TSG416 Service Manual Rev0 - EDI Ford Industrial Engine

TSG416 Service Manual Rev0 - EDI Ford Industrial Engine
TSG‐416 1.6 LITER INDUSTRIAL ENGINE SERVICE MANUAL Powertrain Assemblies & Components Provided By Ford Component Sales EDI 1020120 Revision 0 December 2012 EDI 1020120 Revision 0 December 2012 Section 01 GENERAL INFO Section 02 ENGINE Section Index Reproduction in any manner, in whole or in
part, is prohibited without the express
permission in writing from:
Engine Distributors Inc (EDI)
EDI policy is one of continuous improvement
and while every effort is made to ensure that this
publication is up to date and correct in all
respects, the right to change prices,
specifications and equipment at any time without
notice is reserved. Accordingly this publication is
not to be regarded as a final description of any
individual engine.
Section 03 IGNITION Section 04 FUEL Section 05 COOLING Section 06 CHARGING Section 07 STARTER Section 08 ENG. CONTROLS Section 09 METRICS Section 10 DISTRIBUTORS HEALTH & SAFETY
WARNING: THE FOLLOWING HEALTH AND SAFETY RECOMMENDATIONS SHOULD BE CAREFULLY
OBSERVED
WARNING: CARRYING OUT CERTAIN OPERATIONS AND HANDLING SOME
SUBSTANCES CAN BE DANGEROUS OR HARMFUL TO THE OPERATOR IF THE
CORRECT SAFETY PRECAUTIONS ARE NOT OBSERVED. SUCH PRECAUTIONS ARE RECOMMENDED
AT THE APPROPRIATE POINTS IN THIS BOOK. WARNING: WHILE IT IS IMPORTANT THAT THESE
RECOMMENDED SAFETY PRECAUTIONS ARE OBSERVED, CARE NEAR MACHINERY IS ALWAYS
NECESSARY, AND NO LIST CAN BE EXHAUSTIVE. ALWAYS BE CAUTIOUS TO AVIOD POTENTIAL
SAFETY RISKS.
The following recommendations are for general guidance:
1. Always wear correctly fitting protective clothing which should be laundered regularly. Loose or baggy clothing can be
extremely dangerous when working on running engines or machinery. Clothing which becomes impregnated with oil or
other substances can constitute a health hazard due to prolonged contact with the skin even through underclothing.
2. So far as practicable, work on or close to engines or machinery only when they are stopped. If this is not practicable,
remember to keep tools, test equipment and all parts of the body well away from the moving parts of the engine or
equipment—fans, drive belts and pulleys are particularly dangerous. The electric cooling fan used on some installations is
actuated automatically when the coolant reaches a specified temperature. For this reason, care should be taken to ensure
that the ignition/isolating switch is OFF when working in the vicinity of the fan as an increase in coolant temperature may
cause the fan suddenly to operate.
3. Avoid contact with exhaust pipes, exhaust manifolds and silencers when an engine is, or has recently been running;
these can be very hot and can cause severe burns.
4. Many liquids used in engines or vehicles are harmful if taken internally or splashed into the eyes. In the event of
accidentally swallowing gasoline (petrol), oil, diesel fuel, antifreeze, battery acid etc, do NOT encourage vomiting and
OBTAIN QUALIFIED MEDICAL ASSISTANCE IMMEDIATELY.
Wear protective goggles when handling liquids which are harmful to the eyes; these include ammonia and battery acid. If
any of these substances are splashed in the eyes, wash out thoroughly with clean water and OBTAIN QUALIFIED
MEDICAL ASSISTANCE IMMEDIATELY.
IMPORTANT SAFETY NOTICE
Appropriate service methods and proper repair procedures are essential for the safe, reliable operation of all industrial
engines as well as the personal safety of the individual doing the work. This Service Manual provides general directions
for accomplishing service and repair work with tested, effective techniques. Following them will help assure reliability.
TSG‐416 GENERAL INFORMATION INDEX Subject General Information Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Safety Notice…………………………………………………………………………….……………………………… Notes, Cautions, and Warnings………………………………………………………………………………… Battery Handling and Charging……………………………………………….………………………………… Forward…………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………… Engine Identification………..………….…………………………………………………………………………… Parts and Service………………………………………….…………………………………………………………… Description and Operation……………………………………………………..………………………………… Diagnosis and Testing Special Tools…………….………………………………………………………………………………………………… Inspection and Verification………………………………………………………………………………………… Symptom Chart………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. PCV System Malfunction……………………………………………………………………………………………. Engine Oil Leaks…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Compression Tests…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. Cylinder Leakage Detection……………………………………………………………………………………….. Intake Manifold Vacuum Test……………………………………………………………………………………. Excessive Engine Oil Consumption…………………………………………………………………………….. Oil Pressure Test………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Valve Train Analysis – Static……………………………………………………………………………………….. Valve Train Analysis – Dynamic………………………………………………………………………………….. Camshaft Love Lift………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Hydraulic Valve Lash Adjuster……………………………………………………………………………………. General Service Procedures Camshaft Journal Diameter……………………………………………………………………………………….. Camshaft Journal Clearance………………………………………………………………………………………. Camshaft Lobe Surface…..…………………………………………………………………………………………. Camshaft Lobe Lift……………………………………………………………………………………………………… Camshaft Runout………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Camshaft End Play…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. Crankshaft Main Bearing Journal Diameter………………………………………………………………. Crankshaft Main Bearing Journal Taper……………………………………………………………………. Crankshaft Main Bearing Journal Clearance……………………………………………………………… Bearing Inspection……………………………………………………………………………………………………. Crankshaft End Play…………………………………………………………………………………………………... Crankshaft Runout…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. Cylinder Bore Taper…………………………………………………………………………………………………… Cylinder Bore Out‐of‐Round……………………………………………………………………………………... Piston Inspection………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Piston Diameter………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Piston to Cylinder Bore Clearance…………………………………………………………………………….. 01‐1 Page 01 – 3 01 – 3 01 – 3 01 – 4 01 – 5 01 – 5 01 – 5 01 – 5 01 – 6 01 – 7 01 – 7 01 – 10 01 – 10 01 – 12 01 – 13 01 – 13 01 – 15 01 – 16 01 – 17 01 – 17 01 – 18 01 – 19 01 – 20 01 – 20 01 – 20 01 – 21 01 – 21 01 – 21 01 – 22 01 – 22 01 – 23 01 – 23 01 – 24 01 – 24 01 – 24 01 – 25 01 – 25 01 – 25 01 – 25 TSG‐416 GENERAL INFORMATION INDEX (CONT.) Subject General Service Procedures Piston Selection…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Piston Ring End Gap………………………………………………………………………………………………….. Piston Ring‐to‐Groove Clearance………………………………………………………………………………. Crankshaft Connecting Rod Journal Diameter…………………………………………………………… Crankshaft Connection Rod Journal Taper………………………………………………………………... Connecting Rod Cleaning…………………………………………………………………………………………… Connecting Rod Larger End Bore………………………………………………………………………………. Piston Pin Diameter………………………………………………………………………………………………….. Connecting Rod Bushing Diameter…………………………………………………………………………... Connecting Rod Bend……………………………………………………………………………………………….. Connecting Rod Twist……………………………………………………………………………………………….. Connecting Rod Piston Pin Side Clearance……………………………………………………………….. Connecting Rod Journal Clearance……………………………………………………………………………. Bearing Inspection……………………………………………………………………………………………………. Roller Follower Inspection………………………………………………………………………………………... Hydraulic Lash Adjuster Inspection…………………………………………………………………………… Valve Stem Diameter………………………………………………………………………………………………… Valve Stem‐to‐Valve Guide Clearance……………………………………………………………………… Valve Inspection………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Valve Guide Inner Diameter…………………………………………………………………………………….. Valve Guide Reaming……………………………………………………………………………………………….. Valve Spring Installed Length……………………………………………………………………………………. Valve Spring Free Length………………………………………………………………………………………….. Valve Spring Out‐of‐Square………………………………………………………………………………………. Valve Spring Compression Pressure…………………………………………………………………………. Valve and Seat Refacing Measurements………………………………………………………………….. Valve Seat Width……………………………………………………………………………………………………… Valve Seat Runout…………………………………………………………………………………………………… Flywheel Inspection……………………………………………………………………………………………….. Oil Pump Gear Radial Clearance……………………………………………………………………………… Oil Pump Rotor Inspection……………………………………………………………………………………… Oil Pump Side Clearance…………………………………………………………………………………………. Cylinder Bore Honing………………………………………………………………………………………………. Cylinder Bore Cleaning……………………………………………………………………………………………. Cylinder Bore Core Plug Replacement……………………………………………………………………. Cylinder Bore Repair – Cast Iron Porosity Defects……………………………………………….... Cylinder Block – Distortion……………………………………………………………………………………… Spark Plug Thread Repair……………………………………………………………………………………….. Exhaust Manifold Straightness……………………………………………………………………………….. SPECIFICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….………... 01‐2 Page 01 – 26 01 – 26 01 – 27 01 – 27 01 – 27 01 – 27 01 – 28 01 – 28 01 – 28 01 – 28 01 – 28 01 – 29 01 – 29 01 – 30 01 – 30 01 – 30 01 – 31 01 – 31 01 – 31 01 – 32 01 – 32 01 – 32 01 – 32 01 – 32 01 – 33 01 – 33 01 – 33 01 – 33 01 – 34 01 – 34 01 – 34 01 – 34 01 – 35 01 – 35 01 – 36 01 – 36 01 – 36 01 – 38 01 – 39 01 – 40 TSG‐416 GENERAL INFORMATION GENERAL INFORMATION
Notes, Cautions, and Warnings
As you read through the procedures, you will come
across NOTES, CAUTIONS, and WARNINGS. Each one
is there for a specific purpose. NOTES gives you added
information that will help you to complete a particular
procedure. CAUTIONS are given to prevent you from
making an error that could damage the equipment.
WARNINGS remind you to be especially careful in those
areas where carelessness can cause personal injury.
The following list contains some general WARNINGS
that you should follow when you work on the equipment.
Introduction
This section covers various engine tests, adjustments,
service procedures and cleaning/inspection procedures.
Engine assembly and service specifications appear at
the end of the Section 02.
For engine disassembly, assembly, installation,
adjustment procedures and specifications, refer to
Section 02.
This engine incorporates a closed-type crankcase
ventilation system.
To maintain the required performance level, the fuel
system, ignition system and engine must be kept in good
operating condition and meet recommended adjustment
specifications.
GENERAL WARNINGS:
TO HELP AVOID INJURY:

ALWAYS WEAR SAFETY GLASSES FOR EYE
PROTECTION.

USE SAFETY STANDS WHENEVER A
PROCEDURE REQUIRES YOU TO BE UNDER THE
EQUIPMENT.

BE SURE THAT THE IGNITION SWITCH IS
ALWAYS IN THE OFF POSITION, UNLESS
OTHERWISE REQUIRED BY THE PROCEDURE.

SET THE PARKING BRAKE (IF EQUIPPED) WHEN
WORKING ON THE EQUIPMENT. IF YOU HAVE AN
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION, SET IT IN PARK
(ENGINE OFF) OR NEUTRAL (ENGINE ON)
UNLESS INSTRUCTED OTHERWISE FOR A
SPECIFIC OPERATION. PLACE WOOD BLOCKS
(4”X 4” OR LARGER) TO THE FRONT AND REAR
SURFACES OF THE TIRES TO PROVIDE
FURTHER RESTRAINT FROM INADVERTENT
EQUIPMENT MOVEMENT.

OPERATE THE ENGINE ONLY IN A WELL
VENTILATED AREA TO AVOID THE DANGER OF
CARBON MONOXIDE.

KEEP YOURSELF AND YOUR CLOTHING AWAY
FROM MOVING PARTS WHEN THE ENGINE IS
RUNNING, ESPECIALLY THE FAN BELTS.

TO PREVENT SERIOUS BURNS, AVOID CONTACT
WITH HOT METAL PARTS SUCH AS THE
RADIATOR, EXHAUST MANIFOLD, TAIL PIPE,
CATALYTIC CONVERTER AND MUFFLER.

DO NOT SMOKE WHILE WORKING ON THE
EQUIPMENT.

ALWAYS REMOVE RINGS, WATCHES, LOOSE
HANGING JEWELRY, AND LOOSE CLOTHING
BEFORE BEGINNING TO WORK ON THE
EQUIPMENT. TIE LONG HAIR SECURELY BEHIND
THE HEAD.

KEEP HANDS AND OTHER OBJECTS CLEAR OF
THE RADIATOR FAN BLADES. ELECTRIC
COOLING FANS CAN START TO OPERATE AT
ANY TIME BY AN INCREASE IN UNDERHOOD
TEMPERATURES, EVEN THOUGH THE IGNITION
IS IN THE OFF POSITION. THEREFORE, CARE
SHOULD BE TAKEN TO ENSURE THAT THE
ELECTRIC COOLING FAN IS COMPLETELY
DISCONNECTED WHEN WORKING UNDER THE
HOOD.
Before replacing damaged or worn engine components
such as the crankshaft, cylinder head, valve guide,
valves, camshaft or cylinder block, make sure part(s) is
not serviceable.
WARNING: TO AVOID THE POSSIBILITY OF
PERSONAL INJURY OR DAMAGE, DO NOT
OPERATE THE ENGINE UNTIL THE FAN BLADE HAS
FIRST BEEN EXAMINED FOR POSSIBLE CRACKS
OR SEPARATION.
CAUTION: Use of abrasive grinding discs to remove
gasket material from the engine sealing surfaces
during repair procedures can contribute to engine
damage and wear. Airborne debris and abrasive grit
from the grinding disc may enter the engine through
exposed cavities causing premature wear
and eventual engine damage.
Engine Distributors Inc. (EDI) does not recommend
using abrasive grinding discs to remove engine gasket
material. Use manual gasket scrapers for removing
gasket material from the engine sealing surfaces.
Take added care to prevent scratching or gouging
aluminum sealing surfaces.
Safety Notice
There are numerous variations in procedures,
techniques, tools and parts for servicing equipment, as
well as in the skill of the individual doing the work. This
manual cannot possibly anticipate all such variations and
provide advice or cautions as to each. Accordingly,
anyone who departs from the instructions provided in
this Manual must first establish that neither personal
safety nor equipment integrity are compromised by the
choice of methods, tools or parts.
01‐3 TSG‐416 GENERAL INFORMATION Battery Handling and Charging
The handling and correct use of lead acid batteries is not
as hazardous provided that sensible precautions are
observed and that operatives have been trained in their
use and are adequately supervised.
It is important that all labeling on the battery is carefully
read, understood and complied with. The format of the
following symbols and labels is common to most brands
of lead acid battery.
NOTE: Observe all manufacturers’ instructions when
using charging equipment.
CAUTION: Batteries should not be charged in the
vehicle or equipment. May damage electrical
components.
01‐4 TSG‐416 GENERAL INFORMATION Forward
Parts and Service
This book contains service information for the engine(s)
listed on the title page.
Replacement parts can be obtained through your local
EDI Distributor listed in the back portion of this manual.
They also may be found in the yellow pages under
“Engines” or contact EDI directly at 1 800 220 2700.
The life of your engine unit and the delivery of the high
performance built into it will depend on the care it
receives throughout its life. It is the operator’s
responsibility to ensure that the engine is correctly
operated. We consider it to be in your interests to enlist
the aid of an authorized EDI Distributor, not only when
repairs are required but also for regular maintenance.
Distributors are listed at the back of this manual.
EDI Distributors are equipped to perform major and
minor repairs. They are anxious to see that all of your
maintenance and service needs are quickly and
courteously completed.
Description and Operation
Engines manufactured by Ford Motor Company are
available through EDI Distributors. When in need of
parts or service, contact your local Authorized
Distributor. In overseas territories, in the event of
difficulties, communicate directly with the supervising
EDI affiliated Company in your area whose address
appears at the end of this book.
Section 01 of this manual covers general procedures
and diagnosis of the engine system, including base
engine repair procedures that would be common to most
engines. Refer to Section 02 for more specific service
information on the TSG-416 engine.
The TSG-416 engine incorporates a closed positive
crankcase ventilation system and an exhaust emission
control system.
Where the terms “Right” or “Left” occur in this
publication, they refer to the respective sides of the
engine when viewed from the rear or flywheel end.
Pistons and valves are numbered from the front or timing
cover end of the engine commencing at No. 1.
You may find that your engine assembly includes
optional equipment not specifically covered in the
following text. Nevertheless, the service procedures
outlined in this book still apply to your engine.
Engine Identification
Because Ford Power Products markets such a wide
range of industrial gasoline and diesel engines manufactured both in the U.S. and overseas - it is
important that you have as complete identification of the
engine as possible in order to provide the correct
replacement parts. Review the list in the back of this
book, for an EDI distributor in your area. You can obtain
a standard parts listing describing the parts. It remains a
distributor function to identify the part number.
The engine’s, fuel, ignition, emissions system and
exhaust system all affect exhaust emission levels and
must be maintained according to the maintenance
schedule. Refer to the Maintenance and Operator’s
Handbook or contact your nearest EDI distributor listed
in the back of this manual.
An identification Decal is affixed to the valve cover of the
engine. The decal contains the engine serial number
which identifies this unit from all others. Use all numbers
when seeking information or ordering replacement parts
for this engine.
01‐5 TSG‐416 GENERAL INFORMATION DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING
Special Tools
Special Service Tools called by the procedures can be
obtained by calling:
1-800-ROTUNDA (1-800-768-8632)
01‐6 TSG‐416 GENERAL INFORMATION Inspection and Verification
1. Verify the customer concern by operating the
engine to duplicate the condition.
3. If the inspection reveals obvious concerns that
can be readily identified, repair as required.
2. Visually inspect for obvious signs of mechanical
and electrical damage:
 Engine coolant leaks.
 Engine oil leaks.

Fuel leaks.

Damaged or severely worn pads.
 Loose mounting bolts, studs, and nuts.
4. If the concerns remain after the inspection,
determine the symptoms and go to the symptom
chart.
Symptom Chart
01‐7 TSG‐416 GENERAL INFORMATION 01‐8 TSG‐416 GENERAL INFORMATION 01‐9 TSG‐416 GENERAL INFORMATION PCV System Malfunction
3. Run the engine for 15 minutes. Stop the engine
and inspect all seal and gasket areas for leaks
using the 12 Volt Master UV diagnostic
Inspection Kit. A clear bright yellow or orange
area will identify the leak. For extremely small
leaks, several hours may be required for the
leak to appear.
4. If necessary, pressurize the main oil gallery
system to locate leaks due to improperly sealed,
loose or cocked plugs.
5. Repair all leaks as required.
A malfunctioning Positive Crankcase Ventilation
System (closed type) may be indicated by loping or
rough engine idle. Do not attempt to compensate for this
idle condition by disconnecting the PCV system and
making an air bypass or idle speed adjustment.
CAUTION: The removal of the PCV system from the
engine will adversely affect fuel economy and
engine crankcase ventilation with resultant
shortening of engine life.
Engine Oil Leaks
Pressure Method
NOTE: When diagnosing engine oil leaks, the source
and location of the leak must be positively identified prior
to service.
The crankcase can be pressurized to locate oil leaks.
The following materials are required to fabricate the tool
to be used:
 air supply and air hose
 air pressure gauge that registers pressure in 4
kPa (1 psi) increments
 airline shutoff valve
 appropriate fittings to attach the above parts to
oil fill, PCV grommet hole and crankcase
ventilation tube
 appropriate plugs to seal any openings leading
to the crankcase

a solution of liquid detergent and water to be
applied with a suitable applicator such as a
squirt bottle or brush
Prior to performing this procedure, clean the cylinder
block, cylinder heads, valve covers, oil pan and flywheel
with a suitable solvent to remove all traces of oil.
Fabricate the air supply hose to include the airline
shutoff valve and the appropriate adapter to permit the
air to enter the engine through the crankcase ventilation
tube. Fabricate the air pressure gauge to a suitable
adapter for installation on the engine at the oil filler
opening.
Fluorescent Oil Additive Method
Use a 12 Volt Master UV Diagnostic Inspection Kit, such
as the Rotunda Oil Leak Detector Y112-R0021 or
equivalent, to perform the following procedure for oil leak
diagnosis.
CAUTION: Use extreme caution when pressurizing
crankcase. Applying air pressure above specified
pressure risks damage to seals, gaskets and core
plugs. Under no circumstances should pressure be
allowed to exceed 27 kPa (4 psi)
1. Clean the engine with a suitable solvent to
remove all traces of oil.
2. Drain engine oil crankcase and refill with
recommended oil, premixed with Diesel Engine
Oil Dye 164-R3705 meeting Ford specification
ESEM9C103- B1 or equivalent. Use a minimum
14.8 ml (0.5 ounce) to a maximum 29.6 ml (1
ounce) of fluorescent additive to all engines. If
the oil is not premixed, fluorescent additive must
first be added to crankcase.
01‐10 TSG‐416 GENERAL INFORMATION Testing Procedure
 Open the air supply valve until the pressure
gauge maintains 20 kPa (3 psi).
 Inspect sealed or gasketed areas for leaks by
applying a solution of liquid detergent and water
over areas for formation of bubbles which
indicates leakage.
Leakage Points - Above Engine
Examine the following areas for oil leakage.
 valve cover gaskets
 intake manifold gaskets
 cylinder head gaskets
 oil filter
 oil pump (if external)
 oil level indicator tube connection
 oil pressure sensor
Leakage Points - Under Engine
 oil pan gaskets
 oil pan sealer
 oil pan rear seal
 engine front cover gasket


crankshaft front seal
crankshaft rear oil seal
Leakage Points - with Flywheel Removed
NOTE: Air leakage in the area around a crankshaft rear
oil seal does not necessarily indicate a crankshaft rear
oil seal leak. However, if no other cause can be found for
oil leakage, assume that the crankshaft rear oil seal
is the cause of the oil leak.
NOTE: Light foaming equally around valve cover bolts
and crankshaft seals is not detrimental; no repairs are
required.



rear main bearing cap and seals
flywheel mounting bolt holes (with flywheel
installed)
camshaft rear bearing covers or pipe plugs at
the end of oil passages (except for overhead
cam)
Oil leaks at crimped seams in sheet metal parts and
cracks in cast or stamped parts can be detected when
pressurizing the crankcase.
01‐11 TSG‐416 GENERAL INFORMATION Compression Pressure Limit Chart
Compression Tests
Compression Gauge Check
1. Make sure the oil in the crankcase is of the
correct viscosity and at the proper level and that
the battery is properly charged. Operate until the
engine is at normal operating temperature. Turn
the ignition switch to the OFF position, then
remove all the spark plugs.
2. Set the throttle plates in the wide-open position.
3. Install a Compression Tester such as Rotunda
Compression Tester 059-R0009, or equivalent,
in the No. 1 cylinder.
4. Install an auxiliary starter switch in the starting
circuit. With the ignition switch in the OFF
position, and using the auxiliary starter switch,
crank the engine a minimum of five compression
strokes and record the highest reading. Note the
approximate number of compression strokes
required to obtain the highest reading.
5. Repeat the test on each cylinder, cranking the
engine approximately the same number of
compression strokes.
Test Results
The indicated compression pressures are considered
within specification if the lowest reading cylinder is within
75 percent of the highest reading. Refer to the
Compression Pressure Limit Chart.
If one or more cylinders reads low, squirt approximately
one tablespoon of clean engine oil meeting Ford
specification ESE-M2C153-E on top of the pistons in the
low-reading cylinders. Repeat the compression pressure
check on these cylinders.
Example Readings
If, after checking the compression pressures in all
cylinders, it was found that the highest reading obtained
was 1351 kPa (196 psi), and the lowest pressure
reading was 1069 kPa (155 psi), the engine is within
specification and the compression is considered
satisfactory.
Interpreting Compression Readings
1. If compression improves considerably, with the
addition of oil, piston rings are faulty.
2. If compression does not improve with oil, valves
are sticking or seating improperly.
3. If two adjacent cylinders indicate low
compression pressures and squirting oil on each
piston does not increase compression, the head
gasket may be leaking between cylinders.
Engine oil or coolant in cylinders could result
from this condition.
Use the Compression Pressure Limit Chart when
checking cylinder compression so that the lowest
reading is within 75 percent of the highest reading.
01‐12 TSG‐416 GENERAL INFORMATION Cylinder Leakage Detection
Intake Manifold Vacuum Test
When a cylinder produces a low reading, use of the
Engine Cylinder Leak Detection/Air Pressurization Kit,
such as the Rotunda Pressurization Kit 014-00705, or
equivalent, will be helpful in pinpointing the exact cause.
Bring the engine to normal operating temperature.
Connect a Vacuum/Pressure Tester, such as Rotunda
Vacuum/Pressure Tester 059-00008 or equivalent, to the
intake manifold. Run the engine at the specified idle
speed.
The leakage detector is inserted in the spark plug hole,
the piston is brought up to dead center on the
compression stroke, and compressed air is admitted.
Once the combustion chamber is pressurized, a special
gauge included in the kit will read the percentage of
leakage. Leakage exceeding 20 percent is excessive.
The vacuum gauge should read between 51-74 kPa
(15-22 in-Hg) depending upon the engine condition and
the altitude at which the test is performed. Subtract 5.5
kPa (1 in-Hg) from the specified reading for every 500
meters (1,000 feet) of elevation above sea level.
While the air pressure is retained in the cylinder, listen
for the hiss of escaping air. A leak at the intake valve will
be heard in the throttle body. A leak at the exhaust valve
can be heard at the tail pipe. Leakage past the piston
rings will be audible at the positive crankcase ventilation
(PCV) connection. If air is passing through a blown
head gasket to an adjacent cylinder, the noise will be
evident at the spark plug hole of the cylinder into which
the air is leaking. Cracks in the cylinder blocks or gasket
leakage into the cooling system may be detected by a
stream of bubbles in the radiator.
The reading should be quite steady. If necessary, adjust
the gauge damper control (where used) if the needle is
fluttering rapidly. Adjust the damper until the needle
moves easily without excessive flutter.
Oil Leak and Valve Stem Seal Test
The cylinder leakage detector tests for engine oil leaks
and checks the valve stem seals for leakage.
1. Plug all crankcase openings except the one
used for connecting the leakage detector.
2. Connect the Engine Cylinder Leak Detection/Air
Pressurization Kit to a crankcase opening (an oil
level indicator tube is convenient). Adjust the air
pressure to approximately 34 kPa (5 psi).
3. Using a solution of liquid soap and water, brush
the solution along the gasket sealing surfaces
and bearing seals. Look for bubbles or foam.
4. Remove the spark plugs and rotate the
crankshaft slowly with a wrench. Check for large
amounts of air escaping into the cylinders as
each intake valve and exhaust valve opens.
5. The spark plugs on the leaking cylinders will
probably show deposits of burned oil.
01‐13 TSG‐416 GENERAL INFORMATION 5. STICKING VALVES: When the needle (dotted)
remains steady at a normal vacuum but
occasionally flicks (sharp, fast movement) down
and back about 13 kPa (4 in-Hg), one or more
valves may be sticking.
6. BURNED OR WARPED VALVES: A regular,
evenly spaced, downscale flicking of the needle
indicates one or more burned or warped valves.
Insufficient hydraulic lash adjuster or hydraulic
lash adjuster (HLA) clearance will also cause
this reaction.
7. POOR VALVE SEATING: A small but regular
downscale flicking can mean one or more valves
are not seating.
8. WORN VALVE GUIDES: When the needle
oscillates (swings back and forth) over about a
13 kPa (4 in- Hg) range at idle speed, the valve
guides could be worn. As engine speed
increases, the needle will become steady if
guides are responsible.
9. WEAK VALVE SPRINGS: When the needle
oscillation becomes more violent as engine rpm
is increased, weak valve springs are indicated.
The reading at idle could be relatively steady.
10. LATE VALVE TIMING: A steady but low reading
could be caused by late valve timing.
11. IGNITION TIMING RETARDING: Retarded
ignition timing will produce a steady but
somewhat low reading.
12. INSUFFICIENT SPARK PLUG GAP: When
spark plugs are gapped too close, a regular,
small pulsation of the needle can occur.
13. INTAKE LEAK: A low, steady reading can be
caused by an intake manifold or throttle body
gasket leak.
14. BLOWN HEAD GASKET: A regular drop of
approx. 33-50 kPa (10-15 in-Hg) can be caused
by a blown head gasket or warped cylinder
head-to-cylinder block surface.
15. RESTRICTED EXHAUST SYSTEM: When the
engine is first started and is idled, the reading
may be normal, but as the engine rpm is
increased, the back pressure caused by a
clogged muffler, kinked tail pipe or other
concerns will cause the needle to slowly drop to
0 kPa (0 in-Hg). The needle then may slowly
rise. Excessive exhaust clogging will cause the
needle to drop to a low point even if the engine
is only idling.
Interpreting Vacuum Gauge Readings
A careful study of the vacuum gauge reading while the
engine is idling will help pinpoint trouble areas. Always
conduct other appropriate tests before arriving at a final
diagnostic decision. Vacuum gauge readings, although
helpful, must be interpreted carefully.
Most vacuum gauges have a normal band indicated on
the gauge face.
The following are potential gauge readings. Some are
normal; others should be investigated further.
1. NORMAL READING: Needle between 51-74
kPa (15-22 in-Hg) and holding steady.
2. NORMAL READING DURING RAPID
ACCELERATION AND DEACCELERATION:
When the engine is rapidly accelerated (dotted
needle), the needle will drop to a low reading
(not to zero). When the throttle is suddenly
released, the needle will snap back up to a
higher than normal figure.
3. NORMAL FOR HIGH-LIFT CAMSHAFT WITH
LARGE OVERLAP: The needle will register as
low as 51 kPa (15 in-Hg) but will be relatively
steady. Some oscillation is normal.
4. WORN RINGS OR DILUTED OIL: When the
engine is accelerated (dotted needle), the
needle drops to 0 kPa (0 in-Hg). Upon
deceleration, the needle runs slightly above 74
kPa (22 in-Hg).
When vacuum leaks are indicated, search out and
correct the cause. Excess air leaking into the system will
upset the fuel mixture and cause concerns such as
rough idle, missing on acceleration or burned valves. If
the leak exists in an accessory unit such as the power
brake booster, the unit will not function correctly. Always
fix vacuum leaks.
01‐14 TSG‐416 GENERAL INFORMATION Excessive Engine Oil Consumption
Oil Consumption Test
The amount of oil an engine uses will vary with the way
the equipment is driven in addition to normal engine to
engine variation. This is especially true during the first
340 hours or 16,100 km (10,000 miles) when a new
engine is being broken in or until certain internal engine
components become conditioned. Engines used in
heavy-duty operation may use more oil. The following
are examples of heavy-duty operation:
 severe loading applications
 sustained high speed operation
Engines need oil to lubricate the following internal
components:
 cylinder block, cylinder walls
 pistons, piston pins and rings
 intake and exhaust valve stems
 intake and exhaust valve guides
 all internal engine components
The following diagnostic procedure is used to determine
the source of excessive internal oil consumption.
NOTE: Oil use is normally greater during the first 300
hours of service. As hours increase, oil use generally
decreases. Engines in normal service should get at least
31.7 hours per quart (900 miles per quart) after
300 hours of service. High speeds, heavy loads, high
ambient temperature and other factors may result in
greater oil use.
1. Determine customer’s engine load habits, such
as sustained high speed operation, extended
idle, heavy work loads and other considerations.
2. Verify that the engine has no external oil leak as
described under Engine Oil Leaks in the
Diagnosis and Testing portion of this section.
3. Verify that the engine has the correct oil level
dipstick.
4. Verify that the engine is not being run in an
overfilled condition. Check the oil level at least
five minutes after a hot shutdown with the
engine/vehicle parked on a level surface. In no
case should the level be above the top of the
cross-hatched area and the letter F in FULL. If
significantly overfilled, perform= steps 5 through
9. If not proceed to step 10.
5. Drain the engine oil, remove and replace the oil
filter and refill with one quart less than the
recommended amount.
6. Run the engine for three minutes (10 minutes if
cold), and allow the oil to drain back for at least
five minutes with the engine/vehicle on a level
surface.
7. Remove oil level dipstick and wipe clean.
When the pistons move downward, a thin film of oil is left
on the cylinder walls. As the engine is operated, some oil
is also drawn into the combustion chambers past the
intake and exhaust valve stem seals and burned.
The following is a partial list of conditions that can affect
oil consumption rates:
 engine size
 operator driving habits
 ambient temperature
 quality and viscosity of the oil
Operating under varying conditions can frequently be
misleading. An engine that has been run for short hours
or in below-freezing ambient temperatures may have
consumed a “normal” amount of oil.
CAUTION: Do not wipe with anything contaminated
with silicone compounds.
However, when checking engine oil level, it may
measure up to the full mark on the oil level dipstick due
to dilution (condensation and fuel) in the engine
crankcase. The engine might then be run at high speeds
where the condensation and fuel boil off. The next time
the engine oil is checked, it may appear that a liter
(quart) of oil was used in about 3 to 3-1/2 hours.
8. Reinstall the oil level dipstick, being sure to seat
it firmly in the oil level indicator tube. Remove
the oil level dipstick and draw a mark on the
back (unmarked) surface at the indicated oil
level. This level should be about the same as
the ADD mark on the face of the oil level
dipstick.
9. Add one quart of oil. Restart the engine and
allow to idle for at least two minutes. Shut off the
engine and allow the oil to drain back for at least
five minutes. Mark the oil level dipstick, using
the procedure above. This level may range from
slightly below the top of the cross-hatched area
to slightly below the letter F in FULL.
This perceived 3 to 3-1/2 hours per liter (quart) oil
consumption rate causes customer concern even though
the actual overall oil consumption rate is about
50 hours per liter (quart).
Make sure the selected engine oil meets Ford
specification WSS-M2C153-F and the recommended
API performance category “SJ” or higher and SAE
viscosity grade as shown in the equipment Owner’s or
Operators Engine handbook. It is also important that the
engine oil is changed at the intervals specified. Refer to
the Engine Operator’s handbook.
01‐15 TSG‐416 GENERAL INFORMATION 10. Record the vehicle mileage or hours.
19. Worn or damaged internal engine components
can cause excessive oil consumption. Small
deposits of oil on the tips of spark plugs can be
a clue to internal oil consumption. If internal oil
consumption still persists, proceed as follows:
 Remove the engine from the vehicle and
place it on an engine work stand.
Remove the intake manifolds, cylinder
heads, oil pan and oil pump.
 Check piston ring clearance, ring gap
and ring orientation. Repair as required.
 Check for excessive bearing clearance.
Repair as required.
20. Perform the oil consumption test to confirm the
oil consumption concern has been resolved.
11. Instruct the customer to run engine as usual and
perform the following:
 Check the oil level regularly at intervals
of 3 to 3-1/2 hours.
 Return to the service point when the oil
level drops below the lower (ADD) mark
on the oil level dipstick.
 Add only full quarts of the same oil in an
emergency. Note the mileage at which
the oil is added.
12. Check the oil level under the same conditions
and at the same location as in Steps 7-9
 Measure the distance from the oil level
to the UPPER mark on the oil level
dipstick and record.
 Measure the distance between the two
scribe marks and record.
 Divide the first measurement by the
second.
 Divide the hours run during the oil test
by the result. This quantity is the
approximate oil consumption rate in
hours per quart.
13. If the oil consumption rate is unacceptable,
proceed to next step.
14. Check the positive crankcase ventilation (PCV)
system. Make sure the system is not plugged.
15. Check for plugged oil drain-back holes in the
cylinder heads and cylinder blocks.
16. If the condition still exists after performing the
above steps, proceed to next step.
17. Perform a cylinder compression test – Refer to
“Compression Tests” on page 12 or perform a
cylinder leak detection test with Engine Cylinder
Leak Detection/Air Pressurization Kit – Refer to
“Cylinder Leakage Detection” on page 13. This
can help determine the source of oil
consumption such as valves, piston rings or
other areas.
Oil Pressure Test
1. Disconnect and remove the oil pressure sensor
from the engine.
2. Connect the Engine Oil Pressure Gauge and
Transmission Test Adapter to the oil pressure
sender oil gallery port.
3. Run the engine until normal operating
temperature is reached.
4. Run the engine at 3000 rpm and record the
gauge reading.
5. The oil pressure should be within specifications.
6. If the pressure is not within specification, check
the following possible sources:
 insufficient oil
 oil leakage
 worn or damaged oil pump
 oil pump screen cover and tube
 excessive main bearing clearance
 excessive connecting rod bearing clearance
NOTE: After determining if worn parts should be
replaced, make sure correct replacement parts are used.
18. Check valve guides for excessive guide
clearances. REPLACE all valve stem seals after
verifying valve guide clearance.
01‐16 TSG‐416 GENERAL INFORMATION Valve Train Analysis – Static
Valve Train Analysis – Dynamic
With engine off and valve cover removed, check for
damaged or severely worn parts and correct assembly.
Make sure correct parts are used with the static engine
analysis as follows.
Start the engine and, while idling, check for proper
operation of all parts. Check the following:
Rocker Arm
 Check for plugged oil in the rocker arms or
cylinder head.
 Check for proper overhead valve train
lubrication.
Rocker Arm
 Check for loose mounting bolts, studs and nuts.
 Check for plugged oil feed in the rocker arms or
cylinder head.
Camshaft Roller Followers and Hydraulic Lash
Adjusters
 Check for loose mounting bolts on camshaft
carriers.
 Check for plugged oil feed in the camshaft roller
followers, hydraulic lash adjusters (HLA) or
cylinder heads.
If insufficient oiling is suspected, accelerate the engine
to 1200 rpm ± 100 rpm with the PTO in NEUTRAL or
load removed and the engine at normal operating
temperature. Oil should spurt from the rocker arm oil
holes such that valve tips and rocker arms are well oiled
or, with the valve covers off, oil splash may overshoot
the rocker arms. If oiling is insufficient for this to occur,
check oil passages for blockage.
Camshaft
 Check for broken or damaged parts.
 Check the bolts on the intake manifold.
Push Rods (if equipped)
 Check for bent push rods and restriction in oil
passage.
Push Rods (if equipped)
 Check for bent push rods and restricted oil
passage.
Positive Rotator and Valve Spring Retainer Keys
 Check for proper operation of positive rotator.
Valves and Cylinder Head
 Check for plugged oil drain back holes.
 Check for missing or damaged valve stem seals
or guide mounted valve stem seals.
Valve Springs
 Check for broken or damaged parts.
Valve Spring Retainer and Valve Spring Retainer
Keys
 Check for proper seating of the valve spring
retainer key on the valve stem and in valve
spring retainer.
If insufficient oiling is suspected, check oil passages for
blockage, then accelerate the engine to 1200 rpm with
the PTO in NEUTRAL or load removed and the engine
at normal operating temperature. Oil should spurt from
the rocker arm oil holes such that valve tips and
camshaft roller followers are well oiled. With the valve
covers off, some oil splash may overshoot camshaft
roller followers.
Valve Spring Retainer Keys
 Check for proper seating on the valve stem.
Valves and Cylinder Head
 Check the head gasket for proper installation.
 Check for plugged oil drain back holes.
 Check for worn or damaged valve tips.
 Check for missing or damaged guide-mounted
valve stem seal.
 Check collapsed lash adjuster gap.
 Check installed valve spring height.
 Check for missing or worn valve spring seats.
 Check for plugged oil metering orifice in cylinder
head oil reservoir (if equipped).
Static checks (engine off) are to be made on the engine
prior to the dynamic procedure.
01‐17 TSG‐416 GENERAL INFORMATION Camshaft Lobe Lift
Check the lift of each lobe in consecutive order and
make a note of the readings.
1. Remove the valve covers.
2. Remove the rocker arm seat bolts, rocker arm
seat and rocker arms (if equipped).
5. Remove the spark plugs.
6. Connect an auxiliary starter switch in the starting
circuit. Crank the engine with the ignition switch
in the OFF position. Bump the crankshaft over
until the indicator is measuring on the base
circle of the camshaft lobe (in its lowest
position). If checking during engine assembly,
turn the crankshaft using socket or ratchet.
3. Make sure the lash adjuster is seated against
camshaft. Install the dial Indicator with Bracketry
so the ball socket adapter of the indicator is on
top of the hydraulic lash adjuster or the Cup
Shaped Adapter is on top of the push rod and in
the same plane as the lash adjuster push rod
movement.
7. Zero the dial indicator. Continue to rotate the
crankshaft slowly until the camshaft lobe is in
the fully-raised position (highest indicator
reading).
4. On engines with overhead cam, install the dial
Indicator with Bracketry so the plunger is on top
of the camshaft lobe and in the same plane as
the camshaft lobe movement.
NOTE: If the lift on any lobe is below specified service
limits, the camshaft and any component operating on
worn lobes must be replaced.
8. Compare the total lift recorded on the dial
indicator with specifications.
9. To check the accuracy of the original dial
indicator reading, continue to rotate the
crankshaft until the indicator reads zero.
10. Remove the dial indicator, adapter and auxiliary
starter switch.
11. Reinstall components as necessary.
CAUTION: Do not rotate the crankshaft until lash
adjusters have had sufficient time to bleed down. To
do otherwise may cause serious valve damage.
Manually bleeding-down lash adjusters will reduce
waiting time.
01‐18 TSG‐416 GENERAL INFORMATION NOTE: Lash adjusters cannot be checked with engine oil
in them. Use only testing fluid. New hydraulic lash
adjusters are already filled with testing fluid.
Hydraulic Valve Lash Adjuster
Hydraulic lash adjuster noise can be caused by any of
the following:
 excessively collapsed lash adjuster gap
 sticking lash adjuster plunger
 lash adjuster check valve not functioning
properly
 air in lubrication system
 leak down rate too rapid
 excessive valve guide wear
2. Place the lash adjuster in the tester with the
plunger facing upward. Position the steel ball
provided in the plunger cap. Add testing fluid to
cover the hydraulic lash adjuster and compress
Leak down Tester until the hydraulic lash
adjuster is filled with testing fluid and all traces
of air bubbles have disappeared. The fluid can
be purchased from the tester’s manufacturer.
Using kerosene or any other fluid will not provide
an accurate test.
Excessive collapsed lash adjuster gap can be caused by
loose rocker arm seat bolts/nuts, incorrect initial
adjustment or wear of lash adjuster face, or worn roller
lash adjusters, push rod, rocker arm, rocker arm seat or
valve tip. With lash adjuster collapsed, check gap
between the valve tip and the rocker arm to determine if
any other valve train parts are damaged, worn or out of
adjustment.
A sticking lash adjuster plunger can be caused by dirt,
chips or varnish inside the lash adjuster.
A lash adjuster check valve that is not functioning can be
caused by an obstruction such as dirt or chips that
prevent it from closing when the camshaft lobe is lifting
the lash adjuster. It may also be caused by a broken
check valve spring.
3. Adjust the length of the ram so the pointer is just
below the start timing mark when the ram
contacts the hydraulic lash adjuster. Start Timing
as the pointer passes the start timing mark and
end timing as the pointer reaches the center
mark.
Air bubbles in the lubrication system will prevent the lash
adjuster from supporting the valve spring load. This can
be caused by too high or too low an oil level in the oil
pan or by air being drawn into the system through a
hole, crack or leaking gasket on the oil pump screen
cover and tube.
If the leak down time is below the specified time for used
lash adjusters, noisy operation can result. If no other
cause for noisy lash adjusters can be found, the leak
down rate should be checked and any lash adjusters
outside the specification should be replaced.
Assembled lash adjusters can be tested with Hydraulic
lash adjuster Leak down Tester to check the leak down
rate. The leak down rate specification is the time in
seconds for the plunger to move a specified distance
while under a 22.7 kg (50 lb.) load. Test the lash
adjusters as follows:
4. A satisfactory lash adjuster must have a leak
down rate (time in seconds) within specified
minimum and maximum limits.
5. If the lash adjuster is not within specification,
replace it with a new lash adjuster. Do not
disassemble and clean new lash adjusters
before testing because oil contained in the new
lash adjuster is test fluid.
6. Remove the fluid from the cup and bleed the
fluid from the lash adjuster by working the
plunger up and down. This step will aid in
depressing the lash adjuster plungers when
checking valve clearance.
Leak down Testing
NOTE: Do not mix parts from different hydraulic lash
adjusters. Parts are select-fit and are not
interchangeable.
1. Clean the lash adjuster to remove all traces of
engine oil.
01‐19 TSG‐416 GENERAL INFORMATION GENERAL SERVICE PROCEDURES
WARNING: TO AVOID THE POSSIBILITY OF
PERSONAL INJURY OR DAMAGE TO THE
EQUIPMENT, DO NOT OPERATE THE ENGINE UNTIL
THE FAN BLADE HAS BEEN EXAMINED FOR
POSSIBLE CRACKS AND SEPARATION.
NOTE: Illustrations are typical and may not reflect your
particular engine. Specifications show the expected
minimum or maximum condition.
NOTE: If a component fails to meet the specifications, it
is necessary to replace or refinish. If the component can
be refinished, wear limits are provided as an aid to
making a decision. Any component that fails to meet
specifications and cannot be refinished must be
replaced.
Camshaft Journal Diameter


Measure each camshaft journal diameter in two
directions.
If it is out of specification, replace as necessary.
Camshaft Lobe Surface

Camshaft Journal Clearance
NOTE: The camshaft journals must meet specifications
before checking camshaft journal clearance.
 Measure each camshaft bearing in two
directions.
 Subtract the camshaft journal diameter from the
camshaft bearing diameter
01‐20 Inspect camshaft lobes for pitting or damage in
the active area. Minor pitting is acceptable
outside the active area
TSG‐416 GENERAL INFORMATION Camshaft Lobe Lift
Camshaft Runout
1. Use the Dial Indicator with Bracketry to measure
camshaft intake lobe lift.
NOTE: Camshaft journals must be within specifications
before checking runout.
 Use the Dial Indicator with Bracketry to measure
the camshaft runout.
 Rotate the camshaft and subtract the lowest dial
indicator reading from the highest dial indicator
reading.
2. Rotate the camshaft and subtract the lowest dial
indicator reading from the highest dial indicator
reading to figure the camshaft lobe lift.
3. Use the Dial Indicator with Bracketry to measure
camshaft exhaust lobe lift.
4. Rotate the camshaft and subtract the lowest dial
indicator reading from the highest dial indicator
reading to figure the camshaft lobe lift.
Camshaft End Play
.
01‐21 
Move camshaft to the rear.

Zero dial indicator.

Move camshaft to the front.

Compare end play with specifications
TSG‐416 GENERAL INFORMATION Crankshaft Main Bearing Journal Diameter


Crankshaft Main Bearing Journal Taper

Measure each of the crankshaft main bearing
journal diameters in at least two directions.
If it is out of specification, replace as necessary.

01‐22 Measure each of the crankshaft main bearing
journal diameters in at least two directions at
each end of the main bearing journal.
If it is out of specifications, replace as
necessary.
TSG‐416 GENERAL INFORMATION Crankshaft Main Bearing Journal
Clearance
4. Verify the crankshaft journal clearance.
 If it is out of specification, replace as
necessary
NOTE: Crankshaft main bearing journals must be within
specifications before checking journal clearance.
1. Remove the crankshaft main bearing caps and
bearings.
2. Lay a piece of Plastigage® across the face of
each crankshaft main surface.
Bearing Inspection
Inspect bearings for the following defects. Possible
causes are shown:
 Cratering – fatigue failure (A)
 Spot polishing – improper seating (B)
 Scratching – dirty (C)
 Base exposed – poor lubrication (D)
 Both edges worn – journal damaged (E)
 One edge worn – journal tapered or bearing not
seated (F)
NOTE: Do not turn the crankshaft while doing this
procedure.
3. Install and remove the crankshaft main bearing
cap.
01‐23 TSG‐416 GENERAL INFORMATION Crankshaft End Play
Use the Dial Indicator with Bracketry to measure the
crankshaft runout.
 Rotate the crankshaft and subtract the lowest
dial indicator reading from the highest dial
indicator reading to figure the crankshaft runout.
If it is out of specification, replace as necessary.
1. Measure the crankshaft end play. Use the Dial
Indicator with Bracketry to measure crankshaft
end play.
2. Position the crankshaft to the rear of the cylinder
block.
3. Zero the Dial Indicator with Bracketry.
Cylinder Bore Taper
Measure the cylinder bore at the top and bottom. Verify
the cylinder bore is within the wear limit. The difference
indicates the cylinder bore taper. Bore the cylinder to the
next oversize.
4. Move the crankshaft to the front of the cylinder
block. Note and record the camshaft end play.
 If camshaft end play exceeds
specifications, replace the crankshaft
thrust washers or thrust bearing.
‘’Crankshaft Runout
NOTE: Crankshaft main bearing journals must be within
specifications before checking runout.
01‐24 TSG‐416 GENERAL INFORMATION Cylinder Bore Out-of-Round

Measure the cylinder bore in two directions. The
difference is the out-of-round. Verify the out-of-round I
within the wear limit and bore the cylinder to the next
oversize limit.
Piston Inspection
Make sure the oil ring holes are clean.
Piston Diameter

Measure the piston skirt diameter.
CAUTION: Do not use a caustic cleaning solution or
a wire brush to clean the pistons or possible
damage can occur.
1. Clean and inspect the ring lands, skirts, pin
bosses, and the tops of the pistons. If wear
marks or polishing is found on the piston skirt,
check for a bent or twisted connecting rod.
Piston to Cylinder Bore Clearance
Subtract the piston diameter from the cylinder bore
diameter to find the piston-to-cylinder bore clearance.
2. Use the Piston Ring Groove Cleaner to clean
the piston ring grooves.
01‐25 TSG‐416 GENERAL INFORMATION CAUTION: Use care when fitting piston rings to
avoid possible damage to the piston ring or the
cylinder bore.
Piston Selection
NOTE: The cylinder bore must be within the
specifications for taper and out-of-round before fitting a
piston.
1. Select a piston size based on the cylinder bore.
CAUTION: Piston rings should not be transferred
from one piston to another to prevent damage to
cylinder worn or piston.
NOTE: Cylinder bore must be within specification for
taper and out-of-round to fit piston rings.
1. Use a piston without rings to push a piston ring
in a cylinder to the bottom of ring travel.
NOTE: For precision fit, new pistons are divided into
three categories within each size range based on their
relative position within the range. A paint spot on the
new pistons indicates the position within the size range.
2. Use a feeler gauge to measure the top piston
ring end gap and the second piston ring end
gap.
2. Choose the piston with the proper paint color.
 Red – in the lower third of the size
range.
 Blue – in the middle third of the size
range.
 Yellow – in the upper third of the size
range.
Piston Ring End Gap
01‐26 TSG‐416 GENERAL INFORMATION Piston Ring-to-Groove Clearance
Crankshaft Connecting Rod Journal Taper

Measure the crankshaft rod journal diameters in
two directions perpendicular to one another at
each end of the connecting rod journal. The
difference in the measurements from one end to
the other is the taper. Verify measurement is
within the wear limit.
1. Inspect for a stop in the grooves.
2. Measure the piston-to-groove clearance.
Connecting Rod Cleaning
CAUTION: Do not use a caustic cleaning solution or
damage to connecting rods can occur.
NOTE: The connecting rod large end is mechanically
split or cracked to produce a unique parting face. This
produces a locking joint. Parts are not interchangeable.
Crankshaft Connecting Rod Journal
Diameter

Measure the crankshaft connecting rod journal
diameters in at least two directions
perpendicular to one another. The difference
between the measurements is the out-of-round.
Verify the journal is within the wear limit
specification.

01‐27 Mark and separate the parts and clean with
solvent. Clean the oil passages
TSG‐416 GENERAL INFORMATION Connecting Rod Bushing Diameter
 Measure the inner diameter of the connecting
Connecting Rod Larger End Bore
CAUTION: The connecting rod bolts are torque to
yield and must be discarded and replaced after this
diagnostic test.

rod bushing. Verify the diameter is within
specification.
Measure the bore in two directions. The
difference is the connecting rod bore out-ofround. Verify the out of- round is within
specification.
Connecting Rod Bend

Measure the connecting rod bend on a suitable
alignment fixture. Follow the instructions of the
fixture manufacturer. Verify the bend
measurement is within specification.
Piston Pin Diameter

Measure the piston pin diameter in two
directions at the points shown. Verify the
diameter is within specifications.
Connecting Rod Twist

01‐28 Measure the connecting rod twist on a suitable
alignment fixture. Follow the instructions of the
fixture manufacturer. Verify the measurement is
within specification.
TSG‐416 GENERAL INFORMATION Connecting Rod Piston Pin Side Clearance

4. Install and torque to specifications, then remove
the connecting rod bearing cap.
Measure the clearance between the connecting
rod and the piston. Verify the measurement is
within specification.
5. Measure the Plastigage® to get the connecting
rod bearing journal clearance. The Plastigage®
should be smooth and flat. A change width
indicates a tapered or damaged connecting rod
bearing or connecting rod.
Connecting Rod Journal Clearance
NOTE: The crankshaft connecting rod journals must be
within specifications to check the connecting rod bearing
journal clearances.
CAUTION: The connecting rod bolts are torque to
yield and must be discarded and replaced after this
diagnostic test.
1. Remove the connecting rod bearing cap.
2. Position a piece of Plastigage® across the
3. bearing surface.
NOTE: Do not turn the crankshaft during this step.
01‐29 TSG‐416 GENERAL INFORMATION Bearing Inspection
Roller Follower Inspection
Inspect bearings for the following defects. Possible
causes are shown:
 Cratering – fatigue failure (A)

Spot polishing – improper seating (B)

Scratching – dirty (C)

Base exposed – poor lubrication (D)

Both edges worn – journal damaged (E)

One edge worn – journal tapered or bearing not

Inspect the roller for flat spots or scoring. If any
damage is found, inspect the camshaft lobes
and hydraulic lash adjusters for damage.
seated (F)
Hydraulic Lash Adjuster Inspection
 Inspect the hydraulic lash adjuster and roller for
damage. If any damage is found, inspect the
camshaft lobes and valves for damage.
01‐30 TSG‐416 GENERAL INFORMATION Valve Stem Diameter

2. Move the Valve Stem Clearance Tool toward the
Dial Indicator and zero the Dial Indicator. Move
the Valve Stem Clearance Tool away from the
Dial Indicator and note the reading. The reading
will be double the valve stem-to-valve guide
clearance. Valves with oversize stems will need
to be installed if out of specification.
Measure the diameter of each intake and
exhaust valve stem at the points shown. Verify
the diameter is within specification.
Valve Stem-to-Valve Guide Clearance
Valve Inspection
Inspect the following valve areas:
 The end of the stem for grooves or scoring.
 The valve face and the edge for pits, grooves or
scores.
 The valve head for signs of burning, erosion,
warpage and cracking. Minor pits, grooves and
other abrasions may be removed.
 The valve head thickness for wear.
NOTE: Valve stem diameter must be within
specifications before checking valve stem to valve guide
clearance.
NOTE: If necessary, use a magnetic base.
1. Install the Valve Stem Clearance Tool on the
valve stem and install the Dial Indicator with
Bracketry. Lower the valve until the Valve Stem
Clearance Tool contacts the upper surface of
the valve guide.
01‐31 TSG‐416 GENERAL INFORMATION Valve Spring Installed Length
Valve Guide Inner Diameter

1. Measure the inner diameter of the valve guides
in two directions where indicated.
2. If the valve guide is not within specifications,
ream the valve guide and install a valve with an
oversize stem or remove the valve guide and
install a new valve guide.
Measure the installed length of each valve
spring.
Valve Spring Free Length

Measure the free length of each valve spring.
Valve Guide Reaming
1. Use a hand-reaming kit to ream the valve guide.
Valve Spring Out-of-Square
Measure the out-of-square on each valve spring.
 Turn the valve spring and observe the space
between the top of the valve spring and the
square. Replace the valve spring if it is out of
specification.
2. Reface the valve seat.
3. Clean the sharp edges left by reaming.
01‐32 TSG‐416 GENERAL INFORMATION Valve Spring Compression Pressure
Valve Seat Width


Measure the valve seat width. If necessary,
grind the valve seat to specification.
Use the Valve/Clutch Spring Tester to check the
valve springs for proper strength at the specified
valve spring length.
Valve Seat Runout

Valve and Seat Refacing Measurements
NOTE: After grinding valves or valve seats, check valve
clearance.

Check the valve seat and valve angles.
01‐33 Use the Valve Seat Runout Gauge to check
valve seat runout.
TSG‐416 GENERAL INFORMATION Flywheel Inspection
Oil Pump Rotor Inspection

1. Inspect the flywheel for:
 Cracks (A).
 Worn ring gear teeth (B).
 Chipped or cracked ring gear teeth (C).
2. Inspect the flywheel ring gear runout.
Oil Pump Side Clearance

Oil Pump Gear Radial Clearance

Inspect the oil pump rotor tips for damage or
wear.
Measure the clearance between the rotor and
the pump housing.

01‐34 Place the Straight Edge across the top of the oil
pump and rotors and use the Feeler Gauge to
measure the clearance between the rotors and
the Straight Edge.
TSG‐416 GENERAL INFORMATION Cylinder Bore Honing
NOTE: Before any cylinder bore is honed, all main
bearing caps must be installed so the crankshaft bearing
bores will not become distorted.
NOTE: To correct taper or out-of-round, bore the
cylinder block.
NOTE: Honing should be done when fitting new piston
rings or to remove minor surface.

Hone with the Engine Cylinder Hone Set, at a
speed of 300-500 rpm and a hone grit of 180220 to provide the desired cylinder bore surface
finish.
Cylinder Bore Cleaning
CAUTION: If these procedures are not followed,
rusting of the cylinder bores may occur.
1. Clean the cylinder bores with soap or detergent
and water.
2. Thoroughly rinse with clean water and wipe dry
with a clean, lint-free cloth.
3. Use a clean, lint-free cloth and lubricate the
cylinder bores.
 Use Engine Oil XO-10W30-QSP or DSP or equivalent meeting Ford
specification ESEM2C153-E.
01‐35 TSG‐416 GENERAL INFORMATION Cylinder Block Repair - Cast Iron Porosity
Defects
CAUTION: Do not attempt to repair cracks, areas
where temperature will exceed 260°C (500°F) or
areas exposed to engine coolant or oil. These areas
will not repair and could cause future failure.
2. Inspect the cylinder block plug bore for any
damage that would interfered with the proper
sealing of the plug. If the cylinder block plug
bore is damaged, bore for the next oversize
plug.
NOTE: Oversize plugs are identified by the OS stamped
in the flat located on the cup side of the plug.
3. Coat the cylinder block core plug and bore lightly
with Threadlock® 262 E2FZ-19554-B or
equivalent meeting Ford specification WSKM2G351-A6 and install the cylinder block core
plug.
Repair porosity defects with an epoxy sealer meeting
Ford specification M3D35-A (E).
1. Clean the surface to be repaired to a bright, oilfree metal surface.
2. Chamfer or undercut the repair area to a greater
depth than the rest of the cleaned surface. Solid
metal must surround the area to be repaired.
3. Apply the epoxy sealer and heat-cure with a
250- watt lamp placed 254 mm (10 inches) from
the repaired surface, or air dry for 10-12 hours at
a temperature above 10°C (50°F).
4. Sand or grind the repaired area to blend with the
general contour of the surface.
5. Paint the surface to match the rest of the
cylinder block.
Cylinder Head – Distortion

Cylinder Block Core Plug Replacement
1. Use a slide hammer or tools suitable to remove
the cylinder block core plug.
01‐36 Use a straight edge and a feeler gauge to
inspect the cylinder head for flatness. Compare
with specifications. If the cylinder head is
distorted, install a new cylinder head.
TSG‐416 GENERAL INFORMATION Cylinder Block Core Plug – Cup-Type
CAUTION: Do not contact the flange when installing
a cup type cylinder block core plug as this could
damage the sealing edge and result in leakage.
NOTE: When installed, the flanged edge must be below
the chamfered edge of the bore to effectively seal the
bore.

Use a fabricated tool to seat the cup type
cylinder block core plug.
Cylinder Block Core Plug – Expansion-Type
CAUTION: Do not contact the crown when installing
an expansion type cylinder block core plug. This
could expand the plug before seating and result in
leakage.

Use a fabricated tool to seat the expansion type
cylinder block core plug.
01‐37 TSG‐416 GENERAL INFORMATION Spark Plug Thread Repair
2. Start the tap into the spark plug hole, being
careful to keep it properly aligned. As the tap
begins to cut new threads, apply aluminum
cutting oil
3. Continue cutting the threads and applying oil
until the stop ring bottoms against the spark plug
seat.
4. Remove the tap and metal chips.
5. Coat the threads of the mandrel with cutting oil.
Thread the tapersert onto the mandrel until one
thread of the mandrel extends beyond the
tapersert.
CAUTION: The cylinder head must be removed from
the engine before installing a tapersert. If this
procedure is done with the cylinder head on the
engine, the cylinder walls can be damaged by metal
chips produced by the thread cutting process.
CAUTION: Do not use power or air-driven tools for
finishing taperserts.
NOTE: This repair is permanent and will have no effect
on cylinder head or spark plug life.
1. Clean the spark plug seat and threads.
NOTE: A properly installed tapersert will be either flush
with or 1.0 mm (0.039 inch) below the spark plug gasket
seat.
01‐38 TSG‐416 GENERAL INFORMATION Exhaust Manifold Straightness
6. Tighten the tapersert into the spark plug hole.

Place the Straightedge across the exhaust
manifold flanges and check for warping with a
feeler gauge.
NOTE: The exhaust manifold shown is a typical
exhaust manifold.
7. Turn the mandrel body approximately one-half
turn counterclockwise and remove.
01‐39 TSG‐416 GENERAL INFORMATION SPECIFICATIONS
NOTE: Ford engines are designed to perform with
engine oils that are licensed by the American Petroleum
Institute (API), and oils carrying the most current API
Classification SJ or greater must be used.
01‐40 TSG‐416 ENGINE INDEX Subject General Information Special Tools……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Positive Crankcase Ventilation System……….…………………………….……………………………… Component Location………………………………………………………………………………………………… Engine Repair Valve Cover – Removal …………………………………………..…………………………………………………
Valve Cover – Installation…………….……………………………………………………………………………
Camshaft – Removal ……………………………………………………..………………………………………….
Camshaft – Installation………………………………………………………………………………………………
Valve Stem Seal – Removal…….…………………………………………………………………………………
Valve Stem Seal – Installation...………………..………………………………………………………………
Intake Manifold – Removal………………………………………………………………………………………
Intake Manifold – Installation…………………………………………………………………………………. Exhaust Manifold – Removal……………………………………………………………………………………
Exhaust Manifold – Installation…………………….…..…………………………………………………….
Cylinder Head – Removal…………………………………………………………………………………………
Cylinder Head – Installation…………………….………..…………………………………………………….
Oil Pump ‐ Removal…………………………….…………………………………………………………………..
Oil Pump – Installation………………………...………………………………………………………………….
Crankshaft Rear Oil Seal – Removal………………………………………..……………………………….
Crankshaft Rear Oil Seal – Installation……………………………………………………………………..
Camshaft Follower / Hydraulic Lash Adjuster – Removal………………………………………..
Camshaft Follower / Hydraulic Lash Adjuster – Installation…………………………………….
Oil Pan – Removal…………………………………………….…………………………………………………….
Oil Pan – Installation…………….…………………………….…………………………………………………..
Pickup tube / deflector – Removal.…………………………………………………………………………
Pickup tube / deflector – Installation...……………………………………………………………………
Crankshaft main bearings ‐ Removal……….……………………………………………………………..
Crankshaft main bearings – Installation.….……………………………………………………………..
Connecting Rod Bearings ‐ Removal…….………………………………………………………………..
Connecting Rod Bearings – Installation…….…………………………………………………………...
Piston – Removal…………………………………………….……………………………………………………..
Piston – Installation……………………….………………….……………………………………………………
Flywheel – Removal………………………………..…………….……………………………………………….
Flywheel – Installation….………………………………….…………………………………………………….
Timing Chain and Sprockets – Removal…….……….…………………………………………………..
Timing Chain and Sprockets – Installation.……………………………………………………………..
Oil Level Indicator – Removal ..……………………………………………………………………………….
Oil Level Indicator – Installation.…………………………………………………………………………….
Oil Level Filter and Adapter – Removal…...…………………………………………………………..…
Oil Level Filter and Adapter – Installation.…………………………………………………………..…
02‐1 Page 02 – 3 02 – 5 02 – 6 02 – 10 02 – 10 02 – 11 02 – 12 02 –13 02 – 14 02 – 15 02 – 15 02 – 16 02 – 16 02 – 17 02 ‐ 19 02 – 21 02 – 22 02 – 23 02 – 23 02 – 24 02 – 24 02 – 25 02 – 25 02 – 26 02 – 26 02 – 27 02 – 27 02 – 28 02 – 28 02 – 29 02 – 30 02 – 31 02 – 31 02 – 32 02 – 33 02 – 35 02 – 35 02 – 36 02 – 36 TSG‐416 ENGINE INDEX (CONT.) Subject Disassembly…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Subassemblies Cylinder Block ………..………………………………………………………………………………………………….
Piston – Disassembly………………………………………………………………………………………………….
Piston – Assembly ……………………………………….…………………………………………………………….
Cylinder Head Disassembly………………………………………………………………………………………..
Cylinder Head Assembly……………………………….……………………………………………………………
Page 02 ‐ 37 02 – 44 02 – 45 02 – 45 02 – 46 02 – 47 Assembly…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 02 – 48 SPECIFICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….………... 02 – 58 Note: For engine diagnosis, refer to Section 01
02‐2 TSG‐416 ENGINE GENERAL INFORMATION
Special Tools
02‐3 TSG‐416 ENGINE Special Tools
02‐4 TSG‐416 ENGINE Description
Cylinder Head
The 1.6L 4 cylinder Zetec Rocam engine has been
developed with the highest technology. Its main
characteristics are:
 electronic controlled multipoint sequential
injection
 roller finger follower camshaft
 intake manifold made of aluminum
 high resistance aluminum cylinder hea
 steel oil pan.
The Zetec Rocam engine cylinder head is entirely made
of aluminum which improves the thermal characteristics
and reduces weight. The assembly is attached using a
multi-layer steel gasket and 12 bolts.
Oil Pan
The Zetec Rocam engine oil pan is made of steel. The
gasket must always be replaced whenever the oil pan is
removed.
Engine Identification Number
The engine identification number is marked on the right
side of the cylinder block as shown.
Fuel System
The electronic fuel injection (EFI) system is electronically
controlled by an ECM module which carefully controls
fuel-air mixture along with spark timing, depending on
information received from various sensors.
Intake Manifold
The intake manifold is made of aluminum. It consists of
two pieces.
02‐5 TSG‐416 ENGINE Component Location
02‐6 TSG‐416 ENGINE Component Location
02‐7 TSG‐416 ENGINE Component Location
02‐8 TSG‐416 ENGINE Component Location
02‐9 TSG‐416 ENGINE ENGINE REPAIR
Valve Cover - Installation
Valve Cover - Removal
1. Contact surfaces must be clean and free of oil.
2. Install a new gasket and valve cover.
1. Remove any necessary wiring and vacuum
hoses. Mark connections and routing as
necessary to assure they are returned as they
were removed.
3. Install bolts. Tighten to 7 lb.ft. (9 Nm).
4. Install DIS coil - refer to Section 03.
5. Reconnect any wiring and vacuum hoses
removed.
a. CAM Sensor, PCV, etc.
2. Remove DIS coil and set aside - refer to Section
03.
3. Remove bolts.
4. Remove valve cover and gasket.
02‐10 TSG‐416 ENGINE Camshaft- Removal
5. Remove camshaft, lower bearings, roller
followers and lash adjusters.
NOTE: Store components to ensure assembly in the
same order as they were removed.
1. Remove valve cover -- Refer to “Valve Cover Removal” on page 10.
2. Using tool 15-030A to lock camshaft sprocket,
remove bolt.
Refer to Section 01 for camshaft and bearing service.
CAUTION: During camshaft removal, the camshaft
sprocket and chain must remain engaged and the
chain tensioned in order to keep timing links
aligned. If chain is allowed to slacken or disengage
with sprocket, the oil pump will have to be removed,
and the timing chain realigned - refer to timing chain
assembly xxx.
3. Separate camshaft sprocket and chain from
camshaft while maintaining tension on the chain.
4. Remove bolts and camshaft bearing caps evenly
in the sequence shown.
02‐11 TSG‐416 ENGINE Camshaft - Installation
6. Using tool 15-030A, install bolt and tighten to 5259 lb.ft. (70-80 Nm).
NOTE: All components must be clean and assembled in
the same positions as removed. Lubricate contact
surfaces with clean engine oil.
1. Install lash adjusters.
2. Install roller followers.
NOTE: The chamfer on the camshaft bearing caps must
be facing the chain housing. Rotate camshaft so keyway
will align with sprocket.
3. Carefully install camshaft, bearings, caps and
bolts finger tight.
4. Tighten bolts in the sequence shown in 3 steps
to 6- 7 lb.ft. (8-10 Nm).
5. Install camshaft sprocket with chain onto
camshaft while maintaining tension on the chain.
CAUTION: The camshaft sprocket and chain must
remain engaged and the chain tensioned in order to
keep timing links aligned. If chain is allowed to
slacken or disengage with sprocket, the oil pump
will have to be removed, and the timing chain
realigned.
7. Install valve cover -- Refer to “Valve Cover Installation” on page 10
02‐12 TSG‐416 ENGINE Valve Stem Seal - Removal
5. Turn on air supply and pressurize cylinder. Air
pressure may rotate the crankshaft until the
piston reaches the bottom of the stroke.
NOTE: If the valve or valve seat has not been damaged,
the valve spring, seal, retainer or keys may be replaced
by holding the affected valve closed using compressed
air.
Use an appropriate air line tool installed in the spark plug
hole. A minimum of 965 kPa (140 psi) line pressure is
required. If air pressure does not hold the valve shut, the
valve is damaged or burned and the cylinder head must
be removed and serviced.
1. Remove valve cover -- Refer to “Valve Cover Removal” on page 10.
2. Rotate the camshaft so the roller follower for the
valve to be serviced is on the heel of the cam.
3. Using a suitable valve spring compressor tool,
compress and hold down the valve spring. Slide
out the roller follower over the lash adjuster.
6. Using a suitable valve spring compressor,
compress the valve spring and remove the keys
and retainer. Remove and discard the stem seal.
4. Replace spark plug for cylinder being serviced
with an air line adapter. Mark location so spark
plug is returned to the same cylinder.
7. If air pressure has forced the piston to the
bottom of the cylinder, any removal of air
pressure will allow the valve(s) to drop into the
cylinder. Wrap a rubber band, tape or string
around the end of the valve stem in such a way
to prevent the valve from falling in and to allow
enough travel to check the valve for binds
8. Inspect the valve stem for damage. Rotate the
valve and check the stem tip for eccentric
movement. Move the valve up and down
through normal travel in the valve guide and
check the stem for any binding. If the valve has
been damaged, it will be necessary to remove
the cylinder head as outlined in this section.
CAUTION: The crankshaft may rotate when air
pressure is applied. Remove all objects from fan
area such as lights, extension cords, etc.
02‐13 TSG‐416 ENGINE Valve Stem Seal - Installation
4. Release air pressure and remove air adapter.
Install spark plug in proper cylinder.
5. Grease contact surfaces of roller follower with
Ford Multi-purpose Grease D0AZ-19584-AA, or
equivalent, meeting Ford specification
ESRM1C159-A.
6. Using spring compressor, compress and hold
down the valve and spring. Slide the roller finger
follower into place over valve and lash adjuster.
Release spring.
NOTE: All components must be clean and assembled in
the same positions as removed. Lubricate contact
surfaces with clean engine oil.
CAUTION: Valve stem seal can be cut by grooves in
valve stem. A damaged seal will leak causing oil
burning and valve fouling.
1. Carefully slide oil seal over valve stem.
2. Install new valve seal using special tool 21-024
(optional T95P-6565A)
7. Install valve cover -- Refer to “Valve Cover Installation” on page 10.
NOTE: Apply a small amount of Ford Multi-purpose
Grease D0A2-19584-AA, or equivalent, meeting Ford
specification ESR-M1C159-A to valve spring retainer key
to hold in place during installation.
3. With cylinder pressurized and using a suitable
spring compressor tool, install valve spring,
retainer and locks.
02‐14 TSG‐416 ENGINE Intake Manifold - Removal
Intake Manifold - Installation
1. Remove any necessary wiring and vacuum
hoses. Mark connections and routing as
necessary to assure they are returned as they
were removed.
2. Relieve fuel pressure.
3. Disconnect fuel lines from fuel rail.
4. Disconnect air intake tube.
5. Remove bolts, nuts and intake manifold
assembly.
NOTE: All contact surfaces must be clean and free from
any old gasket material.
1. Install a new gasket and intake manifold
assembly.
2. Install bolts and nuts. Tighten to 6 lb.ft. (8 Nm).
3. Connect air intake tube.
4. Connect fuel lines to fuel rail
5. Install any wiring and vacuum hoses that were
removed. Connect and route as they were
removed.
02‐15 TSG‐416 ENGINE Exhaust Manifold - Removal
Exhaust Manifold - Installation
1. Remove any necessary wiring and vacuum
hoses. Mark connections and routing as
necessary to assure they are returned as they
were removed.
2. Disconnect exhaust at outlet flange.
3. Remove nuts, exhaust manifold and gasket.
NOTE: All contact surfaces must be clean and free from
any old gasket material.
1. Install a new gasket and exhaust manifold.
2. Install nuts. Tighten to 11 lb.ft. (15 Nm).
3. Connect exhaust at outlet flange.
4. Tighten flange nuts 35 lb. ft. (47.5Nm)
5. Install any wiring and vacuum hoses that were
removed. Connect and route as they were
removed
02‐16 TSG‐416 ENGINE Cylinder Head - Removal
11. Rotate camshaft sprocket using tool 15-030A
until the 2 copper links on timing chain are at 12
o’clock.
1. Drain engine oil - refer to Operator Handbook.
2. Drain engine coolant - refer to Section 05.
3. Remove any necessary wiring and vacuum
hoses. Mark connections and routing as
necessary to assure they are returned as they
were removed.
4. Remove valve cover -- Refer to “Valve Cover Removal” on page 10.
5. Remove spark plugs and wires.
6. Remove the coolant flow control module - refer
to Section 05.
12. Using tool 15-030A to lock camshaft sprocket,
remove bolt.
CAUTION: During cylinder head removal, the timing
chain must be held up with a wire with constant
tension in order to keep timing links aligned at
crankshaft. If chain is allowed to slacken or
disengage with sprocket, the oil pump will have to
be removed, and the timing chain realigned – refer to
timing chain assembly xxx.
7. Remove bolts and nuts holding intake manifold
to cylinder head. Move aside.
8. Remove nuts at exhaust manifold. Move aside.
9. Remove oil level indicator tube bolt at cylinder
head.
10. Remove timing chain hydraulic tensioner.
13. Remove camshaft sprocket from chain while
maintaining tension on the chain using a wire.
14. Remove the M11 cylinder head bolts in 3
phases in the sequence shown.
02‐17 TSG‐416 ENGINE CAUTION: Be careful to avoid the bolts falling into
the timing chain compartment.
15. Remove 2 M8 bolts, cylinder head and gasket.
16. Carefully remove cylinder head and gasket while
maintaining tension on timing chain.
02‐18 TSG‐416 ENGINE Cylinder Head - Installation
3. Install new bolts using the sequence shown in
the following 3 steps:
 Step 1 - tighten M11 bolts to 29.5 lb.ft. (40
Nm)
 Step 2 - tighten M8 bolts to 11 lb.ft. (15 Nm)
+ 45
 Step 3 - tighten M11 bolts additional 120°
NOTE: The contact surface of the cylinder head and
block must be clean and free of oil. Use new cylinder
head bolts and lubricate the threads.
1. Rotate crankshaft so all pistons are below top
dead center (TDC).
CAUTION: During cylinder head installation, the
timing chain must be held up with a wire with
constant tension in order to keep timing links
aligned at crankshaft. If chain is allowed to slacken
or disengage with sprocket, the oil pump will have to
be removed, and the timing chain realigned.
2. Carefully install dowels, a new gasket and
cylinder head to the engine block while
maintaining tension on the timing chain.
4. Carefully install sprocket into timing chain
aligning timing mark with 2 copper links.
CAUTION: Be careful to avoid the bolts falling into
the timing chain compartment.
02‐19 TSG‐416 ENGINE 5. Using tool 15-030A, install camshaft sprocket
bolt. Tighten to 92 lb.ft. (125 Nm).
10. Install the coolant flow control module - refer to
Section 05.
11. Install spark plugs and wires - refer to Section
03.
12. Install valve cover -- Refer to “Valve Cover Removal” on page 10.
13. Install and route any wiring and vacuum hoses
removed.
14. Fill engine with correct type and quantity of
coolant - refer to Section 05.
15. Fill engine with correct type and quantity of
engine oil - refer to Operator Handbook.
6. Install hydraulic tensioner and tighten to 30 lb.ft.
(40 Nm).
7. Install oil level indicator bolt. Tighten to 15 lb.ft.
(20 Nm).
8. Install exhaust manifold and nuts. Tighten nuts
to 11 lb.ft. (15 Nm)
9. Install bolts and nuts holding intake manifold to
cylinder head. Tighten to nuts and bolts to 13
lb.ft. (18 Nm)
02‐20 TSG‐416 ENGINE Oil Pump - Removal
CAUTION: The oil pump, pulley and sealer are
provided as an assembly kept together by a clip (no.
BF9A-6606-AA). Do not remove clip until oil pump is
installed. If pulley is pushed out of the oil pump prior
to oil pump installation.
1. Remove drive belt.
2. Remove water pump - refer to Section 05.
3. Insert retaining clip # BF9A-6606-AA between
crankshaft pulley and oil pump to prevent pulley
axial movement
4. Remove crankshaft pulley bolt.
NOTE: Identify oil pump bolts so they may be returned
to their original positions.
5. Remove 6 oil pump bolts, oil pump and gasket.
02‐21 TSG‐416 ENGINE Oil Pump - Installation
4. Remove clip.
5. Install oil pump housing bolts finger tight.
NOTE: Contact surfaces of the oil pump and block must
be clean and free of oil.
CAUTION: The oil pump housing must be positioned
during tightening of the oil pump housing bolts, so
that the sealing flange of the oil pump housing is
within ± 0.008 in. (0.20 mm) of the block bottom
sealing flanges.
CAUTION: The oil pump, pulley and sealer are
provided as an assembly kept together by a clip (no.
BF9A-6606-AA). Do not remove clip until oil pump is
installed. If pulley is pushed out of the oil pump prior
to oil pump installation.
6. Tighten 2 outer oil pump housing bolts to 15
lb.ft. (20 Nm).
1. Assemble gasket onto oil pump housing guiding
it with 2 outer bolts.
CAUTION: Do not apply oil to shaft or seal. Sealing
lip along with all contact surfaces must be free of oil.
2. Place oil pump and gasket onto crankshaft.
3. Install pulley bolt and tighten to 92 lb.ft. (125
Nm).
7. Tighten remaining oil pump housing bolts to 15
lb.ft. (20 Nm).
02‐22 TSG‐416 ENGINE Crankshaft Rear Oil Seal – Removal
Crankshaft Rear Oil Seal - Installation
1. Install new rear seal and retainer using tool 21046.
1. Remove flywheel
2. Remove oil pan
3. Remove bolts and rear oil seal retainer.
2. Install oil pan
3. Install flywheel
02‐23 TSG‐416 ENGINE Camshaft Follower / Hydraulic Lash
Adjuster – Removal
Camshaft Follower / Hydraulic Lash
Adjuster – Installation
1. Remove valve cover -- Refer to “Valve Cover Removal” on page 10.
2. Rotate the camshaft so the roller follower for the
valve to be serviced is on the heel of the cam.
3. Using a suitable valve spring compressor tool,
compress and hold down the valve spring. Slide
out the roller follower over the lash adjuster.
NOTE: All components must be kept clean and
lubricated with clean engine oil.
1. Rotate the camshaft so the roller follower for the
valve to be serviced is on the heel of the cam.
2. Install the hydraulic lash adjuster.
3. Using a suitable valve spring compressor tool,
compress and hold down the valve spring. Slide
in the roller follower over the lash adjuster.
4. Install valve cover -- Refer to “Valve Cover Removal” on page 10.
4. Lift out the hydraulic lash adjuster.
02‐24 TSG‐416 ENGINE Oil Pan - Removal
3. Align oil pan with rear portion of engine block
1. Remove bolts.
2. Remove oil pan.
3. Remove all gasket material from pan.
CAUTION: Be careful not to contact surfaces.
4. Tighten oil pan bolts in 3 steps in the sequence
shown:
 enough for gasket settlement
 5 lb.ft. (7 Nm)
 7 lb.ft. (10 Nm)
Oil Pan - Installation
CAUTION: The contact surfaces of oil pan, gasket
and block must be free of oil. Do not wait more than
5 minutes to install the oil pan gasket after sealer
has been applied.
1. Apply WSEM-A4 sealer (Loctite 5910) to the 4
positions as shown.
2. Install the oil pan and bolts finger tight.
02‐25 TSG‐416 ENGINE Pick-up Tube / Deflector - Removal
Pick-up Tube / Deflector - Installation
1. Remove oil pan -- Refer to “Oil Pump Removal” on page 21.
1. Install oil deflector.
2. Install pick-up tube.
2. Remove 4 nuts and1 bolt.
3. Install 4 nuts and tighten to 14 lb.ft. (19 Nm).
3. Remove pick-up tube.
4. Install bolt and tighten to 7 lb.ft. (9.5 Nm).
4. Remove oil deflector.
5. Install oil pan -- Refer to“Oil Pump - Installation”
on page 22.
02‐26 TSG‐416 ENGINE Crankshaft Main Bearings - Removal
NOTE: To check bearing clearances or to select new
bearings, refer to Section 01.
1. Remove oil pan -- Refer to “Oil Pan - Removal”
on page 25.
2. Remove pick-up tube & deflector -- Refer to
“Pick-up Tube / Deflector - Removal” on page
26.
NOTE: Replace one bearing at a time, leaving the other
bearings securely fastened. Note location of studs for
deflector installation.
Crankshaft Main Bearings - Installation
NOTE: All components must be clean and dried with
compressed air or a lint free cloth. Lubricate bearing to
crankshaft contact surfaces with clean engine oil.
1. Place upper bearing on crankshaft and rotate
into place. Oil holes must align.
2. Place lower bearing into cap.
3. Remove first main bearing cap bolts.
4. Remove cap and lower bearing.
5. Press on end of upper bearing without tang to
start it out
6. Rotate bearing out from between crankshaft and
cylinder block.
NOTE: Main bearing cap arrow must point to the front of
the engine.
3. Install bearing cap.
CAUTION: Use new main bearing cap bolts.
4. Lightly oil new main bearing bolts or studs and
install in same positions as removed. Alternately
tighten in 3 steps to 70 lb.ft. (95 Nm).
5. Check crankshaft end play as outlined in Section
01
6. Install pick-up tube and deflector -- Refer to
“Pick-up Tube / Deflector - Installation” on page
26.
7. Install oil pan -- Refer to “Oil Pan - Installation”
on page 25.
02‐27 TSG‐416 ENGINE Connecting Rod Bearings – Removal
Connecting Rod Bearings - Installation
1. Remove oil pan -- Refer to “Oil Pan - Removal”
on page 25.
2. Remove pick-up tube and deflector -- Refer to
“Pickup Tube / Deflector - Removal” on page 26.
3. Remove spark plug for cylinder being serviced.
4. Rotate crankshaft until connecting rod and
bearing to be serviced is placed at the bottom of
its stroke.
5. Remove two connecting rod nuts.
6. Remove connecting rod cap with lower bearing.
NOTE: Make sure bearing bore of connecting rod and
cap and bearing journal are clean. Lubricate wear
surfaces with clean engine oil.
1. Insert upper bearing into connecting rod.
2. Insert lower bearing into cap.
CAUTION: Do not scratch journal with connecting
rod bolts.
3. Install cap and bolts. Tighten bolts in 2 steps:
 Step 1 - 9 lb.ft. (12.5 Nm)
 Step 2 - 22 lb.ft. (30 Nm) (41-94°???)
4. Install deflector and pick-up tube -- Refer to
“Pick-up Tube / Deflector - Installation” on page
26.
5. Install oil pan -- Refer to “Oil Pan - Installation”
on page 25.
7. Push piston and connecting rod assembly up
into bore.
8. Remove upper bearing from connecting rod.
NOTE: For bearing service refer to Section 01.
02‐28 TSG‐416 ENGINE Piston – Removal
6. Remove 2 bolts, connecting rod cap and lower
bearing.
1. Remove oil pan -- Refer to “Oil Pan - Removal”
on page 25.
2. Remove pick-up tube and deflector -- Refer to
“Pickup Tube / Deflector - Removal” on page 26.
3. Remove cylinder head assembly -- Refer to
Cylinder Head - Removal” on page 17.
CAUTION: Never cut into the ring travel area in
excess of 0.8mm (1/32 inch) when removing ridges.
4. Turn crankshaft until piston to be removed is at
the bottom of its travel and place a cloth on the
piston head to collect the cuttings.
5. Remove any ridge and/or deposits from the
upper end of the cylinder bores using a ridge
cutter. Follow the instructions furnished by the
tool manufacturer.
CAUTION: Avoid damage to the crankshaft journal
or the cylinder wall when removing the piston and
rod.
7. Push piston assembly out the top of the cylinder
with the handle end of a hammer.
NOTE: Make sure all caps are marked so that they can
be installed in their original positions.
8. Remove upper bearing from connecting rod.
NOTE: For piston and bearing service - refer to Section
01.
02‐29 TSG‐416 ENGINE Piston - Installation
4. Install connecting rod caps with bearings
(lubricate wear surface) and tighten bolts in 2
steps:
 Step 1 - 9 lb.ft. (12.5 Nm)
 Step 2 - 22 lb.ft. (30 Nm)
NOTE: Crankshaft journal should be at its lowest point.
All components should be clean and dried with
compressed air or a lint free cloth.
1. Set piston ring gaps as follows:
 lower oil ring gap aligned with piston pin.
 center ring gap at 90° from the oil ring
gap.
 top ring gap at 180° from the oil ring
gap.
2. Lubricate piston, bearing wear surface,
crankshaft journal and cylinder wall with clean
engine oil.
3. Carefully install pistons with bearings into
cylinder bores using a piston ring compressor
and a hammer handle. Avoid damage to the
crankshaft bearing journals. The arrow of the
piston must point to the front of the engine. The
connecting rod has the cylinder number
identified in the base.
5. Check connecting rod side clearance
6. Install cylinder head assembly -- Refer to
“Cylinder Head - Installation” on page 19.
7. Install pick-up tube and deflector -- Refer to
“Pick-up Tube / Deflector - Installation” on page
26.
8. Install oil pan -- Refer to “Oil Pan - Installation”
on page 25.
CAUTION: Use new connecting rod cap bolts and
lubricate threads with clean engine oil.
02‐30 TSG‐416 ENGINE Flywheel - Removal
1. Remove bolts.
2. Remove flywheel.
3. Check flywheel runout at clutch disc surface:
 maximum runout 0.005 in. (0.13 mm)
4. Check flywheel runout at gear surface:
 maximum runout 0.024 in. (0.6 mm)
Flywheel - Installation
1. Install flywheel using special locking tool 21-168.
2. Lubricate bolt threads with clean engine oil and
tighten to 49 lb.ft. (67 Nm).
02‐31 TSG‐416 ENGINE Timing Chain and Sprockets – Removal
4. Remove the hydraulic tensioner.
1. Remove oil pump assembly -- Refer to “Oil
Pump -Removal” on page 21.
2. Remove valve cover -- Refer to “Valve Cover Removal” on page 10.
3. Check to see if coppered links on the timing
chain are still visible. If not, identify them as
follows:
 Turn engine until timing mark on
camshaft sprocket is at 12 o’clock.
 Mark the two chain links left and right of
that timing mark
 Mark the single chain link that is
positioned on the crankshaft sprocket
timing mark
5. Using tool 15-030A to lock camshaft sprocket,
remove bolt and camshaft sprocket.
02‐32 TSG‐416 ENGINE 6. Remove timing chain and crankshaft sprocket.
7. Remove tensioner arm and chain guide if
necessary.
2. Install crankshaft sprocket with key at 12 o’clock
position.
3. Assemble drive chain through chain housing
cavity from top of engine and onto crankshaft
sprocket. Align timing mark with coppered link
on drive chain.
4. Insert camshaft sprocket into chain and
assemble to camshaft. Position camshaft key at
12 o’clock and align timing mark between 2
coppered links on drive chain.
Timing Chain and Sprockets - Installation
NOTE: All components must be clean and dried with
compressed air or a lint free cloth. Lubricate with clean
engine oil.
1. Install the (if removed) chain guide and the
tensioner arm from the top of the engine. Install
bolts finger tight.
5. Install camshaft sprocket bolt and hydraulic
tensioner finger tight.
02‐33 TSG‐416 ENGINE 6. Tighten guide and tensioner arm bolts to 18-21
lb.ft. (24-28 Nm).
8. Tighten hydraulic tensioner to 27-32 lb.ft. (36-44
Nm).
7. Using locking tool, tighten camshaft sprocket
bolt to 52-59 lb.ft. (70-80 Nm).
9. Install valve cover -- Refer to “Valve Cover Installation” on page 10.
10. Install oil pump assembly -- Refer to “Oil Pump Installation” on page 22.
02‐34 TSG‐416 ENGINE Oil Level Indicator – Removal
Oil Level Indicator – Installation
1. Remove bolt.
1. Apply sealer WSK-M2G 349-A4 (Loctite 648) to
lower end of oil level indicator tube.
2. Remove oil level indicator & tube.
2. Install tube immediately into bore.
3. Install bolt and tighten to 15 lb.ft. (20 Nm).
.
02‐35 TSG‐416 ENGINE Oil Filter and Adapter - Removal
Oil Filter and Adapter – Installation
NOTE: Place oil drain pan under oil filter to catch oil
drainage.
1. Remove oil filter.
1. Install a new gasket.
2. Remove 3 bolts.
2. Lubricate oil seal on a new filter and install to
adapter. Tighten 1 1/2 to 1 3/4 turns after first
contact.
3. Remove adapter and gasket.
3. Install filter/adapter to block.
4. Install 3 bolts and tighten to 15 lb.ft. (20 Nm).
02‐36 TSG‐416 ENGINE DISASSEMBLY
3. Loosen the tensioner pulley and remove the
drive belt.
1. Install engine on an engine stand.
2. Drain the engine oil.
NOTE: Record drive belt routing and direction of travel
for use during assembly.
4. Disconnect wiring at generator.
5. Remove the generator.
6. Remove the generator support.
02‐37 TSG‐416 ENGINE 7. Remove oil level indicator tube.
10. Remove the coolant flow control module.
8. Remove the return connector
11. Remove the intake manifold assembly.
.
NOTE: Record routing of wiring harnesses and vacuum
tubes so they may be returned to their original positions
during assembly.
9. Remove any vacuum hoses and wiring.
02‐38 TSG‐416 ENGINE 12. Remove the oil filter and support assembly.
16. Remove the valve cover assembly.
13. Remove oil pressure switch.
14. Remove crankshaft position (CKP) sensor.
17. Loosen the crankshaft pulley bolt.
15. Remove the flywheel and flywheel plate.
02‐39 TSG‐416 ENGINE 18. Remove 3 bolts and the water pump pulley.
22. Remove 4 nuts, 1 bolt, oil pick-up tube and oil
deflector.
19. Remove 3 bolts, water pump and gasket.
23. Insert retaining clip # BF9A-6606-AA between
crankshaft pulley and oil pump to prevent pulley
axial movement.
NOTE: When removing oil pan, always keep the engine
in its normal upright position to avoid contamination.
24. Remove crankshaft pulley bolt.
20. Remove bolts, gasket and oil pan
NOTE: Identify oil pump bolts so they may be returned
to their original positions.
25. Remove 6 oil pump bolts, and oil pump.
21. Turn the engine over 180°.
02‐40 TSG‐416 ENGINE 26. Check to see if coppered links on the timing
chain are still visible. If not, identify them as
follows:
 Turn engine until timing mark on
camshaft sprocket is at 12 o’clock.
 Mark the two chain links left and right of
that timing mark.
 Mark the single chain link that is
positioned on the crankshaft sprocket
timing mark.
28. Using tool 15-030A to lock camshaft sprocket,
remove bolt and camshaft sprocket.
29. Remove timing chain and crankshaft sprocket.
30. Remove tensioner arm and chain guide.
27. Remove the hydraulic tensioner.
02‐41 TSG‐416 ENGINE CAUTION: Keep cylinder head in the vertical
position during removal to avoid warping and
damage to the sealing surfaces.
33. Remove crankshaft rear seal retainer.
31. Remove the M11 cylinder head bolts in 3
phases in the sequence shown.
NOTE: Mark piston and cap so they may be returned to
their original positions.
34. Remove 2 bolts, lower connecting rod bearing
and cap. Push piston assembly out of the engine
block. Repeat for other three cylinders.
32. Remove 2 M8 bolts, cylinder head and gasket.
02‐42 TSG‐416 ENGINE NOTE: Keep caps and bearings in order so they may be
returned to their original positions.
36. Carefully remove the crankshaft and install it
vertically on the flywheel to avoid warp runningout.
35. Remove bolts, caps and crankshaft lower main
bearings in the sequence shown.
37. Remove the 5 upper main bearings and the 2
thrust washers.
02‐43 TSG‐416 ENGINE SUBASSEMBLIES
3. Check the engine block for warpage, cracks or
any other damage.
Clean crankcase and all subassemblies of all foreign
material. Scrape or wire brush RTV sealant from mating
surfaces. Surfaces must be kept oil free for good
adhesion of fresh RTV seal (during reassembly).
NOTE: For cleaning and service information on
crankcase, cylinder head, camshaft, crankshaft and
bearings, Refer to Section 01.
Discard gaskets and O-Rings and replace with new ones
unless otherwise instructed.
Cylinder Block
1. Remove the core plugs, if necessary.
4. Coolant and oil galleries must be free of dirt and
deposits.
5. Refer to Section 01 for cleaning & servicing
cylinder block and core plug installation.
2. Remove oil gallery plugs.
6. Reinstall oil gallery plugs.
02‐44 TSG‐416 ENGINE Piston - Disassembly
Piston - Assembly
NOTE: Store components to ensure assembly with the
same rod and installation in the same cylinders from
which they were removed. Refer to Section 01 for piston
inspection and servicing.
NOTE: Apply a light coat of clean engine oil contact
surfaces.
1. Assemble piston to connecting rod
2. Install piston rings using a suitable piston ring
expander.
1. Remove the connecting rod bearing from the
connecting rod and cap.
2. Remove the piston rings using a suitable piston
ring expander.
NOTE: Check piston ring end gap and side clearance refer to Section 01.
3. Remove piston pin
3. Install bearings into connecting rods and caps.
Make sure lock slots align.
CAUTION: Make sure bearings and connecting rod
bore are clean. foreign material under the inserts will
distort the bearing and cause a failure.
02‐45 TSG‐416 ENGINE Cylinder Head - Disassembly
6. Remove all valve components using a suitable
valve spring compressor.
NOTE: Store components to ensure assembly in the
same order as they were removed.
1. Remove bolts and camshaft bearing caps evenly
in the sequence shown.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Remove camshaft.
Remove roller followers.
Remove lash adjusters.
Remove spark plugs.
Refer to Section 01 for:
 Servicing valve components, valve guide and
valve seat.
 Camshaft and bearing service.
 Cylinder head cleaning and inspection.
02‐46 TSG‐416 ENGINE Cylinder Head - Assembly
5. Check that spring installed height is 35.2 ± 1mm.
NOTE: All components must be clean and assembled in
the same positions as removed. Lubricate contact
surfaces with clean engine oil.
1. Check that valves move freely in valve guides.
2. Install intake and exhaust valves.
3. Install new valve seals using special tool 21-024
(optional T95P-6565A).
6. Install lash adjusters.
7. Install roller followers.
4. Using a suitable spring compressor tool, install
valve springs, retainers and locks.
NOTE: The chamfer on the camshaft bearing caps must
be facing the chain housing.
8. Carefully install camshaft bearings, camshaft
and bearing caps with bolts finger tight.
NOTE: Rotate camshaft so key is at 12 O’clock position.
9. Tighten bolts in the sequence shown in 3 steps
to 6- 7 lb.ft. (8-10 Nm).
02‐47 TSG‐416 ENGINE ASSEMBLY
NOTE: The main bearing caps are numbered and must
be assembled to corresponding numbers. The arrow on
the main bearing caps must point to the front of the
engine.
NOTE: All components must be clean and dried with
compressed air or a lint free cloth. For information on
bearings & piston inspection and selection - Refer to
Section 01.
CAUTION: Use new main bearing cap bolts.
1. Install upper main bearings and thrust washers
to cylinder block. Lubricate the wear surfaces
with clean engine oil. Make sure oil holes align
4. Install main bearing caps in the same positions
as removed.
NOTE: Check the position of studs as shown.
2. Carefully install the crankshaft onto the upper
bearings.
3. Assemble the lower main bearings into caps.
Lubricate the wear surfaces and the bolt threads
with clean engine oil.
5. Tighten main bearing cap bolts/studs in
sequence shown and in three steps to 70 lb.ft.
(95 Nm).
NOTE: Check crankshaft end play as outlined in Section
01.
02‐48 TSG‐416 ENGINE 6. Set piston ring gaps as follows:
 lower oil ring gap aligned with piston pin
 center ring gap at 90° from the oil ring
gap.
 top ring gap at 180° from the oil ring
gap.
7. Lubricate piston, bearing wear surface,
crankshaft journal and cylinder wall with clean
engine oil.
8. Carefully install pistons with bearings into
cylinder bores using a piston ring compressor
and a hammer handle. Avoid damage to the
crankshaft bearing journals. The arrow of the
piston must point to the front of the engine. The
connecting rod has the cylinder number
identified in the base.
10. Install a new rear seal and retainer using tool
21-046.
NOTE: Rear seal retainer comes on a plastic sleeve.
Link plastic sleeve to crankshaft (?? 34mm ??) and push
retainer to crankshaft. Plastic pins at rear side of retainer
must fit to corresponding block bores. Remove plastic
sleeve when done.
11. Turn engine 180° to prepare for cylinder head
installation.
NOTE: The contact surface of the cylinder head and
block must be clean and free of oil. Use new cylinder
head bolts and lubricate the threads.
12. Rotate crankshaft so all pistons are below top
dead center (TDC).
13. Install dowels and new cylinder head gasket to
the engine block.
14. Carefully install the cylinder head onto the
gasket.
CAUTION: Use new connecting rod cap bolts and
lubricate threads with clean engine oil.
9. Install connecting rod caps with bearings
(lubricate wear surface) and tighten bolts in 2
steps:
 Step 1 - 9 lb.ft. (12.5 Nm
 Step 2 - 22 lb.ft. (30 Nm)
02‐49 TSG‐416 ENGINE 15. Install new bolts using the sequence shown in
the following 3 steps:
 Step 1 - tighten M11 bolts to 29.5 lb.ft.
(40 Nm)
 Step 2 - tighten M8 bolts to 11 lb.ft. (15
Nm) + 45

Step 3 - tighten M11 bolts additional
120°
17. Install crankshaft sprocket with key at 12 o’clock
position.
18. Assemble drive chain through chain housing
cavity from top of engine and onto crankshaft
sprocket. Align timing mark with coppered link
on drive chain.
19. Insert camshaft sprocket into chain and
assemble to camshaft. Position camshaft key at
12 o’clock and align timing mark between 2
coppered links on drive chain.
16. Install the chain guide and the tensioner arm
from the top of the engine. Install bolts finger
tight.
20. Install camshaft sprocket bolt and hydraulic
tensioner finger tight.
02‐50 TSG‐416 ENGINE 21. Tighten guide and tensioner arm bolts to 18-21
lb.ft. (24-28 Nm).
23. Tighten hydraulic tensioner to 27-32 lb.ft. (36-44
Nm).
22. Using locking tool, tighten camshaft sprocket
bolt to 59 lb.ft. (70-80 Nm).
CAUTION: The oil pump, pulley and sealer are
provided as an assembly kept together by a clip (no.
BF9A-6606-AA). Do not remove clip until oil pump is
installed. If pulley is pushed out of the oil pump prior
to oil pump installation.
02‐51 TSG‐416 ENGINE 24. Assemble gasket onto oil pump housing guiding
it with 2 outer bolts.
29. Tighten 2 outer oil pump housing bolts to 15
lb.ft. (20 Nm).
CAUTION: Do not apply oil to shaft or seal. Sealing
lip along with all contact surfaces must be free of oil.
30. Tighten remaining oil pump housing bolts to 15
lb.ft. (20 Nm).
25. Place oil pump and gasket onto crankshaft.
26. Install pulley bolt and tighten to 92 lb.ft. (125
Nm).
27. Remove clip.
28. Install oil pump housing bolts finger tight.
CAUTION: The oil pump housing must be positioned
during tightening of the oil pump housing bolts, so
that the sealing flange of the oil pump housing is
within ± 0.008 in. (0.20 mm) of the block bottom
sealing flanges.
02‐52 TSG‐416 ENGINE 31. Install water pump.
35. Install oil deflector.
32. Install bolts and tighten to 7 lb.ft. (10 Nm).
36. Install oil pick-up tube.
33. Install water pump pulley.
34. Install bolts and tighten to 9 lb.ft. (12 Nm).
37. Tighten nuts to 14 lb.ft. (19 Nm). Tighten bolt to
7 lb.ft. (9.5 Nm).
38. Apply WSEM-A4 sealer (Loctite 5910) to the 4
positions as shown.
CAUTION: The contact surfaces of oil pan, gasket
and block must be free of oil. Do not wait more than
5 minutes to install the oil pan gasket after sealer
has been applied.
02‐53 TSG‐416 ENGINE 39. Install the oil pan and bolts finger tight.
42. Install the oil pan drain plug. Tighten to 18 lb.ft.
(25 Nm).
40. Align oil pan with rear portion of engine block.
43. Install flywheel using special locking tool 21-168.
41. Tighten oil pan bolts in 3 steps in the sequence
shown:
 enough for gasket settlement
 5 lb.ft. (7 Nm)
 7 lb.ft. (10 Nm)
44. Lubricate bolt threads with clean engine oil and
tighten to 49 lb.ft. (67 Nm).
45. Check flywheel runout at clutch disc surface:
 maximum runout 0.005 in. (0.13 mm)
02‐54 TSG‐416 ENGINE 46. Check flywheel runout at gear surface:
 maximum runout 0.024 in. (0.6 mm)
50. Install oil filter support with new filter. Tighten
bolts to 15 lb.ft. (20 Nm).
47. Install valve cover and gasket. Tighten bolts to 7
lb.ft. (9 Nm).
51. Install oil pressure switch and tighten to 15 lb.ft.
(20 Nm).
48. Apply grease WSD-M13P8-A1 or equivalent to
spark plug threads.
52. Install crankshaft position sensor and tighten to
3 lb.ft. (4 Nm).
49. Install spark plugs and tighten to 10-13 lb.ft. (1317 Nm).
02‐55 TSG‐416 ENGINE 53. Install intake manifold and gasket. Tighten bolts
and nuts to 6 lb.ft. (8 Nm).
55. Apply sealer WSK-M2G 349-A4 (Loctite 648) to
lower end of oil level indicator tube. Install
immediately and tighten bolt to 15 lb.ft. (20 Nm).
54. Install coolant flow control module and gasket.
Tighten bolts to 7 lb.ft. (10 Nm).
56. Apply sealer WSK-M2G 349-A7 (Loctite 243) to
threads of coolant return connector. Install and
tighten to 15 lb.ft. (20 Nm).
02‐56 TSG‐416 ENGINE 57. Install generator support
59. Pry tensioner pulley as shown and install drive
belt.
60. Install engine wiring and vacuum hoses
58. Install generator and electrical connectors.
61. Fill engine with clean engine oil of the correct
type and quantity.
NOTE: Ford Power Products industrial engines are
designed to perform with engine oils that are licensed by
the American Petroleum Institute (API) and oils carrying
the most current API classification should be used.
NOTE: Drive belt must be installed in the same direction
of rotation as when removed.
02‐57 TSG‐416 ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS
GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS
4 cylinder, 4 stroke spark ignition 90°
Overhead Valve (OHV) chain driven,
Engine Type:
overhead camshaft operating the
valves via roller cam followers.
Liter/CID:
1.6 / 97.5
Bore: mm (in)
82.070 mm (3.23in)
Stroke: mm
75.480 mm (2.97in)
(in)
Number of
4
cylinders:
Compression
9.5 : 1
ratio:
Polarity:
Spark Plug:
Firing Order:
Liquefied petroleum gas HD5
1050 [btu/ft^3]
Unleaded 87 or 89 Octane, do not
exceed 10% ethanol
ITEM
40 psi
LUBRICATION SYSTEM
Max Oil
Pressure:
Oil Type:
Service oil fill:
Oil Filter Type:
Thermostat:
Coolant:
IGNITION
Ford Part #: XS6F-12405-A1A (NGK
TR6B-10)
Gap: 0.95 – 1.05 mm
1–3–4-2
CRANKSHAFT
Main journal-standard
2.243 - 2.244 in
diameter:
(56.980 – 57.000 mm)
Main journal-undersize
2.233 – 2.234 in
diameter:
(56.726 – 56.746 mm)
FUEL SYSTEM
LPG Fuel
Type:
NG Fuel Type:
Gasoline Fuel
Type:
Fuel Pump
Pressure:
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
Negative to earth (ground)
Hot @2500RPM 40 – 60 psi
SAE 5W30 (API classification SJ)
4.2 Liter (4.4quarts) including filter
X56E-6714-D1A
COOLING SYSTEM
Type: Wax Element
Commences opening: 180°F
Fully Open: 202°F
50% Motorcraft Super Plus 2000 plus
50% clear water
02‐58 Nm
FT. LB.
LB. IN.
Oil Pan
Drain Plug
Spark Plugs
25
18
221.3
13 – 17
9.6 – 12.5
Oil Filter
11 – 15
8 – 11
115 – 150.5
97.4 –
132.7
TSG‐416 IGNITION SYSTEM INDEX Subject General Information…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Description……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. Operation…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Wiring Diagram…………………………………………………………………………………………………….…… Diagnosis and Testing Spark Plug Inspection..…………………………………………………………………………….………………… Removal and Installation Ignition Coil – Replacement……….…….………………………………………………………………………. Spark Plug – Removal……………………..……………….……………………………………………………….. Spark Plug – Installation…………………………………………………………………..……………………….. Specifications……………………..………………………………………………………………………………………………..... 03 ‐ 1 Page 03 ‐ 2 03 – 3 03 – 3 03 – 4 03 – 5 03 – 6 03 – 6 03 – 6 03 – 7 TSG‐416 IGNITION SYSTEM GENERAL INFORMATION Description The TSG-416 engine is equipped with an coil
pack electronic ignition system. The brain of this
system is the Electronic Engine Control (GCP)
Module which receives inputs from the following:
 Crankshaft Position (CKP) Sensor
 Camshaft Position (CMP) Sensor
 Engine Temperature Sensor
From these inputs, the GCP module computes
spark strategy (spark advance) to obtain
optimum engine performance for correct input
conditions, through the following outputs
 Ignition Coil pack
 Spark Plugs.
WARNING: HIGH TENSION VOLTAGE PRODUCED
BY A DISTRIBUTORLESS IGNITION SYSTEM IS
HIGHER THAN FOR A CONVENTIONAL IGNITION
SYSTEM. WHEN CARRYING OUT SERVICE
OPERATIONS ON AN ENGINE EQUIPPED WITH
DISTRIBUTORLESS IGNITION, IT IS IMPORTANT
TO BE AWARE OF THE ABOVE POINT AS WELL
AS ALL THE USUAL SAFETY MEASURES TO
PREVENT THE POSSIBILITY OF ELECTRIC
SHOCKS.
03 ‐ 2 TSG‐416 IGNITION SYSTEM Fuel Octane Level Adjustment
In the event that the engine is operated on dry
fuels such as natural gas, compressed natural
gas (CNG), or liquefied petroleum gas (LGP),
timing can be modified by GCP “Fuel Type”.
Operation
With this system, the GCP monitors the engine
speed and operating temperature and decides
what degree of spark advance is correct for all of
the operating conditions. Because timing is set
for life inherently in the design of the engine, and
there are no moving parts in the ignition system
itself, no maintenance is required except for
periodic spark plug checks. The system provides
for fixed spark advance at start-up, for cold
weather starting, and for “average value” default
attention has been given to spark optimization
for excellent fuel economy in the warm-up mode.
Ignition Coil Driver
The GCP switches 2 individual ignition coils on
and off at the correct times to give the desired
spark advance. Ignition timing is adjusted
constantly by the GCP. Many factors including
all the sensor inputs, affect the final ignition
setting.
Run Mode
The GCP interprets engine speed above 200
rpm as Run Mode. The Base Spark advance
(BSA) is calculated by the GCP processing the
engine speed input.
The spark plugs are paired so that one plug fires
during the compression stroke and its
companion plug fires during the exhaust stroke.
The next time that coil is fired, the plug that was
on exhaust will be on compression, and the one
that was on compression will be on exhaust. The
Transient Mode
This function is to provide detonation protection
when the engine load is increased rapidly by fast
opening of the throttle plate.
spark in the exhaust cylinder is wasted (referred
to as the “waste spark”) but little of the coil
energy is lost.
Engine Speed and Crankshaft Position
The crankshaft position and speed information
comes to the GCP from the Crankshaft Position
(CKP) Sensor, mounted near the crankshaft
pulley. The CKP Sensor is triggered by teeth on
a trigger wheel located on the crankshaft pulley.
The pulse frequency indicates crankshaft speed
and a missing tooth indicates crankshaft
position.
Engine Temperature
The Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT) Sensor
sends engine temperature information to the
GCP. It is located in the rear coolant outlet pipe.
03 ‐ 3 TSG‐416 IGNITION SYSTEM Wiring Diagram
03 ‐ 4 TSG‐416 IGNITION SYSTEM DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING
Spark Plug Inspection
Inspect the spark plug tip as in the chart below:
03 ‐ 5 TSG‐416 IGNITION SYSTEM REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
Spark Plug – Removal
Ignition Coil - Replacement
1. Remove and/or disconnect components
to allow access and removal of the
ignition coil pack. Label if necessary to
allow for correct reinstallation.
1. Remove ignition coil -- Refer to “Ignition
Coil - Replacement” on page 6 of this
section.
2. Disconnect electrical connector from the
engine harness then disconnect the high
tension wires that go to each spark plug.
2. Loosen spark plugs and remove any dirt
or foreign material from spark plug
areas of cylinder head with compressed
air.
3. Remove four bolts.
3. Remove spark plugs and mark location
using a piece of masking tape.
4. Remove the ignition coil pack.
4. Inspect condition of spark plug -- Refer
to “Spark Plug Inspection” on page 7 of
this section.
5. Reverse procedure to install:
 Inspect for cracks, carbon
tracking or dirt
 Apply silicone dielectric
compound to the inside of coil.
Spark Plug - Installation
1. Apply a few drops of engine oil to spark
plug threads near tip.
2. Adjust spark plug gap to: 1.06 - 1.16
mm (0.042 - 0.046 in.).
3. Install spark plugs (to original locations)
and tighten to 11 lb-ft. (15 Nm).
4. Install coil -- Refer to “Ignition Coil Replacement” on page 6 of this section.
03 ‐ 6 TSG‐416 IGNITION SYSTEM SPECIFICATIONS GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS
Firing Order
Spark Plug
1–3–4-2
Type: 5G5E-12405-AA
Gap: 1.06 – 1.16 mm
(0.042 – 0.046 in.)
TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS
Description
Spark Plugs
Coil bolts
Nm
15
8
Lb-ft
11
6
Lb-in
132
71
03 ‐ 7 TSG‐416 FUEL SYSTEM INDEX Subject Page Cautions & Warnings…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 04 – 2 General Information – Gasoline………………………..………………………………………………………………. 04 – 3 Description……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 04 – 3 Operation…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 04 – 4 Fuel System Requirements………………………………………………………………………………………. 04 – 4 Wiring Diagram…………………………………………………………………………………………………….…… 04 – 5 General Information – Dry Fuel…………………………..………………………………………………………………. 04 – 7 Description……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 04 – 7 Operation…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 04 – 7 Fuel System Requirements………………………………………………………………………………………. 04 – 8 Wiring Diagram…………………………………………………………………………………………………….…… 04 – 9 Diagnosis and Testing – LPG……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 04 – 10 Symptom Chart…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 04 – 10 Preliminary Tests………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 04 – 11 Diagnostic Charts…………………..………………………………………………………..……………………….. 04 – 12 Diagnosis and Testing – GASOLINE……………………………………………………………………………………… 04 – 21 Visual Inspection………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 04 – 21 Symptom Chart…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 04 – 21 Fuel Pressure Check…….………..………………………………………………………..……………………….. 04 – 21 Fuel Pump Check……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 04 – 21 Fuel Block Check………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 04 – 22 General Service Procedures………………………………………………………………………………………………… 04 – 23 Spring Lock Coupling – Type I – Disconnect…..……………….…………………………………………. 04 – 23 Spring Lock Coupling – Type I – Connect….…..……………….…………………………………………. 04 – 23 Spring Lock Coupling – Type II – Disconnect...……………….…………………………………………. 04 – 23 Spring Lock Coupling – Type II – Connect….….……………….…………………………………………. 04 – 23 Quick Connect Coupling – Type I – Disconnect…………………………………………………………. 04 – 23 Quick Connect Coupling – Type I – Connect………………………………………….…………………. 04 – 23 Quick Connect Coupling – Type II – Disconnect……….………………………………………………. 04 – 23 Quick Connect Coupling – Type II – Connect…………………..…………………….…………………. 04 – 24 Removal and Installation Fuel Rail & Injectors – Replacement…………………………………………………………………………. 04 – 25 Actuator – Removal………………………..……………….……………………………………………………….. 04 – 26 Actuator – Installation……………………………………………………………………..……………………….. 04 – 26 Mixer – Removal……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 04 – 26 Mixer – Installation…………………………………………………………………………………………….……… 04 – 27 Specifications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..... 04 – 27 04 ‐ 1 TSG‐416 FUEL SYSTEM CAUTIONS & WARNINGS
WARNING: DO NOT SMOKE OR CARRY LIGHTED TOBACCO OR OPEN FLAME OF ANY TYPE
WHEN WORKING ON OR NEAR ANY FUEL-RELATED COMPONENT. HIGHLY FLAMMABLE
MIXTURES ARE
ALWAYS PRESENT AND MAY BE IGNITED. FAILURE TO FOLLOW THESE INSTRUCTIONS MAY
RESULT IN PERSONAL INJURY.
WARNING: FUEL IN THE FUEL SYSTEM REMAINS UNDER HIGH PRESSURE EVEN WHEN THE
ENGINE IS NOT RUNNING. BEFORE REPAIRING OR DISCONNECTING ANY OF THE FUEL LINES
OR FUEL SYSTEM COMPONENTS, THE FUEL SYSTEM PRESSURE MUST BE RELIEVED TO
PREVENT ACCIDENTAL SPRAYING OF FUEL, CAUSING A FIRE HAZARD. FAILURE TO FOLLOW
THESE INSTRUCTIONS MAY RESULT IN PERSONAL INJURY.
WARNING: DO NOT CARRY PERSONAL ELECTRONIC DEVICES SUCH AS CELL PHONES,
PAGERS OR AUDIO EQUIPMENT OF ANY TYPE WHEN WORKING ON OR NEAR ANY FUELRELATED COMPONENTS. HIGHLY FLAMMABLE MIXTURES ARE ALWAYS PRESENT AND CAN
BE IGNITED. FAILURE TO FOLLOW THESE INSTRUCTIONS MAY RESULT IN PERSONAL INJURY.
WARNING: THESE PROCEDURES INVOLVE FUEL HANDLING. BE PREPARED FOR FUEL
SPILLAGE AT ALL TIMES AND ALWAYS OBSERVE FUEL HANDLING PRECAUTIONS. FAILURE
TO FOLLOW THESE INSTRUCTIONS MAY RESULT IN PERSONAL INJURY.
CAUTION: If the liquid or vapor tube is damaged (torn, holes or delaminated), a new tube
assembly must be installed. Do not use aftermarket sleeving. Do not re-adhere loose sleeving
material.
CAUTION: Fuel injection equipment is manufactured to very precise tolerances and fine
clearances. It is therefore essential that absolute cleanliness is observed when working with these
components. Always cap off any open orifices or tubes.
CAUTION: When reusing liquid or vapor tube connectors, make sure to use compressed air to
remove any foreign material from the connector retaining clip area before separating from the
tube. Apply clean engine oil to the end of the tube before inserting the tube into the connector.
CAUTION: To ensure absolute cleanliness is observed when working with fuel system
components, always cap off any open orifices or tubes.
04 ‐ 2 TSG‐416 FUEL SYSTEM GENERAL INFORMATION - GASOLINE
Camshaft Position (CMP) Sensor
The Camshaft Position (CMP) Sensor is
mounted in the camshaft cover. This signal is
sent to the GCP which uses it to indicate the
position of the #1 piston during its power stroke.
The GCP uses the CMP signal as a “sync pulse”
to trigger the injectors in the proper sequence.
This allows the GCP to calculate true sequential
fuel injection (SFI) mode of operation.
Description
The fuel system delivers fuel by an electronic
fuel pump. A fuel pressure regulator controls fuel
pressure and also contains a fuel filter. The
Electronic Control Module (GCP) uses
information from various sensors and controls
fuel delivery to the cylinders by individual fuel
injectors mounted in the cylinder head near each
intake valve. Air delivery is controlled by an
actuator.
Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT) Sensor
The Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT) Sensor
is a thermistor mounted in the engine coolant
stream in the rear coolant outlet pipe. The GCP
uses this information to calculate the correct
air/fuel mixture which varies with engine
temperature.
Fuel Rail
The fuel rail is mounted to the top of the engine
and distributes fuel to the individual injectors.
Fuel is delivered to the fuel inlet tube of the fuel
rail by the fuel lines and hoses.
Fuel Injector
The fuel injector is a solenoid operated device
mounted to the cylinder head. The GCP
energizes the solenoid, which opens a valve to
allow fuel delivery into the cylinder.
Actuator
The actuator controls air delivery into the
cylinders. An integral Throttle Position (TP)
Sensor sends a signal to the GCP indicating
throttle position. The GCP calculates fuel
delivery based on throttle valve angle (operator
demand).
04 ‐ 3 TSG‐416 FUEL SYSTEM The GCP controls the amount of fuel/air delivery
– refer to the Electronic Engine Control section
for further information.
Operation
The fuel delivery system starts with the fuel in
the tank. Fuel is drawn up to the fuel pump
through a pre-filter. The electric fuel pump then
delivers the fuel to the fuel rail and injectors. The
GCP controls the fuel pump to deliver fuel
pressure required by the injectors. The GCP
monitors system pressure through a fuel
pressure sensor.
Fuel System Requirements
Fuel Tanks
The DOEM or OEM supplies the tanks. There
must be a fuel outlet and a fuel inlet. The gas
cap must also be vented per the emission
installation instructions.
Fuel is injected under pressure in a conical
spray pattern at the opening of the intake valve.
There is a return line to the tank with a small
orifice to prevent vapor lock in the pump
Wet Fuels
The following fuels must all be unleaded and
clean:

An actuator controls air supply to the intake
manifold. Governor settings are not adjustable.
They can only be programmed by authorized
personnel only. Contact your local EDI
Distributor listed in the back of this manual for
further information.


CAUTION: Do not force the throttle plate
open. This may cause permanent damage to
the actuator.
A pressure relief valve is located on the fuel rail.
This is used to read fuel pressure and also to
relieve fuel pressure prior to component
replacement.
Gasoline/petrol: This engine is designed to
operate on unleaded 87 or 89 octane
gasolines.
Gasohol/Ethanol: A mixture of gasoline and
ethanol (grain alcohol) containing up to 10%
ethanol by volume with properly formulated
cosolvents and other necessary additives.
Blends index of 87 or 89.
Gasohol/Methanol: A mixture of gasoline and
alcohol (wood alcohol, etc.) containing up to
5% methanol by volume with properly
formulated cosolvents and other necessary
additives. Blends index of 87 or 89.
Fuel Pump
The fuel pump must be mounted on the frame
rail, not on the engine. It must also be mounted
in packed foam.
CAUTION: The electric fuel pump MUST NOT
be mounted directly on the engine assembly,
as engine vibration will shorten the life of the
pump.
04 ‐ 4 TSG‐416 FUEL SYSTEM Wiring Diagrams
Revision Level
The following wiring schematics are taken from
the wiring diagram listed below.
Fuel Injectors
Actuat
or /
Data
Link
04 ‐ 5 TSG‐416 FUEL SYSTEM Connector (DLC)
04 ‐ 6 TSG‐416 FUEL SYSTEM GENERAL INFORMATION – DRY FUEL Description This engine with the proper fuel equipment can
also operate on dry fuel such as LPG Grade
HD5 and natural gas (1050 BTU/ft3). Natural
Gas fuel specification must meet or exceed 38.7
MJ/m3 (UK) 39.0 MJ/m3 (USA). Vaporized
propane is introduced into the engine with a
Vapor Carburetor. Pressure is regulated by an
Direct Electronic Pressure Regulator (DEPR)
which is controlled by the GCP. Coolant is
circulated through the DEPR.
Operation The dry fuel vapor carburetor is a device by
which fuel can be added to passing air flow. The
amount of fuel added is related to the amount of
air passing through the carburetor.
The variable venturi carburetor controls fuel flow
based on a differential pressure across the
diaphragm. The more air the engine demands,
the lower the pressure in the throat and hence
on the top of the diaphragm. When the pressure
on the top of the diaphragm is low enough, the
diaphragm overcomes the spring force holding it
down and lifts and allows fuel to be drawn from
the fuel port into the air flow into the engine.
Mixer Assembly 04 ‐ 7 TSG‐416 FUEL SYSTEM The DEPR serves to control the vapor pressure
to the mixer. After the propane is vaporized
(vapor regulator), the DEPR monitors and
controls the vapor pressure to the mixer in
reference to the inlet air pressure to the
carburetor (mixer).
The greater the airflow into the engine, the
greater the pressure drop across the diaphragm
and the more lift occurs on the fuel valve. This
allows more fuel to be drawn into the engine.
Vapor Regulator
The DEPR receives a pressure command from
the GCP called “Delta P” which is the difference
between fuel vapor pressure and the air inlet
pressure. This has been calibrated for all speeds
and loads. There is a sensor internal to the
DEPR that measures the actual “Delta P” of the
delivered fuel.
The actuator of the DEPR will then adjust the
fuel pressure to the carburetor so that the actual
“Delta P” matches the Delta P command from
the GCP.
While the carburetor is designed to mix the fuel
and air and adjust fuel to match the speed and
load of the engine, it has only “ballpark”
accuracy. This accuracy is not fine enough to
achieve emissions targets. To achieve accurate
fueling, the air inlet pressure to the carburetor is
controlled by a Direct Electronic Pressure
Regulator (DEPR).
This provides an extremely accurate open loop
type of fuel control. After a preset time has
passed, the engine will go into closed loop
control, using information from the pre and post
oxygen sensors to allow further adjustment to
meet emissions regulations.
DEPR 04 ‐ 8 TSG‐416 FUEL SYSTEM Wiring Diagrams Revision Level The following wiring schematics are taken from the wiring diagram labeled below. Engine Controls – Dry Fuel DEPR 04 ‐ 9 TSG‐416 FUEL SYSTEM DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING ‐ LPG Symptom Chart Symptom
Engine cranking but will not start
Engine starts but has rough idle
Engine idles with rough acceleration at load
Engine is unable to reach full power
Overall power loss
Engines misses
Backfire
Emissions failure (Rich Mixture)
Emissions failure (Lean Mixture)
Engine overheats
Engine stops running (Dies)
Go to
Page 12
Page 14
Page 14
Page 14
Page 12
Page 14
Page 16
Page 17
Page 18
Page 19
Page 20
04 ‐ 10 TSG‐416 FUEL SYSTEM Preliminary Test
This pinpoint test checklist is your guide to the most probably causes of an engine performance
complaint when the malfunction is due to the fuel system.
Test Step
1


Result
Action to Take
Yes
Go to Step 2..
No
Repair as necessary
Yes
Repair the leak
No
Go to Step 3…
Yes
Repair or replace as
necessary
Inspect Installation.
Check fuel hose for kinks
Check fuel hose lengths, orientation and presence of
parts
Is Everything OK?
2


Inspect Fuel system for supply leaks.
Key OFF
Check for leaks or damaged supply lines from the
fuel tank to the fuel lock off valve
Are there any leaks present?
Inspect the Fuel system for any loose wires or
3
hoses.
 Key OFF
 Check the fuel lockoff connection and fuel check
valve connection
 Check the vacuum hoses for any damage or leakage
No
Go to step 4
Is there any damaged or loose wires and hoses?
4



Check for fuel system leaks
Key ON
Check the fuel system for leaks
Key OFF
Yes
Repair the leak
No
Go to step 5.
Are there any leaks present?
5

Check carburetor air inlet for obstructions
Yes
Remove the air cleaner
Are there any obstructions in the air inlet of the
carburetor?
04 ‐ 11 No
Remove the
obstruction, re-install
the air cleaner and
attempt to start
Proceed to appropriate
troubleshooting section
TSG‐416 FUEL SYSTEM Diagnostic Charts
Perform the preliminary test before proceeding.
Engine Cranking but Will Not Start
Test Step
1
Check fuel tank
Result
Action to Take
Yes
Fill or replace the fuel
tank. (Do not exceed
80% of liquid
capacity)
No
Yes
Go to Step 2.
Slowly open the fuel
valve
No
Go to step 3.
Reset excess flow
safety valve
Is fuel tank empty?
2
Check fuel valve
Is liquid fuel valve closed?
3
Check the excess flow valve
Yes



Is excess fuel valve tripped and closed?
No
4




Check lockoff valve supply voltage
Key OFF
Disconnect lock off valve connector from
harness
Key ON
Using a high impedance DVOM, check for 12
volt supply at the harness connector
Is the voltage less than 11.5 volts?
Check primary fuel pressure to regulator
5
 Verfiy that 120-180 psi is going to the regulator
 Check downstream of the lock off valve
 Key ON
Is the pressure not in the above range?
Check for icing or freezing of the regulator.
6
 Key ON
 Check for ice or frost build up on the converter
casing and outlet port
 Key OFF

Is ice present?
04 ‐ 12 Close the main fuel valve
Wait for a clicking sound from
the excess flow valve
indicating the valve has reset
Slowly open the main fuel
valve
Perform prelim. Test
before proceeding to
step 4
Yes
12 volts to lockoff
activation circuit is
open, shorted to gnd or
the GCP module is
faulty. Check wiring,
connectors and fused
for possible cause.
No
Go to step 5.
Yes
Fuel filter element may be
clogged, inspect and/or
replace the fuel filter. Lockoff
valve may be faulty, replace
the lockoff valve.
No
Go to Step 6
Yes
The presence of ice on the
converter without the engine
cranking indicated the possibility
of a fuel leak past the primary
sea of the converter.
No
May be electronic, check that the
CAM and crank sensor are not
damaged and as well as all wiring.
Check if faults are present with the
GCP diagnostic software. Refer to
section 8, engine controls.
TSG‐416 FUEL SYSTEM Diagnostic Aids
Fuel Lock Solenoid: The fuel lock is an
electronic solenoid that is opened to allow fuel
flow when the key is turned ON. High
temperatures may cause the solenoid to
become intermittent, not opening to supply
sufficient fuel pressure.
Fuel Filter: There may be a filter element
located in the inlet of the fuel lockoff valve which
may become clogged and limit fuel flow,
especially at low tank pressures. Check the filter
and replace or clean as necessary.
Fuel Line Restrictions: The vehicle
specifications table specifies the fuel line to be a
certain size. If the fuel line from the tank to the
fuel lock is not the proper size, or any valves or
fittings with flow restrictive characteristics are
used, the fuel flow will not be sufficient to the
converter with low tank pressure. Correct any
fuel line or fitting restrictions.
Mixer Assembly (Carburetor): It is possible
that a backfire may have caused the fuel valve
to partially come off of its retainer and restrict
fuel, check the mixer fuel valves.
Regulator Assembly (Converter): If no other
problems have been identified, replace the fuel
management assembly with a known good part
of the same pressure range. Retest.
04 ‐ 13 TSG‐416 FUEL SYSTEM The pinpoint tests below should be performed after the preliminary tests and “Engine Cranks but Will Not
Start” chart Steps 1-3. Any electrical diagnostics should have been performed to eliminate any sensor,
GCP or solenoid valve problems before proceeding.
Engine Idles With Rough Acceleration At Load, Not Able to Reach Full Power or Misses
Test Step
Result
Action to Take
The
presence
of ice on the
Check for icing or freezing of the regulator.
1
Yes
converter with the engine
 With the engine at idle
running, indicates the possibility
of a coolant supply problem.
 Check for ice or frost build up on the converter casing
Check coolant level and the
and outlet port.
coolant system for leaks. Check
for proper coolant type.
Is ice present?
2


Check DEPR operation.
With the engine at idle
Disconnect the electrical connector
Is there a change in engine running with this
unplugged?
Check DEPR supply voltage
3
 Key OFF
 Disconnect DEPR electrical connector
 Key ON
 Check pins 3 and 6 for 12 volt supply in the harness
No
Go to Step 2.
Yes
Possible wiring issue,
faulty ECU, or faulty
DEPR, view page 9 of
this section for wiring.
No
Yes
Is the voltage less than 11.5 volts?
No
4



Check the vapor regulator operation
Engine OFF
Install a pressure gauge on the “Primary Pressure
Test” port
Start and idle the engine
No
Did you NOT measure 3.5psi?
5




6

Yes
Check fuel lock supply voltage.
Key Off
Disconnect fuellock connector from harness
Key On
Using a high impedance DVOM, check for 12 volt
supply at the harness connector
Is the voltage less than 11.5 volts?
Check the carburetor air valve for binding
With the air cleaner removed, pull the air valve piston
upwards to ensure free movement of the carburetor
air valve. Pressing on the diaphragm will move the valve.
Yes
No
Yes
No
Is the air valve binding?
04 ‐ 14 Go to Step 3.
12 volt DEPR circuit is
open, shorted to gnd or
the GCP module is
faulty. Check wiring,
connectors and fuses
for possible causes.
View page 9 of this
section for wiring
Go to step 4.
Regulator is
malfunctioning, replace
the regulator.
Go to step 5.
12 volt fuelock activation
circuit is open, shorted to
ground or the GCP module is
faulty. Check wiring,
connectors and fuses for
possible cause.
Go to step 6.
Replace the mixer.
May be electronic, check that the
CAM and crank sensor are not
damaged and as well as all wiring.
Ensure all coils are firing. Check if
faults are present with the GCP
diagnostic software. Refer to section
8, engine controls.
TSG‐416 FUEL SYSTEM Diagnostic Aids
Mixer Assembly (Carburetor): It is possible that a
backfire may have caused the fuel valve to partially
come off of its retainer and restrict fuel, check the
mixer fuel valves, see section 475-1 for disassembly.
Fuel Lock Solenoid: The fuel lock is an
electronic solenoid that is opened to allow fuel
flow when the key is turned ON. High
temperatures may cause the solenoid to
become intermittent, not opening to supply
sufficient fuel pressure.
Fuel Line Restrictions: The vehicle specifications
table specifies the fuel line to be a certain size. If the
fuel line from the tank to the fuel lock is not the proper
size, or any valves or fittings with flow restrictive
characteristics are used, the fuel flow will not be
sufficient to the converter with low tank pressure.
Correct any fuel line or fitting restrictions.
Fuel Filter: There is a filter element located in the inlet
of the fuel lock which may become clogged and limit
fuel flow, especially at low tank pressures. Check the
filter and replace as necessary.
Regulator Assembly: If no other problems have been
identified, replace the fuel management assembly
with a known good part of the same pressure range.
Retest.
04 ‐ 15 TSG‐416 FUEL SYSTEM The pinpoint tests below should be performed after the preliminary tests and “Engine Backfires” chart
Steps 1-3. Any electrical diagnostics should have been performed to eliminate any sensor, GCP or
solenoid valve problems before proceeding
Engine Backfires
1


Test Step
Check for icing or freezing of the regulator.
With the engine at idle
Check for ice or frost build up on the converter
casing and outlet port.
Result
Yes
Is ice present?
2


Check DEPR operation.
With the engine at idle
Disconnect the electrical connector
Is there a change in engine running with this
unplugged?
Check DEPR supply voltage
3
 Key OFF
 Disconnect DEPR electrical connector
 Key ON
 Check pins 3 and 6 for 12 volt supply in the harness
Is the voltage less than 11.5 volts?
4



Check the vapor regulator operation
Engine OFF
Install a pressure gauge on the “Primary Pressure
Test” port
Start and idle the engine
Did you NOT measure 3.5psi?
During startup, check for fuel lock leakage (not
5
closing).
 Close the tanks main fuel valve
 Install a pressure gauge on the primary test port of
the vapor regulator
 Key Off
 Slowly open the main fuel valve
Do you measure any fuel pressure?
04 ‐ 16 Action to Take
The presence of ice on the
converter with the engine
running, indicates the possibility
of a coolant supply problem.
Check coolant level and the
coolant system for leaks. Check
for proper coolant type.
No
Go to Step 2.
Yes
Possible wiring issue,
faulty ECU, or faulty
DEPR. View page 9 of
this section for wiring
No
Go to Step 3.
Yes
12 volt DEPR circuit is open,
shorted to gnd or the GCP
module is faulty. Check
wiring, connectors and fuses
for possible causes. View
page 9 of this section for
wiring
No
Go to step 4.
Yes
Regulator is
malfunctioning, replace
the regulator.
No
Go to Step 5.
Yes
No
This would indicate the
fuel lock is not closing
and allowing fuel to
pass in the OFF
position. Replace the
fuel lock.
May be electronic, check that the
CAM and crank sensor are not
damaged and as well as all wiring.
Ensure all coils are firing. Check if
faults are present with the GCP
diagnostic software. Refer to section
8, engine controls.
TSG‐416 FUEL SYSTEM The pinpoint tests below should be performed after the preliminary tests and “Emission failure – Rick
Mixture” chart Steps 1-3. Any electrical diagnostics should have been performed to eliminate any sensor,
GCP or solenoid valve problems before proceeding.
Emission Failure - Rich Mixture
Test Step
Check for clogged or restricted air filter.
1


Result
Yes
Remove air filter
Start the engine and re-check emission levels.
No
Has the (rich) emission failure been eliminated?
2
Check the carburetor air valve for binding

With the air cleaner removed, pull the air valve piston
upwards to ensure free movement of the carburetor
air valve.
Is the air valve binding?
Check DEPR operation
3
 With the engine at idle
 Disconnect the electrical connector
04 ‐ 17 This would indicate a
clogged air cleaner as
the cause. Replace as
necessary.
Go to step 2.
Yes
Replace the mixer.
No
Go to Step 3
Yes
DEPR is likely not
malfunctioning.
No
Is there a change in engine running with this
unplugged?
Action to Take
Possible wiring issue,
faulty ECU, or faulty
DEPR. Check if faults
are present with the
GCP diagnostic
software. Refer to
section 8, engine
controls.
TSG‐416 FUEL SYSTEM The pinpoint tests below should be performed after the preliminary tests and “Emission failure – Lean
Mixture” chart Steps 1-3. Any electrical diagnostics should have been performed to eliminate any sensor,
GCP or solenoid valve problems before proceeding.
Emission Failure - Lean Mixture
Test Step
Check regulator fuel supply
1


Result
Yes
Install pressure gauge on the primary test port of the
vapor regulator
Start the engine to induce the failure
Is the primary pressure less than 3.5psi or fluctuating?
2




Check fuel lock supply voltage.
3


No
Yes
Go to step 3.
No
Yes
Go to step 3.
Key Off
Disconnect fuellock connector from harness
Key On
Using a high impedance DVOM, check for 12 volt
supply at the harness connector
Is the voltage less than 11.5 volts?
Check DEPR operation
With the engine at idle
Disconnect the electrical connector
Is there a change in engine running with this
unplugged?
4
Check the carburetor air valve for binding

With the air cleaner removed, pull the air valve piston
upwards to ensure free movement of the carburetor
air valve.
Is the air valve binding?
12 volt fuelock activation
circuit is open, shorted to
ground or the GCP
module is faulty. Check
wiring, connectors and
fuses for possible cause.
Go to Step 4
No
Possible wiring issue,
faulty ECU, or faulty
DEPR
Yes
Replace the mixer.
No
04 ‐ 18 Action to Take
The fuel filter may be
restricting flow or the
fuel lock may be
intermittent. Go to step
2.
May be electronic, check that the
CAM and crank sensor are not
damaged and as well as all wiring.
Ensure all coils are firing. Check if
faults are present with the GCP
diagnostic software. Refer to
section 8, engine controls.
TSG‐416 FUEL SYSTEM The pinpoint tests below should be performed after the preliminary tests and “Engine Overheats” chart
Steps 1-3. Any electrical diagnostics should have been performed to eliminate any sensor, GCP or
solenoid valve problems before proceeding.
Engine Overheats
1


Test Step
Check for icing or freezing of the regulator.
Result
Yes
With the engine at idle
Check for ice or frost build up on the converter
casing and outlet port.
Is ice present?
2



Check the vapor regulator operation
No
Yes
Engine OFF
Install a pressure gauge on the “Primary Pressure
Test” port
Start and idle the engine
Did you measure 3.5psi?
3
Check the carburetor air valve for binding

With the air cleaner removed, pull the air valve piston
upwards to ensure free movement of the carburetor
air valve.
No
Yes
No
Is the air valve binding?
Action to Take
The presence of ice on the
converter, with the engine
running, indicates the
possibility of a coolant supply
problem. Check Coolant level
and the coolant system for
leaks. Check for proper
coolant type.
Go to step 2.
Regulator is functioning
properly
Go to step 3
Replace the mixer.
Refer to section 5 for
cooling system
troubleshooting.
Diagnostic Aids
Regulator Assembly (Converter & FCV): Overheating is typically related to a cooling or coolant problem.
There is a possibility of a gasket leak inside the regulator, which would allow coolant to pass through to
the fuel supply. This may affect the emissions if large enough. In this situation the coolant level should
consistently drop, as coolant is lost through the fuel path. If no other problems have been identified,
replace the fuel management assembly with a known good part of the same pressure range. Retest.
04 ‐ 19 TSG‐416 FUEL SYSTEM The pinpoint tests below should be performed after the preliminary tests and “Engine stops running and
dies” chart Steps 1-3. Any electrical diagnostics should have been performed to eliminate any sensor,
GCP or solenoid valve problems before proceeding.
Engine Stops Running (Dies)
Test Step
1


Check for icing or freezing of the regulator.

Action to Take
Yes
The presence of ice on the
converter, with the engine
running, indicates the
possibility of a coolant supply
problem. Check Coolant level
and the coolant system for
leaks. Check for proper
coolant type.
No
Yes
Go to step 2.
The fuel filter may be
clogged or the fuel lock
may be intermittent. Go
to step 3.
No
Yes
Go to step 4
No
Go to step 4.
Yes
Replace the mixer.
With the engine at idle
Check for ice or frost build up on the converter
casing and outlet port.
Is ice present?
2

Result
Check regulator fuel supply
Install pressure gauge on primary test port of vapor
regulator.
Start the engine to induce the failure
Is the primary pressure less than 3.5 psi or fluctuating?
3




Check fuel lock supply voltage.
Key Off
Disconnect fuellock connector from harness
Key On
Using a high impedance DVOM, check for 12 volt
supply at the harness connector
Is the voltage less than 11.5 volts?
4
Check the carburetor air valve for binding

With the air cleaner removed, pull the air valve piston
upwards to ensure free movement of the carburetor
air valve.
No
Is the air valve binding?
12 volt fuelock activation
circuit is open, shorted to
ground or the GCP
module is faulty. Check
wiring, connectors and
fuses for possible cause.
May be electronic, check that the
CAM and crank sensor are not
damaged and as well as all wiring.
Ensure all coils are firing. Check if
faults are present with the GCP
diagnostic software. Refer to
section 8, engine controls.
Diagnostic Aids
Fuel Lock Solenoid : The fuel lock is an electronic solenoid that is opened to allow fuel flow when the key is turned
ON. High temperatures may cause the solenoid to become intermittent, not opening to supply sufficient fuel pressure.
Fuel Filter: There is a filter element located in the inlet of the fuel lock which may become clogged and limit fuel flow,
especially at low tank pressures. Check the filter and replace as necessary.
Fuel Line Restrictions: The vehicle specifications table specifies the fuel line to be a certain size. If the fuel line from
the tank to the fuel lock is not the proper size, or any valves or fittings with flow restrictive characteristics are used,
the fuel flow will not be sufficient to the converter with low tank pressure. Correct any fuel line or fitting restrictions.
Mixer Assembly (Carburetor): It is possible that a backfire may have caused the fuel valve to partially come off of it's
retainer and restrict fuel, check the mixer fuel valves.. Also check the mixer adapter plates for leakage past the
carburetor.
Regulator Assembly (Converter & FCV): If no other problems have been identified, replace the fuel management
assembly with a known good part of the same pressure range. Retest.
04 ‐ 20 TSG‐416 FUEL SYSTEM two most likely fuel pump troubles that will affect
engine performance. Low pressure will cause a
lean mixture and fuel starvation at high speeds,
and excessive pressure will cause high fuel
consumption and possible flooding.
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING –
GASOLINE
NOTE: For diagnosis of Electronic Engine
Control - refer to Section 08.
Fuel Pressure Check
Visual Inspection
Check for dirt or water in the fuel tank. Water
and dirt that accumulate in the fuel tank can
cause a restricted fuel line, filter or a malfunction
of the fuel pump.
WARNING: REFER TO WARNINGS AT THE
BEGINNING OF THIS SECTION.
1. Connect to the GCP display
2. Put the key in the on position.
3. On the faults page check the fuel
pressure by cycling the keyswitch.
4. Fuel pressure should be as follows:
a. Key on, Engine off (first 50
seconds): 60psia
b. Engine running:60psia
Condensation, which is the greatest source of
water entering the fuel tank, is formed by
moisture in the air when it strikes the cold
interior walls of the fuel tank.
Note: Refer to the engine controls section for
GCP display setup and installation.
To check the actual fuel pressure, a gauge will
have to be installed in-line of the fuel system
close the fuel rail.
 Fuel pressure should be as follows:
o Key on, Engine off (first 50
seconds): 45psig
o Engine running: 45psig
If fuel pressure is insufficient, check for a
clogged pump filter, screen or fuel filter. Also
check for a break or restriction in the fuel lines. If
fuel pump is inoperative, check for damaged or
loose ground or improper wiring. Make sure fuel
lines connections area tight and not leaking.
Note: The GCP is reading fuel pressure at the
fuel block located after the fuel pump.
Check the fuel filter. If the accumulation of dirt
and water in the filter is excessive, the fuel tank
should be removed and flushed, and the line
from the fuel pump to the tank should be blown
out.
Fuel Pump Check
The fuel pump is modulated with a PWM signal
from the GCP to precisely control the fuel
pressure to the injectors. The positive side of the
fuel pump will always have 12 volts with the
engine running which is supplied from the fuel
pump relay.
 PWM signal from the GCP is Pin 90
 If 12 volts is present ensure the wirings
to the GCP for the PWM signal. If wiring
is ok, possible faulty GCP.
Check fuel lines for damage. Air leakage in the
fuel inlet line can cause low fuel pump pressure
and volume.
Check fuel tank vent. A restricted fuel tank vent
can cause low fuel pump pressure and volume
and can result in collapsed inlet hoses or a
collapsed fuel tank. High or low pressure are the
04 ‐ 21 TSG‐416 FUEL SYSTEM Fuel Block Check
The fuel block monitors the fuel pressure and
fuel temperature, which is what the GCP display
is reading.
 Check wiring from the fuel block to the
main engine harness
 If damaged replace the fuel block
jumper harness
 Bad or diesel fuel can damage this
component. Replace if known fuel
contamination.
 Grounding out the fuel pump can cause
the fuel pump to output ~120psia. If this
is done and the GCP display does not
read the higher pressure then the
sensor is possibly bad. Check the wiring
and if that is ok, replace the fuel block.
 If a gauge is installed in-line of the fuel
rail, this reading can be checked against
the fuel pressure read in the GCP
display. If these do not match then a
possible faulty fuel block sensor.
04 ‐ 22 TSG‐416 FUEL SYSTEM Quick Connect Coupling - Type I Disconnect
Quick Connect Coupling - Type II Disconnect
WARNING: REFER TO WARNINGS AT THE
BEGINNING OF THIS SECTION.
WARNING: REFER TO WARNINGS AT THE
BEGINNING OF THIS SECTION.
CAUTION: Do not use any tools. Use of tools
may cause a deformity in the coupling
components which can cause fuel leaks.
CAUTION: Do not use any tools. Use of tools
may cause a deformity in the coupling
components which can cause fuel leaks.
1. Relieve the fuel system pressure -Refer to “Fuel Pressure Relief” on page
31 of this section.
2. Press the fuel tube quick connect
coupling button and pull fuel tube to
disconnect.
1. Relieve the fuel system pressure -Refer to “Fuel Pressure Relief” on page
31 of this section.
2. Release the locking tab on the quick
connect coupling.
3. Separate the quick connect coupling
from the fitting
Quick Connect Coupling - Type I Connect
1. Inspect for damage and clean fittings.
CAUTION: Make sure the fuel tube clicks into
place when installing the tube. To make sure
that the fuel tube is fully seated, pull on the
tube.
2. Lubricate the o-ring seals with clean
engine oil.
3. Install the quick connect coupling onto
the tube until it is fully seated.
4. Pull on the fitting to make sure it is fully
engaged.
04 ‐ 23 TSG‐416 FUEL SYSTEM Quick Connect Coupling - Type II –
Connect
1. Inspect for damage and clean fittings.
CAUTION: Make sure the fuel tube clicks into
place when installing the tube. To make sure
that the fuel tube is fully seated, pull on the
tube.
2. Lubricate the o-ring seals with clean
engine oil.
3. Release the locking tab and install the
quick connect coupling onto the fitting.
4. Position the locking tab into the latched
position.
5. Pull on the fitting to make sure it is fully
engaged.
04 ‐ 24 TSG‐416 FUEL SYSTEM CAUTION: After disconnecting fuel lines,
plug the ends to prevent fuel leakage.
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
Fuel Rail & Injectors - Replacement
3. Disconnect fuel lines -- Refer to
“General Service Procedures” on page
31of this section.
4. Disconnect injector electrical
connectors.
5. Remove bolts.
6. Carefully remove the fuel rail and
injector assembly
7. If necessary, remove the retaining clips
and separate the fuel injectors from the
fuel rail – discard the o-rings.
WARNING: DO NOT SMOKE OR CARRY LIGHTED
TOBACCO OR OPEN FLAME OF ANY TYPE WHEN
WORKING ON OR NEAR ANY FUEL-RELATED
COMPONENT. HIGHLY FLAMMABLE MIXTURES
ARE ALWAYS PRESENT AND MAY BE IGNITED,
RESULTING IN POSSIBLE PERSONAL INJURY.
WARNING: FUEL IN THE FUEL SYSTEM REMAINS
UNDER HIGH PRESSURE EVEN WHEN THE
ENGINE IS NOT RUNNING. BEFORE WORKING
ON OR DISCONNECTING ANY OF THE FUEL
LINES OR FUEL SYSTEM COMPONENTS, THE
FUEL SYSTEM PRESSURE MUST BE RELIEVED.
FAILURE TO FOLLOW THESE INSTRUCTIONS
MAY RESULT IN PERSONAL INJURY.
CAUTION: Use o-ring seals that are made of
special fuel-resistance material. The use of
ordinary o-rintg seals can cause the fuel
system to leak. Do not reuse the o-ring seals
8. Reverse procedure to install:
 Lubricate new o-rings with clean
engine oil
 Tighten fuel rail bolts to 25 Nm
(18 lb-ft).
1. Disconnect the battery ground cable.
2. Remove and/or disconnect components
to allow access and removal of the fuel
rail & injectors. Label if necessary to
allow for correct reinstallation.
04 ‐ 25 TSG‐416 FUEL SYSTEM Mixer - Removal
Actuator - Removal
1. Remove top four bolts that hold the
mixer to the mixer adapter
1. Remove and/or disconnect components
to allow access and removal of the
actuator. Label if necessary to allow for
correct reinstallation.
2. Disconnect air cleaner components from
actuator.
3. Disconnect accelerator cable.
4. Disconnect electrical connectors.
5. Remove nuts.
6. Remove actuator and gasket.
Actuator - Installation
1. Inspect gasket and install a new one if
necessary.
2. Position actuator onto studs.
3. Install nuts
 Tighten to 8 ft-lb
4. Reconnect electrical connectors.
5. Reconnect accelerator cable.
6. Reconnect air cleaner components to
actuator.
7. Install or connect any other component
removed or disconnected.
2. To Remove the Mixer adapter, unscrew
the four bolts. This will also unmount the
actuator
3. The DEPR can also be disconnected
from the mixer via the four mounting
bolts.
04 ‐ 26 TSG‐416 FUEL SYSTEM 4. Mount the DEPR to the mixer (if
uninstalled). Ensure the rubber gasket
on the DEPR is not damaged.
 Tighten to 35 lb-in (4Nm)
Mixer - Installation
1. Reverse the removal procedure. Ensure
to install the two gaskets on the actuator
before installing the mixer adapter.
2. Mount the actuator with the mixer
adapter using the four 85mm long
M6x1.0 bolts. Ensure the gasket for
the actuator is not damaged.
 Tighten to 6.6lb-ft
Specifications
GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS
414-448kPA (60-65psi)
Fuel Pressure
Motorcraft SAE 5W20
Super Premium
WSS-M2C930-A
Torque Specifications
Description
Fuel Rail
Bolts
3. Mount the mixer to the mixer adapter
using the four short M6x1.0 bolts.
Ensure the gasket on the mixer is
not damaged.
 Tighten to 6.6 lb-ft
04 ‐ 27 Nm
25
Lb.ft.
18
Lb.in
TSG‐416 COOLING SYSTEM INDEX Subject General Information Description……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. Diagnosis and Testing Visual Inspection………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Coolant Inspection…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. Coolant Range Check…………………………………………………………………………………………………. Drive Belt Inspection…………………………………………………………………………………………………. Symptom Chart…………………………….……………………………………………………………………………. Cooling System Pressure Test……………………….…………………………………………………………… Radiator Cap Pressure Test…………….…………………………………………………………………………. Thermostat Operational Check…………….……………………………………………………………..……. General Service Procedures Draining the Cooling System……………………………………………………………………………………… Flushing the Cooling System……………………………………………………………………………………… Filling the Cooling System…………………………………………………………………………………………. Removal and Installation Drive Belt – Removal…………………………………………………………………………………………………. Drive Belt – Installation……………………………………………………………………………………………… Belt Tensioner – Replacement………………………………………….………………………………………. Idler Pulley – Replacement……………………………………………………………………………………….. Radiator Hose – Removal………………………………………………………………………………………….. Radiator Hose – Installation………………………………………………………………………………………. Thermostat & Housing – Replacement……………………………………………………………………… Coolant Pump – Replacement………………………………………………………………………………….. Outlet Pipe – Replacement………………………………………………………………………………………. Coolant Bypass – Replacement…………………………………………………………………………………. Specifications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..... 05‐1 Page 05 – 3 05 – 4 05 – 4 05 – 4 05 – 5 05 – 6 05 – 7 05 – 7 05 – 7 05 – 8 05 – 8 05 – 8 05 – 9 05 – 9 05 – 9 05 – 9 05 – 10 05 – 10 05 – 11 05 – 12 05 – 13 05 – 14 05 ‐ 15 TSG‐416 COOLING SYSTEM CAUTION: Under no circumstances should the
engine be started without liquid in the cooling
system. This may cause permanent damage to the
engine.
CAUTIONS & WARNINGS
WARNING: THE RADIATOR OR DEGAS TANK IS
EQUIPPED WITH A PRESSURE CAP. IT IS
DANGEROUS TO REMOVE THIS WHEN THE
SYSTEM IS VERY HOT.
CAUTION: The use of straight water as a coolant will
cause permanent damage to the engine.
CAUTION: Never use a cold coolant mixture to topup
the radiator or degas tank of a hot engine if the
coolant level is very low; this could cause serious
engine damage.
WARNING: NEVER REMOVE THE PRESSURE
RELIEF CAP WHILE THE ENGINE IS OPERATING OR
WHEN THE COOLING SYSTEM IS HOT. MAY
CAUSE PERSONAL INJURY OR DAMAGE TO
COOLING SYSTEM OR ENGINE. TO REDUCE THE
RISK OF HAVING SCALDING HOT COOLANT OR
STEAM BLOW OUT OF THE DEGAS BOTTLE WHEN
REMOVING THE PRESSURE RELIEF CAP, WAIT
UNTIL THE ENGINE HAS COOLED DOWN TO AT
LEAST 40°C (110°F).
CAUTION: In territories where freezing conditions
may occur, the coolant should consist of a mixture
of 50% plain water and 50% Motorcraft Premium
Gold coolant, or equivalent. This antifreeze contains
additional corrosion inhibitors designed to provide
lasting protection for the engine.
CAUTION: Only this antifreeze, or proprietary
antifreeze meeting Ford specification WSS-M97B51A1 should be used when topping-up or re-filling the
cooling system. Do not mix coolant types.
1. Wrap a thick cloth around the pressure relief cap
and turn it slowly one-half turn counterclockwise.
Stepping back while the pressure is released
from the cooling system.
2. When you are sure all the pressure has been
released, (still with a cloth) turn
counterclockwise and remove the pressure relief
cap.
CAUTION: Do not add or mix an orange-colored
extended life coolant, such as Motorcraft Specialty
Orange engine coolant with factory filled coolant
WSS-M97B44-D. Mixing Motorcraft Specialty Orange
engine coolant or any orange colored extended life
product, with factory filled coolant, can result in
degraded corrosion protection.
WARNING: ANTIFREEZE CONTAINS MONO
ETHYLENE GLYCOL AND OTHER CONSTITUENTS
WHICH ARE TOXIC IF TAKEN INTERNALLY AND
CAN BE ABSORBED IN TOXIC AMOUNTS ON
REPEATED OR PROLONGED SKIN CONTACT.
PERSONS USING ANTIFREEZE ARE
RECOMMENDED TO ADHERE TO THE FOLLOWING
PRECAUTIONS:
 ANTIFREEZE MUST NEVER BE TAKEN
INTERNALLY. IF ANTIFREEZE IS
SWALLOWED ACCIDENTALLY, MEDICAL
ADVICE SHOULD BE SOUGHT
IMMEDIATELY
 PRECAUTIONS SHOULD BE TAKEN TO
AVOID SKIN CONTACT WITH ANTIFREEZE.
IN THE EVENT OF ACCIDENTAL SPILLAGE
ONTO THE SKIN, ANTIFREEZE SHOULD BE
WASHED OFF AS SOON AS PRACTICABLE.
IF CLOTHING IS SPLASHED WITH
ANTIFREEZE, IT SHOULD BE REMOVED
AND WASHED BEFORE BEING WORN
AGAIN, TO AVOID PROLONGED SKIN
CONTACT.
 FOR REGULAR AND FREQUENT HANDLING
OF ANTIFREEZE, PROTECTIVE CLOTHING
(PLASTIC OR RUBBER GLOVES, BOOTS
AND IMPERVIOUS OVERALLS OR APRONS)
MUST BE USED TO MINIMIZE SKIN
CONTACT.
CAUTION: If there is engine coolant in the engine oil
or transmission fluid, the cause must be corrected
and oil/fluid changed or major component damage
can occur.
CAUTION: When removing coolant, the coolant
must be recovered in a suitable, clean container for
reuse. If the coolant is contaminated, it must be
recycled
or disposed of correctly.
WARNING: DO NOT STAND INLINE WITH OR NEAR
THE ENGINE COOLING FAN BLADE WHEN
REVVING THE ENGINE. FAILURE TO FOLLOW
THESE INSTRUCTIONS MAY RESULT IN PERSONAL
INJURY.
CAUTION: Under no circumstances should the drive
belt, tensioner or pulleys be lubricated as potential
damage to the belt material and tensioner
dampening mechanism will occur. Do not apply any
fluids or belt dressing to the drive belt or pulleys.
05‐2 TSG‐416 COOLING SYSTEM GENERAL INFORMATION
The coolant pump circulates the coolant through the
engine block and cylinder heads to the thermostat. If th
thermostat is closed, the coolant returns to the coolant
pump through a bypass hose. Once the coolant reaches
a specified temperature, the thermostat will open,
allowing the coolant to flow to the radiator for heat
transfer and back to the coolant pump inlet.
Description
The cooling system consists of the following:
 Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT) Sensor
 Fan Assembly
 Radiator and Cap
 Thermostat and Housing
 Degas Bottle
 Engine Block Heater
 Coolant pump
 Coolant
Engine coolant provides freeze and boil protection to the
engine and cooling components. In order to obtain these
protections, the engine coolant must be maintained at
the correct concentration and fluid level in the degas
bottle or coolant expansion tank.
Coolant is made up of a 50/50 mix of ethylene glycol
permanent antifreeze and water. This mixture is to be
used year-round with temperatures above -34.4°C (30°F). If recycled coolant is used, it must meet Ford
specification ESE-M97B44-A or WSSM97B44D.
Walter C. Avrea, the owner of patents 3,601,181 and
RE27,965, has granted Ford Motor Company rights with
respect to cooling systems covered by these patents.
The ECT Sensor is used by the GCP to obtain coolant
temperature information. Refer to Section 8 for further
information on this sensor.
CAUTION: Not all coolant recycling processes
produce coolant which meets Ford specification
ESEM97B44- A or WSS-M97B44-D. Use of coolant
that does not meet specifications may harm engine
and cooling system components.
The coolant fan blade can either draw or push air
through the radiator to help cool the system coolant.
The radiator allows excess heat to be transferred to the
air. The radiator tanks cannot be repaired. The radiator
cap maintains system pressure. This pressure raises the
boiling point of the coolant and helps prevent vapor locks
in the engine block and cooling system.
CAUTION: Do not use alcohol type antifreeze,
alkaline brine solutions, or 100,000 mile, red in color
antifreeze. This may cause serious engine cooling
system damage.
The thermostat prevents coolant flow until it reaches a
specified temperature. At this temperature, it will open
and allow coolant flow through the engine and radiator.
The thermostat and housing are serviced as a unit.
The radiator degas bottle holds a surplus coolant when
the engine is hot. It also replenishes coolant back to the
system as it cools. The degas bottle allows air
separation during operation which reduces engine hot
spots.
05‐3 TSG‐416 COOLING SYSTEM DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING
Coolant Inspection
WARNING: REFER TO CAUTIONS AND WARNINGS
AT THE BEGINNING OF THIS SECTION.
WARNING: REFER TO CAUTIONS AND WARNINGS
AT THE BEGINNING OF THIS SECTION.
Check level and condition of coolant:
 A dark brown color could indicate a stop leak
was used.
 A light or reddish brown color indicates that rust
may be present in the cooling system. Flush the
system and refill with the correct mixture of
distilled water and premium engine coolant.
 An iridescent sheen on top of the coolant could
indicate a trace of oil is entering the system.
 A milky brown color may indicate that either
engine oil or transmission fluid is entering the
cooling system. If transmission fluid is
suspected, it may be entering through the
transmission cooler in the radiator. If engine oil
is suspected, the cause may an internal leak in
the engine.
Begin diagnosis by verifying the customer’s concern by
operating the engine to duplicate the condition. The most
frequent cooling system complaints are leakage and
overheating. Either of these problems will soon render
the engine inoperable.
Perform a visual inspection. If the inspection reveals an
obvious concern that can be readily identified, repair as
necessary. If the concern remains after the inspection,
determine the symptom(s) and go to the Symptom
Chart. The Symptom Chart lists cooling system
problems, their possible cause and recommended
correction.
Visual Inspection
Check for leaks or damage at:
 all hoses, connections and hose clamps
 radiator seams, core and drain petcock
 all block core plugs and drain plugs
 edges of all cooling system gaskets
 transmission oil cooler (if equipped)
 coolant pump shaft and bushing
 thermostat, head and intake manifold gaskets
 coolant pump
 degas bottle
 heater core (if equipped)
 fan and fan clutch
 engine coolant temperature sensor and wiring
 drive belt.
Coolant Range Check
If the engine coolant appearance is acceptable, test the
engine coolant freezing point and concentration level.
The antifreeze concentration in a cooling system can be
determined by using a suitable hydrometer or a battery/
antifreeze tester.
The freezing point should be in the range -45°C to -23°C
(-50°F to -10°F). If the equipment is run in cold climates
colder than -36°C (-34°F), it may be necessary to
increase the coolant concentration to get adequate
freeze protection.
NOTE: A small amount of antifreeze coming out the
coolant pump weep hole may be considered normal.
Examine oil dipstick for evidence of coolant
contaminated engine oil (white milky appearance).
Check radiator for evidences of oil in coolant (leakage at
transmission oil cooler if equipped).
Maximum coolant concentration is 60% coolant to 40%
distilled water. If coolant tests too strong, remove some
of the coolant and ad distilled water until the readings
are acceptable.
Some engines use an ethylene glycol base antifreeze
solution to which the manufacturers have added a dye
color. The dye color makes the antifreeze solution an
excellent leak detector. If this type of solution is not
being used in the cooling system, a vegetable dye may
be added to aid in locating external leakage.
Minimum coolant concentration is 40% coolant to 60%
distilled water. If coolant tests too weak, drain some
coolant out and add straight coolant until readings are
acceptable.
05‐4 TSG‐416 COOLING SYSTEM Drive Belt Inspection

Longer deposits building up to 50% of the rib
height is also not a concern, except it can result
in excessive noise.

If heavy deposits are apparent, resulting in noise
and belt instability, install a new belt.

Drive belt squeal that is short and intermittent is
expected and considered normal. Constant or
reoccurring drive belt squeal can occur with a
damaged pulley bearing, fluid contamination, or
a loose belt.

Also check for belt misalignment which can
cause a chirping noise. If misalignment is found,
check the tensioner for damage, especially the
mounting pad surface. Check for a damaged
pulley that wobbles. Check mounting brackets
for tightness and for any interference.

Check tensioner with a suitable release tool that
it moves without sticking or binding.

With belt off, check that all pulleys rotate freely
without binding.
WARNING: REFER TO CAUTIONS AND WARNINGS
AT THE BEGINNING OF THIS SECTION.
With engine running, observe the belt movement. It
should respond when engine is accelerated rapidly. If
tensioner moves excessively without rapid acceleration,
install a new belt. If excessive movement still exists,
install a new tensioner.
Visually inspect the belt for obvious signs of damage.

Up to 15 cracks in a rib over a distance of 100
mm (4.0 in) can be considered acceptable.

If cracks are beyond acceptable or, any chunks
are found to be missing from the ribs, a new belt
must be installed.

Small scatted deposits of rubber material
(known as piling) are not a concern.
CAUTION: Incorrect drive belt installation will cause
excessive drive belt wear and can cause the belt to
come off the pulleys.
05‐5 TSG‐416 COOLING SYSTEM Symptom Chart
Refer to the following Diagnosis chart for cooling system
problems, their possible cause and recommend
correction.
CONDITION
Loss of coolant
POSSIBLE SOURCE
 Pressure cap and
gasket
 Leakage
 External leakage
 Internal leakage
ACTION




Engine Overheats










Low coolant level
Loose fan belt
Pressure cap
Radiator
obstruction
Closed thermostat
Fan drive clutch
Ignition
Temp gauge or
cold light
Engine
Coolant mixture










Engine fails to reach
normal operating
temperature


Open thermostat
Temperature
gauge or cold light
05‐6 

Inspect, wash gasket and test.
Replace only if cap will not hold
pressure to specification.
Pressure test system.
Inspect hose, hose connection,
radiator, edges of cooling system
gaskets, core plugs and drain plugs,
transmission oil cooler lines, water
pump, heater system components.
Repair or replace as required.
Disassembly engine as necessary –
check for: cracked intake manifold,
blown head gaskets, warped head or
block gasket surfaces, cracked
cylinder head or engine block.
Fill as required. Check for coolant
loss.
Adjust.
Test. Replace if necessary.
Remove bugs, leaves, etc.
Test, Replace if necessary.
Test, replace if necessary.
Check timing and advance. Adjust as
required.
Check electrical circuits and repair as
required.
Check water pump, block for
blockage.
1/2 water and 1/2 permanent antifreeze mixture.
Test, replace if necessary.
Check electrical circuits and repair as
required.
TSG‐416 COOLING SYSTEM Cooling System Pressure Test
NOTE: If the plunger of the pressure tester is depressed
too fast, an incorrect pressure reading will result.
3. Slowly pump the pressure tester until the gauge
stops increasing and note the highest pressure
reading.
4. Release the pressure and repeat the test.
5. Install a new radiator cap if the pressure is not
124 kPa (18 psi).
WARNING: REFER TO CAUTIONS AND WARNINGS
AT THE BEGINNING OF THIS SECTION.
1. Remove the radiator cap from the radiator filler
neck.
Thermostat Operational Check
CAUTION: Do not pressurize the cooling system
beyond 138 kPa (20 psi).
2. Fill the radiator as needed.
3. Fit the pressure tester to the radiator neck.
4. Pump the cooling system to a maximum of 138
kPa (20 psi) and hold for 2 minutes.
5. If the pressure drops within this time, inspect for
leaks and repair as necessary.
1. Hold thermostat up to the light.
Radiator Cap Pressure Test
2. Visually check the valve to be sure it is air tight.
 Leakage of light all around the valve (at
room temperature) indicates a bad
thermostat.
 A slight leakage of light at one or two
locations on the perimeter of the valve is
normal.
WARNING: REFER TO CAUTIONS AND WARNINGS
AT THE BEGINNING OF THIS SECTION.
1. Inspect radiator cap and seals for damage or
deterioration - replace as necessary.
3. Place the thermostat and a thermometer in
water.
4. Gradually increase the water temperature
5. Replace thermostat if it does not open at the
specified temperatures:
 Starts to open: 82°C (180°F)
 Fully open: 97°C (206.6°F)
2. Fit the radiator cap to the pressure tester using
an adapter.
05‐7 TSG‐416 COOLING SYSTEM GENERAL SERVICE PROCEDURES
Flushing the Cooling System
Draining the Cooling System
To remove rust, sludge and other foreign material from
the cooling system, use Rotunda Cooling System
Cleanser. Removal of such material restores cooling
efficiency and avoids overheating.
WARNING: REFER TO CAUTIONS AND WARNINGS
AT THE BEGINNING OF THIS SECTION.
Always remove the thermostat prior to pressure flushing.
A pulsating or reversed direction of flushing water flow
will loosen sediment more quickly than a steady flow in
the normal direction of coolant flow.
1. Remove radiator cap.
CAUTION: The coolant must be recovered in a
suitable, clean container for reuse. If the coolant is
contaminated, it must be recycled or disposed of
correctly.
In severe cases where cleaning solvents will not properly
clean the cooling system for efficient operation, it will be
necessary to use the pressure flushing method.
Various types of flushing equipment are available.
Follow manufacturer’s operating instructions.
2. Open drain cock at radiator and drain old
coolant from engine into a suitable container.
Close the drain cock when finished
Filling the Cooling System
WARNING: REFER TO CAUTIONS AND WARNINGS
AT THE BEGINNING OF THIS SECTION.
Coolant is made up of a 50/50 mix of ethylene glycol
permanent antifreeze and distilled water. This mixture is
to be used year-round with temperatures above -34.4°C
(-30°F). If recycled coolant is used, it must meet Ford
specification ESE-M97B44-A or WSS-M97B44-D.
3. If necessary, remove the lower radiator hose to
completely drain the system. Reinstall when
finished.
CAUTION: Not all coolant recycling processes
produce coolant which meets Ford specification
ESEM97B44- A or WSS-M97B44-D. Use of coolant
that does not meet specifications may harm engine
and cooling system components.
4. If rust, sludge or other foreign material are
present in the old coolant, system should be
flushed – Refer to “Flushing the Cooling System”
instructions in this section.
The engine cooling system is filled with Motorcraft
Premium Gold Engine Coolant. Always refill the cooling
system with the same coolant that was drained from the
system, Do not mix coolant types.
CAUTION: Do not use alcohol type antifreeze,
alkaline brine solutions, or 100,000 mile - red in color
antifreeze. This may cause serious engine cooling
system damage.
NOTE: The use of stop leak may change the color of the
coolant.
1. Make sure the radiator drain cock is completely
closed.
2. Fill the system with the proper coolant mix.
3. Start engine and hold at high idle engine speed
for approximately 8 minutes until thermostat
opens.
4. Maintain high idle for an additional 3 minutes.
Add coolant as necessary.
5. Stop the engine and check for leaks.
6. Verify correct fluid level after engine cools for 20
minutes. Top off the degas bottle to “max” line.
05‐8 TSG‐416 COOLING SYSTEM REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
Fan Belt – Installation
1. Place belt around the outer crank pulley (4
groove) and fan pulley
2. Slide bearing bracket up to tension the belt while
ensuring the bearing bracket is level.
3. Tighten bearing bracket bolts.
 16Nm (12 lb-ft)
NOTE: If a major component of the cooling system is
renewed such as the radiator, water pump etc., the
system should be flushed and re-filled with a 50%
solution of Motorcraft Premium Gold engine coolant, or
equivalent, and clean water -- Refer to “Flushing the
Cooling System” on the previous page.
Belt Tensioner – Replacement
Fan Belt – Removal
1. Remove drive belt -- Refer to “Drive Belt Removal” above
2. Remove bolt.
3. Remove belt tensioner.
4. Reverse procedure to install:
 Tighten bolt to 47 Nm (35 lb-ft).
1. Loosen two bolts holding fan bearing bracket in
place.
2. Slide the bearing bracket down to loosen belt.
3. Remove belt
Drive Belt - Removal
NOTE: Note belt routing for installation purposes.
1. Loosen the tensioner.
2. Remove belt.
3. Inspect belt and pulleys -- Refer to “Visual
Inspection” of this section.
Idler Pulley - Replacement
1. Remove drive belt -- Refer to “Drive Belt Removal” of this section.
2. Remove belt idler pulley assembly.
3. Reverse procedure to install:
 Tighten to 47 Nm (35 lb-ft).
Drive Belt - Installation
1. Route belt correctly and tighten the tensioner
onto belt.
2. Run engine for a minute and then turn off.
3. Recheck belt routing and groove alignment.
05‐9 TSG‐416 COOLING SYSTEM Radiator Hose - Removal
Radiator Hose - Installation
1. Position the clamps at least 1/8 inch from each
end of the hose.
2. Coat the connection areas with an approved
water resistant sealer and slide the hose on the
connection.
WARNING: REFER TO CAUTIONS AND WARNINGS
AT THE BEGINNING OF THIS SECTION.
NOTE: Make sure the clamps are beyond the bead and
placed in the center of the clamping surface of the
connections.
3. Tighten the clamps.
4. Fill the system with coolant -- Refer to “Filling
the Cooling System” of this section.
5. Operate the engine for several minutes, then
check the hoses and connections for leaks
1. Drain the cooling system -- Refer to “Draining
the Cooling System” of this section.
2. Loosen the clamps at each end of the hose to
be removed.
3. Slide the hose off the radiator connection and
the engine water outlet connection.
05‐10 TSG‐416 COOLING SYSTEM Thermostat & Housing – Replacement
WARNING: REFER TO CAUTIONS AND WARNINGS
AT THE BEGINNING OF THIS SECTION.
3. Remove or disconnect components as
necessary to gain access to the thermostat
housing.
4. Disconnect the lower radiator hose.
5. Remove bolts and thermostat housing.
6. Reverse procedure to install
 Clean and inspect gasket, install a new
gasket if necessary.
 Tighten bolts to 10 Nm (89 lb-in).
NOTE: The thermostat and housing are serviced as an
assembly.
1. Allow the engine to cool down until the coolant
has lowered in temperature to below 110°F.
2. Drain the radiator so coolant level is below the
thermostat -- Refer to “Draining the Cooling
System” of this section.
05‐11 TSG‐416 COOLING SYSTEM Coolant Pump - Replacement
WARNING: REFER TO CAUTIONS AND WARNINGS
AT THE BEGINNING OF THIS SECTION.
1. Drain the cooling system -- Refer to “Draining
the Cooling System” of this section.
2. Remove or disconnect components as
necessary to gain access to the coolant pump.
3. Remove the drive belt -- Refer to “Drive Belt Installation” of this section.
4. Remove 3 bolts and coolant pump pulley.
5. Remove 3 bolts and coolant pump.
6. Reverse procedure to install:
 Lubricate coolant pump o-ring with clean
coolant.
 Tighten coolant pump bolts to 10 Nm
(89 lb-in)
 Tighten pulley bolts to 25 Nm (18 lb-ft)
05‐12 TSG‐416 COOLING SYSTEM Thermostat - Replacement
WARNING: REFER TO CAUTIONS AND WARNINGS
AT THE BEGINNING OF THIS SECTION.
1. Drain the cooling system -- Refer to “Draining
the Cooling System” of this section.
2. Remove or disconnect components as
necessary to gain access to the outlet pipe.
3. Disconnect hoses from outlet pipe.
4. Disconnect electrical connector at ECT Sensor.
5. Remove bolts and outlet pipe.
6. Reverse procedure to install:
 Clean gasket mating surfaces
 Install new gasket
 Tighten bolts to 10 Nm (89 lb-in).
05‐13 TSG‐416 COOLING SYSTEM Coolant Bypass – Replacement
1. Drain the cooling system -- Refer to “Draining
the Cooling System” of this section.
2. Remove or disconnect components as
necessary to gain access to the bypass hose
3. Disconnect the coolant bypass hose from the
tubes.
4. Reverse procedure to install.
SPECIFICATIONS
05‐14 TSG‐416 COOLING SYSTEM GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS
Coolant/Water Mixture
Pressure Relief Cap
Opening Pressure kPa
(psi)
Radiator Pressure Test
Thermostat start to open
temperature
Thermostat full open
temperature
Coolant Specification
WSS-M97B51-A1
Description
Coolant
pump pulley
bolts
Coolant
pump to
block bolts
Draincock
Thermostat
housing
bolts
50/50
89 – 124 kPa (13 – 18 psi)
138 kPa (20 psi)
82°C (180°F)
97°C (205°F)
Motorcraft Premium Gold
Engine Coolant
TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS
Nm
Lb-ft
Lb-in
25
18
10
---
89
2
10
-----
18
89
05‐15 TSG‐416 CHARGING SYSTEM INDEX Subject General Information Description……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. Operation…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Wiring Diagram…………………………………………………………………………………………………….…… Diagnosis and Testing Preliminary Checks.………………………………………………………………………………….………………… Warning indicator check…………………………………………………………………………………………….. Symptom Chart………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. Battery Drain Test………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Battery Load Test……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. Generator Output Test………………………………………………………………………………………………. Generator Voltage Test……………………………………………………………………………………………… General Service Procedures Battery Cleaning and Inspection……………………………………………………………………………….. Battery Tools……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Battery Charging……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. Removal and Installation Generator – Replacement…………………………………………………………………………………………. Voltage Regulator – Replacement…………………………………………………………………………….. Generator Pulley – Replacement………………………………………………………………………………. Battery Removal……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. Battery Installation……………………………………………………………………………………………………. Specifications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..... 06 ‐1 Page 06 – 3 06 ‐ 3 06 ‐ 3 06 – 5 06 – 5 06 – 6 06 – 7 06 – 7 06 – 8 06 – 8 06 – 9 06 – 9 06 – 10 06 – 11 06 – 11 06 – 12 06 – 13 06 – 13 06 ‐ 14 TSG‐416 CHARGING SYSTEM Cautions & Warnings
The handling and correct use of lead acid batteries is not as hazardous provided that sensible
precautions are observed and that operatives have been trained in their use and are adequately
supervised. It is important that all labeling on the battery is carefully read, understood and complied with.
The format of the following symbols and labels is common to most brands of lead acid battery.
RESULT IN DAMAGE TO THE REGULATOR
OR PERSONAL INJURY.
CAUTION: Observe all manufacturers’
instructions when using charging
equipment.
WARNING: KEEP BATTERIES OUT OF THE
REACH OF CHILDREN. BATTERIES
CONTAIN SULFURIC ACID. AVOID CONTACT
WITH SKIN, EYES OR CLOTHING. ALSO,
SHIELD YOUR EYES WHEN WORKING NEAR
THE BATTERY TO PROTECT AGAINST
POSSIBLE SPLASHING OF THE ACID
SOLUTION. IN CASE OF ACID CONTACT
WITH THE SKIN OR EYES, FLUSH
IMMEDIATELY WITH WATER FOR A
MINIMUM OF 15 MINUTES AND GET
PROMPT MEDICAL ATTENTION. IF ACID IS
SWALLOWED, CALL A PHYSICIAN
IMMEDIATELY. FAILURE TO FOLLOW
THESE INSTRUCTIONS MAY RESULT IN
PERSONAL INJURY.
WARNING: BATTERIES NORMALLY
PRODUCE EXPLOSIVE GASES WHICH CAN
CAUSE PERSONAL INJURY. THEREFORE,
DO NOT ALLOW FLAMES, SPARKS OR ANY
IGNITED OBJECT TO COME NEAR THE
BATTERY. WHEN CHARGING OR WORKING
NEAR A BATTERY, ALWAYS SHIELDYOUR
EYES. ALWAYS PROVIDE VENTILATION.
WARNING: WHEN LIFTING A BATTERY,
ALWAYS LIFT WITH A BATTERY CARRIER
OR WITH YOUR HANDS ON OPPOSITE
CORNERS. EXCESSIVE PRESSURE ON THE
END WALLS COULD CAUSE ACID TO SPEW
THROUGH THE VENT CAPS, RESULTING IN
PERSONAL INJURY.
NOTE: Battery posts and cable clamps must be
clean and tight for accurate meter indications.
WARNING: IT IS ESSENTIAL THAT THE
WIRING CONNECTIONS TO THE
GENERATOR ARE NOT REMOVED WHILE
THE ENGINE IS RUNNING, AS THIS WILL
CAUTION: Always remove the negative cable
first to prevent possible arcing possibly
damaging other electrical components.
06 ‐2 TSG‐416 CHARGING SYSTEM 
GENERAL INFORMATION
To act as a voltage stabilizer by smoothing out
or reducing temporary high voltages within the
electrical system.
Operation
With the ignition on, voltage is applied to the voltage
regulator. This turns the regulator on, allowing current to
flow from the battery to the generator field coil.
When the engine is started, the generator begins to
generate alternating current (AC) which is internally
converted to direct current (DC). This current is then
supplied to the equipment electrical system through the
B+ terminal of the generator.
Once the generator begins generating current, a voltage
signal is taken from the generator stator and fed back to
the regulator. This voltage feedback signal (typically half
the battery voltage) is used to turn off the warning
indicator.
With the system functioning normally, the generator
output current is determined and compared to a set
voltage internal to the regulator, and the regulator
controls the generator field current to maintain the
correct generator output.
Description
WARNING: REFER TO CAUTIONS & WARNINGS AT
THE BEGINNING OF THIS SECTION.
The set voltage varies with temperature and typically is
higher in cold temperatures and lower in warm
temperatures. This allows for better battery recharge in
the winter and reduces the chance of overcharging in the
summer.
The charging system consists of a generator, voltage
regulator and battery. A serpentine belt drives the
generator from the crankshaft pulley -- refer to Section 5
for information on the drive belt.
The generator produces alternating current which is
subsequently converted to direct current
The charging rate is adjusted automatically by the builtin regulator to provide sufficient electric current to keep
the battery fully charged under normal operating
conditions.
Battery power
The battery is a 12 volt DC source connected in a
negative ground system. There are three main functions
of the battery:


To supply power to the starter and ignition
system so the engine can be cranked and
started.
To supply extra power required when the
equipment load requirements exceed the supply
from the charging system.
06 ‐3 TSG‐416 CHARGING SYSTEM Wiring Diagram
Revision Level
The following wiring schematics are taken from the
wiring diagram labeled below:
Charging System
06 ‐4 TSG‐416 CHARGING SYSTEM DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING
Warning Indicator Check
Check the operation of the charging system warning
indicator as follows:
WARNING: REFER TO CAUTIONS & WARNINGS AT
THE BEGINNING OF THIS SECTION.


NOTE: When the battery is disconnected and
connected, some abnormal symptoms may occur while
the GCP relearns its adaptive strategy. The engine may
need to run to relearn its strategy.

Preliminary Checks
Before beginning test procedures, check battery cables
and generator wiring (especially grounds) for clean, tight
connections. Wires and connectors should not be
damaged or corroded.
Perform the following checks before any testing:
 Loose or corroded connections at battery,
grounded starter motor cutout relay or engine.
 Inspect all connectors for loose or damaged
pins, wires, etc.
 Make sure the batteries are at 75% state of
charge (SOC) or higher. This represents an
open circuit voltage (OCV) of 12.4 volts.
Batteries with an OCV of 12 volts or less are
either completely discharged or have a dead
cell.
 Check the generator drive belt tension. This will
cause low generator output.
 Check any light or indicator lamp filaments that
are suspected of being open (burned out). This
is done to avoid unnecessary extensive circuit
checks.
 If a fuse is blown, locate the cause of the
overload condition and repair it. The common
procedure is as follows: isolate sections of the
circuit, by disconnecting connectors, and
measure the resistance to ground to find the
circuit that is shorted to ground. Then locate the
damaged spot in the wire or connector and
repair.
 Excessive battery drain due to lamps left on,
damaged or misadjusted switch, accessories left
on, etc.
06 ‐5 Ignition OFF = Indicator should be OFF.
Ignition ON, Engine OFF = Indicator should be
ON.
Ignition ON, Engine ON = Indicator should be
OFF.
TSG‐416 CHARGING SYSTEM Symptom Chart
CONDITION
POSSIBLE SOURCE
Dead battery.

Key-off battery drain.
Battery will not stay charged.

Open/voltage drop in B+ circuit.

Open voltage drop in A circuit.

Open/high resistance in I circuit.

Voltage regulator.


Generator.
Open "A" circuit.

Shorted "I" circuit.

Open/high resistance in "S" circuit.

Voltage regulator.


Generator.
Loose connection to generator, voltage
regulator or battery.

Loose fuse or poor connection in "A" circuit.

Loose brush holder screw.

Voltage regulator.


Generator.
Voltage drop in "A" circuit.

Voltage drop in "I" circuit

Poor ground.

Voltage regulator.


Generator.
Open/high resistance in "I" circuit.

Burned out bulb

Poor ground

"S" circuit shorted to B+

Voltage regulator.


Generator.
Accessory drive belt.

Accessory brackets.

Bent generator pulley

Generator.


Other components.
Lamp circuit shorted to B+.

Improper lamp circuit wiring.
Slow crank.
Low battery voltage.
No generator output.
Indicator lamp on with engine
running.
Indicator lamp flickers or
intermittent.
Battery over charging (battery
voltage
greater than 15.5 volts).
Indicator lamp off, key on, engine
not
running.
Generator noisy.
Indicator lamp on, key off.
ACTION
Repair as necessary
Repair as necessary
Repair as necessary
Repair as necessary
Repair as necessary
Repair as necessary
06 ‐6 Repair as necessary
TSG‐416 CHARGING SYSTEM Battery Drain Test
5. Remove the jumper wire and note the amperage
draw:
 There should not be any more than 50
mA (0.050 amp) draw.
 If excessive, remove fuses one at a time
until the circuit with the excessive draw
is located.
 Use the wiring diagram to locate any
circuits that do not pass through the
fuse box.
 Disconnect the generator connections to
check for an internal short causing an
excessive draw.
WARNING: REFER TO CAUTIONS & WARNINGS AT
THE BEGINNING OF THIS SECTION.
A defective component or wiring defect may be causing
a small current drain that is less than the fuse rating for
the circuit so the fuse does not open. Perform the
following to determine if an excessive drain is occurring:
NOTE: Batteries should be fully charged for the following
test.
WARNING: DO NOT ATTEMPT THIS TEST ON A
LEAD-ACID BATTERY THAT HAS RECENTLY BEEN
RECHARGED. EXPLOSIVE GASES MAY CAUSE
PERSONAL INJURY. FAILURE TO FOLLOW THESE
INSTRUCTIONS MAY RESULT IN PERSONAL
INJURY.
Battery Load Test
WARNING: REFER TO CAUTIONS & WARNINGS AT
THE BEGINNING OF THIS SECTION.
CAUTION: To prevent damage to the meter, do not
crank engine or operate accessories that draw more
than 10A.
1. Disconnect both battery terminal cables. Check
the battery visually.
2. Examine the hydrometer eye (if no eye go to
next step).
 Eye shows green - go to step 4.
 Eye shows dark - recharge, then go to
step 4.
 Eye shows yellow - replace battery.
3. Apply a 300 amp load for 15 seconds. Turn off
load and wait one minute.
 If 12.4 volts or more - go to step 4.
 If less than 12.4 volts - recharge, then
repeat step
4. Apply a test load equal to 50% of the battery
CCA rating at - 17.8° C (0°F). After 15 seconds,
with the load still applied, measure and record
terminal voltage ___________. Turn the load
OFF.
5. Estimate the battery temperature. If measured
voltage does not meet or exceed the value
shown in the following table, replace the battery.
1. Allow the engine to sit with the ignition off for at
least 40 minutes to allow the GCP to power
down.
2. Connect a fused (10A) jumper wire between the
negative battery cable and post to prevent the
GCP from resetting and to catch capacitive
drains.
3. Disconnect the negative battery cable without
breaking the connection of the jumper wire.
NOTE: It is very important that continuity between the
negative battery cable and post is not broken. If it is, the
entire procedure must be repeated so the GCP can
power down again.
4. Connect an ammeter between the negative
battery cable and post. The meter should have a
10 amp capability.
NOTE: If after this next step, the meter settings need to
be switched or the test leads need to be moved to
another jack, the jumper wire must be reinstalled to
avoid breaking continuity.
6. Clean all cable ends and terminals of the battery
with a wire brush.
06 ‐7 TSG‐416 CHARGING SYSTEM Generator Output Test
Generator Voltage Test
WARNING: REFER TO CAUTIONS & WARNINGS AT
THE BEGINNING OF THIS SECTION.
WARNING: REFER TO CAUTIONS & WARNINGS AT
THE BEGINNING OF THIS SECTION.
1. Switch the tester to the voltmeter function.
2. Connect the positive lead to the generator A
terminal connector and the negative lead to
ground.
3. Turn off all electrical accessories.
4. With the engine running at 2000 rpm, check the
generator voltage.
5. Voltage should be between 13.0-15.5 volts.
CAUTION: To prevent damage to the generator, do
not make jumper wire connections except as
directed.
CAUTION: Do not allow any metal object to come in
contact with the housing and the internal diode
cooling fins with the ignition on or off. A short
circuit may result and burn out the diodes.
In order to check the generator, the use of rotunda
Starting and charging System Tester 078-00005 (VAT40) or equivalent, is recommended.
NOTE: Refer to the test equipment user’s manual for
complete directions on examining the charging system.
NOTE: Turn off all lamps and accessories.
1. Switch the tester to ammeter function.
2. Connect the positive and negative leads of the
tester to the battery.
3. Connect current probe to generator B+ terminal
to measure generator output.
4. With the engine running at 2000 rpm, adjust the
VAT-40 or equivalent load bank to determine the
output of the generator. Generator output should
be greater than values given in the graph below.
06 ‐8 TSG‐416 CHARGING SYSTEM GENERAL SERVICE PROCEDURES
WARNING: REFER TO CAUTIONS & WARNINGS AT
THE BEGINNING OF THIS SECTION.
WARNING: GRIPPING THE END WALLS ON THE
PLASTIC-CASED BATTERY COULD CAUSE
ELECTROLYTE TO SPEW FROM SOME OF THE
CELLS, RESULTING IN PERSONAL INJURY AND
POSSIBLY CAUSE DAMAGE TO SOME OF THE
INTERNAL COMPONENTS.
Battery Cleaning and Inspection
Keeping the battery top clean and dry reduces the need
for service and extends battery life. Also, make certain
the cable clamps are tightly fastened to the battery
posts. If corrosion is found, disconnect the cables and
clean clamps and posts with a wire brush. Neutralize the
corrosion with a solution of baking soda and water.
After installing cables, apply a small quantity of
Premium Long-Life Grease XG-1-C or -K or equivalent
grease meeting Ford specification ESA-M1C75-B to
each battery post to help prevent corrosion.
Use a suitable battery carrier for lifting and transporting
the battery. The illustration shows a clamp-type carrier
used to grip the sidewalls of the container just below the
lip of the cover. The carrier is used on the sidewalls,
rather than the end walls, since the sidewalls have
additional strength from the inner cell partitions. This is
particularly important with the plastic-cased battery
which has end walls that are flexible.
Battery Tools
Anyone working with a battery needs the proper tools.
Using the right tools will prevent damage to the battery,
battery cables and battery hold down clamp.
Tools and equipment manufactured for servicing
batteries have parts insulated to help prevent arcing
should the tool be dropped or placed accidentally
between a terminal and some other contact surface.
Clamp Puller
Use a clamp puller to remove a cable clamp from the
battery terminal. With the jaws gripping the underside of
the cable clamp, pull the clamp up by means of pressure
exerted against the top of the battery terminal. Proper
use of this tool avoids the damaging lateral or twisting
forces that result when using a pry bar or pliers.
Battery Clamp Spreader
The spreader is used to expand the cable clamp after it
has been removed from the terminal and the clamp bolt
has been loosened. The cable clamp can then be easily
placed in its correct position completely on the terminal.
Terminal Cleaning Brush
The terminal cleaning brush is designed with units to
clean both tapered battery terminal and the mating
surface of the cable clamp.
06 ‐9 TSG‐416 CHARGING SYSTEM Battery Charging
A rapid recharge procedure has been developed for
recharging batteries that only need a quick recharge.
This can be due to battery in-service no-start battery
failures (engine will not crank due to low battery state of
charge) or battery discharged due to key-off loads.
WARNING: REFER TO CAUTIONS & WARNINGS AT
THE BEGINNING OF THIS SECTION.
NOTE: If excessive gassing or electrolyte spewing
occurs during the charge, discontinue charging. The
battery has reached serviceable charge. If the battery
will not accept at least 5A after 20 minutes of charging,
replace the battery.
The battery can be rapidly recharged by using either of
the following methods.
 Perform a two-hour charge using 20A constant
current (manual setting on charger).
 Perform a two-hour charge using a constant
potential (automatic setting on charger).
WARNING: WEAR SAFETY GLASSES. BATTERY
CHARGING CAN BE DANGEROUS. WHILE BEING
CHARGED, THE BATTERY PRODUCES A
POTENTIALLY EXPLOSIVE MIXTURE OF
HYDROGEN AND OXYGEN GASSES. KEEP
SPARKS, FLAMES AND LIGHTED CIGARETTES
AWAY FROM BATTERIES. IN CASE OF ACID
CONTACT WITH SKIN, EYES OR CLOTHING,
FLUSH IMMEDIATELY WITH LARGE AMOUNTS OF
WATER. GET MEDICAL ATTENTION.
Inspect and service any of the following pre-existing
conditions before recharging a discharged battery -Refer to “Preliminary Checks” on page 5 of this section.
Cold batteries will not readily accept a charge.
Therefore, batteries should be allowed to warm up to
approximately 5°C (41°F) before charging. This may
require four to eight hours at room temperature
depending on the initial temperature and battery size.
A battery which has been completely discharged may be
slow to accept a charge initially, and in some cases may
not accept charge at the normal charger setting. When
batteries are in this condition, charging can be started by
use of the dead battery switch on chargers so equipped.
To determine whether a battery is accepting a charge,
follow charger manufacturer’s instructions for use of
dead battery switch. If switch is the spring-loaded type, it
should be held in the ON position for up to three
minutes.
After releasing switch and with charger still on, measure
battery voltage. If it shows 12 volts or higher, the battery
is accepting a charge and is capable of being recharged.
However, it may require up to two hours of charging with
batteries colder than 5°C (41°F) before charging rate is
high enough to show on the charger ammeter. It has
been found that all non-damaged batteries can be
charged by this procedure. If a battery cannot be
charged by this procedure, it should be replaced.
06 ‐10 TSG‐416 CHARGING SYSTEM REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
Generator – Replacement
Voltage Regulator – Replacement
1. Remove the generator -- Refer to “Generator Replacement” in this section.
2. Remove 4 screws and voltage regulator
(includes brush and holder).
3. Reverse procedure to install:
 Insert a wire into the insertion hole to
hold the brushes during assembly.
Remove wire when done.
 Tighten screws to 3 Nm (27 lb-in).
1. Disconnect battery negative cable -- Refer to
“Battery Cleaning and Inspection” on page 9 of
this section.
2. Remove or disconnect any component to allow
access and removal of generator.
3. Remove drive belt -- refer to cooling system
section.
4. Remove 2 bolts and position the generator
aside.
5. Disconnect electrical connector.
6. Remove generator.
7. Reverse procedure to install:
 Tighten generator bolts to 25 Nm (18 lbft).
 Tighten B+ terminal to 8 Nm (71 lb-in).
06 ‐11 TSG‐416 CHARGING SYSTEM Generator Pulley - Replacement
1. Remove generator assembly -- Refer to
“Generator - Replacement” of this section.
2. Remove nut.
3. Remove pulley.
4. Reverse procedure to install:
 Tighten nut to 109 Nm (80 lb-ft).
06 ‐12 TSG‐416 CHARGING SYSTEM Battery - Removal
Battery - Installation
1. Clean cable terminals and battery hold down
clamp with a wire brush. Replace all cables or
parts that are worn or frayed.
2. Clean battery tray with a wire brush and scraper.
3. Place battery in battery tray with positive and
negative cables in same position as when
removed.
4. Assemble and tighten battery hold down clamp
so battery is secure. Do not tighten excessively.
5. Secure cables to proper terminals. Tighten to 6
Nm (53 lb-in). Apply petroleum jelly to terminals.
WARNING: WHEN LIFTING PLASTIC CASED
BATTERY, EXCESSIVE PRESSURE ON THE END
WALLS COULD CAUSE ACID TO SPEW THROUGH
THE VENT CAPS, RESULTING IN PERSONAL
INJURY, DAMAGE TO THE EQUIPMENT OR
BATTERY. LIFT WITH A BATTERY CARRIER OR
WITH YOUR HANDS ON OPPOSITE CORNERS.
Ford Motor Company strongly recommends that lead
acid batteries be returned to an authorized recycling
facility for disposal.
WARNING: KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN.
BATTERIES CONTAIN SULFURIC ACID. AVOID
CONTACT WITH SKIN, EYES, OR CLOTHING.
ALSO, SHIELD YOUR EYES WHEN WORKING NEAR
THE BATTERY TO PROTECT AGAINST POSSIBLE
SPLASHING OF THE ACID SOLUTION.
IN CASE OF ACID CONTACT WITH SKIN OR EYES,
FLUSH IMMEDIATELY WITH WATER FOR A
MINIMUM OF 15 MINUTES AND GET PROMPT
MEDICAL ATTENTION. IF ACID IS SWALLOWED,
DRINK LARGE QUANTITIES OF MILK OR WATER,
FOLLOWED BY MILK OF MAGNESIA, A BEATEN
EGG, OR VEGETABLE OIL. CALL A PHYSICIAN
IMMEDIATELY.
CAUTION: Care should be taken when removing or
replacing the cable clamp bolts so that the battery
terminal is not subjected to any excessive lateral or
twisting forces. Such forces could cause major
damage to the internal components of the battery,
and leakage at the terminals.
1. Remove battery cables from battery terminals
(battery ground cable first).
2. Remove battery hold down components.
CAUTION: When lifting a plastic-cased battery,
excessive pressure on the end walls could cause
acid to spew through the vent caps, resulting in
personal injury, damage to the equipment or battery.
Lift with a battery carrier or with your hands on
opposite corners.
3. Remove battery from equipment.
06 ‐13 TSG‐416 CHARGING SYSTEM SPECIFICATIONS
GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS
Generator Output
Battery
Battery charging voltage
Description
Generator
Mounting
bolts
Regulator
attachment
screws
Battery
cable nuts
Generator
pulley nut
Generator
wiring nuts
90 Amp at 600 RPM;
2.72:1 drive ratio
Motorcraft 12 volt 750
CCA
13 – 15.5 volts
TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS
Nm
Lb-ft
Lb-in
25
18
---
3
---
27
6
---
53
109
80
---
8
---
71
06 ‐14 TSG‐416 Engine Controls INDEX Subject General Information GCP and Sensors….…………….…………………………………………………………………………………….. Fuel System Components…………………………………………………………………………………………. Coil‐on‐plug ignition……….…………………………………………………………………………………….…… Open Loop and Closed Loop Operation…………………………………………………………………….. Adaptive Learn………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. GCP Service Precautions……………………………………………………………………………………………. Use of Circuit Testing Tools……………………………………………………………………………………….. Electrostatic Discharge Damage………………………………………………………………………………… Diagrams and schematics………………………………………………………………………………………….. Engine component locator view………………………………………………………………………………… Diagnosis and Testing Diagnostic approach…………………………………………………………………………………………………… GCP diagnostic overview……………………………………………………………………………………………. On‐board diagnostics – GCP………………………………………………………………………………………. Engine control module (GCP) Limp Home Mode Strategy…………………………………………. Intermittent MIL……………..………………………………………………………………………………………... Malfunction indicator light (MIL) DTC Retrieval procedure………………….…………………... Diagnosis and using a personal computer…………………………………………………………………. Visual Inspection……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. Intermittent problems………………………………………………………………………………………………. Symptom charts…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Engine Control Module (GCP) – Diagnostic Trouble Codes………………………………………… Removal and Installation Camshaft Position (CMP) Sensor – Replacement.……………………………………………………..
Crankshaft Position (CKP) Sensor – Removal……………………………………………………………..
Crankshaft Position (CKP) Sensor – Installation.………………………………………………………..
Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT) Sensor – Replacement………………………………………. Heat Oxygen Sensor (HO2S) – Replacement……………………………………………………………..
Knock Sensor (KS) – Replacement……………………………………………………………………………..
Temperature Manifold Absolute Pressure (TMAP) Sensor – Replacement……………….
Actuator/Throttle Position (TP) Sensor – Replacement…………………………………………….
08 ‐ 1 Page 08 – 2 08 – 2 08 – 8 08 – 10 08 – 11 08 – 11 08 – 11 08 – 11 08 – 11 08 – 12 08 – 24 08 – 25 08 – 25 08 – 25 08 – 25 08 – 26 08 – 27 08 – 27 08 – 36 08 – 36 08 – 37 08 – 40 08 – 41 08 – 41 08 – 42 08 – 43 08 – 43 08 – 44 08 – 44 08 – 45 TSG‐416 Engine Controls GENERAL INFORMATION
GCP and Sensors
Engine Control Module (GCP)
The Engine Control Module (GCP) has the following
features:

Programmable four speed electronic
governing, throttle-by-wire or variable speed
control governing.

Programmable emergency warning/shutdown feature for high water temperature, low
oil pressure, etc.

Starter lockout.

Auto crank

Programmable overspeed protection

Automatic altitude compensation.

Sequential port fuel injection (gasoline) with
pressure regulator to precisely control fuel
delivery.

Dry fuel lockout controlled by the GCP
produces a reliable transition when switching
fuels.

Certified closed loop dry fuel control.

Configurable inputs available based on
customer requirements.


Configurable outputs available based on
ECT, RPM or MAP signals and customer
requirements.
Diagnostic software allows viewing of
historical and active faults with on-demand
diagnostics to assist technicians and reduce
equipment downtime.
The Engine Control Module (GCP) engine control
system is a complete engine control system for Ford
industrial engines running on gasoline, propane or
natural gas. Each module can be set up to run an
engine on any two of the three fuels in certified closed
loop control, with virtually transparent on-the-fly fuel
switching.
Each module can also be set up to run on a variety of
electronic governing:
08 ‐ 2 TSG‐416 Engine Controls 




It can be programmed to provide up to four
specific speeds with use of a matching
toggle switch
It can be programmed to provide an infinite
variety of speeds (with customer-specified
minimum and maximum) based on a variable
signal input.

It can be an electronic replacement for a
throttle cable with maximum speed
governing (throttle-bywire).

Or it can switch between throttle-by-wire
and a second fixed or variable input
based on a neutral/ parking brake
signal.
low oil pressure
unauthorized tampering
over cranking starter motor.
The GCP controls the following:
 Fuel metering system
 Ignition timing
 On-board diagnostics for engine
functions
The GCP constantly observes the information
from various sensors. The GCP controls the
systems that affect engine performance. The
GCP performs the diagnostic function of the
system. It can recognize operational problems,
alert the operator through the Malfunction
Indicator Lamp (MIL), and store diagnostic
trouble codes (DTC’s). DTC’s identify the
problem areas to aid the technician in making
repairs.
With the GCP system, a laptop and a
communications cable, diagnosis becomes
simpler. The technician can either view engine
data with a real time graphing program, or store
that data into a numeric data file.
The GCP supplies either 5 or 12 volts to power
various sensors or switches. The power is
supplied through resistances in the GCP which
are so high in value that a test light will not light
when connected to the circuit. In some cases,
even an ordinary shop voltmeter will not give an
accurate reading because its resistance is too
low. Therefore, a digital voltmeter with at least
10 megohms input impedance is required to
ensure accurate voltage readings. The GCP
controls output circuits such as the fuel injectors,
electronic governor, etc., by controlling the
ground or the power feed circuit through
transistors or other solid state devices.
Every time a fault is set, the laptop will give you
detailed information about the fault, including:
 when it happened
 if the fault still exists
 a list of essential engine data from the
time of the fault.
It can also display a 10 second graph of critical
engine data, from 8 seconds before the fault
occurred to two seconds after.
With many OEMs using control modules to
control their machinery, the GCP has the ability
to communicate engine data to and receive
commands from other control modules through a
Controller Area Network (CAN) link, with
messages written in the J1939 protocol.
The GCP is designed to maintain exhaust
emission levels to government mandated
standards while providing excellent operation
and fuel efficiency. The GCP monitors numerous
engine functions via electronic sensors such as
the throttle position (TP) sensor and the heated
oxygen sensor (HO2S).
This allows large amounts of data to move
throughout the machine through only two wires,
and can be used to run some module based
gauge packages.
GCP Inputs (operating conditions read)
 Engine Coolant Temperature
 Crankshaft Position
 Exhaust Oxygen Content
 Manifold Absolute Pressure
 Battery Voltage
 Throttle Position / Electronic Actuator
 Fuel Pump Voltage
 Intake Air Temperature
 Camshaft Position
The GCP also carries auxiliary features that can
be programmed to control OEM devices,
allowing the OEM to eliminate components from
their machinery.
The GCP is also equipped with multiple safety
and protection devices that protect the user and
engine from hazards such as:
 over speed
 over temperature
 over voltage
08 ‐ 3 TSG‐416 Engine Controls calculated sequential fuel injection mode based
on the last fuel injection pulse, and the engine
will continue to run. As long as the fault (DTC
342, CAM loss) is present, the engine can be
restarted. It will run in the previously established
injection sequence.
GCP Outputs (systems controlled)
 Fuel control (Injectors/DEPR)
 Electronic Throttle Control
 Electric Fuel Pump (gasoline)
 Diagnostics - Malfunction Indicator
Lamp (check engine lamp)
 Diagnostics - Data Link Connector
(DLC)
 Variable valve timing (VVT)
Crankshaft Position (CKP) Sensor
The Crankshaft Position (CKP) Sensor provides
a signal used by the Engine Control Module
(GCP) to calculate the ignition sequence. The
sensor initiates the reference pulses which the
GCP uses to calculate RPM and crankshaft
position.
Camshaft Position (CMP) Sensor
The Camshaft Position (CMP) Sensor uses a
variable reluctor sensor to detect camshaft
position. The CMP signal is created as piston #1
is a pre-determined number of degrees after top
dead center on the power stroke.
The Camshaft Position (CMP) Sensor sends a
CMP signal to the GCP. The GCP uses this
signal as a “sync pulse” to trigger the injectors in
the proper sequence.
The GCP uses the CMP signal to indicate the
position of the #1 piston during its power stroke.
The CMP uses a Hall Effect sensor to measure
piston position. This allows the GCP to calculate
true sequential fuel injection (SFI) mode of
operation. If the GCP detects an incorrect CMP
signal while the engine is running, DTC 341 will
set (CAM sync noice).
If the CMP signal is lost while the engine is
running, the fuel injection system will shift to a
08 ‐ 4 TSG‐416 Engine Controls Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT) Sensor
The Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT) Sensor
is a thermistor (a resistor which changes value
based on temperature) mounted in the engine
coolant stream. Low coolant temperature
produces a high resistance of 100,000 ohms at 40°C (-40°F). High temperature causes a low
resistance of 70 ohms at 130°C (266°F).
The GCP supplies a 5 volt signal to the ECT
sensor through resistors in the GCP and
measures the voltage. The signal voltage will be
high when the engine is cold and low when the
engine is hot. By measuring the voltage, the
GCP calculates the engine coolant temperature.
Engine coolant temperature affects most of the
systems that the GCP controls.
After engine start-up, the temperature should
rise steadily to about 85°C (185°F). It then
stabilizes when the thermostat opens. If the
engine has not been run for several hours
(overnight), the engine coolant temperature and
intake air temperature displays should be close
to each other. A fault in the engine coolant
sensor circuit will set a DTC 117 or DTC 118
(Low/High Voltage.
08 ‐ 5 TSG‐416 Engine Controls Heated Oxygen Sensor (HO2S)
The Heated Oxygen Sensor (HO2S) is mounted
in the exhaust stream where it can monitor the
oxygen content of the exhaust gas. The oxygen
present in the exhaust gas reacts with the
sensor to produce a voltage output. This voltage
should constantly fluctuate from approximately
100mV to 900 mV, when the engine is running in
closed loop fuel control.
Specifications
 Accuracy of measurement: ±1.5%
 Operating Temp. Range: 350°C to
850°C (sensor tip)
 Sensor Response Time: 300-1500
msec.
 Heater Current Draw: 1 A steady state
 Voltage Output:
o 0 - 450 mV (lean exhaust gas)
o 450 - 1000 mV (rich exhaust
gas)
The Heated Oxygen Sensor (HO2S) voltage can
be monitored on an IBM PC compatible
computer with diagnostic software. By
monitoring the voltage output of the oxygen
sensor, the GCP calculates the pulse width
command for the injectors to produce the proper
combustion chamber mixture.
The 4-wire HO2S indicates whether the air/fuel
ratio is rich or lean with respect to stoichiometry.
The signal from this sensor contains valid
air/fuel ratio information only when the sensor
element has reached its normal operating
temperature. The 4-wire HO2S also has an
isolated case ground which goes to Signal
Return (SIGRTN) either in the processor (as a
dedicated HO2S ground) or as a jumper to
SIGRTN in the wiring harness.
Low HO2S voltage indicates a lean mixture
which will result in a rich command to
compensate.
High HO2S voltage indicates a rich mixture
which will result in a lean command to
compensate.
08 ‐ 6 TSG‐416 Engine Controls Temperature Manifold Absolute Pressure
(TMAP)
Sensor
Throttle Position (TP) Sensor / Electronic
Actuator
The Temperature Manifold Absolute Pressure
(TMAP) Sensor responds to changes in intake
manifold pressure (vacuum). The TMAP sensor
signal voltage to the GCP varies from below 2
volts at idle (high vacuum) to above 4 volts with
the ignition ON, engine not running or at wideopen throttle (low vacuum).
The Throttle Position (TP) Sensor is a dual track
rotary potentiometer that uses a variable
resistive element which is packaged inside a
plastic housing. The resistive element varies
linearly and is directly proportional to the throttle
plate angle. The GCP applies reference voltage
and ground to the sensor and monitors the
sensor’s ratio metric output voltage to determine
precise throttle position. The electronic actuator
has two TP outputs that the GCP monitors.
The TMAP sensor consists of a pressure
sensing element (capacitor) and signal
conditioning electronics. The capacitor has a
vacuum/pressure reference which results in one
surface (diaphragm) of the capacitor being
partially deflected. Further changes in pressure
produce corresponding changes in the deflection
of the diaphragm and therefore a change in
capacitance. This capacitance change is
converted to a frequency by the conditioning
electronics.
The TMAP sensor is used to determine the
following:
 Engine vacuum level for engine control
purposes.
 Barometric pressure (BARO).
The Electronic Actuator consists of a throttle
body, an electronically-actuated throttle plate,
and a built-in throttle position (TP) Sensor.
The Electronic Actuator also acts as an idle air
control (IAC) valve. Changes in engine load are
detected by the GCP by comparing manifold
absolute pressure (TMAP) with throttle position.
When the GCP detects a change in engine load,
it can adjust idle speed by changing the PWM
signal to the actuator.
As the throttle valve opens, the output increases
so that at wide open throttle (WOT), the output
voltage should be above 4 volts.
The GCP calculates fuel delivery based on
throttle valve angle (operator demand). A hard
failure in the TP sensor 5 volt reference or signal
circuits for greater than 2 consecutive seconds
will set a DTC 123 or DTC 223. A hard failure
with the TP sensor ground circuit for more than
two consecutive seconds may set DTC 222. If
any (TP) DTC is set the GCP will shut down the
engine immediately.
Specifications:
 Range of Measurement: 1.7 - 15.2 psi.
 Measurement Accuracy: ± 0.2 psi
 Sensor Response Time: 3-15 msec.
 Resolution: 0.02 psi
Present design: Silicon Capacitive Absolute
Pressure (SCAP) sensor with a maximum
operating temperature of 100°C. The output is a
50% duty cycle wave form whose frequency is
proportional to the pressure input.
Specifications:
 Range of Measurement: 0-85° (angular)
 Measurement Accuracy: ±2% of VREF
 Resolution: 0.5° max.
08 ‐ 7 TSG‐416 Engine Controls The GCP monitors signals from several sensors
in order to determine the fuel needs of the
engine. Fuel is delivered under one of several
conditions called “modes”. All modes are
controlled by the GCP. Refer to “Open Loop and
Closed Loop Operation” for more information.
Fuel System Components - Gasoline
The fuel metering system is made up of the
following parts:
 The fuel injectors (gasoline)
 The fuel rail (gasoline)
 The fuel filter (gasoline)
 The GCP
 The Crankshaft Position (CKP) Sensor
 The Camshaft Position (CMP) Sensor
 The fuel pump (gasoline)
 The fuel pump relay (gasoline)
 The Direct Electronic Pressure
Regulator (Gaseous Fuels)
 The Fuel Lock Off Solenoid (Gaseous
Fuels)
 The Mixer (Gaseous Fuels)
 The Vapor Regulator (LPG/CNG)
 Heated Oxygen (HO2S) Sensor
 Temp/Manifold Absolute Pressure
(TMAP) Sensor
Fuel Injector
The Electronic Fuel Injection (EFI) fuel injector is
a solenoid operated device controlled by the
GCP. The GCP energizes the solenoid, which
opens a valve to allow fuel delivery.
The fuel is injected under pressure in a conical
spray pattern at the opening of the intake valve.
Excess fuel not used by the injectors passes
through the fuel pressure regulator before being
returned to the fuel tank.
A fuel injector which is stuck partly open will
cause a loss of fuel pressure after the engine is
shut down, causing long crank times.
The basic function of the air/fuel metering
system is to control the air/fuel delivery to the
engine. Fuel is delivered to the engine by
individual fuel injectors mounted in the intake
manifold near each intake valve.
Fuel Rail
The fuel rail is mounted to the top of the engine
and distributes fuel to the individual injectors.
Fuel is delivered to the fuel inlet tube of the fuel
rail by the fuel lines.
The fuel metering system starts with the fuel in
the fuel tank. The fuel is drawn up to the fuel
pump through a pre-filter. The electric fuel pump
then delivers the fuel to the fuel rail through an
in-line fuel filter. The pump is designed to
provide fuel at a pressure above the pressure
needed by the injectors. A fuel pressure
regulator in the fuel filter assembly keeps fuel
available to the fuel injectors at a constant
pressure of 45psig. A return line delivers unused
fuel back to the tank.
The main control sensor is the heated oxygen
sensor (HO2S) located in the exhaust system.
The HO2S tells the GCP how much oxygen is in
the exhaust gas. The GCP changes the air/fuel
ratio to the engine by controlling the amount of
time that the fuel injector is “ON”. The best
mixture to minimize exhaust emissions is 14.7
parts of air to 1 part of gasoline by weight, which
provides the most efficient combustion. Because
of the constant measuring and adjusting of the
air/fuel ratio, the fuel injection system is called a
“closed loop” system.
Fuel Filter
The fuel filter is an inline filter assembly. Refer to
Section 4 for information on relieving fuel
pressure, disconnecting fuel lines and fuel filter
replacement.
08 ‐ 8 TSG‐416 Engine Controls Vapor Regulator
The vapor regulator is used with LPG and CNG
fuels. It converts LPG from a liquid state to a
gaseous state. Nominal pressure output is ~11”
of WC to the DEPR.
Fuel Pump Electrical Circuit
When the key is first turned “ON”, the GCP
energizes the fuel pump relay for two seconds to
build up the fuel pressure quickly. If the engine
is not started within two seconds, the GCP shuts
the fuel pump off and waits until the engine is
cranked. When the engine is cranked and
crankshaft position signal has been detected by
the GCP, the GCP supplies 12 volts to the fuel
pump relay to energize the electric fuel pump.
An inoperative fuel pump will cause a “no-start”
condition. A fuel pump which does not provide
enough pressure will result in poor performance.
Mixer (Gaseous Fuels)
The Mixer allows air and fuel to mix together
before entering the engine. Based on pressure
differentials the diaphragm in the mixer will
actuate allowing the proper amount of air and
fuel to mixer together. This pressure differential
is based on the vacuum in the intake manifold of
the engine which is directly related to load.
Coolant is run through the DEPR to prevent
freezing of the regulator which could result in a
lean fuel condition.
Fuel Lock Off Valve
The fuel lock off valve is located before the
DEPR and/or the vapor regulator. It is only open
during cranking and running. This prevents the
intake manifold from filling with gaseous fuel
which could result in a backfire. The power is
constant and supplied by the power relay. The
ground of the solenoid is controlled by the GCP.
DEPR (Direct Electronic Pressure Regulator)
The DEPR controls the fuel trim to the engine on
dry fuels based on inputs to the GCP (HO2
sensor, MAP sensor, crank and cam sensors).
Nominal pressure input to the DEPR is ~ 11”
WC and outputs ~ 4 – 5” WC. It is mounted
directly to the mixer.
08 ‐ 9 TSG‐416 Engine Controls Distributor less Coil Pack
The ignition system controls fuel combustion by
providing a spark to ignite the compressed
air/fuel mixture at the correct time. To provide
optimum engine performance, fuel economy,
and control of exhaust emissions, the GCP
controls the spark advance of the ignition
system. Coil-on-plug ignition has the following
advantages over a mechanical distributor
system:
 No moving parts
 Less maintenance
 Remote mounting capability
 No mechanical load on the engine
 Elimination of mechanical timing
adjustments
 Increased available ignition coil
saturation time
The coil-on-plug design has individual coils
mounted directly over each spark plug. Each
cylinder is paired with its opposing cylinder in
the firing order, so that one cylinder on
compression fires simultaneously with the
opposing cylinder on exhaust. The spark that
occurs in the cylinder on the exhaust stroke is
referred to as a “waste spark”.
The primary coils in the coil pack are triggered
by the “ignition coil feed#1” and ignition coil feed
#2” signals from the GCP.
08 ‐ 10 TSG‐416 Engine Controls 
Open Loop and Closed Loop
Operation

NOTE: No DTC will be set unless engine has
operated in closed loop status for more than 6
seconds.

The GCP will operate in the following two modes:

Open loop

Closed loop

When the engine is first started, the system is in
“open loop” operation. In open loop, the GCP ignores
the signal from the Heated Oxygen Sensor (HO2S). It
uses a pre-programmed routine to calculate the
air/fuel ratio based on inputs from the TP, ECT, TMAP
& CKP sensors.
When testing for opens and shorts, do not
ground or apply voltage to any of the GCP’s
circuits unless instructed to do so.
When measuring voltages, use only a digital
voltmeter with an input impedance of at least
10 megohms.
Do not employ any non-standard practices
such as charging the battery with an arc
welder.
Take proper precautions to avoid static
damage to the GCP. Refer to “electrostatic
Discharge Damage” for more information.
Use of Circuit Testing Tools
Do not use a test light to diagnose the engine
electrical systems unless specifically instructed by the
diagnostic procedures. A test light can put an
excessive load on a GCP circuit and result in
component damage. For voltage measurements, use
only a digital voltmeter with an input impedance of at
least 10 megohms.
The system remains in open loop until the following
conditions are met:

The ECT has reached 75°F (24°C).

50 seconds has elapsed since starting the
engine.
Electrostatic Discharge Damage
Electronic components used in the GCP are often
designed to carry very low voltage. Electronic
components are susceptible to damage caused by
electrostatic discharge. Less than 100 volts of static
electricity can cause damage to some electronic
components. By comparison, it takes as much as
4000 volts for a person to feel the spark of a static
discharge.
After these conditions are met, the engine is said to
be operating in “closed loop”. In closed loop, the GCP
continuously adjusts the air/fuel ratio by responding to
signals from the HO2S (except at wide-open throttle).
When the HO2S reports a lean condition (low sensor
signal voltage), the GCP responds by increasing the
“on” time of the fuel injectors, thus enriching the
mixture. When the HO2S reports a rich condition
(high sensor signal voltage), the GCP responds by
reducing the “on” time of the fuel injectors, thus
leaning out the mixture.
There are several ways for a person to become
statically charged. The most common methods of
charging are by friction and induction.
An example of charging by friction is a person sliding
across a seat.
Adaptive Learn
Adaptive Learn is a fuel correction coefficient that is
derived from the closed loop correction and is stored
in the GCP’s memory.
Charge by induction occurs when a person with well
insulated shoes stands near a highly charged object
and momentarily touches ground. Charges of the
same polarity are drained off, leaving the person
highly charged with the opposite polarity. Static
charges can cause damage, therefore it is important
to use care when handling and testing electronic
components.
The normal purpose of the Adaptive Learn is to
compensate fuel flow for the following:

Fuel composition variance

Engine wear

Component variation

Component degradation
CAUTION: To prevent possible electrostatic
discharge damage, follow these guidelines:

Do not touch the GCP connector pins or
soldered components on the GCP board.

Do not open the replacement part package
until the part is ready to be installed.

Before removing the part from the package,
ground the package to a known good ground
on the equipment.

If the part has been handled while sliding
across a seat, while sitting down from a
standing position, or while walking a
distance, touch a known good ground before
installing the part.
The GCP system will operate in closed loop plus
adaptive learn when the ECT reaches 165°F.
NOTE: The adaptive learn coefficient will get erased if
battery power falls below 9.5 volts.
GCP Service Precautions
The GCP is designed to withstand normal current
draws associated with engine operation. When
servicing the GCP, observe the following guidelines:

Do not overload any circuit.
08 ‐ 11 TSG‐416 Engine Controls Diagrams and Schematics
Symbols
08 ‐ 12 TSG‐416 Engine Controls GCP - Power Distribution Box
Part of -5210070- Engine Wiring Harness
08 ‐ 13 TSG‐416 Engine Controls Wire Colors
Revision Level
The following wiring schematics are taken from
the wiring diagram labeled below:
08 ‐ 14 TSG‐416 Engine Controls Power Distribution
08 ‐ 15 TSG‐416 Engine Controls Ignition System
08 ‐ 16 TSG‐416 Engine Controls Starting System
08 ‐ 17 TSG‐416 Engine Controls Charging System
08 ‐ 18 TSG‐416 Engine Controls Engine Controls - Sensors (1 of 2)
08 ‐ 19 TSG‐416 Engine Controls Engine Controls - Sensors (2 of 2)
08 ‐ 20 TSG‐416 Engine Controls Fuel Injectors
08 ‐ 21 TSG‐416 Engine Controls Engine Controls - Actuator / Data Link
Connector (DLC)
08 ‐ 22 TSG‐416 Engine Controls Engine Controls - Dry Fuel DEPR
08 ‐ 23 TSG‐416 Engine Controls DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING
By repairing DTC 112 first, the problem causing the DTC
122 may also be corrected.
Diagnostic Approach
On-Board Diagnostics - GCP
The diagnostic tests and circuit charts are designed to assist
the technician to locate a faulty circuit or component through
a process of logical decisions. The tests and charts are
prepared with the requirement that the engine functioned
correctly at the time of assembly and that there were not
multiple faults present.
Use the following step by step approach when diagnosing an
engine performance problem:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Verify the concern and determine if it is a deviation
from normal operation.
Once the concern has been verified, preliminary
checks can be done. Conduct a thorough visual
inspection, be alert for unusual sounds or odors,
and gather diagnostic trouble code (DTC)
information.
If a diagnostic trouble code (DTC) is stored, follow
the designated DTC chart exactly to make an
effective repair.
If no DTC is stored, select the symptom from the
symptom charts and follow the suggestions to
complete the repair.
If no matching symptom is available, analyze the
complaint and develop a plan for diagnostics
utilizing the wiring diagrams, technical assistance
and repair history.
Some diagnostic charts contain diagnostic aids
which give additional information about a system.
Be sure to use all of the information that is
available to you.
There is a continuous self-diagnosis on certain control
functions. This diagnostic capability is complimented by the
diagnostic procedures contained in this section. The
language for communicating the source of the malfunction is
a system of diagnostic trouble codes.
When a malfunction is detected by the Engine Control
Module (GCP), a Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC) is set and
the Malfunction Indicator (MIL) lamp will be illuminated (refer
to MIL DTC Retrieval Procedure for process description) -Refer to “Diagnosis Using a Personal Computer” on page 26
or Palm Pilot Diagnosis, for information regarding performing
GCP and engine control system diagnosis.
Engine Control Module (GCP) Limp Home Mode Strategy
The GCP has four settings for limp home mode.
Depending on what Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC) is set,
one or more of the limp home modes will be in effect.
GCP Diagnostic Overview
The four limp home modes are as follows:
FORD Diagnostic Trouble Codes are set when the FORD
system GCP runs a diagnostic self-test and the test fails.
When a DTC is set, the FORD system GCP will illuminate
the Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL) on the instrument
panel and save the code in memory.
Power Derate 1
The actuator is limited to a maximum opening of 50%. If
“Power Derate 1” is active, it will remain active until the
active DTC goes away.
The FORD system GCP will continue to run the self-test
unless the DTC is an oxygen sensor lean, oxygen sensor
rich, or a GCP related DTC. If the system continues to fail
the test, the lamp will stay illuminated and the DTC is current
(ACTIVE). All DTC’s are stored as historical faults until they
are cleared. All DTC’s except the GCP related DTC’s will
automatically clear from memory if the DTC does not reset
within 50 consecutive engine run cycles.
The following DTC’s will cause Power Derate 1 to take
affect:

DTC 1521: CHT/ECT higher than expected 1.
(CHT/ ECT is greater than 240 °F).

DTC 111: IAT higher than expected 1. (IAT is
greater than 200°F).

DTC 327: Knock sensor open. (1.6L and 4.2L
only)

DTC 326: Excessive knock signal. (1.6L and 4.2L
only)

DTC 2122: FPP1 high voltage.

DTC 2123 FPP1 low voltage.

DTC 2128: FPP2 high voltage.

DTC 2127: FPP2 low voltage.

DTC 1531: IVS/Brake interlock failure.
While a Diagnostic Trouble Code is current for a sensor, the
FORD system GCP may assign a default limp home value
and use that value in its control algorithms. All of the FORD
system diagnostic self-tests run continuously during normal
engine operation.
The Diagnostic Trouble Codes can be read by using either
the Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL) or a Laptop computer.
Refer to Using a Laptop Computer to Diagnose the FORD
System and Using a Diagnostic Jumper to Diagnose the
FORD System, located in this section. Diagnostic Trouble
Codes can be cleared from memory with a laptop computer
or by turning the ignition key to the OFF position and
removing the FORD system main power fuse (F3) for 15
seconds.
If more than one DTC is detected, begin with the lowest
number DTC and diagnose each problem to correction
unless directed to do otherwise by the fault tree. The DTC’s
are numbered in order of importance. Having DTC 112 and
DTC 122, both concerning the oxygen sensor, is possible.
08 ‐ 24 TSG‐416 Engine Controls 




Power Derate 2
The actuator is limited to a maximum opening of
20%. If “Power Derate 2” is active, it will remain
active until the active DTC goes away and the
ignition input to the GCP (usually the ignition
switch) is cycled.




















Force to Idle
The engine RPM will be limited to a maximum of
800 RPM. If the “Force to Idle” is active, it will
remain active until the active DTC goes away.
 DTC 2122: FPP1 high voltage.
 DTC 2123: FPP1 low voltage.
 DTC 2128: FPP2 high voltage.
 DTC 2127: FPP2 low voltage.
 DTC 2115: FPP1 higher than IVS limit.
 DTC 2139: FPP1 lower than IVS limit.
 DTC 2116: FPP2 higher than IVS limit.
 DTC 2140: FPP2 lower than IVS limit.
 DTC 2126: FPP1 higher than FPP2.
 DTC 2121: FPP1 lower than FPP2.
DTC 2115: FPP1 higher than IVS limit.
DTC 2139: FPP1 lower than IVS limit.
DTC 2116: FPP2 higher than IVS limit.
DTC 2140: FPP2 lower than IVS limit.
DTC 2126: FPP1 higher than FPP2.
DTC 2121: FPP1 lower than FPP2.
DTC 1171: MegaJector delivery
pressure higher than expected.
DTC 1172: MegaJector delivery
pressure lower than expected.
DTC 1173: MegaJector communication
lost.
DTC 1176: MegaJector internal actuator
fault detection.
DTC 1177: MegaJector internal circuitry
fault detection.
DTC 1178 MegaJector internal
communication fault detection.
DTC 606: COP failure (Internal GCP
failure).
DTC 1612: RTI 1 loss (internal GCP
failure).
DTC 1613: RTI 2 loss (internal GCP
failure).
DTC 1614: RTI 3 loss (internal GCP
failure).
DTC 1615: A/D loss (internal GCP
failure).
DTC 1616: Invalid interrupt (internal
GCP failure).
DTC 601: Flash checksum invalid
(internal GCP failure).
DTC 604: RAM failure (internal GCP
failure).
Intermittent MIL
Conditions that are only present from time to
time are called intermittents. To resolve
intermittents, perform the following steps:
1. Evaluate the history of DTC’s observed
with this particular engine.
2. Evaluate the symptoms and conditions
described by the customer.
3. Use strategy-based diagnosis,
especially where it relates to the
elimination of bad connectors and
wiring.
4. When using a personal computer with
Ford software, data-capturing
capabilities are available that can assist
in detecting intermittents. Review the
user manual pdf document that is
included on the software CD.
Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL)
DTC Retrieval Procedure
Fault Low Rev Limit
The engine RPM will be limited to a maximum of
1600 RPM. If the “Fault Low Rev Limit” is active,
it will remain active until the active DTC goes
away and the ignition input to the GCP (usually
the ignition switch) is cycled.




DTC 2116: FPP2 higher than IVS limit.
DTC 2140: FPP2 lower than IVS limit.
DTC 2126: FPP1 higher than FPP2.
DTC 2121: FPP1 lower than FPP2.
DTC 1531: IVS/Brake interlock failure.
NOTE: DTC’s can be retrieved from the engine
control module (GCP) by using either the MIL or
an IBM compatible personal computer with a
USB port. Refer to Equipment Setup for
information about using a personal computer to
assist with unit diagnosis.
DTC 2122: FPP1 high voltage.
DTC 2123: FPP1 low voltage.
DTC 2115: FPP1 higher than IVS limit.
DTC 2139: FPP1 lower than IVS limit.
08 ‐ 25 TSG‐416 Engine Controls 





DTC’s can be retrieved by shorting the Self-Test
Input (STI) connector to ground. The STI circuit
is a white/ purple wire exiting pin 3 of the 42 pin
connector. The STI white/purple wire branches
off to terminal “A” of the 4 pin diagnostic
connector. If no DTC is stored with key
on/engine off (KOEO), a DTC 123 is flashed,
indicating that all systems are OK.
Once the DTC(s) is retrieved, refer to the
appropriate DTC chart for explanation of what
caused the DTC to set. Perform component and
circuit test as required to conduct repair.
Diagnosis Using a Personal
Computer
During key on/engine running (KOER) operation,
with no DTCs stored, the MIL is not illuminated.
If during
Equipment Requirements
You will need a laptop computer with a USB Port
and CD drive.
KOER operation a DTC is stored, the MIL will
illuminate and remain on steady if the code is
active.

MIL Bulb Test
Kit for laptop part #: 5080050
o ECOM Cable
o Software CD
The required software is included with the kit via
a CD.
The MIL bulb test occurs KOEO with the STI
connector not grounded. The MIL bulb will stay
on and remain on if no DTCs are present. If
DTCs are present (except DTC 123), the MIL
bulb will blink. If the MIL bulb does not illuminate
when bulb test is performed, access diagnostic
software and view the fault indicator on screen.
If the screen fault indicator is illuminated and the
MIL light is not, inspect the bulb and replace it if
damaged. If bulb is OK or does not illuminate
after replacement, refer to MIL circuit test
procedure. Once MIL bulb illumination has been
verified or established, DTCs can be extracted
from the MIL as follows:
Laptop Requirements:
• USB port
• 800 x 600 dpi screen
• Windows 95 or newer operating system
• No speed minimum
• 32 MB of RAM
DTC Extraction

The MIL is off for 1.2 seconds between
digits of three digit DTCs.
The MIL is off for 2.4 seconds between
DTCs.
Each DTC repeats 3 times before the
next stored DTC begins flashing
Up to 6 DTCs can be stored.
Once all stored DTCs are flashed, the
process repeats with the first stored
DTC.
DTCs are flashed in the order in which
they were set.
KOEO, short the STI circuit to a known
good ground. There will be a 5 second
delay before DTCs begin flashing.
When extracting DTCs via the MIL the following
apply:
 The flashing MIL is on for 0.4 second
and off for 0.4 second.
08 ‐ 26 TSG‐416 Engine Controls Interface Hook-Up
For a connection to a laptop, use the below
ECOM cable (5080050).
ECOM Cable Software CD 08 ‐ 27 TSG‐416 Engine Controls You will now see a welcome screen.
GCP Software Installation
Insert CD into CD-ROM drive.
Double click “My Computer” Icon.
Double Click CD-ROM drive letter
This will display the contents of the CD as
shown.
Click next.
A screen will pop up telling you the name of the
destination folder.
Double click GCP_Display folder.
Double click the PC_Display folder.
Click next.
You will now see a screen telling you it is ready
to install the software.
Double click the GCP_Display icon.
Click next.
08 ‐ 28 TSG‐416 Engine Controls You will see an Installation Success” screen
when the software is finished installing.
Follow those install instructions. Once
successfully installed reboot your system.
The software is now installed on your system in
a folder called “GCP Display”. Refer now to
“Using Technicians GCP Software” in this
Section.
Using GCP Software - Menu Functions
You can begin using the technicians GCP
software after installation, by clicking Start Programs - GCP Display - GCP Display as
shown.
Click Finish.
A screen will pop up asking if it is ok to reboot
your system.
Type in the Password which can be found in the
text file on the CD in the GCP Display folder.
Click No.
Go back to the main CD folder.
Place the ignition key in the ON position.
The GCP system Gauge screen should now
appear and a green banner in the upper left
hand corner will read “Connected”.
Double click the ECOM driver folder.
Double click the Driver Setup icon.
08 ‐ 29 TSG‐416 Engine Controls Diagnostic Trouble Codes
Below is an example of a DTC Dialogue Box.
The System Fault screen is used to view and
clear DTC’s, which have been set.
Checking Diagnostic Trouble Codes
Snap Shot Data
The System Fault screen contains a listing of all
of the Historic and Active DTC’s set within the
GCP system. If a DTC is stored in memory, the
screen will display that fault in the Historic Faults
column. If the fault condition currently exists, the
DTC will also show up in the Active Faults
column.
The Snap Shot Data is a listing of specific
engine system variables. These variables are
recorded by the GCP at the instant the DTC
sets. By clicking on the “View Snap Shot Data”
button, a new window will pop up and you will be
able to view these variables. Here is an example
of a Snap Shot Data window.
Opening Diagnostic Trouble Codes
To open a DTC, click on the DTC in the Historic
Faults column. A DTC Dialog Box will pop up on
the screen. The DTC Dialog Box contains the
following useful information:
 If the fault occurred during the current
key cycle.
 If the fault caused current engine
shutdown.
 How many key cycles since the fault
was active.
 Snapshot Data (explained later).
 Flight Data Recorder (explained later).
The DTC Dialogue Box also allows you to clear
a single fault by clicking on the “Clear This Fault”
button and it allows you to clear all faults by
clicking on the “Click All Faults” button.
NOTE: Record faults before clearing them. This
will aid in diagnosis.
08 ‐ 30 TSG‐416 Engine Controls Flight Data Recorder
The Flight Data Recorder is also a listing of
specific engine system variables. These
variables are recorded by the GCP for an
interval of 10 seconds. The 10 second interval
includes 8 seconds before the DTC sets and 2
seconds after the DTC sets. By clicking on the
“View Flight Data Recorder Data” button, a new
window will pop up and you will be able to view
these variables.
Data Stream - Reading Sensor & Actuator
Values
Below is an example of a flight Data Recorder
Data window.
Most applicable sensor and actuator values are
displayed on the Gauges Screen. The display
shows the voltage the FORD system GCP is
reading and, for sensors, the sensor value in
engineering units.
This is one of three main screens (GAUGES,
FAULTS AND RAW VOLTS).
The GAUGES screen shows the following:
 Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP)
 Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT)
 Intake Air Temperature (IAT)
 Throttle Position (TP)
 Foot Pedal Position (FPP)
 Battery Voltage
 Engine speed (RPM)
 Exhaust Gas Oxygen (HO2S)
 Hour meter
 Number of continuous starts
 Run mode, power mode and fuel type
The FAULTS screen shows the following:
 Fault Access
 System States
 DBW Variables
 Closed Loop Control
 Digital Input Voltages
 Diagnostic Modes
 Historic Faults
 Active Faults
Use the
keys at the upper left corner or
the “page” command to toggle the three main
screens (GAUGES, FAULTS AND RAW
VOLTS).
Use the
keys at the upper left corner or
the “page” command to toggle the three main
screens (GAUGES, FAULTS AND RAW
VOLTS).
NOTE: F9 key will toggle to the last screen you
were on.
NOTE: F9 key will toggle to the last screen you
were on.
NOTE: If a DTC for a sensor is current, the
engineering value for that sensor may be a
default, limp home value and the voltage value
will be the actual sensor voltage. Use the
voltage value when performing diagnostics
unless directed to do otherwise by the diagnostic
trouble tree.
08 ‐ 31 TSG‐416 Engine Controls Plotting and Data Logging
Below is a sample of a plot.
Logging
Logging variables means the variables are
stored to the PC. During logging, there is no plot
shown on the screen. To log variables you must
first “TAG” the variables by right clicking them
(same as plotting). Next, click on Plot / Log and
then Log Tags. An “Edis Log” window will pop
up. You can type in a custom log File name or
select a custom folder to save the log file to. The
default filename is “edis.log” and the default
folder is GCP_Dis. The sample interval and time
interval can also be changed from the default.
To start logging, click on the “START” button.
You will see the progress bar moving from 0 to
100%. When the logging is complete, you can
close the Edis Log box or start another log file. If
you start another log file, you must change the
Log File name or the first log file will be
overwritten. To view the contents of a saved log
file, you can use Notepad or Excel.
Recording the values and voltages can be a
very useful tool while diagnosing engine
problems. The GCP diagnostic software
includes real time plotting and real time
logging capabilities. These features enhance
the ability to diagnose and repair possible
problems with the GCP system. Both plotting
and logging allows the user to record, in real
time, any variable that can be seen in the
GCP_Dis software. In order to record variables,
the GCP_Dis software must be “Connected” to
the GCP.
Plotting
To plot a variable, you must first “TAG” the
variable. To do this, use the mouse to right click
on the variable. The variable will highlight in
green to let you know it is “TAGGED”.
Next, press the “P” key or click the Plot/Log
button and then click the Plot Tags button to
invoke the plotting feature. This begins the plot
function and you can observe the plotted
variables. The plot sweeps from right to left. To
stop the plotting feature, simply click the
“Freeze”. To restart the plotter, click on the
“Resume” button. The maximum number of
variables that can be plotted at one time is 10.
The range of the selected variables will be
shown on the Y-axis and the time will be shown
on the x-axis. You may change the desired time
interval and sample interval for the plot by
stopping the plot and typing in a new intervals.
The following are examples showing the Edis
Log box before starting a log file, when running
the log file the progress bar will move.
The plot can be saved to the PC by stopping the
plot and clicking “File” then “SAVE”. When
saving a plot, you will have to type in a filename.
Plot files can later be viewed with the
edis_saplot software located in the Windows
Start Programs GCP_Dis folder, or the data can
be viewed in Notepad or Excel.
08 ‐ 32 TSG‐416 Engine Controls Ignition System Test
Injector Test
The Spark Kill diagnostic mode allows the
technician to disable the ignition on individual
cylinders. If the Spark Kill diagnostic mode is
selected with the engine running below 1000
RPM, the minimum throttle command will lock
into the position it was in when the test mode
was entered. If the Spark System Test mode is
selected with the engine running above 1000
RPM, the throttle will continue to operate
normally.
The Injector Kill mode is used to disable
individual fuel injectors. If the Injector Kill mode
is selected with the engine running below 1000
RPM, the minimum throttle command will lock
into the position it was in when the test mode
was entered. If the Injector Kill mode is selected
with the engine running above 1000 RPM, the
throttle will continue to operate normally.
Spark kill is only available on gasoline, NOT on
gaseous fuels.These diagnostic modes are
found on the faults page.
To disable an injector, use the mouse to select
the desired injector. The word “Normal” will
change to the Injector you have selected. The
injector driver can be re-enabled by selecting
again. If the engine is running below 1000 RPM,
the injector driver will stay disabled for 15
seconds and then re-set. If the engine is running
above 1000 RPM, the injector driver will stay
disabled for 5 seconds and then re-set. Record
the change in rpm or closed loop multiplier while
each driver is disabled.
Disabling Injectors
Disabling Ignition Ouputs
To disable the ignition system for an individual
cylinder, use the mouse to highlight the “Spark
Kill” button and select the desired coil. The spark
output can be re-enabled by using the mouse to
highlight the “Spark Kill” button and selecting
“Normal”. If the engine is running below 1000
RPM, the spark output will stay disabled for 15
seconds and then re-set. If the engine is running
above 1000 RPM, the spark output will stay
disabled for 5 seconds and then reset.
This test mode has a timeout of 10 seconds.
Record the rpm drop related to each spark
output disabled.
The Spark outputs are arranged in the order
which the engine fires, not by cylinder number.
08 ‐ 33 TSG‐416 Engine Controls Throttle Test
RAW VOLTS Screen
The RAW VOLTS screen shows actual voltage
readings from various circuits.
To select this test mode the engine must be off,
but the key must be in the ON position.
Use the
keys at the upper left corner or
the “page” command to toggle the three main
screens (GAUGES, FAULTS AND RAW
VOLTS).
The DBW Test mode allows the technician to
control the throttle directly (without the engine
running) with the foot pedal or entering a
number into the “TPS Command” box. It is used
during the diagnostic routines specified for FPP
(foot pedal position) and TPS (throttle position
sensor) related faults.
NOTE: F9 key will toggle to the last screen you
were on.
FP position displays the current position of the
foot pedal as a percentage. FPP volts display
the voltage that the GCP is reading from the
FPP sensor.
TPS Command displays the commanded throttle
position expressed as a percentage, which is
being sent to the throttle. TPS Position is the
actual percent of throttle opening being sent to
the GCP from the throttle. TPS volts display the
actual TPS signal voltage the GCP is receiving
from the throttle.
08 ‐ 34 TSG‐416 Engine Controls Intermittent Problems
Visual Inspection
Perform a careful visual and physical engine
inspection before performing any diagnostic
procedure. Perform all necessary repairs before
proceeding with additional diagnosis, this can
often lead to repairing a problem without
performing unnecessary steps. Use the following
guidelines when performing a visual/physical
inspection check:










NOTE: An intermittent problem may or may not
turn on the MIL or store a DTC. Do not use the
DTC charts for intermittent problems. The fault
must be present to locate the problem.
NOTE: Most intermittent problems are caused
by faulty electrical connections or wiring.
Perform a careful visual inspection for the
following conditions:
Inspect engine for modifications or
aftermarket equipment that can
contribute to the symptom; verify that all
electrical and mechanical loads or
accessory equipment is “OFF” or
disconnected before performing
diagnosis.
Inspect engine fluids for correct levels
and evidence of leaks.
Inspect vacuum hoses for damage,
leaks, cracks, kinks and improper
routing, inspect intake manifold sealing
surface for a possible vacuum leak.
Inspect PCV valve for proper installation
and operation.
Inspect all wires and harnesses for
proper connections and routing; bent or
broken connector pins; burned, chafed,
or pinched wires; and corrosion. Verify
that harness grounds are clean and
tight.
Inspect GCP, sensors and actuators for
physical damage.
Inspect GCP grounds for cleanliness,
tightness, and proper location.
Inspect fuel system for adequate fuel
level, and fuel quality (concerns such as
proper octane, contamination,
winter/summer blend).
Inspect intake air system and air filter for
restrictions.
Inspect battery condition and starter
current draw.





Poor mating of the connector halves or
a terminal not fully seated in the
connector (backed out).
Improperly formed or damaged
terminals
Improper contact tension. All connector
terminals in the problem circuit should
be carefully checked.
Poor terminal-to-wire connections. This
requires removing the terminal from the
connector body to check.
Improperly installed aftermarket
equipment or accessories.
Operate the engine with accessories “OFF” and
a suitable multimeter connected to the
suspected circuit. An abnormal voltage when the
malfunction occurs is a good indication that
there is a fault in the circuit being monitored.
To check GCP for loss of diagnostic code
memory, disconnect the MAP sensor connector
and idle the engine until the MIL illuminates.
Perform MIL DTC retrieval procedure. DTC
should be stored and kept in memory when the
ignition is turned “OFF”. If not, the GCP is faulty.
When this test is completed, make sure that you
clear the DTC from memory. An intermittent
MIL with no stored DTC may be caused by the
following:

If no evidence of a problem is found after visual
inspection has been performed, proceed to
“Diagnostic System Check”


08 ‐ 35 Ignition coil shorted to ground and
arcing at plugs.
MIL circuit to GCP shorted to ground.
Poor GCP grounds.
TSG‐416 Engine Controls NOTE: Items listed in the possible cause column
generally do not set a diagnostic trouble code
(DTC) or illuminate the MIL light.
Symptom Charts
NOTE: If you have a symptom of the pedal not
working, and no DTC is set, go to the voltage
screen and check pedal voltage. If pedal voltage
is.75-1.25 volts, and idle validation switch says
you're at idle - replace the pedal.
NOTE: EDI engines are used in many different
applications and equipment. When performing
any system diagnosis be aware of any OEM
inputs or equipment monitoring devices that may
have an effect on the engine’s performance or
any of the engine’s operating systems.
Engine Performance - No Load
SYMPTOM
Engine Runs Briefly and
Shuts Down
POSSIBLE CAUSE






Engine Cranks But No Start
Engine Runs Poorly
Engine Cranks Slowly
Engine Does Not Crank
























Loss of Spark
Frozen Fuel Regulator (Dry Fuel)
Low Fuel Pressure
Air Inlet Restriction
Wiring Failure
GCP Failure





Faulty OEM Drivers Safety Shut-Off Seat Switch
Coil Power Loss
GCP Ground Loss
GCP Power Loss
Severe Vacuum Leak (Dry Fuel)
Air Inlet Restriction
Air Inlet Leak (Dry Fuel)
Fuel Lock-Off Inoperative (Dry Fuel)
Wiring Failure
Low Fuel Pressure
Ancillary Components Binding
High Fuel Pressure
Low Fuel Pressure
Contaminated Fuel
Incorrect Fuel Select Table Selected
Wrong GCP Installed
Actuator Air Blockage
Map Sensor Leak
Fuel Contaminated
Noise Suppression Capacitor Failure
Improper PCV Routing
Valve Timing
Low Cylinder Compression
Excessive Engine Load (Hydraulic Pump Failing, Binding Ancillary
Drive Components)\
Low Battery Voltage
Incorrect Battery Specifications
Incorrect Battery Cable Size
Starter Relay
Starter Failure (Excessive Drain)









Dead Battery
Ground Loss
Ancillary Components Binding or Seized
OEM Shutdown - Oil Level Safety
Starter Lockout Relay Failure
Ignition Switch Failure
Bad Starter
Crank Control Wire Failure
Loose Connection or Corrosion
08 ‐ 36 TSG‐416 Engine Controls Engine Performance - While Under Load
SYMPTOM
Engine Stalls/Quits
Runs Rough
Misses
Hesitation/Stumble
Surge
Backfires
Lack of Power
Spark Knock
POSSIBLE CAUSE



















































Faulty OEM Drivers Safety Shut-off Seat Switch
Low Battery Voltage
Low Fuel Pressure
OEM Safety Shutdowns
Bad MAP Sensor
Air Restriction
Coil Failure
Fuel Mixer Binding (Dry Fuel)
Ground Loss
Misrouted Spark Plug Wires
Fuel System Failure
Vacuum Leak
Wiring Failure
Low Fuel Pressure
Spark Plugs Fouled
Incorrect Valve Timing
Fuel System Failure
Misrouted Spark Plug Wires
Spark Plug Gap Too High
Spark Plugs Fouled
Cracked Spark Plug Insulator
Incorrect Valve Timing
Compression Loss
Low Fuel Pressure
Spark Plugs Fouled
MAP Sensor Vacuum Signal Loss
Low Fuel Pressure
Map Sensor Failure
Application or Ancillary System Momentarily Binding During Load or
Unload
Faulty OEM Drivers Safety Shut-off Seat Switch
Fouled Spark Plugs
Spark Plug Wire Broke
GCP Momentary Ground Loss
Excess Lean Condition
Fuel Lock-Off Leaking (Dry Fuel)
Intake Manifold Leak
Bad Intake Valve
Ancillary Components Binding
Intake Air Restriction
Crossed Spark Plug Wires
Spark Plugs Fouled
Fuel System Failure
Low Fuel Pressure
Low Cylinder Compression
Poor Quality or Contaminated Fuel
Carbon Build-up
Wrong Spark Plugs (Too High Heat Range)
Fuel Delivery System
PCV System
Fuel Selection Timing
Cylinder Hot Spots
08 ‐ 37 TSG‐416 Engine Controls Engine Concerns
SYMPTOM
Oil System Concerns
- High Oil Consumption
Cooling System Concerns
POSSIBLE CAUSE







Positive Crankcase Ventilation (PCV) System
Oil Viscosity
External Leaks
Improper Oil Dipstick
Valve Seals
Cylinder Wall Taper Excessive
Worn Piston Rings






Trapped Air
Worn Drive Belt
Worn Water Pump
Stuck Thermostat
Plugged Radiator (Internal & External)
Dry Fuel System Running Rich




Ignition System
Fuel Delivery System
Sticking Fuel Injector
High Fuel Pressure



PCV System
Worn Piston Rings
Worn valve guides




Leaky Lines
Contaminated Fuel
Excessive Alcohol in Fuel
Incorrect Octane Rating


Low Oil Pressure
Oil Filter Restriction
Exhaust System Concerns
(visible smoke)
- Black Smoke
- Blue Smoke
Fuel System Concerns
Engine Noise
08 ‐ 38 TSG‐416 Engine Controls Engine Control Module (GCP) –
Diagnostic Trouble Codes
CAUTION: When checking codes with the
diagnostic software, the DTC terminal can
NOT be grounded.
CAUTION: Removing battery power before
accessing diagnostic program will erase all
codes recorded.
This section contains circuit description
information and troubleshooting charts on all the
DTC’s obtained by diagnostic software or a
Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL). When
diagnostic trouble codes are obtained by a
Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL), the following
sequence will be flashed:

123 will flash 3 times to indicate the
beginning of the flash code display
sequence.

Any active DTC’s will flash 3 times each.

123 will flash 3 times indicating the end
of the code display sequence.
If code 123 is the only code present, the system
does not have any active codes - all systems are
working fine.
If an active DTC is present, refer to the GCP
diagnostic manual for code description and
troubleshooting.
NOTE: If you have a symptom of the pedal not
working, and no DTC is set, go to the voltage
screen and check pedal voltage. If pedal voltage
is .75 - 1.25 volts, and idle validation switch says
you’re at idle – replace the pedal.
08 ‐ 39 TSG‐416 Engine Controls 4. Remove plug.
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
Camshaft Position (CMP) Sensor Replacement
Crankshaft Position (CKP) Sensor Installation
1. Position CKP sensor and loosely install
the bolt.
2. Adjust the CKP sensor with the
alignment tool and tighten 2 bolts.
 Tighten to 7 Nm (62 lb-in).
3. Connect CKP sensor electrical
connector
1. Disconnect battery ground cable -- refer
to section 6.
2. Remove or disconnect any component
to allow access and removal of the CMP
Sensor.
3. Disconnect CMP electrical connector.
4. Remove bolt and CMP Sensor.
5. Reverse procedure to install:
 Use a new o-ring seal
 Lubricate o-ring with clean
engine oil prior to installation
 Tighten bolt to 7 Nm (62 lb-in).
Crankshaft Position (CKP) Sensor Removal
1. Disconnect battery ground cable -- refer
to section 6.
2. Remove or disconnect any component
to allow access and removal of the CKP
Sensor.
3. Disconnect CKP electrical connector.
08 ‐ 40 TSG‐416 Engine Controls Heated Oxygen Sensor (HO2S) Replacement
Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT)
Sensor- Replacement
NOTE: Removal steps in this procedure
may contain installation details.
1. Disconnect battery ground cable -- refer
to section 6
NOTE: The sensor is located at the rear of
the cylinder head.
1. NOTE: Lubricate the O-ring seal
with clean engine oil.
 Torque: 30 Nm
2. Disconnect battery ground cable -- refer
to section 6
3. Remove or disconnect any component
to allow access and removal of the
HO2S Sensor.
4. Disconnect HO2S electrical connector.
NOTE: Use penetrating oil to assist in removal.
Installation
5. Remove HO2S sensor.
1. To install, reverse the removal procedure.
6. Reverse procedure to install:
 Apply a light coat of anti-seize
lubricant to the threads of the
sensor.
 Tighten sensor to 40 Nm (30 lbft).
08 ‐ 41 TSG‐416 Engine Controls Temperature Manifold Absolute
Pressure (TMAP) Sensor Replacement
Knock Sensor (KS) – Replacement
1. Disconnect battery ground cable -- refer
to section 6.
2. Remove or disconnect any component
to allow access and removal of the
knock sensor.
3. Disconnect KS sensor electrical
connector.
1. Disconnect battery ground cable -- refer
to section 6.
2. Remove or disconnect any component
to allow access and removal of the
TMAP sensor.
3. Disconnect TMAP electrical connector.
4. Remove bolt and TMAP Sensor.
5. Reverse procedure to install:
a. Use a new o-ring seal
b. Tighten bolt to 3 Nm (2.2 lb-ft).
NOTE: The KS sensor is a one-time use item
and a new KS sensor must be installed.
4. Remove bolt and KS sensor and discard
sensor.
5. Reverse procedure to install:
 Install a new KS sensor
 Tighten bolt to 20 Nm (15 lb-ft).
08 ‐ 42 TSG‐416 Engine Controls 2. Disconnect the connector from the
throttle
3. Remove the bolts from the throttle to the
intake manifold
4. NOTE: The gasket is to be reused
Actuator/Throttle Position (TP)
Sensor - Replacement
unless damaged.
Installation
1. To install, reverse the removal
procedure.
 Torque bolts to 10 Nm
2. The gasket between the throttle and
intake manifold is to be reused
unless damaged.
Removal
NOTE: Removal steps in this procedure
may contain installation details.
1. Disconnect battery ground cable -- refer
to section 6
08 ‐ 43 TSG‐416 METRICS INDEX Subject Introduction………………………………………………….………………………………………………………………… Nomenclature for Bolts……………….…………….…………………………………………………………………………. Bolt Strength Identification ……………..…………………………………………………………………………………. Hex Nut Strength Identification …………………………………………………………………………………….…… Other Types of Parts……..…………………………………………………………………………….
English/Metric conversion ……………………………………..……………………………………. Decimal and Metric Equivalents………………………………………………………………………………………. Torque Conversion………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. J1930 Terminology List……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 09 ‐ 1 Page 09 ‐ 2 09 – 2 09 – 3 09 – 3 09 – 4 09 – 5 09 – 6 09 – 6 09 ‐ 7 TSG‐416 METRICS INTRODUCTION Most threaded fasteners are covered by specifications that define required mechanical properties, such
as tensile strength, yield strength, proof load and hardness. These specifications are carefully considered
in initial selection of fasteners for a given application. To ensure continued satisfactory vehicle
performance, replacement fasteners used should be of the correct strength, as well as the correct
nominal diameter, thread pitch, length, and finish.
Most original equipment fasteners (English or Metric system) are identified with markings or numbers
indicating the strength of the fastener. These markings are described in the pages that follow. Attention to
these markings is important to ensure that the proper replacement fasteners are used.
Further, some metric fasteners, especially nuts, are colored blue. This metric blue identification is in most
cases a temporary aid for production start-up, and color will generally revert to normal black or bright after
start-up.
English or Metric system fasteners are available through your Ford Parts and Service operation.
NOMENCLATURE FOR BOLTS * The Property class is an Arabic numeral distinguishable from the slash SAE English grade system.
** The length of all bolts is measured from the underside of the head to the end.
09 ‐ 2 TSG‐416 METRICS BOLT STRENGTH IDENTIFICATION
English System
English (inch) bolts: Identification marks correspond to bolt strength, increasing number of slashes
represent increasing strength.
Metric System
Metric (mm) bolts: Identification class numbers correspond to bolt strength, increasing numbers
represent increasing strength. Common metric fastener bolt strength properties are 9.8 and 10.9 with the
class identification embossed on the bolt head.
HEX NUT STRENGTH IDENTIFICATION
09 ‐ 3 TSG‐416 METRICS OTHER TYPES OF PARTS
Metric identification schemes vary by type of part, most often a variation of that used of bolts and nuts.
Note that many types of English and Metric fasteners carry no special identification if they are otherwise
unique.
09 ‐ 4 TSG‐416 METRICS ENGLISH/METRIC CONVERSION
09 ‐ 5 TSG‐416 METRICS DECIMAL AND METRIC
EQUIVALENTS
TORQUE CONVERSION
09 ‐ 6 TSG‐416 METRICS J1930 TERMINOLOGY LIST
Certain Ford Component names have been changed in this Service Manual to conform to Society of
Automotive Engineers (SAE) directive J1930.
SAE J1930 standardizes automotive component names for all vehicle manufacturers.
09 ‐ 7 TSG‐416 METRICS 09 ‐ 8 TSG‐416 METRICS 09 ‐ 9 TSG‐416 METRICS 09 ‐ 10 TSG‐416 METRICS 09 ‐ 11 TSG‐416 METRICS 09 ‐ 12 TSG‐416 METRICS 09 ‐ 13 TSG‐416 METRICS 09 ‐ 14 EDI Ford Industrial Engine Distributor List
AUSTRALIA
All Marine Spares
10 Wilmette Place Mona Vale N.S.W. Australia 2103
Fornaut S.A.
45, Rue Charles Nodier, 93310 Le‐ 33‐148‐450‐394 33
Pre‐St.‐Gervais France
148‐457‐504
61‐2‐99972788
EUROPE
FRANCE
GERMANY
GREAT BRITAIN
ITALY
NETHERLANDS
Sauer & Sohn Sauer Gross Zimmerner Strasse 51 D‐
Motive Systems
64807 Dieburg Germany 49‐6071‐206‐330 49‐6071‐206‐219
Hendy Power
School Lane Chandlers Ford Industrial Estate, 44‐2380‐579‐800 Eastleigh, Hampshire SO53 4DG 44‐2380‐271‐471
England
Power Torque Engineering
Herald Way, Binly, Conventry Warwichshire CV3 2RQ England
Compagnia Technica Motori S.p.A.
Via Magellano 1, I‐20090 39‐02‐450‐581 39‐
Cesano Boscone, (Milano) Italy 02‐450‐582(60/62)
My Power Products
Houtzaagmolen 41 MIJDRECHT 03‐129‐758‐1555
Netherlands NL 364
44‐2476‐635‐757 44‐2476‐635‐878
MEXICO
Equipos y Motores Ave. Cuitlahuac No. 700 Col. Ind. Popotla 11400 Mexico, D.F.
52‐55‐5341‐9066
NORTH AMERICA ‐ UNITED STATES
ALABAMA
ALASKA
ARIZONA
5400 C.W. Post Road 1‐800‐562‐8049
Jonesboro, AR 72401 6100 S. 6th Way Perkins Pacific
877‐877‐3311
Ridgefield, WA 98642
Southwest Power 5143 W. Roosevelt Phoenix, 602‐269‐3581
Products
AX 85043
Engines, Inc.
5400 C.W. Post Road 1‐800‐562‐8049
Jonesboro, AR 72401 ARKANSAS
Engines, Inc.
CALIFORNIA
Powertech Engines 2933 E. Hamilton Ave. Inc (Main Office)
Fresno, CA 93721 1410 South Acacia Ave. Powertech Engines Suite B Inc.
Fullerton, CA 92831
COLORADA
CONNECTICUT
DELAWARE
FLORIDA
GEORGIA
Anderson Industrial 5532 Center Street Engines Co.
Ohmaha, NE 68106
Engine Distributors Inc. Engine Distributors Inc. Engine Distributors Inc. Engine Distributors Inc. Engine Distributors Inc. HAWAII
Perkins Pacific
IDAHO
Perkins Pacific
ILLINOIS
Diesel Power Equipment
INDIANA
McDonald Equip.
IOWA
KENTUCKY
KANSAS
41 Pope Road Holliston, MA 01746
400 University Court Blackwood, NJ 08012
259 Ellis Rd. South Jacksonville, FL 32254
2917 S. W. Second Ave. Fort
Lauderdale, FL 33315
259 Ellis Rd. South Jacksonville, FL 32254
6100 S. 6th Way Ridgefield, WA 98642
6100 S. 6th Way Ridgefield, WA 98642
1211 Lyon Rd. Batavia, IL 60510
37200 Vine St. Willoughby, Ohio 44094
Anderson Industrial 5532 Center Street Engines Co.
Ohmaha, NE 68106
Engines, Inc.
1‐559‐264‐1776 1‐800‐891‐1776 1‐559‐264‐2933
1‐714‐635‐1774 1‐800‐678‐3673 1‐714‐635‐1771
402‐558‐8700
1‐800‐220‐2700
1‐800‐220‐2700
1‐800‐220‐2700
1‐800‐220‐2700
1‐800‐220‐2700
877‐877‐3311
877‐877‐3311
877‐876‐3732
1‐800‐589‐9025
402‐558‐8700
5400 C.W. Post Road 1‐800‐562‐8049
Jonesboro, AR 72401 Anderson Industrial 5532 Center Street Engines Co.
Ohmaha, NE 68106
402‐558‐8700
NORTH AMERICA ‐ UNITED STATES
LOUISIANA
Engines , Inc.
5400 C.W. Post Road 1‐800‐562‐8049
Jonesboro, AR 72401 MAINE
Engine Distributors 41 Pope Road Inc. Holliston, MA 01746
1‐800‐220‐2700
MARYLAND
Engine Distributors 400 University Court Inc. Blackwood, NJ 08012
1‐800‐220‐2700
MASSACHUSETTS
MICHIGAN
MINNESOTA
Engine Distributors 41 Pope Road 1‐800‐220‐2701
Inc. Holliston, MA 01746
1217 East Grand River McDonald Equip.
1‐800‐445‐5273
Portland, MI 48875
Diesel Power 13619 Industrial Rd. 800‐999‐5689
Equipment
Omaha, NE 68137
5400 C.W. Post Road 1‐800‐562‐8049
Jonesboro, AR 72401 MISSISSIPPI
Engines, Inc.
MISSOURI
Diesel Power Equipment
MONTANA
Perkins Pacific
NEBRASKA
Anderson Industrial 5532 Center Street Engines Co.
Ohmaha, NE 68106
NEVADA
NEW HAMPSHIRE
NEW JERSERY
NEW YORK
NEW MEXICO
NORTH DAKOTA
NORTH CAROLINA
OHIO
OKLAHOMA
OREGON
Southwest Power Products
Engine Distributors Inc. Engine Distributors Inc. Engine Distributors Inc. Southwest Power Products
Diesel Power Equipment
Engine Distributors Inc. McDonald Equip.
M.G. Bryan
Perkins Pacific
13619 Industrial Rd. Omaha, NE 68137
6100 S. 6th Way Ridgefield, WA 98642
5143 W. Roosevelt Phoenix, AX 85043
41 Pope Road Holliston, MA 01746
400 University Court Blackwood, NJ 08012
400 University Court Blackwood, NJ 08012
5143 W. Roosevelt Phoenix, AX 85043
13619 Industrial Rd. Omaha, NE 68137
303 Interstate Dr. Archdale, NC 27263
37200 Vine St. Willoughby, Ohio 44094
1906 S. Great S.W. Parkway Grand Prairie, TX 75051
6100 S. 6th Way Ridgefield, WA 98642
800‐999‐5689
877‐877‐3311
402‐558‐8700
602‐269‐3581
1‐800‐220‐2700
1‐800‐220‐2700
1‐800‐220‐2700
602‐269‐3581
800‐999‐5689
1‐800‐220‐2700
1‐800‐589‐9025
972‐623‐4300
877‐877‐3311
NORTH AMERICA ‐ UNITED STATES
EASTERN PENNSYLVANIA
WESTERN PENNSYLVANIA
RHODE ISLAND
SOUTH CAROLINA
SOUTH DAKOTA
TENNESSEE
TEXAS
UTAH
WASHINGTON
WEST VIRGINIA
WISCONSIN
WYOMING
VERMONT
VIRGINIA
Engine Distributors 400 University Court Inc. Blackwood, NJ 08012
37200 Vine St. McDonald Equip.
Willoughby, Ohio 44094
Engine Distributors 41 Pope Road Inc. Holliston, MA 01746
Engine Distributors 259 Ellis Rd. South Inc. Jacksonville, FL 32254
Diesel Power 13619 Industrial Rd. Equipment
Omaha, NE 68137
Engines, Inc.
1‐800‐220‐2700
1‐800‐589‐9025
1‐800‐220‐2700
1‐800‐220‐2700
800‐999‐5689
5400 C.W. Post Road 1‐800‐562‐8049
Jonesboro, AR 72401 1906 S. Great S.W. Parkway 972‐623‐4300
Grand Prairie, TX 75051
6100 S. 6th Way Perkins Pacific
877‐877‐3311
Ridgefield, WA 98642
6100 S. 6th Way Perkins Pacific
877‐877‐3311
Ridgefield, WA 98642
Engine Distributors 400 University Court 1‐800‐220‐2700
Inc. Blackwood, NJ 08012
Diesel Power 13619 Industrial Rd. 800‐999‐5689
Equipment
Omaha, NE 68137
6100 S. 6th Way Perkins Pacific
877‐877‐3311
Ridgefield, WA 98642
Engine Distributors 400 University Court 1‐800‐220‐2700
Inc. Blackwood, NJ 08012
Engine Distributors 303 Interstate Dr. 1‐800‐220‐2700
Inc. Archdale, NC 27263
M.G. Bryan
NORTH AMERICA ‐ CANADA
14355 120th Ave. ALBERTA, Industrial Engines Edmonton, Alberta Canada, SASKATCHEWAN
Ltd. T5L 2R8
780‐484‐6213
ALBERTA, Simson Maxwell
SASKATCHEWAN
8750‐58th Avenue, Edmonton,AB 1‐800‐374‐6766
Canada T6E 6G6
ALBERTA, Simson Maxwell
SASKATCHEWAN
5711‐80 Avenue SE,Calgary,AB Canada T2C 4S6
1‐800‐374‐6766
Simson Maxwell
1605 Kebet Way Port C, BC Canada V3C 5W9
1‐800‐374‐6766
Simson Maxwell
#12‐4131 Mostar Road, Nanaimo 1‐800‐374‐6766
BC, Canada V9T 5P8
Simson Maxwell
1846 Quinn Street, Prince George, BC Canada V2L 3H4
MARINDUSTRIAL
8550 Delmeade Montreal, QUEBEC Canada, H4T 1L7
514‐342‐2748
DAC Industrial Engines, Inc.
10 Akerley Blvd., Unit 61 Dartmouth, NS, B3B 1J4
902‐468‐3765 877‐468‐3765
MARINDUSTRIAL
2320 Bristol Circle, Unit 8 Oakville, ON L6H 5S3
BRITISH COLUMBIA
MONTREAL
NEW BRUNSWICK, NOVA SCOTIA, NEWFOUNDLAND
ONTARIO
1‐800‐374‐6766
1‐800‐866‐3831
EDI Worldwide Service
Engine Distributors Inc.
400 University Court
Blackwood, NJ 08012
Service/Warranty
1‐800‐220‐2700
1‐856‐228‐7298
1‐856‐228‐5657 (fax parts & service)
1‐856‐228‐5531 (fax sales)
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