BL - Scene7
SEBU8601-01
December 2010
Operation and
Maintenance
Manual
1206E-E70TTA Industrial Engine
BL (Engine)
Important Safety Information
Most accidents that involve product operation, maintenance and repair are caused by failure to
observe basic safety rules or precautions. An accident can often be avoided by recognizing potentially
hazardous situations before an accident occurs. A person must be alert to potential hazards. This
person should also have the necessary training, skills and tools to perform these functions properly.
Improper operation, lubrication, maintenance or repair of this product can be dangerous and
could result in injury or death.
Do not operate or perform any lubrication, maintenance or repair on this product, until you have
read and understood the operation, lubrication, maintenance and repair information.
Safety precautions and warnings are provided in this manual and on the product. If these hazard
warnings are not heeded, bodily injury or death could occur to you or to other persons.
The hazards are identified by the “Safety Alert Symbol” and followed by a “Signal Word” such as
“DANGER”, “WARNING” or “CAUTION”. The Safety Alert “WARNING” label is shown below.
The meaning of this safety alert symbol is as follows:
Attention! Become Alert! Your Safety is Involved.
The message that appears under the warning explains the hazard and can be either written or
pictorially presented.
Operations that may cause product damage are identified by “NOTICE” labels on the product and in
this publication.
Perkins cannot anticipate every possible circumstance that might involve a potential hazard. The
warnings in this publication and on the product are, therefore, not all inclusive. If a tool, procedure,
work method or operating technique that is not specifically recommended by Perkins is used,
you must satisfy yourself that it is safe for you and for others. You should also ensure that the
product will not be damaged or be made unsafe by the operation, lubrication, maintenance or
repair procedures that you choose.
The information, specifications, and illustrations in this publication are on the basis of information that
was available at the time that the publication was written. The specifications, torques, pressures,
measurements, adjustments, illustrations, and other items can change at any time. These changes can
affect the service that is given to the product. Obtain the complete and most current information before
you start any job. Perkins dealers or Perkins distributors have the most current information available.
When replacement parts are required for this
product Perkins recommends using Perkins
replacement parts.
Failure to heed this warning can lead to premature failures, product damage, personal injury or
death.
SEBU8601-01
Table of Contents
3
Table of Contents
Maintenance Interval Schedule ............................ 88
Warranty Section
Foreword ................................................................. 4
Safety Section
Safety Messages .................................................... 5
General Hazard Information ................................... 7
Burn Prevention .................................................... 10
Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention ............. 11
Crushing Prevention and Cutting Prevention ........ 13
Mounting and Dismounting ................................... 13
High Pressure Fuel Lines ..................................... 13
Before Starting Engine .......................................... 15
Engine Starting ..................................................... 15
Engine Stopping ................................................... 15
Electrical System .................................................. 16
Engine Electronics ................................................ 17
Product Information Section
Model Views ......................................................... 19
Product Identification Information ........................ 27
Operation Section
Lifting and Storage ................................................ 30
Gauges and Indicators .......................................... 34
Features and Controls .......................................... 36
Engine Diagnostics ............................................... 46
Engine Starting ..................................................... 58
Engine Operation .................................................. 61
Engine Stopping ................................................... 66
Cold Weather Operation ....................................... 68
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities .................................................... 72
Maintenance Recommendations .......................... 86
Warranty Information .......................................... 125
Reference Information Section
Reference Materials ............................................ 129
Index Section
Index ................................................................... 130
4
Foreword
Foreword
Literature Information
This manual contains safety, operation instructions,
lubrication and maintenance information. This
manual should be stored in or near the engine area
in a literature holder or literature storage area. Read,
study and keep it with the literature and engine
information.
English is the primary language for all Perkins
publications. The English used facilitates translation
and consistency.
Some photographs or illustrations in this manual
show details or attachments that may be different
from your engine. Guards and covers may have
been removed for illustrative purposes. Continuing
improvement and advancement of product design
may have caused changes to your engine which are
not included in this manual. Whenever a question
arises regarding your engine, or this manual, please
consult with your Perkins dealer or your Perkins
distributor for the latest available information.
Safety
This safety section lists basic safety precautions.
In addition, this section identifies hazardous,
warning situations. Read and understand the basic
precautions listed in the safety section before
operating or performing lubrication, maintenance and
repair on this product.
Operation
Operating techniques outlined in this manual are
basic. They assist with developing the skills and
techniques required to operate the engine more
efficiently and economically. Skill and techniques
develop as the operator gains knowledge of the
engine and its capabilities.
The operation section is a reference for operators.
Photographs and illustrations guide the operator
through procedures of inspecting, starting, operating
and stopping the engine. This section also includes a
discussion of electronic diagnostic information.
Maintenance
The maintenance section is a guide to engine care.
The illustrated, step-by-step instructions are grouped
by service hours and/or calendar time maintenance
intervals. Items in the maintenance schedule are
referenced to detailed instructions that follow.
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Recommended service should be performed at the
appropriate intervals as indicated in the Maintenance
Interval Schedule. The actual operating environment
of the engine also governs the Maintenance Interval
Schedule. Therefore, under extremely severe,
dusty, wet or freezing cold operating conditions,
more frequent lubrication and maintenance than is
specified in the Maintenance Interval Schedule may
be necessary.
The maintenance schedule items are organized for
a preventive maintenance management program. If
the preventive maintenance program is followed, a
periodic tune-up is not required. The implementation
of a preventive maintenance management program
should minimize operating costs through cost
avoidances resulting from reductions in unscheduled
downtime and failures.
Maintenance Intervals
Perform maintenance on items at multiples of
the original requirement. We recommend that the
maintenance schedules be reproduced and displayed
near the engine as a convenient reminder. We also
recommend that a maintenance record be maintained
as part of the engine's permanent record.
Your authorized Perkins dealer or your Perkins
distributor can assist you in adjusting your
maintenance schedule to meet the needs of your
operating environment.
Overhaul
Major engine overhaul details are not covered in
the Operation and Maintenance Manual except
for the interval and the maintenance items in that
interval. Major repairs should only be carried out by
Perkins authorized personnel. Your Perkins dealer
or your Perkins distributor offers a variety of options
regarding overhaul programs. If you experience
a major engine failure, there are also numerous
after failure overhaul options available. Consult with
your Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor for
information regarding these options.
California Proposition 65 Warning
Diesel engine exhaust and some of its constituents
are known to the State of California to cause cancer,
birth defects, and other reproductive harm. Battery
posts, terminals and related accessories contain lead
and lead compounds. Wash hands after handling.
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5
Safety Section
Safety Messages
Safety Section
i03937271
Safety Messages
There may be several specific warning signs on your
engine. The exact location and a description of the
warning signs are reviewed in this section. Please
become familiar with all warning signs.
Ensure that all of the warning signs are legible. Clean
the warning signs or replace the warning signs if
the words cannot be read or if the illustrations are
not visible. Use a cloth, water, and soap to clean
the warning signs. Do not use solvents, gasoline, or
other harsh chemicals. Solvents, gasoline, or harsh
chemicals could loosen the adhesive that secures the
warning signs. The warning signs that are loosened
could drop off the engine.
Replace any warning sign that is damaged or
missing. If a warning sign is attached to a part of the
engine that is replaced, install a new warning sign on
the replacement part. Your Perkins distributor can
provide new warning signs.
(1) Universal Warning
Do not operate or work on this equipment unless
you have read and understand the instructions
and warnings in the Operation and Maintenance
Manuals. Failure to follow the instructions or
heed the warnings could result in serious injury
or death.
Illustration 1
Typical example
g01154807
The Universal Warning label (1) is located in two
positions. The warning labels are located on the front
right side of the valve mechanism cover and located
on the top of the NOx reduction system NRS.
6
Safety Section
Safety Messages
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g02305279
Illustration 2
(1) Universal warning
(2) Ether
Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such as
ether. Such use could result in an explosion and
personal injury.
Illustration 3
g01154809
Typical example
The ether warning label (2) is located on the top of
the reduction system (NRS).
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7
Safety Section
General Hazard Information
g02305282
Illustration 4
(2) Ether
(3) Hand (High Pressure
(3) Hand (High Pressure)
i03566024
General Hazard Information
Contact with high pressure fuel may cause fluid
penetration and burn hazards. High pressure fuel spray may cause a fire hazard. Failure to follow these inspection, maintenance and service instructions may cause personal injury or death.
Illustration 6
Illustration 5
g01154858
Typical example
The warning label for the Hand (High Pressure) (3) is
located on a high-pressure fuel line.
g00104545
Attach a “Do Not Operate” warning tag or a similar
warning tag to the start switch or to the controls
before the engine is serviced or before the engine is
repaired. Attach the warning tags to the engine and to
each operator control station. When it is appropriate,
disconnect the starting controls.
Do not allow unauthorized personnel on the engine,
or around the engine when the engine is being
serviced.
• Tampering with the engine installation or tampering
with the OEM supplied wiring can be dangerous.
Personal injury, death and/or engine damage could
result.
8
Safety Section
General Hazard Information
• Vent the engine exhaust to the outside when the
engine is operated in an enclosed area.
• If the engine is not running, do not release the
secondary brake or the parking brake systems
unless the vehicle is blocked or unless the vehicle
is restrained.
• Wear a hard hat, protective glasses, and other
protective equipment, as required.
• When work is performed around an engine that is
operating, wear protective devices for ears in order
to help prevent damage to hearing.
• Do not wear loose clothing or jewelry that can snag
on controls or on other parts of the engine.
• Ensure that all protective guards and all covers are
secured in place on the engine.
• Never put maintenance fluids into glass containers.
Glass containers can break.
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• For initial start-up of a new engine or for starting an
engine that has been serviced, make provisions to
stop the engine if an overspeed occurs. This may
be accomplished by shutting off the fuel supply
and/or the air supply to the engine.
• Start the engine from the operator's station (cab).
Never short across the starting motor terminals or
the batteries. This could bypass the engine neutral
start system and/or the electrical system could be
damaged.
Engine exhaust contains products of combustion
which may be harmful to your health. Always start the
engine and operate the engine in a well ventilated
area. If the engine is in an enclosed area, vent the
engine exhaust to the outside.
Cautiously remove the following parts. To help
prevent spraying or splashing of pressurized fluids,
hold a rag over the part that is being removed.
• Filler caps
• Use all cleaning solutions with care.
• Grease fittings
• Report all necessary repairs.
• Pressure taps
Unless other instructions are provided, perform the
maintenance under the following conditions:
• Breathers
• The engine is stopped. Ensure that the engine can
not be started.
• The protective locks or the controls are in the
applied position.
• Engage the secondary brakes or parking brakes.
• Drain plugs
Use caution when cover plates are removed.
Gradually loosen, but do not remove the last two
bolts or nuts that are located at opposite ends of
the cover plate or the device. Before removing the
last two bolts or nuts, pry the cover loose in order to
relieve any spring pressure or other pressure.
• Block the vehicle or restrain the vehicle before
maintenance or repairs are performed.
• Disconnect the batteries when maintenance
is performed or when the electrical system is
serviced. Disconnect the battery ground leads.
Tape the leads in order to help prevent sparks.
• Disconnect the connector for the unit injector that
is located on the valve cover base. This will help
prevent personal injury from the high voltage to the
unit injectors. Do not come in contact with the unit
injector terminals while the engine is operating.
• Do not attempt any repairs or any adjustments to
the engine while the engine is operating.
• Do not attempt any repairs that are not understood.
Use the proper tools. Replace any equipment that
is damaged or repair the equipment.
Illustration 7
g00702020
• Wear a hard hat, protective glasses, and other
protective equipment, as required.
• When work is performed around an engine that is
operating, wear protective devices for ears in order
to help prevent damage to hearing.
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9
Safety Section
General Hazard Information
• Do not wear loose clothing or jewelry that can snag
on controls or on other parts of the engine.
• Ensure that all protective guards and all covers are
secured in place on the engine.
• Never put maintenance fluids into glass containers.
Glass containers can break.
• Use all cleaning solutions with care.
• Report all necessary repairs.
Unless other instructions are provided, perform
the maintenance under the following conditions:
• The engine is stopped. Ensure that the engine
cannot be started.
• Disconnect the batteries when maintenance
is performed or when the electrical system is
serviced. Disconnect the battery ground leads.
Tape the leads in order to help prevent sparks.
• Do not attempt any repairs that are not understood.
Use the proper tools. Replace any equipment that
is damaged or repair the equipment.
Pressurized Air and Water
Pressurized air and/or water can cause debris
and/or hot water to be blown out. This could result in
personal injury.
When pressurized air and/or pressurized water is
used for cleaning, wear protective clothing, protective
shoes, and eye protection. Eye protection includes
goggles or a protective face shield.
The maximum air pressure for cleaning purposes
must be below 205 kPa (30 psi). The maximum
water pressure for cleaning purposes must be below
275 kPa (40 psi).
Illustration 8
g00687600
Always use a board or cardboard when you check
for a leak. Leaking fluid that is under pressure can
penetrate body tissue. Fluid penetration can cause
serious injury and possible death. A pin hole leak can
cause severe injury. If fluid is injected into your skin,
you must get treatment immediately. Seek treatment
from a doctor that is familiar with this type of injury.
Containing Fluid Spillage
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained
during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to
collect the fluid with suitable containers before opening any compartment or disassembling any component containing fluids.
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
mandates.
Asbestos Information
Fluid Penetration
Pressure can be trapped in the hydraulic circuit long
after the engine has been stopped. The pressure can
cause hydraulic fluid or items such as pipe plugs to
escape rapidly if the pressure is not relieved correctly.
Do not remove any hydraulic components or parts
until pressure has been relieved or personal injury
may occur. Do not disassemble any hydraulic
components or parts until pressure has been relieved
or personal injury may occur. Refer to the OEM
information for any procedures that are required to
relieve the hydraulic pressure.
Illustration 9
g00702022
10
Safety Section
Burn Prevention
Perkins replacement parts that are shipped from
Perkins are asbestos free. Perkins recommends
the use of only genuine Perkins replacement parts.
Use the following guidelines when you handle any
replacement parts that contain asbestos or when you
handle asbestos debris.
Use caution. Avoid inhaling dust that might be
generated when you handle components that contain
asbestos fibers. Inhaling this dust can be hazardous
to your health. The components that may contain
asbestos fibers are brake pads, brake bands, lining
material, clutch plates, and some gaskets. The
asbestos that is used in these components is usually
bound in a resin or sealed in some way. Normal
handling is not hazardous unless airborne dust that
contains asbestos is generated.
If dust that may contain asbestos is present, there
are several guidelines that should be followed:
• Never use compressed air for cleaning.
• Avoid brushing materials that contain asbestos.
• Avoid grinding materials that contain asbestos.
• Use a wet method in order to clean up asbestos
materials.
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Dispose of Waste Properly
Illustration 10
g00706404
Improperly disposing of waste can threaten the
environment. Potentially harmful fluids should be
disposed of according to local regulations.
Always use leakproof containers when you drain
fluids. Do not pour waste onto the ground, down a
drain, or into any source of water.
i04156653
Burn Prevention
• A vacuum cleaner that is equipped with a high
efficiency particulate air filter (HEPA) can also be
used.
• Use exhaust ventilation on permanent machining
jobs.
• Wear an approved respirator if there is no other
way to control the dust.
• Comply with applicable rules and regulations
for the work place. In the United States, use
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
(OSHA) requirements. These OSHA requirements
can be found in “29 CFR 1910.1001”.
• Obey environmental regulations for the disposal
of asbestos.
• Stay away from areas that might have asbestos
particles in the air.
Do not touch any part of an operating engine
system. The engine, the exhaust, and the engine
aftertreatment system can reach temperatures as
high as 650 °C (1202 °F) under normal operating
conditions. If the engine or the engine aftertreatment
system unexpectedly fails, the temperature of the
gas at the diesel particulate filter (DPF) may increase
to 900°C (1652°F).
At idle engine speed and/or zero vehicle speed,
an operator can request a manual regeneration.
Under this condition, the exhaust gas temperature
can reach 650 °C (1202 °F). Otherwise automatic
regeneration can produce exhaust gas temperatures
as high as 450 °C (842 °F).
Allow the engine system to cool before any
maintenance is performed. Relieve all pressure
in the air system, in the hydraulic system, in the
lubrication system, in the fuel system, or in the
cooling system before any lines, fittings, or related
items are disconnected.
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Contact with high pressure fuel may cause fluid
penetration and burn hazards. High pressure fuel spray may cause a fire hazard. Failure to follow these inspection, maintenance and service instructions may cause personal injury or death.
After the engine has stopped, you must wait for 10
minutes in order to allow the fuel pressure to be
purged from the high-pressure fuel lines before any
service or repair is performed on the engine fuel lines.
Allow the pressure to be purged in the air system, in
the hydraulic system, in the lubrication system, or
in the cooling system before any lines, fittings, or
related items are disconnected.
11
Safety Section
Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention
Cooling system conditioner contains alkali. Alkali can
cause personal injury. Do not allow alkali to contact
the skin, the eyes, or the mouth.
Oils
Hot oil and hot lubricating components can cause
personal injury. Do not allow hot oil to contact the
skin. Also, do not allow hot components to contact
the skin.
Batteries
Electrolyte is an acid. Electrolyte can cause personal
injury. Do not allow electrolyte to contact the skin or
the eyes. Always wear protective glasses for servicing
batteries. Wash hands after touching the batteries
and connectors. Use of gloves is recommended.
Induction System
i03652933
Sulfuric Acid Burn Hazard may cause serious personal injury or death.
Fire Prevention and Explosion
Prevention
The exhaust gas cooler may contain a small
amount of sulfuric acid. The use of fuel with sulfur levels greater than 15 ppm may increase the
amount of sulfuric acid formed. The sulfuric acid
may spill from the cooler during service of the
engine. The sulfuric acid will burn the eyes, skin
and clothing on contact. Always wear the appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) that
is noted on a material safety data sheet (MSDS)
for sulfuric acid. Always follow the directions for
first aid that are noted on a material safety data
sheet (MSDS) for sulfuric acid.
Coolant
When the engine is at operating temperature, the
engine coolant is hot. The coolant is also under
pressure. The radiator and all lines to the heaters or
to the engine contain hot coolant. The aftertreatment
regeneration device (ARD) is connected to the
coolant system and will contain hot coolant.
Any contact with hot coolant or with steam can cause
severe burns. Allow cooling system components to
cool before the cooling system is drained.
Check that the coolant level after the engine has
stopped and the engine has been allowed to cool.
Ensure that the filler cap is cool before removing the
filler cap. The filler cap must be cool enough to touch
with a bare hand. Remove the filler cap slowly in
order to relieve pressure.
Illustration 11
g00704000
All fuels, most lubricants, and some coolant mixtures
are flammable.
Flammable fluids that are leaking or spilled onto hot
surfaces or onto electrical components can cause
a fire. Fire may cause personal injury and property
damage.
After the emergency stop button is operated ensure
that you allow 15 minutes, before the engine covers
are removed.
Determine whether the engine will be operated in an
environment that allows combustible gases to be
drawn into the air inlet system. These gases could
cause the engine to overspeed. Personal injury,
property damage, or engine damage could result.
12
Safety Section
Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention
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If the application involves the presence of combustible
gases, consult your Perkins dealer and/or your
Perkins distributor for additional information about
suitable protection devices.
Ensure that the engine is stopped. Inspect all lines
and hoses for wear or for deterioration. The hoses
must be correctly routed. The lines and hoses must
have adequate support and secure clamps.
Remove all flammable combustible materials or
conductive materials such as fuel, oil, and debris from
the engine. Do not allow any flammable combustible
materials or conductive materials to accumulate on
the engine.
Oil filters and fuel filters must be correctly installed.
The filter housings must be tightened to the correct
torque. Refer to the Disassembly and Assembly
manual for more information.
Store fuels and lubricants in correctly marked
containers away from unauthorized persons. Store
oily rags and any flammable materials in protective
containers. Do not smoke in areas that are used for
storing flammable materials.
Do not expose the engine to any flame.
Exhaust shields (if equipped) protect hot exhaust
components from oil or fuel spray in case of a line,
a tube, or a seal failure. Exhaust shields must be
installed correctly.
Do not weld on lines or tanks that contain flammable
fluids. Do not flame cut lines or tanks that contain
flammable fluid. Clean any such lines or tanks
thoroughly with a nonflammable solvent prior to
welding or flame cutting.
Wiring must be kept in good condition. All electrical
wires must be correctly routed and securely attached.
Check all electrical wires daily. Repair any wires
that are loose or frayed before you operate the
engine. Clean all electrical connections and tighten
all electrical connections.
Illustration 12
g00704059
Use caution when you are refueling an engine. Do
not smoke while you are refueling an engine. Do not
refuel an engine near open flames or sparks. Always
stop the engine before refueling.
Eliminate all wiring that is unattached or unnecessary.
Do not use any wires or cables that are smaller than
the recommended gauge. Do not bypass any fuses
and/or circuit breakers.
Arcing or sparking could cause a fire. Secure
connections, recommended wiring, and correctly
maintained battery cables will help to prevent arcing
or sparking.
Contact with high pressure fuel may cause fluid
penetration and burn hazards. High pressure fuel spray may cause a fire hazard. Failure to follow these inspection, maintenance and service instructions may cause personal injury or death.
After the engine has stopped, you must wait for 10
minutes in order to allow the fuel pressure to be
purged from the high pressure fuel lines before any
service or repair is performed on the engine fuel lines.
Illustration 13
g00704135
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Gases from a battery can explode. Keep any open
flames or sparks away from the top of a battery. Do
not smoke in battery charging areas.
Never check the battery charge by placing a metal
object across the terminal posts. Use a voltmeter or
a hydrometer.
Incorrect jumper cable connections can cause
an explosion that can result in injury. Refer to
the Operation Section of this manual for specific
instructions.
Do not charge a frozen battery. This may cause an
explosion.
The batteries must be kept clean. The covers
(if equipped) must be kept on the cells. Use the
recommended cables, connections, and battery box
covers when the engine is operated.
Fire Extinguisher
Make sure that a fire extinguisher is available. Be
familiar with the operation of the fire extinguisher.
Inspect the fire extinguisher and service the fire
extinguisher regularly. Obey the recommendations
on the instruction plate.
13
Safety Section
Crushing Prevention and Cutting Prevention
i02143194
Crushing Prevention and
Cutting Prevention
Support the component correctly when work beneath
the component is performed.
Unless other maintenance instructions are provided,
never attempt adjustments while the engine is
running.
Stay clear of all rotating parts and of all moving
parts. Leave the guards in place until maintenance
is performed. After the maintenance is performed,
reinstall the guards.
Keep objects away from moving fan blades. The fan
blades will throw objects or cut objects.
When objects are struck, wear protective glasses in
order to avoid injury to the eyes.
Chips or other debris may fly off objects when objects
are struck. Before objects are struck, ensure that no
one will be injured by flying debris.
Lines, Tubes and Hoses
Do not bend high pressure lines. Do not strike high
pressure lines. Do not install any lines that are
damaged.
Leaks can cause fires. Consult your Perkins dealer
or your Perkins distributor for replacement parts.
Replace the parts if any of the following conditions
are present:
• High pressure fuel line or lines are removed.
i04016709
Mounting and Dismounting
Do not climb on the engine or the engine
aftertreatment. The engine and aftertreatment have
not been designed with mounting or dismounting
locations.
Refer to the OEM for the location of foot and hand
holds for your specific application.
• End fittings are damaged or leaking.
• Outer coverings are chafed or cut.
i03550790
High Pressure Fuel Lines
• Wires are exposed.
• Outer coverings are ballooning.
• Flexible part of the hoses are kinked.
• Outer covers have embedded armoring.
• End fittings are displaced.
Make sure that all clamps, guards, and heat shields
are installed correctly. During engine operation, this
will help to prevent vibration, rubbing against other
parts, and excessive heat.
Contact with high pressure fuel may cause fluid
penetration and burn hazards. High pressure fuel spray may cause a fire hazard. Failure to follow these inspection, maintenance and service instructions may cause personal injury or death.
14
Safety Section
High Pressure Fuel Lines
SEBU8601-01
g01877473
Illustration 14
(1) High pressure line
(2) High pressure line
(3) High pressure line
(4) High pressure line
(5) High pressure line
(6) High pressure line
The high pressure fuel lines are the fuel lines that
are between the high pressure fuel pump and the
high pressure fuel manifold and the fuel lines that are
between the fuel manifold and cylinder head. These
fuel lines are different from fuel lines on other fuel
systems.
(7) High pressure fuel manifold (rail)
(8) High pressure line
(9) Fuel transfer line that is high pressure
Visually inspect the high pressure fuel lines before
the engine is started. This inspection should be each
day.
This is because of the following items:
If you inspect the engine in operation, always use
the proper inspection procedure in order to avoid
a fluid penetration hazard. Refer to Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “General hazard Information”.
• The high pressure fuel lines are constantly charged
• Inspect the high pressure fuel lines for damage,
• The internal pressures of the high pressure fuel
• Do not operate the engine with a fuel leak. If there
with high pressure.
lines are higher than other types of fuel system.
• The high pressure fuel lines are formed to shape
and then strengthened by a special process.
Do not step on the high pressure fuel lines. Do not
deflect the high pressure fuel lines. Do not bend or
strike the high pressure fuel lines. Deformation or
damage of the high pressure fuel lines may cause a
point of weakness and potential failure.
Do not check the high pressure fuel lines with the
engine or the starting motor in operation. After the
engine has stopped, you must wait for 10 minutes in
order to allow the fuel pressure to be purged from the
high pressure fuel lines before any service or repair
is performed on the engine fuel lines.
Do not loosen the high pressure fuel lines in order
to remove air from the fuel system. This procedure
is not required.
deformation, a nick, a cut, a crease, or a dent.
is a leak do not tighten the connection in order
to stop the leak. The connection must only be
tightened to the recommended torque. Refer to
Disassembly and Assembly, “Fuel injection lines Remove and Fuel injection lines - Install”.
• If the high pressure fuel lines are torqued correctly
and the high pressure fuel lines are leaking the
high pressure fuel lines must be replaced.
• Ensure that all clips on the high pressure fuel lines
are in place. Do not operate the engine with clips
that are damaged, missing or loose.
• Do not attach any other item to the high pressure
fuel lines.
• Loosened high pressure fuel lines must be
replaced. Also removed high pressure fuel lines
must be replaced. Refer to Disassembly and
assembly manual, “ Fuel Injection Lines - Install”.
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15
Safety Section
Before Starting Engine
i02813489
Before Starting Engine
Before the initial start-up of an engine that is new,
serviced or repaired, make provision to shut the
engine off, in order to stop an overspeed. This may
be accomplished by shutting off the air and/or fuel
supply to the engine.
Overspeed shutdown should occur automatically for
engines that are controlled electronically. If automatic
shutdown does not occur, press the emergency stop
button in order to cut the fuel and/or air to the engine.
Inspect the engine for potential hazards.
Before starting the engine, ensure that no one is on,
underneath, or close to the engine. Ensure that the
area is free of personnel.
If equipped, ensure that the lighting system for the
engine is suitable for the conditions. Ensure that all
lights work correctly, if equipped.
All protective guards and all protective covers must
be installed if the engine must be started in order
to perform service procedures. To help prevent an
accident that is caused by parts in rotation, work
around the parts carefully.
Do not bypass the automatic shutoff circuits. Do not
disable the automatic shutoff circuits. The circuits are
provided in order to help prevent personal injury. The
circuits are also provided in order to help prevent
engine damage.
See the Service Manual for repairs and for
adjustments.
i03996487
Engine Starting
All protective guards and all protective covers must
be installed if the engine must be started in order
to perform service procedures. To help prevent an
accident that is caused by parts in rotation, work
around the parts carefully.
Start the engine from the operators compartment or
from the engine start switch.
Always start the engine according to the procedure
that is described in the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Engine Starting” topic in the Operation
Section. Knowing that the correct procedure will help
to prevent major damage to the engine components.
Knowing that the procedure will also help to prevent
personal injury.
To ensure that the jacket water heater (if equipped)
and/or the lube oil heater (if equipped) is working
correctly, check the water temperature gauge. Also,
check the oil temperature gauge during the heater
operation.
Engine exhaust contains products of combustion
which can be harmful to your health. Always start the
engine and operate the engine in a well ventilated
area. If the engine is started in an enclosed area,
vent the engine exhaust to the outside.
Note: The engine is equipped with a device for cold
starting. If the engine will be operated in very cold
conditions, then an extra cold starting aid may be
required. Normally, the engine will be equipped with
the correct type of starting aid for your region of
operation.
These engines are equipped with a glow plug starting
aid in each individual cylinder that heats the intake air
in order to improve starting. Some Perkins engines
may have a cold starting system that is controlled by
the ECM that allows a controlled flow of ether into
the engine. The ECM will disconnect the glow plugs
before the ether is introduced. This system would
be installed at the factory.
i02234873
Engine Stopping
Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such as
ether. Such use could result in an explosion and
personal injury.
If a warning tag is attached to the engine start switch,
or to the controls DO NOT start the engine or move
the controls. Consult with the person that attached
the warning tag before the engine is started.
Stop the engine according to the procedure in
the Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Engine
Stopping (Operation Section)” in order to avoid
overheating of the engine and accelerated wear of
the engine components.
16
Safety Section
Electrical System
SEBU8601-01
Use the Emergency Stop Button (if equipped) ONLY
in an emergency situation. Do not use the Emergency
Stop Button for normal engine stopping. After an
emergency stop, DO NOT start the engine until the
problem that caused the emergency stop has been
corrected.
Grounding Practices
Stop the engine if an overspeed condition occurs
during the initial start-up of a new engine or an engine
that has been overhauled.
To stop an electronically controlled engine, cut the
power to the engine and/or shutting off the air supply
to the engine.
i03903127
Electrical System
Never disconnect any charging unit circuit or battery
circuit cable from the battery when the charging unit
is operating. A spark can cause the combustible
gases that are produced by some batteries to ignite.
To help prevent sparks from igniting combustible
gases that are produced by some batteries, the
negative “−” cable should be connected last from
the external power source to the primary position for
grounding.
Check the electrical wires daily for wires that
are loose or frayed. Tighten all loose electrical
connections before the engine is started. Repair all
frayed electrical wires before the engine is started.
See the Operation and Maintenance Manual for
specific starting instructions.
Illustration 15
Typical example
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
Ground to the battery
Primary position for grounding
Ground to the starting motor
Ground to the engine block
g02145392
SEBU8601-01
17
Safety Section
Engine Electronics
The power supply connections and the ground
connections for the engine electronics should always
be from the isolator to the battery.
i03642610
Engine Electronics
Tampering with the electronic system installation
or the OEM wiring installation can be dangerous
and could result in personal injury or death and/or
engine damage.
Illustration 16
g02145733
Typical example
(5) Ground to the battery
(6) Ground to the engine block
(7) Primary position for grounding
Correct grounding for the engine electrical system
is necessary for optimum engine performance
and reliability. Incorrect grounding will result in
uncontrolled electrical circuit paths and in unreliable
electrical circuit paths.
Uncontrolled electrical circuit paths can result in
damage to the crankshaft bearing journal surfaces
and to aluminum components.
Engines that are installed without engine-to-frame
ground straps can be damaged by electrical
discharge.
To ensure that the engine and the engine electrical
systems function correctly, an engine-to-frame
ground strap with a direct path to the battery must be
used. This path may be provided by way of a direct
engine ground to the frame.
The connections for the grounds should be tight and
free of corrosion. The engine alternator must be
grounded to the negative “-” battery terminal with
a wire that is adequate to handle the full charging
current of the alternator.
Electrical Shock Hazard. The electronic unit injectors use DC voltage. The ECM sends this voltage
to the electronic unit injectors. Do not come in
contact with the harness connector for the electronic unit injectors while the engine is operating.
Failure to follow this instruction could result in
personal injury or death.
This engine has a comprehensive, programmable
Engine Monitoring System. The Electronic Control
Module (ECM) has the ability to monitor the engine
operating conditions. If any of the engine parameters
extend outside an allowable range, the ECM will
initiate an immediate action.
The following actions are available for engine
monitoring control:
• Warning
• Derate
• Shutdown
The following monitored engine operating conditions
have the ability to limit engine speed and/or the
engine power:
• Engine Coolant Temperature
• Engine Oil Pressure
• Engine Speed
• Intake Manifold Air Temperature
• Engine Intake Throttle Valve Fault
• Wastegate Regulator
18
Safety Section
Engine Electronics
• Supply Voltage to Sensors
• Fuel Pressure in Manifold (Rail)
• NOx Reduction System
• Engine Aftertreatment System
The Engine Monitoring package can vary for different
engine models and different engine applications.
However, the monitoring system and the engine
monitoring control will be similar for all engines.
Note: Many of the engine control systems and display
modules that are available for Perkins Engines will
work in unison with the Engine Monitoring System.
Together, the two controls will provide the engine
monitoring function for the specific engine application.
Refer to Troubleshooting for more information on the
Engine Monitoring System.
SEBU8601-01
SEBU8601-01
19
Product Information Section
Model Views
Product Information
Section
Model Views
i03913230
Model View Illustrations
The following model views show typical features
of the engine. Due to individual applications, your
engine may appear different from the illustrations.
Note: Only major components are identified on the
following illustrations.
20
Product Information Section
Model Views
SEBU8601-01
Engine views
g02150184
Illustration 17
Typical example
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
Rear lifting eye
NOx reduction system NRS
Front lifting eye
Alternator
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
Refrigerant compressor
High-pressure turbocharger
Low-pressure turbocharger
Engine oil drain
(9) Flywheel housing
(10) Flywheel
(11) NRS cooler
SEBU8601-01
21
Product Information Section
Model Views
g02150185
Illustration 18
Typical example
(12) Crankcase breather
(13) Electronic control module (ECM)
(14) Starting motor
(15) Oil filter
(16)
(17)
(18)
(19)
Oil gauge
Oil filler
Primary fuel filter
Secondary fuel filter
The location of the in-line fuel strainer (20) and the
priming pump (21) will depend on the application.
(20) In-line fuel strainer
(21) Electric fuel priming pump
22
Product Information Section
Model Views
SEBU8601-01
g02150187
Illustration 19
Typical example
(22) Outlet connection to the air to air charge
cooler
(23) Connection for the air inlet
(24) Outlet connection for the coolant
(25) Housing for the water temperature
regulator
(26) Water pump
(27) Inlet connection for the Coolant
Engine Aftertreatment System
The following view shows typical features of the
engine aftertreatment system. Due to individual
applications, your system may appear different from
the illustrations.
(28) Vibration damper
(29) Belt tensioner
(30) Belt
SEBU8601-01
23
Product Information Section
Model Views
g02162626
Illustration 20
Typical example
(1) Diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC)
(2) Securing clamp
(3) Torca clamp
(4) Diesel particulate filter (DPF)
(5) Securing clamp
(6) Torca clamp
(7) Lifting eye
(8) Air inlet for aftertreatment regeneration
device (ARD)
(9) Connections for Coolant manifold
(10) Lifting eye
24
Product Information Section
Model Views
SEBU8601-01
g02162641
Illustration 21
(11) Outlet to exhaust system
(12) Aftertreatment regeneration device
(13) Lifting eye
(14) Exhaust Inlet
(15) Mounting cradle
Fuel Pump for Engine Aftertreatment
System
Note: The fuel for the engine aftertreatment system is
supplied by a designated fuel pump. The location of
this pump can change depending on the application.
Illustration 22
Typical example
(16)
(17)
(18)
(19)
(20)
(21)
Fuel inlet
Electrical connector
Fuel supply line
Return to tank
Fuel inlet
Fuel inlet
g02163775
SEBU8601-01
25
Product Information Section
Model Views
i03995541
Table 1
Engine Description
1206E-E70TTA Engine Specifications
Operating Range (rpm)
900 to 2800(1)
Number of Cylinders
6 In-Line
The Perkins 1206E-E70TTA industrial engine has the
following characteristics.
Bore
Stroke
135 mm (5.31495 inch)
• In-line 6 cylinder
Power
225 kW (301.72 hp)
• Four stroke cycle
Aspiration
• Series turbocharged charge cooled
Compression Ratio
The 1206E-E70TTA industrial engine is equipped
with a low-pressure turbocharger and a high-pressure
turbocharger.
Displacement
Engine Specifications
Turbocharged charge
cooled
16.5:1
7.01 L (428 in3)
1-5-3-6-2-4
Firing Order
Rotation (flywheel end)
(1)
Note: The front end of the engine is opposite the
flywheel end of the engine. The left and the right
sides of the engine are determined from the flywheel
end. The number 1 cylinder is the front cylinder.
105 mm (4.13 inch)
Counterclockwise
The operating rpm is dependent on the engine rating, the
application, and the configuration of the throttle.
Electronic Engine Features
The engine operating conditions are monitored.
The Electronic Control Module (ECM) controls the
response of the engine to these conditions and to
the demands of the operator. These conditions and
operator demands determine the precise control of
fuel injection by the ECM. The electronic engine
control system provides the following features:
• Engine monitoring
• Engine speed governing
• Control of the injection pressure
• Cold start strategy
Illustration 23
Cylinder and valve location
(A) Exhaust valves
(B) Inlet valves
g01127295
• Automatic air/fuel ratio control
• Torque rise shaping
• Injection timing control
• System diagnostics
• Aftertreatment Regeneration
For more information on electronic engine features,
refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Features and Controls” topic (Operation Section).
26
Product Information Section
Model Views
Engine Diagnostics
The engine has built-in diagnostics in order to ensure
that the engine systems are functioning correctly. The
operator will be alerted to the condition by a “Stop or
Warning” lamp. Under certain conditions, the engine
horsepower and the vehicle speed may be limited.
The electronic service tool may be used to display
the diagnostic codes.
There are three types of diagnostic codes: active,
logged, and event.
Most of the diagnostic codes are logged and stored
in the ECM. For additional information, refer to
the Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Engine
Diagnostics” topic (Operation Section).
The ECM provides an electronic governor that
controls the injector output in order to maintain the
desired engine rpm.
Engine Cooling and Lubrication
The cooling system and lubrication system consists
of the following components:
• Gear-driven centrifugal water pump
SEBU8601-01
Expected engine life is generally predicted by the
average power that is demanded. The average power
that is demanded is based on fuel consumption of
the engine over a period of time. Reduced hours of
operation at full throttle and/or operating at reduced
throttle settings result in a lower average power
demand. Reduced hours of operation will increase
the length of operating time before an engine
overhaul is required.
Aftermarket Products and Perkins
Engines
Perkins does not warrant the quality or performance
of non-Perkins fluids and filters.
When auxiliary devices, accessories, or consumables
(filters, additives, catalysts,) which are made by other
manufacturers are used on Perkins products, the
Perkins warranty is not affected simply because of
such use.
However, failures that result from the installation
or use of other manufacturers devices,
accessories, or consumables are NOT Perkins
defects. Therefore, the defects are NOT covered
under the Perkins warranty.
• Water temperature regulator which regulates the
Aftertreatment System
• Gear-driven rotor type oil pump
The aftertreatment system is approved for use by
Perkins. In order to be emission-compliant only the
approved Perkins aftertreatment system must be
used on a Perkins engine.
engine coolant temperature
• Oil cooler
The engine lubricating oil is supplied by a rotor type
oil pump. The engine lubricating oil is cooled and the
engine lubricating oil is filtered. The bypass valve
can provide unrestricted flow of lubrication oil to
the engine if the oil filter element should become
plugged.
Engine efficiency, efficiency of emission controls, and
engine performance depend on adherence to proper
operation and maintenance recommendations.
Engine performance and efficiency also depend on
the use of recommended fuels, lubrication oils, and
coolants. Refer to this Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Maintenance Interval Schedule” for more
information on maintenance items.
Engine Service Life
Engine efficiency and maximum utilization of engine
performance depend on the adherence to proper
operation and maintenance recommendations. In
addition, use recommended fuels, coolants and
lubricants. Use the Operation and Maintenance
Manual as a guide for required engine maintenance.
SEBU8601-01
27
Product Information Section
Product Identification Information
Product Identification
Information
Serial Number Plate (1)
i03567854
The engine serial number plate is located on the
left side of the cylinder block to the rear of the front
engine mounting.
Plate Locations and Film
Locations
Illustration 25
Serial number plate
Illustration 24
g01890033
Location of the serial number plate
Perkins engines are identified by an engine serial
number.
An example of an engine number is BL*****U000001J.
***** ____________________ The list number for the engine
BL __________________________________________Type of engine
U ____________________________Built in the United Kingdom
000001 ___________________________Engine Serial Number
J _____________________________________Year of Manufacture
Perkins dealers or Perkins distributors need all of
these numbers in order to determine the components
that were included with the engine. This permits
accurate identification of replacement part numbers.
The numbers for fuel setting information for electronic
engines are stored within the flash file. These
numbers can be read by using the electronic service
tool.
g01094203
28
Product Information Section
Product Identification Information
SEBU8601-01
i03976148
Plate Locations and Film
Locations
(Engine Aftertreatment
System)
g02151573
Illustration 26
Typical example
The module arrangement exhaust plate is installed
on the mounting plate (1). The location of the
arrangement plate mounting plate can alter
depending on the application.
i03867276
Reference Numbers
Information for the following items may be needed to
order parts. Locate the information for your engine.
Record the information in the appropriate space.
Make a copy of this list for a record. Keep the
information for future reference.
Record for Reference
Engine Model _______________________________________________
Engine Serial number _____________________________________
Illustration 27
g02109493
Engine Low Idle rpm ______________________________________
Module Arrangement Exhaust Plate
Engine Full Load rpm _____________________________________
Record the information that is on the plate. This
information identifies the engine aftertreatment
system. This information will be required by your
Perkins dealer.
Primary Fuel Filter _________________________________________
Water Separator Element ________________________________
Secondary Fuel Filter Element __________________________
SEBU8601-01
29
Product Information Section
Product Identification Information
Lubrication Oil Filter Element ___________________________
Auxiliary Oil Filter Element _______________________________
Total Lubrication System Capacity _____________________
Total Cooling System Capacity _________________________
Air Cleaner Element _______________________________________
Drive Belt ____________________________________________________
Engine Aftertreatment System
Part Number ________________________________________________
Serial Number ______________________________________________
i03977815
Emissions Certification Film
Label for compliant engines
An emission label is installed on the front gear cover.
Note: A second emission label may be supplied with
the engine. If necessary, the second emission label
may be installed on the application by the original
equipment manufacturer.
Illustration 28
Typical example
g02164223
30
Operation Section
Lifting and Storage
SEBU8601-01
Operation Section
Some removals require lifting the fixtures in order to
obtain correct balance and safety.
To remove the engine ONLY, use the lifting eyes that
are on the engine.
Lifting and Storage
i03977851
Product Lifting
(Engine)
Lifting eyes are designed and installed for specific
engine arrangements. Alterations to the lifting eyes
and/or the engine make the lifting eyes and the lifting
fixtures obsolete. If alterations are made, ensure
that correct lifting devices are provided. Consult
your Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor for
information regarding fixtures for correct engine
lifting.
i03977852
Product Lifting
(Clean Emission Module)
NOTICE
Never bend the eyebolts and the brackets. Only load
the eyebolts and the brackets under tension. Remember that the capacity of an eyebolt is less as the angle
between the supporting members and the object becomes less than 90 degrees.
When it is necessary to remove a component at an
angle, only use a link bracket that is properly rated for
the weight.
Use a hoist to remove heavy components. Use an
adjustable lifting beam to lift the Clean Emission
Module. All supporting members (chains and cables)
should be parallel to each other. The chains and
cables should be perpendicular to the top of the
object that is being lifted.
Illustration 29
g01097527
NOTICE
Never bend the eyebolts and the brackets. Only load
the eyebolts and the brackets under tension. Remember that the capacity of an eyebolt is less as the angle
between the supporting members and the object becomes less than 90 degrees.
When it is necessary to remove a component at an
angle, only use a link bracket that is properly rated for
the weight.
Use a hoist to remove heavy components. Use
an adjustable lifting beam to lift the engine. All
supporting members (chains and cables) should be
parallel to each other. The chains and cables should
be perpendicular to the top of the object that is being
lifted.
Some removals may require lifting the fixtures in
order to obtain proper balance and safety.
SEBU8601-01
Illustration 30
31
Operation Section
Lifting and Storage
g02293733
Typical example
To remove the Clean Emission Module (CEM), use
lifting eyes (1). Lifting eyes are designed and installed
for the specific CEM arrangement. Do not use the
lifting eyes for any other purpose than lifting the CEM.
Alterations to the lifting eyes and/or the CEM make
the lifting eyes and the lifting fixtures obsolete. If
alterations are made, ensure that proper lifting
devices are provided. Consult your Perkins dealer,
or your Perkins distributor for information regarding
fixtures for proper CEM lifting.
32
Operation Section
Lifting and Storage
SEBU8601-01
i04161429
Product Lifting
g02354678
Illustration 31
Typical example
The lifting points (1) are for the application shown. A
suitable lift truck will be required in order to lift the
application.
The lifting eyes on the application will have blanking
devices (2) installed.
Illustration 32
(A) Typical engine lifting eye
(B) Typical CEM lifting eye
g02354717
SEBU8601-01
33
Operation Section
Lifting and Storage
In order to lift the clean emission module, refer to this
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Product Lifting
(Clean Emission Module)”. In order to lift the engine,
refer to this Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Product Lifting (Engine)”.
i04084189
Product Storage
(Engine and Aftertreatment)
Perkins are not responsible for damage which may
occur when an engine is in storage after a period in
service.
Your Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor can
assist in preparing the engine for extended storage
periods.
Condition for Storage
The engine must be stored in a water proof building.
The building must be kept at a constant temperature.
Engines that are filled with Perkins ELC will have
coolant protection to an ambient temperature of
−36° C (−32.8° F). The engine must not be subjected
to extreme variations in temperature and humidity.
3. The engine oil will not need to be drained in
order to store the engine. Provided the correct
specification of engine oil is used the engine
can be stored for up to 6 months. For the
correct specification of engine oil refer to this
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Fluid
recommendations”.
4. Remove the drive belt from the engine.
Sealed Coolant System
Ensure that the cooling system is filled with Perkins
ELC, or an antifreeze that meets “ASTM D6210”
specification.
Open Cooling System
Ensure that all cooling drain plugs have been
opened. Allow the coolant to drain. Install the drain
plugs. Place a vapor phase inhibitor into the system.
The coolant system must be sealed once the vapor
phase inhibitor has been introduced. The effect of the
vapor phase inhibitor will be lost if the cooling system
is open to the atmosphere.
For maintenance procedures ref to this Operation
and Maintenance Manual.
Aftertreatment
An engine can be stored for up to 6 months provided
all the recommendation are adhered to.
No special procedures are required. The exhaust
outlet of the aftertreatment should be capped. Before
storing, the engine and the aftertreatment must be
enclosed in a cover.
Storage Procedure
Monthly Checks
Keep a record of the procedure that has been
completed on the engine.
The crankshaft must be rotated in order to change
the spring loading on the valve train. Rotate
the crankshaft more than 180 degrees. Visibly
check for damage or corrosion to the engine and
aftertreatment.
Storage Period
Note: Do not store an engine that has biodiesel in
the fuel system.
1. Ensure that the engine is clean and dry.
a. If the engine has been operated using biodiesel,
the system must be drained and new filters
installed. The fuel tank will require flushing.
b. Fill the fuel system with an ultra low sulfur fuel.
For more information on acceptable fuels refer
to this Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Fluid recommendations”. Operate the engine
for 15 minutes in order to remove all biodiesel
from the system.
2. Drain any water from the primary filter water
separator. Ensure that the fuel tank is full.
Ensure that the engine and aftertreatment are
covered completely before storage. Log the
procedure in the record for the engine.
34
Operation Section
Gauges and Indicators
SEBU8601-01
Gauges and Indicators
1. Remove the load.
2. Stop the engine.
i03979889
Gauges and Indicators
Your engine may not have the same gauges or all of
the gauges that are described. For more information
about the gauge package, see the OEM information.
Gauges provide indications of engine performance.
Ensure that the gauges are in good working order.
Determine the normal operating range by observing
the gauges over a period.
Noticeable changes in gauge readings indicate
potential gauge or engine problems. Problems may
also be indicated by gauge readings that change
even if the readings are within specifications.
Determine and correct the cause of any significant
change in the readings. Consult your Perkins
distributor for assistance.
Some engine applications are equipped with Indicator
Lamps. Indicator lamps can be used as a diagnostic
aid. There are two lamps. One lamp has an orange
lens and the other lamp has a red lens.
These indicator lamps can be used in two ways:
• The indicator lamps can be used to identify the
current operational status of the engine. The
indicator lamps can also indicate that the engine
has a fault. This system is automatically operated
via the ignition switch.
• The indicator lamps can be used to identify active
diagnostic codes. This system is activated by
pressing the Flash Code button.
Refer to the Troubleshooting Guide, “Indicator
Lamps” for further information.
NOTICE
If no oil pressure is indicated, STOP the engine. If
maximum coolant temperature is exceeded, STOP
the engine. Engine damage can result.
Engine Oil Pressure – The oil pressure
should be greatest after a cold engine is
started. The typical engine oil pressure with
SAE10W40 is 350 to 450 kPa ( 50 to 65 psi) at rated
rpm.
A lower oil pressure is normal at low idle. If the load
is stable and the gauge reading changes, perform
the following procedure:
3. Check and maintain the oil level.
Jacket Water Coolant Temperature –
Typical temperature range is 82° to 94°C
(179.6° to 169.2°F). This temperature range
will vary according to engine load and the ambient
temperature.
A 100 kPa (14.5 psi) radiator cap must be installed
on the cooling system. The maximum temperature
for the cooling system is 108° C (226.4° F). This
temperature is measured at the outlet for the
water temperature regulator. The engine coolant
temperature is regulated by the engine sensors
and the engine ECM. This programming cannot be
altered. An engine derate can occur if the maximum
engine coolant temperature is exceeded.
If the engine is operating above the normal range,
reduce the engine load. If high coolant temperatures
are a frequent event, perform the following
procedures:
1. Reduce the load and the engine rpm.
2. Determine if the engine must be shut down
immediately or if the engine can be cooled by
reducing the load.
3. Inspect the cooling system for leaks. If necessary,
consult your Perkins distributor for assistance.
Tachometer – This gauge indicates engine
speed (rpm). When the throttle control lever
is moved to the full throttle position without
load, the engine is running at high idle. The engine is
running at the full load rpm when the throttle control
lever is at the full throttle position with maximum
rated load.
NOTICE
To help prevent engine damage, never exceed the
high idle rpm. Overspeeding can result in serious
damage to the engine. Operation at speeds exceeding high idle rpm should be kept to a minimum.
Ammeter – This gauge indicates the
amount of charge or discharge in the
battery charging circuit. Operation of the
indicator should be to the “+” side of “0” (zero).
Fuel Level – This gauge indicates the fuel
level in the fuel tank. The fuel level gauge
operates when the “START/STOP” switch
is in the “on” position.
SEBU8601-01
Service Hour Meter – The gauge indicates
total operating hours of the engine.
Indicator Lamps
• Shutdown lamp
• Warning lamp
• Wait to start lamp
• Low oil pressure lamp
For information, refer to this manual, “Monitoring
System (Table for the Indicator Lamps)” for the
sequence of operation of the shutdown lamp and the
warning lamp.
The function of the wait to start lamp is automatically
controlled at engine start-up.
The function of the low oil pressure lamp is controlled
by the engine ECM. If low oil pressure is detected,
the lamp will be illuminated. The reason for the
illumination of the low-pressure lamp should be
investigated immediately.
All lamps will illuminate for 2 seconds in order to
check that the lamps are functioning when the
keyswitch is turned to the ON position. If any of the
lamps stay illuminated, the reason for illumination
should be investigated immediately.
Aftertreatment Lamps
For information on the aftertreatment lamp, refer to
this Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Diesel
Particulate Filter Regeneration”.
35
Operation Section
Gauges and Indicators
36
Operation Section
Features and Controls
SEBU8601-01
Features and Controls
i03552521
Monitoring System
(Engine)
Table 2
Warning
Lamp
Shutdown
Lamp
ON
ON
OFF
OFF
ON
Lamp
Status
Description of Lamp Status
Engine Status
Lamp check
When the engine start switch is turned to the
“ON” position both lamps will illuminate for 2
seconds only.
The engine has not been
started.
No faults
There are no active diagnostic faults.
The engine is running
normally.
OFF
Active
diagnostic
fault
An active diagnostic fault has been detected.
The engine is running
normally.
ON
FLASHING
Active
diagnostic
fault
A serious active diagnostic fault has been
detected and an engine derate has been invoked.
The engine is running
but the engine has been
derated.
FLASHING
OFF
Derate and
warning
One or more of the engine protection values has
been exceeded.
The engine is running
but the engine has been
derated.
FLASHING
ON
Engine
shutdown
One or more of the engine protection values has
been exceeded or a serious active diagnostic
fault has been detected.
The engine is shutdown
or shutdown is imminent.
i03979949
Monitoring System
(Engine)
The following parameters are monitored:
• Coolant temperature
• Intake manifold air temperature
• Intake manifold air pressure
• Oil pressure
If the Shutdown mode has been selected and the
warning indicator activates, engine shutdown may
take as little as 20 seconds from the time the warning indicator is activated. Depending on the application, special precautions should be taken to
avoid personal injury. The engine can be restarted
following shutdown for emergency maneuvers, if
necessary.
• Pressure in the fuel rail
• Fuel temperature
• Fuel filter differential pressure
• Water in fuel
• Engine speed/timing
NOTICE
The Engine Monitoring System is not a guarantee
against catastrophic failures. Programmed delays
and derate schedules are designed to minimize false
alarms and provide time for the operator to stop the
engine.
• Atmospheric pressure (Barometric pressure)
• The Inlet pressure and outlet pressure of the NOx
reduction system
• The differential pressure within the NOx reduction
system
SEBU8601-01
• Temperature of the NOx reduction system
37
Operation Section
Features and Controls
• The amount of soot in the Diesel particulate filter
If there is a signal for low oil pressure or for coolant
temperature, there will be a two second delay in
order to verify the condition.
Programmable Options and
Systems Operation
For each of the programmed modes, refer to
Troubleshooting Guide, “Indicator Lamps” for more
information on Indicator Lamps.
If the Warning/Derate/Shutdown mode has been
selected and the warning indicator activates,
bring the engine to a stop whenever possible. Depending on the application, special precautions
should be taken to avoid personal injury.
The engine can be programmed to the following
modes:
“Warning”
The “Warning” lamp and the warning signal (orange
lamp) turn “ON” and the warning signal is activated
continuously in order to alert the operator that one or
more of the engine parameters is not within normal
operating range.
For more information or assistance for repairs,
consult your Perkins distributor or your Perkins
dealer.
Instrument panels and Displays
In order to monitor the engine a wide verity of
instrument panels are available. These instrument
panels can contain the aftertreatment lamps and the
indicator lamps and the gauges for the application.
The regeneration switch can be incorporate within
the panel.
Also available are mini power displays and
performance monitors. These displays and monitors
can show the operator the following engine
information.
• The system configuration parameters
“Warning/Derate”
• The customer specified parameters
The “Diagnostic” lamp turns “ON” and the warning
signal (red lamp) is activated. After the warning, the
engine power will be derated. The warning lamp will
begin to flash when the derating occurs.
• Diagnostic codes
The engine will be derated if the engine exceeds
preset operational limits. The engine derate is
achieved by restricting the amount of fuel that is
available for each injection. The amount of reduction
of fuel is dependent on the severity of the fault that
has caused the engine derate, typically up to a limit of
50%. This reduction in fuel results in a predetermined
reduction in engine power.
“Warning/Derate/Shutdown”
The “Diagnostic” lamp turns “ON” and the warning
signal (red lamp) is activated. After the warning,
the engine power will be derated. The engine will
continue at the rpm of the set derate until a shutdown
of the engine occurs. The engine can be restarted
after a shutdown for use in an emergency.
A shutdown of the engine may occur in as little
as 20 seconds. The engine can be restarted after
a shutdown for use in an emergency. However,
the cause of the initial shutdown may still exist.
The engine may shut down again in as little as 20
seconds.
• Event codes
• Coolant temperature
• Oil temperature
• Oil pressure
• Intake temperature
• Intake pressure
• Atmospheric pressure
• Fuel temperature
38
Operation Section
Features and Controls
SEBU8601-01
i03979996
Sensors and Electrical
Components
Sensor Locations
The Illustration within the section shows the typical
locations of the sensors for a 1206E-70 Industrial
Engine. Specific engines may appear different from
the illustration due to differences in applications.
g02150593
Illustration 33
(1) Engine Intake Throttle Valve
(2) Wastegate Regulator
(3) Control Valve for the NOx Reduction
System (NRS)
(4) Temperature Sensor for the NOx
Reduction System
(5) Intake Pressure Sensor for the NOx
Reduction System (NRS)
(6) Differential Pressure Sensor for the NOx
Reduction System (NRS)
(7) Fuel Pressure Sensor (Fuel Rail
Pressure Sensor)
(8) Intake Manifold Air Temperature Sensor
(9) Intake Manifold Pressure Sensor
(10) Electronic Control Module (ECM)
(11) Atmospheric Pressure Sensor
(Barometric Pressure Sensor)
(12) Primary Speed/Timing Sensor
(13) Starting Motor
(14) Oil Pressure Sensor
(15) Oil level Switch ( if Equipped)
(16) Diagnostic Connector
(17) Fuel Temperature Sensor
(18) Solenoid for the High Pressure Fuel
Pump
(19) Coolant Temperature Sensor
SEBU8601-01
39
Operation Section
Features and Controls
g02150594
Illustration 34
The location of the fuel filters will depend on the application.
(20) Differential Pressure Switch for the
Secondary Fuel Filter
(21) Water in Fuel Switch
(22) Secondary Speed/Timing Sensor
(23) Fuel Priming Pump
(24) Alternator
(25) Refrigerant Compressor (if equipped)
40
Operation Section
Features and Controls
SEBU8601-01
g02151173
Illustration 35
(1) Engine Intake Throttle Valve
(2) Wastegate Regulator
(3) Control Valve for the NRS
(4) Temperature Sensor for the NRS
(5) Intake Pressure Sensor for the NRS
(6) Differential Pressure Sensor for the NRS
(7) Fuel Pressure Sensor (Fuel Rail
Pressure Sensor)
(8) Intake Manifold Air Temperature Sensor
(9) Intake Manifold Pressure Sensor
g02151174
Illustration 36
(10) Electronic Control Module (ECM)
(11) Atmospheric Pressure Sensor
(Barometric Pressure Sensor)
(12) Primary Speed/Timing Sensor
(13) Starting Motor
(14) Oil Pressure Sensor
The oil level switch (15) will only operate with the
application on level ground and the power in the
ON position. The engine must be at zero RPM. A
coolant level switch can be installed, this switch only
operates at key on, and the application must be on
level ground.
(15) Oil Level Switch (if Equipped)
SEBU8601-01
41
Operation Section
Features and Controls
g02151327
Illustration 37
(16) Diagnostic Connector
(17) Fuel Temperature Sensor
(18) Solenoid for the High Pressure Fuel
Pump
(19) Coolant Temperature Sensor
g02151177
Illustration 38
(20) Differential Pressure Switch for the
Secondary Fuel Filter
(21) Water in Fuel Switch
(22) Secondary Speed/Timing Sensor
Programmable Monitoring System
(PMS)
The Programmable Monitoring System determines
the level of action that is taken by the Engine Control
Module (ECM) (10).In response to a condition that
can damage the engine. These conditions are
identified by the ECM from the signals that are
produced from the following sensors.
• Coolant Temperature Sensor
(23) Fuel Priming Pump
• Intake Manifold Air Temperature Sensor
• Intake Manifold Pressure Sensor
• Fuel Pressure Sensor
• Engine Oil Pressure Sensor
• Primary Speed/Timing Sensor
• Secondary Speed/Timing Sensor
42
Operation Section
Features and Controls
SEBU8601-01
• Fuel Temperature Sensor
• Temperature Sensor for the NRS
• Intake Pressure Sensor for the NRS
• Differential Pressure Sensor for the NRS
i03928178
Sensors and Electrical
Components
(Aftertreatment)
The following view shows typical features of the
engine aftertreatment system. Due to individual
applications, your system may appear different from
the illustrations.
• Glossary
• ARD Aftertreatment Regeneration Device
• DOC Diesel Oxidation Catalyst
SEBU8601-01
Illustration 39
Typical example
(1) Soot sensor connection
(2) Spark plug lead
(3) ARD air pressure sensor
(4) DOC pressure sensor
(5) Pressure differential sensor
(6) Relay
(7) Soot sensor connection
(8) DOC Temperature sensor (not shown)
(9) Harness connector
(10) Main fuel valve (If equipped)
(11) Pilot fuel valve
(12) Fuel pressure sensor (if equipped)
(13) Fuel pressure sensor (pilot)
(14) Aftertreatment device ID
(15) Coil for spark plug
(16) ARD air control valve
(17) Location of spark plug
(18) ARD exhaust gas temperature sensor
43
Operation Section
Features and Controls
g02313693
44
Operation Section
Features and Controls
SEBU8601-01
i03928179
Engine Shutoffs and Engine
Alarms
Shutoffs
The shutoffs are electrically operated or mechanically
operated. The electrically operated shutoffs are
controlled by the ECM.
Shutoffs are set at critical levels for the following
items:
• Operating temperature
• Operating pressure
• Operating level
Intake manifold air temperature – The intake
manifold air temperature sensor indicates high intake
air temperature.
Intake manifold pressure – The intake manifold
pressure sensor checks the rated pressure in the
engine manifold.
Fuel rail pressure – The fuel rail pressure sensor
checks for high pressure or low pressure in the fuel
rail.
Engine oil pressure – The engine oil pressure
sensor indicates when oil pressure drops below rated
system pressure, at a set engine speed.
Engine overspeed – If, the engine rpm exceeds the
overspeed setting the alarm will be activated.
Air filter restriction – The switch checks the air
filter when the engine is operating.
• Operating rpm
User-defined switch – This switch can shut down
the engine remotely.
The particular shutoff may need to be reset before
the engine will start.
Water in fuel switch – This switch checks for water
in the primary fuel filter when the engine is operating.
NOTICE
Always determine the cause of the engine shutdown.
Make necessary repairs before attempting to restart
the engine.
Fuel temperature – The fuel temperature sensor
monitors the pressurized fuel in the high-pressure
fuel pump.
Be familiar with the following items:
• Types and locations of shutoff
• Conditions which cause each shutoff to function
• The resetting procedure that is required to restart
the engine
Alarms
Fuel differential pressure – This switch checks the
pressure across the fuel filter.
Note: The sensing element of the coolant
temperature switch must be submerged in coolant
in order to operate.
Engines may be equipped with alarms in order
to alert the operator when undesirable operating
conditions occur.
The alarms are electrically operated. The operations
of the alarms are controlled by the ECM.
NOTICE
When an alarm is activated, corrective measures must
be taken before the situation becomes an emergency
in order to avoid possible engine damage.
The alarm is operated by a sensor or by a switch.
When the sensor or the switch is activated, a signal
is sent to the ECM. An event code is created by
the ECM. The ECM will send a signal in order to
illuminate the lamp.
If corrective measures are not taken within a
reasonable time, engine damage could result. The
alarm will continue until the condition is corrected.
The alarm may need to be reset.
Your engine may be equipped with the following
sensors or switches:
Coolant temperature – The coolant temperature
sensor indicates high jacket water coolant
temperature.
Note: If installed, the coolant level switch and the
oil level switch are indicators. Both switches operate
when the application is on level ground and the
engine RPM at zero.
SEBU8601-01
45
Operation Section
Features and Controls
Testing
Turning the keyswitch to the ON position will check
the indicator lights on the control panel. All the
indicator lights will be illuminated for 2 seconds after
the keyswitch is operated. Replace suspect bulbs
immediately.
Refer to Troubleshooting, KENR9106 for more
information.
i03554501
Overspeed
• ECM ______________________Electronic Control Module
• RPM ________________________ Revolutions Per Minute
An overspeed is detected by the speed/timing
sensors.
The default setting for an overspeed is 3000 rpm.
The ECM will cut the power to the electronic unit
injectors, until the rpm drops below 200 rpm of the
overspeed setting. A diagnostic fault code will be
logged into the ECM memory and a warning lamp will
indicate a diagnostic fault code.
An overspeed can be set from 2600 rpm to 3000 rpm.
This setting depends on the application.
46
Operation Section
Engine Diagnostics
SEBU8601-01
Engine Diagnostics
i04036139
i02651093
Self-Diagnostics
Perkins electronic engines have the capability to
perform a self-diagnostics test. When the system
detects an active problem, a diagnostic lamp
is activated. Diagnostic codes will be stored in
permanent memory in the Electronic Control Module
(ECM). The diagnostic codes can be retrieved
by using the electronic service tool. Refer to
Troubleshooting , “Electronic Service Tools” for
further information.
Some installations have electronic displays that
provide direct readouts of the engine diagnostic
codes. Refer to the manual that is provided
by the OEM for more information on retrieving
engine diagnostic codes. Alternatively refer to
Troubleshooting , “Indicator Lamps” for further
information.
Active codes represent problems that currently exist.
These problems should be investigated first.
Logged codes represent the following items:
• Intermittent problems
• Recorded events
• Performance history
The problems may have been repaired since the
logging of the code. These codes do not indicate that
a repair is needed. The codes are guides or signals
when a situation exists. Codes may be helpful to
troubleshoot problems.
When the problems have been corrected, the
corresponding logged fault codes should be cleared.
i02651107
Diagnostic Lamp
A diagnostic lamp is used to indicate the existence of
an active fault. Refer to Troubleshooting , “Indicator
Lamps” for more information. A fault diagnostic
code will remain active until the problem is repaired.
The diagnostic code may be retrieved by using the
electronic service tool. Refer to Troubleshooting ,
“Electronic Service Tools” for more information.
Diagnostic Flash Code
Retrieval
In order to read the diagnostic flash codes through
the diagnostic lamp, cycle the key switch from off to
on twice within 3 seconds.
The codes will be flashing in sequence. For example
if the flash code equals 133, the diagnostic lamp will
flash once, pause, flash three times, pause, and flash
three times.
After the complete code has flashed, a 3 second
pause will take place before the next code will begin
to flash (if another code is present).
Note: For more information refer to
Troubleshootingmanual.
SEBU8601-01
47
Operation Section
Engine Diagnostics
Table 3
Description
CDL Code
J1939
Code
Flash
Code
N/A
551
N/A
No Diagnostic Code Detected
1-2
Cylinder #1 Injector data incorrect
651-2
1-5
Cylinder #1 Injector current below normal
651-5
1-6
Cylinder #1 Injector current above normal
651-6
2-2
Cylinder #2 Injector data incorrect
652-2
2-5
Cylinder #2 Injector current below normal
652-5
2-6
Cylinder #2 Injector current above normal
652-6
3-2
Cylinder #3 Injector data incorrect
653-2
3-5
Cylinder #3 Injector current below normal
653-5
3-6
Cylinder #3 Injector current above normal
653-6
4-2
Cylinder #4 Injector data incorrect
654-2
4-5
Cylinder #4 Injector current below normal
654-5
4-6
Cylinder #4 Injector current above normal
654-6
5-2
Cylinder #5 Injector data incorrect
655-2
5-5
Cylinder #5 Injector current below normal
655-5
5-6
Cylinder #5 Injector current above normal
655-6
6-2
Cylinder #6 Injector data incorrect
656-2
6-5
Cylinder #6 Injector current below normal
656-5
6-6
Cylinder #6 Injector current above normal
656-6
18-5
Fuel Control Valve current below normal
1076-5
-
18-6
Fuel Control Valve current above normal
1076-6
-
41-3
8 Volt DC Supply voltage above normal
678-3
41-4
8 Volt DC Supply voltage below normal
678-4
91-2
Throttle Position Sensor erratic, intermittent, or incorrect
91-2
91-3
Throttle Position Sensor voltage above normal
91-3
91-4
Throttle Position Sensor voltage below normal
91-4
91-8
Throttle Position Sensor abnormal frequency, pulse width, or period
91-08
100-3
Engine Oil Pressure Sensor voltage above normal
100-3
100-4
Engine Oil Pressure Sensor voltage below normal
100-4
100-21
Engine Oil Pressure Sensor data drifted low
100-21
110-3
Engine Coolant Temperature Sensor voltage above normal
110-3
110-4
Engine Coolant Temperature Sensor voltage below normal
110-4
168-2
Electrical System Voltage erratic, intermittent, or incorrect
168-2
168-3
Electrical System Voltage voltage above normal
168-3
168-4
Electrical System Voltage voltage Below normal
168-4
172-3
Intake Manifold Air Temperature Sensor voltage above normal
105-3
172-4
Intake Manifold Air Temperature Sensor voltage below normal
105-4
111
112
113
114
115
116
517
154
157
168
511
133
(continued)
48
Operation Section
Engine Diagnostics
SEBU8601-01
(Table 3, contd)
CDL Code
Description
J1939
Code
Flash
Code
174-3
Fuel Temperature Sensor voltage above normal
174-3
174-4
Fuel Temperature Sensor voltage below normal
174-4
190-8
Engine Speed Sensor abnormal frequency, pulse width, or period
190-8
141
247-9
SAE J1939 Data Link abnormal update rate
-
514
253-2
Personality Module erratic, intermittent, or incorrect
631-2
415
261-11
Engine Timing Offset fault
637-11
143
262-3
5 Volt Sensor DC Power Supply voltage above normal
3509-3
262-4
5 Volt Sensor DC Power Supply voltage below normal
3509-4
268-2
Programmed Parameter Fault erratic, intermittent, or incorrect
630-2
274-3
Atmospheric Pressure Sensor voltage above normal
108-3
274-4
Atmospheric Pressure Sensor voltage below normal
108-4
274-13
Atmospheric Pressure Sensor calibration required
108-13
274-21
Atmospheric Pressure Sensor data drifted low
108-21
342-8
Secondary Engine Speed Sensor abnormal frequency, pulse width, or period
723-8
526-5
Turbo Wastegate Drive current below normal
1188-5
526-6
Turbo Wastegate Drive current above normal
1188-6
535-3
Exhaust Temperature Sensor voltage above normal
3241-3
535-4
Exhaust Temperature Sensor voltage below normal
3241-4
774-2
Secondary Throttle Position Sensor erratic, intermittent, or incorrect
29-2
774-3
Secondary Throttle Position Sensor voltage above normal
29-3
774-4
Secondary Throttle Position Sensor voltage below normal
29-4
774-8
Secondary Throttle Position Sensor abnormal frequency, pulse width, or period
29-8
993-2
DPF Active Regeneration Inhibited Due to Inhibit Switch
3703-31
-
1262-2
Engine Throttle Actuator 1 Control Command not responding properly
3464-7
-
1634-2
Idle Validation Switch #1 erratic, intermittent or incorrect
558-2
245
1635-2
Idle Validation Switch #2 erratic, intermittent or incorrect
2970-2
1639-9
Machine Security System Module abnormal update rate
1196-9
1743-2
Engine Operation Mode Selector Switch erratic, intermittent, or incorrect
2882-2
1785-3
Intake Manifold Pressure Sensor voltage above normal
3563-3
1785-4
Intake Manifold Pressure Sensor voltage below normal
3563-4
1785-13
Intake Manifold Pressure Sensor calibration required
3563-13
1785-21
Intake Manifold Pressure Sensor data drifted low
3563-21
1797-3
Fuel Rail Pressure Sensor voltage above normal
157-3
1797-4
Fuel Rail Pressure Sensor voltage below normal
157-4
1797-7
Fuel Rail Pressure Sensor not responding properly
157-7
1834-2
Ignition Key Switch loss of signal
158-2
2131-3
5 Volt Sensor DC Power Supply #2 voltage above normal
3510-3
2131-4
5 Volt Sensor DC Power Supply #2 voltage below normal
3510-4
165
516
527
152
142
177
185
155
246
144
197
159
429
528
(continued)
SEBU8601-01
49
Operation Section
Engine Diagnostics
(Table 3, contd)
CDL Code
Description
J1939
Code
Flash
Code
2246-6
Glow Plug Start Aid Relay current above normal
676-6
199
2417-5
Ether Injection Control Solenoid current below normal
626-5
2417-6
Ether Injection Control Solenoid current above normal
626-6
233
233
2452-3
DPF #1 Intake Temperature Sensor voltage above normal
3242-3
224
2452-4
DPF #1 Intake Temperature Sensor voltage below normal
3242-4
224
2458-3
DPF #1 Differential Pressure Sensor : voltage above normal
3251-3
222
2458-4
DPF #1 Differential Pressure Sensor : voltage below normal
3251-4
222
2460-3
ARD Fuel Pressure #1 Sensor voltage above normal
3480-3
219
2460-4
ARD Fuel Pressure #1 Sensor voltage below normal
3480-4
219
2461-5
ARD Fuel Pressure #1 Control current below normal
3479-5
2461-6
ARD Fuel Pressure #1 Control current above normal
3479-6
2465-5
Aftertreatment #1 Ignition Transformer Primary current below normal
3484-5
2465-6
Aftertreatment #1 Ignition Transformer Primary current above normal
3484-6
2489-5
ARD Air Pressure Control Actuator current below normal
3487-5
2489-6
ARD Air Pressure Control Actuator current above normal
3487-6
2490-3
ARD Air Pressure Control Actuator Position Sensor voltage above normal
3488-3
2490-4
ARD Air Pressure Control Actuator Position Sensor voltage below normal
3488-4
2498-3
ARD Supply Air Pressure Sensor voltage above normal
3837-3
-
2498-4
ARD Supply Air Pressure Sensor voltage below normal
3837-4
-
2498-13
ARD Supply Air Pressure Sensor calibration required
3837-13
-
2498-21
ARD Supply Air Pressure Sensor data drifted low
3837-21
-
2526-3
Air Inlet Temperature Sensor voltage above normal
172-3
232
2526-4
Air Inlet Temperature Sensor voltage below normal
172-4
232
3180-5
Aftertreatment #1 Ignition Transformer Secondary current below normal
4265-5
3180-6
Aftertreatment #1 Ignition Transformer Secondary current above normal
4265-6
3182-5
Aftertreatment #1 Fuel Injector #1 Heater current below normal
5425-5
3182-6
Aftertreatment #1 Fuel Injector #1 Heater current above normal
5425-6
3385-3
Engine Exhaust Gas Recirculation Intake Pressure Sensor voltage above
normal
3358-3
3385-4
Engine Exhaust Gas Recirculation Intake Pressure Sensor voltage below normal
3358-4
3385-13
Engine Exhaust Gas Recirculation Intake Pressure Sensor calibration required
3358-13
3385-21
Engine Exhaust Gas Recirculation Intake Pressure Sensor data drifted low
3358-21
3386-3
Engine Exhaust Gas Recirculation Intake Pressure Sensor voltage above
normal
412-3
3386-4
Engine Exhaust Gas Recirculation Intake Pressure Sensor voltage below normal
412-4
216
243
211
212
244
215
231
227
(continued)
50
Operation Section
Engine Diagnostics
SEBU8601-01
(Table 3, contd)
CDL Code
Description
J1939
Code
Flash
Code
3397-2
DPF #1 Soot Loading Sensor : Erratic, Intermittent, or Incorrect
4783-2
3397-3
DPF #1 Soot Loading Sensor : Voltage Above Normal
4783-3
3397-4
DPF #1 Soot Loading Sensor : Voltage Below Normal
4783-4
3397-9
DPF #1 Soot Loading Sensor abnormal update rate
4783-9
3397-12
DPF #1 Soot Loading Sensor failure
4783-12
3397-13
DPF #1 Soot Loading Sensor calibration required
4783-13
3397-19
DPF #1 Soot Loading Sensor data error
4783-19
3397-21
DPF #1 Soot Loading Sensor data drifted low
4783-21
3405-5
Engine Exhaust Gas Recirculation Valve Control current below normal
2791-5
3405-6
Engine Exhaust Gas Recirculation Valve Control current above normal
2791-6
3407-3
Engine Exhaust Gas Recirculation Valve Position Sensor voltage above normal
27-3
3407-4
Engine Exhaust Gas Recirculation Valve Position Sensor voltage below normal
27-4
3427-5
Aftertreatment Fuel Pump Relay current below normal
5423-5
218
3427-6
Aftertreatment Fuel Pump Relay current above normal
5423-6
218
3464-3
DPF #1 Intake Pressure Sensor voltage above normal
3609-3
3464-4
DPF #1 Intake Pressure Sensor voltage below normal
3609-4
3464-13
DPF #1 Intake Pressure Sensor calibration required
3609-13
3464-21
DPF #1 Intake Pressure Sensor data drifted low
3609-21
3468-2
Aftertreatment #1 Identification Number Module erratic, intermittent, or incorrect
5576-2
-
3468-8
Aftertreatment #1 Identification Number Module abnormal frequency, pulse
width, or period
5576-8
-
3468-14
Aftertreatment #1 Identification Number Module special instruction
5576-14
-
3511-3
Engine Exhaust Gas Recirculation Outlet Pressure Sensor voltage above
normal
5019-3
3511-4
Engine Exhaust Gas Recirculation Outlet Pressure Sensor voltage below normal
5019-4
3511-13
Engine Exhaust Gas Recirculation Outlet Pressure Sensor calibration required
5019-13
3511-21
Engine Exhaust Gas Recirculation Outlet Pressure Sensor data drifted low
5019-21
3514-5
Engine Throttle Actuator Control Command current below normal
3464-5
-
3514-6
Engine Throttle Actuator Control Command current above normal
3464-6
-
3515-3
Engine Throttle Valve Position Sensor voltage above normal
51-3
3515-4
Engine Throttle Valve Position Sensor voltage below normal
51-4
226
228
229
223
247
252
Event Codes
E172-1
High Air Filter Restriction - Warning
107-15
151
E232-1
High Fuel/Water Separator Water Level - Warning
97-17
-
E360-1
Low Engine Oil Pressure - Warning
100-17
E360-3
Low Engine Oil Pressure - Shutdown
100-01
157
(continued)
SEBU8601-01
51
Operation Section
Engine Diagnostics
(Table 3, contd)
CDL Code
Description
J1939
Code
Flash
Code
E361-1
High Engine Coolant Temperature - Warning
110-15
E361-2
High Engine Coolant Temperature - Derate
110-16
E361-3
High Engine Coolant Temperature - Shutdown
110-0
E362-1
Engine Overspeed - Warning
190-15
E363-1
High Fuel Supply Temperature - Warning
174-15
E363-2
High Fuel Supply Temperature - Derate
174-16
E396-2
High Fuel Rail Pressure - Warning
157-16
E398-2
Low Fuel Rail Pressure - Warning
157-18
E499-3
Fuel Rail #1 Pressure Leak - Shutdown
1239-0
E539-1
High Intake Manifold Air Temperature - Warning
105-15
E539-2
High Intake Manifold Air Temperature - Derate
105-16
E593-2
Aftertreatment Insufficient Temperature to Complete Regeneration - Derate
3711-31
214
E991-3
DPF Active Regeneration Inhibited Due to Permanent System Lockout Shutdown
3715-31
-
E992-3
DPF Active Regeneration Inhibited Due to Temporary System Lockout Shutdown
3714-31
-
E995-2
High DPF #1 Soot Loading - Derate
3719-16
E995-3
High DPF #1 Soot Loading - Shutdown
3719-0
E997-1
High DPF #1 Ash Loading - Warning
3720-15
-
E997-2
High DPF #1 Ash Loading - Derate
3720-16
-
E1008-2
High DPF #1 Intake Temperature - Derate
3242-16
224
E1014-2
Low DPF #1 Intake Temperature - Derate
3242-18
224
E1022-1
Low ARD Fuel Pressure #1 - Warning
3480-17
E1022-2
Low ARD Fuel Pressure #1 - Derate
3480-18
E1025-2
Aftertreatment #1 Loss of Ignition - Derate
3473-31
244
E1026-2
Aftertreatment #1 Loss of Combustion - Derate
3474-31
-
E1041-2
ARD Air Pressure Control Actuator Not Responding To Command - Derate
3487-7
211
E1044-2
High Intake Manifold Pressure - Derate
102-16
E1045-2
Low Intake Manifold Pressure - Derate
102-18
E1050-1
High Aftertreatment #1 Fuel Pressure #1 - Warning
3480-15
E1050-2
High Aftertreatment #1 Fuel Pressure #1 - Derate
3480-16
E1070-1
Aftertreatment Fuel Injector #1 not responding - Warning
3556-7
-
E1092-1
High Engine Exhaust Gas Recirculation Temperature - Warning
412-15
227
E1092-2
High Engine Exhaust Gas Recirculation Temperature - Derate
412-16
227
E1121-2
Engine Exhaust Gas Recirculation Valve Control Not Responding to Command
- Derate
2791-7
228
E1154-2
Low DPF #1 Intake Pressure - Warning
3609-18
E1156-1
High DPF #1 Intake Pressure - Warning
3609-15
E1170-2
Low Aftertreatment #1 Secondary Air Pressure - Derate
3837-18
168
141
165
159
133
226
219
197
219
223
(continued)
52
Operation Section
Engine Diagnostics
SEBU8601-01
(Table 3, contd)
CDL Code
Description
J1939
Code
Flash
Code
E1264-3
High Pressure Common Rail Fuel Pressure Relief Valve Active - Shutdown
5571-0
159
E1305-1
Initial Assembly Aftertreatment #1 Regeneration Required - Warning
3483-11
-
E1319-2
Engine Exhaust Gas Recirculation Mass Flow Rate Not Responding - Derate
2659-7
-
E2143-3
Low Engine Coolant Level - Shutdown
111-01
169
i01902949
Fault Logging
The system provides the capability of Fault Logging.
When the Electronic Control Module (ECM)
generates an active diagnostic code, the code will
be logged in the memory of the ECM. The codes
that have been logged by the ECM can be identified
by the electronic service tool. The active codes that
have been logged will be cleared when the fault
has been rectified or the fault is no longer active.
The following logged faults can not be cleared from
the memory of the ECM without using a factory
password: Overspeed, low engine oil pressure, and
high engine coolant temperature.
i03554534
Engine Operation with Active
Diagnostic Codes
If a diagnostic lamp illuminates during normal engine
operation, the system has identified a situation that
is not within the specification. Use electronic service
tools to check the active diagnostic codes.
Note: If the customer has selected “DERATE” and if
there is a low oil pressure condition, the Electronic
Control Module (ECM) will limit the engine power
until the problem is corrected. If the oil pressure is
within the normal range, the engine may be operated
at the rated speed and load. However, maintenance
should be performed as soon as possible.
The active diagnostic code should be investigated.
The cause of the problem should be corrected as
soon as possible. If the cause of the active diagnostic
code is repaired and there is only one active
diagnostic code, the diagnostic lamp will turn off.
Operation of the engine and performance of the
engine can be limited as a result of the active
diagnostic code that is generated. Acceleration
rates may be significantly slower. Refer to the
Troubleshooting Guide for more information on the
relationship between these active diagnostic codes
and engine performance.
SEBU8601-01
53
Operation Section
Engine Diagnostics
i01902995
Engine Operation with
Intermittent Diagnostic Codes
If a diagnostic lamp illuminates during normal engine
operation and the diagnostic lamp shuts off, an
intermittent fault may have occurred. If a fault has
occurred, the fault will be logged into the memory of
the Electronic Control Module (ECM).
In most cases, it is not necessary to stop the engine
because of an intermittent code. However, the
operator should retrieve the logged fault codes
and the operator should reference the appropriate
information in order to identify the nature of the event.
The operator should log any observation that could
have caused the lamp to light.
• Low power
• Limits of the engine speed
• Excessive smoke, etc
This information can be useful to help troubleshoot
the situation. The information can also be used for
future reference. For more information on diagnostic
codes, refer to the Troubleshooting Guide for this
engine.
i03905586
Configuration Parameters
The engine electronic control module (ECM) has
two types of configuration parameters. The system
configuration parameters and the customer specified
parameters.
The electronic service tool is required in order to alter
the configuration parameters.
System Configuration Parameters
System configuration parameters affect the emissions
of the engine or the power of the engine. System
configuration parameters are programmed at the
factory. Normally, system configuration parameters
would never require changing through the life
of the engine. System configuration parameters
must be reprogrammed if an ECM is replaced.
System configuration parameters do not require
reprogrammed if the ECM software is changed.
Factory passwords are required to change these
parameters.
54
Operation Section
Engine Diagnostics
SEBU8601-01
Table 4
System Configuration Parameters
Configuration Parameters
Record
Engine Serial Number
Delayed Engine Shutdown
Factory Installed Aftertreatment #1 Identification Number
DPF #1 Soot Loading Sensing System Configuration Code
Limp Home Engine Speed Ramp Rate
System Operating Voltage Configuration
Rating Number
CAN Communication Protocol Write Security
Customer Specified Parameters
Customer specified parameters allow the engine to
be configured to the exact needs of the application.
The electronic service tool is required in order to alter
the customer configuration parameters.
Customer parameters may be changed repeatedly as
operational requirements change.
Table 5
Customer Specified Parameters
Specified Parameters
Record
Throttle Type Channel 1
Throttle Type Channel 2
Continuous Position Throttle Configuration 1
Continuous Position Throttle Configuration 2
Multi Position Throttle Switch Configuration
Throttle Arbitration
Equipment ID
Low Idle Speed
Ether Solenoid Configuration
Engine Idle Shutdown Minimum Ambient Air Temperature
Engine Idle Shutdown Maximum Ambient Air Temperature
Engine Idle Shutdown Enable Status
Engine Idle Shutdown Delay Time
Engine Idle Shutdown Ambient Temperature Override Enable Status
Delayed Engine Shutdown Maximum Time
High Soot Load Aftertreatment Protection Enable Status
Key off regen enable status
Key Off Aftertreatment Regeneration Maximum Time
(continued)
SEBU8601-01
55
Operation Section
Engine Diagnostics
(Table 5, contd)
Multiple Engines on J1939
Air Shutoff
ARD Auto Regeneration Enable Status
Throttle Lock Feature Installation Status
PTO Mode
Throttle Lock Engine Set Speed #1
Throttle Lock Engine Set Speed #2
Throttle Lock Increment Speed Ramp Rate
Throttle Lock Decrement Speed Ramp Rate
Throttle Lock Engine Set Speed Increment
Throttle Lock Engine Set Speed Decrement
Monitoring Mode Shutdowns
Monitoring Mode Derates
Limp Home Desired Engine Speed
Engine Acceleration Rate
Engine Speed Decelerating Ramp Rate
Intermediate Engine Speed
Fan
Engine Fan Control
Engine Fan Type Configuration
Engine Cooling Fan Pulley Ratio
Engine Cooling Fan Temperature Error Increasing Hysteresis
Engine Cooling Fan Temperature Error Decreasing Hysteresis
Engine Cooling Fan Current Ramp Rate
Engine Cooling Fan Speed
Top Engine Fan Speed
Minimum Desired Engine Cooling Fan Speed
Engine Cooling Fan Solenoid Minimum Current
Engine Cooling Fan Solenoid Maximum Current
Engine cooling Fan solenoid Dither Frequency
Engine Cooling Fan Solenoid Dither Amplitude
Fan Temperatures
Engine Fan Control Charge Air Cooler Outlet Temperature Input
Enable
Engine Cooling Fan Maximum Air Flow Charge Air Cooler Outlet
Temperature
Engine Cooling Fan Minimum Air Flow Charge Air Cooler Outlet
Temperature
Engine Cooling Fan Control Coolant Temperature Input Enable Status
Engine Cooling Fan Maximum Air Flow Coolant Temperature
(continued)
56
Operation Section
Engine Diagnostics
SEBU8601-01
(Table 5, contd)
Engine Cooling Fan Minimum Air Flow Coolant Temperature
Engine Cooling Fan Control Transmission Oil Temperature Input
Enable Status
Engine Cooling Fan Maximum Air Flow Transmission Oil Temperature
Engine Cooling Fan Minimum Air Flow Transmission Oil Temperature
Engine Cooling Fan Control Hydraulic Oil Temperature Input Enable
Status
Engine Cooling Fan Maximum Air Flow Hydraulic Oil Temperature
Engine Cooling Fan Minimum Air Flow Hydraulic Oil Temperature
Engine Cooling Fan Control Auxiliary #1 Temperature Input Enable
Status
Engine Cooling Fan Maximum Air Flow Auxiliary #1 Temperature
Engine Cooling Fan Minimum Air Flow Auxiliary #1 Temperature
Engine Cooling Fan Control Auxiliary #2 Temperature Input Enable
Status
Engine Cooling Fan Maximum Air Flow Auxiliary #2 Temperature
Engine Cooling Fan Minimum Air Flow Auxiliary #2 Temperature
Reversing Fan
Engine Fan Reversing Feature
Engine Fan Reverse Operation Early Termination Enable Status
Engine Fan Manual Purge
Engine Fan Suspend Purge
Engine Fan Purge Cycle Interval
Engine Fan Purge Cycle Duration
Other Parameters
Maintenance Indicator Mode
Maintenance Level 1 Cycle Interval Hours
Coolant Level Sensor
Air Filter Restriction Switch Installation Status
Air Filter Restriction Switch Configuration
Fuel/Water Separator Switch Installation Status
User Defined Switch Installation Status
Auxiliary Temperature Sensor Installation Status
Auxiliary Pressure Sensor Installation Status
Engine Overspeed Setpoint
Fuel Filter Differential Pressure Switch Config
Diesel Particulate Filter Regeneration Force/ Inhibit Switch Installation
Diesel Particulate Filter Regeneration Inhibit Indicator Installation
Diesel Particulate Filter Soot Loading Indicator Installation
High Exhaust System Temperature Indicator Installation
Auxiliary Temp #2
(continued)
SEBU8601-01
(Table 5, contd)
Remote Torque Speed Control Enable Status
Number of Engine Operating Mode Switches
Engine Operating Mode Configuration
57
Operation Section
Engine Diagnostics
58
Operation Section
Engine Starting
SEBU8601-01
Engine Starting
i04084389
Starting the Engine
i03648917
Before Starting Engine
Perform the required daily maintenance and other
periodic maintenance before the engine is started.
Inspect the engine compartment. This inspection can
help prevent major repairs at a later date. Refer to the
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Maintenance
Interval Schedule” for more information.
• Ensure that the engine has an adequate fuel
supply.
• Open the fuel supply valve (if equipped).
NOTICE
All valves in the fuel return line must be open and fuel
supply lines must be open. Damage to the fuel system
can occure if fuel lines are closed with the engine in
operation.
If the engine has not been started for several weeks,
fuel may have drained from the fuel system. Air
may have entered the filter housing. Also, when fuel
filters have been changed, some air pockets will be
trapped in the engine. In these instances, prime the
fuel system. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Fuel System - Prime” for more information
on priming the fuel system. Also, check that the fuel
specification is correct and that the fuel condition
is correct. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Fuel Recommendations”.
Engine exhaust contains products of combustion
which may be harmful to your health. Always start
and operate the engine in a well ventilated area
and, if in an enclosed area, vent the exhaust to the
outside.
Note: Do not adjust the engine speed control during
start-up. The electronic control module (ECM) will
control the engine speed during start-up.
Starting the Engine
1. Disengage any equipment that is driven by the
engine.
2. Turn the keyswitch to the RUN position. Leave the
keyswitch in the RUN position until the warning
light for the glow plugs is extinguished.
Note: During the key on, the indicator lamps will
be illuminated for 2 seconds in order to check lamp
operation. If any of the lamps do not illuminate,
replace the bulb.
3. When the warning light for the glow plugs is
extinguished, turn the keyswitch to the START
position in order to engage the electric starting
motor and crank the engine.
Note: The operating period of the warning light for
the glow plugs will change due to the temperature
of the engine.
NOTICE
Do not engage the starting motor when flywheel is
turning. Do not start the engine under load.
If the engine fails to start within 30 seconds, release
the starter switch or button and wait two minutes to
allow the starting motor to cool before attempting to
start the engine again.
4. Allow the keyswitch to return to the RUN position
after the engine starts.
5. Repeat step 2 through step 4 if the engine fails
to start.
• Do not start the engine or move any of the controls
if there is a “DO NOT OPERATE” warning tag or
similar warning tag attached to the start switch or
to the controls.
i03570564
Cold Weather Starting
• Reset all of the shutoffs or alarm components.
• Ensure that any driven equipment has been
disengaged. Minimize electrical loads or remove
any electrical loads.
Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such as
ether. Such use could result in an explosion and
personal injury.
SEBU8601-01
Startability will be improved at temperatures below
−18 °C (0 °F) from the use of a jacket water heater
or extra battery capacity.
When Group 2 diesel fuel is used, the following items
provide a means of minimizing starting problems
and fuel problems in cold weather: Engine oil pan
heaters, jacket water heaters, fuel heaters, and fuel
line insulation.
59
Operation Section
Engine Starting
7. Operate the engine at low load until all systems
reach operating temperature. Check the gauges
during the warm-up period.
i03663103
Starting with Jump Start
Cables
Use the procedure that follows for cold weather
starting.
Note: Do not adjust the engine speed control during
start-up. The electronic control module (ECM) will
control the engine speed during start-up.
1. Disengage any driven equipment.
2. Turn the keyswitch to the RUN position. Leave the
keyswitch in the RUN position until the warning
light for the glow plugs is extinguished.
NOTICE
Do not engage the starting motor when flywheel is
turning. Do not start the engine under load.
If the engine fails to start within 30 seconds, release
the starter switch or button and wait two minutes to
allow the starting motor to cool before attempting to
start the engine again.
3. When the warning light for the glow plugs is
extinguished turn the keyswitch to the START
position in order to engage the electric starting
motor and crank the engine.
Note: The operating period of the warning light for
the glow plugs will change due to the temperature
of the engine.
4. Allow the keyswitch to return to the RUN position
after the engine starts.
5. Repeat step 2 through step 4 if the engine fails
to start.
Note: The engine should not be “raced” in order to
speed up the warm up process.
6. Allow the engine to idle for three to five minutes, or
allow the engine to idle until the water temperature
indicator begins to rise. When idling after the
engine has started in cold weather, increase the
engine rpm from 1000 to 1200 rpm. This will
warm up the engine more quickly. Maintaining
an elevated low idle speed for extended periods
will be easier with the installation of a hand
throttle. Allow the white smoke to disperse before
proceeding with normal operation.
Improper jump start cable connections can cause
an explosion resulting in personal injury.
Prevent sparks near the batteries. Sparks could
cause vapors to explode. Do not allow jump start
cable ends to contact each other or the engine.
Note: If it is possible, first diagnose the reason for
the starting failure. Refer to Troubleshooting, “Engine
Will Not Crank and Engine Cranks But Will Not Start”
for further information. Make any necessary repairs.
If the engine will not start only due to the condition
of the battery, either charge the battery, or start the
engine by using another battery with jump start
cables.
The condition of the battery can be rechecked after
the engine has been switched OFF.
NOTICE
Using a battery source with the same voltage as the
electric starting motor. Use ONLY equal voltage for
jump starting. The use of higher voltage will damage
the electrical system.
Do not reverse the battery cables. The alternator can
be damaged. Attach ground cable last and remove
first.
Turn all electrical accessories OFF before attaching
the jump start cables.
Ensure that the main power switch is in the OFF position before attaching the jump start cables to the engine being started.
1. Turn the start switch on the stalled engine to the
OFF position. Turn off all the engine's accessories.
2. Connect one positive end of the jump start cable
to the positive cable terminal of the discharged
battery. Connect the other positive end of the jump
start cable to the positive cable terminal of the
electrical source.
60
Operation Section
Engine Starting
3. Connect one negative end of the jump start cable
to the negative cable terminal of the electrical
source. Connect the other negative end of the
jump start cable to the engine block or to the
chassis ground. This procedure helps to prevent
potential sparks from igniting the combustible
gases that are produced by some batteries.
Note: The engine ECM must be powered before the
starting motor is operated or damage can occur.
4. Start the engine in the normal operating procedure.
Refer to this Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Starting the Engine”.
5. Immediately after the engine is started, disconnect
the jump start cables in reverse order.
After jump starting, the alternator may not be able to
fully recharge batteries that are severely discharged.
The batteries must be replaced or charged to the
proper voltage with a battery charger after the engine
is stopped. Many batteries which are considered
unusable are still rechargeable. Refer to Operation
and Maintenance Manual, “Battery - Replace” and
Testing and Adjusting Manual, “Battery - Test”.
SEBU8601-01
i02330138
After Starting Engine
Note: In ambient temperatures from 0 to 60°C
(32 to 140°F), the warm-up time is approximately
three minutes. In temperatures below 0°C (32°F),
additional warm-up time may be required.
When the engine idles during warm-up, observe the
following conditions:
Do not check the high pressure fuel lines with the
engine or the starting motor in operation. If you
inspect the engine in operation, always use the
proper inspection procedure in order to avoid a
fluid penetration hazard. Refer to Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “General hazard Information”.
• Check for any fluid or for any air leaks at idle rpm
and at one-half full rpm (no load on the engine)
before operating the engine under load. This is not
possible in some applications.
• Allow the engine to idle for three to five minutes, or
allow the engine to idle until the water temperature
indicator begins to rise. Check all gauges during
the warm-up period.
Note: Gauge readings should be observed and
the data should be recorded frequently while the
engine is operating. Comparing the data over time
will help to determine normal readings for each
gauge. Comparing data over time will also help
detect abnormal operating developments. Significant
changes in the readings should be investigated.
SEBU8601-01
61
Operation Section
Engine Operation
Engine Operation
i04156659
Engine Operation
Proper operation and maintenance are key factors
in obtaining the maximum life and economy of
the engine. If the directions in the Operation and
Maintenance Manual are followed, costs can be
minimized and engine service life can be maximized.
The time that is needed for the engine to reach
normal operating temperature can be less than the
time taken for a walk-around inspection of the engine.
The engine can be operated at the rated rpm after
the engine is started and after the engine reaches
operating temperature. The engine will reach normal
operating temperature sooner during a low engine
speed (rpm) and during a low-power demand. This
procedure is more effective than idling the engine
at no load. The engine should reach operating
temperature in a few minutes.
Avoid excess idling. Excessive idling causes carbon
buildup, engine slobber, and soot loading of the
Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF). This is harmful to the
engine.
Gauge readings should be observed and the data
should be recorded frequently while the engine
is operating. Comparing the data over time will
help to determine normal readings for each gauge.
Comparing data over time will also help detect
abnormal operating developments. Significant
changes in the readings should be investigated.
Reduction of Particulate Emissions
The Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) and the
Aftertreatment Regeneration Device (ARD) work
together in order to reduce particulate emissions. The
DPF collects the soot and any ash that is produced by
the combustion in the engine. During regeneration,
the soot is converted into a gas which is released into
the atmosphere. The Ash remains in the DPF until
the ash is cleaned out of the DPF.
The temperature of the DPF must be above a
particular value in order for regeneration to occur.
The exhaust gas provides heat for the regeneration
process. There are two types of regeneration:
Passive Regeneration – Is a chemical reaction
within the system and the engine provides sufficient
exhaust gas temperature for regeneration.
Active Regeneration – The engines duty cycle
does not provide sufficient exhaust temperature for
passive regeneration. The ARD operates in order to
raise the temperature of the exhaust gas. When the
regeneration process is complete, the ARD turns off.
The operator will receive information on the status of
the ARD from dash lamps and the driver will be able
to request a regeneration by using a switch. Refer to
this Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Monitoring
System” for more information.
Engine Operation and Active
Regeneration
Your ARD may perform an active regeneration while
your engine is at idle. During this active regeneration
of the DPF, the engine may operate at idle for periods
longer than 5 minutes.
i04084269
Diesel Particulate Filter
Regeneration
The temperature of the exhaust gas and the
temperature of the exhaust system components can reach up to 650 °C (1202 °F) during
regeneration. An unexpected failure of the engine
or an unexpected failure of the aftertreatment
system may increase temperature at the diesel
particulate filter to as high as 900 °C (1652 °F)
gas temperature. This may result in fire, burn, or
explosion hazards, which may result in personal
injury or death. Do not expose flammable material
or explosive atmospheres to exhaust gas or to
exhaust system components during regeneration.
Regeneration
Regeneration is the removal of soot from the
Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF). The Aftertreatment
Regeneration Device (ARD) is used to regenerate
the DPF. The DPF traps both soot and ash. The
ash is removed through a manual cleaning process.
Refer to Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Diesel
Particulate Filter - Clean” for more information on the
service of the DPF.
Types of Regeneration
Passive Regeneration – Is a chemical reaction
within the system and the engine will create enough
heat in order to regenerate the DPF.
62
Operation Section
Engine Operation
Active Regeneration – The engine does not create
enough heat in order to regenerate the DPF. The
ARD must be used to create the heat necessary to
regenerate the DPF.
Lamps
Five dash lamps can be affected by the DPF
regeneration. Also, the horn can be used in order to
alter the operator.
High Exhaust System Temperature
Lamp (HEST) – The lamp is illuminated
when the ARD is activated and the exhaust
temperature is greater than 450 °C (842 °F).
DPF Lamp – This lamp provides a general
indication of the soot load. The lamp is off
when the soot load is normal. The lamp will
operate at level 2.
Note: In some situations, the DPF lamp may stay
illuminated when the soot load is below 90%. The
illuminated DPF lamp indicates that a complete
regeneration has not been performed. A complete
regeneration is when the soot level is reduced to
0%. If the DPF lamp stays illuminated, perform a
regeneration without interruption until the soot level
is reduced to 0%. A complete regeneration will reset
the DPF lamp.
Amber or yellow Warning Lamp – This
lamp indicates that the soot load has
increased. Regeneration is required. This
lamp will be illuminated at level 3 soot load and the
lamp will flash if regeneration is not activated. Also,
the DPF lamp will be illuminated.
Note: Amber or yellow Warning Lamp can be use
as a diagnostic lamp. For more information refer to
this Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Diagnostic
Lamp”.
Red Stop Lamp – This lamp indicates that
the soot load is extremely high. The soot
load is at level 3. The engine will derate
and may shut down. Also, the DPF lamp will be
illuminated.
DPF Disable Lamp – This lamp is
illuminated whenever the ARD disable
switch is activated or the system has been
disabled by the engine ECM.
Modes of Regeneration
• Low speed automatic
• Enhanced automatic regeneration
SEBU8601-01
• Forced regeneration
Low speed automatic regeneration and enhanced
automatic regeneration are controlled by the engine
ECM. During this regeneration the operator will see
the high exhaust system temperature lamp (HEST)
illuminated.
Low speed automatic – Low speed automatic
regeneration allows for the DPF regeneration to start
automatically with the engine speed in a low idle
condition or near low idle condition. In order for a low
speed automatic regeneration to occur, the following
conditions must be met:
• Soot level must be between level 1 and level 3 on
the soot level monitor (if equipped).
• Engine speed must be below 1400 rpm.
• The interlocks for the application will raise the
RPM to the required engine speed in order for the
regeneration to occur. The engine RPM will be
from 1000 to 1400 RPM.
• Refer to the OEM for the applications interlocks
required to be engaged before regeneration can
take place.
Enhanced automatic regeneration – This mode
of DPF regeneration allows for regeneration to take
place at higher engine rpm and higher engine loads.
In order for enhanced automatic regenerations to
occur, the following conditions must be met:
• Soot level must be between level 2 and level 3 on
the soot level monitor (if equipped).
• Engine speed must be greater than 1400 rpm.
• Minimum engine idle speed input must be set.
Setting the input will not allow engine speed to
fall below 1000 rpm during enhanced automatic
regeneration. If minimum low idle speed input is
not available, regeneration will stop if engine speed
drops below 1000 rpm.
• Refer to the OEM for the applications interlocks
required to be engaged before regeneration can
take place.
Forced regeneration – A forced regeneration is
initiated by pressing the regeneration switch. A forced
regeneration is allowed during normal operation up
to level 3. A forced regeneration can be performed
in the low speed automatic window or the enhanced
automatic regeneration window.
SEBU8601-01
Regeneration Switch
Note: The MIDDLE position of the regeneration
switch is the default position for automatic modes
of regeneration.
Note: Some OEMs may use other means of
activating a forced regeneration such as touch screen
interfaces.
Force Regeneration – Press in the top
of the switch for 2 seconds in order to
begin regeneration. An indicator light on
the switch will become active showing that the
regeneration is active. The HEST lamp will become
active showing that the regeneration is active. The
high exhaust temperature indicator will deactivate
after regeneration is completed or the regeneration
has been disabled.
Disable Regeneration – Press in the
bottom of the switch for 2 seconds in order
to disable regeneration. An indicator light on
the switch will become active. The disable indicator
lamp will illuminate. The indicator will deactivate after
the disable regeneration is completed.
Note: To re-enable the regeneration, cycle the engine
start switch key or press and hold down the force
regeneration switch for 2 seconds.
Note: If the engine start switch key is cycled while
the regeneration system is disabled via the disable
regeneration switch, press and hold the disable
regeneration switch for 2 seconds to reinitiate the
disable regeneration.
Soot Level Monitoring and Indicator
Lamps
During the normal working cycle of the engine the
ECM will control when the regeneration will occur.
Operation of the engine is not recommended with
the amber warning light flashing, or the red lamp
illuminated. Operation of the engine at this level
could damage the DPF.
63
Operation Section
Engine Operation
64
Operation Section
Engine Operation
SEBU8601-01
Table 6
Lamp Operation
Action Required
HEST Lamp
On
The ARD is activated and the exhaust
temperature is greater than 450 °C
(842 °F)
None
DPF Lamp
On
The lamp provides a general indication
of the soot load. The lamp is off when
the soot load is normal. The lamp will
operate at level 2 and above.
A regeneration is required. In automatic
mode the ECM will decide when to allow
the regeneration.
If the DPF lamp stays illuminated allow
a regeneration without interruption. An
uninterrupted regeneration will reset the
DPF lamp.
Amber Warning
Lamp
On
The lamp indicates that the soot load has
increased. Regeneration is required.
A regeneration is required. Perform a
forced regeneration, or allow the ECM
control.
Amber Warning
Lamp
Lamp is now
flashing
The flashing lamp will indicate that the
engine has continued to be operated,
regeneration is required.
Red Stop Lamp
On
The engine could be derated or the
engine could be shut down.
An urgent regeneration is required. If
a regeneration is not allowed, the DPF
could be damage.
Once the engine entres into shutdown
mode you must contact your Perkins
dealer or your Perkins distributor. Your
dealer or distributor will need to perform a
service level regeneration. The DFP may
need to be replaced.
Some applications will be equipped with a monitoring
gauge. Illustration 40 is an example of the levels of
soot loading on a gauge.
Illustration 40
g02153650
(1) Normal operation level 1
(2) Level 2 with DPF lamp illuminated
(3) level 3 with DPF lamp illuminated and amber warning lamp
illuminated.
During the normal working cycle of the engine the
ECM will control when the regeneration will occur.
Regeneration will take place by low speed automatic
regeneration or by enhanced automatic regeneration.
Operation of the engine at level 3 and not allowing a
regeneration to be performed could damage the DFP.
Soot Level and Engine Loading
Illustration 41 is a guide to show engine RPM engine
load and when regeneration can occur.
Illustration 41
g02237313
(A) Engine load factor
(B) Engine RPM
(1) Low speed automatic regeneration
(2) High speed automatic regeneration (60-80% soot load)
(3) High speed automatic regeneration (80-100% soot load)
In some circumstances high speed regeneration
cannot occur. Allow the application to operate at
a lower load factor in order to allow low speed
regeneration to occur.
SEBU8601-01
65
Operation Section
Engine Operation
i04018232
Fuel Conservation Practices
The efficiency of the engine can affect the fuel
economy. Perkins design and technology in
manufacturing provides maximum fuel efficiency in
all applications. Follow the recommended procedures
in order to attain optimum performance for the life
of the engine.
• Avoid spilling fuel.
Fuel expands when the fuel is warmed up. The fuel
may overflow from the fuel tank. Inspect fuel lines for
leaks. Repair the fuel lines, as needed.
• Be aware of the properties of the different fuels.
Use only the recommended fuels. Refer to the
Operations and Maintenance Manual, “Fuel
Recommendations”for further information.
• Avoid unnecessary idling.
Shut off the engine rather than idle for long periods of
time.
• Observe the service indicator frequently. Keep the
air cleaner elements clean.
• Ensure that the turbocharger is operating correctly.
For more information refer to this Operation and
Maintenance Manual , “Turbocharger - Inspect”
• Maintain a good electrical system.
One faulty battery cell will overwork the alternator.
This fault will consume excess power and excess
fuel.
• The belt should be in good condition. Refer to the
Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting, “V-Belt
Test” for further information.
• Ensure that all of the connections of the hoses are
tight. The connections should not leak.
• Ensure that the driven equipment is in good
working order.
• Cold engines consume excess fuel. Utilize heat
from the jacket water system and the exhaust
system, when possible. Keep cooling system
components clean and keep cooling system
components in good repair. Never operate the
engine without water temperature regulators.
All of these items will help maintain operating
temperatures.
66
Operation Section
Engine Stopping
SEBU8601-01
Engine Stopping
i03648931
After Stopping Engine
i02334873
Stopping the Engine
Note: Before you check the engine oil, do not operate
the engine for at least 10 minutes in order to allow
the engine oil to return to the oil pan.
NOTICE
Stopping the engine immediately after it has been
working under load, can result in overheating and accelerated wear of the engine components.
Avoid accelerating the engine prior to shutting it down.
Avoiding hot engine shutdowns will maximize turbocharger shaft and bearing life.
Note: Individual applications will have different
control systems. Ensure that the shutoff procedures
are understood. Use the following general guidelines
in order to stop the engine.
1. Remove the load from the engine. Reduce the
engine speed (rpm) to low idle. Allow the engine
to idle for five minutes in order to cool the engine.
2. Stop the engine after the cool down period
according to the shutoff system on the engine and
turn the ignition key switch to the OFF position.
If necessary, refer to the instructions that are
provided by the OEM.
Contact with high pressure fuel may cause fluid
penetration and burn hazards. High pressure fuel spray may cause a fire hazard. Failure to follow these inspection, maintenance and service instructions may cause personal injury or death.
• After the engine has stopped, you must wait for
10 minutes in order to allow the fuel pressure to
be purged from the high pressure fuel lines before
any service or repair is performed on the engine
fuel lines. If necessary, perform minor adjustments.
Repair any leaks from the low pressure fuel
system and from the cooling, lubrication or air
systems. Replace any high pressure fuel line that
has leaked. Refer to Disassembly and assembly
Manual, “Fuel Injection Lines - Install”.
• Check the crankcase oil level. Maintain the oil level
between the “MIN” mark and the “MAX” mark on
the engine oil level gauge.
• If the engine is equipped with a service hour meter,
i01903586
Emergency Stopping
note the reading. Perform the maintenance that
is in the Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Maintenance Interval Schedule”.
• Fill the fuel tank in order to help prevent
NOTICE
Emergency shutoff controls are for EMERGENCY use
ONLY. DO NOT use emergency shutoff devices or
controls for normal stopping procedure.
The OEM may have equipped the application with
an emergency stop button. For more information
about the emergency stop button, refer to the OEM
information.
Ensure that any components for the external system
that support the engine operation are secured after
the engine is stopped.
accumulation of moisture in the fuel. Do not overfill
the fuel tank.
NOTICE
Only use antifreeze/coolant mixtures recommended in
the Refill Capacities and Recommendations topic that
is in this Operation and Maintenance Manual. Failure
to do so can cause engine damage.
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pressure.
• Allow the engine to cool. Check the coolant level.
SEBU8601-01
• Check the coolant for correct antifreeze protection
and the correct corrosion protection. Add the
correct coolant/water mixture, if necessary.
• Perform all required periodic maintenance on all
driven equipment. This maintenance is outlined in
the instructions from the OEM.
67
Operation Section
Engine Stopping
68
Operation Section
Cold Weather Operation
SEBU8601-01
Cold Weather Operation
i04156731
Cold Weather Operation
• Install the correct specification of engine lubricant
before the beginning of cold weather.
• Check all rubber parts (hoses, fan drive belts,)
weekly.
• Check all electrical wiring and connections for any
fraying or damaged insulation.
Perkins Diesel Engines can operate effectively in
cold weather. During cold weather, the starting and
the operation of the diesel engine is dependent on
the following items:
• The type of fuel that is used
• The viscosity of the engine oil
• The operation of the glow plugs
• Optional Cold starting aid
• Keep all batteries fully charged and warm.
• Fill the fuel tank at the end of each shift.
• Check the air cleaners and the air intake daily.
Check the air intake more often when you operate
in snow.
• Ensure that the glow plugs are in working order.
Refer to Troubleshooting, “Glow Plug Starting AidTest”.
• Battery condition
This section will cover the following information:
• Potential problems that are caused by cold-weather
operation
• Suggest steps which can be taken in order to
Personal injury or property damage can result
from alcohol or starting fluids.
Alcohol or starting fluids are highly flammable and
toxic and if improperly stored could result in injury
or property damage.
minimize starting problems and operating problems
when the ambient air temperature is between
0° to−40 °C (32° to 40 °F).
The operation and maintenance of an engine in
freezing temperatures is complex . This complexity is
because of the following conditions:
Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such as
ether. Such use could result in an explosion and
personal injury.
• Weather conditions
• For jump starting with cables in cold weather,
• Engine applications
Recommendations from your Perkins dealer or
your Perkins distributor are based on past proven
practices. The information that is contained in
this section provides guidelines for cold-weather
operation.
Hints for Cold Weather Operation
• If the engine will start, operate the engine until a
minimum operating temperature of 80° C (176° F)
is achieved. Achieving operating temperature will
help prevent the intake valves and exhaust valves
from sticking.
• The cooling system and the lubrication system
for the engine do not lose heat immediately upon
shutdown. This means that an engine can be shut
down for a period and the engine can still have the
ability to start readily.
refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Starting with Jump Start Cables.” for instructions.
Viscosity of the Engine Lubrication
Oil
Correct engine oil viscosity is essential. Oil viscosity
affects the amount of torque that is needed to
crank the engine. Refer to this Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Fluid Recommendations” for
the recommended viscosity of oil.
Recommendations for the Coolant
Provide cooling system protection for the lowest
expected outside temperature. Refer to this Operation
and Maintenance Manual, “Fluid Recommendations”
for the recommended coolant mixture.
SEBU8601-01
In cold weather, check the coolant often for the
correct glycol concentration in order to ensure
adequate freeze protection.
Engine Block Heaters
69
Operation Section
Cold Weather Operation
When starting and stopping an engine many
times without being operated in order to warm up
completely, the carbon deposits become thicker.
This starting and stopping can cause the following
problems:
Engine block heaters (if equipped) heat the
engine jacket water that surrounds the combustion
chambers. This heat provides the following functions:
• Free operation of the valves is prevented.
• Startability is improved.
• Pushrods may become bent.
• Warm up time is reduced.
• Other damage to valve train components can
An electric block heater can be activated once the
engine is stopped. A block heater can be 110 V dc or
240 V dc. The output can be 750/1000W. Consult
your Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor for
more information.
Idling the Engine
When idling after the engine is started in cold
weather, increase the engine rpm from 1000 to 1200
rpm. This idling will warm up the engine more quickly.
Maintaining an elevated low idle speed for extended
periods will be easier with the installation of a hand
throttle. The engine should not be “raced” in order to
speed up the warm-up process.
While the engine is idling, the application of a light
load (parasitic load) will assist in achieving the
minimum operating temperature. The minimum
operating temperature is 80° C (176° F).
Recommendations for Coolant
Warm Up
Warm up an engine that has cooled below normal
operating temperatures due to inactivity. This warn
-up should be performed before the engine is
returned to full operation. During operation in very
cold temperature conditions, damage to engine
valve mechanisms can result from engine operation
for short intervals. This damage can happen if the
engine is started and the engine is stopped many
times without being operated in order to warm up
completely.
When the engine is operated below normal operating
temperatures, fuel and oil are not completely burned
in the combustion chamber. This fuel and oil causes
soft carbon deposits to form on the valve stems.
Generally, the deposits do not cause problems and
the deposits are burned off during operation at
normal engine operating temperatures.
• Valves become stuck.
result.
For this reason, when the engine is started,
the engine must be operated until the coolant
temperature is 80° C (176° F) minimum. Carbon
deposits on the valve stems will be kept at a minimum
and the free operation of the valves and the valve
components will be maintained.
The engine must be thoroughly warmed in order
to keep other engine parts in better condition. The
service life of the engine will be generally extended.
Lubrication will be improved. There will be less acid
and less sludge in the oil. This condition will provide
longer service life for the engine bearings, the piston
rings, and other parts. However, limit unnecessary
idle time to10 minutes in order to reduce wear and
unnecessary fuel consumption.
The Water Temperature Regulator and
Insulated Heater Lines
The engine is equipped with a water temperature
regulator. When the engine coolant is below the
correct operating temperature, jacket water circulates
through the engine cylinder block and into the
engine cylinder head. The coolant then returns to the
cylinder block via an internal passage that bypasses
the valve of the coolant temperature regulator. This
ensures that coolant flows around the engine under
cold operating conditions. The water temperature
regulator begins to open when the engine jacket
water has reached the correct minimum operating
temperature. As the jacket water coolant temperature
rises above the minimum operating temperature, the
water temperature regulator opens further allowing
more coolant through the radiator to dissipate excess
heat.
The progressive opening of the water temperature
regulator operates the progressive closing of the
bypass passage between the cylinder block and
head. This action ensures maximum coolant flow
to the radiator in order to achieve maximum heat
dissipation.
70
Operation Section
Cold Weather Operation
Note: Do not restrict the air flow. Restriction of
the air flow can damage the fuel system. Perkins
discourages the use of all air flow restriction
devices such as radiator shutters. Restriction of the
air flow can result in the following: high exhaust
temperatures, power loss, excessive fan usage, and
reduction in fuel economy.
A cab heater is beneficial in very cold weather. The
feed from the engine and the return lines from the
cab should be insulated in order to reduce heat loss
to the outside air.
Recommendation for Crankcase Breather
Protection
Crankcase ventilation gases contain a large quantity
of water vapor. This water vapor can freeze in
cold ambient conditions and can plug or damage
the crankcase ventilation system. If the engine is
operated in temperatures below −25° C (−13° F),
measures must be taken to prevent freezing and
plugging of the breather system. Insulated hoses and
a heated canister assembly should be installed.
Consult with your Perkins dealer or your Perkins
distributer for the recommended breather
components for operation from −25° to -40°C
(−13° to -72.°F).
SEBU8601-01
i02685960
Fuel and the Effect from Cold
Weather
Note: Only use grades of fuel that are recommended
by Perkins. Refer to this Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Fluid Recommendations”.
The following components provide a means of
minimizing problems in cold weather:
• Glow plugs (if equipped)
• Engine coolant heaters, which may be an OEM
option
• Fuel heaters, which may be an OEM option
• Fuel line insulation, which may be an OEM option
The cloud point is a temperature that allows wax
crystals to form in the fuel. These crystals can cause
the fuel filters to plug.
The pour point is the temperature when diesel fuel
will thicken. The diesel fuel becomes more resistant
to flow through fuel lines, fuel filters,and fuel pumps.
Be aware of these facts when diesel fuel is
purchased. Consider the average ambient air
temperature for the engine's application. Engines that
are fueled in one climate may not operate well if the
engines are moved to another climate. Problems can
result due to changes in temperature.
Before troubleshooting for low power or for poor
performance in the winter, check the fuel for waxing.
Low temperature fuels may be available for engine
operation at temperatures below 0 °C (32 °F). These
fuels limit the formation of wax in the fuel at low
temperatures.
For more information on cold weather operation, refer
to the Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Cold
Weather Operation and Fuel Related Components in
Cold Weather”.
SEBU8601-01
71
Operation Section
Cold Weather Operation
i02323237
Fuel Related Components in
Cold Weather
Fuel Tanks
Condensation can form in partially filled fuel tanks.
Top off the fuel tanks after you operate the engine.
Fuel tanks should contain some provision for draining
water and sediment from the bottom of the tanks.
Some fuel tanks use supply pipes that allow water
and sediment to settle below the end of the fuel
supply pipe.
Some fuel tanks use supply lines that take fuel
directly from the bottom of the tank. If the engine is
equipped with this system, regular maintenance of
the fuel system filter is important.
Drain the water and sediment from any fuel storage
tank at the following intervals: weekly, service
intervals, and refueling of the fuel tank. This will help
prevent water and/or sediment from being pumped
from the fuel storage tank and into the engine fuel
tank.
Fuel Filters
A primary fuel filter is installed between the fuel
tank and the engine fuel inlet. After you change
the fuel filter, always prime the fuel system in order
to remove air bubbles from the fuel system. Refer
to the Operation and Maintenance Manual in the
Maintenance Section for more information on priming
the fuel system.
The location of a primary fuel filter is important in cold
weather operation. The primary fuel filter and the fuel
supply line are the most common components that
are affected by cold fuel.
Fuel Heaters
Note: The OEM may equip the application with fuel
heaters. If this is the case, the temperature of the fuel
must not exceed 73 °C (163 °F) at the fuel transfer
pump.
For more information about fuel heaters (if equipped),
refer to the OEM information.
72
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
SEBU8601-01
Maintenance Section
i03996594
Fluid Recommendations
Refill Capacities
i03995972
Refill Capacities
NOTICE
Never add coolant to an overheated engine. Engine
damage could result. Allow the engine to cool first.
Lubrication System
The refill capacities for the engine crankcase
reflect the approximate capacity of the crankcase
or sump plus standard oil filters. Auxiliary oil filter
systems will require additional oil. Refer to the OEM
specifications for the capacity of the auxiliary oil filter.
Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Maintenance Section” for more information on
Lubricant Specifications.
Table 7
Crankcase Oil
(1)
Sump(1)
NOTICE
If the engine is to be stored in, or shipped to an area
with below freezing temperatures, the cooling system
must be either protected to the lowest outside temperature or drained completely to prevent damage.
NOTICE
Frequently check the specific gravity of the coolant for
proper freeze protection or for anti-boil protection.
Clean the cooling system for the following reasons:
Engine
Refill Capacities
Compartment or System
General Coolant Information
Minimum
Maximum
13.5 L
(3.56 US
gal)
16.5 L
(4.36 US
gal)
These values are the approximate capacities for the crankcase
oil sump (aluminum) which includes the standard factory
installed oil filters. Engines with auxiliary oil filters will require
additional oil. Refer to the OEM specifications for the capacity
of the auxiliary oil filter. The design of the oil pan can change
the oil capacity of the oil pan.
• Contamination of the cooling system
• Overheating of the engine
• Foaming of the coolant
Cooling System
NOTICE
Never operate an engine without water temperature
regulators in the cooling system. Water temperature
regulators help to maintain the engine coolant at the
proper operating temperature. Cooling system problems can develop without water temperature regulators.
Refer to the OEM specifications for the External
System capacity. This capacity information will
be needed in order to determine the amount of
coolant/antifreeze that is required for the Total
Cooling System.
Many engine failures are related to the cooling
system. The following problems are related to cooling
system failures: Overheating, leakage of the water
pump, and plugged radiators or heat exchangers.
Table 8
Engine
Refill Capacities
Compartment or System
Engine Only
Liters
15 L
(3.96 US gal)
External System Per OEM(1)
(1)
The External System includes a radiator or an expansion
tank with the following components: heat exchanger and
piping. Refer to the OEM specifications. Enter the value for the
capacity of the External System in this row.
These failures can be avoided with correct cooling
system maintenance. Cooling system maintenance is
as important as maintenance of the fuel system and
the lubrication system. Quality of the coolant is as
important as the quality of the fuel and the lubricating
oil.
Coolant is normally composed of three elements:
Water, additives, and glycol.
Water
Water is used in the cooling system in order to
transfer heat.
SEBU8601-01
73
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
Distilled water or deionized water is
recommended for use in engine cooling systems.
DO NOT use the following types of water in cooling
systems: Hard water, softened water that has been
conditioned with salt, and sea water.
If distilled water or deionized water is not available,
use water with the properties that are listed in Table 9.
• Plugging of radiators, coolers, and small passages
Glycol
Glycol in the coolant helps to provide protection
against the following conditions:
• Boiling
• Freezing
Table 9
Acceptable Water
Property
Maximum Limit
Chloride (Cl)
40 mg/L
Sulfate (SO4)
100 mg/L
Total Hardness
170 mg/L
Total Solids
340 mg/L
Acidity
pH of 5.5 to 9.0
For a water analysis, consult one of the following
sources:
• Local water utility company
• Agricultural agent
• Cavitation of the water pump
For optimum performance, Perkins recommends a
1:1 mixture of a water/glycol solution.
Note: Use a mixture that will provide protection
against the lowest ambient temperature.
Note: 100 percent pure glycol will freeze at a
temperature of −23 °C (−9 °F).
Most conventional antifreezes use ethylene glycol.
Propylene glycol may also be used. In a 1:1 mixture
with water, ethylene and propylene glycol provide
similar protection against freezing and boiling. Refer
to Table 10 and refer to table 11.
Table 10
Ethylene Glycol
• Independent laboratory
Additives
Additives help to protect the metal surfaces of
the cooling system. A lack of coolant additives or
insufficient amounts of additives enable the following
conditions to occur:
• Corrosion
• Formation of mineral deposits
Concentration
Freeze Protection
50 Percent
−36 °C (−33 °F)
60 Percent
−51 °C (−60 °F)
NOTICE
Do not use propylene glycol in concentrations that exceed 50 percent glycol because of the reduced heat
transfer capability of propylene glycol. Use ethylene
glycol in conditions that require additional protection
against boiling or freezing.
• Rust
• Scale
• Foaming of the coolant
Many additives are depleted during engine operation.
These additives must be replaced periodically.
Additives must be added at the correct concentration.
Overconcentration of additives can cause the
inhibitors to drop out-of-solution. The deposits can
enable the following problems to occur:
• Formation of gel compounds
• Reduction of heat transfer
• Leakage of the water pump seal
Table 11
Propylene Glycol
Concentration
Freeze Protection
50 Percent
−29 °C (−20 °F)
To check the concentration of glycol in the coolant,
measure the specific gravity of the coolant.
Coolant Recommendations
• ELC____________________________Extended Life Coolant
• SCA___________________ Supplement Coolant Additive
74
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
SEBU8601-01
• ASTM__________________________________________American
Society for Testing and Materials
The following two coolants are used in Perkins diesel
engines:
Preferred – Perkins ELC
Acceptable – A commercial heavy-duty antifreeze
that meets “ASTM D6210 ” specifications
NOTICE
The 1200 series industrial engines must be operated with a 1:1 mixture of water and glycol. This
concentration allows the NOx reduction system to
operate correctly at high ambient temperatures.
NOTICE
Do not use a commercial coolant/antifreeze that only meets the ASTM D3306 specification. This type of
coolant/antifreeze is made for light automotive applications.
Perkins recommends a 1:1 mixture of water and
glycol. This mixture of water and glycol will provide
optimum heavy-duty performance as an antifreeze.
This ratio may be increased to 1:2 water to glycol if
extra freezing protection is required.
A mixture of SCA inhibitor and water is acceptable but
will not give the same level of corrosion, boiling and,
freezing protection as ELC. Perkins recommends a 6
percent to 8 percent concentration of SCA in those
cooling systems. Distilled water or deionized water
is preferred. Water which has the recommended
properties may be used
Table 12
Coolant Service Life
Coolant Type
Service Life
(1)
Perkins ELC
6,000 Service Hours or
Three Years
Commercial Heavy-Duty
Antifreeze that meets
“ASTM D6210”
3000 Service Hours or
One Year
Commercial Heavy-Duty
Antifreeze that meets
“ASTM D6210”
3000 Service Hours or
Two Years
Perkins POWERPART
SCA inhibitor
3000 Service Hours or
Two Years
Commercial SCA inhibitor
and Water
3000 Service Hours or
One Year
(1)
Use the interval that occurs first. The cooling system must
also be flushed out at this time.
ELC
Perkins provides ELC for use in the following
applications:
• Heavy-duty spark ignited gas engines
• Heavy-duty diesel engines
• Automotive applications
The anti-corrosion package for ELC is different from
the anti-corrosion package for other coolants. ELC
is an ethylene glycol base coolant. However, ELC
contains organic corrosion inhibitors and antifoam
agents with low amounts of nitrite. Perkins ELC
has been formulated with the correct amount of
these additives in order to provide superior corrosion
protection for all metals in engine cooling systems.
ELC is available in a premixed cooling solution with
distilled water. ELC is a 1:1 mixture. The Premixed
ELC provides freeze protection to −36 °C (−33 °F).
The Premixed ELC is recommended for the initial
fill of the cooling system. The Premixed ELC is also
recommended for topping off the cooling system.
Containers of several sizes are available. Consult
your Perkins distributor for the part numbers.
ELC Cooling System Maintenance
Correct additions to the Extended Life
Coolant
NOTICE
Use only Perkins products for pre-mixed or concentrated coolants.
Mixing Extended Life Coolant with other products reduces the Extended Life Coolant service life. Failure to
follow the recommendations can reduce cooling system components life unless appropriate corrective action is performed.
In order to maintain the correct balance between
the antifreeze and the additives, you must maintain
the recommended concentration of ELC. Lowering
the proportion of antifreeze lowers the proportion of
additive. This will lower the ability of the coolant to
protect the system from pitting, from cavitation, from
erosion, and from deposits.
SEBU8601-01
NOTICE
Do not use a conventional coolant to top-off a cooling
system that is filled with Extended Life Coolant (ELC).
Do not use standard supplemental coolant additive
(SCA).
When using Perkins ELC, do not use standard SCA's
or SCA filters.
ELC Cooling System Cleaning
Note: If the cooling system is already using ELC,
cleaning agents are not required to be used at
the specified coolant change interval. Cleaning
agents are only required if the system has been
contaminated by the addition of some other type of
coolant or by cooling system damage.
Clean water is the only cleaning agent that is required
when ELC is drained from the cooling system.
Before the cooling system is filled, the heater control
(if equipped) must be set to the hot position. Refer
to the OEM in order to set the heater control. After
the cooling system is drained and the cooling system
is refilled, operate the engine until the coolant level
reaches the normal operating temperature and
until the coolant level stabilizes. As needed, add
the coolant mixture in order to fill the system to the
specified level.
Changing to Perkins ELC
To change from heavy-duty antifreeze to the Perkins
ELC, perform the following steps:
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that all fluids are
contained during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting and the repair of the
product. Be prepared to collect the fluid with suitable
containers before opening any compartment or disassembling any component containing fluids.
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
mandates.
1. Drain the coolant into a suitable container.
2. Dispose of the coolant according to local
regulations.
3. Flush the system with clean water in order to
remove any debris.
4. Use Perkins cleaner to clean the system. Follow
the instruction on the label.
75
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
5. Drain the cleaner into a suitable container. Flush
the cooling system with clean water.
6. Fill the cooling system with clean water and
operate the engine until the engine is warmed to
49° to 66°C (120° to 150°F).
NOTICE
Incorrect or incomplete flushing of the cooling system
can result in damage to copper and other metal components.
To avoid damage to the cooling system, make sure to
completely flush the cooling system with clear water.
Continue to flush the system until all the signs of the
cleaning agent are gone.
7. Drain the cooling system into a suitable container
and flush the cooling system with clean water.
Note: The cooling system cleaner must be thoroughly
flushed from the cooling system. Cooling system
cleaner that is left in the system will contaminate the
coolant. The cleaner may also corrode the cooling
system.
8. Repeat Steps 6 and repeat steps 7 until the
system is completely clean.
9. Fill the cooling system with the Perkins Premixed
ELC.
ELC Cooling System Contamination
NOTICE
Mixing ELC with other products reduces the effectiveness of the ELC and shortens the ELC service life.
Use only Perkins Products for premixed or concentrate coolants. Failure to follow these recommendations can result in shortened cooling system component life.
ELC cooling systems can withstand contamination to
a maximum of 10 percent of conventional heavy-duty
antifreeze or SCA. If the contamination exceeds 10
percent of the total system capacity, perform ONE of
the following procedures:
• Drain the cooling system into a suitable container.
Dispose of the coolant according to local
regulations. Flush the system with clean water. Fill
the system with the Perkins ELC.
• Drain a portion of the cooling system into a suitable
container according to local regulations. Then,
fill the cooling system with premixed ELC. This
procedure should lower the contamination to less
than 10 percent.
76
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
SEBU8601-01
• Maintain the system as a conventional Heavy-Duty
Coolant. Treat the system with an SCA. Change
the coolant at the interval that is recommended for
the conventional Heavy-Duty Coolant.
Commercial Heavy-Duty Antifreeze and
SCA
NOTICE
Commercial Heavy-Duty Coolant which contains
Amine as part of the corrosion protection system must
not be used.
NOTICE
Never operate an engine without water temperature
regulators in the cooling system. Water temperature
regulators help to maintain the engine coolant at the
correct operating temperature. Cooling system problems can develop without water temperature regulators.
Check the antifreeze (glycol concentration) in
order to ensure adequate protection against boiling
or freezing. Perkins recommends the use of a
refractometer for checking the glycol concentration.
A hydrometer should not be used.
Perkins engine cooling systems should be tested at
500 hour intervals for the concentration of SCA.
Additions of SCA are based on the results of the test.
An SCA that is liquid may be needed at 500 hour
intervals.
Refer to Table 13 for part numbers and for quantities
of SCA.
Table 14
Equation For Adding The SCA To The Heavy-Duty
Coolant At The Initial Fill
V × 0.045 = X
V is the total volume of the cooling system.
X is the amount of SCA that is required.
Table 15 is an example for using the equation that
is in Table 14.
Table 15
Example Of The Equation For Adding The SCA To
The Heavy-Duty Coolant At The Initial Fill
Total Volume
of the Cooling
System (V)
Multiplication
Factor
Amount of
SCA that is
Required (X)
15 L (4 US gal)
× 0.045
0.7 L (24 oz)
Adding The SCA to The Heavy-Duty
Coolant For Maintenance
Heavy-duty antifreeze of all types REQUIRE periodic
additions of an SCA.
Test the antifreeze periodically for the concentration
of SCA. For the interval, refer to the Operation
and Maintenance Manual, “Maintenance Interval
Schedule” (Maintenance Section). Test the
concentration of SCA.
Additions of SCA are based on the results of the
test. The size of the cooling system determines the
amount of SCA that is needed.
Use the equation that is in Table 16 to determine the
amount of Perkins SCA that is required, if necessary:
Table 13
Perkins Liquid SCA
Part Number
Quantity
21825735
10
Adding the SCA to Heavy-Duty Coolant
at the Initial Fill
Commercial heavy-duty antifreeze that meets “ASTM
D4985” specifications MAY require an addition of
SCA at the initial fill. Read the label or the instructions
that are provided by the OEM of the product.
Use the equation that is in Table 14 to determine the
amount of Perkins SCA that is required when the
cooling system is initially filled.
Table 16
Equation For Adding The SCA To The Heavy-Duty
Coolant For Maintenance
V × 0.014 = X
V is the total volume of the cooling system.
X is the amount of SCA that is required.
Table 17 is an example for using the equation that
is in Table 16.
Table 17
Example Of The Equation For Adding The SCA To
The Heavy-Duty Coolant For Maintenance
Total Volume
of the Cooling
System (V)
Multiplication
Factor
Amount of
SCA that is
Required (X)
15 L (4 US gal)
× 0.014
0.2 L (7 oz)
SEBU8601-01
77
Maintenance Section
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Cleaning the System of Heavy-Duty
Antifreeze
Perkins cooling system cleaners are designed
to clean the cooling system of harmful scale
and corrosion. Perkins cooling system cleaners
dissolve mineral scale, corrosion products, light oil
contamination, and sludge.
• Clean the cooling system after used coolant is
drained or before the cooling system is filled with
new coolant.
• Clean the cooling system whenever the coolant is
contaminated or whenever the coolant is foaming.
g01987816
Illustration 42
Typical API symbol
i04156282
Fluid Recommendations
General Lubricant Information
Because of government regulations regarding the
certification of exhaust emissions from the engine,
the lubricant recommendations must be followed.
• API_____________________American Petroleum Institute
• SAE___________________________________________Society Of
Automotive Engineers Inc.
• ACEA__________________________________Association des
Constructers European Automobiles.
• ECF-3_______________________ Engine Crankcase Fluid
Licensing
The Engine Oil Licensing and Certification System
by the American Petroleum Institute (API) and
the Association des Constructers European
Automobilesand (ACRA) is recognized by Perkins.
For detailed information about this system, see the
latest edition of the “API publication No. 1509”.
Engine oils that bear the API symbol are authorized
by API.
Terminology
Certain abbreviations follow the nomenclature of
“SAE J754”. Some classifications follow “SAE J183”
abbreviations, and some classifications follow the
“EMA Recommended Guideline on Diesel Engine
Oil”. In addition to Perkins definitions, there are other
definitions that will be of assistance in purchasing
lubricants. Recommended oil viscosities can be found
in this publication, “Fluid Recommendations/Engine
Oil” topic (Maintenance Section).
Engine Oil
Commercial Oils
NOTICE
Perkins require the use of the following specification of engine oil. Failure to use the appropriate
specification of engine oil will reduce the life of
your engine. Failure to use the appropriate specification of engine oil will also reduce the life of
your aftertreatment system.
Table 18
Classifications for the 1200 Series Industrial Engine
Oil Specification
API CJ-4
ACEA E9
ECF-3
API CJ-4 and ACEA E9 oil categories have the
following chemical limits:
•
1 percent maximum sulfated ash
•
0.12 percent maximum phosphorous
•
0. 4 percent maximum sulfur
78
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
SEBU8601-01
The chemical limits were developed in order
to maintain the expected life of the engine
aftertreatment system. The performance of the
engine aftertreatment system can be adversely
affected if oil that is not specified in table 18 is used.
The life of your Aftertreatment system is defined by
the accumulation of ash on the surface of the filter.
Ash is the inert part of the particulate matter. The
system is designed in order to collect this particulate
matter. There is a very small percentage of particulate
matter that is left behind as the soot is burnt. This
matter will eventually block the filter, causing loss
of performance and increased fuel consumption.
Most of the ash comes from the engine oil which is
gradually consumed during normal operation. This
ash is passes through the exhaust. To meet the
designed life of the product, the use of the appropriate
engine oil is essential. The oil specification that is
listed in table 18 has low ash content.
Maintenance intervals for engines that use
biodiesel – The oil change interval can be adversely
affected by the use of biodiesel. Use oil analysis in
order to monitor the condition of the engine oil. Use
oil analysis also in order to determine the oil change
interval that is optimum.
Note: These engine oils are not approved by
Perkins and these engine oils must not be
used:CC, CD, CD-2, CF-4, CG-4, CH-4, and CI-4.
Lubricant Viscosity Recommendations
for Direct Injection (DI) Diesel Engines
The correct SAE viscosity grade of oil is determined
by the minimum ambient temperature during
cold engine start-up, and the maximum ambient
temperature during engine operation.
Refer to illustration 43 (minimum temperature) in
order to determine the required oil viscosity for
starting a cold engine.
Refer to illustration 43 (maximum temperature) in
order to select the oil viscosity for engine operation at
the highest ambient temperature that is anticipated.
Generally, use the highest oil viscosity that is
available to meet the requirement for the temperature
at start-up.
Illustration 43
g02210556
Lubricant Viscosities
Supplemental heat is recommended for cold soaked starts below
the minimum ambient temperature. Supplemental heat may be
required for cold soaked starts that are above the minimum
temperature that is stated, depending on the parasitic load and
other factors. Cold soaked starts occur when the engine has not
been operated for a period of time. This interval will allow the oil to
become more viscous due to cooler ambient temperatures.
Aftermarket Oil Additives
Perkins does not recommend the use of aftermarket
additives in oil. It is not necessary to use aftermarket
additives in order to achieve the engines maximum
service life or rated performance. Fully formulated,
finished oils consist of base oils and of commercial
additive packages. These additive packages are
blended into the base oils at precise percentages in
order to help provide finished oils with performance
characteristics that meet industry standards.
There are no industry standard tests that evaluate
the performance or the compatibility of aftermarket
additives in finished oil. Aftermarket additives may
not be compatible with the finished oils additive
package, which could lower the performance of the
finished oil. The aftermarket additive could fail to mix
with the finished oil. This failure could produce sludge
in the crankcase. Perkins discourages the use of
aftermarket additives in finished oils.
To achieve the best performance from a Perkins
engine, conform to the following guidelines:
• See the appropriate “Lubricant Viscosities”. Refer
to the illustration 43 in order to find the correct oil
viscosity grade for your engine.
• At the specified interval, service the engine. Use
new oil and install a new oil filter.
SEBU8601-01
79
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
• Perform maintenance at the intervals that are
specified in the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Maintenance Interval Schedule”.
Oil analysis
The oil analysis is a diagnostic tool that is used to
determine oil performance and component wear
rates. Contamination can be identified and measured
by using oil analysis. The oil analysis includes the
following tests:
• The Wear Rate Analysis monitors the wear of the
engines metals. The amount of wear metal and
type of wear metal that is in the oil is analyzed. The
increase in the rate of engine wear metal in the
oil is as important as the quantity of engine wear
metal in the oil.
• Tests are conducted in order to detect
contamination of the oil by water, glycol, or fuel.
• The Oil Condition Analysis determines the loss of
the oils lubricating properties. An infrared analysis
is used to compare the properties of new oil to the
properties of the used oil sample. This analysis
allows technicians to determine the amount of
deterioration of the oil during use. This analysis
also allows technicians to verify the performance
of the oil according to the specification during the
entire oil change interval.
i04025688
Fluid Recommendations
• Glossary
• ISO International Standards Organization
• ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials
• HFRR High Frequency Reciprocating Rig for
• FAME Fatty Acid Methyl Esters
• CFR Co-ordinating Fuel Research
• ULSD Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel
• RME Rape Methyl Ester
• EPA Environmental Protection Agency of the
United States
• PPM Parts Per Million
Some engines may be equipped with an oil sampling
valve. If oil analysis is required, the oil sampling valve
is used to obtain samples of the engine oil. The oil
analysis will complement the preventive maintenance
program.
Lubricity testing of diesel fuels
• SME Soy Methyl Ester
• DPF Diesel Particulate Filter
General Information
NOTICE
Every attempt is made to provide accurate, up-to-date
information. By use of this document you agree that
Perkins Engines Company Limited is not responsible
for errors or omissions.
NOTICE
These recommendations are subject to change without notice. Contact your local Perkins distributor for
the most up-to-date recommendations.
Diesel Fuel Requirements
Perkins is not in a position to continuously evaluate
and monitor all worldwide distillate diesel fuel
specifications that are published by governments and
technological societies.
The Perkins Specification for Distillate Diesel Fuel
provides a known reliable baseline in order to judge
the expected performance of distillate diesel fuels
that are derived from conventional sources.
Satisfactory engine performance is dependent on the
use of a good quality fuel. The use of a good quality
fuel will give the following results: long engine life
and acceptable exhaust emissions levels. The fuel
must meet the minimum requirements that are stated
in the table 19.
NOTICE
The footnotes are of the key part Perkins Specification for Distillate Diesel Fuel Table. Read ALL of the
footnotes.
80
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
SEBU8601-01
Table 19
Perkins Specification for Distillate Diesel Fuel
(1)
Property
UNITS
Requirements
“ASTM”Test
“ISO”Test
Aromatics
%Volume
35% maximum
D1319
“ISO”3837
Ash
%Weight
0.01% maximum
D482
“ISO”6245
Carbon Residue on
10% Bottoms
%Weight
0.35% maximum
D524
“ISO”4262
Cetane Number (2)
-
40 minimum
D613/D6890
“ISO”5165
Cloud Point
°C
The cloud point must
not exceed the lowest
expected ambient
temperature.
D2500
“ISO”3015
Copper Strip
Corrosion
-
No. 3 maximum
D130
“ISO”2160
Density at 15 °C
(59 °F) (3)
Kg / M
801 minimum and 876
maximum
No equivalent test
“ISO 3675 ”“ISO 12185”
Distillation
°C
10% at 282 °C
(539.6 °F) maximum
90% at 360 °C (680 °F)
maximum
D86
“ISO”3405
Flash Point
°C
legal limit
D93
“ISO”2719
Thermal Stability
-
Minimum of 80%
reflectance after aging
for 180 minutes at
150 °C (302 °F)
D6468
No equivalent test
Pour Point
°C
6 °C (42.8 °F) minimum
below ambient
temperature
D97
“ISO”3016
%mass
0.0015
D5453/D26222
“ISO 20846 ”“ISO 20884”
“MM” “/S (cSt)”
The viscosity of the
fuel that is delivered to
the fuel injection pump.
“1.4 minimum/4.5
maximum”
D445
“ISO”3405
Water and sediment
% weight
0.1% maximum
D1796
“ISO”3734
Water
% weight
0.1% maximum
D1744
No equivalent test
Sediment
% weight
0.05% maximum
D473
“ISO”3735
Gums and Resins (5)
mg/100mL
10 mg per 100 mL
maximum
D381
“ISO”6246
Sulfur
(1)
Kinematic Viscosity
(4)
3
2
(continued)
SEBU8601-01
81
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
(Table 19, contd)
Lubricity corrected
wear scar diameter at
60 °C (140 °F). (6)
mm
0.52 maximum
D6079
“ISO”12156-1
(1)
This specification includes the requirements for Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD). ULSD fuel will have ≤ 15 ppm (0.0015%) sulfur. Refer to
“ASTM D5453”, “ASTM D2622”, or “ISO 20846, ISO 20884” test methods.
(2) A fuel with a higher cetane number is recommended in order to operate at a higher altitude or in cold weather.
(3) “Via standards tables, the equivalent API gravity for the minimum density of 801 kg / m 3 (kilograms per cubic meter) is 45 and for the
maximum density of 876 kg / m3 is 30”.
(4) The values of the fuel viscosity are the values as the fuel is delivered to the fuel injection pumps. Fuel should also meet the minimum
viscosity requirement and the fuel should meet the maximum viscosity requirements at 40 °C (104 °F) of either the “ASTM D445” test
method or the “ISO 3104” test method. If a fuel with a low viscosity is used, cooling of the fuel may be required to maintain “1.4 cSt”or
greater viscosity at the fuel injection pump. Fuels with a high viscosity might require fuel heaters in order to lower the viscosity to “1.4
cSt” at the fuel injection pump.
(5) Follow the test conditions and procedures for gasoline (motor).
(6) The lubricity of a fuel is a concern with ultra low sulfur fuel. To determine the lubricity of the fuel, use the “ISO 12156-1 or ASTM D6079
High Frequency Reciprocating Rig (HFRR)” test. If the lubricity of a fuel does not meet the minimum requirements, consult your fuel
supplier. Do not treat the fuel without consulting the fuel supplier. Some additives are not compatible. These additives can cause
problems in the fuel system.
Engines that are manufactured by Perkins are
certified with the fuel that is prescribed by the United
States Environmental Protection Agency. Engines
that are manufactured by Perkins are certified
with the fuel that is prescribed by the European
Certification. Perkins does not certify diesel engines
on any other fuel.
Note: The owner and the operator of the engine has
the responsibility of using the fuel that is prescribed by
the EPA and other appropriate regulatory agencies.
NOTICE
Operating with fuels that do not meet the Perkins recommendations can cause the following effects: Starting difficulty, reduced fuel filter service life, poor combustion, deposits in the fuel injectors, significantly reduce service life of the fuel system, deposits in the
combustion chamber, and reduced service life of the
engine.
NOTICE
The Perkins 1200 series of diesel engine must be operated using Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel. The sulphur content of this fuel must be lower than 15 PPM. This fuel
complies with the emissions regulations that are prescribed by the Environmental Protection Agency of the
United States.
Illustration 44
g02157153
Illustration 44 is a representation of the label that will
be installed by the fuel filler cap on the fuel tank of
the application.
The fuel specifications that are listed in the table 20
are released as acceptable to use on all 1200 series
of engine.
82
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
SEBU8601-01
Table 20
Acceptable Fuel Specification for the 1200 Series of Engines
(1)
Fuel Specification
Comments
EN590
European Automotive Diesel Fuel (DERV)
“ASDM D975 GRADE 1D S15”
“North American Light Distillate Diesel fuel with less than 15
PPM sulfur level”
“ASTM D975 GRADE 2D S15”
“North American Middle Distillate general purpose Diesel fuel
with less than 15 PPM sulfur level”
“JIS K2204”
“Japanese Diesel Fuel” Must meet the requirements that are
stated in the section “Lubricity”.
“BS 2869: 2010 CLASS A2 or EU equivalent ”
“EU Off Road Diesel fuel. Acceptable from 2011 MUST have
less than 10 PPM sulfur level”
(1)
All the fuels must comply with the specification in the table for the Perkins Specification Distillate Diesel Fuel.
Diesel Fuel Characteristics
Cetane Number
Fuel that has a high cetane number will give a
shorter ignition delay. A high cetane number will
produce a better ignition quality. Cetane numbers are
derived for fuels against proportions of cetane and
heptamethylnonane in the standard CFR engine.
Refer to “ISO 5165” for the test method.
Cetane numbers in excess of 45 are normally
expected from current diesel fuel. However, a cetane
number of 40 may be experienced in some territories.
The United States of America is one of the territories
that can have a low cetane value. A minimum cetane
value of 40 is required during average starting
conditions. A fuel with higher cetane number is
recommended for operations at high altitudes or in
cold-weather operations.
Fuel with a low cetane number can be the root cause
of problems during a cold start.
Viscosity
Viscosity is the property of a liquid of offering
resistance to shear or flow. Viscosity decreases
with increasing temperature. This decrease in
viscosity follows a logarithmic relationship for normal
fossil fuel. The common reference is to kinematic
viscosity. Kinematic viscosity is the quotient of the
dynamic viscosity that is divided by the density. The
determination of kinematic viscosity is normally by
readings from gravity flow viscometers at standard
temperatures. Refer to “ISO 3104” for the test
method.
The viscosity of the fuel is significant because fuel
serves as a lubricant for the fuel system components.
Fuel must have sufficient viscosity in order to lubricate
the fuel system in both extremely cold temperatures
and extremely hot temperatures. If the kinematic
viscosity of the fuel is lower than “1.4 cSt” at the fuel
injection pump, damage to the fuel injection pump
can occur. This damage can be excessive scuffing
and seizure. Low viscosity may lead to difficult hot
restarting, stalling, and loss of performance. High
viscosity may result in seizure of the pump.
Perkins recommends kinematic viscosities of 1.4 and
4.5 mm2/sec that is delivered to the fuel injection
pump. If a fuel with a low viscosity is used, cooling of
the fuel may be required to maintain 1.4 cSt or greater
viscosity at the fuel injection pump. Fuels with a high
viscosity might require fuel heaters in order to lower
the viscosity to 4.5 cSt at the fuel injection pump.
Density
Density is the mass of the fuel per unit volume
at a specific temperature. This parameter has a
direct influence on engine performance and a direct
influence on emissions. This influence determines
from a heat output given injected volume of fuel. This
parameter is quoted in the following kg/m3 at 15 °C
(59 °F).
Perkins recommends a density of 841 kg/m 3 in order
to obtain the correct power output. Lighter fuels are
acceptable but these fuels will not produce the rated
power.
Sulfur
The level of sulfur is governed by emissions
legislations. Regional regulation, national regulations,
or international regulations can require a fuel with
a specific sulfur limit. The sulfur content of the fuel
and the fuel quality must comply with all existing local
regulations for emissions.
SEBU8601-01
Perkins 1200 series diesel engines have been
designed to operate only with ULSD. By using the
test methods “ASTM D5453, ASTM D2622, or ISO
20846 ISO 20884”, the content of sulfur in ULSD fuel
must be below 15 PPM (mg/kg) or 0.0015% mass.
NOTICE
Use of diesel fuel with higher than 15 PPM sulphur limit in these engines will harm or permanently damage
emissions control systems and/or shorten their service interval.
Lubricity
Lubricity is the capability of the fuel to prevent pump
wear. The fluids lubricity describes the ability of the
fluid to reduce the friction between surfaces that are
under load. This ability reduces the damage that is
caused by friction. Fuel injection systems rely on the
lubricating properties of the fuel. Until fuel sulfur limits
were mandated, the fuels lubricity was generally
believed to be a function of fuel viscosity.
The lubricity has particular significance to the current
ultra low sulfur fuel, and low aromatic fossil fuels.
These fuels are made in order to meet stringent
exhaust emissions.
The lubricity of these fuels must not exceed wear scar
diameter of 0.52 mm (0.0205 inch). The fuel lubricity
test must be performed on an HFRR, operated at
60 °C (140 °F). Refer to “ISO 12156-1 ”.
NOTICE
The fuels system has been qualified with fuel having lubricity up to 0.52 mm (0.0205 inch) wear scar
diameter as tested by “ISO 12156-1”. Fuel with higher
wear scar diameter than 0.52 mm (0.0205 inch) will
lead to reduced service life and premature failure of
the fuel system.
Fuel additives can enhance the lubricity of a fuel.
Contact your fuel supplier for those circumstances
when fuel additives are required. Your fuel supplier
can make recommendations for additives to use, and
for the proper level of treatment.
Distillation
Distillation is an indication of the mixture of different
hydrocarbons in the fuel. A high ratio of light weight
hydrocarbons can affect the characteristics of
combustion.
83
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
Recommendation for Biodiesel
Biodiesel is a fuel that can be defined as mono-alkyl
esters of fatty acids. Biodiesel is a fuel that can be
made from various feedstock. The most commonly
available biodiesel in Europe is Rape Methyl Ester
(REM). This biodiesel is derived from rapeseed
oil. Soy Methyl Ester (SME) is the most common
biodiesel in the United States. This biodiesel is
derived from soybean oil. Soybean oil or rapeseed oil
are the primary feedstocks. These fuels are together
known as Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME).
Raw pressed vegetable oils are NOT acceptable for
use as a fuel in any concentration in compression
engines. Without esterification, these oils solidify in
the crankcase and the fuel tank. These fuels may
not be compatible with many of the elastomers that
are used in engines that are manufactured today.
In original forms, these oils are not suitable for use
as a fuel in compression engines. Alternate base
stocks for biodiesel may include animal tallow, waste
cooking oils, or various other feedstocks. In order to
use any of the products that are listed as fuel, the oil
must be esterified.
Fuel made of 100 percent FAME is generally referred
to as B100 biodiesel or neat biodiesel.
Biodiesel can be blended with distillate diesel fuel.
The blends can be used as fuel. The most commonly
available biodiesel blends are B5, which is 5 percent
biodiesel and 95 percent distillate diesel fuel. B20,
which is 20 percent biodiesel and 80 percent distillate
diesel fuel.
Note: The percentages given are volume-based.
The U.S. distillate diesel fuel specification “ASTM
D975-09a” includes up to B5 (5 percent) biodiesel.
European distillate diesel fuel specification EN590:
2010 includes up B7 (7 percent) biodiesel.
Note: Engines that are manufactured by Perkins
are certified by use of the prescribed Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA) and European Certification
fuels. Perkins does not certify engines on any other
fuel. The user of the engine has the responsibility
of using the correct fuel that is recommended by
the manufacturer and allowed by the EPA and other
appropriate regulatory agencies.
Specification Requirements
The neat biodiesel must conform to the latest
“EN14214 or ASTM D6751” (in the USA). The
biodiesel can only be blended in mixture of up to
20% by volume in acceptable mineral diesel fuel
meeting latest edition of “EN590 or ASTM D975 S15”
designation.
84
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
In United States Biodiesel blends of B6 to B20 must
meet the requirements listed in the latest edition of
“ASTM D7467” (B6 to B20) and must be of an API
gravity of 30-45.
In North America biodiesel and biodiesel blends
must be purchased from the BQ-9000 accredited
producers and BQ-9000 certified distributors.
In other areas of the world, the use of biodiesel
that is BQ-9000 accredited and certified, or that is
accredited and certified by a comparable biodiesel
quality body to meet similar biodiesel quality
standards is required.
Engine Service Requirements
Aggressive properties of biodiesel fuel may cause
debris in the fuel tank and fuel lines. The aggressive
properties of biodiesel will clean the fuel tank
and fuel lines. This cleaning of the fuel system
can prematurely block of the fuel filters. Perkins
recommend that after the initial usage of B20
biodiesel blended fuel the fuel filters must be replaced
at 50 hours.
Glycerides present in biodiesel fuel will also cause
fuel filters to become blocked more quickly. Therefore
the regular service interval should be reduced to 250
hours.
When biodiesel fuel is used, crank case oil and
aftertreatment systems may be influenced. This
influence is due to the chemical composition and
characteristics of biodiesel fuel, such as density and
volatility, and to chemical contaminants that can be
present in this fuel, such as alkali and alkaline metals
(sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium).
• Crankcase oil fuel dilution can be higher when
biodiesel or biodiesel blends are used. This
increased level of fuel dilution when using biodiesel
or biodiesel blends is related to the typically lower
volatility of biodiesel. In-cylinder emissions control
strategies utilized in many of the industrial latest
engine designs may lead to a higher level of
biodiesel concentration in the sump. The long-term
effect of biodiesel concentration in crankcase oil is
currently unknown.
• Perkins recommend the use of oil analysis in order
to check the quality of the engine oil if biodiesel
fuel is used. Ensure that the level of biodiesel in
the fuel is noted when the oil sample is taken.
SEBU8601-01
Performance Related Issues
Due to the lower energy content than the standard
distillate fuel B20 will cause a power loss in order
of 2 to 4 percent. In addition, over time the power
may deteriorate further due to deposits in the fuel
injectors.
Biodiesel and biodiesel blends are known to cause
an increase in fuel system deposits, most significant
of which are deposits within the fuel injector. These
deposits can cause a loss in power due to restricted
or modified fuel injection or cause other functional
issues associated with these deposits.
Note: Perkins T400012 Fuel Cleaner is most
effective in cleaning and preventing the formation
of deposits. Perkins Diesel Fuel Conditioner helps
to limit deposit issues by improving the stability of
biodiesel and biodiesel blends. For more information
refer to “Perkins Diesel Fuel System Cleaner”.
Biodiesel fuel contains metal contaminants (sodium,
potassium, calcium, and/or magnesium) that form ash
products upon combustion in the diesel engine. The
ash can have an impact on the life and performance
of aftertreatment emissions control devices and can
accumulate in DPF. The ash accumulation may cause
the need for more frequent ash service intervals and
cause loss of performance
General Requirements
Biodiesel has poor oxidation stability, which can result
in long-term problems in the storage of biodiesel.
Biodiesel fuel should be used within 6 months of
manufacture. Equipment should not be stored with
the B20 biodiesel blends in the fuel system for longer
than 3 months.
Due to poor oxidation stability and other potential
issues, it is strongly recommended that engines with
limited operational time either not use B20 biodiesel
blends or, while accepting some risk, limit biodiesel
blend to a maximum of B5. Examples of applications
that should limit the use of biodiesel are the following:
Standby Generator sets and certain emergency
vehicles.
Perkins strongly recommended that seasonally
operated engines have the fuel systems, including
fuel tanks, flashed with conventional diesel fuel
before prolonged shutdown periods. An example of
an application that should seasonally flush the fuel
system is a combine harvester.
Microbial contamination and growth can cause
corrosion in the fuel system and premature plugging
of the fuel filter. Consult your supplier of fuel for
assistance in selecting appropriate anti-microbial
additive.
SEBU8601-01
Water accelerates microbial contamination and
growth. When biodiesel is compared to distillate
fuels, water is naturally more likely to exist in the
biodiesel. It is therefore essential to check frequently
and if necessary, drain the water separator.
Materials such as brass, bronze, copper, led, tin, and
zinc accelerate the oxidation process of the biodiesel
fuel. The oxidation process can cause deposits
formation therefore these materials must not be used
for fuel tanks and fuel lines.
Fuel for Cold Weather Operation
The European standard “EN590” contains climate
dependant requirements and a range of options. The
options can be applied differently in each country.
There are five classes that are given to arctic climates
and severe winter climates. 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4.
Fuel that complies with “EN590 ” CLASS 4 can be
used at temperatures as low as −44 °C (−47.2 °F).
Refer to “EN590” for a detailed discretion of the
physical properties of the fuel.
The diesel fuel “ASTM D975 1-D” used in the
United States of America may be used in very cold
temperatures that are below −18 °C (−0.4 °F).
Aftermarket Fuel Additives
Supplemental diesel fuel additives are not generally
recommended. This recommendation is due to
potential damage to the fuel system or the engine.
Your fuel supplier or the fuel manufacturer will add
the appropriate supplemental diesel fuel additives.
Perkins recognizes the fact that additives may be
required in some special circumstances. Contact
your fuel supplier for those circumstances when
fuel additives are required. Your fuel supplier can
recommend the appropriate fuel additive and the
correct level of treatment.
Note: For the best results, your fuel supplier should
treat the fuel when additives are required. The treated
fuel must meet the requirements that are stated in
table 19.
Perkins Diesel Fuel System Cleaner
Perkins T400012 Fuel Cleaner is the only fuel
cleaner that is recommended by Perkins.
If biodiesel or biodiesel blends of fuel are to be
used, Perkins require the use of Perkins fuel
cleaner. The use of the fuel is in order to remove
deposits within the fuel system that is created
with the use of biodiesel. For more information on
the use of biodiesel and biodiesel blends refer to
“Recommendation for Biodiesel”.
85
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
Perkins fuel cleaner will remove deposits that can
form in the fuel system with the use of biodiesel and
biodiesel blends. These deposits can create a loss
of power and engine performance.
Once the fuel cleaner has been added to the fuel,
the deposits within the fuel system are removed
after 30 hours of engine operation. For maximum
results, continue to use the fuel cleaner for up to
80 hours. Perkins fuel cleaner can be used on an
on-going basis with no adverse impact on engine or
fuel system durability.
Details instruction on the rate of which the fuel
cleaner must be use are on the container.
Note: Perkins fuel cleaner is compatible with existing
and U.S. EPA Tier 4 nonroad certified diesel engine
emission control catalysts and particulate filters.
Perkins fuel system cleaner contains less than 15
ppm of sulfur and is acceptable for use with ULSD
fuel.
86
Maintenance Section
Maintenance Recommendations
SEBU8601-01
Maintenance
Recommendations
Before any service or repair is performed on the
engine fuel lines, perform the following tasks:
1. Stop the engine.
i03648938
System Pressure Release
Coolant System
2. Wait for 10 minutes.
Do not loosen the high pressure fuel lines in order to
remove air from the fuel system.
Engine Oil
To relieve pressure from the lubricating system, turn
off the engine.
Pressurized system: Hot coolant can cause serious burn. To open cap, stop engine, wait until radiator is cool. Then loosen cap slowly to relieve
the pressure.
The engine can have the ability to auto start. Ensure
that the power supply is isolated before any service
or repair is performed.
To relieve the pressure from the coolant system, turn
off the engine. Allow the cooling system pressure cap
to cool. Remove the cooling system pressure cap
slowly in order to relieve pressure.
Fuel System
To relieve the pressure from the fuel system, turn off
the engine.
High Pressure Fuel Lines
Contact with high pressure fuel may cause fluid
penetration and burn hazards. High pressure fuel spray may cause a fire hazard. Failure to follow these inspection, maintenance and service instructions may cause personal injury or death.
The high pressure fuel lines are the fuel lines that
are between the high pressure fuel pump and the
high pressure fuel manifold and the fuel lines that are
between the fuel manifold and cylinder head. These
fuel lines are different from fuel lines on other fuel
systems.
This is because of the following differences:
i04103081
Welding on Engines with
Electronic Controls
NOTICE
Because the strength of the frame may decrease,
some manufacturers do not recommend welding
onto a chassis frame or rail. Consult the OEM of the
equipment or your Perkins dealer regarding welding
on a chassis frame or rail.
Proper welding procedures are necessary in order
to avoid damage to the engines ECM, sensors, and
associated components. When possible, remove
the component from the unit and then weld the
component. If removal of the component is not
possible, the following procedure must be followed
when you weld on a unit equipped with an Electronic
Engine. The following procedure is considered to be
the safest procedure to weld on a component. This
procedure should provide a minimum risk of damage
to electronic components.
NOTICE
Do not ground the welder to electrical components
such as the ECM or sensors. Improper grounding can
cause damage to the drive train bearings, hydraulic
components, electrical components, and other components.
Clamp the ground cable from the welder to the component that will be welded. Place the clamp as close
as possible to the weld. This will help reduce the possibility of damage.
• The high pressure fuel lines are constantly charged
Note: Perform the welding in areas that are free from
explosive hazards.
• The internal pressures of the high pressure fuel
1. Stop the engine. Turn the switched power to the
OFF position.
with high pressure.
lines are higher than other types of fuel system.
SEBU8601-01
87
Maintenance Section
Maintenance Recommendations
2. Ensure that the fuel supply to the engine is turned
off.
3. Disconnect the negative battery cable from the
battery. If a battery disconnect switch is provided,
open the switch.
4. Disconnect all electronic components from
the wiring harnesses. Include the following
components:
• Electronic components for the driven equipment
• ECM
• Sensors
• Electronically controlled valves
• Relays
• Aftertreatment ID module
NOTICE
Do not use electrical components (ECM or ECM sensors) or electronic component grounding points for
grounding the welder.
Illustration 45
g01075639
Use the example above. The current flow from the welder to
the ground clamp of the welder will not damage any associated
components.
(1) Engine
(2) Welding electrode
(3) Keyswitch in the OFF position
(4) Battery disconnect switch in the open position
(5) Disconnected battery cables
(6) Battery
(7) Electrical/Electronic component
(8) Minimum distance between the component that is being welded
and any electrical/electronic component
(9) The component that is being welded
(10) Current path of the welder
(11) Ground clamp for the welder
5. Connect the welding ground cable directly to
the part that will be welded. Place the ground
cable as close as possible to the weld in order to
reduce the possibility of welding current damage
to the following components. Bearings, hydraulic
components, electrical components, and ground
straps.
Note: If electrical/electronic components are used
as a ground for the welder, or electrical/electronic
components are located between the welder ground
and the weld, current flow from the welder could
severely damage the component.
6. Protect the wiring harness from welding debris
and spatter.
7. Use standard welding practices to weld the
materials.
88
Maintenance Section
Maintenance Interval Schedule
SEBU8601-01
i03975515
Maintenance Interval Schedule
Every 1500 Service Hours
Engine Crankcase Breather Element - Replace .. 105
Every 2000 Service Hours
When Required
Battery - Replace .................................................. 90
Battery or Battery Cable - Disconnect .................. 91
Engine - Clean .................................................... 101
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Dual Element) Clean/Replace .................................................. 101
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Single Element) Inspect/Replace ................................................ 103
Engine Oil Sample - Obtain ................................ 108
Fuel System - Prime ............................................ 111
Severe Service Application - Check .................... 119
Daily
Cooling System Coolant Level - Check ................ 97
Driven Equipment - Check .................................. 100
Engine Air Cleaner Service Indicator - Inspect ... 104
Engine Air Precleaner - Check/Clean ................. 104
Engine Oil Level - Check .................................... 108
Fuel System Primary Filter/Water Separator Drain .................................................................. 114
Walk-Around Inspection ...................................... 122
Every Week
Hoses and Clamps - Inspect/Replace ................. 117
Every 50 Service Hours or Weekly
Fuel Tank Water and Sediment - Drain ................ 116
Aftercooler Core - Inspect ..................................... 89
Engine Mounts - Inspect ..................................... 107
Starting Motor - Inspect ...................................... 120
Turbocharger - Inspect ........................................ 120
Every 3000 Service Hours
Alternator - Inspect ............................................... 90
Alternator and Fan Belts - Replace ....................... 90
Belt Tensioner - Inspect ........................................ 92
Radiator Pressure Cap - Clean/Replace ............. 119
Every 3000 Service Hours or 2 Years
Cooling System Coolant (Commercial Heavy-Duty) Change ............................................................... 93
Cooling System Water Temperature Regulator Replace ............................................................... 99
Every 4000 Service Hours
Aftercooler Core - Clean/Test ............................... 89
Every 4500 Service Hours
ARD Spark Plug - Clean/Inspect/Replace ............ 89
Every 5000 Service Hours
Diesel Particulate Filter - Clean .......................... 100
Every 12 000 Service Hours or 6 Years
Every 500 Service Hours
Cooling System Coolant (ELC) - Change ............. 95
Belt - Inspect ......................................................... 92
Engine Oil and Filter - Change ........................... 109
Fan Clearance - Check ........................................ 110
Commissioning
Every 500 Service Hours or 1 Year
Battery Electrolyte Level - Check .......................... 91
Cooling System Supplemental Coolant Additive
(SCA) - Test/Add ................................................. 98
Crankshaft Vibration Damper - Inspect ................. 99
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Dual Element) Clean/Replace .................................................. 101
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Single Element) Inspect/Replace ................................................ 103
Fuel System Primary Filter (Water Separator)
Element - Replace ............................................. 112
Fuel System Secondary Filter - Replace ............. 115
Radiator - Clean ................................................... 118
Every 1000 Service Hours
Water Pump - Inspect ......................................... 123
Fan Clearance - Check ........................................ 110
SEBU8601-01
89
Maintenance Section
ARD Spark Plug - Clean/Inspect/Replace
i03975571
ARD Spark Plug Clean/Inspect/Replace
• ARD Aftertreatment Regeneration Device
NOTICE
If the engine is running, or the keyswitch is in the ON
position the ARD spark plug will continue to fire. Turn
the keyswitch to the OFF position before servicing the
ARD spark plug.
Illustration 47
g02148769
3. Use T400005 Plug Bore Brush in order to clean
the ground electrode (3).
4. Install the new spark plug by hand. Tighten the
spark plug to a torque of 47 N·m (34 lb ft).
5. Connect the wiring harness (2).
i01807350
Aftercooler Core - Clean/Test
(Air-To-Air Aftercooler)
Illustration 46
g01947378
1. Ensure that the power is in the “OFF” position and
that the engine was stopped. Remove any dirt
or debris from the area around the spark plug.
Remove wire harness (2) from spark plug (1).
2. Use a T40006 Socket in order to remove the
spark plug. Loosen the spark plug and use the
socket to remove the spark plug by hand in order
to detect problems with the threads. Discard the
spark plug.
The air-to-air aftercooler is OEM installed in many
applications. Please refer to the OEM specifications
for information that is related to the aftercooler.
i02322295
Aftercooler Core - Inspect
Note: Adjust the frequency of cleaning according to
the effects of the operating environment.
Inspect the aftercooler for these items: damaged fins,
corrosion, dirt, grease, insects, leaves, oil, and other
debris. Clean the aftercooler, if necessary.
For air-to-air aftercoolers, use the same methods that
are used for cleaning radiators.
90
Maintenance Section
Alternator - Inspect
SEBU8601-01
i02680137
Personal injury can result from air pressure.
Personal injury can result without following proper procedure. When using pressure air, wear a protective face shield and protective clothing.
Maximum air pressure at the nozzle must be less
than 205 kPa (30 psi) for cleaning purposes.
Alternator and Fan Belts Replace
Refer to Disassembly and Assembly Manual , “
Alternator Belt - Remove and Install”.
i03559623
After cleaning, start the engine and accelerate the
engine to high idle rpm. This will help in the removal
of debris and drying of the core. Stop the engine.
Use a light bulb behind the core in order to inspect
the core for cleanliness. Repeat the cleaning, if
necessary.
Battery - Replace
Inspect the fins for damage. Bent fins may be opened
with a “comb”.
Batteries give off combustible gases which can
explode. A spark can cause the combustible gases to ignite. This can result in severe personal injury or death.
Note: If parts of the aftercooler system are repaired
or replaced, a leak test is highly recommended.
Inspect these items for good condition: Welds,
mounting brackets, air lines, connections, clamps,
and seals. Make repairs, if necessary.
Ensure proper ventilation for batteries that are in
an enclosure. Follow the proper procedures in order to help prevent electrical arcs and/or sparks
near batteries. Do not smoke when batteries are
serviced.
i02322311
Alternator - Inspect
Perkins recommends a scheduled inspection of
the alternator. Inspect the alternator for loose
connections and correct battery charging. Check the
ammeter (if equipped) during engine operation in
order to ensure correct battery performance and/or
correct performance of the electrical system. Make
repairs, as required.
Check the alternator and the battery charger for
correct operation. If the batteries are correctly
charged, the ammeter reading should be very near
zero. All batteries should be kept charged. The
batteries should be kept warm because temperature
affects the cranking power. If the battery is too cold,
the battery will not crank the engine. When the
engine is not run for long periods of time or if the
engine is run for short periods, the batteries may not
fully charge. A battery with a low charge will freeze
more easily than a battery with a full charge.
The battery cables or the batteries should not be
removed with the battery cover in place. The battery cover should be removed before any servicing is attempted.
Removing the battery cables or the batteries with
the cover in place may cause a battery explosion
resulting in personal injury.
1. Switch the engine to the OFF position. Remove
all electrical loads.
2. Turn off any battery chargers. Disconnect any
battery chargers.
3. Ensure that the battery disconnect switch is in the
OFF position.
4. Disconnect the NEGATIVE “-” cable from the
NEGATIVE “-” battery terminal.
5. Disconnect the POSITIVE “+” cable from the
POSITIVE “+” battery terminal.
Note: Always recycle a battery. Never discard a
battery. Dispose of used batteries to an appropriate
recycling facility.
SEBU8601-01
91
Maintenance Section
Battery Electrolyte Level - Check
6. Remove the used battery.
Thoroughly rinse the battery case with clean water.
7. Install the new battery.
i02323088
Note: Before the cables are connected, ensure that
the battery disconnect switch is in the OFF position.
8. Connect the POSITIVE “+” cable to the POSITIVE
“+” battery terminal.
Battery or Battery Cable Disconnect
9. Connect the NEGATIVE “-” cable to the NEGATIVE
“-” battery terminal.
10. Turn the battery disconnect switch to the ON
position.
i02747977
Battery Electrolyte Level Check
When the engine is not run for long periods of time or
when the engine is run for short periods, the batteries
may not fully recharge. Ensure a full charge in order
to help prevent the battery from freezing. If batteries
are correctly charged, the ammeter reading should
be very near zero, when the engine is in operation.
The battery cables or the batteries should not be
removed with the battery cover in place. The battery cover should be removed before any servicing is attempted.
Removing the battery cables or the batteries with
the cover in place may cause a battery explosion
resulting in personal injury.
1. Turn the start switch to the OFF position. Turn the
ignition switch (if equipped) to the OFF position
and remove the key and all electrical loads.
2. Disconnect the negative battery terminal. Ensure
that the cable cannot contact the terminal. When
four 12 volt batteries are involved, two negative
connection must be disconnected.
3. Remove the positive connection.
All lead-acid batteries contain sulfuric acid which
can burn the skin and clothing. Always wear a face
shield and protective clothing when working on or
near batteries.
1. Remove the filler caps. Maintain the electrolyte
level to the “FULL” mark on the battery.
If the addition of water is necessary, use distilled
water. If distilled water is not available use clean
water that is low in minerals. Do not use artificially
softened water.
2. Check the condition of the electrolyte with a
suitable battery tester.
3. Install the caps.
4. Keep the batteries clean.
Clean the battery case with one of the following
cleaning solutions:
• Use a solution of 0.1 kg (0.2 lb) baking soda
and 1 L (1 qt) of clean water.
• Use a solution of ammonium hydroxide.
4. Clean all disconnected connection and battery
terminals.
5. Use a fine grade of sandpaper to clean the
terminals and the cable clamps. Clean the items
until the surfaces are bright or shiny. DO NOT
remove material excessively. Excessive removal
of material can cause the clamps to not fit
correctly. Coat the clamps and the terminals with
a suitable silicone lubricant or petroleum jelly.
6. Tape the cable connections in order to help
prevent accidental starting.
7. Proceed with necessary system repairs.
8. In order to connect the battery, connect the
positive connection before the negative connector.
92
Maintenance Section
Belt - Inspect
SEBU8601-01
i03973719
Belt - Inspect
i03557440
Belt Tensioner - Inspect
NOTICE
Ensure that the engine is stopped before any servicing
or repair is performed.
Illustration 49
g01880953
Typical example
Illustration 48
g01906354
Remove the belt. Refer to Disassembly and
Assembly, “Alternator Belt - Remove and Install”.
displacement of the cord and evidence of fluid
contamination.
Ensure that the belt tensioner is securely installed.
Visually inspect the belt tensioner (1) for damage.
Check that the pulley on the tensioner rotates freely
and that the bearing is not loose. Some engines
have a idler pulley (2). Ensure that the idler pulley is
securely installed. Visually inspect the idler pulley
for damage. Ensure that the idler pulley can rotate
freely and that the bearing is not loose. If necessary,
replace damaged components.
The belt must be replaced if the following conditions
are present.
Install the belt. Refer to Disassembly and Assembly,
“Alternator Belt - Remove and Install”.
Typical example
To maximize the engine performance, inspect the belt
(1) for wear and for cracking. Replace the belt if the
belt is worn or damaged.
• Inspect the belt for cracks, splits, glazing, grease,
• The belt has a crack in more than one rib.
• More than one section of the belt is displaced in
one rib of a maximum length of 50.8 mm (2 inch).
To replace the belt, refer to Disassembly and
Assembly, “Alternator Belt - Remove and Install”.
If necessary, replace the belt tensioner. Refer
to Disassembly and Assembly, “Alternator Belt Remove and Install” for the correct procedure.
SEBU8601-01
93
Maintenance Section
Cooling System Coolant (Commercial Heavy-Duty) - Change
i04155927
Cooling System Coolant
(Commercial Heavy-Duty) Change
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained
during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to
collect the fluid with suitable containers before opening any compartment or disassembling any component containing fluids.
Drain
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pressure.
1. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.
Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in
order to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap.
Dispose of all fluids according to Local regulations and
mandates.
NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.
Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened
component life.
Clean the cooling system and flush the cooling
system before the recommended maintenance
interval if the following conditions exist:
• The engine overheats frequently.
• Foaming of the coolant is observed.
• The oil has entered the cooling system and the
coolant is contaminated.
• The fuel has entered the cooling system and the
coolant is contaminated.
Note: When the cooling system is cleaned, only
clean water is needed.
NOTICE
When any servicing or repair of the engine cooling
system is performed the procedure must be performed
with the engine on level ground. This will allow you to
accurately check the coolant level. This will also help
in avoiding the risk of introducing an air lock into the
coolant system.
Illustration 50
Typical example
g02350782
94
Maintenance Section
Cooling System Coolant (Commercial Heavy-Duty) - Change
SEBU8601-01
4. Start and run the engine at low idle until the
temperature reaches 49 to 66 °C (120 to 150 °F).
5. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.
Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in
order to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap. Open the drain cock or remove
the drain plug on the engine. Open the drain cock
or remove the drain plug on the radiator. Allow
the water to drain. Flush the cooling system with
clean water.
Fill
1. Close the drain cock or install the drain plug on the
engine. Close the drain cock or install the drain
plug on the radiator.
Illustration 51
g02350785
Typical example
2. Open the drain cock or remove the drain plug (1)
on the engine. Also, remove the drain plug (2).
Open the drain cock or remove the drain plug on
the radiator.
Allow the coolant to drain.
NOTICE
Dispose of used engine coolant or recycle. Various
methods have been proposed to reclaim used coolant
for reuse in engine cooling systems. The full distillation
procedure is the only method acceptable by Perkins to
reclaim the coolant.
For information regarding the disposal and the
recycling of used coolant, consult your Perkins dealer
or your Perkins distributor.
NOTICE
Do not fill the cooling system faster than 5 L
(1.3 US gal) per minute, in order to avoid air locks.
Cooling system air locks may result in engine damage.
2. Fill the cooling system with Commercial
Heavy-Duty Coolant. Add Supplemental Coolant
Additive to the coolant. For the correct amount,
refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Fluid Recommendations” topic (Maintenance
Section) for more information on cooling system
specifications. Do not install the cooling system
filler cap.
3. Start and run the engine at low idle. Increase
the engine rpm to high idle. Operate the engine
in order to open the engine thermostat. This will
allow any air in the system to be purged. Decrease
the engine speed to low idle. Stop the engine.
4. Maintain the coolant level at the maximum mark
that is correct for your application.
Flush
1. Flush the cooling system with clean water in order
to remove any debris.
2. Close the drain cock or install the drain plug in the
engine. Close the drain cock or install the drain
plug on the radiator.
NOTICE
Do not fill the cooling system faster than 5 L
(1.3 US gal) per minute, in order to avoid air locks.
Cooling system air locks may result in engine damage.
Illustration 52
Filler cap
3. Fill the cooling system with clean water. Install the
cooling system filler cap.
g00103639
SEBU8601-01
95
Maintenance Section
Cooling System Coolant (ELC) - Change
5. Clean the cooling system filler cap and inspect the
gasket. If the gasket is damaged, discard the old
filler cap and install a new filler cap. If the gasket
is not damaged, use a suitable pressurizing pump
in order to pressure test the filler cap. The correct
pressure is stamped on the face of the filler cap. If
the filler cap does not retain the correct pressure,
install a new filler cap.
NOTICE
When any servicing or repair of the engine cooling
system is performed the procedure must be performed
with the engine on level ground. Level ground will allow you to accurately check the coolant level. This
check will also help in avoiding the risk of introducing an air lock into the coolant system.
6. Start the engine. Inspect the cooling system for
leaks and for correct operating temperature.
Drain
i04155851
Cooling System Coolant (ELC)
- Change
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained
during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to
collect the fluid with suitable containers before opening any compartment or disassembling any component containing fluids.
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pressure.
1. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.
Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in
order to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap.
Dispose of all fluids according to Local regulations and
mandates.
NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.
Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened
component life.
Clean the cooling system and flush the cooling
system before the recommended maintenance
interval if the following conditions exist:
• The engine overheats frequently.
• Foaming of the coolant is observed.
• The oil has entered the cooling system and the
coolant is contaminated.
• The fuel has entered the cooling system and the
coolant is contaminated.
Note: When the cooling system is cleaned, only
clean water is needed when the ELC is drained and
replaced.
Note: Inspect the water pump and the water
temperature regulator after the cooling system
has been drained. This inspection can be a good
opportunity to replace the water pump, the water
temperature regulator, and the hoses, if necessary.
Illustration 53
Typical example
g02350782
96
Maintenance Section
Cooling System Coolant (ELC) - Change
SEBU8601-01
4. Start and run the engine at low idle until the
temperature reaches 49 to 66 °C (120 to 150 °F).
5. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.
Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in
order to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap. Open the drain cock or remove
the drain plug on the engine. Open the drain cock
or remove the drain plug on the radiator. Allow
the water to drain. Flush the cooling system with
clean water.
Fill
1. Close the drain cock or install the drain plug on the
engine. Close the drain cock or install the drain
plug on the radiator.
Illustration 54
g02350785
Typical example
2. Open the drain cock or remove the drain plug (1)
on the engine. Also remove the drain plug (2).
Open the drain cock or remove the drain plug on
the radiator.
Allow the coolant to drain.
NOTICE
Dispose of used engine coolant or recycle. Various
methods have been proposed to reclaim used coolant
for reuse in engine cooling systems. The full distillation
procedure is the only method acceptable by Perkins to
reclaim the coolant.
For information regarding the disposal and the
recycling of used coolant, consult your Perkins dealer
or your Perkins distributor.
NOTICE
Do not fill the cooling system faster than 5 L
(1.3 US gal) per minute, in order to avoid air locks.
Cooling system air locks may result in engine damage.
2. Fill the cooling system with Extended Life
Coolant (ELC). Refer to the Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Fluid Recommendations”
topic (Maintenance Section) for more information
on cooling system specifications. Do not install the
cooling system filler cap.
3. Start and run the engine at low idle. Increase
the engine rpm to high idle. Operate the engine
in order to open the engine thermostat. This
procedure will allow any air in the system to be
purged. Decrease the engine speed to low idle.
Stop the engine.
4. Maintain the coolant level at the maximum mark
that is correct for your application.
Flush
1. Flush the cooling system with clean water in order
to remove any debris.
2. Close the drain cock or install the drain plug in the
engine. Close the drain cock or install the drain
plug on the radiator.
NOTICE
Do not fill the cooling system faster than 5 L
(1.3 US gal) per minute, in order to avoid air locks.
Cooling system air locks may result in engine damage.
3. Fill the cooling system with clean water. Install the
cooling system filler cap.
Illustration 55
Filler cap
g00103639
SEBU8601-01
97
Maintenance Section
Cooling System Coolant Level - Check
5. Clean the cooling system filler cap and inspect the
gasket. If the gasket is damaged, discard the old
filler cap and install a new filler cap. If the gasket
is not damaged, use a suitable pressurizing pump
in order to pressure test the filler cap. The correct
pressure is stamped on the face of the filler cap. If
the filler cap does not retain the correct pressure,
install a new filler cap.
3. Pour the correct coolant mixture into the tank.
Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Refill Capacities and Recommendations” for
information on the correct mixture and type of
coolant. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Refill Capacities and Recommendations”
for the cooling system capacity. Do not fill the
coolant recovery tank above “COLD FULL” mark.
6. Start the engine. Inspect the cooling system for
leaks and for correct operating temperature.
i03576064
Cooling System Coolant Level
- Check
Engines With a Coolant Recovery
Tank
Note: The cooling system may not have been
provided by Perkins. The procedure that follows
is for typical cooling systems. Refer to the OEM
information for the correct procedures.
Check the coolant level when the engine is stopped
and cool.
NOTICE
When any servicing or repair of the engine cooling
system is performed the procedure must be performed
with the engine on level ground. This will allow you to
accurately check the coolant level. This will also help
in avoiding the risk of introducing an air lock into the
coolant system.
Illustration 56
g00103639
4. Clean filler cap and the receptacle. Reinstall the
filler cap and inspect the cooling system for leaks.
Note: The coolant will expand as the coolant heats
up during normal engine operation. The additional
volume will be forced into the coolant recovery tank
during engine operation. When the engine is stopped
and cool, the coolant will return to the engine.
Engines Without a Coolant
Recovery Tank
Check the coolant level when the engine is stopped
and cool.
1. Observe the coolant level in the coolant recovery
tank. Maintain the coolant level to “COLD FULL”
mark on the coolant recovery tank.
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pressure.
2. Loosen filler cap slowly in order to relieve any
pressure. Remove the filler cap.
Illustration 57
Cooling system filler cap
g00285520
98
Maintenance Section
Cooling System Supplemental Coolant Additive (SCA) - Test/Add
SEBU8601-01
Add the SCA, If Necessary
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pressure.
1. Remove the cooling system filler cap slowly in
order to relieve pressure.
2. Maintain the coolant level at the maximum mark
that is correct for your application. If the engine is
equipped with a sight glass, maintain the coolant
level to the correct level in the sight glass.
3. Clean the cooling system filler cap and inspect the
gasket. If the gasket is damaged, discard the old
filler cap and install a new filler cap. If the gasket
is not damaged, use a suitable pressurizing pump
in order to pressure test the filler cap. The correct
pressure is stamped on the face of the filler cap. If
the filler cap does not retain the correct pressure,
install a new filler cap.
4. Inspect the cooling system for leaks.
i03644948
Cooling System Supplemental
Coolant Additive (SCA) Test/Add
Cooling system coolant additive contains alkali.
To help prevent personal injury, avoid contact with
the skin and the eyes. Do not drink cooling system
coolant additive.
Test for SCA Concentration
Heavy-Duty Coolant/Antifreeze and SCA
NOTICE
Do not exceed the recommended six percent supplemental coolant additive concentration.
Use a Coolant Conditioner Test Kit in order to check
the concentration of the SCA.
NOTICE
Do not exceed the recommended amount of supplemental coolant additive concentration. Excessive
supplemental coolant additive concentration can form
deposits on the higher temperature surfaces of the
cooling system, reducing the engine's heat transfer
characteristics. Reduced heat transfer could cause
cracking of the cylinder head and other high temperature components. Excessive supplemental coolant
additive concentration could also result in radiator
tube blockage, overheating, and/or accelerated water
pump seal wear. Never use both liquid supplemental
coolant additive and the spin-on element (if equipped)
at the same time. The use of those additives together
could result in supplemental coolant additive concentration exceeding the recommended maximum.
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pressure.
NOTICE
When any servicing or repair of the engine cooling
system is performed the procedure must be performed
with the engine on level ground. This will allow you to
accurately check the coolant level. This will also help
in avoiding the risk of introducing an air lock into the
coolant system.
1. Slowly loosen the cooling system filler cap in
order to relieve the pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap.
Note: Always discard drained fluids according to
local regulations.
2. If necessary, drain some coolant from the cooling
system into a suitable container in order to allow
space for the extra SCA.
3. Add the correct amount of SCA. Refer to the
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Refill
Capacities and Recommendations” for more
information on SCA requirements.
SEBU8601-01
99
Maintenance Section
Cooling System Water Temperature Regulator - Replace
4. Clean the cooling system filler cap and inspect the
gasket. If the gasket is damaged, discard the old
filler cap and install a new filler cap. If the gasket
is not damaged, use a suitable pressurizing pump
in order to pressure test the filler cap. The correct
pressure is stamped on the face of the filler cap. If
the filler cap does not retain the correct pressure,
install a new filler cap.
i04020355
Cooling System Water
Temperature Regulator Replace
NOTICE
Failure to replace your water temperature regulator
on a regularly scheduled basis could cause severe
engine damage.
Perkins engines incorporate a shunt design cooling
system and require operating the engine with a water
temperature regulator installed.
If the water temperature regulator is installed incorrectly, the engine may overheat, causing cylinder head
damage. Ensure that the new water temperature regulator is installed in the original position. Ensure that
the water temperature regulator vent hole is open.
Do not use liquid gasket material on the gasket or
cylinder head surface.
Replace the water temperature regulator before
the water temperature regulator fails. This is a
recommended preventive maintenance practice.
Replacing the water temperature regulator reduces
the chances for unscheduled downtime. Refer to this
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Maintenance
Interval Schedule” for the proper maintenance
interval.
Refer to two articles in the Disassembly and
Assembly Manual, “Water Temperature Regulators
- Remove and Water Temperature Regulators Install” for the replacement procedure of the water
temperature regulator, or consult your Perkins dealer
or your Perkins distributor.
A water temperature regulator that fails in a
partially opened position can cause overheating or
overcooling of the engine.
Note: If only the water temperature regulators are
replaced, drain the coolant from the cooling system to
a level that is below the water temperature regulator
housing.
A water temperature regulator that fails in the closed
position can cause excessive overheating. Excessive
overheating could result in cracking of the cylinder
head or piston seizure problems.
A water temperature regulator that fails in the open
position will cause the engine operating temperature
to be too low during partial load operation. Low
engine operating temperatures during partial loads
could cause an excessive carbon buildup inside the
cylinders. This excessive carbon buildup could result
in an accelerated wear of the piston rings and wear
of the cylinder liner.
i03634651
Crankshaft Vibration Damper
- Inspect
Viscous Damper
The viscous damper has a inertia weight that is
located inside a fluid filled case. The inertia weight
moves in the case in order to limit torsional vibration.
Visually inspect the crankshaft damper. Ensure that
the cooling fins (1) on the crankshaft damper are
clean and free from dirt.
100
Maintenance Section
Diesel Particulate Filter - Clean
Illustration 58
SEBU8601-01
g01950241
Illustration 59
g01949226
Typical example
Typical example
Inspect the damper and replace the damper for any
of the following reasons:
• DPF__________________________ Diesel Particulate Filter
• The damper is dented, cracked, or leaking.
For information on removal of the crankshaft damper,
refer to Disassembly and Assembly, “Vibration
Damper and Pulley - Remove and Install”.
i04087370
Diesel Particulate Filter - Clean
Contact your Perkins dealer, or your Perkins
distributor. New torca clamps (1) must be installed
on the DPF.
For information on removal of the DPF, refer to
Disassembly and Assembly, “DPF - Remove”. Also,
refer to System Operation Testing and Adjusting,
“Diesel Particulate Filter - Clean”.
• Only ultra low sufur diesel fuel can be used in an
application that has an aftertreatment regeneration
device. The use of other fuel will damage your
engine system.
• The engine must be operated on CJ-4 specification
Wear goggles, gloves, protective clothing, and
a National Institute for Occupational Safety and
Health (NIOSH) approved P95 or N95 half-face
respirator when handling a used Diesel Particulate Filter or Catalytic Converter Muffler. Failure
to do so could result in personal injury.
The muffler, catalytic converter/muffler, and diesel
particulate filter will become extremely hot during
engine operation. A hot muffler, catalytic converter/muffler and diesel particulate filter can cause
serious burns. Allow adequate cooling time before
working on or near the muffler, catalytic converter/muffler and diesel particulate filter.
of engine oil.
i02151646
Driven Equipment - Check
Refer to the OEM specifications for more information
on the following maintenance recommendations for
the driven equipment:
• Inspection
• Adjustment
• Lubrication
• Other maintenance recommendations
SEBU8601-01
101
Maintenance Section
Engine - Clean
Perform any maintenance for the driven equipment
which is recommended by the OEM.
i03991933
i02334355
Engine Air Cleaner Element
(Dual Element) - Clean/Replace
Engine - Clean
Personal injury or death can result from high voltage.
Moisture can create paths of electrical conductivity.
NOTICE
Never run the engine without an air cleaner element
installed. Never run the engine with a damaged air
cleaner element. Do not use air cleaner elements with
damaged pleats, gaskets or seals. Dirt entering the
engine causes premature wear and damage to engine
components. Air cleaner elements help to prevent airborne debris from entering the air inlet.
Make sure that the electrical system is OFF. Lock
out the starting controls and tag the controls “DO
NOT OPERATE”.
NOTICE
Never service the air cleaner element with the engine
running since this will allow dirt to enter the engine.
NOTICE
Accumulated grease and oil on an engine is a fire hazard. Keep the engine clean. Remove debris and fluid
spills whenever a significant quantity accumulates on
the engine.
Servicing the Air Cleaner Elements
Periodic cleaning of the engine is recommended.
Steam cleaning the engine will remove accumulated
oil and grease. A clean engine provides the following
benefits:
If the air cleaner element becomes plugged, the air
can split the material of the air cleaner element.
Unfiltered air will drastically accelerate internal
engine wear. Refer to the OEM information for the
correct air cleaner elements for your application.
• Easy detection of fluid leaks
• Maximum heat transfer characteristics
• Ease of maintenance
Note: Caution must be used in order to prevent
electrical components from being damaged by
excessive water when the engine is cleaned.
Pressure washers and steam cleaners should not be
directed at any electrical connectors or the junction of
cables into the rear of the connectors. Avoid electrical
components such as the alternator, the starter, and
the ECM. Protect the fuel injection pump from fluids
in order to wash the engine.
Aftertreatment
During the engine cleaning process, ensure
that water or cleaning fluids cannot enter the
aftertreatment system. If cleaning fluids enters the
aftertreatment system, damage could occur.
Note: The air filter system may not have been
provided by Perkins. The procedure that follows
is for a typical air filter system. Refer to the OEM
information for the correct procedure.
• Check the precleaner (if equipped) and the dust
bowl daily for accumulation of dirt and debris.
Remove any dirt and debris, as needed.
• Operating in dirty conditions may require more
frequent service of the air cleaner element.
• The air cleaner element should be replaced at least
one time per year. This replacement should be
performed regardless of the number of cleanings.
Replace the dirty air cleaner elements with clean air
cleaner elements. Before installation, the air cleaner
elements should be thoroughly checked for tears
and/or holes in the filter material. Inspect the gasket
or the seal of the air cleaner element for damage.
Maintain a supply of suitable air cleaner elements
for replacement purposes.
Dual Element Air Cleaners
The dual element air cleaner contains a primary air
cleaner element and a secondary air cleaner element.
102
Maintenance Section
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Dual Element) - Clean/Replace
The primary air cleaner element can be used up
to six times if the element is properly cleaned and
properly inspected. The primary air cleaner element
should be replaced at least one time per year. This
replacement should be performed regardless of the
number of cleanings.
The secondary air cleaner element is not serviceable.
Refer to the OEM information for instructions in order
to replace the secondary air cleaner element.
When the engine is operating in environments that
are dusty or dirty, air cleaner elements may require
more frequent replacement.
SEBU8601-01
Cleaning the Primary Air Cleaner
Elements
Refer to the OEM information in order to determine
the number of times that the primary filter element can
be cleaned. When the primary air cleaner element is
cleaned, check for rips or tears in the filter material.
The primary air cleaner element should be replaced
at least one time per year. This replacement should
be performed regardless of the number of cleanings.
NOTICE
Do not tap or strike the air cleaner element.
Do not wash the primary air cleaner element.
Use low pressure (207 kPa; 30 psi maximum) pressurised air or vacuum cleaning to clean the primary
air cleaner element.
Take extreme care in order to avoid damage to the air
cleaner elements.
Do not use air cleaner elements that have damaged
pleats, gaskets or seals.
Illustration 60
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
g00736431
Cover
Primary air cleaner element
Secondary air cleaner element
Air inlet
Refer to the OEM information in order to determine
the number of times that the primary air cleaner
element can be cleaned. Do not clean the primary
air filter element more than three times. The primary
air cleaner element must be replaced at least one
time per year.
1. Remove the cover. Remove the primary air
cleaner element.
Cleaning the air filter element will not extend the life
of the air filter element.
2. The secondary air cleaner element should be
removed and discarded for every three cleanings
of the primary air cleaner element.
Visually inspect the primary air cleaner element
before cleaning. Inspect air cleaner elements for
damage to the pleats, the seals, the gaskets and
the outer cover. Discard any damaged air cleaner
element.
Note: Refer to “Cleaning the Primary Air Cleaner
Elements”.
3. Cover the air inlet with tape in order to keep dirt
out.
4. Clean the inside of the air cleaner cover and body
with a clean, dry cloth.
5. Remove the tapefrom the air inlet. Install the
secondary air cleaner element. Install a primary
air cleaner element that is new or cleaned.
6. Install the air cleaner cover.
7. Reset the air cleaner service indicator.
Two methods may be used in order to clean the
primary air cleaner element:
• pressurized air
• Vacuum cleaning
SEBU8601-01
103
Maintenance Section
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Single Element) - Inspect/Replace
Pressurized Air
Note: Refer to “Inspecting the Primary Air Cleaner
Elements”.
Personal injury can result from air pressure.
Inspecting the Primary Air Cleaner
Elements
Personal injury can result without following proper procedure. When using pressure air, wear a protective face shield and protective clothing.
Maximum air pressure at the nozzle must be less
than 205 kPa (30 psi) for cleaning purposes.
Pressurized air can be used to clean primary air
cleaner elements that have not been cleaned more
than three times. Use filtered, dry air with a maximum
pressure of 207 kPa (30 psi). Pressurized air will not
remove deposits of carbon and oil.
Illustration 62
g00281693
Inspect the clean, dry primary air cleaner element.
Use a 60 watt blue light in a dark room or in a similar
facility. Place the blue light in the primary air cleaner
element. Rotate the primary air cleaner element.
Inspect the primary air cleaner element for tears
and/or holes. Inspect the primary air cleaner element
for light that may show through the filter material. If it
is necessary in order to confirm the result, compare
the primary air cleaner element to a new primary air
cleaner element that has the same part number.
Illustration 61
g00281692
Note: When the primary air cleaner elements are
cleaned, always begin with the clean side (inside)
in order to force dirt particles toward the dirty side
(outside).
Do not use a primary air cleaner element that has
any tears and/or holes in the filter material. Do not
use a primary air cleaner element with damaged
pleats, gaskets or seals. Discard damaged primary
air cleaner elements.
i02152042
Aim the air hose so that air flows along the length of
the filter. Follow the direction of the paper pleats in
order to prevent damage to the pleats. Do not aim
the air directly at the face of the paper pleats.
Engine Air Cleaner
Element (Single Element) Inspect/Replace
Note: Refer to “Inspecting the Primary Air Cleaner
Elements”.
Vacuum Cleaning
Vacuum cleaning is a good method for removing
accumulated dirt from the dirty side (outside) of a
primary air cleaner element. Vacuum cleaning is
especially useful for cleaning primary air cleaner
elements which require daily cleaning because of a
dry, dusty environment.
Cleaning from the clean side (inside) with pressurized
air is recommended prior to vacuum cleaning the
dirty side (outside) of a primary air cleaner element.
Refer to Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Engine
Air Cleaner Service Indicator-Inspect”.
NOTICE
Never run the engine without an air cleaner element
installed. Never run the engine with a damaged air
cleaner element. Do not use air cleaner elements with
damaged pleats, gaskets or seals. Dirt entering the
engine causes premature wear and damage to engine
components. Air cleaner elements help to prevent airborne debris from entering the air inlet.
104
Maintenance Section
Engine Air Cleaner Service Indicator - Inspect
SEBU8601-01
Test the Service Indicator
NOTICE
Never service the air cleaner element with the engine
running since this will allow dirt to enter the engine.
A wide variety of air cleaners may be installed for use
with this engine. Consult the OEM information for the
correct procedure to replace the air cleaner.
i02335405
Service indicators are important instruments.
• Check for ease of resetting. The service indicator
should reset in less than three pushes.
• Check the movement of the yellow core when
the engine is accelerated to the engine rated
speed. The yellow core should latch at the greatest
vacuum that is attained.
Engine Air Cleaner Service
Indicator - Inspect
If the service indicator does not reset easily, or if the
yellow core does not latch at the greatest vacuum,
the service indicator should be replaced. If the new
service indicator will not reset, the hole for the service
indicator may be restricted.
Some engines may be equipped with a different
service indicator.
The service indicator may need to be replaced
frequently in environments that are severely dusty.
Some engines are equipped with a differential gauge
for inlet air pressure. The differential gauge for inlet
air pressure displays the difference in the pressure
that is measured before the air cleaner element and
the pressure that is measured after the air cleaner
element. As the air cleaner element becomes dirty,
the pressure differential rises. If your engine is
equipped with a different type of service indicator,
follow the OEM recommendations in order to service
the air cleaner service indicator.
i02343354
Engine Air Precleaner Check/Clean
The service indicator may be mounted on the air
cleaner element or in a remote location.
Illustration 64
g00287039
Typical example
(1) Wing nut
(2) Cover
(3) Body
Illustration 63
g00103777
Typical service indicator
Observe the service indicator. The air cleaner
element should be cleaned or the air cleaner element
should be replaced when one of the following
conditions occur:
• The yellow diaphragm enters the red zone.
• The red piston locks in the visible position.
Remove wing nut (1) and cover (2). Check for an
accumulation of dirt and debris in body (3). Clean the
body, if necessary.
After cleaning the precleaner, install cover (2) and
wing nut (1).
Note: When the engine is operated in dusty
applications, more frequent cleaning is required.
SEBU8601-01
105
Maintenance Section
Engine Crankcase Breather Element - Replace
i04151729
Engine Crankcase Breather
Element - Replace
The breather element can be serviced from the top
position or the breather element can be serviced from
the bottom position.
Top Service
Hot oil and hot components can cause personal
injury. Do not allow hot oil or hot components to
contact the skin.
NOTICE
Ensure that the engine is stopped before any servicing
or repair is performed.
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained
during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to
collect the fluid with suitable containers before opening any compartment or disassembling any component containing fluids.
Dispose of all fluids according to Local regulations and
mandates.
The crankcase breather is a very important
component in order to keep your engine emissions
compliant.
Illustration 65
• The filter element within the crankcase breather
must be serviced at the prescribed service interval.
• The correct filter element must be installed before
the engine is operated.
• The installation of the filter element is very
important.
• The quality of the filter element that is installed is
very important.
• The filter element protects the engine from
excessive quantities of oil from entering the
induction system. The filter element also protects
the engine aftertreatment system.
Note: Excessive quantities of oil that enter the
induction system of the engine can rapidly increase
the engine speed without control.
For information on aftermarket products, refer
to Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Engine
Description”. Within that section, refer to the title
“Aftermarket Products and Perkins Engines”.
g02346496
Typical example
(A) Alignment position
1. Ensure that dirt cannot enter the breather
assembly. Ensure that the outside body of the
breather assembly is clean and free from damage.
Place a container under the breather assembly.
2. Rotate the top cap (1) counterclockwise into the
unlocked position. Remove the top cap from the
body of the breather (3).
3. Note the orientation of the filter element (2).
Remove the filter element .
106
Maintenance Section
Engine Crankcase Breather Element - Replace
SEBU8601-01
7. Remove the container.
Bottom Service
Ensure that dirt cannot enter the breather assembly.
Illustration 66
g02346497
Typical example
(B) Alignment position
4. Remove the old seal (4) and install a new seal.
Note: The cut away from section (5) in the top cap
allows access to the seal.
5. Install a new filter element into the breather body
(3). Align position (A) on the filter element to
position (B) on the top cap.
Illustration 68
g02346498
(X) Alignment mark
(Y) Alignment mark
1. Ensure that the outside body of the breather
assembly is clean and free from damage. Place
a container under the breather.
2. Remove the tube connection (1). Ensure that
dirt cannot enter the tube connection. Note the
position of the alignment marks (X and Y). Rotate
the bottom cap (2) counterclockwise in order to
release the cap and the filter element (4) from the
breather body (3).
Illustration 67
g02346577
Typical example
6. Install the top cap (1). Rotate the top cap by hand
clockwise until the top cap locks into the locked
position (C) on the breather body.
SEBU8601-01
107
Maintenance Section
Engine Mounts - Inspect
Check the System
Illustration 70
g02346500
Typical example
Illustration 69
g02346499
Typical example
Inspect the breather tube (1) for damage. Ensure that
the outlet (2) is clean and free from any obstructions.
Ice can cause obstructions in adverse weather
conditions.
(A) Alignment postion
(B) Alignment postion
i02323089
3. Note the orientation of the filter element. Remove
the filter element (4) from the bottom cap (2).
Remove the seal (5).
Engine Mounts - Inspect
Note: The bottom cap has a section that allows
access in order to remove the seal.
Note: The engine mounts may not have been
supplied by Perkins. Refer to the OEM information
for further information on the engine mounts and the
correct bolt torque.
4. Install a new seal (5). Install a new filter element
into the bottom cap (2).
5. Align position (A) on the filter element to position
(B) on the top cap. Refer to illustration 69.
6. Install the assembly of the filter element and the
bottom cap (2). Rotate the bottom cap by hand
clockwise until the bottom cap locks into the
locked position on the breather body. Ensure
that the alignment marks (X and Y) are correctly
aligned. Refer to illustration 68.
7. Install tube connection (1). Ensure that the
retaining clips on the tube connection are correctly
engaged. Remove the container.
Inspect the engine mounts for deterioration and for
correct bolt torque. Engine vibration can be caused
by the following conditions:
• Incorrect mounting of the engine
• Deterioration of the engine mounts
• Loose engine mounts
Any engine mount that shows deterioration should
be replaced. Refer to the OEM information for the
recommended torques.
108
Maintenance Section
Engine Oil Level - Check
SEBU8601-01
i03996001
Engine Oil Level - Check
i01907674
Engine Oil Sample - Obtain
Hot oil and hot components can cause personal
injury. Do not allow hot oil or hot components to
contact the skin.
The condition of the engine lubricating oil may be
checked at regular intervals as part of a preventive
maintenance program. Perkins include an oil
sampling valve as an option. The oil sampling valve
(if equipped) is included in order to regularly sample
the engine lubricating oil. The oil sampling valve is
positioned on the oil filter head or the oil sampling
valve is positioned on the cylinder block.
Perkins recommends using a sampling valve in order
to obtain oil samples. The quality and the consistency
of the samples are better when a sampling valve is
used. The location of the sampling valve allows oil
that is flowing under pressure to be obtained during
normal engine operation.
Obtain the Sample and the Analysis
Illustration 71
g02173847
“L” Low
“H” High
NOTICE
Perform this maintenance with the engine stopped.
Note: Ensure that the engine is either level or that
the engine is in the normal operating position in order
to obtain a true level indication.
Hot oil and hot components can cause personal
injury. Do not allow hot oil or hot components to
contact the skin.
In order to help obtain the most accurate analysis,
record the following information before an oil sample
is taken:
• The date of the sample
Note: After the engine has been switched OFF, wait
for 10 minutes in order to allow the engine oil to drain
to the oil pan before checking the oil level.
• Engine model
1. Maintain the oil level between the mark (L) and
the mark (H) on the engine oil dipstick. Do not fill
the crankcase above the “H”.
• Service hours on the engine
NOTICE
Operating your engine when the oil level is above the
“FULL” mark could cause your crankshaft to dip into
the oil. The air bubbles created from the crankshaft
dipping into the oil reduces the oil's lubricating characteristics and could result in the loss of power.
• The amount of oil that has been added since the
2. Remove the oil filler cap and add oil, if necessary.
Clean the oil filler cap. Install the oil filler cap.
To ensure that the sample is representative of the
oil in the crankcase, obtain a warm, well mixed oil
sample.
If an increase in the oil level is noticed, refer to
Troubleshooting, “Oil Contains Fuel”.
• Engine number
• The number of hours that have accumulated since
the last oil change
last oil change
Ensure that the container for the sample is clean and
dry. Also ensure that the container for the sample is
clearly labelled.
To avoid contamination of the oil samples, the tools
and the supplies that are used for obtaining oil
samples must be clean.
SEBU8601-01
109
Maintenance Section
Engine Oil and Filter - Change
The sample can be checked for the following: the
quality of the oil, the existence of any coolant in the
oil, the existence of any ferrous metal particles in
the oil, and the existence of any nonferrous metal
particles in the oil.
i03996054
Engine Oil and Filter - Change
Hot oil and hot components can cause personal
injury. Do not allow hot oil or hot components to
contact the skin.
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained
during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to
collect the fluid with suitable containers before opening any compartment or disassembling any component containing fluids.
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
mandates.
NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.
Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened
component life.
Do not drain the engine lubricating oil when the
engine is cold. As the engine lubricating oil cools,
suspended waste particles settle on the bottom of
the oil pan. The waste particles are not removed with
draining cold oil. Drain the oil pan with the engine
stopped. Drain the oil pan with the oil warm. This
draining method allows the waste particles that are
suspended in the oil to be drained properly.
Failure to follow this recommended procedure will
cause the waste particles to be recirculated through
the engine lubrication system with the new oil.
Drain the Engine Lubricating Oil
Note: Ensure that the vessel that will be used is large
enough to collect the waste oil.
After the engine has been run at the normal operating
temperature, stop the engine. Use one of the
following methods to drain the engine oil pan:
Illustration 72
g01880893
Typical example
• If the engine is equipped with a drain valve, turn the
drain valve knob counterclockwise in order to drain
the oil. After the oil has drained, turn the drain valve
knob clockwise in order to close the drain valve.
• If the engine is not equipped with a drain valve,
remove the oil drain plug (1) in order to allow the oil
to drain. If the engine is equipped with a shallow oil
pan, remove the bottom oil drain plugs from both
ends of the oil pan.
After the oil has drained, the oil drain plugs should be
cleaned and installed. If necessary, replace the O
ring seal. Tighten the drain plug to 34 N·m (25 lb ft).
Replace the Oil Filter
NOTICE
Perkins oil filters are manufactured to Perkins specifications. Use of an oil filter that is not recommended
by Perkins could result in severe damage to the engine bearings, crankshaft, etc., as a result of the larger
waste particles from unfiltered oil entering the engine
lubricating system. Only use oil filters recommended
by Perkins.
1. Remove the oil filter with a suitable tool.
Note: The following actions can be carried out as
part of the preventive maintenance program.
2. Cut the oil filter open with a suitable tool. Break
apart the pleats and inspect the oil filter for metal
debris. An excessive amount of metal debris in
the oil filter may indicate early wear or a pending
failure.
110
Maintenance Section
Fan Clearance - Check
SEBU8601-01
Use a magnet to differentiate between the ferrous
metals and the nonferrous metals that are found in
the oil filter element. Ferrous metals may indicate
wear on the steel and cast iron parts of the engine.
Nonferrous metals may indicate wear on the
aluminum parts, brass parts or bronze parts of the
engine. Parts that may be affected include the
following items: main bearings, rod bearings, and
turbocharger bearings.
Due to normal wear and friction, it is not
uncommon to find small amounts of debris in the
oil filter.
Fill the Oil Pan
1. Remove the oil filler cap. Refer to this
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Fluid
Recommendations” for more information on
suitable oils. Fill the oil pan with the correct
amount of new engine lubricating oil. Refer
to this Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Refill Capacities” for more information on refill
capacities.
NOTICE
If equipped with an auxiliary oil filter system or a remote filter system, follow the OEM or the filter manufactures recommendations. Under filling or over filling
the crankcase with oil can cause engine damage.
2. Start the engine and run the engine at “LOW
IDLE” for 2 minutes. Perform this procedure in
order to ensure that the lubrication system has
oil and that the oil filters are filled. Inspect the oil
filter for oil leaks.
3. Stop the engine and allow the oil to drain back to
the oil pan for a minimum of 10 minutes.
Illustration 73
g02351361
Typical example
3. Clean sealing surface (2).
4. Apply clean engine oil to O ring seal (3) for the
new oil filter.
NOTICE
Do not fill the oil filters with oil before installing them.
This oil would not be filtered and could be contaminated. Contaminated oil can cause accelerated wear to
engine components.
5. Install the new oil filter. Spin on the oil filter until
the O ring contacts the sealing surface (2). Then
rotate the oil filter ¾ of a full turn.
Illustration 74
g02173847
“L” Low
“H” High
4. Remove the engine oil level gauge in order to
check the oil level. Maintain the oil level between
the “L” and “H” marks on the engine oil level
gauge. Do not fill the crankcase above the “H”
mark.
i03926370
Fan Clearance - Check
There are different types of cooling systems. Refer to
the OEM for information on clearance for the fan.
SEBU8601-01
111
Maintenance Section
Fuel System - Prime
Ensure that the engine is stopped. Ensure that the
battery disconnect switch is in the OFF position.
Ensure that the cooling system is full. The clearance
between the cover (1) and the fan (2) will require
checking. The gap (A) between the edge of the cover
and the tip of the fan blade must be checked in four
equally spaced positions.
g01348394
Illustration 75
Adjustment of the cover will change the clearance
(gap) between the edge of the cover and the tip of
the fan blade. Ensure that the cover is centralized to
the fan.
The clearance (A) must be 11 ± 2 mm
(0.43307 ± 0.07874 inch).
i03906114
Fuel System - Prime
Note: Refer to Systems Operation, Testing,
and Adjusting, “Cleanliness of Fuel System
Components” for detailed information on the
standards of cleanliness that must be observed
during ALL work on the fuel system.
Ensure that all adjustments and repairs are performed
by authorized personnel that have had the correct
training.
112
Maintenance Section
Fuel System Primary Filter (Water Separator) Element - Replace
NOTICE
Do not crank the engine continuously for more than
30 seconds. Allow the starting motor to cool for two
minutes before cranking the engine again.
If air enters the fuel system, the air must be purged
from the fuel system before the engine can be
started. Air can enter the fuel system when the
following events occur:
• The fuel tank is empty or the fuel tank has been
partially drained.
SEBU8601-01
If you inspect the engine in operation, always use
the proper inspection procedure in order to avoid
a fluid penetration hazard. Refer to Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “General hazard Information”.
If the engine will not start, refer to Troubleshooting,
“Engine Cranks but will not Start”.
i03980070
Fuel System Primary Filter
(Water Separator) Element Replace
• The low-pressure fuel lines are disconnected.
• A leak exists in the low-pressure fuel system.
• The fuel filter has been replaced.
Use the following procedures in order to remove air
from the fuel system:
1. Ensure that the fuel system is in working order.
Check that the fuel supply valve (if equipped) is in
the “ON” position.
2. Turn the keyswitch to the “RUN” position.
3. The keyswitch will allow the electric priming pump
to operate. Operate the electric priming pump.
The ECM will stop the pump after 2 minutes.
4. Turn the keyswitch to the “OFF” position. The fuel
system should now be primed and the engine
should be able to start.
Fuel leaked or spilled onto hot surfaces or electrical components can cause a fire. To help prevent possible injury, turn the start switch off when
changing fuel filters or water separator elements.
Clean up fuel spills immediately.
Note: Refer to Systems Operation, Testing,
and Adjusting, “Cleanliness of Fuel System
Components” for detailed information on the
standards of cleanliness that must be observed
during ALL work on the fuel system.
NOTICE
Ensure that the engine is stopped before any servicing
or repair is performed.
5. Operate the engine starter and crank the engine.
After the engine has started, operate the engine at
low idle for a minimum of 5 minutes. Ensure that
the fuel system is free from leaks.
Remove the Element
Note: Operating the engine for this period will help
ensure that the fuel system is free of air. DO NOT
loosen the high-pressure fuel lines in order to
purge air from the fuel system. This procedure is
not required.
2. Place a suitable container under the water
separator in order to catch any fuel that might spill.
Clean up any spilled fuel. Clean the outside body
of the filter assembly.
After the engine has stopped, you must wait for
10 minutes in order to allow the fuel pressure to
be purged from the high-pressure fuel lines before
any service or repair is performed on the engine
fuel lines. If necessary, perform minor adjustments.
Repair any leaks from the low-pressure fuel system
and from the cooling, lubrication, or air systems.
Replace any high-pressure fuel line that has leaked.
Refer to Disassembly and Assembly Manual, “Fuel
Injection Lines - Install”.
1. Turn the fuel supply valve (if equipped) to the OFF
position before performing this maintenance.
3. Make a temporary Mark (A) across the filter before
the assembly is removed.
SEBU8601-01
Illustration 76
113
Maintenance Section
Fuel System Primary Filter (Water Separator) Element - Replace
g02148376
Typical example
4. Install a suitable tube onto drain (3). Open
the drain valve (2). Rotate the drain valve
counterclockwise. Two full turns are required.
Loosen vent screw (1).
Note: Two complete rotations of the valve will release
the valve from the filter element.
5. Allow the fuel to drain into the container. Remove
the tube and install the valve into the filter element.
Engage the threads of the valve into the filter
element. Do not secure the valve.
6. Tighten the vent screw (1) securely . Remove the
wiring harness from connection (4).
7. Remove the filter bowl (6). Rotate the filter
assembly counterclockwise in order to remove
the filter assembly. Use a suitable tool in order to
remove the filter assembly.
Illustration 77
g02148402
Typical example
8. Rotate the filter element counterclockwise and
remove the filter element (5). Clean the filter bowl.
114
Maintenance Section
Fuel System Primary Filter/Water Separator - Drain
SEBU8601-01
Install the Element
i03980098
Fuel System Primary
Filter/Water Separator - Drain
Fuel leaked or spilled onto hot surfaces or electrical components can cause a fire. To help prevent possible injury, turn the start switch off when
changing fuel filters or water separator elements.
Clean up fuel spills immediately.
NOTICE
Ensure that the engine is stopped before any servicing
or repair is performed.
NOTICE
The water separator can be under suction during normal engine operation. Ensure that the drain valve is
tightened securely to help prevent air from entering
the fuel system.
Typical example
1. Place a suitable container under the water
separator in order to catch any fluid that might
spill. Clean up any spilled fluid.
1. Locate the thread in the filter element (8) onto the
threads (9). Spin on the element. Do not tighten.
2. Ensure that the outer body of the filter assembly is
clean and free from dirt.
Illustration 78
g02148441
2. Lubricate the O ring seal (7) with clean engine oil.
Do NOT fill the bowl with fuel before the assembly
is installed.
3. Do not use a tool in order to install the filter
assembly. Tighten the filter bowl (6) by hand.
Install the filter bowl (6) and align with your
temporary marks (A).
4. Tighten the valve (2) securely. Remove the
container and dispose of the fuel in a safe place.
5. The secondary filter element must be replaced at
the same time as the primary filter element. Refer
to the Operation and Maintenance Manual , “Fuel
System Filter - Replace”.
In-line Strainer
The fuel system as an in-line strainer installed before
the electric priming pump. Perkins recommended
that the in-line strainer be replaced when required.
The location of the in-line strainer will depend on the
application.
Illustration 79
Typical example
g02148370
SEBU8601-01
115
Maintenance Section
Fuel System Secondary Filter - Replace
3. Install a suitable tube onto drain (3). Open
the drain valve (2). Rotate the drain valve
counterclockwise. Two full turns are required.
Loosen vent screw (1).
Note: Two complete rotations of the valve will release
the valve from the filter element.
4. Allow the fluid to drain into the container.
5. Engage the threads of the valve into the filter
element and tighten the drain valve by hand
pressure only. Remove the tube and remove the
container.
6. Tighten vent screw securely.
i03980099
Fuel System Secondary Filter Replace
Illustration 80
g02148699
Typical example
Fuel leaked or spilled onto hot surfaces or electrical components can cause a fire. To help prevent possible injury, turn the start switch off when
changing fuel filters or water separator elements.
Clean up fuel spills immediately.
NOTICE
Ensure that the engine is stopped before any servicing
or repair is performed.
Refer to Systems Operation, Testing, and
Adjusting, “Cleanliness of Fuel System
Components” for detailed information on the
standards of cleanliness that must be observed
during ALL work on the fuel system.
Remove the Element
1. Turn the fuel supply valve (if equipped) to the OFF
position before performing this maintenance.
2. Place a suitable container under the fuel filter in
order to catch any fuel that might spill. Clean up
any spilled fuel. Clean the outside body of the filter
assembly.
3. Make a temporary Mark (A) across the filter before
the assembly is removed. Install a suitable tube
onto drain (4). Open the drain valve (3). Rotate
the drain valve counterclockwise. Two full turns
are required. Loosen vent screw (1).
Note: Two complete rotations of the valve will release
the valve from the filter element.
4. Allow the fuel to drain into the container. Remove
the tube and install the valve into the filter element.
Engage the threads of the valve into the filter
element. Do not secure the valve.
5. Tighten the vent screw (1) securely.
6. Remove the filter bowl (2). Rotate the filter
assembly counterclockwise in order to remove the
assembly. Use a suitable tool in order to remove
the filter bowl.
116
Maintenance Section
Fuel Tank Water and Sediment - Drain
SEBU8601-01
3. Do not use a tool in order to install the filter
assembly. Tighten the assembly by hand. Install
the filter bowl (2) and align with your temporary
Marks.
4. Tighten the drain valve (3). Turn the fuel supply
valve to the ON position.
5. The Primary filter element must be replaced at the
same time as the secondary filter element. Refer
to the Operation and Maintenance Manual , “Fuel
System Primary Filter (Water Separator) Element
- Replace”.
6. Prime the fuel system. Refer to the Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Fuel System - Prime” for
more information.
i02335436
Illustration 81
g02148527
Typical example
7. Rotate the filter element counterclockwise and
remove the filter element (5). Clean the filter bowl.
Install the Element
Fuel Tank Water and Sediment
- Drain
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained
during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting, and repair of the product. Be prepared
to collect the fluid with suitable containers before
opening any compartment or disassembling any component containing fluids.
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
mandates.
Fuel Tank
Fuel quality is critical to the performance and to the
service life of the engine. Water in the fuel can cause
excessive wear to the fuel system.
Water can be introduced into the fuel tank when the
fuel tank is being filled.
Illustration 82
g02148528
Typical example
1. Locate the thread in the filter element (7) onto the
threads (8). Spin on the element. Do not tighten.
2. Lubricate the O ring seal (6) with clean engine oil.
Do NOT fill the filter bowl (2) with fuel before the
filter assembly is installed.
Condensation occurs during the heating and cooling
of fuel. The condensation occurs as the fuel passes
through the fuel system and the fuel returns to the
fuel tank. This causes water to accumulate in fuel
tanks. Draining the fuel tank regularly and obtaining
fuel from reliable sources can help to eliminate water
in the fuel.
Drain the Water and the Sediment
Fuel tanks should contain some provision for draining
water and draining sediment from the bottom of the
fuel tanks.
SEBU8601-01
117
Maintenance Section
Hoses and Clamps - Inspect/Replace
Open the drain valve on the bottom of the fuel tank
in order to drain the water and the sediment. Close
the drain valve.
Check the fuel daily. Allow five minutes after the
fuel tank has been filled before draining water and
sediment from the fuel tank.
If you inspect the engine in operation, always use
the proper inspection procedure in order to avoid
a fluid penetration hazard. Refer to Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “General hazard Information”.
Inspect all hoses for leaks that are caused by the
following conditions:
Fill the fuel tank after operating the engine in
order to drive out moist air. This will help prevent
condensation. Do not fill the tank to the top. The
fuel expands as the fuel gets warm. The tank may
overflow.
• Cracking
Some fuel tanks use supply pipes that allow water
and sediment to settle below the end of the fuel
supply pipe. Some fuel tanks use supply lines that
take fuel directly from the bottom of the tank. If
the engine is equipped with this system, regular
maintenance of the fuel system filter is important.
Replace hoses that are cracked or soft. Tighten any
loose clamps.
Fuel Storage Tanks
• Outer covering that is chafed or cut
Drain the water and the sediment from the fuel
storage tank at the following intervals:
• Weekly
• Softness
• Loose clamps
Check for the following conditions:
• End fittings that are damaged or leaking
• Exposed wire that is used for reinforcement
• Outer covering that is ballooning locally
• Flexible part of the hose that is kinked or crushed
• Service intervals
• Armoring that is embedded in the outer covering
• Refill of the tank
This will help prevent water or sediment from being
pumped from the storage tank into the engine fuel
tank.
If a bulk storage tank has been refilled or moved
recently, allow adequate time for the sediment to
settle before filling the engine fuel tank. Internal
baffles in the bulk storage tank will also help trap
sediment. Filtering fuel that is pumped from the
storage tank helps to ensure the quality of the fuel.
When possible, water separators should be used.
i02349879
Hoses and Clamps Inspect/Replace
A constant torque hose clamp can be used in place
of any standard hose clamp. Ensure that the constant
torque hose clamp is the same size as the standard
clamp.
Due to extreme temperature changes, the hose will
harden. Hardening of the hoses will cause hose
clamps to loosen. This can result in leaks. A constant
torque hose clamp will help to prevent loose hose
clamps.
Each installation application can be different. The
differences depend on the following factors:
• Type of hose
• Type of fitting material
• Anticipated expansion and contraction of the hose
• Anticipated expansion and contraction of the
fittings
Contact with high pressure fuel may cause fluid
penetration and burn hazards. High pressure fuel spray may cause a fire hazard. Failure to follow these inspection, maintenance and service instructions may cause personal injury or death.
Replace the Hoses and the Clamps
Refer to the OEM information for further information
on removing and replacing fuel hoses (if equipped).
118
Maintenance Section
Radiator - Clean
The coolant system and the hoses for the coolant
system are not usually supplied by Perkins. The
following text describes a typical method of replacing
coolant hoses. Refer to the OEM information for
further information on the coolant system and the
hoses for the coolant system.
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pressure.
SEBU8601-01
i02335774
Radiator - Clean
The radiator is not usually supplied by Perkins. The
following text describes a typical cleaning procedure
for the radiator. Refer to the OEM information for
further information on cleaning the radiator.
Note: Adjust the frequency of cleaning according to
the effects of the operating environment.
Inspect the radiator for these items: Damaged fins,
corrosion, dirt, grease, insects, leaves, oil, and other
debris. Clean the radiator, if necessary.
1. Stop the engine. Allow the engine to cool.
2. Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in
order to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap.
Personal injury can result from air pressure.
Note: Drain the coolant into a suitable, clean
container. The coolant can be reused.
Personal injury can result without following proper procedure. When using pressure air, wear a protective face shield and protective clothing.
3. Drain the coolant from the cooling system to a
level that is below the hose that is being replaced.
Maximum air pressure at the nozzle must be less
than 205 kPa (30 psi) for cleaning purposes.
4. Remove the hose clamps.
5. Disconnect the old hose.
6. Replace the old hose with a new hose.
7. Install the hose clamps with a torque wrench.
Note: For the correct coolant, see this Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Fluid Recommendations”.
Pressurized air is the preferred method for removing
loose debris. Direct the air in the opposite direction
to the fan's air flow. Hold the nozzle approximately
6 mm (0.25 inch) away from the radiator fins. Slowly
move the air nozzle in a direction that is parallel with
the radiator tube assembly. This will remove debris
that is between the tubes.
8. Refill the cooling system. Refer to the OEM
information for further information on refilling the
cooling system.
Pressurized water may also be used for cleaning.
The maximum water pressure for cleaning purposes
must be less than 275 kPa (40 psi). Use pressurized
water in order to soften mud. Clean the core from
both sides.
9. Clean the cooling system filler cap. Inspect the
cooling system filler cap's seals. Replace the
cooling system filler cap if the seals are damaged.
Install the cooling system filler cap.
Use a degreaser and steam for removal of oil and
grease. Clean both sides of the core. Wash the core
with detergent and hot water. Thoroughly rinse the
core with clean water.
10. Start the engine. Inspect the cooling system for
leaks.
If the radiator is blocked internally, refer to the OEM
Manual for information regarding flushing the cooling
system.
After cleaning the radiator, start the engine. Allow
the engine to operate at low idle speed for three to
five minutes. Accelerate the engine to high idle. This
will help in the removal of debris and the drying of
the core. Slowly reduce the engine speed to low idle
and then stop the engine. Use a light bulb behind
the core in order to inspect the core for cleanliness.
Repeat the cleaning, if necessary.
SEBU8601-01
119
Maintenance Section
Radiator Pressure Cap - Clean/Replace
Inspect the fins for damage. Bent fins may be opened
with a “comb”. Inspect these items for good condition:
Welds, mounting brackets, air lines, connections,
clamps, and seals. Make repairs, if necessary.
i03639888
Radiator Pressure Cap Clean/Replace
• Maintenance intervals
• Oil selection and maintenance
• Coolant type and maintenance
• Environmental qualities
• Installation
• The temperature of the fluid in the engine
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pressure.
NOTICE
When any servicing or repair of the engine cooling
system is performed the procedure must be performed
with the engine on level ground. This will allow you to
accurately check the coolant level. This will also help
in avoiding the risk of introducing an air lock into the
coolant system.
1. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.
Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in
order to relieve any pressure. Remove the radiator
pressure cap.
2. Check coolant level. Refer to Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Cooling System Coolant
Level - Check”.
3. Install new radiator pressure cap.
Refer to the standards for the engine or consult your
Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor in order to
determine if the engine is operating within the defined
parameters.
Severe service operation can accelerate component
wear. Engines that operate under severe conditions
may need more frequent maintenance intervals in
order to ensure maximum reliability and retention of
full service life.
Due to individual applications, it is not possible
to identify all of the factors which can contribute
to severe service operation. Consult your Perkins
dealer or your Perkins distributor for the unique
maintenance that is necessary for the engine.
The operating environment, incorrect operating
procedures and incorrect maintenance procedures
can be factors which contribute to a severe service
application.
Environmental Factors
Ambient temperatures – The engine may be
exposed to extended operation in extremely
cold environments or hot environments. Valve
components can be damaged by carbon buildup if
the engine is frequently started and stopped in very
cold temperatures. Extremely hot intake air reduces
engine performance.
i02335775
Severe Service Application Check
Severe service is the application of an engine that
exceeds the current published standards for that
engine. Perkins maintains standards for the following
engine parameters:
• Performance such as power range, speed range,
and fuel consumption
• Fuel quality
• Operational Altitude
Quality of the air – The engine may be exposed
to extended operation in an environment that is
dirty or dusty, unless the equipment is cleaned
regularly. Mud, dirt and dust can encase components.
Maintenance can be very difficult. The buildup can
contain corrosive chemicals.
Buildup – Compounds, elements, corrosive
chemicals and salt can damage some components.
Altitude – Problems can arise when the engine is
operated at altitudes that are higher than the intended
settings for that application. Necessary adjustments
should be made.
120
Maintenance Section
Starting Motor - Inspect
SEBU8601-01
Incorrect Operating Procedures
i04103131
Turbocharger - Inspect
(High Pressure and Low
Pressure Turbochargers)
• Extended operation at low idle
• Frequent hot shutdowns
• Operating at excessive loads
• Operating at excessive speeds
• Operating outside the intended application
Incorrect Maintenance Procedures
• Extending the maintenance intervals
• Failure to use recommended fuel, lubricants and
coolant/antifreeze
i02177969
Starting Motor - Inspect
Perkins recommends a scheduled inspection of the
starting motor. If the starting motor fails, the engine
may not start in an emergency situation.
Check the starting motor for correct operation. Check
the electrical connections and clean the electrical
connections. Refer to the Systems Operation, Testing
and Adjusting Manual, “Electric Starting System Test” for more information on the checking procedure
and for specifications or consult your Perkins dealer
or your Perkins distributor for assistance.
Illustration 83
g02307134
Typical example
Hot engine components can cause injury from
burns. Before performing maintenance on the
engine, allow the engine and the components to
cool.
The engine is equipped with a high-pressure
turbocharger (1) and a low-pressure turbocharger (4).
A regular visual inspection of both turbochargers is
recommended. If the turbocharger fails during engine
operation, damage to the turbocharger compressor
wheel and/or to the engine may occur. Damage to the
turbocharger compressor wheel can cause additional
damage to the pistons, the valves, and the cylinder
head.
SEBU8601-01
NOTICE
Turbocharger bearing failures can cause large quantities of oil to enter the air intake and exhaust systems.
Loss of engine lubricant can result in serious engine
damage.
Minor leakage of oil into a turbocharger under extended low idle operation should not cause problems as
long as a turbocharger bearing failure has not occured.
When a turbocharger bearing failure is accompanied
by a significant engine performance loss (exhaust
smoke or engine rpm up at no load), do not continue
engine operation until the turbocharger is renewed.
A visual inspection of the turbochargers can minimize
unscheduled downtime. A visual inspection of
the turbochargers can also reduce the chance for
potential damage to other engine parts. Do not
inspect the engine with the engine in operation.
Removal and Installation
Refer to the Disassembly and Assembly Manual,
“Turbocharger - Remove and Turbocharger Install”
for further information.
Inspecting
NOTICE
The compressor housing for the turbocharger must
not be removed from the turbocharger for inspection
or removed for the cleaning of the compressor.
1. Ensure that the turbocharger is clean and free from
dirt before removing components for inspection.
2. Remove the pipe from the high-pressure
turbocharger exhaust outlet and remove the air
intake pipe to the turbocharger. Visually inspect
the piping for the presence of oil. Clean the interior
of the pipes in order to prevent dirt from entering
during reassembly.
3. Remove bolt (3).
4. Remove air duct (2) and check for the presence
of engine oil.
5. Check for any loose bolts or any missing bolts.
Check for damage to the oil supply line and the oil
drain line. Check for cracks in the housing of the
turbocharger. Ensure that the compressor wheel
can rotate freely.
121
Maintenance Section
Turbocharger - Inspect
6. Check for the presence of oil. If oil is leaking from
the back side of the compressor wheel, there is a
possibility of a failed turbocharger oil seal.
The presence of oil may be the result of extended
engine operation at low idle. The presence of oil
may also be the result of a restriction of the line
for the intake air (clogged air filters), which causes
the turbocharger to slobber.
7. If engine oil is found in the system, the cause can
be the engine operating condition.
a. Ensure that the air duct (2) is clean and free
from dirt. Install air duct (2). Install bolt (3).
Ensure that the air intake is not clogged.
b. Operate the engine for 15 minutes at a
moderate high load condition.
c. Allow the engine to cool. Remove air duct and
check for the presence of engine oil. If the
deposits of wet engine oil have been removed,
the air duct can be installed and the engine can
operate normally. For more information, refer
to Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting,
“Turbocharger - Inspect”.
8. Inspect the bore of the housing of the turbine
outlet for corrosion.
9. Fasten the air intake pipe and the exhaust outlet
pipe to the turbocharger housing. Ensure that all
clamps are installed correctly and that all clamps
are tightened securely.
122
Maintenance Section
Walk-Around Inspection
SEBU8601-01
i04156712
Walk-Around Inspection
Inspect the Tube of the Crankcase
Breather
NOTICE
For any type of leak (coolant, lube, or fuel) clean up the
fluid. If leaking is observed, find the source and correct
the leak. If leaking is suspected, check the fluid levels
more often than recommended until the leak is found
or fixed, or until the suspicion of a leak is proved to be
unwarranted.
NOTICE
Accumulated grease and/or oil on an engine is a fire
hazard. Remove the accumulated grease and oil. Refer to this Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Engine - Clean” for more information.
• Ensure that the cooling system hoses are correctly
clamped and that the cooling system hoses are
tight. Check for leaks. Check the condition of all
pipes.
• Inspect the water pump for coolant leaks.
Note: The water pump seal is lubricated by the
coolant in the cooling system. It is normal for a small
amount of leakage to occur as the engine cools down
and the parts contract.
Illustration 84
g02351425
Typical example
Inspect the breather tube (1) for damage. Ensure that
the outlet (2) is clean and free from any obstructions.
Ice can cause obstructions in adverse weather
conditions.
Inspect the Engine for Leaks and
for Loose Connections
A walk-around inspection should only take a few
minutes. When the time is taken to perform these
checks, costly repairs and accidents can be avoided.
For maximum engine service life, make a thorough
inspection of the engine compartment before starting
the engine. Look for items such as oil leaks or coolant
leaks, loose bolts, worn belts, loose connections, and
trash buildup. Make repairs, as needed:
• The guards must be in the correct place. Repair
damaged guards or replace missing guards.
• Wipe all caps and plugs before the engine is
serviced in order to reduce the chance of system
contamination.
Excessive coolant leakage may indicate the need to
replace the water pump. Remove the water pump.
Refer to Disassembly and Assembly , “Water Pump Remove and Install”. For more information, consult
your Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor.
• Inspect the lubrication system for leaks at the front
crankshaft seal, the rear crankshaft seal, the oil
pan, the oil filters, and the rocker cover.
• Inspect the piping for the air intake system and the
elbows for cracks and for loose clamps. Ensure
that hoses and tubes are not contacting other
hoses, tubes, wiring harnesses, etc.
• Ensure that the areas around the rotating parts are
clear.
• Inspect the alternator belts and any accessory
drive belts for cracks, breaks, or other damage.
• Inspect the wiring harness for damage.
Belts for multiple groove pulleys must be replaced as
matched sets. If only one belt is replaced, the belt will
carry more load than the belts that are not replaced.
The older belts are stretched. The additional load on
the new belt could cause the belt to break.
SEBU8601-01
123
Maintenance Section
Water Pump - Inspect
High Pressure Fuel Lines
i03570653
Water Pump - Inspect
Contact with high pressure fuel may cause fluid
penetration and burn hazards. High pressure fuel spray may cause a fire hazard. Failure to follow these inspection, maintenance and service instructions may cause personal injury or death.
After the engine has stopped, you must wait for
10 minutes in order to allow the fuel pressure to
be purged from the high-pressure fuel lines before
any service or repair is performed on the engine
fuel lines. If necessary, perform minor adjustments.
Repair any leaks from the low-pressure fuel system
and from the cooling, lubrication or air systems.
Replace any high-pressure fuel line that has leaked.
Refer to Disassembly and Assembly Manual, “Fuel
Injection Lines - Install”.
A failed water pump may cause severe engine
overheating problems that could result in the following
conditions:
• Cracks in the cylinder head
• A piston seizure
• Other potential damage to the engine
If you inspect the engine in operation, always use
the proper inspection procedure in order to avoid
a fluid penetration hazard. Refer to Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “General hazard Information”.
Visually inspect the high-pressure fuel lines for
damage or signs of fuel leakage. Replace any
damaged high-pressure fuel lines or high-pressure
fuel lines that have leaked.
Ensure that all clips on the high-pressure fuel lines
are in place and that the clips are not loose.
• Inspect the rest of the fuel system for leaks. Look
for loose fuel line clamps.
• Drain the water and the sediment from the fuel
tank on a daily basis in order to ensure that only
clean fuel enters the fuel system.
• Inspect the wiring and the wiring harnesses for
loose connections and for worn wires or frayed
wires. Check for any loose tie-wraps or missing
tie-wraps.
• Inspect the ground strap for a good connection and
for good condition.
• Disconnect any battery chargers that are not
protected against the current drain of the starting
motor. Check the condition and the electrolyte level
of the batteries, unless the engine is equipped with
a maintenance free battery.
• Check the condition of the gauges. Replace any
gauges that are cracked. Replace any gauge that
cannot be calibrated.
Illustration 85
g01904773
(A) Weep hole
(B) Vent hole
Note: The water pump seals are lubricated by the
coolant in the cooling system. It is normal for a small
amount of leakage to occur. Refer to illustration 85
for the position of the weep hole and the vent hole.
Visually inspect the water pump for leaks.
Note: If engine coolant enters the engine lubricating
system the lubricating oil and the engine oil filter must
be replaced. This will remove any contamination that
is caused by the coolant and this will prevent any
irregular oil samples.
124
Maintenance Section
Water Pump - Inspect
The water pump is not a serviceable item. In order to
install a new water pump, refer to the Disassembly
and Assembly Manual, “Water Pump - Remove and
Install”.
SEBU8601-01
SEBU8601-01
125
Warranty Section
Warranty Information
Warranty Section
Warranty Information
i03586564
Federal Emission Control
Warranty
Emissions Warranty
The 1206E-E70TTA diesel engine is a nonroad
compression ignition engine. Perkins Engine
Company limited warrants to the initial owner and to
the subsequent owner of the 1206E-E70TTA diesel
engine that such an engine is:
1. Designed, built and equipped so that the engine
conform, at the time of sale, with all applicable
regulations adopted by the United States
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
2. Free from defects in materials and workmanship
in specific emission related parts for the following
period:
• The warranty period is for 3000 hours or for 5
years, whichever occurs first, after the date of
delivery to the owner that operates the engine.
If an emission related part fails during any of the
warranty periods, the part will be repaired or replaced.
Any such part repaired or replaced under warranty is
warranted for the remainder of the warranty period.
During the term of this warranty, Perkins Engine
Company limited will provide through a Perkins
distributor or your Perkins dealer or other
establishment authorized by it, repair or replacement
of any warranted part at no charge to the engine
owner.
In an emergency, repairs may be performed at any
service establishment, or by the owner, using any
replacement part. It is recommended that emission
related parts be replaced with genuine Perkins
Engine Company limited parts.
Perkins Engine Company limited will reimburse
the owner for their expenses, including diagnostic
charges for such an emergency repair. These
expenses shall not exceed the Perkins Engine
Company limited suggested retail price for all
warranted parts replaced, and labor charges based
on Perkins Engine Company limited recommended
time allowance for the warranty repair and the
geographically appropriate hourly labor rate.
As a condition of reimbursement, replaced parts and
receipted invoices must be presented at a place of
business of a Perkins distributor or your Perkins
dealer or other establishment authorized by Perkins
Engine Company limited
This warranty covers the following emission related
parts and components:
• Turbocharger System
• Inlet Manifold
• Fuel Injection System
• Crankcase Ventilation System
• Electronic Engine Control System
• Engine Aftertreatment System
• NOx Reduction System
• Aftertreatment Regeneration Device
• Miscellaneous valves, switches, hoses, clamps,
connectors, tubing and sealing devices that are
used in the above systems
Limitations and Responsibilities
The warranty is subject to the following conditions:
Perkins Engine Company limited Responsibilities
During the emission warranty period, if a defect in
material or workmanship of an emission related part
or component is found, Perkins Engine Company
limited will provide the following:
• New, Remanufactured or repaired parts and/or
components, approved pursuant to EPA
Regulations, required to correct the defect.
• Reasonable and customary labor, during normal
working hours that is required to make the warranty
repair. This includes labor in order to remove an
engine and install the engine, if necessary.
126
Warranty Section
Warranty Information
SEBU8601-01
Note: Items that are replaced under this warranty
become the property of Perkins Engine Company
limited .
Owner Responsibilities
During the emission warranty period, the owner is
responsible for the following items:
• The costs in order to investigate complaints which
are not caused by a defect in Perkins Engine
Company limited material or Perkins Engine
Company limited workmanship.
• Providing timely notice of a warrantable failure and
promptly making the product available for repair
Limitations
Perkins Engine Company limited is not responsible
for resultant damages to an emission related part or
component resulting from the following items:
• Any application or any installation that Perkins
Engine Company limited deems improper.
• Attachments, accessory items or parts not sold nor
approved by Perkins Engine Company limited
• Improper engine maintenance, repair or abuse.
• Use of improper fuel, lubricants, or fluids.
• Owner's unreasonable delay in making the product
available after being notified of a potential product
problem.
This warranty is in addition to Perkins Engine
Company limited standard warranty, applicable to the
engine product involved.
Remedies under this warranty are limited to the
provision of material and services as specified herein.
Perkins Engine Company limited is not responsible
for incidental or consequential damages, including
but not limited to downtime or loss-of-use of engine.
i03586562
California Emission Control
Warranty Statement
Emissions Warranty
The 1206E-E70TTA is a nonroad compression
ignition engine.
The California Air Resources Board (CARB) and
Perkins Engines Company Limited are pleased to
explain the emission control system warranty on your
1206E-E70TTA diesel engine.
In California, new motor vehicle engines must be
designed, built and equipped in order to meet
the state's stringent anti-smog standards. Perkins
Engines Company Limited must warrant the emission
control system on your engine for the duration of time
listed below provided, there has not been any abuse,
neglect or improper maintenance of your engine or
your engine aftertreatment system.
Perkins Engines Company Limited warrants to the
initial owner and to the subsequent owner of the
1206E-E70TTA diesel engine that such an engine is:
1. Designed, built and equipped so that the engine
conform, at the time of sale, with all applicable
regulations adopted by the California Air
Resources Board (CARB).
2. Free from defects in materials and workmanship
in specific emission related parts for the following
period:
• The warranty period is for 3000 hours or for 5
years, whichever occurs first, after the date of
delivery to the owner that operates the engine.
If an emission related part fails during any of
the warranty periods, the part will be repaired
or replaced. Any such part repaired or replaced
under warranty is warranted for the remainder of
the warranty period.
During the term of this warranty, Perkins
Engines Company Limited will provide through
a Perkins distributor or your Perkins dealer or
other establishment authorized by it, repair or
replacement of any warranted part at no charge to
the engine owner.
In an emergency, repairs may be performed at
any service establishment, or by the owner, using
any replacement part. It is recommended that
emission related parts be replaced with genuine
Perkins Engines Company Limited parts.
Perkins Engines Company Limited will reimburse
the owner for their expenses, including diagnostic
charges for such an emergency repair. These
expenses shall not exceed the Perkins Engines
Company Limited suggested retail price for all
warranted parts replaced, and labor charges
based on Perkins Engines Company Limited
recommended time allowance for the warranty
repair and the geographically appropriate hourly
labor rate.
SEBU8601-01
As a condition of reimbursement, replaced parts
and receipted invoices must be presented at a
place of business of a Perkins distributor or your
Perkins dealer or other establishment authorized
by Perkins Engines Company Limited .
This warranty covers the following emission
related parts and components:
• Turbocharger System
• Inlet Manifold
• Fuel Injection System
• Crankcase Ventilation System
• Electronic Engine Control System
• Engine Aftertreatment System
• NOx Reduction System
• Aftertreatment Regeneration Device
• Miscellaneous valves, switches, hoses, clamps,
connectors, tubing and sealing devices that are
used in the above systems
Limitations and Responsibilities
The warranty is subject to the following conditions:
Perkins Engines Company Limited
Responsibilities
During the emission warranty period, if a defect in
material or workmanship of an emission related part
or component is found, Perkins Engines Company
Limited will provide the following:
• New, Remanufactured or repaired parts and/or
components, approved pursuant to (CARB)
Regulations, required to correct the defect.
• Reasonable and customary labor, during normal
working hours that is required to make the warranty
repair. This includes labor in order to remove an
engine and install the engine, if necessary.
Note: Items that are replaced under this warranty
become the property of Perkins Engines Company
Limited .
Owner Responsibilities
During the emission warranty period, the owner is
responsible for the following items:
127
Warranty Section
Warranty Information
• The costs in order to investigate complaints which
are not caused by a defect in Perkins Engines
Company Limited material or Perkins Engines
Company Limited workmanship.
• Providing timely notice of a warrantable failure and
promptly making the product available for repair
Limitations
Perkins Engines Company Limited is not responsible
for resultant damages to an emission related part or
component resulting from the following items:
• Any application or any installation that Perkins
Engines Company Limited deems improper.
• Attachments, accessory items or parts not sold nor
approved by Perkins Engines Company Limited
• Improper engine maintenance, repair or abuse.
• Use of improper fuel, lubricants, or fluids.
• Owner's unreasonable delay in making the product
available after being notified of a potential product
problem.
This warranty is in addition to Perkins Engines
Company Limited standard warranty, applicable to
the engine product involved.
Remedies under this warranty are limited to the
provision of material and services as specified herein.
Perkins Engines Company Limited is not responsible
for incidental or consequential damages, including
but not limited to downtime or loss-of-use of engine.
i04141345
Emissions Warranty
Information
• EPA ______________________________________ United States
Environmental Protection Agency
• CARB _____________ California Air Resources Board
Note: The warranty of the engine applies to engines
that are operated within the areas of the world
where the following regulations apply: US EPA Tier 4
Interim, EU Stage IIIB or Japanese MLIT Step 4. If
an engine is operated in regions of the world where
these regulations do not apply the warranty will be
void. Contact your Perkins dealer or your Perkins
distributor for more information.
128
Warranty Section
Warranty Information
Maintenance Recommendations
Perkins Engines Company Limited engines are
certified by the EPA and the CARB in order to comply
with exhaust emission standards and gaseous
emission standards that are prescribed by the law at
the time of manufacture.
Efficiency of the emission control and the engine
performance depends on adherence to proper
operation and maintenance recommendations and
use of recommended fuels and lubricating oils.
According to recommendations, major adjustments
and repairs should be made by your authorized
Perkins distributor or your authorized Perkins dealer.
Various chemical fuel additives which claim to reduce
visible smoke are available commercially. Although
additives have been used to solve some isolated
smoke problems in the field, additives are not
recommended for general use. The engines should
be certified without smoke depressants according to
federal smoke regulations.
Take corrective steps immediately after worn parts
which may affect the emissions level are discovered
in order to ensure the proper operation of the
emission control systems. The use of genuine
Perkins components is recommended. If the owner
uses non-Perkins components, then the non-Perkins
components must not adversely affect the emissions
level of the engine.
For information on the use of Aftermarket Products
and Perkins Engines, refer to this Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Engine Description”.
Regular maintenance intervals with a special
emphasis on the following items are necessary in
order to keep exhaust emissions within acceptable
limits for the useful life of the engine. Refer to the
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Severe Service
Application - Check” topic (Maintenance Section).
If the engine is operating under severe conditions,
adjust the maintenance schedule accordingly.
See your authorized Perkins distributor/dealer in
order to help analyze your specific application,
operating environment, and maintenance schedule
adjustments.
The following information is an explanation of
maintenance items for emission-related components.
See the Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Maintenance Interval Schedule” (Maintenance
Section) for the specific interval for the following
items.
SEBU8601-01
ENGINE AFTERTREATMENT SYSTEM – The
Engine Aftertreatment Systems are sensitive to the
type of fuel and lubricants that is used. Also, the
engine aftertreatment systems are sensitive to the
operating schedule. Low quality fuel, lubricants, or
fluids may cause increases in exhaust back pressure
or clogging resulting in loss of power. An authorized
Perkins distributor/dealer can determine if the engine
aftertreatment systems require a service.
NOx Reduction System (NRS) – The NRS is
monitored. An authorized Perkins distributor/dealer
can determine if the NRS needs service.
FUEL INJECTORS – Fuel injector tips are subject to
wear as a result of fuel contamination. This damage
can cause the following conditions: an increase in
fuel consumption, black smoke, misfire, and rough
running engine. The fuel injector should be inspected,
tested, and replaced, if necessary. Fuel injectors can
be tested by an authorized Perkins distributor/dealer .
TURBOCHARGER – Refer to this Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Turbocharger - Inspect” for
information on inspection of the turbocharger.
ELECTRONIC ENGINE CONTROL (ECM) – The
ECM is the control computer of the engine. The ECM
provides power to the electronics. The ECM monitors
data that is input from the sensors of the engine.
The ECM acts as a governor in order to control the
speed and the power of the engine. The ECM adjusts
injection timing and fuel pressure for the best engine
performance, the best fuel economy, and the best
control of exhaust emissions.
Erratic behavior of the engine may indicate a need
for repair to the ECM. Your Perkins distributor/dealer
is equipped with the necessary tools, personnel, and
procedures in order to perform this service.
The owner is encouraged to keep adequate
maintenance records. However, the absence of such
records will not invalidate the warranty. Refer to the
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Maintenance
Log” (Reference Materials Section).
The owner may perform routine maintenance,
repairs, and other work that is outside of the warranty.
The work may be done at any repair facility. Such
work does not need to be performed at a designated
station that is determined by the warranty in order for
the warranty to remain in force.
SEBU8601-01
129
Reference Information Section
Reference Materials
Reference Information
Section
To purchase an Extended Service Contract, is quick
and simple! Contact your local Perkins Distributor
now and the distributor can provide you with a quote
in minutes. You can locate your nearest Perkins
Distributor by visiting:
Reference Materials
www.perkins.com
i04020001
Engine Protection Plans
(Extended Service Contract)
Extended Service Contracts-purchased in minutes,
protected for years.
Extended Service Contracts (ESC) protect you from
the stress that unexpected repair work brings to your
life bt covering the cost of getting your engine up
and running again. Unlike other extended warranties,
Perkins Platinum ESC protects you against all
component part failures.
Purchase peace of mine from only £0.03 / $0.05 /
euro 0.04 a day and let an ESC make your dreams
a reality.
Why buy an Extended Service Contract?
1. No surprises - total protection from unexpected
repair cost (parts, labor, and travel).
2. Enjoy longer lasting product support from Perkins
global network.
3. Genuine Perkins parts ensure continued engine
performance.
4. Highly trained technicians carry out all repairs.
5. Transferable coverage should you sell your
machine.
Flexible coverage provides the right level of protection
for your Perkins Engine. Coverage can be extended
to 2 years/ 1,000 hours right up to 10 year/ 40,000
You can buy an ESC at any time during standard
warranty - even the last day!
Each Perkins Distributor has highly trained and
experienced Perkins Product Support Service
Technicians. The Support Service are equipped, and
available around the clock to get your engine running
again with the minimum of downtime. Buying an ESC
means that you get all this for free.
NOTICE
Dependant upon engine type and application.
130
Index Section
SEBU8601-01
Index
A
After Starting Engine .............................................
After Stopping Engine............................................
Aftercooler Core - Clean/Test (Air-To-Air
Aftercooler) ..........................................................
Aftercooler Core - Inspect......................................
Alternator - Inspect ................................................
Alternator and Fan Belts - Replace .......................
ARD Spark Plug - Clean/Inspect/Replace .............
60
66
89
89
90
90
89
B
Battery - Replace................................................... 90
Battery Electrolyte Level - Check .......................... 91
Battery or Battery Cable - Disconnect ................... 91
Before Starting Engine .................................... 15, 58
Belt - Inspect.......................................................... 92
Belt Tensioner - Inspect ......................................... 92
Burn Prevention..................................................... 10
Batteries.............................................................. 11
Coolant................................................................ 11
Induction System ................................................ 11
Oils...................................................................... 11
C
California Emission Control Warranty
Statement .......................................................... 126
Emissions Warranty ......................................... 126
Cold Weather Operation........................................ 68
Hints for Cold Weather Operation...................... 68
Idling the Engine ................................................ 69
Recommendations for Coolant Warm Up .......... 69
Recommendations for the Coolant .................... 68
Viscosity of the Engine Lubrication Oil............... 68
Cold Weather Starting ........................................... 58
Configuration Parameters...................................... 53
Customer Specified Parameters ........................ 54
System Configuration Parameters ..................... 53
Cooling System Coolant (Commercial Heavy-Duty) Change ................................................................ 93
Drain .................................................................. 93
Fill ...................................................................... 94
Flush .................................................................. 94
Cooling System Coolant (ELC) - Change.............. 95
Drain .................................................................. 95
Fill ...................................................................... 96
Flush .................................................................. 96
Cooling System Coolant Level - Check ................. 97
Engines With a Coolant Recovery Tank............. 97
Engines Without a Coolant Recovery Tank........ 97
Cooling System Supplemental Coolant Additive
(SCA) - Test/Add.................................................. 98
Add the SCA, If Necessary ................................ 98
Test for SCA Concentration ............................... 98
Cooling System Water Temperature Regulator Replace................................................................
Crankshaft Vibration Damper - Inspect .................
Viscous Damper.................................................
Crushing Prevention and Cutting Prevention ........
99
99
99
13
D
Diagnostic Flash Code Retrieval ........................... 46
Diagnostic Lamp.................................................... 46
Diesel Particulate Filter - Clean ........................... 100
Diesel Particulate Filter Regeneration ................... 61
Lamps ................................................................ 62
Modes of Regeneration...................................... 62
Regeneration ..................................................... 61
Regeneration Switch.......................................... 63
Soot Level Monitoring and Indicator Lamps....... 63
Driven Equipment - Check................................... 100
E
Electrical System ................................................... 16
Grounding Practices .......................................... 16
Emergency Stopping ............................................. 66
Emissions Certification Film .................................. 29
Label for compliant engines ............................... 29
Emissions Warranty Information.......................... 127
Maintenance Recommendations ..................... 128
Engine - Clean..................................................... 101
Aftertreatment .................................................. 101
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Dual Element) Clean/Replace ................................................... 101
Cleaning the Primary Air Cleaner Elements .... 102
Servicing the Air Cleaner Elements ................. 101
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Single Element) Inspect/Replace ................................................. 103
Engine Air Cleaner Service Indicator - Inspect.... 104
Test the Service Indicator................................. 104
Engine Air Precleaner - Check/Clean.................. 104
Engine Crankcase Breather Element - Replace.. 105
Bottom Service................................................. 106
Check the System............................................ 107
Top Service ...................................................... 105
Engine Description ................................................ 25
Aftermarket Products and Perkins Engines ....... 26
Electronic Engine Features................................ 25
Engine Cooling and Lubrication ......................... 26
Engine Diagnostics ............................................ 26
Engine Service Life ............................................ 26
Engine Specifications......................................... 25
Engine Diagnostics................................................ 46
Engine Electronics................................................. 17
Engine Mounts - Inspect...................................... 107
SEBU8601-01
Engine Oil and Filter - Change ............................ 109
Drain the Engine Lubricating Oil ...................... 109
Fill the Oil Pan................................................... 110
Replace the Oil Filter ....................................... 109
Engine Oil Level - Check ..................................... 108
Engine Oil Sample - Obtain ................................. 108
Obtain the Sample and the Analysis................ 108
Engine Operation................................................... 61
Engine Operation and Active Regeneration....... 61
Reduction of Particulate Emissions ................... 61
Engine Operation with Active Diagnostic Codes ... 52
Engine Operation with Intermittent Diagnostic
Codes .................................................................. 53
Engine Protection Plans (Extended Service
Contract) ............................................................ 129
Engine Shutoffs and Engine Alarms...................... 44
Alarms................................................................ 44
Shutoffs.............................................................. 44
Testing................................................................ 45
Engine Starting ................................................ 15, 58
Engine Stopping .............................................. 15, 66
F
Fan Clearance - Check......................................... 110
Fault Logging......................................................... 52
Features and Controls ........................................... 36
Federal Emission Control Warranty..................... 125
Emissions Warranty ......................................... 125
Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention ............. 11
Fire Extinguisher ................................................ 13
Lines, Tubes and Hoses .................................... 13
Fluid Recommendations............................ 72, 77, 79
Diesel Fuel Characteristics ................................ 82
Diesel Fuel Requirements.................................. 79
ELC Cooling System Maintenance .................... 74
Engine Oil .......................................................... 77
General Coolant Information.............................. 72
General Information ........................................... 79
General Lubricant Information ........................... 77
Foreword ................................................................. 4
California Proposition 65 Warning ....................... 4
Literature Information........................................... 4
Maintenance ........................................................ 4
Maintenance Intervals.......................................... 4
Operation ............................................................. 4
Overhaul .............................................................. 4
Safety................................................................... 4
Fuel and the Effect from Cold Weather ................. 70
Fuel Conservation Practices.................................. 65
Fuel Related Components in Cold Weather .......... 71
Fuel Filters ......................................................... 71
Fuel Heaters ...................................................... 71
Fuel Tanks.......................................................... 71
Fuel System - Prime ............................................. 111
Fuel System Primary Filter (Water Separator)
Element - Replace .............................................. 112
In-line Strainer................................................... 114
Install the Element ............................................ 114
Remove the Element ........................................ 112
131
Index Section
Fuel System Primary Filter/Water Separator Drain ................................................................... 114
Fuel System Secondary Filter - Replace .............. 115
Install the Element ............................................ 116
Remove the Element ........................................ 115
Fuel Tank Water and Sediment - Drain ................ 116
Drain the Water and the Sediment.................... 116
Fuel Storage Tanks ........................................... 117
Fuel Tank .......................................................... 116
G
Gauges and Indicators .......................................... 34
Aftertreatment Lamps ........................................ 35
Indicator Lamps ................................................. 35
General Hazard Information .................................... 7
Asbestos Information ........................................... 9
Containing Fluid Spillage ..................................... 9
Dispose of Waste Properly ................................ 10
Fluid Penetration.................................................. 9
Pressurized Air and Water ................................... 9
H
High Pressure Fuel Lines ...................................... 13
Hoses and Clamps - Inspect/Replace .................. 117
Replace the Hoses and the Clamps ................. 117
I
Important Safety Information ................................... 2
L
Lifting and Storage ................................................ 30
M
Maintenance Interval Schedule .............................
Maintenance Recommendations ...........................
Maintenance Section .............................................
Model View Illustrations.........................................
Engine Aftertreatment System ...........................
Engine views......................................................
Model Views ..........................................................
Monitoring System (Engine) ..................................
Instrument panels and Displays.........................
Programmable Options and Systems
Operation .........................................................
Mounting and Dismounting....................................
88
86
72
19
22
20
19
36
37
37
13
O
Operation Section.................................................. 30
Overspeed ............................................................. 45
132
Index Section
SEBU8601-01
P
Plate Locations and Film Locations.......................
Serial Number Plate (1) .....................................
Plate Locations and Film Locations (Engine
Aftertreatment System)........................................
Product Identification Information ..........................
Product Information Section ..................................
Product Lifting........................................................
Product Lifting (Clean Emission Module) ..............
Product Lifting (Engine) .........................................
Product Storage (Engine and Aftertreatment) .......
Condition for Storage .........................................
27
27
28
27
19
32
30
30
33
33
R
Radiator - Clean ................................................... 118
Radiator Pressure Cap - Clean/Replace .............. 119
Reference Information Section ............................ 129
Reference Materials ............................................ 129
Reference Numbers .............................................. 28
Record for Reference......................................... 28
Refill Capacities..................................................... 72
Cooling System.................................................. 72
Lubrication System ............................................ 72
S
Safety Messages ..................................................... 5
(1) Universal Warning .......................................... 5
(2) Ether ............................................................... 6
(3) Hand (High Pressure)..................................... 7
Safety Section ......................................................... 5
Self-Diagnostics..................................................... 46
Sensors and Electrical Components ..................... 38
Programmable Monitoring System (PMS) ......... 41
Sensor Locations ............................................... 38
Sensors and Electrical Components
(Aftertreatment).................................................... 42
Severe Service Application - Check ..................... 119
Environmental Factors ...................................... 119
Incorrect Maintenance Procedures .................. 120
Incorrect Operating Procedures....................... 120
Starting Motor - Inspect ....................................... 120
Starting the Engine ................................................ 58
Starting the Engine ............................................ 58
Starting with Jump Start Cables ............................ 59
Stopping the Engine .............................................. 66
System Pressure Release ..................................... 86
Coolant System.................................................. 86
Engine Oil .......................................................... 86
Fuel System ....................................................... 86
T
Table of Contents..................................................... 3
Turbocharger - Inspect (High Pressure and Low
Pressure Turbochargers) ................................... 120
Inspecting......................................................... 121
Removal and Installation.................................. 121
W
Walk-Around Inspection ...................................... 122
High Pressure Fuel Lines................................. 123
Inspect the Engine for Leaks and for Loose
Connections ................................................... 122
Inspect the Tube of the Crankcase Breather ... 122
Warranty Information ........................................... 125
Warranty Section ................................................. 125
Water Pump - Inspect .......................................... 123
Welding on Engines with Electronic Controls ........ 86
Product and Dealer Information
Note: For product identification plate locations, see the section “Product Identification Information” in the Operation
and Maintenance Manual.
Delivery Date:
Product Information
Model:
Product Identification Number:
Engine Serial Number:
Transmission Serial Number:
Generator Serial Number:
Attachment Serial Numbers:
Attachment Information:
Customer Equipment Number:
Dealer Equipment Number:
Dealer Information
Name:
Branch:
Address:
Dealer Contact
Sales:
Parts:
Service:
Phone Number
Hours
©2010 Perkins Engines Company Limited
All Rights Reserved
Printed in U.K.
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