R&S®FSV Operating Manual
R&S® FSV
Signal and Spectrum Analyzer
Operating Manual
(=7ëO<)
Operating Manual
Test & Measurement
1307.9331.12 ─ 18
This manual describes the following R&S®FSV models with firmware version 2.0 and higher:
● R&S®FSV 3 (1307.9002K03)
●
R&S®FSV 7 (1307.9002K07)
●
R&S®FSV 13 (1307.9002K13)
●
R&S®FSV 30 (1307.9002K30)
●
R&S®FSV 40 (1307.9002K39)
●
R&S®FSV 40 (1307.9002K40)
In addition to the base unit, the following options are described:
● R&S FSV-B9/10 (1310.9545.02/1310.9551.02)
●
R&S FSV-B17 (1310.9568.02)
●
R&S FSV-B21 (1310.9597.02)
●
R&S FSV-B22 (1310.9600.02)
●
R&S FSV-B24 (1310.9616.13)
●
R&S FSV-K9 (1310.8203.02)
●
R&S FSV-K14 (1310.8255.02)
The firmware of the instrument makes use of several valuable open source software packages. For information, see the "Open Source
Acknowledgement" on the user documentation CD-ROM (included in delivery).
Rohde & Schwarz would like to thank the open source community for their valuable contribution to embedded computing.
© 2013 Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG
Mühldorfstr. 15, 81671 München, Germany
Phone: +49 89 41 29 - 0
Fax: +49 89 41 29 12 164
E-mail: [email protected]
Internet: www.rohde-schwarz.com
Printed in Germany – Subject to change – Data without tolerance limits is not binding.
R&S® is a registered trademark of Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG.
Trade names are trademarks of the owners.
The following abbreviations are used throughout this manual: R&S®FSV is abbreviated as R&S FSV. R&S®EX-I/Q-Box is abbreviated
as R&S EX-I/Q-Box.
Basic Safety Instructions
Always read through and comply with the following safety instructions!
All plants and locations of the Rohde & Schwarz group of companies make every effort to keep the safety
standards of our products up to date and to offer our customers the highest possible degree of safety. Our
products and the auxiliary equipment they require are designed, built and tested in accordance with the
safety standards that apply in each case. Compliance with these standards is continuously monitored by
our quality assurance system. The product described here has been designed, built and tested in
accordance with the EC Certificate of Conformity and has left the manufacturer’s plant in a condition fully
complying with safety standards. To maintain this condition and to ensure safe operation, you must
observe all instructions and warnings provided in this manual. If you have any questions regarding these
safety instructions, the Rohde & Schwarz group of companies will be happy to answer them.
Furthermore, it is your responsibility to use the product in an appropriate manner. This product is designed
for use solely in industrial and laboratory environments or, if expressly permitted, also in the field and must
not be used in any way that may cause personal injury or property damage. You are responsible if the
product is used for any purpose other than its designated purpose or in disregard of the manufacturer's
instructions. The manufacturer shall assume no responsibility for such use of the product.
The product is used for its designated purpose if it is used in accordance with its product documentation
and within its performance limits (see data sheet, documentation, the following safety instructions). Using
the product requires technical skills and, in some cases, a basic knowledge of English. It is therefore
essential that only skilled and specialized staff or thoroughly trained personnel with the required skills be
allowed to use the product. If personal safety gear is required for using Rohde & Schwarz products, this
will be indicated at the appropriate place in the product documentation. Keep the basic safety instructions
and the product documentation in a safe place and pass them on to the subsequent users.
Observing the safety instructions will help prevent personal injury or damage of any kind caused by
dangerous situations. Therefore, carefully read through and adhere to the following safety instructions
before and when using the product. It is also absolutely essential to observe the additional safety
instructions on personal safety, for example, that appear in relevant parts of the product documentation. In
these safety instructions, the word "product" refers to all merchandise sold and distributed by the Rohde &
Schwarz group of companies, including instruments, systems and all accessories. For product-specific
information, see the data sheet and the product documentation.
Safety labels on products
The following safety labels are used on products to warn against risks and dangers.
Symbol
Meaning
Notice, general danger location
Symbol
Meaning
ON/OFF supply voltage
Observe product documentation
Caution when handling heavy equipment
Standby indication
Danger of electric shock
Direct current (DC)
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Basic Safety Instructions
Symbol
Meaning
Symbol
Meaning
Warning! Hot surface
Alternating current (AC)
Protective conductor terminal
Direct/alternating current (DC/AC)
Ground
Device fully protected by double (reinforced)
insulation
Ground terminal
EU labeling for batteries and accumulators
For additional information, see section "Waste
disposal/Environmental protection", item 1.
Be careful when handling electrostatic sensitive
devices
EU labeling for separate collection of electrical
and electronic devices
For additonal information, see section "Waste
disposal/Environmental protection", item 2.
Warning! Laser radiation
For additional information, see section
"Operation", item 7.
Signal words and their meaning
The following signal words are used in the product documentation in order to warn the reader about risks
and dangers.
Indicates a hazardous situation which, if not avoided, will result in death or
serious injury.
Indicates a hazardous situation which, if not avoided, could result in death or
serious injury.
Indicates a hazardous situation which, if not avoided, could result in minor or
moderate injury.
Indicates information considered important, but not hazard-related, e.g.
messages relating to property damage.
In the product documentation, the word ATTENTION is used synonymously.
These signal words are in accordance with the standard definition for civil applications in the European
Economic Area. Definitions that deviate from the standard definition may also exist in other economic
areas or military applications. It is therefore essential to make sure that the signal words described here
are always used only in connection with the related product documentation and the related product. The
use of signal words in connection with unrelated products or documentation can result in misinterpretation
and in personal injury or material damage.
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Basic Safety Instructions
Operating states and operating positions
The product may be operated only under the operating conditions and in the positions specified by the
manufacturer, without the product's ventilation being obstructed. If the manufacturer's specifications are
not observed, this can result in electric shock, fire and/or serious personal injury or death. Applicable local
or national safety regulations and rules for the prevention of accidents must be observed in all work
performed.
1. Unless otherwise specified, the following requirements apply to Rohde & Schwarz products:
predefined operating position is always with the housing floor facing down, IP protection 2X, use only
indoors, max. operating altitude 2000 m above sea level, max. transport altitude 4500 m above sea
level. A tolerance of ±10 % shall apply to the nominal voltage and ±5 % to the nominal frequency,
overvoltage category 2, pollution severity 2.
2. Do not place the product on surfaces, vehicles, cabinets or tables that for reasons of weight or stability
are unsuitable for this purpose. Always follow the manufacturer's installation instructions when
installing the product and fastening it to objects or structures (e.g. walls and shelves). An installation
that is not carried out as described in the product documentation could result in personal injury or
even death.
3. Do not place the product on heat-generating devices such as radiators or fan heaters. The ambient
temperature must not exceed the maximum temperature specified in the product documentation or in
the data sheet. Product overheating can cause electric shock, fire and/or serious personal injury or
even death.
Electrical safety
If the information on electrical safety is not observed either at all or to the extent necessary, electric shock,
fire and/or serious personal injury or death may occur.
1. Prior to switching on the product, always ensure that the nominal voltage setting on the product
matches the nominal voltage of the AC supply network. If a different voltage is to be set, the power
fuse of the product may have to be changed accordingly.
2. In the case of products of safety class I with movable power cord and connector, operation is
permitted only on sockets with a protective conductor contact and protective conductor.
3. Intentionally breaking the protective conductor either in the feed line or in the product itself is not
permitted. Doing so can result in the danger of an electric shock from the product. If extension cords
or connector strips are implemented, they must be checked on a regular basis to ensure that they are
safe to use.
4. If there is no power switch for disconnecting the product from the AC supply network, or if the power
switch is not suitable for this purpose, use the plug of the connecting cable to disconnect the product
from the AC supply network. In such cases, always ensure that the power plug is easily reachable and
accessible at all times. For example, if the power plug is the disconnecting device, the length of the
connecting cable must not exceed 3 m. Functional or electronic switches are not suitable for providing
disconnection from the AC supply network. If products without power switches are integrated into
racks or systems, the disconnecting device must be provided at the system level.
5. Never use the product if the power cable is damaged. Check the power cables on a regular basis to
ensure that they are in proper operating condition. By taking appropriate safety measures and
carefully laying the power cable, ensure that the cable cannot be damaged and that no one can be
hurt by, for example, tripping over the cable or suffering an electric shock.
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Basic Safety Instructions
6. The product may be operated only from TN/TT supply networks fuse-protected with max. 16 A (higher
fuse only after consulting with the Rohde & Schwarz group of companies).
7. Do not insert the plug into sockets that are dusty or dirty. Insert the plug firmly and all the way into the
socket provided for this purpose. Otherwise, sparks that result in fire and/or injuries may occur.
8. Do not overload any sockets, extension cords or connector strips; doing so can cause fire or electric
shocks.
9. For measurements in circuits with voltages Vrms > 30 V, suitable measures (e.g. appropriate
measuring equipment, fuse protection, current limiting, electrical separation, insulation) should be
taken to avoid any hazards.
10. Ensure that the connections with information technology equipment, e.g. PCs or other industrial
computers, comply with the IEC60950-1/EN60950-1 or IEC61010-1/EN 61010-1 standards that apply
in each case.
11. Unless expressly permitted, never remove the cover or any part of the housing while the product is in
operation. Doing so will expose circuits and components and can lead to injuries, fire or damage to the
product.
12. If a product is to be permanently installed, the connection between the protective conductor terminal
on site and the product's protective conductor must be made first before any other connection is
made. The product may be installed and connected only by a licensed electrician.
13. For permanently installed equipment without built-in fuses, circuit breakers or similar protective
devices, the supply circuit must be fuse-protected in such a way that anyone who has access to the
product, as well as the product itself, is adequately protected from injury or damage.
14. Use suitable overvoltage protection to ensure that no overvoltage (such as that caused by a bolt of
lightning) can reach the product. Otherwise, the person operating the product will be exposed to the
danger of an electric shock.
15. Any object that is not designed to be placed in the openings of the housing must not be used for this
purpose. Doing so can cause short circuits inside the product and/or electric shocks, fire or injuries.
16. Unless specified otherwise, products are not liquid-proof (see also section "Operating states and
operating positions", item 1). Therefore, the equipment must be protected against penetration by
liquids. If the necessary precautions are not taken, the user may suffer electric shock or the product
itself may be damaged, which can also lead to personal injury.
17. Never use the product under conditions in which condensation has formed or can form in or on the
product, e.g. if the product has been moved from a cold to a warm environment. Penetration by water
increases the risk of electric shock.
18. Prior to cleaning the product, disconnect it completely from the power supply (e.g. AC supply network
or battery). Use a soft, non-linting cloth to clean the product. Never use chemical cleaning agents such
as alcohol, acetone or diluents for cellulose lacquers.
Operation
1. Operating the products requires special training and intense concentration. Make sure that persons
who use the products are physically, mentally and emotionally fit enough to do so; otherwise, injuries
or material damage may occur. It is the responsibility of the employer/operator to select suitable
personnel for operating the products.
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Basic Safety Instructions
2. Before you move or transport the product, read and observe the section titled "Transport".
3. As with all industrially manufactured goods, the use of substances that induce an allergic reaction
(allergens) such as nickel cannot be generally excluded. If you develop an allergic reaction (such as a
skin rash, frequent sneezing, red eyes or respiratory difficulties) when using a Rohde & Schwarz
product, consult a physician immediately to determine the cause and to prevent health problems or
stress.
4. Before you start processing the product mechanically and/or thermally, or before you take it apart, be
sure to read and pay special attention to the section titled "Waste disposal/Environmental protection",
item 1.
5. Depending on the function, certain products such as RF radio equipment can produce an elevated
level of electromagnetic radiation. Considering that unborn babies require increased protection,
pregnant women must be protected by appropriate measures. Persons with pacemakers may also be
exposed to risks from electromagnetic radiation. The employer/operator must evaluate workplaces
where there is a special risk of exposure to radiation and, if necessary, take measures to avert the
potential danger.
6. Should a fire occur, the product may release hazardous substances (gases, fluids, etc.) that can
cause health problems. Therefore, suitable measures must be taken, e.g. protective masks and
protective clothing must be worn.
7. Laser products are given warning labels that are standardized according to their laser class. Lasers
can cause biological harm due to the properties of their radiation and due to their extremely
concentrated electromagnetic power. If a laser product (e.g. a CD/DVD drive) is integrated into a
Rohde & Schwarz product, absolutely no other settings or functions may be used as described in the
product documentation. The objective is to prevent personal injury (e.g. due to laser beams).
8. EMC classes (in line with EN 55011/CISPR 11, and analogously with EN 55022/CISPR 22,
EN 55032/CISPR 32)
Class A equipment:
Equipment suitable for use in all environments except residential environments and environments
that are directly connected to a low-voltage supply network that supplies residential buildings
Note: Class A equipment is intended for use in an industrial environment. This equipment may
cause radio disturbances in residential environments, due to possible conducted as well as
radiated disturbances. In this case, the operator may be required to take appropriate measures to
eliminate these disturbances.
Class B equipment:
Equipment suitable for use in residential environments and environments that are directly
connected to a low-voltage supply network that supplies residential buildings
Repair and service
1. The product may be opened only by authorized, specially trained personnel. Before any work is
performed on the product or before the product is opened, it must be disconnected from the AC supply
network. Otherwise, personnel will be exposed to the risk of an electric shock.
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Basic Safety Instructions
2. Adjustments, replacement of parts, maintenance and repair may be performed only by electrical
experts authorized by Rohde & Schwarz. Only original parts may be used for replacing parts relevant
to safety (e.g. power switches, power transformers, fuses). A safety test must always be performed
after parts relevant to safety have been replaced (visual inspection, protective conductor test,
insulation resistance measurement, leakage current measurement, functional test). This helps ensure
the continued safety of the product.
Batteries and rechargeable batteries/cells
If the information regarding batteries and rechargeable batteries/cells is not observed either at all or to the
extent necessary, product users may be exposed to the risk of explosions, fire and/or serious personal
injury, and, in some cases, death. Batteries and rechargeable batteries with alkaline electrolytes (e.g.
lithium cells) must be handled in accordance with the EN 62133 standard.
1. Cells must not be taken apart or crushed.
2. Cells or batteries must not be exposed to heat or fire. Storage in direct sunlight must be avoided.
Keep cells and batteries clean and dry. Clean soiled connectors using a dry, clean cloth.
3. Cells or batteries must not be short-circuited. Cells or batteries must not be stored in a box or in a
drawer where they can short-circuit each other, or where they can be short-circuited by other
conductive materials. Cells and batteries must not be removed from their original packaging until they
are ready to be used.
4. Cells and batteries must not be exposed to any mechanical shocks that are stronger than permitted.
5. If a cell develops a leak, the fluid must not be allowed to come into contact with the skin or eyes. If
contact occurs, wash the affected area with plenty of water and seek medical aid.
6. Improperly replacing or charging cells or batteries that contain alkaline electrolytes (e.g. lithium cells)
can cause explosions. Replace cells or batteries only with the matching Rohde & Schwarz type (see
parts list) in order to ensure the safety of the product.
7. Cells and batteries must be recycled and kept separate from residual waste. Rechargeable batteries
and normal batteries that contain lead, mercury or cadmium are hazardous waste. Observe the
national regulations regarding waste disposal and recycling.
Transport
1. The product may be very heavy. Therefore, the product must be handled with care. In some cases,
the user may require a suitable means of lifting or moving the product (e.g. with a lift-truck) to avoid
back or other physical injuries.
2. Handles on the products are designed exclusively to enable personnel to transport the product. It is
therefore not permissible to use handles to fasten the product to or on transport equipment such as
cranes, fork lifts, wagons, etc. The user is responsible for securely fastening the products to or on the
means of transport or lifting. Observe the safety regulations of the manufacturer of the means of
transport or lifting. Noncompliance can result in personal injury or material damage.
3. If you use the product in a vehicle, it is the sole responsibility of the driver to drive the vehicle safely
and properly. The manufacturer assumes no responsibility for accidents or collisions. Never use the
product in a moving vehicle if doing so could distract the driver of the vehicle. Adequately secure the
product in the vehicle to prevent injuries or other damage in the event of an accident.
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Instrucciones de seguridad elementales
Waste disposal/Environmental protection
1. Specially marked equipment has a battery or accumulator that must not be disposed of with unsorted
municipal waste, but must be collected separately. It may only be disposed of at a suitable collection
point or via a Rohde & Schwarz customer service center.
2. Waste electrical and electronic equipment must not be disposed of with unsorted municipal waste, but
must be collected separately.
Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG has developed a disposal concept and takes full responsibility for
take-back obligations and disposal obligations for manufacturers within the EU. Contact your
Rohde & Schwarz customer service center for environmentally responsible disposal of the product.
3. If products or their components are mechanically and/or thermally processed in a manner that goes
beyond their intended use, hazardous substances (heavy-metal dust such as lead, beryllium, nickel)
may be released. For this reason, the product may only be disassembled by specially trained
personnel. Improper disassembly may be hazardous to your health. National waste disposal
regulations must be observed.
4. If handling the product releases hazardous substances or fuels that must be disposed of in a special
way, e.g. coolants or engine oils that must be replenished regularly, the safety instructions of the
manufacturer of the hazardous substances or fuels and the applicable regional waste disposal
regulations must be observed. Also observe the relevant safety instructions in the product
documentation. The improper disposal of hazardous substances or fuels can cause health problems
and lead to environmental damage.
For additional information about environmental protection, visit the Rohde & Schwarz website.
Instrucciones de seguridad elementales
¡Es imprescindible leer y cumplir las siguientes instrucciones e informaciones de seguridad!
El principio del grupo de empresas Rohde & Schwarz consiste en tener nuestros productos siempre al día
con los estándares de seguridad y de ofrecer a nuestros clientes el máximo grado de seguridad. Nuestros
productos y todos los equipos adicionales son siempre fabricados y examinados según las normas de
seguridad vigentes. Nuestro sistema de garantía de calidad controla constantemente que sean cumplidas
estas normas. El presente producto ha sido fabricado y examinado según el certificado de conformidad
de la UE y ha salido de nuestra planta en estado impecable según los estándares técnicos de seguridad.
Para poder preservar este estado y garantizar un funcionamiento libre de peligros, el usuario deberá
atenerse a todas las indicaciones, informaciones de seguridad y notas de alerta. El grupo de empresas
Rohde & Schwarz está siempre a su disposición en caso de que tengan preguntas referentes a estas
informaciones de seguridad.
Además queda en la responsabilidad del usuario utilizar el producto en la forma debida. Este producto
está destinado exclusivamente al uso en la industria y el laboratorio o, si ha sido expresamente
autorizado, para aplicaciones de campo y de ninguna manera deberá ser utilizado de modo que alguna
persona/cosa pueda sufrir daño. El uso del producto fuera de sus fines definidos o sin tener en cuenta las
instrucciones del fabricante queda en la responsabilidad del usuario. El fabricante no se hace en ninguna
forma responsable de consecuencias a causa del mal uso del producto.
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Instrucciones de seguridad elementales
Se parte del uso correcto del producto para los fines definidos si el producto es utilizado conforme a las
indicaciones de la correspondiente documentación del producto y dentro del margen de rendimiento
definido (ver hoja de datos, documentación, informaciones de seguridad que siguen). El uso del producto
hace necesarios conocimientos técnicos y ciertos conocimientos del idioma inglés. Por eso se debe tener
en cuenta que el producto solo pueda ser operado por personal especializado o personas instruidas en
profundidad con las capacidades correspondientes. Si fuera necesaria indumentaria de seguridad para el
uso de productos de Rohde & Schwarz, encontraría la información debida en la documentación del
producto en el capítulo correspondiente. Guarde bien las informaciones de seguridad elementales, así
como la documentación del producto, y entréguelas a usuarios posteriores.
Tener en cuenta las informaciones de seguridad sirve para evitar en lo posible lesiones o daños por
peligros de toda clase. Por eso es imprescindible leer detalladamente y comprender por completo las
siguientes informaciones de seguridad antes de usar el producto, y respetarlas durante el uso del
producto. Deberán tenerse en cuenta todas las demás informaciones de seguridad, como p. ej. las
referentes a la protección de personas, que encontrarán en el capítulo correspondiente de la
documentación del producto y que también son de obligado cumplimiento. En las presentes
informaciones de seguridad se recogen todos los objetos que distribuye el grupo de empresas
Rohde & Schwarz bajo la denominación de "producto", entre ellos también aparatos, instalaciones así
como toda clase de accesorios. Los datos específicos del producto figuran en la hoja de datos y en la
documentación del producto.
Señalización de seguridad de los productos
Las siguientes señales de seguridad se utilizan en los productos para advertir sobre riesgos y peligros.
Símbolo
Significado
Aviso: punto de peligro general
Observar la documentación del producto
Símbolo
Significado
Tensión de alimentación de PUESTA EN
MARCHA / PARADA
Atención en el manejo de dispositivos de peso
elevado
Indicación de estado de espera (standby)
Peligro de choque eléctrico
Corriente continua (DC)
Advertencia: superficie caliente
Corriente alterna (AC)
Conexión a conductor de protección
Corriente continua / Corriente alterna (DC/AC)
Conexión a tierra
El aparato está protegido en su totalidad por un
aislamiento doble (reforzado)
Conexión a masa
Distintivo de la UE para baterías y
acumuladores
Más información en la sección
"Eliminación/protección del medio ambiente",
punto 1.
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Instrucciones de seguridad elementales
Símbolo
Significado
Símbolo
Aviso: Cuidado en el manejo de dispositivos
sensibles a la electrostática (ESD)
Significado
Distintivo de la UE para la eliminación por
separado de dispositivos eléctricos y
electrónicos
Más información en la sección
"Eliminación/protección del medio ambiente",
punto 2.
Advertencia: rayo láser
Más información en la sección
"Funcionamiento", punto 7.
Palabras de señal y su significado
En la documentación del producto se utilizan las siguientes palabras de señal con el fin de advertir contra
riesgos y peligros.
Indica una situación de peligro que, si no se evita, causa lesiones
graves o incluso la muerte.
Indica una situación de peligro que, si no se evita, puede causar
lesiones graves o incluso la muerte.
Indica una situación de peligro que, si no se evita, puede causar
lesiones leves o moderadas.
Indica información que se considera importante, pero no en relación
con situaciones de peligro; p. ej., avisos sobre posibles daños
materiales.
En la documentación del producto se emplea de forma sinónima el
término CUIDADO.
Las palabras de señal corresponden a la definición habitual para aplicaciones civiles en el área
económica europea. Pueden existir definiciones diferentes a esta definición en otras áreas económicas o
en aplicaciones militares. Por eso se deberá tener en cuenta que las palabras de señal aquí descritas
sean utilizadas siempre solamente en combinación con la correspondiente documentación del producto y
solamente en combinación con el producto correspondiente. La utilización de las palabras de señal en
combinación con productos o documentaciones que no les correspondan puede llevar a interpretaciones
equivocadas y tener por consecuencia daños en personas u objetos.
Estados operativos y posiciones de funcionamiento
El producto solamente debe ser utilizado según lo indicado por el fabricante respecto a los estados
operativos y posiciones de funcionamiento sin que se obstruya la ventilación. Si no se siguen las
indicaciones del fabricante, pueden producirse choques eléctricos, incendios y/o lesiones graves con
posible consecuencia de muerte. En todos los trabajos deberán ser tenidas en cuenta las normas
nacionales y locales de seguridad del trabajo y de prevención de accidentes.
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Instrucciones de seguridad elementales
1. Si no se convino de otra manera, es para los productos Rohde & Schwarz válido lo que sigue:
como posición de funcionamiento se define por principio la posición con el suelo de la caja para
abajo, modo de protección IP 2X, uso solamente en estancias interiores, utilización hasta 2000 m
sobre el nivel del mar, transporte hasta 4500 m sobre el nivel del mar. Se aplicará una tolerancia de
±10 % sobre el voltaje nominal y de ±5 % sobre la frecuencia nominal. Categoría de sobrecarga
eléctrica 2, índice de suciedad 2.
2. No sitúe el producto encima de superficies, vehículos, estantes o mesas, que por sus características
de peso o de estabilidad no sean aptos para él. Siga siempre las instrucciones de instalación del
fabricante cuando instale y asegure el producto en objetos o estructuras (p. ej. paredes y estantes). Si
se realiza la instalación de modo distinto al indicado en la documentación del producto, se pueden
causar lesiones o, en determinadas circunstancias, incluso la muerte.
3. No ponga el producto sobre aparatos que generen calor (p. ej. radiadores o calefactores). La
temperatura ambiente no debe superar la temperatura máxima especificada en la documentación del
producto o en la hoja de datos. En caso de sobrecalentamiento del producto, pueden producirse
choques eléctricos, incendios y/o lesiones graves con posible consecuencia de muerte.
Seguridad eléctrica
Si no se siguen (o se siguen de modo insuficiente) las indicaciones del fabricante en cuanto a seguridad
eléctrica, pueden producirse choques eléctricos, incendios y/o lesiones graves con posible consecuencia
de muerte.
1. Antes de la puesta en marcha del producto se deberá comprobar siempre que la tensión
preseleccionada en el producto coincida con la de la red de alimentación eléctrica. Si es necesario
modificar el ajuste de tensión, también se deberán cambiar en caso dado los fusibles
correspondientes del producto.
2. Los productos de la clase de protección I con alimentación móvil y enchufe individual solamente
podrán enchufarse a tomas de corriente con contacto de seguridad y con conductor de protección
conectado.
3. Queda prohibida la interrupción intencionada del conductor de protección, tanto en la toma de
corriente como en el mismo producto. La interrupción puede tener como consecuencia el riesgo de
que el producto sea fuente de choques eléctricos. Si se utilizan cables alargadores o regletas de
enchufe, deberá garantizarse la realización de un examen regular de los mismos en cuanto a su
estado técnico de seguridad.
4. Si el producto no está equipado con un interruptor para desconectarlo de la red, o bien si el
interruptor existente no resulta apropiado para la desconexión de la red, el enchufe del cable de
conexión se deberá considerar como un dispositivo de desconexión.
El dispositivo de desconexión se debe poder alcanzar fácilmente y debe estar siempre bien accesible.
Si, p. ej., el enchufe de conexión a la red es el dispositivo de desconexión, la longitud del cable de
conexión no debe superar 3 m).
Los interruptores selectores o electrónicos no son aptos para el corte de la red eléctrica. Si se
integran productos sin interruptor en bastidores o instalaciones, se deberá colocar el interruptor en el
nivel de la instalación.
5. No utilice nunca el producto si está dañado el cable de conexión a red. Compruebe regularmente el
correcto estado de los cables de conexión a red. Asegúrese, mediante las medidas de protección y
de instalación adecuadas, de que el cable de conexión a red no pueda ser dañado o de que nadie
pueda ser dañado por él, p. ej. al tropezar o por un choque eléctrico.
1171.0000.42 - 07
Page 10
Instrucciones de seguridad elementales
6. Solamente está permitido el funcionamiento en redes de alimentación TN/TT aseguradas con fusibles
de 16 A como máximo (utilización de fusibles de mayor amperaje solo previa consulta con el grupo de
empresas Rohde & Schwarz).
7. Nunca conecte el enchufe en tomas de corriente sucias o llenas de polvo. Introduzca el enchufe por
completo y fuertemente en la toma de corriente. La no observación de estas medidas puede provocar
chispas, fuego y/o lesiones.
8. No sobrecargue las tomas de corriente, los cables alargadores o las regletas de enchufe ya que esto
podría causar fuego o choques eléctricos.
9. En las mediciones en circuitos de corriente con una tensión Ueff > 30 V se deberán tomar las medidas
apropiadas para impedir cualquier peligro (p. ej. medios de medición adecuados, seguros, limitación
de tensión, corte protector, aislamiento etc.).
10. Para la conexión con dispositivos informáticos como un PC o un ordenador industrial, debe
comprobarse que éstos cumplan los estándares IEC60950-1/EN60950-1 o IEC61010-1/EN 61010-1
válidos en cada caso.
11. A menos que esté permitido expresamente, no retire nunca la tapa ni componentes de la carcasa
mientras el producto esté en servicio. Esto pone a descubierto los cables y componentes eléctricos y
puede causar lesiones, fuego o daños en el producto.
12. Si un producto se instala en un lugar fijo, se deberá primero conectar el conductor de protección fijo
con el conductor de protección del producto antes de hacer cualquier otra conexión. La instalación y
la conexión deberán ser efectuadas por un electricista especializado.
13. En el caso de dispositivos fijos que no estén provistos de fusibles, interruptor automático ni otros
mecanismos de seguridad similares, el circuito de alimentación debe estar protegido de modo que
todas las personas que puedan acceder al producto, así como el producto mismo, estén a salvo de
posibles daños.
14. Todo producto debe estar protegido contra sobretensión (debida p. ej. a una caída del rayo) mediante
los correspondientes sistemas de protección. Si no, el personal que lo utilice quedará expuesto al
peligro de choque eléctrico.
15. No debe introducirse en los orificios de la caja del aparato ningún objeto que no esté destinado a ello.
Esto puede producir cortocircuitos en el producto y/o puede causar choques eléctricos, fuego o
lesiones.
16. Salvo indicación contraria, los productos no están impermeabilizados (ver también el capítulo
"Estados operativos y posiciones de funcionamiento", punto 1). Por eso es necesario tomar las
medidas necesarias para evitar la entrada de líquidos. En caso contrario, existe peligro de choque
eléctrico para el usuario o de daños en el producto, que también pueden redundar en peligro para las
personas.
17. No utilice el producto en condiciones en las que pueda producirse o ya se hayan producido
condensaciones sobre el producto o en el interior de éste, como p. ej. al desplazarlo de un lugar frío a
otro caliente. La entrada de agua aumenta el riesgo de choque eléctrico.
18. Antes de la limpieza, desconecte por completo el producto de la alimentación de tensión (p. ej. red de
alimentación o batería). Realice la limpieza de los aparatos con un paño suave, que no se deshilache.
No utilice bajo ningún concepto productos de limpieza químicos como alcohol, acetona o diluyentes
para lacas nitrocelulósicas.
1171.0000.42 - 07
Page 11
Instrucciones de seguridad elementales
Funcionamiento
1. El uso del producto requiere instrucciones especiales y una alta concentración durante el manejo.
Debe asegurarse que las personas que manejen el producto estén a la altura de los requerimientos
necesarios en cuanto a aptitudes físicas, psíquicas y emocionales, ya que de otra manera no se
pueden excluir lesiones o daños de objetos. El empresario u operador es responsable de seleccionar
el personal usuario apto para el manejo del producto.
2. Antes de desplazar o transportar el producto, lea y tenga en cuenta el capítulo "Transporte".
3. Como con todo producto de fabricación industrial no puede quedar excluida en general la posibilidad
de que se produzcan alergias provocadas por algunos materiales empleados Slos llamados
alérgenos (p. ej. el níquel)S. Si durante el manejo de productos Rohde & Schwarz se producen
reacciones alérgicas, como p. ej. irritaciones cutáneas, estornudos continuos, enrojecimiento de la
conjuntiva o dificultades respiratorias, debe avisarse inmediatamente a un médico para investigar las
causas y evitar cualquier molestia o daño a la salud.
4. Antes de la manipulación mecánica y/o térmica o el desmontaje del producto, debe tenerse en cuenta
imprescindiblemente el capítulo "Eliminación/protección del medio ambiente", punto 1.
5. Ciertos productos, como p. ej. las instalaciones de radiocomunicación RF, pueden a causa de su
función natural, emitir una radiación electromagnética aumentada. Deben tomarse todas las medidas
necesarias para la protección de las mujeres embarazadas. También las personas con marcapasos
pueden correr peligro a causa de la radiación electromagnética. El empresario/operador tiene la
obligación de evaluar y señalizar las áreas de trabajo en las que exista un riesgo elevado de
exposición a radiaciones.
6. Tenga en cuenta que en caso de incendio pueden desprenderse del producto sustancias tóxicas
(gases, líquidos etc.) que pueden generar daños a la salud. Por eso, en caso de incendio deben
usarse medidas adecuadas, como p. ej. máscaras antigás e indumentaria de protección.
7. Los productos con láser están provistos de indicaciones de advertencia normalizadas en función de la
clase de láser del que se trate. Los rayos láser pueden provocar daños de tipo biológico a causa de
las propiedades de su radiación y debido a su concentración extrema de potencia electromagnética.
En caso de que un producto Rohde & Schwarz contenga un producto láser (p. ej. un lector de
CD/DVD), no debe usarse ninguna otra configuración o función aparte de las descritas en la
documentación del producto, a fin de evitar lesiones (p. ej. debidas a irradiación láser).
8. Clases de compatibilidad electromagnética (conforme a EN 55011 / CISPR 11; y en analogía con EN
55022 / CISPR 22, EN 55032 / CISPR 32)
Aparato de clase A:
Aparato adecuado para su uso en todos los entornos excepto en los residenciales y en aquellos
conectados directamente a una red de distribución de baja tensión que suministra corriente a
edificios residenciales.
Nota: Los aparatos de clase A están destinados al uso en entornos industriales. Estos aparatos
pueden causar perturbaciones radioeléctricas en entornos residenciales debido a posibles
perturbaciones guiadas o radiadas. En este caso, se le podrá solicitar al operador que tome las
medidas adecuadas para eliminar estas perturbaciones.
Aparato de clase B:
Aparato adecuado para su uso en entornos residenciales, así como en aquellos conectados
directamente a una red de distribución de baja tensión que suministra corriente a edificios
residenciales.
1171.0000.42 - 07
Page 12
Instrucciones de seguridad elementales
Reparación y mantenimiento
1. El producto solamente debe ser abierto por personal especializado con autorización para ello. Antes
de manipular el producto o abrirlo, es obligatorio desconectarlo de la tensión de alimentación, para
evitar toda posibilidad de choque eléctrico.
2. El ajuste, el cambio de partes, el mantenimiento y la reparación deberán ser efectuadas solamente
por electricistas autorizados por Rohde & Schwarz. Si se reponen partes con importancia para los
aspectos de seguridad (p. ej. el enchufe, los transformadores o los fusibles), solamente podrán ser
sustituidos por partes originales. Después de cada cambio de partes relevantes para la seguridad
deberá realizarse un control de seguridad (control a primera vista, control del conductor de
protección, medición de resistencia de aislamiento, medición de la corriente de fuga, control de
funcionamiento). Con esto queda garantizada la seguridad del producto.
Baterías y acumuladores o celdas
Si no se siguen (o se siguen de modo insuficiente) las indicaciones en cuanto a las baterías y
acumuladores o celdas, pueden producirse explosiones, incendios y/o lesiones graves con posible
consecuencia de muerte. El manejo de baterías y acumuladores con electrolitos alcalinos (p. ej. celdas de
litio) debe seguir el estándar EN 62133.
1. No deben desmontarse, abrirse ni triturarse las celdas.
2. Las celdas o baterías no deben someterse a calor ni fuego. Debe evitarse el almacenamiento a la luz
directa del sol. Las celdas y baterías deben mantenerse limpias y secas. Limpiar las conexiones
sucias con un paño seco y limpio.
3. Las celdas o baterías no deben cortocircuitarse. Es peligroso almacenar las celdas o baterías en
estuches o cajones en cuyo interior puedan cortocircuitarse por contacto recíproco o por contacto con
otros materiales conductores. No deben extraerse las celdas o baterías de sus embalajes originales
hasta el momento en que vayan a utilizarse.
4. Las celdas o baterías no deben someterse a impactos mecánicos fuertes indebidos.
5. En caso de falta de estanqueidad de una celda, el líquido vertido no debe entrar en contacto con la
piel ni los ojos. Si se produce contacto, lavar con agua abundante la zona afectada y avisar a un
médico.
6. En caso de cambio o recarga inadecuados, las celdas o baterías que contienen electrolitos alcalinos
(p. ej. las celdas de litio) pueden explotar. Para garantizar la seguridad del producto, las celdas o
baterías solo deben ser sustituidas por el tipo Rohde & Schwarz correspondiente (ver lista de
recambios).
7. Las baterías y celdas deben reciclarse y no deben tirarse a la basura doméstica. Las baterías o
acumuladores que contienen plomo, mercurio o cadmio deben tratarse como residuos especiales.
Respete en esta relación las normas nacionales de eliminación y reciclaje.
Transporte
1. El producto puede tener un peso elevado. Por eso es necesario desplazarlo o transportarlo con
precaución y, si es necesario, usando un sistema de elevación adecuado (p. ej. una carretilla
elevadora), a fin de evitar lesiones en la espalda u otros daños personales.
1171.0000.42 - 07
Page 13
Instrucciones de seguridad elementales
2. Las asas instaladas en los productos sirven solamente de ayuda para el transporte del producto por
personas. Por eso no está permitido utilizar las asas para la sujeción en o sobre medios de transporte
como p. ej. grúas, carretillas elevadoras de horquilla, carros etc. Es responsabilidad suya fijar los
productos de manera segura a los medios de transporte o elevación. Para evitar daños personales o
daños en el producto, siga las instrucciones de seguridad del fabricante del medio de transporte o
elevación utilizado.
3. Si se utiliza el producto dentro de un vehículo, recae de manera exclusiva en el conductor la
responsabilidad de conducir el vehículo de manera segura y adecuada. El fabricante no asumirá
ninguna responsabilidad por accidentes o colisiones. No utilice nunca el producto dentro de un
vehículo en movimiento si esto pudiera distraer al conductor. Asegure el producto dentro del vehículo
debidamente para evitar, en caso de un accidente, lesiones u otra clase de daños.
Eliminación/protección del medio ambiente
1. Los dispositivos marcados contienen una batería o un acumulador que no se debe desechar con los
residuos domésticos sin clasificar, sino que debe ser recogido por separado. La eliminación se debe
efectuar exclusivamente a través de un punto de recogida apropiado o del servicio de atención al
cliente de Rohde & Schwarz.
2. Los dispositivos eléctricos usados no se deben desechar con los residuos domésticos sin clasificar,
sino que deben ser recogidos por separado.
Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co.KG ha elaborado un concepto de eliminación de residuos y asume
plenamente los deberes de recogida y eliminación para los fabricantes dentro de la UE. Para
desechar el producto de manera respetuosa con el medio ambiente, diríjase a su servicio de atención
al cliente de Rohde & Schwarz.
3. Si se trabaja de manera mecánica y/o térmica cualquier producto o componente más allá del
funcionamiento previsto, pueden liberarse sustancias peligrosas (polvos con contenido de metales
pesados como p. ej. plomo, berilio o níquel). Por eso el producto solo debe ser desmontado por
personal especializado con formación adecuada. Un desmontaje inadecuado puede ocasionar daños
para la salud. Se deben tener en cuenta las directivas nacionales referentes a la eliminación de
residuos.
4. En caso de que durante el trato del producto se formen sustancias peligrosas o combustibles que
deban tratarse como residuos especiales (p. ej. refrigerantes o aceites de motor con intervalos de
cambio definidos), deben tenerse en cuenta las indicaciones de seguridad del fabricante de dichas
sustancias y las normas regionales de eliminación de residuos. Tenga en cuenta también en caso
necesario las indicaciones de seguridad especiales contenidas en la documentación del producto. La
eliminación incorrecta de sustancias peligrosas o combustibles puede causar daños a la salud o
daños al medio ambiente.
Se puede encontrar más información sobre la protección del medio ambiente en la página web de
Rohde & Schwarz.
1171.0000.42 - 07
Page 14
Certified Quality System
ISO 9001
Certified Environmental System
ISO 14001
Sehr geehrter Kunde,
Dear customer,
Cher client,
Sie haben sich für den Kauf
eines Rohde & Schwarz Produktes entschieden. Sie erhalten
damit ein nach modernsten Fertigungsmethoden hergestelltes
Produkt. Es wurde nach den
Regeln unserer Qualitäts- und
Umweltmanagementsysteme
entwickelt, gefertigt und geprüft.
Rohde & Schwarz ist unter anderem nach den Managementsystemen ISO 9001 und ISO 14001
zertifiziert.
You have decided to buy a
Rohde & Schwarz product. This
product has been manufactured
using the most advanced methods. It was developed, manufactured and tested in compliance
with our quality management
and environmental management systems. Rohde & Schwarz
has been certified, for example, according to the ISO 9001
and ISO 14001 management
systems.
Der Umwelt verpflichtet
Environmental commitment
Vous avez choisi d’acheter un
produit Rohde & Schwarz. Vous
disposez donc d’un produit
fabriqué d’après les méthodes
les plus avancées. Le développement, la fabrication et les
tests de ce produit ont été effectués selon nos systèmes de
management de qualité et de
management environnemental.
La société Rohde & Schwarz a
été homologuée, entre autres,
conformément aux systèmes
de management ISO 9001 et
ISO 14001.
❙❙ Energie-effiziente,
❙❙ Energy-efficient
RoHS-konforme Produkte
❙❙ Kontinuierliche
Weiterentwicklung nachhaltiger
­Umweltkonzepte
❙❙ ISO 14001-zertifiziertes
Umweltmanagementsystem
❙❙ Continuous
Engagement écologique
❙❙ Produits
à efficience
énergétique
❙❙ Amélioration continue de la
durabilité environnementale
❙❙ Système de management
environnemental certifié selon
ISO 14001
1171.0200.11 V 05.01
products
improvement in
environmental sustainability
❙❙ ISO 14001-certified
environmental management
system
ISO-Qualitaets-Zertifikat_1171-0200-11_A4.indd 1
28.09.2012 10:25:08
1171020011
Quality management
and environmental
management
Customer Support
Technical support – where and when you need it
For quick, expert help with any Rohde & Schwarz equipment, contact one of our Customer Support
Centers. A team of highly qualified engineers provides telephone support and will work with you to find a
solution to your query on any aspect of the operation, programming or applications of Rohde & Schwarz
equipment.
Up-to-date information and upgrades
To keep your instrument up-to-date and to be informed about new application notes related to your
instrument, please send an e-mail to the Customer Support Center stating your instrument and your wish.
We will take care that you will get the right information.
Europe, Africa, Middle East
Phone +49 89 4129 12345
[email protected]com
North America
Phone 1-888-TEST-RSA (1-888-837-8772)
[email protected]
Latin America
Phone +1-410-910-7988
[email protected]
Asia/Pacific
Phone +65 65 13 04 88
[email protected]
China
Phone +86-800-810-8228 /
+86-400-650-5896
[email protected]
1171.0200.22-06.00
R&S® FSV
Contents
Contents
1 Preface....................................................................................................5
1.1
Documentation Overview.............................................................................................5
1.2
Conventions Used in the Documentation...................................................................7
1.3
How to Use the Help System........................................................................................8
2 Advanced Measurement Examples....................................................10
2.1
Test Setup....................................................................................................................10
2.2
Measurement of Harmonics.......................................................................................11
2.3
Measuring the Spectra of Complex Signals.............................................................13
2.4
Measuring Signals in the Vicinity of Noise...............................................................17
2.5
Noise Measurements..................................................................................................22
2.6
Measurements on Modulated Signals.......................................................................29
3 Instrument Functions..........................................................................40
3.1
General Settings, Printout and Instrument Settings................................................43
3.2
Measurement Parameters..........................................................................................86
3.3
Measurement Functions...........................................................................................150
3.4
Measurement Modes.................................................................................................305
3.5
Instrument Functions - I/Q Analyzer.......................................................................310
3.6
Instrument Functions – Tracking Generator (Options R&S FSV-B9/ R&S FSVB10)............................................................................................................................336
3.7
Instrument Functions - R&S Digital I/Q Interface (Option R&S FSV-B17)............361
3.8
Instrument Functions – External Mixer (Option R&S FSV-B21)...........................379
3.9
Instrument Functions - Power Sensor (R&S FSV-K9)...........................................400
3.10
Instrument Functions - Spectrogram Measurements............................................413
4 Remote Control..................................................................................426
4.1
Remote Control - Basics..........................................................................................427
4.2
Remote Control – Commands..................................................................................466
4.3
Remote Control – Programming Examples............................................................845
5 Maintenance.......................................................................................888
5.1
Storing and Packing.................................................................................................888
5.2
List of Available Power Cables................................................................................888
Operating Manual 1307.9331.12 ─ 18
3
R&S® FSV
Contents
6 Error Messages..................................................................................890
List of Commands..............................................................................892
Index....................................................................................................909
Operating Manual 1307.9331.12 ─ 18
4
R&S® FSV
Preface
Documentation Overview
1 Preface
1.1 Documentation Overview
The user documentation for the R&S FSV is divided as follows:
●
Quick Start Guide
●
Operating Manuals for base unit and options
●
Service Manual
●
Online Help
●
Release Notes
Quick Start Guide
This manual is delivered with the instrument in printed form and in PDF format on the
CD. It provides the information needed to set up and start working with the instrument.
Basic operations and basic measurements are described. Also a brief introduction to
remote control is given. The manual includes general information (e.g. Safety Instructions) and the following chapters:
Chapter 1
Introduction, General information
Chapter 2
Front and Rear Panel
Chapter 3
Preparing for Use
Chapter 4
Firmware Update and Installation of Firmware Options
Chapter 5
Basic Operations
Chapter 6
Basic Measurement Examples
Chapter 7
Brief Introduction to Remote Control
Appendix
LAN Interface
Operating Manuals
The Operating Manuals are a supplement to the Quick Start Guide. Operating Manuals
are provided for the base unit and each additional (software) option.
The Operating Manual for the base unit provides basic information on operating the
R&S FSV in general, and the "Spectrum" mode in particular. Furthermore, the software
options that enhance the basic functionality for various measurement modes are described here. The set of measurement examples in the Quick Start Guide is expanded by
more advanced measurement examples. In addition to the brief introduction to remote
control in the Quick Start Guide, a description of the basic analyzer commands and programming examples is given. Information on maintenance, instrument interfaces and
error messages is also provided.
In the individual option manuals, the specific instrument functions of the option are
described in detail. For additional information on default settings and parameters, refer
Operating Manual 1307.9331.12 ─ 18
5
R&S® FSV
Preface
Documentation Overview
to the data sheets. Basic information on operating the R&S FSV is not included in the
option manuals.
The following Operating Manuals are available for the R&S FSV:
●
R&S FSV base unit; in addition:
– R&S FSV-K9 Power Sensor Support
–
R&S FSV-K14 Spectrogram Measurement
●
R&S FSV-K7 Analog Demodulation and R&S FSV-K7S FM Stereo Measurements
●
R&S FSV-K10 GSM/EDGE Measurement
●
R&S FSV-K30 Noise Figure Measurement
●
R&S FSV-K40 Phase Noise Measurement
●
R&S FSV-K70 Vector Signal Analysis Operating Manual
R&S FSV-K70 Vector Signal Analysis Getting Started (First measurements)
●
R&S FSV-K72 3GPP FDD BTS Analysis
●
R&S FSV-K73 3GPP FDD UE Analysis
●
R&S FSV-K76/77 3GPP TD-SCDMA BTS/UE Measurement
●
R&S FSV-K82/83 CDMA2000 BTS/MS Analysis
●
R&S FSV-K84/85 1xEV-DO BTS/MS Analysis
●
R&S FSV-K91 WLAN IEEE 802.11a/b/g/j/n
●
R&S FSV-K93 WiMAX IEEE 802.16 OFDM/OFDMA Analysis
●
R&S FSV-K100/K104 EUTRA / LTE Downlink Measurement Application
●
R&S FSV-K101/K105 EUTRA / LTE Uplink Measurement Application
These manuals are available in PDF format on the CD delivered with the instrument. The
printed manual can be ordered from Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG.
Service Manual
This manual is available in PDF format on the CD delivered with the instrument. It
describes how to check compliance with rated specifications, instrument function, repair,
troubleshooting and fault elimination. It contains all information required for repairing the
R&S FSV by replacing modules. The manual includes the following chapters:
Chapter 1
Performance Test
Chapter 2
Adjustment
Chapter 3
Repair
Chapter 4
Software Update / Installing Options
Chapter 5
Documents
Online Help
The online help contains context-specific help on operating the R&S FSV and all available
options. It describes both manual and remote operation. The online help is installed on
the R&S FSV by default, and is also available as an executable .chm file on the CD
delivered with the instrument.
Operating Manual 1307.9331.12 ─ 18
6
R&S® FSV
Preface
Conventions Used in the Documentation
Release Notes
The release notes describe the installation of the firmware, new and modified functions,
eliminated problems, and last minute changes to the documentation. The corresponding
firmware version is indicated on the title page of the release notes. The current release
notes are provided in the Internet.
1.2 Conventions Used in the Documentation
1.2.1 Typographical Conventions
The following text markers are used throughout this documentation:
Convention
Description
"Graphical user interface elements"
All names of graphical user interface elements on the screen, such as dialog boxes, menus, options, buttons, and softkeys are enclosed by quotation marks.
KEYS
Key names are written in capital letters.
File names, commands,
program code
File names, commands, coding samples and screen output are distinguished by their font.
Input
Input to be entered by the user is displayed in italics.
​Links
Links that you can click are displayed in blue font.
"References"
References to other parts of the documentation are enclosed by quotation
marks.
1.2.2 Conventions for Procedure Descriptions
When describing how to operate the instrument, several alternative methods may be
available to perform the same task. In this case, the procedure using the touchscreen is
described. Any elements that can be activated by touching can also be clicked using an
additionally connected mouse. The alternative procedure using the keys on the instrument or the on-screen keyboard is only described if it deviates from the standard operating procedures.
The term "select" may refer to any of the described methods, i.e. using a finger on the
touchscreen, a mouse pointer in the display, or a key on the instrument or on a keyboard.
Operating Manual 1307.9331.12 ─ 18
7
R&S® FSV
Preface
How to Use the Help System
1.3 How to Use the Help System
Calling context-sensitive and general help
► To display the general help dialog box, press the HELP key on the front panel.
The help dialog box "View" tab is displayed. A topic containing information about the
current menu or the currently opened dialog box and its function is displayed.
For standard Windows dialog boxes (e.g. File Properties, Print dialog etc.), no contextsensitive help is available.
► If the help is already displayed, press the softkey for which you want to display help.
A topic containing information about the softkey and its function is displayed.
If a softkey opens a submenu and you press the softkey a second time, the submenu of
the softkey is displayed.
Contents of the help dialog box
The help dialog box contains four tabs:
●
"Contents" - contains a table of help contents
●
"View" - contains a specific help topic
●
"Index" - contains index entries to search for help topics
●
"Zoom" - contains zoom functions for the help display
To change between these tabs, press the tab on the touchscreen.
Navigating in the table of contents
●
To move through the displayed contents entries, use the UP ARROW and DOWN
ARROW keys. Entries that contain further entries are marked with a plus sign.
●
To display a help topic, press the ENTER key. The "View" tab with the corresponding
help topic is displayed.
●
To change to the next tab, press the tab on the touchscreen.
Navigating in the help topics
●
To scroll through a page, use the rotary knob or the UP ARROW and DOWN
ARROW keys.
●
To jump to the linked topic, press the link text on the touchscreen.
Searching for a topic
1. Change to the "Index" tab.
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R&S® FSV
Preface
How to Use the Help System
2. Enter the first characters of the topic you are interested in. The entries starting with
these characters are displayed.
3. Change the focus by pressing the ENTER key.
4. Select the suitable keyword by using the UP ARROW or DOWN ARROW keys or the
rotary knob.
5. Press the ENTER key to display the help topic.
The "View" tab with the corresponding help topic is displayed.
Changing the zoom
1. Change to the "Zoom" tab.
2. Set the zoom using the rotary knob. Four settings are available: 1-4. The smallest
size is selected by number 1, the largest size is selected by number 4.
Closing the help window
► Press the ESC key or a function key on the front panel.
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R&S® FSV
Advanced Measurement Examples
Test Setup
2 Advanced Measurement Examples
This chapter explains how to operate the R&S FSV using typical measurements as
examples. Additional background information on the settings is given. For more detailed
information on all available softkeys and the corresponding instrument functions, see ​
chapter 3, "Instrument Functions", on page 40.
Examples of more basic character are provided in the R&S FSV Quick Start Guide, as
an introduction. The following topics are included in the R&S FSV Quick Start Guide:
●
Measuring a Sinusoidal Signal
– Measuring the Level and Frequency Using Markers
–
●
Measuring the Signal Frequency Using the Frequency Counter
Measuring Harmonics of Sinusoidal Signals
– Measuring the Suppression of the First and Second Harmonic of an Input Signal
–
Measuring the Modulation Depth of an AM-Modulated Carrier (Span > 0)
–
Measuring of AM-Modulated Signals
●
Measuring Signal Spectra with Multiple Signals
– Separating Signals by Selecting the Resolution Bandwidth
●
Measurements with Zero Span
– Measuring the Power Characteristic of Burst Signals
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
–
Measuring the Signal-to-Noise Ratio of Burst Signals
–
Measurement of FM-Modulated Signals
Storing and Loading Instrument Settings
– Storing an Instrument Configuration (without Traces)
–
Storing Traces
–
Loading an Instrument Configuration (with Traces)
–
Configuring Automatic Loading
Test Setup...............................................................................................................10
Measurement of Harmonics....................................................................................11
Measuring the Spectra of Complex Signals............................................................13
Measuring Signals in the Vicinity of Noise..............................................................17
Noise Measurements..............................................................................................22
Measurements on Modulated Signals.....................................................................29
2.1 Test Setup
All of the following examples are based on the standard settings of the R&S FSV. These
are set with the PRESET key. A complete listing of the standard settings can be found in
chapter "Instrument Functions", section "Initializing the Configuration – PRESET Key".
In the following examples, a signal generator is used as a signal source. The RF output
of the signal generator is connected to the RF input of R&S FSV.
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R&S® FSV
Advanced Measurement Examples
Measurement of Harmonics
If a 64 MHz signal is required for the test setup, as an alternative to the signal generator,
the internal 64 MHz reference generator can be used:
1. Switch on the internal reference generator.
a)
b)
c)
d)
Press the SETUP key.
Press the "More" key.
Press the "Service" softkey.
Press the "Input RF/Cal" softkey, until "Cal" is highlighted.
The internal 64 MHz reference generator is now on. The R&S FSV's RF input is
switched off.
2. Switch on the RF input again for normal operation of the R&S FSV. Two ways are
possible:
a) Press the PRESET key.
or:
b) Press the SETUP key.
c) Press the "Service" softkey.
d) Press the "Input RF/Cal" softkey, until "RF" is highlighted.
The internal signal path of the R&S FSV is switched back to the RF input in order to
resume normal operation.
2.2 Measurement of Harmonics
Signal generator settings (e.g. R&S FSV SMU):
Frequency:
128 MHz
Level:
- 25 dBm
Procedure on the R&S FSV:
1. Set the R&S FSV to its default state by pressing the PRESET key.
2. Set the center frequency to 128 MHz and the span to 100 kHz.
3. Switch on the marker by pressing the MKR key.
The marker is positioned on the trace maximum.
4. Set the measured signal frequency and the measured level as reference values.
a) Press the MKR FUNC key
b) Press the "Ref Fixed" softkey.
The position of the marker becomes the reference point. The reference point level
is indicated by a horizontal line, the reference point frequency with a vertical line.
At the same time, the delta marker 2 is switched on.
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R&S® FSV
Advanced Measurement Examples
Measurement of Harmonics
Fig. 2-1: Fundamental wave and the frequency and level reference point
5. Make the step size for the center frequency equal to the signal frequency
a) Press the FREQ key.
b) Press the "CF-Stepsize" softkey and press the "= Marker" softkey in the submenu.
The step size for the center frequency is now equal to the marker frequency.
6. Set the center frequency to the second harmonic of the signal.
a) Press the FREQ key.
b) Press the UPARROW key once.
The center frequency is set to the second harmonic.
7. Place the delta marker on the second harmonic.
a) Press the MKR -> key.
b) Press the "Peak" softkey.
The delta marker moves to the maximum of the second harmonic. The displayed level
result is relative to the reference point level (= fundamental wave level).
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R&S® FSV
Advanced Measurement Examples
Measuring the Spectra of Complex Signals
Fig. 2-2: Measuring the level difference between the fundamental wave (= reference point level) and the
2nd harmonic
The other harmonics are measured with steps 5 and 6, the center frequency being incremented or decremented in steps of 128 MHz using the UPARROW or DNARROW key.
2.3 Measuring the Spectra of Complex Signals
2.3.1 Separating Signals by Selecting an Appropriate Resolution Bandwidth
A basic feature of a signal analyzer is being able to separate the spectral components of
a mixture of signals. The resolution at which the individual components can be separated
is determined by the resolution bandwidth. Selecting a resolution bandwidth that is too
large may make it impossible to distinguish between spectral components, i.e. they are
displayed as a single component.
An RF sinusoidal signal is displayed by means of the passband characteristic of the resolution filter (RBW) that has been set. Its specified bandwidth is the 3 dB bandwidth of
the filter.
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R&S® FSV
Advanced Measurement Examples
Measuring the Spectra of Complex Signals
Two signals with the same amplitude can be resolved if the resolution bandwidth is
smaller than or equal to the frequency spacing of the signal. If the resolution bandwidth
is equal to the frequency spacing, the spectrum display screen shows a level drop of 3
dB precisely in the center of the two signals. Decreasing the resolution bandwidth makes
the level drop larger, which thus makes the individual signals clearer.
If there are large level differences between signals, the resolution is determined by selectivity as well as by the resolution bandwidth that has been selected. The measure of
selectivity used for signal analyzers is the ratio of the 60 dB bandwidth to the 3 dB bandwidth (= shape factor).
For the R&S FSV, the shape factor for bandwidths is < 5, i.e. the 60 dB bandwidth of the
30 kHz filter is <150 kHz.
The higher spectral resolution with smaller bandwidths is won by longer sweep times for
the same span. The sweep time has to allow the resolution filters to settle during a sweep
at all signal levels and frequencies to be displayed.
2.3.2 Intermodulation Measurements
If several signals are applied to a transmission two-port device with nonlinear characteristic, intermodulation products appear at its output at the sums and differences of the
signals. The nonlinear characteristic produces harmonics of the useful signals which
intermodulate at the characteristic. The intermodulation products of lower order have a
special effect since their level is largest and they are near the useful signals. The intermodulation product of third order causes the highest interference. It is the intermodulation
product generated from one of the useful signals and the 2nd harmonic of the second
useful signal in case of two-tone modulation.
For details see ​chapter 3.3.5.9, "Measuring the Third Order Intercept Point (TOI)",
on page 274.
2.3.2.1
Measurement Example – Measuring the R&S FSV's Intrinsic Intermodulation
Test setup:
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R&S® FSV
Advanced Measurement Examples
Measuring the Spectra of Complex Signals
Signal generator settings (e.g. R&S FSV SMU):
Level
Frequency
Signal generator 1
-4 dBm
999.7 MHz
Signal generator 2
-4 dBm
1000.3 MHz
Setting up the measurement
1. Set the R&S FSV to its default settings by pressing the PRESET key.
The R&S FSV is in its default state.
2. Set center frequency to 1 GHz and the frequency span to 3 MHz.
3. Set the reference level to -10 dBm and RF attenuation to 0 dB.
4. Set the resolution bandwidth to 10 kHz.
The noise is reduced, the trace is smoothed further and the intermodulation products
can be clearly seen.
5. Set the VBW to "1 kHz".
Measuring intermodulation using the 3rd order intercept (TOI)measurement function
1. Press the MEAS key and then the "TOI" softkey.
The R&S FSV activates four markers to measure the intermodulation distance. Two
markers are positioned on the useful signals and two on the intermodulation products.
The 3rd order intercept is calculated from the level difference between the useful signals and the intermodulation products. It is then displayed on the screen:
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R&S® FSV
Advanced Measurement Examples
Measuring the Spectra of Complex Signals
Fig. 2-3: Result of intrinsic intermodulation measurement on the R&S FSV.
The 3rd order intercept (TOI) is displayed at the top right corner of the grid.
2. The level of a signal analyzer's intrinsic intermodulation products depends on the RF
level of the useful signals at the input mixer. When the RF attenuation is added, the
mixer level is reduced and the intermodulation distance is increased. With an additional RF attenuation of 10 dB, the levels of the intermodulation products are reduced
by 20 dB. The noise level is, however, increased by 10 dB.
Increase the RF attenuation to 20 dB to reduce intermodulation products.
The R&S FSV's intrinsic intermodulation products disappear below the noise floor.
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R&S® FSV
Advanced Measurement Examples
Measuring Signals in the Vicinity of Noise
2.4 Measuring Signals in the Vicinity of Noise
The minimum signal level a signal analyzer can measure is limited by its intrinsic noise.
Small signals can be swamped by noise and therefore cannot be measured. For signals
that are just above the intrinsic noise, the accuracy of the level measurement is influenced
by the intrinsic noise of the signal analyzer.
The displayed noise level of a signal analyzer depends on its noise figure, the selected
RF attenuation, the selected reference level, the selected resolution and video bandwidth
and the detector. The effect of the different parameters is explained in the following.
Impact of the RF attenuation setting
The sensitivity of a signal analyzer is directly influenced by the selected RF attenuation.
The highest sensitivity is obtained at a RF attenuation of 0 dB. The attenuation can be
set in 10 dB steps up to 70 dB. Each additional 10 dB step reduces the sensitivity by 10
dB, i.e. the displayed noise is increased by 10 dB.
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R&S® FSV
Advanced Measurement Examples
Measuring Signals in the Vicinity of Noise
Impact of the resolution bandwidth
The sensitivity of a signal analyzer also directly depends on the selected bandwidth. The
highest sensitivity is obtained at the smallest bandwidth (1 Hz). If the bandwidth is
increased, the reduction in sensitivity is proportional to the change in bandwidth. The
R&S FSV has bandwidth settings in 1, 2, 3, 5 sequence. Increasing the bandwidth by a
factor of 3 increases the displayed noise by approx. 5 dB (4.77 dB precisely). If the bandwidth is increased by a factor of 10, the displayed noise increases by a factor of 10, i.e.
10 dB.
Impact of the video bandwidth
The displayed noise of a signal analyzer is also influenced by the selected video bandwidth. If the video bandwidth is considerably smaller than the resolution bandwidth, noise
spikes are suppressed, i.e. the trace becomes much smoother. The level of a sine wave
signal is not influenced by the video bandwidth. A sine wave signal can therefore be freed
from noise by using a video bandwidth that is small compared with the resolution bandwidth, and thus be measured more accurately.
Impact of the detector
Noise is evaluated differently by the different detectors. The noise display is therefore
influenced by the choice of detector. Sine wave signals are weighted in the same way by
all detectors, i.e. the level display for a sine wave RF signal does not depend on the
selected detector, provided that the signal-to-noise ratio is high enough. The measurement accuracy for signals in the vicinity of intrinsic signal analyzer noise is also influenced
by the detector which has been selected. For details on the detectors of the R&S FSV
refer to chapter "Instrument Functions", section "Detector overview" or the Online Help.
2.4.1 Measurement Example – Measuring Level at Low S/N Ratios
The example shows the different factors influencing the S/N ratio.
Signal generator settings (e.g. R&S FSV SMU):
Frequency:
128 MHz
Level:
- 90 dBm
Procedure:
1. Set the R&S FSV to its default state by pressing the PRESET key.
The R&S FSV is in its default state.
2. Set the center frequency to 128 MHz and the frequency span to 100 MHz:
a) Press the FREQ key and enter "128 MHz".
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R&S® FSV
Advanced Measurement Examples
Measuring Signals in the Vicinity of Noise
b) Press the SPAN key and enter "100 MHz".
Fig. 2-4: Sine wave signal with low S/N ratio. The signal is measured with the auto peak detector
and is completely hidden in the intrinsic noise of the R&S FSV.
3. To suppress noise spikes the trace can be averaged.
a) Press the TRACE key.
b) Press the "Trace Wizard" softkey.
The Trace Wizard dialog box opens.
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R&S® FSV
Advanced Measurement Examples
Measuring Signals in the Vicinity of Noise
c) Select "Average" in the "Trace Mode" drop-down menu of the selected trace.
The traces of consecutive sweeps are averaged. To perform averaging, the
R&S FSV automatically switches on the sample detector. The RF signal, therefore, can be more clearly distinguished from noise.
Fig. 2-5: RF sine wave signal with low S/N ratio if the trace is averaged.
4. Instead of trace averaging, a video filter that is narrower than the resolution bandwidth
can be selected:
a) Press the TRACE key.
b) Press the "Trace Wizard" softkey.
The Trace Wizard dialog box opens.
c) Select "Clear Write" in the "Trace Mode" drop-down menu of the selected trace.
d) Press the BW key.
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R&S® FSV
Advanced Measurement Examples
Measuring Signals in the Vicinity of Noise
e) Press the "Video BW Manual" softkey and enter "10 kHz".
The RF signal can be more clearly distinguished from noise.
Fig. 2-6: RF sine wave signal with low S/N ratio if a smaller video bandwidth is selected.
5. By reducing the resolution bandwidth by a factor of 10, the noise is reduced by 10
dB:
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R&S® FSV
Advanced Measurement Examples
Noise Measurements
a) In the "Bandwidth" menu press the "Res BW Manual" softkey and enter "100
kHz".
The displayed noise is reduced by approx. 10 dB. The signal, therefore, emerges
from noise by about 10 dB. Compared to the previous setting, the video bandwidth
has remained the same, i.e. it has increased relative to the smaller resolution
bandwidth. The averaging effect of the video bandwidth is therefore reduced. The
trace will be noisier.
Fig. 2-7: Reference signal at a smaller resolution bandwidth
2.5 Noise Measurements
Noise measurements play an important role in signal analysis. Noise e.g. affects the
sensitivity of radio communication systems and their components.
Noise power is specified either as the total power in the transmission channel or as the
power referred to a bandwidth of 1 Hz. The sources of noise are, for example, amplifier
noise or noise generated by oscillators used for the frequency conversion of useful signals in receivers or transmitters. The noise at the output of an amplifier is determined by
its noise figure and gain.
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R&S® FSV
Advanced Measurement Examples
Noise Measurements
The noise of an oscillator is determined by phase noise near the oscillator frequency and
by thermal noise of the active elements far from the oscillator frequency. Phase noise
can mask weak signals near the oscillator frequency and make them impossible to detect.
2.5.1 Measuring Noise Power Density
To measure noise power referred to a bandwidth of 1 Hz at a certain frequency, the
R&S FSV provides marker function. This marker function calculates the noise power
density from the measured marker level.
2.5.1.1
Measurement Example – Measuring the Intrinsic Noise Power Density of the
R&S FSV at 1 GHz and Calculating the R&S FSV's Noise Figure
Test setup:
► Connect no signal to the RF input; terminate RF input with 50 Ω.
Procedure:
1. Set the R&S FSV to its default state by pressing the PRESET key.
The R&S FSV is in its default state.
2. Set the center frequency to 1.234 GHz and the span to 1 MHz.
a) Press the FREQ key and enter "1.234 GHz".
b) Press the SPAN key and enter "1 MHz".
3. Switch on the marker and set the marker frequency to 1.234 GHz by pressing the
MKR key and entering "1.234 GHz".
4. Switch on the noise marker function by switching on the "Noise Meas" softkey.
a) Press the MKR FUNC key.
b) Switch the "Noise Meas" softkey to "On"
The R&S FSV displays the noise power at 1 GHz in dBm (1Hz).
Note: Since noise is random, a sufficiently long measurement time has to be selected
to obtain stable measurement results. This can be achieved by averaging the trace
or by selecting a very small video bandwidth relative to the resolution bandwidth.
5. The measurement result is stabilized by averaging the trace.
a) Press the TRACE key.
b) Press the "Trace Wizard" softkey.
The Trace Wizard dialog box opens.
c) Select "Average" in the "Trace Mode" drop-down menu of the selected trace.
The R&S FSV performs sliding averaging over 10 traces from consecutive sweeps.
The measurement result becomes more stable.
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R&S® FSV
Advanced Measurement Examples
Noise Measurements
Conversion to other reference bandwidths
The result of the noise measurement can be referred to other bandwidths by simple conversion. This is done by adding 10 × log (BW) to the measurement result, BW being the
new reference bandwidth.
Example:
A noise power of -150 dBm (1 Hz) is to be referred to a bandwidth of 1 kHz.
P[1kHz] = -150 + 10 × log (1000) = -150 +30 = -120 dBm (1 kHz)
Calculation method for noise power
If the noise marker is switched on, the R&S FSV automatically activates the sample
detector. The video bandwidth is set to 1/10 of the selected resolution bandwidth (RBW).
To calculate the noise, the R&S FSV takes an average over 17 adjacent pixels (the pixel
on which the marker is positioned and 8 pixels to the left, 8 pixels to the right of the
marker). The measurement result is stabilized by video filtering and averaging over 17
pixels.
Since both video filtering and averaging over 17 trace points is performed in the log display mode, the result would be 2.51 dB too low (difference between logarithmic noise
average and noise power). The R&S FSV, therefore, corrects the noise figure by 2.51
dB.
To standardize the measurement result to a bandwidth of 1 Hz, the result is also corrected
by -10 × log (RBWnoise), with RBWnoise being the power bandwidth of the selected resolution filter (RBW).
Detector selection
The noise power density is measured in the default setting with the sample detector and
using averaging. Other detectors that can be used to perform a measurement giving true
results are the average detector or the RMS detector. If the average detector is used, the
linear video voltage is averaged and displayed as a pixel. If the RMS detector is used,
the squared video voltage is averaged and displayed as a pixel. The averaging time
depends on the selected sweep time (=SWT/501). An increase in the sweep time gives
a longer averaging time per pixel and thus stabilizes the measurement result. The
R&S FSV automatically corrects the measurement result of the noise marker display
depending on the selected detector (+1.05 dB for the average detector, 0 dΒ for the RMS
detector). It is assumed that the video bandwidth is set to at least three times the resolution bandwidth. While the average or RMS detector is being switched on, the R&S FSV
sets the video bandwidth to a suitable value.
The Pos Peak, Neg Peak, Auto Peak and Quasi Peak detectors are not suitable for
measuring noise power density.
Determining the noise figure
The noise figure of amplifiers or of the R&S FSV alone can be obtained from the noise
power display. Based on the known thermal noise power of a 50 Ω resistor at room tem-
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R&S® FSV
Advanced Measurement Examples
Noise Measurements
perature (-174 dBm (1Hz)) and the measured noise power Pnoise the noise figure (NF) is
obtained as follows:
NF = Pnoise + 174 – g,
where g = gain of DUT in dB
Example:
The measured internal noise power of the R&S FSV at an attenuation of 0 dB is found to
be -143 dBm/1 Hz. The noise figure of the R&S FSV is obtained as follows
NF = -143 + 174 = 31 dB
If noise power is measured at the output of an amplifier, for example, the sum of the
internal noise power and the noise power at the output of the DUT is measured. The noise
power of the DUT can be obtained by subtracting the internal noise power from the total
power (subtraction of linear noise powers). By means of the following diagram, the noise
level of the DUT can be estimated from the level difference between the total and the
internal noise level.
Fig. 2-8: Correction factor for measured noise power as a function of the ratio of total power to the
intrinsic noise power of the signal analyzer
2.5.2 Measurement of Noise Power within a Transmission Channel
Noise in any bandwidth can be measured with the channel power measurement functions. Thus the noise power in a communication channel can be determined, for example.
If the noise spectrum within the channel bandwidth is flat, the noise marker from the
previous example can be used to determine the noise power in the channel by considering the channel bandwidth. If, however, phase noise and noise that normally increases
towards the carrier is dominant in the channel to be measured, or if there are discrete
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R&S® FSV
Advanced Measurement Examples
Noise Measurements
spurious signals in the channel, the channel power measurement method must be used
to obtain correct measurement results.
2.5.2.1
Measurement Example – Measuring the Intrinsic Noise of the R&S FSV at 1 GHz in
a 1.23 MHz Channel Bandwidth with the Channel Power Function
Test setup:
► Leave the RF input of the R&S FSV open-circuited or terminate it with 50 Ω.
Procedure:
1. Set the R&S FSV to its default state by pressing the PRESET key.
The R&S FSV is in its default state.
2. Set the center frequency to 1 GHz and the span to 1 MHz.
3. To obtain maximum sensitivity, set RF attenuation on the R&S FSV to 0 dB.
4. Set the "Sweep Type" to "Sweep".
5. Switch on and configure the channel power measurement.
a) Press the MEAS key.
b) Press the "Ch Power/ACLR" softkey.
The R&S FSV activates the channel or adjacent channel power measurement
according to the currently set configuration.
c) Press the "CP/ACLR Settings" softkey.
d) Press the "Channel Settings" softkey.
e) Press the "Channel Bandwidth" softkey and enter 1.23 MHz.
The R&S FSV displays the 1.23 MHz channel as two vertical lines which are
symmetrical to the center frequency.
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R&S® FSV
Advanced Measurement Examples
Noise Measurements
f)
Press the "Adjust Settings" softkey.
The settings for the frequency span, the bandwidth (RBW and VBW) and the
detector are automatically set to the optimum values required for the measurement.
Fig. 2-9: Measurement of the R&S FSV's intrinsic noise power in a 1.23 MHz channel bandwidth.
6. Stabilize the measurement result by increasing the sweep time.
In the "Ch Power ACLR" menu, press the "Sweep Time" softkey and enter 1 s.
The trace becomes much smoother because of the RMS detector and the channel
power measurement display is much more stable.
2.5.3 Measuring Phase Noise
The R&S FSV has an easy-to-use marker function for phase noise measurements. This
marker function indicates the phase noise of an RF oscillator at any carrier in dBc in a
bandwidth of 1 Hz.
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R&S® FSV
Advanced Measurement Examples
Noise Measurements
2.5.3.1
Measurement Example – Measuring the Phase Noise of a Signal Generator at a
Carrier Offset of 10 kHz
Test setup:
Signal generator settings (e.g. R&S FSV SMU):
Frequency:
100 MHz
Level:
0 dBm
Procedure:
1. Set the R&S FSV to its default state by pressing the PRESET key.
R&S FSV is in its default state.
2. Set the center frequency to 100 MHz and the span to 50 kHz.
a) Press the FREQ key and enter "100 MHz".
b) Press the SPAN key and enter "50 kHz".
3. Set the R&S FSV's reference level to 0 dBm (=signal generator level) by pressing the
AMPT key and enter "0 dBm".
4. Enable phase noise measurement.
a) Press the MKR FUNC key.
b) Press the "Phase Noise" softkey.
The R&S FSV activates phase noise measurement. Marker 1 (=main marker) and
marker 2 (= delta marker) are positioned on the signal maximum. The position of
the marker is the reference (level and frequency) for the phase noise measurement. A horizontal line represents the level of the reference point and a vertical
line the frequency of the reference point. The dialog box for the delta marker is
displayed so that the frequency offset at which the phase noise is to be measured
can be entered directly.
5. Set the frequency offset to 10 kHz for determining phase noise by entering "10
kHz".
The R&S FSV displays the phase noise at a frequency offset of 10 kHz. The magnitude of the phase noise in dBc/Hz is displayed in the delta marker output field at the
top right of the screen (Phn2).
6. Stabilize the measurement result by activating trace averaging.
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R&S® FSV
Advanced Measurement Examples
Measurements on Modulated Signals
Fig. 2-10: Measuring phase noise with the phase-noise marker function
The frequency offset can be varied by moving the marker with the rotary knob or by
entering a new frequency offset as a number.
2.6 Measurements on Modulated Signals
For measurements on AM and FM signals refer to the R&S FSV Quick Start Guide, "Basic
Measurements Examples" chapter.
2.6.1 Measuring Channel Power and Adjacent Channel Power
Measuring channel power and adjacent channel power is one of the most important tasks
in the field of digital transmission for a signal analyzer with the necessary test routines.
While, theoretically, channel power could be measured at highest accuracy with a power
meter, its low selectivity means that it is not suitable for measuring adjacent channel
power as an absolute value or relative to the transmit channel power. The power in the
adjacent channels can only be measured with a selective power meter.
A signal analyzer cannot be classified as a true power meter, because it displays the IF
envelope voltage. However, it is calibrated such as to correctly display the power of a
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Advanced Measurement Examples
Measurements on Modulated Signals
pure sine wave signal irrespective of the selected detector. This calibration cannot be
applied for non-sinusoidal signals. Assuming that the digitally modulated signal has a
Gaussian amplitude distribution, the signal power within the selected resolution bandwidth can be obtained using correction factors. These correction factors are normally
used by the signal analyzer's internal power measurement routines in order to determine
the signal power from IF envelope measurements. These factors apply if and only if the
assumption of a Gaussian amplitude distribution is correct.
Apart from this common method, the R&S FSV also has a true power detector, i.e. an
RMS detector. It correctly displays the power of the test signal within the selected resolution bandwidth irrespective of the amplitude distribution, without additional correction
factors being required. The absolute measurement uncertainty of the FSV is < 1.5 dB
and a relative measurement uncertainty of < 0.5 dB (each with a confidence level of 95
%).
There are two possible methods for measuring channel and adjacent channel power with
a signal analyzer:
1. IBW method (Integration Bandwidth Method)
The signal analyzer measures with a resolution bandwidth that is less than the channel bandwidth and integrates the level values of the trace versus the channel bandwidth. This method is described in ​chapter 2.5.2.1, "Measurement Example – Measuring the Intrinsic Noise of the R&S FSV at 1 GHz in a 1.23 MHz Channel Bandwidth
with the Channel Power Function", on page 26.
2. Using a channel filter
For a detailed description, refer to the following section.
Measurements using a channel filter
In this case, the signal analyzer makes zero span measurements using an IF filter that
corresponds to the channel bandwidth. The power is measured at the output of the IF
filter. Until now, this method has not been used for signal analyzers, because channel
filters were not available and the resolution bandwidths, optimized for the sweep, did not
have a sufficient selectivity. The method was reserved for special receivers optimized for
a particular transmission method.
The R&S FSV has test routines for simple channel and adjacent channel power measurements. These routines give quick results without any complex or tedious setting procedures.
2.6.1.1
Measurement Example 1 – ACPR Measurement on an CDMA2000 Signal
Test setup:
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R&S® FSV
Advanced Measurement Examples
Measurements on Modulated Signals
Signal generator settings (e.g. R&S FSV SMU):
Frequency:
850 MHz
Level:
0 dBm
Modulation:
CDMA2000
Procedure:
1. Set the R&S FSV to its default state by pressing the PRESET key.
The R&S FSV is in its default state.
2. Press the FREQ key and enter "850 MHz" as the center frequency.
3. Press the SPAN key and enter "4 MHz".
4. Set the reference level to +10 dBm by pressing the AMPT key and enter "10 dBm".
5. Configure the adjacent channel power for the CDMA2000 standard (more precisely:
CDMA2000 1X).
a)
b)
c)
d)
Press the MEAS key.
Press the "Ch Power ACLR" softkey.
Press the "CP/ACLR Standard" softkey.
In the standards list, mark CDMA2000.
The R&S FSV sets the channel configuration according to the 2000 standard with 2
adjacent channels above and 2 below the transmit channel. The spectrum is displayed in the upper part of the screen, the numeric values of the results and the
channel configuration in the lower part of the screen. The various channels are represented by vertical lines on the graph.
The frequency span, resolution bandwidth, video bandwidth and detector are
selected automatically to give correct results. To obtain stable results – especially in
the adjacent channels (30 kHz bandwidth) which are narrow in comparison with the
transmission channel bandwidth (1.23 MHz) – the RMS detector is used.
6. Set the optimal reference level and RF attenuation for the applied signal level by
pressing the "Adjust Ref Level" softkey.
7. Activate "Fast ACP" mode to increase the repeatability of results by pressing the
"Fast ACP" softkey (for details see below).
The R&S FSV sets the optimal RF attenuation and the reference level based on the
transmission channel power to obtain the maximum dynamic range. The ​figure 2-11 shows the result of the measurement.
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R&S® FSV
Advanced Measurement Examples
Measurements on Modulated Signals
Fig. 2-11: Adjacent channel power measurement on a CDMA2000 1x signal
2.6.1.2
Measurement Example 2 – Measuring Adjacent Channel Power of a W-CDMA
Uplink Signal
Test setup:
Signal generator settings (e.g. R&S FSV SMU):
Frequency:
1950 MHz
Level:
4 dBm
Modulation:
3 GPP W-CDMA Reverse Link
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R&S® FSV
Advanced Measurement Examples
Measurements on Modulated Signals
Procedure:
1. Set the R&S FSV to its default state by pressing the PRESET key.
The R&S FSV is in its default state.
2. Set the center frequency to 1950 MHz by pressing the FREQ key and entering "1950
MHz".
3. Switch on the ACLR measurement for W-CDMA.
a)
b)
c)
d)
Press the MEAS key.
Press the "Ch Power ACLR" softkey.
Press the "CP/ACLR Standard" softkey.
In the standards list, select W-CDMA 3GPP REV.
The R&S FSV sets the channel configuration to the 3GPP W-CDMA standard for
mobiles with two adjacent channels above and below the transmit channel. The
frequency span, the resolution and video bandwidth and the detector are automatically set to the correct values. The spectrum is displayed in the upper part of
the screen and the channel power, the level ratios of the adjacent channel powers
and the channel configuration in the lower part of the screen. The individual
channels are displayed as vertical lines on the graph.
4. Set the optimum reference level and the RF attenuation for the applied signal level.
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R&S® FSV
Advanced Measurement Examples
Measurements on Modulated Signals
a) Press the "Adjust Ref Level" softkey.
The R&S FSV sets the optimum RF attenuation and the reference level for the
power in the transmission channel to obtain the maximum dynamic range. The
following figure shows the result of the measurement.
Fig. 2-12: Measuring the relative adjacent channel power on a W-CDMA uplink signal
5. Set up the adjacent channel power measurement with the fast ACLR mode.
a) Set "Fast ACLR" softkey to "On".
b) Press the "Adjust Ref Level" softkey.
The R&S FSV measures the power of the individual channels with zero span. A
root raised cosine filter with the parameters α = 0.22 and chip rate 3.84 Mcps (=
receive filter for 3GPP W-CDMA) is used as channel filter.
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R&S® FSV
Advanced Measurement Examples
Measurements on Modulated Signals
Fig. 2-13: Measuring the adjacent channel power of a W-CDMA signal with the fast ACLR mode
Optimum Level Setting for ACP Measurements on W-CDMA Signals
The dynamic range for ACPR measurements is limited by the thermal noise floor, the
phase noise and the intermodulation (spectral regrowth) of the signal analyzer. The power
values produced by the R&S FSV due to these factors accumulate linearly. They depend
on the applied level at the input mixer. The three factors are shown in the figure below
for the adjacent channel (5 MHz carrier offset).
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R&S® FSV
Advanced Measurement Examples
Measurements on Modulated Signals
Fig. 2-14: The R&S FSV's dynamic range for adjacent channel power measurements on W-CDMA uplink
signals is a function of the mixer level.
The level of the W-CDMA signal at the input mixer is shown on the horizontal axis, i.e.
the measured signal level minus the selected RF attenuation. The individual components
which contribute to the power in the adjacent channel and the resulting relative level (total
ACPR) in the adjacent channel are displayed on the vertical axis. The optimum mixer
level is -18 dBm. The relative adjacent channel power (ACPR) at an optimum mixer level
is -77 dBc. Since, at a given signal level, the mixer level is set in 5 dB steps with the 5
dB RF attenuator, the optimum 10 dB range spreads from -17 dBm to -22 dBm. In this
range, the obtainable dynamic range with noise correction is 77 dB.
To set the attenuation parameter manually, the following method is recommended:
► Set the RF attenuation so that the mixer level (= measured channel power – RF
attenuation) is between -16 dBm and -22 dBm.
This method is automated with the "Adjust Ref Level" function. Especially in remote control mode, e.g. in production environments, it is best to correctly set the attenuation
parameters prior to the measurement, as the time required for automatic setting can be
saved.
To measure the R&S FSV's intrinsic dynamic range for W-CDMA adjacent channel power
measurements, a filter which suppresses the adjacent channel power is required at the
output of the transmitter. A SAW filter with a bandwidth of 4 MHz, for example, can be
used.
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R&S® FSV
Advanced Measurement Examples
Measurements on Modulated Signals
2.6.2 Amplitude Distribution Measurements
If modulation types are used that do not have a constant zero span envelope, the transmitter has to handle peak amplitudes that are greater than the average power. This
includes all modulation types that involve amplitude modulation –QPSK for example.
CDMA transmission modes in particular may have power peaks that are large compared
to the average power.
For signals of this kind, the transmitter must provide large reserves for the peak power
to prevent signal compression and thus an increase of the bit error rate at the receiver.
The peak power or the crest factor of a signal is therefore an important transmitter design
criterion. The crest factor is defined as the peak power/mean power ratio or, logarithmically, as the peak level minus the average level of the signal.
To reduce power consumption and cut costs, transmitters are not designed for the largest
power that could ever occur, but for a power that has a specified probability of being
exceeded (e.g. 0.01 %).
To measure the amplitude distribution, the R&S FSV has simple measurement functions
to determine both the APD = Amplitude Probability Distribution and CCDF = Complementary Cumulative Distribution Function.
In the APD display mode, the probability of occurrence of a certain level is plotted against
the level.
In the CCDF display mode, the probability that the mean signal power will be exceeded
is shown in percent.
2.6.2.1
Measurement Example – Measuring the APD and CCDF of White Noise Generated
by the R&S FSV
1. Set the R&S FSV to its default state by pressing the PRESET key.
The R&S FSV is in its default state.
2. Configure the R&S FSV for APD measurement
a) Press the AMPT key and enter "-60 dBm".
The R&S FSV's intrinsic noise is displayed at the top of the screen.
b) Press the MEAS key.
c) Press the "More" softkey.
d) Press the "APD" softkey.
The R&S FSV sets the frequency span to 0 Hz and measures the amplitude
probability distribution (APD). The number of uncorrelated level measurements
used for the measurement is 100000. The mean power and the peak power are
displayed in dBm. The crest factor (peak power – mean power) is output as well.
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R&S® FSV
Advanced Measurement Examples
Measurements on Modulated Signals
Fig. 2-15: Amplitude probability distribution of white noise
3. Switch to the CCDF display mode.
a) Press the "UP" key.
b) Press the "CCDF" softkey.
The CCDF display mode is switched on.
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R&S® FSV
Advanced Measurement Examples
Measurements on Modulated Signals
Fig. 2-16: CCDF of white noise
The CCDF trace indicates the probability that a level will exceed the mean power. The
level above the mean power is plotted along the x-axis of the graph. The origin of the axis
corresponds to the mean power level. The probability that a level will be exceeded is
plotted along the y-axis.
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R&S® FSV
Instrument Functions
3 Instrument Functions
This chapter describes the analyzer functions and all basic settings functions of the
R&S FSV in detail.
For each key the available softkey menus and commands are described. The commands
for the optional remote control (if any) are indicated for each softkey. The description is
divided into the following topics:
●
​chapter 3.1, "General Settings, Printout and Instrument Settings", on page 43
This section provides information on how to prepare measurements and process their
results: setting the instrument, managing and retrieving data, returning to manual
operation, and printout.
●
​chapter 3.2, "Measurement Parameters", on page 86
This section describes how to reset the instrument, to set up specific measurements
and to set the measurement parameters. Examples of basic operations are provided
in the Quick Start Guide, chapter 5 "Basic Measurement Examples". Advanced
examples are described in the Operating Manual on CD-ROM, chapter "Advanced
Measurement Examples".
●
​chapter 3.3, "Measurement Functions", on page 150
This section informs about how to select and configure the measurement functions.
Examples of basic operations are provided in the Quick Start Guide, chapter 5 "Basic
Measurement Examples". Advanced examples are described in the Operating Manual on CD-ROM, chapter "Advanced Measurement Examples".
●
​chapter 3.4, "Measurement Modes", on page 305
This section describes the provided measurement modes, the change of measurement modes and the access to the menus of all active measurement modes.
●
​chapter 3.6, "Instrument Functions – Tracking Generator (Options R&S FSV-B9/
R&S FSV-B10)", on page 336
This section provides information on how to configure and use optional tracking generators (R&S FSVB9/B10).
●
​chapter 3.7, "Instrument Functions - R&S Digital I/Q Interface (Option R&S FSVB17)", on page 361
This section provides information on how to configure and use the optional R&S Digital I/Q Interface for digital input and output (R&S FSVB17).
●
​chapter 3.8, "Instrument Functions – External Mixer (Option R&S FSV-B21)",
on page 379
●
This section provides information on how to configure and use optional external mixers (R&S FSVB21).
●
​chapter 3.5, "Instrument Functions - I/Q Analyzer", on page 310
This section provides information on using the IQ Analyzer.
●
​chapter 3.9, "Instrument Functions - Power Sensor (R&S FSV-K9)", on page 400
This section describes how to configure and use an optional Power Sensor with an
R&S FSV (option R&S FSV-K9).
●
​chapter 3.10, "Instrument Functions - Spectrogram Measurements", on page 413
This section describes how to perform Spectrogram measurements with an R&S FSV
(option R&S FSV-K14).
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R&S® FSV
Instrument Functions
A brief introduction on handling the instrument is given in "Basic Operations" in the Quick
Start Guide. This also includes the description of the keys for basic operations like
switching the instrument on and off or starting a measurement.
The front and the rear view of the instrument together with a table of all available keys
and a short description are provided in the R&S FSV Quick Start Guide. "Preparing for
Use" informs how to start working with the instrument for the first time.
3.1
General Settings, Printout and Instrument Settings................................................43
3.1.1
Instrument Setup and Interface Configuration – SETUP Key.......................................43
3.1.2
Saving and Recalling Settings Files – SAVE/RCL Key.................................................67
3.1.3
Manual Operation – Local Menu...................................................................................81
3.1.4
Measurement Documentation – PRINT Key.................................................................82
3.1.5
User-Defined Menu – USER key..................................................................................84
3.2
Measurement Parameters..........................................................................................86
3.2.1
Initializing the Configuration – PRESET Key................................................................86
3.2.2
Selecting the Frequency and Span – FREQ Key..........................................................88
3.2.3
Setting the Frequency Span – SPAN Key.....................................................................94
3.2.4
Setting the Level Display and Configuring the RF Input – AMPT Key..........................96
3.2.5
Defining Automatic Settings – AUTO SET Key...........................................................104
3.2.6
Setting the Bandwidths and Sweep Time – BW Key..................................................108
3.2.7
Configuring the Sweep Mode – SWEEP Key..............................................................117
3.2.8
Setting Traces – TRACE Key......................................................................................122
3.2.9
Triggering the Sweep – TRIG Key..............................................................................139
3.3
Measurement Functions...........................................................................................150
3.3.1
Using Markers and Delta Markers – MKR Key...........................................................150
3.3.2
Performing Peak Searches with Markers – PEAK SEARCH Key...............................158
3.3.3
Performing Marker Functions – MKR FUNC Key........................................................158
3.3.4
Changing Settings via Markers – MKR-> Key.............................................................172
3.3.5
Power Measurements – MEAS Key............................................................................181
3.3.6
Measurement Configuration – MEAS CONFIG Key...................................................285
3.3.7
Using Limit Lines and Display Lines – LINES Key......................................................285
3.3.8
Input/Output Configuration – INPUT/OUTPUT Key....................................................297
3.3.9
Performing Measurements – RUN SINGLE/RUN CONT Keys...................................305
3.4
Measurement Modes.................................................................................................305
3.4.1
Measurement Mode Selection – MODE Key..............................................................305
3.4.2
Measurement Mode Menus – HOME Key..................................................................310
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R&S® FSV
Instrument Functions
3.5
Instrument Functions - I/Q Analyzer.......................................................................310
3.5.1
Softkeys and Parameters of the I/Q Analyzer Menu...................................................312
3.5.2
Softkeys of the Amplitude Menu in I/Q Analyzer Mode...............................................320
3.5.3
Softkeys of the Trigger Menu in I/Q Analyzer Mode...................................................324
3.5.4
Softkeys of the Marker To Menu in I/Q Analyzer Mode..............................................329
3.5.5
Softkeys of the Marker Function Menu in I/Q Analyzer Mode.....................................329
3.5.6
Working with I/Q Data.................................................................................................333
3.6
Instrument Functions – Tracking Generator (Options R&S FSV-B9/ R&S FSVB10)............................................................................................................................336
3.6.1
Softkeys of the Tracking Generator Menu..................................................................337
3.6.2
Connecting External Tracking Generators..................................................................342
3.6.3
Configuring Tracking Generators................................................................................345
3.6.4
Tracking Generator Functions.....................................................................................352
3.6.5
Displayed Information and Errors................................................................................360
3.7
Instrument Functions - R&S Digital I/Q Interface (Option R&S FSV-B17)...........361
3.7.1
Typical Applications for the R&S Digital I/Q Interface.................................................362
3.7.2
Digital Input.................................................................................................................364
3.7.3
Digital Output..............................................................................................................370
3.7.4
Softkeys and Parameters of the R&S Digital I/Q Interface..........................................371
3.7.5
Interface Status Information........................................................................................375
3.7.6
Description of the LVDS Connector............................................................................378
3.8
Instrument Functions – External Mixer (Option R&S FSV-B21)...........................379
3.8.1
General Information on External Mixers......................................................................380
3.8.2
Softkeys of the External Mixer (Option B21)...............................................................386
3.8.3
Introductory Example of Operation.............................................................................397
3.9
Instrument Functions - Power Sensor (R&S FSV-K9)...........................................400
3.9.1
Using Power Sensors..................................................................................................403
3.9.2
Zeroing the Power Sensor..........................................................................................404
3.9.3
Configuring an External Power Trigger.......................................................................405
3.9.4
Softkeys of the Power Sensor Menu (R&S FSV-K9)..................................................407
3.9.5
Power Sensor Configuration Dialog............................................................................409
3.9.6
Error Messages...........................................................................................................413
3.10
Instrument Functions - Spectrogram Measurements............................................413
3.10.1
General Information....................................................................................................414
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R&S® FSV
Instrument Functions
General Settings, Printout and Instrument Settings
3.10.2
Softkeys of the Spectrogram Menu.............................................................................417
3.10.3
Configuring Color Settings for Spectrograms..............................................................418
3.10.4
ASCII File Export Format for Spectrograms................................................................423
3.1 General Settings, Printout and Instrument Settings
After putting the instrument into operation and becoming familiar with the handling of the
instrument (for details see Quick Start Guide) the preparations for measurements can
start. In this section the general settings of the instrument, the data management and the
processing of measurement results are described. This includes the following topics and
keys:
3.1.1
Instrument Setup and Interface Configuration – SETUP Key.......................................43
3.1.1.1
Softkeys of the Setup Menu..........................................................................................44
3.1.1.2
Activating or Deactivating the LXI Class C Functionality..............................................66
3.1.1.3
LXI Class C Functionality..............................................................................................67
3.1.2
Saving and Recalling Settings Files – SAVE/RCL Key.................................................67
3.1.2.1
Softkeys of the SAVE/RCL Menu..................................................................................68
3.1.2.2
File Selection Dialog Boxes..........................................................................................74
3.1.2.3
Importing and Exporting I/Q Data..................................................................................76
3.1.3
Manual Operation – Local Menu...................................................................................81
3.1.4
Measurement Documentation – PRINT Key.................................................................82
3.1.5
User-Defined Menu – USER key..................................................................................84
3.1.1 Instrument Setup and Interface Configuration – SETUP Key
The SETUP key is used to set or display the default settings of the instrument: reference
frequency, noise source, level correction values, date, time, LAN interface, firmware
update and enabling of options, information about instrument configuration and service
support functions. For further details refer also to the Quick Start Guide, chapter 2 "Preparing for Use".
To open the Setup menu
► Press the SETUP key.
The "Setup" menu is displayed.
Menu and softkey description
●
​chapter 3.1.1.1, "Softkeys of the Setup Menu", on page 44
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R&S® FSV
Instrument Functions
General Settings, Printout and Instrument Settings
Further information
●
​chapter 3.1.1.3, "LXI Class C Functionality", on page 67
Tasks
●
3.1.1.1
​chapter 3.1.1.2, "Activating or Deactivating the LXI Class C Functionality",
on page 66
Softkeys of the Setup Menu
The following table shows all softkeys available in the "Setup" menu. It is possible that
your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available
with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is delivered in the
corresponding softkey description.
Reference Int/Ext..........................................................................................................46
Handle missing Ext. Ref................................................................................................46
└ Show Error Flag..............................................................................................47
└ Auto select Reference.....................................................................................47
Transducer....................................................................................................................47
└ Active (On/Off)................................................................................................47
└ Edit..................................................................................................................48
└ Edit Name.............................................................................................48
└ Edit Unit................................................................................................48
└ Edit Value.............................................................................................48
└ Insert Value...........................................................................................48
└ Delete Value.........................................................................................49
└ Interpolation Lin/Log.............................................................................49
└ Save Factor..........................................................................................49
└ New.................................................................................................................49
└ Copy to............................................................................................................49
└ Delete..............................................................................................................49
└ Ref Level Adjust (Man/Auto)...........................................................................50
└ Show Directory................................................................................................50
Alignment......................................................................................................................50
└ Self Alignment.................................................................................................50
└ Show Align Results.........................................................................................50
└ Touch Screen Alignment.................................................................................51
General Setup...............................................................................................................51
└ Configure Network..........................................................................................51
└ Network Address.............................................................................................51
└ Computer Name...................................................................................51
└ IP Address............................................................................................51
└ Subnet Mask.........................................................................................52
└ DHCP (On/Off)......................................................................................52
└ LXI...................................................................................................................52
└ Info........................................................................................................52
└ Password..............................................................................................52
└ Description............................................................................................52
└ LAN Reset............................................................................................53
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R&S® FSV
Instrument Functions
General Settings, Printout and Instrument Settings
└ GPIB...............................................................................................................53
└ GPIB Address.......................................................................................53
└ ID String Factory...................................................................................53
└ ID String User.......................................................................................53
└ Compatibility Mode...............................................................................53
└ Mode Default..............................................................................54
└ Mode R&S FSP..........................................................................54
└ Mode R&S FSU..........................................................................54
└ GPIB Language..........................................................................54
└ IF Gain (Norm/Puls)....................................................................55
└ Sweep Repeat (On/Off)..............................................................55
└ Coupling (FSx/HP)......................................................................55
└ REV String Factory.....................................................................56
└ REV String User.........................................................................56
└ Display Update (On/Off).......................................................................56
└ GPIB Terminator LFEOI/EOI................................................................56
└ *IDN Format Leg./New..........................................................................56
└ I/O Logging (On/Off).............................................................................57
└ Time+Date......................................................................................................57
└ Configure Monitor...........................................................................................57
└ Soft Frontpanel...............................................................................................57
Display Setup................................................................................................................58
└ Tool Bar State (On/Off)...................................................................................58
└ Screen Title (On/Off).......................................................................................59
└ Time+Date (On/Off)........................................................................................59
└ Time+Date Format (US/DE)...........................................................................59
└ Print Logo (On/Off)..........................................................................................59
└ Annotation (On/Off).........................................................................................59
└ Theme Selection.............................................................................................59
└ Screen Colors.................................................................................................59
└ Select Screen Color Set.......................................................................60
└ Color (On/Off).......................................................................................60
└ Select Object........................................................................................60
└ Predefined Colors.................................................................................60
└ User Defined Colors.............................................................................60
└ Set to Default........................................................................................61
└ Print Colors.....................................................................................................61
└ Select Print Color Set...........................................................................61
└ Color (On/Off).......................................................................................61
└ Display Pwr Save (On/Off)..............................................................................62
System Info...................................................................................................................62
└ Hardware Info.................................................................................................62
└ Versions+Options...........................................................................................62
└ System Messages...........................................................................................63
└ Clear All Messages.........................................................................................63
Firmware Update...........................................................................................................63
Option Licenses............................................................................................................63
└ Install Option...................................................................................................64
└ Install Option by XML......................................................................................64
Application Setup Recovery..........................................................................................64
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R&S® FSV
Instrument Functions
General Settings, Printout and Instrument Settings
Service..........................................................................................................................64
└ Input Source....................................................................................................65
└ RF.........................................................................................................65
└ Calibration Frequency RF.....................................................................65
└ Calibration Frequency MW...................................................................65
└ Reset Password..............................................................................................65
└ Selftest............................................................................................................65
└ Selftest Results...............................................................................................66
└ Password........................................................................................................66
└ Service Function.............................................................................................66
Reference Int/Ext
Switches between the internal and external reference signal source. The default setting
is internal reference. It is important that the external reference signal is deactivated when
switching from external to internal reference to avoid interactions. When an external reference is used, "EXT REF" is displayed in the status bar.
If the reference signal is missing after switching to an external reference, the message
"NO REF" is displayed to indicate that no synchronization is performed.
The R&S FSV can use the internal reference source or an external reference source as
frequency standard from which all internal oscillators are derived. A 10 MHz crystal oscillator is used as internal reference source. In the external reference setting, all internal
oscillators of the R&S FSV are synchronized to the external reference frequency, which
can be set from 1–20 MHz in 100 kHz steps. For details on connectors refer to the Quick
Start Guide, chapter 1 "Front and Rear Panel".
Note: Optional internal reference sources.
Alternatively to the standard internal reference source, an optional OCXO reference
(option R&S FSV-B4), or an ultra high precision reference (option R&S FSV-B14) are
available. These options generate a very precise 10 MHz reference signal with an output
level of ≥ 0 dBm, which can also be used to synchronize other connected devices via
the REF OUT connector.
If installed, and if no external signal is used, the OCXO signal is used as an internal
reference. If an ultra high precision reference is installed, this reference signal is automatically used as the internal reference.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]ROSCillator:​SOURce​ on page 794
​SOURce:​EXTernal<1|2>:​ROSCillator:​ EXTernal:​FREQuency​ on page 794
Handle missing Ext. Ref
If an external reference is selected but none is available, there are different ways the
instrument can react. This command opens a submenu to select the preferred method
of handling a missing external reference. By default, an error flag is displayed in the status
bar of the display.
The submenu contains the following commands:
●
●
​"Show Error Flag" on page 47
​"Auto select Reference" on page 47
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R&S® FSV
Instrument Functions
General Settings, Printout and Instrument Settings
Show Error Flag ← Handle missing Ext. Ref
If this option is selected, an error flag is displayed in the status bar of the display when
an external reference is selected but none is available.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]ROSCillator:​SOURce​ on page 794
Auto select Reference ← Handle missing Ext. Ref
If this option is selected, the instrument automatically switches back to the internal reference if no external reference is available. Note that you must re-activate the external
reference if it becomes available again at a later time.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]ROSCillator:​SOURce​ on page 794
Transducer
Opens the "Select Transducer" dialog box and a submenu to activate or deactivate
defined transducer factors, to generate new transducer factors or to edit existing ones.
In the "Select Transducer" dialog box, a transducer factor can be edited, deleted or copied, if selected, using the corresponding softkeys. The default directory in which the
transducer factors are saved is displayed (C:\R_S\INSTR\TRD; the extension of transducer factor files is *.TDF). Subdirectories can be added or deleted via the file manager.
They are displayed or hidden using the arrow keys or the ​Show Directory softkey / "Hide
Directory" button.
Two different directory views are possible: If the "Show all" option is activated, all transducer factors in the directory are displayed. If the "Show compatible" option is activated,
only the compatible transducer factors in the directory are displayed.
The submenu contains the following commands:
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
​"Active (On/Off)" on page 47
​"Edit" on page 48 >
​"New" on page 49
​"Copy to" on page 49
​"Delete" on page 49
​"Ref Level Adjust (Man/Auto)" on page 50
​"Show Directory" on page 50
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]CORRection:​TRANsducer:​SELect​ on page 792
Active (On/Off) ← Transducer
Activates or deactivates the selected transducer factor. A maximum of 8 transducer factors can be activated at the same time. Each time an additional transducer factor is activated, its unit compatibility is checked. If one factor has a different unit than dB, all the
other activated factors must have the unit dB.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]CORRection:​TRANsducer:​SELect​ on page 792
​[SENSe:​]CORRection:​TRANsducer[:​STATe]​ on page 793
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Instrument Functions
General Settings, Printout and Instrument Settings
Edit ← Transducer
Opens the "Edit Transducer" dialog box with the data of the selected factor, as well as a
submenu. During editing, a transducer factor remains stored in the background until the
factor is saved using the ​Save Factor softkey.
A transducer factor can contain up to 625 values. By defining up to 8 adjacent factors, a
transducer system with up to 5000 values can be implemented.
The submenu contains the following commands:
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
​"Edit Name" on page 48
​"Edit Unit" on page 48
​"Edit Value" on page 48
​"Insert Value" on page 48
​"Delete Value" on page 49
​"Interpolation Lin/Log" on page 49
​"Save Factor" on page 49
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]CORRection:​TRANsducer:​COMMent​ on page 791
Edit Name ← Edit ← Transducer
Sets the focus on the "Name" field to enter a file name. The extension is added automatically.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]CORRection:​TRANsducer:​SELect​ on page 792
Edit Unit ← Edit ← Transducer
Sets the focus on the "Unit" field to select the unit.
Note: If one factor has a different unit than "dB", all the other activated factors must have
the unit "dB".
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]CORRection:​TRANsducer:​UNIT​ on page 793
Edit Value ← Edit ← Transducer
Sets the focus to enter positions and values as frequency/level pairs. The entered data
is also displayed graphically. Using the "Shift x" or "Shift y" button, all entered values can
be shifted in x or y direction.
The valid transducer value range is: -200 dB < value < 200 dB
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]CORRection:​TRANsducer:​DATA​ on page 791
Insert Value ← Edit ← Transducer
Inserts an empty line above the selected reference value to enter a new reference value.
When entering a new reference value in the line, the ascending order of frequencies must
be taken into consideration, however.
Each transducer factor may contain a maximum of 625 values. The valid transducer value
range is: -200 dB < value < 200 dB
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Instrument Functions
General Settings, Printout and Instrument Settings
Delete Value ← Edit ← Transducer
Deletes the selected reference value (complete line). The reference values that follow
move one line up.
Interpolation Lin/Log ← Edit ← Transducer
Sets the scaling of the x-axis to linear or logarithmic.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]CORRection:​TRANsducer:​SCALing​ on page 792
Save Factor ← Edit ← Transducer
Saves the changed factor to a file on the internal flash disk. If a transducer factor with the
same name already exists, a confirmation query is displayed. If the new factor is active,
the new values are immediately applied.
In remote control, the save operation is performed automatically after the definition of the
reference values.
New ← Transducer
Opens the "Edit Transducer" dialog box to enter data for a new factor.
This dialog box contains the same contents as the ​Edit softkey.
The submenu contains the following commands:
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
​"Edit Name" on page 48
​"Edit Unit" on page 48
​"Edit Value" on page 48
​"Insert Value" on page 48
​"Delete Value" on page 49
​"Interpolation Lin/Log" on page 49
​"Save Factor" on page 49
Copy to ← Transducer
Opens the "Edit Transducer" dialog box to copy the selected factor.
This dialog box contains the same contents as the ​"Edit" on page 48 softkey.
The submenu contains the following commands:
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
​"Edit Name" on page 48
​"Edit Unit" on page 48
​"Edit Value" on page 48
​"Insert Value" on page 48
​"Delete Value" on page 49
​"Interpolation Lin/Log" on page 49
​"Save Factor" on page 49
Delete ← Transducer
Deletes the selected factor after confirmation.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]CORRection:​TRANsducer:​DELete​ on page 792
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R&S® FSV
Instrument Functions
General Settings, Printout and Instrument Settings
Ref Level Adjust (Man/Auto) ← Transducer
Activates or deactivates the automatic adjustment of the reference level to the selected
transducer factor.
If a transducer factor is used (active), the trace is moved by a calculated shift. However,
an upward shift reduces the dynamic range for the displayed values.
"Auto"
Activates the automatic adjustment. The original dynamic range is
restored by also shifting the reference level by the maximum value of
the transducer factor.
"Man"
Deactivates the automatic adjustment. Adjust the reference level via
the "Amplitude" menu.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]CORRection:​TRANsducer:​ADJust:​RLEVel[:​STATe]​ on page 791
Show Directory ← Transducer
Displays the subdirectory of the selected directory.
Alignment
Opens a submenu with the available functions for recording, displaying and activating
the data for self alignment.
The correction data and characteristics required for the alignment are determined by
comparison of the results at different settings with the known characteristics of the highprecision calibration signal source at 65.83 MHz. The correction data are stored as a file
on flash disk and can be displayed using the ​"Show Align Results" on page 50 softkey.
The submenu contains the following commands:
●
●
●
​"Self Alignment" on page 50
​"Show Align Results" on page 50
​"Touch Screen Alignment" on page 51
Self Alignment ← Alignment
Starts the recording of correction data of the instrument. If the correction data acquisition
has failed or if the correction values are deactivated, a corresponding message is displayed in the status field.
As long as the self alignment data is collected the procedure can be cancelled using the
"Abort" button.
Remote command:
​*CAL?​ on page 470
Show Align Results ← Alignment
Opens a dialog box that displays the correction data of the alignment:
●
●
●
date and time of last correction data record
overall results of correction data record
list of found correction values according to function/module
The results are classified as follows:
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R&S® FSV
Instrument Functions
General Settings, Printout and Instrument Settings
PASSED
calibration successful without any restrictions
CHECK
deviation of correction value larger than expected, correction could however be performed
FAILED
deviations of correction value too large, no correction was possible. The found correction data are not applicable.
Remote command:
​CALibration:​RESult?​ on page 758
Touch Screen Alignment ← Alignment
Displays a touch screen alignment dialog.
When the device is delivered, the touch screen is initially aligned. However, it may
become necessary to adjust the alignment later, e.g. after an image update or after
exchanging a hard disk. If you notice that touching a specific point on the screen does
not achieve the correct response, you may try adjusting the alignment, as well. .
Using a finger or any other pointing device, press the 4 markers on the screen.
The touch screen is aligned according to the executed pointing operations.
General Setup
Opens a submenu for all general settings such as IP address and LAN settings, date and
time, remote control (optional) and measurement display.
Configure Network ← General Setup
Opens the "Network Connections" dialog box to change the LAN settings. For details
refer to the Quick Start Guide, chapter 2 "Preparing for Use" and appendix B "LAN Interface".
Network Address ← General Setup
Opens a submenu to configure the internet protocol properties and the computer name.
Computer Name ← Network Address ← General Setup
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the computer name via the keypad. The naming conventions of Windows apply. If too many characters and/or numbers are entered, in the
status line, an according message is displayed. For step-by-step instructions refer to the
Quick Start Guide, appendix B "LAN Interface".
IP Address ← Network Address ← General Setup
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the IP address via the keypad. The TCP/IP protocol is
preinstalled with the IP address 10.0.0.10. If the DHCP server is available ("DHCP On"),
the dialog box entry is read-only.
The IP address consists of four number blocks separated by dots. Each block contains
3 numbers in maximum (e.g. 100.100.100.100), but also one or two numbers are allowed
in a block (as an example see the preinstalled address). For step-by-step instructions
refer to the Quick Start Guide, chapter 2 "Preparing for Use".
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Instrument Functions
General Settings, Printout and Instrument Settings
Subnet Mask ← Network Address ← General Setup
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the subnet mask via the keypad. The TCP/IP protocol
is preinstalled with the subnet mask 255.255.255.0. If the DHCP server is available
("DHCP On"), the dialog box entry is read-only.
The subnet mask consists of four number blocks separated by dots. Each block contains
3 numbers in maximum (e.g. 100.100.100.100), but also one or two numbers are allowed
in a block (as an example see the preinstalled address). For step-by-step instructions
refer to the Quick Start Guide, chapter 2 "Preparing for Use".
DHCP (On/Off) ← Network Address ← General Setup
Switches between DHCP server available (On) or not available (Off). If a DHCP server
is available in the network, the IP address and subnet mask of the instrument are obtained
automatically from the DHCP server. For further details refer to the Quick Start Guide,
chapter 2 "Preparing for Use".
LXI ← General Setup
Opens the LXI submenu containing the following softkeys:
●
●
●
●
​"Info" on page 52
​"Password" on page 52
​"Description" on page 52
​"LAN Reset" on page 53
LXI functionality is available only for user accounts with administrator rights.
Info ← LXI ← General Setup
Shows the current parameters of LXI class C, including the current version, class and
various computer parameters like the computer name or IP address.
While active, the dialog is not updated.
LXI functionality is available only for user accounts with administrator rights.
Remote command:
​SYSTem:​LXI:​INFo?​ on page 807
Password ← LXI ← General Setup
Shows the currently set password. You can also change the current password using this
softkey.
The password is required to change settings via the web browser (e.g. IP parameter). An
empty password is not valid, i.e. you must enter a password.
By default, the password is LxiWebIfc.
LXI functionality is available only for user accounts with administrator rights.
Remote command:
​SYSTem:​LXI:​PASSword​ on page 808
Description ← LXI ← General Setup
Opens a dialog box to view or change the LXI instrument description. This description is
used on some of the LXI web sites.
By default, the description is "Signal Analyzer".
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General Settings, Printout and Instrument Settings
LXI functionality is available only for user accounts with administrator rights.
Remote command:
​SYSTem:​LXI:​MDEScription​ on page 808
LAN Reset ← LXI ← General Setup
Resets the LAN configuration to a state required by the LXI standard. For example, the
TCP/IP mode is set to DHCP and Dynamic DNS and ICMP Ping are enabled. In addition,
the R&S FSV sets the password and the instrument description to their initial states (see
​"Password" on page 52 and ​"Description" on page 52 softkeys).
Only user accounts with administrator rights can reset the LAN configuration.
Remote command:
​SYSTem:​LXI:​LANReset​ on page 807
GPIB ← General Setup
Opens a submenu to set the parameters of the remote control interface.
GPIB Address ← GPIB ← General Setup
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the GPIB address. Values from 0 to 30 are allowed.
The default address is 20.
Remote command:
​SYSTem:​COMMunicate:​GPIB[:​SELF]:​ADDRess​ on page 801
ID String Factory ← GPIB ← General Setup
Selects the default response to the *IDN? query.
Remote command:
​SYSTem:​IDENtify:​FACTory​ on page 805
ID String User ← GPIB ← General Setup
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a user-defined response to the *IDN? query. Max. 36
characters are allowed.
Remote command:
​SYSTem:​IDENtify[:​STRing]​ on page 806
Compatibility Mode ← GPIB ← General Setup
Sets the R&S FSV in a state compatible to previous R&S devices, enabling the usage of
existing external control applications. In particular, the number of measurement points
and available bandwidths are adjusted to those of other devices.
Furthermore, some special GPIB settings are available in order to emulate HP models
(see ​chapter 4.2.5, "GPIB Commands of HP Models 856xE, 8566A/B, 8568A/B and
8594E", on page 810):
●
●
●
●
​"GPIB Language" on page 54
​"IF Gain (Norm/Puls)" on page 55
​"Sweep Repeat (On/Off)" on page 55
​"Coupling (FSx/HP)" on page 55
"Default"
Standard R&S FSV operation, see ​"Mode Default" on page 54
"R&S FSP"
Compatible to R&S FSP, see ​"Mode R&S FSP" on page 54
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R&S® FSV
Instrument Functions
General Settings, Printout and Instrument Settings
"R&S FSU"
Compatible to R&S FSU, see ​"Mode R&S FSU" on page 54
Remote command:
​SYSTem:​COMPatible​ on page 803
Mode Default ← Compatibility Mode ← GPIB ← General Setup
Resets the number of measurement points and available bandwidths to default R&S FSV
values.
Remote command:
SYST:COMP DEF, see ​SYSTem:​COMPatible​ on page 803
Mode R&S FSP ← Compatibility Mode ← GPIB ← General Setup
Sets the number of measurement points and available bandwidths as in R&S FSP devices.
Remote command:
SYST:COMP FSP, see ​SYSTem:​COMPatible​ on page 803
Mode R&S FSU ← Compatibility Mode ← GPIB ← General Setup
Sets the number of measurement points and available bandwidths as in R&S FSU devices.
Remote command:
SYST:COMP FSU, see ​SYSTem:​COMPatible​ on page 803
GPIB Language ← Compatibility Mode ← GPIB ← General Setup
Opens a list of selectable remote-control languages:
Language
Comment
SCPI
71100C
Compatible to 8566A/B
71200C
Compatible to 8566A/B
71209A
Compatible to 8566A/B
8560E
8561E
8562E
8563E
8564E
8565E
8566A
Command sets A and B are available. Command sets A and B differ in the rules
regarding the command structure.
8566B
8568A
Command sets A and B are available. Command sets A and B differ in the rules
regarding the command structure.
8568A_DC
Uses DC input coupling by default if supported by the instrument
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R&S® FSV
Instrument Functions
General Settings, Printout and Instrument Settings
Language
Comment
8568B
Command sets A and B are available. Command sets A and B differ in the rules
regarding the command structure.
8568B_DC
Uses DC input coupling by default if supported by the instrument
8591E
Compatible to 8594E
8594E
Command sets A and B are available. Command sets A and B differ in the rules
regarding the command structure.
For details on the GPIB languages, see ​chapter 4.2.5, "GPIB Commands of HP Models
856xE, 8566A/B, 8568A/B and 8594E", on page 810.
Remote command:
​SYSTem:​LANGuage​ on page 807
IF Gain (Norm/Puls) ← Compatibility Mode ← GPIB ← General Setup
Configures the internal IF gain settings in HP emulation mode due to the application
needs. This setting is only taken into account for resolution bandwidth < 300 kHz.
NORM
Optimized for high dynamic range, overload limit is close to reference level.
PULS
Optimized for pulsed signals, overload limit up to 10 dB above reference level.
This softkey is only available if a HP language is selected via the "GPIB Language" softkey (see ​"GPIB Language" on page 54).
Remote command:
​SYSTem:​IFGain:​MODE​ on page 806
Sweep Repeat (On/Off) ← Compatibility Mode ← GPIB ← General Setup
Controls a repeated sweep of the E1 and MKPK HI HP model commands (for details on
the commands refer to ​"GPIB Language" on page 54). If the repeated sweep is OFF, the
marker is set without sweeping before.
Note: In single sweep mode, switch off this softkey before you set the marker via the E1
and MKPK HI commands in order to avoid sweeping again.
This softkey is only available if a HP language is selected via the "GPIB Language" softkey (see ​"GPIB Language" on page 54).
Remote command:
​SYSTem:​RSW​ on page 809
Coupling (FSx/HP) ← Compatibility Mode ← GPIB ← General Setup
Controls the default coupling ratios in the HP emulation mode for:
●
●
span and resolution bandwidth (Span/RBW) and
resolution bandwidth and video bandwidth (RBW/VBW)
For FSP(=FSV), the standard parameter coupling of the instrument is used. As a result,
in most cases a shorter sweeptime is used than in case of HP.
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R&S® FSV
Instrument Functions
General Settings, Printout and Instrument Settings
This softkey is only available if a HP language is selected via the "GPIB Language" softkey (see ​"GPIB Language" on page 54).
Remote command:
​SYSTem:​HPCoupling​ on page 805
REV String Factory ← Compatibility Mode ← GPIB ← General Setup
Selects the default response to the REV? query for the revision number (HP emulation
only, see ​chapter 4.2.5, "GPIB Commands of HP Models 856xE, 8566A/B, 8568A/B and
8594E", on page 810).
Remote command:
​SYSTem:​REVision:​FACTory​ on page 809
REV String User ← Compatibility Mode ← GPIB ← General Setup
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a user-defined revision number in response to the
REV? query (HP emulation only, see ​chapter 4.2.5, "GPIB Commands of HP Models
856xE, 8566A/B, 8568A/B and 8594E", on page 810). Max. 36 characters are allowed.
Remote command:
​SYSTem:​REVision[:​STRing]​ on page 809
Display Update (On/Off) ← GPIB ← General Setup
Defines whether the instrument display is switched off when changing from manual operation to remote control. In remote control mode, this softkey is displayed in the local menu.
Remote command:
​SYSTem:​DISPlay:​UPDate​ on page 803
GPIB Terminator LFEOI/EOI ← GPIB ← General Setup
Changes the GPIB receive terminator.
According to the standard, the terminator in ASCII is <LF> and/or <EOI>. For binary data
transfers (e.g. trace data) from the control computer to the instrument, the binary code
used for <LF> might be included in the binary data block, and therefore should not be
interpreted as a terminator in this particular case. This can be avoided by changing the
receive terminator to EOI.
Remote command:
​SYSTem:​COMMunicate:​GPIB[:​SELF]:​RTERminator​ on page 801
*IDN Format Leg./New ← GPIB ← General Setup
Defines the response format to the *IDN? remote command (see ​*IDN?​ on page 470).
This function is intended for re-use of existing control programs together with the
R&S FSV.
"Leg"
Legacy format, compatible to the R&S FSP/FSU/FSQ family
e.g. Rohde&Schwarz,FSV-7,100005/007,1.61
"New"
R&S FSV format
e.g. Rohde&Schwarz,FSV-7,1307.9002K07/100005,1.61
Remote command:
​SYSTem:​FORMat:​IDENt​ on page 805
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R&S® FSV
Instrument Functions
General Settings, Printout and Instrument Settings
I/O Logging (On/Off) ← GPIB ← General Setup
Activates or deactivates the SCPI log function. All remote control commands received by
the R&S FSV are recorded in the following log file:
C:\R_S\Instr\scpilogging\ScpiLog.txt
Logging the commands may be extremely useful for debug purposes, e.g. in order to find
misspelled keywords in control programs.
Remote command:
​SYSTem:​CLOGging​ on page 801
Time+Date ← General Setup
Opens an edit dialog box to enter time and date for the internal real time clock. For details
refer to the Quick Start Guide, chapter 2 "Preparing for Use".
Remote command:
​SYSTem:​TIME​ on page 810
​SYSTem:​DATE​ on page 803
Configure Monitor ← General Setup
Determines and displays the configuration of a connected external monitor, if available.
In the configuration dialog box, you can switch from the internal monitor (laptop icon) to
the external monitor (monitor icon), or both (double monitor icon). For external, the
R&S FSV display is disabled (turns dark). The screen content formerly displayed on the
R&S FSV is displayed on the external screen.
For further details refer to the Quick Start Guide, chapter 2 "Preparing for Use".
Soft Frontpanel ← General Setup
Activates or deactivates the display of the instrument emulation.
deactivated
Only the measurement screen is displayed. This is the setting for working at the
R&S FSV.
activated
In addition to the measurement screen, the whole front panel is displayed, i.e. the
hardkeys and other hardware controls of the device are simulated on the screen. This
is the setting for working at a computer with XP Remote Desktop or at an external
monitor.
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Instrument Functions
General Settings, Printout and Instrument Settings
Fig. 3-1: Soft Frontpanel
Alternatively to this softkey, you can use the F6 key.
Remote command:
​SYSTem:​DISPlay:​FPANel​ on page 803
Display Setup
Opens a submenu to define the display settings.
The following display settings are available:
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
​"Tool Bar State (On/Off)" on page 58
​"Screen Title (On/Off)" on page 59
​"Time+Date (On/Off)" on page 59
​"Time+Date Format (US/DE)" on page 59
​"Print Logo (On/Off)" on page 59
​"Annotation (On/Off)" on page 59
​"Theme Selection" on page 59
​"Screen Colors" on page 59
​"Print Colors" on page 61
​"Display Pwr Save (On/Off)" on page 62
Tool Bar State (On/Off) ← Display Setup
Displays or removes the tool bar above the diagram for standard file functions.
Remote command:
​DISPlay:​TBAR[STATe]​ on page 767
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R&S® FSV
Instrument Functions
General Settings, Printout and Instrument Settings
Screen Title (On/Off) ← Display Setup
Activates/deactivates the display of a diagram title (if available) and opens an edit dialog
box to enter a new title for the active diagram. Max. 20 characters are allowed.
Remote command:
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TEXT[:​DATA]​ on page 768
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TIME​ on page 769
Time+Date (On/Off) ← Display Setup
Activates/deactivates the display of date and time beneath the diagram.
Remote command:
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TIME​ on page 769
Time+Date Format (US/DE) ← Display Setup
Switches the time and date display on the screen between US and German (DE).
Remote command:
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TIME:​FORMat​ on page 769
Print Logo (On/Off) ← Display Setup
Activates/deactivates the display of the Rohde & Schwarz company logo in the upper left
corner.
Remote command:
​DISPlay:​LOGO​ on page 766
Annotation (On/Off) ← Display Setup
Activates/deactivates the display of the frequency information in the diagram footer. For
example to protect confidential data it can be useful to hide the frequency information.
Remote command:
​DISPlay:​ANNotation:​FREQuency​ on page 765
Theme Selection ← Display Setup
Opens a selection list of available themes for the screen display. The theme defines the
colors used for keys and screen elements, for example. The default theme is "BlueOcean".
Remote command:
​DISPlay:​THEMe:​SELect​ on page 768
Screen Colors ← Display Setup
Opens a submenu to configure the screen colors. For details on screen colors refer to
the Quick Start Guide, chapter 2 "Preparing for Use".
The submenu contains the following commands:
●
●
●
●
●
​"Select Screen Color Set" on page 60
​"Color (On/Off)" on page 60
​"Select Object" on page 60
​"Predefined Colors" on page 60
​"User Defined Colors" on page 60
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Instrument Functions
General Settings, Printout and Instrument Settings
●
​"Set to Default" on page 61
Remote command:
​DISPlay:​CMAP<item>:​HSL​ on page 765
Select Screen Color Set ← Screen Colors ← Display Setup
Opens the "Select Screen Color Set" dialog box to select default or user defined color
settings.
If one of the default settings is selected ("Default Colors 1"/"2"), the default settings for
brightness, color tint and color saturation for all display screen elements are restored.
The default color schemes provide optimum visibility of all picture elements at an angle
of vision from above or below. Default setting is "Default Colors 1".
If "User Defined Colors" is selected, a user-defined color set can be defined. For stepby-step instruction refer to the Quick Start Guide, chapter 2 "Preparing for Use".
Remote command:
​DISPlay:​CMAP<item>:​DEFault​ on page 765
Color (On/Off) ← Screen Colors ← Display Setup
Switches from color display to black-and-white display and back. The default setting is
color display.
Select Object ← Screen Colors ← Display Setup
Opens the "Color Setup" dialog box to select the color settings for a selected object.
The "Selected Object" list is displayed to select the object. For setting the color the predefined colors are displayed.
Remote command:
​DISPlay:​CMAP<item>:​HSL​ on page 765
​HCOPy:​CMAP<item>:​HSL​ on page 772
Predefined Colors ← Screen Colors ← Display Setup
In the "Color Setup" dialog box, displays the "Predefined Colors" (alternatively to the
"Predefined Colors" button). This softkey is only available if, in the "Select Color Set"
dialog box, the "User Defined Colors" option is selected or the "Color Setup" dialog box
is displayed. For further details refer to the Quick Start Guide, chapter 2 "Preparing for
Use".
Remote command:
​DISPlay:​CMAP<item>:​PDEFined​ on page 766
​HCOPy:​CMAP<item>:​PDEFined​ on page 773
User Defined Colors ← Screen Colors ← Display Setup
In the "Color Setup" dialog box, displays the "User Defined Colors" (alternatively to the
"User Defined Colors" button). This softkey is only available if, in the "Select Color Set"
dialog box, the "User Defined Colors" option is selected or the "Color Setup" dialog box
is displayed. For further details refer to the Quick Start Guide, chapter 2 "Preparing for
Use".
Remote command:
​DISPlay:​CMAP<item>:​HSL​ on page 765
​HCOPy:​CMAP<item>:​HSL​ on page 772
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Set to Default ← Screen Colors ← Display Setup
Opens the "Set to Default" dialog box to select one of the factory default color settings.
Remote command:
​DISPlay:​CMAP<item>:​DEFault​ on page 765
​HCOPy:​CMAP<item>:​DEFault​ on page 772
Print Colors ← Display Setup
Opens a submenu to select the colors for the printout. To facilitate color selection, the
selected color combination is displayed when the menu is entered. The previous colors
are restored when the menu is exited. For details on screen colors refer to the Quick Start
Guide, chapter 2 "Preparing for Use".
The submenu contains the following commands:
●
●
●
●
●
●
​"Select Print Color Set" on page 61
​"Color (On/Off)" on page 61
​"Select Object" on page 84
​"Predefined Colors" on page 84
​"User Defined Colors" on page 84
​"Set to Default" on page 84
Remote command:
​HCOPy:​CMAP<item>:​HSL​ on page 772
Select Print Color Set ← Print Colors ← Display Setup
Opens the "Select Print Color Set" dialog box to select the color settings for printout.
Screen Colors (Print)
Selects the current screen colors for the printout. The background is
always printed in white and the grid in black.
Screen Colors (Hardcopy)
Selects the current screen colors without any changes for a hardcopy.
The output format is set via the ​"Device Setup" on page 83 softkey
in the "Print" menu.
Optimized Colors
Selects an optimized color setting for the printout to improve the visibility of the colors (default setting). Trace 1 is blue, trace 2 black, trace
3 green, and the markers are turquoise. The background is always
printed in white and the grid in black.
User Defined Colors
Enables the softkeys to define colors for the printout.
Remote command:
​HCOPy:​CMAP<item>:​DEFault​ on page 772
Color (On/Off) ← Print Colors ← Display Setup
Switches from color printout to black-and-white printout and back. All colored areas are
printed in white and all colored lines in black. This improves the contrast. The default
setting is color printout, provided that the selected printer can produce color printouts.
Remote command:
​HCOPy:​DEVice:​COLor​ on page 774
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Display Pwr Save (On/Off) ← Display Setup
Switches the power-save mode for the display (On/Off) and opens an edit dialog box to
enter the time for the power-save function to respond. After the elapse of this time the
display is completely switched off, i.e. including backlighting. This mode is recommended
when the instrument is exclusively operated in remote control.
For details on the power-save mode for the display refer to the Quick Start Guide, chapter
2 "Preparing for Use".
Remote command:
​DISPlay:​PSAVe[:​STATe]​ on page 767
​DISPlay:​PSAVe:​HOLDoff​ on page 767
System Info
Opens a submenu to display detailed information on module data, device statistics and
system messages.
The submenu contains the following commands:
●
●
●
●
​"Hardware Info" on page 62
​"Versions+Options" on page 62
​"System Messages" on page 63
​"Clear All Messages" on page 63
Hardware Info ← System Info
Opens a dialog box that displays hardware information, e.g. on the frontend and motherboard. Every listed component is described by its serial number, order number, model
information, hardware code, and hardware revision.
Remote command:
​DIAGnostic<n>:​SERVice:​HWINfo?​ on page 760
Versions+Options ← System Info
Opens a dialog box that displays a list of hardware and firmware information, including:
Label
Description
Device ID
Unique ID of the device
Instrument Firmware
Installed firmware version
BIOS
Installed BIOS version
CPLD
CPLD version
MB-FPGA
Motherboard FPGA version
Data Sheet Version
Data sheet version of the basic device
<option>
Installed hardware and firmware options
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For details on options refer to the Quick Start Guide, chapter 2 "Checking the Supplied
Items".
Remote command:
​*IDN?​ on page 470
​*OPT?​ on page 471
​SYSTem:​DEVice:​ID?/SYSTem:​DID?​ on page 803
​SYSTem:​DEVice:​ID?/SYSTem:​DID?​ on page 803
System Messages ← System Info
Opens the "System Messages" dialog box that displays the generated system messages
in the order of their occurrence. The most recent messages are placed at the top of the
list. Messages that have occurred since the last display of system messages menu are
marked with an asterisk '*'. The following information is available:
No
device-specific error code
Message
brief description of the message
Component
hardware messages: name of the affected module
software messages: name of the affected software
Date/Time
date and time of the occurrence of the message
If the number of error messages exceeds the capacity of the error buffer, "Message buffer
overflow" is displayed. To delete messages see ​"Clear All Messages" on page 63 softkey.
Remote command:
​SYSTem:​ERRor:​LIST?​ on page 804
Clear All Messages ← System Info
Deletes all system messages. The softkey is only available if the "System Messages"
dialog box is displayed.
Remote command:
​SYSTem:​ERRor:​CLEar:​ALL​ on page 804
Firmware Update
Opens the "Firmware Update" dialog box.
Enter the name of or browse for the firmware installation file and press the "Execute"
button. For details on installation refer to the Quick Start Guide, chapter 3 "Firmware
Update and Installation of Firmware Options".
Only user accounts with administrator rights can perform a firmware update.
Remote command:
​SYSTem:​FIRMware:​UPDate​ on page 804
Option Licenses
Opens a submenu to install options. For details on options refer to the Quick Start Guide,
chapter 3 "Firmware Update and Installation of Firmware Options".
The submenu contains the following commands:
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●
●
​"Install Option" on page 64
​"Install Option by XML" on page 64
Only user accounts with administrator rights are able to install options.
Install Option ← Option Licenses
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the license key for the option that you want to install.
If an option is about to expire, a message box is displayed to inform you. You can then
use this softkey to enter a new license key.
If an option has already expired, a message box appears for you to confirm. In this case,
all instrument functions are unavailable (including remote control) until the R&S FSV is
rebooted. You must then use the "Install Option" softkey to enter the new license key.
For more information about the option in question refer to the ​System Info softkey in the
"Setup" menu.
Only user accounts with administrator rights are able to install options.
Install Option by XML ← Option Licenses
Opens an edit dialog to install an additional option to the R&S FSV using an XML file.
Enter or browse for the name of an XML file on the instrument that contains the option
key and press "Select".
Only user accounts with administrator rights are able to install options.
Application Setup Recovery
Controls instrument behavior when switching between measurement applications, e.g.
from "Spectrum" to "Analog Demod" and back.
If this softkey is activated, the current instrument settings are stored when you switch to
a different application. When you switch back to the previous application, the corresponding instrument settings are restored. Thus, the settings of the individual applications
are independant of each other.
If the softkey is deactivated (default), only a few parameters of the current instrument
setting are passed between applications (e.g. center frequency, level settings).
Note that this setting is not deactivated during a preset operation, i.e. you must deactivate
it manually, if necessary.
Remote command:
​SYSTem:​APPLication:​SRECovery[:​STATe]​ on page 800
Service
Opens a submenu that contains additional functions for maintenance and/or troubleshooting.
NOTICE! Risk of incorrect operation due to Service functions. The service functions are
not necessary for normal measurement operation. However, incorrect use can affect
correct operation and/or data integrity of the R&S FSV.
Therefore, many of the functions can only be used after entering a password. They are
described in the instrument service manual.
The submenu contains the following commands:
●
●
​"Input Source" on page 65
​"Reset Password" on page 65
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●
●
●
●
​"Selftest" on page 65
​"Selftest Results" on page 66
​"Password" on page 66
​"Service Function" on page 66
Only user accounts with administrator rights are able to use service functions.
Input Source ← Service
Opens a submenu to select the input source for measurement.
The submenu contains the following options:
●
●
●
​"RF" on page 65
​"Calibration Frequency RF" on page 65
​"Calibration Frequency MW" on page 65
RF ← Input Source ← Service
Switches the input of the R&S FSV to the RF input connector (normal position). This is
the default setting.
Remote command:
​DIAGnostic<n>:​SERVice:​INPut[:​SELect]​ on page 761
Calibration Frequency RF ← Input Source ← Service
Opens an edit dialog box to set the generator frequency for the internal calibration.
Remote command:
​DIAGnostic<n>:​SERVice:​INPut:​PULSed:​CFRequency​ on page 760
Calibration Frequency MW ← Input Source ← Service
Opens an edit dialog box to set the calibration frequency for frequencies greater than 7
GHz (for R&S FSV 13 and 30 only).
Remote command:
​DIAGnostic<n>:​SERVice:​INPut:​PULSed:​MCFRequency​ on page 761
Reset Password ← Service
Deactivates all set passwords.
Remote command:
​SYSTem:​PASSword:​RESet​ on page 808
Selftest ← Service
Initiates the self test of the instrument modules to identify a defective module in case of
failure. All modules are checked consecutively and the test result is displayed.
Remote command:
​*TST?​ on page 473
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Selftest Results ← Service
Opens the "Selftest Result" dialog box that contains the test results. In case of failure a
short description of the failed test, the defective module, the associated value range and
the corresponding test results are indicated.
Remote command:
​DIAGnostic<n>:​SERVice:​STESt:​RESult?​ on page 763
Password ← Service
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the password. This ensures that the service functions
are only used by authorized personnel.
Remote command:
​SYSTem:​PASSword[:​CENable]​ on page 808
Service Function ← Service
Opens the "Service Function" dialog box to start special service functions. For further
information refer to the service manual.
Remote command:
​DIAGnostic<n>:​SERVice:​SFUNction​ on page 762
3.1.1.2
Activating or Deactivating the LXI Class C Functionality
As of firmware version 1.50, only user accounts with administrator rights are able to use
LXI functionality.
1. In the Windows XP "Start" menu, select the "LXI" entry and press the ENTER key.
An LXI configuration dialog box is displayed.
2. Press the "Rescan" button.
3. Press the "Save" button.
The instrument reboots and after the reboot LXI is active.
4. To deactivate the LXI Class C functionality perform step 1 and 2 again.
An LXI configuration dialog box is displayed.
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5. Press the "Turn LXI Off" button.
3.1.1.3
LXI Class C Functionality
If the LXI Class C functionality is installed and enabled (default state is off; see ​chapter 3.1.1.1, "Softkeys of the Setup Menu", on page 44), the instrument can be accessed
via any web browser (e.g. the Microsoft Internet Explorer) to perform the following tasks:
●
modifying network configurations
●
modifying device configurations
●
monitoring connections from the device to other devices
To change settings, in the web browser, open the "http://<instrument-hostname>" or
"http://<instrument-ip-address>" page. The password to change LAN configurations is
LxiWeb.
As of firmware version 1.50, only user accounts with administrator rights are able to use
LXI functionality.
3.1.2 Saving and Recalling Settings Files – SAVE/RCL Key
The SAVE/RCL key is used to store and load instrument settings and measurement
results, and to manage stored files.
The "Save/Recall" menu includes functions for storing instrument settings such as instrument configurations (measurement/display settings, etc) and measurement results on
permanent storage media, or to load stored data back onto the instrument. The data is
stored on the internal flash disk or, if selected, on a memory stick or network drive.
Functions for management of storage media include functions for listing, copying, deleting and renaming files.
To open the Save/Recall menu
► Press the SAVE/RCL key.
The "Save/Recall" menu is displayed.
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Menu and softkey description
●
​chapter 3.1.2.1, "Softkeys of the SAVE/RCL Menu", on page 68
Further information
3.1.2.1
●
​chapter 3.1.2.2, "File Selection Dialog Boxes", on page 74
●
​chapter 3.1.2.3, "Importing and Exporting I/Q Data", on page 76
Softkeys of the SAVE/RCL Menu
The following table shows all softkeys available in the "Save/Recall" menu.
Save..............................................................................................................................69
└ Save File / Recall File.....................................................................................69
└ Select Path......................................................................................................69
└ Select File.......................................................................................................69
└ Edit File Name................................................................................................69
└ Edit Comment.................................................................................................69
└ Select Items....................................................................................................69
└ Select Items..........................................................................................69
└ Enable all Items....................................................................................70
└ Disable all Items...................................................................................70
└ Delete File.......................................................................................................70
Recall............................................................................................................................70
Startup Recall................................................................................................................70
└ Startup Recall (On/Off)...................................................................................71
└ Select Dataset.................................................................................................71
ScreenShot...................................................................................................................71
Export............................................................................................................................71
└ ASCII Trace Export.........................................................................................71
└ Decim Sep......................................................................................................71
└ IQ Export.........................................................................................................72
Import............................................................................................................................72
└ IQ Import.........................................................................................................72
File Manager.................................................................................................................72
└ Edit Path.........................................................................................................72
└ New Folder......................................................................................................72
└ Copy................................................................................................................73
└ Rename..........................................................................................................73
└ Cut..................................................................................................................73
└ Paste...............................................................................................................73
└ Delete..............................................................................................................73
└ Sort Mode.......................................................................................................73
└ Name....................................................................................................73
└ Date......................................................................................................73
└ Extension..............................................................................................73
└ Size.......................................................................................................73
└ File Lists (1/2).................................................................................................73
└ Current File List (1/2)......................................................................................73
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└ Network Drive.................................................................................................74
└ Map Network Drive...............................................................................74
└ Disconnect Network Drive....................................................................74
Save
Opens the "Save" dialog box to define which measurement settings and results to store.
To navigate in the dialog box and define/enter data, use the corresponding softkeys.
For details see also ​chapter 3.1.2.2, "File Selection Dialog Boxes", on page 74.
Save File / Recall File ← Save
Saves the settings file with the defined file name ("Save" dialog box), or recalls the
selected settings file ("Recall" dialog box).
You can assign stored settings files to user-definable softkeys in the "User" menu for
easy access, see ​chapter 3.1.5, "User-Defined Menu – USER key", on page 84 .
Remote command:
​MMEMory:​STORe<n>:​STATe​ on page 788
​MMEMory:​STORe<n>:​STATe:​NEXT​ on page 788
​MMEMory:​LOAD:​STATe​ on page 783
Select Path ← Save
Opens the directory list to select the drive and folder for the settings file to be stored or
loaded. The default path is C:\r_s\instr\user.
Select File ← Save
Sets the focus on the "Files" list.
Remote command:
​MMEMory:​CATalog?​ on page 778
Edit File Name ← Save
Sets the focus on the "File Name" field.
Edit Comment ← Save
Sets the focus on the "Comment" field to enter a comment for the settings file. Max. 60
characters are allowed.
Select Items ← Save
Displays the submenu for selecting the items to be stored or loaded.
Select Items ← Select Items ← Save
Sets the focus on the items list. Which items are available depends on the installed
options.
In the "Save" dialog box, all items that can be saved are displayed.
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In the "Recall" dialog box, the items saved in the selected file are displayed.
Remote command:
​MMEMory:​SELect[:​ITEM]:​HWSettings​ on page 786
​MMEMory:​SELect[:​ITEM]:​LINes:​ALL​ on page 787
​MMEMory:​SELect[:​ITEM]:​TRACe[:​ACTive]​ on page 788
​MMEMory:​SELect[:​ITEM]:​TRANsducer:​ALL​ on page 788
Enable all Items ← Select Items ← Save
Selects all items for saving or loading.
Remote command:
​MMEMory:​SELect[:​ITEM]:​ALL​ on page 786
Disable all Items ← Select Items ← Save
Selects none of the items for saving or loading.
Remote command:
​MMEMory:​SELect[:​ITEM]:​NONE​ on page 787
Delete File ← Save
Deletes the selected settings file.
Remote command:
​MMEMory:​CLEar:​STATe 1,​ on page 780
Recall
Opens the "Recall" dialog box to load a settings file. To navigate in the dialog box, use
the corresponding softkeys.
For details see also ​chapter 3.1.2.2, "File Selection Dialog Boxes", on page 74.
Path
Directory from which the settings file is loaded. The default path for user
settings files is C:\r_s\instr\user
Files
List of stored settings files
File Name
Name of settings file
Comment
Comment of the settings file
[Items]
Items saved in the settings file
Note: After you use the "Recall" function, the history of previous actions is deleted, i.e.
any actions performed previously cannot be undone or redone using the UNDO/REDO
keys.
Remote command:
​MMEMory:​LOAD:​STATe​ on page 783
Startup Recall
Opens a submenu to activate or deactivate and set up the startup recall function.
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Startup Recall (On/Off) ← Startup Recall
Activates or deactivates the startup recall function. If activated, the settings stored in the
file selected via the ​Select Dataset softkey are loaded when booting or for preset. If
deactivated, the default settings are loaded.
Remote command:
​MMEMory:​LOAD:​AUTO​ on page 782
Select Dataset ← Startup Recall
Opens the "Startup Recall" dialog box to select the settings file for the startup recall function.
ScreenShot
Saves the current measurement screen as a file (screenshot). This function can also be
performed via the "Screenshot" icon in the toolbar, if available.
Remote command:
​HCOPy[:​IMMediate<1|2>]​ on page 775
Export
Opens a submenu to configure data export.
ASCII Trace Export ← Export
Opens the "ASCII Trace Export Name" dialog box and saves the active trace in ASCII
format to the specified file and directory.
The file consists of the header containing important scaling parameters and a data section
containing the trace data. For details on an ASCII file see ​chapter 3.2.8.7, "ASCII File
Export Format", on page 138.
This format can be processed by spreadsheet calculation programs, e.g. MS-Excel. It is
necessary to define ';' as a separator for the data import. Different language versions of
evaluation programs may require a different handling of the decimal point. It is therefore
possible to select between separators '.' (decimal point) and ',' (comma) using the "Decim
Sep" softkey (see ​"Decim Sep" on page 71).
If the spectrogram display is selected when you perform this function, the entire histogram
buffer with all frames is exported to a file. The data corresponding to a particular frame
begins with information about the frame number and the time that frame was recorded.
For large history buffers the export operation may take some time. For details see ​chapter 3.10.4, "ASCII File Export Format for Spectrograms", on page 423.
Remote command:
​FORMat:​DEXPort:​DSEParator​ on page 609
​MMEMory:​STORe<n>:​TRACe​ on page 624
​MMEMory:​STORe:​SGRam​ on page 623
Decim Sep ← Export
Selects the decimal separator with floating-point numerals for the ASCII Trace export to
support evaluation programs (e.g. MS-Excel) in different languages. The values '.' (decimal point) and ',' (comma) can be set.
Remote command:
​FORMat:​DEXPort:​DSEParator​ on page 609
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IQ Export ← Export
Opens a file selection dialog box to select an export file to which the IQ data will be stored.
This function is only available in single sweep mode.
For details see ​chapter 3.1.2.3, "Importing and Exporting I/Q Data", on page 76.
Remote command:
​MMEMory:​STORe:​IQ:​STATe​ on page 622
​MMEMory:​STORe:​IQ:​COMM​ on page 623
Import
Provides functions to import data.
IQ Import ← Import
Opens a file selection dialog box to select an import file that contains IQ data. This function
is only available in single sweep mode.
For details see ​chapter 3.1.2.3, "Importing and Exporting I/Q Data", on page 76.
Remote command:
​MMEMory:​LOAD:​IQ:​STATe​ on page 622
File Manager
Opens the "File Manager" dialog box and a submenu to manage mass storage media
and files. In the upper left corner, the current drive is displayed. Below the folders and
subfolders of the current directory are displayed.
For details on navigation see also ​chapter 3.1.2.2, "File Selection Dialog Boxes",
on page 74.
The following tasks can be performed:
●
●
●
copying files from flash disk to other media
copying files into another directory
renaming and deleting files
Edit Path ← File Manager
Opens the directory list to select the drive and folder for the file to be stored or loaded.
The default path is C:\r_s\instr\user.
Remote command:
​MMEMory:​MSIS​ on page 784
​MMEMory:​CDIRectory​ on page 780
New Folder ← File Manager
Creates a new folder and opens an edit dialog box to enter name and path (absolute or
relative to the current directory) of the new folder.
Remote command:
​MMEMory:​MDIRectory​ on page 783
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Copy ← File Manager
Copies the selected item to the clipboard. The item can be copied later using the ​Paste
softkey.
Remote command:
​MMEMory:​COPY​ on page 781
Rename ← File Manager
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a new file or folder name.
Remote command:
​MMEMory:​MOVE​ on page 784
Cut ← File Manager
Copies the selected file to the clipboard. If the file is later copied to a different directory
using the ​Paste softkey, it is deleted in the current directory.
Paste ← File Manager
Copies a file from the clipboard to the currently selected directory.
Delete ← File Manager
Deletes the selected item after confirmation.
Remote command:
​MMEMory:​DELete​ on page 782
​MMEMory:​RDIRectory​ on page 786
Sort Mode ← File Manager
Opens a submenu to select the sorting mode for the displayed files. The entry for the next
higher directory level ("..") and the folders are always located at the top of the list.
Name ← Sort Mode ← File Manager
Sorts the displayed files in alphabetical order of the file names.
Date ← Sort Mode ← File Manager
Sorts the displayed files in respect to the date.
Extension ← Sort Mode ← File Manager
Sorts the displayed files in respect to the extension.
Size ← Sort Mode ← File Manager
Sorts the displayed files in respect to the size.
File Lists (1/2) ← File Manager
Splits the screen to copy files from one directory to the other. The focus between the two
panes is switched using the FIELD RIGHT and FIELD LEFT keys.
Current File List (1/2) ← File Manager
Changes the focus to the selected file list.
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Network Drive ← File Manager
Opens the "Map Network Drive" dialog box and submenu.
Map Network Drive ← Network Drive ← File Manager
Sets the focus on the "Drive" list.
Remote command:
​MMEMory:​NETWork:​MAP​ on page 785
​MMEMory:​NETWork:​USEDdrives?​ on page 786
​MMEMory:​NETWork:​UNUSeddrives?​ on page 785
Disconnect Network Drive ← Network Drive ← File Manager
Opens the "Disconnect Network Drive" dialog box. In the "Drive" list, select the drive you
want to disconnect and confirm with "OK".
Remote command:
​MMEMory:​NETWork:​DISConnect​ on page 785
3.1.2.2
File Selection Dialog Boxes
The "Save" and "Recall" dialog boxes are used to save and recall settings and data files.
The "File Manager" allows you to copy, delete or rename data files on the R&S FSV.
These and other file selection dialog boxes are very similar.
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Drive
The data is stored on the internal flash disk or, if selected, on a memory stick or network
drive. The mass media are assigned to the volume names as follows:
Drive
Designation
Comment
C
operating system, firmware and stored instrument
settings
for customer data
A
USB floppy drive
if connected
D
USB memory stick or USB CD-ROM
if connected
E …Z
additional USB mass storage devices or mounted
LAN volumes
if connected
Path
The current path contains the drive and the complete file path to the currently selected
folder.
To set the focus on the "Path" list, press the ​Select Path/ ​Edit Path softkey.
Files
This list contains the files and folders contained in the currently selected path.
To set the focus on the "Files" list, press the ​Select File softkey.
File Name
The "File Name" field contains the name of the data file without the path or extension.
To set the focus on "File Name" field, press the ​Edit File Name softkey.
In the "Save" dialog box, the field already contains a suggestion for a new name: the file
name used in the last saving process is used, extended by an index. For example, if the
name last used was test_004, the new name test_005 is suggested, but only if this
name is not in use. You can change the suggested name as you like.
By default, the name of a settings file consists of a base name followed by an underscore
and three numbers, e.g. limit_lines_005. In the example, the base name is
limit_lines. The base name can contain characters, numbers and underscores. The
file extension dfl is added automatically.
Comment
The comment is optional and may contain a description for the data file.
To set the focus on the "Comment" field, press the ​Edit Comment softkey.
Items
When saving data files you can select which data and settings are stored; when recalling
such files, this field indicates which items were included during storage. In the "File Manager", this field is not available.
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Which items are available depends on the installed options. The following items may be
included:
3.1.2.3
Item
Description
Current Settings
Current measurement settings
All Transducers
Transducer factors for all active transducers.
All Traces
All active traces; R&S FSV-K30 only: also calibration data
All Limit Lines
All limit lines (Note: information on which limit lines are active is stored with the
"Current Settings")
Spectrograms
Spectrogram trace data (only available if spectrogram display is currently active,
R&S FSV-K14 only)
Noise - ENR
Data in "ENR Settings" dialog box (R&S FSV-K30 only)
Noise - Loss Settings
Data in "Loss Settings" dialog box (R&S FSV-K30 only)
Noise - Calibration data
Results from calibration measurement (R&S FSV-K30 only)
K40 Results
All current phase noise trace results (R&S FSV-K40 only)
WLAN Results
Stores the trace and table results for WLAN measurements(R&S FSV-K91 only)
WLAN IQ Data
Stores the measured I/Q data (R&S FSV-K91 only)
WLAN User Limits
Stores any limit values modified in the table of results for WLAN measurements
(R&S FSV-K91 only)
WiMAX Results
Stores the trace and table results for WiMAX measurements(R&S FSV-K93
only)
Importing and Exporting I/Q Data
In addition to instrument settings and displayed traces, also captured I/Q data can be
exported to a file on the R&S FSV. The stored data can then be imported again at a later
time, also by different applications, for further processing. For example, you can capture
I/Q data using the I/Q Analyzer (see ​chapter 3.5, "Instrument Functions - I/Q Analyzer",
on page 310) and then perform vector signal analysis on that data using the R&S FSVK70 option, if available.
As opposed to storing trace data, which may be averaged or restricted to peak values, I/
Q data is stored as it was captured, without further processing. The data is stored as
complex values in 32-bit floating-point format. The I/Q data is stored in a packed format
with the file extension .iq.tar.
The ​IQ Import and ​IQ Export functions are available from the "Save/Recall" menu, which
is displayed when you press the SAVE/RCL key on the front panel.
They can also be performed remotely using the following commands:
​MMEMory:​STORe:​IQ:​STATe​ on page 622
​MMEMory:​LOAD:​IQ:​STATe​ on page 622
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iq-tar File Format Specification
I/Q data is stored in a compressed format with the file extension .iq.tar.
An .iq.tar file contains I/Q data in binary format together with meta information that
describes the nature and the source of data, e.g. the sample rate. The objective of
the .iq.tar file format is to separate I/Q data from the meta information while still having
both inside one file. In addition, the file format allows you to preview the I/Q data in a web
browser, and allows you to include user-specific data.
Contained files
An iq-tar file must contain the following files:
●
I/Q parameter XML file, e.g. xyz.xml
Contains meta information about the I/Q data (e.g. sample rate). The filename can
be defined freely, but there must be only one single I/Q parameter XML file inside an
iq-tar file.
●
I/Q data binary file, e.g. xyz.complex.float32
Contains the binary I/Q data of all channels. There must be only one single I/Q data
binary file inside an iq-tar file.
Optionally, an iq-tar file can contain the following file:
●
I/Q preview XSLT file, e.g. open_IqTar_xml_file_in_web_browser.xslt
Contains a stylesheet to display the I/Q parameter XML file and a preview of the I/Q
data in a web browser.
I/Q Parameter XML File Specification
The content of the I/Q parameter XML file must comply with the XML schema
RsIqTar.xsd available at: http://www.rohde-schwarz.com/file/RsIqTar.xsd.
In particular, the order of the XML elements must be respected, i.e. iq-tar uses an
"ordered XML schema". For your own implementation of the iq-tar file format make
sure to validate your XML file against the given schema.
The following example shows an I/Q parameter XML file. The XML elements and attributes are explained in the following sections.
Sample I/Q parameter XML file: xyz.xml
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<?xml-stylesheet type="text/xsl"
href="open_IqTar_xml_file_in_web_browser.xslt"?>
<RS_IQ_TAR_FileFormat fileFormatVersion="1"
xsi:noNamespaceSchemaLocation="RsIqTar.xsd"
xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance">
<Name>FSV-K10</Name>
<Comment>Here is a comment</Comment>
<DateTime>2011-01-24T14:02:49</DateTime>
<Samples>68751</Samples>
<Clock unit="Hz">6.5e+006</Clock>
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<Format>complex</Format>
<DataType>float32</DataType>
<ScalingFactor unit="V">1</ScalingFactor>
<NumberOfChannels>1</NumberOfChannels>
<DataFilename>xyz.complex.float32</DataFilename>
<UserData>
<UserDefinedElement>Example</UserDefinedElement>
</UserData>
<PreviewData>...</PreviewData>
</RS_IQ_TAR_FileFormat>
Element
Description
RS_IQ_TAR_FileFormat
The root element of the XML file. It must contain the attribute
fileFormatVersion that contains the number of the file format definition. Currently, fileFormatVersion "2" is used.
Name
Optional: describes the device or application that created the file.
Comment
Optional: contains text that further describes the contents of the file.
DateTime
Contains the date and time of the creation of the file. Its type is xs:dateTime
(see RsIqTar.xsd).
Samples
Contains the number of samples of the I/Q data. For multi-channel signals all
channels have the same number of samples. One sample can be:
A complex number represented as a pair of I and Q values
●
A complex number represented as a pair of magnitude and phase values
●
A real number represented as a single real value
●
See also Format element.
Clock
Contains the clock frequency in Hz, i.e. the sample rate of the I/Q data. A signal
generator typically outputs the I/Q data at a rate that equals the clock frequency.
If the I/Q data was captured with a signal analyzer, the signal analyzer used the
clock frequency as the sample rate. The attribute unit must be set to "Hz".
Format
Specifies how the binary data is saved in the I/Q data binary file (see
DataFilename element). Every sample must be in the same format. The format
can be one of the following:
Complex: Complex number in cartesian format, i.e. I and Q values inter●
leaved. I and Q are unitless
Real: Real number (unitless)
●
Polar: Complex number in polar format, i.e. magnitude (unitless) and phase
●
(rad) values interleaved. Requires DataType = float32 or float64
DataType
Specifies the binary format used for samples in the I/Q data binary file (see
DataFilename element and ​"I/Q Data Binary File" on page 80). The following
data types are allowed:
int8: 8 bit signed integer data
●
int16: 16 bit signed integer data
●
int32: 32 bit signed integer data
●
float32: 32 bit floating point data (IEEE 754)
●
float64: 64 bit floating point data (IEEE 754)
●
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Element
Description
ScalingFactor
Optional: describes how the binary data can be transformed into values in the unit
Volt. The binary I/Q data itself has no unit. To get an I/Q sample in the unit Volt
the saved samples have to be multiplied by the value of the ScalingFactor. For
polar data only the magnitude value has to be multiplied. For multi-channel signals
the ScalingFactor must be applied to all channels.
The ScalingFactor must be > 0. If the ScalingFactor element is not defined,
a value of 1 V is assumed.
NumberOfChannels
Optional: specifies the number of channels, e.g. of a MIMO signal, contained in
the I/Q data binary file. For multi-channels, the I/Q samples of the channels are
expected to be interleaved within the I/Q data file (see ​"I/Q Data Binary File"
on page 80). If the NumberOfChannels element is not defined, one channel is
assumed.
DataFilename
Contains the filename of the I/Q data binary file that is part of the iq-tar file.
It is recommended that the filename uses the following convention:
<xyz>.<Format>.<Channels>ch.<Type>
●
●
●
●
<xyz> = a valid Windows file name
<Format> = complex, polar or real (see Format element)
<Channels> = Number of channels (see NumberOfChannels element)
<Type> = float32, float64, int8, int16, int32 or int64 (see DataType element)
Examples:
●
●
●
●
xyz.complex.1ch.float32
xyz.polar.1ch.float64
xyz.real.1ch.int16
xyz.complex.16ch.int8
UserData
Optional: contains user, application or device-specific XML data which is not part
of the iq-tar specification. This element can be used to store additional information, e.g. the hardware configuration. It is recommended that you add user data
as XML content.
PreviewData
Optional: contains further XML elements that provide a preview of the I/Q data.
The preview data is determined by the routine that saves an iq-tar file (e.g.
R&S FSV). For the definition of this element refer to the RsIqTar.xsd schema.
Note that the preview can be only displayed by current web browsers that have
JavaScript enabled and if the XSLT stylesheet
open_IqTar_xml_file_in_web_browser.xslt is available.
Example: ScalingFactor
Data stored as int16 and a desired full scale voltage of 1 V
ScalingFactor = 1 V / maximum int16 value = 1 V / 215 = 3.0517578125e-5 V
Numerical value
Numerical value x ScalingFactor
Minimum (negative) int16 value
- 215 = - 32768
-1 V
Maximum (positive) int16 value
215-1= 32767
0.999969482421875 V
Example: PreviewData in XML
<PreviewData>
<ArrayOfChannel length="1">
<Channel>
<PowerVsTime>
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<Min>
<ArrayOfFloat length="256">
<float>-95</float>
<float>-94</float>
...
<float>-93</float>
</ArrayOfFloat>
</Min>
<Max>
<ArrayOfFloat length="256">
<float>0</float>
<float>-41</float>
...
<float>0</float>
</ArrayOfFloat>
</Max>
</PowerVsTime>
<Spectrum>
<Min>
<ArrayOfFloat length="256">
<float>-107</float>
<float>-96</float>
...
<float>-94</float>
</ArrayOfFloat>
</Min>
<Max>
<ArrayOfFloat length="256">
<float>-25</float>
<float>1</float>
...
<float>1</float>
</ArrayOfFloat>
</Max>
</Spectrum>
</Channel>
</ArrayOfChannel>
</PreviewData>
I/Q Data Binary File
The I/Q data is saved in binary format according to the format and data type specified in
the XML file (see Format element and DataType element). To allow reading and writing
of streamed I/Q data all data is interleaved, i.e. complex values are interleaved pairs of
I and Q values and multi-channel signals contain interleaved (complex) samples for
channel 1, channel 2, channel 3 etc.
Example: NumberOfChannels - Element ordering for complex cartesian data
Complex data: I[channel no][time index], Q[channel no][time index]
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I[0][0], Q[0][0],
// Channel 0, Complex sample 0
I[1][0], Q[1][0],
// Channel 1, Complex sample 0
I[2][0], Q[2][0],
// Channel 2, Complex sample 0
I[0][1], Q[0][1],
// Channel 0, Complex sample 1
I[1][1], Q[1][1],
// Channel 1, Complex sample 1
I[2][1], Q[2][1],
// Channel 2, Complex sample 1
I[0][2], Q[0][2],
// Channel 0, Complex sample 2
I[1][2], Q[1][2],
// Channel 1, Complex sample 2
I[2][2], Q[2][2],
// Channel 2, Complex sample 2
I[0][3], Q[0][3],
// Channel 0, Complex sample 3
I[1][3], Q[1][3],
// Channel 1, Complex sample 3
I[2][3], Q[2][3],
// Channel 2, Complex sample 3
...
3.1.3 Manual Operation – Local Menu
When switched on, the instrument is always in the manual measurement mode and can
be operated via the front panel. As soon as the instrument receives a remote command,
it is switched to the remote control mode.
In remote control mode, all keys of the instrument except the PRESET key are disabled,
see ​chapter 3.1.1, "Instrument Setup and Interface Configuration – SETUP Key",
on page 43. The "LOCAL" softkey and the ​Display Update (On/Off) softkey are displayed.
Depending on the setting of the ​Display Update (On/Off) softkey, the diagrams, traces
and display fields are displayed or hidden. For further details on the ​Display Update (On/
Off) softkey refer to ​chapter 3.1.1, "Instrument Setup and Interface Configuration –
SETUP Key", on page 43.
For details on remote control refer to chapter 5 "Remote Control – Basics".
The change to manual operation consists of:
●
Enabling the Front Panel Keys
Returning to manual mode enables all inactive keys. The main softkey menu of the
current mode is displayed.
●
Displaying the measurement diagrams again.
The diagrams, traces and display fields are displayed again.
●
Generating the "OPERATION COMPLETE" message
If, at the time of pressing the "LOCAL" softkey, the synchronization mechanism via
*OPC, *OPC? or *WAI is active, the currently running measurement procedure is
aborted and synchronization is achieved by setting the corresponding bits in the registers of the status reporting system.
●
Setting Bit 6 (User Request) of the Event Status Register
With a corresponding configuration of the status reporting system, this bit immediately
causes the generation of a service request (SRQ) to inform the control software that
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the user wishes to return to front panel control. For example this can be used to
interrupt the control program and to correct instrument settings manually. This bit is
set each time the "LOCAL" softkey is pressed.
To return to manual operation
► Press the "LOCAL" softkey.
The instrument switches from remote to manual operation, but only if the local lockout
function has not been activated in the remote control mode.
3.1.4 Measurement Documentation – PRINT Key
The PRINT key is used to select and configure the printer and to customize the screen
printout. For detailed information on printer selection and installation refer to the R&S
FSV Quick Start Guide.
To open the Print menu
► Press the PRINT key.
The "Print" menu is displayed.
Softkeys of the Print Menu
The following table shows all softkeys available in the "Print" menu. It is possible that
your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available
with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is delivered in the
corresponding softkey description.
Print Screen..................................................................................................................82
Device Setup.................................................................................................................83
Device (1/2)...................................................................................................................83
Colors............................................................................................................................83
└ Select Print Color Set......................................................................................84
└ Color (On/Off).................................................................................................84
└ Select Object...................................................................................................84
└ Predefined Colors...........................................................................................84
└ User Defined Colors........................................................................................84
└ Set to Default..................................................................................................84
Comment.......................................................................................................................84
Install Printer.................................................................................................................84
Print Screen
Starts to printout all test results displayed on the screen: diagrams, traces, markers,
marker lists, limit lines etc. Comments, title, date, and time are included at the bottom
margin of the printout. All displayed items belonging to the instrument software (softkeys,
tables, dialog boxes) are not printed out.
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The output is defined via the ​"Device Setup" on page 83 softkey. If the output is saved
in a file, the file name used in the last saving process is counted up to the next unused
name. If you use a file name that already exists, upon saving, a message is displayed.
Selecting "Yes" overwrites the existing file, selecting "No" aborts the saving process. For
further details on the file name and an example, refer to the "Save/ Recall" menu, ​"Edit
File Name" on page 69 softkey.
Path
Directory in which the file is stored. The default path is C:\r_s\instr\user
Files
List of the existing files in the same format
File Name
Name of the file
Remote command:
​HCOPy[:​IMMediate<1|2>]​ on page 775
​HCOPy[:​IMMediate<1|2>]:​NEXT​ on page 775
​HCOPy:​ITEM:​ALL​ on page 776
Device Setup
Opens the "Hardcopy Setup" dialog box to define the output: image file, clipboard, or the
printer. The dialog box consists of two tabs which are selected via the ​"Device (1/2)"
on page 83 softkey.
For further information refer to the R&S FSV Quick Start Guide.
Remote command:
​HCOPy:​DEVice:​LANGuage<1|2>​ on page 774
​HCOPy:​DESTination<1|2>​ on page 773
​HCOPy:​PAGE:​ORIentation<1|2>​ on page 776
​HCOPy:​TDSTamp:​STATe<1|2>​ on page 777
​SYSTem:​COMMunicate:​PRINter:​ENUMerate:​FIRSt?​ on page 801
​SYSTem:​COMMunicate:​PRINter:​ENUMerate[:​NEXT]?​ on page 802
Device (1/2)
Selects the tab of the device in the "Device Setup" dialog box. The analyzer is able to
manage two print settings independently of each other. For each device the print setting
is displayed on the corresponding tab of the "Device Setup" dialog box ( ​"Device
Setup" on page 83 softkey).
For further information refer to the R&S FSV Quick Start Guide.
Colors
Opens a submenu to define the colors to be used. For details see ​"Print Colors"
on page 61 softkey of the "Setup" menu.
The submenu contains the following commands:
●
●
●
●
●
●
​"Select Print Color Set" on page 84
​"Color (On/Off)" on page 84
​"Select Object" on page 84
​"Predefined Colors" on page 84
​"User Defined Colors" on page 84
​"Set to Default" on page 84
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Select Print Color Set ← Colors
For details see ​"Select Print Color Set" on page 61 softkey of the "Setup" menu.
Color (On/Off) ← Colors
For details see ​"Color (On/Off)" on page 60 softkey of the "Setup" menu.
Select Object ← Colors
For details see ​"Select Object" on page 60 softkey of the "Setup" menu.
Predefined Colors ← Colors
For details see ​"Predefined Colors" on page 60 softkey of the "Setup" menu.
User Defined Colors ← Colors
For details see ​"User Defined Colors" on page 60 softkey of the "Setup" menu.
Set to Default ← Colors
For details see ​"Set to Default" on page 61 softkey of the "Setup" menu.
Comment
Opens dialog box to enter a comment. Max. 120 characters are allowed. 60 characters
fit in one line. In the first line, at any point a manual line-feed can be forced by entering
"@".
Date and time are inserted automatically. The comment is printed below the diagram
area, but not displayed on the screen. If a comment should not be printed, it must be
deleted.
For details on the alphanumeric entries refer to the R&S FSV Quick Start Guide, "Basic
Operations".
Remote command:
​HCOPy:​ITEM:​WINDow:​TEXT​ on page 776
Install Printer
Opens the "Printers and Faxes" window to install a new printer. All printers that are
already installed are displayed.
For further information refer to the R&S FSV Quick Start Guide, appendix 1, "Printer
Interface".
Only user accounts with administrator rights can install a printer.
3.1.5 User-Defined Menu – USER key
The USER key displays a user-defined menu. The softkeys displayed here can be labelled and assigned to user-defined settings files as required.
To open the user-defined menu
► Press the USER key.
The "User" menu is displayed.
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Softkeys of the User menu
The "User" menu contains 8 user-definable softkeys as well as a ​"User Preference Setup"
softkey that allows you to define them. Pressing one of the user-definable softkeys has
the same effect as the ​Save File / Recall File function for a pre-defined settings file. The
definitions for these softkeys remain unchanged even after a reset function and after
updating the firmware.
"User Preference Setup" softkey
Opens an "ApplicationManager" dialog to set up the user-defined softkeys.
For each user-definable softkey (1–8), you can define a key label and assign a settings
file that is to be loaded when the softkey is selected.
SCPI command:
​MMEMory:​USER<Softkey>​ on page 789
To define the key label
1. Click into the table entry for the corresponding softkey.
2. Enter a label for the softkey.
3. Press ENTER.
To assign a settings file
1. Click into the table entry for the corresponding softkey.
2. In the file selection dialog, select a stored settings file to be recalled when the softkey
is selected.
3. Click "Select".
The selected file is displayed in the "ApplicationManager" dialog.
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To store the softkey settings
► Click "Save" to store the user-defined softkey definitions.
3.2 Measurement Parameters
In this section all menus necessary for setting measurement parameters are described.
For details on changing the mode refer to ​chapter 3.4.1, "Measurement Mode Selection
– MODE Key", on page 305.
Editing measurement parameters in the information bar
The currently defined main measurement parameters are displayed in the information
bar of the display. They can easily be edited by touching the setting in the display (with
a finger or mouse pointer). The corresponding (edit) dialog box is displayed where you
can edit the setting.
If you touch the setting in the display longer than 1 second or right-click it, a contextsensitive menu is displayed. The entries correspond to the functions available in the
softkey menu for that setting.
Table 3-1: Sweep range variables
Abbrev Definition
.
R&S FSV4
value
R&S FSV7
value
R&S FSV13
value
R&S FSV30
value
R&S FSV40
value
fmax
max. frequency
4 GHz
7 GHz
13.6 GHz
30 GHz
40 GHz
fmin
min. frequency
available
0 Hz
0 Hz
0 Hz
0 Hz
0 Hz
spanmin
smallest
10 Hz
selectable
span > 0 Hz
10 Hz
10 Hz
10 Hz
10 Hz
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
Initializing the Configuration – PRESET Key..........................................................86
Selecting the Frequency and Span – FREQ Key....................................................88
Setting the Frequency Span – SPAN Key...............................................................94
Setting the Level Display and Configuring the RF Input – AMPT Key....................96
Defining Automatic Settings – AUTO SET Key.....................................................104
Setting the Bandwidths and Sweep Time – BW Key............................................108
Configuring the Sweep Mode – SWEEP Key........................................................117
Setting Traces – TRACE Key................................................................................122
Triggering the Sweep – TRIG Key........................................................................139
3.2.1 Initializing the Configuration – PRESET Key
The PRESET key resets the instrument to the default setting and therefore provides a
defined initial state as a known starting point for measurements.
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If the "local lockout" function is active in the remote control mode, the PRESET key is
disabled.
Further information
●
​chapter 3.2.1.2, "Initial Configuration", on page 87
Task
●
3.2.1.1
​chapter 3.2.1.1, "Presetting the Instrument", on page 87
Presetting the Instrument
1. Define the data set for the presetting:
a) To retrieve the originally provided settings file (see ​chapter 3.2.1.2, "Initial Configuration", on page 87), deactivate the "Startup Recall" softkey in the "SAVE/
RCL" menu.
b) To retrieve a customized settings file, in the "File" menu, activate the "Startup
Recall" softkey, press the "Startup Recall Setup" softkey, and select the corresponding file.
For details refer to ​chapter 3.1.2, "Saving and Recalling Settings Files – SAVE/
RCL Key", on page 67.
2. Press the PRESET key to perform a preset.
Remote: *RST or ​SYSTem:​PRESet​
After you use the PRESET function, the history of previous actions is deleted, i.e. any
actions performed previously cannot be undone or redone using the UNDO/REDO keys.
3.2.1.2
Initial Configuration
The initial configuration is selected such that the RF input is always protected against
overload, provided that the applied signal levels are in the allowed range for the instrument.
The parameter set of the initial configuration can be customized using the "Startup Recall"
softkey in the "Save/Rcl" menu. For further information refer to ​chapter 3.1.2, "Saving
and Recalling Settings Files – SAVE/RCL Key", on page 67.
Table 3-2: Initial configuration
Parameter
Setting
mode
Spectrum
sweep mode
auto
center frequency
fmax/2
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Parameter
Setting
center frequency step size
0.1 * span
span
R&S FSV3: 3.6 GHz
R&S FSV7: 7 GHz
R&S FSV13: 13.6 GHz
R&S FSV30: 30 GHz
R&S FSV40: 40 GHz
RF attenuation
0 dB
reference level
-10 dBm
level range
100 dB log
level unit
dBm
sweep time
auto
resolution bandwidth
auto (3 MHz)
video bandwidth
auto (3 MHz)
FFT filters
off
span/RBW
100
RBW/VBW
1
sweep
cont
trigger
free run
trace 1
clr write
trace 2/3/4/5/6
blank
detector
auto peak
frequency offset
0 Hz
reference level offset
0 dB
reference level position
100 %
grid
abs
cal correction
on
noise source
off
input
RF
3.2.2 Selecting the Frequency and Span – FREQ Key
The FREQ key is used to configure the frequency axis, to set the frequency offset and
the signal track function. You can configure the frequency axis either by the start and stop
frequency or the center frequency and the span.
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To open the Frequency menu
●
Press the FREQ key.
The "Frequency" menu is displayed. The "Frequency Center" edit dialog box is displayed.
Menu and softkey description
●
​chapter 3.2.2.1, "Softkeys of the Frequency Menu", on page 89
Tasks
3.2.2.1
●
​chapter 3.2.2.2, "Specifying the Frequency Axis by the Start and Stop Frequency",
on page 93
●
​chapter 3.2.2.3, "Specifying the Frequency Axis by the Center Frequency and the
Span", on page 93
●
​chapter 3.2.2.4, "Specifying the Step Size for the Arrow Keys and the Rotary Knob",
on page 93
●
​chapter 3.2.2.5, "Modifying the Frequency Axis by an Offset", on page 94
●
​chapter 3.2.2.6, "Tracking Signals (Span > 0)", on page 94
Softkeys of the Frequency Menu
The following chapter describes all softkeys available in the "Frequency" menu. It is possible that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only
available with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is provided in the corresponding softkey description.
Center...........................................................................................................................90
CF Stepsize...................................................................................................................90
└ 0.1*Span (span > 0)........................................................................................90
└ 0.1*RBW (span > 0)........................................................................................90
└ 0.5*Span (span > 0)........................................................................................90
└ 0.5*RBW (span > 0)........................................................................................91
└ x*Span (span > 0)...........................................................................................91
└ x*RBW (span > 0)...........................................................................................91
└ =Center...........................................................................................................91
└ =Marker...........................................................................................................91
└ Manual............................................................................................................91
Start...............................................................................................................................91
Stop...............................................................................................................................92
Frequency Offset...........................................................................................................92
Signal Track (span > 0).................................................................................................92
└ Track On/Off (span > 0)..................................................................................92
└ Track BW (span > 0).......................................................................................93
└ Track Threshold (span > 0).............................................................................93
└ Select Trace (span > 0)..................................................................................93
External Mixer...............................................................................................................93
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Measurement Parameters
Center
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the center frequency. The allowed range of values for
the center frequency depends on the frequency span.
span > 0: spanmin/2 ≤ fcenter ≤ fmax – spanmin/2
span = 0: 0 Hz ≤ fcenter ≤ fmax
fmax and spanmin are specified in the data sheet.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]FREQuency:​CENTer​ on page 655
CF Stepsize
Opens a submenu to set the step size of the center frequency.
The step size defines the value by which the center frequency is increased or decreased
when the arrow keys are pressed. When you use the rotary knob the center frequency
changes in steps of 10% of the "Center Frequency Stepsize".
The step size can be set to a fraction of the span (span > 0) or a fraction of the resolution
bandwidth (span = 0) or it can be set to a fixed value manually.
Apart from the ​=Center, ​=Marker and ​Manual softkeys, the other softkeys are displayed
depending on the selected frequency span.
0.1*Span (span > 0) ← CF Stepsize
Sets the step size for the center frequency to 10 % of the span.
Remote command:
FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK SPAN, see ​[SENSe:​]FREQuency:​CENTer:​STEP:​LINK​
on page 656
FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK:FACT 10PCT, see ​[SENSe:​]FREQuency:​CENTer:​STEP:​
LINK:​FACTor​ on page 657
0.1*RBW (span > 0) ← CF Stepsize
Sets the step size for the center frequency to 10 % of the resolution bandwidth.
This is the default setting.
Remote command:
FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK RBW, see ​[SENSe:​]FREQuency:​CENTer:​STEP:​LINK​
on page 656
FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK:FACT 10PCT, see ​[SENSe:​]FREQuency:​CENTer:​STEP:​
LINK:​FACTor​ on page 657
0.5*Span (span > 0) ← CF Stepsize
Sets the step size for the center frequency to 50 % of the span.
Remote command:
FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK SPAN, see ​[SENSe:​]FREQuency:​CENTer:​STEP:​LINK​
on page 656
FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK:FACT 50PCT, see ​[SENSe:​]FREQuency:​CENTer:​STEP:​
LINK:​FACTor​ on page 657
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Measurement Parameters
0.5*RBW (span > 0) ← CF Stepsize
Sets the step size for the center frequency to 50 % of the resolution bandwidth.
Remote command:
FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK RBW, see ​[SENSe:​]FREQuency:​CENTer:​STEP:​LINK​
on page 656
FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK:FACT 50PCT, see ​[SENSe:​]FREQuency:​CENTer:​STEP:​
LINK:​FACTor​ on page 657
x*Span (span > 0) ← CF Stepsize
Opens an edit dialog box to set the step size for the center frequency as a percentage
(%) of the span.
Remote command:
FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK SPAN, see ​[SENSe:​]FREQuency:​CENTer:​STEP:​LINK​
on page 656
FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK:FACT 20PCT, see ​[SENSe:​]FREQuency:​CENTer:​STEP:​
LINK​ on page 656
x*RBW (span > 0) ← CF Stepsize
Opens an edit dialog box to set the step size for the center frequency as a percentage
(%) of the resolution bandwidth. Values between 1 % and 100 % in steps of 1 % are
allowed. The default setting is 10 %.
Remote command:
FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK RBW, see ​[SENSe:​]FREQuency:​CENTer:​STEP:​LINK​
on page 656
FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK:FACT 20PCT, see ​[SENSe:​]FREQuency:​CENTer:​STEP:​
LINK​ on page 656
=Center ← CF Stepsize
Sets the step size to the value of the center frequency and removes the coupling of the
step size to span or resolution bandwidth.
This function is especially useful for measurements of the signal harmonics. In this case,
each stroke of the arrow key selects the center frequency of another harmonic.
=Marker ← CF Stepsize
Sets the step size to the value of the current marker and removes the coupling of the step
size to span or resolution bandwidth.
This function is especially useful for measurements of the signal harmonics. In this case,
each stroke of the arrow key selects the center frequency of another harmonic.
Manual ← CF Stepsize
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a fixed step size for the center frequency.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]FREQuency:​CENTer:​STEP​ on page 656
Start
Opens an edit dialog box to define the start frequency. The following range of values is
allowed:
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Measurement Parameters
fmin ≤ fstart ≤ fmax – spanmin
fmin, fmax and spanmin are specified in the data sheet.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]FREQuency:​STARt​ on page 658
Stop
Opens an edit dialog box to define the stop frequency. The following range of values for
the stop frequency is allowed:
fmin + spanmin ≤ fstop ≤ fmax
f min , f max and spanmin are specified in the data sheet.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]FREQuency:​STOP​ on page 658
Frequency Offset
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a frequency offset that shifts the displayed frequency
range by the specified offset.
The softkey indicates the current frequency offset. The allowed values range from
-100 GHz to 100 GHz. The default setting is 0 Hz.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]FREQuency:​OFFSet​ on page 657
Signal Track (span > 0)
Opens a submenu to define the signal tracking characteristics:
●
●
●
search bandwidth
threshold value
trace
The search bandwidth and the threshold value are shown in the diagram by two vertical
lines and one horizontal line, which are labeled as "TRK". After each sweep the center
frequency is set to the maximum signal found within the searched bandwidth. If no maximum signal above the set threshold value is found in the searched bandwidth, the track
mechanism stops.
The submenu contains the following softkeys:
●
●
●
●
​"Track On/Off (span > 0)" on page 92
​"Track BW (span > 0)" on page 93
​"Track Threshold (span > 0)" on page 93
​"Select Trace (span > 0)" on page 93
Track On/Off (span > 0) ← Signal Track (span > 0)
Switches the signal tracking on and off.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​STRack[:​STATe]​ on page 570
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Measurement Parameters
Track BW (span > 0) ← Signal Track (span > 0)
Opens an edit dialog box to set the search bandwidth for signal tracking. The frequency
range is calculated as a function of the center frequency.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​STRack:​BANDwidth|BWIDth​
on page 569
Track Threshold (span > 0) ← Signal Track (span > 0)
Opens an edit dialog box to set the threshold value for signal tracking.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​STRack:​THReshold​ on page 569
Select Trace (span > 0) ← Signal Track (span > 0)
Opens an edit dialog box to select the trace on which the signal is tracked.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​STRack:​TRACe​ on page 569
External Mixer
Opens the "Ext. Mixer" submenu to activate and configure an optional external mixer.
This function is only available for R&S FSV30 and 40 instruments with the B21 option
installed.
For details on the external mixer functionality, see ​chapter 3.8, "Instrument Functions –
External Mixer (Option R&S FSV-B21)", on page 379.
3.2.2.2
Specifying the Frequency Axis by the Start and Stop Frequency
1. Press the ​Start softkey and enter a start frequency.
2. Press the ​Stop softkey and enter a stop frequency.
3.2.2.3
Specifying the Frequency Axis by the Center Frequency and the Span
1. Press the FREQ key and enter a center frequency in the "Frequency Center" edit
dialog box.
2. Press the SPAN key and enter the bandwidth you want to analyze.
Entering a value of 0 Hz causes a change to the zero span analysis mode.
3.2.2.4
Specifying the Step Size for the Arrow Keys and the Rotary Knob
1. Press the ​CF Stepsize softkey.
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Measurement Parameters
The available softkeys depend on the selected frequency span (zero span or
span > 0).
2. To define the step size of the center frequency:
a) If span > 0:
Press "0.1*Span", "0.5*Span" or "x*Span" to define the step size for the center
frequency as percentage of the span (see ​CF Stepsize).
b) If span = 0:
Press "0.1*RBW", "0.5*RBW", or "x*RBW" to define the step size for the center
frequency as percentage of the resolution bandwidth (see ​CF Stepsize).
c) Press the ​=Center softkey to set the step size to the value of the center frequency
and remove the dependency of the step size to span or resolution bandwidth.
d) Press the ​=Marker softkey to set the step size to the value of the marker and
remove the dependency of the step size to span or resolution bandwidth.
e) Press the ​Manual softkey and enter a fixed step size for the center frequency.
The step size assigned to arrow keys corresponds to the selected value.
The step size of the rotary knob is always 10 % of it.
3.2.2.5
Modifying the Frequency Axis by an Offset
●
3.2.2.6
Press the ​Frequency Offset softkey and enter the offset to shift the displayed frequency span.
Tracking Signals (Span > 0)
Note that signal tracking is available for frequency spans > 0.
●
Press the ​Signal Track (span > 0) softkey to open the submenu and start and stop
signal tracking with specified parameters.
●
Press the ​Track On/Off (span > 0) softkey to switch signal tracking on or off.
●
Press the ​Track BW (span > 0) softkey and enter a bandwidth for signal tracking.
●
Press the ​Track Threshold (span > 0) softkey and enter the threshold for signal
tracking.
●
Press the ​Select Trace (span > 0) softkey and select the trace for signal tracking.
3.2.3 Setting the Frequency Span – SPAN Key
The SPAN key is used to set the frequency span to be analyzed.
To open the Span menu
●
Press the SPAN key.
The "Span" menu is displayed. For span > 0 an edit dialog box to enter the frequency
is displayed. For zero span, an edit dialog box to enter the sweep time is displayed.
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Measurement Parameters
Menu and softkey description
●
​chapter 3.2.3.1, "Softkeys of the Span Menu", on page 95
Task
●
3.2.3.1
​chapter 3.2.3.2, "Specifying the Span (Alternatives)", on page 96
Softkeys of the Span Menu
The following chapter describes all softkeys available in the "Span" menu. It is possible
that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is provided in
the corresponding softkey description.
Span Manual.................................................................................................................95
Full Span.......................................................................................................................95
Zero Span.....................................................................................................................95
Last Span......................................................................................................................95
Span Manual
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the frequency span. The center frequency remains the
same when you change the span.
The following range is allowed:
span = 0: 0 Hz
span >0: spanmin ≤ f span ≤ f max
fmax and spanmin are specified in the data sheet.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]FREQuency:​SPAN​ on page 658
Full Span
Sets the span to the full frequency range of the R&S FSV specified in the data sheet. This
setting is useful for overview measurements.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]FREQuency:​SPAN:​FULL​ on page 658
Zero Span
Sets the span to 0 Hz (zero span). The x-axis becomes the time axis with the grid lines
corresponding to 1/10 of the current sweep time ("SWT").
Remote command:
FREQ:SPAN 0Hz, see ​[SENSe:​]FREQuency:​SPAN​ on page 658
Last Span
Sets the span to the previous value. With this function e.g. a fast change between overview measurement and detailed measurement is possible.
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Measurement Parameters
3.2.3.2
Specifying the Span (Alternatives)
1. To set the span, use the ​Span Manual, ​Full Span, ​Zero Span and ​Last Span softkeys.
2. To define a frequency range, use the ​Start and ​Stop softkeys of the "Frequency"
menu.
3. In zero span, the span corresponds to the sweep time. In that case, press the ​
Sweeptime Manual softkey and enter a sweep time.
3.2.4 Setting the Level Display and Configuring the RF Input – AMPT Key
The AMPT key is used to set the reference level, the level range and unit, the scaling and
the RF attenuation.
To open the amplitude menu
●
Press the AMPT key.
The "Amplitude" menu is displayed. The "Reference Level" dialog box is displayed.
Menu and softkey description
●
​chapter 3.2.4.1, "Softkeys of the Amplitude Menu", on page 96
Tasks
3.2.4.1
●
​chapter 3.2.4.2, "Specifying the Amplitude", on page 103
●
​chapter 3.2.4.3, "Using Electronic Attenuation (Option Electronic Attenuator,
R&S FSV-B25)", on page 103
Softkeys of the Amplitude Menu
The following table shows all softkeys available in the "Amplitude" menu. It is possible
that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is provided in
the corresponding softkey description.
Ref Level.......................................................................................................................97
Range............................................................................................................................97
└ Range Log 100 dB..........................................................................................97
└ Range Log 50 dB............................................................................................97
└ Range Log 10 dB............................................................................................98
└ Range Log 5 dB..............................................................................................98
└ Range Log 1 dB..............................................................................................98
└ Range Log Manual..........................................................................................98
└ Range Linear %..............................................................................................98
└ Range Lin. Unit...............................................................................................99
Unit................................................................................................................................99
Preamp On/Off..............................................................................................................99
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Measurement Parameters
RF Atten Manual/Mech Att Manual.............................................................................100
RF Atten Auto/Mech Att Auto......................................................................................100
El Atten On/Off............................................................................................................100
El Atten Mode (Auto/Man)...........................................................................................101
Ref Level Offset..........................................................................................................101
Ref Level Position.......................................................................................................101
Grid Abs/Rel ...............................................................................................................102
Noise Correction.........................................................................................................102
Input (AC/DC)..............................................................................................................102
Input 50 Ω/75 Ω ..........................................................................................................102
Ref Level
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the reference level in the current unit (dBm, dBµV, etc).
The reference level is the maximum value the AD converter can handle without distortion
of the measured value. Signal levels above this value will not be measured correctly,
which is indicated by the "IFOVL" status display.
Remote command:
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]:​RLEVel​ on page 604
Range
Opens a submenu to define the display range of the level axis.
Range Log 100 dB ← Range
Sets the level display range to 100 dB.
Remote command:
Logarithmic scaling:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​
SPACing​ on page 603
Display range:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y 100DB, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]​
on page 603
Range Log 50 dB ← Range
Sets the level display range to 50 dB.
Remote command:
Logarithmic scaling:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​
SPACing​ on page 603
Display range:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y 50DB, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]​
on page 603
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Measurement Parameters
Range Log 10 dB ← Range
Sets the level display range to 10 dB.
Remote command:
Logarithmic scaling:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​
SPACing​ on page 603
Display range:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y 10DB, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]​
on page 603
Range Log 5 dB ← Range
Sets the level display range to 5 dB.
Remote command:
Logarithmic scaling:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​
SPACing​ on page 603
Display range:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y 5DB, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]​
on page 603
Range Log 1 dB ← Range
Sets the level display range to 1 dB.
Remote command:
Logarithmic scaling:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​
SPACing​ on page 603
Display range:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y 1DB, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]​
on page 603
Range Log Manual ← Range
Opens an edit dialog box to define the display range of a logarithmic level axis manually.
Remote command:
Logarithmic scaling:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​
SPACing​ on page 603
Display range:
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]​ on page 603
Range Linear % ← Range
Selects linear scaling for the level axis in %.
The grid is divided into decadal sections.
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Measurement Parameters
Markers are displayed in the selected unit ("Unit" softkey). Delta markers are displayed
in % referenced to the voltage value at the position of marker 1. This is the default setting
for linear scaling.
Remote command:
DISP:TRAC:Y:SPAC LIN, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​SPACing​
on page 603
Range Lin. Unit ← Range
Selects linear scaling in dB for the level display range, i.e. the horizontal lines are labeled
in dB.
Markers are displayed in the selected unit ("Unit" softkey). Delta markers are displayed
in dB referenced to the power value at the position of marker 1.
Remote command:
DISP:TRAC:Y:SPAC LDB, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​SPACing​
on page 603
Unit
Opens the "Unit" submenu to select the unit for the level axis.
The default setting is dBm.
If a transducer is switched on, the softkey is not available.
In general, the signal analyzer measures the signal voltage at the RF input. The level
display is calibrated in RMS values of an unmodulated sine wave signal. In the default
state, the level is displayed at a power of 1 mW (= dBm). Via the known input impedance
(50 Ω or 75 Ω), conversion to other units is possible. The following units are available and
directly convertible:
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
dBm
dBmV
dBμV
dBμA
dBpW
Volt
Ampere
Watt
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​UNIT:​POWer​ on page 597
Preamp On/Off
Switches the preamplifier on and off.
If option R&S FSV-B22 is installed, the preamplifier is only active below 7 GHz.
If option R&S FSV-B24 is installed, the preamplifier is active for all frequencies.
When measuring Spurious Emissions, using this softkey automatically opens the "Sweep
List" dialog, see ​"Sweep List dialog box" on page 248.
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Measurement Parameters
This function is not available for input from the R&S Digital I/Q Interface (option R&S FSVB17).
Remote command:
​INPut:​GAIN:​STATe ​ on page 617
RF Atten Manual/Mech Att Manual
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the attenuation, irrespective of the reference level. If
electronic attenuation is activated (option R&S FSV-B25 only; "El Atten Mode Auto" softkey), this setting defines the mechanical attenuation.
The mechanical attenuation can be set in 10 dB steps.
The RF attenuation can be set in 5 dB steps (with option R&S FSV-B25: 1 dB steps). The
range is specified in the data sheet. If the current reference level cannot be set for the
set RF attenuation, the reference level is adjusted accordingly.
This function is not available for input from the R&S Digital I/Q Interface (option R&S FSVB17).
The RF attenuation defines the level at the input mixer according to the formula:
levelmixer = levelinput – RF attenuation
Note: As of firmware version 1.61, the maximum mixer level allowed is 0 dBm. Mixer
levels above this value may lead to incorrect measurement results, which are indicated
by the "OVLD" status display. The increased mixer level allows for an improved signal,
but also increases the risk of overloading the instrument!
When measuring spurious emissions, using this softkey automatically opens the "Sweep
List" dialog box, see ​"Sweep List dialog box" on page 248.
Remote command:
​INPut:​ATTenuation​ on page 612
RF Atten Auto/Mech Att Auto
Sets the RF attenuation automatically as a function of the selected reference level. This
ensures that the optimum RF attenuation is always used. It is the default setting.
When measuring spurious emissions, using this softkey automatically opens the "Sweep
List" dialog, see ​"Sweep List dialog box" on page 248.
This function is not available for input from the R&S Digital I/Q Interface (option R&S FSVB17).
Remote command:
​INPut:​ATTenuation:​AUTO​ on page 613
El Atten On/Off
This softkey switches the electronic attenuator on or off. This softkey is only available
with option R&S FSV-B25.
When the electronic attenuator is activated, the mechanical and electronic attenuation
can be defined separately. Note however, that both parts must be defined in the same
mode, i.e. either both manually, or both automatically.
This function is not available for input from the R&S Digital I/Q Interface (option R&S FSVB17).
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Measurement Parameters
●
●
To define the mechanical attenuation, use the ​RF Atten Manual/Mech Att Manual or
​RF Atten Auto/Mech Att Auto softkeys.
To define the electronic attenuation, use the ​El Atten Mode (Auto/Man) softkey.
Note: This function is not available for stop frequencies (or center frequencies in zero
span) >7 GHz. In this case, the electronic and mechanical attenuation are summarized
and the electronic attenuation can no longer be defined individually. As soon as the stop
or center frequency is reduced below 7 GHz, this function is available again.
When the electronic attenuator is switched off, the corresponding RF attenuation mode
(auto/manual) is automatically activated.
Remote command:
​INPut:​EATT:​AUTO​ on page 616
El Atten Mode (Auto/Man)
This softkey defines whether the electronic attenuator value is to be set automatically or
manually. If manual mode is selected, an edit dialog box is opened to enter the value.
This softkey is only available with option R&S FSV-B25, and only if the electronic attenuator has been activated via the ​El Atten On/Off softkey.
Note: This function is not available for stop frequencies (or center frequencies in zero
span) >7 GHz. In this case, the electronic and mechanical attenuation are summarized
and the electronic attenuation can no longer be defined individually. As soon as the stop
or center frequency is reduced below 7 GHz, electronic attenuation is available again. If
the electronic attenuation was defined manually, it must be re-defined.
The attenuation can be varied in 1 dB steps from 0 to 30 dB. Other entries are rounded
to the next lower integer value.
To re-open the edit dialog box for manual value definition, select the "Man" mode again.
If the defined reference level cannot be set for the given RF attenuation, the reference
level is adjusted accordingly and the warning "Limit reached" is output.
Remote command:
​INPut:​EATT:​AUTO​ on page 616
​INPut:​EATT​ on page 616
Ref Level Offset
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the arithmetic level offset. This offset is added to the
measured level irrespective of the selected unit. The scaling of the y-axis is changed
accordingly. The setting range is ±200 dB in 0.1 dB steps.
Remote command:
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]:​RLEVel:​OFFSet​ on page 604
Ref Level Position
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the reference level position, i.e. the position of the
maximum AD converter value on the level axis. The setting range is from -200 to
+200 %, 0 % corresponding to the lower and 100 % to the upper limit of the diagram.
Remote command:
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]:​RPOSition​ on page 605
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Instrument Functions
Measurement Parameters
Grid Abs/Rel
Switches between absolute and relative scaling of the level axis (not available with
"Linear" range).
"Abs"
Absolute scaling: The labeling of the level lines refers to the absolute
value of the reference level. Absolute scaling is the default setting.
"Rel"
Relative scaling: The upper line of the grid is always at 0 dB. The scaling
is in dB whereas the reference level is always in the set unit (for details
on unit settings see the "Unit" softkey).
Remote command:
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]:​MODE​ on page 604
Noise Correction
If activated, the results are corrected by the instrument's inherent noise, which increases
the dynamic range.
"ON"
A reference measurement of the instrument's inherent noise is carried
out. The noise power measured is then subtracted from the power in
the channel that is being examined.
The inherent noise of the instrument depends on the selected center
frequency, resolution bandwidth and level setting. Therefore, the correction function is disabled whenever one of these parameters is
changed. A disable message is displayed on the screen. Noise correction must be switched on again manually after the change.
"OFF"
No noise correction is performed.
"AUTO"
Noise correction is performed. After a parameter change, noise correction is restarted automatically and a new correction measurement is
performed.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]POWer:​NCORrection​ on page 698
Input (AC/DC)
Toggles the RF input of the R&S FSV between AC and DC coupling.
This function is not available for input from the R&S Digital I/Q Interface (option R&S FSVB17).
Remote command:
​INPut:​COUPling​ on page 613
Input 50 Ω/75 Ω
Uses 50 Ω or 75 Ω as reference impedance for the measured levels. Default setting is
50 Ω.
The setting 75 Ω should be selected if the 50 Ω input impedance is transformed to a higher
impedance using a 75 Ω adapter of the RAZ type (= 25 Ω in series to the input impedance
of the instrument). The correction value in this case is 1.76 dB = 10 log (75 Ω/50 Ω).
All levels specified in this Operating Manual refer to the default setting of the instrument
(50 Ω).
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Measurement Parameters
This function is not available for input from the R&S Digital I/Q Interface (option R&S FSVB17).
Remote command:
​INPut:​IMPedance​ on page 617
3.2.4.2
Specifying the Amplitude
1. Set the reference level, offset and position using the "Ref Level", "Ref Level Offset"
and "Ref Level Position" softkeys (see ​"Ref Level" on page 97, ​"Ref Level Offset"
on page 101 and ​"Ref Level Position" on page 101).
2. Select the level range and the unit for the level axis using the "Range" and "Unit"
softkeys (see ​"Range" on page 97 and ​"Unit" on page 99).
3. Set the scaling using the "Ref Level Position" and/or "Grid Abs/Rel" softkeys (see ​
"Ref Level Position" on page 101 and ​"Grid Abs/Rel " on page 102).
4. Set the attenuation using the "RF Atten Manual/Mech Atten Manual" or "RF Atten
Auto/Mech Att Auto", or (for option B25 only) "El Atten Mode" softkeys (see​"RF Atten
Manual/Mech Att Manual" on page 100, ​"RF Atten Auto/Mech Att Auto"
on page 100, ​"El Atten Mode (Auto/Man)" on page 101).
5. Define the RF input coupling using the "Input (AC/DC)" softkey, or a reference impedance using the "Input (50Ω/75Ω)" softkey (see ​"Input (AC/DC)" on page 102, ​"Input
50 Ω/75 Ω " on page 102).
6. If available, activate or deactivate the RF Preamplifier (option R&S FSV-B22/B24)
using the "Preamp" softkey (see ​"Preamp On/Off" on page 99).
3.2.4.3
Using Electronic Attenuation (Option Electronic Attenuator, R&S FSV-B25)
Besides the mechanical attenuator at the RF input, the R&S FSV also offers an electronic
attenuation setting (option Electronic Attenuator B25). The electronic attenuator can be
set manually or automatically. The default attenuation is preset by the mechanical attenuator. The attenuation can be varied in 1 dB steps from 0 to 30 dB. Other entries are
rounded to the next lower integer value.
In automatic mode, the electronic attenuator is set to 0 dB. If a reference level outside
the allowed 30 dB range is set, the mechanical attenuator performs the setting. From this
new reference level to over 30dB, the electronic attenuator performs the setting again.
For stop frequencies (or center frequencies in zero span) >7 GHz, electronic attenuation
cannot be defined individually. In this case, the electronic and mechanical attenuation
are summarized and the electronic attenuation can no longer be defined manually. As
soon as the stop or center frequency is reduced below 7 GHz, electronic attenuation is
available again. If the electronic attenuation was defined manually, it must be re-defined.
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Instrument Functions
Measurement Parameters
Setting electronic attenuation
1. Activate the electronic attenuation by pressing the ​El Atten On/Off softkey.
2. Select the required attenuator mode by pressing the ​El Atten Mode (Auto/Man) softkey until the required mode is highlighted.
Two new softkeys are displayed to set the mechanical attenuation. The same mode
is activated for mechanical attenuation as was selected for electronic attenuation.
3. To define the attenuation manually:
a) Press the ​El Atten Mode (Auto/Man) softkey again, if necessary, to display the
edit dialog box.
b) Enter the value for the electronic attenuator in the edit dialog box.
c) If necessary, press the ​RF Atten Manual/Mech Att Manual softkey to open the
edit dialog box for mechanical attenuation and enter the required value.
3.2.5 Defining Automatic Settings – AUTO SET Key
The "Auto Set" menu allows you define automatic settings for measurements quickly.
To open the Auto Set menu
●
Press the AUTO SET key.
The "Auto Set" menu is displayed.
Menu and softkey description
●
3.2.5.1
​chapter 3.2.5.1, "Softkeys of the Auto Set Menu", on page 104
Softkeys of the Auto Set Menu
The following table shows all softkeys available in the "Auto Set" menu. It is possible that
your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available
with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is provided in the
corresponding softkey description.
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Measurement Parameters
Adjusting settings automatically during triggered measurements
When you select an auto adjust function a measurement is performed to determine the
optimal settings. If you select an auto adjust funtion for a triggered measurement, you
can select how the R&S FSV should behave:
●
(default:) The measurement for adjustment waits for the next trigger
●
The measurement for adjustment is performed without waiting for a trigger.
The trigger source is temporarily set to "Free Run". After the measurement is completed, the original trigger source is restored. The trigger level is adjusted as follows:
– For IF Power and RF Power triggers:
Trigger Level = Reference Level - 15 dB
–
For Video trigger:
Trigger Level = 85 %
SCPI command:
​[SENSe:​]ADJust:​CONFigure:​TRIG​ on page 632
Auto All........................................................................................................................105
Auto Freq....................................................................................................................105
Auto Level...................................................................................................................106
Settings.......................................................................................................................106
└ Meas Time Manual.......................................................................................106
└ Meas Time Auto............................................................................................106
└ Upper Level Hysteresis.................................................................................106
└ Lower Level Hysteresis.................................................................................106
Sweep Type................................................................................................................106
└ Sweep...........................................................................................................107
└ FFT...............................................................................................................107
└ Auto...............................................................................................................107
└ FFT Filter Mode............................................................................................107
└ Auto....................................................................................................107
└ Narrow................................................................................................107
Auto All
Performs all automatic settings.
●
●
​"Auto Freq" on page 105
​"Auto Level" on page 106
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]ADJust:​ALL​ on page 630
Auto Freq
Defines the center frequency automatically by determining the highest frequency level in
the frequency span. This function uses the signal counter; thus it is intended for use with
sinusoidal signals.
This function is not available for input from the R&S Digital I/Q Interface (option R&S FSVB17).
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Measurement Parameters
This function is not available for 1xEV-DO MS Analysis mode (K85).
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]ADJust:​FREQuency​ on page 630
Auto Level
Defines the optimal reference level for the current measurement automatically.
The measurement time for automatic leveling can be defined using the ​Settings softkey.
You can define a threshold that the signal must exceed before the reference level is
adjusted, see ​"Upper Level Hysteresis" on page 106 and ​"Lower Level Hysteresis"
on page 106.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]ADJust:​LEVel​ on page 630
Settings
Opens a submenu to define settings for automatic leveling.
Possible settings are:
●
●
​"Meas Time Manual" on page 106
​"Meas Time Auto" on page 106
Meas Time Manual ← Settings
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the duration of the level measurement in seconds. The
level measurement is used to determine the optimal reference level automatically (see
the "Auto Level" softkey, ​"Auto Level" on page 106). The default value is 1 ms.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]ADJust:​CONFigure:​LEVel:​DURation​ on page 630
Meas Time Auto ← Settings
The level measurement is used to determine the optimal reference level automatically
(see the ​Auto Level softkey).
Upper Level Hysteresis ← Settings
Defines an upper threshold the signal must exceed before the reference level is automatically adjusted when the "Auto Level" function is performed.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]ADJust:​CONFiguration:​HYSTeresis:​UPPer​ on page 631
Lower Level Hysteresis ← Settings
Defines a lower threshold the signal must exceed before the reference level is automatically adjusted when the "Auto Level" function is performed.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]ADJust:​CONFiguration:​HYSTeresis:​LOWer​ on page 631
Sweep Type
Opens a submenu to define the sweep type.
This function is not available in IQ Analyzer mode or for input from the R&S Digital I/Q
Interface (option R&S FSV-B17).
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Instrument Functions
Measurement Parameters
In frequency sweep mode, the analyzer provides several possible methods of sweeping:
●
●
●
​"Sweep" on page 107
​"FFT" on page 107 (not available with 5-Pole filters, channel filters or RRC filters,
see ​chapter 3.2.6.3, "Selecting the Appropriate Filter Type", on page 114)
​"Auto" on page 107
Sweep ← Sweep Type
Sets the ​Sweep Type to standard analog frequency sweep.
In the standard sweep mode, the local oscillator is set to provide the spectrum quasi
analog from the start to the stop frequency.
Remote command:
SWE:TYPE SWE, see ​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​TYPE​ on page 705
FFT ← Sweep Type
Sets the ​Sweep Type to FFT mode.
The FFT sweep mode samples on a defined frequency value and transforms it to the
spectrum by fast Fourier transformation (FFT).
FFT is not available when using 5-Pole filters, Channel filters or RRC filters. In this case,
sweep mode is used.
Note: The same applies when a tracking generator (internal or external, options
R&S FSV-B9/B10) is active.
Remote command:
SWE:TYPE FFT, see ​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​TYPE​ on page 705
Auto ← Sweep Type
Automatically sets the fastest available ​Sweep Type for the current measurement. Auto
mode is set by default.
Remote command:
SWE:TYPE AUTO, see ​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​TYPE​ on page 705
FFT Filter Mode ← Sweep Type
Defines the filter mode to be used for FFT filters by defining the partial span size. The
partial span is the span which is covered by one FFT analysis.
Auto ← FFT Filter Mode ← Sweep Type
The firmware determines whether to use wide or narrow filters to obtain the best measurement results.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:​RESolution]:​FFT​ on page 635
Narrow ← FFT Filter Mode ← Sweep Type
For an RBW ≤ 10kHz, the FFT filters with the smaller partial span are used. This allows
you to perform measurements near a carrier with a reduced reference level due to a
narrower analog prefilter.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:​RESolution]:​FFT​ on page 635
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Measurement Parameters
3.2.6 Setting the Bandwidths and Sweep Time – BW Key
The BW key is used to set the resolution bandwidth, video bandwidth (VBW) and sweep
time (SWT). The values available for resolution bandwidth and video bandwidth depend
on the selected filter type. For details on channel filters see also ​chapter 3.2.6.4, "List of
Available RRC and Channel Filters", on page 115 .
To open the bandwidth menu
●
Press the BW key.
The "Bandwidth" menu is displayed.
Menu and softkey description
●
​chapter 3.2.6.1, "Softkeys of the Bandwidth Menu", on page 108
Further information
●
​chapter 3.2.6.4, "List of Available RRC and Channel Filters", on page 115
●
​table 3-3
Tasks
3.2.6.1
●
​chapter 3.2.6.2, "Specifying the Bandwidth", on page 114
●
​chapter 3.2.6.3, "Selecting the Appropriate Filter Type", on page 114
Softkeys of the Bandwidth Menu
The following table shows all softkeys available in the "Bandwidth" menu. It is possible
that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is provided in
the corresponding softkey description.
For Spurious Emission Measurements, the settings are defined in the "Sweep List" dialog,
see ​"Sweep List dialog box" on page 248.
Res BW Manual..........................................................................................................109
Res BW Auto...............................................................................................................109
Video BW Manual.......................................................................................................109
Video BW Auto............................................................................................................110
Sweeptime Manual......................................................................................................110
Sweeptime Auto..........................................................................................................111
Sweep Type................................................................................................................111
└ Sweep...........................................................................................................111
└ FFT...............................................................................................................111
└ Auto...............................................................................................................111
└ FFT Filter Mode............................................................................................112
└ Auto....................................................................................................112
└ Narrow................................................................................................112
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Measurement Parameters
Coupling Ratio.............................................................................................................112
└ RBW/VBW Sine [1/1]....................................................................................112
└ RBW/VBW Pulse [.1]....................................................................................112
└ RBW/VBW Noise [10]...................................................................................112
└ RBW/VBW Manual........................................................................................113
└ Span/RBW Auto [100]...................................................................................113
└ Span/RBW Manual.......................................................................................113
└ Default Coupling...........................................................................................113
Filter Type...................................................................................................................114
Res BW Manual
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a value for the resolution bandwidth. The available
resolution bandwidths are specified in the data sheet.
For details on the correlation between resolution bandwidth and filter type refer to ​chapter 3.2.6.3, "Selecting the Appropriate Filter Type", on page 114.
Numeric input is always rounded to the nearest possible bandwidth. For rotary knob or
UP/DNARROW key inputs, the bandwidth is adjusted in steps either upwards or downwards.
The manual input mode of the resolution bandwidth is indicated by a green bullet next to
the "RBW" display in the channel bar.
When measuring Spurious Emissions, using this softkey automatically opens the "Sweep
List" dialog (see ​"Sweep List dialog box" on page 248).
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:​RESolution]:​AUTO​ on page 634
​[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:​RESolution]​ on page 634
Res BW Auto
Couples the resolution bandwidth to the selected span (for span > 0). If you change the
span, the resolution bandwidth is automatically adjusted.
This setting is recommended if you need the ideal resolution bandwidth in relation to a
particular span.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:​RESolution]:​AUTO​ on page 634
Video BW Manual
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the video bandwidth. The available video bandwidths
are specified in the data sheet.
Numeric input is always rounded to the nearest possible bandwidth. For rotary knob or
UP/DOWN key inputs, the bandwidth is adjusted in steps either upwards or downwards.
The manual input mode of the video bandwidth is indicated by a green bullet next to the
"VBW" display in the channel bar.
Note: RMS detector and VBW.
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Instrument Functions
Measurement Parameters
If an RMS detector is used, the video bandwidth in the hardware is bypassed. Thus,
duplicate trace averaging with small VBWs and RMS detector no longer occurs. However,
the VBW is still considered when calculating the sweep time. This leads to a longer sweep
time for small VBW values. Thus, you can reduce the VBW value to achieve more stable
trace curves even when using an RMS detector. Normally, if the RMS detector is used
the sweep time should be increased to get more stable trace curves. For details on
detectors see ​chapter 3.2.8.6, "Detector Overview", on page 137.
When measuring Spurious Emissions, using this softkey automatically opens the "Sweep
List" dialog (see ​"Sweep List dialog box" on page 248).
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth:​VIDeo:​AUTO​ on page 636
​[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth:​VIDeo​ on page 636
Video BW Auto
Couples the video bandwidth to the resolution bandwidth. If you change the resolution
bandwidth, the video bandwidth is automatically adjusted.
This setting is recommended if a minimum sweep time is required for a selected resolution
bandwidth. Narrow video bandwidths result in longer sweep times due to the longer settling time. Wide bandwidths reduce the signal/noise ratio.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth:​VIDeo:​AUTO​ on page 636
Sweeptime Manual
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the sweep time.
Sweep time
absolute max. sweep time value:
16000 s
absolute min. sweep time value:
zero span: 1 μs
span > 0: depends on device model (refer to data sheet)
Allowed values depend on the ratio of span to RBW and RBW to VBW. For details refer
to the data sheet.
Numeric input is always rounded to the nearest possible sweep time. For rotary knob or
UPARROW/DNARROW key inputs, the sweep time is adjusted in steps either downwards or upwards.
The manual input mode of the sweep time is indicated by a green bullet next to the "SWT"
display in the channel bar. If the selected sweep time is too short for the selected bandwidth and span, level measurement errors will occur due to a too short settling time for
the resolution or video filters. In this case, the R&S FSV displays the error message
"UNCAL" and marks the indicated sweep time with a red bullet.
When measuring Spurious Emissions, using this softkey automatically opens the "Sweep
List" dialog, see ​"Sweep List dialog box" on page 248.
Remote command:
SWE:TIME:AUTO OFF, see ​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​TIME:​AUTO​ on page 705
​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​TIME​ on page 705
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Measurement Parameters
Sweeptime Auto
Couples the sweep time to the span, video bandwidth (VBW) and resolution bandwidth
(RBW) (not available for zero span). If you change the span, resolution bandwidth or
video bandwidth, the sweep time is automatically adjusted.
The R&S FSV always selects the shortest sweep time that is possible without falsifying
the signal. The maximum level error is < 0.1 dB, compared to using a longer sweep time.
When measuring Spurious Emissions, using this softkey automatically opens the "Sweep
List" dialog, see ​"Sweep List dialog box" on page 248.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​TIME:​AUTO​ on page 705
Sweep Type
Opens a submenu to define the sweep type.
This function is not available in IQ Analyzer mode or for input from the R&S Digital I/Q
Interface (option R&S FSV-B17).
In frequency sweep mode, the analyzer provides several possible methods of sweeping:
●
●
●
​"Sweep" on page 107
​"FFT" on page 107 (not available with 5-Pole filters, channel filters or RRC filters, see
​chapter 3.2.6.3, "Selecting the Appropriate Filter Type", on page 114)
​"Auto" on page 107
Sweep ← Sweep Type
Sets the ​Sweep Type to standard analog frequency sweep.
In the standard sweep mode, the local oscillator is set to provide the spectrum quasi
analog from the start to the stop frequency.
Remote command:
SWE:TYPE SWE, see ​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​TYPE​ on page 705
FFT ← Sweep Type
Sets the ​Sweep Type to FFT mode.
The FFT sweep mode samples on a defined frequency value and transforms it to the
spectrum by fast Fourier transformation (FFT).
FFT is not available when using 5-Pole filters, Channel filters or RRC filters. In this case,
sweep mode is used.
Note: The same applies when a tracking generator (internal or external, options
R&S FSV-B9/B10) is active.
Remote command:
SWE:TYPE FFT, see ​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​TYPE​ on page 705
Auto ← Sweep Type
Automatically sets the fastest available ​Sweep Type for the current measurement. Auto
mode is set by default.
Remote command:
SWE:TYPE AUTO, see ​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​TYPE​ on page 705
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Measurement Parameters
FFT Filter Mode ← Sweep Type
Defines the filter mode to be used for FFT filters by defining the partial span size. The
partial span is the span which is covered by one FFT analysis.
Auto ← FFT Filter Mode ← Sweep Type
The firmware determines whether to use wide or narrow filters to obtain the best measurement results.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:​RESolution]:​FFT​ on page 635
Narrow ← FFT Filter Mode ← Sweep Type
For an RBW ≤ 10kHz, the FFT filters with the smaller partial span are used. This allows
you to perform measurements near a carrier with a reduced reference level due to a
narrower analog prefilter.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:​RESolution]:​FFT​ on page 635
Coupling Ratio
Opens a submenu to select the coupling ratios for functions coupled to the bandwidth.
RBW/VBW Sine [1/1] ← Coupling Ratio
Sets the following coupling ratio:
"video bandwidth = resolution bandwidth"
This is the default setting for the coupling ratio resolution bandwidth/video bandwidth.
This is the coupling ratio recommended if sinusoidal signals are to be measured.
This setting takes effect if you define the video bandwidth automatically (​Video BW
Auto).
Remote command:
BAND:VID:RAT 1, see ​[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth:​VIDeo:​RATio​
on page 637
RBW/VBW Pulse [.1] ← Coupling Ratio
Sets the following coupling ratio:
"video bandwidth = 10 × resolution bandwidth or"
"video bandwidth = 10 MHz (= max. VBW)."
This coupling ratio is recommended whenever the amplitudes of pulsed signals are to be
measured correctly. The IF filter is exclusively responsible for pulse shaping. No additional evaluation is performed by the video filter.
This setting takes effect if you define the video bandwidth automatically (​Video BW
Auto).
Remote command:
BAND:VID:RAT 10, see ​[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth:​VIDeo:​RATio​
on page 637
RBW/VBW Noise [10] ← Coupling Ratio
Sets the following coupling ratio:
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Instrument Functions
Measurement Parameters
"video bandwidth = resolution bandwidth/10"
At this coupling ratio, noise and pulsed signals are suppressed in the video domain. For
noise signals, the average value is displayed.
This setting takes effect if you define the video bandwidth automatically (​Video BW
Auto).
Remote command:
BAND:VID:RAT 0.1, see ​[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth:​VIDeo:​RATio​
on page 637
RBW/VBW Manual ← Coupling Ratio
Activates the manual input of the coupling ratio.
The resolution bandwidth/video bandwidth ratio can be set in the range 0.001 to 1000.
This setting takes effect if you define the video bandwidth automatically (​Video BW
Auto).
Remote command:
BAND:VID:RAT 10, see ​[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth:​VIDeo:​RATio​
on page 637
Span/RBW Auto [100] ← Coupling Ratio
Sets the following coupling ratio:
"resolution bandwidth = span/100"
This coupling ratio is the default setting of the R&S FSV.
This setting takes effect if you define the resolution bandwidth automatically (​Res BW
Auto).
Remote command:
BAND:VID:RAT 0.001, see ​[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth:​VIDeo:​RATio​
on page 637
Span/RBW Manual ← Coupling Ratio
Activates the manual input of the coupling ratio.
This setting takes effect if you define the resolution bandwidth automatically (​Res BW
Auto).
The span/resolution bandwidth ratio can be set in the range 1 to 10000.
Remote command:
BAND:RAT 0.1, see ​[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:​RESolution]:​RATio​
on page 635
Default Coupling ← Coupling Ratio
Sets all coupled functions to the default state ("AUTO").
In addition, the ratio "RBW/VBW" is set to "SINE [1/1]" and the ratio "SPAN/RBW" to 100.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:​RESolution]:​AUTO​ on page 634
​[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth:​VIDeo:​AUTO​ on page 636
​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​TIME:​AUTO​ on page 705
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Measurement Parameters
Filter Type
Opens a submenu to select the filter type.
When measuring Spurious Emissions, using this softkey automatically opens the "Sweep
List" dialog (see ​"Sweep List dialog box" on page 248).
The submenu contains the following softkeys:
●
●
●
●
●
●
Normal (3 dB)
CISPR (6 dB)
MIL Std (6 dB)
Note that the 6 dB bandwidths are available only with option R&S FSV-K54.
Channel
RRC
5-Pole (not available for sweep type "FFT")
For detailed information on filters see ​chapter 3.2.6.3, "Selecting the Appropriate Filter
Type", on page 114 and ​chapter 3.2.6.4, "List of Available RRC and Channel Filters",
on page 115.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:​RESolution]:​TYPE​ on page 636
3.2.6.2
Specifying the Bandwidth
1. Set the resolution bandwidth using the ​Res BW Manual or ​Res BW Auto softkey.
2. Set the video bandwidth using the ​Video BW Manual or ​Video BW Auto softkey.
3. Set the sweep time using the ​Sweeptime Manual or ​Sweeptime Auto softkey.
4. Press the ​Filter Type softkey and select the appropriate filters.
3.2.6.3
Selecting the Appropriate Filter Type
All resolution bandwidths are realized with digital filters.
The video filters are responsible for smoothing the displayed trace. Using video bandwidths that are small compared to the resolution bandwidth, only the signal average is
displayed and noise peaks and pulsed signals are repressed. If pulsed signals are to be
measured, it is advisable to use a video bandwidth that is large compared to the resolution
bandwidth (VBW * 10 x RBW) for the amplitudes of pulses to be measured correctly.
The following filter types are available:
●
Normal (3dB) (Gaussian) filters
The Gaussian filters are set by default. The available bandwidths are specified in the
data sheet.
●
CISPR (6 dB) filters
●
MIL Std (6 dB) filters
Note that the 6 dB bandwidths are available only with option R&S FSV-K54.
●
Channel filters
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Measurement Parameters
For details see ​chapter 3.2.6.4, "List of Available RRC and Channel Filters",
on page 115 .
Channel filters do not support FFT mode.
3.2.6.4
●
RRC filters
For details see ​chapter 3.2.6.4, "List of Available RRC and Channel Filters",
on page 115 .
RRC filters do not support FFT mode.
●
5-Pole filters
The available bandwidths are specified in the data sheet.
5-Pole filters do not support FFT mode.
List of Available RRC and Channel Filters
For power measurement a number of especially steep-edged channel filters are available
(see the following table). The indicated filter bandwidth is the 3 dB bandwidth. For RRC
filters, the fixed roll-off factor (a) is also indicated.
Table 3-3: Filter types
Filter Bandwidth
Filter Type
100 Hz
CFILter
200 Hz
CFILter
300 Hz
CFILter
500 Hz
CFILter
1 kHz
CFILter
1.5 kHz
CFILter
2 kHz
CFILter
2.4 kHz
CFILter
2.7 kHz
CFILter
3 kHz
CFILter
3.4 kHz
CFILter
4 kHz
CFILter
4.5 kHz
CFILter
5 kHz
CFILter
6 kHz
CFILter
6 kHz, a=0.2
RRC
APCO
8.5 kHz
CFILter
ETS300 113 (12.5 kHz channels)
9 kHz
CFILter
AM Radio
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Application
A0
SSB
DAB, Satellite
115
R&S® FSV
Instrument Functions
Measurement Parameters
Filter Bandwidth
Filter Type
10 kHz
CFILter
12.5 kHz
CFILter
CDMAone
14 kHz
CFILter
ETS300 113 (20 kHz channels)
15 kHz
CFILter
16 kHz
CFILter
ETS300 113 (25 kHz channels)
18 kHz, a=0.35
RRC
TETRA
20 kHz
CFILter
21 kHz
CFILter
PDC
24.3 kHz, a=0.35
RRC
IS 136
25 kHz
CFILter
30 kHz
CFILter
50 kHz
CFILter
100 kHz
CFILter
150 kHz
CFILter
FM Radio
192 kHz
CFILter
PHS
200 kHz
CFILter
300 kHz
CFILter
500 kHz
CFILter
J.83 (8-VSB DVB, USA)
1 MHz
CFILter
CDMAone
1.228 MHz
CFILter
CDMAone
1.28 MHz, a=0.22
RRC
1.5 MHz
CFILter
2 MHz
CFILter
3 MHz
CFILter
3.75 MHz
CFILter
3.84 MHz, a=0.22
RRC
W-CDMA 3GPP
4.096 MHz, a=0.22
RRC
W-CDMA NTT DOCoMo
5 MHz
CFILter
20 MHz
CFILter
28 MHz
CFILter
40 MHz
CFILter
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Application
CDPD, CDMAone
DAB
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Measurement Parameters
3.2.7 Configuring the Sweep Mode – SWEEP Key
The SWEEP key is used to configure the sweep mode. Continuous sweep or single
sweep is possible. The sweep time and the number of measured values are set.
To open the Sweep menu
●
Press the SWEEP key.
The "Sweep" menu is displayed.
Menu and softkey description
●
​chapter 3.2.7.1, "Softkeys of the Sweep Menu", on page 117
Task
●
3.2.7.1
​chapter 3.2.7.2, "Specifying the Sweep Settings", on page 122
Softkeys of the Sweep Menu
The following table shows all softkeys available in the "Sweep" menu. It is possible that
your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available
with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is provided in the
corresponding softkey description.
Continuous Sweep......................................................................................................117
Single Sweep..............................................................................................................118
Continue Single Sweep...............................................................................................118
Sweeptime Manual......................................................................................................118
Sweeptime Auto..........................................................................................................119
Sweep Type................................................................................................................119
└ Sweep...........................................................................................................119
└ FFT...............................................................................................................119
└ Auto...............................................................................................................120
└ FFT Filter Mode............................................................................................120
└ Auto....................................................................................................120
└ Narrow................................................................................................120
Sweep Count...............................................................................................................120
Sweep Points..............................................................................................................121
Select Frame...............................................................................................................121
Continue Frame (On Off)............................................................................................121
Frame Count...............................................................................................................121
Spectrogram Clear......................................................................................................122
Continuous Sweep
Sets the continuous sweep mode: the sweep takes place continuously according to the
trigger settings. This is the default setting.
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Measurement Parameters
The trace averaging is determined by the sweep count value (see the "Sweep Count"
softkey, ​"Sweep Count" on page 120).
Remote command:
INIT:CONT ON, see ​INITiate<n>:​CONTinuous​ on page 610
Single Sweep
Sets the single sweep mode: after triggering, starts the number of sweeps that are defined
by using the ​Sweep Count softkey. The measurement stops after the defined number of
sweeps has been performed.
Remote command:
INIT:CONT OFF, see ​INITiate<n>:​CONTinuous​ on page 610
Continue Single Sweep
Repeats the number of sweeps set by using the ​Sweep Count softkey, without deleting
the trace of the last measurement.
This is particularly of interest when using the trace configurations "Average" or "Max
Hold" to take previously recorded measurements into account for averaging/maximum
search.
For details on trace configuration refer to ​chapter 3.2.8, "Setting Traces – TRACE Key",
on page 122.
Remote command:
​INITiate<n>:​CONMeas​ on page 610
Sweeptime Manual
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the sweep time.
Sweep time
absolute max. sweep time value:
16000 s
absolute min. sweep time value:
zero span: 1 μs
span > 0: depends on device model (refer to data sheet)
Allowed values depend on the ratio of span to RBW and RBW to VBW. For details refer
to the data sheet.
Numeric input is always rounded to the nearest possible sweep time. For rotary knob or
UPARROW/DNARROW key inputs, the sweep time is adjusted in steps either downwards or upwards.
The manual input mode of the sweep time is indicated by a green bullet next to the "SWT"
display in the channel bar. If the selected sweep time is too short for the selected bandwidth and span, level measurement errors will occur due to a too short settling time for
the resolution or video filters. In this case, the R&S FSV displays the error message
"UNCAL" and marks the indicated sweep time with a red bullet.
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R&S® FSV
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Measurement Parameters
When measuring Spurious Emissions, using this softkey automatically opens the "Sweep
List" dialog, see ​"Sweep List dialog box" on page 248.
Remote command:
SWE:TIME:AUTO OFF, see ​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​TIME:​AUTO​ on page 705
​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​TIME​ on page 705
Sweeptime Auto
Couples the sweep time to the span, video bandwidth (VBW) and resolution bandwidth
(RBW) (not available for zero span). If you change the span, resolution bandwidth or
video bandwidth, the sweep time is automatically adjusted.
The R&S FSV always selects the shortest sweep time that is possible without falsifying
the signal. The maximum level error is < 0.1 dB, compared to using a longer sweep time.
When measuring Spurious Emissions, using this softkey automatically opens the "Sweep
List" dialog, see ​"Sweep List dialog box" on page 248.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​TIME:​AUTO​ on page 705
Sweep Type
Opens a submenu to define the sweep type.
This function is not available in IQ Analyzer mode or for input from the R&S Digital I/Q
Interface (option R&S FSV-B17).
In frequency sweep mode, the analyzer provides several possible methods of sweeping:
●
●
●
​"Sweep" on page 107
​"FFT" on page 107 (not available with 5-Pole filters, channel filters or RRC filters, see
​chapter 3.2.6.3, "Selecting the Appropriate Filter Type", on page 114)
​"Auto" on page 107
Sweep ← Sweep Type
Sets the ​Sweep Type to standard analog frequency sweep.
In the standard sweep mode, the local oscillator is set to provide the spectrum quasi
analog from the start to the stop frequency.
Remote command:
SWE:TYPE SWE, see ​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​TYPE​ on page 705
FFT ← Sweep Type
Sets the ​Sweep Type to FFT mode.
The FFT sweep mode samples on a defined frequency value and transforms it to the
spectrum by fast Fourier transformation (FFT).
FFT is not available when using 5-Pole filters, Channel filters or RRC filters. In this case,
sweep mode is used.
Note: The same applies when a tracking generator (internal or external, options
R&S FSV-B9/B10) is active.
Remote command:
SWE:TYPE FFT, see ​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​TYPE​ on page 705
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Instrument Functions
Measurement Parameters
Auto ← Sweep Type
Automatically sets the fastest available ​Sweep Type for the current measurement. Auto
mode is set by default.
Remote command:
SWE:TYPE AUTO, see ​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​TYPE​ on page 705
FFT Filter Mode ← Sweep Type
Defines the filter mode to be used for FFT filters by defining the partial span size. The
partial span is the span which is covered by one FFT analysis.
Auto ← FFT Filter Mode ← Sweep Type
The firmware determines whether to use wide or narrow filters to obtain the best measurement results.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:​RESolution]:​FFT​ on page 635
Narrow ← FFT Filter Mode ← Sweep Type
For an RBW ≤ 10kHz, the FFT filters with the smaller partial span are used. This allows
you to perform measurements near a carrier with a reduced reference level due to a
narrower analog prefilter.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:​RESolution]:​FFT​ on page 635
Sweep Count
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the number of sweeps to be performed in the single
sweep mode. Values from 0 to 32767 are allowed. If the values 0 or 1 are set, one sweep
is performed. The sweep count is applied to all the traces in a diagram.
If the trace configurations "Average", "Max Hold" or "Min Hold" are set, the sweep count
value also determines the number of averaging or maximum search procedures.
In continuous sweep mode, if sweep count = 0 (default), averaging is performed over 10
sweeps. For sweep count =1, no averaging, maxhold or minhold operations are performed.
For details on trace configuration see ​chapter 3.2.8, "Setting Traces – TRACE Key",
on page 122.
Example:
●
●
●
●
Press the TRACE key > ​Trace 1/Trace 2/Trace 3/Trace 4/Trace 5/Trace 6 softkey >
​"Max Hold" on page 124 softkey.
Press the SWEEP key > "Sweep Count" softkey.
In the "Average Sweep Count" dialog box, enter 10.
Press the ​"Single Sweep" on page 118 softkey:
R&S FSV performs the "Max Hold" function over 10 sweeps.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​COUNt​ on page 699
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R&S® FSV
Instrument Functions
Measurement Parameters
Sweep Points
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the number of measured values to be collected during
one sweep.
●
●
Entry via rotary knob:
– In the range from 101 to 1001, the sweep points are increased or decreased in
steps of 100 points.
– In the range from 1001 to 32001, the sweep points are increased or decreased
in steps of 1000 points.
Entry via keypad:
All values in the defined range can be set.
The default value is 691 sweep points.
When measuring spurious emissions, using this softkey automatically opens the "Sweep
List" dialog, see ​"Sweep List dialog box" on page 248.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​POINts​ on page 704
Select Frame
For spectrogram measurements only.
Opens a dialog box to select a specific frame and loads the corresponding trace from the
memory.
Note that activating a marker or changing the position of the active marker automatically
selects the frame that belongs to that marker.
This softkey is available in single sweep mode or if the sweep is stopped.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​SGRam:​FRAMe:​SELect​ on page 589
Continue Frame (On Off)
For spectrogram measurements only.
Determines whether the results of the last measurement are deleted before starting a
new measurement.
●
●
On
Repeats the single sweep measurement without deleting the spectrogram results of
the last measurement. One of the following trace modes is to be used: Max Hold, Min
Hold, Average.
Off
Deletes the last measurement results before performing a single sweep measurement.
This softkey is available in single sweep mode.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​SGRam:​CONT​ on page 588
Frame Count
For spectrogram measurements only.
Opens a dialog box to set the number of frames to be captured in a single sweep.
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Instrument Functions
Measurement Parameters
Therefore, the frame count defines the number of traces the R&S FSV plots in the Spectrogram result display in a single sweep. The maximum number of possible frames
depends on the history depth (see ​CALCulate<n>:​SGRam:​HDEPth​ on page 589).
The sweep count, on the other hand, determines how many sweeps are combined in one
frame in the Spectrogram, i.e. how many sweeps the R&S FSV performs to plot one trace
in the Spectrogram result display (see ​"Sweep Count" on page 120).
This softkey is available in single sweep mode.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​SGRam:​FRAMe:​COUNt​ on page 589
Spectrogram Clear
For spectrogram measurements only.
Resets the Spectrogram result display and clears its history buffer.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​SGRam:​CLEar[:​IMMediate]​ on page 587
3.2.7.2
Specifying the Sweep Settings
1. Press the ​Sweep Count softkey and enter the sweep count.
2. Press the ​Sweeptime Manual or ​Sweeptime Auto softkey to set the sweep time.
3. Press the ​Sweep Type softkey to select the sweep type.
4. Press the ​Sweep Points softkey and enter the number of sweep points.
5. Press the ​Continuous Sweep or ​Single Sweep softkey to select the sweep mode.
6. Press the ​Continue Single Sweep softkey to repeat the single sweep.
3.2.8 Setting Traces – TRACE Key
The TRACE key is used to configure the data acquisition for measurement and the
analysis of the measurement data.
The R&S FSV is capable of displaying up to six different traces at a time in a diagram. A
trace consists of a maximum of 691 displayed measurement points on the horizontal axis
(frequency or time). If more measured values than measurement points are available,
several measured values are combined in one displayed measurement point.
The trace functions include the following:
●
Display mode of the trace
For details on trace modes see ​chapter 3.2.8.4, "Trace Mode Overview",
on page 134.
●
Evaluation of the trace as a whole
For details on averaging see ​chapter 3.2.8.5, "Description of the Averaging
Method", on page 135.
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R&S® FSV
Instrument Functions
Measurement Parameters
●
Evaluation of individual measurement points of a trace. For details on detectors see
​chapter 3.2.8.6, "Detector Overview", on page 137.
To open the Trace menu
●
Press the TRACE key.
The "Trace" menu is displayed. The "Trace Configuration" dialog box is displayed.
Menu and softkey description
●
​chapter 3.2.8.1, "Softkeys of the Trace Menu", on page 123
Further information
●
​chapter 3.2.8.4, "Trace Mode Overview", on page 134
●
​chapter 3.2.8.6, "Detector Overview", on page 137
●
​chapter 3.2.8.7, "ASCII File Export Format", on page 138
Tasks
3.2.8.1
●
​chapter 3.2.8.2, "Configuring Traces", on page 132
●
​chapter 3.2.8.3, "Specifying the Trace Settings", on page 133
Softkeys of the Trace Menu
The following table shows all softkeys available in the "Trace" menu. It is possible that
your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available
with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is provided in the
corresponding softkey description.
Trace 1/Trace 2/Trace 3/Trace 4/Trace 5/Trace 6......................................................124
└ Clear Write....................................................................................................124
└ Max Hold.......................................................................................................124
└ Min Hold........................................................................................................125
└ Average.........................................................................................................125
└ View..............................................................................................................125
└ Blank.............................................................................................................125
└ Hold/Cont......................................................................................................125
└ Detector........................................................................................................126
└ Auto Select.........................................................................................126
└ Auto Peak...........................................................................................126
└ Positive Peak......................................................................................127
└ Negative Peak....................................................................................127
└ Sample................................................................................................127
└ RMS....................................................................................................127
└ Average..............................................................................................127
└ Quasipeak...........................................................................................127
└ CISPR Average..................................................................................128
└ RMS Average.....................................................................................128
More Traces................................................................................................................128
Copy Trace..................................................................................................................128
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R&S® FSV
Instrument Functions
Measurement Parameters
Trace Wizard...............................................................................................................128
Spectrogram................................................................................................................128
Average Mode.............................................................................................................128
└ Lin.................................................................................................................129
└ Log................................................................................................................129
└ Power............................................................................................................129
ASCII Trace Export.....................................................................................................130
Decim Sep...................................................................................................................130
Trace Math..................................................................................................................130
Trace Math Mode........................................................................................................131
└ Lin.................................................................................................................131
└ Log................................................................................................................131
└ Power............................................................................................................131
Trace Math Position....................................................................................................131
Trace Math Off............................................................................................................131
Trace 1/Trace 2/Trace 3/Trace 4/Trace 5/Trace 6
Selects the active trace (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6) and opens the "Trace Mode" submenu for the
selected trace.
The default setting is trace 1 in the overwrite mode (see ​"Clear Write" on page 124), the
other traces are switched off (see ​"Blank" on page 125). For details see ​chapter 3.2.8.4,
"Trace Mode Overview", on page 134.
Tip: To configure several traces in one step, press the ​Trace Wizard softkey to open a
trace configuration dialog. See also ​chapter 3.2.8.2, "Configuring Traces",
on page 132.
Remote command:
Selected via numeric suffix of:TRACe<1...6> commands
Clear Write ← Trace 1/Trace 2/Trace 3/Trace 4/Trace 5/Trace 6
Overwrite mode: the trace is overwritten by each sweep. This is the default setting.
All available detectors can be selected.
Remote command:
DISP:TRAC:MODE WRIT, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​MODE​
on page 601
Max Hold ← Trace 1/Trace 2/Trace 3/Trace 4/Trace 5/Trace 6
The maximum value is determined over several sweeps and displayed. The R&S FSV
saves the sweep result in the trace memory only if the new value is greater than the
previous one.
The detector is automatically set to "Positive Peak".
This mode is especially useful with modulated or pulsed signals. The signal spectrum is
filled up upon each sweep until all signal components are detected in a kind of envelope.
This mode is not available for statistics measurements.
Remote command:
DISP:TRAC:MODE MAXH, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​MODE​
on page 601
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R&S® FSV
Instrument Functions
Measurement Parameters
Min Hold ← Trace 1/Trace 2/Trace 3/Trace 4/Trace 5/Trace 6
The minimum value is determined from several measurements and displayed. The
R&S FSV saves the smallest of the previously stored/currently measured values in the
trace memory.
The detector is automatically set to "Negative Peak".
This mode is useful e.g. for making an unmodulated carrier in a composite signal visible.
Noise, interference signals or modulated signals are suppressed whereas a CW signal
is recognized by its constant level.
This mode is not available for statistics measurements.
Remote command:
DISP:TRAC:MODE MINH, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​MODE​
on page 601
Average ← Trace 1/Trace 2/Trace 3/Trace 4/Trace 5/Trace 6
The average is formed over several sweeps. The ​Sweep Count determines the number
of averaging procedures.
All available detectors can be selected. If the detector is automatically selected, the sample detector is used (see ​chapter 3.2.8.6, "Detector Overview", on page 137).
This mode is not available for statistics measurements.
Remote command:
DISP:TRAC:MODE AVER, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​MODE​
on page 601
View ← Trace 1/Trace 2/Trace 3/Trace 4/Trace 5/Trace 6
The current contents of the trace memory are frozen and displayed.
Note: If a trace is frozen, the instrument settings, apart from level range and reference
level (see below), can be changed without impact on the displayed trace. The fact that
the displayed trace no longer matches the current instrument setting is indicated by the
icon on the tab label.
If the level range or reference level is changed, the R&S FSV automatically adapts the
measured data to the changed display range. This allows an amplitude zoom to be made
after the measurement in order to show details of the trace.
Remote command:
DISP:TRAC:MODE VIEW, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​MODE​
on page 601
Blank ← Trace 1/Trace 2/Trace 3/Trace 4/Trace 5/Trace 6
Hides the selected trace.
Remote command:
DISP:TRAC OFF, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>[:​STATe]​ on page 601
Hold/Cont ← Trace 1/Trace 2/Trace 3/Trace 4/Trace 5/Trace 6
Switches the reset of the traces in Min Hold, Max Hold and Average mode after some
specific parameter changes have been made on and off. The default setting is off.
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R&S® FSV
Instrument Functions
Measurement Parameters
Normally, the measurement is started anew after parameter changes, before the measurement results are evaluated (e.g. using a marker). In all cases that require a new
measurement after parameter changes, the trace is reset automatically to avoid false
results (e.g. with span changes). For applications that require no reset after parameter
changes, the automatic reset can be switched off.
Remote command:
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​MODE:​HCONtinuous​ on page 602
Detector ← Trace 1/Trace 2/Trace 3/Trace 4/Trace 5/Trace 6
Opens a submenu to select the detector manually, or activate automatic selection.
Note: When measuring spurious emissions, using this softkey automatically opens the
Sweep List dialog, see ​"Sweep List dialog box" on page 248.
If a detector was selected manually, the "MAN" indicator is highlighted.
If "AUTO" is selected, the detector is defined automatically, depending on the selected
trace mode:
Trace mode
Detector
Clear Write
Auto Peak
Max Hold
Positive Peak
Min Hold
Negative Peak
Average
Sample Peak
View
–
Blank
–
For details see ​chapter 3.2.8.6, "Detector Overview", on page 137.
Auto Select ← Detector ← Trace 1/Trace 2/Trace 3/Trace 4/Trace 5/Trace 6
Selects the best detector for the selected trace and filter mode. This is the default setting.
For details see also ​chapter 3.2.8.6, "Detector Overview", on page 137.
Trace mode
Detector
Clear/Write
Auto Peak
Average
Sample
Max Hold
Max Peak
Min Hold
Min Peak
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​][WINDow:​]DETector<trace>[:​FUNCtion]:​AUTO​ on page 707
Auto Peak ← Detector ← Trace 1/Trace 2/Trace 3/Trace 4/Trace 5/Trace 6
Selects the "Auto Peak" detector.
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Measurement Parameters
For details see ​chapter 3.2.8.6, "Detector Overview", on page 137.
Remote command:
DET APE, see ​[SENSe:​][WINDow:​]DETector<trace>[:​FUNCtion]​
on page 706
Positive Peak ← Detector ← Trace 1/Trace 2/Trace 3/Trace 4/Trace 5/Trace 6
Selects the "Positive Peak" detector.
For details see ​chapter 3.2.8.6, "Detector Overview", on page 137.
Remote command:
DET POS, see ​[SENSe:​][WINDow:​]DETector<trace>[:​FUNCtion]​
on page 706
Negative Peak ← Detector ← Trace 1/Trace 2/Trace 3/Trace 4/Trace 5/Trace 6
Selects the "Negative Peak" detector.
For details see ​chapter 3.2.8.6, "Detector Overview", on page 137.
Remote command:
DET NEG, see ​[SENSe:​][WINDow:​]DETector<trace>[:​FUNCtion]​
on page 706
Sample ← Detector ← Trace 1/Trace 2/Trace 3/Trace 4/Trace 5/Trace 6
Selects the "Sample" detector.
For details see ​chapter 3.2.8.6, "Detector Overview", on page 137.
Remote command:
DET SAMP, see ​[SENSe:​][WINDow:​]DETector<trace>[:​FUNCtion]​
on page 706
RMS ← Detector ← Trace 1/Trace 2/Trace 3/Trace 4/Trace 5/Trace 6
Selects the "RMS" detector.
For details see ​chapter 3.2.8.6, "Detector Overview", on page 137.
Remote command:
DET RMS, see ​[SENSe:​][WINDow:​]DETector<trace>[:​FUNCtion]​
on page 706
Average ← Detector ← Trace 1/Trace 2/Trace 3/Trace 4/Trace 5/Trace 6
Selects the "Average" detector.
For details see ​chapter 3.2.8.6, "Detector Overview", on page 137.
Remote command:
DET AVER, see ​[SENSe:​][WINDow:​]DETector<trace>[:​FUNCtion]​
on page 706
Quasipeak ← Detector ← Trace 1/Trace 2/Trace 3/Trace 4/Trace 5/Trace 6
Selects the "Quasipeak" detector.
The quasipeak detector is available with option R&S FSV-K54.
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Measurement Parameters
For details see ​chapter 3.2.8.6, "Detector Overview", on page 137.
Remote command:
DET QPE, see ​[SENSe:​][WINDow:​]DETector<trace>[:​FUNCtion]​
on page 706
CISPR Average ← Detector ← Trace 1/Trace 2/Trace 3/Trace 4/Trace 5/Trace 6
Selects the "CISPR Average" detector.
The CISPR Average detector is available with option R&S FSV-K54.
For details see ​chapter 3.2.8.6, "Detector Overview", on page 137.
Remote command:
DET CAV, see ​[SENSe:​][WINDow:​]DETector<trace>[:​FUNCtion]​
on page 706
RMS Average ← Detector ← Trace 1/Trace 2/Trace 3/Trace 4/Trace 5/Trace 6
Selects the "RMS Average" detector.
The quasipeak detector is available with option R&S FSV-K54.
For details see ​chapter 3.2.8.6, "Detector Overview", on page 137.
Remote command:
DET CRMS, see ​[SENSe:​][WINDow:​]DETector<trace>[:​FUNCtion]​
on page 706
More Traces
Opens a submenu to select one of the traces not currently displayed in the main menu.
Copy Trace
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the number of the trace memory in which the currently
selected trace will be copied.
Remote command:
​TRACe<n>:​COPY​ on page 732
Trace Wizard
Opens the "Trace Wizard" dialog. See ​chapter 3.2.8.2, "Configuring Traces",
on page 132.
Spectrogram
Opens the submenu for the spectrogram view (firmware option R&S FSV-K14).
For details on this application refer to ​chapter 3.10, "Instrument Functions - Spectrogram
Measurements", on page 413.
Average Mode
Opens a submenu to select the averaging method for the average trace mode. The following methods are available:
●
●
●
​Lin
​Log
​Power
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Logarithmic averaging is recommended to display signals with a low signal to noise ratio.
While positive peak values are decreased in logarithmic averaging due to the characteristics involved, it is also true that negative peaks are increased relative to the average
value. If the distorted amplitude distribution is averaged, a value is obtained that is smaller
than the actual average value. The difference is -2.5 dB.
This low average value is usually corrected in noise power measurements by a 2.5 dB
factor. Therefore the R&S FSV offers the selection of linear averaging. The trace data is
converted to linear values prior to averaging, then averaged and reconverted to logarithmic values. After these conversions the data is displayed on the screen. The average
value is always correctly displayed irrespective of the signal characteristic.
In case of stationary sinusoidal signals both logarithmic and linear averaging has the
same results.
Lin ← Average Mode
Activates linear averaging. Linear averaging means that the power level values are converted into linear units prior to averaging. After the averaging, the data is converted back
into its original unit.
This softkey takes effect if the grid is set to a linear scale (see "Range Linear" softkey, ​
"Range Linear %" on page 98). In this case, the averaging is done in two ways (depending
on the set unit – see "Unit" softkey):
●
●
The unit is set to either W or dBm: the data is converted into W prior to averaging,
i.e. averaging is done in W.
The unit is set to either V, A, dBmV, dBµV, dBµA or dBpW: the data is converted into
V prior to averaging, i.e. averaging is done in V.
Remote command:
SENS:AVER1:TYPE LIN, see ​[SENSe:​]AVERage<n>:​TYPE​ on page 633
Log ← Average Mode
Activates logarithmic averaging.
This averaging method only takes effect if the grid is set to a logarithmic scale
("Range" softkey), i.e. the unit of the data is dBm. In this case the values are averaged
in dBm. Otherwise (i.e. with linear scaling), the behavior is the same as with linear averaging (see ​Lin softkey). For further information on logarithmic scaling refer to the "Average Mode" softkey.
Remote command:
SENS:AVER1:TYPE VID, see ​[SENSe:​]AVERage<n>:​TYPE​ on page 633
Power ← Average Mode
Activates linear power averaging.
The power level values are converted into unit Watt prior to averaging. After the averaging, the data is converted back into its original unit.
Unlike the linear mode, the averaging is always done in W.
Remote command:
SENS:AVER1:TYPE POW, see ​[SENSe:​]AVERage<n>:​TYPE​ on page 633
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ASCII Trace Export
Opens the "ASCII Trace Export Name" dialog box and saves the active trace in ASCII
format to the specified file and directory.
The file consists of the header containing important scaling parameters and a data section
containing the trace data. For details on an ASCII file see ​chapter 3.2.8.7, "ASCII File
Export Format", on page 138.
This format can be processed by spreadsheet calculation programs, e.g. MS-Excel. It is
necessary to define ';' as a separator for the data import. Different language versions of
evaluation programs may require a different handling of the decimal point. It is therefore
possible to select between separators '.' (decimal point) and ',' (comma) using the "Decim
Sep" softkey (see ​"Decim Sep" on page 71).
If the spectrogram display is selected when you perform this function, the entire histogram
buffer with all frames is exported to a file. The data corresponding to a particular frame
begins with information about the frame number and the time that frame was recorded.
For large history buffers the export operation may take some time. For details see ​chapter 3.10.4, "ASCII File Export Format for Spectrograms", on page 423.
Remote command:
​FORMat:​DEXPort:​DSEParator​ on page 609
​MMEMory:​STORe<n>:​TRACe​ on page 624
​MMEMory:​STORe:​SGRam​ on page 623
Decim Sep
Selects the decimal separator with floating-point numerals for the ASCII Trace export to
support evaluation programs (e.g. MS-Excel) in different languages. The values '.' (decimal point) and ',' (comma) can be set.
Remote command:
​FORMat:​DEXPort:​DSEParator​ on page 609
Trace Math
Opens the "Trace Mathematics" dialog box to define which trace is subtracted from trace
1. The result is displayed in trace 1 and refers to the zero point defined with the ​Trace
Math Position softkey. The following subtractions can be performed:
"T1"->"T1"-"T2"
Subtracts trace 2 from trace 1.
"T1"->"T1"-"T3"
Subtracts trace 3 from trace 1
"T1"->"T1"-"T4"
Subtracts trace 4 from trace 1
"T1"->"T1"-"T5"
Subtracts trace 5 from trace 1
"T1"->"T1"-"T6"
Subtracts trace 6 from trace 1
To switch off the trace math, use the ​Trace Math Off softkey.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MATH[:​EXPression][:​DEFine]​ on page 583
​CALCulate<n>:​MATH:​STATe​ on page 584
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Trace Math Mode
Opens a submenu to select the mode for the trace math calculations.
Lin ← Trace Math Mode
Activates linear subtraction, which means that the power level values are converted into
linear units prior to subtraction. After the subtraction, the data is converted back into its
original unit.
This softkey takes effect if the grid is set to a linear scale (see ​Range softkey). In this
case, subtraction is done in two ways (depending on the set unit – see ​Unit softkey):
●
●
The unit is set to either W or dBm: the data is converted into W prior to subtraction,
i.e. averaging is done in W.
The unit is set to either V, A, dBmV, dBµV, dBµA or dBpW: the data is converted into
V prior to subtraction, i.e. subtraction is done in V.
Remote command:
CALC:MATH:MODE LIN, see ​CALCulate<n>:​MATH:​MODE​ on page 584
Log ← Trace Math Mode
Activates logarithmic subtraction.
This subtraction method only takes effect if the grid is set to a logarithmic scale (see ​
Range softkey), i.e. the unit of the data is dBm. In this case the values are subtracted in
dBm. Otherwise (i.e. with linear scaling) the behavior is the same as with linear subtraction (see ​Lin softkey). For further information on logarithmic scaling refer to the ​Average
Mode softkey.
Remote command:
CALC:MATH:MODE LOG, see ​CALCulate<n>:​MATH:​MODE​ on page 584
Power ← Trace Math Mode
Activates linear power subtraction.
The power level values are converted into unit Watt prior to subtraction. After the subtraction, the data is converted back into its original unit.
Unlike the linear mode, the subtraction is always done in W.
Remote command:
CALC:MATH:MODE POW, see ​CALCulate<n>:​MATH:​MODE​ on page 584
Trace Math Position
Opens an edit dialog box to define the zero point in % of the diagram height. The range
of values extends from -100 % to +200 %.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MATH:​POSition​ on page 583
Trace Math Off
Deactivates any previously selected trace math functions.
Remote command:
CALC:MATH:STAT OFF, see ​CALCulate<n>:​MATH:​STATe​ on page 584
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3.2.8.2
Configuring Traces
1. To open the trace wizard, press the TRACE key and then the "Trace Wizard" softkey
(see ​"Trace Wizard" on page 128).
Tip: Context-sensitive menus for traces. Traces have context-sensitive menus. If you
right-click on a trace in the display or a trace setting in the information channel bar
(or touch it for about 1 second), a menu is displayed which corresponds to the softkey
functions available for traces. This is useful, for example, when the softkey display is
hidden.
If a menu entry contains an arrow to the right of it, a submenu is available for that
entry.
To close the menu, press the ESC key or click in the display outside of the menu.
2. For each trace you can define the following settings:
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Display Mode
●
●
●
●
●
●
​Clear Write
​Max Hold
​Min Hold
​Average
​View
​Blank
For details see ​chapter 3.2.8.4, "Trace Mode Overview", on page 134.
Detector Auto Select
Activates automatic detector selection (see ​Auto Select softkey). If activated, the "Trace Detector" setting is ignored.
Trace Detector
Defines a specific trace detector. If one of the following settings is
defined, the "Detector Auto Select" option is deactivated.
●
​"Auto Select" on page 126
●
​"Auto Peak" on page 126
●
​"Positive Peak" on page 127
●
​"Negative Peak" on page 127
●
​"Sample" on page 127
●
​"RMS" on page 127
●
​"Average" on page 127
●
​"Quasipeak" on page 127
3. To configure several traces to predefined display modes in one step, press the button
for the required function:
Preset All Traces
Trace 1: ​Clear Write
Trace 2-6: ​Blank
Select Max | Avg | Min
Trace 1: ​Max Hold
Trace 2: ​Average
Trace 3: ​Min Hold
Trace 4-6: ​Blank
Select Max | ClrWrite | Min
Trace 1: ​Max Hold
Trace 2: ​Clear Write
Trace 3: ​Min Hold
Trace 4-6: ​Blank
For details see ​chapter 3.2.8.4, "Trace Mode Overview", on page 134.
3.2.8.3
Specifying the Trace Settings
1. To configure one or more traces, see ​chapter 3.2.8.2, "Configuring Traces",
on page 132.
2. To select the trace mode for the selected trace, press the softkey for the corresponding trace (for details see ​chapter 3.2.8.4, "Trace Mode Overview", on page 134).
3. To select a detector, press the ​Auto Select softkey for automatic detector selection,
or press the ​Detector softkey (for details see ​chapter 3.2.8.6, "Detector Overview",
on page 137).
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4. To change the sweep count setting, which also determines trace averaging, press
the ​Sweep Count softkey.
5. To deactivate the reset of the traces in "Min Hold" and "Max Hold" mode after some
specific parameter changes, press the ​Trace Math softkey.
6. To copy a trace into another trace memory, press the ​Copy Trace softkey.
Upon copying, the contents of the selected memory are overwritten and the new
contents are displayed in the View mode.
7. To export the active trace in ASCII format:
a) Press the "More" softkey.
b) If necessary, press the ​Decim Sep softkey to change the decimal separator with
floating-point numerals.
c) Press the ​ASCII File Export softkey to enter the ASCII file export name.
The active trace is saved in ASCII format on the harddisk on or an external storage
device.
3.2.8.4
Trace Mode Overview
The traces can be activated individually for a measurement or frozen after completion of
a measurement. Traces that are not activate are hidden. Each time the trace mode is
changed, the selected trace memory is cleared.
The R&S FSV offers 6 different trace modes:
Clear Write
Overwrite mode: the trace is overwritten by each sweep. This is the default setting.
All available detectors can be selected.
Remote command:
DISP:TRAC:MODE WRIT, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​MODE​
on page 601
Max Hold
The maximum value is determined over several sweeps and displayed. The R&S FSV
saves the sweep result in the trace memory only if the new value is greater than the
previous one.
The detector is automatically set to "Positive Peak".
This mode is especially useful with modulated or pulsed signals. The signal spectrum is
filled up upon each sweep until all signal components are detected in a kind of envelope.
This mode is not available for statistics measurements.
Remote command:
DISP:TRAC:MODE MAXH, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​MODE​
on page 601
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Min Hold
The minimum value is determined from several measurements and displayed. The
R&S FSV saves the smallest of the previously stored/currently measured values in the
trace memory.
The detector is automatically set to "Negative Peak".
This mode is useful e.g. for making an unmodulated carrier in a composite signal visible.
Noise, interference signals or modulated signals are suppressed whereas a CW signal
is recognized by its constant level.
This mode is not available for statistics measurements.
Remote command:
DISP:TRAC:MODE MINH, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​MODE​
on page 601
Average
The average is formed over several sweeps. The ​Sweep Count determines the number
of averaging procedures.
All available detectors can be selected. If the detector is automatically selected, the sample detector is used (see ​chapter 3.2.8.6, "Detector Overview", on page 137).
This mode is not available for statistics measurements.
Remote command:
DISP:TRAC:MODE AVER, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​MODE​
on page 601
View
The current contents of the trace memory are frozen and displayed.
Note: If a trace is frozen, the instrument settings, apart from level range and reference
level (see below), can be changed without impact on the displayed trace. The fact that
the displayed trace no longer matches the current instrument setting is indicated by the
icon on the tab label.
If the level range or reference level is changed, the R&S FSV automatically adapts the
measured data to the changed display range. This allows an amplitude zoom to be made
after the measurement in order to show details of the trace.
Remote command:
DISP:TRAC:MODE VIEW, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​MODE​
on page 601
Blank
Hides the selected trace.
Remote command:
DISP:TRAC OFF, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>[:​STATe]​ on page 601
3.2.8.5
Description of the Averaging Method
Averaging is carried out over the measurement points derived from the measurement
samples. Several measured values may be combined in a measurement point. This
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means that with linear level display the average is formed over linear amplitude values.
The sweep mode (continuous or single sweep, for details see ​chapter 3.2.7, "Configuring
the Sweep Mode – SWEEP Key", on page 117) and running averaging apply to the average display analogously. In principle, two methods for calculating the average are used:
continuous averaging and averaging over the selected number of sweeps.
●
sweep count > 1
Depending on the relation of the following two parameters, two different situations
exist:
n = number of sweeps performed since measurement start
c = sweep count (number of sweeps forming one statistics cycle)
– n≤c
In single sweep or continuous sweep mode during the first statistics cycle, averaging over the selected number of sweeps is performed. The average trace "n"
is calculated at each measurement point according to:
Fig. 3-2: Equation 1
with Avg = average trace; Curr = current trace
Until the first statistics cycle is completed (n < c), a preliminary average is displayed which represents the arithmetic mean value over all measured sweeps.
With n increasing, the displayed trace is increasingly smoothed since there are
more single sweeps for averaging.
When the first statistics cycle is completed (n = c), the average trace is saved in
the trace memory.
–
n>c
In continuous sweep mode after the first statistics cycle, continuous averaging is
performed. The average trace "n" is calculated at each measurement point
according to:
Fig. 3-3: Equation 2
with Avg = average trace; Curr = current trace
In single sweep mode, the same formula is valid if the ​Continue Single Sweep
softkey is pressed.
●
sweep count = 0
In continuous sweep mode, a continuous average is calculated according to ​figure 3-3 with c = 10:
Fig. 3-4: Equation 3
with Avg = average trace; Curr = current trace
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Due to the weighting between the current trace and the average trace, past values
have practically no influence on the displayed trace after about ten sweeps. With this
setting, signal noise is effectively reduced without need for restarting the averaging
process after a change of the signal.
●
3.2.8.6
sweep count = 1
The current trace is displayed. No averaging is performed. This is a special case of ​
figure 3-2 with n = 0.
Detector Overview
The measurement detector for the individual display modes can be selected directly by
the user or set automatically by the R&S FSV. The detector activated for the specific trace
is indicated in the corresponding trace display field by an abbreviation.
The detectors of the R&S FSV are implemented as pure digital devices. They collect
signal power data within each measured point during a sweep. The default number of
sweep points is 691. The following detectors are available:
Table 3-4: Detector types
Detector
Indicator
Function
Auto Peak
Ap
Determines the maximum and the minimum value
within a measurement point (not available for SEM)
Positive Peak
Pk
Determines the maximum value within a measurement point
Negative Peak (min peak)
Mi
Determines the minimum value within a measurement
point
RMS
Rm
Determines the root mean square power within a
measurement point
Average
Av
Determines the linear average power within a measurement point
Sample
Sa
Selects the last value within a measurement point
The result obtained from the selected detector within a measurement point is displayed
as the power value at this measurement point.
All detectors work in parallel in the background, which means that the measurement
speed is independent of the detector combination used for different traces.
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Number of measured values
During a frequency sweep, the R&S FSV increments the first local oscillator in steps that
are smaller than approximately 1/10 of the bandwidth. This ensures that the oscillator
step speed is conform to the hardware settling times and does not affect the precision of
the measured power.
The number of measured values taken during a sweep is independent of the number of
oscillator steps. It is always selected as a multiple or a fraction of 691 (= default number
of trace points displayed on the screen). Choosing less then 691 measured values (e.g.
125 or 251) will lead to an interpolated measurement curve, choosing more than 691
points (e.g. 1001, 2001 …) will result in several measured values being overlaid at the
same frequency position.
RMS detector and VBW
If the RMS detector is selected, the video bandwidth in the hardware is bypassed. Thus,
duplicate trace averaging with small VBWs and RMS detector no longer occurs. However,
the VBW is still considered when calculating the sweep time. This leads to a longer sweep
time for small VBW values. Thus, you can reduce the VBW value to achieve more stable
trace curves even when using an RMS detector. Normally, if the RMS detector is used
the sweep time should be increased to get more stable trace curves.
3.2.8.7
ASCII File Export Format
The data of the file header consist of three columns, each separated by a semicolon:
parameter name; numeric value; basic unit. The data section starts with the keyword
"Trace <n>" (<n> = number of stored trace), followed by the measured data in one or
several columns (depending on measurement) which are also separated by a semicolon.
File contents: header and data section
Description
Type;FSV;
Instrument model
Version;1.50;
Firmware version
Date;01.Apr 2010;
Date of data set storage
Screen;A;
Instrument mode
Points per Symbol;4;
Points per symbol
x Axis Start;-13;sym;
Start value of the x axis
x Axis Stop;135;sym;
Stop value of the x axis
Ref value y axis;-10.00;dBm;
Y axis reference value
Ref value position;100;%;
Y axis reference position
Trace;1;
Trace number
Meas;Result;
Result type
Meas Signal;Magnitude;
Result display
Demodulator;Offset QPSK;
Demodulation type
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File contents: header and data section
Description
ResultMode;Trace;
Result mode
x unit;sym;
Unit of the x axis
y unit;dBm;
Unit of the y axis
Trace Mode;Clear Write;
Trace mode
Values;592;
Number of results
<values>
List of results
3.2.9 Triggering the Sweep – TRIG Key
The TRIG key is used to select trigger mode, trigger threshold, trigger delay, trigger
polarity and for gated sweep the gate configuration.
To open the Trigger menu
●
Press the TRIG key.
The "Trigger" menu is displayed.
Menu and softkey description
●
​chapter 3.2.9.1, "Softkeys of the Trigger Menu", on page 139
Tasks
3.2.9.1
●
​chapter 3.2.9.2, "Specifying the Trigger Settings", on page 147
●
​chapter 3.2.9.3, "Using Gated Sweep Operation", on page 147
Softkeys of the Trigger Menu
The following table shows all softkeys available in the "Trigger" menu. It is possible that
your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available
with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is provided in the
corresponding softkey description.
Trg/Gate Source..........................................................................................................140
└ Free Run.......................................................................................................140
└ External.........................................................................................................140
└ Video.............................................................................................................140
└ RF Power......................................................................................................141
└ IF Power/BB Power.......................................................................................141
└ Power Sensor...............................................................................................142
└ Time..............................................................................................................142
└ Digital IQ.......................................................................................................143
Trg/Gate Level............................................................................................................143
Trg/Gate Polarity.........................................................................................................143
Trigger Offset..............................................................................................................144
Repetition Interval.......................................................................................................144
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Trigger Hysteresis.......................................................................................................144
Trigger Holdoff............................................................................................................144
Gated Trigger..............................................................................................................145
Gate Settings..............................................................................................................145
└ Gate Mode (Lvl/Edge)...................................................................................145
└ Gate Delay....................................................................................................146
└ Gate Length (Gate Mode Edge)....................................................................146
└ Trg/Gate Source...........................................................................................146
└ Trg/Gate Level..............................................................................................146
└ Trg/Gate Polarity...........................................................................................146
└ Sweep Time..................................................................................................146
└ Res BW Manual............................................................................................146
Trg/Gate Source
Opens the "Trigger/Gate Source" dialog box to select the trigger/gate mode.
As gate modes, all modes except "Power Sensor" are available. For details see also ​
chapter 3.2.9.3, "Using Gated Sweep Operation", on page 147.
The default setting is "Free Run". If a trigger mode other than "Free Run" has been set,
the enhancement label "TRG" is displayed and the trigger source is indicated.
Note: When triggering or gating is activated, the squelch funciton is automatically disabled (see ​"Squelch" on page 163).
Remote command:
​TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​SOURce​ on page 753
​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​SOURce​ on page 701
Free Run ← Trg/Gate Source
The start of a sweep is not triggered. Once a measurement is completed, another is
started immediately.
Remote command:
TRIG:SOUR IMM, see ​TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​SOURce​ on page 753
External ← Trg/Gate Source
Defines triggering via a TTL signal at the "EXT TRIG/GATE IN" input connector on the
rear panel.
Remote command:
TRIG:SOUR EXT, see ​TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​SOURce​ on page 753
SWE:EGAT:SOUR EXT for gated triggering, see ​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​SOURce​
on page 701
Video ← Trg/Gate Source
Defines triggering by the displayed voltage.
A horizontal trigger line is shown in the diagram. It is used to set the trigger threshold
from 0 % to 100 % of the diagram height.
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Video mode is only available in the time domain.
Remote command:
TRIG:SOUR VID, see ​TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​SOURce​ on page 753
SWE:EGAT:SOUR VID for gated triggering, see ​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​SOURce​
on page 701
RF Power ← Trg/Gate Source
Defines triggering of the measurement via signals which are outside the measurement
channel.
This trigger mode is available with detector board 1307.9554.02 Rev 05.00 or higher. It
is not available for input from the R&S Digital I/Q Interface (option R&S FSV-B17). If RF
Power trigger mode is selected and digital baseband input is activated, the trigger mode
is automatically switched to "Free Run".
In RF Power trigger mode the instrument uses a level detector at the first intermediate
frequency. The detector threshold can be selected in a range between - 50 dBm and
-10 dBm at the input mixer. The resulting trigger level at the RF input lies within the
following range:
(-24dBm + RF Att ) ≤ Triggerlevel ≤ (+5dBm + RF Att), max. 30 dBm, for Preamp = OFF
(-40dBm + RF Att ) ≤ Triggerlevel ≤ (-11dBm + RF Att), max. 30 dBm, for Preamp = ON
with
500 MHz ≤ InputSignal ≤ 7 GHz
Note: If input values outside of this range occur (e.g. for fullspan measurements), the
sweep may be aborted and a message indicating the allowed input values is displayed
in the status bar.
A ​Trigger Offset, ​Trg/Gate Polarity and ​Trigger Holdoff can be defined for the RF trigger
to improve the trigger stability, but no hysteresis.
Remote command:
TRIG:SOUR RFP, see ​TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​SOURce​ on page 753
SWE:EGAT:SOUR RFP for gated triggering, see ​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​SOURce​
on page 701
IF Power/BB Power ← Trg/Gate Source
For this purpose, the R&S FSV uses a level detector at the second intermediate frequency.
The available trigger levels depend on the RF attenuation and preamplification. A reference level offset, if defined, is also considered.
For details on available trigger levels and trigger bandwidths see the data sheet.
The bandwidth at the intermediate frequency depends on the RBW and sweep type:
Sweep mode:
● RBW > 500 kHz: 40 MHz, nominal
● RBW ≤ 500 kHz: 6 MHz, nominal
FFT mode:
● RBW > 20 kHz: 40 MHz, nominal
● RBW ≤ 20 kHz: 6 MHz, nominal
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Note: Be aware that in auto sweep type mode, due to a possible change in sweep types,
the bandwidth may vary considerably for the same RBW setting.
The R&S FSV is triggered as soon as the trigger level is exceeded around the selected
frequency (= start frequency in the frequency sweep).
Thus, the measurement of spurious emissions, e.g. for pulsed carriers, is possible even
if the carrier lies outside the selected frequency span.
For digital input via the R&S Digital I/Q Interface (R&S FSV-B17), the baseband power
("BB Power") is used as the trigger source.
Remote command:
TRIG:SOUR IFP, see ​TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​SOURce​ on page 753
TRIG:SOUR BBP for digital input
SWE:EGAT:SOUR IFP for gated triggering, see ​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​SOURce​
on page 701
Power Sensor ← Trg/Gate Source
Uses an external power sensor as a trigger function. This option is only available if the
R&S FSV-K9 Power Sensor option is installed and a power sensor is connected and
configured.
(See ​chapter 3.9, "Instrument Functions - Power Sensor (R&S FSV-K9)", on page 400.)
Power sensors are configured in the "Input/Output" menu, see ​chapter 3.9.3, "Configuring
an External Power Trigger", on page 405.
If a power sensor is selected as the trigger mode, the following softkeys are not available;
these settings are configured in the "Power Sensor Configuration" dialog box (see ​chapter 3.9.5, "Power Sensor Configuration Dialog", on page 409).
●
●
●
●
​Trg/Gate Level
​Trg/Gate Polarity
​Trigger Hysteresis
​Trigger Holdoff
Note: For R&S power sensors, the "Gate Mode" Lvl is not supported. The signal sent by
these sensors merely reflects the instant the level is first exceeded, rather than a time
period. However, only time periods can be used for gating in level mode. Thus, the trigger
impulse from the sensors is not long enough for a fully gated measurement; the measurement cannot be completed.
Remote command:
TRIG:SOUR PSE, see ​TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​SOURce​ on page 753
SWE:EGAT:SOUR PSE for gated triggering, see ​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​SOURce​
on page 701
​TRACe<n>:​IQ:​SET​ on page 746
Time ← Trg/Gate Source
Opens an edit dialog box to define a repetition interval in which the measurement is
triggered. The shortest interval is 2 ms.
Remote command:
TRIG:SOUR TIME​TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​SOURce​ on page 753
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Digital IQ ← Trg/Gate Source
For I/Q Analyzer or AnalogDemod mode only:
Defines triggering of the measurement directly via the LVDS connector. In the submenu
you must specify which general purpose bit (GP0 to GP5) will provide the trigger data.
This trigger mode is available for input from the R&S Digital I/Q Interface (option
R&S FSV-B17) only.
A ​Trigger Offset, and ​Trg/Gate Polarity can be defined for the Digital IQ trigger to improve
the trigger stability, but no hysteresis or holdoff value.
The following table describes the assignment of the general purpose bits to the LVDS
connector pins.
(See ​table 3-20)
Table 3-5: Assignment of general purpose bits to LVDS connector pins
Bit
LVDS pin
GP0
SDATA4_P - Trigger1
GP1
SDATA4_P - Trigger2
GP2
SDATA0_P - Reserve1
GP3
SDATA4_P - Reserve2
GP4
SDATA0_P - Marker1
GP5
SDATA4_P - Marker2
Remote command:
TRIG:SOUR GP0, see ​TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​SOURce​ on page 753
SWE:EGAT:SOUR RFP for gated triggering, see ​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​SOURce​
on page 701
Trg/Gate Level
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the trigger/gate level.
For details see also ​chapter 3.2.9.3, "Using Gated Sweep Operation", on page 147.
In the trigger modes "Time" and "Power Sensor", this softkey is not available.
Remote command:
​TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​LEVel:​IFPower​ on page 752
​TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​LEVel:​VIDeo​ on page 752
Trg/Gate Polarity
Sets the polarity of the trigger/gate source.
The sweep starts after a positive or negative edge of the trigger signal. The default setting
is "Pos". The setting applies to all trigger modes with the exception of the "Free Run",
"Power Sensor" and "Time" mode.
For details also see ​chapter 3.2.9.3, "Using Gated Sweep Operation", on page 147.
"Pos"
Level triggering: the sweep is stopped by the logic "0" signal and restarted by the logical "1" signal after the gate delay time has elapsed.
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"Neg"
Edge triggering: the sweep is continued on a "0" to "1" transition for the
gate length duration after the gate delay time has elapsed.
Remote command:
​TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​SLOPe​ on page 752
​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​POLarity​ on page 701
Trigger Offset
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the time offset between the trigger signal and the start
of the sweep.
offset > 0:
Start of the sweep is delayed
offset < 0:
Sweep starts earlier (pre-trigger)
Only possible for span = 0 (e.g. I/Q Analyzer mode) and gated trigger
switched off
Maximum allowed range limited by the sweep time:
pretriggermax = sweep time
When using the R&S Digital I/Q Interface (R&S FSV-B17) with I/Q Analyzer
mode, the maximum range is limited by the number of pretrigger samples.
See ​table 3-14.
In the "External" or "IF Power" trigger mode, a common input signal is used for both trigger
and gate. Therefore, changes to the gate delay will affect the trigger delay (trigger offset)
as well.
Tip: To determine the trigger point in the sample (for "External" or "IF Power" trigger
mode), use the ​TRACe<n>:​IQ:​TPISample?​ command.
In the "Time" trigger mode, this softkey is not available.
Remote command:
​TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​HOLDoff[:​TIME]​ on page 750
Repetition Interval
Opens an edit dialog box to define a repetition interval in which the measurement is
triggered. The shortest interval is 2 ms. This softkey is only available if the trigger source
"Time" is selected (see ​"Time" on page 142).
Remote command:
​TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​TIME:​RINTerval​ on page 754
Trigger Hysteresis
Defines the value for the trigger hysteresis for "IF power" or "RF Power" trigger sources.
The hysteresis in dB is the value the input signal must stay below the power trigger level
in order to allow a trigger to start the measurement. The range of the value is between 3
dB and 50 dB with a step width of 1 dB.
Remote command:
​TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​IFPower:​HYSTeresis​ on page 751
Trigger Holdoff
Defines the value for the trigger holdoff. The holdoff value in s is the time which must
pass before triggering, in case another trigger event happens.
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This softkey is only available if "IFPower", "RF Power" or "BBPower" is the selected trigger source.
Remote command:
​TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​IFPower:​HOLDoff​ on page 750
For digital input via the R&S Digital I/Q Interface, R&S FSV-B17:
​TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​BBPower:​HOLDoff​ on page 750
Gated Trigger
Switches the sweep mode with gate on or off.
This softkey requires the following "Trigger Mode" (see ​"Trg/Gate Source" on page 140):
span > 0
​External or ​IF Power/BB PowerIF Power
span = 0
​External or ​IF Power/BB PowerIF Power or ​Video
If a different mode is active, the ​IF Power/BB Power trigger mode is automatically
selected.
Note: When triggering or gating is activated, the squelch function is automatically disabled (see ​"Squelch" on page 163).
If the gate is switched on, a gate signal applied to the rear panel connector "EXT TRIGGER/GATE" or the internal IF power detector controls the sweep of the analyzer.
In the trigger mode ​Time, this softkey is not available.
For details also see ​chapter 3.2.9.3, "Using Gated Sweep Operation", on page 147.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe​ on page 700
​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​SOURce​ on page 701
Gate Settings
Opens a submenu to make all the settings required for gated sweep operation.
In the "Time" trigger mode, this softkey is not available.
For details also see ​chapter 3.2.9.3, "Using Gated Sweep Operation", on page 147.
Gate Mode (Lvl/Edge) ← Gate Settings
Sets the gate mode. As settings level-triggered or edge-triggered gate mode can be
selected.
For details also see ​chapter 3.2.9.3, "Using Gated Sweep Operation", on page 147.
"Edge"
Edge-triggered gate mode
"Lvl"
Level-triggered gate mode
This mode is not supported when using R&S Power Sensors as power
triggers ("Trg/Gate Source" = Power Sensor or External).
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​TYPE​ on page 703
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Gate Delay ← Gate Settings
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the gate delay time between the gate signal and the
continuation of the sweep. The delay position on the time axis in relation to the sweep is
indicated by a line labeled "GD".
This is useful for e.g. taking into account a delay between the gate signal and the stabilization of an RF carrier.
As a common input signal is used for both trigger and gate when selecting the "External"
or "IF Power" trigger mode, changes to the gate delay will affect the trigger delay (trigger
offset) as well.
For details also see ​chapter 3.2.9.3, "Using Gated Sweep Operation", on page 147.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​HOLDoff​ on page 701
Gate Length (Gate Mode Edge) ← Gate Settings
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the gate length. The gate length in relation to the sweep
is indicated by a line labeled "GL".
The length of the gate signal defines if the sweep is to be interrupted. Only in the edgetriggered mode the gate length can be set, while in the level-triggered the gate length
depends on the length of the gate signal.
For details also see ​chapter 3.2.9.3, "Using Gated Sweep Operation", on page 147.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​LENGth​ on page 701
Trg/Gate Source ← Gate Settings
See ​"Trg/Gate Source" on page 140.
Trg/Gate Level ← Gate Settings
See ​"Trg/Gate Level" on page 143.
Trg/Gate Polarity ← Gate Settings
See ​"Trg/Gate Polarity" on page 143.
Sweep Time ← Gate Settings
Opens an edit dialog box to change the sweep time in order to obtain a higher resolution
for positioning gate delay and gate length. When leaving the "Gate Settings" submenu,
the original sweep time is retrieved.
For details also see ​chapter 3.2.9.3, "Using Gated Sweep Operation", on page 147.
Res BW Manual ← Gate Settings
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a value for the resolution bandwidth. The available
resolution bandwidths are specified in the data sheet.
For details on the correlation between resolution bandwidth and filter type refer to ​chapter 3.2.6.3, "Selecting the Appropriate Filter Type", on page 114.
Numeric input is always rounded to the nearest possible bandwidth. For rotary knob or
UP/DNARROW key inputs, the bandwidth is adjusted in steps either upwards or downwards.
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The manual input mode of the resolution bandwidth is indicated by a green bullet next to
the "RBW" display in the channel bar.
When measuring Spurious Emissions, using this softkey automatically opens the "Sweep
List" dialog (see ​"Sweep List dialog box" on page 248).
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:​RESolution]:​AUTO​ on page 634
​[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:​RESolution]​ on page 634
3.2.9.2
Specifying the Trigger Settings
1. Press the "Trg/Gate Source" softkey to select the trigger mode (for details see ​"Trg/
Gate Source" on page 140.
2. Press the ​Trg/Gate Level softkey to set the trigger level.
3. Press the ​Trigger Offset softkey to set the trigger offset. In addition, a ​Trigger Hysteresis and ​Trigger Holdoff can be defined via the corresponding softkeys.
For details on gated sweep operation, see ​chapter 3.2.9.3, "Using Gated Sweep Operation", on page 147.
3.2.9.3
Using Gated Sweep Operation
By using a gate in sweep mode and stopping the measurement while the gate signal is
inactive, the spectrum for pulsed RF carriers can be displayed without the superposition
of frequency components generated during switching. Similarly, the spectrum can also
be examined for an inactive carrier. The sweep can be controlled by an external gate or
by the internal power trigger.
Gated sweep operation is also possible for span = 0. This enables – e.g. in burst signals
– level variations of individual slots to be displayed versus time.
1. Press the ​Gate Settings softkey to define the settings of the gate mode.
At the center frequency a transition to zero span is made and the time parameters
gate delay and gate length are displayed as vertical lines to adjust them easily.
When quitting the ​Gate Settings submenu, the original span is retrieved so the desired
measurement can be performed with the accurately set gate.
2. Setting the parameters gate delay and gate length highly accurate, press the ​Sweep
Time softkey to alter the x-axis in a way that the signal range concerned (e.g. one full
burst) is displayed.
3. Press the ​Gate Delay softkey to set the sampling time in a way that the desired portion
of the signal is shown.
4. Press the ​Gate Mode (Lvl/Edge) softkey to set the gate mode.
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5. If the "Edge" gate mode has been selected, press the ​Gate Length (Gate Mode
Edge) softkey to set the sampling duration in a way that the desired portion of the
signal is shown.
6. Press the ​Trg/Gate Polarity softkey to set the polarity of the trigger source.
7. Press the ​Gated Trigger softkey to activate the gated sweep mode.
To indicate that a gate is used for the sweep, the enhancement label "GAT" is displayed on the screen. This label appears to the right of the window for which the gate
is configured.
Fig. 3-5: TDMA signal with GATE OFF
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Fig. 3-6: Timing diagram for GATE, GATE DELAY and GATE LENGTH
Fig. 3-7: TDMA signal with GATE ON
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3.3 Measurement Functions
In this section all menus necessary for setting measurement functions are described. This
includes the following topics and keys:
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
Using Markers and Delta Markers – MKR Key.....................................................150
Performing Peak Searches with Markers – PEAK SEARCH Key.........................158
Performing Marker Functions – MKR FUNC Key..................................................158
Changing Settings via Markers – MKR-> Key.......................................................172
Power Measurements – MEAS Key......................................................................181
Measurement Configuration – MEAS CONFIG Key.............................................285
Using Limit Lines and Display Lines – LINES Key................................................285
Input/Output Configuration – INPUT/OUTPUT Key..............................................297
Performing Measurements – RUN SINGLE/RUN CONT Keys.............................305
3.3.1 Using Markers and Delta Markers – MKR Key
The markers are used for marking points on traces, reading out measurement results and
for selecting a display section quickly. The R&S FSV provides 16 markers per trace.
Fig. 3-8: Marker types
All markers can be used either as markers or delta markers. The marker that can be
moved by the user is defined in the following as the active marker. Temporary markers
are used in addition to the markers and delta markers to evaluate the measurement
results. They disappear when the associated function is deactivated.
The measurement results of the active marker (also called marker values) are displayed
in the marker field, which is located at the upper right corner of the diagram, or in a
separate table beneath the diagram. The marker information includes the following:
●
marker type (M1 in the example)
●
trace in square brackets ([1] in the example)
●
level (-33.09 dBm in the example)
●
marker location (3 GHz in the example)
Fig. 3-9: Marker values
The MKR key is used to select and position the absolute and relative measurement
markers (markers and delta markers). In addition, the functions for the frequency counter,
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a fixed reference point for relative measurement markers, and for enlargement of the
measurement area are assigned to this key.
To open the Marker menu
●
Press the MKR key.
The "Marker" menu is displayed. If no marker is active, marker 1 is activated and a
peak search on the trace is carried out. Otherwise, the edit dialog box for the last
activated marker is opened and the current frequency/time value is displayed.
Further information
●
​chapter 3.3.1.3, "Displayed Marker Information", on page 157
●
​chapter 3.3.4, "Changing Settings via Markers – MKR-> Key", on page 172.
Menu and softkey description
●
​chapter 3.3.1.1, "Softkeys of the Marker Menu", on page 151
Tasks
●
3.3.1.1
​chapter 3.3.1.2, "Basic Marker Functions", on page 155
Softkeys of the Marker Menu
The following table shows all softkeys available in the "Marker" menu. It is possible that
your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available
with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is provided in the
corresponding softkey description.
Marker 1 / Marker 2 / Marker 3 / … Marker 16,/ Marker Norm/Delta..........................151
More Markers..............................................................................................................152
Marker to Trace...........................................................................................................152
Marker Wizard.............................................................................................................152
└ All Marker Off................................................................................................153
All Marker Off..............................................................................................................154
Marker Table...............................................................................................................154
Marker Stepsize..........................................................................................................154
└ Stepsize Standard.........................................................................................154
└ Stepsize Sweep Points.................................................................................154
Marker Zoom (span > 0)..............................................................................................155
Link Mkr1 and Delta1..................................................................................................155
Marker 1 / Marker 2 / Marker 3 / … Marker 16,/ Marker Norm/Delta
The "Marker X" softkey activates the corresponding marker and opens an edit dialog box
to enter a value for the marker to be set to. Pressing the softkey again deactivates the
selected marker.
If a marker value is changed using the rotary knob, the step size is defined via the ​Stepsize
Standard or ​Stepsize Sweep Points softkeys.
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Marker 1 is always the reference marker for relative measurements. If activated, markers
2 to 16 are delta markers that refer to marker 1. These markers can be converted into
markers with absolute value display using the "Marker Norm/Delta" softkey. If marker 1
is the active marker, pressing the "Marker Norm/Delta" softkey switches on an additional
delta marker.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>[:​STATe]​ on page 523
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​X​ on page 532
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​Y?​ on page 534
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>[:​STATe]​ on page 476
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​X​ on page 486
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​X:​RELative​ on page 487
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​Y?​ on page 487
More Markers
Opens a sub-menu to select one of up to 16 available markers. See ​"Marker 1 / Marker
2 / Marker 3 / … Marker 16,/ Marker Norm/Delta" on page 151.
Marker to Trace
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the number of the trace on which the marker is to be
placed.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​TRACe​ on page 531
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​TRACe​ on page 486
Marker Wizard
Opens a configuration dialog for markers. The marker wizard allows you to configure and
activate up to 16 different markers in one dialog. The first 8 markers are displayed on one
tab, the last 8 markers on a second tab. For each marker, the following settings are
available:
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"Selected/
State"
When you press the "Selected" or "State" field the corresponding
marker is activated and the marker row is highlighted.
"Normal/Delta"
Defines whether it is a normal marker or delta marker. For delta markers
you can define a reference marker.
"Ref. Marker"
Reference marker for delta markers. The marker values for the delta
marker are indicated relative to the specified reference marker.
The reference marker can either be another active marker, or a fixed
reference marker ("FXD", see ​"Ref Fixed" on page 161).
"Trace"
Trace for which the marker is to be set.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>[:​STATe]​ on page 523
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>[:​STATe]​ on page 476
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​TRACe​ on page 531
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​TRACe​ on page 486
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​MREF​ on page 485
All Marker Off ← Marker Wizard
Switches all markers off. It also switches off all functions and displays that are associated
with the markers/delta markers.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​AOFF​ on page 523
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All Marker Off
Switches all markers off. It also switches off all functions and displays that are associated
with the markers/delta markers.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​AOFF​ on page 523
Marker Table
Defines how the marker information is displayed.
For more information, see ​Displayed Marker Information.
"On"
Displays the marker information in a table in a separate area beneath
the diagram.
"Off"
Displays the marker information within the diagram area.
"Aut"
(Default) The marker table is displayed automatically if more than 2
markers are active, and removed if only 1 or 2 markers are active. This
helps keep the information in the display clear.
Remote command:
​DISPlay:​MTABle​ on page 599
Marker Stepsize
Opens a submenu to set the step size of all markers and delta markers.
Default value for the marker step size is ​Stepsize Sweep Points.
Stepsize Standard ← Marker Stepsize
Moves the marker or delta marker from one measurement point to the next, if the marker
or delta marker value is changed via the rotary knob ( "Marker 1 / Marker 2 / Marker 3 /
… Marker 16,/ Marker Norm/Delta" softkeys, see ​"Marker 1 / Marker 2 / Marker 3 / …
Marker 16,/ Marker Norm/Delta" on page 151). If more measured values than measurement points exist, it is not possible to read out all measured values. In this case, use the
​Stepsize Sweep Points softkey.
Remote command:
CALC:MARK:X:SSIZ STAN (see ​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​X:​SSIZe​
on page 534)
Stepsize Sweep Points ← Marker Stepsize
Moves the marker or delta marker from one measured value to the next, if the marker or
delta marker value is changed via the rotary knob ( "Marker 1 / Marker 2 / Marker 3 / …
Marker 16,/ Marker Norm/Delta" softkeys, see ​"Marker 1 / Marker 2 / Marker 3 / … Marker
16,/ Marker Norm/Delta" on page 151). If more measured values than measurement
points exist, every single measured value is accessible and its value is displayed in the
marker field.
The number of measured values is defined in the ""Sweep"" menu via the ​Sweep
Points softkey.
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This functionality is available for all base unit measurements with the exception of statistics ( "APD" and "CCDF" softkeys in the "Measurement" menu).
Remote command:
CALC:MARK:X:SSIZ POIN (see ​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​X:​SSIZe​
on page 534)
Marker Zoom (span > 0)
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a display range for the zoom. The area around marker
1 is expanded accordingly and more details of the result can be seen. If no marker is
activated, marker 1 is switched on and set on the largest signal.
The following sweep is stopped at the position of the reference marker. The frequency
of the signal is counted and the measured frequency becomes the new center frequency.
The zoomed display range is then configured and the new settings are used by the
R&S FSV for further measurements.
If the display has not yet been switched to the new frequency display range and you press
the softkey, the procedure is aborted. If an instrument setting is changed during this
operation, the procedure is also aborted.
This function is not available in I/Q Analyzer mode.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​ZOOM​ on page 551
Link Mkr1 and Delta1
The delta marker 1 is linked to marker 1, so if the x-axis value of the marker 1 is changed,
the delta marker 1 will follow on the same x-position. The link is off by default.
You can set the two markers on different traces to measure the difference (e.g. between
a max hold trace and a min hold trace or between a measurement and a reference trace).
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​LINK​ on page 482
3.3.1.2
Basic Marker Functions
●
To open the "Marker" menu, press the MKR key.
Marker 1 is activated and positioned on the maximum value of the trace as a normal
marker. If several traces are displayed, the marker is set to the maximum value (peak)
of the trace which has the lowest number (1 to 3) and is not frozen (View mode). In
case a marker is already located there, the new marker is set to the frequency of the
next lowest level (next peak).
●
To change marker settings quickly, right-click on the marker in the display (or touch
it for about 1 second). A context-sensitive menu is displayed which corresponds to
the softkey functions available for markers.
●
To configure and activate several markers at once, select the "Marker Wizard" to
open a configuration dialog for all markers.
●
To change to another trace, press the "Marker to Trace" softkey (​"Marker to Trace"
on page 152) and enter the number of the trace on which the marker is to be placed.
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The marker changes to the selected trace, but remains on the previous frequency or
time. If a trace is turned off, the corresponding markers and marker functions are also
deactivated.
●
To switch to another marker, click on the marker label in the diagram. Alternatively,
select the corresponding softkey. If necessary, select the ​More Markers softkey first
to open a submenu that contains all marker numbers.
●
To move the marker to a different position, click the marker label in the diagram and
then drag it to the new position. When a marker label is selected, a vertical line is
displayed which indicates the marker's current x-value.
●
To switch on a delta marker, select the softkey for the corresponding marker, then
press the "Marker 1 / Marker 2 / Marker 3 / … Marker 16,/ Marker Norm/Delta" (​
"Marker 1 / Marker 2 / Marker 3 / … Marker 16,/ Marker Norm/Delta" on page 151)
until "Delta" is highlighted.
The selected marker is switched on as a delta marker. The frequency and level of
the marker are displayed in relation to marker 1 in the marker field.
●
To change the marker type of a marker, select the softkey for the corresponding
marker, then press the "Marker 1 / Marker 2 / Marker 3 / … Marker 16,/ Marker Norm/
Delta" softkey (​"Marker 1 / Marker 2 / Marker 3 / … Marker 16,/ Marker Norm/
Delta" on page 151).
For a normal marker, the frequency and level are displayed as absolute values in the
marker field. For a delta marker, the frequency and level of the marker are displayed
in relation to marker 1 in the marker field.
●
To switch off a marker, press the corresponding softkey again.
The marker is deactivated. Marker 1 becomes the active marker for entry. The frequency and level of marker 1 are displayed in the marker field.
●
To switch off all markers, press the ​All Marker Off softkey.
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3.3.1.3
●
To change the stepsize between one measured value and the next when the marker
or delta marker value is changed via the rotary knob, press either the ​Stepsize
Standard softkey or the ​Stepsize Sweep Points softkey.
●
To zoom into the display around a marker, press the ​"Marker Zoom (span > 0)"
on page 155 softkey and enter a span.
●
To link the delta marker1 to marker1, so if the x-axis value of the marker 1 is changed,
the delta marker 1 follows on the same x-position, press the ​Link Mkr1 and Delta1
softkey.
Displayed Marker Information
The following additional information is displayed within the diagram grid or in a marker
table beneath the diagram. The marker table is displayed automatically if more than 2
markers are active. You can hide or show the table using the ​Marker Table softkey.
Marker information in Diagram Grid
The x and y axis positions of the last 2 markers or delta markers that were set, as well
as their index, are displayed within the diagram grid, if available. The value in the square
brackets after the index indicates the trace to which the marker is assigned. (Example:
M1[1) defines marker 1 on trace 1.) For more than 2 markers, a separate marker table is
displayed beneath the diagram.
If applicable, the active measurement function for the marker and its main results are
indicated, as well. The functions are indicated with the following abbreviations:
FXD
Reference fixed marker active
PHNoise
Phase noise measurement active
CNT
Frequency counter active
TRK
Signal track active
NOIse
Noise measurement active
MDepth
Measurement of the AM modulation depth active
TOI
TOI measurement active
Occ BW
Occupied bandwidth
Marker Information in Marker Table
In addition to the marker information displayed within the diagram grid, a separate marker
table may be displayed beneath the diagram. This table provides the following information
for all active markers:
As of firmware version 1.50, the marker table also provides information from connected
power sensors (requires option R&S FSV-K9).
See also ​chapter 3.9, "Instrument Functions - Power Sensor (R&S FSV-K9)",
on page 400.
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No.
Serial number
Type
Marker type: N (normal), D (delta), T (temporary, internal)
Dgr
Diagram number
Trc
Trace to which the marker is assigned
Stimulus
x-value of the marker
Response
y-value of the marker
Func
Activated marker or measurement function
Func.Result
Result of the active marker or measurement function
3.3.2 Performing Peak Searches with Markers – PEAK SEARCH Key
The PEAK SEARCH key is used to perform a peak search with the currently active
marker. If no marker is active, marker 1 is activated in normal mode and set as the peak.
If the selected diagram does not support markers, this key is ignored.
3.3.3 Performing Marker Functions – MKR FUNC Key
The MKR FUNC key provides various functions for markers, e.g.
●
Phase Noise measurements
●
Setting reference points
●
Marker demodulation
●
Defining Marker peak lists
●
Signal counts
●
Measuring the power for a band around the marker
To open the marker function menu
●
Press the MKR FUNC key.
The "Mkr Func" (marker function) menu is displayed.
Menu and softkey description
●
​chapter 3.3.3.1, "Softkeys of the Marker Function Menu", on page 159
Further information
●
​chapter 3.3.3.4, "AF Demodulation", on page 168
●
​chapter 3.3.3.5, "Frequency Measurement with the Frequency Counter",
on page 168
●
​chapter 3.3.3.6, "Measurement of Noise Density", on page 169
●
​chapter 3.3.3.7, "Measurement example for Phase Noise Auto Peak Search",
on page 170
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Tasks
3.3.3.1
●
​chapter 3.3.3.2, "Setting a Fixed Reference Point (Phase Noise Measurement)",
on page 167
●
​chapter 3.3.3.3, "Setting the Demodulation Mode and Duration", on page 168
●
​chapter 3.3.3.8, "Performing Band Power Measurements", on page 171
Softkeys of the Marker Function Menu
The following table shows all softkeys available in the marker function menu. It is possible
that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is provided in
the corresponding softkey description.
Select Marker (No)......................................................................................................160
Signal Count................................................................................................................160
Noise Meas On/Off......................................................................................................160
Phase Noise................................................................................................................160
└ Phase Noise On/Off......................................................................................160
└ Ref Point Level..............................................................................................161
└ Ref Point Frequency (span > 0)/Ref Point Time (zero span)........................161
└ Peak Search.................................................................................................161
└ Ph. Noise Auto Peak Search........................................................................161
└ Select Marker (No)........................................................................................161
Ref Fixed.....................................................................................................................161
└ Ref. Fixed On/Off..........................................................................................162
└ Ref Point Level..............................................................................................162
└ Ref Point Frequency (span > 0)/Ref Point Time (zero span)........................162
└ Peak Search.................................................................................................162
Marker Demod............................................................................................................162
└ Mkr Demod On/Off........................................................................................162
└ AM.................................................................................................................163
└ FM.................................................................................................................163
└ Mkr Stop Time...............................................................................................163
└ Continuous Demod (span > 0)......................................................................163
└ Squelch.........................................................................................................163
└ Squelch Level...............................................................................................163
n dB down...................................................................................................................164
Marker Peak List.........................................................................................................164
└ Peak List On/Off............................................................................................165
└ Sort Mode Freq/Lvl.......................................................................................165
└ Max Peak Count...........................................................................................165
└ Peak Excursion.............................................................................................165
└ Left Limit.......................................................................................................165
└ Right Limit.....................................................................................................165
└ Threshold......................................................................................................166
└ ASCII File Export..........................................................................................166
└ Decim Sep....................................................................................................166
└ Marker Number.............................................................................................166
Band Power.................................................................................................................166
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└
└
└
└
└
Select Marker (No)........................................................................................167
Band Power On/Off.......................................................................................167
Span..............................................................................................................167
Power............................................................................................................167
Density..........................................................................................................167
Select Marker (No)
Opens a submenu to select one of 16 markers and define whether the marker is a normal
or a delta marker (see ​"Marker 1 / Marker 2 / Marker 3 / … Marker 16,/ Marker Norm/
Delta" on page 151). "(No)" indicates the number of the currently active marker.
See ​"Marker 1 / Marker 2 / Marker 3 / … Marker 16,/ Marker Norm/Delta" on page 151.
Signal Count
Switches the frequency counter on or off, and opens an edit dialog box to define the
resolution of the frequency counter, if enabled. The frequency is counted at the position
of the reference marker (marker 1). If no marker is activate, marker 1 is switched on and
positioned on the largest signal.
The sweep stops at the reference marker until the frequency counter has delivered a
result. The result is displayed in the marker field (see ​figure 3-9), labeled with [Tx CNT].
For more information see ​chapter 3.3.3.5, "Frequency Measurement with the Frequency
Counter", on page 168.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​COUNt​ on page 523
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​COUNt:​FREQuency?​ on page 524
Noise Meas On/Off
Switches the noise measurement for the active marker on or off. The corresponding
marker becomes the normal marker.
For more information on noise measurement see ​chapter 3.3.3.6, "Measurement of Noise
Density", on page 169.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​NOISe[:​STATe]​ on page 549
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​NOISe:​RESult​ on page 549
Phase Noise
This softkey opens a submenu that contains functionality to configure and perform phase
noise measurements.
Phase Noise On/Off ← Phase Noise
Switches the phase noise measurement with all active delta markers on and off. The
correction values for the bandwidth and the log amplifier are taken into account in the
measurement.
Marker 1 is activated, if necessary, and a peak search is performed. If marker 1 is activated, its position becomes the reference point for the measurement.
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Deltamarker 2 is activated and can be used to read out the phase noise value at a given
frequency offset.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​FUNCtion:​PNOise[:​STATe]​ on page 480
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​FUNCtion:​PNOise:​RESult?​ on page 481
Ref Point Level ← Phase Noise
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a reference level value. All relative level values of the
delta markers refer to this reference level.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​FUNCtion:​FIXed:​RPOint:​Y​ on page 479
Ref Point Frequency (span > 0)/Ref Point Time (zero span) ← Phase Noise
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a frequency reference or time value. All relative frequency or time values of the delta markers refer to this frequency reference. For phase
noise measurement, input of reference time is not possible.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​FUNCtion:​FIXed:​RPOint:​X​ on page 479
Peak Search ← Phase Noise
Sets the maximum value of the selected trace as the reference point.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​FUNCtion:​FIXed:​RPOint:​MAXimum[:​PEAK]​
on page 479
Ph. Noise Auto Peak Search ← Phase Noise
Activates an automatic peak search for the reference fixed marker 1 at the end of each
particular sweep.
This function can be used to track a drifting source during a phase noise measurement.
The delta marker 2, which shows the phase noise measurement result, keeps the delta
frequency value. Therefore the phase noise measurement leads to reliable results in a
certain offset although the source is drifting. Only if the marker 2 reaches the border of
the span, the delta marker value is adjusted to be within the span. In these cases, select
a larger span.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​FUNCtion:​PNOise:​AUTO​ on page 481
Select Marker (No) ← Phase Noise
Opens a submenu to select one of 16 markers and define whether the marker is a normal
or a delta marker (see ​"Marker 1 / Marker 2 / Marker 3 / … Marker 16,/ Marker Norm/
Delta" on page 151). "(No)" indicates the number of the currently active marker.
See ​"Marker 1 / Marker 2 / Marker 3 / … Marker 16,/ Marker Norm/Delta" on page 151.
Ref Fixed
Opens a submenu to set all values of a reference point. Instead of using the current values
of the reference marker (marker 1) as reference point for the delta markers, level and
frequency or time are set to fixed values and used as reference point.
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Ref. Fixed On/Off ← Ref Fixed
Switches the relative measurement to a fixed reference value on or off. The level and
frequency or time values of marker 1 immediately become the reference point, but can
be altered using the corresponding softkeys (​"Ref Point Level" on page 161, ​"Ref Point
Frequency (span > 0)/Ref Point Time (zero span)" on page 161 and ​"Peak Search"
on page 161).
When set to ON, all delta markers which previously referenced marker 1 are automatically
set to reference the fixed marker.
The reference marker assignment can be changed using the "Marker Wizard" (see ​
"Marker Wizard" on page 152).
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​FUNCtion:​FIXed[:​STATe]​ on page 478
Ref Point Level ← Ref Fixed
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a reference level value. All relative level values of the
delta markers refer to this reference level.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​FUNCtion:​FIXed:​RPOint:​Y​ on page 479
Ref Point Frequency (span > 0)/Ref Point Time (zero span) ← Ref Fixed
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a frequency reference or time value. All relative frequency or time values of the delta markers refer to this frequency reference. For phase
noise measurement, input of reference time is not possible.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​FUNCtion:​FIXed:​RPOint:​X​ on page 479
Peak Search ← Ref Fixed
Sets the maximum value of the selected trace as the reference point.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​FUNCtion:​FIXed:​RPOint:​MAXimum[:​PEAK]​
on page 479
Marker Demod
The marker demodulation function sends the AM data at the current marker frequency
(in a bandwidth corresponding to the RBW) to the audio output. The "Marker Demod"
softkey opens a submenu to set the demodulation output settings.
For more information see ​chapter 3.3.3.4, "AF Demodulation", on page 168.
Marker demodulation is only available with option R&S FSV-B3 and is not available for
Spectrum Emission Mask measurements.
Mkr Demod On/Off ← Marker Demod
Switches the demodulation output on or off.
For more information see ​chapter 3.3.3.4, "AF Demodulation", on page 168.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​DEModulation[:​STATe]​ on page 539
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AM ← Marker Demod
Sets AM as the output demodulation mode. This is the default setting.
For more information see ​chapter 3.3.3.4, "AF Demodulation", on page 168.
Remote command:
CALC:MARK1:FUNC:DEM:SEL AM, see ​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​
DEModulation:​SELect​ on page 539
FM ← Marker Demod
Sets FM as the output demodulation mode. Default setting is AM.
For more information see ​chapter 3.3.3.4, "AF Demodulation", on page 168.
Remote command:
CALC:MARK1:FUNC:DEM:SEL FM, see ​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​
DEModulation:​SELect​ on page 539
Mkr Stop Time ← Marker Demod
Opens an edit dialog box to define how long demodulation should be output for span >
0.
For more information see ​chapter 3.3.3.4, "AF Demodulation", on page 168.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​DEModulation:​HOLDoff​ on page 539
Continuous Demod (span > 0) ← Marker Demod
Switches the continuous demodulation on or off. If the sweep time is long enough, the
set frequency range can be monitored acoustically.
For more information see ​chapter 3.3.3.4, "AF Demodulation", on page 168.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​DEModulation:​CONTinuous​
on page 538
Squelch ← Marker Demod
Activates the squelch function, i.e. the audible AF is cut off below a defined threshold
level. Thus, you avoid hearing noise at the audio output when no signal is available.
The squelch function activates the video trigger function (see ​"Video" on page 140) and
deactivates any other trigger or gating settings. The squelch level and trigger level are
set to the same value.
The trigger source in the channel information bar is indicated as "SQL" for squelch. The
squelch level is indicated by a red line in the diagram.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]DEMod:​SQUelch[:​STATe]​ on page 644
Squelch Level ← Marker Demod
Defines the level threshold below which the audible AF is cut off if squelching is enabled.
The video trigger level is set to the same value.
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The squelch level is indicated by a red line in the diagram.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]DEMod:​SQUelch:​LEVel​ on page 644
n dB down
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a value to define the level spacing of the two temporary
markers to the right and left of marker 1 (default setting: 3 dB). Activates the temporary
markers T1 and T2. The values of the temporary markers (T1, T2) and the entered value
(ndB) are displayed in the marker field.
If a positive value is entered, the markers T1 and T2 are placed below the active reference
marker. If a negative value (e.g. for notch filter measurements) is entered, the markers
T1 and T2 are placed above the active reference marker. Marker T1 is placed to the left
and marker T2 to the right of the reference marker.
In the marker table, the following results are displayed:
Span setting
Parameter name
Description
span > 0
Bw
frequency spacing of the two temporary markers
Q factor
quality of the displayed bandwidth value (Bw)
PWid
pulse width between the two temporary markers
span = 0
If it is not possible to form the frequency spacing for the n dB value (e.g. because of noise
display), dashes instead of a measured value are displayed.
Remote command:
CALC:MARK1:FUNC:NDBD:STAT ON, see ​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​
NDBDown:​STATe​ on page 548
CALC:MARK1:FUNC:NDBD 3dB, see ​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​
NDBDown​ on page 546
CALC:MARK1:FUNC:NDBD:RES? , see ​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​
NDBDown:​RESult?​ on page 547
CALC:MARK:FUNC:NDBD:QFAC?, see ​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​
NDBDown:​QFACtor​ on page 547
CALC:MARK1:FUNC:NDBD:FREQ? (span > 0), see ​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​
FUNCtion:​NDBDown:​FREQuency?​ on page 546
CALC:MARK1:FUNC:NDBD:TIME? (span = 0), see ​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​
FUNCtion:​NDBDown:​TIME?​ on page 548
Marker Peak List
Opens the "Peak List" submenu to define criteria for the sort order and the contents of
the peak list. For each listed peak the frequency ("Stimulus") and level ("Response")
values are given. In addition, the peaks are indicated in the trace display. A maximum of
50 entries are listed.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​FPEaks:​COUNt?​ on page 541
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​FPEaks:​X​ on page 543
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​FPEaks:​Y?​ on page 543
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Peak List On/Off ← Marker Peak List
Activates/deactivates the marker peak list. If activated, the peak list is displayed and the
peaks are indicated in the trace display.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​FPEaks:​STAT​ on page 543
Sort Mode Freq/Lvl ← Marker Peak List
Defines the criteria for sorting:
"Freq"
sorting in ascending order of frequency values (span > 0) or time values
(span = 0)
"Lvl"
sorting in ascending order of the level
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​FPEaks:​SORT​ on page 542
Max Peak Count ← Marker Peak List
Defines the maximum number of peaks to be determined and displayed.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​FPEaks:​LIST:​SIZE​ on page 542
Peak Excursion ← Marker Peak List
Opens an edit dialog box for level measurements to enter the minimum level value by
which a signal must rise or fall so that it will be identified as a maximum or a minimum by
the search functions. Entries from 0 dB to 80 dB are allowed; the resolution is 0.1 dB.
The default setting for the peak excursion is 6 dB.
For more information see "Specifying the suitable peak excursion" and "Effect of different
peak excursion settings".
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​PEXCursion​ on page 530
Left Limit ← Marker Peak List
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a value for the lower limit (left vertical line: S1 for span
> 0; T1 for zero span). The search is performed between the lines of the left and right
limit (see also ​Right Limit softkey).
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​X:​SLIMits:​LEFT​ on page 532
Right Limit ← Marker Peak List
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a value for the upper limit (left vertical line: S2 for span
> 0; T2 for zero span). The search is performed between the lines of the left and right
limit (see also ​Left Limit softkey). If no value is set, the upper limit corresponds to the stop
frequency.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​X:​SLIMits:​RIGHT​ on page 533
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Threshold ← Marker Peak List
Opens an edit dialog box to define the threshold line. The threshold line represents the
lower level limit for a "Peak" search and the upper level limit for a "Min" search.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​THReshold:​STATe​ on page 596
​CALCulate<n>:​THReshold​ on page 596
ASCII File Export ← Marker Peak List
Opens the "ASCII File Export Name" dialog box and saves the active peak list in ASCII
format to the specified file and directory.
The file consists of the header containing important scaling parameters and a data section
containing the marker data. For details on an ASCII file see ​chapter 3.2.8.7, "ASCII File
Export Format", on page 138.
This format can be processed by spreadsheet calculation programs, e.g. MS-Excel. It is
necessary to define ';' as a separator for the data import. Different language versions of
evaluation programs may require a different handling of the decimal point. It is therefore
possible to select between separators '.' (decimal point) and ',' (comma) using the "Decim
Sep" softkey (see ​"Decim Sep" on page 71).
An example of an output file for Spectrum Emission Mask measurements is given in ​
"ASCII File Export Format (Spectrum Emission Mask)" on page 240.
Remote command:
​FORMat:​DEXPort:​DSEParator​ on page 609
​MMEMory:​STORe<n>:​LIST​ on page 623
Decim Sep ← Marker Peak List
Selects the decimal separator with floating-point numerals for the ASCII Trace export to
support evaluation programs (e.g. MS-Excel) in different languages. The values '.' (decimal point) and ',' (comma) can be set.
Remote command:
​FORMat:​DEXPort:​DSEParator​ on page 609
Marker Number ← Marker Peak List
If enabled, the determined peaks are indicated by their corresponding marker number in
the trace display.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​FPEaks:​ANN:​LAB:​STAT​ on page 541
Band Power
Opens a submenu to activate and configure a band power marker. Band power markers
allow you to measure the integrated power for a defined span (band) around a marker.
The result can be displayed either as a power (dBm) or density (dBm/Hz). The span is
indicated by lines in the diagram.
Band power markers are only available for standard frequency measurements in Spectrum mode.
For more information see ​chapter 3.3.3.8, "Performing Band Power Measurements",
on page 171.
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Select Marker (No) ← Band Power
Opens a submenu to select one of 16 markers and define whether the marker is a normal
or a delta marker (see ​"Marker 1 / Marker 2 / Marker 3 / … Marker 16,/ Marker Norm/
Delta" on page 151). "(No)" indicates the number of the currently active marker.
See ​"Marker 1 / Marker 2 / Marker 3 / … Marker 16,/ Marker Norm/Delta" on page 151.
Band Power On/Off ← Band Power
Activates or deactivates the band power marker. When switched to on, if no marker is
active yet, marker 1 is activated. Otherwise, the currently active marker is used as a band
power marker (all other marker functions for this marker are deactivated). All markers
can be defined as band power markers, each with a different span.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​BPOWer[:​STATe]​ on page 537
Span ← Band Power
Defines the span (band) around the marker for which the power is measured. The span
is indicated by lines in the diagram.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​BPOWer:​SPAN​ on page 537
Power ← Band Power
Selects the power mode for the band power marker, i.e. the result is displayed in dBm.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​BPOWer:​MODE​ on page 536
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​BPOWer:​RESult?​ on page 536
Density ← Band Power
Selects the density mode for the band power marker, i.e. the result is displayed in dBm/
Hz.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​BPOWer:​MODE​ on page 536
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​BPOWer:​RESult?​ on page 536
3.3.3.2
Setting a Fixed Reference Point (Phase Noise Measurement)
1. Press the ​Phase Noise softkey.
The submenu with the ​Phase Noise On/Off softkey switched on is displayed. The
level and frequency or time values of marker 1 immediately become the reference
point.
2. Setting the maximum of the selected trace as reference point, press the ​Peak
Search softkey.
3. To define the values for the reference point, proceed as follows:
a) Press the ​Ref Fixed softkey.
b) Press the ​Ref Point Level softkey and enter a reference level value.
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c) If span > 0, press the ​Ref Point Frequency (span > 0)/Ref Point Time (zero
span) softkey and enter a frequency reference value.
d) If span = 0, press the "Ref Point Time" softkey and enter a reference time value
(see ​"Ref Point Frequency (span > 0)/Ref Point Time (zero span)" on page 161).
3.3.3.3
Setting the Demodulation Mode and Duration
1. Press the ​Marker Demod softkey.
The submenu with the ​Mkr Demod On/Off softkey switched on is displayed.
2. To change the demodulation mode, press the ​AM or ​FM softkey.
3. For details see ​chapter 3.3.3.4, "AF Demodulation", on page 168.
4. To modify the demodulation time for span > 0, press the ​Mkr Stop Time softkey.
5. To change to continuous demodulation for span > 0, press the ​Continuous Demod
(span > 0) softkey.
3.3.3.4
AF Demodulation
The R&S FSV provides demodulators for AM and FM signals. With these demodulators,
a displayed signal can be identified acoustically by using headphones.
Risk of hearing damage
To protect your hearing, make sure that the volume setting is not too high before putting
on the headphones.
The volume for the headphones is controlled using the rotary knob next to the "AF Output" interface on the front panel of the instrument.
For span > 0, the demodulation is not continuous. The frequency at which the demodulation takes place is determined by the active marker. The demodulation bandwidth corresponds to the RBW. If the level of the selected frequency is above the threshold line,
the sweep stops for the selected time (stop time) and the RF signal is demodulated. For
span = 0, the demodulation is continuously active irrespective of the stop time set.
3.3.3.5
Frequency Measurement with the Frequency Counter
In order to accurately determine the frequency of a signal, the R&S FSV is equipped with
a frequency counter which measures the frequency of the RF signal at the intermediate
frequency. Using the measured IF, the R&S FSV calculates the frequency of the RF input
signal by applying the known frequency conversion factors.
The frequency measurement uncertainty depends only upon the accuracy of the frequency reference used (external or internal reference). Although the R&S FSV always
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operates synchronously irrespective of the set span, the frequency counter delivers a
more exact result than a measurement performed with a marker. This is due to the following:
3.3.3.6
●
The marker measures only the position of the point on the trace and infers from this
value the signal frequency. The trace, however, contains only a limited number of
points. Depending upon the selected span, each point may contain many measurement values, which therefore limits the frequency resolution.
●
The resolution with which the frequency can be measured with a marker is dependant
on the selected resolution bandwidth, which in return affects the necessary measurement time. For this reason, the bandwidth is normally defined as wide as possible
and the sweep time as short as possible. This results in a loss of frequency resolution.
For the measurement with the frequency counter, the sweep is stopped at the reference marker, the frequency is counted with the desired resolution and then the sweep
is allowed to continue.
In IQ Analyzer mode (see ​chapter 3.5, "Instrument Functions - I/Q Analyzer",
on page 310), the resolution with which the frequency can be measured with a marker
is always the filter bandwidth, which is derived from the defined sample rate.
Measurement of Noise Density
During noise measurement, the noise power density is measured at the position of the
marker. For span = 0, all points of the trace are used to determine the noise power density.
For span > 0, two points to the right and left of the marker are used for the measurement
to obtain a stable result.
The noise power density is indicated in the marker field. With logarithmic amplitude units
(dBm, dBmV, dBmµV, dBµA), the noise power density is output in dBm/Hz, i.e. as level
in 1 Hz bandwidth with reference to 1 mW. With linear amplitude units (V, A, W), the noise
voltage density is evaluated in µV/Hz, the noise current density in µA/Hz or the noise
power density in µW/Hz.
In the default setting, the R&S FSV uses the sample detector for the noise function.
With the sample detector, the trace can additionally be set to AVERAGE to stabilize the
measured values. With RMS detector used, trace averaging must not be used since in
this case it produces too low noise levels which cannot be corrected. Instead, the sweep
time can be increased to obtain stable measurement results.
Prerequisite settings
The following settings have to be made to ensure that the power density measurement
yields correct values:
●
Detector: Sample or RMS
●
Video bandwidth:
≤ 0.1 resolution bandwidth with sample detector
≥ 3 x resolution bandwidth with RMS detector
●
Trace averaging:
With the sample detector, the trace can additionally be set to average to stabilize the
measured values. With RMS detector used, trace averaging must not be used since
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in this case it produces too low noise levels which cannot be corrected. Instead, the
sweep time can be increased to obtain stable measurement results.
Correction factors
The R&S FSV uses the following correction factors to evaluate the noise density from the
marker level:
●
Since the noise power is indicated with reference to 1 Hz bandwidth, the bandwidth
correction value is deducted from the marker level. It is 10 x lg (1 Hz/BWNoise), where
BWNoise is the noise or power bandwidth of the set resolution filter (RBW).
●
RMS detector: With the exception of bandwidth correction, no further corrections are
required since this detector already indicates the power with every point of the trace.
●
Sample detector: As a result of video filter averaging and trace averaging, 1.05 dB is
added to the marker level. This is the difference between the average value and the
RMS value of white noise. With a logarithmic level axis, 1.45 dB is added additionally.
Logarithmic averaging is thus fully taken into account which yields a value that is 1.45
dB lower than that of linear averaging.
●
To allow a more stable noise display the adjacent (symmetric to the measurement
frequency) points of the trace are averaged.
●
For span > 0, the measured values are averaged versus time (after a sweep).
The R&S FSV noise figure can be calculated from the measured power density level. It
is calculated by deducting the set RF attenuation (RF Att) from the displayed noise level
and adding 174 to the result.
3.3.3.7
Measurement example for Phase Noise Auto Peak Search
The phase noise of a CW signal at 100 MHz with 0 dBm level is to be measured at 800
kHz from the carrier.
1. PRESET
The R&S FSP is set to the default setting.
2. FREQ > "CENTER": 100 MHz
The center frequency is set to 100 MHz.
3. SPAN: 2 MHz
The span is set to 2 MHz.
4. AMPT: 0 dBm
The reference level is set to 0 dBm.
5. MKR FCTN > "MARKER 1"
Marker 1 is switched on and positioned at the maximum of the displayed trace.
6. "PHASE NOISE": 800 kHz
The phase noise measurement is switched on. The delta marker is positioned on the
main marker and the measured phase noise value is displayed in the marker info
field. The sample detector is used and the video bandwidth is set to 3 × RBW. When
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the phase noise measurement function is enabled, the entry of the delta marker frequency is activated. It can be entered directly.
3.3.3.8
Performing Band Power Measurements
Band power markers allow you to measure the integrated power (similar to ACP measurements) for a defined span (band) around a marker. By default, 5 % of the current span
is used. The span is indicated by colored lines in the diagram. The result can be displayed
either as a power (dBm) or density (dBm/Hz).
Band power markers are only available for standard frequency measurements in Spectrum mode (not zero span, I/Q Analyzer etc.).
All markers can be defined as band power markers, each with a different span. When a
band power marker is activated, if no marker is active yet, marker 1 is activated. Otherwise, the currently active marker is used as a band power marker (all other marker functions for this marker are deactivated).
If the detector mode for the marker trace is set to "AutoSelect", the RMS detector is used.
1. In the MKR FUNC menu, press "Band Power".
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2. In the "Band Power" menu, press "Span" and enter the width of the band around the
marker for which the power is to be measured.
3. To display the measurement result in dBm/Hz, press "Density". By default, the result
is displayed as a power in dBm.
4. Press "Band Power On" to activate the band power marker.
The measurement results are displayed as usual in the marker table or in the diagram.
3.3.4 Changing Settings via Markers – MKR-> Key
The MKR -> key is used for search functions of measurement markers, assignment of
the marker frequency as center frequency, restriction of the search area and characterization of maxima and minima. For details on markers in general, see ​chapter 3.3.1,
"Using Markers and Delta Markers – MKR Key", on page 150.
To open the Marker To menu
●
Press the MKR -> key.
The "Marker To" menu is displayed. If no marker is active, marker 1 will be activated
and a peak search on the trace carried out. Otherwise, the edit dialog box for the last
activated marker is opened and the current frequency/time value is displayed.
Menu and softkey description
●
​chapter 3.3.4.1, "Softkeys of the Marker To Menu", on page 172 Menu"
Further information
●
​chapter 3.3.4.8, "Effect of Different Peak Excursion Settings (Example)",
on page 180
Tasks
3.3.4.1
●
​chapter 3.3.4.2, "Searching for a Maximum", on page 178
●
​chapter 3.3.4.3, "Searching for a Minimum", on page 179
●
​chapter 3.3.4.4, "Specifying the Search Limits", on page 179
●
​chapter 3.3.4.5, "Specifying the Search Range", on page 179
●
​chapter 3.3.4.6, "Examining a Signal at the Center in Detail", on page 179
●
​chapter 3.3.4.7, "Specifying the Suitable Peak Excursion", on page 180
Softkeys of the Marker To Menu
The following table shows all softkeys available in the "Marker To" menu. It is possible
that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is provided in
the corresponding softkey description.
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Select Marker (No)......................................................................................................173
Peak............................................................................................................................173
Next Peak....................................................................................................................173
Center =Mkr Freq (span > 0).......................................................................................173
Ref Lvl =Mkr Lvl..........................................................................................................174
Marker to Trace...........................................................................................................174
Min..............................................................................................................................174
Next Min......................................................................................................................174
Auto Max Peak/Auto Min Peak...................................................................................174
Search Limits..............................................................................................................174
└ Left Limit.......................................................................................................174
└ Right Limit.....................................................................................................175
└ Threshold......................................................................................................175
└ Use Zoom Limits...........................................................................................175
└ Search Lim Off..............................................................................................175
Next Mode...................................................................................................................175
Exclude LO..................................................................................................................176
Search Mode (Spectrograms).....................................................................................176
└ Search Mode for Next Peak in X Direction...................................................176
└ Search Mode for Next Peak in Y Direction...................................................177
└ Marker Search Type.....................................................................................177
└ Marker Search Area......................................................................................178
Peak Excursion...........................................................................................................178
Select Marker (No)
Opens a submenu to select one of 16 markers and define whether the marker is a normal
or a delta marker (see ​"Marker 1 / Marker 2 / Marker 3 / … Marker 16,/ Marker Norm/
Delta" on page 151). "(No)" indicates the number of the currently active marker.
Peak
Sets the active marker/delta marker to the highest maximum of the trace.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​MAXimum[:​PEAK]​ on page 526
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​MAXimum[:​PEAK]​ on page 482
Next Peak
Sets the active marker/delta marker to the next maximum of the selected trace.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​MAXimum:​NEXT​ on page 527
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​MAXimum:​NEXT​ on page 483
Center =Mkr Freq (span > 0)
Sets the center frequency to the current marker or delta marker frequency. A signal can
thus be set to as center frequency, for example to examine it in detail with a smaller span.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​CENTer​ on page 538
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Ref Lvl =Mkr Lvl
Sets the reference level to the current marker level.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​REFerence​ on page 550
Marker to Trace
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the number of the trace on which the marker is to be
placed.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​TRACe​ on page 531
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​TRACe​ on page 486
Min
Sets the active marker/delta marker to the minimum of the selected trace.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​MINimum[:​PEAK]​ on page 528
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​MINimum[:​PEAK]​ on page 484
Next Min
Sets the active marker/delta marker to the next minimum of the selected trace.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​MINimum:​NEXT​ on page 529
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​MINimum:​NEXT​ on page 485
Auto Max Peak/Auto Min Peak
Adds an automatic peak search action for marker 1 at the end of each particular sweep.
This function may be used during adjustments of a device under test to keep track of the
current peak marker position and level.
The current marker search limit settings (​Left Limit, ​Right Limit, ​Threshold softkeys) are
taken into account.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​MAXimum:​AUTO​ on page 526
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​MINimum:​AUTO​ on page 528
Search Limits
Opens a submenu to set the limits for maximum or minimum search in the x and y direction.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​X:​SLIMits[:​STATe]​ on page 532
Left Limit ← Search Limits
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a value for the lower limit (left vertical line: S1 for span
> 0; T1 for zero span). The search is performed between the lines of the left and right
limit (see also ​Right Limit softkey).
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​X:​SLIMits:​LEFT​ on page 532
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Right Limit ← Search Limits
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a value for the upper limit (left vertical line: S2 for span
> 0; T2 for zero span). The search is performed between the lines of the left and right
limit (see also ​Left Limit softkey). If no value is set, the upper limit corresponds to the stop
frequency.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​X:​SLIMits:​RIGHT​ on page 533
Threshold ← Search Limits
Opens an edit dialog box to define the threshold line. The threshold line represents the
lower level limit for a "Peak" search and the upper level limit for a "Min" search.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​THReshold:​STATe​ on page 596
​CALCulate<n>:​THReshold​ on page 596
Use Zoom Limits ← Search Limits
Restricts the marker search to the zoomed area.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​X:​SLIMits:​ZOOM​ on page 533
Search Lim Off ← Search Limits
Deactivates all limits of the search range.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​X:​SLIMits[:​STATe]​ on page 532
​CALCulate<n>:​THReshold:​STATe​ on page 596
Next Mode
Selects the mode of the ​Next Peak or ​Next Min softkey.
Three settings are available:
"<"
Sets the active marker/delta marker to the next maximum/minimum left
to the marker of the selected trace.
"abs"
Sets the active marker/delta marker to the next lower maximum/higher
minimum of the selected trace.
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">"
Sets the active marker/delta marker to the next maximum/minimum
right to the marker of the selected trace.
Remote command:
Next Peak:
CALC:MARK:MAX:LEFT (<): ​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​MAXimum:​LEFT​
on page 527
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​MAXimum:​LEFT​ on page 483
CALC:MARK:MAX:RIGH (>): ​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​MAXimum:​RIGHt​
on page 527
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​MAXimum:​RIGHt​ on page 483
CALC:DELT:MAX:NEXT (abs): ​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​MAXimum:​NEXT​
on page 527
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​MAXimum:​NEXT​ on page 483
Next Min:
CALC:MARK:MIN:LEFT (>): ​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​MINimum:​LEFT​
on page 529
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​MINimum:​LEFT​ on page 484
CALC:MARK:MIN:RIGH (>): ​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​MINimum:​RIGHt​
on page 530
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​MINimum:​RIGHt​ on page 485
CALC:MARK:MIN:NEXT (abs): ​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​MINimum:​NEXT​
on page 529
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​MINimum:​NEXT​ on page 485
Exclude LO
Switches the frequency range limit for the marker search functions on or off.
"ON"
The minimum frequency included in the peak search range is ≥ 5 ×
resolution bandwidth (RBW).
Due to the interference by the first local oscillator to the first intermediate
frequency at the input mixer, the LO is represented as a signal at 0 Hz.
To avoid the peak marker jumping to the LO signal at 0 Hz, this frequency is excluded from the peak search.
"OFF"
No restriction to the search range. The frequency 0 Hz is included in
the marker search functions.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​LOEXclude​ on page 525
Search Mode (Spectrograms)
Spectrograms show not only the current sweep results, but also the sweep history. Thus,
when searching for peaks, you must define the search settings within a single time frame
(x-direction) and within several time frames (y-direction).
This setting is only available for spectrogram displays.
Search Mode for Next Peak in X Direction ← Search Mode (Spectrograms)
Selects the search mode for the next peak search within the currently selected frame.
"Left"
Determines the next maximum/minimum to the left of the current peak.
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"Absolute"
Determines the next maximum/minimum to either side of the current
peak.
"Right"
Determines the next maximum/minimum to the right of the current peak.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​MAXimum:​LEFT​ on page 527
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​MAXimum:​NEXT​ on page 527
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​MAXimum:​RIGHt​ on page 527
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​MINimum:​LEFT​ on page 529
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​MINimum:​NEXT​ on page 529
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​MINimum:​RIGHt​ on page 530
Search Mode for Next Peak in Y Direction ← Search Mode (Spectrograms)
Selects the search mode for the next peak search within all frames at the current marker
position.
"Up"
Determines the next maximum/minimum above the current peak (in
more recent frames).
"Absolute"
Determines the next maximum/minimum above or below the current
peak (in all frames).
"Down"
Determines the next maximum/minimum below the current peak (in
older frames).
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​SGRam:​Y:​MAXimum:​ABOVe​ on page 564
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​SGRam:​Y:​MAXimum:​ABOVe​ on page 490
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​SGRam:​Y:​MAXimum:​BELow​ on page 565
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​SGRam:​Y:​MAXimum:​BELow​ on page 490
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​SGRam:​Y:​MAXimum:​NEXT​ on page 565
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​SGRam:​Y:​MAXimum:​NEXT​ on page 491
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​SGRam:​Y:​MINimum:​ABOVe​ on page 566
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​SGRam:​Y:​MINimum:​ABOVe​ on page 492
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​SGRam:​Y:​MINimum:​BELow​ on page 566
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​SGRam:​Y:​MINimum:​BELow​ on page 492
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​SGRam:​Y:​MINimum:​NEXT​ on page 567
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​SGRam:​Y:​MINimum:​NEXT​ on page 492
Marker Search Type ← Search Mode (Spectrograms)
Defines the type of search to be performed in the spectrogram.
"X-Search"
Searches only within the currently selected frame.
"Y-Search"
Searches within all frames but only at the current marker position.
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"XY-Search"
Searches in all frames at all positions.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​SGRam:​XY:​MAXimum[:​PEAK]​ on page 563
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​SGRam:​XY:​MAXimum[:​PEAK]​ on page 489
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​SGRam:​XY:​MINimum[:​PEAK]​ on page 564
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​SGRam:​XY:​MINimum[:​PEAK]​ on page 489
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​SGRam:​Y:​MAXimum[:​PEAK]​ on page 565
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​SGRam:​Y:​MAXimum[:​PEAK]​ on page 491
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​SGRam:​Y:​MINimum[:​PEAK]​ on page 567
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​SGRam:​Y:​MINimum[:​PEAK]​ on page 493
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​MAXimum[:​PEAK]​ on page 526
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​MAXimum[:​PEAK]​ on page 482
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​MINimum[:​PEAK]​ on page 528
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​MINimum[:​PEAK]​ on page 484
Marker Search Area ← Search Mode (Spectrograms)
Defines which frames the search is performed in.
"Visible"
Only the visible frames are searched.
"Memory"
All frames stored in the memory are searched.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​SGRam:​SARea​ on page 563
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​SGRam:​SARea​ on page 488
Peak Excursion
Opens an edit dialog box for level measurements to enter the minimum level value by
which a signal must rise or fall so that it will be identified as a maximum or a minimum by
the search functions. Entries from 0 dB to 80 dB are allowed; the resolution is 0.1 dB.
The default setting for the peak excursion is 6 dB.
For more information see "Specifying the suitable peak excursion" and "Effect of different
peak excursion settings".
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​PEXCursion​ on page 530
3.3.4.2
Searching for a Maximum
●
To search for the highest maximum, press the ​Peak softkey.
●
To define the search mode for the next maximum, use the ​Next Mode softkey.
●
To start the search, press the ​Next Peak softkey.
You can define an automatic peak search action for marker 1 at the end of each particular
sweep using the ​Auto Max Peak/Auto Min Peak softkey.
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3.3.4.3
Searching for a Minimum
●
To search for the minimum, press the ​Min softkey.
●
To define the search mode for the next minimum, use the ​Next Mode softkey.
●
To start the search, press the ​Next Min softkey.
You can define an automatic peak search action for marker 1 at the end of each particular
sweep using the ​Auto Max Peak/Auto Min Peak softkey.
3.3.4.4
3.3.4.5
Specifying the Search Limits
●
To define the lower limit, press the ​Left Limit softkey.
●
To define the upper limit, press the ​Right Limit softkey.
●
To define the threshold, press the ​Threshold softkey.
●
To switch the search limits off, press the ​Search Lim Off softkey.
Specifying the Search Range
●
3.3.4.6
Press the ​Exclude LO softkey to deactivate the "Exclude LO" mode in order to include
the frequency down to 0 Hz in the marker search functions.
Examining a Signal at the Center in Detail
1. Press the PRESET key to set the R&S FSV to the default setting.
2. Press the MKR -> key to open the "Marker To" menu.
3. Marker 1 is activated and set to the largest signal of the trace.
4. Press the ​Center =Mkr Freq (span > 0) softkey to set to the marker frequency.
5. The span is adapted in such a way that the minimum frequency (= 0 Hz) or the maximum frequency is not exceeded.
6. Press the ​Ref Lvl =Mkr Lvl softkey to set the reference level to the measured marker
level.
7. Press the SPAN key.
8. The edit dialog box to enter a frequency span is displayed.
9. Reduce the span, e.g. using the rotary knob.
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3.3.4.7
Specifying the Suitable Peak Excursion
1. If the ​Peak Excursion softkey is used, the default value is sufficient, since, in this
mode, the next lower maximum or next higher minimum will always be detected.
2. If the < or > of the softkey ​Next Mode is used, the 6 dB level change set as a default
value may already be attained by the inherent noise of the instrument. To avoid identifying noise peaks as maxima or minima, enter a peak excursion value that is higher
than the difference between the highest and the lowest value measured for the displayed inherent noise.
3.3.4.8
Effect of Different Peak Excursion Settings (Example)
The following figure shows a trace to be examined.
Fig. 3-10: Trace example
The following table lists the signals as indicated by the marker numbers in the diagram
above, as well as the minimum of the amplitude decrease to both sides of the signal:
Signal #
Min. amplitude decrease to both sides of the signal
1
30 dB
2
29.85 dB
3
7 dB
4
7 dB
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The detected signals and their order are different depending on the peak excursion setting and the peak search method (whether the next lower maximum or the next relative
maximum is searched). The following results are obtained. All tests start with the marker
set to signal 1 by pressing the ​Peak softkey.
●
40 dB peak excursion
Result: With both methods apart from signal 1 no signal is detected, as the signal
level does not decrease by more than 30 dB to either side of any signal.
Next lower maximum
Next relative maximum
Next Mode abs: signal 1
Next Mode <: signal 1
(no further signal detected)
(no further signal detected)
Next Mode >: signal 1
(no further signal detected)
●
20 dB peak excursion
Result: With both methods apart from signal 1 signal 2 is detected, as the signal level
decreases at least by 29.85 dB to either side of this signal, which is now greater than
the peak excursion.
Next lower maximum
Next relative maximum
Next Mode abs: signal 2
Next Mode <: signal 1
(no further signal detected)
Next Mode abs: signal 2
Next Mode >: signal 2
(no further signal detected)
Next Mode >: signal 2
(no further signal detected)
●
6 dB peak excursion
Result: With both methods all signals are detected.
Next lower maximum
Next relative maximum
Next Mode abs: signal 2
Next Mode <: signal 3
Next Mode abs: signal 3
Next Mode >: signal 1
Next Mode abs: signal 4
Next Mode >: signal 2
Next Mode >: signal 4
3.3.5 Power Measurements – MEAS Key
With its power measurement functions, the R&S FSV is able to measure all the necessary
parameters with high accuracy in a wide dynamic range.
A modulated carrier is almost always used (except e.g. SSB-AM) for high-frequency
transmission of information. Due to the information modulated upon the carrier, the latter
covers a spectrum which is defined by the modulation, the transmission data rate and
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the signal filtering. Within a transmission band each carrier is assigned a channel taking
into account these parameters. In order to ensure error-free transmission, each transmitter must be conforming to the specified parameters. These include among others:
●
the output power
●
the occupied bandwidth, i.e. the bandwidth which must contain a defined percentage
of the power
●
the power dissipation allowed in the adjacent channels
The MEAS key is used for complex measurement functions as power measurements,
occupied bandwidth, signal statistic, carrier to noise spacing, AM modulation depth, thirdorder intercept point, harmonics and spurious emissions. For measurement examples
refer to the Quick Start Guide, "Basic Measurement Examples".
Further examples are described in ​chapter 2, "Advanced Measurement Examples",
on page 10 and ​chapter 4.3, "Remote Control – Programming Examples",
on page 845
The following measurements can be performed:
●
Channel power and adjacent-channel power with span > 0 and with a single or several
carriers ("CH Power ACLR" softkey, for details see ​chapter 3.3.5.2, "Measuring
Channel Power and Adjacent-Channel Power", on page 185)
●
Carrier-to-noise ratio ("C/N C/NO" softkey, for details see ​chapter 3.3.5.3, "Measuring
the Carrier-to-Noise Ratio", on page 209)
●
Occupied bandwidth ("OBW" softkey, for details see ​chapter 3.3.5.4, "Measuring the
Occupied Bandwidth", on page 212)
●
Spectrum Emission Mask measurements ("Spectrum Emission Mask" softkey, for
details see ​chapter 3.3.5.5, "Measuring with Spectrum Emission Masks",
on page 215)
●
Spurious Emissions measurements ("Spurious Emissions" softkey, for details see ​
chapter 3.3.5.6, "Measuring Spurious Emissions", on page 242)
●
Power in zero span ("Time Domain Power" softkey, for details see ​chapter 3.3.5.7,
"Measuring the Power in Zero Span", on page 253).
●
Amplitude probability distribution ("APD" and "CCDF" softkeys, for details see ​chapter 3.3.5.8, "Calculating Signal Amplitude Statistics", on page 256)
●
3rd order intercept ("TOI" softkey, for details see ​chapter 3.3.5.9, "Measuring the
Third Order Intercept Point (TOI)", on page 274)
●
Modulation depth ("AM Mod Depth" softkey, for details see ​chapter 3.3.5.10, "Measuring the AM Modulation Depth", on page 280)
●
Harmonic Distortion measurements ("Harmonic Distortion" softkey, for details see ​
chapter 3.3.5.11, "Measuring Harmonic Distortion", on page 281)
To open the power measurement menu
●
Press the MEAS key.
The measurement menu for spectrum analysis is displayed (see ​chapter 3.3.5.1,
"Softkeys of the Power Measurement Menu", on page 183).
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3.3.5.1
Softkeys of the Power Measurement Menu
The following table shows all softkeys available in the power measurement menu. It is
possible that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is
only available with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is
provided in the corresponding softkey description.
Ch Power ACLR..........................................................................................................183
C/N, C/No (span > 0)...................................................................................................183
OBW (span > 0)..........................................................................................................183
Spectrum Emission Mask............................................................................................183
Spurious Emissions.....................................................................................................184
Time Domain Power (zero span)................................................................................184
All Functions Off..........................................................................................................184
APD.............................................................................................................................184
CCDF..........................................................................................................................184
TOI..............................................................................................................................184
AM Mod Depth............................................................................................................185
Harmonic Distortion.....................................................................................................185
All Functions Off..........................................................................................................185
Ch Power ACLR
Activates the active channel or adjacent-channel power measurement either for a single
carrier signal or for several carrier signals, depending on the current measurement configuration, and opens a submenu to configure the channel power measurement.
For details see ​chapter 3.3.5.2, "Measuring Channel Power and Adjacent-Channel
Power", on page 185.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​POWer:​SELect​ on page 560
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​POWer:​RESult?​ on page 557
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​POWer[:​STATe]​ on page 561
C/N, C/No (span > 0)
Opens a submenu to configure the carrier/noise ratio measurement. Measurements
without (C/N) and measurements with reference to the bandwidth (C/No) are possible.
For details see ​chapter 3.3.5.3, "Measuring the Carrier-to-Noise Ratio", on page 209.
OBW (span > 0)
Activates measurement of the occupied bandwidth according to the current configuration
and opens a submenu to configure the measurement. For details see ​chapter 3.3.5.4,
"Measuring the Occupied Bandwidth", on page 212.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​POWer:​SELect​ on page 560
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​POWer:​RESult?​ on page 557
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​POWer[:​STATe]​ on page 561
Spectrum Emission Mask
Opens a submenu to configure the Spectrum Emission Mask measurement.
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The Spectrum Emission Mask (SEM) measurement defines a measurement that monitors compliance with a spectral mask.
For details see ​chapter 3.3.5.5, "Measuring with Spectrum Emission Masks",
on page 215.
Remote command:
SENS:SWE:MODE ESP, see ​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​MODE​ on page 704
Spurious Emissions
Opens a submenu to configure the Spurious Emissions measurement.
The Spurious Emissions measurement defines a measurement that monitors unwanted
RF products outside the assigned frequency band generated by an amplifier.
For details see ​chapter 3.3.5.6, "Measuring Spurious Emissions", on page 242.
Remote command:
SENS:SWE:MODE LIST, see ​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​MODE​ on page 704
Time Domain Power (zero span)
Activates the power measurement in zero span and opens a submenu to configure the
power measurement. For details see ​chapter 3.3.5.7, "Measuring the Power in Zero
Span", on page 253.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​SUMMary[:​STATe]​ on page 582
All Functions Off
Switches off all power measurement functions.
APD
Activates the function to measure the amplitude probability density (APD) and opens a
submenu.
For details see ​chapter 3.3.5.8, "Calculating Signal Amplitude Statistics", on page 256.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​STATistics:​APD[:​STATe]​ on page 591
CCDF
Activates the function to measure the complementary cumulative distribution function
(CCDF) and opens a submenu.
For details see ​chapter 3.3.5.8, "Calculating Signal Amplitude Statistics", on page 256.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​STATistics:​CCDF[:​STATe]​ on page 592
TOI
Opens a submenu and activates the measurement of the 3rd order intercept point.
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For details see ​chapter 3.3.5.9, "Measuring the Third Order Intercept Point (TOI)",
on page 274.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​TOI[:​STATe]​ on page 551
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​TOI:​RESult?​ on page 550
AM Mod Depth
Opens a submenu and activates the measurement of the AM modulation depth. An AMmodulated carrier is required on the screen to ensure correct operation.
For details see ​chapter 3.3.5.10, "Measuring the AM Modulation Depth", on page 280.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​MDEPth[:​STATe]​ on page 545
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​MDEPth:​RESult?​ on page 544
Harmonic Distortion
Opens a submenu to determine the settings for harmonics measurement and activates
the harmonic distortion measurement.
For details see ​chapter 3.3.5.11, "Measuring Harmonic Distortion", on page 281.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​HARMonics[:​STATe]​ on page 555
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​HARMonics:​DISTortion?​ on page 552
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​HARMonics:​LIST?​ on page 553
All Functions Off
Switches off all power measurement functions.
3.3.5.2
Measuring Channel Power and Adjacent-Channel Power
Measuring the power in channels adjacent to the carrier or transmission channel is useful
to detect interference. The results are displayed as a bar chart for the individual channels.
●
●
●
●
●
●
About Channel Power Measurements..................................................................185
Channel Power Measurement Results..................................................................190
Configuring and Performing Channel Power Measurements................................191
Softkeys for Channel and Adjacent-Channel Power Measurements....................195
Predefined CP/ACLR Standards...........................................................................206
Optimized Settings for CP/ACLR Test Parameters...............................................207
About Channel Power Measurements
Measuring channel power and adjacent channel power is one of the most important tasks
in the field of digital transmission for a signal analyzer with the necessary test routines.
While, theoretically, channel power could be measured at highest accuracy with a power
meter, its low selectivity means that it is not suitable for measuring adjacent channel
power as an absolute value or relative to the transmit channel power. The power in the
adjacent channels can only be measured with a selective power meter.
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A signal analyzer cannot be classified as a true power meter, because it displays the IF
envelope voltage. However, it is calibrated such as to correctly display the power of a
pure sine wave signal irrespective of the selected detector. This calibration cannot be
applied for non-sinusoidal signals. Assuming that the digitally modulated signal has a
Gaussian amplitude distribution, the signal power within the selected resolution bandwidth can be obtained using correction factors. These correction factors are normally
used by the signal analyzer's internal power measurement routines in order to determine
the signal power from IF envelope measurements. These factors apply if and only if the
assumption of a Gaussian amplitude distribution is correct.
Apart from this common method, the R&S FSV also has a true power detector, i.e. an
RMS detector. It correctly displays the power of the test signal within the selected resolution bandwidth irrespective of the amplitude distribution, without additional correction
factors being required. The absolute measurement uncertainty of the R&S FSV is < 1.5
dB and a relative measurement uncertainty of < 0.5 dB (each with a confidence level of
95 %).
A detailed measurement example is described in ​chapter 2.6.1, "Measuring Channel
Power and Adjacent Channel Power", on page 29 and ​chapter 4.3, "Remote Control –
Programming Examples", on page 845.
Measurement Methods
The channel power is defined as the integration of the power across the channel bandwidth.
The Adjacent Channel Power Ratio (ACPR), also known as the Adjacent Channel
Leakage Power Ratio (ACLR), is defined as the ratio between the total power of the
adjacent channel to the carrier channel's power. An ACLR measurement with several
carrier (transmission) channels (TX channels) is also possible and is referred to as a
"multi-carrier ACLR measurement".
There are two possible methods for measuring channel and adjacent channel power with
a signal analyzer:
●
IBW method (Integration Bandwidth Method)
●
Zero-span method (Fast ACLR), i.e. using a channel filter
●
●
IBW method..........................................................................................................186
Fast ACLR.............................................................................................................187
IBW method
When measuring the channel power, the R&S FSV integrates the linear power which
corresponds to the levels of the pixels within the selected channel. The signal analyzer
uses a resolution bandwidth which is far smaller than the channel bandwidth. When
sweeping over the channel, the channel filter is formed by the passband characteristics
of the resolution bandwidth (see ​figure 3-11).
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Fig. 3-11: Approximating the channel filter by sweeping with a small resolution bandwidth
The following steps are performed:
1. The linear power of all the trace pixels within the channel is calculated.
Pi = 10(Li/10)
where Pi = power of the trace pixel i
Li = displayed level of trace point i
2. The powers of all trace pixels within the channel are summed up and the sum is
divided by the number of trace pixels in the channel.
3. The result is multiplied by the quotient of the selected channel bandwidth and the
noise bandwidth of the resolution filter (RBW).
Since the power calculation is performed by integrating the trace within the channel
bandwidth, this method is called the IBW method (Integration Bandwidth method).
Fast ACLR
Using Fast ACLR, the R&S FSV sets the center frequency to the different channel center
frequencies consecutively and measures the power with the selected measurement time
(= sweep time/number of channels).
The RBW filters suitable for the selected standard and frequency offset are automatically
used (e.g. root raised cos with IS 136).
The RMS detector is used for obtaining correct power measurement results. Therefore
no software correction factors are required.
Measurement Repeatability
The repeatability of the results, especially in the narrow adjacent channels, strongly
depends on the measurement time for a given resolution bandwidth. A longer sweep time
may increase the probability that the measured value converges to the true value of the
adjacent channel power, but obviously increases measurement time.
The integrated bandwidth method (IBW) calculates channel power and ACLR from the
trace data obtained during a continuous sweep over the selected span. Most parts of this
sweep are neither part of the channel itself nor the defined adjacent channels. Therefore,
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most of the samples taken during the sweeptime cannot be used for channel power or
ACLR calculation.
To obtain a high repeatability with short measurement times, the R&S FSV offers a "Fast
ACLR" mode. In the Fast ACLR mode, the R&S FSV measures the power of each channel
at the defined channel bandwidth, while being tuned to the center frequency of the channel in question. The digital implementation of the resolution bandwidths makes it possible
to select filter characteristics that are precisely tailored to the signal. In case of
CDMA2000, the power in the useful channel is measured with a bandwidth of 1.23 MHz
and that of the adjacent channels with a bandwidth of 30 kHz. Therefore the R&S FSV
changes from one channel to the other and measures the power at a bandwidth of 1.23
MHz or 30 kHz using the RMS detector. The power of the frequency range between the
channels of interest is not measured in Fast ACLR mode, because it is not required for
channel power or ACLR calculation. The measurement time per channel is set with the
sweep time. It is equal to the selected measurement time divided by the selected number
of channels.
Fig. 3-12: Measuring the channel power and adjacent channel power ratio for CDMA2000 1X signals
with zero span (Fast ACP)
Assuming a measurement with five channels (1 channel plus 2 lower and 2 upper adjacent channels) and a sweep time of 100 ms, a measurement time per channel of 20 ms
is required. The number of effective samples taken into account for power calculation in
one channel is the product of sweeptime in channel times the selected resolution bandwidth.
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Assuming a sweeptime of 100 ms, there are (30 kHz / 4.19 MHz) * 100 ms * 10 kHz ≈ 7
samples. Whereas in Fast ACLR mode, there are (100 ms / 5) * 30 kHz ≈ 600 samples.
Comparing these numbers explains the increase of repeatability with a 95% confidence
level (2δ) from ± 2.8 dB to ± 0.34 dB for a sweeptime of 100 ms (as shown in ​figure 3-13 and ).
For the same repeatability, the sweep time would have to be set to 8.5 s with the integration method. The ​figure 3-14 shows the standard deviation of the results as a function
of the sweep time.
Fig. 3-13: Repeatability of adjacent channel power measurement on CDMA2000 standard signals if the
integration bandwidth method is used
The ​figure 3-14 shows the repeatability of power measurements in the transmit channel
and of relative power measurements in the adjacent channels as a function of sweep
time. The standard deviation of measurement results is calculated from 100 consecutive
measurements. Take scaling into account if comparing power values.
Fig. 3-14: Repeatability of adjacent channel power measurements on CDMA2000 signals in the fast ACP
mode
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Channel Power Measurement Results
For channel or adjacent-channel power measurements, the individual channels are indicated by different colored bars in the diagram. The height of each bar corresponds to the
measured power of that channel. In addition, the name of the channel ("Adj", "Alt1",
"TX1", etc. or a user-defined name) is indicated above the bar (separated by a line which
has no further meaning).
Results are provided for the TX channel and the number of defined adjacent channels
above and below the TX channel. If more than one TX channel is defined, the carrier
channel to which the relative adjacent-channel power values should be referenced must
be defined.
The measured power values for the TX and adjacent channels are also output as a table
in the second screen. Which powers are measured depends on the number of configured
channels, see ​"# of Adj Chan" on page 197.
For each channel, the following values are displayed:
Label
Description
Channel
Channel name as specified in the "Channel Settings" (see ​"Names" on page 200).
Bandwidth
Configured channel bandwidth (see ​"Bandwidth" on page 198)
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Label
Description
Offset
Offset of the channel to the TX channel (Configured channel spacing, see ​"Spacing"
on page 199)
Power
The measured power values for the TX and lower and upper adjacent channels. The
powers of the transmission channels are output in dBm or dBm/Hz, or in dBc, relative
to the specified reference TX channel.
(Lower/Upper)
Retrieving Results via Remote Control
All or specific channel power measurement results can be retrieved using the ​
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​POWer:​RESult?​ command from a remote
computer.
Alternatively, the results can be output as channel power density, i.e. in reference to the
measurement bandwidth (see ​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​POWer:​
RESult:​PHZ​ on page 559).
Furthermore, the measured power values of the displayed trace can be retrieved as usual
using the TRAC:DATA? commands (see ​TRACe<n>[:​DATA]?​ on page 732). In this
case, the measured power value for each sweep point (max. 691) is returned.
Configuring and Performing Channel Power Measurements
Predefined standards contain the main measurement settings for standard measurements. When such a standard is loaded, the required channel settings are automatically
set on the R&S FSV. However, the settings can be changed, and measurements with
user-defined configurations are also possible.
Once the channels have been set up, other instrument settings such as the used filter
bandwidths, frequency span and detector and trace settings can be optimized automatically (see ​"Adjust Settings" on page 203).
For an overview of the softkeys and menus see ​"Softkeys for Channel and AdjacentChannel Power Measurements" on page 195.
Selecting a Predefined Standard
Predefined standards contain the main measurement settings for standard measurements. When such a standard is loaded, the required channel settings are automatically
set on the R&S FSV.
The selected standard defines the following settings:
●
​"Bandwidth" on page 198
●
​"Spacing" on page 199
●
Detector, see ​"Optimized Settings for CP/ACLR Test Parameters" on page 207
●
Trace averaging, see ​"Average Mode" on page 128
●
RBW, see ​"Optimized Settings for CP/ACLR Test Parameters" on page 207
●
​"Weighting Filter" on page 200
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► Select a predefined standard via the ​CP/ACLR Standard softkey.
Setting up the Channels
Channel definition is the basis for measuring power levels in certain frequency ranges.
Usually, the power levels in one or more carrier (TX) channels and possibly the adjacent
channels are of interest. Up to 18 carrier channels and up to 12 adjacent channels can
be defined.
In the R&S FSV's display, only the first neighboring channel of the carrier (TX) channel
is labelled "Adj" (adjacent) channel; all others are labelled "Alt" (alternate) channels. In
this manual, "adjacent" refers to both adjacent and alternate channels.
When an ACLR measurement is started by pressing the "Ch Power ACLR" softkey, all
settings including the channel bandwidths and channel spacings are set according to the
selected standard and can be adjusted afterwards.
Channel setup consists of the following settings:
●
The number of transmission (TX) and adjacent channels
●
The bandwidth of each channel
●
For multi-carrier ACLR measurements: which TX channel is used as a reference
("ACLR Reference")
●
The spacing between the individual channels
●
Optionally: the names of the channels displayed in the diagram and result table
●
Optionally: the influence of individual channels on the total measurement result
("Weighting Filter")
●
Optionally: limits for a limit check on the measured power levels
Changes to an existing standard can be stored as a user-defined standard, see ​"UserDefined Configurations" on page 195.
► In the "Ch Power" menu, press ​Channel Setup, then press the ​Channel Setup softkey
to configure the channels in the "Channel Setup" dialog box.
In the "Channel Setup" dialog box you define the channel settings for all channels, independent of the defined number of used TX or adjacent channels.
●
●
●
Defining Channel Bandwidths...............................................................................192
Defining Channel Spacings...................................................................................193
Configuring a Limit Check.....................................................................................194
Defining Channel Bandwidths
The transmission-channel bandwidth is normally defined by the transmission standard.
The correct bandwidth is set automatically for the selected standard (see ​"Optimized
Settings for CP/ACLR Test Parameters" on page 207).
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For measurements that require channel bandwidths which deviate from those defined in
the selected standard, use the IBW method (see ​Fast ACLR (On/Off) softkey). With the
IBW method, the channel bandwidth borders are right and left of the channel center frequency. Thus, you can visually check whether the entire power of the signal under test
is within the selected channel bandwidth.
► In the "Channel Setup" dialog box, select the "Bandwidth" tab to define the channel
bandwidths.
The value entered for any TX channel is automatically also defined for all subsequent
TX channels. Thus, only one value needs to be entered if all TX channels have the
same bandwidth.
The value entered for any ADJ or ALT channel is automatically also defined for all
alternate (ALT) channels. Thus, only one value needs to be entered if all adjacent
channels have the same bandwidth.
Defining Channel Spacings
Channel spacings are normally defined by the selected standard but can be changed.
If the spacings are not equal, the channel distribution according to the center frequency
is as follows:
Odd number of TX channels
The middle TX channel is centered to center frequency.
Even number of TX channels
The two TX channels in the middle are used to calculate the frequency
between those two channels. This frequency is aligned to the center
frequency.
► In the "Channel Setup" dialog box, select the "Spacing" tab to define the channel
spacings.
The value entered for any TX channel is automatically also defined for all subsequent
TX channels. Thus, only one value needs to be entered if all TX channels have the
same spacing.
If the channel spacing for the adjacent or an alternate channel is changed, all higher
alternate channel spacings are multiplied by the same factor (new spacing value/old
spacing value). The lower adjacent-channel spacings remain unchanged. Only one
value needs to be entered for equal channel spacing.
Example: Defining channel spacing
In the default setting, the adjacent channels have the following spacing: 20 kHz ("ADJ"),
40 kHz ("ALT1"), 60 kHz ("ALT2"), 80 kHz ("ALT3"), 100 kHz ("ALT4"), …
If the spacing of the first adjacent channel ("ADJ") is set to 40 kHz, the spacing of all other
adjacent channels is multiplied by factor 2 to result in 80 kHz ("ALT1"), 120 kHz ("ALT2"),
160 kHz ("ALT3"), …
If, starting from the default setting, the spacing of the 5th adjacent channel ("ALT4") is
set to 150 kHz, the spacing of all higher adjacent channels is multiplied by factor 1.5 to
result in 180 kHz ("ALT5"), 210 kHz ("ALT6"), 240 kHz ("ALT7"), …
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For the R&S FSV, the channel spacing is defined as the distance between the center
frequency of the adjacent channel and the center frequency of the transmission channel.
The definition of the adjacent-channel spacing in standards IS95C and CDMA 2000 is
different. These standards define the adjacent-channel spacing from the center of the
transmission channel to the closest border of the adjacent channel. This definition is also
used for the R&S FSV if the standards marked with an asterisk *) are selected.
Configuring a Limit Check
During an ACLR measurement, the power values can be checked whether they exceed
user-defined limits. A relative or absolute limit can be defined, or both. Both limit types
are considered, regardless whether the measured levels are absolute or relative values.
The check of both limit values can be activated independently. If any active limit value is
exceeded, the measured value is displayed in red and marked by a preceding asterisk
in the result table.
To configure a limit check
1. In the "Channel Setup" dialog box, select the "Limits" tab to define a limit check.
2. For each channel, define a relative or absolute value that should not be exceeded.
3. Select the channels to be included in the limit check by activating the "Check" option.
4. Activate limit checking for the selected channels by setting "Limit Checking" to On.
Performing a Channel Power Measurement
A channel power measurement is started automatically according to the currently
selected standard when you press the "Ch Power ACLR" softkey in the MEAS menu.
► To start a new measurement after changing the settings, press the RUN SINGLE or
RUN CONT hardkeys.
Alternatively, you can save your settings as a user standard (see ​"User-Defined
Configurations" on page 195), then select that standard and start the measurement
as usual by pressing the "Ch Power ACLR" softkey.
The configured measurement is performed (depending on the number of defined channels, see ​"# of Adj Chan" on page 197) and the results are displayed in the graphic and
the result table.
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User-Defined Configurations
You can define measurement configurations independently of a predefinded standard
and save the current ACLR configuration as a "user standard" in an xml file. You can then
load the file and thus the settings again at a later time.
User-defined standards are not supported for "Fast ACLR" and Multi-Carrier ACLR
measurements.
Compatibility to R&S FSP
User standards created on an analyzer of the R&S FSP family are compatible to the
R&S FSV. User standards created on an R&S FSV, however, are not necessarily compatible to the analyzers of the R&S FSP family and may not work there.
To store a user-defined configuration
1. Select the "User Standard" softkey in the "Ch Power" menu.
2. Press "Save".
3. Define a file name for the user standard and select its storage location.
By default, the xml file is stored in C:\R_S\Instr\acp_std\. However, you can
define any other storage location.
4. Press "Save".
The following parameter definitions are saved:
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
​"# of Adj Chan" on page 197
Channel spacing and adjacent-channel spacing, see ​"Spacing" on page 199
Channel bandwidth of transmission (Tx), adjacent (Adj) and alternate (Alt) channels, see ​"Bandwidth" on page 198
Resolution bandwidth, see ​"Res BW Auto" on page 109
Video bandwidth, see ​"Video BW Auto" on page 110
Detector, see ​"Detector" on page 126
ACLR limits and their state, see ​"Limits" on page 201
Sweep time and sweep time coupling, see ​"Sweep Time" on page 203
Trace and power mode, see ​"Select Trace" on page 203 and ​"Power Mode"
on page 202
To load a user-defined configuration
► Press "User Standard > Load" and select the user standard file.
Softkeys for Channel and Adjacent-Channel Power Measurements
Ch Power ACLR..........................................................................................................196
└ CP/ACLR Standard.......................................................................................196
└ CP/ACLR Settings........................................................................................197
└ # of TX Chan.......................................................................................197
└ # of Adj Chan......................................................................................197
└ Channel Setup....................................................................................197
└ Bandwidth.................................................................................198
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└ ACLR Reference............................................................199
Spacing.....................................................................................199
Names......................................................................................200
Weighting Filter.........................................................................200
Limits........................................................................................201
└ Limit Checking................................................................201
└ Relative Limit..................................................................202
└ Absolute Limit.................................................................202
└ Check.............................................................................202
└ Chan Pwr/Hz.......................................................................................202
└ Power Mode........................................................................................202
└ Clear/Write................................................................................203
└ Max Hold..................................................................................203
└ Select Trace........................................................................................203
└ ACLR (Abs/Rel)..................................................................................203
└ Adjust Settings....................................................................................203
Sweep Time..................................................................................................203
Fast ACLR (On/Off)......................................................................................204
Set CP Reference.........................................................................................204
User Standard...............................................................................................204
└ Load....................................................................................................205
└ Save....................................................................................................205
└ Delete.................................................................................................205
Noise Correction...........................................................................................205
Adjust Ref Lvl................................................................................................206
└
└
└
└
└
└
└
└
└
└
Ch Power ACLR
Activates the active channel or adjacent-channel power measurement either for a single
carrier signal or for several carrier signals, depending on the current measurement configuration, and opens a submenu to configure the channel power measurement. With
default settings the measurement is performed by integrating the powers at the display
points within the specified channels (IBW method).
If several TX cahnnels (carriers) are activated, the number of measured values is
increased to ensure that adjacent-channel powers are measured with adequate accuracy.
For general information on performing channel or adjacent-channel power measurements, see ​chapter 3.3.5.2, "Measuring Channel Power and Adjacent-Channel Power",
on page 185.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​POWer:​SELect​ on page 560
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​POWer:​RESult?​ on page 557
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​POWer[:​STATe]​ on page 561
CP/ACLR Standard ← Ch Power ACLR
Opens an edit dialog box to select the settings according to predefined standards. For
details on the available standards see ​"Predefined CP/ACLR Standards" on page 206.
By default no standard is set.
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The selection of the standard influences the following parameters (see ​"Optimized Settings for CP/ACLR Test Parameters" on page 207):
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
channel spacing and adjacent-channel spacing
channel bandwidth, adjacent-channel bandwidth, and type of filtering
resolution bandwidth
video bandwidth
detector
# of adjacent channels
trace averaging (switched off)
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​POWer:​PRESet​ on page 556
CP/ACLR Settings ← Ch Power ACLR
Opens a submenu to configure the channel power and adjacent channel power measurement independently of the predefined standards (for details see also ​"Predefined CP/
ACLR Standards" on page 206 and ​"Optimized Settings for CP/ACLR Test Parameters" on page 207).
# of TX Chan ← CP/ACLR Settings ← Ch Power ACLR
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the number of carrier signals to be taken into account
in channel and adjacent-channel power measurements. Values from 1 to 18 are allowed.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​TXCHannel:​COUNt​ on page 697
# of Adj Chan ← CP/ACLR Settings ← Ch Power ACLR
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the number of adjacent channels to be considered in
the adjacent-channel power measurement. Values from 0 to 12 are allowed.
The following measurements are performed depending on the number of the channels:
0
Only the channel powers are measured.
1
The channel powers and the power of the upper and lower adjacent channel are measured.
2
The channel powers, the power of the upper and lower adjacent channel, and of the next higher
and lower channel (alternate channel 1) are measured.
3
The channel power, the power of the upper and lower adjacent channel, the power of the next
higher and lower channel (alternate channel 1), and of the next but one higher and lower adjacent
channel (alternate channel 2) are measured.
…
…
12
The channel power, the power of the upper and lower adjacent channel, and the power of the all
higher and lower channels (alternate channel 1 to 11) are measured.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​ACPairs​ on page 690
Channel Setup ← CP/ACLR Settings ← Ch Power ACLR
Opens a dialog to define the channel settings for all channels, independant of the defined
number of used TX or adjacent channels.
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The dialog contains the following tabs:
●
●
●
●
●
​"Bandwidth" on page 198
​"Spacing" on page 199
​"Names" on page 200
​"Weighting Filter" on page 200
​"Limits" on page 201
Bandwidth ← Channel Setup ← CP/ACLR Settings ← Ch Power ACLR
Define the channel bandwidths for the transmission channels and the adjacent channels.
"TX" is only available for the multi-carrier ACLR measurement. When you change the
bandwidth for one channel, the value is automatically also defined for all subsequent
channels of the same type.
The transmission-channel bandwidth is normally defined by the transmission standard.
The correct bandwidth is set automatically for the selected standard (see ​"Optimized
Settings for CP/ACLR Test Parameters" on page 207).
●
●
Measurements in zero span (see ​Fast ACLR (On/Off) softkey) are performed in the
zero span mode. The channel limits are indicated by vertical lines. For measurements
requiring channel bandwidths deviating from those defined in the selected standard
the IBW method is to be used.
With the IBW method (see ​Fast ACLR (On/Off) softkey), the channel bandwidth limits
are marked by two vertical lines right and left of the channel center frequency. Thus
you can visually check whether the entire power of the signal under test is within the
selected channel bandwidth.
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If measuring according to the IBW method ("Fast ACLR Off"), the bandwidths of the
different adjacent channels are to be entered numerically. Since all adjacent channels
often have the same bandwidth, the other alternate channels are set to the bandwidth
of the adjacent channel when it is changed. Thus, only one value needs to be entered
in case of equal adjacent channel bandwidths.
For details on available channel filters see ​chapter 3.2.6.3, "Selecting the Appropriate
Filter Type", on page 114.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​BANDwidth|BWIDth[:​CHANnel<channel>]​
on page 690
​[SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​BANDwidth|BWIDth:​ACHannel​ on page 690
​[SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​BANDwidth|BWIDth:​ALTernate<channel>​
on page 691
ACLR Reference ← Bandwidth ← Channel Setup ← CP/ACLR Settings ← Ch Power
ACLR
Select the transmission channel to which the relative adjacent-channel power values
should be referenced.
TX Channel 1
Transmission channel 1 is used.
Min Power TX Channel
The transmission channel with the lowest power is used as a reference
channel.
Max Power TX Channel
The transmission channel with the highest power is used as a reference channel.
Lowest & Highest Channel
The outer left-hand transmission channel is the reference channel for
the lower adjacent channels, the outer right-hand transmission channel that for the upper adjacent channels.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​REFerence:​TXCHannel:​MANual​ on page 696
​[SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​REFerence:​TXCHannel:​AUTO​ on page 695
Spacing ← Channel Setup ← CP/ACLR Settings ← Ch Power ACLR
Define the channel spacings for the TX channels and for the adjacent channels.
●
TX channels (left column)
TX1-2
spacing between the first and the second carrier
TX2-3
spacing between the second and the third carrier
…
…
The spacings between all adjacent TX channels can be defined separately. When you
change the spacing for one channel, the value is automatically also defined for all subsequent TX channels in order to set up a system with equal TX channel spacing quickly.
For different spacings, a setup from top to bottom is necessary.
If the spacings are not equal, the channel distribution according to the center frequency
is as follows:
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Odd number of TX channels
The middle TX channel is centered to center frequency.
Even number of TX channels
The two TX channels in the middle are used to calculate the frequency
between those two channels. This frequency is aligned to the center
frequency.
●
Adjacent channels (right column)
Since all the adjacent channels often have the same distance to each other, the
modification of the adjacent-channel spacing (ADJ) causes a change in all higher
adjacent-channel spacings (ALT1, ALT2, …): they are all multiplied by the same factor (new spacing value/old spacing value). Thus only one value needs to be entered
in case of equal channel spacing. A modification of a higher adjacent-channel spacing
(ALT1, ALT2, …) causes a change by the same factor in all higher adjacent-channel
spacings, while the lower adjacent-channel spacings remain unchanged.
Example:
In the default setting, the adjacent channels have the following spacing: 20 kHz
("ADJ"), 40 kHz ("ALT1"), 60 kHz ("ALT2"), 80 kHz ("ALT3"), 100 kHz ("ALT4"), …
If the spacing of the first adjacent channel ("ADJ") is set to 40 kHz, the spacing of all
other adjacent channels is multiplied by factor 2 to result in 80 kHz ("ALT1"), 120 kHz
("ALT2"), 160 kHz ("ALT3"), …
If, starting from the default setting, the spacing of the 5th adjacent channel ("ALT4")
is set to 150 kHz, the spacing of all higher adjacent channels is multiplied by factor
1.5 to result in 180 kHz ("ALT5"), 210 kHz ("ALT6"), 240 kHz ("ALT7"), …
If a ACLR or MC-ACLR measurement is started, all settings according to the standard
including the channel bandwidths and channel spacings are set and can be adjusted
afterwards.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​SPACing:​CHANnel<channel>​ on page 697
​[SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​SPACing[:​ACHannel]​ on page 696
​[SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​SPACing:​ALTernate<channel>​ on page 697
Names ← Channel Setup ← CP/ACLR Settings ← Ch Power ACLR
Define user-specific channel names for each channel. The names defined here are displayed in the result diagram and result table.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​NAME:​ACHannel​ on page 693
​[SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​NAME:​ALTernate<channel>​ on page 694
​[SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​NAME:​CHANnel<channel>​ on page 694
Weighting Filter ← Channel Setup ← CP/ACLR Settings ← Ch Power ACLR
Define weighting filters for all channels. Weighting filters are not available for all supported
standards and cannot always be defined manually where they are available.
The dialog contains the following fields:
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Field
Description
Channel
●
●
●
Active
Activates/Deactivates the weighting filter for the selected and any subsequent channels of
the same type
Alpha
Defines the alpha value for the weighting filter for the selected and any subsequent channels
of the same type
TX 1-18: TX channels
ADJ: Adjacent channel
ALT1-11: Alternate channels
Remote command:
POW:ACH:FILT:CHAN1 ON, see ​[SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​FILTer[:​STATe]:​
CHANnel<channel>​ on page 693
Activates the weighting filter for TX channel 1.
POW:ACH:FILT:ALPH:CHAN1 0,35 see ​[SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​FILTer:​
ALPHa:​CHANnel<channel>​ on page 692
Sets the alpha value for the weighting filter for TX channel 1 to 0,35.
POW:ACH:FILT:ACH ON see ​[SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​FILTer[:​STATe]:​
ACHannel​ on page 692
Activates the weighting filter for the adjacent channel.
POW:ACH:FILT:ALPH:ACH 0,35 see ​[SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​FILTer:​
ALPHa:​ACHannel​ on page 691
Sets the alpha value for the weighting filter for the adjacent channel to 0,35.
POW:ACH:FILT:ALT1 ON see ​[SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​FILTer[:​STATe]:​
ALTernate<channel>​ on page 692
Activates the alpha value for the weighting filter for the alternate channel 1.
POW:ACH:FILT:ALPH:ALT1 0,35 see ​[SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​FILTer:​
ALPHa:​ALTernate<channel>​ on page 691
Sets the alpha value for the weighting filter for the alternate channel 1 to 0,35.
Limits ← Channel Setup ← CP/ACLR Settings ← Ch Power ACLR
Activate and define the limits for the ACLR measurement.
Limit Checking ← Limits ← Channel Setup ← CP/ACLR Settings ← Ch Power ACLR
Activate or deactivate limit checking for the ACLR measurement.
The following rules apply for the limits:
●
●
●
A separate limit can be defined for each adjacent channel. The limit applies to both
the upper and the lower adjacent channel.
A relative and/or absolute limit can be defined. The check of both limit values can be
activated independently.
The R&S FSV checks adherence to the limits irrespective of whether the limits are
absolute or relative or whether the measurement is carried out with absolute or rel-
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Measurement Functions
ative levels. If both limits are active and if the higher of both limit values is exceeded,
the measured value is marked by a preceding asterisk.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​LIMit<k>:​ACPower[:​STATe]​ on page 501
​CALCulate<n>:​LIMit<k>:​ACPower:​ACHannel:​RESult​ on page 504
​CALCulate<n>:​LIMit<k>:​ACPower:​ALTernate<channel>[:​RELative]​
on page 504
Relative Limit ← Limits ← Channel Setup ← CP/ACLR Settings ← Ch Power ACLR
Defines a limit relative to the carrier signal.
Remote command:
CALC:LIM:ACP ON, see ​CALCulate<n>:​LIMit<k>:​ACPower[:​STATe]​
on page 501
CALC:LIM:ACP:<adjacent-channel> 0dBc,0dBc
CALC:LIM:ACP:<adjacent-channel>:STAT ON
Absolute Limit ← Limits ← Channel Setup ← CP/ACLR Settings ← Ch Power ACLR
Defines an absolute limit.
Remote command:
CALC:LIM:ACP ON, see ​CALCulate<n>:​LIMit<k>:​ACPower[:​STATe]​
on page 501
CALC:LIM:ACP:<adjacent-channel>:ABS -10dBm,-10dBm
CALC:LIM:ACP:<adjacent-channel>:ABS:STAT ON, see ​CALCulate<n>:​
LIMit<k>:​ACPower:​ACHannel:​ABSolute:​STATe​ on page 503
Check ← Limits ← Channel Setup ← CP/ACLR Settings ← Ch Power ACLR
Activate or deactivate the limit to be considered during a limit check. The check of both
limit values can be activated independently.
Chan Pwr/Hz ← CP/ACLR Settings ← Ch Power ACLR
If deactivated, the channel power is displayed in dBm. If activated, the channel power
density is displayed instead. Thus, the absolute unit of the channel power is switched
from dBm to dBm/Hz. The channel power density in dBm/Hz corresponds to the power
inside a bandwidth of 1 Hz and is calculated as follows:
"channel power density = channel power – log10(channel bandwidth)"
By means of this function it is possible e.g. to measure the signal/noise power density or
use the additional functions ​"ACLR (Abs/Rel)" on page 203 and ​"ACLR Reference"
on page 199 to obtain the signal to noise ratio.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​POWer:​RESult:​PHZ​ on page 559
Power Mode ← CP/ACLR Settings ← Ch Power ACLR
Opens a submenu to select the power mode.
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Clear/Write ← Power Mode ← CP/ACLR Settings ← Ch Power ACLR
If this mode is activated, the channel power and the adjacent channel powers are calculated directly from the current trace (default mode).
Remote command:
CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:MODE WRIT, see ​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​
POWer:​MODE​ on page 555
Max Hold ← Power Mode ← CP/ACLR Settings ← Ch Power ACLR
If this mode is activated, the power values are calculated from the current trace and
compared with the previous power value using a maximum algorithm. The higher value
is retained. If activated, the enhancement label "Pwr Max" is displayed.
Remote command:
CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:MODE MAXH, see ​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​
POWer:​MODE​ on page 555
Select Trace ← CP/ACLR Settings ← Ch Power ACLR
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the trace number on which the CP/ACLR measurement
is to be performed. Only activated traces can be selected.
For details on trace modes see ​chapter 3.2.8.4, "Trace Mode Overview", on page 134.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]POWer:​TRACe​ on page 699
ACLR (Abs/Rel) ← CP/ACLR Settings ← Ch Power ACLR
Switches between absolute and relative power measurement in the adjacent channels.
Abs
The absolute power in the adjacent channels is displayed in the unit of the y-axis, e.g. in dBm,
dBµV.
Rel
The level of the adjacent channels is displayed relative to the level of the transmission channel in
dBc.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​MODE​ on page 693
Adjust Settings ← CP/ACLR Settings ← Ch Power ACLR
Automatically optimizes all instrument settings for the selected channel configuration
(channel bandwidth, channel spacing) within a specific frequency range (channel bandwidth). The adjustment is carried out only once. If necessary, the instrument settings can
be changed later.
For details on the settings of span, resolution bandwidth, video bandwidth, detector and
trace averaging see ​"Optimized Settings for CP/ACLR Test Parameters" on page 207.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​PRESet​ on page 694
Sweep Time ← Ch Power ACLR
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the sweep time. With the RMS detector, a longer sweep
time increases the stability of the measurement results.
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The function of this softkey is identical to the ​Sweeptime Manual softkey in the "Bandwidth" menu.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​TIME​ on page 705
Fast ACLR (On/Off) ← Ch Power ACLR
Switches between the IBW method ("Fast ACLR Off") and the zero span method ("Fast
ACLR On").
When switched on, the R&S FSV sets the center frequency consecutively to the different
channel center frequencies and measures the power with the selected measurement time
(= sweep time/number of channels). The RBW filters suitable for the selected standard
and frequency offset are automatically used (e.g. root raised cos with IS 136). For details
on available channel filters see ​chapter 3.2.6.3, "Selecting the Appropriate Filter Type",
on page 114.
The RMS detector is used for obtaining correct power measurement results. Therefore
this requires no software correction factors.
Measured values are output as a list. The powers of the transmission channels are output
in dBm, the powers of the adjacent channels in dBm.
The sweep time is selected depending on the desired reproducibility of results. Reproducibility increases with sweep time since power measurement is then performed over a
longer time period. As a general approach, it can be assumed that approx. 500 noncorrelated measured values are required for a reproducibility of 0.5 dB (99 % of the
measurements are within 0.5 dB of the true measured value). This holds true for white
noise. The measured values are considered as non-correlated if their time interval corresponds to the reciprocal of the measured bandwidth.
With IS 136 the measurement bandwidth is approx. 25 kHz, i.e. measured values at an
interval of 40 µs are considered as non-correlated. A measurement time of 40 ms is thus
required per channel for 1000 measured values. This is the default sweep time which the
R&S FSV sets in coupled mode. Approx. 5000 measured values are required for a reproducibility of 0.1 dB (99 %), i.e. the measurement time is to be increased to 200 ms.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]POWer:​HSPeed​ on page 698
Set CP Reference ← Ch Power ACLR
Defines the currently measured channel power as the reference value if channel power
measurement is activated. The reference value is displayed in the "Tx1 (Ref) Power" field;
the default value is 0 dBm.
The softkey is available only for multi carrier ACLR measurements.
In adjacent-channel power measurement with one or several carrier signals, the power
is always referenced to a transmission channel, i.e. no value is displayed for "Tx1 (Ref)
Power".
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​REFerence:​AUTO ONCE​ on page 695
User Standard ← Ch Power ACLR
Opens a submenu to configure customized standards.
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Measurement Functions
Load ← User Standard ← Ch Power ACLR
Opens a dialog to select and load a user defined ACLR standard.
Note: Compatibility to R&S FSP. User standards created on an analyzer of the R&S FSP
family are compatible to the R&S FSV. User standards created on an R&S FSV, however,
are not necessarily compatible to the analyzers of the R&S FSP family and may not work
there.
Remote command:
Querying available standards:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​POWer:​STANdard:​CATalog?​
on page 561
Loading a standard:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​POWer:​PRESet​ on page 556
Save ← User Standard ← Ch Power ACLR
Saves the current ACLR configuration in an xml file in order for you to use it again at a
later time. You can define the drive, path and file name in the corresponding dialog. The
default location is C:\R_S\Instr\acp_std\.
Note that the ACLR user standard is not supported by Fast ACLR and Multi Carrier ACLR
measurements.
If you create your own standard, you can customize the following parameters:
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
number of adjacent channels
channel bandwidth of transmission (Tx), adjacent (Adj) and alternate (Alt) channels
channel spacings
resolution and video bandwidth
ACLR limits and their state
sweep time and sweep time coupling
detector
trace mode
Remote command:
Configuring channels:
see ​"SENSe:POWer Subsystem" on page 689
Saving custom channel configurations:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​POWer:​STANdard:​SAVE​ on page 562
Delete ← User Standard ← Ch Power ACLR
Deletes the user standard that you select in the corresponding dialog box. Note that the
R&S FSV deletes the file without further notice.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​POWer:​STANdard:​DELete​ on page 562
Noise Correction ← Ch Power ACLR
If activated, the results are corrected by the instrument's inherent noise, which increases
the dynamic range.
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"ON"
A reference measurement of the instrument's inherent noise is carried
out. The noise power measured is then subtracted from the power in
the channel that is being examined.
The inherent noise of the instrument depends on the selected center
frequency, resolution bandwidth and level setting. Therefore, the correction function is disabled whenever one of these parameters is
changed. A disable message is displayed on the screen. Noise correction must be switched on again manually after the change.
"OFF"
No noise correction is performed.
"AUTO"
Noise correction is performed. After a parameter change, noise correction is restarted automatically and a new correction measurement is
performed.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]POWer:​NCORrection​ on page 698
Adjust Ref Lvl ← Ch Power ACLR
Adjusts the reference level to the measured channel power. This ensures that the settings
of the RF attenuation and the reference level are optimally adjusted to the signal level
without overloading the R&S FSV or limiting the dynamic range by a too small S/N ratio.
For details on manual settings see ​"Optimized Settings for CP/ACLR Test Parameters"
on page 207.
The reference level is not influenced by the selection of a standard. To achieve an optimum dynamic range, the reference level has to be set in a way that places the signal
maximum close to the reference level without forcing an overload message. Since the
measurement bandwidth for channel power measurements is significantly lower than the
signal bandwidth, the signal path may be overloaded although the trace is still significantly
below the reference level.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​PRESet:​RLEVel​ on page 695
Predefined CP/ACLR Standards
When using predefined standards for ACLR measurement, the test parameters for the
channel and adjacent-channel measurements are configured automatically. The available standards are listed below.
Predefined standards are selected using the "CP/ACLR Standard" softkey or the
CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:PRES command.
Standard
GUI-Parameter
SCPI-Parameter
EUTRA/LTE Square
EUTRA/LTE Square
EUTRa
EUTRA/LTE Square/RRC
EUTRA/LTE Square/RRC
REUTRa
W-CDMA 3.84 MHz forward
W-CDMA 3GPP FWD
FW3G
W-CDMA 3.84 MHz reverse
W-CDMA 3GPP REV
RW3G
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Standard
GUI-Parameter
SCPI-Parameter
CDMA IS95A forward
CDMA IS95A FWD
F8CD | FIS95a
CDMA IS95A reverse
CDMA IS95A REV
R8CD | RIS95a
CDMA IS95C Class 0 forward*)
CDMA IS95C Class 0 FWD
FIS95c0
CDMA IS95C Class 0 reverse*)
CDMA IS95C Class 0 REV
RIS95c0
CDMA J-STD008 forward
CDMA J-STD008 FWD
F19C | FJ008
CDMA J-STD008 reverse
CDMA J-STD008 REV
R19C | RJ008
CDMA IS95C Class 1 forward*)
CDMA IS95C Class 1 FWD
FIS95c1
CDMA IS95C Class 1 reverse*)
CDMA IS95C Class 1 REV
RIS95c1
CDMA 2000
CDMA 2000
S2CD
TD-SCDMA forward
TD SCDMA FWD
FTCD | TCDMa
TD-SCDMA reverse
TD SCDMA REV
RTCD
WLAN 802.11A
WLAN 802.11A
AWLan
WLAN 802.11B
WLAN 802.11B
BWLan
WiMAX
WiMAX
WiMAX
WIBRO
WIBRO
WIBRO
GSM
GSM
GSM
RFID 14443
RFID 14443
RFID14443
TETRA
TETRA
TETRA
PDC
PDC
PDC
PHS
PHS
PHS
CDPD
CDPD
CDPD
APCO-25 Phase 2
APCO-25 P2
PAPCo25
For the R&S FSV, the channel spacing is defined as the distance between the center
frequency of the adjacent channel and the center frequency of the transmission channel.
The definition of the adjacent-channel spacing in standards IS95C and CDMA 2000 is
different. These standards define the adjacent-channel spacing from the center of the
transmission channel to the closest border of the adjacent channel. This definition is also
used for the R&S FSV if the standards marked with an asterisk *) are selected.
Optimized Settings for CP/ACLR Test Parameters
The "Adjust Settings" softkey (see ​"Adjust Settings" on page 203) automatically optimizes
all instrument settings for the selected channel configuration, as described in the following:
●
Frequency span
The frequency span must at least cover the channels to be measured plus a measurement margin of approx. 10 %.
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If the frequency span is large in comparison to the channel bandwidth (or the adjacent-channel bandwidths) being examined, only a few points on the trace are available per channel. This reduces the accuracy of the waveform calculation for the
channel filter used, which has a negative effect on the measurement accuracy. It is
therefore strongly recommended that the formulas mentioned be taken into consideration when selecting the frequency span.
For channel power measurements the ​Adjust Settings softkey sets the frequency
span as follows:
"(No. of transmission channels – 1) x transmission channel spacing + 2 x transmission
channel bandwidth + measurement margin"
For adjacent-channel power measurements, the ​Adjust Settings softkey sets the frequency span as a function of the number of transmission channels, the transmission
channel spacing, the adjacent-channel spacing, and the bandwidth of one of adjacent-channels ADJ, ALT1 or ALT2, whichever is furthest away from the transmission
channels:
"(No. of transmission channels – 1) x transmission channel spacing + 2 x (adjacentchannel spacing + adjacent-channel bandwidth) + measurement margin"
The measurement margin is approx. 10 % of the value obtained by adding the channel
spacing and the channel bandwidth.
●
Resolution bandwidth (RBW)
To ensure both, acceptable measurement speed and required selection (to suppress
spectral components outside the channel to be measured, especially of the adjacent
channels), the resolution bandwidth must not be selected too small or too large. As
a general approach, the resolution bandwidth is to be set to values between 1% and
4% of the channel bandwidth.
A larger resolution bandwidth can be selected if the spectrum within the channel to
be measured and around it has a flat characteristic. In the standard setting, e.g. for
standard IS95A REV at an adjacent channel bandwidth of 30 kHz, a resolution bandwidth of 30 kHz is used. This yields correct results since the spectrum in the neighborhood of the adjacent channels normally has a constant level.
With the exception of the IS95 CDMA standards, the ​Adjust Settings softkey sets the
resolution bandwidth (RBW) as a function of the channel bandwidth:
"RBW ≤ 1/40 of channel bandwidth"
The maximum possible resolution bandwidth (with respect to the requirement RBW
≤ 1/40) resulting from the available RBW steps (1, 3) is selected.
●
Video bandwidth (VBW)
For a correct power measurement, the video signal must not be limited in bandwidth.
A restricted bandwidth of the logarithmic video signal would cause signal averaging
and thus result in a too low indication of the power (-2.51 dB at very low video bandwidths). The video bandwidth should therefore be selected at least three times the
resolution bandwidth:
"VBW ≥ 3 x RBW"
The ​Adjust Settings softkey sets the video bandwidth (VBW) as a function of the
channel bandwidth (see formula above) and the smallest possible VBW with regard
to the available step size will be selected.
●
Detector
The ​Adjust Settings softkey selects the RMS detector. This detector is selected since
it correctly indicates the power irrespective of the characteristics of the signal to be
measured. The whole IF envelope is used to calculate the power for each measure-
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ment point. The IF envelope is digitized using a sampling frequency which is at least
five times the resolution bandwidth which has been selected. Based on the sample
values, the power is calculated for each measurement point using the following formula:
where:
"si = linear digitized video voltage at the output of the A/D converter"
"N = number of A/D converter values per measurement point"
"PRMS = power represented by a measurement point"
When the power has been calculated, the power units are converted into decibels
and the value is displayed as a measurement point.
In principle, the sample detector would be possible as well. Due to the limited number
of measurement points used to calculate the power in the channel, the sample detector would yield less stable results.
3.3.5.3
●
Trace averaging
The ​Adjust Settings softkey switches off this function. Averaging, which is often performed to stabilize the measurement results, leads to a too low level indication and
should therefore be avoided. The reduction in the displayed power depends on the
number of averages and the signal characteristics in the channel to be measured.
●
Reference level
The ​Adjust Settings softkey does not influence the reference level. It can be adjusted
separately using the "Adjust Ref Lvl" softkey (see ​"Adjust Ref Lvl" on page 206).
Measuring the Carrier-to-Noise Ratio
The R&S FSV can easily determine the carrier-to-noise ratio, also normalized to a 1 Hz
bandwidth.
The largest signal in the frequency span is the carrier. It is searched when the C/N or C/
NO function is activated (see ​"C/N, C/No" on page 211) and is marked using a fixed
reference marker ("FXD").
To determine the noise power, a channel at the defined center frequency is examined.
The bandwidth of the channel is defined by the "Channel Bandwidth" setting. The power
within this channel is integrated to obtain the noise power level. (If the carrier is within
this channel, an extra step is required to determine the correct noise power level, see
below.)
The noise power of the channel is subtracted from the maximum carrier signal level, and
in the case of a C/NO measurement, it is referred to a 1 Hz bandwidth.
For this measurement, the RMS detector is activated.
The carrier-to-noise measurements are only available in the frequency domain (span >0).
There are two methods to measure the carrier-to-noise ratio:
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●
The carrier is outside the examined channel: In this case, it is sufficient to switch on
the desired measurement function and to set the channel bandwidth. The carrier/
noise ratio is displayed on the screen.
●
The carrier is inside the examined channel: In this case, the measurement must be
performed in two steps:
– First, perform the reference measurement by switching on either the C/N or the
C/NO measurement and waiting for the end of the next measurement run. The
fixed reference marker is set to the maximum of the measured carrier signal.
–
Then, switch off the carrier so that only the noise of the test setup is active in the
channel. The carrier-to-noise ratio is displayed after the subsequent measurement has been completed.
The frequency span should be set to approximately 4 times the channel bandwidth in
order to measure the carrier-to-noise ratio correctly. This setting is defined automatically
by the "Adjust Settings" function.
To determine the carrier-to-noise ratio
1. Press the "C/N, C/NO" softkey to configure the carrier-to-noise ratio measurement.
2. To change the channel bandwidth to be examined, press the "Channel Bandwidth"
softkey.
3. To optimize the settings for the selected channel configuration, press the "Adjust
Settings" softkey.
4. To activate the measurements without reference to the bandwidth, press the "C/N"
softkey.
To activate the measurements with reference to the bandwidth, press the "C/NO"
softkey .
5. If the carrier signal is located within the examined channel bandwidth, switch off the
carrier signal so that only the noise is displayed in the channel and perform a second
measurement.
The carrier-to-noise ratio is displayed after the measurement has been completed.
Measurement results
As a result of the carrier-to-noise measurement the evaluated bandwidth and the calculated C/N ratio are indicated beneath the diagram.
You can also query the determined carrier-to-noise ratio via the remote command
CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:RES? CN or CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:RES? CN0, see ​
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​POWer:​RESult?​ on page 557.
Softkeys for Carrier-to-Noise Ratio Measurements
C/N, C/No....................................................................................................................211
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└
└
└
└
C/N................................................................................................................211
C/No..............................................................................................................211
Channel Bandwidth ......................................................................................211
Adjust Settings .............................................................................................211
C/N, C/No
Opens a submenu to configure the carrier/noise ratio measurement. Measurements
without (C/N) and measurements with reference to the bandwidth (C/No) are possible.
Carrier-to-noise measurements are not available in zero span mode.
For general information on performing carrier-to-noise ratio measurements see ​chapter 3.3.5.3, "Measuring the Carrier-to-Noise Ratio", on page 209.
C/N ← C/N, C/No
Switches the measurement of the carrier/noise ratio on or off. If no marker is active,
marker 1 is activated.
The measurement is performed on the trace that marker 1 is assigned to. To shift marker
1 and measure another trace, use the ​Marker to Trace softkey in the "Marker To" menu.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​POWer:​SELect​ on page 560
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​POWer:​RESult?​ on page 557
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​POWer[:​STATe]​ on page 561
C/No ← C/N, C/No
Switches the measurement of the carrier/noise ratio with reference to a 1 Hz bandwidth
on or off. If no marker is active, marker 1 is activated.
The measurement is performed on the trace that marker 1 is assigned to. To shift marker
1 and measure another trace, use the ​Marker to Trace softkey in the "Marker To" menu.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​POWer:​SELect​ on page 560
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​POWer:​RESult?​ on page 557
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​POWer[:​STATe]​ on page 561
Channel Bandwidth ← C/N, C/No
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the measurement channel bandwidth for each channel.
The default setting is 14 kHz.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​ACPairs​ on page 690
Adjust Settings ← C/N, C/No
Enables the RMS detector (see also ​chapter 3.2.8.6, "Detector Overview",
on page 137) and adjusts the span to the selected channel bandwidth according to:
"4 x channel bandwidth + measurement margin"
The adjustment is performed once; if necessary, the setting can be changed later on.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​PRESet​ on page 694
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3.3.5.4
Measuring the Occupied Bandwidth
An important characteristic of a modulated signal is its occupied bandwidth. In a radio
communications system for instance the occupied bandwidth must be limited to enable
distortion-free transmission in adjacent channels. The occupied bandwidth is defined as
the bandwidth containing a defined percentage of the total transmitted power. A percentage between 10 % and 99.9 % can be set.
The measurement principle is the following: The bandwidth containing 99% of the signal
power is to be determined, for example. The routine first calculates the total power of all
displayed points of the trace. In the next step, the points from the right edge of the trace
are summed up until 0.5 % of the total power is reached. Auxiliary marker 1 is positioned
at the corresponding frequency. Then the points from the left edge of the trace are summed up until 0.5 % of the power is reached. Auxiliary marker 2 is positioned at this point.
99 % of the power is now between the two markers. The distance between the two frequency markers is the occupied bandwidth which is displayed in the marker field.
New: OBW now also possible within defined search limits - multi-carrier OBW
measurement in one sweep
As of R&S FSV firmware version 1.71, the occupied bandwidth of the signal can be
determined within defined search limits instead of for the entire signal. Thus, only a single
sweep is required to determine the OBW for a multi-carrier signal. To do so, search limits
are defined for an individual carrier and the OBW measurement is restricted to the frequency range contained within those limits. Then the search limits are adapted for the
next carrier and the OBW is automatically re-calculated for the new range.
The OBW measurement uses the same search limits as defined for marker search (see
​"Search Limits" on page 174). However, only the left and right limits are considered.
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To ensure correct power measurement, especially for noise signals, and to obtain the
correct occupied bandwidth, the following prerequisites and settings are necessary:
●
Only the signal to be measured is displayed on the screen. An additional signal would
falsify the measurement.
●
RBW << occupied bandwidth
(approx. 1/20 of occupied bandwidth, for voice communication type 300 Hz or 1 kHz)
●
VBW ≥ 3 x RBW
●
RMS detector
●
Span ≥ 2 to 3 x occupied bandwidth
Some of the measurement specifications (e.g. PDC, RCR STD-27B) require measurement of the occupied bandwidth using a peak detector. The detector setting of the
R&S FSV has to be changed accordingly then.
A remote control programming example is described in ​chapter 4.3.5, "Occupied Bandwidth Measurement", on page 862.
To determine the occupied bandwidth
1. Press the ​OBW softkey to activate the measurement of the occupied bandwidth.
The corresponding submenu is displayed.
2. Press the "% Power Bandwidth" softkey to enter the percentage of power (see ​"%
Power Bandwidth (span > 0)" on page 214).
3. To change the channel bandwidth for the transmission channel, press the "Channel
Bandwidth" softkey (see ​"Channel Bandwidth (span > 0)" on page 214).
4. To optimize the settings for the selected channel configuration, press the ​Adjust Settings softkey. For details see also ​"Optimized Settings for CP/ACLR Test Parameters" on page 207.
5. To adjust the reference level to the measured total power after the first sweep, press
the ​Adjust Ref Lvl softkey.
Measurement results
As a result of the OBW measurement the occupied bandwidth ("Occ BW") is indicated in
the marker results. Furthermore, the marker at the center frequency and the temporary
markers are indicated.
The OBW calculation is repeated if the ​Search Limits are changed, without performing a
new sweep. Thus, the OBW for a multi-carrier signal can be determined using only one
sweep.
The determined occupied bandwidth can also be queried using the remote command
CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:RES? OBW or CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:RES? AOBW. While
the OBW parameter returns only the occupied bandwidth, the AOBW parameter also returns
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the position and level of the temporary markers T1 and T2 used to calculate the occupied
bandwidth.
Softkeys for Occupied Bandwidth (OBW) Measurements
OBW............................................................................................................................214
└ % Power Bandwidth (span > 0)....................................................................214
└ Channel Bandwidth (span > 0).....................................................................214
└ Adjust Ref Lvl (span > 0)..............................................................................214
└ Adjust Settings..............................................................................................215
OBW
Activates measurement of the occupied bandwidth according to the current configuration
and opens a submenu to configure the measurement. The occupied bandwidth is displayed in the marker display field and marked on the trace by temporary markers. For
details see ​chapter 3.3.5.4, "Measuring the Occupied Bandwidth", on page 212.
This measurement is not available in zero span.
The measurement is performed on the trace with marker 1. In order to evaluate another
trace, marker 1 must be placed on another trace (see the ​Marker to Trace softkey in the
"Marker" menu).
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​POWer:​SELect​ on page 560
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​POWer:​RESult?​ on page 557
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​POWer[:​STATe]​ on page 561
% Power Bandwidth (span > 0) ← OBW
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the percentage of total power in the displayed frequency
range which defines the occupied bandwidth. Values from 10% to 99.9% are allowed.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]POWer:​BANDwidth|BWIDth​ on page 698
Channel Bandwidth (span > 0) ← OBW
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the channel bandwidth for the transmission channel.
The specified channel bandwidth is used for optimization of the test parameters (for
details see ​"Optimized Settings for CP/ACLR Test Parameters" on page 207). The default
setting is 14 kHz.
For measurements in line with a specific transmission standard, the bandwidth specified
by the standard for the transmission channel must be entered.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​BANDwidth|BWIDth[:​CHANnel<channel>]​
on page 690
Adjust Ref Lvl (span > 0) ← OBW
Adjusts the reference level to the measured total power of the signal. the softkey is activated after the first sweep with active measurement of the occupied bandwidth has been
completed and the total power of the signal is thus known.
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Adjusting the reference level ensures that the signal path will not be overloaded and the
dynamic range not limited by too low a reference level. Since the measurement bandwidth
for channel power measurements is significantly lower than the signal bandwidth, the
signal path may be overloaded although the trace is distinctly below the reference level.
If the measured channel power is equal to the reference level, the signal path cannot be
overloaded.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​PRESet:​RLEVel​ on page 695
Adjust Settings ← OBW
Automatically optimizes all instrument settings for the selected channel configuration
(channel bandwidth, channel spacing) within a specific frequency range (channel bandwidth). The adjustment is carried out only once. If necessary, the instrument settings can
be changed later.
For details on the settings of span, resolution bandwidth, video bandwidth, detector and
trace averaging see ​"Optimized Settings for CP/ACLR Test Parameters" on page 207.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​PRESet​ on page 694
3.3.5.5
Measuring with Spectrum Emission Masks
The Spectrum Emission Mask (SEM) measurement defines a measurement that monitors compliance with a spectral mask. The SEM measurement is used to measure the
excess emissions of a TX channel that would interfere to other channels or to other systems.
The SEM measurement of the base unit allows a flexible definition of all parameters in
the SEM measurement. It is performed using the ​Spectrum Emission Mask softkey in the
"Measurement" menu. Most parameters are defined in the "Sweep List" dialog box (see
​"Sweep List dialog box" on page 218). After a preset, the sweep list contains a set of
default ranges and parameters. For each range, you can change the parameters. For
information on other SEM settings, see the description of the corresponding softkeys (​
"Spectrum Emission Mask" on page 217).
If you want a parameter set to be available permanently, you can create an XML file for
this configuration and, if necessary, export this file to another application (for details refer
to ​"Format Description of Spectrum Emission Mask XML Files" on page 235 and ​"ASCII
File Export Format (Spectrum Emission Mask)" on page 240).
Some predefined XML files are provided that contain ranges and parameters according
to the selected standard (see ​"Provided XML Files for the Spectrum Emission Mask
Measurement" on page 232).
In order to improve the performance of the FSV for spectrum emission mask measurements, a "Fast SEM" mode is available. For details see ​"Fast Spectrum Emission Mask
Measurements" on page 241.
Monitoring compliance of the spectrum is supported by a special limit check for SEM
measurements, see ​"Working with Limit Lines in SEM Measurements" on page 230.
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A remote control programming example is described in ​chapter 4.3.12, "Spectrum Emission Mask Measurement", on page 873.
Softkeys for Spectrum Emission Mask (SEM) Measurements....................................216
Result Evaluation........................................................................................................227
Ranges and Range Settings.......................................................................................229
Working with Limit Lines in SEM Measurements........................................................230
Provided XML Files for the Spectrum Emission Mask Measurement.........................232
Format Description of Spectrum Emission Mask XML Files.......................................235
ASCII File Export Format (Spectrum Emission Mask)................................................240
Fast Spectrum Emission Mask Measurements...........................................................241
Softkeys for Spectrum Emission Mask (SEM) Measurements
Spectrum Emission Mask............................................................................................217
└ Sweep List....................................................................................................218
└ Sweep List dialog box.........................................................................218
└ Range Start / Range Stop........................................................218
└ Fast SEM..................................................................................218
└ Filter Type.................................................................................219
└ RBW.........................................................................................219
└ VBW.........................................................................................219
└ Sweep Time Mode....................................................................219
└ Sweep Time..............................................................................219
└ Ref. Level.................................................................................219
└ RF Att. Mode............................................................................219
└ RF Attenuator...........................................................................219
└ Preamp.....................................................................................219
└ Transd. Factor..........................................................................220
└ Limit Check 1-4.........................................................................220
└ Abs Limit Start..........................................................................220
└ Abs Limit Stop..........................................................................220
└ Rel Limit Start...........................................................................220
└ Rel Limit Stop...........................................................................221
└ Close Sweep List................................................................................221
└ Insert before Range............................................................................221
└ Insert after Range...............................................................................221
└ Delete Range......................................................................................221
└ Symmetric Setup................................................................................221
└ Edit Reference Range........................................................................222
└ List Evaluation...............................................................................................223
└ List Evaluation (On/Off)......................................................................223
└ Margin.................................................................................................223
└ Show Peaks........................................................................................223
└ Save Evaluation List...........................................................................223
└ ASCII File Export......................................................................223
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└ Decim Sep................................................................................224
└ Edit Reference Range...................................................................................224
└ Edit Power Classes.......................................................................................225
└ Used Power Classes..........................................................................225
└ PMin/PMax.........................................................................................226
└ Sweep List..........................................................................................226
└ Add/Remove.......................................................................................226
└ Load Standard..............................................................................................226
└ Save As Standard.........................................................................................226
└ Meas Start/Stop............................................................................................226
└ Restore Standard Files.................................................................................227
Spectrum Emission Mask
Opens a submenu to configure the Spectrum Emission Mask measurement.
The Spectrum Emission Mask (SEM) measurement defines a measurement that monitors compliance with a spectral mask. The SEM measurement of the base unit allows a
flexible definition of all parameters in the SEM measurement.
For general information on performing SEM measurements, see ​chapter 3.3.5.5, "Measuring with Spectrum Emission Masks", on page 215.
Remote command:
SENS:SWE:MODE ESP, see ​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​MODE​ on page 704
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Sweep List ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Opens a submenu to edit the sweep list and displays the "Sweep List" dialog box.
Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spectrum Emission Mask
After a preset, the sweep list contains a set of default ranges and parameters. For each
range, you can change the parameters listed below. To insert or delete ranges, use the
"Insert Before Range", "Insert After Range", "Delete Range" softkeys. The measurement
results are not updated during editing but on closing the dialog box ("Edit Sweep List/
Close Sweep List" softkey, see ​"Close Sweep List" on page 221).
The changes of the sweep list are only kept until you load another parameter set (by
pressing PRESET or by loading an XML file). If you want a parameter set to be available
permanently, create an XML file for this configuration (for details refer to ​"Format Description of Spectrum Emission Mask XML Files" on page 235).
If you load one of the provided XML files ("Load Standard" softkey, see ​"Load Standard" on page 226), the sweep list contains ranges and parameters according to the
selected standard. For further details refer also to ​"Provided XML Files for the Spectrum
Emission Mask Measurement" on page 232.
Note: If you edit the sweep list, always follow the rules and consider the limitations
described in ​"Ranges and Range Settings" on page 229.
Range Start / Range Stop ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spectrum
Emission Mask
Sets the start frequency/stop frequency of the selected range. Follow the rules described
in ​"Ranges and Range Settings" on page 229.
In order to change the start/stop frequency of the first/last range, select the appropriate
span with the SPAN key. If you set a span that is smaller than the overall span of the
ranges, the measurement includes only the ranges that lie within the defined span and
have a minimum span of 20 Hz. The first and last ranges are adapted to the given span
as long as the minimum span of 20 Hz is not violated.
Frequency values for each range have to be defined relative to the center frequency. The
reference range has to be centered on the center frequency. The minimum span of the
reference range is given by the current TX Bandwidth.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​RANGe<range>[:​FREQuency]:​STARt​ on page 649
​[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​RANGe<range>[:​FREQuency]:​STOP​ on page 650
Fast SEM ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Activates "Fast SEM" mode for all ranges in the sweep list. For details see ​"Fast Spectrum
Emission Mask Measurements" on page 241.
Note: If "Fast SEM" mode is deactivated while ​Symmetric Setup mode is on, "Symmetrical Setup" mode is automatically also deactivated.
If "Fast SEM" mode is activated while "Symmetrical Setup" mode is on, not all range
settings can be set automatically.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​HighSPeed​ on page 646
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Filter Type ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Sets the filter type for this range. For details on filters see also ​chapter 3.2.6.3, "Selecting
the Appropriate Filter Type", on page 114.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​RANGe<range>:​FILTer:​TYPE​ on page 649
RBW ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Sets the RBW value for this range.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​RANGe<range>:​BANDwidth[:​RESolution]​ on page 647
VBW ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Sets the VBW value for this range.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​RANGe<range>:​BANDwidth:​VIDeo​ on page 648
Sweep Time Mode ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spectrum Emission
Mask
Activates or deactivates the auto mode for the sweep time.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​RANGe<range>:​SWEep:​TIME:​AUTO​ on page 654
Sweep Time ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Sets the sweep time value for the range.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​RANGe<range>:​SWEep:​TIME​ on page 654
Ref. Level ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Sets the reference level for the range.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​RANGe<range>:​RLEVel​ on page 653
RF Att. Mode ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Activates or deactivates the auto mode for RF attenuation.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​RANGe<range>:​INPut:​ATTenuation:​AUTO​ on page 650
RF Attenuator ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Sets the attenuation value for that range.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​RANGe<range>:​INPut:​ATTenuation​ on page 650
Preamp ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Switches the preamplifier on or off.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​RANGe<range>:​INPut:​GAIN:​STATe​ on page 651
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Transd. Factor ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Sets a transducer for the specified range. You can only choose a transducer that fulfills
the following conditions:
●
●
●
The transducer overlaps or equals the span of the range.
The x-axis is linear.
The unit is dB.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​RANGe<range>:​TRANsducer​ on page 654
Limit Check 1-4 ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Sets the type of limit check for all ranges.
For details on limit checks see ​"Working with Limit Lines in SEM Measurements"
on page 230.
For details on limit checks see the base unit description "Working with Lines in SEM".
The limit state affects the availability of all limit settings (​"Abs Limit Start" on page 220, ​
"Abs Limit Stop" on page 220, ​"Rel Limit Start" on page 220, ​"Rel Limit Stop"
on page 221).
Depending on the number of active power classes (see "Power Class" dialog box), the
number of limits that can be set varies. Up to four limits are possible. The sweep list is
extended accordingly.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​RANGe<range>:​LIMit<source>:​STATe​ on page 653
​CALCulate<n>:​LIMit<k>:​FAIL?​ on page 498
Abs Limit Start ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Sets an absolute limit value at the start frequency of the range [dBm].
This parameter is only available if the limit check is set accordingly (see ​"Limit Check
1-4" on page 220).
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​RANGe<range>:​LIMit<source>:​ABSolute:​STARt​
on page 651
Abs Limit Stop ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Sets an absolute limit value at the stop frequency of the range [dBm].
This parameter is only available if the limit check is set accordingly (see ​"Limit Check
1-4" on page 220).
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​RANGe<range>:​LIMit<source>:​ABSolute:​STOP​
on page 652
Rel Limit Start ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Sets a relative limit value at the start frequency of the range [dBc].
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This parameter is only available if the limit check is set accordingly (see ​"Limit Check
1-4" on page 220).
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​RANGe<range>:​LIMit<source>:​RELative:​STARt​
on page 652
Rel Limit Stop ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Sets a relative limit value at the stop frequency of the range [dBc].
This parameter is only available if the limit check is set accordingly (see ​"Sweep List
dialog box" on page 218).
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​RANGe<range>:​LIMit<source>:​RELative:​STOP​
on page 652
Close Sweep List ← Sweep List ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Closes the "Sweep List" dialog box and updates the measurement results.
Insert before Range ← Sweep List ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Inserts a new range to the left of the currently focused range. The range numbers of the
currently focused range and all higher ranges are increased accordingly. The maximum
number of ranges is 20.
For further details refer to ​"Ranges and Range Settings" on page 229.
Remote command:
ESP:RANG3:INS BEF, see ​[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​RANGe<range>:​INSert​
on page 651
Insert after Range ← Sweep List ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Inserts a new range to the right of the currently focused range. The range numbers of all
higher ranges are increased accordingly. The maximum number of ranges is 20.
For further details refer to ​"Ranges and Range Settings" on page 229.
Remote command:
ESP:RANG1:INS AFT, see ​[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​RANGe<range>:​INSert​
on page 651
Delete Range ← Sweep List ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Deletes the currently focused range, if possible. The range numbers are updated accordingly. For further details refer to ​"Ranges and Range Settings" on page 229.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​RANGe<range>:​DELete​ on page 648
Symmetric Setup ← Sweep List ← Spectrum Emission Mask
If activated, the current sweep list configuration is changed to define a symmetrical setup
regarding the reference range. The number of ranges to the left of the reference range
is reflected to the right, i.e. any missing ranges on the right are inserted, while superfluous
ranges are removed. The values in the ranges to the right of the reference range are
adapted symmetrically to those in the left ranges.
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Any changes to the range settings in active "Symmetric Setup" mode lead to symmetrical
changes in the other ranges (where possible). In particular, this means:
●
●
●
Inserting ranges: a symmetrical range is inserted on the other side of the reference
range
Deleting ranges: the symmetrical range on the other side of the reference range is
also deleted
Editing range settings: the settings in the symmetrical range are adapted accordingly
Note: If "Fast SEM" mode is deactivated while "Symmetric Setup" mode is on, "Sym
Setup" mode is automatically also deactivated.
If "Fast SEM" mode is activated while "Symmetric Setup" mode is on, not all range settings can be set automatically.
Edit Reference Range ← Sweep List ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Opens the "Reference Range" dialog box to edit the additional settings used for SEM
measurements.
Two different power reference types are supported:
●
●
●
●
●
"Peak Power"
Measures the highest peak within the reference range.
"Channel Power"
Measures the channel power within the reference range (integral bandwidth method).
If the "Channel Power" reference power type is activated, the dialog box is extended
to define additional settings:
"Tx Bandwidth"
Defines the bandwidth used for measuring the channel power:
minimum span ≤ value ≤ span of reference range
"RRC Filter State"
Activates or deactivates the use of an RRC filter.
"RRC Filter Settings"
Sets the alpha value of the RRC filter. This window is only available if the RRC filter
is activated.
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For further details refer to ​"Ranges and Range Settings" on page 229.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​RTYPe​ on page 655
​[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​BWID​ on page 645
​[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​FILTer[:​RRC][:​STATe]​ on page 645
​[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​FILTer[:​RRC]:​ALPHa​ on page 646
List Evaluation ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Opens a submenu to edit the list evaluation settings.
List Evaluation (On/Off) ← List Evaluation ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Activates or deactivates the list evaluation.
Remote command:
Turning list evaluation on and off:
​CALCulate<n>:​PEAKsearch|PSEarch:​AUTO​ on page 586
Querying list evaluation results:
​TRACe<n>[:​DATA]?​ on page 732
Margin ← List Evaluation ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the margin used for the limit check/peak search.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​PEAKsearch|PSEarch:​MARGin​ on page 586
Show Peaks ← List Evaluation ← Spectrum Emission Mask
In the diagram, marks all peaks with blue squares that have been listed during an active
list evaluation.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​ESPectrum:​PSEarch|:​PEAKsearch:​PSHow​ on page 495
Save Evaluation List ← List Evaluation ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Opens the "ASCII File Export Name" dialog box to save the result in ASCII format to a
specified file and directory. For further details refer also to the "ASCII File Export" softkey
(​"ASCII File Export" on page 166).
Remote command:
​MMEMory:​STORe<n>:​LIST​ on page 623
ASCII File Export ← Save Evaluation List ← List Evaluation ← Spectrum Emission
Mask
Opens the "ASCII File Export Name" dialog box and saves the active peak list in ASCII
format to the specified file and directory.
The file consists of the header containing important scaling parameters and a data section
containing the marker data. For details on an ASCII file see ​chapter 3.2.8.7, "ASCII File
Export Format", on page 138.
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This format can be processed by spreadsheet calculation programs, e.g. MS-Excel. It is
necessary to define ';' as a separator for the data import. Different language versions of
evaluation programs may require a different handling of the decimal point. It is therefore
possible to select between separators '.' (decimal point) and ',' (comma) using the "Decim
Sep" softkey (see ​"Decim Sep" on page 71).
An example of an output file for Spectrum Emission Mask measurements is given in ​
"ASCII File Export Format (Spectrum Emission Mask)" on page 240.
Remote command:
​FORMat:​DEXPort:​DSEParator​ on page 609
​MMEMory:​STORe<n>:​LIST​ on page 623
Decim Sep ← Save Evaluation List ← List Evaluation ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Selects the decimal separator with floating-point numerals for the ASCII Trace export to
support evaluation programs (e.g. MS-Excel) in different languages. The values '.' (decimal point) and ',' (comma) can be set.
Remote command:
​FORMat:​DEXPort:​DSEParator​ on page 609
Edit Reference Range ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Opens the "Reference Range" dialog box to edit the additional settings used for SEM
measurements.
Two different power reference types are supported:
●
●
●
●
"Peak Power"
Measures the highest peak within the reference range.
"Channel Power"
Measures the channel power within the reference range (integral bandwidth method).
If the "Channel Power" reference power type is activated, the dialog box is extended
to define additional settings:
"Tx Bandwidth"
Defines the bandwidth used for measuring the channel power:
minimum span ≤ value ≤ span of reference range
"RRC Filter State"
Activates or deactivates the use of an RRC filter.
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●
"RRC Filter Settings"
Sets the alpha value of the RRC filter. This window is only available if the RRC filter
is activated.
For further details refer to ​"Ranges and Range Settings" on page 229.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​RTYPe​ on page 655
​[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​BWID​ on page 645
​[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​FILTer[:​RRC][:​STATe]​ on page 645
​[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​FILTer[:​RRC]:​ALPHa​ on page 646
Edit Power Classes ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Opens a dialog box to modify the power class settings.
Used Power Classes ← Edit Power Classes ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Choose the power classes to be used from this dropdown menu. It is only possible to
select either one of the defined power classes or all of the defined power classes together.
Only power classes for which limits are defined are available for selection.
If "All" is selected, the power class that corresponds to the currently measured power in
the reference range is used. The limits assigned to that power class are applied (see ​
"PMin/PMax" on page 226).
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​LIMit<k>:​ESPectrum:​PCLass<Class>[:​EXCLusive]​
on page 512
To define all limits in one step:
​CALCulate<n>:​LIMit<k>:​ESPectrum:​PCLass<Class>:​LIMit[:​STATe]​
on page 513
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PMin/PMax ← Edit Power Classes ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Defines the level limits for each power class. The range always starts at -200 dBm (-INF)
and always stops at 200 dBm (+INF). These fields cannot be modified. If more than one
Power Class is defined, the value of "PMin" must be equal to the value of "PMax" of the
last Power Class and vice versa.
Note that the power level may be equal to the lower limit, but must be lower than the
upper limit:
Pmin≦P<Pmax
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​LIMit<k>:​ESPectrum:​PCLass<Class>:​MINimum​ on page 514
​CALCulate<n>:​LIMit<k>:​ESPectrum:​PCLass<Class>:​MAXimum​ on page 514
Sweep List ← Edit Power Classes ← Spectrum Emission Mask
See ​"Sweep List" on page 218
Add/Remove ← Edit Power Classes ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Activates or deactivates power classes to be defined. Up to four power classes can be
defined. The number of active power classes affects the availability of the items of the
Used Power Classes dropdown menu.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​LIMit<k>:​ESPectrum:​PCLass<Class>[:​EXCLusive]​
on page 512
Load Standard ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Opens a dialog box to select an XML file which includes the desired standard specification. For details on the provided XML files refer to ​"Provided XML Files for the Spectrum
Emission Mask Measurement" on page 232.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​PRESet[:​STANdard]​ on page 647
Save As Standard ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Opens the "Save As Standard" dialog box, in which the currently used SEM settings and
parameters can be saved and exported into an *.xml file. Enter the name of the file in the
"File name" field. For details on the structure and contents of the XML file refer to ​"Format
Description of Spectrum Emission Mask XML Files" on page 235.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​PRESet:​STORe​ on page 647
Meas Start/Stop ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Aborts/restarts the current measurement and displays the status:
"Start"
The measurement is currently running.
"Stop"
The measurement has been stopped, or, in single sweep mode, the end
of the sweep has been reached.
Remote command:
​ABORt​ on page 474
​INITiate<n>:​ESPectrum​ on page 611
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Restore Standard Files ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Copies the XML files from the C:\R_S\instr\sem_backup folder to the C:
\R_S\instr\sem_std folder. Files of the same name are overwritten.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​PRESet:​RESTore​ on page 647
Result Evaluation
As a result of the Spectrum Emission Mask measurement, the measured signal levels,
the result of the limit check (mask monitoring) and the defined limit line are displayed in
a diagram (see also ​"Working with Limit Lines in SEM Measurements" on page 230).
Furthermore, the TX channel power "P" is indicated in relation to the defined power class
ranges.
Example:
For example, "P<31" is indicated if the lowest power class is defined from infinity to 31
and the power is currently 17 dBm.
In addition to the graphical results of the SEM measurement displayed in the diagram, a
result table is displayed to evaluate the limit check results (see also ​"Working with Limit
Lines in SEM Measurements" on page 230).
The following information is provided in the result table:
Label
Description
General Information
Standard
Loaded standard settings
Tx Power
Tx channel power
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Label
Description
Tx Bandwidth
Tx channel bandwidth
RBW
RBW for the Tx channel
Range results
Range Low
Frequency range start for range the peak value belongs to
Range Up
Frequency range stop for range the peak value belongs to
RBW
RBW of the range
Frequency
Frequency
Power Abs
Absolute power level
Power Rel
Power level relative to the TX channel power
ΔLimit
Deviation of the power level from the defined limit
In which detail the data is displayed in the result table can be defined in the ​List Evaluation menu. By default, one peak per range is displayed. However, you can change the
settings to display only peaks that exceed a threshold ("Margin").
In addition to listing the peaks in the list evaluation, detected peaks can be indicated by
blue squares in the diagram ("Show Peaks").
Furthermore, you can save the evaluation list to a file ("Save Evaluation List").
Retrieving Results via Remote Control
The measurement results of the spectrum emission mask test can be retrieved using the
​CALCulate<n>:​LIMit<k>:​FAIL?​ command from a remote computer.
The power result for the reference range can be queried using
CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:RES? CPOW, the peak power for the reference range using
CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:RES? PPOW.
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For details see ​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​POWer:​RESult?​
on page 557.
Ranges and Range Settings
In the Spectrum Emission Mask measurements, a range defines a segment for which
you can define the following parameters separately:
●
Start and stop frequency
●
RBW
●
VBW
●
Sweep time
●
Sweep points
●
Reference level
●
Attenuator settings
●
Limit values
Via the sweep list, you define the ranges and their settings. For details on settings refer
to ​"Sweep List dialog box" on page 218.
For details on defining the limits (masks) see ​"Working with Limit Lines in SEM Measurements" on page 230.
For details on defining the limits (masks) see the base unit description "Working with
Lines in SEM".
The following rules apply to ranges:
●
The minimum span of a range is 20 Hz.
●
The individual ranges must not overlap (but need not directly follow one another).
●
The maximum number of ranges is 20.
●
A minimum of three ranges is mandatory.
●
The reference range cannot be deleted (it is marked in blue color).
●
The reference range has to be centered on the center frequency.
●
The minimum span of the reference range is given by the current TX Bandwidth.
●
Frequency values for each range have to be defined relative to the center frequency.
In order to change the start frequency of the first range or the stop frequency of the last
range, select the appropriate span with the SPAN key. If you set a span that is smaller
than the overall span of the ranges, the measurement includes only the ranges that lie
within the defined span and have a minimum span of 20 Hz. The first and last ranges are
adapted to the given span as long as the minimum span of 20 Hz is not violated.
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Symmetrical ranges
You can easily define a sweep list with symmetrical range settings, i.e. the ranges to the
left and right of the center range are defined symmectrically. In the "Sweep List" menu,
select the "Symmetrical Setup" softkey to activate symmetrical setup mode. The current
sweep list configuration is changed to define a symmetrical setup regarding the reference
range. The number of ranges to the left of the reference range is reflected to the right,
i.e. any missing ranges on the right are inserted, while superfluous ranges are removed.
The values in the ranges to the right of the reference range are adapted symmetrically
to those in the left ranges.
For details see ​"Symmetric Setup" on page 221.
Symmetrical ranges fulfull the conditions required for "Fast SEM" mode (see ​"Fast Spectrum Emission Mask Measurements" on page 241).
Working with Limit Lines in SEM Measurements
Using the R&S FSV, the spectrum emission mask is defined using limit lines. Limit lines
allow you to check the measured data against specified limit values. Generally, it is possible to define limit lines for any measurement in Spectrum mode using the LINES key.
For SEM measurements, however, special limit lines are available via the "Sweep List",
and it is strongly recommended that you use only these limit line definitions.
In the "Sweep List" you can define a limit line for each power class that varies its level
according to the specified frequency ranges. Distinguished limit lines
("_SEM_LINE_ABS<0...3>"/"_SEM_LINE_REL<0...3>") are automatically defined for
each power class according to the current "Sweep List" settings every time the settings
change.
The limit line defined for the current power class is indicated by a red line in the display,
and the result of the limit check is indicated at the top of the diagram. Note that only
"Pass" or "Fail" is indicated; a "margin" function as for general limit lines is not available.
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The indicated limit line depends on the settings in the "Sweep List". Several types of limit
checks are possible:
Limit check type
Pass/fail criteria
Indicated limit line
Absolute
Absolute power levels may not exceed Defined by the "Abs Limit Start"/ "Abs Limit
limit line
Stop" values for each range
Relative
Power deviations relative to the TX
channel power may not exceed limit
line
Defined by the "Rel Limit Start"/ "Rel Limit
Stop" values (relative to the center frequency)
for each range
Abs and Rel
Only if the power exceeds both the
absolute and the relative limits, the
check fails.
The less strict (higher) limit line is displayed for
each range.
Abs or Rel
If the power exceeds either the abso- The stricter (lower) limit line is displayed for
lute or the relative limits, the check
each range.
fails.
The largest deviations of the power from the limit line for each range are displayed in the
evaluation list. Furthermore, the absolute powers for those values, as well as the relative
deviation from the TX channel power are displayed. Values that exceed the limit are
indicated in red and by an asterisk (*).
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Although a margin functionality is not available for the limit check, a margin (threshold)
for the peak values to be displayed in the evaluation list can be defined in the list evaluation settings. For details see ​"Result Evaluation" on page 227.
Provided XML Files for the Spectrum Emission Mask Measurement
You can change the settings manually or via XML files. The XML files offer a quick way
to change the configuration. A set of ready-made XML files for different standards is
already provided. For details see ​table 3-6. You can also create and use your own XML
files (for details see ​"Format Description of Spectrum Emission Mask XML Files"
on page 235). All XML files are stored under "C:\r_s\instr\sem_std". Use the "Load
Standard" softkey for quick access to the available XML files (see ​"Load Standard"
on page 226).
Table 3-6: Provided XML files
Path
XML file name
Displayed standard characteristics*
cdma2000\DL
default0.xml
CDMA2000 BC0 DL
default1.xml
CDMA2000 BC1 DL
default0.xml
CDMA2000 BC0 UL
default1.xml
CDMA2000 BC1 UL
PowerClass_31_39.xml
W-CDMA 3GPP (31,39)dBm DL
PowerClass_39_43.xml
W-CDMA 3GPP (39,43)dBm DL
PowerClass_43_INF.xml
W-CDMA 3GPP (43,INF)dBm DL
cdma2000\UL
WCDMA\3GPP\DL
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Path
XML file name
Displayed standard characteristics*
PowerClass_negINF_31.xml
W-CDMA 3GPP (-INF,31)dBm
DL
PowerClass_29_40.xml
WiBro TTA (29,40)dBm DL
PowerClass_40_INF.xml
WiBro TTA (40,INF)dBm DL
PowerClass_negINF_29.xml
WiBro TTA (-INF,29)dBm DL
PowerClass_23_INF.xml
WiBro TTA (23,INF)dBm UL
PowerClass_negINF_23.xml
WiBro TTA (23,INF)dBm UL
System_Type_E.xml
WIMAX System Type E DL
System_Type_F.xml
WIMAX System Type F DL
System_Type_G.xml
WIMAX System Type G DL
10MHz.xml
WIMAX 10MHz DL
20MHz.xml
WIMAX 20MHz DL
System_Type_E.xml
WIMAX System Type E UL
System_Type_F.xml
WIMAX System Type F UL
System_Type_G.xml
WIMAX System Type G UL
10MHz.xml
WIMAX 10MHz UL
20MHz.xml
WIMAX 20MHz UL
ETSI.xml
IEEE 802.11
IEEE.xml
IEEE 802.11
ETSI.xml
IEEE 802.11a
IEEE.xml
IEEE 802.11a
WLAN\802_11b
IEEE.xml
IEEE 802.11b
WLAN\802_11j_10MHz
ETSI.xml
IEEE.802.11j
IEEE.xml
IEEE.802.11j
ETSI.xml
IEEE 802.11j
IEEE.xml
IEEE 802.11j
WIBRO\DL
WIBRO\UL
WIMAX\DL\ETSI\…MHz (1.75
MHz, 2.00 MHz, 3.5 MHz, 7.00
MHz, 14.00 MHz, 28 MHz)
WIMAX\DL\IEEE
WIMAX\UL\ETSI…MHz (1.75
MHz, 2.00 MHz, 3.5 MHz, 7.00
MHz, 14.00 MHz, 28 MHz)
WIMAX\UL\IEEE
WLAN\802_11_TURBO
WLAN\802_11a
WLAN\802_11j_20MHz
EUTRA-LTE\DL\CategoryA\
BW_01_4_MHz__CFhigher1GHz.xm LTE Cat. A >1GHz DL
l
EUTRA-LTE\DL\CategoryA\
BW_01_4_MHz__CFlower1GHz.xml
EUTRA-LTE\DL\CategoryA\
BW_03_0_MHz__CFhigher1GHz.xm LTE Cat. A >1GHz DL
l
EUTRA-LTE\DL\CategoryA\
BW_03_0_MHz__CFlower1GHz.xml
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Path
XML file name
Displayed standard characteristics*
EUTRA-LTE\DL\CategoryA\
BW_05_0_MHz__CFhigher1GHz.xm LTE Cat. A >1GHz DL
l
EUTRA-LTE\DL\CategoryA\
BW_05_0_MHz__CFlower1GHz.xml
LTE Cat. A <1GHz DL
EUTRA-LTE\DL\CategoryA\
BW_10_0_MHz__Cfhigher1GHz.xml
LTE Cat. A >1GHz DL
EUTRA-LTE\DL\CategoryA\
BW_10_0_MHz__Cflower1GHz.xml
LTE Cat. A >1GHz DL
EUTRA-LTE\DL\CategoryA\
BW_15_0_MHz__CFhigher1GHz.xm LTE Cat. A >1GHz DL
l
EUTRA-LTE\DL\CategoryA\
BW_15_0_MHz__CFlower1GHz.xml
EUTRA-LTE\DL\CategoryA\
BW_20_0_MHz__CFhigher1GHz.xm LTE Cat. A >1GHz DL
l
EUTRA-LTE\DL\CategoryA\
BW_20_0_MHz__CFlower1GHz.xml
EUTRA-LTE\DL\CategoryB\
BW_01_4_MHz__CFhigher1GHz.xm LTE Cat. B >1GHz DL
l
EUTRA-LTE\DL\CategoryB\
BW_01_4_MHz__CFlower1GHz.xml
EUTRA-LTE\DL\CategoryB\
BW_03_0_MHz__CFhigher1GHz.xm LTE Cat. B >1GHz DL
l
EUTRA-LTE\DL\CategoryB\
BW_03_0_MHz__CFlower1GHz.xml
EUTRA-LTE\DL\CategoryB\
BW_05_0_MHz__CFhigher1GHz.xm LTE Cat. B >1GHz DL
l
EUTRA-LTE\DL\CategoryB\
BW_05_0_MHz__CFlower1GHz.xml
LTE Cat. B <1GHz DL
EUTRA-LTE\DL\CategoryB\
BW_10_0_MHz__Cfhigher1GHz.xml
LTE Cat. B >1GHz DL
EUTRA-LTE\DL\CategoryB\
BW_10_0_MHz__Cflower1GHz.xml
LTE Cat. B >1GHz DL
EUTRA-LTE\DL\CategoryB\
BW_15_0_MHz__CFhigher1GHz.xm LTE Cat. B >1GHz DL
l
EUTRA-LTE\DL\CategoryB\
BW_15_0_MHz__CFlower1GHz.xml
EUTRA-LTE\DL\CategoryB\
BW_20_0_MHz__CFhigher1GHz.xm LTE Cat. B >1GHz DL
l
EUTRA-LTE\DL\CategoryB\
BW_20_0_MHz__CFlower1GHz.xml
LTE Cat. B <1GHz DL
EUTRA-LTE\UL\Standard\
BW_05_0_MHz.xml
LTE UL
EUTRA-LTE\UL\Standard\
BW_10_0_MHz.xml
LTE UL
EUTRA-LTE\UL\Standard\
BW_15_0_MHz.xml
LTE UL
EUTRA-LTE\UL\Standard\
BW_20_0_MHz.xml
LTE UL
LTE Cat. A <1GHz DL
LTE Cat. A <1GHz DL
LTE Cat. B <1GHz DL
LTE Cat. B <1GHz DL
LTE Cat. B <1GHz DL
*Used abbreviations:
BC: band class
UL: uplink
DL: downlink
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TTA: Telecommunications Technology Association
Format Description of Spectrum Emission Mask XML Files
The files for importing range settings are in XML format and therefore obey the rules of
the XML standard. Below, the child nodes, attributes, and structure defined for the data
import is described. Build your own XML files according to these conventions because
the R&S FSV can only interpret XML files of a known structure. For example files look in
the C:\r_s\instr\sem_std directory.
Fig. 3-15: Example Spectrum emission mask standard file (PowerClass_39_43.xml)
Be sure to follow the structure exactly as shown below or else the R&S FSV is not able
to interpret the XML file and error messages are shown on the screen. Therefore, we
recommend you make a copy of an existing file (see ​Save As Standard softkey) and edit
the copy of the file.
Alternatively, edit the settings using the "Spectrum Emission Mask" softkey and the ​
Sweep List dialog box and save the XML file with the ​Save As Standard softkey afterwards. This way, no modifications have to be done in the XML file itself.
Basically, the file consists of three elements that can be defined:
●
The "BaseFormat" element
●
The "PowerClass" element
●
The "Range" element
The "BaseFormat" element
It carries information about basic settings. In this element only the "ReferencePower"
child node has any effects on the measurement itself. The other attributes and child nodes
are used to display information about the Spectrum Emission Mask Standard on the
measurement screen. The child nodes and attributes of this element are shown in ​
table 3-7.
In the example above (PowerClass_39_43.xml under
C:\r_s\instr\sem_std\WCDMA\3GPP, see ​figure 3-15), these attributes are defined
as follows:
●
Standard="W-CDMA 3GPP"
●
LinkDirection="DL"
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●
PowerClass="(39,43)dBm"
The "PowerClass" element
It is embedded in the "BaseFormat" element and contains settings information about the
power classes. Up to four different power classes can be defined. For details refer to the
"Sweep List" softkey (​"Sweep List" on page 218) and the corresponding parameter
description. The child nodes and attributes of this element are shown in ​table 3-8.
The "Range" element
This element is embedded in the "PowerClass" element. It contains the settings information of the range. There have to be at least three defined ranges: one reference range
and at least one range to either side of the reference range. The maximum number of
ranges is 20. Note that the R&S FSV uses the same ranges in each power class. Therefore, the contents of the ranges of each defined power class have to be identical to the
first power class. An exception are the Start and Stop values of the two Limit nodes that
are used to determine the power class. Note also, that there are two Limit nodes to be
defined: one that gives the limit in absolute values and one in relative values. Make sure
units for the Start and Stop nodes are identical for each Limit node.
For details refer to the "Sweep List" softkey (​"Sweep List" on page 218) and the corresponding parameter description. The child nodes and attributes of this element are shown
in ​table 3-9.
The following tables show the child nodes and attributes of each element and show if a
child node or attribute is mandatory for the R&S FSV to interpret the file or not. Since the
hierarchy of the XML can not be seen in the tables, either view one of the default files
already stored on the R&S FSV in the "C:\r_s\instr\sem_std" directory or check
the structure as shown below.
Below, a basic example of the structure of the file is shown, containing all mandatory
attributes and child nodes. Note that the "PowerClass" element and the range element
are themselves elements of the "BaseFormat" element and are to be inserted where
noted. The separation is done here simply for reasons of a better overview. Also, no
example values are given here to allow a quick reference to the tables above. Italic font
shows the placeholders for the values.
●
The "BaseFormat" element is structured as follows:
– <RS_SEM_ACP_FileFormat Version=""1.0.0.0"">
<Name>"Standard"</Name>
<Instrument>
<Type>"Instrument Type"</Type>
<Application>"Application"</Application>
</Instrument>
<LinkDirection Name=""Name"">
<ReferencePower>
<Method>"Method"</Method>
</ReferencePower>
<PowerClass Index=""n"">
<!-- For contents of the PowerClass node see
​table 3-8 -->
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<!-- Define up to four PowerClass nodes -->
</PowerClass>
</LinkDirection>
</RS_SEM_ACP_File>
●
The "PowerClass" element is structured as follows:
– <PowerClass Index=""n"">
<StartPower Unit=""dBm"" InclusiveFlag=""true"" Value=""StartPowerValue""/>
<StopPower Unit=""dBm"" InclusiveFlag=""false"" Value=""StopPowerValue""/>
<DefaultLimitFailMode>"Limit Fail Mode"</DefaultLimitFailMode>
<Range Index=""n"">
<!-- For contents of the Range node see ​table 3-9 -->
<!-- Define up to twenty Range nodes -->
</Range>
…
</PowerClass>
●
The "Range" element is structured as follows:
– <Range Index=""n"">
<Name=""Name"">
<ChannelType>"Channel Type"</Channel Type>
<WeightingFilter>
<Type>"FilterType"</Type>
<RollOffFactor>"Factor"</RollOffFactor>
<Bandwith>"Bandwidth"</Bandwidth>
</WeightingFilter>
<FrequencyRange>
<Start>"RangeStart"</Start>
<Stop>"RangeStop"</Stop>
</FrequencyRange>
<Limit>
<Start Unit=""Unit"" Value=""Value""/>
<Stop Unit=""Unit"" Value=""Value""/>
</Limit>
<Limit>
<Start Unit=""Unit"" Value=""Value""/>
<Stop Unit=""Unit"" Value=""Value""/>
</Limit>
<RBW Bandwidth=""Bandwidth"" Type=""FilterType""/>
<VBW Bandwidth=""Bandwidth""/>
<Detector>"Detector"</Detector>
<Sweep Mode=""SweepMode"" Time=""SweepTime""/>
<Amplitude>
<ReferenceLevel Unit=""dBm"" Value=""Value""/>
<RFAttenuation Mode=""Auto"" Unit=""dB"" Value=""Value""/>
<Preamplifier State=""State""/>
</Amplitude>
</Range>
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Table 3-7: Attributes and child nodes of the BaseFormat element
Child Node
Attribute
Value
FileFormatVersion
1.0.0.0
Date
YYYY-MM-DD
HH:MM:SS
Date in ISO 8601 format
No
<string>
Name of the standard
Yes
Type
FSL
Name of the instrument
No
Application
SA | K72 | K82
Name of the application
No
Name
Downlink | Uplink |
None
Yes
ShortName
DL | UL
No
Name
Instrument
LinkDirection
Parameter Description
Yes
ReferencePower
Method
Mand.
Yes
TX Channel Power |
Yes
TX Channel Peak
Power
ReferenceChannel
<string>
No
Table 3-8: Attributes and child nodes of the PowerClass element
Child Node
Attribute
Value
Parameter Description
StartPower
Value
<power in dBm>
The start power must be equal Yes
to the stop power of the previous power class. The StartPower value of the first range is
-200
Unit
dBm
Yes
InclusiveFlag
true
Yes
Value
<power in dBm>
Unit
dBm
InclusiveFlag
false
Yes
Absolute | Relative |
Absolute and Relative | Absolute or
Relative
Yes
StopPower
DefaultLimitFailMode
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The stop power must be equal
to the start power of the next
power class. The StopPower
value of the last range is 200
Mand.
Yes
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Table 3-9: Attributes and child nodes of the Range element (normal ranges)
Child Node
Attribute
Value
Parameter Description
Mand.
Index
0…19
Inde XE s are continuous
and have to start with 0
Yes
Name
<string>
Name of the range
Only if ReferenceChannel contains a name and
the range is the
reference range
ShortName
<string>
Short name of the range
No
ChannelType
TX | Adjacent
Yes
WeightingFilter
Only if ReferencePower method
is TX Channel
Power and the
range is the reference range
Type
RRC | CFilter
Type of the weighting filter
Yes
Roll Off Factor
0…1
Excess bandwidth of the filter
Only if the filter
type is RRC
Bandwidth
<bandwidth in Hz>
Filter bandwidth
Only if the filter
type is RRC
FrequencyRange
Yes
Start
<frequency in Hz>
Start value of the range
Yes
Stop
<frequency in Hz>
Stop value of the range
Yes
Limit
dBm/Hz | dBm | dBc A Range must contain
Yes
| dBr | dB
exactly two limit nodes; one
of the limit nodes has to have
a relative unit (e.g. dBc), the
other one must have an
absolute unit (e.g. dBm)
Start
Stop
Value
<numeric_value>
Unit
dBm/Hz | dBm | dBc Sets the unit of the start
| dBr | dB
value
Value
<numeric_value>
Unit
dBm/Hz | dBm | dBc Sets the unit of the stop value
| dBr | dB
LimitFailMode
RBW
VBW
Operating Manual 1307.9331.12 ─ 18
Power limit at start frequency Yes
Power limit at stop frequency
Absolute | Relative | If used, it has to be identical
Absolute and Rela- to DefaultLimitFailMode
tive | Absolute or
Relative
Bandwidth
<bandwidth in Hz>
Type
NORM | PULS |
CFIL | RRC
Bandwidth
<bandwidth in Hz>
​"RBW" on page 219
No
Yes
No
​"VBW" on page 219
Yes
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Child Node
Attribute
Detector
Sweep
Value
Parameter Description
NEG | POS | SAMP If used, it has to be identical
| RMS | AVER |
in all ranges.
QUAS
RFAttenuation
No
Mode
Manual | Auto
​"Sweep Time Mode"
on page 219
Yes
Time
<time in sec>
​"Sweep Time" on page 219
No
Amplitude
ReferenceLevel
Mand.
No
Value
<power in dBm>
​"Ref. Level" on page 219
Yes, if the ReferenceLevel child
node is used
Unit
dBm
Defines dBm as unit
Yes, if the ReferenceLevel node
is used
Mode
Manual | Auto
​"RF Att. Mode" on page 219
Yes, if the ReferenceLevel child
node is used
ON | OFF
​"Preamp" on page 219
Yes
Preamplifier
ASCII File Export Format (Spectrum Emission Mask)
The first part of the file lists information about the signal analyzer and the general setup.
For a detailed description refer to ​chapter 3.2.8.7, "ASCII File Export Format",
on page 138.
File contents
Description
RefType; CPOWER;
reference range setup, for details see ​"Edit Reference Range" on page 222
TxBandwidth;9540000;Hz
Filter State; ON;
Alpha;0.22;
PeaksPerRange;1;
evaluation list information
Values;4;
0;-22500000;-9270000;1000000;2986455000;-74.762840
270996094;
information about each peak:
-10.576210021972656;-45.762840270996094;PASS;
<start frequency>;
1;-9270000;-4770000;100000;2991405000;-100.1769561
7675781;
<stop frequency>;
-35.990325927734375;-1.490325927734375;PASS
3;4770000;9270000;100000;3005445000;-100.17695617
675781;
<range number>;
<resolution bandwidth of range>;
<frequency of peak>;
<absolute power in dBm of peak>;
-35.990325927734375;-1.490325927734375;PASS;
<relative power in dBc of peak
4;9270000;22500000;1000000;3018225000;-74.7628402
70996094;
(related to the channel power)>;
-10.576210021972656;-45.762840270996094;PASS;
(positive value means above the limit)>;
<distance to the limit line in dB
<limit fail (pass = 0, fail =1)>;
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Fast Spectrum Emission Mask Measurements
In order to improve the performance of the R&S FSV for spectrum emission mask measurements, a "Fast SEM" mode is available. If this mode is activated, several consecutive
ranges with identical sweep settings are combined to one sweep internally, which makes
the measurement considerably more efficient. The displayed results remain unchanged
and still consist of several ranges. Thus, measurement settings that apply only to the
results, such as limits or transducer factors, can nevertheless be defined individually for
each range.
Prerequisites
"Fast SEM" mode is available if the following criteria apply:
●
The frequency ranges are consecutive, without frequency gaps
●
The following sweep settings are identical:
– "Filter Type", see ​"Filter Type" on page 219
–
"RBW", see ​"RBW" on page 219
–
"VBW", see ​"VBW" on page 219
–
"Sweep Time Mode", see ​"Sweep Time Mode" on page 219
–
"Ref Level", see ​"Ref. Level" on page 219
–
"Rf Att. Mode", see ​"RF Att. Mode" on page 219
–
"RF Attenuator", see ​"RF Att. Mode" on page 219
–
"Preamp", see ​"Preamp" on page 219
Activating Fast SEM mode
"Fast SEM" mode is activated in the sweep list (see ​"Fast SEM" on page 218) or using
a remote command. Activating the mode for one range automatically activates it for all
ranges in the sweep list.
In the provided XML files for the Spectrum Emission Mask measurement, "Fast SEM"
mode is activated by default.
SCPI command:
​[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​HighSPeed​ on page 646
Consequences
When the "Fast SEM" mode is activated, the ranges for which these criteria apply are
displayed as one single range. The sweep time is defined as the sum of the individual
sweep times, initially, but can be changed. When the "Fast SEM" mode is deactivated,
the originally defined individual sweep times are reset.
If "Symmetrical Setup" mode is active when "Fast SEM" mode is activated, not all sweep
list settings can be configured symmetrically automatically (see also ​"Symmetric
Setup" on page 221).
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Any other changes to the sweep settings of the combined range are applied to each
included range and remain changed even after deactivating "Fast SEM" mode.
Example
Fig. 3-16: Sweep list using Fast SEM mode
In ​figure 3-16, a sweep list is shown for which Fast SEM is activated. The formerly 5
separately defined ranges are combined to 2 sweep ranges internally.
3.3.5.6
Measuring Spurious Emissions
The Spurious Emissions measurement defines a measurement that monitors unwanted
RF products outside the assigned frequency band generated by an amplifier. The spurious emissions are usually measured across a wide frequency range. The Spurious Emissions measurement allows a flexible definition of all parameters. A result table indicates
the largest deviations of the absolute power from the limit line for each range, and the
results can be checked against defined limits automatically.
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Spurious Emissions measurements are performed using the "Spurious Emissions" softkey in the "Measurement" menu (see ​"Spurious Emissions" on page 248).
Most parameters are defined in the "Sweep List" dialog box (see ​"Sweep List dialog
box" on page 248). For information on other parameters, see the corresponding softkeys
(​"Spurious Emissions" on page 248).
Conditions for ranges
The following rules apply to ranges:
●
The minimum span of a range is 20 Hz.
●
The individual ranges must not overlap (but need not directly follow one another).
●
The maximum number of ranges is 20.
●
The maximum number of sweep points in all ranges is limited to 100001.
In order to change the start/stop frequency of the first/last range, select the appropriate
span with the SPAN key. If you set a span that is smaller than the overall span of the
ranges, the measurement includes only the ranges that lie within the defined span and
have a minimum span of 20 Hz. The first and last ranges are adapted to the given span
as long as the minimum span of 20 Hz is not violated.
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Defining ranges by remote control
In Spurious Emissions measurements, there are no remote commands to insert new
ranges between existing ranges directly. However, you can delete or re-define the existing ranges to create the required order.
A remote command example for defining parameters and ranges in spurious emissions
measurements can be found in chapter 7 "Remote Control – Programming Examples" of
the Operating manual on the CD-ROM.
Result Evaluation
In addition to the graphical results of the spurious measurement displayed in the diagram,
a result table can be displayed to evaluate the limit check results (see also ​"Working with
Limit Lines in Spurious Measurements" on page 245). Which data is displayed in the
evaluation list can be defined in the "List Evaluation" menu (see ​"List Evaluation"
on page 251).
The following information is provided in the evaluation list:
Column
Description
Range Low
Frequency range start for range the peak value
belongs to
Range Up
Frequency range stop for range the peak value
belongs to
RBW
RBW of the range
Frequency
Frequency at the peak value
Power Abs
Absolute power level at the peak value
ΔLimit
Deviation of the absolute power level from the defined
limit for the peak value
By default, one peak per range is displayed. However, you can change the settings to:
●
Display all peaks ("Details ON")
●
Display a certain number of peaks per range ("Details ON" + "Peaks per Range")
●
Display only peaks that exceed a threshold ("Margin")
In addition to listing the peaks in the list evaluation, detected peaks can be indicated by
blue squares in the diagram ("Show Peaks").
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Furthermore, you can save the evaluation list to a file ("Save Evaluation List").
Retrieving Results via Remote Control
The spurious measurement results can be retrieved using the CALC:PSE? command
from a remote computer (see ​CALCulate<n>:​PEAKsearch|PSEarch[:​
IMMediate]​ for a detailed description).
Alternatively, the measured spurious values of the displayed trace can be retrieved using
the TRAC:DATA? SPUR command (see ​TRACe<n>[:​DATA]?​ on page 732).
Working with Limit Lines in Spurious Measurements
Limit lines allow you to check the measured data against specified limit values. Generally,
it is possible to define limit lines for any measurement in Spectrum mode using the
LINES key. For Spurious measurements, however, a special limit line is available via the
"Sweep List", and it is strongly recommended that you use only this limit line definition.
In the "Sweep List" you can define a limit line that varies its level according to the specified
frequency ranges. A distinguished limit line ("_SPURIOUS_LINE_ABS") is automatically
defined according to the current "Sweep List" settings every time the settings change.
If a limit check is activated in the "Sweep List", the "_SPURIOUS_LINE_ABS" limit line
is indicated by a red line in the display, and the result of the limit check is indicated at the
top of the diagram. Note that only "Pass" or "Fail" is indicated; a "margin" function as for
general limit lines is not available. Also, only absolute limits can be checked, not relative
ones.
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As for general limit lines, the results of each limit line check are displayed (here: "_SPURIOUS_LINE_ABS"), as well as the combined result for all defined limit lines ("Limit
Check").
In addition to the limit line itself, the largest deviations of the absolute power from the limit
line for each range are displayed in the evaluation list if the limit check is activated. Values
that exceed the limit are indicated in red and by an asterisk (*).
Although a margin functionality is not available for the limit check, a margin (threshold)
for the peak values to be displayed in the evaluation list can be defined in the list evaluation settings. Furthermore, you can define how many peaks per range are listed. For
details see ​"Result Evaluation" on page 244.
To define a limit check for spurious measurements
The limit check is defined in the "Sweep List" dialog box, see ​"Sweep List dialog box"
on page 248 for details.
1. Press the MEAS CONFIG key to open the main "Spurious" menu.
2. Press the "Sweep List" softkey to open the "Sweep List" dialog box.
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3. In the "Sweep List" dialog box, define the limit line for each range using the "Abs Limit
Start" and "Abs Limit Stop" settings.
The limit values are absolute values for the absolute power level.
4. Set the "Limit Check" setting to "Absolute" to activate the limit check.
5. Close the "Sweep List" dialog box.
The limit line and the result of the limit check are displayed in the diagram and the
result table displays the largest deviations from the limit for each range.
6. To reduce the number of displayed delta values, change the margin (threshold) for
peak detection in the list evaluation. By default, this value is very high (200 dB), so
that initially all peaks are detected.
In the "Spurious" menu, press "List Evaluation > Margin" and enter a value in dB.
Only delta values that exceed this margin are displayed in the result table.
Softkeys for Spurious Emissions Measurement
Spurious Emissions.....................................................................................................248
└ Sweep List....................................................................................................248
└ Sweep List dialog box.........................................................................248
└ Range Start / Range Stop........................................................248
└ Filter Type.................................................................................249
└ RBW.........................................................................................249
└ VBW.........................................................................................249
└ Sweep Time Mode....................................................................249
└ Sweep Time..............................................................................249
└ Detector....................................................................................249
└ Ref. Level.................................................................................249
└ RF Att. Mode............................................................................249
└ RF Attenuator...........................................................................249
└ Preamp.....................................................................................250
└ Sweep Points............................................................................250
└ Stop After Sweep......................................................................250
└ Transd. Factor..........................................................................250
└ Limit Check 1-4.........................................................................250
└ Abs Limit Start..........................................................................250
└ Abs Limit Stop..........................................................................251
└ Close Sweep List................................................................................251
└ Insert before Range............................................................................251
└ Insert after Range...............................................................................251
└ Delete Range......................................................................................251
└ Adjust Ref Lvl (span > 0)....................................................................251
└ Adjust X-Axis......................................................................................251
└ List Evaluation...............................................................................................251
└ List Evaluation (On/Off)......................................................................252
└ Details On/Off.....................................................................................252
└ Margin.................................................................................................252
└ Peaks per Range................................................................................252
└ Show Peaks........................................................................................252
└ Save Evaluation List...........................................................................252
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└ ASCII File Export......................................................................252
└ Decim Sep................................................................................253
└ Adjust Ref Lvl (span > 0)..............................................................................253
└ Adjust X-Axis.................................................................................................253
└ Meas Start/Stop............................................................................................253
Spurious Emissions
Opens a submenu to configure the Spurious Emissions measurement and immediately
starts a measurement.
For general information on performing Spurious Emissions measurements see ​chapter 3.3.5.6, "Measuring Spurious Emissions", on page 242.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​MODE​ on page 704
Sweep List ← Spurious Emissions
Opens a submenu to edit the sweep list and displays the "Sweep List" dialog box.
Note: If you edit the sweep list, always follow the rules described in ​chapter 3.3.5.6,
"Measuring Spurious Emissions", on page 242.
Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spurious Emissions
After a preset, the sweep list contains a set of default ranges and parameters. For each
range, you can change the parameters listed below. To insert or delete ranges, use the
"Insert Before Range", "Insert After Range", "Delete Range" softkeys. The measurement
results are not updated during editing but on closing the dialog box.
For details and limitations regarding spurious emissions configuration, see ​chapter 3.3.5.6, "Measuring Spurious Emissions", on page 242.
Range Start / Range Stop ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spurious
Emissions
Sets the start frequency/stop frequency of the selected range. Follow the rules described
in ​chapter 3.3.5.6, "Measuring Spurious Emissions", on page 242.
In order to change the start/stop frequency of the first/last range, select the appropriate
span with the SPAN key. If you set a span that is smaller than the overall span of the
ranges, the measurement includes only the ranges that lie within the defined span and
have a minimum span of 20 Hz. The first and last ranges are adapted to the given span
as long as the minimum span of 20 Hz is not violated.
Frequency values for each range have to be defined relative to the center frequency. The
reference range has to be centered on the center frequency. The minimum span of the
reference range is given by the current TX Bandwidth.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]LIST:​RANGe<range>[:​FREQuency]:​STARt​ on page 666
​[SENSe:​]LIST:​RANGe<range>[:​FREQuency]:​STOP​ on page 667
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Filter Type ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spurious Emissions
Sets the filter type for this range. For details on filters see also ​chapter 3.2.6.3, "Selecting
the Appropriate Filter Type", on page 114.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]LIST:​RANGe<range>:​FILTer:​TYPE​ on page 667
RBW ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spurious Emissions
Sets the RBW value for this range.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]LIST:​RANGe<range>:​BANDwidth[:​RESolution]​ on page 664
VBW ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spurious Emissions
Sets the VBW value for this range.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]LIST:​RANGe<range>:​BANDwidth:​VIDeo​ on page 665
Sweep Time Mode ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spurious Emissions
Activates or deactivates the auto mode for the sweep time.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]LIST:​RANGe<range>:​SWEep:​TIME:​AUTO​ on page 671
Sweep Time ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spurious Emissions
Sets the sweep time value for the range.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]LIST:​RANGe<range>:​SWEep:​TIME​ on page 670
Detector ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spurious Emissions
Sets the detector for the range. For details refer to ​chapter 3.2.8.6, "Detector Overview", on page 137.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]LIST:​RANGe<range>:​DETector​ on page 666
Ref. Level ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spurious Emissions
Sets the reference level for the range.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]LIST:​RANGe<range>:​RLEVel​ on page 670
RF Att. Mode ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spurious Emissions
Activates or deactivates the auto mode for RF attenuation.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]LIST:​RANGe<range>:​INPut:​ATTenuation:​AUTO​ on page 668
RF Attenuator ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spurious Emissions
Sets the attenuation value for that range.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]LIST:​RANGe<range>:​INPut:​ATTenuation​ on page 668
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Preamp ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spurious Emissions
Switches the preamplifier on or off.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]LIST:​RANGe<range>:​INPut:​GAIN:​STATe​ on page 669
Sweep Points ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spurious Emissions
Sets the number of sweep points for the specified range.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]LIST:​RANGe<range>:​POINts​ on page 670
Stop After Sweep ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spurious Emissions
This command configures the sweep behavior.
"ON"
The R&S FSV stops after one range is swept and continues only if you
confirm (a message box is displayed).
"OFF"
The R&S FSV sweeps all ranges in one go.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]LIST:​RANGe<range>:​BREak​ on page 665
Transd. Factor ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spurious Emissions
Sets a transducer for the specified range. You can only choose a transducer that fulfills
the following conditions:
●
●
●
The transducer overlaps or equals the span of the range.
The x-axis is linear.
The unit is dB.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]LIST:​RANGe<range>:​TRANsducer​ on page 671
Limit Check 1-4 ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spurious Emissions
Sets the type of limit check for all ranges. Possible states are:
Absolute
Checks the absolute limits defined.
None
No limit check performed.
The limit settings are only available if limit check is activated ("Absolute"). If activated,
the limit line and the results of the check are indicated in the diagram.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]LIST:​RANGe<range>:​LIMit:​STATe​ on page 669
​CALCulate<n>:​LIMit<k>:​FAIL?​ on page 498
Abs Limit Start ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spurious Emissions
Sets an absolute limit value at the start frequency of the range [dBm].
This parameter is only available if the limit check is set to "Absolute" (see ​"Limit Check
1-4" on page 250).
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]LIST:​RANGe<range>:​LIMit:​STARt​ on page 669
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Abs Limit Stop ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spurious Emissions
Sets an absolute limit value at the stop frequency of the range [dBm].
This parameter is only available if the limit check is set to "Absolute" (see ​"Limit Check
1-4" on page 250).
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]LIST:​RANGe<range>:​LIMit:​STOP​ on page 669
Close Sweep List ← Sweep List ← Spurious Emissions
Closes the "Sweep List" dialog box and updates the measurement results.
Insert before Range ← Sweep List ← Spurious Emissions
Inserts a new range to the left of the currently focused range. The range numbers of the
currently focused range and all higher ranges are increased accordingly. The maximum
number of ranges is 20.
For further details refer to ​"Ranges and Range Settings" on page 229.
Insert after Range ← Sweep List ← Spurious Emissions
Inserts a new range to the right of the currently focused range. The range numbers of all
higher ranges are increased accordingly. The maximum number of ranges is 20.
For further details refer to ​"Ranges and Range Settings" on page 229.
Delete Range ← Sweep List ← Spurious Emissions
Deletes the currently focused range, if possible. The range numbers are updated accordingly. For further details refer to ​"Ranges and Range Settings" on page 229.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]LIST:​RANGe<range>:​DELete​ on page 666
Adjust Ref Lvl (span > 0) ← Sweep List ← Spurious Emissions
Adjusts the reference level to the measured total power of the signal. The softkey is
activated after the first sweep with active measurement of the occupied bandwidth has
been completed and the total power of the signal is thus known.
Adjusting the reference level ensures that the signal path will not be overloaded and the
dynamic range not limited by too low a reference level. Since the measurement bandwidth
for channel power measurements is significantly lower than the signal bandwidth, the
signal path may be overloaded although the trace is distinctly below the reference level.
If the measured channel power is equal to the reference level, the signal path cannot be
overloaded.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​PRESet:​RLEVel​ on page 695
Adjust X-Axis ← Sweep List ← Spurious Emissions
Adjusts the frequency axis of measurement diagram automatically so that the start frequency matches the start frequency of the first sweep range, and the stop frequency of
the last sweep range.
List Evaluation ← Spurious Emissions
Opens a submenu to edit the list evaluation settings.
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For more information on list evaluation see ​"Result Evaluation" on page 244.
List Evaluation (On/Off) ← List Evaluation ← Spurious Emissions
Activates or deactivates the list evaluation.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​PEAKsearch|PSEarch:​AUTO​ on page 586
​TRACe<n>[:​DATA]?​ on page 732
Details On/Off ← List Evaluation ← Spurious Emissions
Configures the list contents.
On
Displays the whole list contents.
Off
Displays only the highest peaks (one peak per range).
Margin ← List Evaluation ← Spurious Emissions
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the margin used for the limit check/peak search. Only
peaks that exceed the limit and are larger than the specified margin are indicated in the
evaluation list.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​PEAKsearch|PSEarch:​MARGin​ on page 586
Peaks per Range ← List Evaluation ← Spurious Emissions
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the number of peaks per range that are stored in the
list. Once the selected number of peaks has been reached, the peak search is stopped
in the current range and continued in the next range. The maximum value is 50.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​PEAKsearch|PSEarch:​SUBRanges​ on page 587
Show Peaks ← List Evaluation ← Spurious Emissions
In the diagram, marks all peaks with blue squares that have been listed during an active
list evaluation.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​PEAKsearch|PSEarch:​PSHow​ on page 587
Save Evaluation List ← List Evaluation ← Spurious Emissions
Opens the "ASCII File Export Name" dialog box and a submenu to save the result in
ASCII format to a specified file and directory.
Remote command:
​MMEMory:​STORe<n>:​LIST​ on page 623
ASCII File Export ← Save Evaluation List ← List Evaluation ← Spurious Emissions
Saves the evaluation list in ASCII format to a specified file and directory.
Remote command:
​MMEMory:​STORe<n>:​LIST​ on page 623
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Decim Sep ← Save Evaluation List ← List Evaluation ← Spurious Emissions
Selects the decimal separator with floating-point numerals for the ASCII Trace export to
support evaluation programs (e.g. MS-Excel) in different languages. The values '.' (decimal point) and ',' (comma) can be set.
Remote command:
​FORMat:​DEXPort:​DSEParator​ on page 609
Adjust Ref Lvl (span > 0) ← Spurious Emissions
Adjusts the reference level to the measured total power of the signal. The softkey is
activated after the first sweep with active measurement of the occupied bandwidth has
been completed and the total power of the signal is thus known.
Adjusting the reference level ensures that the signal path will not be overloaded and the
dynamic range not limited by too low a reference level. Since the measurement bandwidth
for channel power measurements is significantly lower than the signal bandwidth, the
signal path may be overloaded although the trace is distinctly below the reference level.
If the measured channel power is equal to the reference level, the signal path cannot be
overloaded.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​PRESet:​RLEVel​ on page 695
Adjust X-Axis ← Spurious Emissions
Adjusts the frequency axis of measurement diagram automatically so that the start frequency matches the start frequency of the first sweep range, and the stop frequency of
the last sweep range.
Meas Start/Stop ← Spurious Emissions
Aborts/restarts the current measurement and displays the status:
3.3.5.7
"Start"
The measurement is currently running.
"Stop"
The measurement has been stopped, or, in single sweep mode, the end
of the sweep has been reached.
Measuring the Power in Zero Span
Using the power measurement function, the R&S FSV determines the power of the signal
in zero span by summing up the power at the individual measurement points and dividing
the result by the number of measurement points. Thus it is possible to measure the power
of TDMA signals during transmission, for example, or during the muting phase. Both the
mean power and the RMS power can be measured.
For this measurement, the sample detector is activated.
Measurement results
Several different power results can be determined simultaneously:
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Mode
Description
Peak
Peak value from the points of the displayed trace or a segment thereof.
RMS
RMS value from the points of the displayed trace or a segment thereof.
Mean
Mean value from the points of the displayed trace or a segment thereof.
The linear mean value of the equivalent voltages is calculated.
For example to measure the mean power during a GSM burst
Std Dev
The standard deviation of the measurement points from the mean value.
The result is displayed in the marker results, indicated by "Power" and the selected power
mode, e.g. "RMS". The measured values are updated after each sweep or averaged over
a user-defined number of sweeps (trace averaging).
The results can also be queried using the remote commands described in ​"CALCulate:MARKer:FUNCtion:SUMMary Subsystem" on page 570.
Restricting the measurement range using limit lines
The range of the measured signal to be evaluated for the power measurement can be
restricted using limit lines. The left and right limit lines (S1, S2) define the evaluation range
and are indicated by vertical red lines in the diagram. If activated, the power results are
only calculated from the levels within the limit lines.
For example, if both the on and off phase of a burst signal are displayed, the measurement
range can be limited to the transmission or to the muting phase. The ratio between signal
and noise power of a TDMA signal for instance can be measured using a measurement
as a reference value and then varying the measurement range.
To measure the power in the time domain
1. Press the "Time Domain Power" softkey to activate the power measurement.
2. Select the type of power measurement using the "Peak","Mean","RMS" or "Std
Dev" softkeys.
3. To limit the power evaluation range, switch on the limits ("Limits (On/Off)" softkey)
and enter the limits using the "Left Limit" and "Right Limit" softkeys.
Softkeys for Time Domain Power Measurements
Time Domain Power....................................................................................................255
└ Peak..............................................................................................................255
└ RMS..............................................................................................................255
└ Mean.............................................................................................................255
└ Std Dev.........................................................................................................255
└ Limits (On/Off)...............................................................................................255
└ Left Limit.......................................................................................................256
└ Right Limit.....................................................................................................256
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Time Domain Power
Activates the power measurement in zero span and opens a submenu to configure the
power measurement. For more details see also ​chapter 3.3.5.7, "Measuring the Power
in Zero Span", on page 253.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​SUMMary[:​STATe]​ on page 582
Peak ← Time Domain Power
Activates the calculation of the peak value from the points of the displayed trace or a
segment thereof.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​SUMMary:​PPEak[:​STATe]​ on page 577
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​SUMMary:​PPEak:​RESult?​ on page 577
RMS ← Time Domain Power
Activates the calculation of the RMS value from the points of the displayed trace or a
segment thereof.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​SUMMary:​RMS[:​STATe]​ on page 580
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​SUMMary:​RMS:​RESult?​ on page 579
Mean ← Time Domain Power
Activates the calculation of the mean value from the points of the displayed trace or a
segment thereof. The linear mean value of the equivalent voltages is calculated.
This can be used for instance to measure the mean power during a GSM burst.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​SUMMary:​MEAN[:​STATe]​ on page 575
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​SUMMary:​MEAN:​RESult?​ on page 574
Std Dev ← Time Domain Power
Activates the calculation of the standard deviation of measurement points from the mean
value and displays them as measured value. The measurement of the mean power is
automatically switched on at the same time.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​SUMMary:​SDEViation[:​STATe]​
on page 582
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​SUMMary:​SDEViation:​RESult?​
on page 581
Limits (On/Off) ← Time Domain Power
Switches the limitation of the evaluation range on or off. Default setting is off.
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If switched off, the evaluation range is not limited. If switched on, the evaluation range is
defined by the left and right limit. If only one limit is set, it corresponds to the left limit and
the right limit is defined by the stop frequency. If the second limit is also set, it defines the
right limit.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​X:​SLIMits[:​STATe]​ on page 532
Left Limit ← Time Domain Power
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a value for line 1.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​X:​SLIMits:​LEFT​ on page 532
Right Limit ← Time Domain Power
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a value for line 2.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​X:​SLIMits:​RIGHT​ on page 533
3.3.5.8
Calculating Signal Amplitude Statistics
To measure the amplitude distribution, the R&S FSV has simple measurement functions
to determine both the APD = Amplitude Probability Distribution and CCDF = Complementary Cumulative Distribution Function.
To determine the amplitude distribution
► To activate and configure the measurement of the amplitude probability distribution
(APD), press the "APD" softkey (see ​"APD" on page 184).
To activate and configure the measurement of the complementary cumulative distribution (CCDF), press the "CCDF" softkey (see ​"CCDF" on page 184).
Only one of the signal statistic functions can be switched on at a time. When a statistic
function is switched on, the R&S FSV is set into zero span mode automatically. The
R&S FSV measures the statistics of the signal applied to the RF input with the defined
resolution bandwidth. To avoid affecting the peak amplitudes the video bandwidth is
automatically set to 10 times the resolution bandwidth. The sample detector is used for
detecting the video voltage.
About the Statistical Measurements............................................................................256
Result Evaluation........................................................................................................258
Softkeys for APD Measurements................................................................................260
Softkeys for CCDF Measurements.............................................................................265
Defining Gated Triggering for APD and CCDF...........................................................271
About the Statistical Measurements
Digital modulated signals are similar to white noise within the transmit channel, but are
different in their amplitude distribution. In order to transmit the modulated signal without
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distortion all amplitudes of the signal have to be transmitted linearly, e.g. from the output
power amplifier. Most critical are the peak amplitude values. Degradation in transmit
quality caused by a transmitter two port network is dependent on the amplitude of the
peak values as well as on their probability.
If modulation types are used that do not have a constant zero span envelope, the transmitter has to handle peak amplitudes that are greater than the average power. This
includes all modulation types that involve amplitude modulation, QPSK for example.
CDMA transmission modes in particular may have power peaks that are large compared
to the average power.
For signals of this kind, the transmitter must provide large reserves for the peak power
to prevent signal compression and thus an increase of the bit error rate at the receiver.
The peak power or the crest factor of a signal is therefore an important transmitter design
criterion. The crest factor is defined as the peak power/mean power ratio or, logarithmically, as the peak level minus the average level of the signal. To reduce power consumption and cut costs, transmitters are not designed for the largest power that could
ever occur, but for a power that has a specified probability of being exceeded (e.g. 0.01
%).
The probability of amplitude values can be measured with the APD function (Amplitude
Probability Distribution). During a selectable measurement time all occurring amplitude
values are assigned to an amplitude range. The number of amplitude values in the specific ranges is counted and the result is displayed as a histogram.
Alternatively, the Complementary Cumulative Distribution Function (CCDF) can be displayed. It shows the probability that the mean signal power amplitude will be exceeded
in percent.
Bandwidth selection
When the amplitude distribution is measured, the resolution bandwidth must be set so
that the complete spectrum of the signal to be measured falls within the bandwidth. This
is the only way of ensuring that all the amplitudes will pass through the IF filter without
being distorted. If the selected resolution bandwidth is too small for a digitally modulated
signal, the amplitude distribution at the output of the IF filter becomes a Gaussian distribution according to the central limit theorem and thus corresponds to a white noise signal.
The true amplitude distribution of the signal therefore cannot be determined.
Selecting the number of samples
For statistics measurements with the R&S FSV, the number of samples to be measured
is defined instead of the sweep time. Since only statistically independent samples contribute to statistics, the acquisition or sweep time is calculated automatically and displayed in the channel bar (AQT). The samples are statistically independent if the time
difference is at least 1/RBW. The acquisition time AQT is, therefore, expressed as follows:
AQT = NSamples/RBW
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Statistic measurements on pulsed signals
Statistic measurements on pulsed signals can be performed using a gated trigger. An
external frame trigger is required as a time (frame) reference. For details see ​"Defining
Gated Triggering for APD and CCDF" on page 271.
Measurement examples are described in ​chapter 2.6.2, "Amplitude Distribution Measurements", on page 37.
Result Evaluation
Amplitude Probability Distribution (APD)
As a result of the APD function (Amplitude Probability Distribution), the probability of
measured amplitude values is displayed. During a selectable measurement time all
occurring amplitude values are assigned to an amplitude range. The number of amplitude
values in the specific ranges is counted and the result is displayed as a histogram. Each
bar of the histogram represents the percentage of measured amplitudes within the specific amplitude range. The x-axis is scaled in absolute values in dBm.
Fig. 3-17: Amplitude probability distribution of white noise
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In addition to the histogram, a result table is displayed containing the following information:
●
Number of samples used for calculation
●
For each displayed trace:
– Mean amplitude
–
Peak amplitude
–
Crest factor
Complementary Cumulative Distribution Function (CCDF)
The Complementary Cumulative Distribution Function (CCDF) shows the probability that
the mean signal power amplitude will be exceeded in percent. The level above the mean
power is plotted along the x-axis of the graph. The origin of the axis corresponds to the
mean power level. The probability that a level will be exceeded is plotted along the y-axis.
Fig. 3-18: CCDF of white noise
A red line indicates the ideal Gaussian distribution for the measured amplitude range
(white noise).
The displayed amplitude range is indicated as "Mean Pwr + <x dB>"
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In addition to the histogram, a result table is displayed containing the following information:
●
Number of samples used for calculation
●
For each displayed trace:
Mean
Mean power
Peak
Peak power
Crest
Crest factor (peak power – mean power)
0,01 %
Level values over 0,01 % above mean power
0,1 %
Level values over 0,1 % above mean power
1%
Level values over 1 % above mean power
10 %
Level values over 10 % above mean power
Softkeys for APD Measurements
APD.............................................................................................................................260
└ Res BW.........................................................................................................261
└ # of Samples.................................................................................................261
└ Scaling..........................................................................................................261
└ x-Axis Ref Level..................................................................................261
└ x-Axis Range......................................................................................261
└ Range Log 100 dB....................................................................262
└ Range Log 50 dB......................................................................262
└ Range Log 10 dB......................................................................262
└ Range Log 5 dB........................................................................262
└ Range Log 1 dB........................................................................263
└ Range Log Manual...................................................................263
└ Range Linear %........................................................................263
└ Range Lin. Unit.........................................................................263
└ y-Axis Max Value................................................................................263
└ y-Axis Min Value.................................................................................264
└ y-Unit % / Abs.....................................................................................264
└ Default Settings..................................................................................264
└ Adjust Settings....................................................................................264
└ Gated Trigger (On/Off)..................................................................................264
└ Gate Ranges.................................................................................................264
└ Adjust Settings..............................................................................................265
APD
Activates the function to measure the amplitude probability density (APD) and opens a
submenu.
For general information on calculating signal statistics see ​chapter 3.3.5.8, "Calculating
Signal Amplitude Statistics", on page 256.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​STATistics:​APD[:​STATe]​ on page 591
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Res BW ← APD
Opens an edit dialog box to set the resolution bandwidth directly.
For correct measurement of the signal statistics the resolution bandwidth has to be wider
than the signal bandwidth in order to measure the actual peaks of the signal amplitude
correctly. In order not to influence the peak amplitudes the video bandwidth is automatically set to 10 MHz. The sample detector is used for detecting the video voltage.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:​RESolution]​ on page 634
# of Samples ← APD
Opens an edit dialog box to set the number of power measurements that are taken into
account for the statistics.
Apart from the number of measurements the overall measurement time depends also on
the set resolution bandwidth as the resolution bandwidth directly influences the sampling
rate.
For details see ​"Selecting the number of samples" on page 257.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​STATistics:​NSAMples​ on page 592
Scaling ← APD
Opens a submenu to change the scaling parameters of x- and y-axis.
x-Axis Ref Level ← Scaling ← APD
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the reference level in the currently active unit (dBm,
dBµV, etc). The function of this softkey is identical to the "Ref Level" softkey in the
"Amplitude" menu (see ​"Ref Level" on page 97).
For the APD function this value is mapped to the right diagram border. For the CCDF
function there is no direct representation of this value on the diagram as the x-axis is
scaled relatively to the measured mean power.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​STATistics:​SCALe:​X:​RLEVel​ on page 595
x-Axis Range ← Scaling ← APD
Opens the "Range" submenu to select a value for the level range to be covered by the
statistics measurement selected.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​STATistics:​SCALe:​X:​RANGe​ on page 594
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Range Log 100 dB ← x-Axis Range ← Scaling ← APD
Sets the level display range to 100 dB.
Remote command:
Logarithmic scaling:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​
SPACing​ on page 603
Display range:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y 100DB, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]​
on page 603
Range Log 50 dB ← x-Axis Range ← Scaling ← APD
Sets the level display range to 50 dB.
Remote command:
Logarithmic scaling:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​
SPACing​ on page 603
Display range:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y 50DB, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]​
on page 603
Range Log 10 dB ← x-Axis Range ← Scaling ← APD
Sets the level display range to 10 dB.
Remote command:
Logarithmic scaling:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​
SPACing​ on page 603
Display range:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y 10DB, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]​
on page 603
Range Log 5 dB ← x-Axis Range ← Scaling ← APD
Sets the level display range to 5 dB.
Remote command:
Logarithmic scaling:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​
SPACing​ on page 603
Display range:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y 5DB, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]​
on page 603
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Range Log 1 dB ← x-Axis Range ← Scaling ← APD
Sets the level display range to 1 dB.
Remote command:
Logarithmic scaling:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​
SPACing​ on page 603
Display range:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y 1DB, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]​
on page 603
Range Log Manual ← x-Axis Range ← Scaling ← APD
Opens an edit dialog box to define the display range of a logarithmic level axis manually.
Remote command:
Logarithmic scaling:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​
SPACing​ on page 603
Display range:
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]​ on page 603
Range Linear % ← x-Axis Range ← Scaling ← APD
Selects linear scaling for the level axis in %.
The grid is divided into decadal sections.
Markers are displayed in the selected unit ("Unit" softkey). Delta markers are displayed
in % referenced to the voltage value at the position of marker 1. This is the default setting
for linear scaling.
Remote command:
DISP:TRAC:Y:SPAC LIN, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​SPACing​
on page 603
Range Lin. Unit ← x-Axis Range ← Scaling ← APD
Selects linear scaling in dB for the level display range, i.e. the horizontal lines are labeled
in dB.
Markers are displayed in the selected unit ("Unit" softkey). Delta markers are displayed
in dB referenced to the power value at the position of marker 1.
Remote command:
DISP:TRAC:Y:SPAC LDB, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​SPACing​
on page 603
y-Axis Max Value ← Scaling ← APD
Opens an edit dialog box to define the upper limit of the displayed probability range.
Values on the y-axis are normalized which means that the maximum value is 1.0. The yaxis scaling is defined via the ​y-Unit % / Abs softkey. The distance between max and min
value must be at least one decade.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​STATistics:​SCALe:​Y:​UPPer​ on page 596
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y-Axis Min Value ← Scaling ← APD
Opens an edit dialog box to define the lower limit of the displayed probability range. Values in the range 1e-9 < value < 0.1 are allowed. The y-axis scaling is defined via the ​yUnit % / Abs softkey. The distance between max and min value must be at least one
decade.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​STATistics:​SCALe:​Y:​LOWer​ on page 595
y-Unit % / Abs ← Scaling ← APD
Defines the scaling type of the y-axis. The default value is absolute scaling.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​STATistics:​SCALe:​Y:​UNIT​ on page 595
Default Settings ← Scaling ← APD
Resets the x- and y-axis scalings to their preset values.
x-axis ref level:
-10 dBm
x-axis range APD:
100 dB
x-axis range CCDF:
20 dB
y-axis upper limit:
1.0
y-axis lower limit:
1E-6
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​STATistics:​PRESet​ on page 593
Adjust Settings ← Scaling ← APD
Adjusts the level settings according to the measured difference between peak and minimum power for APD measurement or peak and mean power for CCDF measurement in
order to obtain maximum power resolution. Adjusts the reference level to the current input
signal. For details see also the ​Adjust Ref Lvl softkey.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​STATistics:​SCALe:​AUTO ONCE​ on page 594
Gated Trigger (On/Off) ← APD
Activates and deactivates the gating for statistics functions for the ACP and the CCDF
channel. The trigger source is changed to "EXTERN" if this function is switched on. The
gate ranges are defined using the ​"Gate Ranges" on page 264 softkey.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe​ on page 700
​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​SOURce​ on page 701
Gate Ranges ← APD
Opens a dialog to configure up to 3 gate ranges for each trace.
For details on configuration, see ​"Defining Gated Triggering for APD and CCDF"
on page 271.
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Remote command:
SWE:EGAT ON (see ​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe​ on page 700)
Switches on the external gate mode.
SWE:EGAT:TRAC1:COMM "SlotA" (see ​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​TRACe<k>:​
COMMent​ on page 702)
Adds a comment to trace 1.
SWE:EGAT:TRAC1:STAT1 ON (see ​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​TRACe<k>[:​
STATe<range>]​ on page 702)
Activates tracing for range 1 of trace 1.
SWE:EGAT:TRAC1:STAR1 3ms (see ​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​TRACe<k>:​
STARt<range>​ on page 702)
Sets the starting point for range 1 on trace 1 at 3 ms.
SWE:EGAT:TRAC1:STop1 5ms (see ​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​TRACe<k>:​
STOP<range>​ on page 703)
Sets the stopping point for range 1 on trace 1 at 5 ms.
SWE:EGAT:TRAC1:PER 5ms (see ​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​TRACe<k>:​ PERiod​
on page 703)
Defines the period for gated triggering to 5 ms.
Adjust Settings ← APD
Adjusts the level settings according to the measured difference between peak and minimum power for APD measurement or peak and mean power for CCDF measurement in
order to obtain maximum power resolution. Adjusts the reference level to the current input
signal. For details see also the ​Adjust Ref Lvl softkey.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​STATistics:​SCALe:​AUTO ONCE​ on page 594
Softkeys for CCDF Measurements
CCDF..........................................................................................................................266
└ Percent Marker.............................................................................................266
└ Res BW.........................................................................................................267
└ # of Samples.................................................................................................267
└ Scaling..........................................................................................................267
└ x-Axis Ref Level..................................................................................267
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└ x-Axis Range......................................................................................267
└ Range Log 100 dB....................................................................268
└ Range Log 50 dB......................................................................268
└ Range Log 10 dB......................................................................268
└ Range Log 5 dB........................................................................268
└ Range Log 1 dB........................................................................269
└ Range Log Manual...................................................................269
└ Range Linear %........................................................................269
└ Range Lin. Unit.........................................................................269
└ y-Axis Max Value................................................................................269
└ y-Axis Min Value.................................................................................270
└ y-Unit % / Abs.....................................................................................270
└ Default Settings..................................................................................270
└ Adjust Settings....................................................................................270
└ Gated Trigger (On/Off)..................................................................................270
└ Gate Ranges.................................................................................................270
└ Adjust Settings..............................................................................................271
CCDF
Activates the function to measure the complementary cumulative distribution function
(CCDF) and opens a submenu.
After a CCDF measurement, the results are displayed in a table beneath the diagram.
Mean
Mean power
Peak
Peak power
Crest
Crest factor (peak power – mean power)
0,01 %
Level values over 0,01 % above mean power
0,1 %
Level values over 0,1 % above mean power
1%
Level values over 1 % above mean power
10 %
Level values over 10 % above mean power
In addition, a red reference line indicating the calculated Gauss distribution is displayed.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​STATistics:​CCDF[:​STATe]​ on page 592
Activates the CCDF measurement.
​CALCulate<n>:​STATistics:​CCDF:​X<Trace>​ on page 592
Reads out the level values for 1 % probability.
Percent Marker ← CCDF
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a probability value and to position marker 1. Thus, the
power which is exceeded with a given probability can be determined very easily. If marker
1 is deactivated, it will be switched on automatically.
As all markers, the percent marker can be moved simply by touching it with a finger or
mouse cursor and dragging it to the desired position.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​Y:​PERCent​ on page 535
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Res BW ← CCDF
Opens an edit dialog box to set the resolution bandwidth directly.
For correct measurement of the signal statistics the resolution bandwidth has to be wider
than the signal bandwidth in order to measure the actual peaks of the signal amplitude
correctly. In order not to influence the peak amplitudes the video bandwidth is automatically set to 10 MHz. The sample detector is used for detecting the video voltage.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:​RESolution]​ on page 634
# of Samples ← CCDF
Opens an edit dialog box to set the number of power measurements that are taken into
account for the statistics.
Apart from the number of measurements the overall measurement time depends also on
the set resolution bandwidth as the resolution bandwidth directly influences the sampling
rate.
For details see ​"Selecting the number of samples" on page 257.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​STATistics:​NSAMples​ on page 592
Scaling ← CCDF
Opens a submenu to change the scaling parameters of x- and y-axis.
x-Axis Ref Level ← Scaling ← CCDF
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the reference level in the currently active unit (dBm,
dBµV, etc). The function of this softkey is identical to the "Ref Level" softkey in the
"Amplitude" menu (see ​"Ref Level" on page 97).
For the APD function this value is mapped to the right diagram border. For the CCDF
function there is no direct representation of this value on the diagram as the x-axis is
scaled relatively to the measured mean power.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​STATistics:​SCALe:​X:​RLEVel​ on page 595
x-Axis Range ← Scaling ← CCDF
Opens the "Range" submenu to select a value for the level range to be covered by the
statistics measurement selected.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​STATistics:​SCALe:​X:​RANGe​ on page 594
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Range Log 100 dB ← x-Axis Range ← Scaling ← CCDF
Sets the level display range to 100 dB.
Remote command:
Logarithmic scaling:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​
SPACing​ on page 603
Display range:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y 100DB, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]​
on page 603
Range Log 50 dB ← x-Axis Range ← Scaling ← CCDF
Sets the level display range to 50 dB.
Remote command:
Logarithmic scaling:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​
SPACing​ on page 603
Display range:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y 50DB, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]​
on page 603
Range Log 10 dB ← x-Axis Range ← Scaling ← CCDF
Sets the level display range to 10 dB.
Remote command:
Logarithmic scaling:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​
SPACing​ on page 603
Display range:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y 10DB, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]​
on page 603
Range Log 5 dB ← x-Axis Range ← Scaling ← CCDF
Sets the level display range to 5 dB.
Remote command:
Logarithmic scaling:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​
SPACing​ on page 603
Display range:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y 5DB, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]​
on page 603
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Range Log 1 dB ← x-Axis Range ← Scaling ← CCDF
Sets the level display range to 1 dB.
Remote command:
Logarithmic scaling:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​
SPACing​ on page 603
Display range:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y 1DB, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]​
on page 603
Range Log Manual ← x-Axis Range ← Scaling ← CCDF
Opens an edit dialog box to define the display range of a logarithmic level axis manually.
Remote command:
Logarithmic scaling:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​
SPACing​ on page 603
Display range:
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]​ on page 603
Range Linear % ← x-Axis Range ← Scaling ← CCDF
Selects linear scaling for the level axis in %.
The grid is divided into decadal sections.
Markers are displayed in the selected unit ("Unit" softkey). Delta markers are displayed
in % referenced to the voltage value at the position of marker 1. This is the default setting
for linear scaling.
Remote command:
DISP:TRAC:Y:SPAC LIN, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​SPACing​
on page 603
Range Lin. Unit ← x-Axis Range ← Scaling ← CCDF
Selects linear scaling in dB for the level display range, i.e. the horizontal lines are labeled
in dB.
Markers are displayed in the selected unit ("Unit" softkey). Delta markers are displayed
in dB referenced to the power value at the position of marker 1.
Remote command:
DISP:TRAC:Y:SPAC LDB, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​SPACing​
on page 603
y-Axis Max Value ← Scaling ← CCDF
Opens an edit dialog box to define the upper limit of the displayed probability range.
Values on the y-axis are normalized which means that the maximum value is 1.0. The yaxis scaling is defined via the ​y-Unit % / Abs softkey. The distance between max and min
value must be at least one decade.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​STATistics:​SCALe:​Y:​UPPer​ on page 596
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y-Axis Min Value ← Scaling ← CCDF
Opens an edit dialog box to define the lower limit of the displayed probability range. Values in the range 1e-9 < value < 0.1 are allowed. The y-axis scaling is defined via the ​yUnit % / Abs softkey. The distance between max and min value must be at least one
decade.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​STATistics:​SCALe:​Y:​LOWer​ on page 595
y-Unit % / Abs ← Scaling ← CCDF
Defines the scaling type of the y-axis. The default value is absolute scaling.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​STATistics:​SCALe:​Y:​UNIT​ on page 595
Default Settings ← Scaling ← CCDF
Resets the x- and y-axis scalings to their preset values.
x-axis ref level:
-10 dBm
x-axis range APD:
100 dB
x-axis range CCDF:
20 dB
y-axis upper limit:
1.0
y-axis lower limit:
1E-6
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​STATistics:​PRESet​ on page 593
Adjust Settings ← Scaling ← CCDF
Adjusts the level settings according to the measured difference between peak and minimum power for APD measurement or peak and mean power for CCDF measurement in
order to obtain maximum power resolution. Adjusts the reference level to the current input
signal. For details see also the ​Adjust Ref Lvl softkey.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​STATistics:​SCALe:​AUTO ONCE​ on page 594
Gated Trigger (On/Off) ← CCDF
Activates and deactivates the gating for statistics functions for the ACP and the CCDF
channel. The trigger source is changed to "EXTERN" if this function is switched on. The
gate ranges are defined using the ​"Gate Ranges" on page 264 softkey.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe​ on page 700
​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​SOURce​ on page 701
Gate Ranges ← CCDF
Opens a dialog to configure up to 3 gate ranges for each trace.
For details on configuration, see ​"Defining Gated Triggering for APD and CCDF"
on page 271.
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Remote command:
SWE:EGAT ON (see ​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe​ on page 700)
Switches on the external gate mode.
SWE:EGAT:TRAC1:COMM "SlotA" (see ​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​TRACe<k>:​
COMMent​ on page 702)
Adds a comment to trace 1.
SWE:EGAT:TRAC1:STAT1 ON (see ​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​TRACe<k>[:​
STATe<range>]​ on page 702)
Activates tracing for range 1 of trace 1.
SWE:EGAT:TRAC1:STAR1 3ms (see ​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​TRACe<k>:​
STARt<range>​ on page 702)
Sets the starting point for range 1 on trace 1 at 3 ms.
SWE:EGAT:TRAC1:STop1 5ms (see ​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​TRACe<k>:​
STOP<range>​ on page 703)
Sets the stopping point for range 1 on trace 1 at 5 ms.
SWE:EGAT:TRAC1:PER 5ms (see ​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​TRACe<k>:​ PERiod​
on page 703)
Defines the period for gated triggering to 5 ms.
Adjust Settings ← CCDF
Adjusts the level settings according to the measured difference between peak and minimum power for APD measurement or peak and mean power for CCDF measurement in
order to obtain maximum power resolution. Adjusts the reference level to the current input
signal. For details see also the ​Adjust Ref Lvl softkey.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​STATistics:​SCALe:​AUTO ONCE​ on page 594
Defining Gated Triggering for APD and CCDF
Statistic measurements on pulsed signals can be performed using GATED TRIGGER.
An external frame trigger is required as a time (frame) reference.
The gate ranges define the part of the I/Q capture data taken into account for the statistics
calculation. These ranges are defined relative to a reference point T=0. The gate interval
is repeated for each period until the end of the I/Q capture buffer.
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The reference point T=0 is defined by the external trigger event and the instrument's
trigger offset.
For each trace you can define up to 3 separate ranges of a single period to be traced.
Defining gated triggering
1. Press the "Gated Trigger" softkey to activate gated triggering (see ​"Gated Trigger
(On/Off)" on page 264).
2. Press the "Gate Ranges" softkey to open the "Gate Ranges" dialog (see ​"Gate
Ranges" on page 264).
3. Define the length of the period to be analyzed in the "Period" field.
Note: The period is the same for all traces. If you change the period for one trace, it
is automatically changed for all traces.
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Make sure the defined period is not longer than the acquisition time of the current
measurement. Keep in mind that the acquisition time depends on the bandwidth and
the number of samples settings (see ​"Selecting the number of samples"
on page 257). The current acquisition time is indicated as "AQT" in the channel bar.
4. Optionally, define a description of the trace in the "Comment" field.
5. Activate tracing for the range by selecting "On" in the "Range <number> Use" field
for the corresponding range and trace.
The start and stop time edit fields are ready for input.
Note: The time values have full numerical resolution and are only rounded for display.
6. Define the starting point of the range within the period.
7. Define the stopping point for the range within the period. Make sure the value for the
stopping time is smaller than the length of the period.
8. To define further ranges for the same period in the same trace, repeat steps 5- 7 for
the same trace.
To define further ranges for the same period in a different trace, repeat steps 4- 7 for
a different trace.
9. If necessary, activate the configured traces in the "Trace" menu.
Gated statistics configuration example
A statistics evaluation has to be done over the useful part of the signal between t3 and
t4. The period of the GSM signal is 4.61536 ms
t1: External positive trigger slope
t2: Begin of burst (after 25 µs)
t3: Begin of useful part, to be used for statistics (after 40 µs)
t4: End of useful part, to be used for statistics (after 578 µs)
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t5: End of burst (after 602 µs)
The instrument has to be configured as follows:
3.3.5.9
Trigger Offset
t2 – t1 = 25 µs
now the gate ranges are relative to t2
Range1 Start
t3 – t2 = 15 µs
start of range 1 relative to t2
Range1 End
t4 – t2 = 553 µs
end of range 1 relative to t2
Measuring the Third Order Intercept Point (TOI)
In order to measure the third order intercept point (TOI), a two-tone signal with equal
carrier levels is expected at the R&S FSV input. Marker 1 and marker 2 (both normal
markers) are set to the maximum of the two signals. Marker 3 and marker 4 are placed
on the intermodulation products.
The R&S FSV calculates the third order intercept point from the level difference between
the first 2 markers and the markers 3 and 4 and displays it in the marker field.
The third order intercept point is measured using the "TOI" softkey, see ​"TOI"
on page 184.
A measurement example is described in ​chapter 2.3.2, "Intermodulation Measurements", on page 14.
About TOI Measurement
If several signals are applied to a transmission two-port device with nonlinear characteristic, intermodulation products appear at its output at the sums and differences of the
signals. The nonlinear characteristic produces harmonics of the useful signals which
intermodulate at the characteristic. The intermodulation products of lower order have a
special effect since their level is largest and they are near the useful signals. The intermodulation product of third order causes the highest interference. It is the intermodulation
product generated from one of the useful signals and the 2nd harmonic of the second
useful signal in case of two-tone modulation.
The frequencies of the intermodulation products are above and below the useful signals.
The ​figure 3-19 shows intermodulation products PI1 and PI2 generated by the two useful
signals PU1 and PU2.
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Fig. 3-19: Intermodulation products PU1 and PU2
The intermodulation product at fI2 is generated by mixing the 2nd harmonic of useful signal
PU2 and signal PU1, the intermodulation product at fI1 by mixing the 2nd harmonic of useful
signal PU1 and signal PU2.
fi1 = 2 × fu1 – fu2 (6)
fi2 = 2 × fu2 – fu1 (7)
Dependency on level of useful signals
The level of the intermodulation products depends on the level of the useful signals. If
the two useful signals are increased by 1 dB, the level of the intermodulation products
increases by 3 dB, which means that spacing aD3 between intermodulation signals and
useful signals are reduced by 2 dB. This is illustrated in ​figure 3-20.
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Fig. 3-20: Dependency of intermodulation level on useful signal level
The useful signals at the two-port output increase proportionally with the input level as
long as the two-port is in the linear range. A level change of 1 dB at the input causes a
level change of 1 dB at the output. Beyond a certain input level, the two-port goes into
compression and the output level stops increasing. The intermodulation products of the
third order increase three times as much as the useful signals. The intercept point is the
fictitious level where the two lines intersect. It cannot be measured directly since the
useful level is previously limited by the maximum two-port output power.
Calculation method
It can be calculated from the known line slopes and the measured spacing aD3 at a given
level according to the following formula:
IP3 
aD 3
 PN
2
The 3rd order intercept point (TOI), for example, is calculated for an intermodulation of 60
dB and an input level PU of -20 dBm according to the following formula:
IP3 
60
 (20dBm)  10dBm
2
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Intermodulation-free dynamic range
The "Intermodulation-free dynamic range", i.e. the level range in which no internal intermodulation products are generated if two-tone signals are measured, is determined by
the 3rd order intercept point, the phase noise and the thermal noise of the signal analyzer.
At high signal levels, the range is determined by intermodulation products. At low signal
levels, intermodulation products disappear below the noise floor, i.e. the noise floor and
the phase noise of the signal analyzer determine the range. The noise floor and the phase
noise depend on the resolution bandwidth that has been selected. At the smallest resolution bandwidth, the noise floor and phase noise are at a minimum and so the maximum
range is obtained. However, a large increase in sweep time is required for small resolution
bandwidths. It is, therefore, best to select the largest resolution bandwidth possible to
obtain the range that is required. Since phase noise decreases as the carrier-offset
increases, its influence decreases with increasing frequency offset from the useful signals.
The following diagrams illustrate the intermodulation-free dynamic range as a function of
the selected bandwidth and of the level at the input mixer (= signal level – set RF attenuation) at different useful signal offsets.
Fig. 3-21: Intermodulation-free range of the R&S FSV as a function of level at the input mixer and the
set resolution bandwidth
(Useful signal offset = 1 MHz, DANL = -145 dBm/Hz, TOI = 15 dBm; typical values at 2
GHz)
The optimum mixer level, i.e. the level at which the intermodulation distance is at its
maximum, depends on the bandwidth. At a resolution bandwidth of 10 Hz, it is approx.
-35 dBm and at 1 kHz increases to approx. -30 dBm.
Phase noise has a considerable influence on the intermodulation-free range at carrier
offsets between 10 and 100 kHz ( ​figure 3-21). At greater bandwidths, the influence of
the phase noise is greater than it would be with small bandwidths. The optimum mixer
level at the bandwidths under consideration becomes almost independent of bandwidth
and is approx. -40 dBm.
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Fig. 3-22: Intermodulation-free dynamic range of the R&S FSV as a function of level at the input mixer
and of the selected resolution bandwidth
(Useful signal offset = 10 to 100 kHz, DANL = -145 dBm/Hz, TOI = 15 dBm; typical values
at 2 GHz).
If the intermodulation products of a DUT with a very high dynamic range are to be measured and the resolution bandwidth to be used is therefore very small, it is best to measure
the levels of the useful signals and those of the intermodulation products separately using
a small span. The measurement time will be reduced- in particular if the offset of the
useful signals is large. To find signals reliably when frequency span is small, it is best to
synchronize the signal sources and the R&S FSV.
Measurement Results
As a result of the TOI measurement, the following values are displayed in the marker
area of the diagram:
Label
Description
TOI
Third-order intercept point
M1
Maximum of first useful signal
M2
Maximum of second useful signal
M3
First intermodulation product
M4
Second intermodulation product
Remote command
The TOI can also be queried using the remote command ​CALCulate<n>:​
MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​TOI:​RESult?​ on page 550.
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Softkeys for TOI Measurements
TOI..............................................................................................................................279
└ Marker 1 / Marker 2 / Marker 3 / … Marker 16,/ Marker Norm/Delta............279
└ Search Signals..............................................................................................279
TOI
Opens a submenu and activates the measurement of the 3rd order intercept point.
A two-tone signal with equal carrier levels is expected at the R&S FSV input. Marker 1
and marker 2 (both normal markers) are set to the maximum of the two signals. Marker
3 and marker 4 are placed on the intermodulation products.
The R&S FSV calculates the third order intercept point from the level difference between
the first 2 markers and the markers 3 and 4 and displays it in the marker field.
For general information on measuring the TOI see ​chapter 3.3.5.9, "Measuring the Third
Order Intercept Point (TOI)", on page 274.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​TOI[:​STATe]​ on page 551
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​TOI:​RESult?​ on page 550
Marker 1 / Marker 2 / Marker 3 / … Marker 16,/ Marker Norm/Delta ← TOI
The "Marker X" softkey activates the corresponding marker and opens an edit dialog box
to enter a value for the marker to be set to. Pressing the softkey again deactivates the
selected marker.
If a marker value is changed using the rotary knob, the step size is defined via the ​Stepsize
Standard or ​Stepsize Sweep Points softkeys.
Marker 1 is always the reference marker for relative measurements. If activated, markers
2 to 16 are delta markers that refer to marker 1. These markers can be converted into
markers with absolute value display using the "Marker Norm/Delta" softkey. If marker 1
is the active marker, pressing the "Marker Norm/Delta" softkey switches on an additional
delta marker.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>[:​STATe]​ on page 523
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​X​ on page 532
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​Y?​ on page 534
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>[:​STATe]​ on page 476
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​X​ on page 486
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​X:​RELative​ on page 487
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​Y?​ on page 487
Search Signals ← TOI
Activates all markers.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​TOI:​SEARchsignal ONCE​ on page 551
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3.3.5.10
Measuring the AM Modulation Depth
The AM modulation depth, also known as a modulation index, indicates by how much the
modulated signal varies around the carrier amplitude. It is defined as:
MDepth = peak signal amplitude / unmodulated carrier amplitude
So for MDepth = 0.5, for example, the carrier amplitude varies by 50% above and below
its unmodulated level, and for h = 1.0 it varies by 100%.
You can measure the modulation depth of a modulated signal using the ​AM Mod Depth
function.
When this function is activated, marker 1 is set to the peak level, which is considered to
be the carrier level. Deltamarkers 2 and 3 are automatically set symmetrically to the carrier on the adjacent peak values of the trace. The markers can be adjusted manually, if
necessary.
The R&S FSV calculates the power at the marker positions from the measured levels.
The AM modulation depth is calculated as the ratio between the power values at the
reference marker and at the delta markers. If the powers of the two AM side bands are
unequal, the mean value of the two power values is used for AM modulation depth calculation.
A remote control programming example is described in ​chapter 4.3.2.3, "Measuring the
AM Modulation Depth", on page 856 and a example of how to perform the measurement
manually in the R&S FSV Quick Start Guide in chapter "Measurement Examples".
Measurement results
The AM modulation depth in percent is displayed as a result of the measurement, indicated in the marker results as "MDepth".
It can also be queried using the remote command ​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​
FUNCtion:​MDEPth:​RESult?​ on page 544.
Softkeys for AM Modulation Depth Measurements
AM Mod Depth............................................................................................................280
└ Marker 1 / Marker 2 / Marker 3 / … Marker 16,/ Marker Norm/Delta............281
└ Search Signals..............................................................................................281
AM Mod Depth
Activates the measurement of the AM modulation depth. An AM-modulated carrier is
required on the screen to ensure correct operation.
When this function is activated, marker 1 is set to the peak level, which is considered to
be the carrier level. Deltamarkers 2 and 3 are automatically set symmetrically to the carrier on the adjacent peak values of the trace. An edit dialog box is displayed for deltamarker 2 in order to adjust the position manually.
When the position of deltamarker 2 is changed, deltamarker 3 is moved symmetrically
with respect to the reference marker 1.
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Deltamarker 3, on the other hand, can be moved for fine adjustment irrespective of marker
2.
Marker 1 can also be moved manually for re-adjustment without affecting the position of
the deltamarkers.
For general information on measuring the AM modulation depth see ​chapter 3.3.5.10,
"Measuring the AM Modulation Depth", on page 280.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​MDEPth[:​STATe]​ on page 545
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​MDEPth:​RESult?​ on page 544
Marker 1 / Marker 2 / Marker 3 / … Marker 16,/ Marker Norm/Delta ← AM Mod Depth
The "Marker X" softkey activates the corresponding marker and opens an edit dialog box
to enter a value for the marker to be set to. Pressing the softkey again deactivates the
selected marker.
If a marker value is changed using the rotary knob, the step size is defined via the ​Stepsize
Standard or ​Stepsize Sweep Points softkeys.
Marker 1 is always the reference marker for relative measurements. If activated, markers
2 to 16 are delta markers that refer to marker 1. These markers can be converted into
markers with absolute value display using the "Marker Norm/Delta" softkey. If marker 1
is the active marker, pressing the "Marker Norm/Delta" softkey switches on an additional
delta marker.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>[:​STATe]​ on page 523
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​X​ on page 532
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​Y?​ on page 534
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>[:​STATe]​ on page 476
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​X​ on page 486
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​X:​RELative​ on page 487
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​Y?​ on page 487
Search Signals ← AM Mod Depth
Activates all markers.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​MDEPth:​SEARchsignal ONCE​
on page 545
3.3.5.11
Measuring Harmonic Distortion
The harmonics and their distortion can be measured using the ​"Harmonic Distortion"
on page 185 function.
With this measurement it is possible to measure the harmonics e.g. from a VCO easily.
In addition the THD (total harmonic distortion) is calculated in % and dB.
With span > 0 Hz, an automatic search for the first harmonic is carried out within the set
frequency range. Also the level is adjusted. In zero span, the center frequency is
unchanged.
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As a result, the zero span sweeps on all harmonics are shown, as well as the RMS values
and the THD (total harmonic distortion).
A measurement example is described in ​chapter 2.2, "Measurement of Harmonics",
on page 11
About Harmonics Distortion Measurement
Measuring the harmonics of a signal is a frequent problem which can be solved best using
a signal analyzer. In general, every signal contains harmonics which are larger than others. Harmonics are particularly critical regarding high-power transmitters such as transceivers because large harmonics can interfere with other radio services.
Harmonics are generated by nonlinear characteristics. They can often be reduced by low
pass filters. Since the signal analyzer has a nonlinear characteristic, e.g. in its first mixer,
measures must be taken to ensure that harmonics produced in the signal analyzer do
not cause spurious results. If necessary, the fundamental wave must be selectively attenuated with respect to the other harmonics with a high pass filter.
Obtainable dynamic range
When harmonics are being measured, the obtainable dynamic range depends on the
second harmonic intercept of the signal analyzer. The second harmonic intercept is the
virtual input level at the RF input mixer at which the level of the 2nd harmonic becomes
equal to the level of the fundamental wave. In practice, however, applying a level of this
magnitude would damage the mixer. Nevertheless, the available dynamic range for
measuring the harmonic distance of a DUT can be calculated relatively easily using the
second harmonic intercept.
As shown in ​figure 3-23, the level of the 2nd harmonic drops by 20 dB if the level of the
fundamental wave is reduced by 10 dB.
Fig. 3-23: Extrapolation of the 1st and 2nd harmonics to the 2nd harmonic intercept at 40 dBm
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The following formula for the obtainable harmonic distortion d2 in dB is derived from the
straight-line equations and the given intercept point:
d2 = S.H.I – PI (1)
where:
d2
=
harmonic distortion
PI
=
mixer level/dBm
S.H.I.
=
second harmonic intercept
The mixer level is the RF level applied to the RF input minus the set RF attenuation.
The formula for the internally generated level P1 at the 2nd harmonic in dBm is:
P1 = 2 * PI – S.H.I. (2)
The lower measurement limit for the harmonic is the noise floor of the signal analyzer.
The harmonic of the measured DUT should – if sufficiently averaged by means of a video
filter – be at least 4 dB above the noise floor so that the measurement error due to the
input noise is less than 1 dB.
The following rules for measuring high harmonic ratios can be derived:
●
Select the smallest possible IF bandwidth for a minimal noise floor.
●
Select an RF attenuation which is high enough to just measure the harmonic ratio.
The maximum harmonic distortion is obtained if the level of the harmonic equals the
intrinsic noise level of the receiver. The level applied to the mixer, according to (2), is:
At a resolution bandwidth of 10 Hz (noise level -143 dBm, S.H.I. = 40 dBm), the optimum
mixer level is – 51.5 dBm. According to (1) a maximum measurable harmonic distortion
of 91.5 dB minus a minimum S/N ratio of 4 dB is obtained.
If the harmonic emerges from noise sufficiently (approx. >15 dB), it is easy to check (by
changing the RF attenuation) whether the harmonics originate from the DUT or are generated internally by the signal analyzer. If a harmonic originates from the DUT, its level
remains constant if the RF attenuation is increased by 10 dB. Only the displayed noise
is increased by 10 dB due to the additional attenuation. If the harmonic is exclusively
generated by the signal analyzer, the level of the harmonic is reduced by 20 dB or is lost
in noise. If both – the DUT and the signal analyzer – contribute to the harmonic, the
reduction in the harmonic level is correspondingly smaller.
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High-Sensitivity Harmonics Measurements
If harmonics have very small levels, the resolution bandwidth required to measure them
must be reduced considerably. The sweep time is, therefore, also increased considerably. In this case, the measurement of individual harmonics is carried out with the
R&S FSV set to a small span. Only the frequency range around the harmonics will then
be measured with a small resolution bandwidth.
Measurement Results
As a result of the harmonics distortion measurement, the zero span sweeps on all detected harmonics are shown in the diagram, separated by red display lines. This provides a
very good overview of the measurement.
In addition, a result table is displayed providing the following information:
●
1st harmonic frequency
●
THD (total harmonic distortion), relative and absolute values
●
For each detected harmonic:
– Frequency
–
RBW
–
Power
The results can also be queried using the remote commands:
THD: ​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​HARMonics:​DISTortion?​
on page 552
List of harmonics: ​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​HARMonics:​LIST?​
on page 553
Softkeys for Harmonic Distortion Measurements
Harmonic Distortion.....................................................................................................284
└ No. of Harmonics..........................................................................................285
└ Harmonic Sweep Time..................................................................................285
└ Harmonic RBW Auto.....................................................................................285
└ Adjust Settings..............................................................................................285
Harmonic Distortion
Opens a submenu to determine the settings for harmonics measurement and activates
the harmonic distortion measurement.
With this measurement you can measure the harmonics of a signal. In addition the THD
(total harmonic distortion) is calculated in % and dB.
With span > 0 Hz, an automatic search for the first harmonic is carried out within the set
frequency range. Also the level is adjusted. In zero span, the center frequency is
unchanged.
In the upper window, the zero span sweeps on all harmonics are shown, separated by
display lines. In the lower window, the mean RMS results are displayed in numerical
values. The THD values are displayed in the marker field.
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For details see ​chapter 3.3.5.11, "Measuring Harmonic Distortion", on page 281.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​HARMonics[:​STATe]​ on page 555
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​HARMonics:​DISTortion?​ on page 552
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​HARMonics:​LIST?​ on page 553
No. of Harmonics ← Harmonic Distortion
Sets the number of harmonics that shall be measured. The range is from 1 to 26.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​HARMonics:​NHARmonics​ on page 554
Harmonic Sweep Time ← Harmonic Distortion
For details refer to the ​Sweeptime Manual softkey in the "Bandwidth" menu.
Harmonic RBW Auto ← Harmonic Distortion
Enables/disables the automatic adjustment of the resolution bandwidth for filter types
Normal (3dB) (Gaussian) and 5-Pole filters. The automatic adjustment is carried out
according to:
"RBWn = RBW1 * n"
If RBWn is not available, the next higher value is used.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​HARMonics:​BANDwidth:​AUTO​
on page 552
Adjust Settings ← Harmonic Distortion
Activates the frequency search in the frequency range that was set before starting the
harmonic measurement (if harmonic measurement was with span > 0) and adjusts the
level.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​HARMonics:​PRESet​ on page 554
3.3.6 Measurement Configuration – MEAS CONFIG Key
The MEAS CONFIG key displays the submenu of the currently activated and running
measurement function, e.g. the submenu of "TOI" or "Harmonic Distortion" (see ​chapter 3.3.5, "Power Measurements – MEAS Key", on page 181, for quick access to the
measurement configuration. If no measurement function is activated, this key has no
effect.
3.3.7 Using Limit Lines and Display Lines – LINES Key
The LINES key is used to configure limit and display lines.
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To open the Lines menu
●
Press the LINES key.
The "Lines" menu and the "Select Limit Line" dialog box are displayed. For details on the
"Select Limit Line" dialog box refer to ​chapter 3.3.7.5, "Selecting a Limit Line",
on page 292.
Menu and softkey description
●
​chapter 3.3.7.1, "Softkeys of the Lines Menu", on page 286
Further information
●
​chapter 3.3.7.2, "Display Lines", on page 290
●
​chapter 3.3.7.3, "Limit Lines (Frequency/Time Lines)", on page 291
Tasks
3.3.7.1
●
​chapter 3.3.7.4, "Working with Lines", on page 291
●
​chapter 3.3.7.5, "Selecting a Limit Line", on page 292
●
​chapter 3.3.7.6, "Creating a New Limit Line", on page 293
●
​chapter 3.3.7.7, "Editing an Existing Limit Line", on page 296
●
​chapter 3.3.7.8, "Creating a New Limit Line Based upon an Existing Limit Line",
on page 296
●
​chapter 3.3.7.9, "Activating/Deactivating a Limit Line", on page 297
Softkeys of the Lines Menu
The following table shows all softkeys available in the "Lines" menu.
Further information
●
​chapter 3.3.7.2, "Display Lines", on page 290
●
​chapter 3.3.7.3, "Limit Lines (Frequency/Time Lines)", on page 291
Tasks
●
​chapter 3.3.7.4, "Working with Lines", on page 291
●
​chapter 3.3.7.5, "Selecting a Limit Line", on page 292
●
​chapter 3.3.7.6, "Creating a New Limit Line", on page 293
●
​chapter 3.3.7.7, "Editing an Existing Limit Line", on page 296
●
​chapter 3.3.7.8, "Creating a New Limit Line Based upon an Existing Limit Line",
on page 296
●
​chapter 3.3.7.9, "Activating/Deactivating a Limit Line", on page 297
Select Traces to check................................................................................................287
Deselect All.................................................................................................................287
New.............................................................................................................................287
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└ Edit Name.....................................................................................................287
└ Edit Comment...............................................................................................287
└ Edit Margin....................................................................................................288
└ Edit Value......................................................................................................288
└ Insert Value...................................................................................................288
└ Delete Value.................................................................................................288
└ Save Limit Line.............................................................................................288
Edit..............................................................................................................................288
Copy to........................................................................................................................288
Delete..........................................................................................................................289
X Offset.......................................................................................................................289
Y Offset.......................................................................................................................289
Display Lines...............................................................................................................289
└ Display Line 1 / Display Line 2......................................................................289
└ Frequency Line 1 / Frequency Line 2 ..........................................................290
└ Time Line 1 / Time Line 2.............................................................................290
Select Traces to check
Opens a dialog box to activate the selected limit line for a trace. One limit line can be
activated for several traces simultaneously. For details see also ​chapter 3.3.7.9, "Activating/Deactivating a Limit Line", on page 297.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​LIMit<k>:​TRACe​ on page 500
​CALCulate<n>:​LIMit<k>:​STATe​ on page 499
Deselect All
Deactivates the selected limit line for all assigned traces. For details see also ​chapter 3.3.7.9, "Activating/Deactivating a Limit Line", on page 297.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​LIMit<k>:​STATe​ on page 499
New
Opens the "Edit Limit Line" dialog box and a submenu to define a new limit line. For details
see also ​chapter 3.3.7.3, "Limit Lines (Frequency/Time Lines)", on page 291 and ​chapter 3.3.7.5, "Selecting a Limit Line", on page 292.
Edit Name ← New
Sets the focus on the "Name" field to enter or change the limit line name. All names must
be compatible with the Windows XP conventions for file names. The limit line data are
stored under this name. The instrument stores all limit lines with LIM as extension.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​LIMit<k>:​LOWer:​MODE​ on page 516
Edit Comment ← New
Sets the focus on the "Comment" field to enter or change a comment for the limit line.
The text must not exceed 40 characters.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​LIMit<k>:​COMMent​ on page 497
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Edit Margin ← New
Sets the focus on the "Margin" field to enter or change a margin for the limit line. The
default setting is 0 dB (i.e. no margin).
Edit Value ← New
Opens an edit dialog box to change an existing x or y value, depending on the selected
column. The softkey is only available if an existing value is selected.
The desired data points are entered in ascending order (two repeated frequencies/time
values are permitted).
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​LIMit<k>:​CONTrol[:​DATA]​ on page 508
​CALCulate<n>:​LIMit<k>:​UPPer[:​DATA]​ on page 519
​CALCulate<n>:​LIMit<k>:​LOWer[:​DATA]​ on page 515
Insert Value ← New
Creates an empty line above the selected data point to enter a new data point.
It is also possible to add a data point at the end of the list, if the focus is set below the
last entry line of the list.
The data points are entered in ascending order (two repeated frequencies/time values
are permitted). If the entered values are not in accordance with the ascending order rule,
an error message is displayed and the values are discarded.
Delete Value ← New
Deletes the selected data point (x and y value). All succeeding data points are shifted up
accordingly. This softkey is only available if an existing value is selected.
Save Limit Line ← New
Saves the currently edited limit line under the name defined in the "Name" field.
Edit
Opens a submenu to edit limit lines. For details see also ​chapter 3.3.7.3, "Limit Lines
(Frequency/Time Lines)", on page 291 and ​chapter 3.3.7.7, "Editing an Existing Limit
Line", on page 296.
The submenu contains the same commands as the "New" menu, see ​"New"
on page 287.
Remote command:
see ​chapter 4.3.3, "Limit Lines and Limit Test", on page 857
Copy to
Copies the data of the selected limit line and displays it in the "Edit Limit Line" dialog box.
If the limit line is edited and saved under a new name, a new limit line can be easily
generated by parallel translation or editing of an existing limit line.
For details see also ​chapter 3.3.7.3, "Limit Lines (Frequency/Time Lines)",
on page 291 and ​chapter 3.3.7.8, "Creating a New Limit Line Based upon an Existing
Limit Line", on page 296.
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The submenu contains the same commands as the "New" menu, see ​"New"
on page 287.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​LIMit<k>:​COPY​ on page 497
Delete
Deletes the selected limit line.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​LIMit<k>:​DELete​ on page 498
X Offset
Horizontally shifts a limit line that has been specified for relative frequencies or times (xaxis). The softkey opens an edit dialog box in which the value for shifting can be entered
numerically or via the rotary knob.
Note: This softkey does not have any effect on limit lines that represent absolute values
for the x-axis.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​LIMit<k>:​CONTrol:​OFFSet​ on page 510
Y Offset
Vertically shifts a limit line that has relative values for the y-axis (levels or linear units such
as volt). The softkey opens an edit dialog box in which the value for shifting can be entered
numerically or via the rotary knob.
Note: This softkey does not have any effect on limit lines that represent absolute values
for the y-axis.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​LIMit<k>:​LOWer:​OFFSet​ on page 517
​CALCulate<n>:​LIMit<k>:​UPPer:​OFFSet​ on page 520
Display Lines
Opens a submenu to enable, disable and set display lines. Which softkeys are available
depends on the display mode (frequency or time range).
For details see also ​chapter 3.3.7.2, "Display Lines", on page 290 and ​chapter 3.3.7.4,
"Working with Lines", on page 291.
The submenu contains the following commands:
●
●
●
●
●
●
​"Display Line 1 / Display Line 2" on page 289
​"Display Line 1 / Display Line 2" on page 289
​"Frequency Line 1 / Frequency Line 2 " on page 290
​"Frequency Line 1 / Frequency Line 2 " on page 290
​"Time Line 1 / Time Line 2" on page 290
​"Time Line 1 / Time Line 2" on page 290
Display Line 1 / Display Line 2 ← Display Lines
Enables or disables the level lines 1/2 and opens an edit dialog box to enter the position
of the lines.
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For details see also ​chapter 3.3.7.2, "Display Lines", on page 290 and ​chapter 3.3.7.4,
"Working with Lines", on page 291.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​DLINe<k>​ on page 493
​CALCulate<n>:​DLINe<k>:​STATe​ on page 494
Frequency Line 1 / Frequency Line 2 ← Display Lines
Enables or disables the frequency lines 1/2 (span > 0) and opens an edit dialog box to
enter the position of the lines.
For details see also ​chapter 3.3.7.2, "Display Lines", on page 290 and ​chapter 3.3.7.4,
"Working with Lines", on page 291.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​FLINe<k>​ on page 495
​CALCulate<n>:​FLINe<k>:​STATe​ on page 496
Time Line 1 / Time Line 2 ← Display Lines
Enables or disables the time lines 1/2 (zero span) and opens an edit dialog box to enter
the position of the lines.
For details see also ​chapter 3.3.7.2, "Display Lines", on page 290 and ​chapter 3.3.7.4,
"Working with Lines", on page 291.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​TLINe<Line>​ on page 597
​CALCulate<n>:​TLINe<Line>:​STATe​ on page 597
3.3.7.2
Display Lines
Display lines help to evaluate a trace – as do markers. The function of a display line is
comparable to that of a ruler that can be shifted on the trace in order to mark absolute
values. They are used exclusively to visually mark relevant frequencies or points in time
(span = 0), as well as constant level values. It is not possible to check automatically
whether the points are below or above the marked level values.
For details on setting and switching the display lines on/off see ​chapter 3.3.7.4, "Working
with Lines", on page 291.
Two different types of display lines are provided:
●
Two horizontal level lines for marking levels – Display Line 1 and 2
The level lines are continuous horizontal lines across the entire width of a diagram
and can be shifted in y direction.
●
Two vertical frequency or time lines for marking frequencies or points in time – Frequency/Time Line 1 and 2
The frequency or time lines are continuous vertical lines across the entire height of
the diagram and can be shifted in x direction.
Lables
Each line is identified by one of the following abbreviations in the display:
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3.3.7.3
●
D1: Display Line 1
●
D2: Display Line 2
●
F1: Frequency Line 1
●
F2: Frequency Line 2
●
T1: Time Line 1
●
T2: Time Line 2
Limit Lines (Frequency/Time Lines)
Limit lines are used to define amplitude curves or spectral distribution boundaries on the
display screen which are not to be exceeded. They indicate, for example, the upper limits
for interference radiation or spurious waves which are allowed from a device under test
(DUT). For transmission of information in TDMA systems (e.g. GSM), the amplitude of
the bursts in a timeslot must adhere to a curve that falls within a specified tolerance band.
The lower and upper limits may each be specified by a limit line. Then, the amplitude
curve can be controlled either visually or automatically for any violations of the upper or
lower limits (GO/NOGO test).
The instrument supports limit lines with a maximum of 50 data points. 8 of the limit lines
stored in the instrument can be activated simultaneously. The number of limit lines stored
in the instrument is only limited by the capacity of the flash disk used. Which softkeys are
available depends on the display mode (frequency or time range). For details see also ​
chapter 3.3.7.5, "Selecting a Limit Line", on page 292.
Limit lines are compatible with the current measurement settings, if the following applies:
●
The x unit of the limit line has to be identical to the current setting.
●
The y unit of the limit line has to be identical to the current setting with the exception
of dB based units; all dB based units are compatible with each other.
At the time of entry, the R&S FSV immediately checks that all limit lines are in accordance
with the following guidelines:
3.3.7.4
●
The frequencies/times for each data point must be entered in ascending order, however, for any single frequency/time, two data points may be entered (vertical segment
of a limit line).
●
The data points are allocated in order of ascending frequency/time. Gaps are not
allowed. If gaps are desired, two separate limit lines must be defined and then both
enabled.
●
The entered frequencies/times need not necessarily be selectable in R&S FSV. A
limit line may also exceed the specified frequency or time range. The minimum frequency for a data point is -200 GHz, the maximum frequency is 200 GHz. For the
time range representation, negative times may also be entered. The allowed range
is -1000 s to +1000 s.
Working with Lines
If a line is switched on, the softkey is highlighted.
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Switching a line on or off
1. Press the ​Display Lines softkey.
2. Press the softkey for the required line, e.g. ​Display Line 1 / Display Line 2.
An edit dialog box is opened to enter the position of the line. If the line was switched
off, it is switched on. If it was switched on, it remains switched on.
3. If another softkey is pressed, the edit dialog box for the line is closed, but the line
remains switched on (softkey with highlighted background).
4. When you press the ​Display Line 1 / Display Line 2 softkey for the second time, the
edit dialog box for the line is opened again.
5. When you press the ​Display Line 1 / Display Line 2 softkey the third time, the line is
switched off (softkey without highlighted background).
3.3.7.5
Selecting a Limit Line
●
To display the "Select Limit Line" dialog box, press the LINES key.
All limit lines saved in the default directory and all subdirectories are displayed. For each
limit line, the following information is given:
"Unit"
unit of the y-axis
"Traces"
selected traces to check
"Show"
limit line displayed in the measurement diagram or hidden
"Compatible"
compatibility of the limit line to the current measurement settings
"Offset"
user-definable X- and Y-offset for the limit line
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●
3.3.7.6
To display only the limit lines that are compatible, activate the "Show compatible"
option. For details on compatibility refer to ​chapter 3.3.7.3, "Limit Lines (Frequency/
Time Lines)", on page 291.
Creating a New Limit Line
Press the ​New softkey to define a new limit line.
The "Edit Limit Line" dialog box is displayed. For more details on limit lines refer also to ​
chapter 3.3.7.3, "Limit Lines (Frequency/Time Lines)", on page 291. The following settings can be defined:
Setting
Description
Name
The name under which the limit line is to be stored in the main directory.
To save the limit line in an existing subdirectory, enter the relative path. A new
subdirectory can only be created using the FILE key (for details refer to ​"Save
File / Recall File" on page 69.
Comment
Optional description
Threshold
Absolute threshold value that works as a lower limit for the relative limit values
(only for relative scaling of the y-axis).
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Setting
Description
Margin
A fixed distance to the limit line.
Margins are not as strict as limits and belong to the valid value range, but violation
is also indicated in the display.
Position
Position of data point
Value
Value of data point
X-Axis:
Span setting
●
●
"Hz" for span > 0 Hz
"s" for zero span
Scale mode
●
Absolute: The frequencies or times are interpreted as absolute physical
units.
Relative: In the data point table, the frequencies are referred to the currently
set center frequency. In the zero span mode, the left boundary of the diagram
constitutes the reference.
Relative scaling is always suitable if masks for bursts are to be defined in
zero span or if masks for modulated signals are required for span > 0 Hz.
●
Scale
●
●
Linear
Logarithmic
Y-Axis:
Scale unit
Unit of the y-axis
Scale mode
●
●
Absolute: The limit values refer to absolute levels or voltages.
Relative: The limit values refer to the reference level (Ref Level). Limit values
with the unit dB are always relative values.
Limit type
●
●
Upper limit
Lower limit
In addition, the following functions are available for the limit line:
Defining a threshold
If the scaling of the y-axis is relative, you can define an absolute threshold value that
works as a lower limit for the relative limit values (see figure below).
► Enter a value in the "Threshold" field of the "Edit Limit Line" dialog box.
The function is especially useful for mobile radio applications provided the limit values
are defined in relation to the carrier power as long as they are above an absolute limit
value.
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Defining a margin
A margin is similar to a limit, but less strict and it still belongs to the valid data range. It
can be used as a warning that the limit is almost reached. The margin is not indicated by
a separate line in the display.
► Enter a value in the "Margin" field of the "Edit limit Line" dialog box.
If the limit line is defined as an upper limit, the margin is below the limit line. If the limit
line is defined as a lower limit, the margin is above the limit line.
Entering a new data point
1. Press the "Insert value" button in the dialog, or select an existing data point in the
table and press the ​Insert Value softkey.
2. Enter the new position (x) and value (y) in the edit dialog box.
Changing a data point
1. Press on the data point to be changed in the table.
2. Enter the new position (x) and value (y) in the edit dialog box.
Deleting a data point
1. Press on the data point to be deleted in the table.
2. Press the "Delete" button in the dialog.
Shifting a limit line horizontally
► Select the "Shift x" button and enter a shift width for the x value in the edit dialog box.
Shifting a limit line vertically
► Select the "Shift y" button and enter a shift width for the y value in the edit dialog box.
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Saving the limit line settings
► Press the "Save" button in the dialog.
If an existing name is used, a message box is displayed. You have to confirm before
the limit line is overwritten.
3.3.7.7
Editing an Existing Limit Line
In the "Select Limit Line" dialog box, select the limit line you want to change. For details
see also ​chapter 3.3.7.5, "Selecting a Limit Line", on page 292.
Note that any changes to the special limit lines for spurious and SEM measurements are
automatically overwritten when the sweep list settings are changed.
1. Press the ​"Edit" on page 288 softkey.
2. Edit the data as described in ​chapter 3.3.7.6, "Creating a New Limit Line",
on page 293.
3. Save the limit line ( ​"Save Limit Line" on page 288 softkey).
3.3.7.8
Creating a New Limit Line Based upon an Existing Limit Line
1. In the "Select Limit Line" dialog box, select the limit line you want to use as a basis
for a new limit line. For details see also ​chapter 3.3.7.5, "Selecting a Limit Line",
on page 292.
2. Press the ​Copy to softkey to transfer the data of the limit line into the "Edit Limit
Line" dialog box.
3. Press the ​Edit Name softkey and enter a new name.
4. To shift the complete limit line parallel in the horizontal direction, select the "Shift x"
button and enter an x shift value. In this manner, a new limit line can be easily generated based upon an existing limit line which has been shifted horizontally.
5. To shift the complete limit line parallel in the vertical direction, select the "Shift y"
button and enter a y shift value. In this manner, a new limit line can be easily generated based upon an existing limit line which has been shifted vertically.
6. If required, edit the data as described in ​chapter 3.3.7.5, "Selecting a Limit Line",
on page 292.
7. Save the limit line ( ​Save Limit Line softkey).
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3.3.7.9
Activating/Deactivating a Limit Line
Prerequisites:
The x- and y-units of limit line and current measurement setting have to be compatible.
For details refer to ​chapter 3.3.7.3, "Limit Lines (Frequency/Time Lines)", on page 291.
The limit line has to consist of 2 or more data points.
1. In the "Select Limit Line" dialog box, select the limit line you want to activate/deactivate. For details see also ​chapter 3.3.7.5, "Selecting a Limit Line", on page 292.
2. To activate or deactivate a limit line for a trace, press the ​"Select Traces to check"
on page 287 softkey and select or deselect the trace(s) to which this limit line applies.
3. To deactivate the limit line for all traces, press the ​"Deselect All" on page 287 softkey.
3.3.8 Input/Output Configuration – INPUT/OUTPUT Key
The INPUT/OUTPUT key is used to configure input and output sources for measurement
functions.
3.3.8.1
Softkeys of the Input/Output Menu
The following table shows all softkeys available in the "Input/Output" menu. It is possible
that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is provided in
the corresponding softkey description.
Input (AC/DC)..............................................................................................................298
Noise Source...............................................................................................................298
Video Output...............................................................................................................298
Tracking Generator.....................................................................................................298
Power Sensor..............................................................................................................298
Trigger Out..................................................................................................................299
External Mixer.............................................................................................................299
Probe Config...............................................................................................................299
Signal Source..............................................................................................................299
└ Input Path......................................................................................................299
└ Connected Device.........................................................................................299
└ Input Sample Rate........................................................................................299
└ Full Scale Level.............................................................................................300
└ Level Unit......................................................................................................300
└ Adjust Reference Level to Full Scale Level..................................................300
EXIQ............................................................................................................................300
└ TX Settings...................................................................................................300
└ RX Settings...................................................................................................300
└ Send To........................................................................................................300
└ Firmware Update..........................................................................................301
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└ R&S Support.................................................................................................301
└ DigIConf........................................................................................................301
Digital Output..............................................................................................................301
Digital IQ Info..............................................................................................................302
Input (AC/DC)
Toggles the RF input of the R&S FSV between AC and DC coupling.
This function is not available for input from the R&S Digital I/Q Interface (option R&S FSVB17).
Remote command:
​INPut:​COUPling​ on page 613
Noise Source
Switches the supply voltage for an external noise source on or off. For details on connectors refer to the R&S FSV Quick Start Guide, "Front and Rear Panel" chapter.
Remote command:
​DIAGnostic<n>:​SERVice:​NSOurce​ on page 761
Video Output
Sends a video output signal according to the measured level to the connector on the rear
panel of the R&S FSV.
Note: Video output does not return valid values in IQ or FFT mode.
Remote command:
OUTP:IF VID , see ​OUTPut:​IF[:​SOURce]​ on page 789
Tracking Generator
This softkey is only available if the R&S FSV option Tracking Generator (R&S FSV-B9)
or External Tracking Generator (R&S FSV-B10) or both are installed. It is not available
in I/Q Analyzer mode.
For details see the base unit description.
Power Sensor
For precise power measurement a power sensor can be connected to the instrument via
the front panel (USB connector) or the rear panel (power sensor, option R&S FSV-B5).
The Power Sensor Support firmware option (R&S FSV-K9) provides the power measurement functions for this test setup.
This softkey is only available if the R&S FSV option Power Sensor (R&S FSV-K9) is
installed.
For details see ​chapter 3.9, "Instrument Functions - Power Sensor (R&S FSV-K9)",
on page 400.
For details see the chapter "Instrument Functions Power Sensor (K9)" in the base unit
description.
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Trigger Out
Sets the Trigger Out port in the Additional Interfaces (option R&S FSV-B5 only) to low or
high. Thus, you can trigger an additional device via the external trigger port, for example.
Remote command:
​OUTPut:​TRIGger​ on page 790
External Mixer
Opens the submenu for the external mixer.
For details see the base unit description.
Probe Config
With firmware R&S FSV 1.61SP2 or newer, active probes are supported (via an adapter).
This softkey opens an edit dialog box to activate and configure a connected probe which
is to provide an input signal. It is only available if a probe is connected to the instrument's
RF INPUT and USB connectors.
For details see ​chapter 3.3.8.2, "Using Active Probes for Input", on page 302.
Remote command:
​PROBe[:​STATe]​ on page 628
​PROBe:​SETup:​MODE​ on page 628
Signal Source
Opens a dialog box to select the signal source.
For "Digital Baseband (I/Q)", the source can also be configured here.
Input Path ← Signal Source
Defines whether the "RF Radio Frequency" or the "Digital IQ" input path is used for
measurements. "Digital IQ" is only available if option R&S FSV-B17 (R&S Digital I/Q
Interface) is installed.
Note: Note that the input path defines the characteristics of the signal, which differ significantly between the RF input and digital input.
Remote command:
​INPut:​SELect​ on page 617
Connected Device ← Signal Source
Displays the name of the device connected to the optional R&S Digital I/Q Interface
(R&S FSV-B17) to provide Digital IQ input. The device name cannot be changed here.
The device name is unknown.
Remote command:
​INPut:​DIQ:​CDEVice​ on page 613
Input Sample Rate ← Signal Source
Defines the sample rate of the digital I/Q signal source. This sample rate must correspond
with the sample rate provided by the connected device, e.g. a generator.
Remote command:
​INPut:​DIQ:​SRATe​ on page 615
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Full Scale Level ← Signal Source
The "Full Scale Level" defines the level that should correspond to an I/Q sample with the
magnitude "1".
The level can be defined either in dBm or Volt.
Remote command:
​INPut:​DIQ:​RANGe[:​UPPer]​ on page 615
Level Unit ← Signal Source
Defines the unit used for the full scale level.
Remote command:
​INPut:​DIQ:​RANGe[:​UPPer]:​UNIT​ on page 615
Adjust Reference Level to Full Scale Level ← Signal Source
If enabled, the reference level is adjusted to the full scale level automatically if any change
occurs.
(See the ​Auto Level softkey).
Remote command:
​INPut:​DIQ:​RANGe:​COUPling​ on page 614
EXIQ
Opens a configuration dialog box for an optionally connected R&S EX-IQ-BOX and a
submenu to access the main settings quickly.
Note: The EX-IQ-Box functionality is not supported for R&S FSV models 1321.3008Kxx.
If the optional R&S DigIConf software is installed, the submenu consists only of one key
to access the software. Note that R&S DigIConf requires a USB connection (not
LAN!) from the R&S FSV to the R&S EX-IQ-BOX in addition to the R&S Digital I/Q
Interface connection. R&S DigIConf version 2.10 or higher is required.
For typical applications of the R&S EX-IQ-BOX see also the description of the R&S Digital
I/Q Interface (R&S FSV-B17) in the base unit manual.
For details on configuration see the "R&S®Ex I/Q Box - External Signal Interface Module
Manual".
For details on installation and operation of the R&S DigIConf software, see the "R&S®EXIQ-BOX Digital Interface Module R&S®DigIConf Software Operating Manual".
TX Settings ← EXIQ
Opens the "EX-IQ-BOX Settings" dialog box to configure the R&S FSV for digital output
to a connected device ("Transmitter" Type).
RX Settings ← EXIQ
Opens the "EX-IQ-BOX Settings" dialog box to configure the R&S FSV for digital input
from a connected device ("Receiver" Type).
Send To ← EXIQ
The configuration settings defined in the dialog box are transferred to the R&S EX-IQBOX.
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Firmware Update ← EXIQ
If a firmware update for the R&S EX-IQ-BOX is delivered with the R&S FSV firmware,
this function is available. In this case, when you select the softkey, the firmware update
is performed.
R&S Support ← EXIQ
Stores useful information for troubleshooting in case of errors.
This data is stored in the C:\R_S\Instr\user\Support directory on the instrument.
If you contact the Rohde&Schwarz support to get help for a certain problem, send these
files to the support in order to identify and solve the problem faster.
DigIConf ← EXIQ
Starts the optional R&S DigIConf application. This softkey is only available if the optional
software is installed.
To return to the R&S FSV application, press any key on the front panel. The application
is displayed with the "EXIQ" menu, regardless of which key was pressed.
For details on the R&S DigIConf application, see the "R&S®EX-IQ-BOX Digital Interface
Module R&S®DigIConf Software Operating Manual".
Note: If you close the R&S DigIConf window using the "Close" icon, the window is minimized, not closed.
If you select the "File > Exit" menu item in the R&S DigIConf window, the application is
closed. Note that in this case the settings are lost and the EX-IQ-BOX functionality is no
longer available until you restart the application using the "DigIConf" softkey in the
R&S FSV once again.
Remote command:
Remote commands for the R&S DigIConf software always begin with SOURce:EBOX.
Such commands are passed on from the R&S FSV to the R&S DigIConf automatically
which then configures the R&S EX-IQ-BOX via the USB connection.
All remote commands available for configuration via the R&S DigIConf software are
described in the "R&S®EX-IQ-BOX Digital Interface Module R&S®DigIConf Software
Operating Manual".
Example 1:
SOURce:EBOX:*RST
SOURce:EBOX:*IDN?
Result:
"Rohde&Schwarz,DigIConf,02.05.436 Build 47"
Example 2:
SOURce:EBOX:USER:CLOCk:REFerence:FREQuency 5MHZ
Defines the frequency value of the reference clock.
Digital Output
Opens a dialog box to enable a digital output stream to the optional R&S Digital I/Q
Interface (R&S FSV-B17), if available.
The displayed sample rate is identical to the sample rate defined under ​Data Acquisition (I/Q Analyzer) and is not editable here.
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For details see "Digital Output" in the description of the R&S Digital I/Q Interface for the
base unit.
Remote command:
​OUTPut:​DIQ​ on page 625
Digital IQ Info
Displays a dialog box with information on the digital I/Q input and output connection via
the optional R&S Digital I/Q Interface (R&S FSV-B17), if available. The information
includes:
●
●
●
●
●
Device identification
Used port
(Maximum) digital input/output sample rates and maximum digital input/output transfer rates
Status of the connection protocol
Status of the PRBS descewing test
For details see "Interface Status Information" in "Instrument Functions - R&S Digital I/Q
Interface (Option R&S FSV-B17)" in the description of the base unit.
Remote command:
​INPut:​DIQ:​CDEVice​ on page 613
3.3.8.2
Using Active Probes for Input
When the input from the device under test requires high impedance, an active probe can
be connected between the device and the R&S FSV.
With firmware R&S FSV 1.61SP2 or newer, active probes from the R&S RT-ZS series
are supported when using the new probe adapter RT-ZA9.
When the probe has been connected to and recognized by the R&S FSV, a pre-defined
"Generic Probe" transducer factor with 20 dB is automatically activated and the unit of
the spectrum analyzer is changed to dBμV. (The same applies after presetting the instrument.) Then the system is ready to analyze circuit points that cannot be loaded with the
50 Ω of the analyzer input, but require a higher impedance.
Optionally, the probe can be deactivated while remaining connected to the R&S FSV, for
instance to analyze the digital input from the probe without considering the transducer
factor.
All RT probes (except for ZS10E) have a micro button. The action for the micro button
can be defined. Currently, either a single sweep or no action can be performed when the
button is pressed. By default, when you press the probe's micro button, the R&S FSV is
set to single sweep mode and a single sweep is performed. This allows you to start a
measurement whilst applying the probe to a certain pin on the board under test.
When using RT probes, consider the following:
●
Active probes require operating power from the instrument and have a proprietary
interface to the instrument.
●
The probe is automatically recognized by the instrument, no adjustment is required.
●
Connections should be as short as possible to keep the usable bandwidth high.
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●
Observe the operating voltage range.
For more information on RT probes, refer to the probe's documentation.
Connecting Active Probes
In order to use active probes with an R&S FSV, an RT-ZA9 adapter is required. The RTZA9 provides an interface between the probe's BNC socket and and the analyzer's Nsocket and provides the necessary supply voltages for the probe via the USB connection.
Using this adapter, the following probes are currently supported:
●
R&S RT-ZS10
●
RT-ZS10E
●
RT-ZS20
●
RT-ZS30
To connect an active probe, proceed as follows:
1. Connect the adapter to the RF Input connector on the R&S FSV.
2. Connect the adapter's USB cable to a USB connector on the R&S FSV.
3. Connect the probe to the adapter.
Once the probe and adapter have been connected to the R&S FSV correctly and the
analyzer has recognized the probe, the "Generic Probe" transducer is activated and you
can start a measurement.
To determine whether the probe has been connected properly and recognized by the
R&S FSV, use the remote control command PROB:SET:STAT? (see ​PROBe:​SETup:​
STATe?​ on page 628).
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To perform a measurement with the probe
► Place the probe on the required position on the test equipment, then press the micro
button on the probe to perform a single sweep measurement.
Probe Configuration
Principally, the probe is automatically recognized by the instrument and no further adjustment is required. However, you can switch off the probe while leaving it connected, and
you can configure which action is to be performed when the probe's micro button is
pressed.
To display the "Probe Configuration" dialog box, select the INPUT/OUTPUT key and then
the "Probe Config" softkey.
The following settings are available:
State............................................................................................................................304
Name...........................................................................................................................304
Serial Number.............................................................................................................304
Part number................................................................................................................304
Micro Button Action.....................................................................................................304
State
Activates a connected probe. Use this command to switch off the probe and measure the
digital input without considering the transducer factor of the probe.
Remote command:
​PROBe[:​STATe]​ on page 628
Name
Indicates the name of the connected probe.
Remote command:
​PROBe:​SETup:​NAME?​ on page 628
Serial Number
Indicates the serial number of the connected probe.
Remote command:
​PROBe:​ID:​SRNumber?​ on page 627
Part number
Indicates the material part number of the connected probe.
Remote command:
​PROBe:​ID:​PARTnumber?​ on page 627
Micro Button Action
Defines which action is taken when the probe's micro button is pressed.
"RunSingle"
A single sweep is performed.
"No Action"
No action is taken.
Remote command:
​PROBe:​SETup:​MODE​ on page 628
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3.3.9 Performing Measurements – RUN SINGLE/RUN CONT Keys
The RUN SINGLE and RUN CONT keys are used to start measurement tasks.
●
RUN SINGLE switches to single sweep mode and performs a single sweep, just as
the ​Single Sweep softkey in the "Sweep" menu does.
●
RUN CONT switches to continuous sweep mode and starts sweeping, just as the ​
Continuous Sweep softkey in the "Sweep" menu does.
3.4 Measurement Modes
This section describes the provided measurement modes, the change of measurement
modes and the access to the menus of all active measurement modes. For details refer
to the following sections:
●
​chapter 3.4.1, "Measurement Mode Selection – MODE Key", on page 305
●
​chapter 3.4.2, "Measurement Mode Menus – HOME Key", on page 310
3.4.1 Measurement Mode Selection – MODE Key
The MODE key provides a quick access to the menu of the current measurement mode
and a fast change of the measurement mode. You can choose from the following measurement modes:
●
​chapter 3.4.1.1, "Spectrum Mode", on page 306
●
​chapter 3.4.1.2, "I/Q Analyzer Mode", on page 307
●
​chapter 3.4.1.3, "Analog Demodulation Mode (Analog Demodulation Option,
R&S FSV-K7)", on page 307
●
​chapter 3.4.1.4, "FM Stereo Mode (Option R&S FSV-K7S)", on page 307
●
​chapter 3.4.1.5, "Bluetooth Mode (Option R&S FSV-K8)", on page 307
●
​chapter 3.4.1.6, "GSM/EDGE Analyzer Mode (GSM/EDGE Option, R&S FSV-K10)",
on page 307
●
​chapter 3.4.1.7, "Noise Figure Mode (Noise Figure Measurements Option, R&S FSVK30)", on page 308
●
​chapter 3.4.1.8, "Phase Noise Mode (Phase Noise Measurements Option, R&S FSVK40)", on page 308
●
​chapter 3.4.1.9, "Vector Signal Analysis mode (VSA Option, R&S FSV-K70)",
on page 308
●
​chapter 3.4.1.10, "3G FDD BTS Mode (3GPP Base Station Measurements Option,
R&S FSV-K72)", on page 308
●
​chapter 3.4.1.11, "3G FDD UE Mode (3GPP User Equipment Measurements Option,
R&S FSV-K73)", on page 308
●
​chapter 3.4.1.12, "TDS BTS and TDS UE Mode (Option R&S FSV-K76/-K77)",
on page 308
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●
​chapter 3.4.1.13, "CDMA2000 BTS and MS Mode (Options R&S FSV-K82/-K83)",
on page 309
●
​chapter 3.4.1.14, "1xEV-DO BTS and MS Mode (Options R&S FSV-K84/-K85)",
on page 309
●
​chapter 3.4.1.15, "WLAN Mode (WLAN TX Measurements Option, R&S FSV-K91)",
on page 309 (not available for R&S FSV 40 model 1307.9002K39)
●
​chapter 3.4.1.16, "WiMAX Mode (WiMAX IEEE 802.16 OFDM, OFDMA Measurements Option, R&S FSV-K93)", on page 309 (not available for R&S FSV 40 model
1307.9002K39)
●
​chapter 3.4.1.17, "LTE Mode", on page 310
(not available for R&S FSV 40 model 1307.9002K39)
The "Power Sensor" mode can be accessed via the INPUT/OUTPUT key. This mode
provides measurement functions for Power Sensors. The "Power Sensor" mode requires
an instrument equipped with the corresponding optional software.
Spectrogram mode
Equipped with the firmware option R&S FSV-K14, the R&S FSV provides a graphical
overview of changes in frequency and amplitude over a specified period of time. Spectrogram mode can be accessed viat the TRACE key.
For details see the description of R&S FSV-K14 in the base unit document.
To change the measurement mode
1. Press the MODE key.
A menu with the currently available measurement modes is displayed.
2. To activate a different mode, press the corresponding softkey.
Storing application-specific settings when switching modes
To store application-specific settings when you switch modes, activate the "Application
Setup Recovery" softkey in the "Setup" menu before starting a new mode (see ​"Application Setup Recovery" on page 64).
3.4.1.1
Spectrum Mode
In the "Spectrum" mode the provided functions correspond to those of a conventional
spectrum analyzer. The analyzer measures the frequency spectrum of the test signal
over the selected frequency range with the selected resolution and sweep time, or, for a
fixed frequency, displays the waveform of the video signal. This mode is set in the initial
configuration.
You can use up to four spectrum displays simultaneously. The additional spectrum displays are independent of each other. You can set up each display as you like without
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affecting measurement configurations in another one. Each additional spectrum display
opens in an extra tab labelled "Spectrum 1" to "Spectrum 4".
► To add a new spectrum display, press the "New Spectrum" softkey.
The R&S FSV opens an additional "Spectrum" tab each time you press the softkey
up to a maximum of four.
SCPI Command:
​INSTrument[:​SELect]​ on page 618
​INSTrument:​NSELect​ on page 621
​INSTrument:​CREate[:​NEW]​ on page 620
3.4.1.2
I/Q Analyzer Mode
The "I/Q Analyzer" mode provides measurement and display functions for digital I/Q signals. For details refer to ​chapter 3.5, "Instrument Functions - I/Q Analyzer",
on page 310.
3.4.1.3
Analog Demodulation Mode (Analog Demodulation Option, R&S FSV-K7)
The "Analog Demodulation" mode requires an instrument equipped with the corresponding optional software. This mode provides measurement functions for demodulating AM,
FM, or PM signals.
For details see the R&S FSV-K7 document.
3.4.1.4
FM Stereo Mode (Option R&S FSV-K7S)
The "FM Stereo" mode provides measurement functions for demodulating FM Stereo
signals. This mode requires an instrument equipped with the corresponding optional
software, as well as the Analog Demodulation option (R&S FSV-K7).
For details see the R&S FSV-K7 document.
3.4.1.5
Bluetooth Mode (Option R&S FSV-K8)
The "Bluetooth" mode requires an instrument equipped with the corresponding optional
software. This mode provides measurement functions for performing Bluetooth measurements.
For details see the R&S FSV-K8 document.
3.4.1.6
GSM/EDGE Analyzer Mode (GSM/EDGE Option, R&S FSV-K10)
The "GSM/EDGE Analyzer" mode requires an instrument equipped with the corresponding optional software. This mode provides measurement functions for downlink or uplink
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signals according to the Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) standards for GSM/
EDGE in different domains (Time, Frequency, I/Q).
For details see the R&S FSV-K10 document.
3.4.1.7
Noise Figure Mode (Noise Figure Measurements Option, R&S FSV-K30)
The "Noise Figure" mode requires an instrument equipped with the corresponding
optional software. This mode provides noise figure measurements.
For details see the R&S FSV-K30 document.
3.4.1.8
Phase Noise Mode (Phase Noise Measurements Option, R&S FSV-K40)
The "Phase Noise" mode requires an instrument equipped with the corresponding
optional software. This mode provides measurements for phase noise tests.
For details see the R&S FSV-K40 document.
3.4.1.9
Vector Signal Analysis mode (VSA Option, R&S FSV-K70)
The "Vector Signal Analysis" (VSA) mode requires an instrument equipped with the corresponding optional software. This mode provides measurement functions for vector signal analysis.
For details refer to the R&S FSV-K70 document.
3.4.1.10
3G FDD BTS Mode (3GPP Base Station Measurements Option, R&S FSV-K72)
The "3G FDD BTS" mode requires an instrument equipped with the corresponding
optional software. This mode provides test measurements for WCDMA downlink signals
(base station signals) according to the test specification.
For details see the R&S FSV-K72 document.
3.4.1.11
3G FDD UE Mode (3GPP User Equipment Measurements Option, R&S FSV-K73)
The "3G FDD UE" mode requires an instrument equipped with the corresponding optional
software. This mode provides test measurements for WCDMA uplink signals (mobile
signals) according to the test specification.
For details see the R&S FSV-K73 document.
3.4.1.12
TDS BTS and TDS UE Mode (Option R&S FSV-K76/-K77)
Equipped with the firmware application R&S FSV-K76, the R&S FSV performs code
domain measurements on forward link signals according to the 3GPP standard (Third
Generation Partnership Project). TD-SCDMA BTS Analysis is performed in "TDS BTS"
mode.
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Equipped with the firmware application R&S FSV-K77, the R&S FSV performs code
domain measurements on downlink signals according to the 3GPP standard. TD-SCDMA
ue Analysis is performed in "TDS ue" mode.
For details see the R&S FSV-K76/-K77 document.
3.4.1.13
CDMA2000 BTS and MS Mode (Options R&S FSV-K82/-K83)
The "CDMA2000 BTS" mode requires an instrument equipped with the optional softwareR&S FSV-K82. This mode provides test measurements for basic CDMA2000 base
station tests.
The "CDMA2000 MS" mode requires an instrument equipped with the optional softwareR&S FSV-K83. This mode provides test measurements for basic CDMA2000 mobile
station tests.
For details see the R&S FSV-K82/-K83 document.
3.4.1.14
1xEV-DO BTS and MS Mode (Options R&S FSV-K84/-K85)
The "1xEV-DO BTS" mode requires an instrument equipped with the optional software
R&S FSV-K84. This mode provides Code Domain measurements on forward link signals
according to the 3GPP2 Standard (Third Generation Partnership Project 2) High Rate
Packet Data, generally referred to as "1xEV-DO".
The "1xEV-DO MS" mode requires an instrument equipped with the optional software
R&S FSV-K85. This mode provides Code Domain measurements on reverse link signals
according to the 3GPP2 Standard (Third Generation Partnership Project 2) High Rate
Packet Data, generally referred to as "1xEV-DO".
For details see the R&S FSV-K84/-K85 document.
3.4.1.15
WLAN Mode (WLAN TX Measurements Option, R&S FSV-K91)
The "WLAN" mode requires an instrument equipped with the corresponding optional
software. This mode provides Wireless LAN TX measurement functions according to
IEEE 802.11 a, b, g and j standards.
This option is not available for R&S FSV 40 model 1307.9002K39.
For details see the R&S FSV-K91 document.
3.4.1.16
WiMAX Mode (WiMAX IEEE 802.16 OFDM, OFDMA Measurements Option,
R&S FSV-K93)
The "WiMAX" mode requires an instrument equipped with the WiMAX IEEE 802.16
OFDM, OFDMA Measurements option (R&S FSV-K93). This mode provides WiMAX and
WiBro measurement functions according to IEEE standards 802.16-2004 OFDM and
802.16e-2005 OFDMA/WiBro. It includes the WiMAX 802.16 OFDM Measurements
option.
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This option is not available for R&S FSV 40 model 1307.9002K39.
For details see the R&S FSV-K93 document.
3.4.1.17
LTE Mode
The LTE mode requires an instrument equipped with one of the EUTRA/LTE DL measurement applications that are available for the R&S FSV.
●
R&S FSV-K100 LTE FDD DL
●
R&S FSV-K101 LTE FDD UL
●
R&S FSV-K104 LTE TDD DL
●
R&S FSV-K105 LTE TDD UL
The application provides EUTRA/LTE measurement functions according to the 3GPP
standard.
This option is not available for R&S FSV 40 model 1307.9002K39.
For details see the corresponding manuals.
3.4.2 Measurement Mode Menus – HOME Key
The HOME key provides a quick access to the root menu of the current measurement
mode.
For the basic "Spectrum" mode (except for tracking generator measurements, see ​chapter 3.6, "Instrument Functions – Tracking Generator (Options R&S FSV-B9/ R&S FSVB10)", on page 336), the softkeys of this menu are identical to the ​chapter 3.2.2.1, "Softkeys of the Frequency Menu", on page 89.
For details on changing the mode refer to ​chapter 3.4.1, "Measurement Mode Selection
– MODE Key", on page 305.
3.5 Instrument Functions - I/Q Analyzer
The I/Q Analyzer provides functions to capture, visualize and evaluate I/Q data. These
functions include:
●
capturing data from the RF input or an R&S Digital I/Q Interface (with R&S FSV-B17
option)
●
displaying I/Q data in various result types, e.g. separate Real/Imag diagrams or as
an I/Q-vector
●
providing I/Q data to a digital output for further processing in other devices (with
R&S FSV-B17 option)
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Menu and softkey description
The "I/Q Analyzer" menu is displayed when you select the "I/Q Analyzer" softkey in the
MODE menu. The same menu is displayed when you press the MEAS or MEAS
CONFIG keys in "I/Q Analyzer" mode. For details see ​chapter 3.5.1, "Softkeys and
Parameters of the I/Q Analyzer Menu", on page 312.
The "Amplitude" menu, which is displayed when you select the AMPT key, is described
in ​chapter 3.5.2, "Softkeys of the Amplitude Menu in I/Q Analyzer Mode", on page 320.
The "Input/Output" menu, which is displayed when you select the INPUT/OUTPUT key,
as well as the "Save/Recall" menu (SAVE/RCL key) contain the same functions in I/Q
Analyzer mode as in "Spectrum" mode (see ​chapter 3.3.8.1, "Softkeys of the Input/Output
Menu", on page 297).
The "Marker" menu is identical to the one in Spectrum mode for display modes "Magnitude","Real/Imag" and "Spectrum" (except for "Marker Zoom"), see ​"Display Config"
on page 317. For the other display modes this menu is not available.
The "Marker To" menu is identical to the one in Spectrum mode. For the "Real / Imag (I/
Q)" display mode, an additional function is available, see ​chapter 3.5.4, "Softkeys of the
Marker To Menu in I/Q Analyzer Mode", on page 329.
The "Marker Function" menu, which is displayed when you select the MKR FUNC key,
is described in ​chapter 3.5.5, "Softkeys of the Marker Function Menu in I/Q Analyzer
Mode", on page 329.
The "Trace" menu is identical to the one in Spectrum mode, except in "I/Q Vector" display
mode. In this case, only 1 trace is available and no detector can be selected (see ​chapter 3.2.8.1, "Softkeys of the Trace Menu", on page 123).
The "Trigger" menu, which is displayed when you select the TRIG key, is described in
see ​chapter 3.5.3, "Softkeys of the Trigger Menu in I/Q Analyzer Mode", on page 324.
The "Span", "BW", and "Lines" menus are not available in this mode. For digital input,
the "Frequency" menu is also not available. All other menus are identical to those described for "Spectrum" mode (see ​chapter 3.2, "Measurement Parameters", on page 86 and
​chapter 3.3, "Measurement Functions", on page 150.
Remote Control
Measurements with the I/Q Analyzer can also be performed via remote control.
The required commands are contained in the following subsystems:
●
​chapter 4.2.3.9, "INPut Subsystem", on page 612
●
​"TRACe:IQ Subsystem" on page 736
●
​chapter 4.2.3.12, "OUTPut Subsystem", on page 625
Further information
●
Some general information on working with I/Q data can be found in ​chapter 3.5.6,
"Working with I/Q Data", on page 333.
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●
When measuring I/Q data, you may make use of the optional R&S Digital I/Q Interface
(R&S FSV-B17); for details see ​chapter 3.7, "Instrument Functions - R&S Digital I/Q
Interface (Option R&S FSV-B17)", on page 361.
3.5.1 Softkeys and Parameters of the I/Q Analyzer Menu
This section describes the softkeys and parameters of the "I/Q Analyzer" submenu which
is displayed when you select the "I/Q Analyzer" softkey in the MODE menu. The same
menu is displayed when you press the MEAS or MEAS CONFIG keys in "I/Q Analyzer"
mode.
I/Q Analyzer................................................................................................................313
└ Signal Source................................................................................................313
└ Input Path...........................................................................................313
└ Connected Device..............................................................................313
└ Input Sample Rate..............................................................................313
└ Full Scale Level..................................................................................313
└ Level Unit............................................................................................314
└ Adjust Reference Level to Full Scale Level........................................314
└ EXIQ.............................................................................................................314
└ TX Settings.........................................................................................314
└ RX Settings.........................................................................................314
└ Send To..............................................................................................314
└ Firmware Update................................................................................314
└ R&S Support.......................................................................................314
└ DigIConf..............................................................................................315
└ Level.............................................................................................................315
└ Reference Level..................................................................................315
└ Auto Level...........................................................................................315
└ Preamp On/Off....................................................................................315
└ Data Acquisition............................................................................................316
└ Sample Rate.......................................................................................316
└ Filter BW.............................................................................................316
└ No Filter..............................................................................................316
└ Meas Time..........................................................................................316
└ Record Length....................................................................................317
└ Display Config...............................................................................................317
└ Digital Output................................................................................................319
└ Digital IQ Info................................................................................................319
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I/Q Analyzer
Starts the I/Q Analyzer evaluation mode and opens the submenu for the I/Q analyzer,
which allows you to configure and display measurements of I/Q data, e.g. digital baseband signals.
Remote command:
Starting I/Q Analyzer:
​TRACe<n>:​IQ[:​STATe]​ on page 737
Selecting evaluation mode:
​TRACe<n>:​IQ:​EVAL​ on page 744
Selecting the I/Q Analyzer display configuration
​CALCulate<n>:​FORMat​ on page 598
Signal Source ← I/Q Analyzer
Opens a dialog box to select the signal source.
For "Digital Baseband (I/Q)", the source can also be configured here.
Input Path ← Signal Source ← I/Q Analyzer
Defines whether the "RF Radio Frequency" or the "Digital IQ" input path is used for
measurements. "Digital IQ" is only available if option R&S FSV-B17 (R&S Digital I/Q
Interface) is installed.
Note: Note that the input path defines the characteristics of the signal, which differ significantly between the RF input and digital input.
Remote command:
​INPut:​SELect​ on page 617
Connected Device ← Signal Source ← I/Q Analyzer
Displays the name of the device connected to the optional R&S Digital I/Q Interface
(R&S FSV-B17) to provide Digital IQ input. The device name cannot be changed here.
The device name is unknown.
Remote command:
​INPut:​DIQ:​CDEVice​ on page 613
Input Sample Rate ← Signal Source ← I/Q Analyzer
Defines the sample rate of the digital I/Q signal source. This sample rate must correspond
with the sample rate provided by the connected device, e.g. a generator.
Remote command:
​INPut:​DIQ:​SRATe​ on page 615
Full Scale Level ← Signal Source ← I/Q Analyzer
The "Full Scale Level" defines the level that should correspond to an I/Q sample with the
magnitude "1".
The level can be defined either in dBm or Volt.
Remote command:
​INPut:​DIQ:​RANGe[:​UPPer]​ on page 615
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Level Unit ← Signal Source ← I/Q Analyzer
Defines the unit used for the full scale level.
Remote command:
​INPut:​DIQ:​RANGe[:​UPPer]:​UNIT​ on page 615
Adjust Reference Level to Full Scale Level ← Signal Source ← I/Q Analyzer
If enabled, the reference level is adjusted to the full scale level automatically if any change
occurs.
(See the ​Auto Level softkey).
Remote command:
​INPut:​DIQ:​RANGe:​COUPling​ on page 614
EXIQ ← I/Q Analyzer
Opens a configuration dialog box for an optionally connected R&S EX-IQ-BOX and a
submenu to access the main settings quickly.
Note: The EX-IQ-Box functionality is not supported for R&S FSV models 1321.3008Kxx.
If the optional R&S DigIConf software is installed, the submenu consists only of one key
to access the software. Note that R&S DigIConf requires a USB connection (not
LAN!) from the R&S FSV to the R&S EX-IQ-BOX in addition to the R&S Digital I/Q
Interface connection. R&S DigIConf version 2.10 or higher is required.
For typical applications of the R&S EX-IQ-BOX see also the description of the R&S Digital
I/Q Interface (R&S FSV-B17) in the base unit manual.
For details on configuration see the "R&S®Ex I/Q Box - External Signal Interface Module
Manual".
For details on installation and operation of the R&S DigIConf software, see the "R&S®EXIQ-BOX Digital Interface Module R&S®DigIConf Software Operating Manual".
TX Settings ← EXIQ ← I/Q Analyzer
Opens the "EX-IQ-BOX Settings" dialog box to configure the R&S FSV for digital output
to a connected device ("Transmitter" Type).
RX Settings ← EXIQ ← I/Q Analyzer
Opens the "EX-IQ-BOX Settings" dialog box to configure the R&S FSV for digital input
from a connected device ("Receiver" Type).
Send To ← EXIQ ← I/Q Analyzer
The configuration settings defined in the dialog box are transferred to the R&S EX-IQBOX.
Firmware Update ← EXIQ ← I/Q Analyzer
If a firmware update for the R&S EX-IQ-BOX is delivered with the R&S FSV firmware,
this function is available. In this case, when you select the softkey, the firmware update
is performed.
R&S Support ← EXIQ ← I/Q Analyzer
Stores useful information for troubleshooting in case of errors.
This data is stored in the C:\R_S\Instr\user\Support directory on the instrument.
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If you contact the Rohde&Schwarz support to get help for a certain problem, send these
files to the support in order to identify and solve the problem faster.
DigIConf ← EXIQ ← I/Q Analyzer
Starts the optional R&S DigIConf application. This softkey is only available if the optional
software is installed.
To return to the R&S FSV application, press any key on the front panel. The application
is displayed with the "EXIQ" menu, regardless of which key was pressed.
For details on the R&S DigIConf application, see the "R&S®EX-IQ-BOX Digital Interface
Module R&S®DigIConf Software Operating Manual".
Note: If you close the R&S DigIConf window using the "Close" icon, the window is minimized, not closed.
If you select the "File > Exit" menu item in the R&S DigIConf window, the application is
closed. Note that in this case the settings are lost and the EX-IQ-BOX functionality is no
longer available until you restart the application using the "DigIConf" softkey in the
R&S FSV once again.
Remote command:
Remote commands for the R&S DigIConf software always begin with SOURce:EBOX.
Such commands are passed on from the R&S FSV to the R&S DigIConf automatically
which then configures the R&S EX-IQ-BOX via the USB connection.
All remote commands available for configuration via the R&S DigIConf software are
described in the "R&S®EX-IQ-BOX Digital Interface Module R&S®DigIConf Software
Operating Manual".
Example 1:
SOURce:EBOX:*RST
SOURce:EBOX:*IDN?
Result:
"Rohde&Schwarz,DigIConf,02.05.436 Build 47"
Example 2:
SOURce:EBOX:USER:CLOCk:REFerence:FREQuency 5MHZ
Defines the frequency value of the reference clock.
Level ← I/Q Analyzer
Opens a dialog box to define the level settings.
Reference Level ← Level ← I/Q Analyzer
Specifies the reference level for the I/Q measurement.
Remote command:
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]:​RVALue​ on page 605
Auto Level ← Level ← I/Q Analyzer
If enabled, the reference level is adjusted to the full scale level automatically if the full
scale level changes.
Remote command:
​INPut:​DIQ:​RANGe:​COUPling​ on page 614
Preamp On/Off ← Level ← I/Q Analyzer
Switches the preamplifier on and off.
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If option R&S FSV-B22 is installed, the preamplifier is only active below 7 GHz.
If option R&S FSV-B24 is installed, the preamplifier is active for all frequencies.
When measuring Spurious Emissions, using this softkey automatically opens the "Sweep
List" dialog, see ​"Sweep List dialog box" on page 248.
This function is not available for input from the R&S Digital I/Q Interface (option R&S FSVB17).
Remote command:
​INPut:​GAIN:​STATe ​ on page 617
Data Acquisition ← I/Q Analyzer
Opens a dialog box to configure data acquisition in I/Q Analyzer mode.
Sample Rate ← Data Acquisition ← I/Q Analyzer
Defines the I/Q data sample rate of the R&S FSV.
This rate may differ from the sample rate of the connected device (see ​"Input Sample
Rate" on page 299).
If the R&S Digital I/Q Interface (R&S FSV-B17) is active, restrictions to the sample rate
apply, see ​table 3-13.
For R&S FSV 40 model 1307.9002K39, the maximum sample rate is 12.5 MHz.
Remote command:
​TRACe<n>:​IQ:​SRATe​ on page 747
Filter BW ← Data Acquisition ← I/Q Analyzer
Displays the flat, usable bandwidth of the final I/Q data.
This value is dependent on the defined ​Data Acquisition and the defined ​Signal Source
and cannot be edited manually.
To avoid using a filter and use the ​Input Sample Rate instead, select the "No Filter" option.
Remote command:
​TRACe<n>:​IQ:​BWIDth​ on page 738
No Filter ← Data Acquisition ← I/Q Analyzer
This setting is only available when using the Digital Baseband Interface (R&S FSV-B17).
If enabled, no digital decimation filter is used during data acquisition. Thus, the ​Sample
Rate is identical to the input sample rate configured for the Digital I/Q input source (see ​
"Input Sample Rate" on page 299).
Note, however, that in this case noise, artifacts, and the second IF side band may not be
suppressed in the captured I/Q data.
Remote command:
​TRACe<n>:​IQ:​DIQFilter​ on page 742
Meas Time ← Data Acquisition ← I/Q Analyzer
Defines the I/Q acquisition time. By default, the measurement time is calculated as the
number of I/Q samples ("Record Length") divided by the sample rate. If you change the
measurement time, the ​Record Length is automatically changed, as well.
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For details on the maximum number of samples see also ​chapter 3.5.6, "Working with I/
Q Data", on page 333.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​TIME​ on page 705
Record Length ← Data Acquisition ← I/Q Analyzer
Defines the number of I/Q samples to record. By default, the number of sweep points is
used. The record length is calculated as the measurement time multiplied by the sample
rate. If you change the record length, the ​Meas Time is automatically changed, as well.
Remote command:
​TRACe<n>:​IQ:​RLENgth​ on page 745
​TRACe<n>:​IQ:​SET​ on page 746
Display Config ← I/Q Analyzer
Opens a selection list to specify the result display configuration. The following displays
are available:
"Magnitude"
Shows the values in time domain
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"Spectrum"
Displays the frequency spectrum of the captured I/Q samples.
"I/Q-Vector"
Displays the captured samples in an I/Q-plot. The samples are connected by a line.
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"Real/Imag (I/
Q)"
Displays the I and Q values in separate diagrams.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​FORMat​ on page 598
Digital Output ← I/Q Analyzer
Opens a dialog box to enable a digital output stream to the optional R&S Digital I/Q
Interface (R&S FSV-B17), if available.
The displayed sample rate is identical to the sample rate defined under ​Data Acquisition (I/Q Analyzer) and is not editable here.
For details see "Digital Output" in the description of the R&S Digital I/Q Interface for the
base unit.
Remote command:
​OUTPut:​DIQ​ on page 625
Digital IQ Info ← I/Q Analyzer
Displays a dialog box with information on the digital I/Q input and output connection via
the optional R&S Digital I/Q Interface (R&S FSV-B17), if available. The information
includes:
●
●
●
●
●
Device identification
Used port
(Maximum) digital input/output sample rates and maximum digital input/output transfer rates
Status of the connection protocol
Status of the PRBS descewing test
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For details see "Interface Status Information" in "Instrument Functions - R&S Digital I/Q
Interface (Option R&S FSV-B17)" in the description of the base unit.
Remote command:
​INPut:​DIQ:​CDEVice​ on page 613
3.5.2 Softkeys of the Amplitude Menu in I/Q Analyzer Mode
In I/Q Analyzer mode, the "Amplitude" menu, which is displayed when you select the
AMPT key, contains the following functions.
If the display configuration for the I/Q Analyzer is set to "I/Q Vector" or "Real/Imag (I/
Q)", the ​Range and ​Unit functions are not available.
Ref Level.....................................................................................................................320
Range..........................................................................................................................320
└ Range Log 100 dB........................................................................................321
└ Range Log 50 dB..........................................................................................321
└ Range Log 10 dB..........................................................................................321
└ Range Log 5 dB............................................................................................321
└ Range Log 1 dB............................................................................................322
└ Range Log Manual........................................................................................322
└ Range Linear %............................................................................................322
└ Range Lin. Unit.............................................................................................322
Unit..............................................................................................................................322
Y-Axis Max..................................................................................................................323
Ref Level Offset..........................................................................................................323
Ref Level Position.......................................................................................................323
Grid Abs/Rel ...............................................................................................................323
Ref Level
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the reference level in the current unit (dBm, dBµV, etc).
The reference level is the maximum value the AD converter can handle without distortion
of the measured value. Signal levels above this value will not be measured correctly,
which is indicated by the "IFOVL" status display.
Remote command:
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]:​RLEVel​ on page 604
Range
Opens a submenu to define the display range of the level axis.
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Range Log 100 dB ← Range
Sets the level display range to 100 dB.
Remote command:
Logarithmic scaling:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​
SPACing​ on page 603
Display range:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y 100DB, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]​
on page 603
Range Log 50 dB ← Range
Sets the level display range to 50 dB.
Remote command:
Logarithmic scaling:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​
SPACing​ on page 603
Display range:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y 50DB, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]​
on page 603
Range Log 10 dB ← Range
Sets the level display range to 10 dB.
Remote command:
Logarithmic scaling:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​
SPACing​ on page 603
Display range:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y 10DB, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]​
on page 603
Range Log 5 dB ← Range
Sets the level display range to 5 dB.
Remote command:
Logarithmic scaling:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​
SPACing​ on page 603
Display range:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y 5DB, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]​
on page 603
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Range Log 1 dB ← Range
Sets the level display range to 1 dB.
Remote command:
Logarithmic scaling:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​
SPACing​ on page 603
Display range:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y 1DB, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]​
on page 603
Range Log Manual ← Range
Opens an edit dialog box to define the display range of a logarithmic level axis manually.
Remote command:
Logarithmic scaling:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​
SPACing​ on page 603
Display range:
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]​ on page 603
Range Linear % ← Range
Selects linear scaling for the level axis in %.
The grid is divided into decadal sections.
Markers are displayed in the selected unit ("Unit" softkey). Delta markers are displayed
in % referenced to the voltage value at the position of marker 1. This is the default setting
for linear scaling.
Remote command:
DISP:TRAC:Y:SPAC LIN, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​SPACing​
on page 603
Range Lin. Unit ← Range
Selects linear scaling in dB for the level display range, i.e. the horizontal lines are labeled
in dB.
Markers are displayed in the selected unit ("Unit" softkey). Delta markers are displayed
in dB referenced to the power value at the position of marker 1.
Remote command:
DISP:TRAC:Y:SPAC LDB, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​SPACing​
on page 603
Unit
Opens the "Unit" submenu to select the unit for the level axis.
The default setting is dBm.
If a transducer is switched on, the softkey is not available.
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In general, the signal analyzer measures the signal voltage at the RF input. The level
display is calibrated in RMS values of an unmodulated sine wave signal. In the default
state, the level is displayed at a power of 1 mW (= dBm). Via the known input impedance
(50 Ω or 75 Ω), conversion to other units is possible. The following units are available and
directly convertible:
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
dBm
dBmV
dBμV
dBμA
dBpW
Volt
Ampere
Watt
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​UNIT:​POWer​ on page 597
Y-Axis Max
Opens an edit dialog box to specify the maximum value of the y-axis in either direction
(in Volts). Thus, the y-axis scale starts at -<Y-AxisMax> and ends at +<Y-AxisMax>.
This command is only available if the display configuration for the I/Q Analyzer is set to
"I/Q Vector" or "Real/Imag (I/Q)", see ​"Display Config" on page 317.
Ref Level Offset
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the arithmetic level offset. This offset is added to the
measured level irrespective of the selected unit. The scaling of the y-axis is changed
accordingly. The setting range is ±200 dB in 0.1 dB steps.
Remote command:
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]:​RLEVel:​OFFSet​ on page 604
Ref Level Position
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the reference level position, i.e. the position of the
maximum AD converter value on the level axis. The setting range is from -200 to
+200 %, 0 % corresponding to the lower and 100 % to the upper limit of the diagram.
Remote command:
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]:​RPOSition​ on page 605
Grid Abs/Rel
Switches between absolute and relative scaling of the level axis (not available with
"Linear" range).
"Abs"
Absolute scaling: The labeling of the level lines refers to the absolute
value of the reference level. Absolute scaling is the default setting.
"Rel"
Relative scaling: The upper line of the grid is always at 0 dB. The scaling
is in dB whereas the reference level is always in the set unit (for details
on unit settings see the "Unit" softkey).
Remote command:
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]:​MODE​ on page 604
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3.5.3 Softkeys of the Trigger Menu in I/Q Analyzer Mode
In I/Q Analyzer mode, the "Trigger" menu, which is displayed when you select the
TRIG key, contains the following functions:
Trg/Gate Source..........................................................................................................324
└ Free Run.......................................................................................................324
└ External.........................................................................................................324
└ Video.............................................................................................................325
└ RF Power......................................................................................................325
└ IF Power/BB Power.......................................................................................325
└ Power Sensor...............................................................................................326
└ Time..............................................................................................................327
└ Digital IQ.......................................................................................................327
Trigger Level...............................................................................................................327
Trigger Polarity............................................................................................................327
Trigger Offset..............................................................................................................328
Repetition Interval.......................................................................................................328
Trigger Hysteresis.......................................................................................................329
Trigger Holdoff............................................................................................................329
Trg/Gate Source
Opens the "Trigger/Gate Source" dialog box to select the trigger/gate mode.
As gate modes, all modes except "Power Sensor" are available. For details see also ​
chapter 3.2.9.3, "Using Gated Sweep Operation", on page 147.
The default setting is "Free Run". If a trigger mode other than "Free Run" has been set,
the enhancement label "TRG" is displayed and the trigger source is indicated.
Note: When triggering or gating is activated, the squelch funciton is automatically disabled (see ​"Squelch" on page 163).
Remote command:
​TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​SOURce​ on page 753
​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​SOURce​ on page 701
Free Run ← Trg/Gate Source
The start of a sweep is not triggered. Once a measurement is completed, another is
started immediately.
Remote command:
TRIG:SOUR IMM, see ​TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​SOURce​ on page 753
External ← Trg/Gate Source
Defines triggering via a TTL signal at the "EXT TRIG/GATE IN" input connector on the
rear panel.
Remote command:
TRIG:SOUR EXT, see ​TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​SOURce​ on page 753
SWE:EGAT:SOUR EXT for gated triggering, see ​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​SOURce​
on page 701
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Video ← Trg/Gate Source
Defines triggering by the displayed voltage.
A horizontal trigger line is shown in the diagram. It is used to set the trigger threshold
from 0 % to 100 % of the diagram height.
Video mode is only available in the time domain.
Remote command:
TRIG:SOUR VID, see ​TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​SOURce​ on page 753
SWE:EGAT:SOUR VID for gated triggering, see ​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​SOURce​
on page 701
RF Power ← Trg/Gate Source
Defines triggering of the measurement via signals which are outside the measurement
channel.
This trigger mode is available with detector board 1307.9554.02 Rev 05.00 or higher. It
is not available for input from the R&S Digital I/Q Interface (option R&S FSV-B17). If RF
Power trigger mode is selected and digital baseband input is activated, the trigger mode
is automatically switched to "Free Run".
In RF Power trigger mode the instrument uses a level detector at the first intermediate
frequency. The detector threshold can be selected in a range between - 50 dBm and
-10 dBm at the input mixer. The resulting trigger level at the RF input lies within the
following range:
(-24dBm + RF Att ) ≤ Triggerlevel ≤ (+5dBm + RF Att), max. 30 dBm, for Preamp = OFF
(-40dBm + RF Att ) ≤ Triggerlevel ≤ (-11dBm + RF Att), max. 30 dBm, for Preamp = ON
with
500 MHz ≤ InputSignal ≤ 7 GHz
Note: If input values outside of this range occur (e.g. for fullspan measurements), the
sweep may be aborted and a message indicating the allowed input values is displayed
in the status bar.
A ​Trigger Offset, ​Trg/Gate Polarity and ​Trigger Holdoff can be defined for the RF trigger
to improve the trigger stability, but no hysteresis.
Remote command:
TRIG:SOUR RFP, see ​TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​SOURce​ on page 753
SWE:EGAT:SOUR RFP for gated triggering, see ​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​SOURce​
on page 701
IF Power/BB Power ← Trg/Gate Source
For this purpose, the R&S FSV uses a level detector at the second intermediate frequency.
The available trigger levels depend on the RF attenuation and preamplification. A reference level offset, if defined, is also considered.
For details on available trigger levels and trigger bandwidths see the data sheet.
The bandwidth at the intermediate frequency depends on the RBW and sweep type:
Sweep mode:
● RBW > 500 kHz: 40 MHz, nominal
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●
RBW ≤ 500 kHz: 6 MHz, nominal
FFT mode:
● RBW > 20 kHz: 40 MHz, nominal
● RBW ≤ 20 kHz: 6 MHz, nominal
Note: Be aware that in auto sweep type mode, due to a possible change in sweep types,
the bandwidth may vary considerably for the same RBW setting.
The R&S FSV is triggered as soon as the trigger level is exceeded around the selected
frequency (= start frequency in the frequency sweep).
Thus, the measurement of spurious emissions, e.g. for pulsed carriers, is possible even
if the carrier lies outside the selected frequency span.
For digital input via the R&S Digital I/Q Interface (R&S FSV-B17), the baseband power
("BB Power") is used as the trigger source.
Remote command:
TRIG:SOUR IFP, see ​TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​SOURce​ on page 753
TRIG:SOUR BBP for digital input
SWE:EGAT:SOUR IFP for gated triggering, see ​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​SOURce​
on page 701
Power Sensor ← Trg/Gate Source
Uses an external power sensor as a trigger function. This option is only available if the
R&S FSV-K9 Power Sensor option is installed and a power sensor is connected and
configured.
(See ​chapter 3.9, "Instrument Functions - Power Sensor (R&S FSV-K9)", on page 400.)
Power sensors are configured in the "Input/Output" menu, see ​chapter 3.9.3, "Configuring
an External Power Trigger", on page 405.
If a power sensor is selected as the trigger mode, the following softkeys are not available;
these settings are configured in the "Power Sensor Configuration" dialog box (see ​chapter 3.9.5, "Power Sensor Configuration Dialog", on page 409).
●
●
●
●
​Trg/Gate Level
​Trg/Gate Polarity
​Trigger Hysteresis
​Trigger Holdoff
Note: For R&S power sensors, the "Gate Mode" Lvl is not supported. The signal sent by
these sensors merely reflects the instant the level is first exceeded, rather than a time
period. However, only time periods can be used for gating in level mode. Thus, the trigger
impulse from the sensors is not long enough for a fully gated measurement; the measurement cannot be completed.
Remote command:
TRIG:SOUR PSE, see ​TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​SOURce​ on page 753
SWE:EGAT:SOUR PSE for gated triggering, see ​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​SOURce​
on page 701
​TRACe<n>:​IQ:​SET​ on page 746
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Time ← Trg/Gate Source
Opens an edit dialog box to define a repetition interval in which the measurement is
triggered. The shortest interval is 2 ms.
Remote command:
TRIG:SOUR TIME​TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​SOURce​ on page 753
Digital IQ ← Trg/Gate Source
For I/Q Analyzer or AnalogDemod mode only:
Defines triggering of the measurement directly via the LVDS connector. In the submenu
you must specify which general purpose bit (GP0 to GP5) will provide the trigger data.
This trigger mode is available for input from the R&S Digital I/Q Interface (option
R&S FSV-B17) only.
A ​Trigger Offset, and ​Trg/Gate Polarity can be defined for the Digital IQ trigger to improve
the trigger stability, but no hysteresis or holdoff value.
The following table describes the assignment of the general purpose bits to the LVDS
connector pins.
(See ​table 3-20)
Table 3-10: Assignment of general purpose bits to LVDS connector pins
Bit
LVDS pin
GP0
SDATA4_P - Trigger1
GP1
SDATA4_P - Trigger2
GP2
SDATA0_P - Reserve1
GP3
SDATA4_P - Reserve2
GP4
SDATA0_P - Marker1
GP5
SDATA4_P - Marker2
Remote command:
TRIG:SOUR GP0, see ​TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​SOURce​ on page 753
SWE:EGAT:SOUR RFP for gated triggering, see ​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​SOURce​
on page 701
Trigger Level
Defines the trigger level as a numeric value.
In the trigger mode "Time", this softkey is not available.
Remote command:
​TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​LEVel:​IFPower​ on page 752
​TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​LEVel:​VIDeo​ on page 752
For digital input via the R&S Digital I/Q Interface, R&S FSV-B17:
​TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​LEVel:​BBPower​ on page 751
Trigger Polarity
Sets the polarity of the trigger source.
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The sweep starts after a positive or negative edge of the trigger signal. The default setting
is "Pos". The setting applies to all modes with the exception of the "Free Run" and
"Time" mode.
"Pos"
Level triggering: the sweep is stopped by the logic "0" signal and restarted by the logical "1" signal after the gate delay time has elapsed.
"Neg"
Edge triggering: the sweep is continued on a "0" to "1" transition for the
gate length duration after the gate delay time has elapsed.
Remote command:
​TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​SLOPe​ on page 752
​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​POLarity​ on page 701
Trigger Offset
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the time offset between the trigger signal and the start
of the sweep.
offset > 0:
Start of the sweep is delayed
offset < 0:
Sweep starts earlier (pre-trigger)
Only possible for span = 0 (e.g. I/Q Analyzer mode) and gated trigger
switched off
Maximum allowed range limited by the sweep time:
pretriggermax = sweep time
When using the R&S Digital I/Q Interface (R&S FSV-B17) with I/Q Analyzer
mode, the maximum range is limited by the number of pretrigger samples.
See ​table 3-14.
In the "External" or "IF Power" trigger mode, a common input signal is used for both trigger
and gate. Therefore, changes to the gate delay will affect the trigger delay (trigger offset)
as well.
Tip: To determine the trigger point in the sample (for "External" or "IF Power" trigger
mode), use the ​TRACe<n>:​IQ:​TPISample?​ command.
In the "Time" trigger mode, this softkey is not available.
Remote command:
​TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​HOLDoff[:​TIME]​ on page 750
Repetition Interval
Opens an edit dialog box to define a repetition interval in which the measurement is
triggered. The shortest interval is 2 ms. This softkey is only available if the trigger source
"Time" is selected (see ​"Time" on page 142).
Remote command:
​TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​TIME:​RINTerval​ on page 754
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Trigger Hysteresis
Defines the value for the trigger hysteresis for "IF power" or "RF Power" trigger sources.
The hysteresis in dB is the value the input signal must stay below the power trigger level
in order to allow a trigger to start the measurement. The range of the value is between 3
dB and 50 dB with a step width of 1 dB.
Remote command:
​TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​IFPower:​HYSTeresis​ on page 751
Trigger Holdoff
Defines the value for the trigger holdoff. The holdoff value in s is the time which must
pass before triggering, in case another trigger event happens.
This softkey is only available if "IFPower", "RF Power" or "BBPower" is the selected trigger source.
Remote command:
​TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​IFPower:​HOLDoff​ on page 750
For digital input via the R&S Digital I/Q Interface, R&S FSV-B17:
​TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​BBPower:​HOLDoff​ on page 750
3.5.4 Softkeys of the Marker To Menu in I/Q Analyzer Mode
In I/Q Analyzer mode, The "Marker To" menu is identical to the one in Spectrum mode
(see ​chapter 3.3.4.1, "Softkeys of the Marker To Menu", on page 172). For the "Real/
Imag (I/Q)" display mode, however, an additional function is available.
Search Settings
Opens a dialog box to define which data is used for marker search functions.
Note: The search settings apply to all markers, not only the currently selected one.
"Search Real"
Marker search functions are performed on the real trace of the I/Q
measurement.
"Search Imag"
Marker search functions are performed on the imaginary trace of the I/
Q measurement.
"Search Magni- Marker search functions are performed on the magnitude of the I and
Q data.
tude"
Remote command:
​"CALCulate:MARKer:FUNCtion Subsystem" on page 535
3.5.5 Softkeys of the Marker Function Menu in I/Q Analyzer Mode
In I/Q Analyzer mode, the "Marker Function" menu is similar to the one in Spectrum mode
(see ​chapter 3.3.3.1, "Softkeys of the Marker Function Menu", on page 159). For the "I/
Q Vector" display mode, however, this menu is not available.
Select Marker (No)......................................................................................................330
Signal Count................................................................................................................330
n dB down...................................................................................................................330
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Marker Peak List.........................................................................................................331
└ Peak List On/Off............................................................................................331
└ Sort Mode Freq/Lvl.......................................................................................331
└ Max Peak Count...........................................................................................331
└ Peak Excursion.............................................................................................332
└ Left Limit.......................................................................................................332
└ Right Limit.....................................................................................................332
└ Threshold......................................................................................................332
└ ASCII File Export..........................................................................................332
└ Decim Sep....................................................................................................333
└ Marker Number.............................................................................................333
Select Marker (No)
Opens a submenu to select one of 16 markers and define whether the marker is a normal
or a delta marker (see ​"Marker 1 / Marker 2 / Marker 3 / … Marker 16,/ Marker Norm/
Delta" on page 151). "(No)" indicates the number of the currently active marker.
See ​"Marker 1 / Marker 2 / Marker 3 / … Marker 16,/ Marker Norm/Delta" on page 151.
Signal Count
Switches the frequency counter on or off, and opens an edit dialog box to define the
resolution of the frequency counter, if enabled. The frequency is counted at the position
of the reference marker (marker 1). If no marker is activate, marker 1 is switched on and
positioned on the largest signal.
The sweep stops at the reference marker until the frequency counter has delivered a
result. The result is displayed in the marker field (see ​figure 3-9), labeled with [Tx CNT].
For more information see ​chapter 3.3.3.5, "Frequency Measurement with the Frequency
Counter", on page 168.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​COUNt​ on page 523
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​COUNt:​FREQuency?​ on page 524
n dB down
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a value to define the level spacing of the two temporary
markers to the right and left of marker 1 (default setting: 3 dB). Activates the temporary
markers T1 and T2. The values of the temporary markers (T1, T2) and the entered value
(ndB) are displayed in the marker field.
If a positive value is entered, the markers T1 and T2 are placed below the active reference
marker. If a negative value (e.g. for notch filter measurements) is entered, the markers
T1 and T2 are placed above the active reference marker. Marker T1 is placed to the left
and marker T2 to the right of the reference marker.
In the marker table, the following results are displayed:
Span setting
Parameter name
Description
span > 0
Bw
frequency spacing of the two temporary markers
Q factor
quality of the displayed bandwidth value (Bw)
PWid
pulse width between the two temporary markers
span = 0
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If it is not possible to form the frequency spacing for the n dB value (e.g. because of noise
display), dashes instead of a measured value are displayed.
Remote command:
CALC:MARK1:FUNC:NDBD:STAT ON, see ​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​
NDBDown:​STATe​ on page 548
CALC:MARK1:FUNC:NDBD 3dB, see ​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​
NDBDown​ on page 546
CALC:MARK1:FUNC:NDBD:RES? , see ​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​
NDBDown:​RESult?​ on page 547
CALC:MARK:FUNC:NDBD:QFAC?, see ​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​
NDBDown:​QFACtor​ on page 547
CALC:MARK1:FUNC:NDBD:FREQ? (span > 0), see ​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​
FUNCtion:​NDBDown:​FREQuency?​ on page 546
CALC:MARK1:FUNC:NDBD:TIME? (span = 0), see ​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​
FUNCtion:​NDBDown:​TIME?​ on page 548
Marker Peak List
Opens the "Peak List" submenu to define criteria for the sort order and the contents of
the peak list. For each listed peak the frequency ("Stimulus") and level ("Response")
values are given. In addition, the peaks are indicated in the trace display. A maximum of
50 entries are listed.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​FPEaks:​COUNt?​ on page 541
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​FPEaks:​X​ on page 543
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​FPEaks:​Y?​ on page 543
Peak List On/Off ← Marker Peak List
Activates/deactivates the marker peak list. If activated, the peak list is displayed and the
peaks are indicated in the trace display.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​FPEaks:​STAT​ on page 543
Sort Mode Freq/Lvl ← Marker Peak List
Defines the criteria for sorting:
"Freq"
sorting in ascending order of frequency values (span > 0) or time values
(span = 0)
"Lvl"
sorting in ascending order of the level
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​FPEaks:​SORT​ on page 542
Max Peak Count ← Marker Peak List
Defines the maximum number of peaks to be determined and displayed.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​FPEaks:​LIST:​SIZE​ on page 542
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Peak Excursion ← Marker Peak List
Opens an edit dialog box for level measurements to enter the minimum level value by
which a signal must rise or fall so that it will be identified as a maximum or a minimum by
the search functions. Entries from 0 dB to 80 dB are allowed; the resolution is 0.1 dB.
The default setting for the peak excursion is 6 dB.
For more information see "Specifying the suitable peak excursion" and "Effect of different
peak excursion settings".
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​PEXCursion​ on page 530
Left Limit ← Marker Peak List
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a value for the lower limit (left vertical line: S1 for span
> 0; T1 for zero span). The search is performed between the lines of the left and right
limit (see also ​Right Limit softkey).
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​X:​SLIMits:​LEFT​ on page 532
Right Limit ← Marker Peak List
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a value for the upper limit (left vertical line: S2 for span
> 0; T2 for zero span). The search is performed between the lines of the left and right
limit (see also ​Left Limit softkey). If no value is set, the upper limit corresponds to the stop
frequency.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​X:​SLIMits:​RIGHT​ on page 533
Threshold ← Marker Peak List
Opens an edit dialog box to define the threshold line. The threshold line represents the
lower level limit for a "Peak" search and the upper level limit for a "Min" search.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​THReshold:​STATe​ on page 596
​CALCulate<n>:​THReshold​ on page 596
ASCII File Export ← Marker Peak List
Opens the "ASCII File Export Name" dialog box and saves the active peak list in ASCII
format to the specified file and directory.
The file consists of the header containing important scaling parameters and a data section
containing the marker data. For details on an ASCII file see ​chapter 3.2.8.7, "ASCII File
Export Format", on page 138.
This format can be processed by spreadsheet calculation programs, e.g. MS-Excel. It is
necessary to define ';' as a separator for the data import. Different language versions of
evaluation programs may require a different handling of the decimal point. It is therefore
possible to select between separators '.' (decimal point) and ',' (comma) using the "Decim
Sep" softkey (see ​"Decim Sep" on page 71).
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An example of an output file for Spectrum Emission Mask measurements is given in ​
"ASCII File Export Format (Spectrum Emission Mask)" on page 240.
Remote command:
​FORMat:​DEXPort:​DSEParator​ on page 609
​MMEMory:​STORe<n>:​LIST​ on page 623
Decim Sep ← Marker Peak List
Selects the decimal separator with floating-point numerals for the ASCII Trace export to
support evaluation programs (e.g. MS-Excel) in different languages. The values '.' (decimal point) and ',' (comma) can be set.
Remote command:
​FORMat:​DEXPort:​DSEParator​ on page 609
Marker Number ← Marker Peak List
If enabled, the determined peaks are indicated by their corresponding marker number in
the trace display.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​FPEaks:​ANN:​LAB:​STAT​ on page 541
3.5.6 Working with I/Q Data
I/Q data can be captured either from RF input, or via the optional R&S Digital I/Q Interface
(R&S FSV-B17), or it can be imported from a file (see ​chapter 3.1.2.3, "Importing and
Exporting I/Q Data", on page 76). The captured I/Q data can then be processed further,
e.g. using the I/Q Analyzer, or in the applications that support the R&S Digital I/Q Interface. Additionally, the captured I/Q data can be exported to a file in order to process it in
another application, e.g. Vector Signal Analysis, if available.
Working with digital input is described in ​chapter 3.7, "Instrument Functions - R&S Digital
I/Q Interface (Option R&S FSV-B17)", on page 361 and in the applications that support
that interface.
This section describes I/Q data processing of RF input, e.g. in the I/Q Analyzer.
The block diagram in ​figure 3-24 shows the analyzer hardware for active RF input from
the IF section to the processor.
The A/D converter samples the IF signal at a rate of 128 MHz. The digital signal is downconverted to the complex baseband, lowpass-filtered, and the sample rate is reduced.
The continuously adjustable sample rates are realized using an optimal decimation filter
and subsequent resampling on the set sample rate.
The I/Q data is written to a single memory, the data acquisition is hardware-triggered.
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Fig. 3-24: Block diagram illustrating the R&S FSV signal processing
Maximum number of samples
The maximum number of samples for RF input is 200 MS.
For digital input using the R&S Digital I/Q Interface (R&S FSV-B17), see ​table 3-14.
3.5.6.1
Sample Rate and Maximum Usable Bandwidth (RF Input)
Information on sample rates and maximum usable bandwidths for Digital I/Q input is
described in ​table 3-13.
Definitions
●
Input sample rate (ISR): the sample rate of the useful data provided by the connected instrument to the R&S FSV input
●
(User, Output) Sample rate (SR): the sample rate that is defined by the user (e.g. in
the "Data Aquisition" dialog box in the "I/Q Analyzer" application) and which is used
as the basis for analysis or output
●
Usable I/Q (Analysis) bandwidth: the bandwidth range in which the signal remains
undistorted in regard to amplitude characteristic and group delay; this range can be
used for accurate analysis by the R&S FSV
For the I/Q data acquisition, digital decimation filters are used internally. The passband
of these digital filters determines the maximum usable I/Q bandwidth. In consequence,
signals within the usable I/Q bandwidth (passband) remain unchanged, while signals
outside the usable I/Q bandwidth (passband) are suppressed. Usually, the suppressed
signals are noise, artifacts, and the second IF side band. If frequencies of interest to you
are also suppressed, you should try to increase the output sample rate, since this increases the maximum usable I/Q bandwidth.
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Relationship between sample rate and usable bandwidth
The diagram ​figure 3-25 shows the maximum usable I/Q bandwidths depending on the
user sample rates.
As a rule, the usable bandwidth is proportional to the output sample. Yet, when the I/Q
bandwidth reaches the bandwidth of the analog IF filter (at very high sample rates), the
curve breaks.
Fig. 3-25: Relation between maximum usable bandwidth and sample rate (RF input)
R&S FSV without additional bandwidth extension options
Sample rate: 100 Hz - 45 MHz
Maximum I/Q bandwidth: 28 MHz
Sample rate
Maximum I/Q bandwidth
100 Hz to 32 MHz
proportional up to 25.6 MHz
Usable I/Q bandwidth = 0.8 * Output sample rate
32 MHz to 45 MHz
proportional up to 28 MHz
Usable I/Q bandwidth = 0.625 * Output sample rate
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Instrument Functions
Instrument Functions – Tracking Generator (Options R&S FSV-B9/ R&S FSV-B10)
R&S FSV40 model 1307.9002K3
For the R&S FSV40 model 1307.9002K3 different values apply. No bandwidth extension
options are available for this model.
Sample rate: 100 Hz to 12.5 MHz
Maximum I/Q bandwidth: proportional up to 12.5 MHz
Usable I/Q bandwidth = 0.8 * Output sample rate
R&S FSV with option R&S FSV-B70 (I/Q Bandwidth Extension)
This option is not available for R&S FSV 40 model 1307.9002K39.
Sample rate: 100 Hz - 128 MHz
Maximum I/Q bandwidth: 40 MHz
Sample rate
Maximum I/Q bandwidth
100 Hz to 32 MHz
proportional up to 25.6 MHz
Usable I/Q bandwidth = 0.8 * Output sample rate
32 MHz to 64 MHz
proportional up to 40 MHz
Usable I/Q bandwidth = 0.625 * Output sample rate
64 MHz to 128 MHz
40 MHz
3.6 Instrument Functions – Tracking Generator (Options
R&S FSV-B9/ R&S FSV-B10)
If the R&S FSV Tracking Generator option (R&S FSV-B9) is installed, an internal tracking
generator emits a signal at the exact input frequency of the analyzer during operation.
The generated signal is sent to the DUT, thus allowing the analyzer to control the input
frequency of the device directly.
Using the R&S FSV External Tracking Generator option (B10), you can operate various
commercially available generators as a tracking generator on the R&S FSV. Thus, scalar
network analysis with the R&S FSV is also possible outside the frequency range of the
internal tracking generator, when the appropriate generators are used.
The R&S FSV also allows you to set a frequency offset for frequency-converting measurements. For harmonics measurements or frequency-converting measurements, when
external generators are used you can also enter a factor by which the generator frequency
is increased or reduced, compared to the receive frequency of the R&S FSV. Make sure,
however, that the resulting generator frequencies do not exceed the allowed setting range
of the generator.
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R&S® FSV
Instrument Functions
Instrument Functions – Tracking Generator (Options R&S FSV-B9/ R&S FSV-B10)
Both the internal and external tracking generator options can be installed simultaneously.
However, only one tracking generator (internal or one of two possible external generators)
can be used at any time. Which tracking generator is currently active, if any, is indicated
by the ​"Source RF Internal (On/ Off)" on page 338 softkey. It can be changed using the
​"Source Config" on page 342 softkey. For details see ​chapter 3.6.3, "Configuring Tracking Generators", on page 345.
Tracking generator control (both internal and external) is only available in the "Spectrum"
mode for frequency, time (zero span) or I/Q measurements, as well as in "Analog Demodulation" mode. If you switch to a mode other than "Spectrum" or "Analog Demodulation",
any currently active tracking generator is deactivated.
Special measurement functions are not available with tracking generator control. The
corresponding softkeys in the "Measurement" menu are deactivated in this case.
Menu and softkey description
●
​chapter 3.6.1, "Softkeys of the Tracking Generator Menu", on page 337
Further information
●
​chapter 3.6.2, "Connecting External Tracking Generators", on page 342
●
​chapter 3.6.3, "Configuring Tracking Generators", on page 345
●
​chapter 3.6.4, "Tracking Generator Functions", on page 352
●
​chapter 3.6.5, "Displayed Information and Errors", on page 360
3.6.1 Softkeys of the Tracking Generator Menu
The "Tracking Generator" menu is displayed when you press the INPUT/OUPUT key and
then "Tracking Generator".
This softkey is only available if the R&S FSV option Tracking Generator (B9) or External
Tracking Generator (B10) or both are installed. The following table shows all softkeys
available in the "Tracking Generator" menu.
As long as a tracking generator is active, the HOME key also displays the "Tracking
Generator" menu.
Source RF Internal (On/ Off).......................................................................................338
Source Power..............................................................................................................338
Source Cal..................................................................................................................338
└ Calibrate Transmission.................................................................................338
└ Calibrate Reflection Short.............................................................................338
└ Calibrate Reflection Open.............................................................................339
└ Normalize......................................................................................................339
└ Reference Value Position.............................................................................339
└ Reference Value...........................................................................................339
└ Recall............................................................................................................340
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Instrument Functions
Instrument Functions – Tracking Generator (Options R&S FSV-B9/ R&S FSV-B10)
└ Save As Trd Factor.......................................................................................340
Modulation...................................................................................................................340
└ External AM..................................................................................................340
└ External FM...................................................................................................340
└ External I/Q...................................................................................................341
└ Modulation OFF............................................................................................341
Power Sweep..............................................................................................................341
└ Power Sweep (On /Off).................................................................................341
└ Power Sweep Start.......................................................................................341
└ Power Sweep Stop.......................................................................................342
Source Config.............................................................................................................342
Source RF Internal (On/ Off)
Switches the selected tracking generator on or off. Default setting is off. The currently
selected generator is indicated on the softkey.
Remote command:
​OUTPut[:​STATe]​ on page 626
Activates the internal tracking generator (B9).
​SOURce<n>:​EXTernal<generator>[:​STATe]​ on page 708
Activates the external tracking generator 1 (B10).
Source Power
Opens an edit dialog box to quickly change the output power of the currently selected
tracking generator, alternatively to the "Tracking Generator configuration" dialog box (see
​"Source Config" on page 342 softkey).
The default output power is -20 dBm. The range is specified in the data sheet.
Remote command:
​SOURce<n>:​POWer[:​LEVel][:​IMMediate][:​AMPLitude]​ on page 715
Source Cal
Opens a submenu to configure calibration for transmission and reflection measurement
for tracking generators. For details on the test setups see ​chapter 3.6.4.2, "Calibrating
for transmission and reflection measurement", on page 353.
Calibrate Transmission ← Source Cal
Starts a sweep that records a reference trace. This trace is used to calculate the difference for the normalized values.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]CORRection:​METHod​ on page 642
Selects the transmission method and starts the sweep to record a reference trace.
Calibrate Reflection Short ← Source Cal
Starts a sweep as a reference trace for short-circuit calibration.
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R&S® FSV
Instrument Functions
Instrument Functions – Tracking Generator (Options R&S FSV-B9/ R&S FSV-B10)
If both calibrations (open circuit, short circuit) are carried out, the calibration curve is
calculated by averaging the two measurements and stored in the memory. The order of
the two calibration measurements is irrelevant.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]CORRection:​METHod​ on page 642
Selects the reflection method.
​[SENSe:​]CORRection:​COLLect[:​ACQuire]​ on page 638
Starts the sweep for short-circuit calibration.
Calibrate Reflection Open ← Source Cal
Starts a sweep as a reference trace for the open-circuit calibration.
If both calibrations (open circuit, short circuit) are carried out, the calibration curve is
calculated by averaging the two measurements and stored in the memory. The order of
the two calibration measurements is irrelevant.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]CORRection:​METHod​ on page 642
Selects the reflection method.
​[SENSe:​]CORRection:​COLLect[:​ACQuire]​ on page 638
Starts the sweep for open-circuit calibration.
Normalize ← Source Cal
Switches the normalization on or off. The softkey is only available if the memory contains
a reference trace. For details on normalization see ​chapter 3.6.4.5, "Normalization",
on page 355.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]CORRection[:​STATe]​ on page 643
Reference Value Position ← Source Cal
Switches the reference line on or off. The reference line marks the reference position at
which the normalization result (calculated difference to a reference trace) is displayed.
For details on the reference line see ​chapter 3.6.4.5, "Normalization", on page 355.
Remote command:
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]:​RPOSition​ on page 605
Reference Value ← Source Cal
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a position value that shifts the reference line vertically.
By default, the reference line corresponds to a difference of 0 dB between the currently
measured trace and the reference trace.
If a 10 dB attenuation is inserted into the signal path between DUT and R&S FSV input,
for example after a source calibration, the measurement trace is moved down by 10 dB.
Entering a reference value of -10 dB will also shift the reference line down by 10 dB and
place the measurement trace on the reference line. The deviation from the nominal power
level can be displayed with higher resolution (e.g. 1 dB/div). The power is still displayed
in absolute values.
Remote command:
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]:​RVALue​ on page 605
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R&S® FSV
Instrument Functions
Instrument Functions – Tracking Generator (Options R&S FSV-B9/ R&S FSV-B10)
Recall ← Source Cal
Restores the settings that were used during source calibration. This can be useful if
instrument settings were changed after calibration (e.g. center frequency, frequency
deviation, reference level, etc).
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]CORRection:​RECall​ on page 643
Save As Trd Factor ← Source Cal
​"Transducer" on page 47Uses the normalized measurement data to generate a transducer factor with up to 625 points. The trace data is converted to a transducer with unit
dB and stored in a file with the specified name and the suffix.trd under "c:
\r_s\instr\trd". The frequency points are allocated in equidistant steps between
start and stop frequency. The generated transducer factor can be further adapted using
the "Transducer" softkey in the "SETUP" menu.
The "Save As Trd Factor" softkey is only available if normalization is switched on.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]CORRection:​TRANsducer:​GENerator​ on page 643
Modulation
Opens a submenu to define modulation settings. This submenu contains the following
commands:
●
●
●
●
​"External AM" on page 340
​"External FM" on page 340
​"External I/Q" on page 341
​"Modulation OFF" on page 341
External AM ← Modulation
Activates an AM modulation of the tracking generator output signal.
The modulation signal is applied to the TG IN I/AM connector. An input voltage of 1 V
corresponds to 100 % amplitude modulation.
Switching on an external AM disables the active I/Q modulation.
Remote command:
​SOURce<n>:​AM:​STATe​ on page 708
External FM ← Modulation
Activates the FM modulation of the tracking generator output signal. The modulation signal is applied to the TG IN Q/FM connector. Switching on an external FM disables the
active I/Q modulation.
Remote command:
​SOURce<n>:​FM:​STATe​ on page 714
​SOURce<n>:​FM:​DEViation​ on page 713
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R&S® FSV
Instrument Functions
Instrument Functions – Tracking Generator (Options R&S FSV-B9/ R&S FSV-B10)
External I/Q ← Modulation
Activates the external I/Q modulation of the tracking generator output signal. The signals
for modulation are applied to the two input connectors TG IN I and TG IN Q at the rear
panel of the unit. The input voltage range is ±1 V into 50 Ω. Switching on an external I/Q
modulation disables the active AM or FM modulation.
Remote command:
​SOURce<n>:​DM:​STATe​ on page 708
Modulation OFF ← Modulation
Deactivates external modulation of the tracking generator output signal.
Remote command:
​SOURce<n>:​AM:​STATe​ on page 708
​SOURce<n>:​DM:​STATe​ on page 708
​SOURce<n>:​FM:​STATe​ on page 714
Power Sweep
Opens a submenu to define power sweep settings.
This softkey is only available if the (internal) Tracking Generator option (B9) is installed.
This submenu contains the following commands:
●
●
●
​"Power Sweep (On /Off)" on page 341
​"Power Sweep Start" on page 341
​"Power Sweep Stop" on page 342
Power Sweep (On /Off) ← Power Sweep
Activates or deactivates the power sweep. If the power sweep is on, the analyzer is set
to zero span mode (span = 0Hz). During the sweep time of the zero span, the power at
the internal tracking generator is changed linearly from start power to stop power. The
start and stop power for the power sweep are displayed in the diagram header ("INT TG
<start power>… <stop power>", see also ​chapter 3.6.5, "Displayed Information and
Errors", on page 360.
The start power can be set between -30 dBm and +0 dBm.
The stop value can also be be set between -30 dBm and +0 dBm and may be smaller
than the start value.
The difference between the start and stop values may not exceed 10 dB.
This softkey is only available if the (internal) Tracking Generator option (B9) is installed.
Remote command:
​SOURce<n>:​POWer:​MODE​ on page 715
Power Sweep Start ← Power Sweep
Defines the start power of the power sweep.
The start power can be set between -30 dBm and +0 dBm. If the start power is set above
7 GHz, it is automatically limited to 7 GHz.
The difference between the start and stop values may not exceed 10 dB.
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R&S® FSV
Instrument Functions
Instrument Functions – Tracking Generator (Options R&S FSV-B9/ R&S FSV-B10)
This softkey is only available if the (internal) Tracking Generator option (B9) is installed.
Remote command:
​SOURce<n>:​POWer:​STARt​ on page 716
Power Sweep Stop ← Power Sweep
Defines the stop power of the power sweep.
The stop power can be set between -30 dBm and +0 dBm. It can be smaller than the start
value. If the stop power is set above 7 GHz, it is automatically limited to 7 GHz.
The difference between the start and stop values may not exceed 10 dB.
This softkey is only available if the (internal) Tracking Generator option (B9) is installed.
Remote command:
​SOURce<n>:​POWer:​STOP​ on page 716
Source Config
Opens the "Tracking Generator Configuration" dialog, see ​chapter 3.6.3, "Configuring
Tracking Generators", on page 345.
3.6.2 Connecting External Tracking Generators
The external tracking generator is controlled either via a LAN connection or via the –
optional – second GPIB interface of the R&S FSV (= IEC2, supplied with the option).
Using GPIB, with some Rohde & Schwarz generators, additionally the TTL synchronization interface included in the AUX interface of the R&S FSV can be used.
Using the TTL interface allows for considerably higher measurement rates than pure
GPIB control, because the frequency stepping of the R&S FSV is directly coupled with
the frequency stepping of the generator.
Therefore, the frequency sweep differs according to the capabilities of the employed
generator:
●
For generators without a TTL interface, the generator frequency is set for each frequency point via GPIB first, then the setting procedure has to be completed before
recording of measured values is possible.
●
For generators with a TTL interface, a list of the frequencies to be set is entered into
the generator before the beginning of the first sweep. Then the sweep is started and
the next frequency point is selected using the TTL handshake line TRIGGER.
Recording measured values is only enabled when the generator signals the end of
the setting procedure via the BLANK signal. This method is considerably faster than
pure GPIB control.
The "Tracking Generator Configuration" dialog provides a list of the supported generators
with the frequency and level range, as well as the capabilities used. The interface settings
are defined using the ​"Source Config" on page 342 softkey. For details see ​chapter 3.6.3.2, "External Tracking Generator", on page 348.
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R&S® FSV
Instrument Functions
Instrument Functions – Tracking Generator (Options R&S FSV-B9/ R&S FSV-B10)
In order to use the functions of the external tracking generator, an appropriate generator
must be connected and configured correctly. If no external generator is selected, if the
GPIB or TCP/IP address is not correct, or the generator is not ready for operation, an
error message is displayed ("Ext. Generator GPIB Handshake Error!" or "Ext. Generator
TCPIP Handshake Error!".
​figure 3-26 illustrates the TTL connection using an SMU generator, for example.
Fig. 3-26: TTL connection for an SMU generator
In order to enhance measurement accuracy, a common reference frequency should be
used for both the R&S FSV and the generator. If no independent 10 MHz reference frequency is available, it is recommended that you connect the reference output of the generator with the reference input of the R&S FSV and that you enable usage of the external
reference on the R&S FSV via "SETUP" >"Reference EXT".
3.6.2.1
Overview of Generators Supported by the R&S FSV
The R&S SMA and R&S SMU require the following firmware versions:
R&S SMA: V2.10.x or higher
R&S SMU: V1.10 or higher
Generator
Interface Type
Generator Min
Freq
Generator Max Generator Min
Freq
Power
Generator Max
Power
dBm
dBm
SMA01A
TTL
9 kHz
3.0 GHz
-145
+30
SMBV100A3
TTL
9 kHz
3.2 GHz
-145
+30
SMBV100A6
TTL
9 kHz
6.0 GHz
-145
+30
SMC100A1
TTL
9 kHz
1.1 GHz
-120
+30
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R&S® FSV
Instrument Functions
Instrument Functions – Tracking Generator (Options R&S FSV-B9/ R&S FSV-B10)
Generator
Interface Type
Generator Min
Freq
Generator Max Generator Min
Freq
Power
Generator Max
Power
dBm
dBm
SMC100A3
TTL
9 kHz
3.2 GHz
-145
+30
SME02
TTL
5 kHz
1.5 GHz
-144
+16
SME03
TTL
5 kHz
3.0 GHz
-144
+16
SME06
TTL
5 kHz
6.0 GHz
-144
+16
SMG
GPIB
100 kHz
1.0 GHz
-137
+13
SMGL
GPIB
9 kHz
1.0 GHz
-118
+30
SMGU
GPIB
100 kHz
2.16 GHz
-140
+13
SMH
GPIB
100 kHz
2.0 GHz
-140
+13
SMHU
GPIB
100 kHz
4.32 GHz
-140
+13
SMIQ02B
TTL
300 kHz
2.2 GHz
-144
+13
SMIQ02E
GPIB
300 kHz
2.2 GHz
-144
+13
SMIQ03B
TTL
300 kHz
3.3 GHz
-144
+13
SMIQ03E
GPIB
300 kHz
3.3 GHz
-144
+13
SMIQ04B
TTL
300 kHz
4.4 GHz
-144
+10
SMIQ06B
TTL
300 kHz
6.4 GHz
-144
+10
SML01
GPIB
9 kHz
1.1 GHz
-140
+13
SML02
GPIB
9 kHz
2.2 GHz
-140
+13
SML03
GPIB
9 kHz
3.3 GHz
-140
+13
SMR20
TTL
1 GHz
20 GHz
-130 2)
+11 2)
SMR20B111)
TTL
10 MHz
20 GHz
-130 2)
+13 2)
SMR27
TTL
1 GHz
27 GHz
-130 2)
+11 2)
SMR27B11 1)
TTL
10 MHz
27 GHz
-130 2)
+12 2)
SMR30
TTL
1 GHz
30 GHz
-130 2)
+11 2)
SMR30B11 1)
TTL
10 MHz
30 GHz
-130 2)
+12 2)
SMR40
TTL
1 GHz
40 GHz
-130 2)
+9 2)
SMR40B11 1)
TTL
10 MHz
40 GHz
-130 2)
+12 2)
SMR50
TTL
1 GHz
50 GHz
-130 2)
+9 2)
SMR50B11 1)
TTL
10 MHz
50 GHz
-130 2)
+12 2)
SMR60
TTL
1 GHz
60 GHz
-130 2)
+9 2)
SMR60B11 1)
TTL
10 MHz
60 GHz
-130 2)
+12 2)
SMP02
TTL
10 MHz
20 GHz
-130 3)
+17 3)
SMP03
TTL
10 MHz
27 GHz
-130 3)
+13 3)
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R&S® FSV
Instrument Functions
Instrument Functions – Tracking Generator (Options R&S FSV-B9/ R&S FSV-B10)
Generator
Interface Type
Generator Min
Freq
Generator Max Generator Min
Freq
Power
Generator Max
Power
dBm
dBm
SMP04
TTL
10 MHz
40 GHz
-130 3)
+12 3)
SMP22
TTL
10 MHz
20 GHz
-130 3)
+20 3)
SMT02
GPIB
5.0 kHz
1.5 GHz
-144
+13
SMT03
GPIB
5.0 kHz
3.0 GHz
-144
+13
SMT06
GPIB
5.0 kHz
6.0 GHz
-144
+13
SMV03
GPIB
9 kHz
3.3 GHz
-140
+13
SMU200A
TTL
100 kHz
2.2 GHz
-145
+13
SMU02B31
TTL
100 kHz
2.2 GHz
-145
+19
SMU03
TTL
100 kHz
3 GHz
-145
+13
SMU03B31
TTL
100 kHz
3 GHz
-145
+19
SMU04
TTL
100 kHz
4 GHz
-145
+13
SMU04B31
TTL
100 kHz
4 GHz
-145
+19
SMU06
TTL
100 kHz
6 GHz
-145
+13
SMU06B31
TTL
100 kHz
6 GHz
-145
+19
SMX
GPIB
100 kHz
1.0 GHz
-137
+13
SMY01
GPIB
9 kHz
1.04 GHz
-140
+13
SMY02
GPIB
9 kHz
2.08 GHz
-140
+13
HP8340A
GPIB
10 MHz
26.5 GHz
-110
10
HP8648
GPIB
9 kHz
4 GHz
-136
10
HP ESG-A Series 1000A,
2000A, 3000A,
4000A
GPIB
250 kHz
4 GHz
-136
20
HP ESG-D SER- GPIB
IES E4432B
250 kHz
3 GHz
-136
+10
1) Requires the option SMR-B11 to be fitted.
2) Maximum/minimum power depends on presence of Option SMR-B15/-B17 and set
frequency range. For more details see SMR data sheet.
3) Maximum/minimum power depends on presence of Option SMP-B15/-B17 and set
frequency range. For more details see SMP data sheet.
3.6.3 Configuring Tracking Generators
The "Tracking Generator Configuration" dialog box is opened via the "Source Config"
softkey in the "Tracking Generator" menu.
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R&S® FSV
Instrument Functions
Instrument Functions – Tracking Generator (Options R&S FSV-B9/ R&S FSV-B10)
This dialox box allows you to define measurement settings, as well as connection settings
for external generators (option B10 only). Depending on which options are installed, the
corresponding tabs for internal or external generators, or both, are displayed.
3.6.3.1
●
​chapter 3.6.3.1, "Internal Tracking Generator", on page 346
●
​chapter 3.6.3.2, "External Tracking Generator", on page 348
Internal Tracking Generator
The internal tracking generator is configured in the "Internal" tab of the "tracking Generator Configuration" dialog box.
In the top half of the dialog box, the measurement configurations can be defined. In the
lower half of the dialog box, the capabilities of the internal tracking generator are displayed for reference only.
The configuration dialog box contains the following fields:
Select
Selects the internal tracking generator as the current tracking generator source. "Internal"
is displayed as the source on the "Source RF" softkey. All tracking generator functions
are performed with the currently selected source.
Note: Note that the generator is not automatically activated when it is selected. To activate the currently selected generator, click the "Source RF On" softkey.
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R&S® FSV
Instrument Functions
Instrument Functions – Tracking Generator (Options R&S FSV-B9/ R&S FSV-B10)
Source Power
The tracking generator output power. The default output power is -20 dBm. The range is
specified in the data sheet.
Remote command:
​SOURce<n>:​POWer[:​LEVel][:​IMMediate][:​AMPLitude]​ on page 715
Power Offset
Constant level offset for the tracking generator. Values from -200 dB to +200 dB in 1 dB
steps are allowed. The default setting is 0 dB. Offsets are indicated by the enhancement
label "LVL" in the diagram header (see also ​chapter 3.6.5, "Displayed Information and
Errors", on page 360).
With this offset, attenuators or amplifiers at the output connector of the tracking generator
can be taken into account for the displayed output power values on screen or during data
entry, for example. Positive offsets apply to an amplifier and negative offsets to an
attenuator subsequent to the tracking generator.
Remote command:
​SOURce<n>:​POWer[:​LEVel][:​IMMediate]:​OFFSet​ on page 715
Frequency Offset
Constant frequency offset between the output signal of the tracking generator and the
input frequency of the R&S FSV. Possible offsets are in a range of ±1 GHz in 0.1 Hz
steps.
The default setting is 0 Hz. Offsets <> 0 Hz are marked with the enhancement label "FRQ"
in the diagram header (see also ​chapter 3.6.5, "Displayed Information and Errors",
on page 360).
If a positive frequency offset is entered, the tracking generator generates an output signal
above the receive frequency of the R&S FSV. In case of a negative frequency offset it
generates a signal below the receive frequency of the R&S FSV. The output frequency
of the tracking generator is calculated as follows:
Tracking generator frequency = receive frequency + frequency offset.
Remote command:
​SOURce<n>:​FREQuency:​OFFSet​ on page 714
Result Frequency Start
For reference only: The start frequency for the generator, calculated from the configured
generator frequency and the start value defined for the analyzer.
Result Frequency Stop
For reference only: The stop frequency for the generator, calculated from the configured
generator frequency and the stop value defined for the analyzer.
Frequency Min.
For reference only: Lower frequency limit for the generator.
Frequency Max.
For reference only: Upper frequency limit for the generator.
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R&S® FSV
Instrument Functions
Instrument Functions – Tracking Generator (Options R&S FSV-B9/ R&S FSV-B10)
Power Min.
For reference only: Lower power limit for the generator.
Power Max.
For reference only: Upper power limit for the generator.
3.6.3.2
External Tracking Generator
The external tracking generators are configured in the "External" tabs of the "Tracking
Generator Configuration" dialog box.
In the top section of the dialog box, the measurement configurations can be defined. In
the middle section, interface settings for the connection to the external generator are
defined. In the lower section of the dialog box, the capabilities of the external tracking
generator are displayed for reference only.
The configuration dialog box contains the following fields:
Select
Selects the specified external tracking generator as the current tracking generator source.
"External 1" or "External 2" is displayed as the source on the "Source RF" softkey. All
tracking generator functions are performed with the currently selected source.
Note: Note that the generator is not automatically activated when it is selected. To activate the currently selected generator, click the "Source RF On" softkey.
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Instrument Functions – Tracking Generator (Options R&S FSV-B9/ R&S FSV-B10)
Source Frequency Coupling
Enables or disables frequency coupling between the analyzer and the generator.
"Auto"
Default setting: the frequencies are coupled (see ​"Generator Frequency
(Numerator/Denominator/Offset)" on page 349).
"Manual"
The generator uses a fixed frequency, defined in the ​(Fixed) Generator
Frequency field which is displayed when you select "Manual" coupling.
Remote command:
​SOURce<n>:​EXTernal<m>:​FREQuency:​COUPling[:​STATe]​ on page 709
(Fixed) Generator Frequency
Defines the fixed frequency to be used by the generator.
Remote command:
​SOURce<n>:​EXTernal<m>:​FREQuency​ on page 709
Source Power
The output power of the external tracking generator. The default output power is -20 dBm.
The range is specified in the data sheet.
Remote command:
​SOURce<n>:​EXTernal<generator>:​POWer[:​LEVel]​ on page 712
Power Offset
Constant level offset for the tracking generator. Values from -200 dB to +200 dB in 1 dB
steps are allowed. The default setting is 0 dB. Offsets are indicated by the enhancement
label "LVL" in the diagram header (see also ​chapter 3.6.5, "Displayed Information and
Errors", on page 360).
With this offset, attenuators or amplifiers at the output connector of the tracking generator
can be taken into account for the displayed output power values on screen or during data
entry, for example. Positive offsets apply to an amplifier and negative offsets to an
attenuator subsequent to the tracking generator.
Remote command:
​SOURce<n>:​POWer[:​LEVel][:​IMMediate]:​OFFSet​ on page 715
Generator Frequency (Numerator/Denominator/Offset)
The frequency used by the generator may differ from the input from the analyzer. The RF
frequency may be multiplied by a specified factor, or a frequency offset can be added, or
both.
Note: The input for the generator frequency is not validated, i.e. you can enter any values.
However, if the allowed frequency ranges of the generator are exceeded, an error message is displayed on the analyzer screen and the values for ​Start and ​Stop are corrected
to comply with the range limits.
The value range for the offset depends on the selected generator. The default setting is
0 Hz. Offsets <> 0 Hz are marked with the enhancement label "FRQ" in the diagram
header (see also ​chapter 3.6.5, "Displayed Information and Errors", on page 360).
If a positive frequency offset is entered, the tracking generator generates an output signal
above the receive frequency of the analyzer. For a negative frequency offset it generates
a signal below the receive frequency of the analyzer.
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Instrument Functions
Instrument Functions – Tracking Generator (Options R&S FSV-B9/ R&S FSV-B10)
The output frequency of the generator is calculated as follows:
Fig. 3-27: Output frequency of the generator
Note: Make sure that the frequencies resulting from the start and stop frequency of the
R&S FSV do not exceed the allowed generator range:
● If the start frequency lies below F MIN, the generator is only switched on when F MIN
is reached.
● If the stop frequency lies above F MAX, the generator is switched off. When the generator is subsequently switched on using the ​"Source RF Internal (On/ Off)"
on page 338 softkey, the stop frequency is limited to F MAX.
● If the stop frequency lies below F MIN, the generator is switched off and an error
message is displayed.
Remote command:
​SOURce<n>:​EXTernal<generator>:​FREQuency[:​FACTor]:​NUMerator​
on page 710
​SOURce<n>:​EXTernal<generator>:​FREQuency[:​FACTor]:​DENominator​
on page 710
​SOURce<n>:​EXTernal<generator>:​FREQuency:​OFFSet<m>​ on page 711
Reverse sweep
The "Offset" setting can be used to sweep in the reverse direction. You can do this by
setting a "negative" offset in the tracking generator configuration.
Example for reverse sweep:
FAnalyzerStart= 100 MHz
FAnalyzerStop = 200 MHz
FOffset = -300 MHz
Numerator = Denominator = 1
→FGeneratorStart = 200 MHz
→FGeneratorStop = 100 MHz
If the offset is adjusted so that the sweep of the generator crosses the minimum generator
frequency, a message is displayed in the status bar ("Reverse Sweep via min. Ext. Generator Frequency!").
Example for reverse sweep via minimum frequency:
FAnalyzerStart= 100 MHz
FAnalyzerStop = 200 MHz
FOffset = -150 MHz
Fmin = 20 MHz
Numerator = Denominator = 1
→FGeneratorStart = 50 MHz
→FGeneratorStop = 50 MHz via Fmin
Result Frequency Start
For reference only: The start frequency for the generator, calculated from the configured
generator frequency and the start value defined for the analyzer.
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Instrument Functions
Instrument Functions – Tracking Generator (Options R&S FSV-B9/ R&S FSV-B10)
Result Frequency Stop
For reference only: The stop frequency for the generator, calculated from the configured
generator frequency and the stop value defined for the analyzer.
Type
Generator type. See also ​chapter 3.6.2.1, "Overview of Generators Supported by the
R&S FSV", on page 343.
Remote command:
​SYSTem:​COMMunicate:​RDEVice:​GENerator<generator>:​TYPE​ on page 729
Interface
Type of interface connection used. The following interfaces are currently supported:
●
●
TCP/IP
GPIB
For details on interfaces see the "Interfaces and Protocols" section in the R&S FSV Quick
Start Guide.
Remote command:
​SYSTem:​COMMunicate:​RDEVice:​GENerator<generator>:​INTerface​
on page 728
TTL Synchronization
If available for the specified generator type, this option activates TTL synchronization for
GPIB connections.
See also ​chapter 3.6.2, "Connecting External Tracking Generators", on page 342.
For Noise Figure measurements (K30) this setting currently has no effect.
Remote command:
​SYSTem:​COMMunicate:​RDEVice:​GENerator<generator>:​LINK​ on page 728
Address
For LAN connections: TCP/IP address.
For GPIB connections: GPIB address.
For more information on configuring interfaces see the "Interfaces and Protocols" section
in the R&S FSV Quick Start Guide.
Remote command:
​SYSTem:​COMMunicate:​RDEVice:​GENerator<generator>:​LINK​ on page 728
Reference
Selects internal or external reference for the generator (default: internal).
Note: Using the TTL interface allows for considerably higher measurement rates than
pure GPIB control, because the frequency stepping of the R&S FSV is directly coupled
with the frequency stepping of the generator.
Remote command:
​SOURce<n>:​EXTernal<generator>:​ROSCillator[:​SOURce]​ on page 713
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Instrument Functions – Tracking Generator (Options R&S FSV-B9/ R&S FSV-B10)
Edit Generator Setup File
Displays the setup file for the currently selected generator (see ​Type field) in read-only
mode in an editor.
Adding new generator types
Although the existing setup files are displayed in read-only mode in the editor, they can
be saved under a different name (using "File > SaveAs"). To add a new generator type
to the selection list in the ​Type field, edit the setup file for an existing generator as
required, then save the file with the extension ".gen". After you close the configuration
dialog and re-open it, a new generator is available in the ​Type list with the name of the
saved setup file.
Be careful, however, to adhere to the required syntax and commands. Errors will only be
detected and displayed when you try to use the new generator (see also ​chapter 3.6.5,
"Displayed Information and Errors", on page 360).
Frequency Min.
For reference only: Lower frequency limit for the generator.
Frequency Max.
For reference only: Upper frequency limit for the generator.
Power Min.
For reference only: Lower power limit for the generator.
Power Max.
For reference only: Upper power limit for the generator.
3.6.4 Tracking Generator Functions
The following functions are available if the R&S FSV Tracking Generator (R&S FSV-B9)
or External Tracking Generator (R&S FSV-B10) options are installed.
The following functions are available if the R&S FSV Tracking Generator (R&S FSV-B9)
is installed.
3.6.4.1
●
​chapter 3.6.4.1, "Calibration mechanism", on page 352
●
​chapter 3.6.4.2, "Calibrating for transmission and reflection measurement",
on page 353
●
​chapter 3.6.4.3, "Transmission measurement", on page 354
●
​chapter 3.6.4.4, "Reflection measurement", on page 354
●
​chapter 3.6.4.5, "Normalization", on page 355
●
​chapter 3.6.4.6, "Modulation (internal Tracking Generator only)", on page 358
Calibration mechanism
Calibration means calculating the difference between the currently measured power and
a reference curve, independent of the selected type of measurement (transmission/
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Instrument Functions – Tracking Generator (Options R&S FSV-B9/ R&S FSV-B10)
reflection). The hardware settings used for measuring the reference curve are included
in the reference dataset.
Even with normalization switched on, the instrument settings can be changed in a wide
area without stopping the normalization. This reduces the necessity to carry out a new
normalization to a minimum.
Therefore, the reference dataset (trace with n measured values, where n is the number
of ​Sweep Points) is stored internally as a table of n points (frequency/level).
Differences in level settings between the reference curve and the current instrument settings are taken into account automatically. If the span is reduced, a linear interpolation
of the intermediate values is applied. If the span increases, the values at the left or right
border of the reference dataset are extrapolated to the current start or stop frequency,
i.e. the reference dataset is extended by constant values.
An enhancement label is used to mark the different levels of measurement accuracy. This
enhancement label is displayed at the right diagram border if normalization is switched
on and a deviation from the reference setting occurs. Three accuracy levels are defined:
Table 3-11: Measurement accuracy levels
Accuracy
Enhancement label
Reason/Limitation
high
NOR
No difference between reference setting and measurement
medium
APX (approximation)
Change of the following settings:
coupling (RBW, VBW, SWT)
●
reference level, RF attenuation
●
start or stop frequency
●
output level of tracking generator
●
detector (max. peak, min. peak, sample, etc.)
●
change of frequency:
●
max. 691 points within the set sweep limits (corresponds to a
doubling of the span)
–
Aborted normalization
More than 500 extrapolated points within the current sweep limits
(in case of span doubling)
At a reference level of -10 dBm and at a tracking generator output level of the same value,
the R&S FSV operates without overrange reserve. That means the R&S FSV is in danger
of being overloaded if a signal is applied whose amplitude is higher than the reference
line. In this case, either the message "OVLD" for overload or "IFOVL" for exceeded display range (clipping of the trace at the upper diagram border = overrange) is displayed
in the status line.
Overloading can be avoided as follows:
3.6.4.2
●
Reducing the output level of the tracking generator ( ​"Source Config" on page 342
softkey in the Tracking Generator menu)
●
Increasing the reference level (​Ref Level softkey in the "Amplitude" menu)
Calibrating for transmission and reflection measurement
Prerequisite: The instrument is in tracking generator measurement mode.
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Instrument Functions
Instrument Functions – Tracking Generator (Options R&S FSV-B9/ R&S FSV-B10)
1. To enter the generator output level, press the ​"Source Power" on page 338 softkey.
2. To enter a constant level offset for the tracking generator, press the ​"Source Config" on page 342 softkey and enter a "Power Offset".
3. To open the submenu for calibration, press the ​"Source Cal" on page 338 softkey.
4. To record a reference trace for transmission measurement, press the ​"Calibrate
Transmission" on page 338 softkey.
The recording of the reference trace and the completion of the calibration sweep are
indicated by message bo XE s.
5. To record a reference trace for reflection measurement, press the ​"Calibrate Reflection Short" on page 338 or ​"Calibrate Reflection Open" on page 339 softkey.
The recording of the reference trace and the completion of the calibration sweep are
indicated by message bo XE s.
6. To switch on the normalization, press the ​"Normalize" on page 339 softkey.
7. To display the reference line, press the ​"Reference Value Position" on page 339
softkey.
8. To enter a value to shift the reference line, press the ​"Reference Value"
on page 339 softkey.
9. To restore the settings used for source calibration, press the ​"Recall" on page 340
softkey.
3.6.4.3
Transmission measurement
This measurement yields the transmission characteristics of a two-port network. The
internal or external tracking generator serves as a signal source. It is connected to the
input connector of the DUT. The input of the R&S FSV is fed from the output of the DUT.
A calibration can be carried out to compensate for the effects of the test setup (e.g. frequency response of connecting cables).
Fig. 3-28: Test setup for transmission measurement
3.6.4.4
Reflection measurement
Scalar reflection measurements can be carried out by means of a reflection-coefficient
measurement bridge.
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Instrument Functions
Instrument Functions – Tracking Generator (Options R&S FSV-B9/ R&S FSV-B10)
Fig. 3-29: Test setup for reflection measurement
3.6.4.5
Normalization
The "NORMALIZE" softkey switches normalization on or off. The softkey is only available
if the memory contains a correction trace.
You can shift the relative reference point within the grid using the ​"Reference Value
Position" on page 339 softkey. Thus, the trace can be shifted from the top grid margin to
the middle of the grid:
Fig. 3-30: Normalized display
CORR ON, see ​[SENSe:​]CORRection[:​STATe]​ on page 643
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Instrument Functions
Instrument Functions – Tracking Generator (Options R&S FSV-B9/ R&S FSV-B10)
Fig. 3-31: Normalized measurement, shifted with Reference Value Position= 50%
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:RPOS 10PCT, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​
SCALe]:​RPOSition​ on page 605
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Instrument Functions
Instrument Functions – Tracking Generator (Options R&S FSV-B9/ R&S FSV-B10)
Fig. 3-32: Measurement with Reference Value: +10dB and Reference Value Position = 50%
After the reference line has been shifted by entering +10 dB as the ​"Reference Value"
on page 339, deviations from the nominal value can be displayed with high resolution
(e.g. 2 dB/Div.). The absolute measured values are still displayed; in the above example,
2 dB below nominal value (reference line) = 8 dB attenuation.
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Instrument Functions
Instrument Functions – Tracking Generator (Options R&S FSV-B9/ R&S FSV-B10)
Fig. 3-33: Measurement of a 10-dB attenuator pad with 2dB/Div
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:RVAL +10dB, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​
SCALe]:​RVALue​ on page 605
3.6.4.6
Modulation (internal Tracking Generator only)
The time characteristics of the tracking generator output signal can be influenced by
means of external signals (input voltage range -1 V to +1 V).
Two BNC connectors at the rear panel are available as signal inputs. Their function
changes depending on the selected modulation:
●
TG IN I/AMand
●
TG IN Q/FM
The modulation modes can be combined with each other and with the frequency offset
function up to a certain degree. The following table shows which modulation modes are
possible at the same time and which ones can be combined with the frequency offset
function.
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Instrument Functions
Instrument Functions – Tracking Generator (Options R&S FSV-B9/ R&S FSV-B10)
Table 3-12: Simultaneous modes of modulation (tracking generator)
Modulation
Frequency offset
Frequency offset
EXT AM
●
EXT FM
●
EXT I/Q
●
EXT AM
EXT FM
EXT I/Q
●
●
●
●
●
● = can be combined
External AM
The ​"External AM" on page 340 softkey activates an AM modulation of the tracking generator output signal.
The modulation signal is applied to the TG IN I/AM connector. An input voltage of 1 V
corresponds to 100% amplitude modulation.
Switching on an external AM disables the active I/Q modulation.
External FM
The ​"External FM" on page 340 softkey activates the FM modulation of the tracking generator output signal.
The modulation frequency range is 1 kHz to 100 kHz, the deviation can be set in 1-decade
steps in the range of 100 Hz to 10 MHz at an input voltage of 1 V. The phase deviation
h should not exceed the value 100.
Phase deviation h = deviation/modulation frequency
The modulation signal is applied to the TG IN Q/FM connector.
Switching on an external FM disables the active I/Q modulation.
External IQ
The ​"External I/Q" on page 341 softkey activates the external I/Q modulation of the tracking generator.
The signals for modulation are applied to the two input connectors TG IN I and TG IN Q
at the rear panel of the unit. The input voltage range is ±1 V into 50 Ω.
Switching on an external I/Q modulation disables the active external AM or FM.
Functional description of the quadrature modulator:
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Instrument Functions
Instrument Functions – Tracking Generator (Options R&S FSV-B9/ R&S FSV-B10)
Fig. 3-34: I/Q modulation
I/Q modulation is performed by means of the built-in quadrature modulator. The RF signal
is divided into two orthogonal I and Q components (in phase and quadrature phase).
Amplitude and phase are controlled in each path by the I and Q modulation signal. By
adding the two components an RF output signal is generated that can be controlled in
amplitude and phase.
Remote command:
​SOURce<n>:​DM:​STATe​ on page 708
3.6.5 Displayed Information and Errors
Diagram header
In Tracking Generator measurement mode, some additional information is displayed in
the diagram header.
Label
Description
INT TG: <source power>
Internal tracking generator active
INT TG: <start power>… <stop power>
Internal tracking generator with power sweep active
EXT TG <1|2>: <source power>
External tracking generator (1 or 2) active
LVL
Power Offset (see ​chapter 3.6.3, "Configuring Tracking Generators", on page 345
FRQ
Frequency Offset (see ​chapter 3.6.3, "Configuring Tracking Generators", on page 345
Measurement accuracy levels
NOR
Normalization on;
No difference between reference setting and measurement
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Instrument Functions - R&S Digital I/Q Interface (Option R&S FSV-B17)
Label
Description
APX (approximation)
Normalization on;
Deviation from the reference setting occurs
-
Aborted normalization
For details on measurement accuracy levels, see ​chapter 3.6.4.5, "Normalization",
on page 355.
Error and status messages
Message
Description
"Ext. Generator GPIB Handshake Error!" /
Connection to the generator is not possible, e.g.
due to a cable damage or loose connection or
wrong address.
"Ext. Generator TCPIP Handshake Error!" /
"Ext. Generator TTL Handshake Error!"
"Ext. Generator Limits Exceeded!"
The allowed frequency or power ranges for the
generator were exceeded.
"Reverse Sweep via min. Ext. Generator Frequency!"
Reverse sweep is performed; frequencies are
reduced to the minimum frequency, then
increased again; see ​figure 3-27
"Ext. Generator File Syntax Error!"
Syntax error in the generator setup file (see ​"Edit
Generator Setup File" on page 352
"Ext. Generator Command Error!"
Missing or wrong command in the generator
setup file (see ​"Edit Generator Setup File"
on page 352
"Ext. Generator Visa Error!!"
Error with Visa driver provided with installation
(very unlikely)
3.7 Instrument Functions - R&S Digital I/Q Interface
(Option R&S FSV-B17)
In the standard configuration, the R&S FSV provides an internal I/Q memory in order to
capture and evaluate I/Q data, which can be output via GPIB or the LAN interface. If the
R&S FSV R&S Digital I/Q Interface option (R&S FSV-B17) is installed, an online digital
I/Q data interface is provided on the rear panel of the instrument for input and output.
This option is not available for R&S FSV 40 model 1307.9002K39.
Using the R&S Digital I/Q Interface for input, the digital baseband signal from the digital
interface is used for measurement, rather than the digitalized IF signal. If the digital output
is enabled, the I/Q data is continuously output at the connector at the rear of the instrument.
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Instrument Functions - R&S Digital I/Q Interface (Option R&S FSV-B17)
Alternatively, the I/Q data can be exported to a file (see ​chapter 3.1.2.3, "Importing and
Exporting I/Q Data", on page 76).
In the base unit, the input and output I/Q data can be evaluated using the I/Q Analyzer,
for example (see ​chapter 3.5, "Instrument Functions - I/Q Analyzer", on page 310). Other
applications (e.g. VSA, R&S FSV-K70) also support digital input, see the descriptions of
the individual firmware options for details.
The digital input and output can be enabled in the base unit or in one of the applications
(where available). Alternatively, I/Q data can also be captured via remote control. The
required commands are contained in the following subsystems:
●
​chapter 4.2.3.9, "INPut Subsystem", on page 612
●
​"TRACe:IQ Subsystem" on page 736
●
​chapter 4.2.3.12, "OUTPut Subsystem", on page 625
Information on the STATus:QUEStionable:DIQ register can be found in ​"STATus:QUEStionable:DIQ Register" on page 456.
3.7.1
Typical Applications for the R&S Digital I/Q Interface.................................................362
3.7.2
Digital Input.................................................................................................................364
3.7.3
Digital Output..............................................................................................................370
3.7.4
Softkeys and Parameters of the R&S Digital I/Q Interface..........................................371
3.7.5
Interface Status Information........................................................................................375
3.7.6
Description of the LVDS Connector............................................................................378
3.7.1 Typical Applications for the R&S Digital I/Q Interface
The following typical applications use the R&S Digital I/Q Interface:
●
Capturing and evaluating digital I/Q data in the I/Q Analyzer mode of the R&S FSV
base unit or other (optional) applications, e.g. R&S FSV-K70 (VSA). See ​chapter 3.5,
"Instrument Functions - I/Q Analyzer", on page 310 or the description of the individual
firmware options.
●
Output of digital I/Q data to a selected receiver, e.g. to implement fading (simulating
mobile radio communication participants) using a generator.
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Instrument Functions - R&S Digital I/Q Interface (Option R&S FSV-B17)
●
Output of digital I/Q data to a device with a user-specific interface using an R&S EXIQ-BOX (see the "R&S®EX-IQ-BOX - External Signal Interface Module Manual". The
EX-IQ-Box functionality is not supported for R&S FSV models 1321.3008Kxx.)
●
Capturing and evaluating digital I/Q data from a device with a user-specific interface
using an R&S EX-IQ-BOX (see the "R&S®EX-IQ-BOX - External Signal Interface
Module Manual". The EX-IQ-Box functionality is not supported for R&S FSV models
1321.3008Kxx.).
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Instrument Functions - R&S Digital I/Q Interface (Option R&S FSV-B17)
R&S EX-IQ-BOX and R&S DigIConf
The R&S EX-IQ-BOX is a configurable interface module that converts signal properties
and the transmission protocol of the R&S instruments into user-defined or standardized
signal formats and vice versa.
The EX-IQ-Box functionality is not supported for R&S FSV models 1321.3008Kxx.
The latest R&S EX-IQ-BOX (model 1409.5505K04) provides the configuration software
R&S DigIConf which can be installed directly on the R&S FSV. The software R&S DigIConf (Digital Interface Configurator for the R&S EX-IQ-BOX, version 2.10 or higher) controls the protocol, data and clock settings of the R&S EX-IQ-BOX independently from the
connected R&S instrument. Besides basic functions of the user-defined protocols, this
software utility supports the settings for standardized protocols, as e.g. CPRI, OBSAI or
DigRF. Note that R&S DigIConf requires a USB connection (not LAN!) to the
R&S FSV in addition to the R&S Digital I/Q Interface connection.
Remote control is possible and very simple. Remote commands for the R&S DigIConf
software always begin with SOURce:EBOX. Such commands are passed on from the
R&S FSV to the R&S EX-IQ-BOX automatically via the USB connection.
A setup file, included in delivery, consists of an installation wizard, the executable program and all necessary program and data files. The latest software versions can be
downloaded free of charge from the R&S website: www.rohde-schwarz.com/en/products/
test_and_measurement/signal_generation/EX-IQ-Box. Simply execute the Setup file and
follow the instructions in the installation wizard.
For details on installation and operation of the R&S DigIConf software, see the "R&S®EXIQ-BOX Digital Interface Module R&S®DigIConf Software Operating Manual".
3.7.2 Digital Input
Digital input is enabled by selecting the "Digital Baseband (I/Q)" input path in the "Signal
Source" dialog box (available either in the "Measurement" menu of the "I/Q Analyzer"
mode, or in the "Input/Output" menu of the base unit and some applications, see ​"Signal
Source" on page 299).
The digital input and output cannot be used simultaneously.
Signal Source
The device that provides digital input must be connected to the R&S Digital I/Q Interface
at the rear of the R&S FSV. The signal source is then configured in the "Signal Source"
dialog box.
In the "Signal Source" dialog box the detected input device is indicated. For "Digital
Baseband (I/Q)" sources, you can configure the basic connection settings, e.g. the input
sample rate. Each time the device is disconnected or the configuration is changed, a
connection protocol is executed, and before the first measurement, a PRBS descewing
test is performed. Information on the connection status and the results of the connection
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Instrument Functions - R&S Digital I/Q Interface (Option R&S FSV-B17)
tests are provided in the "Digital IQ Info" dialog box, see ​chapter 3.7.5, "Interface Status
Information", on page 375.
Measurement Settings
The "Full Scale Level" defines the level that should correspond to an I/Q sample with the
magnitude "1" and can be defined either in dBm or Volt (see ​"Full Scale Level"
on page 300). When converting the measured power into dBm, an impedance of 50 Ω is
assumed.
Processing digital input
The digital input signal is brought to the desired sample rate using a downsampling filter
and fractional resampling. The word length of the data is 18 bits fixed point for each I and
Q. The resulting data can be processed by the selected application (see ​chapter 3.7.1,
"Typical Applications for the R&S Digital I/Q Interface", on page 362). As illustrated in ​
figure 3-35, the sample rate is dependant on the input sample rate.
Fig. 3-35: Signal path using digital input
Sample rates, bandwidths and other limitations
The calculation of the usable I/Q bandwidth for active digital input is described in ​
table 3-13.
Abbreviations
The following abbreviations are used in this section:
●
SR: sample rate: the sample rate that is defined by the user (e.g. in the "Data Aquisition" dialog box in the "I/Q Analyzer" mode, see ​"Sample Rate" on page 316)
●
ISR: Input sample rate: the sample rate of the data provided by the connected device
to the digital input
●
Ms: 1 Ms = 1024 * 1024 samples
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Table 3-13: Calculation of the usable I/Q bandwidth for active digital input
Precondition
Bandwith
0.8 * SR
SR
 0.95
ISR
0.95 
0.76 * ISR
SR
ISR
Unfiltered I/Q data input
The values in ​table 3-13 apply for the default data processing using the decimation filter
and resampler. If the filter is deactivated (see ​"No Filter" on page 316, the sample rate is
identical to the input sample rate. In this case, the usable I/Q bandwidth is not restricted
by the R&S FSV.
The following table describes the dependencies for digital in- and output:
Table 3-14: Dependencies for digital in- and output
Type of Limit
Precondition
Range / Value
Input sample rate (ISR)
100 Hz … 10 GHz (*)
Minimum sample rate
(SR)
100 Hz (*)
Maximum sample rate
(SR)
Digital input active 45 MHz (without R&S FSV-B70) (*)
254 * ISR, max. 10 GHz (with R&S FSV-B70) (*)
Digital output
active
45 MHz (without R&S FSV-B70)
100 MHz (with R&S FSV-B70)
(*) Note the relationship between the sample rate and the input sample rate, which may restrict the value ranges
further:
ISRmin= SR/254
ISRmax= SR*2*1048576
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Type of Limit
Precondition
Maximum number of samples
Range / Value
SR 

Min100 Ms,100 Ms 
  group delay in samples
ISR


Note: the internal filter settling time depends on the relation:
Some R&S FSV applications limit the maximum number of samples to reasonable values.
In I/Q Analyzer mode (Eval mode, see ​TRACe<n>:​IQ:​EVAL​
on page 744), the maximum number of samples is restricted to:
SR 

Min10 Mio,100 Ms 
  group delay in samples
ISR 

Maximum number of I/Q
pretrigger samples
-(MaxNoOfSamples-1) to + (MaxNoOfSamples-1)
(*) Note the relationship between the sample rate and the input sample rate, which may restrict the value ranges
further:
ISRmin= SR/254
ISRmax= SR*2*1048576
Table 3-15: Typical values for the maximum number of samples depending on the SR/ISR relation
SR/ISR
Max number of samples
100
104857600
10
104857600
1
104857600
1/10
10485686
1/100
1048508
SlowIQ measurements
"SlowIQ" measurements are measurements where the sample rate exceeds the rate
used to transfer valid samples. In the R&S FSV, the sample rate may exceed 100 MHz
for "SlowIQ" measurements. This happens, for example, when an analog signal is sampled by external hardware, e.g. an oscilloscope, with a sample rate > 100 MHz, is stored
there in a memory temporarily and then read from the memory and transmitted to the
R&S FSV. In this case, make sure the source sample rate is defined corrrespondingly for
the connected device (see ​"Input Sample Rate" on page 299).
Bandwidths
Depending on the sample rate, the following bandwidths are available:
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Fig. 3-36: Bandwidths depending on sample rate for active digital input
Table 3-16: Bandwidths depending on sample rate for active digital input (with B70)
Examplary digital Possible output sample rates and the corresponding IQ bandwidths
input sample rates
Linear increase from the minimum pos- Constant IQ bandwidth from break
sible output sample rate up to break
point up to the maximum possible outpoint
put sample rate
minimum
Minimum:
break point
Not allowed
ISR =100 Hz
break point
maximum
SR = 100 Hz 1)
SR = 254 * ISR
BW = 0.76 * ISR
= 25.64 kHz
= 76 Hz
BW = 0.76 * ISR
= 76 Hz
Example
SR = 100 Hz 1)
SR = 0.95*ISR
SR = 0.95*ISR
SR = 254 * ISR
ISR = 30 MHz
BW = 0.8 * SR
= 28.5 MHz
= 28.5 MHz
= 7.62 GHz
= 80 Hz
BW = 0.8 * SR
BW = 0.76 * ISR
BW = 0.76 * ISR
= 22.8 MHz
= 22.8 MHz
= 22.8 Hz
1)
max(ISR/(2*1048576), 100 Hz)
2)
min(254*ISR, 10GHz)
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Examplary digital Possible output sample rates and the corresponding IQ bandwidths
input sample rates
Linear increase from the minimum pos- Constant IQ bandwidth from break
sible output sample rate up to break
point up to the maximum possible outpoint
put sample rate
minimum
break point
break point
maximum
Example
SR = 100 Hz 1)
SR = 0.95*ISR
SR = 0.95*ISR
SR = 10 GHz 2)
ISR = 50 MHz
BW = 0.8 * SR
= 47.5 MHz
= 47.5 MHz
BW = 0.76 * ISR
= 80 Hz
BW = 0.8 * SR
BW = 0.76 * ISR
= 38 MHz
= 38 MHz
= 38 MHz
SR =ISR/
(2*1048576)
SR = 0.95*ISR
SR = 0.95*ISR
SR = 10 GHz 2)
= 475 MHz
= 475 MHz
BW = 0.76 * ISR
= 239 Hz
BW = 0.8 * SR
BW = 0.76 * ISR
= 380 MHz
BW = 0.8 * SR
= 380 MHz
= 380 MHz
SR =ISR/
(2*1048576)
SR = 0.95*ISR
SR = 0.95*ISR
SR = 10 GHz 2)
= 9.5 GHz
= 9.5 GHz
BW = 0.76 * ISR
= 4.769 kHz
BW = 0.8 * SR
BW = 0.76 * ISR
= 7.6 GHz
BW = 0.8 * SR
= 7.6 GHz
= 7.6 GHz
Example
ISR = 500 MHz
= 191.2 Hz
Maximum:
ISR = 10 GHz
= 3.8152 kHz
1)
max(ISR/(2*1048576), 100 Hz)
2)
min(254*ISR, 10GHz)
Table 3-17: Bandwidths depending on sample rate for active digital input (without B70)
Examplary digital Possible output sample rates and the corresponding IQ bandwidths
input sample rates
Linear increase from the minimum pos- Constant IQ bandwidth from break
sible output sample rate up to break
point up to the maximum possible outpoint
put sample rate
minimum
Minimum:
break point
Not allowed
ISR =100 Hz
break point
maximum
SR = 100 Hz 1)
SR = 254 * ISR
BW = 0.76 * ISR
= 25.64 kHz
= 76 Hz
BW = 0.76 * ISR
= 76 Hz
Example
SR = 100 Hz 1)
SR = 0.95*ISR
SR = 0.95*ISR
SR = 45 MHz 2)
ISR = 30 MHz
BW = 0.8 * SR
= 28.5 MHz
= 28.5 MHz
BW = 0.76 * ISR
= 80 Hz
BW = 0.8 * SR
BW = 0.76 * ISR
= 22.8 Hz
= 22.8 MHz
= 22.8 MHz
Not allowed
Example
SR = 100 Hz 1)
SR = 45 MHz 2)
ISR = 50 MHz
BW = 0.8 * SR
BW = 0.8 * SR
= 80 Hz
= 36 MHz
1)
max(ISR/(2*1048576), 100 Hz)
2)
min(254*ISR, 45 MHz)
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Examplary digital Possible output sample rates and the corresponding IQ bandwidths
input sample rates
Linear increase from the minimum pos- Constant IQ bandwidth from break
sible output sample rate up to break
point up to the maximum possible outpoint
put sample rate
Example
ISR = 500 MHz
minimum
break point
break point
SR =ISR/
(2*1048576)
SR = 45 MHz 2)
Not allowed
= 239 Hz
maximum
BW = 0.8 * SR
= 36 MHz
BW = 0.8 * SR
= 191.2 Hz
Maximum:
ISR = 10 GHz
SR =ISR/
(2*1048576)
= 4.769 kHz
SR = 45 MHz 2)
Not allowed
BW = 0.8 * SR
= 36 MHz
BW = 0.8 * SR
= 3.8152 kHz
1)
max(ISR/(2*1048576), 100 Hz)
2)
min(254*ISR, 45 MHz)
Triggering
The following trigger modes are supported:
●
External (see ​"External" on page 140)
●
BB Power (see ​"IF Power/BB Power" on page 141)
●
Time (see ​"Time" on page 142)
If external triggering is used, the external trigger must be applied via the connector on
the rear panel of the instrument (as for analog input).
Gating
Gating is not supported for digital input.
3.7.3 Digital Output
Digital output is enabled in the I/Q Analyzer mode (see ​chapter 3.5, "Instrument Functions
- I/Q Analyzer", on page 310).
The digital input and output cannot be used simultaneously.
Processing digital output
Digital output is processed almost identically to RF input in I/Q mode (see ​chapter 3.5.6,
"Working with I/Q Data", on page 333). I/Q data is sampled blockwise, according to the
defined sample rate, and stored in the I/Q memory. From the memory, the I/Q data is
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processed in the I/Q Analyzer mode. Simultaneously, the data is written to the R&S Digital
I/Q Interface continuously. Using this interface, the I/Q data can be processed in an
external device as an alternative to internal processing in the R&S FSV.
The sample rate at the digital output corresponds to the user-defined sample rate (maximum 100 MHz, see ​"Sample Rate" on page 316). The current sample rate is displayed
in the "Digital Output" dialog box (read-only) when the digital output is enabled (see ​
"Digital Output" on page 301).
For digital output, the full scale level corresponds to the defined reference level (without
the reference level offset and transducer; see also ​"Full Scale Level" on page 300 and ​
"Reference Level" on page 315.
The data rate for digital output via the R&S Digital I/Q Interface is 100 MHz, i.e. any
connected device must be capable of processing digital input at a data rate of 100 MHz.
Fig. 3-37: Signal path using the digital output
3.7.4 Softkeys and Parameters of the R&S Digital I/Q Interface
The following softkeys and parameters are available for the R&S Digital I/Q Interface in
the applications that support it.
Signal Source..............................................................................................................372
└ Input Path......................................................................................................372
└ Connected Device.........................................................................................372
└ Input Sample Rate........................................................................................372
└ Full Scale Level.............................................................................................372
└ Level Unit......................................................................................................372
└ Adjust Reference Level to Full Scale Level..................................................372
Digital Output..............................................................................................................373
Digital IQ Info..............................................................................................................373
EXIQ............................................................................................................................373
└ TX Settings...................................................................................................374
└ RX Settings...................................................................................................374
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└
└
└
└
Send To........................................................................................................374
Firmware Update..........................................................................................374
R&S Support.................................................................................................374
DigIConf........................................................................................................374
Signal Source
Opens a dialog box to select the signal source.
For "Digital Baseband (I/Q)", the source can also be configured here.
Input Path ← Signal Source
Defines whether the "RF Radio Frequency" or the "Digital IQ" input path is used for
measurements. "Digital IQ" is only available if option R&S FSV-B17 (R&S Digital I/Q
Interface) is installed.
Note: Note that the input path defines the characteristics of the signal, which differ significantly between the RF input and digital input.
Remote command:
​INPut:​SELect​ on page 617
Connected Device ← Signal Source
Displays the name of the device connected to the optional R&S Digital I/Q Interface
(R&S FSV-B17) to provide Digital IQ input. The device name cannot be changed here.
The device name is unknown.
Remote command:
​INPut:​DIQ:​CDEVice​ on page 613
Input Sample Rate ← Signal Source
Defines the sample rate of the digital I/Q signal source. This sample rate must correspond
with the sample rate provided by the connected device, e.g. a generator.
Remote command:
​INPut:​DIQ:​SRATe​ on page 615
Full Scale Level ← Signal Source
The "Full Scale Level" defines the level that should correspond to an I/Q sample with the
magnitude "1".
The level can be defined either in dBm or Volt.
Remote command:
​INPut:​DIQ:​RANGe[:​UPPer]​ on page 615
Level Unit ← Signal Source
Defines the unit used for the full scale level.
Remote command:
​INPut:​DIQ:​RANGe[:​UPPer]:​UNIT​ on page 615
Adjust Reference Level to Full Scale Level ← Signal Source
If enabled, the reference level is adjusted to the full scale level automatically if any change
occurs.
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(See the ​Auto Level softkey).
Remote command:
​INPut:​DIQ:​RANGe:​COUPling​ on page 614
Digital Output
Opens a dialog box to enable a digital output stream to the optional R&S Digital I/Q
Interface (R&S FSV-B17), if available.
The displayed sample rate is identical to the sample rate defined under ​Data Acquisition (I/Q Analyzer) and is not editable here.
For details see "Digital Output" in the description of the R&S Digital I/Q Interface for the
base unit.
Remote command:
​OUTPut:​DIQ​ on page 625
Digital IQ Info
Displays a dialog box with information on the digital I/Q input and output connection via
the optional R&S Digital I/Q Interface (R&S FSV-B17), if available. The information
includes:
●
●
●
●
●
Device identification
Used port
(Maximum) digital input/output sample rates and maximum digital input/output transfer rates
Status of the connection protocol
Status of the PRBS descewing test
For details see "Interface Status Information" in "Instrument Functions - R&S Digital I/Q
Interface (Option R&S FSV-B17)" in the description of the base unit.
Remote command:
​INPut:​DIQ:​CDEVice​ on page 613
EXIQ
Opens a configuration dialog box for an optionally connected R&S EX-IQ-BOX and a
submenu to access the main settings quickly.
Note: The EX-IQ-Box functionality is not supported for R&S FSV models 1321.3008Kxx.
If the optional R&S DigIConf software is installed, the submenu consists only of one key
to access the software. Note that R&S DigIConf requires a USB connection (not
LAN!) from the R&S FSV to the R&S EX-IQ-BOX in addition to the R&S Digital I/Q
Interface connection. R&S DigIConf version 2.10 or higher is required.
For typical applications of the R&S EX-IQ-BOX see also the description of the R&S Digital
I/Q Interface (R&S FSV-B17) in the base unit manual.
For details on configuration see the "R&S®Ex I/Q Box - External Signal Interface Module
Manual".
For details on installation and operation of the R&S DigIConf software, see the "R&S®EXIQ-BOX Digital Interface Module R&S®DigIConf Software Operating Manual".
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TX Settings ← EXIQ
Opens the "EX-IQ-BOX Settings" dialog box to configure the R&S FSV for digital output
to a connected device ("Transmitter" Type).
RX Settings ← EXIQ
Opens the "EX-IQ-BOX Settings" dialog box to configure the R&S FSV for digital input
from a connected device ("Receiver" Type).
Send To ← EXIQ
The configuration settings defined in the dialog box are transferred to the R&S EX-IQBOX.
Firmware Update ← EXIQ
If a firmware update for the R&S EX-IQ-BOX is delivered with the R&S FSV firmware,
this function is available. In this case, when you select the softkey, the firmware update
is performed.
R&S Support ← EXIQ
Stores useful information for troubleshooting in case of errors.
This data is stored in the C:\R_S\Instr\user\Support directory on the instrument.
If you contact the Rohde&Schwarz support to get help for a certain problem, send these
files to the support in order to identify and solve the problem faster.
DigIConf ← EXIQ
Starts the optional R&S DigIConf application. This softkey is only available if the optional
software is installed.
To return to the R&S FSV application, press any key on the front panel. The application
is displayed with the "EXIQ" menu, regardless of which key was pressed.
For details on the R&S DigIConf application, see the "R&S®EX-IQ-BOX Digital Interface
Module R&S®DigIConf Software Operating Manual".
Note: If you close the R&S DigIConf window using the "Close" icon, the window is minimized, not closed.
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If you select the "File > Exit" menu item in the R&S DigIConf window, the application is
closed. Note that in this case the settings are lost and the EX-IQ-BOX functionality is no
longer available until you restart the application using the "DigIConf" softkey in the
R&S FSV once again.
Remote command:
Remote commands for the R&S DigIConf software always begin with SOURce:EBOX.
Such commands are passed on from the R&S FSV to the R&S DigIConf automatically
which then configures the R&S EX-IQ-BOX via the USB connection.
All remote commands available for configuration via the R&S DigIConf software are
described in the "R&S®EX-IQ-BOX Digital Interface Module R&S®DigIConf Software
Operating Manual".
Example 1:
SOURce:EBOX:*RST
SOURce:EBOX:*IDN?
Result:
"Rohde&Schwarz,DigIConf,02.05.436 Build 47"
Example 2:
SOURce:EBOX:USER:CLOCk:REFerence:FREQuency 5MHZ
Defines the frequency value of the reference clock.
3.7.5 Interface Status Information
When a digitial input or output device is connected to the R&S Digital I/Q Interface, a
dialog box and status icons in the status bar provide information on the status of the
connection. To display the dialog box, select the "Digital IQ Info" softkey in the "Input/
Output" menu (see ​"Digital IQ Info" on page 302).
The following information is displayed:
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Table 3-18: Displayed Information for Digital Baseband Connections
Label
Description
Digital I/Q input connection
Digital-I/Q Input
Device connected to R&S FSV input interface
Serial Number
Serial number of the connected device
Port
Port name used by the connected device
(Max.) Digital Output Sample
Rate
Maximum possible or currently used sample rate of the connected device;
depends on the used connection protocol version (see "<SampleRateType>" parameter described in ​INPut:​DIQ:​CDEVice​ on page 613)
Max. Digital Output Transfer
Rate
Maximum data transfer rate of the connected device in Hz
Connection Protocol
State of the connection protocol which is used to identify the connected
device
PRBS Test Descewing
State of the PRBS test
Digital I/Q output connection
Digital-I/Q Output
Device connected to R&S FSV output interface
Serial Number
Serial number of the connected device
Port
Port name used by the connected device
Max. Digital Input Transfer
Rate
Maximum input data transfer rate that can be processed by the connected
device
Connection Protocol
State of the connection protocol which is used to identify the connected
device
PRBS Test Descewing
State of the PRBS test
You can query the information in this dialog box using remote commands, see ​INPut:​
DIQ:​CDEVice​ on page 613.
Connection tests
Each time a device is (re-)connected to the R&S FSV, a connection protocol is executed.
This test identifies the connected device. This test may take 2 seconds to complete. If a
connection cannot be established within 30 seconds, the test is aborted and an error is
indicated in the dialog box and the status bar.
Before the first measurement is started after a device has been (re-)connected to the
R&S FSV, a PRBS Descewing test is performed to identify the properties of the used
cable. The state of this test is also indicated in the dialog box and the status bar.
If either of the tests fail, check the cable to the connected device as a first step. Also make
sure the data rate of the R&S FSV and the connected device comply with the specification.
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Status icons
The status of the connection tests are indicated in the "Digital IQ Info" dialog box and as
icons in the status bar. The status icons have the following meaning:
Table 3-19: Status information for digital baseband connections
Icon
Status
Digital input
Connection established, protocol not yet started
Connection protocol in progress
Connection protocol passed
PRBS test in progress
PRBS test passed
Connection protocol failed
PRBS test failed
No cable connected although "Signal Source" = "DigIQ"
Digital output
Connection established, protocol not yet started
Connection protocol in progress
Connection protocol passed
Connection protocol failed
No cable connected although "Digital Output" enabled.
Error messages
If errors occur, a message is displayed in the status bar. The following table describes
the most common errors and possible solutions.
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Message
Possible solutions
"Dig. Input Sample Rate too high!"
●
●
Increase the sample rate
Reduce the input sample rate
"Dig. Input Sample Rate too low!"
●
●
Reduce the sample rate
Increase the input sample rate
"Output Sample Rate too high!"
●
●
Reduce the sample rate
Increase the input sample rate
"Number of I/Q Capture Samples too high!"
●
●
Reduce the number of I/Q samples
Reduce the ratio
input sample rate / sample rate
by increasing the sample rate or descreasing the
input sample rate
Keyword: "FIFO OVL"
Reduce the input sample rate
3.7.6 Description of the LVDS Connector
The R&S Digital I/Q Interface is a proprietary LVDS serial interface. For adaption to
industrial standard interfaces use the R&S EX-IQ-BOX (see the "R&S®EX-IQ-BOX External Signal Interface Module Manual". The EX-IQ-Box functionality is not supported
for R&S FSV models 1321.3008Kxx.).
The LVDS Connector is a 26 pin female 0.050" Mini D Ribbon connector (e.g.: 3M
102XX-1210VE series).
For the connection, use the cables provided with the R&S EX-IQ-BOX or an R&S®SMUZ6 cable (order no.: 1415.0201.02).
Fig. 3-38: LVDS connector on the R&S FSV rear panel, connector front view
The ​table 3-20 shows the multiplexed data at the output of the LVDS transmitter.
Table 3-20: LVDS connector pin description
Pin Signal
Level
1
reserved for future use
2
GND
0V
Ground, shield of pair 1-14, for future use
3
SDAT0_P
LVDS
Serial data channel 0 positive pin; carries the bits VALID, ENABLE,
MARKER_1 (GP4), Reserve_1 (GP2), RE_0, RE_1
4
SDAT1_P
LVDS
Serial data channel 1 positive pin; carries the bits RE_2, RE_3, RE_4, RE_5,
RE_6, RE_7
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Pin Signal
Level
5
SDAT2_P
LVDS
Serial data channel 2 positive pin; carries the bits RE_8, RE_9, RE_10,
RE_11, RE_12, RE_13
6
CLK1_P
LVDS
Clock 1 positive pin; clock for transmission on LVDS link
7
S_CLK
TTL
(for future use)
8
+5VD
+5.0V
Supply voltage (for future use)
9
SDAT3_P
LVDS
Serial data channel 3 positive pin; carries the bits RE_14, RE_15, RE_16,
RE_17, RE_18, RE_19
10
SDAT4_P
LVDS
Serial data channel 4 positive pin; carries the bits TRIGGER_1 (GP0),
TRIGGER_2 (GP1), MARKER_2 (GP5), Reserve_2 (GP3), IM_0, IM_1
11
SDAT5_P
LVDS
Serial data channel 5 positive pin; carries the bits IM_2, IM_3, IM_4, IM_5,
IM_6, IM_7
12
SDAT6_P
LVDS
Serial data channel 6 positive pin; carries the bits IM_8, IM_9, IM_10, IM_11,
IM_12, IM_13
13
SDAT7_P
LVDS
Serial data channel 7 positive pin; carries the bits IM_14, IM_15, IM_16,
IM_17, IM_18, IM_19
14
reserved for future use
15
SDAT0_M
LVDS
Serial data channel 0 negative pin
16
SDAT1_M
LVDS
Serial data channel 1 negative pin
17
SDAT2_M
LVDS
Serial data channel 2 negative pin
18
CLK1_M
LVDS
Clock 1 negative pin
19
DGND
0V
Power ground; ground return for 5V supply voltage (for future use)
20
S_DATA
TTL
(for future use)
21
SDAT3_M
LVDS
Serial data channel 3 negative pin
22
SDAT4_M
LVDS
Serial data channel 4 negative pin
23
SDAT5_M
LVDS
Serial data channel 5 negative pin
24
SDAT6_M
LVDS
Serial data channel 6 negative pin
25
SDAT7_M
LVDS
Serial data channel 7 negative pin
26
GND
0V
LVDS ground; shielding of transmission lines and shielding of cable
3.8 Instrument Functions – External Mixer (Option
R&S FSV-B21)
If the R&S FSV External Mixer option (R&S FSV-B21) is installed, an external mixer can
be connected to the R&S FSV to increase the available frequency range.
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Instrument Functions
Instrument Functions – External Mixer (Option R&S FSV-B21)
External mixers - once activated - are available for all instrument applications. (De-)Activation is only possible in the base unit, i.e. in "Spectrum" mode.
Connecting External Mixers
How to connect external mixers is described in the R&S FSV Quick Start Guide, "Optional
Front Panel Connectors".
General information
Some general information on working with external mixers can be found in ​chapter 3.8.1,
"General Information on External Mixers", on page 380.
Menu and softkey description
The "External Mixer" menu is displayed when you select the "External Mixer" softkey in
the "Home" menu of the "Spectrum" mode.
For details see ​chapter 3.8.2, "Softkeys of the External Mixer (Option B21)",
on page 386.
Measurement Example
An introductory example of operating an external mixer is provided in ​chapter 3.8.3,
"Introductory Example of Operation", on page 397.
●
●
●
General Information on External Mixers................................................................380
Softkeys of the External Mixer (Option B21).........................................................386
Introductory Example of Operation.......................................................................397
3.8.1 General Information on External Mixers
This section contains some general information on external mixers and their application.
3.8.1.1
Frequency Range........................................................................................................380
3.8.1.2
Bias Current................................................................................................................381
3.8.1.3
Conversion Loss Tables..............................................................................................382
3.8.1.4
Full Screen Level........................................................................................................383
3.8.1.5
Remarks on Signal Identification with Auto ID............................................................384
3.8.1.1
Frequency Range
The frequency of the input signal can be expressed as a function of the LO frequency
and the selected harmonic of the first LO as follows:
fin = n * fLO + fIF
where:
fin: frequency of input signal
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Instrument Functions
Instrument Functions – External Mixer (Option R&S FSV-B21)
n: order of harmonic used for conversion
fLO: frequency of first LO: 7.73 GHz to 15.23 GHz
fIF: intermediate frequency 729.9 MHz
For pre-defined bands, the resulting frequency ranges are as follows:
Table 3-21: Frequency ranges for pre-defined bands
Band
Frequency start [GHz]
Frequency stop [GHz]
K
18.0
26.5
KA (A) *)
26.5
40.0
Q
33.0
50.0
U
40.0
60.0
V
50.0
75.0
E
60.0
90.0
W
75.0
110.0
F
90.0
140.0
D
110.0
170.0
G
140.0
220.0
J
220.0
325.0
Y
325.0
500.0
USER
31.65
60.1901
(default)
(default)
*) The band formerly referred to as "A" is now named "KA".
3.8.1.2
Bias Current
Single-diode mixers generally require a DC voltage which is applied via the LO line. This
DC voltage is to be tuned to the minimum conversion loss versus frequency. Such a DC
voltage can be set via the "BIAS" function using the D/A converter of the R&S FSV. The
value to be entered is not the voltage but the short-circuit current. The current is defined
in the "Bias Settings" or set to the value of the conversion loss table (see ​"Bias Settings" on page 395 and ​"Bias" on page 392.
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Instrument Functions
Instrument Functions – External Mixer (Option R&S FSV-B21)
Fig. 3-39: Bias circuit of the R&S FSV
The voltage U0 at the output of the operational amplifier can be set in the range –2.0 to
+2.0 V An open-circuit voltage Vbias of –0.5 to +0.5 V is obtained accordingly at the
output of the voltage divider. A short-circuit current of Ishort = V0 / 200 Ω = 10 mA to +
10 mA is obtained for a short circuit at the output of the voltage divider. For using biasing
it is not important to know exactly the current flowing through the diode since the conversion loss must be set to minimum with the frequency. It therefore makes no difference
whether the setting is performed by an open-circuit voltage or by a short-circuit current.
A DC return path is ensured via the 66 Ω resistor, which is an advantage in some mixers.
3.8.1.3
Conversion Loss Tables
Conversion loss tables consist of value pairs that describe the correction values for conversion loss at certain frequencies. Correction values for frequencies between the reference values are obtained by interpolation. Linear interpolation is performed if the table
contains only two values. If it contains more than two reference values, spline interpolation is carried out. Outside the frequency range covered by the table the conversion loss
is assumed to be the same (see ​figure 3-40) as that for the first and last reference value.
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Instrument Functions
Instrument Functions – External Mixer (Option R&S FSV-B21)
Fig. 3-40: Conversion loss outside the band's frequency range
Predefined conversion loss tables are often provided with the external mixer and can be
imported to the R&S FSV. Alternatively, you can define your own conversion loss tables.
Conversion loss tables are configured and managed in the "Conversion Loss Table
Setup" tab of the "External Mixer Configuration" dialog box (see ​"Conversion Loss Table
Setup" on page 390).
The conversion loss table to be used for a particular range is defined in the "External
Mixer Configuration" dialog box. All tables stored on the instrument in the
C:\r_s\instr\user\cvl\ directory are offered for selection. A validation check is
then performed on the selected table to ensure that it complies with the settings. In particular, the following is checked:
3.8.1.4
●
the assigned band name
●
the harmonic order
●
the mixer type
●
the table must contain at least one frequency that lies within the frequency range for
the band
Full Screen Level
The maximum possible reference level depends on the maximum used conversion loss
value. Thus, the reference level can be adjusted for each range according to the used
conversion loss table or average conversion loss value. If a conversion loss value is used
which exceeds the maximum reference level, the reference level is adjusted to the maximum value permitted by the firmware.
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Instrument Functions
Instrument Functions – External Mixer (Option R&S FSV-B21)
3.8.1.5
Remarks on Signal Identification with Auto ID
Test sweep and reference sweep
Depending on which of the automatic signal identification functions are used, the traces
are used to display either the test sweep (the upper side-band sweep) or the reference
sweep (lower side-band sweep).
Function
Trace 1
Trace 2
Trace 3
Signal ID
Signal ID upper side-band
Signal ID lower side-band
-
Auto ID
Auto ID
-
-
Signal ID + Auto ID
Signal ID upper side-band
Signal ID lower side-band
Auto ID
Type of signal
The automatic comparison of the test sweep and reference sweep with the "Auto ID"
function can only be usefully applied for signals with time-constant spectrum since the
two sweeps are always required to determine the actual spectrum.
Tolerance for the comparison of test sweep and reference
Since the LO frequency is displaced downwards in the reference sweep, the conversion
loss of the mixer may differ from that of the test sweep. The reasons for this are the LO
output power of the R&S FSV varying with the frequency and the non-ideal characteristics
of the mixer. A certain tolerance should therefore be permitted for the comparison of the
signal levels in the test sweep and reference sweep. The user can set this tolerance using
the "AUTO ID THRESHOLD" function. If the tolerance is defined too narrow, the signal
collected with the reference sweep may be displayed even for the identification of real
signals.
Mixer products with low S/N ratio
If the S/N ratio of a mixer product is less than the tolerance set with "AUTO ID THRESHOLD", the level difference between the test sweep and reference sweep at the frequency
of this mixer product is always within limits, even if the signal occurs in one of the sweeps
only. Such mixer products cannot be identified by "AUTO ID". It is therefore recommended to perform a visual comparison of the test sweep and reference sweep using the
function "SIGNAL ID".
An unwanted signal with a S/N ratio that corresponds approximately to the tolerance set
with "AUTO ID THRESHOLD" may not be blanked out permanently. Due to the fact that
the noise display varies from one sweep to another, the S/N ratio changes and thus the
level difference between the test sweep and reference sweep measured at a frequency
changes as well. As a result, the criterion for detecting unwanted signals is not fulfilled.
To blank out unwanted signals permanently, an almost constant noise indication is therefore required. This can be achieved by reducing the video bandwidth. Since the average
noise indication lies well below the generated noise peak values, the minimum level
diminishes. For identification using "AUTO ID" signals should have this minimum level.
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R&S® FSV
Instrument Functions
Instrument Functions – External Mixer (Option R&S FSV-B21)
Examining unwanted mixer products with small span
With large spans in which non-modulated sinewave signals are represented as single
lines, unwanted mixer products are generally completely blanked out. However, if you
examine the frequency range containing a blanked signal in detail using a small span,
e.g. an image-frequency response, part of the signal may nevertheless be displayed. This
happens when the displayed components of a blanked signal have a level difference
which is smaller than the tolerance predefined with "AUTO ID THRESHOLD" when compared with the noise floor. These components are therefore not blanked out.
Display of mixer products at the same frequency
If the input signal consists of a very large number of spectral components, it will become
more and more probable that two different unwanted mixer products will be displayed at
the same frequency in the test sweep and reference sweep.
Fig. 3-41: Different mixer products displayed at the same frequency in the test sweep and reference
sweep
The external mixer has been working using 2nd order harmonic. The signal recorded in
the test sweep is displayed by trace 1. The IF filter of the R&S FSV is represented at a 3
dB bandwidth of 20 kHz, the real IF bandwidth being 30 kHz. If, however, the 3 dB bandwidth (trace 2) of the signal recorded in the reference sweep is examined, it will be found
to be larger exactly by a factor of 2. This shows that the two products were generated by
mixing with LO harmonics of different orders The signal recorded in the test sweep was
generated by mixing with 3rd order harmonic. Since the frequency axis scaling is based
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Instrument Functions
Instrument Functions – External Mixer (Option R&S FSV-B21)
on the 2nd order, the mixer product or the resulting diagram of the IF filter is compressed
by a factor of 2/3. The signal recorded in the reference sweep was generated by mixing
with the fundamental of the LO signal. Since the frequency axis scaling is based on the
2nd order, the mixer product or the resulting diagram of the IF filter is expanded by a
factor of 2.
Automatic identification with a large span is not possible since the two mixer products are
displayed at the same frequency. The diagram shown in ​figure 3-42 is obtained when
examining products with a narrow span using "AUTO ID". You can easily recognize
unwanted mixer products from the clear diagram obtained using "AUTO ID" or "SIGNAL
ID".
Fig. 3-42: Signal as in Screen A: Unwanted mixer product with the use of AUTO ID
3.8.2 Softkeys of the External Mixer (Option B21)
External Mixer.............................................................................................................387
└ External Mixer (On/Off).................................................................................387
└ External Mixer Config....................................................................................387
└ External Mixer Setup..........................................................................388
└ RF Start....................................................................................388
└ RF Stop....................................................................................388
└ Handover Freq..........................................................................388
└ Band.........................................................................................388
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Instrument Functions
Instrument Functions – External Mixer (Option R&S FSV-B21)
└
└
└
└
└
└
└
└
└
└
RF Overrange...........................................................................389
Preset Band..............................................................................389
Mixer Type................................................................................389
Harmonic Type.........................................................................389
Range 1/2.................................................................................389
└ Harmonic Order..............................................................389
└ Conversion Loss.............................................................390
└ Conversion Loss Table Setup.............................................................390
└ New Table................................................................................391
└ File Name.......................................................................392
└ Comment........................................................................392
└ Band...............................................................................392
└ Harmonic Order..............................................................392
└ Bias................................................................................392
└ Mixer Name....................................................................392
└ Mixer S/N........................................................................393
└ Mixer Type......................................................................393
└ Position/Value................................................................393
└ Insert..............................................................................394
└ Delete.............................................................................394
└ Shift x.............................................................................394
└ Shift y.............................................................................394
└ Save...............................................................................394
└ Edit Table.................................................................................394
└ Delete Table.............................................................................394
└ Import Table.............................................................................394
Bias Settings.................................................................................................395
└ Write to <CVL table name>................................................................395
LO Level........................................................................................................395
Signal ID (On/Off).........................................................................................395
Auto ID (On/Off)............................................................................................396
Auto ID Threshold.........................................................................................397
External Mixer
Opens the submenu for the external mixer.
External Mixer (On/Off) ← External Mixer
Switches the external mixer on or off. Once activated, the external mixer is available for
all applications on the instrument.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]MIXer[:​STATe]​ on page 672
External Mixer Config ← External Mixer
Opens the "External Mixer Configuration" dialog box that contains two tabs:
●
●
​"External Mixer Setup" on page 388
​"Conversion Loss Table Setup" on page 390
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R&S® FSV
Instrument Functions
Instrument Functions – External Mixer (Option R&S FSV-B21)
External Mixer Setup ← External Mixer Config ← External Mixer
In this tab you configure the band and mixer settings.
RF Start ← External Mixer Setup ← External Mixer Config ← External Mixer
Displays the start frequency of the selected band. For pre-defined bands, the frequency
range is set automatically (see ​table 3-21).
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]MIXer:​FREQuency:​STARt?​ on page 674
RF Stop ← External Mixer Setup ← External Mixer Config ← External Mixer
Displays the stop frequency of the selected band. For pre-defined bands, the frequency
range is set automatically (see ​table 3-21).
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]MIXer:​FREQuency:​STOP?​ on page 674
Handover Freq. ← External Mixer Setup ← External Mixer Config ← External Mixer
Defines the frequency at which the mixer switches from one range to the next (if two
different ranges are selected). The handover frequency can be selected freely within the
overlapping frequency range.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]MIXer:​FREQuency:​HANDover​ on page 673
Band ← External Mixer Setup ← External Mixer Config ← External Mixer
Defines the waveguide band or user-defined band to be used by the mixer.
The start and stop frequencies of the selected band are displayed in the "RF Start" and
"RF Stop" fields.
For a definition of the frequency range for the pre-defined bands, see ​table 3-21).
The mixer settings for the user-defined band can be selected freely. The frequency range
for the user band is defined via the harmonics configuration (see ​"Range 1/2"
on page 389).
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Instrument Functions
Instrument Functions – External Mixer (Option R&S FSV-B21)
Note: The band formerly referred to as "A" is now named "KA".
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]MIXer:​HARMonic:​BAND​ on page 674
RF Overrange ← External Mixer Setup ← External Mixer Config ← External Mixer
Specifies whether the band limits are extended beyond "RF Start" and "RF Stop" due to
the capabilities of the used harmonics.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]MIXer:​RFOVerrange[:​STATe]​ on page 673
Preset Band ← External Mixer Setup ← External Mixer Config ← External Mixer
Restores the presettings for the selected band.
Note: changes to the band and mixer settings are maintained even after using the
PRESET function. This function allows you to restore the original band settings.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]MIXer:​HARMonic:​BAND:​PRESet​ on page 674
Mixer Type ← External Mixer Setup ← External Mixer Config ← External Mixer
The R&S FSV option B21 allows for the following external mixer types:
"2 Port"
LO and IF data uses the same port
"3 Port"
LO and IF data uses separate ports
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]MIXer:​PORTs​ on page 677
Harmonic Type ← External Mixer Setup ← External Mixer Config ← External Mixer
Defines if only even, only odd, or even and odd harmonics can be used for conversion.
Depending on this selection, the order of harmonic to be used for conversion changes
(see ​"Harmonic Order" on page 389).
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]MIXer:​HARMonic:​TYPE​ on page 675
Range 1/2 ← External Mixer Setup ← External Mixer Config ← External Mixer
Enables the use of a second harmonic to cover the band's frequency range.
For each range you can define which harmonic to use and how the ​Conversion Loss is
handled.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]MIXer:​HARMonic:​HIGH:​STATe​ on page 675
Harmonic Order ← Range 1/2 ← External Mixer Setup ← External Mixer Config ←
External Mixer
Defines which of the available harmonic orders are used to cover the frequency range.
By default, the lowest order of the specified harmonic type is selected that allows conversion of input signals in the whole band. If due to the LO frequency the conversion is
not possible using one harmonic, the band is splitted.
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R&S® FSV
Instrument Functions
Instrument Functions – External Mixer (Option R&S FSV-B21)
For the band "USER", the order of harmonic is defined by the user. The order of harmonic
can be between 2 and 100, the lowest usable frequency being 26,5 GHz.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]MIXer:​HARMonic[:​LOW]​ on page 675
​[SENSe:​]MIXer:​HARMonic:​HIGH[:​VALue]​ on page 675
Conversion Loss ← Range 1/2 ← External Mixer Setup ← External Mixer Config ←
External Mixer
Defines how the conversion loss is handled. The following possibilities are available:
"Average"
Defines the average conversion loss for the entire range in dB.
"Table"
Defines the conversion loss via the table selected from the list. Predefined conversion loss tables are often provided with the external mixer
and can be imported to the R&S FSV. Alternatively, you can define your
own conversion loss tables. Conversion loss tables are configured and
managed in the ​Conversion Loss Table Setup tab.
For details on conversion loss tables, see ​chapter 3.8.1.3, "Conversion
Loss Tables", on page 382. For details on importing tables, see ​"Import
Table" on page 394.
All tables stored on the instrument in the
C:\r_s\instr\user\cvl\ directory are offered for selection. A validation check is then performed on the selected table to ensure that it
complies with the settings. In particular, the following is checked:
●
the assigned band name
●
the harmonic order
●
the mixer type
●
the table must contain at least one frequency that lies within the
frequency range for the band
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]MIXer:​LOSS[:​LOW]​ on page 677
Average for range 1
​[SENSe:​]MIXer:​LOSS:​TABLe[:​LOW]​ on page 676
Table for range 1
​[SENSe:​]MIXer:​LOSS:​HIGH​ on page 676
Average for range 2
​[SENSe:​]MIXer:​LOSS:​TABLe:​HIGH​ on page 676
Table for range 2
Conversion Loss Table Setup ← External Mixer Config ← External Mixer
In this tab you configure and manage conversion loss tables. Conversion loss tables
consist of value pairs that describe the correction values for conversion loss at certain
frequencies. The correction values for frequencies between the reference points are
obtained via interpolation.
The currently selected table for each range is displayed at the top of the dialog box.
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R&S® FSV
Instrument Functions
Instrument Functions – External Mixer (Option R&S FSV-B21)
New Table ← Conversion Loss Table Setup ← External Mixer Config ← External
Mixer
Opens the "Edit Conversion Loss Table" dialog box to configure a new conversion loss
table.
A preview pane displays the current configuration of the conversion loss function as
described by the Position/Value entries.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]CORRection:​CVL:​SELect​ on page 639
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R&S® FSV
Instrument Functions
Instrument Functions – External Mixer (Option R&S FSV-B21)
File Name ← New Table ← Conversion Loss Table Setup ← External Mixer Config
← External Mixer
Defines the name under which the table is stored in the C:\r_s\instr\user\cvl\
directory on the instrument. The name of the table is identical with the name of the file
(without extension) in which the table is stored. The entry in this field is mandatory.
The .ACL extension is automatically appended during storage.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]CORRection:​CVL:​SELect​ on page 639
Comment ← New Table ← Conversion Loss Table Setup ← External Mixer Config
← External Mixer
An optional comment that describes the conversion loss table. The comment can be
freely defined by the user.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]CORRection:​CVL:​COMMent​ on page 641
Band ← New Table ← Conversion Loss Table Setup ← External Mixer Config ←
External Mixer
The waveguide or user-defined band for which the table is to be applied.
For a definition of the frequency range for the pre-defined bands, see ​table 3-21).
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]CORRection:​CVL:​BAND​ on page 638
Harmonic Order ← New Table ← Conversion Loss Table Setup ← External Mixer
Config ← External Mixer
The harmonic order for which the table is to be applied.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]CORRection:​CVL:​HARMonic​ on page 640
Bias ← New Table ← Conversion Loss Table Setup ← External Mixer Config ←
External Mixer
The bias current which is required to set the mixer to its optimum operating point. It corresponds to the short-circuit current. The bias current can range from -10 mA to 10 mA.
The actual bias current is lower because of the forward voltage of the mixer diode(s).
Tip: You can also define the bias interactively while a preview of the trace with the
changed setting is displayed, see ​"Bias Settings" on page 395.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]CORRection:​CVL:​BIAS​ on page 641
Mixer Name ← New Table ← Conversion Loss Table Setup ← External Mixer Config
← External Mixer
Specifies the name of the external mixer for which the table is to be applied.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]CORRection:​CVL:​MIXer​ on page 639
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R&S® FSV
Instrument Functions
Instrument Functions – External Mixer (Option R&S FSV-B21)
Mixer S/N ← New Table ← Conversion Loss Table Setup ← External Mixer Config
← External Mixer
Specifies the serial number of the external mixer for which the table is to be applied.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]CORRection:​CVL:​SNUMber​ on page 640
Mixer Type ← New Table ← Conversion Loss Table Setup ← External Mixer Config
← External Mixer
Specifies whether the external mixer for which the table is to be applied is a two-port or
three-port type.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]CORRection:​CVL:​PORTs​ on page 640
Position/Value ← New Table ← Conversion Loss Table Setup ← External Mixer
Config ← External Mixer
Each position/value pair defines the correction value for conversion loss for a specific
frequency. The reference values must be entered in order of increasing frequencies. A
maximum of 50 reference values can be entered.
Correction values for frequencies between the reference values are obtained by interpolation. Linear interpolation is performed if the table contains only two values. If it contains more than two reference values, spline interpolation is carried out. Outside the frequency range covered by the table the conversion loss is assumed to be the same (see
​figure 3-40) as that for the first and last reference value.
Fig. 3-43: Conversion loss outside the band's frequency range
The current configuration of the conversion loss function as described by the Position/
Value entries is displayed in the preview pane to the right of the table.
The following functions are available to define the table:
●
●
●
​Insert an entry
​Delete an entry
​Shift all positions by a specific value (shift x)
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R&S® FSV
Instrument Functions
Instrument Functions – External Mixer (Option R&S FSV-B21)
●
​Shift all conversion loss values by a specific value (shift y)
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]CORRection:​CVL:​DATA​ on page 641
Insert ← New Table ← Conversion Loss Table Setup ← External Mixer Config ←
External Mixer
Inserts a new position/value entry in the table.
If the table is empty, a new entry at 0 Hz is inserted.
If entries already exist, a new entry is inserted above the selected entry. The position of
the new entry is selected such that it divides the span to the previous entry in half.
Delete ← New Table ← Conversion Loss Table Setup ← External Mixer Config ←
External Mixer
Deletes the currently selected position/value entry.
Shift x ← New Table ← Conversion Loss Table Setup ← External Mixer Config ←
External Mixer
Shifts all positions in the table by a specific value. The value can be entered in the edit
dialog box. The conversion loss function in the preview pane is shifted along the x-axis.
Shift y ← New Table ← Conversion Loss Table Setup ← External Mixer Config ←
External Mixer
Shifts all conversion loss values by a specific value. The value can be entered in the edit
dialog box. The conversion loss function in the preview pane is shifted along the y-axis.
Save ← New Table ← Conversion Loss Table Setup ← External Mixer Config ←
External Mixer
The conversion loss table is stored under the specified name in the
C:\r_s\instr\user\cvl\ directory of the instrument.
Edit Table ← Conversion Loss Table Setup ← External Mixer Config ← External
Mixer
Opens the "Edit Conversion Loss Table" dialog box to edit the selected conversion loss
table. For details on table configuration see ​"New Table" on page 391.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]CORRection:​CVL:​SELect​ on page 639
Delete Table ← Conversion Loss Table Setup ← External Mixer Config ← External
Mixer
Deletes the currently selected conversion loss table after you confirm the action.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]CORRection:​CVL:​CLEar​ on page 642
Import Table ← Conversion Loss Table Setup ← External Mixer Config ← External
Mixer
Imports a stored conversion loss table from any directory to the instrument's
C:\r_s\instr\user\cvl\ directory.
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R&S® FSV
Instrument Functions
Instrument Functions – External Mixer (Option R&S FSV-B21)
Bias Settings ← External Mixer
Opens a dialog box to define the bias current for each range, which is required to set the
mixer to its optimum operating point. It corresponds to the short-circuit current. The bias
current can range from -10 mA to 10 mA. The actual bias current is lower because of the
forward voltage of the mixer diode(s).
The trace is adapted to the settings immediately so you can check the results. To store
the bias setting in the currently selected conversion loss table, select the ​Write to <CVL
table name> button.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]MIXer:​BIAS:​LOW​ on page 673
​[SENSe:​]MIXer:​BIAS:​HIGH​ on page 672
Write to <CVL table name> ← Bias Settings ← External Mixer
Stores the bias setting in the currently selected "Conversion Loss Table" for the range
(see ​"Conversion Loss Table Setup" on page 390).
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]CORRection:​CVL:​BIAS​ on page 641
LO Level ← External Mixer
Opens an edit dialog box to change the LO level of the external mixer's LO port from 13.0
dBm to 17.0 dBm in 0.1 dB steps. Default value is 15.5 dB.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]MIXer:​LOPower​ on page 676
Signal ID (On/Off) ← External Mixer
The SIGNAL ID softkey activates or deactivates visual signal identification. Two sweeps
are performed alternately. Trace 1 shows the trace measured on the upper side band
(USB) of the LO (the test sweep), trace 2 shows the trace measured on the lower side
band (LSB), i.e. the reference sweep. (See also ​chapter 3.8.1.5, "Remarks on Signal
Identification with Auto ID", on page 384).
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The reference sweep is performed using a LO setting shifted downwards by 2*IF/<Harmonic order>. Input signals in the wanted sideband that are converted using the specified
harmonic are displayed in both traces at the same position on the frequency axis. Image
signals and mixer products caused by other harmonics are displayed in both traces at
different positions. The user identifies the signals visually by comparing the two traces.
Since the LO frequency is displaced downwards in the reference sweep, the conversion
loss of the mixer may differ from the test sweep. Therefore the level should only be measured in the test sweep (trace 1).
Mathematical functions with traces and trace copy cannot be used with the Signal ID
function.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]MIXer:​SIGNal​ on page 677
Auto ID (On/Off) ← External Mixer
Activates or deactivates automatic signal identification.
Auto ID basically functions like ​Signal ID (On/Off). However, the test and reference
sweeps are converted into a single trace by a comparison of maximum peak values of
each sweep point. The result of this comparison is displayed in trace 3 if "Signal ID" is
active at the same time. If "Signal ID" is not active, the result can be displayed in any of
the traces 1 to 3. Unwanted mixer products are suppressed in this calculated trace. (See
also ​chapter 3.8.1.5, "Remarks on Signal Identification with Auto ID", on page 384).
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Real input signals are displayed at the same frequency in the test and reference sweeps,
i.e. theoretically identical signal levels are expected in the two sweeps at the frequency
of the real mixer product. If the level difference is lower than the tolerance set with ​Auto
ID Threshold, the signal obtained in the test sweep is displayed. If a signal occurs only
in the test sweep or reference sweep, it is an unwanted mixer product. The level of this
signal is compared to the noise floor in the other sweep. If the S/N ratio is sufficiently
large, the tolerance limit for the maximum permissible level difference is exceeded. This
means that the signal with the lower level, i.e. noise in this case, is displayed.
Note that "Auto ID" functions according to the fail-safe principle, i.e. unwanted mixer
products may not be detected as such but signals which are in fact real input signals are
not blanked out. See also ​chapter 3.8.1.5, "Remarks on Signal Identification with Auto
ID", on page 384.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]MIXer:​SIGNal​ on page 677
Auto ID Threshold ← External Mixer
Allows the maximum permissible level difference between test sweep and reference
sweep to be corrected during automatic comparison (​Auto ID function). The input range
is between 0.1 dB and 100 dB. Values of about 10 dB (i.e. default setting) generally yield
satisfactory results. See also ​chapter 3.8.1.5, "Remarks on Signal Identification with Auto
ID", on page 384.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]MIXer:​THReshold​ on page 678
3.8.3 Introductory Example of Operation
The following example gives an example of the operation of external mixers as well as
the required settings: A sine wave signal with f = 14.5 GHz is applied to the input of a
multiplier. The spectrum at the multiplier output is to be recorded in the range of 52 to 60
GHz using a 2-port mixer for the V band. The mixer used is a double-diode mixer. The
example of operation is described in the following steps:
●
Test Setup
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Activating the External Mixer and Selecting the Mode
●
Default Settings
●
Level Correction
●
Frequency-dependant Level Correction
●
Level Correction with an Average Value
●
Taking into Account the Cable Loss in the IF Path
●
Functions for Signal Identification
Test Setup
Fig. 3-44: External mixer test setup
1. 1. Connect the "LO OUT / IF IN" output of the R&S FSV to the LO/IF port of the
external mixer.
2. Connect the multiplier to the external mixer.
3. Apply a sine wave signal with f = 14.5 GHz to the input of the multiplier.
Activating the External Mixer and Selecting the Mode
► Activate the external mixing for all applications by selecting "FREQ > External Mixer
> External Mixer ON" in Spectrum mode.
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Default Settings
Prior to the measurement select the required band (in this case the V band).
1. Select "FREQ > External Mixer > External Mixer Config".
2. From the "Band" selection list, select the "V" band.
Level Correction
The conversion loss of the mixer can be taken into account either as a function of frequency (table with reference values) or using an average value. The frequency-dependent level correction is used in this example in order to obtain a higher precision. As an
alternative, level correction based on average value can be used (see below).
1. Select "FREQ > External Mixer > External Mixer Config".
2. For Range 1, select "Table".
3. From the selection list, select a conversion loss table stored on the instrument.
If the selected table is not valid for the selected band, an error message is displayed.
3.8.3.1
Frequency-dependent Level Correction
1. Open the external mixer configuration settings by selecting "FREQ > External Mixer
> External Mixer Config".
2. Select the required "Band".
3. For "Range 1", select "Table".
4. From the selection list, select a conversion loss table stored on the instrument. No
further settings are necessary since the selected file contains all required parameters.
If the selected table is not valid for the selected band, an error message is displayed.
If no conversion loss table is available yet, create a new table first (in the "Conversion
Loss Table Setup" tab, see ​"New Table" on page 391).
5. A span is automatically set which covers the whole V band (50 to 75 GHz).
6. Set the frequency range to be examined by selecting "FREQ > Frequency Start"=52
GHz and "FREQ > Frequency Stop"=60 GHz.
7. Reduce the video bandwidth by selecting "BW > Video Bandwidth Manual"=1 MHz.
This allows for correct signal identification using "AUTO ID" (see also ​chapter 3.8.1.5,
"Remarks on Signal Identification with Auto ID", on page 384).
3.8.3.2
Level Correction with an Average Value
To take an average value into account instead of the frequency-dependent level correction, enter the following parameters for the selected band in the external mixer configuration settings:
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1. Open the external mixer configuration settings by selecting "FREQ > External Mixer
> External Mixer Config".
2. Select the required "Band".
3. For "Range 1", select "Average".
4. Enter the average of the conversion loss.
The entered average value is taken into account for the spectrum display irrespective
of the frequency. The precision that can be obtained depends on the frequency
response of the mixer. With this type of level correction, measurements can be easily
performed at single frequencies.
3.8.3.3
Taking into Account the Cable Loss in the IF Path
On performing level correction, the conversion loss of the mixer and also the insertion
loss a0 of the cable used to tap off the IF signal are to be taken into account. This additional
loss is frequency-dependent.
1. Determine the insertion of the cable at the intermediate frequency fIF = 729.9 MHz.
2. For level correction with average value, add the cable insertion loss to the average
conversion loss.
For frequency-dependent level correction, increase each reference value by the
insertion loss to the same extent. To do so, you can enter the cable loss using a
transducer table. Such a table should only contain two reference values (band start
and end) for which a0 is specified.
3.9 Instrument Functions - Power Sensor (R&S FSV-K9)
For precise power measurement up to 4 power sensors can be connected to the instrument via the power sensor interface (option R&S FSV-B5, front panel) or the USB connector (front or rear panel). The Power Sensor Support firmware option provides the
power measurement functions for this test setup. Both manual operation and remote
control are supported. The power sensor results are displayed in the marker table.
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For details on the connectors and compatible power sensors refer to the Quick Start
Guide, chapter 1, "Front and Rear Panel".
Power Sensors can also be used to trigger a measurement at a specified power level,
e.g. from a signal generator.
Fig. 3-45: Power sensor support – standard test setup
Using the power sensor with several applications
The power sensor cannot be used from the R&S FSV firmware and the R&S Power
Viewer (virtual power meter for displaying results of the R&S NRP power sensors) simultaneously. After using the Power Viewer, close the application, then unplug and replug
the sensor. Afterwards the power sensor can be used by the R&S FSV again.
To open the Power Sensor menu
The power sensor option R&S FSV–K9 is integrated within the "Input/Output" menu.
●
Press the INPUT/OUTPUT key.
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●
Press the "Power Sensor" softkey.The "Power Sensor" menu is displayed.
Menu and softkey description
●
​chapter 3.9.4, "Softkeys of the Power Sensor Menu (R&S FSV-K9)", on page 407
●
​chapter 3.9.5, "Power Sensor Configuration Dialog", on page 409
Remote operation
Power sensors can be operated using the following remote command subsystems:
●
​"CALCulate:PMETer Subsystem (Power Sensor, R&S FSV-K9)" on page 584
●
​chapter 4.2.3.3, "CALibration:PMETer Subsystem (Power Sensor, R&S FSV-K9)",
on page 598
●
​chapter 4.2.3.6, "FETCh:PMETer Subsystem (Power Sensor, R&S FSV-K9)",
on page 608
●
​chapter 4.2.3.14, "READ:PMETer Subsystem", on page 628
●
​"SENSe:PMETer<p> Subsystem (Power Sensor, R&S FSV-K9)" on page 682
●
​chapter 4.2.3.21, "UNIT Subsystem", on page 754
Results display
The results of the power sensor measurements are displayed in the marker table. For
each power sensor, a row is inserted. The sensor index is indicated in the "Function"
column.
Alternatively, you can query the results using the remote command ​FETCh<n>:​
PMETer<p>?​ on page 608.
Tasks
The following tasks with Power Sensors are described in this chapter:
●
​chapter 3.9.2, "Zeroing the Power Sensor", on page 404
●
​chapter 3.9.1, "Using Power Sensors", on page 403
●
​chapter 3.9.3, "Configuring an External Power Trigger", on page 405
Further information
Information on possible error messages when using the Power Sensor is provided in ​
chapter 3.9.6, "Error Messages", on page 413.
3.9.1
Using Power Sensors..................................................................................................403
3.9.2
Zeroing the Power Sensor..........................................................................................404
3.9.3
Configuring an External Power Trigger.......................................................................405
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3.9.4
Softkeys of the Power Sensor Menu (R&S FSV-K9)..................................................407
3.9.5
Power Sensor Configuration Dialog............................................................................409
3.9.6
Error Messages...........................................................................................................413
3.9.1 Using Power Sensors
Up to 4 external power sensors can be configured separately and used for precise power
measurement, as a trigger, or both. All power sensors can be activated and deactivated
individually.
The following procedure describes in detail how to configure and activate power sensors.
For details on the settings in the "Power Sensor Configuration" dialog box, see ​chapter 3.9.5, "Power Sensor Configuration Dialog", on page 409.
1. Press INPUT/OUTPUT > "Power Sensor" to display the "Power Sensor" menu.
2. Press "Power Sensor Config" to display the configuration dialog box.
3. Select the tab for the power sensor index you want to configure, e.g. "Sensor 1".
Note: if automatic assignment is active (default) and a power sensor is already connected to the R&S FSV, the serial number of the sensor is indicated in one of the
tabs. In this case, you configure that particular sensor in the corresponding tab. If no
serial number is indicated, you can set up a configuration and assign a sensor manually later.
4. Press "Select" to evaluate the power sensor when power measurement is activated.
5. Define the frequency of the signal whose power you want to measure.
a) To define the frequency manually, select "Frequency Manual" and enter a frequency.
b) To determine the frequency automatically, select "Frequency Coupling" and then
either "Center", to use the center frequency, or "Marker", to use the frequency
defined by marker 1.
6. Select the "Unit" for the power result display.
7. Select the measurement time for which the average is calculated. To define the number of readings to be taken into account manually, select "Manual" and enter the
number in the "Number of Readings" field.
8. To activate the duty cycle correction, select "DutyCycle" and enter a percentage as
the correction value.
9. If you selected "dB" or "%" as units (relative display), define a reference value:
a) To set the currently measured power as a reference value, press the "Meas ->
Ref" button.
b) Alternatively, enter a value manually in the "Reference Value" field.
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c) Optionally, select the "Use Ref Level Offset" option to take the reference level
offset set for the analyzer (​Ref Level Offset softkey) into account for the measured
power.
10. Optionally, define the usage of an external power trigger (see ​chapter 3.9.3, "Configuring an External Power Trigger", on page 405).
11. If necessary, repeat steps 3-10 for another power sensor.
12. By default, automatic assignment is active. If a power sensor is already connected
to the R&S FSV, it is automatically assigned to an index and the serial number of the
sensor is indicated on the corresponding tab. In this case, you already configured the
settings for the assigned power sensor.
Otherwise, assign the connected power sensors to the power sensor configurations
manually:
a) Press the "Power Sensor Assignment" softkey in the "Power Sensor" menu to
display the assignment dialog box.
b) For each configuration, define whether it is to be assigned automatically or manually by activating or deactivating the "Auto Assignment" option for the corresponding power sensor index.
c) For manual assignment, select the serial number of one of the connected power
sensors from the list.
13. Press the "Power Sensor On" softkey in the "Power Sensor" menu to activate power
measurement for the selected power sensors.
The results of the power measurement are displayed in the marker table (Function:
"Sensor<1...4>") and can be queried via the remote command FETC:PMET<p>? (see
​FETCh<n>:​PMETer<p>?​ on page 608).
3.9.2 Zeroing the Power Sensor
You can reset each power sensor to zero. This can be done using the remote command
​CALibration:​PMETer<p>:​ZERO:​AUTO ONCE​ on page 598 or manually, as desribed
here.
1. In the "Power Sensor" menu (INPUT/OUTPUT > "Power Sensor"), press "Power
Sensor Config" to display the configuration dialog box.
2. Select the tab that is assigned to the power sensor you want to zero.
3. Press the "Zeroing Power Sensor" button.
A dialog box is displayed that prompts you to disconnect all signals from the input of
the power sensor.
4. Disconnect all signals from the input of the power sensor and press ENTER to continue.
5. Wait until zeroing is complete.
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A corresponding message is displayed.
3.9.3 Configuring an External Power Trigger
Power Sensors can be used to trigger a measurement at a specified power level, e.g.
from a signal generator.
Currently, only R&S NRP-Zxy power sensors are supported.
As of firmware version 1.60 (with an appropriate detector board as of version 5.00), the
power sensors can be connected to the "Power Sensor" interface directly, and no further
cables are required. They can then be configured as an external trigger or a power sensor
trigger. The measured power results are displayed as usual.
The previous connection and configuration of a power sensor as an external trigger is
still supported. It is not necessary to change an existing trigger setup unless you want to
evaluate the measured power results further.
Power Trigger Parameters
With the new implementation of the power sensor triggers some additional trigger parameters were introduced. The following figure illustrates the trigger parameters for an external power trigger.
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Fig. 3-46: Power Sensor Trigger Parameters
●
Level: Power that triggers the measurement
●
Hysteresis: Distance the input signal must stay below the trigger level before triggering again
●
Holdoff time: Time which must pass before triggering again
●
Dropout time: Time the input signal must stay below the trigger level before triggering
again
●
Slope: Direction of edge on which the trigger occurs (positive = rising, negative =
falling)
Example:
In ​Power Sensor Trigger Parameters, the events A and C are valid trigger events for
triggering on a positive slope. The trigger level is exceeded and the dropout time and
holdoff time have elapsed. For triggering on a negative slope, E and G are valid trigger
events. B and F, however, are not valid trigger events: For B, the dropout time has not
elapsed; for F, the holdoff time has not yet elapsed.
To configure a power sensor as an external power sensor (PSE) trigger
This is the way to configure a power sensor as an explicite power sensor trigger.
1. Connect the power sensor to the "Power Sensor" interface on the front panel of the
R&S FSV.
2. Configure the power sensor for use as described in ​chapter 3.9.1, "Using Power
Sensors", on page 403.
3. Select the "External Power Trigger" option.
4. Enter the power level at which the measurement is to be triggered ("External Trigger
Level").
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5. Enter the minimum power difference that should occur between two trigger events
("Hysteresis").
6. Enter the minimum time that should pass between two trigger events ("Holdoff").
7. Enter the minimum time the signal should remain beneath the trigger level before the
next trigger event occurs ("Dropout").
8. Select whether the measurement is triggered on a rising (positive) or falling (negative)
edge ("Slope").
9. Press the TRIG key on the front panel of the instrument to display the "Trigger" menu.
10. Press the "Trg/Gate Source" softkey.
11. Select the "Power Sensor" softkey.
12. If necessary, configure the "Gate Settings" to define a gated sweep (see ​chapter 3.2.9.3, "Using Gated Sweep Operation", on page 147).
The "Gate Mode" Lvl is not supported for R&S power sensors. The trigger impulse sent
by these sensors is not long enough to be used as a level for the gated sweep.
The R&S FSV is configured to trigger when the defined conditions for the power sensor
occur. Power measurement results are provided as usual.
3.9.4 Softkeys of the Power Sensor Menu (R&S FSV-K9)
The following table shows all softkeys available in the "Power Sensor" menu. It is possible
that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is delivered
in the corresponding softkey description.
For details on how to configure and activate power sensors, see ​chapter 3.9.1, "Using
Power Sensors", on page 403.
Power Sensor On/Off..................................................................................................407
Power Sensor Config..................................................................................................408
Power Sensor Assignment..........................................................................................408
Continuous Value Update...........................................................................................408
Power Sensor On/Off
Switches the power measurement for all power sensors on or off. Note that in addition to
this general setting, each power sensor can be activated or deactivated individually in
the "Power Sensor Configuration" dialog box (see ​"Power Sensor Config" on page 408).
However, the general setting overrides the individual settings.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]PMETer<p>[:​STATe]​ on page 683
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Power Sensor Config
Opens the "Power Sensor Configuration" dialog box to configure up to 4 different power
sensors. Each sensor configuration is displayed on a separate tab. The serial number of
the power sensor connected to the instrument and currently assigned to the displayed
configuration is indicated on the tab.
Power Sensor Assignment
Opens the "Power Sensor Assignment" dialog box to assign the connected power sensors to the configuration sets.
The detected serial numbers of the power sensors connected to the instrument are provided in a selection list. For each of the four available power sensor indexes ("Power
Sensor 1"..."Power Sensor 4"), which correspond to the tabs in the configuration dialog,
one of the detected serial numbers can be assigned. The physical sensor is thus assigned
to the configuration setting for the selected power sensor index.
By default, serial numbers not yet assigned are automatically assigned to the next free
power sensor index for which "Auto Assignment" is selected.
Alternatively, you can assign the sensors manually by deactivating the "Auto Assignment" option and selecting a serial number from the list.
Remote command:
​SYSTem:​COMMunicate:​RDEVice:​PMETer<p>:​DEFine​ on page 729
​SYSTem:​COMMunicate:​RDEVice:​PMETer<p>:​CONFigure:​AUTO[:​STATe]​
on page 730
​SYSTem:​COMMunicate:​RDEVice:​PMETer<p>:​COUNt?​ on page 731
Continuous Value Update
If activated, the power sensor data is updated continuously even after a single sweep
has completed. For continuous sweeps this setting is irrelevant.
This function cannot be activated for individual sensors; if you change the setting for one
sensor, it is automatically applied to all sensors.
If the power sensor is being used as a trigger (see ​"Power Sensor" on page 142), continuous update is not possible; this setting is ignored.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]PMETer<p>:​UPDate[:​STATe]​ on page 689
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3.9.5 Power Sensor Configuration Dialog
Power sensors are configured in the "Power Sensor Configuration" dialog box, which is
displayed when you select the "Power Sensor Config" softkey in the "Power Sensor"
menu.
Up to 4 different power sensors can be configured. Each sensor configuration is displayed
on a separate tab. The serial number of the power sensor connected to the instrument
and currently assigned to the displayed configuration is indicated on the tab.
For details on how to configure and activate power sensors, see ​chapter 3.9.1, "Using
Power Sensors", on page 403.
Select
If enabled, the power sensor is evaluated when power measurement is activated.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]PMETer<p>[:​STATe]​ on page 683
Zeroing Power Sensor
Starts zeroing of the power sensor. For details on the zeroing process refer to ​chapter 3.9.2, "Zeroing the Power Sensor", on page 404 .
Remote command:
​CALibration:​PMETer<p>:​ZERO:​AUTO ONCE​ on page 598
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Frequency Manual
The frequency of the signal to be measured. The power sensor has a memory with frequency-dependent correction factors. This allows extreme accuracy for signals of a
known frequency.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]PMETer<p>:​FREQuency​ on page 684
Frequency Coupling
If enabled, the frequency is coupled to the center frequency of the instrument or to the
frequency of marker 1 automatically.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]PMETer<p>:​FREQuency:​LINK​ on page 684
Unit / Scale
Select the unit with which the measured power is to be displayed. Available units are
dBm, dB, W and %.
If dB or % is selected, the display is relative to a reference value that is defined either by
the measurement (​Meas -> Ref) or the value in the ​Reference Value field.
Remote command:
​UNIT<n>:​PMETer<p>:​POWer​ on page 755
​UNIT<n>:​PMETer<p>:​POWer:​RATio​ on page 755
Meas Time / Average
Selects the measurement time or switches to manual averaging mode. In general, results
are more precise with longer measurement times. The following settings are recommended for different signal types to obtain stable and precise results:
Short
Stationary signals with high power (> -40dBm), because they require only a short measurement time and short measurement time provides the highest repetition rates.
Normal
Signals with lower power or of modulated signals
Long
Signals at the lower end of the measurement range (<-50 dBm) or
signals with lower power to minimize the influence of noise.
Manual
Switches to manual averaging mode. The average count is defined by the ​"Number of Readings" on page 411 value.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]PMETer<p>:​MTIMe​ on page 685
​[SENSe:​]PMETer<p>:​MTIMe:​AVERage[:​STATe]​ on page 685
Duty Cycle
Sets the duty cycle to a percentage for the correction of pulse-modulated signals and
activates the duty cycle correction. If enabled, the sensor calculates the signal pulse
power from this value and the mean power.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]PMETer<p>:​DCYCle:​STATe​ on page 683
​[SENSe:​]PMETer<p>:​DCYCle:​VALue​ on page 683
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Meas -> Ref
Sets the currently measured power as a reference value for the relative display. The
reference value can also be set manually via the ​Reference Value setting.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​PMETer<p>:​RELative[:​MAGNitude]:​AUTO ONCE​ on page 585
Reference Value
Defines the reference value for relative measurements in the unit dBm.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​PMETer<p>:​RELative[:​MAGNitude]​ on page 584
Use Ref Level Offset
If activated, takes the reference level offset set for the analyzer (​Ref Level Offset softkey)
into account for the measured power.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]PMETer<p>:​ROFFset[:​STATe]​ on page 686
Number of Readings
Defines the number of readings (averagings) to be performed after a single sweep has
been started. This setting is only available if manual averaging is selected (​Meas Time /
Average setting).
The values for the average count range from 0 to 256 in binary steps (1, 2, 4, 8, …). For
average count = 0 or 1, one reading is performed. The averaging and sweep count of the
"Trace" menu are independent from this setting.
Results become more stable with extended averaging, particularly if signals with low
power are measured. This setting can be used to minimize the influence of noise in the
power sensor measurement.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]PMETer<p>:​MTIMe:​AVERage:​COUNt​ on page 685
External Power Trigger
Activates the creation of a trigger signal in the power sensor.
This option is only available in conjunction with a NRP-Z81, NRP-Z85 or NRP-Z86 power
sensor.
For details see ​figure 3-46.
When you select this option, the following settings in the configuration dialog become
unavailable:
●
●
●
●
Unit/Scale
Reference Value
Use Ref Lev Offset
Number of Readings
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The following trigger settings become available.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]PMETer<p>:​TRIGger[:​STATe]​ on page 686
Selecting this option causes the transmission of the following remote commands to the
power sensor:
*RST
SENS:AVER:STAT OFF
TRIG:MAST:STAT ON
TRIG:SOUR INT
TRIG:SLOP POS
TRIG:DTIM 100e-6
INIT:CONT ON
External Trigger Level ← External Power Trigger
Defines the trigger level for the external power trigger.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]PMETer<p>:​TRIGger:​LEVel​ on page 688
Hysteresis ← External Power Trigger
Defines the value for the trigger hysteresis. The hysteresis in dB is the value the input
signal must stay below the IF power trigger level in order to allow a trigger to start the
measurement. The range of the value is between 3 dB and 50 dB with a step width of 1
dB.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]PMETer<p>:​TRIGger:​HYSTeresis​ on page 687
Holdoff ← External Power Trigger
Defines the holdoff value in s, which is the time which must pass before triggering, in case
another trigger event happens.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]PMETer<p>:​TRIGger:​HOLDoff​ on page 687
Dropout ← External Power Trigger
Defines the time the input signal must stay below the IF power trigger level in order to
allow a trigger to start the measurement. The range of the value is between 0 s and 1 s
with a step width of 100 ns.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]PMETer<p>:​TRIGger:​DTIMe​ on page 687
Slope ← External Power Trigger
Defines whether the sweep starts after a positive or negative edge of the trigger signal.
The default setting is "Pos".
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]PMETer<p>:​TRIGger:​SLOPe​ on page 688
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3.9.6 Error Messages
Error messages are entered in the error/event queue of the status reporting system in
the remote control mode and can be queried with the command SYSTem:ERRor?.
A short explanation of the device-specific error messages for R&S FSV-K9 is given below.
Status bar message
Description
Zeroing could not be performed Zeroing could not be performed because the RF power applied is too high.
Power sensor zero failed
3.10 Instrument Functions - Spectrogram Measurements
Equipped with the firmware option R&S FSV-K14, the R&S FSV provides a graphical
overview of changes in frequency and amplitude over a specified period of time.
Not all measurement types available in spectrum mode can be displayed in the "Spectrogram" result display. If the "Spectrogram Measurement" option is active and a measurement cannot be displayed in form of a spectrogram, the softkey of the corresponding
measurement is disabled.
All settings of the base unit are also valid for the spectrogram view and vice versa.
The following chapter describes the instrument functions specific to "Spectrogram" measurements.
To open the Spectrogram view
The "Spectrogram" result display and its softkey menu is part of the "Trace" menu of the
base unit.
1. Press the TRACE key.
2. Press the "Spectrogram" softkey.
The menu for the "Spectrogram" result display opens.
Menus and Softkeys
The main menu for the "Spectrogram" result display is part of the "Trace" menu of the
base unit and is described in ​chapter 3.10.2, "Softkeys of the Spectrogram Menu",
on page 417.
Furthermore, some special "Spectrogram" functions are included in the "Sweep" menu,
see ​chapter 3.2.7.1, "Softkeys of the Sweep Menu", on page 117.
The "ASCII Trace Export" softkey stores the data for all frames in the history buffer of the
spectrogram to a file. See ​chapter 3.10.4, "ASCII File Export Format for Spectrograms",
on page 423 for details.
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Marker functions
The functions in the "Marker" menu (MKR key) are the same as for the base unit (see ​
chapter 3.3.1.1, "Softkeys of the Marker Menu", on page 151). However, note the slightly
different behavior as described in ​chapter 3.10.1, "General Information", on page 414.
Tasks
●
​chapter 3.10.3, "Configuring Color Settings for Spectrograms", on page 418
Remote Operation
Remote commands for "Spectrogram" measurements are included in the following subsystems:
●
​"CALCulate:DELTamarker:SGRam subsystem" on page 488
●
​"CALCulate:MARKer:SGRam subsystem" on page 562
●
​"CALCulate:SGRam Subsystem" on page 587
●
​chapter 4.2.4.7, "MMEMory Subsystem", on page 777
3.10.1
General Information....................................................................................................414
3.10.2
Softkeys of the Spectrogram Menu.............................................................................417
3.10.3
Configuring Color Settings for Spectrograms..............................................................418
3.10.3.1
Selecting the Color Scheme........................................................................................418
3.10.3.2
Defining the Value Range of the Color Map................................................................419
3.10.3.3
Defining the Shape and Focus of the Color Curve......................................................420
3.10.3.4
Color Mapping Dialog..................................................................................................421
3.10.4
ASCII File Export Format for Spectrograms................................................................423
3.10.1 General Information
This section provides some basic information about using the firmware application and
about performing measurements with the firmware application.
Screen Layout
The Spectrogram view is divided into two screens: the spectrum analyzer result display
(upper screen) and the spectrogram result display (lower screen).
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Fig. 3-47: Screen layout of the spectrogram result display
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
Spectrum result display
Spectrogram result display
Frame indicator
Time stamp / frame number
Color map
Marker
Deltamarker
Marker list
●
Spectrum Analyzer result display (1 in ​figure 3-47)
This result display is the same as the Spectrum Analyzer with the x-axis representing
the frequency span or time (span = 0) and the y-axis the power level. Configure and
use this display in the same way as you would in Spectrum Analyzer mode.
All traces are available and you can view those traces just like in the base unit (see ​
chapter 3.2.8.4, "Trace Mode Overview", on page 134). The trace modes View and
Blank are not available for trace 1.
While performing a measurement the trace is updated continuously. You can also
restore the trace to a point that has already been recorded by selecting a specific
frame (see ​"Select Frame" on page 121). This is possible in Single Sweep mode or
if the sweep has been stopped.
●
Spectrogram result display (2)
The data displayed in the Spectrogram is always based on the data of trace 1 in the
Spectrum Analyzer result display. The Spectrogram can handle measurements in the
frequency domain (span > 0) as well as measurements in the time domain
(span = 0)
The Spectrogram is a cartesian diagram. The x-axis shows the power distribution of
a measured signal over a specified frequency or time range. Different power levels
are displayed in different colors. The y-axis represents the time with the top of the
diagram being the current timeframe (the measurement runs from top to bottom).
Each line (or trace) of the y-axis represents one captured frame. The frames are
sorted in chronological order. One frame is equal to a certain number of sweep points,
depending on the dimension of the x-axis. If there are more measurement values
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than measurement points, several measured values are combined in one measurement point using the selected detector (see ​chapter 3.2.8.6, "Detector Overview",
on page 137). Frames are sorted in chronological order, beginning with the most
recently recorded frame or frame number 0 at the top of the diagram. After that and
below frame 0 is the frame recorded before the current frame (frame -1) and so on
until the maximum number of captured frames is reached. The maximum number of
frames that you can capture is summarized in the table below (see ​table 3-22. A
marker in the form of an arrow (3) on the left and right border of the Spectrogram
indicates the currently selected frame.
The actual number of the currently selected frame is shown below the diagram (4).
If the time stamp is active, the R&S FSV shows the time stamp instead of the frame
number (see ​Time Stamp (On Off).
Below the diagram there is also a color map (5) that shows the power levels corresponding to the displayed colors. The minimum value of the y-axis is on the left of
the color map. The maximum value is on the right of the map. You can also change
the color scheme in use (see ​Color Mapping. The colors corresponding to the power
levels, however, are always assigned automatically.
Markers and deltamarkers (6) (7) take the form of diamonds in the Spectrogram. They
are only displayed in the Spectrogram, if the marker position is inside the visible area
of the spectrogram. If more than two markers are active, it is possible to display a ​
Marker Table at the bottom of the display (8).
Table 3-22: Correlation between number of sweep points and number of frames stored in the history
buffer
Sweep Points
Max. History Depth
≤1250
20000
2001
12488
4001
6247
8.001
3124
16.001
1562
32.001
781
Markers and Marker Values
In the Spectrum Analyzer result display, the markers and their frequency and level values
(1) are displayed in the marker field just like in the base unit (see ​chapter 3.3.1, "Using
Markers and Delta Markers – MKR Key", on page 150). In addition to the base unit functionality, the frame number is displayed to indicate the position of the marker in time (2).
In the Spectrogram result display, you can activate up to 16 markers or deltamarkers at
the same time. Any marker can be assigned to a different frame. Therefore, in addition
to the frequency (1) you can set the frame number (2) when activating a new marker. If
no frame number is specified, the marker is positioned on the currently selected frame.
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In the Spectrogram result display all markers are visible that are positioned on a visible
frame.
In the Spectrum Analyzer result display, only the markers positioned on the currently
selected frame are visible. In Continuous Sweep mode this means that only markers
positioned on frame 0 are visible. To view markers that are positioned on a frame other
than frame 0 in the Spectrum Analyzer result display, it is necessary to stop the measurement and select the corresponding frame.
3.10.2 Softkeys of the Spectrogram Menu
The following chapter describes all softkeys available in the "Spectrogram" menu. It is
possible that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is
only available with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is
delivered in the corresponding softkey description.
To display the "Spectrogram" menu, press the TRACE key and then select the "Spectogram" softkey.
Spectrogram................................................................................................................417
└ Spectrogram (On Off)...................................................................................417
└ History Depth................................................................................................417
└ Color Mapping...............................................................................................418
└ Time Stamp (On Off).....................................................................................418
└ Clear Spectrogram........................................................................................418
Spectrogram
Opens the submenu for the spectrogram view.
Spectrogram (On Off) ← Spectrogram
Activates and deactivates the Spectrogram result display
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​SGRam[:​STATe]​ on page 590
History Depth ← Spectrogram
Sets the number of frames that the R&S FSV stores in its memory. The maximum number
of frames depends on the Sweep Points (see ​chapter 3.10.1, "General Information",
on page 414).
If the memory is full, the R&S FSV deletes the oldest frames stored in the memory and
replaces them with the new data.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​SGRam:​HDEPth​ on page 589
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Color Mapping ← Spectrogram
Displays the "Color Mapping" dialog box to configure the display of the spectrogram
(assignment of colors to power levels).
For details see ​chapter 3.10.3, "Configuring Color Settings for Spectrograms",
on page 418.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​SGRam:​COLor​ on page 588
​DISPlay:​WINDow:​SGRam:​COLor:​LOWer​ on page 607
​DISPlay:​WINDow:​SGRam:​COLor:​UPPer​ on page 607
Time Stamp (On Off) ← Spectrogram
Activates and deactivates the time stamp. The time stamp shows the system time while
the measurement is running. In single sweep mode or if the sweep is stopped, the time
stamp shows the time and date of the end of the sweep.
When active, the time stamp replaces the display of the frame number.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​SGRam:​TSTamp[:​STATe]​ on page 590
Clear Spectrogram ← Spectrogram
Resets the Spectrogram result display and clears the history buffer.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​SGRam:​CLEar[:​IMMediate]​ on page 587
3.10.3 Configuring Color Settings for Spectrograms
Spectrograms assign power levels to different colors in order to visualize them. The color
display is highly configurable to adapt the spectrograms to your needs. You can define:
●
Which colors to use (Color scheme, see ​"Hot/Cold/Radar/Grayscale" on page 423)
●
Which value range to apply the color scheme to (see ​chapter 3.10.3.2, "Defining the
Value Range of the Color Map", on page 419)
●
How the colors are distributed within the value range, i.e where the focus of the visualization lies (shape of the color curve, see ​chapter 3.10.3.3, "Defining the Shape
and Focus of the Color Curve", on page 420)
3.10.3.1
Selecting the Color Scheme........................................................................................418
3.10.3.2
Defining the Value Range of the Color Map................................................................419
3.10.3.3
Defining the Shape and Focus of the Color Curve......................................................420
3.10.3.4
Color Mapping Dialog..................................................................................................421
3.10.3.1
Selecting the Color Scheme
You can select which colors are assigned to the measured values. Four different color
ranges or "schemes" are available:
●
Hot
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Uses a color range from blue to red. Blue colors indicate low levels, red colors indicate
high ones.
●
Cold
Uses a color range from red to blue. Red colors indicate low levels, blue colors indicate high ones.
The "Cold" color scheme is the inverse "Hot" color scheme.
●
Radar
Uses a color range from black over green to light turquoise with shades of green in
between. Dark colors indicate low levels, light colors indicate high ones.
●
Grayscale
Shows the results in shades of gray. Dark gray indicates low levels, light gray indicates high ones.
To select a color scheme
1. Tap the color map in the spectrogram display, or select the "Color Mapping" Softkey
in the "Spectrogram" menu.
2. In the "Color Mapping" dialog box, select the option for the color scheme to be used.
3.10.3.2
Defining the Value Range of the Color Map
If the measured values only cover a small area in the spectrogram, you can optimize the
displayed value range so it becomes easier to distinguish between values that are close
together, and only parts of interest are displayed at all.
The distribution of the measured values is displayed as a histogram in the "Color Mapping" dialog box (see ​figure 3-50). To cover the entire measurement value range, make
sure the first and last bar of the histogram are included. To remove noise from the display,
exclude the bottom 10 or 20 dB of the histogram.
The value range of the color map must cover at least 10% of the value range on the
horizontal axis of the diagram.
The value range can be set numerically or graphically.
To set the value range graphically using the color range sliders
1. Tap the color map in the spectrogram display, or select the "Color Mapping" Softkey
in the "Spectrogram" menu to display the "Color Mapping" dialog box.
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2. Select and drag the bottom color curve slider (indicated by a gray box at the left of
the color curve pane) to the lowest value you want to include in the color mapping.
3. Select and drag the top color curve slider (indicated by a gray box at the right of the
color curve pane) to the highest value you want to include in the color mapping.
To set the value range numerically
1. Tap the color map in the spectrogram display, or select the "Color Mapping" Softkey
in the "Spectrogram" menu to display the "Color Mapping" dialog box.
2. In the "Start" field, enter the percentage from the left border of the histogram that
marks the beginning of the value range.
3. In the "Stop" field, enter the percentage from the right border of the histogram that
marks the end of the value range.
Example:
The color map starts at -100 dBm and ends at 0 dBm (i.e. a range of 100 dB). In order
to suppress the noise, you only want the color map to start at -90 dBm. Thus, you enter
10% in the "Start" field. The R&S FSV shifts the start point 10% to the right, to -90 dBm.
Adjusting the reference level and level range
Note that changing the reference level and level range of the measurement also affects
the color mapping in the spectrogram.
3.10.3.3
Defining the Shape and Focus of the Color Curve
The color mapping function assigns a specified color to a specified power level in the
spectrogram display. By default, colors on the color map are distributed evenly, i.e. the
color range is applied to the value range linearly. However, if a certain area of the value
range is to be visualized in greater detail than the rest, you can set the focus of the color
mapping to that area. Changing the focus is performed by changing the shape of the color
curve.
The color curve is a tool to shift the focus of the color distribution on the color map. By
default, the color curve is linear, i.e. the colors on the color map are distributed evenly. If
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you shift the curve to the left or right, the distribution becomes non-linear. The slope of
the color curve increases or decreases. One end of the color palette then covers a large
amount of results, while the other end distributes several colors over a relatively small
result range.
You can use this feature to put the focus on a particular region in the diagram and to be
able to detect small variations of the signal.
Example:
Fig. 3-48: Linear color curve shape = 0; colors are distributed evenly over the complete result range
In the color map based on the linear color curve, the range from -105.5 dBm to -60 dBm
is covered by blue and a few shades of green only. The range from -60 dBm to -20 dBm
is covered by red, yellow and a few shades of green.
Fig. 3-49: Non-linear color curve shape = -0.5
After shifting the color curve to the left (negative value), more colors cover the range from
-105.5 dBm to -60 dBm (blue, green and yellow). The range from -60 dBm to -20 dBm
on the other hand is dominated by various shades of red, but no other colors.
The color curve shape can be set numerically or graphically.
To set the color curve shape graphically using the slider
1. Tap the color map in the spectrogram display, or select the "Color Mapping" Softkey
in the "Spectrogram" menu to display the "Color Mapping" dialog box.
2. Select and drag the color curve shape slider (indicated by a gray box in the middle
of the color curve) to the left or right. The area beneath the slider is focussed, i.e.
more colors are distributed there.
To set the color curve shape numerically
1. Tap the color map in the spectrogram display, or select the "Color Mapping" Softkey
in the "Spectrogram" menu to display the "Color Mapping" dialog box.
2. In the "Shape" field, enter a value to change the shape of the curve:
●
●
●
3.10.3.4
A negative value (-1 to <0) focusses the lower values
0 defines a linear distribution
A positive value (>0 to 1) focusses the higher values
Color Mapping Dialog
The Color Mapping dialog box is displayed when you press the "Color Mapping" softkey
in the "Spectrogram" menu, or tap the color map in the Spectrogram display.
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In addition to the available color settings, the dialog box displays the current color map
and provides a preview of the display with the current settings.
Fig. 3-50: Color Mapping dialog box
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
Color map: shows the current color distribution
Preview pane: shows a preview of the spectrogram with any changes that you make to the color scheme
Color curve pane: graphical representation of all settings available to customize the color scheme
Color curve in its linear form
Color range start and stop sliders: define the range of the color map or amplitudes for the spectrogram
Color curve slider: adjusts the focus of the color curve
Histogram: shows the distribution of measured values
Scale of the horizontal axis (value range)
Start
Defines the lower boundary of the value range of the spectrogram.
For details on defining the value range see ​chapter 3.10.3.2, "Defining the Value Range
of the Color Map", on page 419.
Remote command:
​DISPlay:​WINDow:​SGRam:​COLor:​LOWer​ on page 607
Shape
Defines the shape and focus of the color curve for the spectrogram result display.
For details see ​chapter 3.10.3.3, "Defining the Shape and Focus of the Color Curve",
on page 420.
"-1 to <0"
More colors are distributed amoung the lower values
"0"
Colors are distributed linearly amoung the values
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">0 to 1"
More colors are distributed amoung the higher values
Remote command:
​DISPlay:​WINDow:​SGRam:​COLor:​SHAPe​ on page 607
Stop
Defines the upper boundary of the value range of the spectrogram.
For details on defining the value range see ​chapter 3.10.3.2, "Defining the Value Range
of the Color Map", on page 419.
Remote command:
​DISPlay:​WINDow:​SGRam:​COLor:​UPPer​ on page 607
Hot/Cold/Radar/Grayscale
Sets the color scheme for the spectrogram. For details see ​chapter 3.10.3.1, "Selecting
the Color Scheme", on page 418
Remote command:
​DISPlay:​WINDow:​SGRam:​COLor[:​STYLe]​ on page 608
Auto
Defines the color range automatically according to the existing measured values for optimized display.
Set to Default
Sets the color mapping to the default settings.
Remote command:
​DISPlay:​WINDow:​SGRam:​COLor:​DEFault​ on page 607
Close
Closes the dialog box and adapts the display to the defined color settings.
3.10.4 ASCII File Export Format for Spectrograms
If the spectrogram display is selected when you select the "ASCII Trace Export" softkey,
the entire histogram buffer with all frames is exported to a file. The data corresponding
to a particular frame begins with information about the frame number and the time that
frame was recorded.
The data of the file header consist of three columns, each separated by a semicolon:
parameter name; numeric value; basic unit. The data section starts with the keyword
"Trace <n>" (<n> = number of stored trace), followed by the measured data in one or
several columns (depending on measurement) which are also separated by a semicolon.
File contents: header
Description
Type;R&S FSV;
Instrument model
Version;5.00;
Firmware version
Date;01.Oct 2006;
Date of data set storage
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File contents: header
Description
Mode;ANALYZER;SPECTROGRAM
Instrument mode
Center Freq;55000;Hz
Center frequency
Freq Offset;0;Hz
Frequency offset
Span;90000;Hz
Frequency range (0 Hz in zero span and statistics measurements)
x-Axis;LIN;
Scaling of x-axis linear (LIN) or logarithmic (LOG)
Start;10000;Hz
Start/stop of the display range.
Stop;100000;Hz
Unit: Hz for span > 0, s for span = 0, dBm/dB for statistics measurements
Ref Level;-30;dBm
Reference level
Level Offset;0;dB
Level offset
Ref Position;75; %
Position of reference level referred to diagram limits (0 % = lower
edge)
y-Axis;LOG;
Scaling of y-axis linear (LIN) or logarithmic (LOG)
Level Range;100;dB
Display range in y direction. Unit: dB with x-axis LOG, % with xaxis LIN
Rf Att;20;dB
Input attenuation
RBW;100000;Hz
Resolution bandwidth
VBW;30000;Hz
Video bandwidth
SWT;0.005;s
Sweep time
Trace Mode;AVERAGE;
Display mode of trace: CLR/WRITE,AVERAGE,MAXHOLD,MINHOLD
Detector;AUTOPEAK;
Detector set: AUTOPEAK,MAXPEAK,MINPEAK,AVERAGE,RMS,SAMPLE,QUASIPEAK
Sweep Count;20;
Number of sweeps set
File contents:
Description
data section of the file
Trace 1:;;
Selected trace
x-Unit;Hz;
Unit of x values: Hz with span > 0; s with span = 0; dBm/dB with
statistics measurements
y-Unit;dBm;
Unit of y values: dB*/V/A/W depending on the selected unit with
y-axis LOG or % with y-axis LIN
Values; 691;
Number of measurement points
Frames;2;
Number of exported frames
Frame;0;
Most recent frame number
Timestamp;17.Mar 11;11:27:05.990
Timestamp of this frame
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File contents:
Description
data section of the file
10000;-10.3;-15.7
Measured values, identical to spectrum data:
10130;-11.5;-16.9
<x value>, <y1>, <y2>; <y2> being available only with detector
AUTOPEAK and containing in this case the smallest of the two
measured values for a measurement point.
10360;-12.0;-17.4
...;...;
Frame;-1;
Next frame
Timestamp;17.Mar 11;11:27:05.342
Timestamp of this frame
...
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4 Remote Control
This chapter describes how to control the R&S FSV via a remote computer. After an
introduction to the basic principles of remote control, the individual commands are described in detail. At the end of this chapter, some helpful programming examples are provided.
Conventions used in SCPI command descriptions
Note the following conventions used in the remote command descriptions:
●
Command usage
If not specified otherwise, commands can be used both for setting and for querying
parameters.
If a command can be used for setting or querying only, or if it initiates an event, the
usage is stated explicitely.
●
Parameter usage
If not specified otherwise, a parameter can be used to set a value and it is the result
of a query.
Parameters required only for setting are indicated as Setting parameters.
Parameters required only to refine a query are indicated as Query parameters.
Parameters that are only returned as the result of a query are indicated as Return
values.
●
Conformity
Commands that are taken from the SCPI standard are indicated as SCPI confirmed. All commands used by the R&S FSV follow the SCPI syntax rules.
●
Asynchronous commands
A command which does not automatically finish executing before the next command
starts executing (overlapping command) is indicated as an Asynchronous command.
●
Reset values (*RST)
Default parameter values that are used directly after resetting the instrument (*RST
command) are indicated as *RST values, if available.
●
Manual operation
If the result of a remote command can also be achieved in manual operation, a link
to the description is inserted.
4.1
Remote Control - Basics..........................................................................................427
4.1.1
Remote Control Interfaces and Protocols...................................................................428
4.1.2
Starting a Remote Control Session.............................................................................436
4.1.3
Returning to Manual Operation...................................................................................437
4.1.4
SCPI Command Structure...........................................................................................437
4.1.5
Command Sequence and Synchronization.................................................................445
4.1.6
Status Reporting System............................................................................................448
4.1.7
General Programming Recommendations..................................................................464
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4.1.8
The IECWIN Tool........................................................................................................465
4.2
Remote Control – Commands..................................................................................466
4.2.1
Notation.......................................................................................................................467
4.2.2
Common Commands..................................................................................................469
4.2.3
Remote Control – Description of Analyzer Commands...............................................474
4.2.4
Remote Control – Description of Measurement-Independant Commands.................757
4.2.5
GPIB Commands of HP Models 856xE, 8566A/B, 8568A/B and 8594E....................810
4.2.6
Reference: Command Set of Emulated PSA Models..................................................841
4.3
Remote Control – Programming Examples............................................................845
4.3.1
Service Request..........................................................................................................846
4.3.2
Using Marker and Delta Marker..................................................................................854
4.3.3
Limit Lines and Limit Test...........................................................................................857
4.3.4
Measuring the Channel and Adjacent Channel Power...............................................859
4.3.5
Occupied Bandwidth Measurement............................................................................862
4.3.6
Time Domain Power Measurement.............................................................................863
4.3.7
Fast Power Measurement on Power Ramps..............................................................863
4.3.8
Fast Level Measurement Using Frequency Lists........................................................867
4.3.9
Level Correction of Transducers.................................................................................869
4.3.10
Measuring the Magnitude and Phase of a Signal.......................................................870
4.3.11
Reading and Writing Files...........................................................................................872
4.3.12
Spectrum Emission Mask Measurement.....................................................................873
4.3.13
Spurious Emissions Measurement..............................................................................877
4.3.14
Averaging I/Q Data......................................................................................................880
4.3.15
Using IQ Gating...........................................................................................................881
4.3.16
Usage of Four Spectrum Instances.............................................................................886
4.1 Remote Control - Basics
This chapter provides basic information on operating an instrument via remote control.
The computer that is used for remote operation is called "controller" here.
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4.1.1 Remote Control Interfaces and Protocols
The instrument supports different interfaces for remote control. The following table gives
an overview.
Table 4-1: Remote control interfaces and protocols
Interface
Protocols, VISA*)
address string
Remarks
Local Area
Network
(LAN)
Protocols:
A LAN connector is located on the rear panel of the instrument.
●
●
●
The interface is based on TCP/IP and supports various protocols.
VXI-11
RSIB
simple telnet (Raw
Ethernet)
VISA*) address string:
For a description of the protocols refer to:
●
​"VXI-11 Protocol" on page 431
●
​"RSIB Protocol" on page 431
●
​"Telnet Protocol" on page 432
TCPIP::host
address[::LAN device
name][::INSTR]
GPIB (IEC/
IEEE Bus
Interface)
VISA*) address string:
GPIB::primary
address[::INSTR]
(no secondary address)
A GPIB bus interface according to the IEC 625.1/IEEE 488.1
standard is located on the rear panel of the instrument.
For a description of the interface refer to ​chapter 4.1.1.4, "GPIB
Interface (IEC 625/IEEE 418 Bus Interface)", on page 432.
*)
VISA is a standardized software interface library providing input and output functions to communicate with
instruments. A VISA installation on the controller is a prerequisite for remote control using the indicated interfaces (see also ​chapter 4.1.1.1, "VISA Libraries", on page 429).
Within this interface description, the term GPIB is used as a synonym for the IEC/IEEE
bus interface.
SCPI (Standard Commands for Programmable Instruments)
SCPI commands - messages - are used for remote control. Commands that are not taken
from the SCPI standard follow the SCPI syntax rules. The instrument supports the SCPI
version 1999. The SCPI standard is based on standard IEEE 488.2 and aims at the
standardization of device-specific commands, error handling and the status registers.
The tutorial "Automatic Measurement Control - A tutorial on SCPI and IEEE 488.2" from
John M. Pieper (R&S order number 0002.3536.00) offers detailed information on concepts and definitions of SCPI.
The requirements that the SCPI standard places on command syntax, error handling and
configuration of the status registers are explained in detail in the following sections.
Tables provide a fast overview of the bit assignment in the status registers. The tables
are supplemented by a comprehensive description of the status registers.
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4.1.1.1
VISA Libraries
VISA is a standardized software interface library providing input and output functions to
communicate with instruments. The I/O channel (LAN or TCP/IP, USB, GPIB,...) is
selected at initialization time by means of the channel–specific address string ("VISA
resource string") indicated in ​table 4-1, or by an appropriately defined VISA alias (short
name). A VISA installation is a prerequisite for remote control using the VXI-11 and RSIB
protocols. The necessary VISA library is available as a separate product. For details
contact your local R&S sales representative.
For more information on VISA refer to the user documentation.
4.1.1.2
Messages
The messages transferred on the data lines are divided into the following categories:
●
Interface messages
Interface messages are transmitted to the instrument on the data lines, with the
attention line being active (LOW). They are used to communicate between the controller and the instrument. Interface messages can only be sent by instruments that
have GPIB bus functionality. For details see the sections for the required interface.
●
Instrument messages
Instrument messages are employed in the same way for all interfaces, if not indicated
otherwise in the description. Structure and syntax of the instrument messages are
described in ​chapter 4.1.4, "SCPI Command Structure", on page 437. A detailed
description of all messages available for the instrument is provided in the chapter
"Remote Control Commands".
There are different types of instrument messages, depending on the direction they
are sent:
– Commands
–
Instrument responses
Commands
Commands (program messages) are messages the controller sends to the instrument.
They operate the instrument functions and request information. The commands are subdivided according to two criteria:
●
According to the effect they have on the instrument:
– Setting commands cause instrument settings such as a reset of the instrument
or setting the frequency.
–
●
Queries cause data to be provided for remote control, e.g. for identification of the
instrument or polling a parameter value. Queries are formed by directly appending
a question mark to the command header.
According to their definition in standards:
– Common commands: their function and syntax are precisely defined in standard
IEEE 488.2. They are employed identically on all instruments (if implemented).
They refer to functions such as management of the standardized status registers,
reset and self test.
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–
Instrument control commands refer to functions depending on the features of
the instrument such as frequency settings. Many of these commands have also
been standardized by the SCPI committee. These commands are marked as
"SCPI confirmed" in the command reference chapters. Commands without this
SCPI label are device-specific; however, their syntax follows SCPI rules as permitted by the standard.
Instrument responses
Instrument responses (response messages and service requests) are messages the
instrument sends to the controller after a query. They can contain measurement results,
instrument settings and information on the instrument status.
4.1.1.3
LAN Interface
To be integrated in a LAN, the instrument is equipped with a LAN interface, consisting of
a connector, a network interface card and protocols. The network card can be operated
with a 10 MHz Ethernet IEEE 802.3 or a 100 MHz Ethernet IEEE 802.3u interface. For
remote control via a network, the PC and the instrument must be connected via the LAN
interface to a common network with TCP/IP network protocol. They are connected using
a commercial RJ45 cable (shielded or unshielded twisted pair category 5). The TCP/IP
network protocol and the associated network services are preconfigured on the instrument. Software for instrument control and the VISA program library must be installed on
the controller.
VISA library
Instrument access via VXI-11 or RSIB protocols is usually achieved from high level programming platforms using VISA as an intermediate abstraction layer. VISA encapsulates
the low level VXI, RSIB or even GPIB function calls and thus makes the transport interface
transparent for the user. See ​chapter 4.1.1.1, "VISA Libraries", on page 429 for details.
IP address
Only the IP address or the computer name (LAN device name) is required to set up the
connection. The IP address/computer name is part of the "visa resource string" used by
the programs to identify and control the instrument.
The visa resource string has the form:
TCPIP::host address[::LAN device name][::INSTR]
where:
●
TCPIP designates the network protocol used
●
host address is the IP address of the device
The IP address for the R&S FSV is factory-set to 10.0.0.10, subnet mask
255.255.255.0.
●
LAN device name is the computer name of the instrument (alternative to IP address)
●
INSTR indicates that the VXI-11 protocol is used
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Example:
Instrument has the IP address 192.1.2.3; the valid resource string is:
TCPIP::192.1.2.3::INSTR
The instrument name is RSFSV; the valid resource string is:
TCPIP::RSFSV::INSTR
Identifying instruments in a network
If several instruments are connected to the network, each instrument has its own IP
address and associated resource string. The controller identifies these instruments by
means of the resource string.
For details on configuring the LAN connection, see "Setting Up a Network (LAN) Connection" in the R&S FSV Quick Start Guide.
VXI-11 Protocol
The VXI-11 standard is based on the ONC RPC (Open Network Computing Remote
Procedure Call) protocol which in turn relies on TCP/IP as the network/transport layer.
The TCP/IP network protocol and the associated network services are preconfigured.
TCP/IP ensures connection-oriented communication, where the order of the exchanged
messages is adhered to and interrupted links are identified. With this protocol, messages
cannot be lost.
RSIB Protocol
The R&S defined RSIB protocol uses the TCP/IP protocol for communication with the
instrument. Remote control over RSIB is done on a message level basis using the SCPI
command set of the instrument. The RSIB protocol allows you to control the instrument
for example via Visual C++- and Visual Basic programs, via the Windows applications
Word and Excel, as well as via National Instruments LabView, LabWindows/CVI, Agilent
VEE and others. The control applications run on an external computer in the network.
RSIB Interface Functions
The library functions are adapted to the interface functions of National Instruments for
GPIB programming. The functions supported by the libraries are listed in the following
table.
Function
Description
RSDLLibfind()
Provides a handle for access to a device.
RSDLLibwrt()
Sends a zero-terminated string to a device.
RSDLLilwrt()
Sends a certain number of bytes to a device.
RSDLLibwrtf()
Sends the contents of a file to a device.
RSDLLibrd()
Reads data from a device into a string.
RSDLLilrd()
Reads a certain number of bytes from a device.
RSDLLibrdf()
Reads data from a device into a file.
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Function
Description
RSDLLibtmo()
Sets timeout for RSIB functions.
RSDLLibsre()
Switches a device to the local or remote state.
RSDLLibloc()
Temporarily switches a device to the local state.
RSDLLibeot()
Enables/disables the END message for write operations.
RSDLLibrsp()
Performs a serial poll and provides the status byte.
RSDLLibonl()
Sets the device online/offline.
RSDLLTestSrq()
Checks whether a device has generated an SRQ.
RSDLLWaitSrq()
Waits until a device generates an SRQ.
RSDLLSwapBytes
Swaps the byte sequence for binary numericdisplay (only required for nonIntel platforms).
Telnet Protocol
As an alternative to remote control the instrument can use a simple telnet protocol (port
5025). Unlike using the VXI-11 protocol, no VISA installation is necessary on the remote
controller side. This protocol is sometimes also referred to as "socket communication" or
"Raw Ethernet mode". To control the instrument, only a Telnet program is required. The
Telnet program is part of every operating system.
4.1.1.4
GPIB Interface (IEC 625/IEEE 418 Bus Interface)
To be able to control the instrument via the GPIB bus, the instrument and the controller
must be linked by a GPIB bus cable. A GPIB bus card, the card drivers and the program
libraries for the programming language used must be provided in the controller. The controller must address the instrument with the GPIB bus address (see ​"GPIB Instrument
Address" on page 435).
Notes and Conditions
In connection with the GPIB interface, note the following:
●
Up to 15 instruments can be connected
●
The total cable length is restricted to a maximum of 15 m or 2 m times the number of
devices, whichever is less; the cable lenth between two instruments should not
exceed 2 m.
●
A wired "OR"-connection is used if several instruments are connected in parallel.
●
Any connected IEC-bus cables should be terminated by an instrument or controller.
GPIB Interface Messages
Interface messages are transmitted to the instrument on the data lines, with the attention
line (ATN) being active (LOW). They are used for communication between the controller
and the instrument and can only be sent by a computer which has the function of a GPIB
bus controller. GPIB interface messages can be further subdivided into:
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●
Universal commands: act on all instruments connected to the GPIB bus without
previous addressing
●
Addressed commands: only act on instruments previously addressed as listeners
The following figure provides an overview of the available communication lines used by
the GPIB interface.
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Fig. 4-1: Communication lines used by the GPIB interface
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Universal Commands
Universal commands are encoded in the range 10 through 1F hex. They affect all instruments connected to the bus and do not require addressing.
Command
Effect on the instrument
DCL (Device Clear)
Aborts the processing of the commands just received and sets the command
processing software to a defined initial state. Does not change the instrument
settings.
IFC (Interface Clear) *)
Resets the interfaces to the default setting.
LLO (Local Lockout)
The LOC/IEC ADDR key is disabled.
SPE (Serial Poll Enable)
Ready for serial poll.
SPD (Serial Poll Disable)
End of serial poll.
PPU (Parallel Poll Unconfigure)
End of the parallel-poll state.
*) IFC is not a real universal command, it is sent via a separate line; however, it also affects all instruments
connected to the bus and does not require addressing
Addressed Commands
Addressed commands are encoded in the range 00 through 0F hex. They only affect
instruments addressed as listeners.
Command
Effect on the instrument
GET (Group Execute Trigger)
Triggers a previously active instrument function (e.g. a sweep). The
effect of the command is the same as with that of a pulse at the
external trigger signal input.
GTL (Go to Local)
Transition to the "local" state (manual control).
REN (Remote Enable)
Transition to the "remote" state (remote control).
Transition to the "remote" state (remote control). (Not really an
addressed command, uses a separate line.)
PPC (Parallel Poll Configure)
Configures the instrument for parallel poll.
SDC (Selected Device Clear)
Aborts the processing of the commands just received and sets the
command processing software to a defined initial state. Does not
change the instrument setting.
GPIB Instrument Address
In order to operate the instrument via remote control, it must be addressed using the
GPIB address. The remote control address is factory-set to 20, but it can be changed if
it does not fit in the network environment. For remote control, addresses 0 through 30
are allowed. The GPIB address is maintained after a reset of the instrument settings.
Setting the GPIB address
1. On the R&S FSV, press the SETUP key.
2. Press the "General Setup" softkey.
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3. Press the "GPIB" softkey.
The submenu for setting the parameters of the remote control interface is displayed.
4. Press the "GPIB Address" softkey.
The edit dialog box for the GPIB address is displayed.
5. Enter a value between 0 and 30.
Remote command: SYST:COMM:GPIB:ADDR 18
4.1.2 Starting a Remote Control Session
When you switch on the instrument, it is always in manual operation state ("local" state)
and can be operated via the front panel.
Starting remote control
1. Send an addressed command (GTR - Go to Remote) from a controller to the instrument.
The instrument is switched to remote control ("remote" state). Operation via the front
panel is disabled. Only the "Local" softkey is displayed to return to manual operation.
The instrument remains in the remote state until it is reset to the manual state via the
instrument or via remote control interfaces. Switching from manual operation to
remote control and vice versa does not affect the other instrument settings.
2. During program execution, send the SYSTem:DISPlay:UPDate ON command to
activate the display of results.
The changes in the device settings and the recorded measurement values are displayed on the instrument screen.
3. To obtain optimum performance during remote control, send the
SYSTem:DISPlay:UPDate OFF command to hide the display of results and diagrams again (default setting in remote control).
4. To prevent unintentional return to manual operation, disable the keys of the instrument using the universal command LLO.
Switching to manual mode is only possible via remote control then. This function is
only available for the GPIB interface.
5. To enable the keys of the R&S FSV again, switch the instrument to local mode
(GTL - Go to Local), i.e. deactivate the REN line of the remote control interface.
If the instrument is operated exclusively in remote control, it is recommended that you
switch on the power-save mode for the display. For more details on this mode refer to
the R&S FSV Quick Start Guide.
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4.1.3 Returning to Manual Operation
Before you switch back to manual operation, all remote command processing must be
completed. Otherwise, the instrument will switch back to remote control immediately.
► Press the "Local" softkey or the PRESET key, or use the following GPIB command:
status = viGpibControlREN(vi, VI_GPIB_REN_ADDRESS_GTL)
4.1.4 SCPI Command Structure
SCPI commands consist of a so-called header and, in most cases, one or more parameters. The header and the parameters are separated by a "white space" (ASCII code 0
to 9, 11 to 32 decimal, e.g. blank). The headers may consist of several mnemonics (keywords). Queries are formed by appending a question mark directly to the header.
The commands can be either device-specific or device-independent (common commands). Common and device-specific commands differ in their syntax.
4.1.4.1
Syntax for Common Commands
Common (=device-independent) commands consist of a header preceded by an asterisk
(*) and possibly one or more parameters.
Examples:
*RST
RESET
Resets the instrument.
*ESE
EVENT STATUS ENABLE
Sets the bits of the event status enable
registers.
*ESR?
EVENT STATUS QUERY
Queries the contents of the event status
register.
*IDN?
IDENTIFICATION QUERY
Queries the instrument identification
string.
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4.1.4.2
Syntax for Device-Specific Commands
Not all commands used in the following examples are necessarily implemented in the
instrument.
For demonstration purposes only, assume the existence of the following commands for
this section:
●
DISPlay[:WINDow<1...4>]:MAXimize <Boolean>
●
FORMat:READings:DATA <type>[,<length>]
●
HCOPy:DEVice:COLor <Boolean>
●
HCOPy:DEVice:CMAP:COLor:RGB <red>,<green>,<blue>
●
HCOPy[:IMMediate]
●
HCOPy:ITEM:ALL
●
HCOPy:ITEM:LABel <string>
●
HCOPy:PAGE:DIMensions:QUADrant[<N>]
●
HCOPy:PAGE:ORIentation LANDscape | PORTrait
●
HCOPy:PAGE:SCALe <numeric value>
●
MMEMory:COPY <file_source>,<file_destination>
●
SENSE:BANDwidth|BWIDth[:RESolution] <numeric_value>
●
SENSe:FREQuency:STOP <numeric value>
●
SENSe:LIST:FREQuency <numeric_value>{,<numeric_value>}
Long and short form
The mnemonics feature a long form and a short form. The short form is marked by upper
case letters, the long form corresponds to the complete word. Either the short form or the
long form can be entered; other abbreviations are not permitted.
Example:
HCOPy:DEVice:COLor ON is equivalent to HCOP:DEV:COL ON.
Case-insensitivity
Upper case and lower case notation only serves to distinguish the two forms in the manual, the instrument itself is case-insensitive.
Numeric suffixes
If a command can be applied to multiple instances of an object, e.g. specific channels or
sources, the required instances can be specified by a suffix added to the command.
Numeric suffixes are indicated by angular brackets (<1...4>, <n>, <i>) and are replaced
by a single value in the command. Entries without a suffix are interpreted as having the
suffix 1.
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Example:
Definition: HCOPy:PAGE:DIMensions:QUADrant[<N>]
Command: HCOP:PAGE:DIM:QUAD2
This command refers to the quadrant 2.
Different numbering in remote control
For remote control, the suffix may differ from the number of the corresponding selection
used in manual operation. SCPI prescribes that suffix counting starts with 1. Suffix 1 is
the default state and used when no specific suffix is specified.
Some standards define a fixed numbering, starting with 0. If the numbering differs in
manual operation and remote control, it is indicated for the corresponding command.
Optional mnemonics
Some command systems permit certain mnemonics to be inserted into the header or
omitted. These mnemonics are marked by square brackets in the description. The instrument must recognize the long command to comply with the SCPI standard. Some commands are considerably shortened by these optional mnemonics.
Example:
Definition: HCOPy[:IMMediate]
Command: HCOP:IMM is equivalent to HCOP
Optional mnemonics with numeric suffixes
Do not omit an optional mnemonic if it includes a numeric suffix that is relevant for the
effect of the command.
Example:
Definition:DISPlay[:WINDow<1...4>]:MAXimize <Boolean>
Command: DISP:MAX ON refers to window 1.
In order to refer to a window other than 1, you must include the optional WINDow parameter with the suffix for the required window.
DISP:WIND2:MAX ON refers to window 2.
Parameters
Parameters must be separated from the header by a "white space". If several parameters
are specified in a command, they are separated by a comma (,). For a description of the
parameter types, refer to ​chapter 4.1.4.3, "SCPI Parameters", on page 440.
Example:
Definition:HCOPy:DEVice:CMAP:COLor:RGB <red>,<green>,<blue>
Command:HCOP:DEV:CMAP:COL:RGB 3,32,44
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Special characters
|
Parameters
A vertical stroke in parameter definitions indicates alternative possibilities in the sense of "or". The effect
of the command differs, depending on which parameter is used.
Example:
Definition:HCOPy:PAGE:ORIentation LANDscape | PORTrait
Command HCOP:PAGE:ORI LAND specifies landscape orientation
Command HCOP:PAGE:ORI PORT specifies portrait orientation
Mnemonics
A selection of mnemonics with an identical effect exists for several commands. These mnemonics are
indicated in the same line; they are separated by a vertical stroke. Only one of these mnemonics needs
to be included in the header of the command. The effect of the command is independent of which of the
mnemonics is used.
Example:
DefinitionSENSE:BANDwidth|BWIDth[:RESolution] <numeric_value>
The two following commands with identical meaning can be created:
SENS:BAND:RES 1
SENS:BWID:RES 1
[]
Mnemonics in square brackets are optional and may be inserted into the header or omitted.
Example: HCOPy[:IMMediate]
HCOP:IMM is equivalent to HCOP
{}
Parameters in curly brackets are optional and can be inserted once or several times, or omitted.
Example: SENSe:LIST:FREQuency <numeric_value>{,<numeric_value>}
The following are valid commands:
SENS:LIST:FREQ 10
SENS:LIST:FREQ 10,20
SENS:LIST:FREQ 10,20,30,40
4.1.4.3
SCPI Parameters
Many commands are supplemented by a parameter or a list of parameters. The parameters must be separated from the header by a "white space" (ASCII code 0 to 9, 11 to 32
decimal, e.g. blank). Allowed parameters are:
●
Numeric values
●
Special numeric values
●
Boolean parameters
●
Text
●
Character strings
●
Block data
The parameters required for each command and the allowed range of values are specified in the command description.
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Numeric values
Numeric values can be entered in any form, i.e. with sign, decimal point and exponent.
Values exceeding the resolution of the instrument are rounded up or down. The mantissa
may comprise up to 255 characters, the exponent must lie inside the value range -32000
to 32000. The exponent is introduced by an "E" or "e". Entry of the exponent alone is not
allowed. In the case of physical quantities, the unit can be entered. Allowed unit prefixes
are G (giga), MA (mega), MOHM and MHZ are also allowed), K (kilo), M (milli), U (micro)
and N (nano). If the unit is missing, the basic unit is used.
Example: SENS:FREQ:STOP 1.5GHz = SENS:FREQ:STOP 1.5E9
Units
For physical quantities, the unit can be entered. Allowed unit prefixes are:
●
G (giga)
●
MA (mega), MOHM, MHZ
●
K (kilo)
●
M (milli)
●
U (micro)
●
N (nano)
If the unit is missing, the basic unit is used.
Example:
SENSe:FREQ:STOP 1.5GHz = SENSe:FREQ:STOP 1.5E9
Some settings allow relative values to be stated in percent. According to SCPI, this unit
is represented by the PCT string.
Example:
HCOP:PAGE:SCAL 90PCT
Special numeric values
The texts listed below are interpreted as special numeric values. In the case of a query,
the numeric value is provided.
●
MIN/MAX
MINimum and MAXimum denote the minimum and maximum value.
●
DEF
DEFault denotes a preset value which has been stored in the EPROM. This value
conforms to the default setting, as it is called by the *RST command.
●
UP/DOWN
UP, DOWN increases or reduces the numeric value by one step. The step width can
be specified via an allocated step command for each parameter which can be set via
UP, DOWN.
●
INF/NINF
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INFinity, Negative INFinity (NINF) represent the numeric values 9.9E37 or -9.9E37,
respectively. INF and NINF are only sent as instrument responses.
●
NAN
Not A Number (NAN) represents the value 9.91E37. NAN is only sent as a instrument
response. This value is not defined. Possible causes are the division of zero by zero,
the subtraction of infinite from infinite and the representation of missing values.
Example:
Setting command: SENSe:LIST:FREQ MAXimum
Query: SENS:LIST:FREQ?, Response: 3.5E9
Queries for special numeric values
The numeric values associated to MAXimum/MINimum/DEFault can be queried by
adding the corresponding mnemonics to the command. They must be entered following
the quotation mark.
Example: SENSe:LIST:FREQ? MAXimum
Returns the maximum numeric value as a result.
Boolean Parameters
Boolean parameters represent two states. The "ON" state (logically true) is represented
by "ON" or a numeric value 1. The "OFF" state (logically untrue) is represented by
"OFF" or the numeric value 0. The numeric values are provided as the response for a
query.
Example:
Setting command: HCOPy:DEV:COL ON
Query: HCOPy:DEV:COL?
Response: 1
Text parameters
Text parameters observe the syntactic rules for mnemonics, i.e. they can be entered
using a short or long form. Like any parameter, they have to be separated from the header
by a white space. In the case of a query, the short form of the text is provided.
Example:
Setting command: HCOPy:PAGE:ORIentation LANDscape
Query: HCOP:PAGE:ORI?
Response: LAND
Character strings
Strings must always be entered in quotation marks (' or ").
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Example:
HCOP:ITEM:LABel "Test1" or HCOP:ITEM:LABel 'Test1'
Block data
Block data is a format which is suitable for the transmission of large amounts of data. A
command using a block data parameter has the following structure:
Example:
FORMat:READings:DATA
#45168xxxxxxxx
The ASCII character # introduces the data block. The next number indicates how many
of the following digits describe the length of the data block. In the example the 4 following
digits indicate the length to be 5168 bytes. The data bytes follow. During the transmission
of these data bytes all end or other control signs are ignored until all bytes are transmitted.
#0 specifies a data block of indefinite length. The use of the indefinite format requires a
NL^END message to terminate the data block. This format is useful when the length of
the transmission is not known or if speed or other considerations prevent segmentation
of the data into blocks of definite length.
4.1.4.4
Overview of Syntax Elements
The following table provides an overview of the syntax elements:
:
The colon separates the mnemonics of a command. In a command line the separating semicolon
marks the uppermost command level.
;
The semicolon separates two commands of a command line. It does not alter the path.
,
The comma separates several parameters of a command.
?
The question mark forms a query.
*
The asterisk marks a common command.
''
Quotation marks introduce a string and terminate it (both single and double quotation marks are
possible).
"
#
The hash symbol introduces binary, octal, hexadecimal and block data.
Binary: #B10110
●
Octal: #O7612
●
Hexa: #HF3A7
●
Block: #21312
●
A "white space" (ASCII-Code 0 to 9, 11 to 32 decimal, e.g. blank) separates the header from the
parameters.
4.1.4.5
Structure of a command line
A command line may consist of one or several commands. It is terminated by one of the
following:
●
a <New Line>
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●
a <New Line> with EOI
●
an EOI together with the last data byte
Several commands in a command line must be separated by a semicolon ";". If the next
command belongs to a different command system, the semicolon is followed by a colon.
Example:
MMEM:COPY "Test1","MeasurementXY";:HCOP:ITEM ALL
This command line contains two commands. The first command belongs to the MMEM
system, the second command belongs to the HCOP system.
If the successive commands belong to the same system, having one or several levels in
common, the command line can be abbreviated. To this end, the second command after
the semicolon starts with the level that lies below the common levels. The colon following
the semicolon must be omitted in this case.
Example:
HCOP:ITEM ALL;:HCOP:IMM
This command line contains two commands. Both commands are part of the HCOP command system, i.e. they have one level in common.
When abbreviating the command line, the second command begins with the level below
HCOP. The colon after the semicolon is omitted. The abbreviated form of the command
line reads as follows:
HCOP:ITEM ALL;IMM
A new command line always begins with the complete path.
Example:
HCOP:ITEM ALL
HCOP:IMM
4.1.4.6
Responses to Queries
A query is defined for each setting command unless explicitly specified otherwise. It is
formed by adding a question mark to the associated setting command. According to
SCPI, the responses to queries are partly subject to stricter rules than in standard IEEE
488.2.
●
The requested parameter is transmitted without a header.
Example: HCOP:PAGE:ORI?, Response: LAND
●
Maximum values, minimum values and all other quantities that are requested via a
special text parameter are returned as numeric values.
Example: SENSe:FREQuency:STOP? MAX, Response: 3.5E9
●
Numeric values are output without a unit. Physical quantities are referred to the basic
units or to the units set using the Unit command. The response 3.5E9 in the previous example stands for 3.5 GHz.
●
Truth values (Boolean values) are returned as 0 (for OFF) and 1 (for ON).
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Example:
Setting command: HCOPy:DEV:COL ON
Query: HCOPy:DEV:COL?
Response: 1
●
Text (character data) is returned in a short form.
Example:
Setting command: HCOPy:PAGE:ORIentation LANDscape
Query: HCOP:PAGE:ORI?
Response: LAND
4.1.5 Command Sequence and Synchronization
IEEE 488.2 defines a distinction between overlapped and sequential commands:
●
A sequential command is one which finishes executing before the next command
starts executing. Commands that are processed quickly are usually implemented as
sequential commands.
●
An overlapping command is one which does not automatically finish executing
before the next command starts executing. Usually, overlapping commands take
longer to process and allow the program to do other tasks while being executed. If
overlapping commands do have to be executed in a defined order, e.g. in order to
avoid wrong measurement results, they must be serviced sequentially. This is called
synchronization between the controller and the instrument.
Setting commands within one command line, even though they may be implemented as
sequential commands, are not necessarily serviced in the order in which they have been
received. In order to make sure that commands are actually carried out in a certain order,
each command must be sent in a separate command line.
Example: Commands and queries in one message
The response to a query combined in a program message with commands that affect the
queried value is not predictable.
The following commands always return the specified result:
:FREQ:STAR 1GHZ;SPAN 100 :FREQ:STAR?
Result:
1000000000 (1 GHz)
Whereas the result for the following commands is not specified by SCPI:
:FREQ:STAR 1GHz;STAR?;SPAN 1000000
The result could be the value of STARt before the command was sent since the instrument might defer executing the individual commands until a program message terminator
is received. The result could also be 1 GHz if the instrument executes commands as they
are received.
As a general rule, send commands and queries in different program messages.
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Example: Overlapping command with *OPC
The instrument implements INITiate[:IMMediate] as an overlapped command.
Assuming that INITiate[:IMMediate] takes longer to execute than *OPC, sending
the following command sequence results in initiating a sweep and, after some time, setting the OPC bit in the ESR:
INIT; *OPC.
Sending the following commands still initiates a sweep:
INIT; *OPC; *CLS
However, since the operation is still pending when the instrument executes *CLS, forcing
it into the "Operation Complete Command Idle" State (OCIS), *OPC is effectively skipped.
The OPC bit is not set until the instrument executes another *OPC command.
The following list includes the commands for which a synchronization via *OPC, *OPC?
or *WAI is mandatory:
4.1.5.1
Command
Purpose
INIT
start measurement
INIT:CONM
continue measurement
CALC:MARK:FUNC:ZOOM
zoom frequency range around marker 1
CALC:STAT:SCAL:AUTO ONCE
optimize level settings for signal statistic measurement functions
[SENS:]POW:ACH:PRES:RLEV
optimize level settings for adjacent channel power measurements
Preventing Overlapping Execution
To prevent an overlapping execution of commands, one of the commands *OPC, *OPC?
or *WAI can be used. All three commands cause a certain action only to be carried out
after the hardware has been set. By suitable programming, the controller can be forced
to wait for the corresponding action to occur.
Table 4-2: Synchronization using *OPC, *OPC? and *WAI
Command
Action
*OPC
Sets the Operation Complete bit in the ESR
●
after all previous commands have been execu- ●
●
ted.
*OPC?
Stops command processing until 1 is returned. Sending *OPC? directly after the command
This is only the case after the Operation Com- whose processing should be terminated before
plete bit has been set in the ESR. This bit indi- other commands can be executed.
cates that the previous setting has been completed.
*WAI
Stops further command processing until all
commands sent before *WAI have been executed.
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Programming the controller
Setting bit 0 in the ESE
Setting bit 5 in the SRE
Waiting for service request (SRQ)
Sending *WAI directly after the command
whose processing should be terminated before
other commands are executed.
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Command synchronization using *WAI or *OPC? appended to an overlapped command
is a good choice if the overlapped command takes only little time to process. The two
synchronization techniques simply block overlapped execution of the command.
For time consuming overlapped commands it is usually desirable to allow the controller
or the instrument to do other useful work while waiting for command execution. Use one
of the following methods:
*OPC with a service request
1. Set the OPC mask bit (bit no. 0) in the ESE: *ESE 1
2. Set bit no. 5 in the SRE: *SRE 32 to enable ESB service request.
3. Send the overlapped command with *OPC
4. Wait for a service request
The service request indicates that the overlapped command has finished.
*OPC? with a service request
1. Set bit no. 4 in the SRE: *SRE 16 to enable MAV service request.
2. Send the overlapped command with *OPC?
3. Wait for a service request
The service request indicates that the overlapped command has finished.
Event Status Register (ESE)
1. Set the OPC mask bit (bit no. 0) in the ESE: *ESE 1
2. Send the overlapped command without *OPC, *OPC? or *WAI
3. Poll the operation complete state periodically (by means of a timer) using the
sequence: *OPC; *ESR?
A return value (LSB) of 1 indicates that the overlapped command has finished.
*OPC? with short timeout
1. Send the overlapped command without *OPC, *OPC? or *WAI
2. Poll the operation complete state periodically (by means of a timer) using the
sequence: <short timeout>; *OPC?
3. A return value (LSB) of 1 indicates that the overlapped command has finished. In
case of a timeout, the operation is ongoing.
4. Reset timeout to former value
5. Clear the error queue with SYStem:ERRor? to remove the "-410, Query interrupted"
entries.
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Using several threads in the controller application
As an alternative, provided the programming environment of the controller application
supports threads, separate threads can be used for the application GUI and for controlling
the instrument(s) via SCPI.
A thread waiting for a *OPC? thus will not block the GUI or the communication with other
instruments.
4.1.6 Status Reporting System
The status reporting system stores all information on the current operating state of the
instrument, and on errors which have occurred. This information is stored in the status
registers and in the error queue. Both can be queried via GPIB bus or LAN interface
(STATus... commands).
4.1.6.1
Hierarchy of Status Registers
As shown in the following figure, the status information is of hierarchical structure.
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& = lo gic
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
A ND
= logic
OR
of all bits
SRQ
-&-&-&-&-&-
SRE
not used
Range completed
Scan results available
HCOPy in progress
Waiting for TRIgger
MEASuring
SWEeping
CALibrating
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
STB
-&-&-&-&-&-&-
PPE
not used
Digital I/Q
ACPLimit
SYNC
LMARgin
LIMit
CALibration (= UNC AL)
FR EQuency
TEMPe rature
POW er
IST flag
Error/event
queue
bla
Output
buffer
ESE
not used
I/Q data acquisition error
STATus:QUES:SYNC
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
not used
LMARgin
LMARgin
LMARgin
LMARgin
LMARgin
LMARgin
LMARgin
LMARgin
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
15 not used
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7 LIMit 8 FAIL
6 LIMit 7 FAIL
5 LIMit 6 FAIL
4 LIMit 5 FAIL
3 LIMit 4 FAIL
2 LIMit 3 FAIL
1 LIMit 2 FAIL
0 LIMit 1 FAIL
FAIL
FAIL
FAIL
FAIL
FAIL
FAIL
FAIL
FAIL
STATus:QUEStionable:LMARgin <1|2>
STAT us:QUEStionable:LIMit <1|2>
STATus:QUEStionable
-&-&-&-&-&-&-&-&-
ALT3 … 11 LOWer/UPPer FAIL
ALT2 LOWer FAIL
ALT2 UPPer FAIL
ALT1 LOWer FAIL
ALT1 UPPer FAIL
ADJ LOWer FAIL
ADJ UPPer FAIL
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
STATus:QUEStionable:ACPLimit
STAT us:OPERation
7
6 RQS/MSS
5 ESB
4 MAV
3
2
1
0
not used
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Power on
User Request
Command Error
Execution Error
Device Dependent Error
Query Error
Request Control
Operation Complete
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
not used
EXTernalREFerence
LO UNLocked
OVEN COLD
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
not used
IF_OVerload
UNDerload
OVERload
ESR
ST AT us:QU EStionabl e: FREQ uency
STATus:QUEStionable:POWer
Fig. 4-2: Overview of status registers in the R&S FSV
●
STB, SRE
The STatus Byte (STB) register and its associated mask register Service Request
Enable (SRE) form the highest level of the status reporting system. The STB provides
a rough overview of the instrument status, collecting the information of the lower-level
registers.
●
ESR, SCPI registers
The STB receives its information from the following registers:
– The Event Status Register (ESR) with the associated mask register standard
Event Status Enable (ESE)
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–
The STATus:OPERation and STATus:QUEStionable registers which are
defined by SCPI and contain detailed information on the instrument
●
IST, PPE
The IST flag ("Individual STatus"), like the SRQ, combines the entire instrument status
in a single bit. The PPE fulfills the same function for the IST flag as the SRE for the
service request.
●
Output buffer
The output buffer contains the messages the instrument returns to the controller. It
is not part of the status reporting system but determines the value of the MAV bit in
the STB and thus is represented in the overview.
All status registers have the same internal structure.
SRE, ESE
The service request enable register SRE can be used as ENABle part of the STB if the
STB is structured according to SCPI. By analogy, the ESE can be used as the ENABle
part of the ESR.
4.1.6.2
Structure of a SCPI Status Register
Each standard SCPI register consists of 5 parts. Each part has a width of 16 bits and has
different functions. The individual bits are independent of each other, i.e. each hardware
status is assigned a bit number which is valid for all five parts. Bit 15 (the most significant
bit) is set to zero for all parts. Thus the contents of the register parts can be processed
by the controller as positive integers.
Fig. 4-3: The status-register model
Description of the five status register parts
The five parts of a SCPI register have different properties and functions:
●
CONDition
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The CONDition part is written into directly by the hardware or the sum bit of the next
lower register. Its contents reflect the current instrument status. This register part can
only be read, but n