4.3L Operations Manual
Service Manual
MI-07 Integrated Engine Control
System for 4.3L KEM Engines
LP & Bi-Fuel Systems
2007 Emission-Certified Systems
Manual 36551A
WARNING—DANGER OF DEATH OR PERSONAL INJURY
WARNING—FOLLOW INSTRUCTIONS
Read this entire manual and all other publications pertaining to the work to be performed
before installing, operating, or servicing this equipment. Practice all plant and safety
instructions and precautions. Failure to follow instructions can cause personal injury and/or
property damage.
WARNING—OUT-OF-DATE PUBLICATION
This publication may have been revised or updated since this copy was produced. To verify
that you have the latest revision, be sure to check the Woodward website:
www.woodward.com/pubs/current.pdf
The revision level is shown at the bottom of the front cover after the publication number. The
latest version of most publications is available at:
www.woodward.com/publications
If your publication is not there, please contact your customer service representative to get
the latest copy.
WARNING—OVERSPEED PROTECTION
The engine, turbine, or other type of prime mover should be equipped with an overspeed
shutdown device to protect against runaway or damage to the prime mover with possible
personal injury, loss of life, or property damage.
The overspeed shutdown device must be totally independent of the prime mover control
system. An overtemperature or overpressure shutdown device may also be needed for
safety, as appropriate.
WARNING—PROPER USE
Any unauthorized modifications to or use of this equipment outside its specified
mechanical, electrical, or other operating limits may cause personal injury and/or property
damage, including damage to the equipment. Any such unauthorized modifications: (i)
constitute "misuse" and/or "negligence" within the meaning of the product warranty
thereby excluding warranty coverage for any resulting damage, and (ii) invalidate product
certifications or listings.
CAUTION—POSSIBLE DAMAGE TO EQUIPMENT OR PROPERTY
CAUTION—BATTERY CHARGING
To prevent damage to a control system that uses an alternator or battery-charging device, make
sure the charging device is turned off before disconnecting the battery from the system.
CAUTION—ELECTROSTATIC DISCHARGE
Electronic controls contain static-sensitive parts. Observe the following precautions to
prevent damage to these parts.
x
Discharge body static before handling the control (with power to the control turned off,
contact a grounded surface and maintain contact while handling the control).
x
Avoid all plastic, vinyl, and Styrofoam (except antistatic versions) around printed circuit
boards.
x
Do not touch the components or conductors on a printed circuit board with your hands
or with conductive devices.
x
IMPORTANT DEFINITIONS
A WARNING indicates a potentially hazardous situation which, if not avoided, could result in
x
A CAUTION indicates a potentially hazardous situation which, if not avoided, could result in
x
A NOTE provides other helpful information that does not fall under the warning or caution
death or serious injury.
damage to equipment or property.
categories.
Revisions—Text changes are indicated by a black line alongside the text.
Woodward Governor Company reserves the right to update any portion of this publication at any
time. Information provided by Woodward Governor Company is believed to be correct and reliable.
However, no responsibility is assumed by Woodward Governor Company unless otherwise
expressly undertaken.
© Woodward 2007
All Rights Reserved
Manual 36551A
MI-07 Engine Control System for 4.3L Engines
Contents
REGULATORY COMPLIANCE......................................................................... V
EPA / CARB Emissions Certification......................................................................v
North American Compliance ..................................................................................v
SPECIAL CONDITIONS FOR SAFE USE ......................................................... VI
Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC).................................................................... vi
Electrostatic Discharge Awareness...................................................................... vii
CHAPTER 1. LPG SYSTEM OVERVIEW ......................................................... 3
MI-07 General Description .....................................................................................3
MI-07 System Components....................................................................................4
Key Components ............................................................................................4
MI-07 System Features ..........................................................................................5
Bi-Fuel System .......................................................................................................6
Customer-Supplied Components ...........................................................................6
LPG Fuel System Operation ..................................................................................7
MI-07 LP Fuel Filter ........................................................................................8
MI-07 Fuel Lock-Off (Electric).........................................................................8
N-2007 Pressure Regulator/Vaporizer ...........................................................9
CA100 Mixer .................................................................................................11
Fuel Trim Valve (FTV) ..................................................................................14
Electronic Throttle System ...................................................................................16
MI-07 Electronic Throttle ..............................................................................16
Ignition System .....................................................................................................18
General Motors (GM) High Energy Ignition (HEI) System ...........................18
Exhaust System....................................................................................................20
Catalytic Muffler ............................................................................................20
SECM ...................................................................................................................21
Fuel Management.........................................................................................21
Throttle Management ...................................................................................22
Engine Speed Governing Modes..................................................................23
Ignition Management ....................................................................................24
SECM / Sensors ...........................................................................................26
Analog Inputs................................................................................................26
Frequency/Position Inputs ............................................................................26
Digital Inputs .................................................................................................26
Outputs .........................................................................................................27
SECM-48 Wiring Diagrams ..........................................................................28
SECM Electrical Mounting Recommendations.............................................28
CHAPTER 2. GASOLINE ENGINES ............................................................... 32
Gasoline Fuel System ..........................................................................................32
Gasoline Fuel System Specifications ...........................................................32
CHAPTER 3. SPECIFICATIONS .................................................................... 33
LP Fuel System Requirements.............................................................................33
Environmental / Electrical Specifications .............................................................33
N-2007 Pressure Regulator Specifications ..........................................................34
CA100 Mixer Specifications .................................................................................34
SECM Specifications ............................................................................................35
Ignition System Specifications..............................................................................35
Electronic Throttle System Specifications ............................................................35
Fuel Trim Valve (FTV) Specifications...................................................................35
System Control Performance Specifications........................................................36
Power /Torque ......................................................................................................36
Exhaust Emissions ...............................................................................................36
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Drivability / Transient Response...........................................................................36
Low Idle Speed.....................................................................................................36
Maximum Speed / High Idle .................................................................................36
CHAPTER 4. RECOMMENDED MAINTENANCE .............................................. 37
Maintenance Tests & Inspections ........................................................................37
Test Fuel System for Leaks..........................................................................37
Inspect Engine for Fluid Leaks .....................................................................37
Inspect Vacuum Lines and Fittings ..............................................................37
Inspect Electrical System .............................................................................37
Inspect Foot Pedal Operation.......................................................................38
Check Coolant Level ....................................................................................38
Inspect Coolant Hoses .................................................................................38
Inspect Battery System.................................................................................38
Inspect Ignition System ................................................................................38
Replace Spark Plugs ....................................................................................38
Replace LP Fuel Filter Element....................................................................39
Testing Fuel Lock-off Operation ...................................................................40
Pressure Regulator/Converter Inspection ....................................................40
Fuel Trim Valve Inspection (FTV).................................................................40
Inspect Air/Fuel Valve Mixer Assembly ........................................................41
Inspect for Intake Leaks ...............................................................................41
Inspect Throttle Assembly ............................................................................41
Checking the TMAP Sensor .........................................................................41
Inspect Engine for Exhaust Leaks ................................................................41
Maintenance Schedule.........................................................................................42
CHAPTER 5. INSTALLATION PROCEDURES.................................................. 44
Hose Connections ................................................................................................45
Removal and Installation of N-2007 LP Regulator/Converter ..............................46
Removal and Installation of CA100 Mixer ............................................................48
CHAPTER 6. TESTS AND ADJUSTMENTS ..................................................... 51
N-2007 Regulator Service Testing .......................................................................51
Break-Off Test ..............................................................................................51
Pressure Test ...............................................................................................52
AVV (Air Valve Vacuum) Testing .........................................................................54
Ignition Timing Adjustment ...................................................................................54
Connection of MI-07 Service Tool ........................................................................55
Idle Mixture Adjustment ........................................................................................56
CHAPTER 7. BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING .................................................... 60
Preliminary Checks...............................................................................................60
Basic Troubleshooting..........................................................................................61
Intermittent Faults .........................................................................................61
Surges and/or Stumbles ...............................................................................62
Engine Cranking but Will Not Start / Difficult to Start ...................................63
Lack of Power, Slow to Respond / Poor High Speed Performance /
Hesitation During Acceleration .....................................................................65
Detonation / Spark Knock.............................................................................67
Backfire.........................................................................................................68
Dieseling, Run-on .........................................................................................68
Rough, Unstable, Incorrect Idle, or Stalling..................................................69
Cuts Out, Misses ..........................................................................................71
Poor Fuel Economy / Excessive Fuel Consumption LPG Exhaust Smell...72
High Idle Speed ............................................................................................73
Excessive Exhaust Emissions or Odors.......................................................74
Diagnostic Aids for Rich / Lean Operation ...................................................75
Chart T-1 Restricted Exhaust System Check...............................................76
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CHAPTER 8. ADVANCED DIAGNOSTICS ...................................................... 77
Reading Diagnostic Fault Codes..........................................................................77
Displaying Fault Codes (DFC) from SECM Memory............................................77
Clearing Fault (DFC) Codes.................................................................................77
Fault Action Descriptions..............................................................................78
Fault List Definitions .....................................................................................79
Table 1. Fault List Definitions .......................................................................79
Table 2. Diagnostic Fault Codes (Flash Codes) ..........................................87
CHAPTER 9. PARTS DESCRIPTION ........................................................... 105
LP Fuel System Components for 4.3L Engines .................................................105
CA100 Mixer ...............................................................................................106
N-2007 Regulator .......................................................................................108
APPENDIX ............................................................................................... 110
LPG & LPG Fuel Tanks ......................................................................................110
LPG Fuel Tanks..........................................................................................112
Installing LPG Fuel Tanks ..........................................................................112
LPG Fuel Tank Components ......................................................................113
Fuel Gauge .................................................................................................113
Pressure Relief Valve .................................................................................114
Service Valve..............................................................................................114
Quick Disconnect Coupling ........................................................................116
Filler Valve ..................................................................................................116
Abbreviations......................................................................................................117
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List of Figures
Figure 1. MI-07 Bi-Fuel System for 4.3L Engines ..................................................3
Figure 2. MI-07 Closed Loop Fuel System.............................................................4
Figure 3. Inline LP Fuel Filter .................................................................................8
Figure 4. Electric Fuel Lock Assembly ...................................................................8
Figure 5. N-2007 Regulator....................................................................................9
Figure 6. Parts View of N-2007 Regulator ...........................................................10
Figure 7. CA100 Mixer..........................................................................................11
Figure 8. CA100 Mixer Attached to Throttle Body................................................11
Figure 9. Parts View of CA100 Mixer ...................................................................12
Figure 10. Bottom View of Air Valve Assembly....................................................13
Figure 11. Idle Mixture Adjustment Screw ...........................................................13
Figure 12. Fuel Trim Valve ...................................................................................14
Figure 13. Fuel Trim Valves Connected to MI-07 System ...................................15
Figure 14. Bosch Electronic Throttle Body...........................................................16
Figure 15. Throttle Body Assembly Exploded View .............................................17
Figure 16. HEGO (O2) Sensor..............................................................................20
Figure 17. Foot Pedal ...........................................................................................22
Figure 18. Throttle Position Sensor (TPS) on DV-E5 Throttle .............................22
Figure 19. Peak Torque and Power Available with MI-07 System.......................23
Figure 20. Drive-By-Wire Signal Flow Process ....................................................25
Figure 21. SECM Wiring Diagram for Bi-Fuel System .........................................29
Figure 22. SECM Wiring Diagram for LP System ................................................30
Figure 23. SECM Wiring Diagram for Gasoline System ......................................31
Figure 24. MI-07 System Installed on 4.3L Engine ..............................................40
Figure 25. Hose Connections for 4.3L Engines ...................................................45
Figure 26A. N-2007 Regulator Installed on Engine .............................................47
Figure 26B. Removal of Lock-Off Nipple Extension.............................................47
Figure 27A. CA100 Mixer Installed on Engine .....................................................49
Figure 27B. Mixer/Adapter/Throttle Body Assembly ............................................49
Figure 27C. Fuel Temperature Sensor Assembly................................................50
Figure 28. Wiring Harness Connector on Throttle Body ......................................50
Figure 29. Throttle Adapter Mounting Screws & Vacuum Port Barb....................50
Figure 30. Secondary Stage Test Connection .....................................................52
Figure 31. Primary Stage Test Connection ..........................................................52
Figure 32. Magnehelic Gauge Connection to Hose Barb ....................................53
Figure 33. Magnehelic Gauge Connection...........................................................54
Figure 34. KVaser Communication Adapter.........................................................55
Figure 35. Crypt Token Installed on Laptop .........................................................55
Figure 36. Opening the Service Tool Display.......................................................55
Figure 37. FTV Duty Cycle Percentage Displayed on Service Tool ....................57
Figure 38. Installing Tamper Proof Cap ...............................................................58
Figure 39. Installing Exhaust Backpressure Tester .............................................76
Figure 40. CA100 Certified Mixer Exploded View ..............................................107
Figure 41. N-2007 Certified Regulator Exploded View ......................................109
Figure A1. LPG Tank Pressure vs Temperature................................................111
Figure A2. Portable Universal Cylinder ..............................................................112
Figure A3. LPG Fuel Tank Components ............................................................113
Figure A4. Service Valve ....................................................................................114
Figure A5. Quick Disconnect Coupling ..............................................................116
Figure A6. Liquid Filler Valve .............................................................................116
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Regulatory Compliance
EPA / CARB Emissions Certification
When properly applied and calibrated, Woodward’s MI-07 control system is
capable of meeting Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 2007 Large Spark
Ignition (LSI) emission standards (40 CFR Part 1048.101) when operating
properly with an approved three-way catalyst. The emission standards, including
appropriate deterioration factors over the useful life of the system, are as follows:
HC + NOx: 2.0 g/hp-hr [2.7 g/kW-hr]
CO: 3.3 g/hp-hr [4.4 g/kW-hr]
Evaporative emissions comply with 40 CFR Part 1048.105. These standards
apply only to volatile liquid fuels such as gasoline. Note that the engine
crankcase must be closed.
As defined in applicable regulations, the engine control system is designed to
maintain emissions compliance for seven (7) years or 5000 hours, whichever
occurs first, provided appropriate maintenance is performed as defined in the
service manual for the system. Maintenance intervals shall be defined and
approved by the regulating body.
Component warranty shall comply with regulatory requirements (40 CFR Part
1048.120) for all emission related components, typically three (3) years or 2500
hours, whichever occurs first. Warranty for non-critical emissions components
will be as defined in the individual purchase agreement.
North American Compliance
The N-2007 regulator is UL listed per Category ITPV LP-Gas Accessories,
Automotive Type.
The N-2007 regulator and CA100 mixer have tamper-resistant features approved
by the California Air Resources Board (CARB).
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Special Conditions for Safe Use
Field wiring must be suitable for at least 248°F (120°C).
SECM-48 inputs are classified as permanently connected International
Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) measurement Category I. To avoid the
danger of electric shock, do not use inputs to make measurements within
measurement categories II, III, or IV. See Woodward publication 26377, SECM48 Manual, Chapter 2 for additional information on transient over-voltage input
ratings.
SECM-48 input power must be supplied from a power supply/battery charger
certified to IEC standard with a Safety Extra Low Voltage (SELV) classified
output. Input power should be properly fused according to the wiring diagram in
Woodward publication 26377, SECM-48 Manual.
SECM-48 inputs and outputs may only be connected to other circuits certified as
SELV.
The IP-56 Ingress Protection rating of the control depends on the use of proper
mating connectors. See Woodward publication 26377, SECM-48 Manual,
Chapter 2: Installation—Wiring Connections, Table 2-1 for information on the
proper mating connectors for use with this control.
WARNING—EXPLOSION HAZARD
Do not connect or disconnect while circuit is live unless area is known to
be non-hazardous.
Substitution of components may impair suitability for Class I, Division 2,
or Zone 2 applications.
Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC)
All MI-07 active electronic components manufactured by the Woodward
Governor Company have been developed and individually tested for
electromagnetic compatibility using standardized industry methods under
laboratory test conditions. Actual EMC performance may be adversely affected
by the wiring harness design, wire routing, the surrounding structure, other EMC
generating components, and other factors that are beyond the control of the
Woodward Governor Company. It is the responsibility of the vehicle and/or
application manufacturer to confirm that the overall system's EMC performance
is in compliance with all standards that they wish to apply for their particular use.
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Electrostatic Discharge Awareness
All electronic equipment is static-sensitive, some components more than others.
To protect these components from static damage, you must take special
precautions to minimize or eliminate electrostatic discharges.
Follow these precautions when working with or near the control.
1.
Before doing maintenance on the electronic control, discharge the static
electricity on your body to ground by touching and holding a grounded metal
object (pipes, cabinets, equipment, etc.).
2.
Avoid the build-up of static electricity on your body by not wearing clothing
made of synthetic materials. Wear cotton or cotton-blend materials as much
as possible because these do not store static electric charges as much as
synthetics.
3.
Keep plastic, vinyl, and Styrofoam materials (such as plastic or Styrofoam
cups, cup holders, cigarette packages, cellophane wrappers, vinyl books or
folders, plastic bottles, and plastic ash trays) away from the control, the
modules, and the work area as much as possible.
CAUTION—ELECTROSTATIC DISCHARGE
To prevent damage to electronic components caused by improper
handling, read and observe the precautions in Woodward manual
82715, Guide for Handling and Protection of Electronic Controls,
Printed Circuit Boards, and Modules.
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Manual 36551A
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MI-07 Engine Control System for 4.3L Engines
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Manual 36551A
MI-07 Engine Control System for 4.3L Engines
Chapter 1.
LPG System Overview
MI-07 General Description
Woodward’s emission-certified MI-07 control system provides a complete, fully
integrated engine management system that meets or exceeds 2007 emission
standards for Large Spark Ignited (LSI) engines established by the California Air
Resources Board (CARB) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
The control system is applicable to naturally aspirated engines ranging in size from
1.5L to 8.1L (25 HP to 170 HP) with up to 8 cylinders running on LPG and/or
gasoline in mobile industrial applications.
It provides accurate, reliable, and durable control of fuel, spark, and air over the
service life of the engine in the extreme operating environment found in heavy-duty,
under hood, on-engine electronic controls.
MI-07 is a closed loop system utilizing a catalytic muffler to reduce the emission
level in the exhaust gas. In order to obtain maximum effect from the catalyst, an
accurate control of the air fuel ratio is required. A small engine control module
(SECM) uses two heated exhaust gas oxygen sensors (HEGO) in the exhaust
system to monitor exhaust gas content. One HEGO is installed in front of the
catalytic muffler and one is installed after the catalytic muffler.
Figure 1. MI-07 Bi-Fuel System for 4.3L Engines
The SECM makes any necessary corrections to the air fuel ratio by controlling the
inlet fuel pressure to the air/fuel mixer by modulating the dual fuel trim valves (FTV)
connected to the regulator. Reducing the fuel pressure leans the air/fuel mixture and
increasing the fuel pressure enriches the air/fuel mixture. To calculate any
necessary corrections to the air fuel ratio, the SECM uses a number of different
sensors to gain information about the engine’s performance. Engine speed is
monitored by the SECM through a variable reluctance (VR) or Hall Effect sensor.
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MI-07 Engine Control System for 4.3L Engines
Intake manifold air temperature and absolute pressure are monitored with a TMAP
sensor. The MI-07 system implements a drive-by-wire (DBW) system connecting
the accelerator pedal to the electronic throttle through the electrical harness;
mechanical cables are not used. A throttle position sensor (TPS) monitors throttle
position in relation to the accelerator pedal position sensor (APP) command. Engine
coolant temperature and adequate oil pressure are also monitored by the SECM.
The SECM controller has full adaptive learning capabilities, allowing it to adapt
control function as operating conditions change. Factors such as ambient
temperature, fuel variations, ignition component wear, clogged air filter, and other
operating variables are compensated.
MI-07 Closed Loop LP Fuel System
Figure 2. MI-07 Closed Loop Fuel System
MI-07 System Components
The MI-07 control system provides electronic control to the following subsystems on
mobile industrial engines:
x
Fuel delivery system
x
Spark-ignition control system
x
Air throttle
x
Sensors/Switches/Speed inputs
Key Components
The MI-07 system functions primarily on engine components that affect engine
emissions and performance. These key components include the following:
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
Engine/Combustion chamber design
Intake/Exhaust valve configuration, timing and lift
Intake/Exhaust manifold design
Catalytic converter and exhaust system
Throttle body
Air intake and air filter
Gaseous fuel mixer †
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Manual 36551A
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
MI-07 Engine Control System for 4.3L Engines
Gaseous fuel pressure regulator †
Fuel trim valves
Fuel trim orifices
Small engine control module (SECM), firmware, and calibration †
Fuel system sensors and actuators
Ignition system including spark plugs, cables, coils and drivers
Gasoline injectors and fuel pressure regulator (bi-fuel systems only)
(†) Components of MI-07 system manufactured by Woodward
MI-07 System Features
The MI-07 system uses an advanced speed-density control strategy for fuel, spark,
and air throttle control. Key features include the following.
x
Closed-loop fuel control with fuel specific controls for LPG and gasoline
(MPI) fuels
x
Speed-load spark control with tables for dwell, timing, and fuel type
x
Speed-load throttle control with table for maximum TPS limiting
x
Closed-loop fuel control with two oxygen sensors (one installed pre
catalyst and one installed post catalyst). The pre-catalyst oxygen sensor
includes adaptive learn to compensate for fuel or component drift. The
post-catalyst oxygen sensor includes adaptive learn to compensate the
pre-catalyst oxygen sensor setting for oxygen sensor drift and catalyst
aging. The pre-catalyst oxygen sensor function includes parameters for
transport delay, O2 set point, excursion rich/lean, jump back rich/lean,
and perturbation.
x
LPG fuel temperature compensation
x
Min/max speed governing
x
All-speed isochronous governing
x
Fixed-speed isochronous governing with three switch-selectable speeds
x
Fuel enrichment and spark timing modifiers for temperature and fuel type
x
Transient fuel enrichment based on rate of change of TPS
x
Transient wall wetting compensation for gasoline
x
Input sensor selection and calibration
x
Auxiliary device control for fuel pump, fuel lock-off solenoid, tachometer,
MIL, interlocks, vehicle speed limiting, etc.
x
CANBus data transfer for speed, torque, etc.
x
Anti-restart strategy to inhibit starter engagement while running
Other system features include:
Tamper-Resistance
Special tools, equipment, knowledge, and authorization are required to effect any
changes to the MI-07 system, thereby preventing unauthorized personnel from
making adjustments that will affect performance or emissions.
Diagnostics
MI-07 is capable of monitoring and diagnosing problems and faults within the
system. These include all sensor input hardware, control output hardware, and
control functions such as closed-loop fuel control limits and adaptive learn limits.
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Manual 36551A
MI-07 Engine Control System for 4.3L Engines
Upon detecting a fault condition, the system notifies the operator by illuminating the
MIL and activating the appropriate fault action. The action required by each fault
shall be programmable by the OEM customer at the time the engine is calibrated.
Diagnostic information can be communicated through both the service tool interface
and the MIL. With the MIL, it is possible to generate a string of flashing codes that
correspond to the fault type. These diagnostics are generated only when the engine
is not running and the operator initiates a diagnostic request sequence such as
repeated actuations of the pedal within a short period of time following reset.
Limp Home Mode
The system is capable of "limp-home" mode in the event of particular faults or
failures in the system. In limp-home mode the engine speed is approximately 1000
RPM at no load. A variety of fault conditions can initiate limp-home mode. These
fault conditions and resulting actions are determined during calibration and are OEM
customer specific.
Service Tool
A scan tool/monitoring device is available to monitor system operation and assist in
diagnosis of system faults This device monitors all sensor inputs, control outputs,
and diagnostic functions in sufficient detail through a single access point to the
SECM to allow a qualified service technician to maintain the system. This Mototune
software (licensed by Mototron Communication) is secure and requires a crypttoken USB device to allow access to information.
Bi-Fuel System
A bi-fuel system operates on either LPG or gasoline. The engine will run on only
one fuel at a time. The fuel type can be switched while the engine is stopped or
running at low speeds and low loads. The fuel selection switch is a three-position
type where the center position is fuel off.
Customer-Supplied Components
MI-07 requires additional components to operate that are not included with the
system. These include the wire harness, mixer-to-throttle adapter, air horn adapter,
mounting brackets, non-critical fittings, and hoses. These items are application
specific and are the responsibility of the packager, manufacturer of record (MOR),
or original equipment manufacturer (OEM). Woodward will provide assistance as
needed to ensure proper fitting to the MI-07 system components.
NOTE
It is the responsibility of the customer to consult with Woodward
regarding the selection or specification of any components that impact
emissions, performance, or durability.
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MI-07 Engine Control System for 4.3L Engines
LPG Fuel System Operation
The principles outlined below describe the operation of MI-07 on an LPG fuel
system.
An LPG fuel system consists of the following components:
x
Fuel filter (supplied by customer)
x
Electric fuel lock-off solenoid valve
x
Fuel pressure regulator/vaporizer
x
Two orificed fuel trim valves
x
Gas/Air mixer with fixed orifice for trim system and fuel temperature
sensor
x
Miscellaneous customer-supplied hoses and fittings
Fuel is stored in the customer-supplied LPG tank in saturated liquid phase and
enters the fuel system from the tank as a liquid and at tank pressure. Fuel passes
through a high-pressure fuel filter and lock-off solenoid, and is then vaporized and
regulated down to the appropriate pressure to supply the mixer. The regulator
controls the fuel pressure to the gas/air mixer.
Dual Dither Valve
The key to meeting emissions requirements when operating in LPG is the dual
dither valve hardware in the fuel system. Similar to the Woodward MI-04 system, the
dual dither system modulates the fuel pressure regulator outlet pressure by
providing an offset to the regulator secondary stage reference pressure. By adding
a second dither valve, or fuel trim valve (FTV), the MI-07 system provides smoother,
more accurate control of supply pressure resulting in better control of air fuel ratio
and emissions. This smoother control also minimizes wear on fuel system
components such as the regulator diaphragm and lever by significantly reducing the
pressure pulsations observed with a single FTV.
Regulator Pressure Offset
Regulator pressure offset is achieved through the use of a fixed orifice and a
variable orifice in series. The inlet to the fixed orifice is connected to a mixer port
that monitors inlet air pressure (roughly equal to ambient pressure). The outlet of
the fixed orifice is connected to both the pressure regulator reference port and the
inlet to the two FTVs (the variable orifice) that act in parallel. The outlets of the FTVs
are connected to a port at the mixer outlet, referred to as Air Valve Vacuum (AVV).
Thus, by modulating the FTVs, the pressure regulator reference pressure can be
varied between mixer inlet pressure and AVV. For a given change in the pressure
regulator reference pressure, the pressure regulator outlet pressure changes by the
same amount and in the same direction. The end result is that a change in FTV
modulation changes the outlet pressure of the regulator/fuel inlet pressure of the
mixer, and thus the AFR. A major benefit of this trim system results from the use of
mixer inlet pressure and AVV as the reference pressure extremes. The pressure
differential across the mixer fuel valve is related to these same two pressures, and
thus so is fuel flow. Given this arrangement, the bias pressure delta scales with the
fuel cone pressure delta. The result is that the trim system control authority and
resolution on AFR stays relatively constant for the entire speed and load range of
the engine.
SECM
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Manual 36551A
MI-07 Engine Control System for 4.3L Engines
The Small Engine Control Module (SECM) controls the LPG lock-off solenoid valve
and the FTVs. The lock-off solenoid is energized when fueling with LPG and the
engine is turning. FTV modulation frequency will be varied as a function of RPM by
the SECM in order to avoid resonance phenomena in the fuel system. FTV control
signals will be altered by the SECM in order to maintain a stoichiometric air-fuel
ratio. Control signals are based primarily on feedback from the exhaust gas oxygen
sensor, with an offset for fuel temperature.
MI-07 LP Fuel Filter
After exiting the fuel tank, liquid propane
passes through a serviceable inline fuel
filter to the electric fuel lock off. Figure 3
shows a typical inline type LP fuel filter
manufactured by Century. The primary
function of the fuel filter is to remove
particles and sediments that have found
their way into the tank. The LP fuel filter
will not remove heavy end solids and
paraffins that build up in LPG fuel
systems as a result of vaporization.
Figure 3. Inline LP Fuel Filter
MI-07 Fuel Lock-Off (Electric)
The fuel lock-off is a safety shutoff valve normally held closed by spring pressure. It
incorporates an electric solenoid and prevents fuel flow to the regulator/converter
when the engine is not in operation. This is the first of three safety locks in the MI-07
system.
Figure 4. Electric Fuel Lock Assembly
In the MI-07 design, power is supplied to the fuel lock-off via the main power relay
with the SECM controlling the lock-off ground (earth) connection. The lock-off
remains in a normally closed (NC) position until the key switch is activated. This
supplies power to the lock-off and the SECM, but will not open the lock-off via the
main power relay until the SECM provides the lock-off ground connection. This
design gives the SECM full control of the lock-off while providing additional safety by
closing the fuel lock-off in the unlikely event of a power failure, wiring failure or
module failure.
When the liquid service valve in the fuel container is opened, liquid propane flows
through the LP filter and through the service line to the fuel lock-off. Liquid propane
enters the lock-off through the 1/4” NPT liquid inlet port and stops with the lock-off in
the normally closed position. When the engine is cranking, the main power relay
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applies power to the lock-off and the SECM provides the lock-off ground causing
current to flow through the windings of the solenoid creating a magnetic field. The
strength of this magnetic field is sufficient to lift the lock-off valve off of its seat
against spring pressure. When the valve is open liquid propane, at tank pressure,
flows through the lock-off outlet to the pressure regulator/converter. A stall safety
shutoff feature is built into the SECM to close the lock-off in case of a stall condition.
The SECM monitors three engine states: Crank - when the crankshaft position
sensor detects any engine revolutions; Stall - when the key is in the ON position but
the crankshaft position sensor detects no engine revolutions; and Run - when the
engine reaches pre-idle RPM. When an operator turns on the key switch the lock-off
is opened, but if the operator fails to crank the engine the SECM will close the lockoff after a number of seconds (calibration specific).
N-2007 Pressure Regulator/Vaporizer
The pressure regulator/vaporizer receives liquid LPG from the fuel storage tank,
drops the pressure, changes the LPG phase from liquid to vapor, and provides
vapor phase LPG at a regulated outlet pressure to the mixer. To offset the
refrigeration effect of the vaporization process, the regulator will be supplied with
engine coolant flow sufficient to offset the
latent heat of vaporization of the LPG. A
thermostat installed in the coolant supply line
maintains regulator outlet coolant temperature
at or below 140oF (60°C) which minimizes the
deposit of fuel contaminants and heavy ends
in the regulator and assures a more controlled
vaporization process with reduced pressure
pulsations.
A higher flow pressure regulator is required on
larger engines.
Figure 5. N-2007 Regulator
The regulator is normally closed, requiring a vacuum signal (negative pressure) to
allow fuel to flow. This is the second of three safety locks in the MI-07 system. If the
engine stops, vacuum signal stops and fuel flow will automatically stop when both
the secondary (2nd stage) valve and the primary (1st stage) valve closes. Unlike
most other regulator/converters, the N-2007 primary valve closes with fuel pressure
rather than against pressure, extending primary seat life and adding additional
safety.
Liquid propane must be converted into a gaseous form in order to be used as a fuel
for the engine. When the regulator receives the desired vacuum signal it allows
propane to flow to the mixer. As the propane flows through the regulator the
pressure is reduced in two stages from tank pressure to slightly less than
atmospheric pressure. As the pressure of the propane is reduced, the liquid
propane vaporizes and refrigeration occurs inside the regulator due to the
vaporization of liquid propane. To replace heat lost to vaporization, engine coolant is
supplied by the engine driven water pump and pumped through the regulator. Heat
provided by this coolant is transferred through to the fuel vaporization chamber.
N-2007 Operation
(Refer to Figure 6.)
Liquid propane, at tank pressure, enters the N-2007 through the fuel inlet port (1).
Propane liquid then flows through the primary valve (2). The primary valve located
at the inlet of the expansion chamber (3), is controlled by the primary diaphragm (4),
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which reacts to vapor pressure inside the expansion chamber. Two springs are
used to apply force on the primary diaphragm in the primary diaphragm chamber
(5), keeping the primary valve open when no fuel pressure is present.
A small port connects the expansion chamber to the primary diaphragm chamber.
At the outlet of the expansion chamber is the secondary valve (6). The secondary
valve is held closed by the secondary spring on the secondary valve lever (7). The
secondary diaphragm controls the secondary lever. When the pressure in the
expansion chamber reaches 1.5 psig (10.342 kPa) it causes a pressure/force
imbalance across the primary diaphragm (8). This force is greater than the primary
diaphragm spring pressure and will cause the diaphragm to close the primary valve.
Since the fuel pressure has been reduced from tank pressure to 1.5 psig (10.342
kPa) the liquid propane vaporizes. As the propane vaporizes it takes on heat from
the expansion chamber. This heat is replaced by engine coolant, which is pumped
through the coolant passage of the regulator. At this point vapor propane will not
flow past the expansion chamber of the regulator until the secondary valve is
opened. To open the secondary valve, a negative pressure signal must be received
from the air/fuel mixer. When the engine is cranking or running a negative pressure
signal (vacuum) travels through the vapor fuel outlet connection of the regulator,
which is the regulator secondary chamber, and the vapor fuel inlet of the mixer. The
negative pressure in the secondary chamber causes a pressure/force imbalance on
the secondary diaphragm, which overcomes the secondary spring force, opening
the secondary valve and allowing vapor propane to flow out of the expansion
chamber, through the secondary chamber to the mixer.
Figure 6. Parts View of N-2007 Regulator
Because vapor propane has now left the expansion chamber, the pressure in the
chamber will drop, causing the primary diaphragm spring force to re-open the
primary valve allowing liquid propane to enter the regulator, and the entire process
starts again. This creates a balanced condition between the primary and secondary
chambers allowing for a constant flow of fuel to the mixer as long as the demand
from the engine is present. The fuel flow is maintained at a constant output
pressure, due to the calibrated secondary spring. The amount of fuel flowing will
vary depending on how far the secondary valve opens in response to the negative
pressure signal generated by the air/fuel mixer. The strength of that negative
pressure signal developed by the mixer is directly related to the amount of air
flowing through the mixer into the engine. With this process, the larger the quantity
of air flowing into the engine, the larger the amount of fuel flowing to the mixer.
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CA100 Mixer
The mixer is installed above the throttle body and meters gaseous fuel into the
airstream at a rate that is proportional to the volumetric flow rate of air. The ratio
between volumetric airflow and volumetric fuel flow is controlled by the shaping of
the mixer fuel cone and biased by the controllable fuel supply pressure delivered by
the pressure regulator. Fuel flow must be metered accurately over the full range of
airflows. Pressure drop across the mixer air valve must be minimized to assure
maximum power output from the engine.
The mixer fuel inlet is fitted with a
thermistor-type temperature sensor. This
permits the SECM to correct fuel pressure
to compensate for variations in fuel
temperature. Left uncorrected, fuel
temperature variations can cause
significant variations in air fuel ratio.
A higher flow mixer is required on larger
engines. A lower flow mixer is required on
smaller engines.
Figure 7. CA100 Mixer
CA100 Mixer Operation
Vapor propane fuel is supplied to the CA100 mixer by the N-2007 pressure
regulator/converter. The mixer uses a diaphragm type air valve assembly to operate
a gas-metering valve inside the mixer. The gas-metering valve is normally closed,
requiring a negative pressure (vacuum) signal from a cranking or running engine to
open. This is the third of the three safety locks in the MI-07 system. If the engine
stops or is turned off, the air valve assembly closes the gas-metering valve,
stopping fuel flow past the mixer. The gas-metering valve controls the amount of
fuel to be mixed with the incoming air at the proper ratio. The air/fuel mixture then
travels past the throttle, through the intake manifold and into the engine cylinders
where it is compressed, ignited and burned.
Figure 8. CA100 Mixer Attached to Throttle Body
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(Refer to Figure 9.)
The air/fuel mixer is mounted in the intake air stream between the air cleaner and
the throttle. The design of the main body incorporates a cylindrical bore or mixer
bore, fuel inlet (1) and a gas discharge jet (2). In the center of the main body is the
air valve assembly, which is made up of the air valve (3), the gas-metering valve (4),
the air valve diaphragm (5), and air valve spring (6). The gas-metering valve is
permanently mounted to the air valve diaphragm assembly with a face seal
mounted between the two parts.
When the engine is not running this face seal creates a barrier against the gas
discharge jet, preventing fuel flow with the aid (downward force) of the air valve
spring. When the engine is cranking it begins to draw in air, creating a negative
pressure signal. This negative pressure signal is transmitted through four vacuum
ports in the air valve.
Figure 9. Parts View of CA100 Mixer
A pressure/force imbalance begins to build across the air valve diaphragm between
the air valve vacuum (AVV) chamber (above the diaphragm) and atmospheric
pressure below the diaphragm. Approximately 6 inches H2O (14.945 mbar) of
negative pressure is required to overcome the air valve spring force and push the
air valve assembly upward off the valve seat. Approximately 24 inches H2O (59.781
mbar) pulls the valve assembly to the top of its travel in the full open position.
The amount of negative pressure generated is a direct result of throttle position and
the amount of air flowing through the mixer to the engine. At low engine speeds, low
AVV causes the air valve diaphragm assembly to move upward a small amount,
creating a small venturi. At high engine speeds, high AVV causes the air valve
diaphragm assembly to move much farther creating a large venturi. The variable
venturi air/fuel mixer constantly matches venturi size to engine demand.
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Figure 10. Bottom View of Air Valve Assembly
A main mixture adjustment valve on the fuel inlet of the CA100 is not available in the
MI-07 system, however an idle mixture adjustment is incorporated into the mixer
(Figure 11). The idle mixture adjustment is an air bypass port, adjusting the screw
all the way in, blocks off the port and enriches the idle mixture. Backing out the idle
adjustment screw opens the port and leans the idle mixture. The idle mixture screw
is a screw with locking threads that is factory set with a tamper resistant cap
installed after adjustment. Accurate adjustment of the idle mixture can be
accomplished by adjusting for a specific fuel trim valve (FTV) duty cycle with the
Service Tool software or with a voltmeter. NOTE: Adjustments should only be
performed by trained service technicians.
Figure 11. Idle Mixture Adjustment Screw
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Fuel Trim Valve (FTV)
The Fuel Trim Valve (FTV) is a two-way electric solenoid valve and is controlled by
a pulse-width modulated (PWM) signal provided by the SECM. Two FTVs are used
to bias the output fuel pressure on the LPG regulator/converter (N-2007), by
metering air valve vacuum (AVV) into the atmospheric side of the N-2007 secondary
regulator diaphragm. An orifice balance line connected to the air inlet side of the
mixer provides atmospheric reference to the N-2007 when the FTVs are closed. The
SECM uses feedback voltage from the O2 sensor to determine the amount of bias
needed to the regulator/converter.
In normal operation the N-2007 maintains fuel flow at a constant output pressure,
due to the calibrated secondary spring. The amount of fuel flowing from the N-2007
will vary depending on how far the secondary diaphragm opens the secondary valve
in response to the negative pressure signal generated by the air/fuel mixer. One
side of the N-2007 secondary diaphragm is referenced to FTV control pressure
while the other side of the diaphragm reacts to the negative pressure signal from the
mixer. If the pressure on the reference side of the N-2007 secondary diaphragm is
reduced, the diaphragm will close the secondary valve until a balance condition
exists across the diaphragm, reducing fuel flow and leaning the air/fuel mixture.
Figure 12. Fuel Trim Valve
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Branch-Tee Fitting
A branch-tee fitting is installed in the atmospheric vent port of the N-2007 with one
side of the branch-tee connected to the intake side of the mixer forming the balance
line and referencing atmospheric pressure. The other side of the branch-tee fitting
connects to the FTV inlet (small housing side). The FTV outlet (large housing
connector side) connects to the AVV port. When the FTVs are open AVV is sent to
the atmospheric side of the N-2007 secondary diaphragm, which lowers the
reference pressure, closing the N-2007 secondary valve and leaning the air/fuel
mixture. The MI-07 system is calibrated to run rich without the FTVs. By modulating
(pulsing) the FTVs the SECM can control the amount of AVV applied to the N-2007
secondary diaphragm. Increasing the amount of time the FTVs remain open
(modulation or duty cycle) causes the air/fuel mixture to become leaner; decreasing
the modulation (duty cycle) enriches the mixture.
Figure 13. Fuel Trim Valves Connected to MI-07 System
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Electronic Throttle System
The electronic throttle system controls engine output (speed and torque) through
electronic control of mass airflow to the engine. Any DC motor-actuated or Limited
Angle Torque motor (LAT)-actuated throttle with less than 5A peak and 2A steady
state can be controlled. The TPS must be directly coupled to the throttle shaft for
direct shaft position measurement.
A commonly used throttle is the Bosch DV-E5. This throttle is available in a variety
of bore sizes to meet specific engine needs: 32mm, 40mm, and 54mm are readily
available throttle bore sizes; other sizes are possible. The Bosch throttle is a fully
validated automotive component incorporating a brushed DC motor with gear
reduction, dual throttle position sensors, throttle plate, and cast aluminum housing.
In the event of an electrical disconnection or other related failure, the throttle plate
returns to a limp-home idle position at a no-load engine speed above curb idle
speed. This provides sufficient airflow for the engine to move the vehicle on level
ground. Any throttle bodies used for MI-07 meet or exceed the specification for the
Bosch throttle bodies.
In terms of response, the throttle is capable of fully opening and closing in less than
50 msec. Position resolution and steady state control should be 0.25% of full travel
or better.
MI-07 Electronic Throttle
Conventional throttle systems rely on a mechanical linkage to control the throttle
valve. To meet fluctuating engine demands a conventional system will typically
include a throttle valve actuator designed to readjust the throttle opening in
response to engine demand, together with an idle control actuator or idle air bypass
valve.
In contrast, the MI-07 system uses electronic throttle control (ETC). The SECM
controls the throttle valve based on engine RPM, engine load, and information
received from the foot pedal. Two potentiometers on the foot pedal assembly
monitor accelerator pedal travel. The electronic throttle used in the MI-07 system is
a Bosch 32mm or 40mm electronic throttle body DV-E5 (Figure 14). The DV-E5 is a
single unit assembly, which includes the throttle valve, throttle-valve actuator (DC
motor) and two throttle position sensors (TPS). The SECM calculates the correct
throttle valve opening that corresponds to the driver’s demand, makes any
adjustments needed for adaptation to the engine’s current operating conditions and
then generates a corresponding electrical (driver) signal to the throttle-valve
actuator.
Figure 14. Bosch Electronic Throttle Body
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The MI-07 uses a dual TPS design (TPS1 and TPS2). The SECM continuously
checks and monitors all sensors and calculations that effect throttle valve position
whenever the engine is running. If any malfunctions are encountered, the SECM’s
initial response is to revert to redundant sensors and calculated data. If no
redundant signal is available or calculated data cannot solve the malfunction, the
SECM will drive the system into one of its limp-home modes or shut the engine
down, storing the appropriate fault information in the SECM.
There are multiple limp-home modes available with electronic throttle control:
1. If the throttle itself is suspected of being inoperable, the SECM will remove
the power to the throttle motor. When the power is removed, the throttle
blade returns to its “default” position, approximately 7% open.
2. If the SECM can still control the throttle but some other part of the system is
suspected of failure, the SECM will enter a “Reduced Power” mode. In this
mode, the power output of the engine is limited by reducing the maximum
throttle position allowed.
3. In some cases, the SECM will shut the engine down. This is accomplished
by stopping ignition, turning off the fuel, and disabling the throttle.
Throttle Plate
Gear Drive
DC Drive Motor
Picture courtesy of Robert Bosch GmbH
Figure 15. Throttle Body Assembly Exploded View
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Ignition System
Spark-ignited engines require accurate control of spark timing and spark energy for
efficient combustion. The MI-07 ignition system provides this control. The system
consists of the following components:
x SECM
x
Ignition coil(s) *
x
Crankshaft position sensor *
x
Crankshaft timing wheel *
x
Cam position sensor * (for sequential ignition or fuel injection only)
x
Cam timing wheel * (for sequential ignition or fuel injection only)
x
Spark plugs *
(*) Customer-supplied components
The SECM, through use of embedded control algorithms and calibration variables,
determines the proper time to start energizing the coil and fire the spark plug. This
requires accurate crank/camshaft position information, an engine speed calculation,
coil energy information, and target spark timing. The SECM provides a TTL
compatible signal for spark control. The coil must contain the driver circuitry
necessary to energize the primary spark coil otherwise an intermediary coil driver
device must be provided. The SECM controls spark energy (dwell time) and spark
discharge timing.
General Motors (GM) High Energy Ignition (HEI) System
The GM 4.3L engine has a distributed ignition system comprised of one coil and a
distributor driven from the engine camshaft. The camshaft rotates at half the speed of
the engine thereby guaranteeing that each spark plug will fire once for every two
revolutions of the engine.
The GM HEI system provides a control interface that allows external control
modules to control engine timing and dwell. This control interface translates into
essentially two pins of the four pin control module located in the distributor housing.
These pins will be referred to as the override pin and the control pin. When the
voltage on the override pin is raised sufficiently above the ground state (high state),
the distributor control module relinquishes control of ignition timing and listens to
timing signals on the control pin. When the control pin enters the high state, the
distributor control module begins charging the coil. When the control pin returns to
the ground state, the coil discharges into the distributor which directs the charge to
the appropriate spark plug. In this way, the amount of time the control pin is in the
high state determines the coil dwell. The moment that the control pin returns to the
ground state determines when the spark plug fires.
The spark timing can be altered by rotating the distributor. Changing the timing in
this way will either advance or retard the timing depending upon the direction of
rotation. This rotation will affect the timing equally for all engine speeds and all
engine loads. This method of changing timing should be avoided at all costs.
Changing the timing can adversely affect system performance and emissions. Since
the SECM is controlling the timing and the timing was calibrated with the distributor
in the default position, all timing changes should be performed by changing the
calibration in the SECM and not by manually rotating the distributor.
NOTE
Only trained service technicians should perform ignition timing
adjustments.
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IGNITION SYSTEM COMPONENTS
In a typical distributed ignition system, a crankshaft position sensor generates a
basic timing signal by reading notches on the crankshaft, flywheel, or harmonic
balancer. The crank sensor signal goes to the small engine control module (SECM),
where it is used to turn the ignition coil on and off via the GM HEI control interface.
The operation of the ignition system is essentially the same as any other ignition
system. The coil has a low primary resistance (0.4 to 0.6 ohms) and steps up the
primary system voltage from 12 volts to as much as 40,000 volts to produce a spark
for the spark plug. The distributor assures that the voltage is directed to the spark
plug of the proper cylinder. Resistor spark plugs are generally used to suppress
electromagnetic interference (EMI).
MISFIRES
Common ignition system ailments include misfiring, hard starting, or a no start.
Spark plugs can still be fouled by oil or fuel deposits, as well as pre-ignition and
detonation.
If the crankshaft position sensor fails, the loss of the basic timing signal will prevent
the system from generating a spark and the engine will not start or run. A failed
driver circuit within the SECM will also prevent proper ignition system operation if
the override pin of the GM HEI control interface is in the high state.
It is important to remember that ignition misfire can also be caused by other factors
such as worn or fouled spark plugs, loose or damaged coil connector or terminals,
dirty fuel injectors, low fuel pressure, intake vacuum leaks, loss of compression in a
cylinder, or even contaminated fuel. These other possibilities should all be ruled out
before the distributor control module is replaced.
A SECM controlled engine that cranks but fails to start, in many cases, will often
have a problem in the crankshaft or camshaft position sensor circuits. Loss of
sensor signals may prevent the SECM from properly synchronizing, thereby
preventing the engine from starting and running.
IGNITION SYSTEM CHECKS
The ignition coil can be tested with an ohmmeter. Measure primary and secondary
resistance and compare to specifications. If resistance is out of specifications, the
coil is bad and needs to be replaced.
Also, pay close attention to the tube that wraps around the spark plug. Cracks can
allow voltage to jump to ground causing a misfire. The spark plug terminal should
also fit tightly.
If a coil tests bad and is replaced, cleaning the connector and wiring harness
terminals of the coil and distributor can often avoid future problems. Corrosion at
either place can cause intermittent operation and loss of continuity, which may
contribute to component failure. Applying dielectric grease to these connections can
help prevent corrosion and assure a good electrical connection.
Magnetic crankshaft position sensors can be tested with an ohmmeter, and the
sensor output voltage and waveform can be read with an oscilloscope. The variable
reluctance crankshaft position sensor can be checked with an ohmmeter. The
resistance of the sensor should be greater than 100ȍ and less than 100kȍ. On
most vehicles, a defective crank position sensor will usually set a fault code that can
be read with the Service Tool.
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Exhaust System
Heated Exhaust Gas Oxygen Sensors (HEGO)
The MI-07 system utilizes two HEGO (O2) sensors. One sensor is a pre-catalyst
sensor that detects the amount of oxygen in the exhaust stream and is considered
the primary control point. Based upon the O2 sensor feedback, the MI-07 system
supplies a stoichiometric air-fuel ratio to the catalytic converter. The catalytic
converter then reduces emissions to the required levels. The second sensor is a
post-catalyst sensor that detects the amount of oxygen after the catalyst. This sensor
is used as a secondary control point to adjust the pre-catalyst setpoint to ensure
proper catalyst conversion efficiency.
Once a HEGO sensor reaches approximately
600°F (316°C), it becomes electrically active. The
concentration of oxygen in the exhaust stream
determines the voltage produced. If the engine is
running rich, little oxygen will be present in the
exhaust and voltage output will be relatively high.
Conversely, in a lean situation, more oxygen will
be present and a smaller electrical potential will be
noticed.
Figure 16. HEGO (O2) Sensor
In order for the sensor to become active and create an electrical signal below 600°F
(316°C) a heated element is added to the sensor housing. Two wires provide the
necessary 12 Vdc and ground signal for the heater element. A fourth wire provides
an independent ground for the sensor. The pre-catalyst sensor heater is powered by
the main power relay and is always powered. The post-catalyst sensor heater is
powered from an additional relay that is controlled by the SECM. This relay is only
energized when the SECM calculates that water condensation in the exhaust system
and catalytic muffler prior to the sensor should be evaporated. This is to avoid
thermal shock of the sensor that could prematurely fail the sensor.
The HEGO stoichiometric air-fuel ratio voltage target is approximately 500 mV and
changes slightly as a function of speed and load. When the pre-catalyst HEGO
sensor sends a voltage signal less than 450 mV the SECM interprets the air-fuel
mixture as lean. The SECM then decreases the PWM duty cycle sent to the fuel trim
valves in order to increase the fuel pressure to the mixer inlet; thus richening air-fuel
mixture. The opposite is true if the SECM receives a voltage signal above 450 mV
from the HEGO. The air-fuel mixture would then be interpreted as being too rich and
the SECM would increase the duty cycle of the trim valves.
CAUTION
The HEGO sensors are calibrated to work with the MI-07 control system.
Use of alternate sensors may impact performance and the ability of the
system to diagnose rich and lean conditions.
Catalytic Muffler
In order to meet 2007 emission requirements a 3-way catalyst is necessary.
The MI-07 control system monitors the exhaust stream pre and post catalyst and
uses this information to control the air-fuel mixture. By using the signals from the
HEGOs, the SECM can increase or decrease the amount of oxygen in the exhaust
by modulating the FTVs and adjusting the air-fuel ratio. This control scheme allows
the SECM to make sure that the engine is running at the correct air to fuel ratio so
that the catalyst can perform as required to meet the emissions certification.
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SECM
The Woodward Small Engine Control Module (SECM) controller has full authority
over spark, fuel and air. Utilizing a Freescale micro
controller, the SECM has 48 pins of I/O and is fully
waterproof and shock hardened. To optimize engine
performance and drivability, the SECM uses several
sensors for closed loop feedback information. These
sensors are used by the SECM for closed loop control
in three main categories:
x Fuel Management
x
Load/Speed Management
x
Ignition Management
The SECM monitors system parameters and stores any out of range conditions or
malfunctions as faults in SECM memory. Engine run hours are also stored in
memory. Stored fault codes can be displayed on the Malfunction Indicator Light
(MIL) as flash codes or read by the MI-07 Service Tool software through a
Controller Area Network (CAN) communication link.
Constant battery power (12 Vdc) is supplied through the fuse block to the SECM and
the main power relays. Upon detecting a key-switch ON input, the SECM will fully
power up and energize the main power relays. The energized main power relays
supply 12 Vdc power to the heated element of the oxygen sensors, fuel lock-off, fuel
trim valves (FTVs), gasoline injectors, gasoline fuel pump, crank sensor, cam sensor,
and the ignition coils. The SECM supplies voltage to the electronic throttle actuator,
oil pressure switch, fuel temperature sensor, and the coolant temperature sensor.
Transducer or sensor power (+ 5 Vdc) is regulated by the SECM and supplied to the
manifold temperature/air pressure (TMAP) sensor, throttle position sensor (TPS),
and the accelerator pedal position sensors (APP1 & APP2). The SECM provides a
transducer ground for all the sensors, and a low side driver signal controlling the fuel
lock-off, MIL, gasoline injectors, gasoline fuel pump, and FTVs.
Fuel Management
During engine cranking at startup, the SECM provides a low side driver signal to the
fuel lock-off, which opens the lock-off allowing liquid propane to flow to the
N-2007 regulator. A stall safety shutoff feature is built into the SECM to close the
lock-off in case of a stall condition. The SECM monitors three engine states:
Crank, when the crankshaft position sensor detects any engine revolutions
Stall, when the key is in the ON position but the crankshaft position sensor detects
no engine revolutions
Run state, when the engine reaches a calibration specific RPM.
When an operator turns on the key switch the lock-off is opened but if the operator
fails to crank the engine, the SECM will close the lock-off after a calibration specific
number of seconds.
To maintain proper exhaust emission levels, the SECM uses a heated exhaust gas
oxygen sensor (HEGO) mounted before the catalyst, to measure exhaust gas
content in the LP gas system. Engine speed is monitored by the SECM through a
variable reluctance (VR) sensor or Hall-Effect type sensor. Intake manifold air
temperature and absolute pressure are monitored with a (TMAP) sensor. The
HEGO voltage is converted to an air/fuel ratio value. This value is then compared to
a target value in the SECM. The target value is based on optimizing catalyst
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efficiency for a given load and speed. The SECM then calculates any corrections
that need to be made to the air/fuel ratio.
The system operates in open loop fuel control mode until the engine has done a
certain amount of work. This ensures that the engine and HEGO are sufficiently
warmed up to stay in control. In open loop control mode, the FTV duty cycle is
based on engine speed and load. Once the HEGO reaches operating temperature
the fuel management is in closed loop control mode for all steady state conditions,
from idle through full throttle. In closed loop mode, the FTV duty cycle is based on
feedback from the HEGO sensor. The system may return to open-loop operation
when engine load or engine speed vary beyond a chosen threshold.
The SECM makes any necessary corrections to the air-fuel ratio by controlling the
inlet fuel pressure to the air-fuel mixer Reducing the fuel pressure leans the air/fuel
mixture and increasing the fuel pressure enriches the air-fuel mixture. Control is
achieved by modulating the fuel trim valves.
Throttle Management
Drive-by-wire (DBW) refers to the fact that the MI-07 control system has no
mechanical linkage from the operator to the throttle body. Instead, the SECM
controls the throttle based on input commands such as foot pedals, speed select
switches, or even CAN messages. The SECM monitors the input command request
and controls the throttle plate by driving a DC motor connected to the throttle. The
DC motor rotates the throttle plate to correspond to the requested load by the
operator. The SECM will override the torque request based on governor
configuration and engine safety protocols.
The use of electronic throttle control (ETC) ensures that the
engine receives only the correct amount of throttle opening for
any given situation, greatly improving idle quality and drivability.
Two throttle position sensors (TPS1 and TPS2), which are
integral to the DBW throttle assembly, provide feedback for
position control by monitoring the exact position of the throttle
valve. See Figure 18.
SECM self-calibration and “cross checking” compares both
signals and then checks for errors.
Figure 17. Foot Pedal
Figure 18. Throttle Position Sensor (TPS) on DV-E5 Throttle
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NOTE
The DV-E5 throttle is not a serviceable assembly. If a TPS
sensor fails, the assembly should be replaced.
Engine Speed Governing Modes
For idle speed control, the idle speed is driven by the SECM. Unlike a mechanical
system, the idle speed is not adjustable by the end user. The idle speed is adjusted
by the SECM based on engine coolant temperature. At these low engine speeds,
the SECM uses spark and throttle to maintain a constant speed regardless of load.
The system governs engine speed through two modes:
1. Accelerator Pedal Position (APP)
2. All Speed Governor
ACCELERATOR PEDAL POSITION (APP)
In APP mode, the MI-07 system has minimum and maximum speed governing
through the SECM and DBW throttle. This mode provides automatic minimum
speed governing at a specified idle speed and maximum speed governing at a
specified rated speed. In between these speeds is a manufacturer defined pedal
follower function. The pedal vs.TPS request table is manufacturer configurable to
provide smooth, seamless drivability.
The MI-07 system eliminates the need for air velocity governors. This substantially
increases the peak torque and power available for a given system as shown in
Figure 19. When the engine speed reaches the max governing point the speed is
controlled by closing the DBW throttle. Using the DBW throttle as the primary
engine speed control allows for a smooth transition into and out of the governor. If
excessive over speed is detected, the engine is shut down.
MI-07 System 4.3L LPG & Gasoline Performance Curves
220.0
200.0
180.0
160.0
Torque (ft-lb)
Power (Hp)
140.0
120.0
LPG
Gasoline
100.0
80.0
60.0
40.0
20.0
0.0
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
RPM
Figure 19. Peak Torque and Power Available with MI-07 System
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MI-07 Engine Control System for 4.3L Engines
ALL SPEED GOVERNOR
This function allows the operator to control the engine through an isochronous
governor strategy within the torque limits of the engine. The speed set point can be
configured by the manufacturer for the engine operating range.
The set point for the governor can be foot pedal, speed select switches, or CAN
message (J1939 PGN [0000] [TSC1] SPN898). These modes can be individually
selectable.
Drive-By-Wire Signal Flow Process
Figure 20 describes the signal flow process of the MI-07 DBW section. The foot
pedal assembly uses two potentiometers to detect pedal position. These two
signals, accelerator pedal position 1 (APP1) and accelerator pedal position 2 (APP2)
are sent directly to the SECM. The SECM uses a series of algorithms to self
calibrate and cross check the input signals. A demand position for the throttle will
then be derived and sent to the throttle as a throttle position sensor demand (TPSd).
This signal will be processed through a PID (Proportional, Integral, Derivative)
controller in the SECM to achieve the appropriate motor-current response then
passed to the throttle. The throttle moves to the commanded position and provides
a feedback signal from the throttle position sensors (TPS1 and TPS2) to the SECM.
Ignition Management
In the normal course of events, with the engine operating at the correct temperature
in defined conditions, the SECM will use load and engine speed to derive the
correct ignition timing. In addition to load and speed there are other circumstances
under which the SECM may need to vary the ignition timing, including low engine
coolant temperature, air temperature, start-up, and idle speed control.
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Manual 36551A
MI-07 Engine Control System for 4.3L Engines
Drive-By-Wire Signal Flow Process
Figure 20. Drive-By-Wire Signal Flow Process
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Manual 36551A
MI-07 Engine Control System for 4.3L Engines
SECM / Sensors
The 48-pin Small Engine Control Module (SECM) and sensors provide the
computational power, algorithm logic, sensor inputs and control outputs to control
the system. The SECM receives signals from the
sensors, digitizes these signals, and then, through
algorithms and calibration maps, computes the desired
output response to effect control of fuel, spark and air to
the engine. The SECM also provides a variety of other
functions and features. These include system
monitoring and diagnostics to aid in maintaining efficient
system operation and auxiliary control.
SECM/sensor inputs and control output specifications
are specific to the application, but include a selection of
the following:
Analog Inputs
The 48-pin SECM is equipped with sufficient analog inputs for the following sensors.
x
Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) 1bar MAP, 0 to 5 V
x
Manifold Air Temperature (MAT)
-40°F to 266°F (-40ºC to 130ºC) range, 48 kȍ to 85 ȍ sensor range
x
Throttle Position Sensor 1&2 (TPS1 & TPS2) 0 to 5 V
x
Foot Pedal Position 1&2 (FPP1 & FPP2) 0 to 5 V
x
Coolant Temperature Sensor (CTS)
-40°F to 266°F (-40ºC to 130ºC) range, 48 kȍ to 85 ȍ sensor range
x
Fuel Temperature Sensor (FTS)
-40°F to 266°F (-40ºC to 130ºC) range, 48 kȍ to 57 ȍ sensor range
x
HEGO (3) 0 to 1 V
x
Auxiliary Analog Input (2) 0 to 5 V
x
Battery Voltage (Vbatt) (1) 8-18 V
With the exception of battery voltage, all inputs are 0-5 Vdc, ground referenced.
Resolution should be 0.1% or better. Accuracy should be 2% or better.
Frequency/Position Inputs
x
Crankshaft position
Variable reluctance (2-wire, 200 Vpp max) or 0-5 V Hall Effect with
calibration selectable pull-up resistor for open collector sensors
Permits speed resolution of 0.25 RPM and crankshaft position
resolution of 0.5º
x
Camshaft position
Variable reluctance (2-wire, 200 Vpp max) or 0-5 V Hall Effect
with calibration selectable pull-up resistor for open collector
sensors
Digital Inputs
x
Oil pressure switch
Normally open, internal pull-up resistor provided to detect external
switch to ground
x
Transmission oil temperature switch
Normally open, internal pull-up resistor provided to detect
external switch to ground
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Manual 36551A
MI-07 Engine Control System for 4.3L Engines
x
Fuel select switch
Three-position switch for bi-fuel applications to detect gasoline
mode, LPG mode, and fuel off (center switch position)
x
Ground speed select switch
Permits selecting two different maximum engine speeds
x
Vswitched
Switched battery voltage
x
Can Input
Governs requested speed
x
Speed Switch Input
Two-position switch for RPM governing
Outputs
x
Saturated injector drivers (4)
10A peak, 45 V max, 1 injector per channel capable of continuous
on-time. Driver circuit designed for minimum turn-on/turn-off delay.
Minimum pulse width resolution of 1 ȝsec
x
FTV drivers (2)
10A peak, 45V max. To drive an on/off fuel trim valve with a
minimum impedance of 5 ohms. Capable of continuous on-time.
Drive circuit designed for minimum turn-on /turn-off delay. FTVs
will be pulse width modulated between 8 and 40 Hz with a
minimum pulse width resolution of 50 ȝsec
Fuel lock-off solenoid valve
Low side switch, 10A peak, 4A continuous 45 V max.
x
x
Gasoline fuel pump drive
Low side switch, 10A, 4A continuous 45 V max.
x
Electronic Spark Timing (EST) (4)
TTL compatible outputs. Software configured for distributed
ignition system
Throttle control (1)
H-Bridge, 5A peak, 2.5A continuous at 2500 Hz PWM includes
current feedback for diagnostic purposes
x
x
MIL (Malfunction Indicator Lamp)
Low side switch, sufficient to drive a 7W incandescent lamp continuously
x
CANBus
CAN 2.0b serial communication for J1939 communications, programming,
and diagnostics. Requires proper termination resistance per CAN 2.0b
x
Crank Defeat Relay
Stops starter from engaging while engine is running
Post-Cat O2 Sensor Heater Relay
Turns on heater to prevent oxygen sensor damage during warmup
x
x
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Check Engine Lamp
User-configurable warning lamp
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Manual 36551A
MI-07 Engine Control System for 4.3L Engines
SECM-48 Wiring Diagrams
CAUTION—PROPER WIRING
To prevent system faults be sure to follow good wiring practices. Poor
wiring may cause unexpected or intermittent failures not related to MI-07
components.
NOTE
Always refer to MOR-furnished wiring diagrams for your specific
application.
The schematics on the next pages are wiring diagrams for all types of 4.3L engine
systems.
Figure 21: Bi-fuel system
Figure 22: LP system
Figure 23: Gasoline system
SECM Electrical Mounting Recommendations
In order to prevent the possibility of any SECM malfunctions due to EMI/RFI
emissions, engine packagers and OEMs should follow industry “best practices” and
the SECM mounting and harness recommendations listed below:
x
The SECM should be mounted in a location that minimizes the amount of
EMI the module is exposed to by locating it as far as practical from all high
tension components, such as ignition coils, distributors, spark plug wires,
etc. It is recommended that the SECM be mounted at least 29.5” (749 mm)
away from the distributor and ignition coil, and at least 20” (508 mm) from
the nearest plug wire.
x
All wiring harnesses should be routed to minimize coupling (both radiated
and conducted), and be securely fastened to minimize movement and
maintain proper clearance between the SECM and all ignition system
components.
x
The OEM must ensure that a high-quality ground connection between the
SECM and battery negative (–) is provided and can be maintained for the
useful life of the vehicle. This may require the use of star-type washers on
all ground lug connections between the SECM and the battery and/or
special preparation of all mating surfaces that complete the ground
connection in order to ensure that the connection is sound.
Engineering judgment must be exercised on all applications to determine if
appropriate measures have been implemented to minimize EMI exposure to the
SECM and associated cabling. The above recommendations do not provide any
guarantee of proper system performance.
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Manual 36551A
MI-07 Engine Control System for 4.3L Engines
DWG NO. 9930-1067
Figure 21. SECM Wiring Diagram for Bi-Fuel System
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DWG NO. 9930-1068
Figure 22. SECM Wiring Diagram for LP System
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MI-07 Engine Control System for 4.3L Engines
DWG NO. 9930-1069
Figure 23. SECM Wiring Diagram for Gasoline System
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Manual 36551A
MI-07 Engine Control System for 4.3L Engines
Chapter 2.
Gasoline Engines
Gasoline Fuel System
A gasoline fuel system includes the following components:
Gasoline fuel pump*
Fuel filter*
Fuel rail*
Pressure regulator*
Fuel injectors*
Small engine control module (SECM)
and related sensors and equipment
(*) Supplied by customer
Multi-Point Injection (MPI) is supplied with this system. However, the SECM lacks
sufficient channels to drive each injector individually therefore the injectors are
driven in batches of two (1 and 4, 2 and 5, 3 and 6). Fuel injection pressure and flow
rate depend on engine-specific fuel injection requirements. A variety of regulators
and injectors can be used to fit individual needs. The gasoline fuel pressure
regulator is a one-way, non-return configuration. All gasoline specific components
are automotive production parts and validated to strict automotive standards. Four
(4) injection channels are supported by the SECM but only three are used in this
application.
Use of unleaded gasoline of 87 octane or higher is recommended for optimal
performance of the MI-07 system.
Gasoline Fuel System Specifications
Fuel
Fuel System
Fuel Pump
Fuel Pressure
Regulator
Injectors
Woodward
87 octane (R+M)/2 method automotive
grade fuel
One-way returnless
Minimum of 200 ml/min at rated
pressure
3 bar
Bosch High Impedance (OEM installed)
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Manual 36551A
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Chapter 3.
Specifications
LP Fuel System Requirements
Operating Temperature
-20 °F to 221°F [-29 °C to 105 °C]
Long-term Storage Temperature
-40 °F to 140 °F [-40 °C to 60 °C]
Short-term Storage
Temperature (Heat Soak
LPG Composition
Requirements
Fuel Filter Micron Size
҅ 257 °F [125 °C]
HD5 / HD10 LPG. Failure to use
fuel compliant with HD5 or HD10
standards will void the user
warranty.
10 micron or better at 99%
efficiency
Environmental / Electrical Specifications
Ambient Operating Temperature
-20 °F to 221°F [-29 °C to 105 °C]
LP Fuel Temperature
-20 °F to 120 °F [-29 °C to 49 °C]
Operating Voltage
Over Voltage Operation
Woodward
8-16 Vdc
18 Vdc for less than 5 minutes
24 Vdc for less than 1 minute
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Manual 36551A
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N-2007 Pressure Regulator Specifications
Fuel Supply Pressure
Fuel Inlet Fitting
10 psi to 250 psi
(68.95 kPa to 1723.69 kPa)
1/4” NPT
Fuel Outlet Fitting
One 3/4” NPT plug.
One 3/4" NPT to 5/8” hose fitting
Fuel Supply Temperature
at Tank Outlet
-20 °F to 120 °F [-29 °C to 49 °C]
Primary Pressure Tap
Max Flow
Coolant Flow to Vaporizer
Fuel Outlet Pressure Setpoints
Mounting
1/8” NPT with plug
50 lbm/hr LPG
> 1.0 gpm/100bhp, equipped with 140 °F
(60 °C) thermostat
0.7 ± 0.2 inH2O (-1.744 ± 0.498 mbar)
@ 1.7 lbm/hr LPG
-2.0 ± 0.2 inH2O (-4.982 ± 0.498 mbar)
@ 50 lbm/hr LPG
Regulator should be installed with
centerline of outlet at least 15° below
horizontal to permit drainage of any
liquid precipitates from LPG fuel.
Diaphragm should be vertically oriented.
CA100 Mixer Specifications
Fuel
Fuel Inlet Fitting
Air Intake Flange
Mixer Mounting Flange
Reference Pressure Ports
Air Valve Vacuum (AVV)
Port Size
5/8” hose to 1/2” NPT fitting.
Fuel inlet fitted with Delphi temperature
sensor
2.25” (57.15mm) ID inlet, four #10-24
screws in 1.94” (49.28mm) square
pattern
1.87” (47.49mm) ID outlet, four #12-24
screws arranged in a rectangular pattern
Two 1/8” NPT ports. Pressure readings
must be identical within 0.25 inH2O
(0.623 mbar) at all airflows.
1/4-28 UNF
Fuel Inlet Adjustments
None
Idle Air Adjustment
None
Mounting
Woodward
LPG
Suitable for on-engine mounting in
vertical orientation
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Manual 36551A
MI-07 Engine Control System for 4.3L Engines
SECM Specifications
Operating Temperature
-20 °F to 221°F [-29 °C to 105 °C]
Long-term Storage Temperature
-40 °F to 140 °F [-40 °C to 60 °C]
Short-term Storage
Temperature (Heat Soak
҅ 257 °F [125 °C]
8-16 Vdc
Operating Voltage
Operating Environment
SECM microprocessor may reset
at voltages below 6.3 Vdc
On-engine mounting, underhood
automotive. Capable of
withstanding spray from a
pressure washer.
Ignition System Specifications
Coil Type
Inductive
Coil Supply Voltage
8-16 Vdc
Minimum Open Circuit Voltage
> 30 kV
Minimum Coil Energy
35 mJ
Maximum Dwell Time
4 msec
Operating Temperature
-20 °F to 221°F [-29 °C to 105 °C]
Long-term Storage Temperature
-40 °F to 140 °F [-40 °C to 60 °C]
Short-term Storage Temperature
(Heat Soak)
҅ 257 °F [125 °C]
Electronic Throttle System Specifications
Minimum Electrical Resistance
of Throttle Actuator
1.5 ohms
Fuel Trim Valve (FTV) Specifications
Actuator Type
Operating Voltage
Woodward
On/off two-position valve
compatible with LPG.
8-16 Vdc
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Manual 36551A
MI-07 Engine Control System for 4.3L Engines
System Control Performance Specifications
Power /Torque
The MI-07 system maximizes engine power and torque while meeting customerspecific needs for emissions, fuel consumption, durability, and drivability. Bear in
mind that engine power is dependent on many variables other than the fuel
control system, i.e., compression ratio, friction, valve timing, etc.
Exhaust Emissions
MI-07 is capable of meeting EPA 2007 LSI engine emission standards when
operating properly with an approved three-way catalyst. Emission standards
must be met on both the LSI engine off-highway transient emissions test cycle
and the ISO 8178 type C2 steady-state emissions test cycle.
The fuel control logic, for both LPG and gasoline, employs a closed-loop exhaust
gas oxygen control algorithm in order to compensate for fuel system tolerances,
aging, altitude, and fuel composition. The algorithm utilizes dual heated exhaust
gas oxygen (HEGO) sensors with an output that switches high and low at
stoichiometry. When operated with LPG, the control logic compensates for
variations in fuel temperature as measured at the mixer inlet.
Drivability / Transient Response
The engine will meet requirements of the EPA LSI engine transient emissions test
cycle. It should start, run, accelerate, decelerate, and stop without hesitation or
miss-fire.
Low Idle Speed
The low idle speed setpoint ranges between 500 RPM and 800 RPM, as defined
by the OEM during calibration.
Maximum Speed / High Idle
The maximum governed speed setpoint ranges between 1800 RPM and 3000
RPM, as defined by the OEM during calibration.
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Chapter 4.
Recommended Maintenance
Suggested maintenance requirements for an engine equipped with an MI-07 fuel
system are contained in this section. The operator should, however, develop a
customized maintenance schedule using the requirements listed in this section and
any other requirements listed by the engine manufacturer.
Maintenance Tests & Inspections
Test Fuel System for Leaks
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
Obtain a leak check squirt bottle
or pump spray bottle.
Fill the bottle with an approved
leak check solution.
Spray a generous amount of the
solution on the fuel system fuel
lines and connections, starting at
the storage container.
Wait approximately 15-60
seconds, then perform a visual
inspection of the fuel system.
Leaks will cause the solution to bubble.
Listen for leaks.
Smell for LPG odor which may indicate a leak.
Repair any leaks before continuing.
Crank the engine through several revolutions. This will energize the fuel
lock-off and allow fuel to flow to the pressure regulator/converter. Apply
additional leak check solution to the regulator/ converter fuel connections
and housing. Repeat leak inspection as listed above.
Repair any fuel leaks before continuing.
Inspect Engine for Fluid Leaks
x
x
x
x
Start the engine and allow it to reach operating temperatures.
Turn the engine off.
Inspect the entire engine for oil and/or coolant leaks.
Repair as necessary before continuing.
Inspect Vacuum Lines and Fittings
x
x
x
Visually inspect vacuum lines and fittings for physical damage such as
brittleness, cracks and kinks. Repair/replace as required.
Solvent or oil damage may cause vacuum lines to become soft, resulting in
a collapsed line while the engine is running.
If abnormally soft lines are detected, replace as necessary.
Inspect Electrical System
x
x
Check for loose, dirty or damaged connectors and wires on the harness
including: fuel lock-off, TMAP sensor, O2 sensors, electronic throttle,
control relays, fuel trim valves, crank position sensor, and cam position
sensor.
Repair and/or replace as necessary.
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Inspect Foot Pedal Operation
x
Verify foot pedal travel is smooth without sticking.
Check Coolant Level
x
x
The items below are a general guideline for system checks. Refer to the
engine manufacturer’s specific recommendations for proper procedures.
Engine must be off and cold.
WARNING—PROPER USE
Never remove the pressure cap on a hot engine.
x
x
The coolant level should be equal to the “COLD” mark on the coolant
recovery tank.
Add approve coolant to the specified level if the system is low.
Inspect Coolant Hoses
x
x
Visually inspect coolant hoses and clamps. Remember to check the two
coolant lines that connect to the pressure regulator/converter.
Replace any hose that shows signs of leakage, swelling, cracking,
abrasion or deterioration.
Inspect Battery System
x
x
x
Clean battery outer surfaces with a mixture of baking soda and water.
Inspect battery outer surfaces for damage and replace as necessary.
Remove battery cables and clean, repair and/or replace as necessary.
Inspect Ignition System
x
x
x
x
Remove and inspect the spark plugs. Replace as required.
Remove and inspect distributor cap. Check for cracks or abnormal wear on
the output contacts. Replace as required.
Remove and inspect distributor rotor. Check for abnormal wear on the rotor
arm contact. Replace as required.
Inspect the ignition coil for cracks and heat deterioration. Replace as
required.
Replace Spark Plugs
x
x
x
x
x
Using a gentle twisting motion, remove the high voltage leads from the
spark plugs. Replace any damaged leads.
Remove the spark plugs.
Gap the new spark plugs to the proper specifications.
Apply anti-seize compound to the spark plug threads and install.
Re-install the high voltage leads.
CAUTION
Do not over tighten the spark plugs.
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Replace LP Fuel Filter Element
Park the lift truck in an authorized refueling area with the forks lowered, parking
brake applied and the transmission in Neutral.
1. Close the fuel shutoff valve on the LP-fuel tank. Run the engine until the
fuel in the system runs out and the engine stops.
2. Turn off the ignition switch.
3. Scribe a line across the filter housing covers, which will be used for
alignment purposes when re-installing the filter cover.
Filter
Housing
Scribe Point
FUEL FILTER DISASSEMBLY (Steps 4-7)
4. Remove the cover retaining screws (1).
5. Remove top cover (2), magnet (3), spring (4), and filter element (7) from
bottom cover (5).
6. Replace the filter element (7).
7. Check bottom cover O-ring seal (6) for damage. Replace if necessary.
8. Re-assemble the filter assembly aligning the scribe lines on the top and
bottom covers.
9. Install the cover retaining screws, tightening the screws in an opposite
sequence across the cover.
10. Open the fuel valve by slowly turning the valve counterclockwise.
11. Crank the engine several revolutions to open the fuel lock-off. DO NOT
START THE ENGINE. Turn the ignition key switch to the off position.
12. Check the filter housing, fuel lines and fittings for leaks. Repair as
necessary.
2
4
1
5
3
6
7
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Manual 36551A
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Testing Fuel Lock-off Operation
x
x
x
x
Start engine.
Locate the electrical connector for the fuel lock (A).
Disconnect the electrical connector.
The engine should run out of fuel and stop within a short period of time.
NOTE
The length of time the engine runs on trapped fuel vapor
increases with any increase in distance between the fuel
lock-off and the pressure regulator/converter.
x
Turn the ignition key switch off and re-connect the fuel lock-off connector.
Figure 24. MI-07 System Installed on 4.3L Engine
Pressure Regulator/Converter Inspection
x
x
Visually inspect the pressure regulator/converter (B) housing for coolant
leaks.
Refer to Chapter 5 if the pressure regulator/converter requires
replacement.
Fuel Trim Valve Inspection (FTV)
x
x
Visually inspect the fuel trim valves (C) for abrasions or cracking. Replace
as necessary.
To ensure a valve is not leaking a blow-by test can be performed.
1. With the engine off, disconnect the electrical connector to the FTVs.
2. Disconnect the vacuum line from the FTVs to the pressure
regulator/converter at the converter’s tee connection.
3. Lightly blow through the vacuum line connected to the FTVs.
Air should not pass through the FTVs when de-energized.
If air leaks past the FTVs when de-energized, replace the FTVs.
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Inspect Air/Fuel Valve Mixer Assembly
x
Refer to Chapter 5 for procedures regarding the LP mixer (D).
Inspect for Intake Leaks
x
Visually inspect the intake throttle assembly (E), and intake manifold for
looseness and leaks. Repair as necessary.
Inspect Throttle Assembly
x
Visually inspect the throttle assembly motor housing for coking, cracks, and
missing cover-retaining clips. Repair and/or replace as necessary.
NOTE
Refer to Chapter 5 for procedures on removing the mixer and
inspecting the throttle plate.
Checking the TMAP Sensor
x
x
x
x
x
Verify that the TMAP sensor (F) is mounted tightly into the manifold or
manifold adapter (E), with no leakage.
If the TMAP is found to be loose, remove the TMAP retaining screw and
the TMAP sensor from the manifold adapter.
Visually inspect the TMAP O-ring seal for damage. Replace as necessary.
Apply a thin coat of an approved silicon lubricant to the TMAP O-ring seal.
Re-install the TMAP sensor into the manifold or manifold adapter and
securely tighten the retaining screw.
Inspect Engine for Exhaust Leaks
x
x
x
Start the engine and allow it to reach operating temperatures.
Perform visual inspection of exhaust system from the engine all the way to
the tailpipe. Any leaks, even after the post-catalyst oxygen sensor, can
cause the sensor output to be effected (due to exhaust pulsation entraining
air upstream). Repair any/all leaks found. Ensure the length from the postcatalyst sensor to tailpipe is the same as original factory.
Ensure that wire routing for the oxygen sensors is still keeping wires away
from the exhaust system. Visually inspect the oxygen sensors to detect any
damage.
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Manual 36551A
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Maintenance Schedule
NOTE
The MI-07 fuel system was designed for use with LPG fuel that complies
with HD5 or HD10 LPG fuel standards. Use of non-compliant LPG fuel
may require more frequent service intervals and will disqualify the user
from warranty claims.
INTERVAL HOURS
CHECK POINT
Daily
Every 250
Hours or 1
month
Every 500
Hours or
3 months
Every
1000
Hours or
6 months
Every
1500
Hours or
9 months
Every
2500
Hours or
1 year
General Maintenance
Test fuel system for leaks.
Prior to any service or maintenance activity
Inspect engine for fluid leaks.
Inspect all vacuum lines and
fittings.
Inspect electrical system;
check for loose, dirty, or
damaged wires and
connections.
Inspect isolation mounts on
engine control module for
cracks and wear; replace as
necessary.
Inspect all fuel fittings and
hoses.
Inspect foot pedal travel and
operation.
Replace timing belt
Check for MIL lamp test at
key-on. If MIL lamp remains
illuminated (indicating a
fault), use pedal to recover
fault code(s). Repair faults.
X
Check coolant level.
Inspect coolant hoses and
fittings for leaks, cracks,
swelling, or deterioration.
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Engine Coolant
X
Engine Ignition
Inspect battery for damage
and corroded cables.
Inspect ignition system.
Replace spark plugs
X
X
X
Fuel Lock-Off/Filter
Replace LP fuel filter
element.
X
Inspect lock-off and fuel filter
for leaks.
X
Ensure lock-off stops fuel
flow when engine is off.
X
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INTERVAL HOURS
CHECK POINT
Daily
Every 250
Hours or
1 month
Every 500
Hours or
3 months
Every
1000
Hours or
6 months
Every
1500
Hours or
9 months
Every
2500
Hours or
1 year
Pressure Regulator/Converter
Test regulator pressures.
X
Inspect pressure regulator
vapor hose for deposit build-up.
Clean or replace as necessary.
X
Inspect regulator assembly
for fuel/coolant leaks.
X
Fuel Trim Valve
Inspect valve housing for
wear, cracks or deterioration.
X
Ensure valve seals in the
closed position when the
engine is off.
X
Replace FTV.
When indicated by MIL
Carburetor
Check air filter indicator.
X
Check for air leaks in the
filter system.
X
Inspect air/fuel valve mixer
assembly for cracks, loose
hoses, and fittings. Repair or
replace as necessary.
X
Check for vacuum leaks in
the intake system including
manifold adapter and mixer
to throttle adapter.
Repair or replace throttle
assembly.
X
When indicated by MIL
Inspect air filter.
X
Replace air filter element.
X
Check TMAP sensor for
tightness and leaks.
X
Exhaust & Emission
Inspect engine for exhaust
leaks.
X
Replace PCV valve and
breather element.
Replace HEGO sensors
X
When indicated by MIL
Gasoline Engines
Replace gasoline fuel filter
element.
X
Inspect gasoline fuel system
for leaks.
X
Confirm gasoline supply
pressure is correct.
Woodward
Pressure should be 45-55 psig (310.26-379.21 kPa)
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Manual 36551A
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Chapter 5.
Installation Procedures
WARNING—PROPER USE
x
LP gas is highly flammable. To prevent personal injury, keep fire
and flammable materials away from the lift truck when work is
done on the fuel system.
x
Gas vapor may reduce oxygen available for breathing, cause
headache, nausea, dizziness and unconsciousness and lead to
injury or death. Always operate the forklift in a well ventilated
area.
x
Liquid propane may cause freezing of tissue or frostbite. Avoid
direct contact with skin or tissue; always wear appropriate safety
protection including gloves and safety glasses when working
with liquid propane.
CAUTION
The regulator/converter and mixer are part of a certified system complying
with EPA and CARB 2007 requirements. Only trained, certified technicians
should perform disassembly, service or replacement of the
regulator/converter or mixer.
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Hose Connections
Proper operation of the closed loop control greatly depends on the correct vacuum
hose routing and fuel line lengths. Refer to the connection diagram below for proper
routing and maximum hose lengths when reinstalling system components.
NOTE: Preferred mounting of regulator is off engine.
Hose Specifications
Vacuum hose to comply to SAE 1403 Type L or SAE J30 R7 R8 / EPDM textile
reinforced / -40q F to +257q F (-40q C +125q C / Inside Diameter: 7/32” (5.56mm)
DWG NO 5555-1206
Figure 25. Hose Connections for 4.3L Engines
DIAGRAM NOTES
1
2
3
4
7
Trim valves must be
positioned vertically
with flow in direction
shown
Fuel outlet must be min 15q
below horizontal position
Only one 90q fitting
permissible on vapor
fuel line between mixer
and regulator (As
shown the temp sensor
adaptor is considered
the one 90q fitting.)
Vapor fuel fittings
(regulator and mixer)
must have minimum ID
of 0.59” (15mm)
Vapor hose length to be
as short as possible
and have no restrictions
for best regulator
performance
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9
Setting Idle Adjustment:
1. Set idle adjustment
to correct setting.
2. Lock with supplied
set screw.
3. Cap after
adjustment and
locking screw.
1
2
N-2007 Regulator
Plastic WYE Fitting
(black color) for 1/4”
(6.35mm) ID Tube
Hose
3
Valve (TEV Bosch
Canister)
4
Plastic WYE Fitting
(blue color) for 1/4”
(6.35mm) ID Tube
Hose
5
6
Sensor (coolant,
temperature)
7
Nipple (.625 hex
4mp, 2.5L steel)
8
Solenoid (AFS Lock
Off Valve)
9
Brass Tee Fitting.
1/4 Tube x 1/8
NPTF x 1/4 Tube
10
11
12
1/4” (6.35mm) hose
barb to 1/8” (3.2mm)
male pipe, 125HBL,
.062 flow ID
CA100 Mixer
1/4-28 UNF x 1/4”
(6.35mm) hose
barb
Adapter
(temperature
sensor)
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Manual 36551A
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Removal and Installation of N-2007
LP Regulator/Converter
Follow the procedures below for removal and reinstallation of the N-2007
regulator in certified systems. Refer to Figures 26A & 26B.
N-2007 Removal Steps
1. Close the liquid outlet valve in the forklift cylinder or fuel storage
container.
2. Purge the system of fuel by starting the engine and running until all
trapped fuel in the system is exhausted and the engine shuts down.
3. Turn the key switch to the “OFF” position.
4. Remove the fuel inlet line (1) from the lock-off, the two vacuum lines (2)
from the branch-tee fitting in the regulator vent and disconnect the lockoff connector (3).
5. Remove the fuel vapor outlet hose (5) from the regulator.
6. Remove the two cooling lines (4) from the regulator. NOTE: Either drain
the coolant system or clamp off the coolant lines as close to the regulator
as possible to avoid a coolant spill when these lines are disconnected.
7. Remove the four rear-mounting bolts that hold the regulator to the
support bracket.
8. Remove the nipple extension (6) with the lock-off from the regulator.
N-2007 Installation Steps
1. Install the nipple extension (6) with the lock-off to the regulator.
2. Install the four rear-mounting bolts that hold the regulator to the support
bracket. Use a torque wrench and tighten each bolt to 60-70 lbf-in
(6.78-7.91 N-m).
3. Install the two cooling lines (4) to the regulator.
4. Install the fuel vapor outlet hose (5) to the regulator.
5. Install the fuel inlet line (1) to the lock-off, the two vacuum lines (2) to
the branch-tee fitting in the regulator vent and re-connect the lock-off
connector (3).
6. Open the liquid outlet valve in the forklift cylinder or fuel storage
container.
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Manual 36551A
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Removal and Installation of N-2007 LP Regulator/Converter
(cont’d.)
Figure 26A. N-2007 Regulator Installed on Engine
Figure 26B. Removal of Lock-Off Nipple Extension
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Manual 36551A
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Removal and Installation of CA100 Mixer
Follow the procedures below for removal and reinstallation of the CA100 mixer in
certified systems. Refer to Figures 27A and 27B. Refer to Figure 27C for a
detailed view of the fuel temperature sensor assembly.
CA100 Certified Mixer Removal Steps
1. Close the liquid outlet valve in the forklift cylinder or fuel storage
container.
2. Purge the system of fuel by starting the engine and running until all
trapped fuel in the system is exhausted and the engine shuts down.
3. Turn the key switch to the “OFF” position.
4. Remove the air cleaner hose (1).
5. Mark the two vacuum lines (2) to the mixer for identification, as they must
be reinstalled correctly for proper operation. Remove the two vacuum
lines.
6. Remove vapor fuel inlet line (3) from the fuel temperature sensor fitting (4).
7. Disconnect the fuel temperature sensor connector (5) from the wire
harness connector. (See Figure 28 for location of connector.)
8. Disconnect the wires leading to the electronic throttle body by pinching the
lock tabs on either side of the wiring harness connector.
9. Loosen the four bolts (8) that secure the mixer/adapter/throttle body
assembly to the intake manifold.
10. Remove the mixer (7), the adapter (9), and the throttle body (10) as an
assembly by gently pulling upwards. Take care not to drop anything down
the intake manifold.
11. Gently wiggle and pull to separate mixer and adapter from the throttle
body. Take note of the adapter orientation on the mixer, as it must be
reinstalled correctly for proper fit on the throttle.
12. Remove the four mounting screws that attach the throttle body adapter to
the mixer.
13. Remove the fuel temperature sensor (6) from the tee.
14. Remove the fuel temperature sensor fitting from the mixer. Take note of
the fitting’s orientation on the mixer, as it must be reinstalled correctly for
proper fit.
15. Remove the short vacuum port barb from the mixer. (See Figure 29 for
location of port barb on mixer.)
CA100 Mixer Installation Steps
Install the vacuum port barb onto the mixer (See Figure 29).
Install the fuel temperature sensor fitting (4) onto the mixer.
Install the fuel temperature sensor into the fitting.
Install the four mounting screws that attach the throttle adapter (9) to the
mixer (7). See Figure 29.
5. Position the mixer/adapter assembly onto the throttle body (10), then
drop in the four mounting bolts (8) and gently push down on the
assembly until it rests on the throttle body.
6. Attach the mixer/throttle body assembly to the intake manifold, making
sure the gasket is in place. Tighten the four mounting bolts.
1.
2.
3.
4.
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7. Connect the wiring harness to the throttle body. (See Figure 28 for
location of connector.) Connect the fuel temperature sensor connector
(5) to the sensor.
8. Install the vapor fuel inlet line (3) to the fuel temperature sensor fitting.
9. Install the two vacuum lines (2) to the mixer using the previous marks for
identification. Vacuum lines must be installed correctly for proper
operation.
10. Install the air cleaner hose (1).
Figure 27A. CA100 Mixer Installed on Engine
Figure 27B. Mixer/Adapter/Throttle Body Assembly
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Removal and Installation of CA100 Mixer (cont’d.)
Figure 27C. Fuel Temperature Sensor Assembly
Figure 28. Wiring Harness Connector on Throttle Body
Figure 29. Throttle Adapter Mounting Screws & Vacuum Port Barb
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Manual 36551A
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Chapter 6.
Tests and Adjustments
WARNING—PROPER USE
x
LP gas is highly flammable. To prevent personal injury, keep fire
and flammable materials away from the lift truck when work is
done on the fuel system.
x
Gas vapor may reduce oxygen available for breathing, cause
headache, nausea, dizziness and unconsciousness and lead to
injury or death. Always operate the forklift in a well ventilated
area.
x
Liquid propane may cause freezing of tissue or frostbite. Avoid
direct contact with skin or tissue; always wear appropriate
safety protection including gloves and safety glasses when
working with liquid propane.
CAUTION
The regulator/converter and mixer are part of a certified system
complying with EPA and CARB 2007 requirements. Only trained, certified
technicians should perform disassembly, service or replacement of the
regulator/converter or mixer.
N-2007 Regulator Service Testing
For checking the N-2007 regulator/converter operation, the following tests can be
performed (See Chapter 5 for removal/installation of the N-2007 regulator). To
check the secondary regulation (output) a simple vacuum hand pump can be
used to simulate the vacuum signal transmitted from the air/fuel mixer when the
engine is running. See listing below for required hardware.
Break-Off Test
Secondary Stage Test Hardware
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Hand vacuum pump
Regulator vapor outlet test fitting 3/4” NPT x 1/4” hose barb
Union Tee 1/4” NPT with three 1/4” NPT x 1/4” hose barb
Vacuum hose
0-3” WC Magnehelic gauge (inches of water column)
Secondary Stage (Break-Off) Test
1. Connect the vacuum pump, the Magnehelic gauge, and the regulator
vapor outlet to the Union Tee fitting (Figure 30). Make sure there is no
leakage at any of the fittings.
2. Using the vacuum pump slowly apply enough vacuum to measure above
-2” WC on the gauge. This vacuum signal opens the secondary valve in
the N-2007 regulator/converter.
3. Release the vacuum pump lever and you will see the gauge needle start
falling back toward zero. When the pressure drops just below the
specified break-off pressure (-0.5 +/- 0.35 “ WC) of the secondary spring,
the needle should stop moving.
4. At this point the secondary valve should close. If the secondary valve
seat or the secondary diaphragm is leaking the gauge needle will
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continue to fall toward zero (proportional to the leak size). An excessively
rich air/fuel mixture can be caused by a secondary valve seat leak and
the regulator should be replaced.
Figure 30. Secondary Stage Test Connection
Pressure Test
Primary Stage Test Hardware
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Shop air pressure regulator adjusted to 100 psi
Shop air hose fitting (1/4” NPT to air hose)
Air hose
Test gauge fitting (1/16” NPT x 1/4” hose barb)
Vacuum hose or vinyl tubing
0-60” WC Magnehelic gauge (inches of water column)
Primary Stage Pressure Test
1. Remove the primary test port plug from the side of the regulator and
install the 1/16” NPT hose barb fitting (Figure 31).
2. Connect a compressed air line (shop air ~100 psi) to the liquid propane fuel
inlet of the N-2007 regulator (Figure 31).
Figure 31. Primary Stage Test Connection
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3. Apply compressed air, wait for air to exit the hose barb in the test port,
and then connect the Magnehelic gauge (Figure 32) to the hose barb
using the vacuum hose or vinyl tubing. This prevents the gauge from
reading maximum pressure due to the large velocity of compressed air
entering the primary chamber.
4. Make sure there is no leakage at any of the fittings. The static pressure
should read between 40-60” of water column on the Magnehelic gauge
and maintain a constant pressure for 60 seconds.
Figure 32. Magnehelic Gauge Connection to Hose Barb
5. If the pressure reading begins to increase, a leak is most likely present
at the primary valve, either the primary valve o-ring or the valve itself. If a
leak is present the regulator is defective.
6. If the pressure begins to decrease, the secondary seat is probably not
making an adequate seal and is leaking. The regulator is defective.
7. If the test is successful, re-install the primary test port plug and check the
fittings for leaks. See Chapter 5 for installation of the N-2007 regulator.
NOTE
The N-2007 primary stage pressure can also be tested at idle on a running
engine. The N-2007 primary pressure should be between 40 inH20 (99.635
mbar) and 55 inH20 (136.999 mbar) at 750 RPM, idle.
WARNING
x
LP gas is highly flammable. To prevent personal injury, keep fire and
flammable materials away from the lift truck when work is done on the
fuel system.
x
Gas vapor may reduce oxygen available for breathing, cause headache,
nausea, dizziness and unconsciousness and lead to injury or death.
Always operate the forklift in a well ventilated area.
x
Liquid propane may cause freezing of tissue or frostbite. Avoid direct
contact with skin or tissue; always wear appropriate safety protection
including gloves and safety glasses when working with liquid propane.
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AVV (Air Valve Vacuum) Testing
Purpose of Test
Check for excessive or inadequate pressure drop across CA100 mixer.
AVV Test Hardware
1. Union Tee fitting, 1/4” (6.35mm) NPT
with three 1/4” (6.35mm) NPT x 1/4” (6.35mm) hose barbs.
2. Vacuum hose.
3. 0-20” H2O differential pressure Magnehelic gauge.
AVV Test
1. Install Union Tee fitting in the hose between the FTVs and the AVV
fitting. Connect this fitting to the low pressure port of the Magnehelic
gauge (Figure 33).
2. Leave high pressure port of the Magnehelic gauge exposed to ambient
pressure (Figure 33).
3. With the engine fully warmed up and running at idle (750 RPM) place the
transmission in Neutral. The AVV should be between 5” and 8” H2O of
pressure vacuum.
4. If the measured pressure drop is excessively high, check for sticking or
binding of the diaphragm air valve assembly inside the mixer. Replace
mixer if necessary.
5. If the measured pressure drop is low, check for vacuum leaks in the
manifold, throttle, mixer, TMAP sensor and attached hoses.
Figure 33. Magnehelic Gauge Connection
Ignition Timing Adjustment
With the MI-07 system, ignition-timing advance is controlled by the SECM.
The initial ignition timing needs to be set by the MOR. This setup requires a
specific technique for each engine installation.
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Connection of MI-07 Service Tool
To use the Service Tool, a Universal Serial Bus (USB) to Controller Area
Network (CAN) communication adapter by KVaser will be required along with a
Crypt Token (Figure 34). The Crypt Token acts as a security key allowing the
laptop to retrieve the necessary data from the SECM.
1. Install the Crypt Token in an available USB port in the computer (Figure
35).
2. With the ignition key in the OFF position, connect the KVaser
communication cable from a second USB port on the computer
to the CAN communications cable on the engine.
(*If your laptop computer does not
have a second USB port an
appropriate USB hub will need to
be used).
3. Connect a timing light to the
engine.
4. Turn the ignition key to the ON
position (Do Not Start the
Engine).
5. Launch the MotoView program on
your computer and open the Service Tool display (Figure 36).
Figure 34. KVaser
Communication Adapter
Crypt
Token
Figure 35. Crypt Token Installed on Laptop
Figure 36. Opening the Service Tool Display
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Manual 36551A
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Idle Mixture Adjustment
NOTE
Be sure engine is fully warm (ECT>180°F [82°C]) before performing
the idle mixture adjustment.
The CA100 mixer requires adjustment of the idle mixture screw to assure optimal
emissions and performance. This adjustment accounts for minor part-to-part
variations in the fuel system and assures stable performance of the engine at idle.
Once adjusted, the idle mixture screw is sealed with a tamper proof cap, after
which it need not be adjusted for the life of the vehicle.
Therefore, the only situations in which the idle mixture screw needs to be adjusted
are when the engine is initially fitted with a fuel system at the factory and following
the field replacement of the mixer. Under these situations, follow the procedures
below for adjustment of the idle mixture screw.
Factory Test Preparation:
1. Install the MI-07 fuel system, wiring harness and SECM-48 control
module on the engine.
2. All coolant hoses should be attached, filled with coolant and bled to
remove any air.
3. Attach LPG fuel lines.
4. Attach wiring harness to battery power.
5. Attach exhaust system.
6. If present, set fuel select switch to LPG fuel.
When operated at the factory, it is critical to simulate the airflow found on a
forklift at idle as nearly as possible in order to achieve the proper air valve lift in
the mixer. It may be necessary to place a load on the engine to achieve the
required airflow without overspeeding the engine. Means of achieving this load
include:
a) Place an electrical load on the alternator. The alternator should
be able to briefly hold loads of approximately 1.2 kW.
b) Attach the engine to a dynamometer.
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Factory Adjustment Procedure:
NOTE
Be sure engine is fully warm (ECT>180°F [82°C]) before performing
the idle mixture adjustment.
1. Operating the engine on LPG fuel, start the engine and permit the engine
to warm up until the coolant temperature (ECT on Mototune display) is
approximately 180°F (82 oC).
2. Set APP input to minimum.
3. Adjust the load until engine speed reaches 750 RPM.
4. Mototune display parameter LP Fuel Control must display “Closed Loop.”
5. Use the Mototune Service Tool to monitor Duty Cycle % on the Mototune
display.
6. To adjust the idle mixture screw, use a 3/16” hex or Allen-type wrench.
Turning the screw in (clockwise) should increase the duty cycle; turning
the screw out (counter-clockwise) should decrease the duty cycle.
7. Adjust the idle mixture screw on the mixer until a reading of 40-47% is
reached for the FTV Duty Cycle in Closed Loop Idle (Figure 37).
Closed Loop
Duty Cycle%
Figure 37. FTV Duty Cycle Percentage Displayed on Service Tool
8. Use the accelerator pedal to increase RPM above idle momentarily (rev
the engine) then release the pedal to return to idle RPM. The duty cycle
setting should remain within the adjustment range (40-47%).
9. Use the Mototune Service Tool to lock the FTV duty cycle. Set display
parameter DitherValveDC_ovr = locked (displayed in screen tab Manual
Override 1 under AFR Trim Vales, select “locked” under box labeled
Lock DC%).
10. Use the Mototune Service Tool to monitor throttle position (TPS1) and
Exhaust gas oxygen equivalence ratio (“O2 Value” in Figure 1). While
monitoring O2, slowly increase the pedal input (APP) to achieve a TPS1
value of 15%.
11. Use the Mototune Service Tool to unlock the FTV duty cycle. Set display
parameter DitherValveDC_ovr = unlocked (displayed in screen tab
Manual Override 1 under AFR Trim Vales, select “unlocked” under box
labeled Lock DC%).
12. If at any time in step 10, O2 was greater than 1.2 go to step 13. If 02
remained below 1.2, proceed to Step 15.
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13. Adjust the idle mixture screw on the mixer until a reading of 50-55% is
reached for the FTV Duty Cycle in Closed Loop Idle (Figure 37).
14. Use the accelerator pedal to increase RPM above idle momentarily (rev
the engine) then release the pedal to return to idle RPM. The duty cycle
setting should remain within the adjustment range (50-55%).
NOTE
If the FTV Duty Cycle reading is NOT between 25-60%,
check for possible vacuum leaks, manifold leaks, or a faulty
mixer.
15. Turn the ignition key to the OFF position to shut down the engine.
16. Install the tamper proof cap on the idle mixture screw adjustment port
using a large pin punch, so that no further adjustments can be made
(Figure 38).
Idle Mixture Screw
Under Cap
Tamper
Proof Cap
Figure 38. Installing Tamper Proof Cap
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Field Adjustment Procedure:
The idle mixture adjustment should only be necessary on a new mixer that does
not have the tamper proof cap installed. The method for making the idle mixture
adjustment to a running engine is to use the Service Tool software by connecting
a laptop computer to the SECM. If you do not have the Service Tool, a
multimeter capable of measuring duty cycle, such as a Fluke 87 III, can be used.
If using a multimeter, connect the meter positive lead to the battery positive wire
and the meter negative to the FTV signal wire. For the Fluke 87, press the
“RANGE” button until 4 or 40 appears in the lower right-hand corner of the
display. Press the “Hz” button twice so that the percent sign (%) appears on the
right-hand side of the display. The multimeter will then read the duty cycle
percentage the just like the Service Tool shown in Figure 37.
1. After installing a new mixer, operate the engine on LPG fuel. Start the
engine and permit it to warm up until the coolant temperature (ECT on
Mototune display) is approximately 180°F (82 oC).
2. Place the transmission in Neutral.
3. Mototune display parameter LP Fuel Control must display “Closed Loop”.
4. Use the Mototune Service Tool to monitor Duty Cycle % on the Mototune
display.
5. To adjust the idle mixture screw, use a hex or Allen-type wrench. Turning
the screw in (clockwise) should increase the duty cycle; turning the
screw out (counterclockwise) should decrease the duty cycle.
6. Adjust the idle mixture screw on the mixer until a reading of 45-55% is
reached for the FTV Duty Cycle in Closed Loop Idle (Figure 37). If
engine idle performance is unstable screw the idle screw in slightly to
see if stability is obtained, but in no case should duty cycle exceed 60%.
7. Use the accelerator pedal to increase RPM above idle momentarily (rev
the engine) then release the pedal to return to idle RPM. The duty cycle
setting should remain within the adjustment range (45-55%).
8. If the FTV duty cycle reading is above 55% adjust the idle adjustment
screw outward and re-check the duty cycle reading. Continue to do this
until the FTV duty cycle reading is within the optimum range (45-55%).
DO NOT adjust the screw so far outward that the tamper proof cap
cannot be installed. A duty cycle measurement at Closed Loop Idle of
40-60% is acceptable if the optimum range of 45-55% cannot be
reached through adjustment. If the FTV duty cycle cannot be adjusted
below 60%, the mixer is faulty and should be replaced.
NOTE
If the FTV Duty Cycle reading is NOT between 25-60%, check
for possible vacuum leaks, manifold leaks, or a faulty mixer.
9. Turn the ignition key to the OFF position to shut down the engine.
10. Install the tamper proof cap on the idle mixture screw adjustment port
using a large pin punch, so that no further adjustments can be made
(Figure 38).
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Chapter 7.
Basic Troubleshooting
Preliminary Checks
MI-07 systems are equipped with built-in fault diagnostics. Detected system
faults can be displayed by the Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL) and are
covered in Chapter 8, Advanced Diagnostics. However, items such as fuel
level, plugged fuel lines, clogged fuel filters, and malfunctioning pressure
regulators may not set a fault code and usually can be corrected with the
basic troubleshooting steps described on the following pages.
If engine or drivability problems are encountered with your MI-07 system,
perform the checks in this section before referring to Advanced Diagnostics.
NOTE: Locating a problem in a propane engine is done exactly the same as
with a gasoline engine. Consider all parts of the ignition and mechanical
systems as well as the fuel system.
BEFORE STARTING . . .
1. Determine that the SECM and the MIL are operating. Verify operation by
keying on engine and checking for flash of the MIL.
When the ignition key is turned on, the MIL will illuminate and remain on
until the engine is started. Once the engine is started, the MIL will go out
unless one or more fault conditions are present. If a detected fault
condition exists, the fault or faults will be stored in the memory of the
SECM. Once an active fault occurs the MIL will illuminate and remain
ON. This signals the operator that a fault has been detected by the
SECM.
2. Determine that there are no diagnostic codes stored, or there is
a diagnostic code but no MIL.
VISUAL/PHYSICALCHECK
Several of the procedures call for a “Careful Visual/Physical Check” which
should include:
x
x
x
x
x
x
SECM grounds for being clean and tight.
Vacuum hoses for splits, kinks, and proper connection.
Air leaks at throttle body mounting and intake manifold.
Exhaust system leaks.
Ignition wires for cracking, hardness, proper routing, and carbon tracking.
Wiring for pinches and cuts.
Also check:
x
x
x
x
x
Connections to determine that none are loose, cracked, or missing
Fuel level in vehicle is sufficient
Fuel is not leaking
Battery voltage is greater than 11.5 volts
Steering, brakes, and hydraulics are in proper condition and vehicle
is safe to operate
NOTE
The Visual/Physical check is very important, as it can often correct
a problem without further troubleshooting and save valuable time.
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Basic Troubleshooting
Intermittent Faults
An intermittent fault is the most difficult to troubleshoot since the MIL flashes on
at random, causing uncertainty in the number of flashes or the conditions present
at the time of the fault. Also, the problem may or may not fully turn “ON” the MIL
or store a code.
Therefore, the fault must be present or able to be recreated in order to
locate the problem. If a fault is intermittent, use of diagnostic code charts
may result in the unnecessary replacement of good components.
CORRECTIVE ACTION
Most intermittent problems are caused by faulty electrical connections or wiring.
Perform careful visual/physical check for:
x Poor mating of the connector halves or terminal not fully seated in the
connector body (backed out).
x Improperly formed or damaged terminal. All connector terminals in
problem circuit should be carefully reformed or replaced to insure proper
contact tension.
x Loose connections or broken wires.
x Poor terminal to wire connection crimp.
If a visual/physical check does not find the cause of the problem, perform the
following:
(1) Drive the vehicle with a voltmeter or “Service” tool connected to a
suspected circuit. Check if circuit is active and signal is reasonable.
(2) Using the “Service” tool, monitor the input signal to the SECM to help
detect intermittent conditions.
(3) An abnormal voltage, or “Service” reading, when the problem occurs,
indicates the problem may be in that circuit.
(4) If the wiring and connectors check OK, and a diagnostic code was stored
for a circuit having a sensor, check sensor.
An intermittent “Service Engine Soon” light with no stored diagnostic code may be
caused by:
x Ignition coil shortage to ground and arcing at spark plug wires or plugs.
x MIL wire to ECM shorted to ground.
x SECM grounds (refer to SECM wiring diagrams).
Check for improper installation of electrical options such as lights, 2-way radios,
accessories, etc.
EST wires should be routed away from spark plug wires, distributor wires, distributor
housing, coil and generator. Wires from SECM to ignition should have a good
connection.
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Manual 36551A
MI-07 Engine Control System for 4.3L Engines
Basic Troubleshooting (cont’d.)
Surges and/or Stumbles
Engine power varies under steady throttle or cruise. Surging and
stumbling is characterized by the feeling that the vehicle is speeding up
and slowing down with no change in the acceleration pedal.
PRELIMINARY CHECKS
Perform the visual checks as described at start of “ Basic Troubleshooting” chapter.
Be sure driver understands vehicle operation as explained in the operator manual.
PROBABLE CAUSE
Oxygen sensor malfunction
Fuel system malfunction
CORRECTIVE ACTION
The fuel management system should maintain a
stoichiometric air-fuel ratio under all steady state
operating conditions following engine warmup.
Failure of the Pre-catalyst O2 sensor should cause
an O2 sensor fault that can be diagnosed with the
MIL or Service Tool.
NOTE: To determine if the condition is caused by
a rich or lean system, the vehicle should be driven
at the speed of the complaint. Monitoring precatalyst O2 adapts*, dither valve duty cycle, or
mechanical injector pulse width will help identify
problem.
Check fuel supply while condition exists.
Check in-line fuel filter. Replace if dirty or plugged.
Check fuel pressure.
Check for proper ignition voltage output using spark
tester.
Check spark plugs.
x
Remove spark plugs, check for wet
plugs, cracks, wear, improper gap,
burned electrodes, or heavy deposits.
x
Repair or replace as necessary.
x
Check condition of spark plug wires.
Ignition system malfunction
Check ignition timing.
Check vacuum lines for kinks or leaks.
Component malfunction
Check alternator output voltage. Repair if less than
9 or more than 16 volts.
Check condition of exhaust system.
Exhaust backpressure
Check backpressure before catalyst. It should be
less than 3.5 psig (24.13 kPa).
(*) Refer to Table 1 for description of gaseous and liquid O2 adapts.
Related MIL Faults:
Pre-catalyst O2 sensor errors / O2 control errors
Dither valve DC faults / EST faults / ETC faults
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Manual 36551A
MI-07 Engine Control System for 4.3L Engines
Basic Troubleshooting (cont’d.)
Engine Cranking but Will Not Start / Difficult to Start
Engine cranks OK, but does not start for a long time. Does eventually run, or
engine starts but immediately dies.
PRELIMINARY CHECKS
Perform the visual checks as described at start of “ Basic Troubleshooting” chapter.
Be sure driver is using correct method to start engine as explained in operator’s
manual. Use “clear flood” mode during cranking by fully depressing the pedal and
cranking the engine. If engine does not start, continue troubleshooting.
PROBABLE CAUSE
Improper fuel selected
Fuel container empty
Liquid valve closed
Propane excess flow
valve closed
Plugged fuel line
Clogged fuel filter
Faulty vapor connection
between the pressure
regulator/converter and the
mixer
Fuel lock-off malfunction
Pressure regulator/converter
malfunction
Incorrect air/fuel or
ignition/spark control
No crankshaft position
sensor signal
CORRECTIVE ACTION
Verify “selected” fuel with Service Tool. Make sure
fuel select switch is in proper position.
Check for LPG vapor from LPG liquid outlet valve
on tank.
Fill fuel container. Do not exceed 80% of liquid
capacity.
Slowly open liquid valve.
Reset excess flow valve in LPG tank.
Close liquid valve. Wait for a “click” sound;
slowly open liquid valve.
Remove obstruction from the fuel line.
x Close liquid fuel valve.
x Using caution, disconnect the fuel line
(some propane may escape).
x Clear obstruction with compressed air.
x Re-connect fuel line.
x Slowly open liquid fuel valve.
x Leak test.
Repair/replace as required.
See Chapter 4 Fuel Filter replacement.
Check connection
x Verify no holes in hose.
x Clamps must be tight.
x Look for kinked, pinched and/or
collapsed hose.
Repair/replace fuel lock-off.
See Chapter 4 Fuel Lock-off.
Test regulator/converter operation and pressure.
See Chapter 6 Tests and Adjustments.
See Chapter 8 Advanced Diagnostics.
Verify the crankshaft position signal is present
See Chapter 8 Advanced Diagnostics.
(continued on next page)
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Manual 36551A
MI-07 Engine Control System for 4.3L Engines
Basic Troubleshooting (cont’d.)
Engine Cranking but Will Not Start / Difficult to Start (cont’d.)
PROBABLE CAUSE
CORRECTIVE ACTION
Check Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT) sensor
using the Service Tool; compare coolant
temperature with ambient temperature on cold
engine.
If coolant temperature reading is 5° greater than or
less than ambient air temperature on a cold engine,
check resistance in coolant sensor circuit or sensor
itself. Compare ECT resistance value to
“Diagnostic Aids” chart at end of this section.
SECM / control system
malfunction
Verify that there is no code for Electronic Throttle
Controller (ETC) spring check fault.
Check for 0% APP during cranking.
Cycle key ON and OFF and listen for throttle check
(movement) on key OFF.
Check for oil pressure switch faults.
Check for ETC “sticking” faults.
Check Throttle Position Sensor (TPS) for stuck
binding or a high TPS voltage with the throttle
closed.
Check fuel lock off (propane) or fuel pump. The
lock off or fuel pump may turn “ON” for some
seconds when ignition switch is turned “ON”
(calibration specific).
Check fuel pressure.
Check for contaminated fuel.
Fuel system malfunction
Check fuses (visually inspect).
Check propane tank valve & pickup. A faulty
in-tank fuel pump check valve will allow the fuel in
the lines to drain back to the tank after engine is
stopped. To check for this condition, perform fuel
system diagnosis.
Check FTV system for proper operation.
Check for proper ignition voltage output with spark
tester.
Ignition system malfunction
Check spark plugs. Remove spark plugs, check for
wet plugs, cracks, wear, improper gap, burned
electrodes, or heavy deposits. Repair or replace as
necessary.
Check for:
x Bare or shorted wires
x
Loose ignition coil ground
x
Pickup coil resistance and connection.
Related MIL Faults:
ETC spring check / ETC faults / EST faults / TPS conflict
APP faults / Encoder error / MAP faults / Injector faults / Oil pressure faults
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Manual 36551A
MI-07 Engine Control System for 4.3L Engines
Basic Troubleshooting (cont’d.)
Lack of Power, Slow to Respond / Poor High Speed
Performance / Hesitation During Acceleration
Engine delivers less than expected power. Little or no increase in speed when
accelerator pedal is pushed down part way. Momentary lack of response as the
accelerator is pushed down. May occur at all vehicle speeds. Usually most
severe when first trying to make vehicle move, as from a stop. May cause engine
to stall.
PRELIMINARY CHECKS
Perform the visual checks as described at start of “ Basic Troubleshooting” chapter.
Drive vehicle; verify problem exists.
Remove air filter and check for dirt or other means of plugging. Replace if needed.
PROBABLE CAUSE
CORRECTIVE ACTION
Fuel system malfunction
Check for restricted fuel filter.
Check fuel supply.
Check for LPG vapor from LPG liquid outlet valve
on tank.
Check for contaminated fuel.
Check for clogged fuel filter and repair or replace
as required. See Chapter 4 Fuel Filter replacement
Check for plugged fuel line and remove any
obstruction from the fuel line:
x Close liquid fuel valve.
x Using caution, disconnect the fuel line
(some propane may escape).
x Clear obstruction with compressed air.
x Re-connect fuel line.
x Slowly open liquid fuel valve and leak
test.
Check for faulty vapor connection between
pressure regulator/converter and mixer:
x Verify that there are no holes in hose.
x Observe that clamps are tight.
x Look for kinked, pinched and/or collapsed
hose.
Monitor pre-catalyst O2 with Service Tool.
Check for proper pressure regulator operation.
See Chapter 6 Test and Adjustments.
Check for proper air/fuel mixer operation.
Ignition system malfunction
Check spark advance for excessive retarded
ignition timing. Use Service Tool.
Check secondary voltage using an oscilloscope or
a spark tester to check for a weak coil.
Check spark plug condition.
Check poor spark plug primary and secondary wire
condition.
(continued on next page)
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Manual 36551A
MI-07 Engine Control System for 4.3L Engines
Basic Troubleshooting (cont’d.)
Lack of Power, Slow to Respond / Poor High Speed Performance
Hesitation During Acceleration (cont’d.)
PROBABLE CAUSE
CORRECTIVE ACTION
Component malfunction
Check SECM grounds for cleanliness and secure
connection. See SECM wiring diagrams.
Check alternator output voltage. Repair if less than
9 volts or more than 16 volts.
Check for clogged air filter and clean or replace as
required.
Check exhaust system for possible restriction.
Refer to Chart T-1 on later pages.
Inspect exhaust system for damaged or collapsed
pipes.
Engine mechanical
x
Inspect muffler for heat distress or
possible internal failure.
x
Check for possible plugged catalytic
converter by comparing exhaust system
backpressure on each side of engine.
x
Check backpressure by removing Precatalyst O2 sensor and measuring
backpressure with a gauge.
See Engine Manufacturer’s Service Manual.
Check engine valve timing and compression
Check engine for correct or worn camshaft.
Related MIL Faults:
EST faults
ETC faults
ETC spring check
TPS faults
APP faults
Encoder error
Delayed Shutdown faults
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Manual 36551A
MI-07 Engine Control System for 4.3L Engines
Basic Troubleshooting (cont’d.)
Detonation / Spark Knock
A mild to severe ping, usually worse under acceleration. The engine makes sharp metallic
knocks that change with throttle opening (similar to the sound of hail striking a metal roof).
PRELIMINARY CHECKS
Perform the visual checks as described at start of “ Basic Troubleshooting” chapter.
PROBABLE CAUSE
CORRECTIVE ACTION
Check for proper fuel level:
x
Check for LPG vapor from LPG liquid outlet
valve on tank.
x
Fuel system
malfunction
Cooling system
malfunction
Ignition system
malfunction
Exhaust system
malfunction
Engine mechanical
Fill fuel container. Do not exceed 80% of
liquid capacity.
Check fuel pressure.
To determine if the condition is caused by a rich or lean
system, the vehicle should be driven at the speed of the
complaint. Monitoring with the Service tool will help
identify problem.
Check for obvious overheating problems:
x Low engine coolant
x Loose water pump belt
x Restricted air flow to radiator, or restricted
water flow through radiator
x Inoperative electric cooling fan
x Correct coolant solution should be a mix of
anti-freeze coolant (or equivalent) and water
x High coolant temperature
Check ignition timing.
Check spark module wiring.
Check exhaust backpressure.
Check for debris clogging the catalyst.
Check that pre-catalyst O2 sensor is functioning.
Check for excessive oil in the combustion chamber
and/or blow by from excessive PCV flow.
Check combustion chambers for excessive carbon build
up.
Check combustion chamber pressure by performing a
compression test.
Check for incorrect basic engine parts such as cam,
heads, pistons, etc.
Related MIL Faults:
EST faults
Encoder error
High coolant temperature faults
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Manual 36551A
MI-07 Engine Control System for 4.3L Engines
Basic Troubleshooting (cont’d.)
Backfire
Fuel ignites in intake manifold or in exhaust system, making loud popping noise.
PRELIMINARY CHECKS
Perform the visual checks as described at start of “ Basic Troubleshooting” chapter.
Simulate condition by reviewing operation procedure practiced by vehicle operator.
PROBABLE CAUSE
CORRECTIVE ACTION
Perform fuel system diagnosis check:
Fuel system
malfunction
x
Check for fuel leaks.
x
Check for MIL faults.
x
Check for damaged components.
Ignition system
malfunction
Check proper ignition coil output voltage with spark
tester.
Check spark plugs. Remove spark plugs, check for wet
plugs, cracks, wear, improper gap, burned electrodes,
or heavy deposits. Repair or replace as necessary.
Check spark plug wires for crossfire; also inspect spark
plug wires and proper routing of plug wires.
Check ignition timing.
Engine mechanical
Check compression: look for sticking or leaking valves.
Check intake and exhaust manifold for casting flash
and gasket misalignment.
Refer to Engine Manufacturer’s Service Manual.
Related MIL Faults: EST faults / ETC faults / Encoder error
Pre-catalyst O2 sensor faults
Dieseling, Run-on
Engine continues to run after key is turned “OFF,“ but runs very roughly. If
engine runs smoothly, check ignition switch and adjustment.
PRELIMINARY CHECKS
Perform the visual checks as described at start of “ Basic Troubleshooting” chapter.
PROBABLE CAUSE
Fuel system
malfunction
CORRECTIVE ACTION
Check for fuel leaks or leaking injector.
Ignition switching
Make sure power to system is shut off when key is in
OFF position.
Fuel lock off valve
Make sure lock off valve is closing properly.
Ignition system malfunction
Check spark advance at idle.
Related MIL Faults: EST faults / ETC faults / Pre-catalyst O2 sensor faults
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Manual 36551A
MI-07 Engine Control System for 4.3L Engines
Basic Troubleshooting (cont’d.)
Rough, Unstable, Incorrect Idle, or Stalling
Engine cranks OK, but does not start for a long time. Does eventually run, or
may start but immediately dies.
PRELIMINARY CHECKS
Perform the visual checks as described at start of “ Basic Troubleshooting” chapter.
Check for vacuum leaks.
Check that SECM grounds are clean and tight. See SECM wiring diagram.
PROBABLE CAUSE
CORRECTIVE ACTION
Fuel system
malfunction
Monitor oxygen feedback to help identify the cause of
the problem. If the system is running lean or if the
system is running rich evaluate further i.e. dither valve
duty cycle and injector pulse width.
Check for incorrect minimum idle speed that may be
caused by foreign material accumulation in the throttle
bore, on the throttle valve, or on the throttle shaft.
Check that the injectors are clean and functioning.
Check for liquid fuel in propane pressure regulator
hose. If fuel is present, replace regulator assembly.
The pre-catalyst oxygen (O2) sensor should respond
quickly to different throttle positions. If it does not,
then check the pre-catalyst O2 sensor for
contamination. If the pre-catalyst O2 sensor is aged or
contaminated, the SECM will not deliver correct
amount of fuel, resulting in a drivability problem.
Fuel container empty
Ignition system
malfunction
LPG pressure regulator
malfunction
Air/fuel mixer malfunction
Component malfunction
Engine mechanical
Check for LPG vapor from LPG liquid outlet valve on
tank.
Fill fuel container. Do not exceed 80% of liquid
capacity.
Check ignition system; wires, plugs, etc.
Test regulator operation and pressure.
See Chapter 6 Tests and Adjustments
Check mixer.
Check throttle for sticking or binding.
Check PCV valve for proper operation by placing
finger over inlet hole in valve end several times. Valve
should snap back. If not, replace valve.
Check alternator output voltage. Repair if less than 9
or more than 16 volts.
Perform a cylinder compression check.
See Engine Manufacturer’s Service Manual.
(continued on next page)
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Manual 36551A
MI-07 Engine Control System for 4.3L Engines
Basic Troubleshooting (cont’d.)
Rough, Unstable, Incorrect Idle, or Stalling (cont’d.)
PROBABLE CAUSE
Excess flow valve closed
Clogged fuel filter
Plugged fuel line
Fuel lock-off malfunction
Faulty vapor connection
between the pressure
regulator/converter and the
mixer
Pressure regulator freezes
Vacuum leak
CORRECTIVE ACTION
Reset excess flow valve.
x Close liquid valve.
x Wait for a “click” sound. Slowly open liquid
valve.
Repair/replace as required
See Chapter 4 Fuel Filter Replacement
Remove obstruction from the fuel line.
x Close liquid fuel valve.
x Using caution, disconnect the fuel line
(some propane may escape).
x Clear obstruction with compressed air.
x Re-connect fuel line.
x Slowly open liquid fuel valve & leak test.
Repair/replace fuel lock-off.
See Chapter 4 Fuel Lock-Off.
Check connection.
x Verify no holes in hose.
x Clamps must be tight.
x Look for kinked, pinched and/or collapsed
hose.
Check level in cooling system:
x Must be full, check coolant strength.
x -35°F (-37°C) minimum.
Check coolant hoses.
x Watch for kinks and/or pinched hoses.
x Verify one pressure hose and one return
hose.
Test regulator. See Chapter 6
Check for vacuum leaks . . .
x Between mixer and throttle body.
x Between throttle body and intake manifold.
x Between intake manifold and cylinder
head.
Related MIL Faults:
EST faults
ETC Sticking fault
Pre-catalyst adapts error
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Manual 36551A
MI-07 Engine Control System for 4.3L Engines
Basic Troubleshooting (cont’d.)
Cuts Out, Misses
Steady pulsation or jerking that follows engine speed, usually more pronounced
as engine load increases, sometimes above 1500 RPM. The exhaust has a
steady spitting sound at idle or low speed.
PRELIMINARY CHECKS
Perform the visual checks as described at start of “ Basic Troubleshooting” chapter.
PROBABLE CAUSE
CORRECTIVE ACTION
Fuel system
malfunction
Check fuel system specifically for plugged fuel filter,
low pressure.
Check for contaminated fuel.
Check injector drivers. Disconnect all injector harness
connectors. Use injector test light or equivalent 6-volt
test light between the harness terminals of each
connector and observe if light blinks while cranking. If
test light fails to blink at any connector, it is a faulty
injector drive circuit harness, connector, or terminal.
Check lock off for intermittent connection.
Check dither valve operation.
Ignition system
malfunction
Check for spark on the suspected cylinder(s) using a
shop oscilloscope or spark tester or equivalent. If no
spark, check for intermittent operation or miss. If there
is a spark, remove spark plug(s) in these cylinders
and check for cracks, wear, improper gap, burned
electrodes, heavy deposits.
Check spark plug wires by connecting ohmmeter to
ends of each wire in question. If meter reads over
30,000 ȍ, replace wire(s).
Visually inspect wires for moisture, dust, cracks,
burns, etc. Spray plug wires with fine water mist to
check for shorts.
Check engine ground wire for looseness or corrosion.
Component malfunction
Check for electromagnetic interference (EMI). A
missing condition can be caused by EMI on the
reference circuit. EMI can usually be detected by
monitoring engine RPM with Service Tool. A sudden
increase in RPM with little change in actual engine
RPM indicates EMI is present. If problem exists,
check routing of secondary wires and check distributor
ground circuit.
Check intake and exhaust manifolds for casting flash
or gasket leaks.
Engine mechanical
Perform compression check on questionable
cylinders. If compression is low, repair as necessary.
Check base engine. Remove rocker covers and check
for bent pushrods, worn rocker arms, broken valve
springs, worn camshaft lobes, and valve timing.
Repair as necessary.
Related MIL Faults:
EST faults / ETC Sticking fault
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Manual 36551A
MI-07 Engine Control System for 4.3L Engines
Basic Troubleshooting (cont’d.)
Poor Fuel Economy / Excessive Fuel Consumption
LPG Exhaust Smell
Fuel economy, as measured during normal operation, is noticeably lower than
expected. Also, economy is noticeably lower than what it has been in the past.
Propane fuel smell near vehicle sets off carbon monoxide sensors.
PRELIMINARY CHECKS
Perform the visual checks as described at start of “ Basic Troubleshooting” chapter.
Verify operator complaint: identify operating conditions.
Check operator’s driving habits:
Are tires at correct pressure?
Are excessively heavy loads being carried?
Is acceleration too much, too often?
Check air cleaner element (filter) for being dirty or plugged.
Visually (physically) check vacuum hoses for splits, kinks, and proper connections.
PROBABLE CAUSE
Fuel system
malfunction
CORRECTIVE ACTION
Check for faulty gasoline pressure regulator.
Check for leaking injector.
Check that dither valve duty cycle is < 15%.
Check for too high propane pressure at mixer
(> 1” positive pressure).
Monitor Pre-catalyst O2 sensor with Service Tool.
Cooling system
malfunction
Check engine coolant level.
Check engine thermostat for faulty part (always open)
or for wrong heat range.
Ignition system
malfunction
Check ignition timing.
Check for weak ignition and/or spark control.
Check spark plugs. Remove spark plugs and check
for wet plugs, cracks, wear, improper gap, burned
electrodes, or heavy deposits. Repair or replace as
necessary.
Component malfunction
Check for exhaust system restriction or leaks.
Check induction system and crankcase for air leaks.
Check for clogged air filter; clean or replace as
required.
Check FTVs for housing cracks or obstructions; repair
or replace as required.
Check for vacuum leak. Check system vacuum hoses
from regulator to FTVs and mixer. Repair or replace
as required.
Air/fuel mixer malfunction
Check mixer.
Pressure regulator
malfunction / fuel pressure
too high
Test regulator operation and pressure.
See Chapter 6 Tests and Adjustments.
Engine mechanical
Check compression.
Refer to Engine Manufacturer’s Service Manual.
Related MIL Faults:
Pre-catalyst O2 sensor faults / Low side driver / Dither valve duty cycle
EST faults / Fuel adapt faults / Low coolant temperature
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Manual 36551A
MI-07 Engine Control System for 4.3L Engines
Basic Troubleshooting (cont’d.)
High Idle Speed
Engine idles above the range of 750-1000 RPM.
PRELIMINARY CHECKS
Perform the visual checks as described at start of “ Basic Troubleshooting” chapter.
PROBABLE CAUSE
CORRECTIVE ACTION
Incorrect idle speed control
Check all hoses and gaskets for cracking, kinks, or
leaks.
Verify that there are no vacuum leaks.
See Chapter 8 Advanced Diagnostics & Chapter 6
Tests and Adjustments
Throttle sticking
Foot pedal sticking or
incorrect pedal signal
Engine mechanical
Replace throttle.
See Fault Code 461: ETC Sticking
Check pedal return spring travel for binding.
Check APP function with Service Tool.
Verify smooth change of APP reading with pedal
movement.
See Chapter 8 Advanced Diagnostics.
Check for vacuum hose leak.
Check for PCV malfunction.
Check for defective intake gasket.
Related MIL Faults:
ETC Sticking fault
Idle adapt out of range
MAP Sticking fault
MAP high value
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Manual 36551A
MI-07 Engine Control System for 4.3L Engines
Basic Troubleshooting (cont’d.)
Excessive Exhaust Emissions or Odors
Vehicle has high CO emissions.
NOTE: Excessive odors do not necessarily indicate excessive emissions.
PRELIMINARY CHECKS
Verify that no stored codes exist.
If emission test shows excessive CO and HC, check items that cause vehicle to run
rich.
If emission test shows excessive NOx, check items that cause vehicle to run lean or
too hot.
PROBABLE CAUSE
Cooling system
malfunction
Fuel system
malfunction
Ignition system
malfunction
Component malfunction
CORRECTIVE ACTION
If the Service tool indicates a very high coolant
temperature and the system is running lean:
x Check engine coolant level.
x
Check engine thermostat for faulty part
(always open) or for wrong heat range.
x
Check fan operation
If the system is running rich, refer to “Diagnostic Aids”
chart on the next page.
If the system is running lean refer to “Diagnostic Aids”
chart on the next page.
Check for properly installed fuel system components.
Check fuel pressure.
Check ignition timing.
Check spark plugs, plug wires, and ignition
components.
Check for vacuum leaks.
Check for contamination for catalytic converter (look
for the removal of fuel filler neck restrictor).
Check for carbon build-up. Remove carbon with
quality engine cleaner. Follow instructions on label.
Check for plugged PCV valve.
Check for stuck or blocked PCV hose.
Check for fuel in the crankcase.
Related MIL Faults:
Low side driver
Fuel adapt faults
EST faults
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Manual 36551A
MI-07 Engine Control System for 4.3L Engines
Basic Troubleshooting (cont’d.)
Diagnostic Aids for Rich / Lean Operation
SERVICE TOOL
ITEM
Pre-catalyst O2 A/ D
counts
Pre-catalyst O2 sensor
switching between high
and low
RICH
LEAN
Consistently > 250
Consistently < 170
Always high ADC
Always low ADC
Trim valve duty cycle
> 90%
< 10%
Fuel injector pulse
width at idle *
< 1.0 msec.
> 8 msec.
Malfunction codes
x Pre-catalyst O2 sensor
failed rich
x Pre-catalyst O2 sensor
high
x Fuel adapts
x Pre-catalyst O2
sensor failed lean
x Pre-catalyst O2
sensor low
x Fuel adapts
Closed loop operation
Stuck in open loop
Stuck in open loop
(*) The duty cycle injector pulse width criteria for lean or rich operation apply
only if the O2 sensor is functioning properly. If the sensor is not operating
properly the criteria may be reversed.
RICH OPERATION
LP (Trim valve duty cycle>90%)
x
Inspect hoses from AVV port (port on bottom of mixer) to trim valves and
regulator for leaks or blockages, replace as necessary.
x
Inspect in-line orifices for blockages (in wye), replace as necessary
x
Check trim valves for proper operation, replace as necessary
x
Check regulator out pressure, replace if out of spec
x
Inspect fuel cone for damage, replace mixer assembly as necessary
Gasoline (Injector Pulse Width<1.0 msec)
x
Check gasoline fuel pressure
x
Check injectors for sticking, replace as necessary
LEAN OPERATION
LP (Trim valve duty cycle<10%)
x
Check for vacuum leaks, replace hoses, o-rings, and gaskets as
necessary
x
Check balance line for blockage, replace as necessary
x
Check vapor hose for restrictions, replace as necessary
x
Check trim valves for proper operation, replace as necessary
x
Check regulator out pressure, replace if out of spec
Gasoline (Injector Pulse Width>8 msec)
x
Check system voltage
x
Check fuel pressure
x Check injectors for sticking or obstructions
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Manual 36551A
MI-07 Engine Control System for 4.3L Engines
Chart T-1
Restricted Exhaust System Check
Proper diagnosis for a restricted exhaust system is essential before replacement
of any components. The following procedures may be used for diagnosis,
depending upon engine or tool used.
CHECK AT PRE-CATALYST OXYGEN (O2) SENSOR
1. Carefully remove pre-catalyst oxygen (O2) sensor.
2. Install exhaust backpressure tester or equivalent in place of O2 sensor
using Snap-On P/N EEVPV311A kit and YA8661 adapter or Mac tool
(see illustration).
3. After completing test described below, be sure to coat threads of O2
sensor with anti-seize compound prior to re-installation.
Courtesy of GM 1991 Service Manual
for Chevrolet Camaro © 1990
ILLUSTRATION NOTES
[1] Backpressure gage
[2] Pre-catalyst Oxygen (O2) sensor
[3] Exhaust manifold
Figure 39. Installing Exhaust Backpressure Tester
DIAGNOSIS:
1. With the engine idling at normal operating temperature, observe the
exhaust system backpressure reading on the gage. Reading should not
exceed 1.25 psig (8.61 kPa).
2. Increase engine speed to 2000 RPM and observe gage. Reading should
not exceed 3 psig (20.68 kPa).
3. If the backpressure at either speed exceeds specification, a restricted
exhaust system is indicated.
4. Inspect the entire exhaust system for a collapsed pipe, heat distress, or
possible internal damage, split welds, or cracked pipe.
5. If there are no obvious reasons for the excessive backpressure, the
catalytic converter is restricted and should be replaced using current
recommended procedures.
Woodward
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Manual 36551A
MI-07 Engine Control System for 4.3L Engines
Chapter 8.
Advanced Diagnostics
MI-07 systems are equipped with built-in fault diagnostics. Detected system
faults can be displayed by the Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL) as Diagnostic
Fault Codes (DFC) or flash codes, and viewed in detail with the use of the
Service Tool software. When the ignition key is turned on, the MIL will illuminate
and remain on until the engine is started. Once the engine is started, the MIL
lamp will go out unless one or more fault conditions are present. If a detected
fault condition exists, the fault or faults will be stored in the memory of the small
engine control module (SECM). Once an active fault occurs the MIL will
illuminate and remain ON. This signals the operator that a fault has been
detected by the SECM.
Reading Diagnostic Fault Codes
All MI-07 fault codes are three-digit codes. When the fault codes are retrieved
(displayed) the MIL will flash for each digit with a short pause (0.5 seconds)
between digits and a long pause (1.2 seconds) between fault codes. A code 12 is
displayed at the end of the code list.
EXAMPLE: A code 461 (ETC Sticking) has been detected and the engine has
shut down and the MIL has remained ON. When the codes are displayed the MIL
will flash four times (4), pause, then flash six times (6), pause, then flash one time
(1) This identifies a four sixty one (461), which is the ETC Sticking fault. If any
additional faults were stored, the SECM would again have a long pause, then
display the next fault by flashing each digit. Since no other faults were stored
there will be a long pause then one flash (1), pause, then two flashes (2). This
identifies a twelve, signifying the end of the fault list. This list will then repeat.
Displaying Fault Codes (DFC) from SECM Memory
To enter code display mode you must turn OFF the ignition key. Now turn ON the
key but do not start the engine. As soon as you turn the key to the ON position
you must cycle the foot pedal by depressing it to the floor and then fully releasing
the pedal (pedal maneuver). You must fully cycle the foot pedal three (3) times
within five (5) seconds to enable the display codes feature of the SECM. Simply
turn the key OFF to exit display mode. The code list will continue to repeat until
the key is turned OFF.
Clearing Fault (DFC) Codes
To clear the stored fault codes from SECM memory you must complete the reset
fault pedal maneuver.
CAUTION
Once the fault list is cleared it cannot be restored.
First turn OFF the ignition key. Now turn ON the key but do not start the engine.
As soon as you turn the key to the ON position you must cycle the foot pedal by
depressing it to the floor and then fully releasing the pedal (pedal maneuver).
You must fully cycle the foot pedal ten (10) times within five (5) seconds to clear
the fault code list of the SECM. Simply turn the key OFF to exit the reset mode.
The code list is now clear and the SECM will begin storing new fault codes as
they occur.
Woodward
77
Manual 36551A
MI-07 Engine Control System for 4.3L Engines
Fault Action Descriptions
Each fault detected by the SECM is stored in memory (FIFO) and has a specific
action or result that takes place. Listed below are the descriptions of each fault
action.
Engine Shutdown: The most severe action is an Engine Shutdown. The MIL
will light and the engine will immediately shutdown, stopping spark, closing the
fuel lock-off, and turning off the fuel pump and fuel injectors.
Delayed Engine Shutdown: Some faults, such as low oil pressure, will cause
the MIL to illuminate for 30 seconds and then shut down the engine.
Cut Throttle: The throttle moves to its default position. The engine will run at
idle but will not accelerate.
Turn on MIL: The MIL will light by an active low signal provided by the SECM,
indicating a fault condition. The MIL may illuminate with no other action or may
be combined with other actions, depending on which fault is active.
Soft Rev Limit / Medium Rev Limit / Hard Rev Limit: System will follow various
sequences to bring engine speed back to acceptable levels.
Level4 Power Limit / Level3 Power Limit / Level2 Power Limit / Level1
Power Limit: The maximum engine power output will be limited to one of four
possible levels. The engine power is calculated from measured engine
parameters (e.g. MAP, RPM, fuel flow, etc).
Disable Gas O2 Control: In LPG mode, closed loop correction of the air fuel
ratio based on the Pre-catalyst O2 sensor is disabled.
Disable Liquid O2 Control: In Gasoline mode, closed loop correction of the air
fuel ratio based on the Pre-catalyst O2 sensor is disabled.
Woodward
78
Manual 36551A
MI-07 Engine Control System for 4.3L Engines
Fault List Definitions
All the analog sensors in the MI-07 system have input sensor range faults. These
are the coolant temperature sensor, fuel temperature sensor, throttle position
sensors, pedal position sensors, manifold pressure sensor, HEGO sensors, and
intake air temperature sensor. Signals to these sensors are converted into digital
counts by the SECM. A low/high range sensor fault is normally set when the
converted digital counts reach the minimum of 0 or the maximum of 1024
(1024 = 5.0 Vdc with ~ 204 counts per volt).
Additionally, the SECM includes software to learn the actual range of the pedal
position and throttle position sensors in order to take full advantage of the sensor
range. Faults are set if the learned values are outside of the normal expected
range of the sensor (e.g. APP1AdaptLoMin).
Table 1. Fault List Definitions
FAULT
DESCRIPTION
CODE
APP1AdaptHiMax
Learned full pedal value of
APP1 sensor range higher
than expected
641
APP1AdaptHiMin
Learned full pedal value of
APP1 sensor range lower
than expected
651
APP1AdaptLoMax
Learned idle value of APP1
sensor range higher than
expected
661
APP1AdaptLoMin
APP1RangeHigh
APP1RangeLow
APP2AdaptHiMax
Woodward
Learned idle value of APP1
sensor range lower than
expected
APP1 sensor voltage out of
range high, normally set if the
APP1 signal has shorted to
power or the ground for the
sensor has opened
APP1 sensor voltage out of
range low, normally set if the
APP1 signal has shorted to
ground, circuit has opened or
sensor has failed
Learned full pedal value of
APP2 sensor range higher
than expected
631
621
611
642
79
Manual 36551A
MI-07 Engine Control System for 4.3L Engines
Table 1. Fault List Definitions (cont’d.)
FAULT
DESCRIPTION
CODE
APP2AdaptHiMin
Learned full pedal value of
APP2 sensor range lower than
expected
652
APP2AdaptLoMax
Learned idle value of APP2
sensor range higher than
expected
662
APP2AdaptLoMin
APP2RangeHigh
APP2RangeLow
APP_Sensors_Conflict
CamEdgesFault
CamSyncFault
CrankEdgesFault
CrankSyncFault
ECTOverTempFault
ECTRangeHigh
Woodward
Learned idle value of APP2
sensor range lower than
expected
APP2 sensor voltage out of
range high, normally set if the
APP2 signal has shorted to
power or the ground for the
sensor has opened
APP2 sensor voltage out of
range low, normally set if the
APP2 signal has shorted to
ground, circuit has opened or
sensor has failed
APP position sensors do no
not track well, intermittent
connections to APP or
defective pedal assembly
No CAM signal when engine
is known to be rotating,
broken CAM sensor leads or
defective CAM sensor
Loss of synchronization on the
CAM sensor, normally due to
noise on the signal or an
intermittent connection on the
CAM sensor
No crankshaft signal when
engine is known to be rotating,
broken crankshaft sensor
leads or defective crank
sensor
Loss of synchronization on the
crankshaft sensor, normally
due to noise on the signal or
an intermittent connection on
the crankshaft sensor
Engine Coolant Temperature
is High. The sensor has
measured an excessive
coolant temperature typically
due to the engine overheating.
Engine Coolant Temperature
Sensor Input is High. Normally
set if coolant sensor wire has
been disconnected or circuit
has opened to the SECM.
632
622
612
691
191
192
193
194
161
151
80
Manual 36551A
MI-07 Engine Control System for 4.3L Engines
Table 1. Fault List Definitions (cont’d.)
FAULT
DESCRIPTION
Engine Coolant Temperature Sensor Input is
Low. Normally set if the coolant sensor wire
ECTRangeLow
has shorted to chassis ground or the sensor
has failed.
Engine Coolant Temperature not changing as
ECT_IR_Fault
expected
EST1 output open, possibly open EST1
EST1_Open
signal or defective spark module
EST1 output shorted high or low, EST1 signal
EST1_Short
shorted to ground or power or defective spark
module
Electronic Throttle Control Spring Return Test
has Failed. The SECM will perform a safety
test of the throttle return spring following
engine shutdown. If this spring has become
weak the throttle will fail the test and set the
ETCSpringTest
fault.
NOTE: Throttle assembly is not a
serviceable item and can only be repaired
by replacing the DV-EV throttle assembly.
Electronic Throttle Control Driver has failed.
Normally set if either of the ETC driver signals
ETC_Open_Fault
have opened or become disconnected,
electronic throttle or SECM is defective.
Electronic Throttle Control is Sticking. This
can occur if the throttle plate (butterfly valve)
inside the throttle bore is sticking. The plate
sticking can be due to some type of
obstruction; a loose throttle plate or worn
ETC_Sticking
components shaft bearings.
NOTE: Throttle assembly is not a
serviceable item and can only be repaired
by replacing the DV-EV throttle assembly.
Conflict in fuel select signals, normally set if
FuelSelectConflict
one or both of the fuel select signals are
shorted to ground
Fuel Temperature Sensor Input is High.
Normally set if the fuel temperature sensor
FuelTempRangeHigh
wire has been disconnected or the circuit has
opened to the SECM.
Fuel Temperature Sensor Input is Low.
Normally set if the fuel temperature sensor
FuelTempRangeLow
wire has shorted to chassis ground or the
sensor has failed.
In LPG mode, system had to adapt lean more
GasFuelAdaptRangeHi
than expected
In LPG mode, system had to adapt rich more
GasFuelAdaptRangeLo
than expected
Pre-catalyst O2 sensor indicates extended
GasO2FailedLean
lean operation on LPG
Woodward
CODE
141
171
421
431
481
471
461
181
932
931
731
721
751
81
Manual 36551A
MI-07 Engine Control System for 4.3L Engines
Table 1. Fault List Definitions (cont’d.)
FAULT
GasO2FailedLean
GasO2FailedRich
GasO2NotActive
GasPostO2FailedRich
GasPostO2FailedLean
GasPostO2Inactive
DESCRIPTION
Pre-catalyst O2 sensor indicates
extended lean operation on LPG
Pre-catalyst O2 sensor indicates
extended rich operation on LPG
Pre-catalyst O2 sensor inactive on
LPG, open O2 sensor signal or
heater leads, defective O2 sensor,
or defective FTVs
Post-catalyst O2 sensor control on
LPG has reached rich limit and
sensor still reads too lean. This
could be caused by oxygen leak
before or just after sensor, catalyst
failure, sensor failure, or wiring/relay
failure causing the sensor to not be
properly heated. If any Pre-O2
sensor faults are set, diagnose
these first and after correcting these
faults recheck if this fault sets.
Post-catalyst O2 sensor control on
LPG has reached lean limit and
sensor still reads too rich. This
could be caused by catalyst failure,
sensor failure, or wiring/relay failure
causing the sensor to not be
properly heated. If any Pre-O2
sensor faults are set diagnose,
these first and after correcting these
faults recheck if this fault sets.
Post-catalyst O2 sensor control on
LPG has sensed the O2 sensor is
not responding as expected. If any
Pre-O2 sensor faults are set
diagnose these first and after
correcting these faults recheck if
this fault sets. Possible causes for
this fault are sensor disconnected,
sensor heater failed, sensor
element failed, heater relay, or
SECM control of heater relay is
disconnected or failed.
Reserved for Future Use
HbridgeFault_ETC
HardOverspeed
Woodward
CODE
751
771
741
772
752
742
743
(Electronic Throttle Control Driver
has Failed)
Indeterminate fault on Hbridge
driver for Electronic Throttle Control.
Possibly either ETC+ or ETC- driver
signals have been shorted to
ground
Engine speed has exceeded the
third level (3 of 3) of overspeed
protection
491
571
82
Manual 36551A
MI-07 Engine Control System for 4.3L Engines
Table 1. Fault List Definitions (cont’d.)
FAULT
IATRangeHigh
IATRangeLow
IAT_IR_Fault
Inj1Open
Inj2Open
Inj3Open
LSDFault_CrankDisable
LSDFault_Dither1
LSDFault_Dither2
LSDFault_FuelPump
LSDFault_LockOff
LSDFault_MIL
LiqFuelAdaptRangeHi
LiqFuelAdaptRangeLow
LiqO2FailedLean
LiqO2FailedRich
Woodward
DESCRIPTION
Intake Air Temperature Sensor Input
is High normally set if the IAT
temperature sensor wire has been
disconnected, the circuit has opened
to the SECM, or a short to Vbatt has
occurred.
Intake Air Temperature Sensor Input
is Low normally set if the IAT
temperature sensor wire has shorted
to chassis ground or the sensor has
failed.
Intake Air Temperature not changing
as expected
Gasoline Injector 1 open circuit,
broken injector 1 wire or defective
injector
Gasoline Injector 2 open circuit,
broken injector 2 wire or defective
injector
Gasoline Injector 3 open circuit,
broken injector 3 wire or defective
injector
Crank Disable Fault, signal has
opened or shorted to ground or
power or defective crank disable
relay
Dither Valve 1 Fault, signal has
opened or shorted to ground or
power or defective dither 1 valve
Dither Valve 2 Fault, signal has
opened or shorted to ground or
power or defective dither 2 valve
Fuel Pump Fault, signal has opened
or shorted to ground or power or
defective fuel pump
Fuel lock off Valve Fault, signal has
opened or shorted to ground or
power or defective Fuel lock off valve
Malfunction Indicator Lamp Fault,
signal has opened or shorted to
ground or power or defective MIL
lamp
In Gasoline mode, system had to
adapt rich more than expected
In Gasoline mode, system had to
adapt lean more than expected
Pre-catalyst O2 sensor indicates
extended lean operation on gasoline
Pre-catalyst O2 sensor indicates
extended rich operation on gasoline
CODE
381
371
391
131
132
133
715
711
712
716
717
718
821
831
851
871
83
Manual 36551A
MI-07 Engine Control System for 4.3L Engines
Table 1. Fault List Definitions (cont’d.)
FAULT
LiqO2NotActive
LiqPostO2FailedRich
LiqPostO2FailedLean
LiqPostO2Inactive
DESCRIPTION
Pre-catalyst O2 sensor inactive on gasoline, open
O2 sensor signal or heater leads, defective O2
sensor
Post-catalyst O2 sensor control on gasoline has
reached rich limit and sensor still reads too lean.
This could be caused by oxygen leak before or
just after sensor, catalyst failure, sensor failure, or
wiring/relay failure causing the sensor to not be
properly heated. If any Pre-O2 sensor faults are
set, diagnose these first and after correcting these
faults recheck if this fault sets.
Post-catalyst O2 sensor control on gasoline has
reached lean limit and sensor still reads too rich.
This could be caused by catalyst failure, sensor
failure, or wiring/relay failure causing the sensor to
not be properly heated. If any Pre-O2 sensor faults
are set, diagnose these first and after correcting
these faults recheck if this fault sets.
Post-catalyst O2 sensor control on gasoline has
sensed the O2 sensor is not responding as
expected. If any Pre-O2 sensor faults are set,
diagnose these first and after correcting these
faults recheck if this fault sets. Possible causes for
this fault are sensor disconnected, sensor heater
failed, sensor element failed, heater relay, or
SECM control of heater relay is disconnected or
failed.
Reserved
LowOilPressureFault
MAPRangeHigh
MAPRangeLow
MAPTimeRangeHigh
MAPTimeRangeLow
MAP_IR_HI
MAP_IR_LO
Woodward
CODE
841
872
852
842
843
Low engine oil pressure
Manifold Absolute Pressure Sensor Input is High,
normally set if the TMAP pressure signal wire has
become shorted to power, shorted to the IAT
signal, the TMAP has failed or the SECM has
failed.
Manifold Absolute Pressure Sensor Input is Low,
normally set if the TMAP pressure signal wire has
been disconnected or shorted to ground or the
circuit has opened to the SECM
Manifold Absolute Pressure Sensor Input is High,
normally set if the TMAP pressure signal wire has
become shorted to power, shorted to the IAT
signal, the TMAP has failed or the SECM has
failed.
Manifold Absolute Pressure Sensor Input is Low,
normally set if the TMAP pressure signal wire has
been disconnected or shorted to ground or the
circuit has opened to the SECM
MAP sensor indicates higher pressure than
expected
MAP sensor indicates lower pressure than
expected
521
342
332
341
331
351
352
84
Manual 36551A
MI-07 Engine Control System for 4.3L Engines
Table 1. Fault List Definitions (cont’d.)
FAULT
MAP_STICKING
MediumOverspeed
O2RangeHigh
O2RangeLow
O2_PostCatRangeHigh
O2_PostCatRangeLow
DESCRIPTION
CODE
MAP sensor not changing as expected
Engine speed has exceeded the second level
(2 of 3) of overspeed protection
Pre-catalyst O2 sensor voltage out of range
high, sensor signal shorted to power
Pre-catalyst O2 sensor voltage out of range
low, sensor signal shorted to ground
Post-catalyst O2 sensor voltage out of range
high, sensor signal shorted to voltage source
(5V or battery)
Post-catalyst O2 sensor voltage out of range
low, sensor signal shorted to ground
353
572
921
911
922
912
SensVoltRangeHigh
Sensor reference voltage XDRP too high
561
SensVoltRangeLow
Sensor reference voltage XDRP too low
551
ServiceFault1
Service Interval 1 has been reached
991
ServiceFault2
Service Interval 2 has been reached
992
ServiceFault3
Service Interval 3 has been reached
993
ServiceFault4
ServiceFault5
SoftOverspeed
TPS1AdaptHiMin
Service Interval 4 has been reached—time to
replace HEGO sensors
Service Interval 5 has been reached
Engine speed has exceeded first level
(1 of 3) of overspeed protection
Learned WOT value of TPS1 sensor range
lower than expected
994
995
573
271
SysVoltRangeHigh
System voltage too high
541
SysVoltRangeLow
System voltage too low
531
TPS1AdaptHiMax
TPS1AdaptHiMin
Learned WOT value of TPS1 sensor range
higher than expected
Learned WOT value of TPS1 sensor range
lower than expected
251
271
TPS1AdaptLoMax
Learned closed throttle value of TPS1 sensor
range higher than expected
281
TPS1AdaptLoMin
Learned closed throttle value of TPS1 sensor
range lower than expected
241
TPS1RangeHigh
TPS1 sensor voltage out of range high,
normally set if the TPS1 signal has shorted to
power or ground for the sensor has opened
231
TPS1RangeLow
TPS1 sensor voltage out of range low,
normally set if TPS1 signal has shorted to
ground, circuit has opened or sensor has failed
221
TPS2AdaptHiMax
TPS2AdaptHiMin
Woodward
Learned WOT value of TPS2 sensor range
higher than expected
Learned WOT value of TPS2 sensor range
lower than expected
252
272
85
Manual 36551A
MI-07 Engine Control System for 4.3L Engines
Table 1. Fault List Definitions (cont’d.)
FAULT
DESCRIPTION
CODE
TPS2AdaptLoMax
Learned closed throttle value of TPS2
sensor range higher than expected
282
TPS2AdaptLoMin
Learned closed throttle value of TPS2
sensor range lower than expected
242
TPS2RangeHigh
TPS2RangeLow
TPS_Sensors_Conflict
TransOilTemp
Woodward
TPS2 sensor voltage out of range high,
normally set if the TPS2 signal has shorted
to power or ground for the sensor has
opened
TPS2 sensor voltage out of range low,
normally set if TPS2 signal has shorted to
ground, circuit has opened or sensor has
failed
TPS sensors differ by more than expected
amount.
NOTE: The TPS is not a serviceable item
and can only be repaired by replacing
the DV-EV throttle assembly
Excessive transmission oil temperature
232
222
291
933
86
Manual 36551A
MI-07 Engine Control System for 4.3L Engines
Table 2. Diagnostic Fault Codes (Flash Codes)
DFC
PROBABLE FAULT
FAULT
ACTION *
CORRECTIVE ACTION
FIRST CHECK
12
NONE
Signifies the end of
one pass through the
fault list
NONE
None, used as end of the fault list
identification
TurnOnMil
Check INJ1 wiring for an open
circuit
SECM (Signal) A5 to Injector 1
Pin A
Switched 12V to Injector 1 Pin B
Check Injector 1 Resistance, 12
to14 ohms (cold)
131
Inj1Open
Gasoline Injector 1
open circuit, broken
injector 1 wire or
defective injector
132
Inj2Open
Gasoline Injector 2
open circuit, broken
injector 2 wire or
defective injector
TurnOnMil
133
Inj3Open
Gasoline Injector 3
open circuit, broken
injector 3 wire or
defective injector
TurnOnMil
141
151
ECTRangeLow
Coolant Sensor
failure or shorted to
GND
ECTRangeHigh
Coolant sensor
disconnected or open
circuit
TurnOnMil
(1) TurnOnMil
(2) DelayedEngine
Shutdown
(3)
CheckEngineLight
Check INJ2 wiring for an open
circuit
SECM (Signal) A4 to Injector 2
Pin A
Switched 12V to Injector 2 Pin B
Check Injector 2 Resistance, 12
to14 ohms (cold)
Check INJ3 wiring for an open
circuit
SECM (Signal) A to Injector 3
Pin A
Switched 12V to Injector 3 Pin B
Check Injector 3 Resistance, 12
to14 ohms (cold)
Check ECT sensor connector
and wiring for a short to GND
SECM (Signal) Pin B15 To ECT
Pin A
SECM (Sensor GND) Pin B1 to
ECT Pin B
SECM (System GND) Pin A16,
B17
Check if ECT sensor connector is
disconnected or for an open ECT
circuit
SECM (Signal) Pin B15 to ECT
Pin A
SECM (Sensor GND) Pin B1 to
ECT Pin B
(*) Fault actions shown are default values specified by the OEM.
Woodward
87
Manual 36551A
MI-07 Engine Control System for 4.3L Engines
Table 2. Diagnostic Fault Codes (Flash Codes) cont’d.
DFC
PROBABLE FAULT
161
ECTOverTempFault
Engine coolant
temperature is high.
The sensor has
measured an
excessive coolant
temperature typically
due to the engine
overheating.
171
181
ECT_IR_Fault
Engine coolant
temperature not
changing as
expected
FuelSelectConflict
Conflict in fuel select
signals, normally set
if both of the fuel
select signals are
shorted to ground
191
CamEdgesFault
No CAM signal when
engine is known to
be rotating, broken
crankshaft sensor
leads or defective
CAM sensor
192
CamSyncFault
Loss of
synchronization on
the CAM sensor,
normally due to noise
on the signal or an
intermittent
connection on the
CAM sensor
193
CrankEdgesFault
No crankshaft signal
when engine is
known to be rotating,
broken crankshaft
sensor leads or
defective crank
sensor
FAULT
ACTION *
(1) TurnOnMil
(2) DelayedEngine
Shutdown
(3)
CheckEngineLight
None
TurnOnMil
CORRECTIVE ACTION
FIRST CHECK
Check coolant system for radiator
blockage, proper coolant level
and for leaks in the system.
Possible ECT short to GND,
check ECT signal wiring
SECM (Signal) Pin B15 to ECT
Pin A
SECM (Sensor GND) Pin B1 to
ECT Pin B
SECM (System GND) Pin A16,
B17
Check regulator for coolant leaks
Check for coolant system
problems, e.g. defective or stuck
thermostat
Check fuel select switch
connection for a short to GND
SECM (SIGNAL) Pin A12
SECM (SIGNAL) Pin A15
SECM (Sensor GND) Pin B1
None
Check CAM sensor connections
at distributor
SECM (SIGNAL) Pin B10 to
distributor connector Pin B
SECM (Sensor GND) Pin B1 to
distributor connector Pin A
SECM 5V (PWR) to distributor
connector Pin C
Check for defective CAM sensor
in distributor housing.
None
Check CAM sensor connections
at distributor
SECM (SIGNAL) Pin B10 to
distributor connector Pin B
SECM (Sensor GND) Pin B1 to
distributor connector Pin A
SECM 5V (PWR) to distributor
connector Pin C
Check for defective CAM sensor
in distributor housing
None
Check Crankshaft sensor
connections
SECM (SIGNAL) Pin B5 to Crank
sensor Pin C
SECM (Sensor GND) PIN B1 to
Crank sensor Pin B
SECM 5V (PWR) to Crank
sensor Pin A
Check for defective Crank sensor
(*) Fault actions shown are default values specified by the OEM.
Woodward
88
Manual 36551A
MI-07 Engine Control System for 4.3L Engines
Table 2. Diagnostic Fault Codes (Flash Codes) cont’d.
DFC
PROBABLE FAULT
FAULT
ACTION *
194
CrankSyncFault
Loss of
synchronization on the
crankshaft sensor,
normally due to noise
on the signal or an
intermittent connection
on the crankshaft
sensor
None
221
222
231
232
241
TPS1RangeLow
TPS1 sensor voltage
out of range low,
normally set if the
TPS1 signal has
shorted to ground,
circuit has opened or
sensor has failed
TPS2RangeLow
TPS2 sensor voltage
out of range low,
normally set if the
TPS2 signal has
shorted to ground,
circuit has opened or
sensor has failed
TPS1RangeHigh
TPS1 sensor voltage
out of range high,
normally set if the
TPS1 signal has
shorted to power or the
ground for the sensor
has opened
TPS2RangeHigh
TPS2 sensor voltage
out of range high,
normally set if the
TPS2 signal has
shorted to power or the
ground for the sensor
has opened
TPS1AdaptLoMin
Learned closed throttle
value of TPS1 sensor
range lower than
expected
CORRECTIVE ACTION
FIRST CHECK
Check Crankshaft sensor connections
SECM (SIGNAL) Pin B5 to Crank
sensor Pin C
SECM (Sensor GND) Pin B1 to Crank
sensor Pin B
SECM 5V (PWR) to Crank sensor
Pin A
Check for defective Crank sensor
TurnOnMil
Check throttle connector connection
and TPS1 sensor for an open circuit
or short to GND
SECM Pin B23 (signal) to ETC Pin 6
SECM Pin B1 (sensor GND) to
ETC Pin 2
SECM (system GND) Pin A16, B17
TurnOnMil
Check throttle connector connection
and TPS2 sensor for an open circuit
or short to GND
SECM Pin B4 (signal) to ETC Pin 5
SECM Pin B1 (sensor GND) to
ETC Pin 2
SECM (system GND) Pin A16, B17
TurnOnMil
Check throttle connector and TPS1
sensor wiring for a shorted circuit
SECM Pin B23 (signal) to ETC Pin 6
SECM Pin B1 (sensor GND) to
ETC Pin 2
TurnOnMil
Check throttle connector and TPS1
sensor wiring for a shorted circuit
SECM Pin B4 (signal) to ETC Pin 5
SECM pin B1 (sensor GND) to
ETC Pin 2
None
Check the throttle connector and pins
for corrosion.
To check the TPS disconnect the
throttle connector and measure the
resistance from:
TPS Pin 2 (GND) to
Pin 6 (TPS1 SIGNAL) (0.7 : ± 30%)
TPS Pin 3 (PWR) to
Pin 6 (TPS1 SIGNAL) (1.4 : ± 30%)
(*) Fault actions shown are default values specified by the OEM.
Woodward
89
Manual 36551A
MI-07 Engine Control System for 4.3L Engines
Table 2. Diagnostic Fault Codes (Flash Codes) cont’d.
DFC
42
251
252
271
272
281
282
291
PROBABLE FAULT
TPS2AdaptLoMin
Learned closed throttle
value of TPS2 sensor
range lower than
expected
TPS1AdaptHiMax
Learned WOT value of
TPS1 sensor range
higher than expected
TPS2AdaptHiMax
Learned WOT value of
TPS2 sensor range
higher than expected
TPS1AdaptHiMin
Learned WOT value of
TPS1 sensor range lower
than expected
TPS2AdaptHiMin
Learned WOT value of
TPS2 sensor range lower
than expected
TPS1AdaptLoMax
Learned closed throttle
value of TPS1 sensor
range higher than
expected
TPS2AdaptLoMax
Learned closed throttle
value of TPS2 sensor
range higher than
expected
TPS_Sensors_Conflict
TPS sensors differ by
more than expected
amount
NOTE: The TPS is not
a serviceable item and
can only be repaired
by replacing the DV-EV
throttle assembly.
FAULT
ACTION *
None
CORRECTIVE ACTION
FIRST CHECK
Check the throttle connector and
pins for corrosion.
To check the TPS disconnect the
throttle connector and measure the
resistance from:
TPS Pin 2 (GND) to
Pin 5 (TPS2 SIGNAL) (1.3K : ±
30%)
TPS PIN 3 (PWR) to
PIN 5 (TPS2 SIGNAL) (0.6K : ±
30%)
None
N/A
None
N/A
None
N/A
None
N/A
None
N/A
None
N/A
(1)
TurnOnMil
(2) Engine
Shutdown
Perform checks for DFCs 241
& 242
(*) Fault actions shown are default values specified by the OEM.
Woodward
90
Manual 36551A
MI-07 Engine Control System for 4.3L Engines
Table 2. Diagnostic Fault Codes (Flash Codes) cont’d.
DFC
331
332
341
PROBABLE FAULT
MAPTimeRangeLow
Manifold Absolute
Pressure sensor input is
low, normally set if the
TMAP pressure signal
wire has been
disconnected or shorted
to ground or the circuit
has opened to the
SECM
MAPRangeLow
Manifold Absolute
Pressure sensor input is
low, normally set if the
TMAP pressure signal
wire has been
disconnected or shorted
to ground or the circuit
has opened to the
SECM
MAPTimeRangeHigh
Manifold Absolute
Pressure Sensor Input is
High, normally set if the
TMAP pressure signal
wire has become shorted
to power, shorted to the
IAT signal, the TMAP
has failed or the SECM
has failed.
FAULT
ACTION *
None
(1)
TurnOnMil
(2)
CutThrottle
None
CORRECTIVE ACTION
FIRST CHECK
Check TMAP connector and MAP
signal wiring for an open circuit
TMAP Pin 4 to SECM Pin B18
(signal)
TMAP Pin 1 to SECM Pin B1
(sensor GND)
TMAP Pin 3 to SECM Pin B24
(PWR)
Check the MAP sensor by
disconnecting the TMAP connector
and measuring at the sensor:
TMAP Pin 1(GND) to Pin 4
(pressure signal kPa) (2.4k: 8.2k:)
TMAP Pin 3 (PWR) to Pin 4
(pressure signal kPa) (3.4k: 8.2k:)
Check TMAP connector and MAP
signal wiring for an open circuit
TMAP Pin 4 to SECM Pin B18
(signal)
TMAP Pin 1 to SECM Pin B1
(sensor GND)
TMAP Pin 3 to SECM Pin B24
(PWR)
Check the MAP sensor by
disconnecting the TMAP connector
and measuring at the sensor:
TMAP Pin 1(GND) to Pin 4
(pressure signal kPa) (2.4k: 8.2k:)
TMAP Pin 3 (power) to Pin 4
(pressure signal kPa) (3.4k: 8.2k:)
Check TMAP connector and MAP
signal wiring for a shorted circuit
TMAP Pin 4 to SECM Pin B18
(signal)
TMAP Pin 1 to SECM Pin B1
(sensor GND)
TMAP Pin 3 to SECM Pin B24
(PWR)
Check the MAP sensor by
disconnecting the TMAP connector
and measuring at the sensor:
TMAP Pin 1(GND) to Pin 4
(pressure signal kPa) (2.4k: 8.2k:)
TMAP Pin 3 (power) to Pin 4
(pressure signal kPa) (3.4k: 8.2k:)
(*) Fault actions shown are default values specified by the OEM.
Woodward
91
Manual 36551A
MI-07 Engine Control System for 4.3L Engines
Table 2. Diagnostic Fault Codes (Flash Codes) cont’d.
DFC
342
351
352
353
PROBABLE FAULT
MAPRangeHigh
Manifold Absolute
Pressure Sensor Input
is High, normally set if
the TMAP pressure
signal wire has
become shorted to
power, shorted to the
IAT signal, the TMAP
has failed or the
SECM has failed
MAP_IR_HI
MAP sensor indicates
higher pressure than
expected
MAP_IR_LO
MAP sensor indicates
lower pressure than
expected
MAP_STICKING
MAP sensor not
changing as expected
FAULT
ACTION *
(1)
TurnOnMil
(2)
CutThrottle
CORRECTIVE ACTION,
FIRST CHECK
Check TMAP connector and MAP
signal wiring for a shorted circuit
TMAP Pin 4 to SECM Pin B18 (signal)
TMAP Pin 1 to SECM Pin B1
(sensor GND)
TMAP Pin 3 to SECM Pin B24
(PWR)
Check the MAP sensor by
disconnecting the TMAP connector
and measuring at the sensor:
TMAP Pin 1(GND) to Pin 4 (pressure
signal kPa) (2.4k: - 8.2k:)
TMAP Pin 3 (power) to Pin 4
(pressure signal kPa) (3.4k: - 8.2k:)
None
Check for vacuum leaks. Check that
TMAP sensor is mounted properly.
Possible defective TMAP sensor.
None
Possible defective TMAP sensor.
None
371
IATRangeLow
Intake Air
Temperature Sensor
Input is Low normally
set if the IAT
temperature sensor
wire has shorted to
chassis ground or the
sensor has failed.
381
IATRangeHigh
Intake Air
Temperature Sensor
Input is High normally
set if the IAT
temperature sensor
wire has been
disconnected or the
circuit has opened to
the SECM.
TurnOnMil
391
IAT_IR_Fault
Intake Air
Temperature not
changing as expected
None
TurnOnMil
Check that TMAP sensor is mounted
properly. Possible defective TMAP
sensor.
Check TMAP connector and IAT
signal wiring for a shorted circuit
TMAP Pin 2 to SECM Pin B12 (signal)
TMAP Pin 1 to SECM Pin B1
(sensor GND)
To check the IAT sensor of the TMAP
disconnect the TMAP connector and
measure the IAT resistance
Resistance is approx 2400 ohms at
room temperature.
Check TMAP connector and IAT
signal wiring for a shorted circuit
TMAP Pin 2 to SECM Pin B12 (signal)
TMAP Pin 1 to SECM Pin B1
(sensor GND)
To check the IAT sensor of the TMAP
disconnect the TMAP connector and
measure the IAT resistance
Resistance is approx 2400 ohms at
room temperature.
Check connections to TMAP sensor.
Check that TMAP sensor is properly
mounted to manifold.
(*) Fault actions shown are default values specified by the OEM.
Woodward
92
Manual 36551A
MI-07 Engine Control System for 4.3L Engines
Table 2. Diagnostic Fault Codes (Flash Codes) cont’d.
DFC
421
PROBABLE FAULT
EST1_Open
EST1 output open,
possibly open EST1
signal or defective
spark module
431
EST1_Short
EST1 output shorted
high or low, EST1
signal shorted to
ground or power or
defective spark module
461
ETC_Sticking
Electronic Throttle
Control is sticking. This
can occur if the throttle
plate (butterfly valve)
inside the throttle bore
is sticking. The plate
sticking can be due to
some type of
obstruction, a loose
throttle plate, or worn
components shaft
bearings.
NOTE: The throttle
assembly is not a
serviceable item and
can only be repaired
by replacing the DVEV throttle assembly.
471
ETC_Open_Fault
Electronic Throttle
Control Driver has
failed, normally set if
either of the ETC driver
signals have opened or
become disconnected,
electronic throttle or
SECM is defective.
FAULT
ACTION *
TurnOnMil
TurnOnMil
(1)
TurnOnMil
(2)
EngineShutd
own
(3)
CutThrottle
None
CORRECTIVE ACTION
FIRST CHECK
Check ignition module wiring and
connector for open circuit
SECM Pin A9 (EST1) to ignition
module Pin B.
Verify GND on ignition module Pin C
Verify +12 Vdc on ignition module
Pin A
Refer to application manual for
specific engine details.
Check ignition module wiring and
connector for shorts
SECM Pin A9 (EST1) to ignition
module Pin B
Verify GND on ignition module Pin C
Verify +12 Vdc on ignition module
Pin A
Refer to application manual for
specific engine details.
Check for debris or obstructions
inside the throttle body
x Check throttle-plate shaft for
bearing wear
Check the ETC driver wiring for an
open circuit
SECM Pin A17 to ETC + Pin 1
SECM Pin A18 to ETC - Pin 4
Check the ETC internal motor drive
by disconnecting the throttle
connector and measuring the motor
drive resistance at the throttle
ETC Pin 1 (+DRIVER) to
Pin 4 (-DRIVER) ~3.0-4.0:
Check the ETC driver wiring for an
open circuit
SECM Pin A17 to ETC + Pin 1
SECM Pin A18 to ETC - Pin 4
Check the ETC internal motor drive
by disconnecting the throttle
connector and measuring the motor
drive resistance at the throttle
ETC Pin 1 (+DRIVER) to
Pin 4 (-DRIVER) ~3.0-4.0:
(*) Fault actions shown are default values specified by the OEM.
Woodward
93
Manual 36551A
MI-07 Engine Control System for 4.3L Engines
Table 2. Diagnostic Fault Codes (Flash Codes) cont’d.
DFC
PROBABLE FAULT
FAULT
ACTION *
491
HbridgeFault_ETC
Electronic Throttle Control
Driver has failed.
Indeterminate fault on
Hbridge driver for
electronic throttle control.
Possibly either ETC+ or
ETC- driver signals have
been shorted to ground
TurnOnMil
521
LowOilPressureFault
Low engine oil pressure
(1) TurnOnMil
(2) DelayedEngine
Shutdown
(3) CheckEngine
Light
CORRECTIVE ACTION
FIRST CHECK
Check ETC driver wiring for a
shorted circuit
SECM Pin A17 to ETC + Pin 1
SECM Pin A18 to ETC - Pin 4
Check the ETC internal motor
drive by disconnecting the
throttle connector and
measuring the motor drive
resistance at the throttle
ETC Pin 1 (+DRIVER) to
Pin 4 (-DRIVER) ~3.0-4.0:
Check engine oil level
Check electrical connection to
the oil pressure switch
SECM Pin B9 to Oil Pressure
Switch
Check battery voltage
x
Perform maintenance
check on electrical
connections to the battery
and chassis ground
x
531
SysVoltRangeLow
System voltage too low
TurnOnMil
Check battery voltage
during starting and when
the engine is running to
verify charging system
and alternator function
x
Measure battery power at
SECM with a multimeter
(with key on)
SECM Pin A23 (DRVP) to
SECM Pin A16 (DRVG)
SECM Pin A23 (DRVP) to
SECM Pin B17 (DRVG)
Check battery and charging
system voltage
x
Check battery voltage
during starting and when
the engine is running
541
SysVoltRangeHigh
System voltage too high
TurnOnMil
x
Check voltage regulator,
alternator, and charging
system
x
Check battery and wiring
for overheating and
damage
x
Measure battery power at
SECM with a multimeter
(with key on)
SECM Pin A23 (DRVP) to
SECM Pin A16 (DRVG)
SECM Pin A23 (DRVP) to
SECM Pin B17 (DRVG)
(*) Fault actions shown are default values specified by the OEM.
Woodward
94
Manual 36551A
MI-07 Engine Control System for 4.3L Engines
Table 2. Diagnostic Fault Codes (Flash Codes) cont’d.
DFC
551
PROBABLE FAULT
SensVoltRangeLow
Sensor reference
voltage XDRP too low
561
SensVoltRangeHigh
Sensor reference
voltage XDRP
too high
571
HardOverspeed
Engine speed has
exceeded the third
level (3 of 3) of
overspeed protection
572
MediumOverspeed
Engine speed has
exceeded the second
level (2 of 3) of
overspeed protection
573
SoftOverspeed
Engine speed has
exceeded the first
level (1 of 3) of
overspeed protection
611
APP1RangeLow
APP1 sensor voltage
out of range low,
normally set if the
APP1 signal has
shorted to ground,
circuit has opened or
sensor has failed
FAULT
ACTION *
CORRECTIVE ACTION
FIRST CHECK
(1) TurnOnMil
(2) EngineShutdown
Measure transducer power at the
TMAP connector with a multimeter
TMAP Pin 3 (PWR) to TMAP Pin 1
(sensor GND)
Verify transducer power at the
SECM with a multimeter
SECM Pin B24 (PWR) to SECM
Pin B1 (sensor GND)
Verify transducer power at ETC
with a multimeter
ETC Pin 3 (PWR) to ETC Pin 2
(sensor GND)
Verify transducer power to the foot
pedal with a multimeter.
(1) TurnOnMil
(2) EngineShutdown
Measure transducer power at the
TMAP connector with a multimeter
TMAP Pin 3 (PWR) to TMAP Pin 1
(sensor GND)
Verify transducer power at the
SECM with a multimeter
SECM Pin B24 (PWR) to SECM
Pin B1 (sensor GND)
Verify transducer power at ETC
with a multimeter
ETC Pin 3 (PWR) to ETC Pin 2
(sensor GND)
Verify transducer power to the foot
pedal with a multimeter.
(1) TurnOnMil
(2) HardRevLimit
Usually associated with additional
ETC faults
x
Check for ETC Sticking or
other ETC faults
Verify if the lift truck was motored
down a steep grade
(1) TurnOnMil
(2) MediumRevLimit
Usually associated with additional
ETC faults
x
Check for ETC Sticking or
other ETC faults
Verify if the vehicle was motored
down a steep grade
(1) TurnOnMil
(2) SoftRevLimit
Usually associated with additional
ETC faults
x
Check for ETC Sticking or
other ETC faults
Verify if the vehicle was motored
down a steep grade
(1) TurnOnMil
(2) CheckEngineLight
Check foot pedal connector
x
Check APP1 signal at SECM
PIN B7
(*) Fault actions shown are default values specified by the OEM.
Woodward
95
Manual 36551A
MI-07 Engine Control System for 4.3L Engines
Table 2. Diagnostic Fault Codes (Flash Codes) cont’d.
DFC
612
621
622
PROBABLE FAULT
APP2RangeLow
APP2 sensor voltage out of
range low, normally set if the
APP2 signal has shorted to
ground, circuit has opened or
sensor has failed
APP1RangeHigh
APP1 sensor voltage out of
range high, normally set if the
APP1 signal has shorted to
power or the ground for the
sensor has opened
APP2RangeHigh
APP2 sensor voltage out of
range high, normally set if the
APP2 signal has shorted to
power or the ground for the
sensor has opened
FAULT
ACTION *
CORRECTIVE
ACTION
FIRST CHECK
Check foot pedal
connector
TurnOnMil
x
Check APP2
signal at SECM
PIN B16
Check foot pedal
connector
(1) TurnOnMil
(2) CheckEngine Light
x
Check APP1
signal at SECM
PIN B7
Check foot pedal
connector
TurnOnMil
x
Check APP2
signal at SECM
PIN B16
Check APP connector
and pins for corrosion
631
APP1AdaptLoMin
Learned idle value of APP1
sensor range lower than
expected
x
None
Cycle the pedal
several times and
check APP1
signal at SECM
Pin B7
Check APP connector
and pins for corrosion
632
641
642
651
652
661
662
APP2AdaptLoMin
Learned idle value of APP2
sensor range lower than
expected
APP1AdaptHiMax
Learned full pedal value of
APP1 sensor range higher
than expected
APP2AdaptHiMax
Learned full pedal value of
APP2 sensor range higher
than expected
APP1AdaptHiMin
Learned full pedal value of
APP1 sensor range lower
than expected
APP2AdaptHiMin
Learned full pedal value of
APP2 sensor range lower
than expected
APP1AdaptLoMax
Learned idle value of APP1
sensor range higher than
expected
APP2AdaptLoMax
Learned idle value of APP2
sensor range higher than
expected
x
None
Cycle the pedal
several times and
check APP2
signal at SECM
Pin B16
None
N/A
None
N/A
None
N/A
None
N/A
None
N/A
None
N/A
(*) Fault actions shown are default values specified by the OEM.
Woodward
96
Manual 36551A
MI-07 Engine Control System for 4.3L Engines
Table 2. Diagnostic Fault Codes (Flash Codes) cont’d.
DFC
PROBABLE FAULT
FAULT
ACTION *
CORRECTIVE ACTION
FIRST CHECK
Check APP connector and
pins for corrosion
691
APP_Sensors_Conflict
APP position sensors do
no not track well,
intermittent connections
to APP or defective pedal
assembly
x
Cycle the pedal
several times and
check APP1 signal at
SECM Pin B7
x
Cycle the pedal
several times and
check APP2 signal at
SECM Pin B16
1) TurnOnMil
(2) Level1PowerLimit
TurnOnMil
Check FTV1 for an open
wire or FTV connector being
disconnected
FTV1 Pin 1 (signal) to
SECM Pin A1
FTV1 Pin 2 (power) to
SECM (DRVP) Pin A23
Check FTV1 for an open coil
by disconnecting the FTV
connector and measuring
the resistance
(~26: ± 2: )
712
LSDFault_Dither2
Dither Valve 2 Fault,
signal has opened or
shorted to ground or
power or defective dither
2 valve
TurnOnMil
Check FTV2 for an open
wire or FTV connector being
disconnected or signal
shorted to GND
FTV2 Pin 1 (signal) to
SECM Pin A2
FTV2 Pin 2 (power) to
SECM (DRVP) Pin A23
Check FTV2 for an open coil
by disconnecting the FTV
connector and measuring
the resistance
(~26: ± 2: )
715
LSDFault_CrankDisable
Crank Disable Fault,
signal has opened or
shorted to ground or
power or defective crank
disable relay
None
N/A
TurnOnMil
Check fuel lock off valve for
an open wire or connector
being disconnected or
signal shorted to GND
Lockoff Pin B (signal) to
SECM Pin A11 Lockoff Pin
A (power) to SECM (DRVP)
Pin A23
Check CSV for an open coil
by disconnecting the CSV
connector and measuring
the resistance
(~26: ± 3:)
711
717
LSDFault_Dither1
Dither Valve 1 Fault,
signal has opened or
shorted to ground or
power or defective dither
1 valve
LSDFault_LockOff
Fuel lock off Valve Fault,
signal has opened or
shorted to ground or
power or defective Fuel
lock off valve
(*) Fault actions shown are default values specified by the OEM.
Woodward
97
Manual 36551A
MI-07 Engine Control System for 4.3L Engines
Table 2. Diagnostic Fault Codes (Flash Codes) cont’d.
DFC
PROBABLE FAULT
718
LSDFault_MIL
Malfunction Indicator Lamp
Fault, signal has opened or
shorted to ground or power
or defective MIL lamp
721
GasFuelAdaptRangeLo
In LPG mode, system had to
adapt rich more than
expected
731
GasFuelAdaptRangeHi
In LPG mode, system had to
adapt lean more than
expected
741
GasO2NotActive
Pre-catalyst O2 sensor
inactive on LPG, open O2
sensor signal or heater
leads, defective O2 sensor
FAULT
ACTION *
CORRECTIVE ACTION
FIRST CHECK
None
Check MIL lamp for an
open wire or short to GND.
TurnOnMil
Check for vacuum leaks.
Check fuel trim valves, e.g.
leaking valve or hose
Check for missing
orifice(s).
TurnOnMil
Check fuel trim valves, e.g.
plugged valve or hose.
Check for plugged
orifice(s).
(1) TurnOnMil
(2) DisableGas
O2Ctrl
Check that Pre-catalyst O2
sensor connections are
OK.
O2 (signal) Pin B to SECM
Pin B13
O2 Pin C (GND) to SECM
(DRVG GND) Pins A16,
B17
O2 Pin 1 (power) to SECM
(DRVP + 12V) Pin A23
Verify O2 sensor heater
circuit is operating by
measuring heater
resistance (2.1: ± 0.4:)
O2 Pin C (GND) to Pin D
(power)
(*) Fault actions shown are default values specified by the OEM.
Woodward
98
Manual 36551A
MI-07 Engine Control System for 4.3L Engines
Table 2. Diagnostic Fault Codes (Flash Codes) cont’d.
DFC
PROBABLE FAULT
FAULT
ACTION *
CORRECTIVE ACTION
FIRST CHECK
(1) TurnOnMil
(2) DisableGasPost
O2Ctrl
Check that Post-catalyst O2
sensor connections are OK.
O2 (signal) Pin B to SECM Pin
B19
O2 Pin C (GND) to SECM
(DRVG GND) Pins A16, B17
O2 Pin D (power) to Post O2
Heater Relay. Relay pin 87. This
relay only turns on after engine
has been running for some time
and SECM has calculated that
water condensation in exhaust
has been removed by exhaust
heat. Post O2 Heater Relay has
SECM (DRVP + 12V) applied to
the relay coil power. The relay
coil ground is controlled by
SECM Pin A20 to activate the
relay to flow current through the
post O2 heater.
Verify O2 sensor heater circuit is
operating by measuring heater
resistance (2.1: ± 0.4:)
O2 Pin C (GND) to Pin D (power)
(1) TurnOnMil
(2) DisableGas
O2Ctrl
Check for vacuum leaks.
Check fuel trim valves, e.g.
leaking valve or hose.
Check for missing orifice(s).
752
GasPostO2FailedLean
Post-catalyst O2 sensor
indicates extended lean
operation on LPG
(1) TurnOnMil
(2) DisableGasPost
O2Ctrl
Correct other faults that may
contribute to 752 (e.g. faults
pertaining to fuel trim valves,
Pre-Cat O2, Post Cat O2 sensor)
Check for vacuum leaks
Check for leaks in exhaust,
catalytic converter, HEGO
sensors; repair leaks.
Check all sensor connections
(see fault 742 corrective
actions).
771
GasO2FailedRich
Pre-catalyst O2 sensor
indicates extended rich
operation on LPG
(1) TurnOnMil
(2) DisableGas
O2Ctrl
Check fuel trim valves, e.g.
plugged valve or hose.
Check for plugged orifice(s).
742
GasPostO2NotActive
Post-catalyst O2 sensor
inactive on LPG, open O2
sensor signal or heater leads,
defective O2 sensor.
743
Reserved
751
GasO2FailedLean
Pre-catalyst O2 sensor
indicates extended lean
operation on LPG
(*) Fault actions shown are default values specified by the OEM.
Woodward
99
Manual 36551A
MI-07 Engine Control System for 4.3L Engines
Table 2. Diagnostic Fault Codes (Flash Codes) cont’d.
DFC
772
PROBABLE FAULT
GasPostO2FailedRich
Pre-catalyst O2 sensor
indicates extended rich
operation on LPG
821
LiqFuelAdaptRangeHi
In Gasoline mode, system
had to adapt lean more than
expected
831
LiqFuelAdaptRangeLow
In Gasoline mode, system
had to adapt rich more than
expected
841
LiqO2NotActive
Pre-catalyst O2 sensor
inactive on gasoline, open
O2 sensor signal or heater
leads, defective O2 sensor
FAULT
ACTION *
CORRECTIVE ACTION
FIRST CHECK
(1) TurnOnMil
(2) DisableGasPost
O2Ctrl
Correct other faults that may
contribute to 772 (e.g. faults
pertaining to FTVs, Pre-Cat
O2, Post Cat O2 sensor)
Look for leaks in exhaust,
catalytic converter, HEGO
sensors; repair leaks.
Check all sensor
connections (see fault 742
corrective actions).
TurnOnMil
Check for vacuum leaks.
Low gasoline fuel pressure,
perform gasoline pressure
test.
Injector problems, e.g.
plugged, defective injector.
TurnOnMil
Low gasoline fuel pressure,
perform gasoline pressure
test
Injector problems, e.g.
leaking, defective injector.
(1) TurnOnMil
(2) DisableLiquid
O2Ctrl
Check that Pre-catalyst O2
sensor connections are
OK.
O2 (signal) Pin B to SECM
Pin B13
O2 Pin C (GND) to SECM
(DRVG GNG) Pins A16,
B17
O2 Pin D (power) to SECM
(DRVP + 12V) PIN A23
Verify O2 sensor heater
circuit is operating by
measuring heater
resistance (2.1: ± 0.4:)
O2 Pin C (GND) to Pin D
(power)
(*) Fault actions shown are default values specified by the OEM.
Woodward
100
Manual 36551A
MI-07 Engine Control System for 4.3L Engines
Table 2. Diagnostic Fault Codes (Flash Codes) cont’d.
DFC
PROBABLE FAULT
FAULT
ACTION *
CORRECTIVE ACTION
FIRST CHECK
(1) TurnOnMil
(2) DisableLiqPost
O2Ctrl
Check that Post-catalyst O2
sensor connections are OK.
O2 (sensor GND) Pin A to
SECM Pin B1
O2 Pin C (GND) to SECM
(DRVG GND) Pins A16, B17
O2 Pin D (power) to Post O2
Heater Relay. Relay pin 87.
This relay only turns on after
engine has been running for
some time and SECM has
calculated that water
condensation in exhaust has
been removed by exhaust heat.
Post O2 Heater Relay has
SECM (DRVP + 12V) applied to
the relay coil power. The relay
coil ground is controlled by
SECM Pin A20 to activate the
relay to flow current through the
post O2 heater.
Verify O2 sensor heater circuit
is operating by measuring
heater resistance (2.1: ±
0.4:)
O2 Pin C (GND) to Pin D
(power)
(1) TurnOnMil
(2) DisableLiquid
O2Ctrl
Check for vacuum leaks.
Low gasoline fuel pressure,
perform gasoline pressure test.
Injector problems, e.g.
plugged, defective injector
852
LiqPostO2FailedLean
Post-catalyst O2 sensor
indicates extended lean
operation on gasoline
(1) TurnOnMil
(2) DisableLiqPost
O2Ctrl
Correct other faults that may
contribute to 852 (e.g. faults
pertaining to Injectors, MAP,
IAT, Pre-Cat O2, Post Cat O2
sensor.
Look for leaks in exhaust,
catalytic converter, HEGO
sensors; repair leaks.
Check all sensor connections
(see fault 842 corrective
actions).
871
LiqO2FailedRich
Pre-catalyst O2 sensor
indicates extended rich
operation on gasoline
(1) TurnOnMil
(2) DisableLiquid
O2Ctrl
High gasoline fuel pressure,
perform gasoline pressure test
Injector problems, e.g. leaking,
defective injector
842
LiqPostO2NotActive
Post-catalyst O2 sensor
inactive on gasoline, open O2
sensor signal or heater leads,
defective O2 sensor.
843
Reserved
851
LiqO2FailedLean
Pre-catalyst O2 sensor
indicates extended lean
operation on gasoline
(*) Fault actions shown are default values specified by the OEM.
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Table 2. Diagnostic Fault Codes (Flash Codes) cont’d.
DFC
PROBABLE FAULT
872
LiqPostO2FailedRich
Post-catalyst O2 sensor
indicates extended rich
operation on gasoline
911
912
921
O2RangeLow
Pre-catalyst O2 sensor
voltage out of range low,
sensor signal shorted to
ground
O2_PostCatRangeLow
Post-catalyst O2 sensor
voltage out of range low,
sensor signal shorted to
ground
O2RangeHigh
Pre-catalyst O2 sensor
voltage out of range
high, sensor signal
shorted to power
922
O2_PostCatRangeHigh
Post-catalyst O2 sensor
voltage out of range low,
sensor signal shorted to
ground
931
FuelTempRangeLow
Fuel Temperature
Sensor Input is Low,
normally set if the fuel
temperature sensor wire
has shorted to chassis
ground or the sensor
has failed.
FAULT
ACTION *
(1) TurnOnMil
(2) DisableLiqPost
O2Ctrl
CORRECTIVE ACTION
FIRST CHECK
Correct other faults that may
contribute to 872 (e.g. faults
pertaining to Injectors, MAP, IAT,
Pre-Cat O2, Post Cat O2 sensor.
Look for leaks in exhaust,
catalytic converter, HEGO
sensors; repair leaks.
Check all sensor connections
(see fault 842 corrective
actions).
(1) TurnOnMil
(2) DisableLiquid O2Ctrl
(3) DisableGas O2Ctrl
Check if O2 sensor installed
before the catalyst is shorted to
GND or sensor GND.
O2 (signal) Pin B to SECM Pin
B13
SECM (DRVG GND) Pins A16,
B17
SECM (sensor GND) Pin B1
(1) TurnOnMil
(2) Disable Gasoline
Post-catalyst O2Ctrl
(3) Disable LPG Postcatalyst O2Ctrl
Check if O2 installed after the
catalyst sensor is shorted to
GND or sensor GND.
O2 (signal) Pin B to SECM Pin
B19
Possible sources: SECM
(DRVG GND) Pins A16, B17 and
SECM (sensor GND) Pin B1
(1) TurnOnMil
(2) DisableLiquid O2Ctrl
(3) DisableGas O2Ctrl
Check if O2 sensor installed
before catalyst is shorted to
+5Vdc or battery.
O2 (signal) Pin B to SECM Pin
B13
SECM (PWR) Pin B24
SECM (power) Pin A23
(1) TurnOnMil
(2) Disable Gasoline
Post-catalyst O2Ctrl
(3) Disable LPG Postcatalyst O2Ctrl
Check if O2 sensor installed after
catalyst is shorted to +5Vdc or
battery.
O2 (signal) Pin B to SECM Pin
B19
Possible voltage sources:
SECM (PWR) Pin B24 and
SECM (power) Pin A23
TurnOnMil
Check fuel temp sensor
connector and wiring for a short
to GND
SECM (signal) Pin B14 to FTS
Pin 1
SECM (sensor GND) Pin B1 to
FTS Pin 2
SECM (GND) Pin A16, B17
(*) Fault actions shown are default values specified by the OEM.
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Table 2. Diagnostic Fault Codes (Flash Codes) cont’d.
FAULT
ACTION *
CORRECTIVE ACTION
FIRST CHECK
TurnOnMil
Check if fuel temp sensor
connector is disconnected or
for an open FTS circuit
SECM (signal) Pin B14 to FTS
Pin 1
SECM (sensor GND) Pin B1 to
FTS Pin 2
DFC
PROBABLE FAULT
932
FuelTempRangeHigh
Fuel Temperature Sensor
Input is High normally set if
the fuel temperature sensor
wire has been disconnected
or the circuit has opened to
the SECM.
933
TransOilTemp
Excessive transmission oil
temperature
(1) TurnOnMil
(2) Delayed
EngineShutdown
Refer to drivetrain
manufacturer’s transmission
service procedures.
991
ServiceFault1
Service Interval 1 has been
reached
None
Perform service procedure
related to Service Interval 1
(determined by OEM)
992
ServiceFault2
Service Interval 2 has been
reached
None
Perform service procedure
related to Service Interval 2
(determined by OEM)
993
ServiceFault3
Service Interval 3 has been
reached
None
Perform service procedure
related to Service Interval 3
(determined by OEM)
994
ServiceFault4
Service Interval 4 has been
reached—replace HEGO
sensors
TurnOnMil
Replace Pre-catalyst HEGO
sensor
Replace Post-catalyst HEGO
sensor
995
ServiceFault5
Service Interval 5 has been
reached
TurnOnMil
Perform service procedure
related to Service Interval 5
(determined by OEM)
(*) Fault actions shown are default values specified by the OEM.
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THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK
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Chapter 9.
Parts Description
LP Fuel System Components for
4.3L Engines
The chart below lists the MI-07 components required for 4.3L engines.
Components shown with part numbers are supplied by Woodward as part of the
MI-07 system package. Components shown with a dot (x) are supplied by
customer.
PART NO.
DESCRIPTION
QTY
Engine Control Module (SECM 48pin)
1
x
Crankshaft Position Sensor
1
x
TMAP Sensor
1
Fuel Temperature Sensor
1
Transmission Oil Temperature Switch
1
1680-6005
Oxygen Sensors
2
x
Coolant Sensor
1
x
Engine Oil Pressure Switch
1
Fuel Trim Valve
2
Ignition Coils
1
1311-1011
Fuel Lock Off Solenoid
1
5233-1018
Regulator
1
8062-1052
CA100 Mixer
1
6945-5001
Throttle-DV-E5 40mm
1
1751-6068
1689-1081
x
1309-6019
x
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CA100 Mixer
Refer to Figure 40 exploded view on facing page.
Parts List CA100 Mixer
REF
NO.
DESCRIPTION
QTY
1
Torx Screws (T-25) #10-24 x 5/8”
4
2
Lockwashers (T-210) #10 SST
4
3
Mixer Cover
1
4
Mixer Spring
1
5
Diaphragm
1
6
Air Valve Assembly
1
7
Gas Valve Cone (part of air valve assembly)
1
8
Mixer Body
1
9
Expansion Plug Cap Ø 1/2” x 1/16” thick (Ø 12.7mm x 27mm)
1
10
Fuel Inlet
1
11
Air Horn Gasket
1
12
Air Horn Adapter 2-1/16” (52.37mm)
1
13
Fillister Head Screws SEMS Lockwasher 10-24 UNC x 5/8”
4
14
Throttle Body Gasket
1
15
Fillister Head Screws SEMS Split Lockwasher #12-24 x 5/8”
4
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Exploded View CA100 Mixer
DWG NO 9097-2008 Rev 2
Figure 40. CA100 Certified Mixer Exploded View
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Manual 36551A
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N-2007 Regulator
Refer to Figure 41 exploded view on facing page.
Parts List Regulator
RE
F
NO.
DESCRIPTION
QTY
1
N-2007 Body
1
2
Diaphragm, Primary Assembly
1
3
Springs, Primary Assembly
2
4
Cover, Primary Assembly
1
5
Spring, Secondary Seat, Red
1
6
Dowel Pin Ø 0.094” x 1” L (Ø 2.39mm x 25.4mm L)
Hardened Steel
1
7
Diaphragm, Secondary Assembly
1
8
Lever, Secondary
1
9
Seat, Secondary
1
10
Valve Primary
1
11
Fillister Head Screws SEMS Split Lockwasher #12-24 x 5/8”
6
12
Pan Head Screw SEMS Ext. Tooth Lockwasher #12-24 x 1/4”
1
13
Body Gasket
1
14
Back Plate
1
®
15
O-ring, Size 107 GLT Viton
16
Bottom Plate Gasket
1
17
Plate Cover
1
18
Fillister Head Screws SEMS Split Lockwasher #12-24 x 1-3/8”
6
19
Hex Head Screws SEMS Split Lockwasher 1/4-20 x 5/8”
4
20
Plug, Socket Head Pipe (T-086)
1
21
Cover, Secondary Diaphragm
1
22
Lockwasher, Int. Tooth (T-210) #8 SST
6
23
Torx Screws (T-15) #8-32 x 5/8”
6
Woodward
1
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Manual 36551A
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Exploded View
P/N 5233-1018 N-2007 Regulator
DWG NO 1326-4039 Rev 100
Figure 41. N-2007 Certified Regulator Exploded View
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Appendix
LPG & LPG Fuel Tanks
Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) consists mainly of propane, propylene, butane,
and butylenes in various mixtures. LPG is produced as a by-product of natural
gas processing or it can be obtained from crude oil as part of the oil refining
process. LPG, like gasoline, is a compound of hydrogen and carbon, commonly
called hydrocarbons.
In its natural state, propane is colorless and odorless; an odorant (ethyl
mercaptan) is added to the fuel so its presence can be detected. There are
currently three grades of propane available in the United States. A propane grade
designation of HD5 (not exceeding 5% propylene), is used for internal combustion
engines while much higher levels of propylene (HD10) are used as commercial
grade propane along with a commercial propane /butane mixture.
APPROXIMATE COMPOSITION OF HD5 PROPANE BY VOLUME
Propane
(C3H8)
Propylene
Butane
(C4H10)
Iso-Butane
Methane
(CH4)
TOTAL
90.0% min.
5% max.
2.0%
1.5%
1.5%
100%
An advantage of LPG is the ability to safely store and transport the product in the
liquid state. In the liquid state propane is approximately 270 times as dense as it
is in a gaseous form. By pressurizing a container of LPG we can effectively raise
the boiling point above -44° F (-42° C), keeping the propane in liquid form. The
point at which the liquid becomes a gas (boiling point) depends on the amount of
pressure applied to the container.
This process operates similarly to an engine coolant system where water is kept
from boiling by pressurizing the system and adding a mixture of glycol. For
example, water at normal atmospheric pressure will boil at 212° F (100°) C. If an
engine’s operating temperature is approximately 230° F (110° C) then the water
in an open un-pressurized cooling system would simply boil off into steam,
eventually leaving the cooling system empty and overheating the engine. If we
install a 10-psig cap on the radiator, pressurizing the cooling system to 10 psig,
the boiling point of the water increases to 242° F (117° C), which will cause the
water to remain in liquid state at the engine’s operating temperature.
The same principle is applied to LPG in a container, commonly referred to as an
LPG tank or cylinder. Typically an LPG tank is not filled over 80% capacity to
allow for a 20% vapor expansion space. Outside air temperature affects an LPG
tank and must be considered when using an LPG system. Figure A1 shows the
relationship between pressure and temperature in a LPG tank at a steady state
condition.
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LPG Tank Pressure VS Temperature
300
Pressure, psig
250
200
150
100
50
0
-20
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
Te mpe rature , de g F
Figure A1. LPG Tank Pressure vs Temperature
With 128 psig vapor pressure acting against the liquid propane, the boiling point
has been raised to slightly more than 80° F (27° C).
Compressed Vapor
128 psig
Liquid Propane
NOTE
Vapor pressure inside an LPG tank depends on the propane
temperature, not the amount of liquid inside the tank. A tank that
is 3/4 full of liquid propane at 80°F (27°C) will contain the same
vapor pressure as a tank that is only 1/4 full of liquid propane.
LPG’s relative ease of vaporization makes it an excellent fuel for low-RPM
engines on start-and-stop operations. The more readily a fuel vaporizes, the
more complete combustion will be. Because propane has a low boiling point
(-44° F [-42° C]), and is a low carbon fuel, engine life can be extended due to
less cylinder wall wash down and little, if any, carbon build up.
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LPG Fuel Tanks
The two styles of LPG storage containers available for industrial use and lift truck
applications are portable universal cylinders and permanently mounted tanks.
Portable universal cylinders are used primarily for off-highway vehicles and are
constructed in accordance with the DOT-TC (United States Department of
Transport – Transport Canada). The cylinders are referred to as universal
because they can be mounted in either a vertical or horizontal position
(Figure A2).
Figure A2. Portable Universal Cylinder
NOTE
A 375-psig relief valve is used on a DOT forklift tank. The relief valve
must be replaced with a new valve after the first 12 years and every 10
years thereafter.
The tank must be discarded if the collar is damaged to the point that it can no
longer protect the valves. It must also be replaced if the foot ring is bent to the
point where the tank will not stand or is easily knocked over.
Installing LPG Fuel Tanks
When installing a tank on a lift truck, the tank must be within the outline of the
vehicle to prevent damage to the valves when maneuvering in tight spaces.
Horizontal tanks must be installed on the saddle that contains an alignment pin,
which matches the hole in the collar of the tank. When the pin is in the hole, the
liquid withdrawal tube is positioned to the bottom of the tank. A common problem
is that often these guide-pins are broken off, allowing the tank to be mounted in
any position. This creates two problems: (1) Exposure of the liquid withdrawal
tube to the vapor space may give a false indication that the tank is empty, when
actually it is not. (2). The safety relief valve may be immersed in liquid fuel. If for
any reason the valve has to vent, venting liquid can cause a serious safety
problem.
CAUTION
Exchange empty tank with a pre-filled replacement tank. Wear safety
glasses and gloves when exchanging a tank.
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LPG Fuel Tank Components
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Fuel Gauge
80% Stop Bleeder
Pressure Relief Valve
Service Valve (Tank end male coupling)
Filler Valve
Alignment Pin
Vapor Withdrawal Tube (used only with vapor withdrawal)
80% Limiter Tube
Liquid Withdrawal Tube
3
7
8
2
9
1
4
5
6
Figure A3. LPG Fuel Tank Components
Fuel Gauge
In Figure A3 a visual fuel gauge is used to show the fuel level in the tank. A
mechanical float mechanism detects the liquid propane level. A magnet on the
end of the float shaft moves a magnetic pointer in the fuel gauge. Some units
have an electronic sending unit using a variable resistor, installed in place of a
gauge for remote monitoring of the fuel level. The gauge may be changed with
fuel in the tank. DO NOT REMOVE THE FOUR LARGE FLANGE BOLTS THAT
RETAIN THE FLOAT ASSEMBLY WHEN FUEL IS IN THE TANK!
WARNING
It is not a legal practice to fill the tank through the liquid contents gauge.
In some applications a fixed tube fuel indicator is used in place of a float
mechanism. A fixed tube indicator does not use a gauge and only indicates when
the LPG tank is 80% full. The fixed tube indicator is simply a normally closed
valve that is opened during refueling by the fueling attendant. When opened
during refueling and the tanks LPG level is below 80%, a small amount of vapor
will exit the valve. When the LPG tank level reaches 80% liquid propane will
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begin exiting the valve in the form of a white mist (Always wear the appropriate
protective apparel when refueling LPG cylinders). In order for this type of gauge
to be accurate, the tank must be positioned properly. When full (80% LPG) the
valve is closed by turning the knurled knob clockwise. Typically a warning label
surrounds the fixed tube gauge which reads STOP FILLING WHEN LIQUID
APPEARS.
Pressure Relief Valve
A pressure relief valve is installed for safety purposes on all LPG tanks. Portable
fuel tank safety pressure relief valves are a normally closed spring-loaded valve
and are calibrated to open at 375 psig tank pressure. This will allow propane
vapor to escape to the atmosphere. When tank pressure drops below the preset
value, the valve closes.
Service Valve
The service valve is a manually operated valve using a small hand wheel to open
and close the fuel supply to the service line (fuel supply line). The service valve
installs directly into the tank and has two main categories, liquid and vapor
service valves. Liquid service valves used on portable LPG tanks use a 3/8”
(NPT) male pipe thread on the service valve outlet for attachment of a quick
disconnect coupler.
An excess flow valve is built into the inlet side of the service valve as a safety
device in case of an accidental opening of the service line or damage to the
service valve itself. The excess flow valve shuts off the flow of liquid propane if
the flow rate of the liquid propane exceeds the maximum flow rate specified by
the manufacturer.
Outlet
Hydrostatic
Excess Flow
Valve
Figure A4. Service Valve
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CAUTION
The service valve should be completely open when the tank is in use.
If the valve is partly open, the vehicle may not get enough fuel to
operate efficiently.
In addition to possibly starving the engine for fuel, a partly open valve
may restrict the flow enough to prevent the excess flow valve from
closing in the event of a ruptured fuel line.
Most liquid service valves have an internal hydrostatic relief valve and are
usually labeled “LIQUID WITH INTERNAL RELIEF.” The hydrostatic relief valve
protects the fuel service line between the tank and the lock off from over
pressurization. The internal hydrostatic relief valve has a minimum opening
pressure of 375 psig and a maximum pressure of 500 psig. These relief valves
have an advantage over external relief valves because the propane is returned to
the tank in the event of an over pressurization instead of venting the propane to
the atmosphere.
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Quick Disconnect Coupling
The liquid withdrawal or service valve on a DOT tank has male threads and
accepts the female portion of a quick disconnect coupling (Figure A5). The
female portion is adapted to the liquid hose going to the fuel system. Both halves
are equipped with 100% shutoffs, which open when coupled together to allow
fuel flow. The coupler has two seals. One is an o-ring and the other is a flat
washer. The o-ring prevents leakage from the shaft on the other coupling and the
flat washer seals when the coupler is fully connected.
Figure A5. Quick Disconnect Coupling
NOTE
The flat seal and/or the o-ring will sometimes pop off when
disconnecting and slide up the shaft of the mating connector, causing
the valve not to open when fully mated. Remove the extra washer or oring from the shaft and reconnect the coupling.
Filler Valve
The liquid filler valve (Figure A6) has a male thread to
receive a fuel nozzle and typically has a plastic or
brass screw on cap that is retained with a small chain
or plastic band to keep debris out of the filler valve.
The filler valve is a one-way flow device that uses two
check valves to allow fuel to enter the tank but prevent
it from exiting. Both check valves are backpressure
type check valves, designed so that backpressure from
the tank assists the check valves own spring pressure
to close the valve. The first valve uses a neoprene on
metal seal and the second valve uses a metal on metal
seal.
Weakness
Ring
A weakness ring is machined into the filler valve just
above the check valves and will allow the filler valve to
shear off in case of an accident. The valve will break or
shear off above the check valves so that the tank will
be sealed and no liquid propane can escape.
Figure A6. Liquid Filler
Valve
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Abbreviations
ACFM
AFR
BHP
Bi-Fuel
Actual cubic feet per minute at the specified suction conditions
Air fuel ratio
Brake horsepower
Able to operate on either of two fuels
CTS
Coolant temperature sensor
CNG
Compressed natural gas
Dual Fuel
Able to run simultaneously on two fuels, e.g. diesel and natural
gas. Often this term is incorrectly used to describe bi-fuel
operation. Spark-ignited engines are typically bi-fuel while
compression ignition engines are dual-fuel.
ECM
Engine control module
FPP
Foot pedal position
FPV
Fuel primer valve
FTS
Fuel temperature sensor
FTV
Fuel trim valve
GPM
HEGO
Gallons per minute of flow
Heated exhaust gas oxygen (sensor)
LAT
Limited-angle torque motor
LPG
Liquified petroleum gas
MAP
Manifold absolute pressure
MAT
Manifold air temperature
MIL
Malfunction indicator lamp
MOR
Manufacturer of record for emissions certification on the engine
OEM
Original equipment manufacturer
PHI
RPM
Relative fuel-air ratio or percent of stoichiometric fuel
(actual fuel-air ratio / stoichiometric fuel-air ratio)
Revolutions per minute
SECM
Small engine control module
TMAP
Temperature and manifold absolute pressure
TPS
Throttle position sensor
VDC
Voltage of direct current type
VE
WOT
Woodward
Volumetric efficiency
Wide open throttle
117
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Email and Website—www.woodward.com
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2007/6/Niles
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