mix
basic sett
telemetr y
Press the central SET button of the right-hand four-way
button to open this menu point.
106 Program description: free mixers
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Free mixers
Linear mixers
Regardless of the selected model type, three linear mixers are available for each of the ten model memories,
with the additional possibility of setting up non-linear
characteristic curves.
In this first section we will concentrate on the programming procedure for the first screen page. We will then
move on to the method of programming mixer ratios, as
found on the second screen page of this menu.
The basic programming procedure
1. Use the arrow buttons cd of the left or right-hand
four-way button to select the desired mixer.
2. Press the central SET button of the right-hand fourway button: the input field in the column marked
“fro(m)” at the bottom edge of the screen is now highlighted (black background).
3. Use the arrow buttons of the right-hand four-way button to define the mixer input “fro(m)”.
4. Press the central SET button of the right-hand fourway button; switch to the “to” column using the f
button of the left or right-hand four-way button, then
press the central SET button of the right-hand fourway button once more: the input field “to” is now highlighted.
5. Use the arrow buttons of the right-hand four-way button to define the mixer input “to”.
6. Press the central SET button of the right-hand fourway button, and (optionally) use the e button of the
left or right-hand four-way button to move to the column marked “Type” at the bottom edge of the screen;
you can now include the Ch1 … Ch 4 trim lever for
the mixer input signal (“Tr” for trim) …
7. … and / or use the f arrow button of the left or righthand four-way button to move to the column marked
33112_mx12_HoTT_2_GB.indd Abs36:107
with the switch symbol
at the bottom edge of
the screen, press the central SET button of the righthand four-way button again, and assign a switch if
desired, as described on page 39.
8. Use the arrow button f of the left or right-hand fourway button to move to the => column, then press the
central SET button of the right-hand four-way button.
9. Define the mixer ratios on the second screen page.
10.Press the central ESC button of the left-hand fourway button to switch back to the first page.
“fro(m)”
After briefly pressing the central SET button of the righthand four-way button, select the highlighted field of the
selected mixer line using the arrow buttons of the same
four-way button, and select one of the control functions
1 … 6 or S.
In the interests of clarity, the control functions 1 … 4 are
abbreviated as follows when dealing with the fixed-wing
mixers:
c1
Throttle / airbrake stick
ar
Aileron stick
el
Elevator stick
rd
Rudder stick
Note:
If you have selected the supplementary control functions, don’t forget to assign transmitter controls to the
selected control functions 5 and / or 6 for a fixed-wing
model, or 5 for a model helicopter, in the “Transmitter
control settings” menu.
“S” for switch channel
The letter “S” (switch channel) in the “from” column has
the effect of passing a constant input signal to the mixer
input, e. g. in order to apply a little extra up-elevator trim
when an aero-tow coupling is closed, as mentioned
earlier.
Once you have assigned a control function or the letter
“S” in the “from” column, an additional …
“to”
… appears at the bottom edge of the screen.
In the input field of this column you can define the
control channel as the mixer destination, i. e. the mixer
output. At the same time additional fields appear at the
bottom line of the screen:
M1
M2
M3
6
c1
S
el
el
el
fro
to
5
c1
3
… and in the Heli program:
1
Throttle / collective pitch stick
2
Roll stick
3
Pitch-axis stick
4
Tail rotor stick
typ
In this example three mixers have already been defined.
The second mixer (“Brake ¼ el”) is already familiar to
us from the “Fixed-wing mixers” menu. As a general
rule you should always start by using these pre-programmed mixers if possible.
However, if you need asymmetrical mixer ratios on both
Program description: free mixers 107
06.06.2011 19:39:42
sides of centre, or have to offset the mixer neutral point,
then you should set or leave the pre-set mixers at “0”,
and program one of the free mixers instead.
ies according to the function which has been assigned
to it in the “Basic settings” menu (pages 56 and 64) in
the “Motor at Ch 1” column for fixed-wing models.
Erasing mixers
If you need to erase a mixer that you have already
defined, use the arrow buttons cd of the left or righthand four-way button to select its line, then use the
arrow buttons ef to move to the “from” column before
pressing the central SET button of the right-hand fourway button. The field in the “from” column of the mixer to
be erased is now highlighted: simultaneously press the
two arrow buttons cd or ef of the right-hand fourway button (CLEAR).
Additional special features of free mixers
If you set up a mixer whose input is the same as its
output, e. g. “c1 ¼ c1”, exotic results can be obtained
in conjunction with the option of switching a free mixer
on and off. You will find one typical example of this on
pages 152 … 154.
Before we come to setting mixer ratios, we have to
consider what happens if a mixer input is allowed to act
on the pre-set coupling of aileron servos, flap servos or
collective pitch servos:
• Fixed-wing models:
Depending on the number of wing servos set in the
“Aileron / Flap” line of the “Basic settings” menu,
receiver outputs 2 and 5 are reserved for the aileron
servos, and outputs 6 and 1 for the two flap servos,
as special mixers are assigned to these functions.
If mixer outputs are programmed to this type of coupled function, you have to consider their effect on the
associated pair of wing flaps, according to the “receiving” control channel:
Mixer switches
In our example above, a physical switch “5” and the
control switch “C1” have been assigned to the two linear
mixers 1 and 2, and switch “3” to mixer 3.
The switch symbol to the right of the switch number
shows the current status of that switch.
Any mixer to which no switch has been assigned in
the column marked by the switch symbol
at the
bottom of the screen is permanently switched on.
“Type”
(including the trim)
If you wish, and if you are using one of the primary
control functions 1 … 4, you can set the trim value of
the digital trim lever for the associated stick to affect the
mixer input. This is accomplished by pressing the central
SET button of the right-hand four-way button, then using
its arrow buttons to select “Tr” in the highlighted field.
Note:
The effect of the Ch 1 trim lever on the mixer output var-
*
Mixer
Wirkung
NN * ¼ 2
Servo pair 2 + 5 responds with aileron
function
NN * ¼ 5
Servo pair 2 + 5 responds with flap
function
NN * ¼ 6
Servo pair 6 + 1 responds with flap
function
NN = Nomen Nominandum (name to be stated)
NN * ¼ 1
Servo pair 6 + 1 responds with aileron
function
• Model helicopters:
Depending on the type of helicopter, up to four servos may be employed for collective pitch control;
these will be connected to receiver outputs 1, 2, 3
and 5. The transmitter software links them together to
provide the functions collective pitch, roll and pitchaxis.
It is not advisable to mix one of the transmitter controls into these occupied channels using the free mixers available outside the “Heli mixers” menu, as you
may inadvertently generate some extremely complex
and unwanted interactions. “Collective pitch trim via a
separate transmitter control” counts as one of the few
exceptions to this rule; see example 2 at page 111.
Important note:
When dealing with the interaction of multiple mixers
on one control channel, it is essential to remember
that the mixed travels of the individual mixers are
cumulative when multiple stick commands are made
simultaneously, and this brings a danger that the
servo concerned may strike its mechanical endstops. If you encounter this problem, simply reduce
the servo travel in the “Servo settings” menu, and /
or reduce the mixer values. However, if you do not
wish to reduce the travels in this way, because this
method would unnecessarily reduce the control
travels you normally use, then you may prefer an
alternative method of preventing the servos striking
their end-stops: set a suitable travel limit in the
“TRAVEL -/+” lines of the “RX SERVO” display page
of the “Telemetry” menu.
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Mixer ratios and mixer neutral point
Now that we have explained the wide-ranging nature of
the mixer functions, we can move on to the method of
programming linear and non-linear mixer curves.
For each of the three available mixers the mixer curves
are programmed on a second page of the screen
display. Use the arrow buttons cd of the left or righthand four-way button to select the desired mixer line,
use its arrow buttons to move to the right-hand column
(=>), then press the central SET button of the right-hand
four-way button to switch to the graphic page.
Setting up linear mixer values
In the next section we will describe a typical practical
application, by defining a linear mixer curve intended to
solve the following problem:
We have a powered model with two flap servos connected to receiver output 6 using a Y-lead. These control
surfaces are to be employed as landing flaps, i. e. when
the associated transmitter control is operated, they
deflect down only. However, this flap movement requires
an elevator trim correction to counteract the resultant
pitch trim change.
In the “Transmitter control settings” menu, assign the
rotary proportional control CTRL 7 (for example) to input
6.
“Transmitter control settings” menu
I5 free
+100% +100%
I6 ctrl 7 +100% +100%
tr v
+
Start by rotating the transmitter control to its left-hand
end-point, and adjust the landing flap linkages so that
they are in the neutral (retracted) position at this setting.
If you now turn the knob to the right, the flaps should
deflect down; if they move up, you must reverse the
direction of servo rotation.
Now we turn to the first mixer on the screen on page
107; this is the mixer “6 ¼ el”, to which switch 5 has
been assigned:
M1
M2
M3
typ
6
c1
S
el
el
el
fro
to
5
c1
3
Press the central SET button of the right-hand four-way
button to open the second screen page:
MIX1
6
el
off
MIX1
tr v
offs
6
el
0%
0%
0%
SYM ASY
The full-height vertical line in the graph represents the
current position of the transmitter control assigned to
input 6. (In the above graph this is located at the lefthand edge because CTRL 7 is at its left-hand end-point,
as already mentioned.) The full-length horizontal line
shows the mixer ratio, which currently has the value of
zero over the whole of stick travel; this means that the
elevator will not “follow” when the flaps are operated.
The first step is to define the offset (mixer neutral point).
To do this press the arrow button d of the left or righthand four-way button and move to the “Offs” line:
MIX1
tr v
offs
6
el
0%
0%
0%
STO SEL
If this display appears, you have not activated the mixer
by operating the assigned external switch - in this case
“5”. To correct this, operate the switch:
The dotted vertical line indicates the position of the
mixer neutral point (“offset”), i. e. that point along the
control travel at which the mixer has NO influence on the
channel connected to its output. By default this point is
set to the centre position.
However, in our example the neutral (retracted) position of the flaps is located at the left-hand end-stop of
the rotary proportional control, and in this position the
elevator must not be affected. We therefore have to
Program description: free mixers 109
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shift the mixer neutral point exactly to that position. If
you have not already done so, turn the control - in our
example this is CTRL 7 - to the left-hand end-stop and
press the central SET button of the right-hand four-way
button. The dotted vertical line now moves to this point
- the new mixer neutral point - which always retains the
“OUTPUT” value of zero in accordance with the mixer
definition.
As it happens, this setting is difficult to show in a
screen shot, so we will change the “offset” value to
only -75%.
MIX1
tr v
offs
6
el
0%
0%
–75%
STO SEL
Notes:
• If you wish, you can move the offset value back to
centre or otherwise adjust it as follows: select SEL
using the arrow button f of the left or right-hand
four-way button, followed by pressing the central SET
button of the right-hand four-way button; you can now
use the arrow buttons of the left or right-hand fourway button to move the offset value.
• You can also return the mixer neutral point to centre automatically as follows: select SEL using the
arrow button f of the left or right-hand four-way
button, then simultaneously press the two arrow buttons cd or ef of the right-hand four-way button
(CLEAR).
Symmetrical mixer ratios
The next step is to define the mixer values above and
below the mixer neutral point, starting from its current
position. Use the arrow button c of the left or right-hand
four-way button to move to the “Travel” line: if necessary,
use the arrow buttons ef of the left or right-hand fourway button to select the SYM field, so that you can set
the mixer value symmetrically relative to the offset point
you have just programmed. Press the central SET button
of the right-hand four-way button, then set the values
in the two highlighted fields within the range -150% to
+150% using the arrow buttons of the right-hand fourway button. Remember that the set mixer value always
refers to the input signal from the associated transmitter
control (control signal)! Setting a negative mixer value
reverses the direction of the mixer.
Simultaneously pressing the two arrow buttons cd or
ef of the right-hand four-way button (CLEAR) erases
the mixer ratio in the highlighted field.
The “optimum” value for our purposes will inevitably
need to be established through a flight testing programme.
MIX1
6
el
tr v +20% +20%
offs
–75%
SYM ASY
Since we previously set the mixer neutral point to -75%
of control travel, the elevator (“el”) will already exhibit a
(slight) “down-elevator effect” at the neutral point of the
landing flaps, and this, of course, is not wanted. To correct this we shift the mixer neutral point back to -100%
of control travel, as described earlier.
MIX1
6
el
tr v +20% +20%
offs –100%
STO SEL
If you were now to reset the offset from -75% to, say, 0%
control travel, by selecting the SEL field using the arrow
buttons f of the left or right-hand four-way button, and
then briefly pressing the two arrow buttons cd or ef
of the right-hand four-way button (CLEAR) simultaneously, the screen would look like this:
MIX1
6
el
tr v +20% +20%
offs
0%
STO SEL
Asymmetrical mixer ratios
For many applications it is necessary to set up different
mixer values on either side of the mixer neutral point.
Start by resetting the offset of the mixer used in our example (“6 ¼ el”) to 0%, as shown in the picture above.
Now use the arrow button f of the left or right-hand
four-way button to select the ASY field, and then press
the central SET button of the right-hand four-way button.
If you now turn the rotary proportional control CTRL 7 assigned in our example to input 6 - in the appropriate
direction, the mixer ratio for each direction of control can
be set separately, i. e. to left and right of the selected
offset point using the arrow buttons of the right-hand
110 Program description: free mixers
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four-way button:
MIX1
6
the switch channel “S” as the mixer input. Now move
the selected switch to the OFF position, and move to
the …
el
tr v +55% +20%
offs
0%
M1
M2
M3
el
el
el
6
c1
S
5
c1
3
SYM ASY
Note:
If you are setting up a switch channel mixer of the “S
¼ NN *” type, you must operate the assigned switch to
achieve this effect. The vertical line then jumps between
the left and right sides.
Examples:
1. The switch SW3 has already been assigned to control channel 6 in the “Transmitter control settings”
menu, in order to open and close the aero-tow release.
I5 free
3
I6
+100% +100%
+100% +100%
typ
to
fro
… mixer set-up page.
Use the arrow button d of the left or right-hand fourway button to select the “Offs” line, then press the
central SET button of the right-hand four-way button … according to the travel setting selected in the
“Transmitter control settings” menu and the switch
position, the offset value now jumps to +X% or -X%,
e. g.:
MIX3
tr v
offs
S
el
0%
0%
+100%
STO SET
tr v
+
In the meantime you have carried out a few aero-tow
flights, which showed that you always needed to hold
in slight up-elevator during the tow. You now wish to
set the elevator servo (connected to receiver output
3) to slight “up” trim when the tow release is closed.
In the screen display familiar from page 107 we have
set up the third linear mixer to accomplish this, using
*
Use the arrow button c of the left or right-hand fourway button to move to the “Travel” line, then press the
central SET button of the right-hand four-way button.
After moving the selected switch to the mixer ON position, set the required mixer ratio in the now highlighted value fields using the arrow buttons of the
right-hand four-way button.
MIX3
S
el
tr v +10% +10%
offs +100%
SYM ASY
2. The following example applies to model helicopters:
In the case of helicopters with one to max. three
swashplate servos, receiver socket 5 is generally
used for gyro gain control. For example, if you wish
to use a gyro without an adjustment facility from the
transmitter, or don’t wish to use such a facility, control channel 5 can be used for some other purpose:
you may wish to assign one of the rotary proportional
knobs (CTRL 7 or 8) to the collective pitch trim function. In the “Transmitter control settings” menu assign one of these two transmitter controls to input
“E5”. Now simply define a free mixer “5 ¼ 1” with a
symmetrical mixer ratio of, say, 25%. Due to the internal coupling, this transmitter control now acts equally
on all the collective pitch servos you are using, without affecting the throttle servo.
MIX1
5
1
tr v +25% +25%
offs
0%
SYM ASY
If you use this mixer, you MUST leave receiver socket
5 unused.
NN = Nomen Nominandum (name to be stated)
Program description: free mixers 111
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Swashplate mixers
Collective pitch, roll and pitch-axis mixers
SP – MIXER
ptch
roll
nick
+61%
+61%
+61%
the proper manner, then the first step is to change the
mixer directions (“+” or “-”), before you attempt to correct
the directions of servo rotation.
Note:
Ensure that the servos do not strike their mechanical
end-stops if you change the mixer values.
In the “Swashplate” line of the “Basic settings” menu
you have already defined the number of servos which
are installed in your helicopter to provide collective pitch
control; see page 65. With this information the transmitter software automatically superimposes the functions
for roll, pitch-axis and collective pitch as required, i. e.
you do not need to define any additional mixers yourself.
If you have a model helicopter which only has a single
collective pitch servo, the “Swashplate mixer” menu
point is - of course - superfluous, since the three swashplate servos for collective pitch, pitch-axis and roll are
controlled independently of each other, i. e. no mixers
are used. In this case the swashplate mixer menu does
not appear in the multi-function list. With all other swashplate linkages employing 2 … 4 collective pitch servos,
the mixer ratios and directions are set up by default, as
can be seen in the screen shot above. The pre-set value
is +61% in each case, but the value can be varied within
the range -100% to +100% using the arrow buttons of
the right-hand four-way button, after pressing the central
SET button of the same four-way button.
Simultaneously pressing the two arrow buttons cd or
ef of the right-hand four-way button (CLEAR) resets
the mixer input in the highlighted field to the default
value of +61%.
If the swashplate control system (collective pitch, roll
and pitch-axis) does not follow the transmitter sticks in
112 Program description: Swashplate mixers - model helicopter
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Servo display
Use the arrow buttons of the left or right-hand four-way
button to leaf through to the “Servo display” menu point
of the multi-function menu:
mod.mem.
ser vo set.
D/R expo
wing mixer
ser vo disp
fail-safe
base sett.
contr set.
phase trim
free mixer
basic sett
telemetr y
Open the menu point by pressing the central SET button
of the right-hand four-way button.
However, this visual display of the current servo positions can be called up not only by selecting this menu,
but also directly by simultaneously pressing the buttons
ef of the left-hand four-way button from the transmitter’s basic display, and also from almost any menu position. Pressing the central ESC button of the left-hand
four-way button returns you to your starting point again.
1
–100 %
2
0%
3
0%
4
+100 %
5
0%
6
0%
The current position of any servo is displayed in barchart form, which takes into account the transmitter control and servo settings, the Dual-Rate / Expo functions,
the interaction of all active mixers etc., within the range
-150% to +150% of normal travel. 0% corresponds
exactly to the servo centre position. The servo display
provides a quick method of checking your settings, without having to switch on the receiving system. However,
this does not relieve you of the need to check all your
programming steps carefully on the model before operating it for the first time, as this is the only safe method
of excluding possible programming errors.
The display is based on the following scheme for
fixed-wing models:
Bar 1 = throttle / brake servo or (right) flap
Bar 2 = aileron or left aileron
Bar 3 = elevator
Bar 4 = rudder
Bar 5 = right aileron
Bar 6 = (left) flap / free channel or 2nd elevator servo
and for model helicopters:
Bar 1 = collective pitch or roll (2) or pitch-axis (2) servo
Bar 2 = roll (1) servo
Bar 3 = pitch-axis (1) servo
Bar 4 = tail rotor servo (gyro)
Bar 5 = gyro or pitch-axis (2) servo
Bar 6 = throttle servo or speed controller
Note:
Please bear in mind that the servo display refers exclusively to the original servo sequence, i. e. it does NOT
take into account any output swapping, as can be carried out in the “Receiver output” sub-menu in the “Basic
settings” menu, page 60 / 69.
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Basic settings
Use the arrow buttons of the left or right-hand four-way
button to leaf through to the “basic settings” menu point
of the multi-function menu:
mod. mem.
ser vo set.
D/R expo
wing mixer
ser vo disp
fail-safe
base sett.
contr set.
phase trim
free mixer
basic sett
telemetr y
Press the central SET button of the right-hand four-way
button to open the menu point:
Batt type
Batt warning
Touch Sense
Contrast
Display light
RF Countr y
Voice volume
Beep volume
Ni-MH
4.7V
2
0
unlim
Euro
3
3
four-way button to alter the default value. Pressing the
central SET button once more concludes the entry
process.
Battery type
Batt type
Batt war ning
Touch Sense
Contrast
Display light
Ni-MH
4.7v
2
0
unlim
In this line you inform the transmitter whether its power
is to be drawn from a four-cell NiMH battery or a singlecell LiPo battery. The voltage range offered in the (next)
line “Battery warning threshold” will vary according to
this setting.
Simultaneously pressing the arrow buttons cd or ef
of the right-hand four-way button (CLEAR) resets the
value in the highlighted field to NiMH.
Battery warning threshold
In this menu you can enter basic settings which are
specific to the transmitter.
Note:
Settings in this menu only need to be entered once, and
apply to the whole transmitter. This means that the last
valid settings always appear when you call up this menu
from another model memory.
Use the arrow buttons cd of the left or right-hand
four-way button to select the appropriate line, then press
the central SET button of the right-hand four-way button.
The value field is now highlighted (black background),
and you can use the arrow buttons of the right-hand
Batt type
Batt war ning
Touch Sense
Contrast
Display light
Ni-MH
4.7v
2
0
unlim
In this line you can enter any voltage you like …
4.2 V (LiPo battery) - according to your choice of battery type - in increments of 0.1 Volt. However, never be
tempted to enter too low a value here, to ensure that you
always have ample time to land your model safely if a
battery warning should be triggered.
Simultaneously pressing the arrow buttons cd or ef
of the right-hand four-way button (CLEAR) resets the
value in the highlighted field to 4.7 V or 3.4 V respectively.
Button response
Batt type
Batt war ning
Touch Sense
Contrast
Display light
Ni-MH
4.7v
2
0
unlim
In this line you can select the speed of response of the
four-way buttons within the range 1 to 10.
The higher the set value, the longer the button has to be
pressed before the software responds.
Simultaneously pressing the arrow buttons cd or ef
of the right-hand four-way button (CLEAR) resets the
value in the highlighted field to “2”.
Contrast
You can adjust the contrast of the mx-12 HoTT’s integral screen to optimise its legibility in varying weather
and temperatures:
batter y
needs
charging
… within the range 4.5 to 5.5 V (NiMH battery) or 3.4 to
114 Program description: basic settings
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GRAUBELE
#01
5.2V 50%
3:33h
GRAUBELE
#01
5.2V 50%
3:33h
0:00
stop
flt
0:00
«normal »
K78 HoTT
5.5V
M
0:00
stop
flt
0:00
«normal »
K78 HoTT
5.5V
M
This is accomplished by selecting the “Contrast” line
using the arrow buttons cd of the left or right-hand
four-way button:
Screen backlight
Batt type
Batt war ning
Touch Sense
Contrast
Display light
of the right-hand four-way button (CLEAR) resets the
value in the highlighted field to “Euro”.
Ni-MH
4.7v
2
0
unlim
This line determines how long the screen backlighting
remains on when you switch the transmitter on, and
after the last button-press.
The available values are “unlimited” “30 s”, 60 s” and
“120 s”.
Simultaneously pressing the arrow buttons cd or ef
of the right-hand four-way button (CLEAR) resets the
value in the highlighted field to “unlimited”.
Country setting
Batt type
Batt war ning
Touch Sense
Contrast
Display light
Ni-MH
4.7v
2
0
unlim
Press the central SET button of the right-hand four-way
button: the value field is now highlighted, and you can
adjust the screen contrast within the range +/- 20 using
the arrow buttons of the right-hand four-way button:
Simultaneously pressing the arrow buttons cd or ef
of the right-hand four-way button (CLEAR) resets the
value in the highlighted field to “0”.
Batt war ning
Touch Sense
Contrast
Display light
RF Country
4.7v
2
0
unlim
Euro
The purpose of the country setting is to fulfil the requirements of various directives (FCC, ETSI, IC, etc.). For
example, radio control systems operated in France must
be set to a restricted frequency band. For this reason
the transmitter’s country setting MUST be set to
“France” mode before the system is used in that
country. It is prohibited to use the Universal / EURO
mode in France.
Simultaneously pressing the arrow buttons cd or ef
Voice volume
Touch Sense
Contrast
Display light
RF Country
Voice volume
2
0
unlim
Euro
3
In this line you can define the volume of the speech
output which is generated through earphones when the
optional earphone socket, Order No. 33001.71, is fitted;
the available range is “0” to “10”.
Simultaneously pressing the arrow buttons cd or ef
of the right-hand four-way button (CLEAR) resets the
value in the highlighted field to “3”.
Beep volume
Contrast
Display light
RF Country
Voice volume
Beep volume
0
unlim
Euro
3
3
This line determines the volume of the transmitter’s
internal sounder within the range “0” to “6”.
Simultaneously pressing the arrow buttons cd or ef
of the right-hand four-way button (CLEAR) resets the
value in the highlighted field to “3”.
Program description: basic settings 115
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Fail-Safe
FAIL SAFE
Pos
hold
1 2 3 4 5 6
Delay 0.25s
STO
The inherently higher operational security of the HoTT
system compared with classic PPM technology is due
to the ability of the HoTT receiver’s integral micro-processor to process the signals from “its” transmitter exclusively, and also to process any “dirty” control signals
which it picks up. The receiver constantly stores the
latest valid signals, and invalid signals are automatically
replaced by the stored signals - but only if the control
signal is seriously inaccurate or even damaged, e. g. due
to interference from an outside source. This process is
dependent upon various settings which are described
later in this section. For example, the receiver suppresses brief interference such as field strength “holes”
and similar effects which would otherwise result in the
familiar “glitches”. When this happens, the red LED on
the receiver lights up.
If you have not yet programmed any Fail-Safe settings
in the currently active model memory, the following
warning display will appear in the basic display for a few
seconds when you switch the transmitter on:
fail safe
setup
t.b.d
Programming
The “Fail-Safe” function determines the receiver’s behaviour when interference occurs in the transmission from
transmitter to receiver. The receiver outputs 1 … 6 can
optionally …
1. maintain (“hold”) their current position:
If interference should occur, all servos programmed
to “hold” mode remain at the position last assessed
by the receiver as correct until such time as a new,
correct control signal arrives at the receiver, or
2. move to a user-selectable position (“Pos”) if interference occurs, after a “delay” time has elapsed.
Use the arrow buttons ef of the left or right-hand
four-way button to select the desired servo socket 1 to 6
(z), then press the central SET button of the right-hand
four-way button to switch between “hold” ( ) and “position” ( ) mode:
FAIL SAFE
s, 0.75 s and 1 s).
Simultaneously pressing the arrow buttons cd or ef
of the right-hand four-way button (CLEAR) resets the
highlighted field to the default value of 0.75 s.
Now use the arrow buttons ef of the left or right-hand
four-way button to select the STO field at bottom right
of the screen; SIMULTANEOUSLY move the servos for
which you have selected Position mode to the desired
positions using the associated transmitter controls.
A press of the central SET button of the right-hand fourway button stores these positions in the receiver as the
Fail-Safe settings, so that it can revert to these if interference should strike.
The transmitter informs you of the stored data by briefly
displaying:
FAIL SAFE
Pos
hold
1 2 3 4 5 6
STO
Delay 0.25s
Now select the “Delay” option at bottom left of the
screen using the arrow buttons ef of the left or righthand four-way button …
FAIL SAFE
Pos
hold
1 2 3 4 5 6
STO
Delay 0.25s
… press the central SET button of the right-hand fourway button, and use its arrow buttons to select your
preferred delay period from the four on offer (0.25 s, 0.5
Pos
hold
Position
stored
1 2 3 4 5 6
Delay 0.25s
STO
Caution:
We strongly recommend that you make use of the
safety potential of this option by at least setting the
throttle position (glow-powered models) to idle, or
the electric motor to stop, if a fail-safe event should
be triggered. Model helicopters should be programmed to “hold”. This simple precaution ensures
that the model is much less likely to cause havoc
and cause property damage or personal injury.
116 Program description: Fail-Safe
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Telemetry
The “Telemetry” menu is used to call up and program
transmitter and receiver data, and data generated by
optional telemetry sensors (see Appendix), in real time.
Receiver data are transmitted to the transmitter via the
HoTT receiver’s integral downlink channel.
One telemetry sensor can be connected to the Telemetry input of the following receivers: GR-12S HoTT
(Order No. 33505), GR-12 HoTT (Order No. 33506) and
GR-16 (Order No. 33508). Two telemetry sensors can
be connected to the HoTT GR-24 HoTT receiver (Order
No. 33512).
Since this and future receivers can be updated by the
user, the associated “Telemetry” menus can constantly
be kept up-to-date, and expanded with the introduction
of additional functions or languages in future.
Note:
If you register your product under http://www.graupner.
de/en/service/product_registration you will automatically
be informed about new updates by e-mail.
Before updating the transmitter software you should
always back up all occupied model memories to a
compatible laptop or PC in order to avoid a possible loss
of data.
In addition to the back-ups mentioned above, firmware
updates are transferred using the transmitter’s PC
socket and the optional USB adapter, Order No. 7168.6
and the connecting lead, Order No. 6466.S, in conjunction with a PC running the Windows XP, Vista or 7
operating system.
The programs required for this and related information
can be found in the Download area for the corresponding products at the website www.graupner.de. We
always recommend that you load the latest firmware into
your equipment, to ensure that your system is constantly
kept up-to-date.
Important information:
• These instructions cover the functions available at
the time of going to press.
• As mentioned in the sections entitled “Binding multiple receivers” on pages 61 and 70, it is possible to
bind more than one receiver per model. However, in
subsequent operations only the receiver which
was bound last is able to make a telemetry connection to the transmitter. On the other hand, this
also means that only the last bound receiver can be
addressed using the Telemetry menu. You may therefore need to change the binding sequence before you
can enter settings which relate to a particular receiver.
• When setting up the radio control system, please
ensure at all times that the transmitter aerial is
an adequate distance from the receiver aerials.
A safe distance is about one metre. If you neglect this, you risk interference with the downlink
channel, and consequent malfunctions.
• Since the transmitter and receiver only exchange telemetry data after each fourth data packet, data
transmission inevitably requires a certain amount of
time, which means that there will be some delay in
responding to button-presses and set-up changes.
This does not constitute an error.
• Changes to model and sensor programming must
only be carried out when the model is on the ground.
Do not make any alterations unless the motor is
switched off and the flight battery is disconnected.
If you ignore this, unwanted effects of programming
changes cannot be excluded.
For example, if you accidentally initiate an active servo test at the receiver, the model could crash and
cause personal injury or property damage. Please
see the Safety Notes on pages 3 … 6 of this manual
and the various individual instructions.
• All settings which you enter using the “Telemetry”
menu, such as Fail-Safe, servo direction, servo travel, mixer and curve settings etc., are stored exclusively in the receiver, and are therefore carried over
if you install the receiver in a different model. For this
reason we strongly recommend that you re-initialise your HoTT receiver if you wish to use it in another
model; see “Reset” on page 33.
• We therefore recommend that you program directions
of servo rotation, servo travel, mixer and curve settings using only the mx-12-specific standard menus “Servo settings” (page 72), “Free mixers” (page
107) and “D/R Expo” (pages 82 and 84). If you ignore
this, the settings may overlap and interfere with each
other; in the most favourable case this can result in
confusion when operating the model, and in the least
favourable case it could cause problems.
• The channel-mapping function of the mx-12
HoTT’s integral “Telemetry” menu can be used to
share out control functions between multiple receivers in any way, or even to assign the same control
function to several receiver outputs; for example, you
may wish to operate each aileron with two servos instead of just one, etc. Once again we strongly recommend that you act as cautiously as possible
when carrying out the programming.
Program description: Telemetry menu 117
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SETTING & DATA VIEW
Telemetry
The menus grouped together under the overall heading
“Telemetry” are called up from the basic display of the
mx-12 HoTT transmitter by holding the central ESC
button of the left-hand four-way button pressed in for
about three seconds. An alternative method of calling up
this menu, which also applies to the transmitter’s other
menus, is to briefly press the central SET button of the
right-hand four-way button in the multi-function list:
mod. mem.
ser vo set.
D/R expo
wing mixer
ser vo disp
fail-safe
base sett.
contr set.
phase trim
free mixer
basic sett
telemetr y
Basic menu operation
In general terms the “Telemetry” menu is operated just
like the other menus of the mx-12 HoTT transmitter.
The few differences are described below:
You can switch between the individual pages of the Telemetry menu using the arrow buttons ef of the left or
right-hand four-way button: you will find corresponding
direction indicators at top right of every screen page in
the form of angle brackets (< >); see illustrations. If only
one angle bracket is visible, then you are currently at the
first or last page. In this case it is only possible to switch
pages in the direction indicated by the angle bracket.
Menu lines in which parameters can be altered are
marked with an angle bracket prefix (>). Pressing the
arrow buttons cd of the left or right-hand four-way
button causes the “>” pointer to jump forward or back
by one line. Lines to which you cannot jump contain no
user-variable values.
118 Program description: Telemetry menu
33112_mx12_HoTT_2_GB.indd Abs45:118
If you wish to change a parameter, press the central
SET button of the right-hand four-way button to highlight
the parameter (black background)). Change the value
within the possible range using the arrow buttons of the
right-hand four-way button, and then press the SET button again briefly to accept the value.
At this point you can use the arrow buttons cd of the
left or right four-way button to select the desired submenu. However, if the message …
CAN‘T
RECEIVE
DATA
OK
SETTING & DATA VIEW
TELEMETRY
SETTING & DATA VIEW
SIMPLE DATA VIEW
RF STATUS VIEW
VOICE TRIGGER
On the first screen page of the sub-menu “Setting &
Data View”, headed …
RX DATAVIEW
… you cannot enter any settings. This page is for information purposes only:
… appears instead of the desired sub-menu when you
press the central SET button of the right-hand four-way
button, then the transmitter has no connection to a
receiver. In this case, switch your receiving system on,
or re-bind the receiver you wish to address, if this should
not be the last bound one; see “Important information”
on the previous page.
RX DATAVIEW
S–QUA100%S–dBM–030dBM
S–STR100% R–TEM.+28°C
L PACK TIME 00010msec
R-VOLT
:05.0V
L.R-VOLT:04.5V
SENSOR1 :00.0V
00°C
SENSOR2 :00.0V
00°C
Value
Explanation
S-QUA
Signal quality in %
S-dBm
Receive performance in dBm
S-STR
Signal strength in %
R-TEM.
Receiver temperature in °C
L PACK TIME Indicates the time in ms for which
the longest data packet was lost in
transmission between transmitter and
receiver
R-VOLT
Current receiver operating voltage, in
Volt
06.06.2011 19:39:42
L.R-VOLT
Lowest receiver operating voltage
since the last power-on, in Volt
SENSOR1
Shows the values of the optional
telemetry sensor 1 in Volt and °C
SENSOR2
Shows the values of the optional
telemetry sensor 2 in Volt and °C
Signal quality (S-QUA)
The signal quality (S-QUA) is sent “live” to the transmitter via the receiver’s downlink channel, and shows the
signal strength in %.
Receive performance (S-dBm)
The receive performance (S-dBm) is displayed as a
negative value, i. e. a value approaching zero is the
highest value (= best reception). The lower the value
falls, the worse is the receive performance. This is an
important item of information, particularly when you are
carrying out a range-check before operating the model.
Note:
In the case of negative numbers the value is reversed:
the higher the number following the minus sign, the
lower the value.
Carry out a range-check as described on pages 62 and
71 before every flight, and remember to simulate all the
servo movements which are likely to occur in the air.
In active range-check mode the range must be at least
fifty metres on the ground. To guarantee safe operation
of your model, a value no higher than -80 dBm must be
displayed in the “RX DATA” display under “S-dBm” at this
distance. If the value falls below this (e. g. -85 dBm), you
should under no circumstances fly your model. Instead
check the receiving system installation and the aerial
positions.
When operating a model this value should not fall below
-90 dBm; if it does, reduce the distance between the
pilot and the model. However, the audible range warning (beeping at one-second intervals) will normally be
triggered before this value is reached, in order to ensure
safe operation.
Signal strength (S-STR)
The value for signal strength (S-STR) is displayed in %.
An audible range warning (beeping at one-second intervals) will always be generated as soon as the receiver
signal in the downlink channel is too weak. However,
since the transmitter has a much higher transmitting
power than the receiver, the model can still be operated
safely at this point. Nevertheless, in the interests of
safety the distance to the model should be reduced until
the audible warning ceases.
Receiver temperature (R-TEM.)
Ensure under all flight conditions that the receiver stays
within its specified temperature range (ideally between
-10 and +55°C).
The limit values for receiver temperature after which
a warning occurs can be set in the “SERVO TEST”
sub-menu under “ALARM TEMP+” (50 … 80°C) and
“ALARM TEMP-” (-20 … +10°C). If the temperature
exceeds or falls below the set limit, an audible signal
(continuous beeping) is triggered, and “TEMP.E” is
displayed at top right in all the “RX” receiver sub-menus.
At the same time the “R-TEM“ parameter is highlighted
on the “RX DATAVIEW” screen page.
which the radio control system went into Fail-Safe mode.
Operating voltage (R-VOLT)
Check the receiver’s operating voltage constantly. If it is
too low, you must under no circumstances continue to
operate your model, and certainly not launch it.
The low receiver voltage warning can be adjusted within
the range 3.0 to 6.0 Volt in the “SERVO TEST” sub-menu
under “ALARM VOLT”. If the voltage falls below the
threshold, an audible signal (repeated double beep, long
/ short) is generated, and in all the receiver sub-menus
“RX …” you will see “VOLT.E” at top right. At the same
time the parameter “R-VOLT” is highlighted in the “RX
DATAVIEW” sub-menu.
The current receiver battery voltage is also shown in the
basic display; see page 24.
Minimum operating voltage (L.R-VOLT)
“L.R-VOLT” shows the receiver’s minimum operating
voltage since the last time it was switched on.
If this voltage differs significantly from the current
operating voltage “R-VOLT”, this could mean that the
receiver battery is being overstressed by the servos,
causing collapses in battery voltage. If this should occur,
we recommend installing a higher-performance receiver
battery to ensure maximum operating safety.
Sensor 1 + 2
Shows the values of the optional telemetry sensor 1
and, if present, sensor 2 in Volt and °C. You will find a
description of these sensors in the Appendix.
Data packets (L PACK TIME)
This displays the longest period in ms in which data
packets were lost in transmission from the transmitter to
the receiver. In practice this means the longest time in
Program description: Telemetry menu 119
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RX SERVO
RX SERVO
OUTPUT CH:
REVERSE
:
CENTER
:
TRIM
:
TRAVEL–
:
TRAVEL+
:
PERIOD
:
01
OFF
1500μsec
–000μsec
150%
150%
20msec
Before you carry out any programming at this screen
display be sure to read the information on page 117.
Value
Explanation
Possible settings
OUTPUT CH Channel select
1 … according to
receiver
REVERSE
Servo reverse
OFF / ON
CENTER
Servo centre in µs If active (highlighted), according
to transmitter
control position
TRIM
Trim position in µs -120 … +120 µs
deviating from the
CENTRE position
TRAVEL–
Travel limitation at 30 … 150%
% servo travel
TRAVEL+
Travel limitation at 30 … 150%
% servo travel
PERIOD
Cycle time in ms
10 or 20 ms
OUTPUT CH (Channel select)
Select the “Channel” line if necessary using the arrow
buttons. Press the SET button of the right-hand four-way
button to highlight the value field. Now use the arrow
buttons of the right-hand four-way button to set the
desired channel (e. g. 01). The following parameters
always refer to the channel which you set at this
point:
REVERSE (servo reverse)
Sets the direction of rotation of the servo connected to
the selected control channel: ON / OFF
CENTER (servo centre)
The “CENTRE” line displays the current pulse width in
µs of the control channel selected in the “OUTPUT CH”
line.
The displayed value varies according to the current position of the transmitter control which affects this control
channel, and also its trim position.
A pulse width of 1500 µs corresponds to the standard
centre position, and therefore the usual servo centre
setting.
To change this value, select the “CENTRE” line and
press the SET button. Move the corresponding transmitter control to the desired position, and press the SET
button again to store the current transmitter control
position. This position is now stored as the new neutral
position.
TRIM (trim position)
The purpose of the “TRIM” line is to provide fine adjustment of the neutral position of a servo connected to
the control channel selected in the “OUTPUT CH” line.
Adjustments are made in 1 µs increments using the arrow buttons of the right-hand four-way button. The value
in the “CENTRE” line can be adjusted over the range
+/- 120 µs around the TRIM value set here.
Default setting: 0 µs
TRAVEL–/+ (servo travel –/+)
This option can be used to place a limit on servo travel
(control surface travel) for the servo connected to the
control channel selected in the “OUTPUT CH” line. The
value is set separately for each side of centre.
The setting can be altered separately for both directions
within the range 30 ... 150%.
Default setting: 150% on both sides.
PERIOD (cycle time)
In this line you can determine the frame time for the
individual channel signals. This setting applies to all
control channels.
If you use digital servos exclusively, it is safe to set a
cycle time of 10 ms.
If you are using a mixture of servo types, or exclusively
analogue servos, it is essential to set 20 ms, otherwise
the servos will be “over-stressed” and may response by
jittering or making rumbling noises.
RX FAIL SAFE
RX FAIL SAFE
OUTPUT CH: 01
INPUT
CH: 01
MODE
: HOLD
F.S.Pos. : 1500μsec
DELAY
: 0.75sec
FAIL SAFE ALL: NO
POSITION : 1500μsec
Before we describe this menu a few words as a reminder:
“Doing nothing” is the worst thing you can do in this
regard. The default setting for the HoTT receiver is
“HOLD” mode.
If interference should occur with hold-mode in force, and
120 Program description: Telemetry menu
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if you are very lucky, the model aircraft will fly straight
ahead for an indefinite period and then “land” somewhere or other without causing major damage. However,
if the interference strikes in the wrong place and at the
wrong time, then a power model could become uncontrollable and tear wildly across the flying field, endangering pilots and spectators.
MODE
Fail-Safe mode
HOLD
FAIL SAFE
OFF
F.S.Pos.
Fail-Safe position
1000 … 2000 µs
DELAY
Response time
(delay)
0,25, 0,50, 0,75
and 1,00 s
For this reason you really must consider whether you
should at least program the throttle to “motor stopped”,
to avoid the worst of these risks.
FAIL SAFE
ALL
Stores fail-safe
positions for all
control channels
NO / SAVE
After that warning we present a brief description of the
three possible Fail-Safe variants offered by the mx-12
HoTT transmitter:
The simplest way of setting Fail-Safe - and the one we
recommend - is to use the “Fail-Safe” menu, which is
accessed from the multi-function list; see page 116.
A similar alternative, albeit slightly more difficult to access, is to use the “FAIL-SAFE ALL” option described on
the next double-page.
And finally there is the relatively complex method of
entering individual settings using the “MODE”, “F.S.Pos.”
and “DELAY” options. The description of this variant
starts below with the “MODE” option.
POSITION
Displays stored
Fail-Safe position
between approx.
1000 and 2000 µs
Value
Explanation
Possible settings
OUTPUT CH Output channel
(receiver servo
socket)
1 … according to
receiver
INPUT CH
1 … 16
Input channel
(control channel
coming from
transmitter)
33112_mx12_HoTT_2_GB.indd Abs45:121
OUTPUT CH (servo socket)
In this line you select the OUTPUT CH (receiver servo
socket) which is to be adjusted.
INPUT CH (input channel select)
As already mentioned on page 117, the six control functions of the mx-12 HoTT transmitter can be shared out
between several receivers if necessary, or alternatively
several receiver outputs can be assigned to the same
control function; for example, you may wish to be able
to operate each aileron with two servos, or to control an
oversized rudder using two coupled servos instead of a
single one.
Sharing control functions amongst multiple HoTT receivers is a useful idea for large-scale models, for example,
to avoid long servo leads. In this case bear in mind that
only the last bound receiver can be addressed using the
“Telemetry” menu.
The six control channels (INPUT CH) of the mx-12
HoTT can be managed in the appropriate manner using
the facility known as “channel mapping”, i. e. by assign-
ing a different control channel in the INPUT CH line to
the receiver servo socket selected in the OUTPUT CH
line. BUT CAUTION: if, for example, you have entered
“2AIL” in the “Aileron/flap” line of the “Basic settings”
menu at the transmitter, then control function 2 (aileron)
is already divided to control channels 2 + 5 for the left
and right ailerons. The corresponding receiver INPUT
CH, i. e. those to be mapped, would in this case be
channels 02 + 05.
Examples:
• You wish to assign two or more servos to each aileron of a large-scale model aircraft:
Assign one and the same INPUT CH (control channel) to each of the appropriate OUTPUT CH (servo
sockets). The appropriate servo sockets are selected
for the left or right wing, while the INPUT CH will be
one of the two default aileron control channels 2 + 5.
• You wish to control the rudder of a large-scale model
aircraft using two or more servos:
Assign one and the same INPUT CH (control channel) to each of the appropriate OUTPUT CH (servo
sockets); in this case the default rudder channel 4.
MODE
The settings you enter for the options “MODE”, “F.S.Pos.”
and “DELAY” determine the receiver’s behaviour if interference should affect the transmission from transmitter
to receiver.
The setting programmed under “MODE” always refers to
the channel you have set in the OUTPUT CH line.
The default setting for all servos is “HOLD”.
For each selected OUTPUT CH (receiver servo socket)
you can choose between:
• FAI(L) SAFE
Program description: Telemetry menu 121
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If interference occurs, the corresponding servo
moves to the position displayed in the “POSITION”
line for the duration of the interference, after the “delay time” set in the “DELAY” line.
• HOLD
If interference occurs, a servo set to “HOLD” maintains the position last assessed as correct for the duration of the interference.
• OFF
If set to “OFF” when interference occurs, the receiver continues to send the last correct control signals
(which it has stored) to the corresponding servo output for the duration of the interference. This can be
imagined as the receiver switching the signal wire
“off”.
But CAUTION: if the control signal is absent, analogue servos and many digital servos offer no resistance to the forces acting on the control surfaces, with
the result that the model’s control surface positions
are more or less quickly lost.
F.S.Pos. (Fail-Safe position)
For each OUTPUT CH (receiver servo socket) activate
(highlight) the value field by pressing the central SET
button of the right-hand four-way button, then use the
arrow buttons of the right-hand four-way button in the
“F.S.POS.” line to set the servo position which the servo
is to take up in “FAIL-SAFE” mode if interference should
occur. The setting can be entered in increments of 10 µs.
Default setting: 1500 µs (servo centre)
Important note:
The “F.S.POS.” function is also significant if the receiver
is switched on, but is (not yet) receiving a valid signal;
this applies to all three modes “OFF”, “HOLD” and “FAIL-
SAFE”:
The servo immediately runs to the Fail-Safe position previously set in the “Position” line. This can be exploited,
for example, to prevent the operation of a retractable undercarriage or similar function if the receiver is switched
on accidentally. However, during normal model operations the corresponding servo behaves in accordance
with the set “MODE” if interference should strike.
DELAY (fail-safe response time or delay)
At this point you can set the delay time after which the
servos are to run to their previously selected positions if
the signal should be interrupted. This setting applies to
all channels, but only affects the servos programmed to
“FAIL-SAFE” mode.
Default setting: 0.75 s
FAIL SAFE ALL (global fail-safe setting)
This sub-menu can be used to define the Fail-Safe
position of the servos simply by “pressing a button”; it
operates in a similar manner to the “Fail-Safe” menu
described on page 116, and is simple to use:
Move to the “FAIL-SAFE ALL” line and press the central
SET button of the right-hand four-way button to activate
the value field; “NO” is highlighted (black background).
Now set the parameter to “SAVE” using one of the arrow buttons of the right-hand four-way button. Use the
transmitter controls to move all the servos which you
have assigned - or intend to assign later - in the “MODE
- FAIL-SAFE” line, to the desired fail-safe positions. In
the extreme bottom line “Position” displays the current
position of the transmitter control for the channel you
have just set:
RX FAIL SAFE
OUTPUT CH: 01
INPUT
CH: 01
MODE
: FAI-SAFE
F.S.Pos. : 1500μsec
DELAY
: 0.75sec
FAIL SAFE ALL: SAVE
POSITION : 1670μsec
After pressing the central SET button of the right-hand
four-way button once more, the display reverts from
“SAVE” to “NO”. This indicates that the position of all the
servos affected by the procedure have now been stored,
and have also been adopted in the “F.S.Pos.” line. At
the same time the position for the current OUTPUT CH
(servo socket) is immediately displayed on the screen.
RX FAIL SAFE
OUTPUT CH: 01
INPUT
CH: 01
MODE
: FAI-SAFE
F.S.Pos. : 1670μsec
DELAY
: 0.75sec
FAIL SAFE ALL: NO
POSITION : 1670μsec
Switch the transmitter off, and check the Fail-Safe positions by observing the servo movements.
“Fail-Safe” in combination with “channel mapping”
It is clearly desirable that mapped servos - i. e. servos
which are controlled by a common control channel
(INPUT CH) - should respond in the same way when
interference occurs, so the corresponding settings of the
INPUT CH determine the behaviour of mapped servos.
For example, if you are using a GR-16 eight-channel
receiver, Order No. 33508, and receiver servo sockets
6, 7 and 8 are mapped together, i. e. if the same control
channel “04” is assigned as INPUT CH to OUTPUT CH
(servo sockets) 06, 07 and 08 …
122 Program description: Telemetry menu
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RX FAIL SAFE
OUTPUT CH: 06
INPUT
CH: 04
MODE
: OFF
F.S.Pos. : 1670μsec
DELAY
: 0.75sec
FAIL SAFE ALL: NO
POSITION : 1670μsec
RX FAIL SAFE
OUTPUT CH: 04
INPUT
CH: 01
MODE
: FAI-SAFE
F.S.Pos. : 1500μsec
DELAY
: 0.75sec
FAIL SAFE ALL: NO
POSITION : 1500μsec
RX FAIL SAFE
OUTPUT CH: 07
INPUT
CH: 04
MODE
: OFF
F.S.Pos. : 1230μsec
DELAY
: 0.75sec
FAIL SAFE ALL: NO
POSITION : 1670μsec
In this case servo socket 04 would respond in accordance with the Fail-Safe settings for CH 01.
In contrast, the response or delay time set in the “DELAY” line always applies uniformly to all channels which
are set to “FAIL-SAFE”.
RX FREE MIXER
RX FREE MIXER
MODE
: 1
MASTER CH: 00
SLAVE CH : 00
S–TRAVEL–: 100
S–TRAVEL+: 100
RX WING MIXER
TAIL TYPE: NORMAL
RX FAIL SAFE
OUTPUT CH: 08
INPUT
CH: 04
MODE
: HOLD
F.S.Pos. : 1770μsec
DELAY
: 0.75sec
FAIL SAFE ALL: NO
POSITION : 1670μsec
… then INPUT CH 04 determines the Fail-Safe behaviour of the three servos connected to control channel 4,
regardless of the individual settings of the OUTPUT CH
for INPUT CH 04:
RX FAIL SAFE
OUTPUT CH: 04
INPUT
CH: 04
MODE
: FAI-SAFE
F.S.Pos. : 1500μsec
DELAY
: 0.75sec
FAIL SAFE ALL: NO
POSITION : 1500μsec
This also applies, for example, if it is mapped in turn to
INPUT CH 01:
Value
Explanation
Possible settings
MODE
Mixer select
1, 2 or 3
MASTER CH Primary channel
0, 1 … according
to transmitter
SLAVE CH
Secondary
channel
0, 1 … according
to receiver
S-TRAVEL–
Negative mix
value
0 … 100%
S-TRAVEL+
Positive mix value 0 … 100%
RX WING
MIXER
Tail type
NORMAL, V-TAIL
ELEVON
(aileron / elevator
mixer for deltas
and flying wings)
MIXER
Up to three mixers can be programmed simultaneously.
You can switch between mixer 1, mixer 2 and mixer 3
using “MIXER”.
The following settings on this screen always apply to the
mixer selected in the MIXER line.
Important note:
If you have already programmed mixer functions in
the “Wing mixers” or “Free mixers” menus, check
very carefully that those mixers do not overlap with
those of the “RX FREE MIXER” menu.
MASTER CH (“from”)
The signal present at the MASTER CH (master channel) is mixed into the SLAVE CH (slave channel) to a
user-variable extent, following the same principles as
described in detail in the section entitled “Free mixers”
on page 107.
Select “00” if no mixer is to be set.
SLAVE CH (“to”)
A proportion of the signal of the MASTER CH (master
channel) is mixed into the SLAVE CH (slave channel);
the mixer ratio is determined by the percentage figures
entered in the “TRAVEL-” and “TRAVEL+” lines.
Select “00” if no mixer is to be set.
TRAVEL–/+ (mixer ratio in %)
The mixer ratio in relation to the MASTER signal is
Program description: Telemetry menu 123
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33112_mx12_HoTT_2_GB.indd Abs45:124
RX CURVE (EXPO)
RX CURVE
CURVE1 CH
TYPE
CURVE2 CH
TYPE
CURVE3 CH
TYPE
:
:
:
:
:
:
02
B
03
B
04
B
Value
Explanation
CURVE1, 2
or 3 CH
Channel assign1 … according to
ment of the selec- receiver
ted curve setting
TYPE
Curve type
TYPE A
Expo = –100%
DR = 125%
Possible settings
A, B, C
see illustration
TYPE C
Expo = +100%
DR = 70%
Servo travel
+100%
0
Servo travel
+100%
0
–100%
–100%
TYPE B
linear
Servo travel
+100%
0
TAIL TYPE
The following model types are also available in the “Tail”
line of the “Basic settings” menu (see page 58), and
should normally be set up at that point. If you have done
this, you should always leave the TAIL TYPE at NORMAL.
However, if you prefer to use the receiver’s integral
mixers, you can select the pre-set mixer function for the
corresponding model type:
• NORMAL
This setting corresponds to the classic aircraft type
with tail-mounted stabiliser panels and separate rudder and elevator. No mixer function is required for this
model type.
• V-TAIL
For this model type the control functions elevator and
rudder are linked together in such a way that each of
the two control surfaces - actuated by a separate servos - carries out superimposed elevator and rudder
functions.
The servos are usually connected to the receiver as
follows:
OUTPUT CH 3: left V-tail servo
OUTPUT CH 4: right V-tail servo
If you find that the servos rotate in the wrong direction, please see the notes on page 44.
• ELEVON (delta / flying wing models)
The servos connected to outputs 2 and 3 assume superimposed aileron and elevator functions. The servos are usually connected to the receiver as follows:
OUTPUT CH 2: left elevon
124 Program description: Telemetry menu
OUTPUT CH 3: right elevon
If you find that the servos rotate in the wrong direction, please see the notes on page 44.
–100%
determined separately for each direction by the values
entered in these two lines.
–100% 0 +100%
Transmitter control travel
–100% 0 +100%
Transmitter control travel
–100% 0 +100%
Transmitter control travel
In most cases a non-linear control function is used for
aileron (channel 2), elevator (channel 3) and rudder
(channel 4), and the default settings assume that this is
the case. BUT CAUTION: this assignment only applies if
you have not set either “2 ELE Sv” in the “Tail” line of the
“Basic settings” menu, or “2AIL” or “2AIL 2FL” in the “Ail
/ flap” line, at the transmitter. Otherwise control function
3 (elevator) is already split over control channels 3 +
6, and control function 2 (aileron) is split over control
channels 2 + 5 for the left and right ailerons. In both
these cases the corresponding receiver control channels
(INPUT CH) would then be channels 03 + 06 or 02 + 05.
For example, if you have set “2AIL” at the transmitter,
and wish to use the RX CURVE option discussed here
instead of the “D/R Expo” menu (see page 82) of the
mx-12 HoTT transmitter - which offers more individual
adjustment options - then two curves must be set:
RX CURVE
CURVE1 CH
TYPE
CURVE2 CH
TYPE
CURVE3 CH
TYPE
:
:
:
:
:
:
02
A
05
A
04
B
If you ignored this, the left and right ailerons would
exhibit different control characteristics.
The RX CURVE function can be used to manage the
control characteristics for up to three servos:
• CURVE 1, 2 or 3 CH
Select the desired control channel (INPUT CH) for
the first servo.
The following setting in TYPE only affects the channel you select at this point.
TYPE
Select the servo curve:
A: EXPO = -100% and DUAL RATE = 125%
The servo responds slowly to stick movements
around the neutral position, but the curve becomes
steeper with increasing control travel.
B: Linear setting
06.06.2011 19:39:43
The servo follows the stick movement with a linear
response.
C: EXPO = +100% and DUAL RATE = 70%
The servo responds slowly to stick movements
around the neutral position, but the curve becomes
steeper with increasing control travel.
Note:
The control characteristics programmed at this point
also affect mapped receiver outputs.
RX SERVO TEST
RX SERVO TEST
ALL–MAX
: 2000μsec
ALL–MIN
: 1000μsec
TEST
: STOP
ALARM VOLT : 3.8V
ALARM TEMP+: 70°C
ALARM TEMP–:–10°C
CH OUTPUT TYPE:ONCE
Value
Explanation
Possible settings
ALL-MAX
Servo travel on
the “+” side for all
servo outputs in
the servo test
1500 … 2000 µs
ALL-MIN
Servo travel on
the “-” side for all
servo outputs in
the servo test
1500 … 1000 µs
TEST
Test procedure
START / STOP
ALARM
VOLT
Alarm limit for the
receiver lowvoltage warning
3,0 … 6,0 V
Default setting:
3,8 V
ALARM
TEMP+
ALARM
TEMP–
Alarm limit for
50 … 80 °C
excessive receiver Default setting:
temperature
70 °C
Alarm limit for
excessively
low receiver
temperature
-20 … +10 °C
Default setting:
-10 °C
CH OUTPUT Channel sequence ONCE, SAME,
TYPE
SUMI, SUMO
ALL MAX (maximum servo travel)
In this line you can set the maximum servo travel for the
servo test on the plus side of control travel.
2000 µs corresponds to full travel, 1500 µs corresponds
to the neutral position.
ALL MIN (minimum servo travel)
In this line you can set the maximum servo travel for the
servo test on the minus side of control travel.
1000 µs corresponds to full travel, 1500 µs corresponds
to the neutral position.
TEST
In this line you can start and stop the receiver’s integral
servo test.
Press the central SET button of the right-hand four-way
button to activate the input field:
Now select START with one of the arrow buttons of the
right-hand four-way button:
RX SERVO TEST
ALL–MAX
: 2000μsec
ALL–MIN
: 1000μsec
TEST
: START
ALARM VOLT : 3.8V
ALARM TEMP+: 70°C
ALARM TEMP–:–10°C
CH OUTPUT TYPE:ONCE
Press the central SET button of the right-hand four-way
button to start the test-run. The input field now reverts
from highlighted to “normal”:
RX SERVO TEST
ALL–MAX
: 2000μsec
ALL–MIN
: 1000μsec
TEST
: START
ALARM VOLT : 3.8V
ALARM TEMP+: 70°C
ALARM TEMP–:–10°C
CH OUTPUT TYPE:ONCE
To stop the servo test, re-activate the input field as described previously, then select STOP and confirm your
choice with the SET button of the right-hand four-way
button.
RX SERVO TEST
ALL–MAX
: 2000μsec
ALL–MIN
: 1000μsec
TEST
: STOP
ALARM VOLT : 3.8V
ALARM TEMP+: 70°C
ALARM TEMP–:–10°C
CH OUTPUT TYPE:ONCE
Program description: Telemetry menu 125
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ALARM VOLT (low receiver voltage warning)
ALARM VOLT monitors the receiver voltage. The threshold can be set to any value within the range 3.0 to 6.0
Volt. If the voltage falls below the set alarm limit, an
audible signal (interval beeping, long / short) is triggered, and “VOLT.E” flashes at top right in all “RX …”
screen displays:
RX SERVO
OUTPUT CH:
REVERSE
:
CENTER
:
TRIM
:
TRAVEL–
:
TRAVEL+
:
PERIOD
:
VOLT.E
01
OFF
1500μsec
–000μsec
150%
150%
20msec
The parameter “R-VOLT“ is also highlighted in the “RX
DATAVIEW” display:
RX DATAVIEW VOLT.E
S–QUA100%S–dBM–030dBM
S–STR100% R–TEM.+28°C
L PACK TIME 00010msec
R-VOLT
:03.7V
L.R-VOLT:03.5V
SENSOR1 :00.0V
00°C
SENSOR2 :00.0V
00°C
ALARM TEMP +/- (receiver temperature monitor)
These two options monitor the temperature of the
receiver: a lower limit value “ALARM TEMP-” (-20 ...
+10°C) and an upper limit value “ALARM TEMP+” (50 ...
80°C) can be programmed. If the temperature exceeds
the upper limit or falls below the lower one, an audible
signal (continuous beeping) is triggered, and “TEMP.E”
appears at top right in all receiver displays. The parameter “R-TEM“ is also highlighted in the “RX DATAVIEW”
display.
Ensure that the receiver remains within the permitted
126 Program description: Telemetry menu
33112_mx12_HoTT_2_GB.indd Abs45:126
temperature range under all flight conditions (ideally
between -10 and +50°C).
CH OUTPUT TYPE
At this point you can select how the receiver outputs are
to be addressed.
• ONCE
The receiver servo sockets are addressed in sequence; this is recommended for use with analogue
servos. At this setting the servos are automatically operated at a frame rate of 20 ms (30 ms with the
twelve-channel receiver, Order No. 33512) - regardless of what is set or displayed in the “PERIOD” line
of the “RX SERVO” display.
• SAME
The receiver servo sockets are addressed in parallel
blocks of four, i. e. if you are using the GR-12 receiver included in the set, channels 1 to 4 and channels
5 and 6 each receive their control signals simultaneously.
This is recommended for use with digital servos, and
especially where multiple servos are employed for
a single function (e. g. ailerons), to ensure that the
groups of servos run absolutely synchronously.
If you are using digital servos, we recommend that
you set 10 ms in the “PERIOD” line of the “RX SERVO” display so that you can exploit the fast response
of these servos. If you are using analogue servos, it
is essential to select “20 ms”.
If you choose the faster setting, please take particular care when selecting the receiver power
supply: since up to four servos can start moving simultaneously, the load on the battery is fairly severe,
so it must be a high-performance type.
• SUMO (Sum signal OUT)
A HoTT receiver configured as SUMO constantly generates what is known as a sum signal from the
control signals of all its control channels. This signal
is present, for example, at servo socket 8 of the GR16 and GR-24 receiver.
The receiver outputs are addressed in sequence at a
frame rate of 20 ms (30 ms with the GR-24 receiver,
Order No. 33512), even if you have set 10 ms in the
“PERIOD” line of the “RX SERVO” screen page.
Although primarily intended for “satellite mode” with
two HoTT receivers, as described below, the sum
signal generated by the receiver defined as SUMO
can also be used, for example, to control a flybarless system, or to control a flight simulator (using the
adapter lead, Order No. 33310).
In …
Satellite mode
… two HoTT receivers are inter-connected using a
three-core connecting lead (Order No. 33700.1 (300
mm) or 33700.2 (100 mm) by the highest-numbered
servo sockets. For more details on this please visit
www.graupner.de on the Internet.
All channels of the HoTT receiver which is configured
as SUMO, and is defined as the satellite receiver, are
constantly transferred to the second HoTT receiver the primary receiver - via this connection . The primary receiver must be programmed as the …
• SUMI (Sum signal IN).
Note that the signal only ever moves in one direction:
towards the SUMI.
However, if reception fails, the receiver defined as
SUMI only uses the sum signal coming from the
06.06.2011 19:39:43
SUMO if at least one channel at the SUMI is programmed to Fail-Safe.
If the receiver programmed as the satellite (SUMO)
suffers signal reception failure, the servos connected
to that receiver take up the Fail-Safe positions programmed in the satellite receiver, regardless of the
primary receiver.
If, in contrast, reception fails at both receivers simultaneously, then the receiver software (the version
current at the time of printing these instructions) always reverts to the SUMO’s fail-safe settings. However, mutual interactions can certainly not be ruled
out in individual cases, and for this reason we urgently advise you to carry out appropriate tests
BEFORE flying a model.
This receiver configuration is recommended in particular circumstances: for example, if one of the two receivers has to be installed in an unfavourable position
in the model, or if there is a danger that the received
signal will be weak in certain flight attitudes, perhaps due to a turbine, carbon fibre in the airframe, or
a similar problem, with the result that sporadic range
problems might be expected.
For this reason it is essential to connect the most important control functions to the primary receiver (the
one programmed as SUMI), so that interference to
the satellite receiver (SUMO) does not cause the
model to go out of control.
Telemetry data, such as the voltage of the airborne
power supply, are only sent to the transmitter by the
satellite receiver (configured as SUMO), i. e. all telemetry sensors must be connected to the satellite
receiver (SUMO).
Each receiver should be connected to the shared
power supply using its own power lead. If high currents can be expected, duplicated power connections
are recommended. However, if each of the two receivers is to be powered by its own battery, then it is
red
essential to withdraw
1
the central (red) wire
from one of the two sat3
2
ellite lead connectors,
as shown in the illustration.
If you wish to carry out further programming, such
as the Fail-Safe settings, disconnect the three-core
satellite connection between the two receivers, and
switch on just the receiver you wish to address. Note
that you may also need to change the binding sequence.
Program description: Telemetry menu 127
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SIMPLE DATA VIEW
SIMPLE DATA VIEW
Select the desired menu line using the arrow buttons
cd of the left or right-hand four-way button …
TELEMETRY
SETTING & DATA VIEW
SIMPLE DATA VIEW
RF STATUS VIEW
VOICE TRIGGER
… and then press the central SET button of the righthand four-way button to bring up a list of further submenus.
SIMPLE DATA VIEW
RECEIVER
RX+GENERAL MODUL
RX+ELECTRIC AIRMODUL
RX+VARIO MODUL
RX+GPS
CH OUTPUT TYPE:ONCE
RECEIVER
RX–S QUA: 100%
RX–S ST : 100%
RX–dBm:
33dBm
TX–dBm:
33dBm
V–PACK:
10ms
RX–VOLT:4.8
TMP
CHM–RX
OUTPUT
TYPE:ONCE
V :4.6
+22°C
This screen displays the data which can also be viewed
in the “RX DATAVIEW” screen of the telemetry menu
“SETTING & DATA VIEW”, but in graphic form.
The meanings are as follows:
Value
Explanation
RX-S QUA
Signal quality in %
RX-S ST
Signal strength in %
RX-dBm
Receive performance in dBm
TX-dBm
Transmit power in dBm
V PACK
shows the longest period in ms in
which data packets were lost in
transmission from transmitter to
receiver
RX-VOLT
Current receiver operating voltage in
Volt
M-RX V
Lowest receiver operating voltage in
Volt since the last time it was switched
on
TMP
The thermometer indicates the
receiver’s current operating
temperature
RX + GENERAL MODUL
BAT1 E FUEL F
0.0V
T1 +20°C
BAT2
0.0V T2 +20°C
CELL V
1:0.00
2:0.00
3:0.00
4:0.00
5:0.00
6:0.00
0
ALT
+500m
0m1
BAT1 E FUEL F
0m3
0.0V
CURRE.
T1 +20°C
0.0A
POWER
BAT2
0.0V
0.0V T2 +20°C
If a General Engine module, Order No. 33610, or a
General Air module, Order No. 33611, is connected to
the receiver, then this screen provides a graphic display
of the data supplied by it. For more information on these
modules please see the Appendix, or refer to the product on the Internet at www.graupner.de.
Depending on the types of sensor fitted to the modules,
the display constantly shows the following data:
The actual voltage of up to two rechargeable batteries
(BAT1 and BAT2); the measured values from up to two
temperature sensors (T1 and T2) and a fueltank level
indicator.
At the right-hand edge the screen shows either an alternating list of the actual cell voltages of a LiPo battery
with up to six cells, or the current altitude relative to the
location, climb / descent in m/1sec and m/3sec, current
in Ampere plus the actual voltage of the battery connected to the sensor.
128 Program description: Telemetry menu
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The meanings are as follows:
Value
Explanation
BAT1 / BAT2
Battery 1 / Battery 2
FUEL
Fuel level / Fueltank indicator
E/F
Empty / full
T1 / T2
Temperature of sensor 1 / sensor 2
CELL V
Cell voltage of cell 1 … max. 6
ALT
Current altitude
0m1
m/1 sec climb / descent
0m3
m/3 sec climb / descent
CURRE.
Actual current in Ampere
POWER
Actual voltage of drive battery
RX + ELECTRIC AIRMODUL
0.0V
0A
ALT +500m
BAT1
0m/1s
0.0V
0m/3s
T1 +20°C
BAT2
0.0V T2 +20°C
0.0V
0A
ALT +500m
BAT1
0m/1s
0.0V
0m/3s
T1 +20°C
BAT2
0.0V T2 +20°C
CELL V
1L0.00
2L0.00
3L0.00
4L0.00
5L0.00
6L0.00
7L0.00
CELL V
1H0.00
2H0.00
3H0.00
4H0.00
5H0.00
6H0.00
7H0.00
on this module please see the Appendix, or refer to the
product on the Internet at www.graupner.de.
Depending on the types of sensor fitted to the module,
the display constantly shows the following data:
The actual voltage of up to two rechargeable batteries
(BAT1 and BAT2); the measured values from up to two
temperature sensors (T1 and T2); the current altitude
relative to the location, and the climb / descent of the
model in m/1sec and m/3sec; the centre of the screen
also displays the current actually being drawn from a
power source.
At the right-hand edge the screen shows an alternating
display of the actual cell voltages of the battery packs
(max. seven cells each) connected to balancer sockets
1 (L) or 2 (H).
The meanings are as follows:
RX + VARIO
m/1s
0
H
ALT
+500
m/3s
0
m/10s
0
RXSQ
0
L
MAX
+500m
MIN
+500m
If a Vario module, Order No. 33601, is connected to the
receiver, then this screen provides a graphic display
of the data supplied by it. For more information on this
module please see the Appendix or refer to the product
on the Internet at www.graupner.de.
The meanings are as follows:
Value
Explanation
ALT
Current altitude
RXSQ
Signal strength of the signal picked up
by the receiver in %
MAX
The pre-set altitude limit relative to
the launch point; above this altitude
the transmitter emits audible warning
signals
MIN
The pre-set altitude limit below the
launch point; below this altitude the
transmitter emits audible warning
signals
Value
Explanation
V
Actual voltage
A
Actual current
BAT1 / BAT2
Battery 1 / Battery 2
ALT
Current altitude
m/1s
m/1 sec climb / descent
m/3s
m/3 sec climb / descent
T1 / T2
Temperature from sensor 1 / 2
CELL.V
Cell voltage of cell 1 … max. 14
L
Balancer socket 1
m/1s
m/1 sec climb / descent
H
Balancer socket 2
m/3s
m/3 sec climb / descent
m/10s
m/10 sec climb / descent
If an Electric-Air module, Order No. 33620, is connected
to the receiver, then this screen provides a graphic
display of the data supplied by it. For more information
Program description: Telemetry menu 129
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RF STATUS VIEW
RX + GPS
N
W
0
Kmh
S
RXSQ
0
DIS
0m
ALT
+500m
0m/1s
E
0m/3s
0m/10s
N
0°00.0000
E
0°00.0000
If a GPS module with integral vario, Order No. 33600,
is connected to the receiver, then this screen provides
a graphic display of the data supplied by it. For more
information on this module please see the Appendix, or
refer to the product on the Internet at www.graupner.de.
The centre of the screen shows the current positional
data and the model’s speed; the display also shows the
model’s current altitude in relation to the launch point, its
climb / descent rate at m/1 sec, m/3 sec and m/10 sec,
the current reception quality and the model’s range from
the launch point.
The meanings are as follows:
Value
Explanation
W/N/E/S
West / North / East / South
Kmh
Speed
RXSQ
Signal strength of downlink channel
DIS
Distance
ALT
Current altitude relative to launch point
m/1s
m/1 sec climb / descent
m/3s
m/3 sec climb / descent
m/10s
m/10 sec climb / descent
RF STATUS VIEW
Select the desired menu line with the arrow buttons
cd of the left or right-hand four-way button …
TELEMETRY
SETTING & DATA VIEW
SIMPLE DATA VIEW
RF STATUS VIEW
VOICE TRIGGER
… and then press the central SET button of the righthand four-way button to open the selected sub-menu:
R100%
S 95%
TD 22
S
Signal quality in % for the signal
arriving at the receiver
TD
Reception performance in dBm
E
Number of lost receiver data packets
RD
Reception performance in dBm of the
signal picked up by the receiver
VC
Actual receiver operating voltage in
Volt
VM
Lowest receiver operating voltage in
Volt since the last time it was switched
on
E
10
RD 41
4.8VC
4.8VM 0123456789ABCDE
Top row:
receive performance in dBm of channels
1 ... 75 on the 2.4 GHz band.
Bottom row:
receive performance in dBm of the signal of channels 1 ... 75 on the 2.4 GHz
band, as picked up by the receiver.
This screen provides a graphic display of data showing
the occupation of the 2.4 GHz band.
As well as the graphic depiction of band occupation,
additional numeric information is generated to the left of
the graphs. The meanings are as follows:
Value
Explanation
R
Signal quality in % for the signal
arriving from the receiver
130 Program description: Telemetry menu
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VOICE TRIGGER
VOICE TRIGGER
First select the desired menu line using the arrow buttons cd of the left or right-hand four-way button …
TELEMETRY
SETTING & DATA VIEW
SIMPLE DATA VIEW
RF STATUS VIEW
VOICE TRIGGER
… then press the central SET button of the right-hand
four-way button to open the selected sub-menu:
REPEAT
VOICE TRIGGER
REPEAT
1SEC
TRIG
VARIO
TRANSFER
RECEIVER
–––
–––
–––
Speech output is available via the headphone socket,
but not until you have at least assigned a switch in the
“REPEAT” line. This is accomplished as described in
the section entitled “Assigning switches and control
switches” on page 39:
VOICE TRIGGER
REPEAT
1SEC –––
push desired switch
TRIG
–––
VARIO
into position ON –––
TRANSFER
RECEIVER
VOICE TRIGGER
REPEAT
1SEC
TRIG
VARIO
TRANSFER
RECEIVER
3
–––
–––
All the time the assigned switch is closed, the last
speech output is repeated for the period set to the left of
the switch.
TRIG
Using a switch assigned to this line - preferably the
momentary switche SW 1 - you can cycle through
the speech outputs selected under the “TRANSFER”,
“RECEIVER” and “SENSOR” options, as described in
the following section.
VOICE TRIGGER
REPEAT
1SEC
TRIG
VARIO
TRANSFER
RECEIVER
3
1
–––
VARIO
If you assign a switch in this line, and activate the “RX
+ VARIO” sub-menu of the “DISPLAY DATA” menu as
described on the next page under “Sensor”, you can
use a switch assigned in this line to call up vario-specific
outputs (i. e. those triggered by height changes, such as
“slow climb / descent” etc.) via the optional headphone
socket, Order No. 33001.71 - completely independently
of the other speech outputs.
VOICE TRIGGER
REPEAT
1SEC
TRIG
VARIO
TRANSFER
RECEIVER
3
1
7
TRANSFER
Select the desired menu line using the arrow buttons
cd of the left or right-hand four-way button …
VOICE TRIGGER
REPEAT
1SEC
TRIG
VARIO
TRANSFER
RECEIVER
3
1
7
… then briefly press the central SET button of the righthand four-way button to open the selected sub-menu:
VOLT:
MODELTIME:
BATTERYTIME:
STOPWATCH:
RUNTIME:
TIME:
In this menu you can select ( ) or de-select ( ) the
chosen speech output after using the arrow buttons
cd of the left or right-hand four-way button to select
the desired line, followed by a brief press of the central
SET button of the right-hand four-way button:
Program description: Telemetry menu 131
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VOLT:
MODELTIME:
BATTERYTIME:
STOPWATCH:
RUNTIME:
TIME:
RECEIVER
Select the desired menu line with the arrow buttons
cd of the left or right-hand four-way button …
VOICE TRIGGER
REPEAT
1SEC
TRIG
VARIO
TRANSFER
RECEIVER
desired line.
TEMP:
STRENGTH:
VOLT:
LOWVOLT:
3
1
7
… then press the central SET button of the right-hand
four-way button to call up the selected sub-menu:
TEMP:
STRENGTH:
VOLT:
LOWVOLT:
In this menu you can select ( ) or de-select ( ) the
chosen speech output after using the arrow buttons
cd of the left or right-hand four-way button to select
the desired line, followed by a brief press of the central
SET button of the right-hand four-way button:
Note:
The voice output you select here is completely independent of the “VARIO” outputs.
SENSOR
This line only appears if you have already activated one
of the “RX …” sub-menus of the “SIMPLE DATA VIEW”
menu, and then returned directly to the “VOICE TRIGGER” menu:
VOICE TRIGGER
REPEAT
1SEC
TRIG
VARIO
TRANSFER
RECEIVER
SENSOR
3
1
7
For example, if you selected the “RX + VARIO” option,
then selected the “SENSOR” line and pressed the central SET button of the right-hand four-way button, you
will see the display shown below:
ALT :
MAXALT :
MINALT :
VOLT MINIMUM:
As described in the left-hand column, you can also
select ( ) or de-select ( ) any available speech
output by briefly pressing the central SET button of the
right-hand four-way button after you have selected the
132 Program description: Telemetry menu
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For your notes 133
33112_mx12_HoTT_2_GB.indd Abs52:133
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Trainer Mode
Connecting two transmitters for trainer mode operations using a Trainer lead
Use the arrow buttons of the left or right-hand four-way
button to leaf through to the “Trainer” menu point of the
multi-function menu:
ser vo set.
D/R expo
wing mixer
ser vo disp
fail-safe
teach/pupi
ser vo set.
D/R expo
free mixer
ser vo disp
fail-safe
teach/pupi
contr set.
phase trim
free mixer
basic sett
telemetr y
info disp
contr set.
heli mixer
swashp.mix
basic sett
telemetr y
info disp
Press the central SET button of the right-hand four-way
button to open the menu:
TRAINER/Pupil
–P
T
1 2 3 4 5 6
N/A
SW: ––– BIND:
The illustration above shows the initial state of this
menu: transmitter controls have not been released ( ) to
the pupil, and a switch has not been assigned (SW: --at bottom right and -P on the left of the display).
Teacher transmitter settings
Up to six transmitter control functions of the Teacher
transmitter “T” can be transferred individually or in any
combination to the pupil transmitter “P”.
The lower line of the display marked “T” therefore
indicates those transmitter controls which are permanently connected to the inputs Ch 1, AIL, ELE and RUD
(dual-axis stick functions, fixed-wing model) or 1 … 4
(dual-axis stick functions, model helicopter).
Notes:
• This means that the rotary proportional knobs CTRL
7 and 8, and the three-position switches SW 4/5 and
6/7, designated CTRL 9 and 10, explicitly CANNOT
be transferred.
• Transmitter controls can only be assigned in the
“Transmitter control settings” menu when the Trainer connection is switched off.
Use the arrow buttons ef of the left or right-hand
four-way button to select the transmitter controls 1 to 6
(z) to be transferred to the pupil, and briefly press the
central SET button of the right-hand four-way button in
each case, so that they switch from “T (Teacher)” ( ) to
“P (Pupil)” ( ):
TRAINER/Pupil
–P
T
1 2 3 4 5 6
N/A
SW: ––– BIND:
You still have to assign a Trainer transfer switch on the
right of the screen so that you can actually transfer control to the Pupil. This is accomplished by using the arrow
buttons of the left or right-hand four-way button to place
the marker next to “SW” at bottom right, and assign a
switch as described on page 39.
We recommend that you use the momentary switch
SW 1 as the transfer switch, to ensure that the Teacher
transmitter can regain control instantly at any time.
TRAINER/Teach
¿P
T
1 2 3 4 5 6
N/A
SW: 1
BIND:
Note:
The switch assignment procedure described above
determines which transmitter provides the Teacher
function, and which provides the Pupil function. For this
reason a switch must NEVER be assigned to the Pupil
transmitter in this menu. To underline this, the menu
headline switches from “TRAINER / pupil” to “TRAINER / teacher” as soon as a switch is assigned.
The model to be controlled by the pupil must be programmed completely in a model memory of the mx12 HoTT Teacher transmitter, i. e. with all its functions
including trims and any mixer functions. The HoTT receiver in the model must also be “bound” to the Teacher
transmitter, since it is this transmitter which actually
controls the model in Pupil mode, even in Trainer operations.
The mx-12 HoTT Teacher transmitter MUST ALWAYS
BE SWITCHED ON FIRST. ONLY THEN MAY THE
CONNECTING LEAD BE PLUGGED INTO IT. If you
neglect this, the RF module will not be activated.
134 Program description: Trainer system
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The mx-12 HoTT Teacher transmitter can be linked to
any suitable Pupil transmitter - even those operating on
the “classic” 35 / 40 MHz band. For example, an mx12 HoTT Teacher transmitter can certainly be used in
conjunction with an mx-12s Pupil transmitter.
However, if the connection at the pupil end is NOT
made using a two-pole DSC socket, but instead - for
example - using a three-pin Trainer socket from the
Graupner range, the basic requirement for a correct
connection with a Pupil transmitter is that PPM (18
or 24) modulation must ALWAYS be set on the Pupil
transmitter, regardless of the modulation used by
the Teacher transmitter.
Pupil transmitter settings
The model to be controlled by the pupil must be programmed completely in a model memory of the Teacher
transmitter, i. e. with all its functions including trims and
any mixer functions, and the HoTT receiver in the model
must be “bound” to the Teacher transmitter. In principle,
however, an mx-12 HoTT Pupil transmitter can also be
linked to a Teacher transmitter operating on the “classic”
35 / 40 MHz band, since the PPM signal required from
the Teacher transmitter is present at the transmitter’s
DSC socket.
The Pupil transmitter can be virtually any transmitter
from the former and current Graupner range with at
least four control functions. More information on this is
available in the main FS catalogue, and on the Internet
under www.graupner.de.
Some transmitters will need to be retro-fitted with the
appropriate module in order to act as the Pupil transmitter.
This should be connected to the transmitter circuit board
as described in the installation instructions supplied in
the set. Information on the Pupil module required can
be found in the main Graupner FS catalogue and on the
Internet at www.graupner.de.
The Pupil transmitter must be connected to the Teacher
transmitter using the appropriate lead - see next double
page. The control functions of the Pupil transmitter
MUST act directly on the control channels, i. e. the
receiver outputs, without the intervention of any
mixers.
If you are using an “mc” or “mx” series transmitter,
it is best to set up a free model memory in the Pupil
transmitter with the required model type (“Fixed-wing”
or “Helicopter”). Assign the model name “Pupil” to the
memory, and set up the stick mode (Mode 1 … 4) and
“Throttle min. forward / back” to suit the pupil’s preference. All the other settings should be left at the appropriate default values. If you select the “Helicopter” model
type, the throttle / collective pitch direction and idle trim
must also be set accordingly on the Pupil transmitter. All
other functions, including mixer and coupling functions,
are carried out by the Teacher transmitter, which transmits them to the receiver in the model.
If you are using a “D” or “FM” type transmitter, you
should check the servo directions and stick mode, and
alter them by re-connecting the appropriate leads if required. All mixers should be switched off or set to “zero”.
When assigning the control functions the usual conventions should be observed:
Channel
Function
1
Throttle / Collective pitch
2
Aileron / Roll
3
Elevator / Pitch-axis
4
Rudder / Tail rotor
If you wish to transfer other control functions to the
Pupil transmitter, in addition to the functions of the two
dual-axis sticks (1 … 4), then you will need to assign
additional transmitter controls in the Pupil transmitter’s
“Transmitter control settings” menu to those inputs
which correspond to transmitter control numbers 5 and
/ or 6, as released in the Teacher transmitter’s “Trainer”
menu.
Important:
• If you forget to assign a transmitter control, then
the servo or servos concerned will remain in the
centre position when control is transferred to the
Pupil transmitter.
• The Pupil transmitter must always be operated in
PPM mode, regardless of the type of RF link between the Teacher transmitter and the model.
• If the Pupil transmitter is connected using a DSC
socket, then you should ALWAYS leave the Pupil transmitter’s On / Off switch at the “OFF” position, as this is the only way to ensure that the Pupil transmitter module does not generate an RF
signal even when the DSC lead is plugged in.
Trainer mode operations
Connect the two transmitters using the appropriate
lead; see the overview on the next page: connect the
plug marked “M” (Master) to the socket on the Teacher
transmitter, and the plug marked “S” (Student) (not
present on all leads) to the appropriate socket on the
Pupil transmitter.
Program description: Trainer system 135
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Important note regarding three-pole barrel connectors:
If you are using a Trainer lead with three-pole barrel
connectors, on no account connect one of the ends
marked “S” or “M” to a DSC system socket, as it is
not suitable for this purpose. The DSC socket is only
suitable for leads fitted with two-pole barrel connectors.
Checking the system
Operate the assigned Trainer transfer switch:
• If the screen display changes from „¾T“ to „¾P“, the
Trainer system is working properly.
• However, if both the “Trainer” menu and the transmitter’s basic display show the following warning message …
no
student
signal
… and the display “-P” appears on the left of the
screen in the “Trainer” menu, and at the same time
the transmitter emits audible signals, then there is
a problem with the connection between Pupil and
Teacher transmitter. If this should happen, note that
all the functions remain under the control of the
Teacher transmitter, regardless of the position of the
Trainer transfer switch; this ensures that the model is
not out of control at any time.
Possible errors:
• Pupil transmitter not ready
• The interface in the Pupil transmitter, which replaces
the RF module, is not connected correctly
• Incorrect cable connection: see next section for cable
selection
• Pupil transmitter not set to PPM (10, 18, 24) mode.
Further possible errors:
• Teacher transmitter and HoTT receiver in trainer
model not correctly “bound”.
Trainer leads
4179.1
For Trainer mode operations between any
two Graupner transmitters equipped with a
DSC socket - identifiable by two-pole barrel
connectors at both ends.
3290.7
Trainer lead for connecting a Teacher transmitter with DSC socket (e. g. mx-12 HoTT),
or a transmitter retro-fitted with the optional DSC module, Order No. 3290.24, to a
Graupner Pupil transmitter with opto-electronic Pupil socket - identifiable by the letter
“S” at the end with the three-pole barrel connector.
3290.8
Trainer lead for connecting a Pupil transmitter with DSC socket (e. g. mx-12 HoTT)
or a transmitter retro-fitted with the optional DSC module, Order No. 3290.24, to a
Graupner Teacher transmitter with opto-electronic Teacher socket - identifiable by the letter “M” at the end with the three-pole barrel
connector.
For more detailed information about the leads and modules for the Teacher and Pupil transmitters listed on this
page, please refer to the operating instructions supplied
with your transmitter, the main Graupner FS catalogue,
or the Internet at www.graupner.de.
136 Program description: Trainer system
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Trainer mode operations with the mx-12 HoTT transmitter
Due to the constant expansion of our range of products please visit the Internet at www.graupner.de for the latest information.
mx-12 HoTT Teacher transmitter
ter
mx-12 HoTT Pupil transmitter
mitter
Trainer lead,
Order No. 4179.1
Trainer lead,
Order No. 3290.8
Trainer lead,
Order No. 3290.7
Trainer lead,
Order No. 4179.1
M
Teacher transmitter
with DSC socket
Teacher transmitter with Teacher
module Order No. 3290.2,
3290.19, 3290.22
mx-12(s)HoTT, mx-16s/iFS/
mc-19 to mc-24, mx-22(iFS),
HoTT, mx-22(iFS), mx-24s and,
mx-24s
if fitted with DSC socket, Order No.
3290.24, mc-19(s + iFS), mc-22(s
+ iFS) and mc-24
S
Pupil transmitter with Pupil
module Order No. 3290.3,
3290.10, 3290.33
Pupil transmitter
with DSC socket
mx-12(s)HoTT, mx-16s/iFS/
HoTT, mx-22(iFS), mx-24s and,
if fitted with DSC socket, Order
No. 3290.24, mc-19(s + iFS),
mc-22(s + iFS) and mc-24
D 14, FM 414, FM 4014, FM 6014,
mc-10 … mc-24, mx-22(iFS),
mx-24s
Note:
These lists represent the transmitters and transmitter combinations which are possible at time of going to press.
Program description: Trainer system 137
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Wireless HoTT system
Two HoTT transmitters can also be combined by wireless means to form a Trainer system as an alternative to
the “classic” system using a Trainer lead, as described
on the preceding pages.
Preparations
The trainer model must be programmed completely,
i. e. with all its functions including trims and any mixer
functions, both in a model memory of the mx-12 HoTT
Pupil transmitter and also in the mx-12 HoTT Teacher
transmitter. This means that it must be possible to
control the trainer model fully, without restriction, by
both transmitters, i. e. by the Teacher and the Pupil
transmitters. It is very important to avoid any major
set-up differences, otherwise there is a risk that the
servos will jump abruptly from one position to another
when control is transferred between the Teacher and
Pupil transmitters, which can place a severe strain on
the servos. Nevertheless, it may be sensible to program
smaller control surface travels on the Pupil model at
least, as this makes it easier to learn the basic skills of
model flying.
Once both transmitters are prepared for training operations as described above, the trainer model should be
bound to the Pupil transmitter. A detailed description
of the binding procedure can be found on pages 61 and
70.
Binding the Teacher and Pupil transmitters
Switch both transmitters on, and use the arrow buttons
of the left or right-hand four-way button to leaf through
on both transmitters to the “Trainer” menu point of the
multi-function menu. (The trainer model’s receiving system, previously bound to the Pupil transmitter, does not
need to be switched on during the following procedure.)
ser vo set.
D/R expo
wing mixer
ser vo disp
fail-safe
teach/pupi
contr set.
phase trim
free mixer
basic sett
telemetr y
info disp
ser vo set.
D/R expo
free mixer
ser vo disp
fail-safe
teach/pupi
contr set.
heli mixer
swashp.mix
basic sett
telemetr y
info disp
Press the central SET button of the right-hand four-way
button to open the following menu point:
TRAINER/Pupil
–P
T
1 2 3 4 5 6
N/A
SW: ––– BIND:
The illustration above shows the initial state of this
menu: no transmitter controls have been released to the
Pupil ( ), and no switches have been assigned (SW: --bottom right and -S on left of illustration).
Pupil transmitter
Use the arrow buttons of the left or right-hand four-way
button to move the marker / cursor to the input field
marked “Bind”. If a switch is displayed adjacent to “SW”
on the right, then it is essential to erase this: see the
following illustration:
TRAINER/Pupil
–P
T
1 2 3 4 5 6
SW: ––– BIND:
N/A
Teacher transmitter
Press the central SET button of the right-hand four-way
button to release the control channels to be transferred
to the Pupil. When you do this, the corresponding symbol changes from to . For example:
TRAINER/Pupil
–P
T
1 2 3 4 5 6
N/A
SW: ––– BIND:
Important Note:
In contrast to the wired Trainer system described in the
previous section, in which TRANSMITTER CONTROL
SIGNALS are released to the Pupil exclusively, it is
CONTROL CHANNELS which are transferred when
using the wireless HoTT system which is described in
this section.
For example, if the aileron function (2) is to be transferred, and if the model is equipped with two aileron
servos which are usually connected to receiver sockets
2 and 5, then in the wireless system control channels
2 and 5 must also be transferred, and not just - as with
the wired system - number 2; see illustration above. The
same applies to flap servos connected to 6 and 1 (“2AIL
138 Program description: Trainer system
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2FL” setting in the “Basic settings” menu), or two elevator servos connected to 3 and 6 (“2Sv EL” setting in the
“Basic settings” menu).
You still have to assign a Trainer transfer switch on the
right of the screen so that you can actually transfer control to the Pupil. This is accomplished by using the arrow
buttons of the left or right-hand four-way button to place
the marker next to “SW” at bottom right, and assign a
switch as described on page 39.
We recommend that you use the momentary switch
SW 1 as the transfer switch, to ensure that the Teacher
transmitter can regain control instantly at any time.
TRAINER/Teach
¿P
T
1 2 3 4 5 6
N/A
SW: 1
BIND:
TRAINER/Teach
… and immediately afterwards that of the Teacher
transmitter:
P
¿T
TRAINER/Teach
1 2 3 4 5 6
N/A
SW: 1
BIND:
Binding the Pupil transmitter to the Teacher transmitter
Note:
During the binding procedure the distance between the
two transmitters should not be too great. You may need
to change the relative position of the two transmitters
and initiate the binding process a second time.
If necessary, close the Trainer transfer switch which you
have just assigned …
¿P
T
1 2 3 4 5 6
SW: 1
BIND: BINDING
As soon as this process is concluded, both screens display “ON” instead of the flashing message “BINDING”:
TRAINER/Teach
¿P
T
1 2 3 4 5 6
SW: 1
BIND:
ON
TRAINER/Teach
TRAINER/Pupil
Note:
The switch assignment procedure described above
determines which transmitter provides the Teacher
function, and which provides the Pupil function. For this
reason a switch must NEVER be assigned to the Pupil
transmitter in this menu. To underline this, the menu
headline switches from “TRAINER / pupil” to “TRAINER / teacher” as soon as a switch is assigned.
Now use the arrow buttons of the left or right-hand
four-way button to move the marker to “BIND: N/A” on
the right:
¿P
T
1 2 3 4 5 6
N/A
SW: 1
BIND:
… and start the “BINDING” process first at the Pupil
transmitter by pressing the central SET button of the
right-hand four-way button …
TRAINER/Pupil
–P
T
1 2 3 4 5 6
SW: ––– BIND: BINDING
–P
T
1 2 3 4 5 6
SW: ––– BIND:
ON
This concludes the binding process, and you can return
to the basic display of both transmitters, and start trainer
mode operations - once you have checked the operation
of all the functions.
However, if neither transmitter, or only one of the transmitters, displays “ON”, indicating that the binding procedure has failed, try changing the relative position of the
two transmitters, and repeat the whole procedure.
During …
Program description: Trainer system 139
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Trainer mode operations
… it is no problem for the Teacher and Pupil to stand
a little way apart. However, you should never exceed a
distance of 50 m (this is known as the call range), and
no other persons should stand between the Teacher and
Pupil, as this could reduce the effective range. Please
note also that the wireless Trainer function exploits the
downlink connection, and for this reason no telemetry
data are transmitted from the model in this mode.
In this mode of operation the basic display of the Teacher transmitter looks like this …
GRAUBELE
#01
RFC–Teach
5.2V 51%
2:22h
0:00
stop
flt
0:00
«normal »
K78 HoTT
P
5.5V
… and that of the Pupil transmitter typically like this:
GRAUBELE
#09
RFC-Pupil
4.9V 33%
1:11h
0:00
stop
flt
0:00
«normal »
K78 HoTT
5.5V
If it should occur that the link between the Teacher and
Pupil transmitters is lost during Trainer mode operations,
note that the Teacher transmitter automatically assumes
control of the model.
In this situation, if the Trainer change-over switch is in
the “Pupil” position, then the central LED on the Teacher
transmitter starts to flash blue / red for the duration of
the signal loss, and the transmitter emits audible warn-
ing signals. At the same time “RFC-” flashes in the basic
display, and the following warning is displayed:
no
student
signal
However, if only “RFC-” flashes in the basic transmitter
display, and - relatively quiet - audible signals are heard
…
GRAUBELE
#01
RFC–Teach
5.2V 51%
2:22h
0:00
stop
flt
0:00
«normal »
K78 HoTT
P
5.5V
… then this indicates that the Pupil signal has also been
lost, but the Trainer transfer switch is in the “Teacher”
position.
In either situation your first recourse should be to reduce
the distance between the two transmitters. If this does
not help, land the model immediately, and seek the
cause.
However, if both transmitters are operating with the receiving system switched off, then the “familiar” symbol
appears in the basic display of the Teacher transmitter
instead of the two symbols.
TRAINER
Wireless Link
ACT
INH
Press the central SET button of the right-hand four-way
button to confirm “ACT(ivate)”, or alternatively wait for
about two seconds until the message disappears; the
last link you created with a Teacher or Pupil transmitter
is now restored.
However, if you select “INH(ibit)” using one of the arrow
buttons of the left or right-hand four-way button …
TRAINER
Wireless Link
ACT
INH
… and confirm your choice by pressing the central SET
button of the right-hand four-way button, this resets that
transmitter to “normal” operation. In this case you will
have to repeat the binding process with a Teacher or
Pupil transmitter as and when required.
Resuming Trainer mode operations
If - for whatever reason - one or both transmitters are
switched off during a Trainer mode session, then the
screen displays the following query when the transmitter
or transmitters are switched on again:
140 Program description: Trainer system
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For your notes 141
33112_mx12_HoTT_2_GB.indd Abs53:141
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Info Display
Date, time, transmitter ID and memory card
Use the arrow buttons of the left or right-hand four-way
button to leaf through to the “info disp” menu point of the
multi-function menu:
ser vo set.
D/R expo
wing mixer
ser vo disp
fail-safe
teach/pupi
contr set.
phase trim
free mixer
basic sett
telemetr y
info disp
ser vo set.
D/R expo
free mixer
ser vo disp
fail-safe
teach/pupi
contr set.
heli mixer
swashp.mix
basic sett
telemetr y
info disp
Press the central SET button of the right-hand four-way
button to open the menu point:
ABCDEF12
RFID
1.11
firmware ver.
0MB
SD-CARD
0MB
available
0%
This menu displays transmitter-specific information,
some of which can be altered where necessary and
sensible.
Use the arrow buttons cd of the left or right-hand fourway button to select the appropriate line, then press the
central SET button of the right-hand four-way button. In
the highlighted value field you can now alter the default
value using the arrow buttons of the right-hand four-way
button, and conclude your input with a further press of
the central SET key.
SD card
ABCDEF12
RFID
1.11
firmware ver.
2048MB
SD-CARD
1234MB
available
60%
RFID
ABCDEF12
RFID
1.11
firmware ver.
0MB
SD-CARD
0MB
available
0%
This line displays the transmitter’s identification number.
This number is specific to the transmitter, and is only
issued once for each transmitter. During the binding
process this ID is transmitted to the receiver (amongst
other data), so that it is able at any time to identify the
radio signals of “its” transmitter.
Firmware version
ABCDEF12
RFID
1.11
firmware ver.
0MB
SD-CARD
0MB
available
0%
This line displays the version number of the transmitter
software currently installed.
By comparing the number shown here with the update
version available for the same product on the Internet
at www.graupner.de you can judge whether an update
to the transmitter’s operating system is necessary and
useful.
In some circumstances our Service department may
also ask you for the version number.
This line displays the storage capacity in MB of a
memory card installed in the transmitter.
Depending on the memory capacity of the micro-SD
or micro-SDHC memory card fitted in the transmitter,
it may take several minutes for the display to show the
correct value after you switch the transmitter on.
available
ABCDEF12
RFID
1.11
firmware ver.
2048MB
SD-CARD
1234MB
available
60%
Display of the available memory in MB.
As already mentioned, it may take a certain amount of
time for the available memory to be displayed after you
switch the transmitter on, depending on the total capacity of the installed memory card.
The next line down displays the available memory in
relation to the total memory capacity:
142 Program description: Info display
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ABCDEF12
RFID
1.11
firmware ver.
2048MB
SD-CARD
1234MB
available
60%
As already mentioned, it may take a certain amount of
time for the available memory to be displayed after you
switch the transmitter on, depending on the total capacity of the installed memory card.
Program description: Info display 143
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mx-12 HoTT programming techniques
Preparation, using a fixed-wing model aircraft as an example
Programming model data into an mx-12 HoTT …
… is easier than it might appear at first sight.
There is one basic rule which applies equally to all programmable radio control transmitters, and not just to the
mx-12 HoTT: if the programming is to go “smoothly”
and the systems work as expected, the receiving system components must first be installed correctly in the
model, i. e. the mechanical systems must be first-rate.
This means: ensure that each servo is at its correct
neutral position when you fit the output lever or disc
and connect the linkage to it. If you find this is not the
case, correct it! Remove the output arm, rotate it by one
or more splines and secure it again. If you use a servo
tester, e. g. the RC-Tester, Order No. 2894.12, to centre
the servos, you will find it very easy to find the “correct”
position.
Virtually all modern transmitters offer facilities for offsetting the neutral position of servos, but this is no substitute for a correct mechanical installation; this function is
only intended for fine tuning. Any substantial deviation
from the “0” position may result in additional asymmetry
when the signal undergoes further processing in the
transmitter. Think of it this way: if the chassis of a car
is distorted, you may be able to force the vehicle to run
straight by holding the steering wheel away from centre,
but it does not make the chassis any less bent, and the
basic problem remains.
Another important point is to set up the correct control
travels wherever possible by using the appropriate linkage points in the mechanical system; this is much more
efficient than making major changes to the travel settings at the transmitter. The same rule applies: electronic
travel adjustment facilities are designed primarily to
compensate for minor manufacturing tolerances in the
servos and for fine adjustment, and not to compensate
for poor-quality construction and defective installation
methods.
If two separate aileron servos are installed in a fixedwing model aircraft, the ailerons can also be employed
as flaps by deflecting both of them down, and as airbrakes by deflecting both of them up - simply by setting
up a suitable mixer (see the section starting on the next
double page). Such systems are generally more often
used in gliders and electric gliders than in power models.
braking effect of the crow system is provided primarily
by the down-movement of the flaps rather than the
up-movement of the ailerons, so in this case the servo
output arms should be angled aft, i. e. offset towards the
trailing edge of the wing, as this makes greater travel
available for the down-movement. When this combination of lowered flaps and raised ailerons is used, the
ailerons should only be raised by a moderate extent, as
their primary purpose in this configuration is to stabilise
and control the model rather than act as brakes.
You can “see” the difference in terms of braking effect by
deploying the crow system, then looking over and under
the wing from the front: the larger the projected area of
the deflected control surfaces, the greater the braking
effect.
Outboard ailerons
In such cases the servo output arms should be offset
forward by one spline relative to the neutral point, i. e.
towards the leading edge of the wing, and fitted on the
servo output shaft in that position.
The mechanical differential achieved by this asymmetrical installation takes into account the fact that the
braking effect of the up-going ailerons increases with
their angle of deflection, and this means that much less
travel is usually required in the down-direction than the
up-direction.
Similar reasoning applies to the installation of the flap
linkage when separately actuated flap servos are installed, designed to be used in a butterfly (crow) system.
Here again an asymmetrical linkage point is useful. The
Inboard camber-changing flaps
(This type of asymmetrical installation of the servo
output arms can also make sense when you are setting
up split flaps or landing flaps on a power model.)
Once you have completed your model and set up the
mechanical systems accurately in this way, you are
ready to start programming the transmitter. The instructions in this section are intended to reflect standard
practice by describing the basic general settings first,
and then refining and specialising them to complete the
set-up. After the initial test-flight, and in the course of
continued test-flying, you may need to adjust one or oth-
144 Programming example - fixed-wing model
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er of the model’s settings. As your piloting skills improve
and you gain experience, it is very likely that you will
feel the need to try out refinements such as expanded
control systems, and to cater for these requirements you
may find that the text deviates from the obvious order of
options, or that one or other of the options is mentioned
more than once.
On the other hand, it can certainly occur that not every
step described in these instructions is relevant to a
particular model, just as some users might miss the
description of a particular step which is relevant to his
model only …
Regardless of all this, it is worthwhile thinking carefully
about a sensible layout of the transmitter controls at this
point, just before you start programming the model data.
If the model in question is one with the emphasis on
“power” - whether the power of an electric motor or
internal-combustion engine (glow motor) - you will probably encounter few problems in this matter, because
the two stick units are primarily employed to control the
four basic functions “power control (= throttle)”, “rudder”,
“elevator” and “aileron”. Nevertheless, you still have to
call up the …
“Basic settings” menu
(pages 56 … 62)
GRAUBELE
mod name
stick mode
1
no
motor at C1
tail type
normal
aile/flap
1aile
… and define your preferred throttle direction, i. e.
throttle minimum forward (“Idle forward”) or back (“Idle
back”), because the program’s default setting is “none”
(i. e. no motor) when you first set up a model memory.
The basic difference between “none” or “none/inv” and
“throttle min. forward / back” is the effect of the Ch 1 trim.
The trim is effective over the full stick travel if “none (/
inv)” is entered, but it only affects the idle range if you
enter “throttle min. forward or back”. However, it also
affects the “direction of effect” of the Ch 1 stick, i. e. if
you switch from “forward” to “back” or vice versa, you
do not also have to reverse the direction of the throttle
(or brake) servo. For safety reasons you will also see a
warning message, and hear an audible warning, if you
switch the transmitter on with the throttle stick positioned
towards “full-throttle” - but only if you have already set
“throttle min. forward or back”.
0:00
GRAUBELE
stop
#01
0:00
throttle Flug
too
!
HoTT
5.2V 50% highK78
0.0V
0:33h
M
Your choice of “none” (no motor) or “throttle min. forward
or back” also affects the range of mixers available in the
“Wing mixers” menu. The mixers “Brake ¼ NN *” are
only present if you choose “none” (no motor) or “none/
inv”; otherwise they are suppressed. The same applies
to the selection facilities in the “Aileron / flap” line of the
“Basic settings” menu: “2AL 2FL”, and the associated
mixers in the “Wing mixer” menu, are only available if
you select “none” (no motor) or “none/inv”, otherwise
they are also suppressed. (In this case the second flap
servo should be connected to receiver output 1 instead
*
of the throttle servo.
In addition to these basic matters you will certainly need
to consider carefully how best to control any “auxiliary
functions” present on your model.
In contrast, if your model is a glider or electric glider the
whole situation may be rather different. The immediate
question is: what is the best way of operating the motor
and braking system? Now, some solutions have proved
to be practical, and others less so.
For example, it is not a good idea to be forced to let
go of one of the primary sticks in order to extend the
airbrakes or deploy the crow braking system when your
glider is on the landing approach. It surely makes more
sense to set up switchable functions for the Ch 1 stick
(see example 4 on page 152), or to assign the braking
system to the throttle stick, and shift the motor control
to a slider - or even a switch. With this type of model the
electric motor is often little more than a “self-launching
system”, and is used either to haul the model into the
sky at full power, or to pull it from one area of lift to the
next at, say half-power, and for such models a threeposition switch is usually quite adequate. If the switch is
positioned where you can easily reach it, then you can
turn the motor on and off without having to let go of the
sticks - even on the landing approach.
Incidentally, similar thinking can be applied to flap
control systems, regardless of whether they are “just”
the ailerons, or full-span (combination) control surfaces
which are raised and lowered in parallel.
Once you are satisfied that all these preparations have
been completed successfully, programming can commence.
NN = Nomen Nominandum (name to be stated)
Programming example - fixed-wing model 145
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First steps in programming a new model
Example: non-powered fixed-wing model aircraft
When programming a new model you should start by
activating the …
“select model” sub-menu
(page 52)
… in the “Model memory” menu. Use the arrow buttons
cd of the left or right-hand four-way button to select a
free model memory …
01
02
03
04
05
06
R06
¿¿free¿¿
¿¿free¿¿
¿¿free¿¿
¿¿free¿¿
¿¿free¿¿
… then press the central SET button of the right-hand
four-way button. You are now immediately requested to
select the type of model you wish to program.
Sel model type
( empty mod mem )
Since in this example we are setting up a fixed-wing
model, we simply confirm the fixed-wing model symbol
by pressing the central SET button of the right-hand
four-way button; the screen now reverts to the basic
display.
Notes:
• Naturally you can also use the pre-defined model
memory 01 for programming your first model; this is
the “fixed-wing model” type by default.
• Once you have called up the “Model select” option it
is not possible to interrupt the process, i. e. you must
choose one or other model type. Even if you switch
off the transmitter at this point, you cannot avoid this
select procedure. However, if you make a mistake
you can always correct it simply by erasing the model memory.
• If the battery voltage is too low, you will not be able
to change model memories for safety reasons. The
screen then displays an appropriate message:
not possible now
voltage too low
Once you have overcome this initial hurdle, you may
need to bind the receiver installed in the model to this
model memory in the …
“Basic settings” menu
(pages 56 … 62)
This is accomplished by moving to the “rx bind” line:
timer
phase 2
phase 3
receiv out
rx bind
0:00 –––
takeoff –––
speed –––
–––
to this line:
In this line you trigger the bind process between model
memory and receiver, as described in detail on pages
61. Without this step you cannot address the receiver.
The next step is to press the c arrow button of the lefthand or right-hand four-way four-way button to move up
into the first line, where you can start the actual model
programming in the “mod name” line:
mod name
stick mode
motor at C1
tail type
aile/flap
BIND N/A
OK
If you confirm your choice by pressing the SET button of
the right-hand four-way button, you automatically taken
no
normal
1aile
At this point you can enter the “Model name” by pressing the central SET button of the right-hand four-way
button in order to move to the character table:
0123456789 : ;
?
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNO
PQRSTUVWXYZ
model name
Note:
When you confirm the model selection the following
message appears in the basic display for a few seconds:
1
GRAUB
You should also check the settings for “Stick mode” and
“Motor at Ch 1” and change them if necessary:
• “none”:
The brake system is “retracted” at the forward position of the throttle / brake stick; in the “Wing mixers”
menu the “Brake ¼ NN*” mixers are activated.
In the “Aileron/flap” line of the “base sett.” menu it is
possible to select “1AL”, “2AL” and “2AL 2FL”, and in
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the “Wing mixers” menu the mixers “Brake ¼ NN*”
and all mixers “from” and “to” flaps are activated.
The warning message “Throttle too high” - see page
28 - and the “Motor stop” option in the “base sett.”
menu is disabled.
• “none/inv”:
The brake system is “retracted” at the back position of the throttle / brake stick; in the “Wing mixers”
menu the “Brake ¼ NN*” mixers are activated.
In the “Aileron/flap” line of the “base sett.” menu it is
possible to select “1AL”, “2AL” and “2AL 2FL”, and in
the “Wing mixers” menu the mixers “Brake ¼ NN*”
and all mixers “from” and “to” flaps are activated.
The warning message “Throttle too high” - see page
28 - and the “Motor stop” option in the “base sett.”
menu is disabled.
• “Throttle min. forward or rear”:
Ch 1 trim works forward or back. If the throttle stick
is too far in the direction of “full-throttle” when you
switch the transmitter on, you will be warned of this
with the message “Throttle too high” and the “Motor
stop” option in the “base sett.” menu is activated.
In the “Aileron/flap” line of the “base sett.” menu it
is only possible to select “1AL” or “2AL”, and in the
“Wing mixers” menu the mixers “Brake ¼ NN*” and
all mixers “from” and “to” flaps are disabled.
Note:
As mentioned previously, selecting “motor” or “no motor”
affects not only the range of mixers available in the
“Wing mixer” menu, but also the maximum number of
wing servos which can be addressed. For this reason we
shall initially consider “none” (no motor) in the following
*
programming example.
In the next two lines you select the basic arrangement
of the servos in the model, and inform the transmitter of
your choice:
mod name
stick mode
motor at C1
tail type
aile/flap
tail type:
aile/flap:
1
no
normal
2aile
“normal”, “V-tail”, “delt/FlW” or
“2elev sv”
1 or 2 aileron servos and 0 or 2 flap
servos
Note:
If your model is fitted with only one camber-changing
flap servo, you should still select “… 2FL”. Later, in the
“Fixed-wing mixers” menu (see page 88), you should
select the “AIL ¼ FL” mixer and set it to 0%. You can still
exploit all the other mixers available at that point in the
usual way.
At this juncture - if not before - you should check that
the servos are connected to the receiver in the standard
Graupner sequence:
Free or flap servo or
left flap servo
Receiver power supply
Right aileron servo
Rudder servo or V-tail
Elevator servo or V-tail
Aileron servo or left aileron servo
Receiver power supply
Airbrakes or throttle / speed
controller (electric),
alternatively right flap servo
Notes:
• If you set up a V-tail, but the “up / down” and / or “left
/ right” functions work the wrong way round, please
refer to the table in the right-hand column on page
44 for the remedy. The same procedure can be used
if you set up flaperons (superimposed ailerons and
flaps), and they work the wrong way round.
• If you select “2AL”, the second aileron servo should
be connected to output 5; in this case a telemetry
sensor cannot be connected.
• If you select “2AL 2FL”, the second flap servo should
be connected to output 1; in this case a throttle or airbrake servo cannot be connected.
• The following settings apply to a model with a “normal” tail and no motor (“none”); if your model has a Vtail, the settings can be adopted virtually unchanged.
However, if the model is a delta or flying wing, the situation is not quite so straightforward. A special programming example covering this model type will be
found in the section starting on page 158.
In the …
NN = Nomen Nominandum (name to be stated)
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“Servo settings” menu
S1
S2
S3
S4
S5
rev
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
cent
(page 72)
100% 100%
100% 100%
100% 100%
100% 100%
100% 100%
trav +
… ... you can set various parameters relating to the servos, i. e. “direction of rotation”, “neutral setting” and
“servo travel”, to suit the requirements of the model.
By “requirements” we mean adjustments to servo centre
and servo travel which are needed to compensate for
minor tolerances in servos and slight inaccuracies on
the model itself.
Note:
The facilities provided in this menu for setting asymmetrical servo travels are NOT intended as a means of
setting up differential travel on ailerons and / or camberchanging flaps. There are more suitable options for
this in the form of specific functions in the “Fixed-wing
mixers” menu; see the first two options in the picture on
the right.
Once you have completed the settings described thus
far, a fixed-wing or powered model aircraft (the latter
if you enter the idle direction of the throttle stick in the
“Motor at Ch 1” line of the “Basic settings” menu) will,
in principle, fly.
However, there are no “refinements” in this set-up, and
it is the refinements which will give you more long-term
pleasure in your flying. Assuming that you are already
capable of controlling your model safely, it’s time to get
a taste of these extra facilities; to this end we now move
on to the …
“Fixed-wing mixers” menu
diff aile.
diff flaps
ail rudd
ail flaps
brak elev
brak flap
brak aile
elev flap
elev aile
elev
flap
aile
flap
diff–red
(pages 88 … 93)
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
–––
–––
–––
–––
–––
–––
–––
–––
–––
–––
–––
Note:
This menu will show a varying range of options depending on the information you have entered in the “Basic
settings” menu. In the illustration above, the full range
is shown, as generated by the entries “2AIL 2FL” in the
“Ail/Flap” line, and “none (/inv) in the “Motor at Ch 1” line.
Of particular interest at the moment are “AIL-Diff.”
(aileron differential) and the “AIL ¼ RUD” (aileron ¼
rudder) mixer, sometimes known as a combi-switch,
and perhaps the mixers “Brake ¼ AIL” and “Brake ¼
FLAP”.
As already described in detail on pages 89 and 90, the
purpose of “AIL-Diff.” (aileron differential) is to eliminate
adverse yaw.
When a model aircraft turns, the down-going aileron
produces more drag than the up-going one if both move
through the same angle, and this causes the model to
yaw in the opposite direction to the turn. This can be
eliminated by setting differential aileron travel. A value
between 20% and 40% is usually a good starting point,
but the “perfect” setting nearly always has to be established by practical testing.
The same applies to the “FL-Diff.” (flap differential)
option if your model also features two camber-changing
flap servos, assuming that the flaps are also to be used
as ailerons, e. g. using the “AIL ¼ FL” mixer.
The “AIL ¼ RUD” (aileron ¼ rudder) mixer serves a
similar purpose, but also makes many models generally
easier to handle when turning. A value of around 50%
is usually a practical starting point. However, it is advisable to be able to switch this function off, particularly if
you have ambitions as an aerobatic pilot; this is done by
assigning a physical switch to the mixer (for example,
the writer switches this mixer off “automatically” when he
switches into the “Speed” flight phase, simply by assigning the same switch to both options).
It is usually only necessary to set up a “Brake ¼ ELE”
(brake ¼ elevator) mixer if your model suffers an
excessive change of speed when you deploy the braking system. The danger is that you might need to retract
the brakes again on the landing approach when you
realise the model will “land short”; if its airspeed is too
low when you retract the brakes, the model will just fall
to the ground at that point. If you set up such a mixer it is
important to test the setting at a safe height, and adjust
the trim compensation if necessary.
If you have selected “2AIL” or “2AIL 2FL” in the “Aileron /
Flap” line of the “Basic settings” menu …
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mod name
stick mode
motor at C1
tail type
aile/flap
1
no
normal
2aile
… and if you wish to be able to deflect both ailerons up
using the throttle / brake stick (Ch 1), then a suitable
value should be entered in the “Brake ¼ AIL” line.
diff aile.
ail rudd
brak elev
brak aile
elev aile
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
–––
–––
–––
–––
–––
In principle the same applies to the “Brake ¼ FL” line,
which also becomes available if you have selected “2AIL
2FL”, although the set value should cause the flaps to
deflect as far as possible in the downward direction
when the brake stick is operated. It is important to ensure that the servos do not strike their mechanical endstops. To achieve this, you may need to limit the servo
travel(s) for the servos concerned using the “TRAVEL-”
or “TRAVEL+” line on the “RX SERVO” display page of
the “Telemetry” menu.
If the ailerons are set up to act as simple brakes, as described previously, or as part of the braking arrangement
in a butterfly (crow) system, then you should always
enter a value for “Diff.-Red.” (“differential reduction” see page 93) - selecting 100% is the safe option here!
Differential reduction means that aileron differential is
suppressed proportionally only when you operate the
airbrake stick. The purpose of this is to increase the
down-going aileron travel on the landing approach, with
the aim of improving aileron response.
If the wing is equipped with two camber-changing flap
servos in addition to two separately actuated ailerons,
then the “AIL ¼ FL” (aileron ¼ flap) mixer transfers
the aileron movements to the flaps; we suggest that the
flaps should not follow the movement of the ailerons to a
greater extent than about 50%.
Note:
If you have only installed one flap servo, you should
leave this mixer at 0%.
The “FL ¼ AIL” (flap ¼ aileron) mixer works in the
opposite direction; depending on the layout of the model
we suggest values between about 50% and 100% for
this option. The flaps are controlled using the transmitter
control or switch assigned to the input “E6”. Preferably,
however, one of the rotary proportional controls (CTRL 7
or 8) should be used for this.
Note:
We strongly recommend that you reduce the travel of
the flaps to about 25% in the “Transmitter control
settings” menu, as this gives finer control of the flap
positions using the selected transmitter control.
The remaining options in the “Fixed-wing mixers” menu
are designed to provide further fine-tuning of multi-flap
wing systems, and are largely self-explanatory.
When you have completed the model-specific settings
up to this point, you are probably ready to consider the
model’s first flight. At this juncture you should certainly
take the time to carry out a series of “dry runs”, i. e.
check all the settings thoroughly while the model is still
on the ground. Remember that a serious programming
error may damage more than just the model. If you are
not sure of any point, please ask an experienced model
pilot for advice.
If during the test phase you realise that one or other of
the settings needs to be changed in order to tailor the
model’s control response to your preferences - perhaps
the servo travels are too great or too small overall - then
we suggest that you turn to the …
“D/R / Expo” menu
(page 82)
aile 122%
elev 111%
rudd 100%
+11%
+22%
0%
normal
DUAL
EXPO
3
3
–––
… in order to adjust the overall set-up to suit your
requirements and flying style.
The Dual Rate function is used to adjust the relationship
between stick travel and control surface travel (see page
82). However, if it is only the model’s control response
around neutral which is too powerful for comfortable
flying, i. e. the maximum travels are acceptable, then
“Exponential” can be employed, either instead of Dual
Rates or in addition to them. If a physical switch is assigned to this function, you can switch between two Dual
Rate / Expo settings while the model is flying.
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Including an electric power system when programming a model
and flap servos in your model.
Connect your speed controller to the next vacant input,
and assign one of the rotary proportional controls CTRL
7 or 8 - in our example CTRL 7 - to the selected input for example, “I6”. This is accomplished in the …
An electric power system can be controlled in various
ways:
The simplest method of including such a power plant
in a model program is to use the throttle / brake stick
(Ch 1). However, in the preceding programming instructions we have already reserved the Ch 1 transmitter
control for the airbrakes, which means that we have to
explore other possibilities for controlling the motor: one
is to use the switchable solution described in the section
starting on page 152, and another is to use an alternative transmitter control. A suitable option is one of the
two three-position switches SW 4/5 or 6/7, and another
is one of the rotary proportional controls CTRL 7 or 8.
However, another alternative would be the two-position
switch SW 3. The deciding factor in your choice ought to
be that the switch is within easy reach of your fingers.
Example 1
Using one of the rotary proportional knobs
CTRL 7 or 8
If one of these transmitter controls is used, the set-up is
extremely easy. All you have to do is connect the speed
controller to a vacant receiver servo socket 5 or 6.
However, please bear in mind that outputs 2 + 5 and 6
+ 1 may already be linked together, depending on the
model type you have selected and the number of aileron
“Transmitter control settings” menu
(page 74)
Use the arrow buttons cd of the left or right-hand
four-way button to select the desired line. Pressing the
central SET button of the right-hand four-way button
activates “Switch / transmitter control assignment”. Now
turn the knob of the rotary proportional control: after a
brief delay the entry “ctrl 7” will appear in the highlighted
field:
I5 free
+100% +100%
I6 ctrl 7 +100% +100%
tr v
+
In the third column you can adjust servo travel to suit the
speed controller you are using; alternatively you could
use the “-Travel+” column in the …
“Servo settings” menu
S2
S3
S4
S5
S6
rev
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
cent
(page 72).
100% 100%
100% 100%
100% 100%
100% 100%
100% 100%
trav +
ously pressing the ef buttons of the left-hand fourway button: In the “OFF” position of the rotary control
CTRL 7 the control channel you have selected - in this
example channel “6” - should be at -100%, and at the
“full-throttle” setting at +100%.
Example 2
Using a two-position switch, SW 3
This variant implements a pure ON / OFF function, and
results in the motor starting “abruptly” … unless the
speed controller you are using features what is known
as a “soft start” function.
At the receiving end you need either a simple electronic
switch or - if you want a smoother motor start - a suitable speed controller.
The settings for this arrangement are entered in the …
“Transmitter control settings” menu
(page 74)
First check which receiver socket (5 or 6) is available
for connection to your speed controller. If you have
assigned two aileron servos in the “Basic settings”
menu, and if you have not connected any other auxiliary
function, then this would be channel 6; this is the option
we will use in our example.
First set the selected switch to the “OFF” position, then
use the arrow buttons cd of the left or right-hand fourway button to select the desired line in the menu. Press
the central SET button of the right-hand four-way button
to activate “Switch / transmitter control assignment”,
then move the selected switch from the “OFF” position
to the “ON” position. The highlighted field now shows the
switch number together with a symbol which indicates
the direction of switching:
The last stage is to check the settings, so move from the
basic display to “Servo display”, typically by simultane-
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I5 free
3
I6
+100% +100%
+100% +100%
tr v
+
In the third column you can adjust servo travel to suit the
speed controller you are using; alternatively you could
use the “Servo travel” column in the …
“Servo settings” menu
S2
S3
S4
S5
S6
rev
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
cent
(page 72).
100% 100%
100% 100%
100% 100%
100% 100%
100% 100%
trav +
The last stage is to check the settings, so move from
the basic display to “Servo display” by simultaneously
pressing the ef buttons of the left-hand four-way
button: in the switch’s “OFF” position, the control channel you have selected - in our example this is channel
“6” - should be at -100%, and at the “full-throttle” setting
at +100%.
Example 3
use the “Servo travel” column in the …
Using one of the three-position switches SW 4/5 or
6/7
This variant implements a three-stage solution for
switching an electric motor on and off, and also results
in an “abrupt “ motor start-up … unless the speed controller you are using features what is known as a “soft
start” function.
At the receiving end you need a suitable speed controller.
First check which receiver socket (5 or 6) is available to
connect your speed controller. If you have assigned two
aileron servos in the “Basic settings” menu, and if you
have not connected any other auxiliary function, then
this would be channel 6; this is the option we will use in
our example.
Move to the …
“Servo settings” menu
“Transmitter control settings” menu
(page 74)
… and use the arrow buttons cd of the left or righthand four-way button to select the desired line. Press
the central SET button of the right-hand four-way button
to activate “Switch / transmitter control assignment”.
Move the selected three-position switch; the highlighted
field now shows the number of this transmitter control,
for example “Transmitter control 9”.
S2
S3
S4
S5
S6
rev
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
cent
(page 72).
100% 100%
100% 100%
100% 100%
100% 100%
100% 100%
trav +
The last stage is to check the settings, so move from
the basic display to “Servo display” by simultaneously
pressing the ef buttons of the left-hand four-way
button: in the (upper) “OFF” position of the three-position
switch the control channel you have selected - in our
example this is channel “6” - should be at -100%. If you
now move the switch toggle to the centre position, the
bar should be in the middle, and at the (lower) “fullthrottle” setting it should be at +100%.
I5 free
+100% +100%
I6 ctrl 9 +100% +100%
tr v
+
In the third column you can adjust servo travel to suit the
speed controller you are using; alternatively you could
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Controlling the electric motor and up-aileron braking system using the Ch 1 stick
Up-aileron deflection as landing aid
Example 4
Butterfly / crow system as landing aid: ailerons up,
flaps down
Before we start the programming of this fourth example,
and turn our attention to expanding the basic programming we have already discussed, we need to consider
briefly the position of the throttle / brake stick at “motor
OFF” or “brake OFF”. Usually the Ch 1 stick is moved
forward to open the throttle, and back to extend the
brakes. However, if you adopt this “classic” configuration, and switch, say, from “motor OFF” (stick “back”)
to the braking system, “full brake” would immediately
be applied, and vice versa: if you switch from “brakes
retracted” to power, this would instantly switch to “full
power”.
It is certainly possible to make a “virtue” out of this
“vice”: a “glider pilot” - usually flying with “brakes retracted = forward” will only switch to motor “ON” when
necessary, and then reduce power to suit the situation
(and - we hope - does not forget to move the Ch 1 stick
back to the “forward” position when switching back). In
contrast, a typical “power pilot” would probably operate
with the reverse priority, i. e. he would only switch to
“brake” when necessary, etc. In any case, it is possible
to avoid these inter-connected effects by positioning the
“zero point” of both systems so that they coincide. The
above considerations mean that a “glider pilot” will probably prefer the “zero point forward” arrangement, while a
“power pilot” might well decide on “zero point back”.
The mx-12 HoTT transmitter can cope with whichever
arrangement you prefer. However, the following section
assumes that both “OFF” positions will be set to “forward”. If you prefer the alternative arrangement, there is
no problem: the only difference compared with the ver-
sion described here is that you would select “none/inv”
in the “Motor at Ch 1” line of the “Basic settings” menu
instead of “none”. All the other settings can be adopted
as described.
In the …
“Transmitter control settings” menu
(page 74)
mod name
GRAUBELE
stick mode
1
no
motor at C1
tail type
normal
aile/flap
2aile
… leave the “motor at Ch 1” line at “none” if you have
set “Motor ON = forward”, or switch to “none/inv” if
preferred. This is essential, otherwise the “Brake 1 ¼
NN *” mixers which we need will be suppressed in the
“Fixed-wing mixers” menu.
Important Note:
As it is essential to set the motor to “none”, this also
automatically disables the “Throttle too high” poweron warning! For this reason please take great care
to set the Ch 1 stick to the correct position before
you switch the receiving system on.
The next step is to ensure that the speed controller connected to receiver output 1 is switched off “at the right
end”. To accomplish this you may have to move to the …
*
“Servo settings” menu
S1
S2
S3
S4
S5
rev
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
cent
(page 72)
100% 100%
100% 100%
100% 100%
100% 100%
100% 100%
trav +
… and reverse the direction of servo 1.
For safety’s sake you should check this setting now,
before you continue with the programming procedure.
Take the transmitter and model to a location where it
is safe to run the motor. Switch the transmitter on, and
move the Ch 1 stick to the motor “OFF” position, i. e. either fully forward or back. Hold your model firmly, or ask
a friend to hold it for you. Check that the propeller is free
to rotate without causing havoc, then connect the flight
battery and switch your model’s receiving system on.
If the motor does NOT run when the stick is in the “forward” or “back” position (as appropriate), then everything
is in order. However, please check the system anyway by
gradually advancing the stick until the motor begins to
run. When you are satisfied, stop the motor, then switch
off the receiving system in the model and finally switch
off the transmitter.
Note:
If the motor does not start, or spins in the wrong direction, this indicates that there are other problems which
you must correct before you continue with programming.
For example, check the wiring of your motor, and refer
to the operating instructions supplied with your speed
controller.
NN = Nomen Nominandum (name to be stated)
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Once you are confident that the direction of the Ch 1
stick is “correct” as far as the motor is concerned, the
next step is to ensure that you can switch its effect on
the motor on and off, so that you can also control the
braking system. This is carried out in the …
“Free mixers” menu
M1
M2
M3
typ
MIX1
c1
??
??
fro
to
3
… where you need to program a free mixer “c1 ¼
c1”. When you have done this, use the arrow button
f of the left or right-hand four-way button to move to
the column above the
symbol, and assign your
selected “change-over switch” to this mixer; for example
SW 3. This is done by activating the switch assignment
by pressing the central SET button of the right-hand
four-way button, and moving the switch from “forward” to
“back”, i. e. towards you.
With the mixer switched on, move to the column above
symbol using the arrow button f of the left or
the
right-hand four-way button, and then on to the second
screen page by pressing the central SET button of the
right-hand four-way button once more.
At this point you should set an initial SYMmetrical mixer
value of -100%.
c1
tr v –100% –100%
offs
0%
SYM ASY
(pages 107 … 111)
c1
??
??
c1
Now move to the “Offs” line: when you do this, the SYM
and ASY fields are replaced by STO and SET. With
the STO button highlighted, move the Ch 1 stick to the
“OFF” position you have selected, and then press the
central SET button of the right-hand four-way button: the
value to the right of “Offs” now changes from 0% to approx. +100%, and the graphic display of the mixer curve
displayed on the right also changes accordingly:
MIX1
c1
c1
tr v –100% –100%
offs
+100%
STO SET
If you now press the ef buttons of the left-hand fourway button simultaneously to move to the …
“Servo display” menu
(page 113),
… you can immediately check the effect of the settings
you have entered so far: with the mixer switched off,
the bar display for Channel 1 follows the movement of
the Ch 1 stick. With the mixer switched on it stops - as
shown - at around -100%.
1
–100 %
2
0%
3
0%
4
0%
5
0%
6
0%
Note:
If you carry out this test with the receiving system
and power system switched on, please take great
care that you operate the change-over switch only
in the “motor OFF” position! If you ignore this, there
is a danger that the power system will be severely
overloaded by being switched on abruptly, and it
could even suffer damage. For the same reason
you should be careful only to use the change-over
switch at the “motor OFF” setting when you are flying the model.
To conclude the programming procedure, return the
selected “change-over switch” to the “motor ON” position, i. e. “forward”; move back to the multi-function menu
and from there to the …
“Fixed-wing mixers” menu
(pages 88 … 93)
where - assuming that you have not already done this
in your general model programming - you can select
the “Brake ¼ AIL” line and set the desired aileron
travel when the Ch 1 stick is operated in the up direction
(“Brake”). In the column above the
symbol press
the central SET button of the right-hand four-way button
before assigning your selected “change-over switch” by
moving your preferred switch from “forward” to “back”.
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diff aile.
ail rudd
brak elev
brak aile
elev aile
+33%
+55%
–5%
+44%
0%
–––
–––
–––
3
–––
Note:
The settings shown here are just examples, and must
not be adopted under any circumstances without careful
checking.
If you now return to the “Servo display” menu and move
the Ch 1 stick alone, you will see that the bar display
for Channel 1 either remains at around -100% while the
displays for channels 2 + 5 follow the stick movement,
or the other way round: when the switch is operated, the
latter stay at around the mid-point, and only the Channel
1 display moves.
1
–100 %
2
+ 88%
3
0%
4
0%
5
– 88%
6
0%
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Operating the timers using the Ch 1 stick or a switch SW 1, 3 … 7
If, following on from the model programming described
on the preceding pages, you have decided on Example 4 from the previous page, or you are using the Ch 1
stick (throttle / brake stick) to control motor power - independently of this programming example - then you can
use the associated control switch to turn the stopwatch
on and off automatically.
To assign this control switch, move the Ch 1 stick to the
Idle position, then move to the “Timers” line in the …
“Basic settings” menu
(pages 56 … 62)
Press the central SET button of the right-hand four-way
button to activate the switch assignment, then select the
input field above the switch symbol and move the throttle / brake stick from its idle position in the direction of
“full throttle”. Depending on the direction of movement,
the switch “C1l” or “C2l” will appear on the screen at a
particular position of the Ch 1 stick:
stick mode
motor at C1
tail type
aile/flap
timer
1
no
normal
2aile
0:00 C2
If you now move the stick back towards idle, you will see
that the switch symbol changes again at around 80% of
stick travel: between the “idle position” and the switching point the switch symbol is “open”, beyond this it is
“closed” (see “Control switches” on page 39).
If you now repeatedly press the central ESC button of
the left-hand four-way button to return to the transmitter’s basic display, in order to check the system, you
will see that the stopwatch and flight timer start running
when you move the stick past the switching point in the
direction of full-throttle, and that the stopwatch alone
halts again when you move the stick back to the idle
position.
When the stopwatch is halted, you can stop the flight
timer by pressing the central ESC button of the left-hand
four-way button, and then reset both timers to their
starting value by simultaneously pressing the two arrow
buttons cd of the right-hand four-way button (CLEAR)
… or re-start them by moving the stick beyond the
switching point again.
GRAUBELE
#01
5.2V 50%
3:33h
2:22
stop
flt
11:11
«normal »
K78 HoTT
5.5V
M
With the stopwatch halted, press the central ESC button of the left-hand four-way button (CLEAR) button
in the basic display, so that the stopwatch switches to
the “Timer” function. The timer can now be started and
stopped using the throttle control.
Alternatively, if you control your motor using one of the
switches SW 1, 3 … 7, as described in Examples 2
or 3, you do not need any of the previously described
control switches. All you need to do is locate the switch
which you use to turn your motor on and off, and assign
the same switch to the “Timers”, with the same switching
direction, so that they start running at the same moment
you turn the motor on.
In contrast, if you have decided on the solution described in Example 1, then unfortunately there is no alternative but to operate the motor and timers separately.
Tip:
When using an electric motor the motor run is usually
limited by the capacity of the battery, and in this case
you would normally set the stopwatch to “count down”.
Simply enter the maximum permitted motor run, e. g.
“5 min.”. As described on pages 59 and 67 … 68, the
transmitter’s sounder starts to emit warning tones “30
sec” before “zero”.
stick mode
motor at C1
tail type
aile/flap
timer
1
no
normal
2aile
5:00 C2
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Using flight phases
Within any of the ten model memories you can program
up to three different flight phases (states of flight), each
incorporating settings which can be entirely different
from the others.
Each flight phase can be called up by means of a switch.
Flight phases represent the simplest and most convenient method of switching between different model settings in flight, and are programmed for different stages
of a typical flight, such as “normal”, “thermal”, “speed”,
“distance” etc.
We assume that you have already programmed the
model in the transmitter’s model memory, set it up carefully, test-flown it and trimmed it out properly. First move
to the …
“Basic settings” menu
tail type
aile/flap
timer
phase 2
phase 3
(pages 56 … 62)
normal
2ail2fl
3
5:00
takeoff –––
speed –––
… and then to the line “Phase 2” and / or “Phase 3”,
where you can either accept the default name or assign
a specific, more appropriate, name to each flight phase.
The purpose of this name is just to help you differentiate
between the flight phases; it has no significance in terms
of programming. It will later appear in the transmitter’s
basic screen display, and also in the “Phase trim” and
“D/R Expo” menu.
A physical switch must be assigned so that you can
select the different flight phases. The ideal one for
switching a maximum of three flight phases is one of the
three-position switches SW 4/5 or 6/7, located at front
left and right on the transmitter.
Each of the two end-points of this switch should be
assigned to one flight phase, starting from the centre
position. We recommend that the switch direction should
match the phase numbering: as shown in the left-hand
illustration, for example, “Phase 2” is “forward” from the
centre position, while “Phase 3” is “back” (towards you).
Select the appropriate line, name, and switch assignment in the “usual” way, i. e. using the various four-way
buttons.
tail type
aile/flap
timer
phase 2
phase 3
normal
2ail2fl
3
5:00
4
takeoff
speed
5
Note:
In principle it makes no difference which names you assign to the various phases - with the exception of Phase
1, which is assigned the name “normal”, and is always
active when flight phases 2 and 3 are disabled.
For general model flying three flight phases are usually
quite sufficient:
• “Launch” or “Thermal” for launch and “staying up”,
• “Normal” for normal conditions, and
• “Speed” for flying in “top gear”.
the same.
To change these settings, call up the …
“Phase trim” menu
(page 86)
… move the phase switch (or switches) to the appropriate position, and enter the desired values in the standard way by pressing the input buttons, in a similar way to
the method of adjusting transmitter control centres and
offsets with other radio control systems.
P H A S E T R I M
normal
0%
0%
0%
takeoff
+8%
4% +2%
¿ speed
–7% –5% –3%
FLA
AIL
ELE
If you now switch the receiving system on and select the
different phases in turn, you will see a difference in control surface response. The differences are also reflected
in the bar display for the servos in the “Servo display”
menu, which you can call up from virtually any menu
position by simultaneously pressing the ef buttons of
the left-hand four-way button.
Note:
Depending on the information you have entered in the
“aile/flap” line of the “Basic settings” menu, the “ELE”
column alone, the “AIL” and “ELE” columns, or - as
shown above - “FLAP”, “AIL” and “ELE” may appear on
the screen for “Phase trimming”.
At this point all three phases have been set up and
assigned names, and you can switch between them;
however … if you operate the phase switch you will soon
notice that nothing has changed, i. e. all the settings for
the control surfaces, and especially the wing flaps, are
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Programming example: servos running in parallel
In some cases a second servo is required to run in
parallel with an existing servo; for example, if a second
elevator or rudder is to be actuated by a separate servo,
or where a second servo is needed to cope with very
high control forces, or where two servos are required for
a large control surface due to the high forces involved.
This task could be solved simply by connecting both servos together in the model using a conventional Y-lead.
However, this has the drawback that the linked servos
cannot be adjusted individually from the transmitter, i. e.
you forfeit the basic advantage of the computer radio
control system: separate adjustment of individual servos
from the transmitter.
Another option would be to call up the Telemetry menu
and use its “Channel mapping” option instead of a
simple Y-lead; see page 121. However, the simplest
method is to use the transmitter’s software facilities. For
example, it is easy to set up …
Two elevator servos
… to operate in parallel. First move to the …
“Basic settings” menu
(page 56 … 62)
GRAUBELE
mod name
stick mode
1
idle re.
motor at C1
cut off –100% +150% –––
tail type
2elev sv
… and set “2elev sv” in the “tail type” line.
The two elevator servos are then connected to receiver
output sockets 3 and 6.
Two rudder servos
In this example we will connect two rudders “in parallel”
using the “Free mixers” menu. The second rudder could
be connected to receiver output 6, which is not already
in use.
The first step is to move to the …
“Free mixers” menu
M1
M2
M3
second rudder control channel” - in our case “6” - with
suitable servo travel settings. An offset of +100% is then
selected for both mixers, as the Ch 1 stick is (usually) at
its top end-point when the airbrakes are retracted, and
the winglet rudders are only required to deflect outwards
proportionally when the brakes are extended.
(pages 107 … 111)
tr
rd
??
??
6
??
??
typ
fro
to
… and set up a mixer “Tr RUD ¼ 6”.
In the “Type” column select the “Tr” setting, so that the
rudder trim affects both rudder servos.
Finally switch to the graphics page and set a SYMmetrical mixer input of +100%:
MIX1 tr rd
6
tr v +100% +100%
Offs
0%
SYM ASY
Once again, for safety reasons it is really essential that
you set input 6 to “free” in the “Transmitter control
settings” menu.
As an added refinement, you may want both rudders
to deflect outwards only, as part of a braking system
controlled by the Ch 1 stick. This can be accomplished
by setting up two additional mixers “c1 ¼ 4” and “c1 ¼
Programming example - fixed-wing model 157
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Programming example: Delta / flying wing
On page 144, where the section on fixed-wing model
programming starts, you will find general notes regarding the installation and set-up of the RC system in a
model, and - of course - this applies equally to deltas
and flying wings. The information on test-flying and refining the settings is also relevant, including the section on
programming flight phases.
left
Free or auxiliary function
Receiver power supply
Free or telemetry sensor or auxiliary function
Free or rudder
Right elevon (aileron / elevator) servo
Left elevon (aileron / elevator) servo
Receiver power supply
Airbrakes or throttle or speed
controller (electric motor)
… and with four wing-mounted control surfaces as follows:
Left flap (aileron) / elevator
right
In their characteristic shape and geometry, deltas and
flying wings differ very significantly from “normal” models
even at first sight, but the differences in the requisite
servo arrangement are rather more subtle. The “classic” model delta or flying wing generally has only two
control surfaces, which act both as ailerons (in opposite
directions) and as elevators (in the same direction), in a
similar way to the superimposed rudder / elevator functions of a V-tail. More modern designs tend to be more
complex; one (or two) inboard control surfaces may be
used purely as elevators, while the outboard ailerons
also act as elevators, but to a reduced extent. If a flying
wing has four or even six wing control surfaces, it is
certainly feasible nowadays to set them up with camberchanging flap functions and / or even a butterfly (crow)
system.
However, most of these models still rank as “classic”
deltas and flying wings, with two wing-mounted control
surfaces, and for them the servos should be connected
to the receiver as follows (see also page 43):
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Receiver power supply
Right flap (aileron) / elevator
Free or rudder
Right elevon (aileron / elevator) servo
Left elevon (aileron / elevator) servo
Receiver power supply
Airbrakes or throttle or speed
controller (electric motor)
If your flying wing features inboard elevators, the “normal” servo sequence has proved useful; this arrangement can also be employed for “canards”:
Left flap (/ elevator)
Receiver power supply
Right elevon (aileron / elevator)
Rudder (if present)
Elevator (if present)
Left elevon (aileron / elevator) servo
Receiver power supply
Airbrakes or throttle or speed
controller (electric motor) or
alternatively right flap (/ elevator)
Depending on the receiver servo sequence you select,
you should first move to the …
“Basic settings” menu
(pages 56 … 62)
… and select the following options in each line:
“motor at C1”: • “none”:
The brake system is “retracted” at
the “forward” position of the throttle /
brake stick.
In the “Aileron / flap” line of the
“base sett.” menu it is possible to
select “1AL”, “2AL” and “2AL 2FL”,
and the mixers “Brake ¼ NN*” in
the “Wing mixers” menu and all
mixers “from” and “to” flaps are
activated.
The warning message “Throttle too
high” (see page 28) and the “Motor
stop” option in the “base sett.”
menu are disabled.
• “none/inv”:
The brake system is “retracted” at
the “back” position of the throttle /
brake stick.
In the “Aileron / flap” line of the
“base sett.” menu it is possible to
select “1AL”, “2AL” and “2AL 2FL”,
and the mixers “Brake ¼ NN*” in
the “Wing mixers” menu and all
mixers “from” and “to” flaps are
activated.
The warning message “Throttle too
high” (see page 28) and the “Motor
stop” option in the “base sett.”
*
NN = Nomen Nominandum (name to be stated)
06.06.2011 19:39:47
menu are disabled.
• “Idle forward” or “Idle rear”
The Ch 1 trim operates either
forward or back. If you switch the
transmitter on with the throttle stick
too far in the direction of full-throttle,
you will see the warning message
“Throttle too high” on the screen.
In the “Aileron / flap” line of the
“base sett.” menu it is only possible
to select “1AL” or “2AL”, and the
mixers “Brake ¼ NN*” in the “Wing
mixers” menu and all mixers “from”
and “to” flaps are disabled.
In the “base sett.” menu the “Motor
stop” option is activated.
“tail type”:
“Delta / flying wing” or “Normal”
“aile/flap”:
Two ailerons “2aile” and - if present
and selectable - two flaps “2fl”.
The primary function of these settings is to define the
range of wing mixers which the software makes available. If you select the “Delta / flying wing” tail type, the
software automatically superimposes the elevator and
aileron functions. In this case the mixer ratios can be
adjusted by varying the Dual Rate settings in the “D/R /
Expo” menu (see page 82).
If you select “Delta / flying wing”, all settings of the
“NN * ¼ elev” wing mixers in the …
*
NN = Nomen Nominandum (name to be stated)
“Fixed-wing mixers” menu
diff aile.
ail rudd
brak elev
diff–red
(pages 88 … 93)
0% –––
0% –––
0% –––
0%
… affect the elevator (up / down) function of the two
elevon (combined aileron / elevator) servos, as well as
the flap / elevator servos.
Notes:
• The flap mixers and flap differential only appear in
the list if you have also entered “2fl” in the “aile/flap”
line at the “Delta / Flying wing” model type; see illustration on the right.
• In principle the same applies to the “Brake ¼ NN *”
mixers. These are also suppressed if you have decided on “Throttle min forward / back” in the “motor at
C1” line of the “Basic settings” menu.
• Even if you have selected “2aile2fl”, the (digital) elevator and aileron trims only affect aileron / elevator. If
you wish to circumvent this, it is simpler to program
your model as described in the following section.
Programming a model delta using the “normal” tail
setting
Alternatively, if you select the “normal” tail type in the
“Basic settings” menu, and connect the servos to the
receiver as shown in the lower of the two receiver socket
sequence diagrams on the left-hand page, then the
aileron function of the two elevon servos will work correctly, but not the elevator function.
In the “normal” tail type you have to force the two aileron servos and the two flap servos to move in the same
direction and provide an elevator effect when an elevator command is given. This requires the “elev ¼ NN *”
wing mixers, whose effect can be adjusted separately.
The procedure starts by selecting the …
“Fixed-wing mixers” menu
(pages 88 … 93)
(The following settings are model-specific, and you
must check carefully that they work correctly on
your model before accepting them.)
diff aile.
diff flaps
ail rudd
ail flaps
brak elev
brak flap
brak aile
elev flap
elev aile
elev
flap
aile
flap
diff–red
0%
0%
0%
+55%
0%
+55%
+66%
+77%
+77%
0%
0%
0%
–––
–––
–––
–––
–––
–––
–––
–––
–––
–––
–––
… where you set values other than zero for these mixers.
With this set-up the tailless model is considered to be a
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“normal” four-flap wing (two ailerons and two flaps), and
therefore has all the options associated with this wing
type. The method involves the “elev ¼ NN *” mixers,
which were originally intended only for pitch trim compensation and non-standard applications. In this case
they are “abused” by setting higher values than normal,
in order to transfer the elevator signal to the control
surfaces of the tailless model.
However, none of the fixed-wing mixers includes the
digital trim of the elevator stick - so an alternative has to
be found.
Start by switching to the …
“Transmitter control settings” menu
I5 ctrl 6
I6 ctrl 6
+15%
+15%
tr v
(page 74)
+15%
+15%
+
… and assign the same transmitter control to the inputs
5 and (if required) 6, e. g. the rotary proportional control
CTRL 7. Now move to the “Travel” column and reduce
the travel of the transmitter control for these two inputs
symmetrically to around 50%, or even less, because: the
lower this value, the finer the trim control.
However, if you prefer to use the normal elevator trim
lever, set - or leave - the “elev ¼ NN *” mixers to 0%,
and instead set up free linear mixers to do the job.
This is done by calling up the …
“Free mixers” menu
M1
M2
M3
(pages 107 … 111)
tr
tr
el
el
??
5
6
??
typ
fro
to
… and setting up one linear mixer “Tr elev ¼ 5”, and - if
necessary - “Tr elev ¼ 6”.
Move to the graphic page of this menu to set the required mixer ratios. Check the settings, and above all
the direction of effect, in the “Servo display”, or on the
model itself, and change the prefixes if necessary.
If you carry out the programming as described above,
the ailerons will also move in the same direction, like
flaps, when you move the elevator stick. The effect of the
“tr” option is that the elevator trim lever also affects the
associated mixer when you operate the elevator stick.
Since an additional transmitter control is no longer
required for this arrangement, you should disable input 5
and (if used) input 6 in the second column of the “Transmitter control settings” menu; simply set these inputs
to “free”.
Many years ago, the author flew a model delta programmed exactly in this way using the mc-20, with
the following additional refinements: “flap settings” used
as trim, and butterfly (crow) as landing aid - the latter
exploiting the “Brake ¼ AIL” and “Brake ¼ FL” wing
mixers to provide complete compensation for pitch trim
changes in both directions. In this case the term “ailerons” means the outboard wing control surfaces, and
“flaps” the inboard pair of control surfaces.
A modern sweptback flying wing can be controlled in
a similar fashion. These models also feature inboard
and outboard control surfaces: the former forward of
the Centre of Gravity, the latter aft of it. Deflecting the
inboard control surface(s) down increases lift and produces an up-elevator effect; deflecting them up creates
the opposite effect. In contrast, the outboard ailerons act
in the reverse direction: a down-deflection produces a
down-elevator effect, and vice versa. There are really no
limits to what can be achieved with appropriate settings
of the system’s sophisticated mixers.
However, please note that you should be extremely
careful when setting differential travel with such a configuration, regardless of your model’s set-up, its tail type
and the number of servos you are using. This is because
differential travels on a tailless model tend to produce
an asymmetrical elevator effect, rather than the desired
adverse yaw reduction. For this reason it is advisable
to start with a differential setting of 0% - at least for the
first few flights. When you are familiar with the model
and feel the need to experiment, it may then be feasible
under certain circumstances to try differential settings
deviating from zero.
For larger models it could be advisable to install winglets
fitted with rudders, i. e. small vertical surfaces at the
wingtips. If these are actuated by two separate servos,
they can be controlled as described in the example on
page 157 dealing with “Servos running in parallel”, or
using “Channel mapping” in the “Telemetry” menu; see
page 121.
You may also want both rudders to deflect outwards
when a braking system is operated using the Ch 1 stick,
and this can be accomplished as follows: if you have
selected the “normal” tail type, set up two further mixers
“c1 ¼ 4” and “c1 ¼ second rudder control channel”
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with suitable travel settings. The offset for both mixers
should be +100%, as the Ch 1 stick is usually at the
forward end-point when the airbrakes are retracted, and
the winglet rudders are only required to deflect outwards
proportionally when the brakes are extended.
For your notes 161
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Programming example: F3A model aircraft
F3A models belong to the category of powered fixedwing model aircraft designed for competition flying. They
may be powered by an internal combustion engine or
an electric motor. Electric-powered models are eligible
and totally competitive in the international F3A “pattern”
class, and also in the F5A electric aerobatic class.
fixed-wing models we have already described.
The auxiliary function “Retracts” is usually assigned to
the auxiliary channel 6. Ideally the retracts are operated using the switch without a centre detent (SW 3).
An optional “extra” - used only if necessary - is mixture
adjustment control for the carburettor. This is generally operated by one of the rotary proportional controls
CTRL 7 or 8, connected to one of the auxiliary channels
not already in use.
Free, or retracts, or mixture
adjustment
In this programming example we assume that you have
already read through the description of the individual
menus, and are therefore familiar with the general
method of handling the transmitter.
On page 144, where the section on fixed-wing model
programming starts, you will find general notes on
installing and setting up the RC system in a model,
and - of course - this applies equally to F3A models, and
therefore does not need to be repeated at this point.
If an F3A model is accurately built, it usually exhibits flying characteristics which are almost completely neutral.
The perfect aerobatic model has a very smooth but precise control response, and any movement around any
one of its flight axes should not affect the other axes.
F3A models are flown using aileron, elevator and rudder
controls. The use of separate servos for each aileron is
almost universal. The flying controls are supplemented
by control of motor power (throttle function) and in many
cases a retractable undercarriage. As a result the servo
assignment for channels 1 to 5 is no different from the
Receiver power supply
Telemetry sensor or right aileron
Rudder
Elevator
Aileron or left aileron
Receiver power supply
Throttle or speed controller
(electric motor)
When assigning functions to the auxiliary channels at
the transmitter, it is advisable to ensure that the controls
required are within easy reach, since the advanced
aerobatic pilot has very little time to think about letting
go of the sticks - especially when flying under competition conditions.
Programming
The basic programming of the transmitter has already
been described in detail in the section starting on page
144, so this section concentrates on tips specific to F3A
models.
In the …
“Servo settings” menu
S1
S2
S3
S4
S5
rev
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
cent
(page 72)
100% 100%
100% 100%
100% 100%
100% 100%
100% 100%
trav +
… you can adjust the servo settings to suit your model.
It has proved advisable to use at least 100% servo
travel, as precision of control can be perceptibly better if
relatively large servo travels are employed. This should
be borne in mind when building the model and designing the control surface linkages. Any minor corrections
required can be made in the third column during the
initial test flights.
The next step is to select the …
“Basic model settings” menu
(page 56 … 62)
… and activate the idle trim for Channel 1 (normally
“Idle back”; i. e. full-throttle forward). The digital trim
now works at the idle end of stick travel. The “cut-off
trim” enables you to switch immediately from the “motor
stopped” position to the idle position you have previously
established just by applying a single “click” on the trim
lever (see page 40).
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stick mode
1
motor at C1
idle re.
cut off –100% +150% 1
tail type
normal
aile/flap
2aile
The remaining settings should be adjusted as required
to suit your personal preferences.
You may find it necessary to assign transmitter controls
to particular inputs to operate the retractable undercarriage or carburettor mixture adjustment. This is carried
out in the …
“Transmitter control settings” menu
(page 74).
For example, you may like to assign a particular transmitter control - perhaps one of the two rotary proportional knobs - e. g. CTRL 7 - for mixture adjustment, or the
ON / OFF switch SW 3 for the retracts, to the input “E6”:
I5 free
3
I6
+100% +100%
+100% +100%
tr v
+
The retracts are extended and retracted when you operate the switch “SW 3”. You may need to adjust the travel
of the transmitter control, and perhaps reverse that
channel by setting a negative prefix for servo travel.
F3A models fly fairly fast, and respond very “solidly” to
corrective movements of the servos. However, in competition flying it is vital that all abrupt control movements
and corrections should be kept to a minimum, as the
judges will invariably notice any lack of smoothness and
dock a few points, so it is advisable to set exponential
control characteristics on the stick functions.
Move to the …
“D/R Expo” menu
(page 82).
Exponential values of around +30% on aileron, elevator
and rudder have proved to be a good starting point, and
you can set them in the right-hand column of this menu.
These values provide smooth, well-defined control of
the typical F3A model. Many experts use higher values;
even up to +60% exponential.
aile 100%
elev 100%
rudd 100%
+33%
+33%
+33%
DUAL
EXPO
–––
–––
–––
Since F3A models generally have two aileron servos, it
has proved useful to deflect both ailerons “up” slightly for
the landing. In most cases this causes the model to fly a
little more slowly and with a more stable attitude on the
landing approach.
To achieve this you will need to program mixers in the …
“Free mixers” menu
(section starting on page 106).
Both ailerons are usually required to deflect “up” as a
landing aid, in parallel with the movement of the throttle
stick, but only from the half-throttle setting in the direction of idle. From that point on, the further the stick is
moved towards the idle position, the more the ailerons
deflect up. The reverse occurs when you open the
throttle: the ailerons are returned to neutral to avoid the
model suddenly ballooning up.
A little down-elevator must usually be mixed in to ensure
that the aeroplane does not climb when the ailerons /
flaps are deployed.
To meet these requirements you need the two mixers
shown in the illustration below.
M1
M2
M3
typ
c1
c1
??
5
el
??
fro
to
6
6
The mixers are activated using one and the same external switch, e. g. “SW 6”, which therefore has to be assigned to both mixers, with the same direction of effect.
Press the central SET button of the right-hand four-way
button to move to the mixer inputs on the second screen
page, and set the appropriate mixer ratios. In both cases
the mixer neutral point should be left at the centre position of the Ch 1 stick travel.
For this reason you should now move the Ch 1 stick to
the Idle range, select the ASY field, and enter the following values:
MIX 1: -60% … -80% and
MIX 2:
-5% … -10%.
Example of MIX 1:
MIX1
c1
5
tr v –66%
0%
offs
0%
SYM ASY
Programming example: F3A model 163
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This completes the basic set-up for a typical F3A model.
Correcting model-specific errors
It is an unfortunate fact of life that even very carefully
built models exhibit minute faults and inaccuracies which
produce unwanted deviations when the model is flying;
the mixers of a computer radio control system are then
needed to compensate for these deficiencies. In this
section we will describe how to carry out the adjustments required, but please note the following points
before we get started: it is vital to ensure that the model
is built as accurately as humanly possible, is balanced
perfectly around the lateral and longitudinal axes, and
that motor downthrust and sidethrust are set correctly.
1. Rudder causes unwanted movement around the
longitudinal and lateral axes
It is often the case that a rudder command causes the model to rotate slightly around the longitudinal and / or lateral axis. This is particularly troublesome in what is known as knife-edge flight, where the
model’s total lift is generated by the fuselage, aided
by the rudder deflection. The result is that the model rotates and changes heading slightly, as if the pilot were applying aileron or elevator at the same time.
These tendencies have to be corrected with compensation around the lateral axis (elevator) and around
the longitudinal axis (aileron).
These corrections can be achieved easily with the
mx-12 HoTT, exploiting the “free mixers” once
again. For example, if the model rotates to the right
around the longitudinal (roll) axis when the rudder
is deflected to the right for a knife-edge pass, then
a mixer is set up which deflects the ailerons slightly to the left. Heading changes around the lateral (elevator) axis can be corrected in a similar way using a
164 Programming example: F3A model
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mixer acting upon the elevator:
a) Correction around the lateral axis (elevator)
MIX “rd ¼ el”
ASYmmetrical setting. The exact values required
must be found by flight testing.
b) Correction around the longitudinal axis (aileron)
MIX “rd ¼ al”
ASYmmetrical setting. The exact values required
must be found by flight testing.
In most cases relatively small mixer values are called
for - typically below 10% - but this does vary from
model to model.
2. Vertical climb and descent
Many models exhibit a tendency to deviate from the
ideal line in vertical climbs and descents. To correct
this we need an elevator neutral position which varies
according to the throttle setting. For example, if the
model tends to pull out of a vertical descent by itself
when the motor is throttled back, slight down-elevator
must be mixed in at this throttle setting.
MIX “c1 ¼ el”
As a rule you will need to set mixer values below 5%,
but once again there is no substitute for test-flying.
3. Rolling (movement around the longitudinal axis)
at idle
When you reduce the throttle setting, the model may
tend to roll slightly in one direction. Clearly an aileron correction must be made. However, it is much
more elegant to let a mixer correct this effect for you
than to move the stick manually. Once again, a mixer
needs to be set up:
MIX “c1 ¼ al”
As a rule you will need to set mixer values below 5%,
but once again test-flying is called for.
The adjustment process should only be carried out
in calm weather. Often all you need to do is apply the
mixer in the control segment between half-throttle
and idle. To achieve this, leave the Offset point at the
centre position, and set up the mixer ASYmetrically.
4. Rolling when ailerons and flaps are extended
If you fly the landing approach with both ailerons deflected up, the model may show a tendency to roll
slightly due to minor variations in aileron servo travel (or constructional inaccuracies); i. e. the model may
turn to either side by itself. Once again, this tendency can easily be corrected using a mixer to vary the
compensation according to the position of the ailerons / landing flaps.
MIX ”c1 ¼ al”
It is essential to provide a means of switching the
mixer on and off using the switch which controls the
aileron / landing flap function (see previous page), to
ensure that this mixer only has any effect when the
aileron / landing flap function is activated. The optimum value has to be found by test-flying.
And finally a few words on the …
06.06.2011 19:39:47
“FAIL-SAFE settings”
We strongly recommend that you make use of the safety
potential of this option by at least setting the throttle
position (glow-powered models) to idle, or the electric
motor to stop, if a fail-safe event should be triggered.
This simple precaution ensures that the model is much
less likely to create havoc and cause property damage or personal injury. If you also program the fail-safe
positions of the control surfaces in such a way that the
model flies steadily descending circles in case of interference, then you have a good chance that it will land
relatively gently even if the radio link fails for a protracted
period. This also gives you plenty of time to restore the
connection, should the whole 2.4 GHz frequency band
suffer interference for a while.
In the receiver’s default state, however, the servos
remain in their last valid position (“hold mode”) when interference occurs. You can program any individual servo
output of your receiver to a “fail-safe position” (fail-safe
mode), as described on page 116.
Summary
The settings described on this page are intended
primarily for the expert flyer. Please bear in mind that
refining the flying characteristics of a model aeroplane
to this extent involves tremendous effort, time, sensitivity
and expertise. Some experts continue the programming procedure even when they are flying, although it
is not advisable to try this if you are just a moderately
advanced pilot making your first attempt with an F3A
aerobatic model. You would be well advised to request
help from an experienced pilot, and carry out the finetuning adjustments mentioned here one by one, with the
expert at your side, until your model exhibits the neutral
flying characteristics you desire.
Programming example: F3A model 165
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Programming example: model helicopter
In this programming example we assume that you
have already read and understood the descriptions of
the individual menus, and are by now familiar with the
general handling of the transmitter. We also assume that
you have assembled and adjusted the helicopter exactly
according to the kit instructions. The electronic facilities
provided by the transmitter should never be used to
compensate for major mechanical inaccuracies.
As so often in life, there are various ways and means of
reaching a particular destination when programming the
mx-12 HoTT. In this example our intention is to provide
a sensibly structured course of action, so that you have
a clear idea of logical programming techniques. Where
there are several possible methods, we first describe the
simplest and most easily understood solution. It is likely
that the helicopter will work perfectly when set up in this
way, but naturally you are still free to try out other solutions at a later stage, in case they suit you better.
We have deliberately chosen this simple programming
project in order to demonstrate that it is possible to set
up a helicopter which flies extremely well with relatively
little programming effort.
Nevertheless, we do not want to forfeit all the possible
refinement facilities: after the basic description you will
also find set-up notes on gyro gain, speed governors
and flight phase programming.
Note:
If, in contrast to the glow-powered machine described
here, your main interest lies in electric-powered model
helicopters, then please read on! Apart from the idle
adjustments, which naturally do not apply, you can adopt
most of the settings described in the following section
virtually unchanged.
To initiate this typical programming exercise move to the
“Model memory” menu, then to the …
“select model” sub-menu
(page 52),
… where you select a free model memory using the arrow buttons of the left or right-hand four-way button:
As our programming example we take the Graupner
STARLET 50 helicopter, with right-hand rotation, three
swashplate linkage points distributed evenly at 120°
(“3Sv (2 roll)” type), a beginner’s set-up without enhanced throttle curve, without heading-lock gyro system,
no method of influencing the gyro’s “normal operating
mode” from the transmitter, and with no speed governor
(regulator).
01
02
03
04
05
06
R06
¿¿free¿¿
¿¿free¿¿
¿¿free¿¿
¿¿free¿¿
¿¿free¿¿
After pressing the central SET button of the right-hand
four-way button, you can use the f button of the left or
right-hand four-way button to select …
Sel model type
( empty mod mem )
… the “Helicopter” model type. Confirm your choice by
pressing the central SET button of the right-hand fourway button, and the screen immediately switches to the
basic display.
Notes:
• Once you have called up the “Model select” option it
is not possible to interrupt the process, i. e. you must
choose one or other model type. Even if you switch
the transmitter off, then on again, you still have to
make this choice. However, if you make a mistake
you can always correct it simply by erasing the model memory.
• If the warning message “Throttle too high” appears,
you can erase it by turning the rotary proportional
knob CTRL 7 anti-clockwise to its end-point.
• If the battery voltage is too low, you will not be able
to change model memories for safety reasons. In this
case the screen displays an appropriate message:
not possible now
voltage too low
Once you have overcome this initial hurdle, it is essential
to bind the receiver installed in the model to this model
memory in the …
166 Programming example: model helicopter
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“Basic settings” menu
(pages 64 … 71)
This is accomplished by moving to the “rx bind” line:
timer
phase 2
autorotat.
receiv out
rx bind
0:00
hover
–––
–––
–––
–––
Note:
When you confirm the model selection the following
message appears in the basic display for a few seconds:
BIND N/A
OK
If you confirm your choice by briefly pressing the SET
button of the right-hand four-way button, you automatically move to this line:
In this line you trigger the bind process between model
memory and receiver, as described in detail on page 70.
Without this step you cannot address the receiver.
The next step is to press the c arrow button of the lefthand or right-hand four-way button to move up into the
first line, where you can start the actual model programming in the “mod name” line. Now enter a suitable name
for the model memory, …
mod name
stick mode
1
1 ser vo
swashplate
cut off –100% +150% –––
right
rotor direct
… by selecting the characters available on the second
page of the “mod name” line:
0123456789 : ;
?
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNO
PQRSTUVWXYZ
model name
STAR
Once you have entered the “Model name” you should
check that the “Stick mode” is correct:
STARLET
mod name
stick mode
1
1 ser vo
swashplate
cut off –100% +150% –––
right
rotor direct
In the next four lines we come to the first settings which
are specific to helicopters:
In the “Swashplate type” line select the number of
servos which are used to actuate the swashplate. See
page 65 for more details of this.
In the “Rotor direction” line we enter the direction of
rotation of the main rotor as viewed from above. In the
“Collective pitch min.” line set “forward” or “rear” to suit
your personal preference. This setting applies equally to
all subsequent mixers, and it is therefore vital that you
do not change it later in order to alter individual mixer
directions, such as the direction of collective pitch or
throttle.
stick mode
1
3sv(2rol)
swashplate
cut off –100% +150% 1
right
rotor direct
pitch min
rear
At this point, if you have not already done so, the servos
should be connected to the receiver in the following
sequence:
Throttle servo or speed controller
Receiver power supply
Telemetry sensor or gyro gain
Tail rotor servo (gyro system)
Pitch-axis 1 servo
Roll 1 servo
Receiver power supply
Roll 2 servo
The mixer ratios and mixer directions for the swashplate
servos for collective pitch, roll and pitch-axis are set in
the …
“Swashplate mixer” menu
SP – MIXER
ptch
roll
nick
(page 112),
+61%
+61%
+61%
… where you will find that they are pre-set to +61% in
each case. If the swashplate does not respond correctly
to the stick movements, the first step is to change the
mixer directions from “+” to “-” if necessary. The second
recourse is to reverse the servo directions in the “Servo
Programming example: model helicopter 167
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settings” menu.
“Transmitter control settings” menu
Note:
Please note one important difference in later Graupner
mc and mx radio control systems compared with
earlier equipment: the first collective pitch servo and the
throttle servo have been interchanged.
“Servo settings” menu
rev
+100% +100%
+100% +100%
+100% +100%
tr v
Now move to the …
S1
S2
S3
S4
S5
gyr free
thr free
lim ctrl7
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
cent
(page 72),
100% 100%
100% 100%
100% 100%
100% 100%
100% 100%
trav +
… where you can set up the travels and directions of
rotation of the individual servos. The basic aim here
should be to keep servo travels at 100% wherever
possible, as this maintains best possible resolution and
accuracy. Use “Rev.” if necessary to change the direction of rotation of any servo; do check carefully that the
direction you set really is correct. The tail rotor servo,
in particular, must operate in such a way that the nose
(!) of the helicopter moves in the direction which corresponds to the movement of the tail rotor stick.
A glance at the …
(page 76)
+
… will show you that “ctrl 7”, i. e. the rotary proportional
control CTRL 7, is assigned to the “Lim” input, whereas
all other inputs are programmed to “free” by default. The
“Lim” input serves as throttle limiter. It acts solely on
output “6”, to which the throttle servo is connected.
Just to remind you:
• Using the “Throttle limiter” function eliminates the
need to program an “Idle-up” flight phase.
• The throttle limiter does not control the throttle servo; it simply limits the travel of this servo in the forward direction, according to the setting of the throttle limiter, when required. The throttle servo is usually
controlled by the collective pitch stick via the throttle
curve or curves you have set in the “Helimix” menu,
for which reason input 6 should always be left “free”.
For more details please refer to the sections on pages 96 and 97 of the manual.
• Moreover the Ch 1 trim only affects a helicopter’s
throttle servo. This section does not describe the special features of this trim (“cut-off trim”) again, as it
is covered on page 40. (Thanks to the digital trims,
trim values are automatically stored when you switch
models and when you switch between flight phases.)
• You will find a detailed description of the basic idle
set-up procedure and the method of adjusting idle
and throttle limit in the section starting on page 79.
Now use the arrow button f of the left or right-hand
four-way button to move to the “Travel” column, and
increase the value in the highlighted field from 100% to
125%, with the throttle limiter at its forward end-stop.
gyr free
thr free
lim ctrl7
+100% +100%
+100% +100%
+100% +125%
tr v
+
This ensures that the throttle limiter cannot possibly
restrict the full throttle travel dictated by the collective
pitch stick when the model is in flight.
Set-up note for electric helicopters:
Since electric motors by their nature require no idle
setting, the only important point when setting up an
electric-powered model helicopter is that the adjustment
range of the throttle limiter should be set significantly
higher and lower than the adjustment range of the
speed controller, which is usually from -100% to +100%.
It may therefore be necessary to adjust the “Travel” value
of the throttle limiter to an appropriate value, such as a
symmetrical 110% setting. However, further fine-tuning
can be carried out exactly as described here for the
glow-powered machine.
An additional function needs to be activated in the …
“Basic model settings” menu
(pages 64 … 71).
Even if you are a beginner to flying and are not yet
ready for this, it is advisable at least to define the autorotation switch, so that you have an “emergency cut”
switch for the motor. This is carried out by selecting the
“Auto-rotation” line using the arrow buttons cd of the
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left or right-hand four-way button, pressing the central
SET button of the right-hand four-way button, and then
moving the two-position switch (SW 3) to the “ON” setting. The switch number (in our example “3”) now appears on the right of the screen:
rotor direct
pitch min
timer
phase 2
autorotat.
right
rear
5:00 C3
hover –––
3
This switch should be located at a position on the transmitter where you can easily reach it without letting go of
the stick, e. g. above the collective pitch stick.
Note:
For more information on setting up this “emergency OFF
switch” please refer to the section in the centre column
of the following page.
And another tip:
Please make it a habit to give all the switches a common
“on” direction; then a quick glance at the transmitter
before flying will soon reassure you that all switches are
“off”.
If you wish, you could at this point move up one line and
assign a flight phase switch for flight phase 2, which
is already assigned the name “Hover”, but this simple
programming example deliberately excludes such refinements.
You have now completed the basic settings at the
transmitter, i. e. the procedure which you will need to use
time and again when setting up a new model. The actual
helicopter-specific set-up is carried out primarily in the …
“Heli mixers” menu
ptch
ch1
thro
tail
ch1
gyro
swash lim.
normal
(pages 94 … 105).
0%
off
SEL
In the very first line you will see the “Collective pitch”
function, and a brief press on the central SET button of
the right-hand four-way button takes you to the appropriate sub-menu. At this point you will see a graphic
representation of the collective pitch curve. This is
initially defined by only three reference points, and in
most cases this is quite adequate.
Tip:
Always try to manage with these three reference points
initially, as additional points just complicate matters,
and extra complexity is just what you don’t need at the
moment.
The reference point for hovering should generally be the
mechanical centre-point of the collective pitch stick, as
this position feels completely natural to most pilots. You
can, of course, set up the curve to locate the hover at a
different point, but you should not be tempted to do this
unless you know exactly what you are doing. Start by
setting the collective pitch stick to centre. Assuming that
you previously adjusted the servos in accordance with
the manufacturer’s instructions, the servo output arms
will now (usually) be at right-angles to the servo case.
If you have not already done so, adjust the mechanical linkages to the rotor head so that all the blades are
set to a collective pitch angle of 4° to 5° positive for the
hover. All known helicopters will fly at this setting.
Now push the collective pitch stick fully forward to the
maximum collective pitch point (the full-length vertical
line indicates the current position of the stick). Adjust
Point 5 on the collective pitch curve using the arrow
buttons of the right-hand four-way button, with the aim of
obtaining a maximum collective pitch setting of around
9° at the main rotor blades. This point should be at a
value of around +50%.
Note:
A rotor blade set-up gauge, e. g. the Graupner item,
Order No. 61, is very useful when setting up blade pitch
angles, as you can read off the angles directly.
Now pull the collective pitch stick right back to the
collective pitch minimum position. Set the blade pitch
angle for Point 1 to 0 to -4°, depending on your piloting
ability. This produces a graph line with a slight angle at
the hover point, forming what is known as the collective
pitch curve. It might look approximately like this:
ptch
input
–100%
output
–80%
point 5 –80%
normal
If you now switch to the auto-rotation phase - you will
see the name of the flight phase “Autorot” at bottom left
on the screen - the “old” collective pitch curve will re-appear. In this phase you should set the same values as in
the normal phase, with the following exception: increase
the pitch angle at Point 5 (collective pitch maximum) by
about 2°. This gives slightly more pitch for flaring the
Programming example: model helicopter 169
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model when practising “autos” at a later (!) date.
Once you have set up the collective pitch curve, operate the auto-rotation switch again, then briefly press the
central ESC button of the left-hand four-way button to
return to the helicopter mixer menu select point. Now we
move on to the “Ch1 ¼ thro” line, where you can set up
the throttle curve.
The first step here is to enter the idle trim range by
adjusting the throttle curve. Move the collective pitch
stick to the minimum position, and set Point 1 to a value
of around -65%.
c1
thro
input
–100%
output
–65%
point 5 –65%
normal
With the throttle limiter closed and the idle trim fully
open, pull the collective pitch stick to the “fully back”
position and move it slightly to and fro: the throttle servo
should not respond to this movement. This arrangement
gives you a seamless transition from idle trim to the
throttle curve. You will probably need to make further adjustments to the throttle curve, but this process must be
carried out later as part of the flight-testing procedure.
If you now switch temporarily from this graph to the
auto-rotation flight phase, you will see - instead of the
usual display - the following:
c1
thro
off
Autorot
This means that the throttle servo has switched to a
fixed value, which can be adjusted as follows:
Press ESC to return to the menu list. Assuming that you
are still in the auto-rotation phase, this will now include
new sub-menus.
The important line is “Throttle”, where you should set
a value of around +125% or -125%, depending on the
direction of servo rotation.
ptch
thro
tail
gyro
swash lim.
Autorot
–125%
0%
0%
off
SEL
This setting ensures that the motor stops reliably in
the auto-rotation phase (to allow you to cope with an
emergency). Later, when you have gained sufficient
experience to practise auto-rotation landings, the setting
should be changed to a value which provides a reliable
idle.
Set-up note for electric helicopters:
Since the motor must be stopped completely if an emergency occurs with an electric-powered model helicopter,
this setting can be adopted unchanged.
Simply switch “Auto-rotation” off, and move back to the
first menu list.
Call up the set-up page of the “Ch1 ¼ tail rotor” menu:
this is where you set static torque compensation (DMA)
for the tail rotor. Once again, please restrict yourself
to the three default reference points; everything else
is the preserve of the experienced pilot. For the initial
set-up - intended for a heading-lock gyro system - the
uniform pre-set values of 0% should be changed to
-30% at Point 1 (collective pitch minimum) and +30%
at the opposite end, Point 5 (collective pitch maximum),
although you may find it necessary to adjust the settings
slightly later.
c1
tail
input
–100%
output
–30%
point 5 –30%
normal
Now switch back to the auto-rotation phase for a moment. The set-up curve is disabled here, with the result
that the tail rotor servo no longer responds to collective
pitch commands (when the main rotor is not powered,
there is no rotor torque to be corrected).
The - static - pre-set of the gyro effect principle (“normal”
or “heading lock” mode), and also the gyro gain can now
be altered by setting a value other than “0” in the “Gyro”
line:
At present the remaining sub-menus are of no interest.
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ptch
ch1
thro
tail
ch1
gyro
swash lim.
normal
gyr ctrl 8
thr free
lim ctrl 7
0%
off
SEL
tr v
Please be sure to read and observe the set-up
instructions supplied with your gyro at this point,
as there is a possibility that your helicopter will be
uncontrollable if you set it up incorrectly!
If your gyro features gain control from the transmitter unlike the type we are using in this example - you will
need another free proportional control for it, e. g. CTRL
8. This can be assigned to the “Gyro” input in the …
“Transmitter control settings” menu
gyr ctrl 8
thr free
lim ctrl 7
+50% +50%
+100% +100%
+100% +100%
(page 76).
+100% +100%
+100% +100%
+100% +100%
tr v
+
Turn the rotary control until its number (transmitter
control number) appears on the screen, then use the
arrow button f of the left or right-hand four-way button
to move to the ASY field in the “Travel” column. Briefly
press the central SET button of the right-hand four-way
button, and you will be able to set a maximum gyro gain
such as 50% in the now highlighted field:
+
This represents a safe fixed value which is maintained
as long as the rotary control is at its right-hand end-stop.
You will probably need to adjust the value in the course
of flight-testing. Additional notes on setting up gyros can
be found on pages 98 / 99.
Further adjustments
If you have followed this programming example, you will
have a helicopter which is set up properly, and in an
ideal state for hovering practice and simple circuits. Of
course, you may wish to activate further functions depending on your skill and flying experience. If you wish
to fly using different rotor speeds and trim set-ups, you
will need to activate a series of “flight phases”, which
can be called up via switches which you assign. The first
step in this process is to call up the …
“Basic model settings” menu
rotor direct
pitch min
timer
phase 2
autorotat.
rotation always has absolute precedence over any
other phases. This simply means: if you operate the
auto-rotation switch, you immediately move to the autorotation phase from either of the other two flight phases
(“normal” phase and “phase 2”).
Now move back to the “Helimix” menu, switch to “Phase
2” (which you have just set up), and modify the settings
accordingly. Since the mx-12 HoTT features digital
trims, in the Heli program all the trim positions for the
control functions “roll”, “pitch-axis” and “tail rotor” are
stored separately for each flight phase, in addition to the
other menu settings which you entered separately for
each flight phase (see page 94).
For example, if the motor run is limited by the fueltank
size or battery capacity, you should set the stopwatch
to count down. Enter the maximum possible motor
run time, e. g. “5 min.”. The transmitter’s sounder now
starts emitting warning sounds starting at “30 s” before
“zero”, as described on page 67 / 68. You could assign
the transmitter control switch “G3” to this timer, by first
activating switch assignment and then turning the throttle limit control from its idle position in the direction of
full-throttle:
(pages 64 … 71)
right
rear
10:01 C3
7
hover
3
… assign a switch to “Phase 2”, e. g. SW 7, and enter a
relevant name (if you wish).
It is important to be quite clear in your mind that auto-
3sv(2rol)
swashplate
cut off –100% +150% 1
right
rotor direct
pitch min
rear
5:00 C3
timer
With the stopwatch halted, press the cd or ef buttons of the left-hand four-way button (CLEAR) simultaneously at the basic display, so that the stopwatch
switches to the “Timer” function. The timer then starts
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automatically when you move the throttle limit slider
towards full-throttle, and stops again when you move the
limiter back to the idle range.
Suggested refinement: speed governor
At some time you may wish to install a speed governor
(regulator) in your helicopter, e. g. the mc-Heli-Control,
to try flying with a system rotational speed which is
automatically maintained at a constant value. It makes
sense to couple the individual rotor speeds with the
flight phases, as this enables you to carry out further
fine-tuning.
The initial requirement when programming the transmitter is to install and program the speed governor exactly
in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. A
practical suggestion, which includes the throttle limiter
function, can be found in the section starting on page
96.
If you have set up your helicopter as described in this
programming example, you will find that it is capable
of carrying out extremely challenging flight tasks even
though it is not suitable for competition work.
We suggest that you should not make use of additional
functions until your model is flying perfectly, so that you
will be in a position to recognise and appreciate any
improvements. Whenever possible, it is always best to
implement additional refinements one at a time, otherwise you won’t know which change has brought about
any improvement. Bear in mind that the good pilot is
not recognised by the number of complex functions with
which he can cope, but by the results he can obtain
when flying a relatively simple set-up.
172 Programming example: model helicopter
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For your notes 173
33112_mx12_HoTT_2_GB.indd Abs60:173
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Appendix
PRX (Power for Receiver)
Order No. 4136
Graupner HoTT GPS / Vario module
Order No. 33600
Graupner HoTT Vario module
Order No. 33601
A highly developed stabilised receiver power supply with intelligent
power management.
The unit constitutes a stabilised user-selectable power supply for the
receiver, and provides a further enhancement in the reliability of the
airborne power supply. It is designed for use with different types of
receiver battery, to ensure that it is straightforward and versatile in use.
When the model is operating, even brief collapses in battery voltage
are stored and displayed, offering the user the means of detecting a
receiver battery which is not “up to the job”, or failing.
• For use with one or two receiver batteries (simultaneous discharge if
two batteries are employed)
• Suitable for five-cell or six-cell NiMH batteries, or two-cell LiPo or
LiFe packs. Graupner/JR, G3.5, G2 and BEC connector systems.
• Three user-selectable receiver power voltage levels: 5.1 V / 5.5 V /
5.9 V.
• Two ultra-bright LEDs indicate the operational status of batteries 1
and 2 separately.
• Integral high-quality On / Off switch.
• Constructed to cope with high-current applications.
• Low-profile switch and LEDs to avoid spoiling the appearance and
efficiency of the model.
• Straight-through design of mounting lugs, LEDs and switch for simple installation using drilling template (supplied).
Vario with altitude signals and five different tones for climb and
descent, plus GPS with range measurement, distance measurement,
speed indicator, display of flight direction and co-ordinates
• Additional warning thresholds for min. altitude, max. altitude, twostage climb and descent rate
• Altitude display, storage of min. and max. altitude
• Variable warning time: OFF, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 seconds, constant
• Variable warning repeat time: constant, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 min, once
• The GPS / Vario sensor can be connected directly to the receiver’s
telemetry input.
Vario with altitude signals and five different tones for climb and
descent; altitude display and storage of min. and max. altitude.
• Additional warning thresholds for min. altitude, max. altitude, twostage climb and descent rate
• Variable warning time: OFF, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 seconds, constant
• Variable warning repeat time: constant, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 min, once
• The vario sensor can be connected directly to the receiver’s telemetry input.
Specification, vario
• Altitude measurement: -500 m ... +3000 m
• Resolution: 0.1 m
• Sensitivity, vario: 0.5 m/3s, 1 m/3s, 0.5 m/s, 1 m/s, 3 m/s, programmable per beep
• Calculated average value: 4 - 20 measurements per measured value, programmable
Specification
• Altitude measurement: -500 m ... +3000 m
• Resolution: 0.1 m
• Sensitivity, vario: 0.5 m/3s, 1 m/3s, 0.5 m/s, 1 m/s, 3 m/s, programmable per beep
• Calculated average value: 4 - 20 measurements per measured
value, programmable
174 Appendix
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Graupner HoTT General Engine Module
Order No. 33610
Graupner HoTT General Air Module
Order No. 33611
Graupner HoTT Electric Air-Module
Order No. 33620
General sensor for Graupner HoTT receivers and models with internalcombustion or electric power system:
• 2 x temperature and voltage measurements with warning thresholds
for min. and max. voltage and min. and max. temperature
• Individual cell measurement with min. voltage warning thresholds
• Voltage, current and capacity measurement with warning thresholds
for min. and max. voltage, max. capacity and max. current
• Programmable current limiting
• Current measurement with 2 x 1 mOhm shunt resistors in parallel =
0.5 mOhm
• Rev-count measurement and warning thresholds for min. and max.
rotational speed
• Fuel measurement with warning thresholds in 25% increments (requires software update)
• User-variable warning time: OFF, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 seconds, constant
• User-variable warning repeat time: constant, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 min, once
• 2 x temperature measurement, optionally 0 to 120°C or 200°C, also
voltage measurement up to 80 V DC
• 1 x rev-count measurement up to 100,000 rpm with two-blade propeller
• 1 x speed controller / servo input, 1 x speed governor input, 1 x
speed controller / servo output for rotational speed governor
• etc. see product at www.graupner.de
General sensor for Graupner HoTT receivers and models with internalcombustion or electric power system:
• Vario with altitude signals, climb and descent signals, and additional warning thresholds for min. altitude, max. altitude, climb and twostage descent rate
• Altitude indicator (-500 … +3000 m), storage of min. and max. altitude
• 2 x temperature and voltage measurements with warning thresholds
for min. and max. voltage and min. and max. temperature
• Individual cell measurement with min. voltage warning thresholds
• Voltage, current and capacity measurement with warning thresholds
for min. and max. voltage, max. capacity and max. current
• Rev-count measurement and programmable speed governor, also
warning thresholds for min. and max. rotational speed
• Fuel measurement with warning thresholds in 25% increments (requires software update)
• User-variable warning time: OFF, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 seconds, constant
• User-variable warning repeat time: constant, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 min, once
• 2 x temperature measurement, optionally 0 to 120°C or 200°C, also
voltage measurement up to 80 V DC
• 1 x rev-count measurement up to 100,000 rpm with two-blade propeller
• etc. see product at www.graupner.de
General sensor for Graupner HoTT receivers and electric-powered
models:
• Vario with altitude signals, climb and descent signals, and additional warning thresholds for min. altitude, max. altitude, two-stage climb
and descent rate
• Altitude indicator (-500 … +3000 m), storage of min. and max. altitude.
• 2 x temperature and voltage measurements with warning thresholds
for min. and max. voltage and min. and max. temperature
• Individual cell measurement 2 ... 14S with min. voltage warning
thresholds
• Voltage, current and capacity measurement with warning thresholds
for min. and max. voltage, max. capacity and max. current
• User-variable warning time: OFF, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 seconds, constant
• User-variable warning repeat time: constant, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 min, once
• 2 x temperature measurement, optionally 0 to 120°C or 200°C, also
voltage measurement up to 80 V DC
• 1 x speed controller input, 1 x speed controller output for power reduction due to low voltage of individual cells
• 1 x current, voltage and capacity measurement, up to 150 A (peak 1
sec. 320 A) and up to 60 V
• 1 x individual cell monitoring for 2 - 14S Lithium batteries (LiPo, LiIo,
LiFe)
• etc. see product at www.graupner.de
Appendix 175
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Graupner HoTT RPM magnet sensor
Order No. 33616
Graupner HoTT Smart-Box
Order No. 33700
Optional speech output module for Graupner mx-12 HoTT
Order No. 33001.71
Graupner HoTT RPM optical sensor
Order No. 33615
A vast range of different functions combined in a single device: that’s
what destines the SMART-BOX to be your intelligent companion in
future. Whether you want to display telemetry data in real time, or
enter changes to your HoTT system, the large-area screen with 8 x 21
characters makes the task simple. The flexible Smart-Box includes an
integral buzzer for generating audible signals and warnings for even
greater flexibility and practicality.
The installation set supplied makes it easy to mount the unit on the
support bars of hand-held transmitters, allowing you to position it in
such a way that you can read off telemetry data in real time while you
control your model.
The user-update facility ensures that the SMART-BOX is always up-todate, and provides a route for expanded functions in future.
• Transmitter voltage display with • Country setting
user-variable warning threshold
• Range check
• Signal quality
• Receiver temperature
• Receiver voltage
• Servo reverse
• Servo neutral position
• Servo travel
• Cycle time
• Channel swap
• Fail-Safe settings
• Mixer settings
• Servo test
Dimensions: approx. 76 mm x 72 mm x 17 mm (L x W x H)
Weight: approx. 55g
This optional module forms the output device for the transmitter’s
audible signals as well as the signals and speech output associated
with the Telemetry menu. All speech output is in the German language
as standard.
To use the module you will also need standard headphones or an
earphone with a 3.5 mm barrel connector, which can be purchased
from any electrical retailer.
The volume of the earphone socket can be adjusted in the “Voice
volume” line of the “General settings” menu; see page 115.
176 Appendix
33112_mx12_HoTT_2_GB.indd Abs49:176
06.06.2011 19:39:56
FCC Information
Graupner mx-12 HoTT #33112
FCC
ID:ZKZ-MX-12
FCC ID:
ZGZ-mx-12
FCC Label Compliance Statement
This device complies with Part 15 of the FCC Rules.
Operation is subject to the following two conditions:
1. This device may not cause harmful interference.
2. This device must accept any interference received,
including interference that may cause undesired operation.
• Connect the equipment into an outlet on a circuit different from that to which the receiver is connected.
• Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/TV technician for help.
RF Exposure
RF
warningStatement
statement:
This device has been evaluated to meet the FCC RF
The device has been evaluated to meet general
exposure
requirement when used in combination with
RF exposure requirement. The device can be
the
genuine
Graupner
HoTT accessoires
and operated
used in portable
exposure
condition without
with
a
minimum
distance
of
20
cm
between
the antenna
restriction.
and your body.
WARNING:
Changes or modifi cations not expressly approved by
the party responsible for compliance could void the
user‘s authority to operate the equipment.
NOTE
This equipment has been tested and found to comply
with the limits for a Class B digital device, pursuant to
Part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to
provide reasonable protection against harmful interference in a residential installation. This equipment generates uses and can radiate radio frequency energy and,
if not installed and used in accordance with the instructions, may cause harmful interference to radio communications. However, there is no guarantee that interference
will not occur in a particular installation. If this equipment
does cause harmful interference to radio or television
reception, which can be determined by turning the
equipment off and on, the user is encouraged to try to
correct the interference by one or more of the following
measures:
• Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna.
• Increase the separation between the equipment and
receiver.
178 FCC Information
33112_mx12_HoTT_2_GB.indd Abs55:178
06.06.2011 19:39:58

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