RI CIT Re-Certification Training

RI CIT Re-Certification Training
Welcome to the
Rhode Island Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance Program
2012
Inspector Re-certification
1
1
RI Inspector Training Outline
I.
Why Does RI Need an Emission Inspection Program?
II.
Safety Inspection Procedure Review
III. Review Emissions Testing Procedures
IV. Review Purpose of OBD
V.
Review Emissions I/M Program Requirements
VI. Review Emissions Waiver Process
VII. Conclusions
VIII. Resources
2
Vehicles Subject to Emissions and
Safety Testing
• RI I/M Program requires the following vehicles pass an
emission and safety inspection every two years:
– All gasoline and diesel powered light duty passenger vehicles
and light duty trucks with a GVWR of 8,500 pounds or less .
– Vehicles 25 years old or older
• Must pass safety inspection and be emission tested but are not required to meet the
standards.
* New vehicles must be inspected within 2 years of the date of purchase
or when the vehicle accumulates 24,000 miles, whichever occurs first
3
Why Does RI Need an Emission
Inspection Program?
•
•
•
•
•
•
Proper maintenance of a car's engine and pollution control equipment is critical to reduce
excessive air pollution.
Motor Vehicles contribute 51% of man-made pollutants that contribute to the formation of
ozone.
Breathing ozone can trigger a variety of health problems.
Reduction of ground level “bad” ozone protects our health.
EPA 8-hour ozone standard is designed to be protective of human health.
To help ensure that such maintenance occurs, the Clean Air Act requires certain areas with air
pollution problems to run inspection and maintenance (I/M) programs.
Emissions Reductions since 2000-2013
•
Since the I/M Program began in 2000, there has been a 31% reduction in emissions
as a result of the I/M Program.
•
During 2000 the average NOx reductions were only 38.50%.
•
During 2013 the average NOx reductions were 70%.
4
Why Does RI Need an Emission
Inspection Program?
Air Quality
Bad Air Quality Day Photo
Good Air Quality Day Photo
5
Why Does RI Need an Emission
Inspection Program?
What is Ozone?
• Ozone is a gas composed of 3 oxygen atoms
• “Good” ozone is produced naturally in upperatmosphere where it protects the Earth from the sun’s
UV rays
• “Bad” ozone is formed at the Earth’s surface where it
causes health problems in humans and damage to plant
species
6
Why Does RI Need an Emission
Inspection Program?
Ozone
The ozone layer in the upper atmosphere is beneficial, preventing
potentially damaging ultraviolet light from reaching the Earth's
surface
EARTH
Yes This IS A
HOLE!
7
Why Does RI Need an Emission
Inspection Program?
Why Is Ozone a Concern?
Breathing ozone is harmful to human health
•Irritates respiratory systems
•Aggravates asthma, emphysema and bronchitis
•Inflames and damages linings of lungs
People most susceptible include
•Those with respiratory illnesses,
•Older adults,
•Children who are active outdoors
• And Even Healthy adults
8
Why Does RI Need an Emission
Inspection Program?
How is ground-level Ozone (Smog) formed?
• Ground-level ozone is formed by a chemical reaction
between volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and oxides of
nitrogen (NOx) in the presence of sunlight. Ozone
concentrations can reach unhealthful levels when the
weather is hot and sunny with little or no wind.
9
Why Does RI Need an Emission
Inspection Program?
What is NOx ?
Nitrogen Oxides are a family of
poisonous, highly reactive gases. These
gases form when fuel is burned at high
temperatures. NOx pollution is emitted by
automobiles, trucks and various non-road
vehicles (e.g., construction equipment,
boats, etc.) as well as industrial sources
such as power plants, industrial boilers,
cement kilns, and turbines. NOx often
appears as a brownish gas. It is a strong
oxidizing agent and plays a major role in
the atmospheric reactions with volatile
organic compounds (VOC) that produce
ozone (smog) on hot summer days.
10
Why Does RI Need an Emission
Inspection Program?
What are Vehicle VOCs?
• Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are emitted as gases from
certain solids or liquids. VOCs include a variety of chemicals, some
of which may have short- and long-term adverse health effects.
Sources of Vehicle VOCs include:
•Fuel Evaporation
–Fuel Supply Line Leaks
–Gas Cap Seal Leaks
–Evaporative Emissions System
Malfunctions
•Vehicle Exhaust Product
•Incomplete Fuel Combustion
11
Why Does RI Need an Emission
Inspection Program?
Ozone in Rhode Island
•
•
•
The Department of
Environmental Management
(DEM) provides a daily ozone
forecast from April through
September for all Rhode
Islanders.
When the ground-level ozone is
elevated to unhealthy levels, the
RIPTA buses and trolleys are
free to ride on those days.
The results of the forecast are
announced on the local news
channels and can also be found
on the DEM website:
www.dem.ri.gov
12
Safety Inspection Procedures
It is expected that you are familiar with the
standards and procedures set forth in the
RI Official Manual for Vehicle Inspection.
Always follow the guidelines and procedures
set forth in the RI Official Manual for Vehicle
Inspection
When in doubt refer to the manual!
If the issue or item is still not clarified, call
the safety and Emission Control Office at
462-5890 for assistance
Copies of the RI Official Manual for Vehicle Inspection
can be obtained from the following locations.
• Safety and Emissions Control Office
• DMV Website
• On the inspection machine
13
Safety Inspection Procedures
Vehicle Safety Inspection
Motor Vehicles up to 8500 lbs. GVWR
Items to be inspected include (but are not limited to):
1. ABS Light
17. Emergency brake
2. Air bag light
18. Emissions
3. Back up lamps
19. Exhaust system
4. Ball joints
20. Fenders and flaps
5. Body items
21. Floor and other panels
6. Brakes (ABS)
22. Fuel tank – cap
7. Brake drums and discs
23. Glass
8. Brake failure warning lamp
24. Hazard switch
9. Brake lining or pads
25. Headlamps
10. Brake performance
26. Height altered
11. Brake pedal reserve
27. Horn
12. Bumper (rear end protection)
28. Master cylinder
13. Check engine light
29. Mirrors
14. Clearance lamps
30. Parking lamps
15. Directional signals
31. Parking brakes
16. Door (front latches)
32. Plates and plate light
33. Reflectors
34. Registration certificate
35. Seat belts
36. Seats
37. Side market lamps
38. Springs, torsion bars, shocks
39. Steering, alignment and suspension
40. Stop lamps
41. Tail lamps
42. Tires
43. Transmission
44. Universal joints
45. Wheels
46. Wheel safety chock blocks
47. Windshield wipers
48. Windshield
Remember: Inspection regulations are designed to prevent continued use of defective emissions and safety equipment so
that at least one time during the required inspection cycle a vehicle is inspected by qualified personnel to ascertain that the
vehicle is properly equipped for continued use. The inspector is not guaranteeing that any particular component will last
until the expiration of the inspection sticker, but rather that the components meet minimum standards at the time of the
inspection and the vehicle owner is maintaining the vehicle properly.
14
Safety Inspection Procedures
License Plates, Registrations and License Plate
Validation Stickers
• Check for Valid Registrations, Proper
Display of License Plates and Current
Validation Stickers
• All vehicles presented for inspection must have a valid registration
or dealer plate at the time of inspection.
• All registered vehicles (except Farm Vehicles, Motorcycles and
Trailers), must have 2 plates properly affixed with current validation
stickers.
• Check that the V.I.N. from the registration matches the vehicle, if it
does not match, refer customer to DMV to correct the issue prior to
inspection.
15
Safety Inspection Procedures
Window Tint
Passenger Cars
•
•
•
•
All Passenger Cars must have a
visible light transmittance of 70% on
all windows.
This includes tint installed within the
glass from the vehicle manufacturer.
Most OEM glass on passenger
vehicles is tinted within 5% of the
limit; any aftermarket tint added will
bring the light transmittance below
70%. (see photo)
Refer to section 3.13, GLASS in the RI
Official Manual for Vehicle Inspection
for details.
Light transmittance reading of factory
glass with no aftermarket tint installed.
Note: reading must be 70 or above to be
approved.
16
Safety Inspection Procedures
Window Tint Exemptions
•
MPVs (Multi Purpose Vehicles), (SUVs),
Trucks, Vans, Buses, Trailers, Campers,
Funeral Vehicles, Limos:
– The windows to the left and right of the
driver along with the windshield must
meet the 70% transmittance.
– All other windows are exempt as long as
the vehicle is equipped with two outside
mirrors.
•
•
Motor vehicles owned or leased by
Federal, State and Local Law
Enforcement Agencies.
Vehicles issued a medical exemption
issued by the Operator Control Section
of DMV.
When in doubt check the
manufacturer’s vehicle information
tag to determine the vehicle type.
*Medical exemptions do NOT apply to the windshield below
the AS-1 mark
17
Safety Inspection Procedures
Windshield Tint
No Windshield Tint Allowed
Any aftermarket tint installed below the AS-1 line (or more than 6 inches from the
top of the windshield if there is no marked AS-1) will bring the light transmittance
below 70% and is prohibited.
18
Safety Inspection Procedures
Exhaust Systems
• Any exhaust that has been modified, deleted, or
adjusted that causes the sound level to be louder than
the manufacturers original equipment is cause for
rejection.
19
Safety Inspection Procedures
Body and Frame Rust
Common Causes for Rejection:
•
Body frames
•
Chassis
•
Structural issues
•
Running boards
•
Floor boards including:
–
Trunk bottoms and other parts of the vehicle that are rusted out should be rejected if they
are considered dangerously damaged or, if they allow any fumes to enter the passenger
compartment.
•
When it’s a judgment issue and you’re not sure whether the damage is severe
enough to be cause for rejection, call DMV or fail the vehicle and refer the owner to
DMV.
•
Specify defects on the vehicle inspection report.
20
Safety Inspection Procedures
Always Check For:
Frame rot and structural integrity
Rotted or broken suspension
components
21
Safety Inspection Procedures
Always Check For:
Severely corroded, cracked,
or broken brake lines and
hoses
Rotted fuel lines
22
Safety Inspection Procedures
Seat Belts and Air Bags
Remember to check for proper functionality of seat belts and SRS (Air Bag)
systems
Seat belts are the single most effective traffic safety device for preventing death and injury,
according to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Wearing a seat belt can
reduce the risk of crash injuries by 50 percent. Seat belts and Air Bags save lives.
All Motor Vehicles beginning with the 1964 models are required to have seat belts. The seat
belts and SRS systems should be checked to make sure they are equipped as they were from
the vehicle manufacturer and are working properly.
23
Safety Inspection Procedures
Alternate Inspection Approval
To be used only in the following scenarios:
•
Unregistered vehicles which have been denied
registration or renewal due to an Inspection
related issue
•
A suspended vehicle for which the license
plates and registration have been seized by
law enforcement or DMV
If a current RI vehicle registration is presented and at least 1 registration
plate is present, a full safety and emissions test is to be performed
regardless of suspension status. (2 plates are required to pass)
NEVER SIGN OFF ON ANY FORMS UNTIL COMPLETELY FILLED OUT
24
Emission Testing Procedures
Emission Testing Procedures
1. Drive vehicle into inspection bay
a. All emission tests must be performed with the vehicle
in the view of the inspection video camera
b. Videos may be reviewed for any test deemed
suspicious or under investigation by DMV
2. Inspector logs in with CIT credentials
a. CITs must use fingerprint reader to verify credentials
3. Data Entry:
a. Registration Entry
i. Verify registration is valid (not expired)
ii. Verify registration matches plates on vehicle
and vehicle VIN)
b. VIN Entry
i. Plug into OBD DLC to obtain VIN and perform
test (Model Years 1996 and newer)
ii. Barcode VIN
iii. Manual Entry
c. Verify VIN matches vehicle AND registration
d. Verify/Enter Vehicle Data
4. Perform Gas Cap Test/Inspection
a. Software will determine if test is needed
5. Record Safety Inspection Results
6. Perform MIL bulb check (KOEO/KEOR)
a. Record MIL illumination results KOEO
b. Record MIL illumination results KOER
7. Perform Emissions Test (if not completed in step 3)
a. OBD II Test – MY (Model Years) 1996 and newer (1997
and newer Diesel powered vehicles)
b. Transient Test (MY 1995 and older gas, MY 1996 and
older Diesel)
i. Do not perform if dyne testing is unsafe
c. TSI test
i. To be performed when inspector determines
vehicle characteristics prohibit transient
testing due to risk of vehicle damage
8. Test Completion - Pass
a. Print sticker, verify and barcode sticker number into
software
b. Verify that VIN on sticker matches registration/vehicle
VIN
c. Remove existing inspection sticker(if present) and
clean windshield to facilitate adherence of new sticker
d. Place new sticker in lower right corner of windshield
e. Print VIR and provide to customer
9. Test Completion - Fail
a. Print VIR and provide ALL PAGES to customer
b. Inform customer of Safety and or Emission defects
found
c. Inform the customer of right to free retest within 30
days
25
Emission Testing Procedures
Drive Vehicle Into Inspection Lane
• All emission testing must be performed in
view of the video camera in the inspection
lane/bay to maintain program integrity.
• Videos may be reviewed for any test deemed
suspicious or under investigation by DMV
• Failure to comply may result in suspension of
Inspector and or Station license
26
Emission Testing Procedures
Inspector Login
All CITs are required to login and verify their identity by
means of the fingerprint reader
•
•
•
Bypassing the fingerprint reader may lead to CIT lockout
Bypassing the fingerprint reader will flag DMV
Repeatedly bypassing the fingerprint reader will lead to suspension
of password based access
Password Security
•
Your password is your electronic signature
•
Never share your password
•
Never leave your password written on or near the analyzer
•
Periodically review tests performed for familiarity
–
Tests may be reviewed from within the analyzer by selecting:
Utilities Menu > Document Printing > VIR Reprint
•
Passwords may be changed by contacting Opus
•
Inspectors will be held responsible for all tests performed under their name.
27
Emission Testing Procedures
Data Entry
Always make sure the data entered into the analyzer is correct. Verify that the
V.I.N., plate number and plate type entered match the vehicle and registration
exactly. Failure to do so may result in:
•Suspension of the vehicle registration
•Vehicles being towed
•Re-inspecting the vehicle at the stations expense
If the V.I.N. from the registration does not match the V.I.N. tag on the vehicle, do not proceed
with the test and refer customer to DMV to correct the issue prior to inspection.
Common mistakes:
•Not verifying V.I.N.s after electronically obtaining (i.e. door
changed, PCM changed etc.)
•Wrong plate numbers and or plate types entered
•Digit missed or extra digit in the V.I.N. entered
•(Most 1981 and newer vehicles will have 17 digits)
28
Emission Testing Procedures
Fuel Cap Test/Inspection
• Always perform visual inspection of fuel cap
All gasoline powered vehicles 1995 and older will receive a Gas Cap Pressure
Leak Test. The test will ensure the gas cap on the vehicle is capable of
properly sealing the gas tank allowing the vehicle’s evaporative emission
system to properly dispose fuel vapors. Missing or malfunctioning gas caps
will cause the vehicle to FAIL the emissions test
Fuel caps prevent vapors from leaking out of the gas tank that
would pollute the atmosphere, causing damage to the ozone.
Proper use of the gas cap also increases fuel economy by
effectively eliminating gas evaporation.
29
Emission Testing Procedures
Recording of Safety Inspection Results
• Record Safety Inspection Results by Category
• List all Defects Found
• List Defects Clearly within comments
Remember: Complete the Inspection!
Do not assume the vehicle will pass inspection if the MIL is not on!
•
When a vehicle is presented for inspection, the complete inspection
should always be performed regardless of M.I.L. status.
•
This provides a complete picture of all required repairs to the vehicle
owner
–
Mechanical repairs needed
–
Emission related repairs needed
–
M.I.L. lamp malfunctions
30
Emission Testing Procedures
Perform MIL Bulb Check
Key On/Engine Off (KOEO)
•Turn the ignition to the run position but do not start the engine
•Check for illumination of the M.I.L.
•Inspectors must fail a vehicle during the bulb check test if the MIL does not illuminate with
the key in the on position and the engine is off.
What if the vehicle has a key FOB (Proximity Key)?
•
•
•
Some vehicles have a FOB that does not have to be
pressed to enter or drive the vehicle, this may make it
difficult to perform a “Bulb Test”
“Keyless Ignition” vehicles do have a means to
perform “Bulb Test” to check the MIL
Consult the owners manual for manufacturer’s
guidelines for performing bulb checks on these
vehicles
31
Emission Testing Procedures
Perform MIL Bulb Check
Key On/Engine Running (KOER)
•Start the engine
•Check for illumination of the M.I.L.
•Inspectors must fail a vehicle during the bulb check test if the
MIL is illuminated while the key is in the on position and the
engine is running (even if there are no DTCs present)
32
Emission Testing Procedures
Perform Emissions Test
Perform the Emission Test Required for the Vehicle Type
• OBD II Test
•
•
•
Model Years 1996 and newer Gas powered
1997 and newer Diesel powered vehicles
NOTE: OBD test may have been completed at the time of OBD VIN Capture
• Transient Test
•
•
•
Model Years 1995 and older gasoline powered
Model Years 1996 and older diesel powered (Diesel opacity test)
Do not perform if dyne test is unsafe
• Two Speed Idle (TSI) test
•
Model Years 1995 and older gasoline powered: To be performed when inspector
determines that vehicle characteristics prohibit transient testing due to risk of vehicle
damage. ( AWD, non-disengageable traction control, etc.)
•
Optional test for vehicles 25 or more model years old
33
Emission Testing Procedures
Test Completion - Pass
•
•
•
•
•
Print sticker, verify and barcode sticker number into
software
Verify that VIN on sticker matches registration/vehicle VIN
Remove existing inspection sticker(if present) and clean
windshield to facilitate adherence of new sticker
Place new sticker in lower right corner of windshield
Print VIR and provide to customer
Test Completion - Failure
•
•
•
Print VIR and provide ALL PAGES to customer
Inform customer of Safety and or Emission defects found
Inform the customer of right to free retest within 30 days
34
Emission Testing Procedures
Turn Away Document
•
•
•
(non-OBD II vehicles)
Provide this document to the vehicle owner to
explain what is prohibiting the vehicle from
being inspected.
Used only when vehicles have physical defects
that prohibit the completion of the test.
Exhaust system defects that would cause
dilution errors, Space saver tire on drive axel,
etc
Vehicles presented for inspection should be fully inspected
whenever possible.
35
Emission Inspection Program
OBD II
•
The Clean Air Act of 1990 established the requirement that passenger vehicles be
equipped with on board diagnostics. The diagnostics system is designed to trigger a
dashboard "check engine" light alerting the driver of a possible pollution control
device malfunction. To help ensure that motorists respond to the "check engine" light
in a timely manner, the Act requires that I/M programs include an inspection of the on
board diagnostic system.
Purpose:
•
Prevent excessive emissions by identifying emissions control aspects that fail to
meet manufacturer established parameters and alerting the driver to the problem
•
Improve inspection and diagnostic processes by standardizing:
–
Component terms
–
Data Link Connector (DLC) location, shape and pin assignment
–
Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTCs)
36
Emission Inspection Program
OBDII
Majority of RI tests are now OBDII tests
2013 RI TEST COUNTS
OBD (1996 and newer)
OBD Diesel
Transient (MY<1996)
TSI (AWD etc.)
Diesel TSI
Total Initial Tests
317,144
1262
12830
7722
149
339,107
37
Emission Inspection Program
OBD II Operation
•
•
•
OBD II monitors actively evaluate
performance of vehicle emissions
control systems and components
Problems noted by the OBDII
computer will cause a DTC to be
stored and the malfunction
indicator lamp (MIL) will be
commanded to illuminate
Emission testing equipment uses
this information to determine pass
or fail
OBD II Hardware
•
O2 Sensor(s) behind catalytic converter
•
•
Enhanced power train control module
PCM
•
•
Allows flash reprogramming
Upgraded crank sensor resolution
•
•
Allows flash reprogramming
EPROM Memory
•
•
Needed to manage OBD II software and network
EPROM Memory
•
•
Monitors catalytic converter efficiency
Enhances misfire monitoring
Standard location and 16 pin terminal for
DLC
•
Required to be within 18’’ steering column
38
Emission Inspection Program
Vehicles Subject to OBDII Testing
• Gasoline powered motor vehicles
– 1996 and newer vehicles
– up to 8,500 lbs. GVWR
•
Diesel powered motor vehicle
– 1997 and newer vehicles vehicles up to 8500 lbs. GVWR
are to be OBDII tested. (1996 and older diesel vehicles up to 8500 lbs.
must be tested at a diesel opacity equipped station. The current list of diesel opacity
equipped stations can be found at WWW.RIINSPECTION.ORG)
39
Emission Inspection Program
Data Link Connector
•
Vehicles will fail the OBD test if the
DLC is:
–
Tampered with
• pins damaged or missing
• used as a power source for other
items on vehicle
– Blocked by aftermarket equipment
installation
– Not located where the manufacturer
installed the DLC
– Not powered as required at pin 16
Example of a Data Link Connector
(DLC)
40
Emission Inspection Program
Readiness Monitors
What are readiness monitors? Monitors are testing exercises, performed by the PCM, which are very
carefully designed to indicate that all of the sensors within a portion of the engine management system are
working properly to minimize emissions. Each monitor is run by the PCM under very specific vehicle
operating conditions. Because of this, all monitors may not run each time the vehicle is driven. A given
monitor may not run for quite some time, until the exact combination of conditions occurs to trigger it. This
set of conditions is called the enabling criteria for the monitor and may include: operating temperature,
RPM, load, etc.
Types of Readiness Monitors
Continuous: These monitors run all the time as long as the key is turned on and/or the engine is running.
There are three continuous monitors that every OBDII equipped vehicle has, they are the Comprehensive
Component Monitor, The Fuel Monitor and the Misfire Monitor.
Non-Continuous: These monitors require certain conditions such as speed, acceleration/deceleration, fuel
level, ambient and other conditions to be met in order for the monitor to run its testing sequence. If the
specific conditions are not met, then the monitor will not perform its tests and cannot report as to whether
or not there are any problems. Non-continuous monitors include the Catalyst, Heated Catalyst,
Evaporative System, Secondary Air System, Air Conditioning (A/C) System, Oxygen (O2) Sensor, Heated
O2 Sensor and Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) System.
41
Emission Inspection Program
Readiness Status
•
Readiness Status indicates if a monitor test has been run or not
•
This may be displayed as
•
•
Yes/No
•
Ready/Not Ready
•
Complete/Not Complete
Readiness Status does not indicate Pass or Fail - only that the test has been run
Communications
•
The OBDII emission test requires successful communication with vehicle’s OBD
computer
•
The Inspector does not determine result
•
Vehicles will fail for communications during the initial test if:
–
The vehicle does not transmit the necessary information to the inspection equipment
after the analyzer completes the three OBDII data retrieval attempts
–
The analyzer reports failed communications
–
Pin 16 of the DLC is not powered
42
Emission Inspection Program
Readiness Monitor Descriptions
•
Below are the basic OBDII monitors and the components and subsystems that they monitor.
•
Remember, not all vehicles have all of these monitors. If a vehicle is not equipped with or not designed
to have a certain monitor, that monitor is “Unsupported.” Unsupported monitors do not affect the results
of the emissions inspection.
•
Misfire: This monitor looks for any engine misfires. A misfire is when the air/fuel mixture in the engine’s
cylinder does not ignite. This condition can cause damage to the vehicle’s engine and/or catalytic
converter. In the case of a severe misfire condition, the OBDII system will cause the Malfunction
Indicator Lamp to flash indicating a serious threat of damage to the catalytic converter. In the case of a
flashing Malfunction Indicator Lamp, the operator should reduce speed and seek diagnostic and repair
services as soon as possible.
•
Fuel System: This monitor constantly checks the amount of fuel that is used by the engine. Through
the use of an oxygen sensor(s), the OBDII system can determine if more or less fuel is needed. This
fuel adjustment is performed many times a second and helps to maximize fuel economy and minimizes
harmful emissions.
•
Comprehensive Component: This monitor is looking at all of the various switches and sensors that
are involved with engine management. It looks for voltage readings, resistance readings, and other
conditions. The monitor records readings from the vehicle’s components and compares them with
programmed values that reflect what the readings should be. If they differ by a certain amount, then
that component is determined to be suspect.
•
Catalyst (also know as catalytic converter): This monitor uses the readings from oxygen sensors
located before and after the catalyst(s) to determine the efficiency of the catalyst.
•
Heated Catalyst: Some vehicles may have an electrically heated catalyst. This heater helps warm up
a cold catalyst faster so that it can start working sooner which leads to earlier reduction of harmful
emissions. This monitor will check to make sure that the catalyst heater is working .
43
Emission Inspection Program
Readiness Monitor Descriptions
•
Evaporative System: This monitor works to ensure that the Evaporative System is kept in a condition
to minimize the release of gasoline vapors.
•
Secondary Air System: Some vehicles are equipped with a secondary air system, or air injection
system. The air injection system is designed to place extra oxygen into the exhaust stream to reduce
exhaust pollutants. This monitor checks the components, switches, and solenoids that are part of the
air injection system.
•
A/C (Air Conditioning) System: In some older vehicles, this monitor was intended to monitor the
vehicle’s air conditioning system if it had the older “R-12” style of refrigerant. Since R-12 is harmful to
the ozone layer of the earth’s atmosphere, a leaking air conditioning system needed to be repaired as
soon as possible. Several years ago, R-12 was banned from use; therefore, this monitor will show up
as “Unsupported” on most newer vehicles.
•
O2 (Oxygen) Sensor: The O2 Sensor Monitor watches for the performance of the vehicle’s oxygen
sensors. Oxygen sensors are used to fine tune the amount of fuel that is used by the engine. These
adjustments are made several times a second and have a direct impact on fuel economy and
emissions reductions. When an oxygen sensor goes bad, the vehicle will usually begin to use more fuel
than it needs to, thereby increasing the amount of harmful emissions.
•
Heated O2 (Oxygen) Sensor: Some oxygen sensors include an electric heater to help them warm up
quicker and to begin operating faster. This monitor ensures that the heater circuit of the oxygen sensor
is working properly. Since not all vehicles have a heated oxygen sensor, some vehicles will show this
monitor as “Unsupported.”
•
EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) System: Many vehicles are equipped with an EGR system. This
emissions control system is designed to reduce nitric oxide tailpipe emissions by reducing the
temperature inside the engine’s combustion chamber. This monitor checks the components of the EGR
system to ensure that it is working properly and that there is sufficient flow of exhaust gas through the
system.
44
Emission Inspection Program
Readiness Monitors Failures
•
Vehicles will fail for readiness if:
–
More than 2 monitors are ‘Not Ready’ on 1996 - 2000 model year vehicles
–
More than 1 monitor is ‘Not Ready’ on 2001 and newer model year vehicles
•
The Readiness Indicators will all be set to “Not Ready” if the DTC’s are erased or by loss of battery power
•
Common causes of “Not Ready” Monitors:
–
DTCs erased - Battery Replacement - Blown Fuse to PCM - Battery disconnected for vehicle service
Setting Readiness Monitors
The purpose of completing an OBD II drive cycle is to force the vehicle to run its onboard diagnostics. Some form of a drive
cycle needs to be performed after DTCs have been erased from the PCM’s memory or after the battery has been disconnected.
Running through a vehicle’s complete drive cycle will “set” the readiness monitors so that the vehicle will pass inspection or
faults can be detected.
Drive cycles vary depending on the vehicle and the monitor that needs to be re-set. Whenever possible, follow the drive trace
prescribed for the specific vehicle/monitor in question. Some vehicle-specific drive cycles can be found in the vehicle’s
service manual.
•
It is the vehicle owner’s responsibility to set the Monitors
•
It is not part of the Emission Test procedure
•
The vehicle is tested as received
45
Emission Inspection Program
Generic Drive Cycle
Although Drive cycles vary slightly among manufacturers, the following
generic drive cycle can be used in most cases:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
This generic OBDII drive cycle begins with a cold start (coolant temperature below 122
degrees F and the coolant and air temperature sensors within 11 degrees of one
another). This condition can be achieved by allowing the vehicle to “sit” overnight, and
then by beginning the drive cycle the next day. Most drive cycles will be difficult to follow
exactly under normal driving conditions, so the driver should exercise caution, road
safety, and courtesy to others.
Start the engine. Idle the engine in drive for two and a half minutes with the A/C and rear
defroster on.
Turn the A/C and rear defrost off, and accelerate to 55 mph at half throttle.
Hold at a steady speed of 55 mph for three minutes.
Decelerate (coast down) to 20 mph without braking or depressing the clutch.
Accelerate back to 55 to 60 mph at ¾ throttle.
Hold at a steady speed of 55 to 60 mph for five minutes.
Decelerate (coast down) to a stop without braking.
46
Emission Inspection Program
Drive Cycle Problems
•
•
If the MIL illuminates while trying to run the Monitors, it means a
code has set and a repair is necessary prior to passing inspection.
If the Monitors will not run;
– Check TSB’s
– Follow the “Enabling Criteria” for the Monitor that will not run.
– Obtain specific Drive Cycle information and follow it.
Readiness Exception Vehicles
Vehicles that are on the readiness exception list
Maintained EPA will be forced into a tailpipe emissions test.
– Analyzer will invoke the Dyne/TSI prompt and request that the inspector
perform a tailpipe emissions test
– Initial test and / or retest
– Example = 1996 Chrysler Cirrus 2.4
– EPA maintains the list of these vehicles
47
Emission Inspection Program
OBD Bypass Authorization
Inspectors may request state approval to retest a vehicle with monitors not ready
using a tailpipe emissions test when all reasonable methods to set the monitors
have been exhausted including:
•Proper drive cycle having been performed
•All enabling criteria having been met
•The vehicle has been driven for a sufficient time period and distance to set the
monitors
•No DTCs are present
State approval must be received prior to performing the test. Contact the
safety and emission control office at (401) 462-5890
48
Emission Inspection Program
Diagnostic Trouble Codes
Vehicles fail the DTC test if:
– The OBD system has stored at least one (1) mature (nonpending, non-historic) DTC that commands the MIL to be
illuminated
– The vehicle commands the MIL to be illuminated but the OBD
system has no mature DTCs stored in the system
DTC Identification
– OBD II codes (emissions related) are found in the PCM and will start
with a “P” (Power train Control Module)
– Codes that start with a “U” prefix are communication codes
– They can indicate a problem with code and data transmission on the
DLC (data link connector)
49
Emission Inspection Program
50
Emission Inspection Program
DTC Types
TYPE A
 Emissions related.

Requests illumination of the MIL on the first trip with a fail.

Stores a HISTORY DTC on the first trip with a fail.
– Typically misfire codes
– MIL Light will flash during misfire
TYPE B
 Emissions related.
 “Pending" after one trip with a fail.
 "Disarmed" after one trip with a pass.
 Requests illumination of the MIL on the second consecutive trip
with a fail.
51
Emission Inspection Program
Emission Retesting Process
Vehicles will be retested once at no cost to the motorist when:
•
Performed at the same station as the initial test
•
Performed within 30 days of the initial test
•
This 30 day period does NOT automatically extend any pending DMV
suspension
Motorist Options After Retest Failure
Always inform vehicle owners of their options after failure
•Repairs / Additional Repairs
•Apply for a waiver from the Department of Motor Vehicles
•Cost limit waiver
•Time delay waiver
•Diagnostic waiver
52
Emission Inspection Program
Emissions Waivers
• Vehicles must meet safety inspection requirements
• No repair costs (parts or labor) for repairing tampered or
missing emission control equipment will be applied toward
the emission waiver.
• Refer the customer to the DMV (contact info on the VIR)
for waiver consideration
•
The department will verify that the repair receipts or invoices submitted meet the
requirement, that the repairs indicated on the itemized receipts for qualifying
repairs were made, and that the parts were repaired or replaced as claimed
53
Emission Inspection Program
Emissions Waivers
The three types of waivers are as follows:
• Cost Limit
• Must spend $700 in emissions related repair costs.
•
Parts, labor and diagnostic time will be considered if work is performed by a CIRT (Certified
Inspection Repair Technician)
•
Cost of emission related parts only will be considered if performed by anyone other than a
CIRT
• Diagnostic
• Parts required for the necessary repair(s) are not available
• All reasonable options to repair the vehicle have been exhausted
• Repair Time Delay
• Owner needs time to get the vehicle repaired
•
must provide proof of economic hardship
•
Issued only once per vehicle
54
Emission Inspection Program
Reciprocity
Emissions Testing Out of State Vehicles
• If a vehicle is registered in another state and the vehicle is in
Rhode Island when the inspection sticker expires;
– It is possible for the owner of the vehicle to obtain a Safety &
Emissions Inspection in Rhode Island (if the vehicle is registered
in a state with a similar I/M Program).
– This is often required by other states prior to registration renewal
– Once the emissions test is completed, the owner must fax the
results of the emissions test to their DMV for consideration.
55
Emission Inspection Program
Fraud Detection
One of the goals of the Emissions & Safety inspection program is to ensure that the vehicles operating on the
Rhode Island roadways are safe and environmentally clean. Fraudulent emission inspections undermine these
goals, and defames the integrity of the stations that conduct fair and honest inspections and will not be
tolerated.
In a constant effort to support the integrity of the Safety and Emissions inspection program, the DMV and
Opus Inspection work together to ensure that vehicles are being properly inspected and repaired. Please be
aware that compliance is vigorously enforced through:
•Routine enhanced inspection data monitoring
•Covert vehicle audits
•Challenge inspections
•Road checks
•Complaint investigations
Violators will be caught, and upon conviction, subjected to fines, suspensions, and or revocations. Those
convicted of federal statutes, such as the Clean Air Act, risk prison time and fines that can run into hundreds of
thousands of dollars.
The Rhode Island Safety and Emission Inspection Laws, regulations, and procedures are intended to provide
for clean air and a safe roadway for everyone and are expected to be carried out and enforced by all
inspectors. If an issue cannot be clarified by referring to the RI Official Manual for Vehicle Inspection, please
remember that a DMV Inspector may be reached during normal office hours at 401-462-5890.
56
Emission Inspection Program
Conclusion
The technician's responsibility of accurate and honest inspections and repairs, make
it possible to accomplish our goals of safety and improve air quality for the State of
Rhode Island.
The I/M Program has shown significant emissions reductions since the program was
implemented in 2000. By reducing emissions, we have helped people at risk from the
negative health consequences of ground level ozone.
Remember as a technician, you are required to complete the inspector re-certification
training every two years. Opus will notify you on your two year anniversary of your
last test.
Remember if at any time during the inspection, you are in doubt; refer to the RI
Official Manual for Vehicle Inspection which is located on the inspection machine or
the DMV website www.dem.ri.gov. Also a copy can be obtained from the Safety and
Emissions Control Office (462-5890)
57
Emission Inspection Program
Resources
Online Resources
•
•
•
•
•
OBD Clearing House www.obdclearinghouse.com
U.S. EPA AirNow www.airnow.gov
Department of Environmental Management www.dem.ri.gov
Department of Motor Vehicles www.dmv.ri.gov
RI I/M Emissions Program www.riinspection.org
If you have any questions please feel free contact:
– Opus Inspection
• 401-737-0556
– DMV Safety & Emission Control
• 401-462-5890
58
Emission Inspection Program
Completion of Re-Certification
– Perform the practice test (required)
– Contact Opus at 401-737-0556 to schedule an
appointment to take the recertification
examination at the Warwick office
59
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