R&S®FSQ User Manual - Rohde & Schwarz Colombia

R&S®FSQ User Manual - Rohde & Schwarz Colombia
R&S®FSQ
Signal Analyzer
Operating Manual
Operating Manual
Test & Measurement
1313.9681.12 – 02
®
The Operating Manual describes the following R&S FSQ models and options:
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R&S FSQ3 (1313.9100K03)
R&S FSQ8 (1313.9100K08)
R&S FSQ26 (1313.9100K26)
R&S FSQ39 (1313.9100K39)
R&S FSQ40 (1313.9100K40)
R&S FSU-B9 (1142.8994.02)
R&S FSQ-B10 (1129.7246.03)
R&S FSP-B16 (1129.8042.03)
R&S FSQ-B17 (1163.0063.02)
R&S FSU-B21 (1157.1090.03)
The contents of this manual correspond to firmware 4.75SP5 or higher.
© 2014 Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG
Muehldorfstr. 15, 81671 Munich. Germany
Phone:
Fax:
+49 89 4129-0
+49 89 4129-12 164
E-mail:
[email protected]
Internet: http://www.rohde-schwarz.com
81671 Munich, Germany
Subject to change – Data without tolerance limits is not binding.
R&S® is a registered trademark of Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG.
Trade names are trademarks of the owners.
The following abbreviations are used throughout this manual:
R&S®FSQ is abbreviated as R&S FSQ.
Basic Safety Instructions
Always read through and comply with the following safety instructions!
All plants and locations of the Rohde & Schwarz group of companies make every effort to keep the safety
standards of our products up to date and to offer our customers the highest possible degree of safety. Our
products and the auxiliary equipment they require are designed, built and tested in accordance with the
safety standards that apply in each case. Compliance with these standards is continuously monitored by
our quality assurance system. The product described here has been designed, built and tested in
accordance with the EC Certificate of Conformity and has left the manufacturer’s plant in a condition fully
complying with safety standards. To maintain this condition and to ensure safe operation, you must
observe all instructions and warnings provided in this manual. If you have any questions regarding these
safety instructions, the Rohde & Schwarz group of companies will be happy to answer them.
Furthermore, it is your responsibility to use the product in an appropriate manner. This product is designed
for use solely in industrial and laboratory environments or, if expressly permitted, also in the field and must
not be used in any way that may cause personal injury or property damage. You are responsible if the
product is used for any purpose other than its designated purpose or in disregard of the manufacturer's
instructions. The manufacturer shall assume no responsibility for such use of the product.
The product is used for its designated purpose if it is used in accordance with its product documentation
and within its performance limits (see data sheet, documentation, the following safety instructions). Using
the product requires technical skills and, in some cases, a basic knowledge of English. It is therefore
essential that only skilled and specialized staff or thoroughly trained personnel with the required skills be
allowed to use the product. If personal safety gear is required for using Rohde & Schwarz products, this
will be indicated at the appropriate place in the product documentation. Keep the basic safety instructions
and the product documentation in a safe place and pass them on to the subsequent users.
Observing the safety instructions will help prevent personal injury or damage of any kind caused by
dangerous situations. Therefore, carefully read through and adhere to the following safety instructions
before and when using the product. It is also absolutely essential to observe the additional safety
instructions on personal safety, for example, that appear in relevant parts of the product documentation. In
these safety instructions, the word "product" refers to all merchandise sold and distributed by the Rohde &
Schwarz group of companies, including instruments, systems and all accessories. For product-specific
information, see the data sheet and the product documentation.
Safety labels on products
The following safety labels are used on products to warn against risks and dangers.
Symbol
Meaning
Notice, general danger location
Symbol
Meaning
ON/OFF supply voltage
Observe product documentation
Caution when handling heavy equipment
Standby indication
Danger of electric shock
Direct current (DC)
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Basic Safety Instructions
Symbol
Meaning
Symbol
Meaning
Warning! Hot surface
Alternating current (AC)
Protective conductor terminal
Direct/alternating current (DC/AC)
Ground
Device fully protected by double (reinforced)
insulation
Ground terminal
EU labeling for batteries and accumulators
For additional information, see section "Waste
disposal/Environmental protection", item 1.
Be careful when handling electrostatic sensitive
devices
EU labeling for separate collection of electrical
and electronic devices
For additonal information, see section "Waste
disposal/Environmental protection", item 2.
Warning! Laser radiation
For additional information, see section
"Operation", item 7.
Signal words and their meaning
The following signal words are used in the product documentation in order to warn the reader about risks
and dangers.
Indicates a hazardous situation which, if not avoided, will result in death or
serious injury.
Indicates a hazardous situation which, if not avoided, could result in death or
serious injury.
Indicates a hazardous situation which, if not avoided, could result in minor or
moderate injury.
Indicates information considered important, but not hazard-related, e.g.
messages relating to property damage.
In the product documentation, the word ATTENTION is used synonymously.
These signal words are in accordance with the standard definition for civil applications in the European
Economic Area. Definitions that deviate from the standard definition may also exist in other economic
areas or military applications. It is therefore essential to make sure that the signal words described here
are always used only in connection with the related product documentation and the related product. The
use of signal words in connection with unrelated products or documentation can result in misinterpretation
and in personal injury or material damage.
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Basic Safety Instructions
Operating states and operating positions
The product may be operated only under the operating conditions and in the positions specified by the
manufacturer, without the product's ventilation being obstructed. If the manufacturer's specifications are
not observed, this can result in electric shock, fire and/or serious personal injury or death. Applicable local
or national safety regulations and rules for the prevention of accidents must be observed in all work
performed.
1. Unless otherwise specified, the following requirements apply to Rohde & Schwarz products:
predefined operating position is always with the housing floor facing down, IP protection 2X, use only
indoors, max. operating altitude 2000 m above sea level, max. transport altitude 4500 m above sea
level. A tolerance of ±10 % shall apply to the nominal voltage and ±5 % to the nominal frequency,
overvoltage category 2, pollution severity 2.
2. Do not place the product on surfaces, vehicles, cabinets or tables that for reasons of weight or stability
are unsuitable for this purpose. Always follow the manufacturer's installation instructions when
installing the product and fastening it to objects or structures (e.g. walls and shelves). An installation
that is not carried out as described in the product documentation could result in personal injury or
even death.
3. Do not place the product on heat-generating devices such as radiators or fan heaters. The ambient
temperature must not exceed the maximum temperature specified in the product documentation or in
the data sheet. Product overheating can cause electric shock, fire and/or serious personal injury or
even death.
Electrical safety
If the information on electrical safety is not observed either at all or to the extent necessary, electric shock,
fire and/or serious personal injury or death may occur.
1. Prior to switching on the product, always ensure that the nominal voltage setting on the product
matches the nominal voltage of the AC supply network. If a different voltage is to be set, the power
fuse of the product may have to be changed accordingly.
2. In the case of products of safety class I with movable power cord and connector, operation is
permitted only on sockets with a protective conductor contact and protective conductor.
3. Intentionally breaking the protective conductor either in the feed line or in the product itself is not
permitted. Doing so can result in the danger of an electric shock from the product. If extension cords
or connector strips are implemented, they must be checked on a regular basis to ensure that they are
safe to use.
4. If there is no power switch for disconnecting the product from the AC supply network, or if the power
switch is not suitable for this purpose, use the plug of the connecting cable to disconnect the product
from the AC supply network. In such cases, always ensure that the power plug is easily reachable and
accessible at all times. For example, if the power plug is the disconnecting device, the length of the
connecting cable must not exceed 3 m. Functional or electronic switches are not suitable for providing
disconnection from the AC supply network. If products without power switches are integrated into
racks or systems, the disconnecting device must be provided at the system level.
5. Never use the product if the power cable is damaged. Check the power cables on a regular basis to
ensure that they are in proper operating condition. By taking appropriate safety measures and
carefully laying the power cable, ensure that the cable cannot be damaged and that no one can be
hurt by, for example, tripping over the cable or suffering an electric shock.
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Basic Safety Instructions
6. The product may be operated only from TN/TT supply networks fuse-protected with max. 16 A (higher
fuse only after consulting with the Rohde & Schwarz group of companies).
7. Do not insert the plug into sockets that are dusty or dirty. Insert the plug firmly and all the way into the
socket provided for this purpose. Otherwise, sparks that result in fire and/or injuries may occur.
8. Do not overload any sockets, extension cords or connector strips; doing so can cause fire or electric
shocks.
9. For measurements in circuits with voltages Vrms > 30 V, suitable measures (e.g. appropriate
measuring equipment, fuse protection, current limiting, electrical separation, insulation) should be
taken to avoid any hazards.
10. Ensure that the connections with information technology equipment, e.g. PCs or other industrial
computers, comply with the IEC60950-1/EN60950-1 or IEC61010-1/EN 61010-1 standards that apply
in each case.
11. Unless expressly permitted, never remove the cover or any part of the housing while the product is in
operation. Doing so will expose circuits and components and can lead to injuries, fire or damage to the
product.
12. If a product is to be permanently installed, the connection between the protective conductor terminal
on site and the product's protective conductor must be made first before any other connection is
made. The product may be installed and connected only by a licensed electrician.
13. For permanently installed equipment without built-in fuses, circuit breakers or similar protective
devices, the supply circuit must be fuse-protected in such a way that anyone who has access to the
product, as well as the product itself, is adequately protected from injury or damage.
14. Use suitable overvoltage protection to ensure that no overvoltage (such as that caused by a bolt of
lightning) can reach the product. Otherwise, the person operating the product will be exposed to the
danger of an electric shock.
15. Any object that is not designed to be placed in the openings of the housing must not be used for this
purpose. Doing so can cause short circuits inside the product and/or electric shocks, fire or injuries.
16. Unless specified otherwise, products are not liquid-proof (see also section "Operating states and
operating positions", item 1). Therefore, the equipment must be protected against penetration by
liquids. If the necessary precautions are not taken, the user may suffer electric shock or the product
itself may be damaged, which can also lead to personal injury.
17. Never use the product under conditions in which condensation has formed or can form in or on the
product, e.g. if the product has been moved from a cold to a warm environment. Penetration by water
increases the risk of electric shock.
18. Prior to cleaning the product, disconnect it completely from the power supply (e.g. AC supply network
or battery). Use a soft, non-linting cloth to clean the product. Never use chemical cleaning agents such
as alcohol, acetone or diluents for cellulose lacquers.
Operation
1. Operating the products requires special training and intense concentration. Make sure that persons
who use the products are physically, mentally and emotionally fit enough to do so; otherwise, injuries
or material damage may occur. It is the responsibility of the employer/operator to select suitable
personnel for operating the products.
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Basic Safety Instructions
2. Before you move or transport the product, read and observe the section titled "Transport".
3. As with all industrially manufactured goods, the use of substances that induce an allergic reaction
(allergens) such as nickel cannot be generally excluded. If you develop an allergic reaction (such as a
skin rash, frequent sneezing, red eyes or respiratory difficulties) when using a Rohde & Schwarz
product, consult a physician immediately to determine the cause and to prevent health problems or
stress.
4. Before you start processing the product mechanically and/or thermally, or before you take it apart, be
sure to read and pay special attention to the section titled "Waste disposal/Environmental protection",
item 1.
5. Depending on the function, certain products such as RF radio equipment can produce an elevated
level of electromagnetic radiation. Considering that unborn babies require increased protection,
pregnant women must be protected by appropriate measures. Persons with pacemakers may also be
exposed to risks from electromagnetic radiation. The employer/operator must evaluate workplaces
where there is a special risk of exposure to radiation and, if necessary, take measures to avert the
potential danger.
6. Should a fire occur, the product may release hazardous substances (gases, fluids, etc.) that can
cause health problems. Therefore, suitable measures must be taken, e.g. protective masks and
protective clothing must be worn.
7. Laser products are given warning labels that are standardized according to their laser class. Lasers
can cause biological harm due to the properties of their radiation and due to their extremely
concentrated electromagnetic power. If a laser product (e.g. a CD/DVD drive) is integrated into a
Rohde & Schwarz product, absolutely no other settings or functions may be used as described in the
product documentation. The objective is to prevent personal injury (e.g. due to laser beams).
8. EMC classes (in line with EN 55011/CISPR 11, and analogously with EN 55022/CISPR 22,
EN 55032/CISPR 32)
Class A equipment:
Equipment suitable for use in all environments except residential environments and environments
that are directly connected to a low-voltage supply network that supplies residential buildings
Note: Class A equipment is intended for use in an industrial environment. This equipment may
cause radio disturbances in residential environments, due to possible conducted as well as
radiated disturbances. In this case, the operator may be required to take appropriate measures to
eliminate these disturbances.
Class B equipment:
Equipment suitable for use in residential environments and environments that are directly
connected to a low-voltage supply network that supplies residential buildings
Repair and service
1. The product may be opened only by authorized, specially trained personnel. Before any work is
performed on the product or before the product is opened, it must be disconnected from the AC supply
network. Otherwise, personnel will be exposed to the risk of an electric shock.
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Basic Safety Instructions
2. Adjustments, replacement of parts, maintenance and repair may be performed only by electrical
experts authorized by Rohde & Schwarz. Only original parts may be used for replacing parts relevant
to safety (e.g. power switches, power transformers, fuses). A safety test must always be performed
after parts relevant to safety have been replaced (visual inspection, protective conductor test,
insulation resistance measurement, leakage current measurement, functional test). This helps ensure
the continued safety of the product.
Batteries and rechargeable batteries/cells
If the information regarding batteries and rechargeable batteries/cells is not observed either at all or to the
extent necessary, product users may be exposed to the risk of explosions, fire and/or serious personal
injury, and, in some cases, death. Batteries and rechargeable batteries with alkaline electrolytes (e.g.
lithium cells) must be handled in accordance with the EN 62133 standard.
1. Cells must not be taken apart or crushed.
2. Cells or batteries must not be exposed to heat or fire. Storage in direct sunlight must be avoided.
Keep cells and batteries clean and dry. Clean soiled connectors using a dry, clean cloth.
3. Cells or batteries must not be short-circuited. Cells or batteries must not be stored in a box or in a
drawer where they can short-circuit each other, or where they can be short-circuited by other
conductive materials. Cells and batteries must not be removed from their original packaging until they
are ready to be used.
4. Cells and batteries must not be exposed to any mechanical shocks that are stronger than permitted.
5. If a cell develops a leak, the fluid must not be allowed to come into contact with the skin or eyes. If
contact occurs, wash the affected area with plenty of water and seek medical aid.
6. Improperly replacing or charging cells or batteries that contain alkaline electrolytes (e.g. lithium cells)
can cause explosions. Replace cells or batteries only with the matching Rohde & Schwarz type (see
parts list) in order to ensure the safety of the product.
7. Cells and batteries must be recycled and kept separate from residual waste. Rechargeable batteries
and normal batteries that contain lead, mercury or cadmium are hazardous waste. Observe the
national regulations regarding waste disposal and recycling.
Transport
1. The product may be very heavy. Therefore, the product must be handled with care. In some cases,
the user may require a suitable means of lifting or moving the product (e.g. with a lift-truck) to avoid
back or other physical injuries.
2. Handles on the products are designed exclusively to enable personnel to transport the product. It is
therefore not permissible to use handles to fasten the product to or on transport equipment such as
cranes, fork lifts, wagons, etc. The user is responsible for securely fastening the products to or on the
means of transport or lifting. Observe the safety regulations of the manufacturer of the means of
transport or lifting. Noncompliance can result in personal injury or material damage.
3. If you use the product in a vehicle, it is the sole responsibility of the driver to drive the vehicle safely
and properly. The manufacturer assumes no responsibility for accidents or collisions. Never use the
product in a moving vehicle if doing so could distract the driver of the vehicle. Adequately secure the
product in the vehicle to prevent injuries or other damage in the event of an accident.
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Instrucciones de seguridad elementales
Waste disposal/Environmental protection
1. Specially marked equipment has a battery or accumulator that must not be disposed of with unsorted
municipal waste, but must be collected separately. It may only be disposed of at a suitable collection
point or via a Rohde & Schwarz customer service center.
2. Waste electrical and electronic equipment must not be disposed of with unsorted municipal waste, but
must be collected separately.
Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG has developed a disposal concept and takes full responsibility for
take-back obligations and disposal obligations for manufacturers within the EU. Contact your
Rohde & Schwarz customer service center for environmentally responsible disposal of the product.
3. If products or their components are mechanically and/or thermally processed in a manner that goes
beyond their intended use, hazardous substances (heavy-metal dust such as lead, beryllium, nickel)
may be released. For this reason, the product may only be disassembled by specially trained
personnel. Improper disassembly may be hazardous to your health. National waste disposal
regulations must be observed.
4. If handling the product releases hazardous substances or fuels that must be disposed of in a special
way, e.g. coolants or engine oils that must be replenished regularly, the safety instructions of the
manufacturer of the hazardous substances or fuels and the applicable regional waste disposal
regulations must be observed. Also observe the relevant safety instructions in the product
documentation. The improper disposal of hazardous substances or fuels can cause health problems
and lead to environmental damage.
For additional information about environmental protection, visit the Rohde & Schwarz website.
Instrucciones de seguridad elementales
¡Es imprescindible leer y cumplir las siguientes instrucciones e informaciones de seguridad!
El principio del grupo de empresas Rohde & Schwarz consiste en tener nuestros productos siempre al día
con los estándares de seguridad y de ofrecer a nuestros clientes el máximo grado de seguridad. Nuestros
productos y todos los equipos adicionales son siempre fabricados y examinados según las normas de
seguridad vigentes. Nuestro sistema de garantía de calidad controla constantemente que sean cumplidas
estas normas. El presente producto ha sido fabricado y examinado según el certificado de conformidad
de la UE y ha salido de nuestra planta en estado impecable según los estándares técnicos de seguridad.
Para poder preservar este estado y garantizar un funcionamiento libre de peligros, el usuario deberá
atenerse a todas las indicaciones, informaciones de seguridad y notas de alerta. El grupo de empresas
Rohde & Schwarz está siempre a su disposición en caso de que tengan preguntas referentes a estas
informaciones de seguridad.
Además queda en la responsabilidad del usuario utilizar el producto en la forma debida. Este producto
está destinado exclusivamente al uso en la industria y el laboratorio o, si ha sido expresamente
autorizado, para aplicaciones de campo y de ninguna manera deberá ser utilizado de modo que alguna
persona/cosa pueda sufrir daño. El uso del producto fuera de sus fines definidos o sin tener en cuenta las
instrucciones del fabricante queda en la responsabilidad del usuario. El fabricante no se hace en ninguna
forma responsable de consecuencias a causa del mal uso del producto.
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Instrucciones de seguridad elementales
Se parte del uso correcto del producto para los fines definidos si el producto es utilizado conforme a las
indicaciones de la correspondiente documentación del producto y dentro del margen de rendimiento
definido (ver hoja de datos, documentación, informaciones de seguridad que siguen). El uso del producto
hace necesarios conocimientos técnicos y ciertos conocimientos del idioma inglés. Por eso se debe tener
en cuenta que el producto solo pueda ser operado por personal especializado o personas instruidas en
profundidad con las capacidades correspondientes. Si fuera necesaria indumentaria de seguridad para el
uso de productos de Rohde & Schwarz, encontraría la información debida en la documentación del
producto en el capítulo correspondiente. Guarde bien las informaciones de seguridad elementales, así
como la documentación del producto, y entréguelas a usuarios posteriores.
Tener en cuenta las informaciones de seguridad sirve para evitar en lo posible lesiones o daños por
peligros de toda clase. Por eso es imprescindible leer detalladamente y comprender por completo las
siguientes informaciones de seguridad antes de usar el producto, y respetarlas durante el uso del
producto. Deberán tenerse en cuenta todas las demás informaciones de seguridad, como p. ej. las
referentes a la protección de personas, que encontrarán en el capítulo correspondiente de la
documentación del producto y que también son de obligado cumplimiento. En las presentes
informaciones de seguridad se recogen todos los objetos que distribuye el grupo de empresas
Rohde & Schwarz bajo la denominación de "producto", entre ellos también aparatos, instalaciones así
como toda clase de accesorios. Los datos específicos del producto figuran en la hoja de datos y en la
documentación del producto.
Señalización de seguridad de los productos
Las siguientes señales de seguridad se utilizan en los productos para advertir sobre riesgos y peligros.
Símbolo
Significado
Aviso: punto de peligro general
Observar la documentación del producto
Símbolo
Significado
Tensión de alimentación de PUESTA EN
MARCHA / PARADA
Atención en el manejo de dispositivos de peso
elevado
Indicación de estado de espera (standby)
Peligro de choque eléctrico
Corriente continua (DC)
Advertencia: superficie caliente
Corriente alterna (AC)
Conexión a conductor de protección
Corriente continua / Corriente alterna (DC/AC)
Conexión a tierra
El aparato está protegido en su totalidad por un
aislamiento doble (reforzado)
Conexión a masa
Distintivo de la UE para baterías y
acumuladores
Más información en la sección
"Eliminación/protección del medio ambiente",
punto 1.
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Instrucciones de seguridad elementales
Símbolo
Significado
Símbolo
Aviso: Cuidado en el manejo de dispositivos
sensibles a la electrostática (ESD)
Significado
Distintivo de la UE para la eliminación por
separado de dispositivos eléctricos y
electrónicos
Más información en la sección
"Eliminación/protección del medio ambiente",
punto 2.
Advertencia: rayo láser
Más información en la sección
"Funcionamiento", punto 7.
Palabras de señal y su significado
En la documentación del producto se utilizan las siguientes palabras de señal con el fin de advertir contra
riesgos y peligros.
Indica una situación de peligro que, si no se evita, causa lesiones
graves o incluso la muerte.
Indica una situación de peligro que, si no se evita, puede causar
lesiones graves o incluso la muerte.
Indica una situación de peligro que, si no se evita, puede causar
lesiones leves o moderadas.
Indica información que se considera importante, pero no en relación
con situaciones de peligro; p. ej., avisos sobre posibles daños
materiales.
En la documentación del producto se emplea de forma sinónima el
término CUIDADO.
Las palabras de señal corresponden a la definición habitual para aplicaciones civiles en el área
económica europea. Pueden existir definiciones diferentes a esta definición en otras áreas económicas o
en aplicaciones militares. Por eso se deberá tener en cuenta que las palabras de señal aquí descritas
sean utilizadas siempre solamente en combinación con la correspondiente documentación del producto y
solamente en combinación con el producto correspondiente. La utilización de las palabras de señal en
combinación con productos o documentaciones que no les correspondan puede llevar a interpretaciones
equivocadas y tener por consecuencia daños en personas u objetos.
Estados operativos y posiciones de funcionamiento
El producto solamente debe ser utilizado según lo indicado por el fabricante respecto a los estados
operativos y posiciones de funcionamiento sin que se obstruya la ventilación. Si no se siguen las
indicaciones del fabricante, pueden producirse choques eléctricos, incendios y/o lesiones graves con
posible consecuencia de muerte. En todos los trabajos deberán ser tenidas en cuenta las normas
nacionales y locales de seguridad del trabajo y de prevención de accidentes.
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Instrucciones de seguridad elementales
1. Si no se convino de otra manera, es para los productos Rohde & Schwarz válido lo que sigue:
como posición de funcionamiento se define por principio la posición con el suelo de la caja para
abajo, modo de protección IP 2X, uso solamente en estancias interiores, utilización hasta 2000 m
sobre el nivel del mar, transporte hasta 4500 m sobre el nivel del mar. Se aplicará una tolerancia de
±10 % sobre el voltaje nominal y de ±5 % sobre la frecuencia nominal. Categoría de sobrecarga
eléctrica 2, índice de suciedad 2.
2. No sitúe el producto encima de superficies, vehículos, estantes o mesas, que por sus características
de peso o de estabilidad no sean aptos para él. Siga siempre las instrucciones de instalación del
fabricante cuando instale y asegure el producto en objetos o estructuras (p. ej. paredes y estantes). Si
se realiza la instalación de modo distinto al indicado en la documentación del producto, se pueden
causar lesiones o, en determinadas circunstancias, incluso la muerte.
3. No ponga el producto sobre aparatos que generen calor (p. ej. radiadores o calefactores). La
temperatura ambiente no debe superar la temperatura máxima especificada en la documentación del
producto o en la hoja de datos. En caso de sobrecalentamiento del producto, pueden producirse
choques eléctricos, incendios y/o lesiones graves con posible consecuencia de muerte.
Seguridad eléctrica
Si no se siguen (o se siguen de modo insuficiente) las indicaciones del fabricante en cuanto a seguridad
eléctrica, pueden producirse choques eléctricos, incendios y/o lesiones graves con posible consecuencia
de muerte.
1. Antes de la puesta en marcha del producto se deberá comprobar siempre que la tensión
preseleccionada en el producto coincida con la de la red de alimentación eléctrica. Si es necesario
modificar el ajuste de tensión, también se deberán cambiar en caso dado los fusibles
correspondientes del producto.
2. Los productos de la clase de protección I con alimentación móvil y enchufe individual solamente
podrán enchufarse a tomas de corriente con contacto de seguridad y con conductor de protección
conectado.
3. Queda prohibida la interrupción intencionada del conductor de protección, tanto en la toma de
corriente como en el mismo producto. La interrupción puede tener como consecuencia el riesgo de
que el producto sea fuente de choques eléctricos. Si se utilizan cables alargadores o regletas de
enchufe, deberá garantizarse la realización de un examen regular de los mismos en cuanto a su
estado técnico de seguridad.
4. Si el producto no está equipado con un interruptor para desconectarlo de la red, o bien si el
interruptor existente no resulta apropiado para la desconexión de la red, el enchufe del cable de
conexión se deberá considerar como un dispositivo de desconexión.
El dispositivo de desconexión se debe poder alcanzar fácilmente y debe estar siempre bien accesible.
Si, p. ej., el enchufe de conexión a la red es el dispositivo de desconexión, la longitud del cable de
conexión no debe superar 3 m).
Los interruptores selectores o electrónicos no son aptos para el corte de la red eléctrica. Si se
integran productos sin interruptor en bastidores o instalaciones, se deberá colocar el interruptor en el
nivel de la instalación.
5. No utilice nunca el producto si está dañado el cable de conexión a red. Compruebe regularmente el
correcto estado de los cables de conexión a red. Asegúrese, mediante las medidas de protección y
de instalación adecuadas, de que el cable de conexión a red no pueda ser dañado o de que nadie
pueda ser dañado por él, p. ej. al tropezar o por un choque eléctrico.
1171.0000.42 - 07
Page 10
Instrucciones de seguridad elementales
6. Solamente está permitido el funcionamiento en redes de alimentación TN/TT aseguradas con fusibles
de 16 A como máximo (utilización de fusibles de mayor amperaje solo previa consulta con el grupo de
empresas Rohde & Schwarz).
7. Nunca conecte el enchufe en tomas de corriente sucias o llenas de polvo. Introduzca el enchufe por
completo y fuertemente en la toma de corriente. La no observación de estas medidas puede provocar
chispas, fuego y/o lesiones.
8. No sobrecargue las tomas de corriente, los cables alargadores o las regletas de enchufe ya que esto
podría causar fuego o choques eléctricos.
9. En las mediciones en circuitos de corriente con una tensión Ueff > 30 V se deberán tomar las medidas
apropiadas para impedir cualquier peligro (p. ej. medios de medición adecuados, seguros, limitación
de tensión, corte protector, aislamiento etc.).
10. Para la conexión con dispositivos informáticos como un PC o un ordenador industrial, debe
comprobarse que éstos cumplan los estándares IEC60950-1/EN60950-1 o IEC61010-1/EN 61010-1
válidos en cada caso.
11. A menos que esté permitido expresamente, no retire nunca la tapa ni componentes de la carcasa
mientras el producto esté en servicio. Esto pone a descubierto los cables y componentes eléctricos y
puede causar lesiones, fuego o daños en el producto.
12. Si un producto se instala en un lugar fijo, se deberá primero conectar el conductor de protección fijo
con el conductor de protección del producto antes de hacer cualquier otra conexión. La instalación y
la conexión deberán ser efectuadas por un electricista especializado.
13. En el caso de dispositivos fijos que no estén provistos de fusibles, interruptor automático ni otros
mecanismos de seguridad similares, el circuito de alimentación debe estar protegido de modo que
todas las personas que puedan acceder al producto, así como el producto mismo, estén a salvo de
posibles daños.
14. Todo producto debe estar protegido contra sobretensión (debida p. ej. a una caída del rayo) mediante
los correspondientes sistemas de protección. Si no, el personal que lo utilice quedará expuesto al
peligro de choque eléctrico.
15. No debe introducirse en los orificios de la caja del aparato ningún objeto que no esté destinado a ello.
Esto puede producir cortocircuitos en el producto y/o puede causar choques eléctricos, fuego o
lesiones.
16. Salvo indicación contraria, los productos no están impermeabilizados (ver también el capítulo
"Estados operativos y posiciones de funcionamiento", punto 1). Por eso es necesario tomar las
medidas necesarias para evitar la entrada de líquidos. En caso contrario, existe peligro de choque
eléctrico para el usuario o de daños en el producto, que también pueden redundar en peligro para las
personas.
17. No utilice el producto en condiciones en las que pueda producirse o ya se hayan producido
condensaciones sobre el producto o en el interior de éste, como p. ej. al desplazarlo de un lugar frío a
otro caliente. La entrada de agua aumenta el riesgo de choque eléctrico.
18. Antes de la limpieza, desconecte por completo el producto de la alimentación de tensión (p. ej. red de
alimentación o batería). Realice la limpieza de los aparatos con un paño suave, que no se deshilache.
No utilice bajo ningún concepto productos de limpieza químicos como alcohol, acetona o diluyentes
para lacas nitrocelulósicas.
1171.0000.42 - 07
Page 11
Instrucciones de seguridad elementales
Funcionamiento
1. El uso del producto requiere instrucciones especiales y una alta concentración durante el manejo.
Debe asegurarse que las personas que manejen el producto estén a la altura de los requerimientos
necesarios en cuanto a aptitudes físicas, psíquicas y emocionales, ya que de otra manera no se
pueden excluir lesiones o daños de objetos. El empresario u operador es responsable de seleccionar
el personal usuario apto para el manejo del producto.
2. Antes de desplazar o transportar el producto, lea y tenga en cuenta el capítulo "Transporte".
3. Como con todo producto de fabricación industrial no puede quedar excluida en general la posibilidad
de que se produzcan alergias provocadas por algunos materiales empleados Slos llamados
alérgenos (p. ej. el níquel)S. Si durante el manejo de productos Rohde & Schwarz se producen
reacciones alérgicas, como p. ej. irritaciones cutáneas, estornudos continuos, enrojecimiento de la
conjuntiva o dificultades respiratorias, debe avisarse inmediatamente a un médico para investigar las
causas y evitar cualquier molestia o daño a la salud.
4. Antes de la manipulación mecánica y/o térmica o el desmontaje del producto, debe tenerse en cuenta
imprescindiblemente el capítulo "Eliminación/protección del medio ambiente", punto 1.
5. Ciertos productos, como p. ej. las instalaciones de radiocomunicación RF, pueden a causa de su
función natural, emitir una radiación electromagnética aumentada. Deben tomarse todas las medidas
necesarias para la protección de las mujeres embarazadas. También las personas con marcapasos
pueden correr peligro a causa de la radiación electromagnética. El empresario/operador tiene la
obligación de evaluar y señalizar las áreas de trabajo en las que exista un riesgo elevado de
exposición a radiaciones.
6. Tenga en cuenta que en caso de incendio pueden desprenderse del producto sustancias tóxicas
(gases, líquidos etc.) que pueden generar daños a la salud. Por eso, en caso de incendio deben
usarse medidas adecuadas, como p. ej. máscaras antigás e indumentaria de protección.
7. Los productos con láser están provistos de indicaciones de advertencia normalizadas en función de la
clase de láser del que se trate. Los rayos láser pueden provocar daños de tipo biológico a causa de
las propiedades de su radiación y debido a su concentración extrema de potencia electromagnética.
En caso de que un producto Rohde & Schwarz contenga un producto láser (p. ej. un lector de
CD/DVD), no debe usarse ninguna otra configuración o función aparte de las descritas en la
documentación del producto, a fin de evitar lesiones (p. ej. debidas a irradiación láser).
8. Clases de compatibilidad electromagnética (conforme a EN 55011 / CISPR 11; y en analogía con EN
55022 / CISPR 22, EN 55032 / CISPR 32)
Aparato de clase A:
Aparato adecuado para su uso en todos los entornos excepto en los residenciales y en aquellos
conectados directamente a una red de distribución de baja tensión que suministra corriente a
edificios residenciales.
Nota: Los aparatos de clase A están destinados al uso en entornos industriales. Estos aparatos
pueden causar perturbaciones radioeléctricas en entornos residenciales debido a posibles
perturbaciones guiadas o radiadas. En este caso, se le podrá solicitar al operador que tome las
medidas adecuadas para eliminar estas perturbaciones.
Aparato de clase B:
Aparato adecuado para su uso en entornos residenciales, así como en aquellos conectados
directamente a una red de distribución de baja tensión que suministra corriente a edificios
residenciales.
1171.0000.42 - 07
Page 12
Instrucciones de seguridad elementales
Reparación y mantenimiento
1. El producto solamente debe ser abierto por personal especializado con autorización para ello. Antes
de manipular el producto o abrirlo, es obligatorio desconectarlo de la tensión de alimentación, para
evitar toda posibilidad de choque eléctrico.
2. El ajuste, el cambio de partes, el mantenimiento y la reparación deberán ser efectuadas solamente
por electricistas autorizados por Rohde & Schwarz. Si se reponen partes con importancia para los
aspectos de seguridad (p. ej. el enchufe, los transformadores o los fusibles), solamente podrán ser
sustituidos por partes originales. Después de cada cambio de partes relevantes para la seguridad
deberá realizarse un control de seguridad (control a primera vista, control del conductor de
protección, medición de resistencia de aislamiento, medición de la corriente de fuga, control de
funcionamiento). Con esto queda garantizada la seguridad del producto.
Baterías y acumuladores o celdas
Si no se siguen (o se siguen de modo insuficiente) las indicaciones en cuanto a las baterías y
acumuladores o celdas, pueden producirse explosiones, incendios y/o lesiones graves con posible
consecuencia de muerte. El manejo de baterías y acumuladores con electrolitos alcalinos (p. ej. celdas de
litio) debe seguir el estándar EN 62133.
1. No deben desmontarse, abrirse ni triturarse las celdas.
2. Las celdas o baterías no deben someterse a calor ni fuego. Debe evitarse el almacenamiento a la luz
directa del sol. Las celdas y baterías deben mantenerse limpias y secas. Limpiar las conexiones
sucias con un paño seco y limpio.
3. Las celdas o baterías no deben cortocircuitarse. Es peligroso almacenar las celdas o baterías en
estuches o cajones en cuyo interior puedan cortocircuitarse por contacto recíproco o por contacto con
otros materiales conductores. No deben extraerse las celdas o baterías de sus embalajes originales
hasta el momento en que vayan a utilizarse.
4. Las celdas o baterías no deben someterse a impactos mecánicos fuertes indebidos.
5. En caso de falta de estanqueidad de una celda, el líquido vertido no debe entrar en contacto con la
piel ni los ojos. Si se produce contacto, lavar con agua abundante la zona afectada y avisar a un
médico.
6. En caso de cambio o recarga inadecuados, las celdas o baterías que contienen electrolitos alcalinos
(p. ej. las celdas de litio) pueden explotar. Para garantizar la seguridad del producto, las celdas o
baterías solo deben ser sustituidas por el tipo Rohde & Schwarz correspondiente (ver lista de
recambios).
7. Las baterías y celdas deben reciclarse y no deben tirarse a la basura doméstica. Las baterías o
acumuladores que contienen plomo, mercurio o cadmio deben tratarse como residuos especiales.
Respete en esta relación las normas nacionales de eliminación y reciclaje.
Transporte
1. El producto puede tener un peso elevado. Por eso es necesario desplazarlo o transportarlo con
precaución y, si es necesario, usando un sistema de elevación adecuado (p. ej. una carretilla
elevadora), a fin de evitar lesiones en la espalda u otros daños personales.
1171.0000.42 - 07
Page 13
Instrucciones de seguridad elementales
2. Las asas instaladas en los productos sirven solamente de ayuda para el transporte del producto por
personas. Por eso no está permitido utilizar las asas para la sujeción en o sobre medios de transporte
como p. ej. grúas, carretillas elevadoras de horquilla, carros etc. Es responsabilidad suya fijar los
productos de manera segura a los medios de transporte o elevación. Para evitar daños personales o
daños en el producto, siga las instrucciones de seguridad del fabricante del medio de transporte o
elevación utilizado.
3. Si se utiliza el producto dentro de un vehículo, recae de manera exclusiva en el conductor la
responsabilidad de conducir el vehículo de manera segura y adecuada. El fabricante no asumirá
ninguna responsabilidad por accidentes o colisiones. No utilice nunca el producto dentro de un
vehículo en movimiento si esto pudiera distraer al conductor. Asegure el producto dentro del vehículo
debidamente para evitar, en caso de un accidente, lesiones u otra clase de daños.
Eliminación/protección del medio ambiente
1. Los dispositivos marcados contienen una batería o un acumulador que no se debe desechar con los
residuos domésticos sin clasificar, sino que debe ser recogido por separado. La eliminación se debe
efectuar exclusivamente a través de un punto de recogida apropiado o del servicio de atención al
cliente de Rohde & Schwarz.
2. Los dispositivos eléctricos usados no se deben desechar con los residuos domésticos sin clasificar,
sino que deben ser recogidos por separado.
Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co.KG ha elaborado un concepto de eliminación de residuos y asume
plenamente los deberes de recogida y eliminación para los fabricantes dentro de la UE. Para
desechar el producto de manera respetuosa con el medio ambiente, diríjase a su servicio de atención
al cliente de Rohde & Schwarz.
3. Si se trabaja de manera mecánica y/o térmica cualquier producto o componente más allá del
funcionamiento previsto, pueden liberarse sustancias peligrosas (polvos con contenido de metales
pesados como p. ej. plomo, berilio o níquel). Por eso el producto solo debe ser desmontado por
personal especializado con formación adecuada. Un desmontaje inadecuado puede ocasionar daños
para la salud. Se deben tener en cuenta las directivas nacionales referentes a la eliminación de
residuos.
4. En caso de que durante el trato del producto se formen sustancias peligrosas o combustibles que
deban tratarse como residuos especiales (p. ej. refrigerantes o aceites de motor con intervalos de
cambio definidos), deben tenerse en cuenta las indicaciones de seguridad del fabricante de dichas
sustancias y las normas regionales de eliminación de residuos. Tenga en cuenta también en caso
necesario las indicaciones de seguridad especiales contenidas en la documentación del producto. La
eliminación incorrecta de sustancias peligrosas o combustibles puede causar daños a la salud o
daños al medio ambiente.
Se puede encontrar más información sobre la protección del medio ambiente en la página web de
Rohde & Schwarz.
1171.0000.42 - 07
Page 14
Certified Quality System
ISO 9001
Certified Environmental System
ISO 14001
Sehr geehrter Kunde,
Dear customer,
Cher client,
Sie haben sich für den Kauf
eines Rohde & Schwarz Produktes entschieden. Sie erhalten
damit ein nach modernsten Fertigungsmethoden hergestelltes
Produkt. Es wurde nach den
Regeln unserer Qualitäts- und
Umweltmanagementsysteme
entwickelt, gefertigt und geprüft.
Rohde & Schwarz ist unter anderem nach den Managementsystemen ISO 9001 und ISO 14001
zertifiziert.
You have decided to buy a
Rohde & Schwarz product. This
product has been manufactured
using the most advanced methods. It was developed, manufactured and tested in compliance
with our quality management
and environmental management systems. Rohde & Schwarz
has been certified, for example, according to the ISO 9001
and ISO 14001 management
systems.
Der Umwelt verpflichtet
Environmental commitment
Vous avez choisi d’acheter un
produit Rohde & Schwarz. Vous
disposez donc d’un produit
fabriqué d’après les méthodes
les plus avancées. Le développement, la fabrication et les
tests de ce produit ont été effectués selon nos systèmes de
management de qualité et de
management environnemental.
La société Rohde & Schwarz a
été homologuée, entre autres,
conformément aux systèmes
de management ISO 9001 et
ISO 14001.
❙❙ Energie-effiziente,
❙❙ Energy-efficient
RoHS-konforme Produkte
❙❙ Kontinuierliche
Weiterentwicklung nachhaltiger
­Umweltkonzepte
❙❙ ISO 14001-zertifiziertes
Umweltmanagementsystem
❙❙ Continuous
Engagement écologique
❙❙ Produits
à efficience
énergétique
❙❙ Amélioration continue de la
durabilité environnementale
❙❙ Système de management
environnemental certifié selon
ISO 14001
1171.0200.11 V 05.01
products
improvement in
environmental sustainability
❙❙ ISO 14001-certified
environmental management
system
ISO-Qualitaets-Zertifikat_1171-0200-11_A4.indd 1
28.09.2012 10:25:08
1171020011
Quality management
and environmental
management
Customer Support
Technical support – where and when you need it
For quick, expert help with any Rohde & Schwarz equipment, contact one of our Customer Support
Centers. A team of highly qualified engineers provides telephone support and will work with you to find a
solution to your query on any aspect of the operation, programming or applications of Rohde & Schwarz
equipment.
Up-to-date information and upgrades
To keep your instrument up-to-date and to be informed about new application notes related to your
instrument, please send an e-mail to the Customer Support Center stating your instrument and your wish.
We will take care that you will get the right information.
Europe, Africa, Middle East
Phone +49 89 4129 12345
[email protected]
North America
Phone 1-888-TEST-RSA (1-888-837-8772)
[email protected]
Latin America
Phone +1-410-910-7988
[email protected]
Asia/Pacific
Phone +65 65 13 04 88
[email protected]
China
Phone +86-800-810-8228 /
+86-400-650-5896
[email protected]
1171.0200.22-06.00
R&S FSQ
Documentation Overview
Documentation Overview
The documentation of the R&S FSQ consists of base unit manuals and option manuals. All manuals are provided in PDF format on the CD-ROM delivered with the
instrument. Each software option available for the instrument is described in a separate software manual.
The base unit documentation comprises the following manuals and documents:
•
Quick Start Guide
•
Operating Manual
•
Service Manual
•
Internet Site
•
Release Notes
Apart from the base unit, these manuals describe the following models and options
of the R&S FSQ Signal Analyzer. Options that are not listed are described in separate manuals. These manuals are provided on an extra CD-ROM. For an overview
of all options available for the R&S FSQ visit the R&S FSQ Signal Analyzer Internet
site.
Base unit models:
•
R&S FSQ3 (20 Hz to 3.6 GHz)
•
R&S FSQ8 (20 Hz to 8 GHz)
•
R&S FSQ26 (20 Hz to 26.5 GHz)
•
R&S FSQ31(20 Hz to 31 GHz)
•
R&S FSQ40 (20 Hz to 40 GHz)
Options described in the base unit manuals:
•
R&S FSU-B9 (Tracking Generator)
•
R&S FSP-B10 (External Generator Control)
•
R&S FSP-B16 (LAN Interface)
•
R&S FSQ-B17 (I/Q-Online input/output (LVDS))
•
R&S FSU-B21 (External Mixer)
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
0.3
R&S FSQ
Documentation Overview
Quick Start Guide
This manual is delivered with the instrument in printed form and in PDF format on
the CD-ROM. It provides the information needed to set up and start working with the
instrument. Basic operations and basic measurements are described. Also a brief
introduction to remote control is given. More detailed descriptions are provided in
the Operating Manual. The Quick Start Guide includes general information (e.g.
Safety Instructions) and the following chapters:
Chapter 1
Front and Rear Panel
Chapter 2
Preparing for Use
Chapter 3
Firmware-Update and Installation of Firmware Options
Chapter 4
Basic Operation
Chapter 5
Basic Measurement Examples
Chapter 6
Brief Introduction to Remote Control
Appendix
Operating Manual
This manual is a supplement to the Quick Start Guide and is available in PDF format
on the CD-ROM delivered with the instrument. To retain the familiar structure that
applies to all operating manuals of Rohde&Schwarz Test & Measurement instruments, the chapters 1 and 3 exist, but only in form of references to the corresponding Quick Start Guide chapters. The operating manual has the following chapters:
0.4
Chapter 1
Putting into Operation
see Quick Start Guide chapters 1 and 2.
Chapter 2
Getting Started
see Quick Start Guide chapter 5.
Chapter 3
Manual Operation
see Quick Start Guide chapter 4.
Chapter 4
Instrument Functions
forms a reference for manual operation of the R&S FSQ and contains a description of all instrument functions and their application.
Chapter 5
Remote Control - Basics
describes the basics for programming the R&S FSQ, command processing and the status reporting system.
Chapter 6
Remote Control - Description of Commands
lists all the remote-control commands defined for the instrument.
Chapter 7
Remote Control - Programming Examples
contains program examples for a number of typical applications of
the R&S FSQ.
Chapter 8
Maintenance and Instrument Interfaces
describes preventive maintenance and the characteristics of the
instrument’s interfaces.
Chapter 9
Error Messages
gives a list of error messages that the R&S FSQ may generate.
Index
contains an index for the chapters 1 to 9 of the operating manual.
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Documentation Overview
Service Manual
This manual is available in PDF format on the CD-ROM delivered with the instrument. It informs on how to check compliance with rated specifications, on instrument
function, repair, troubleshooting and fault elimination. It contains all information
required for repairing the R&S FSQ by the replacement of modules. The manual
includes the following chapters:
Chapter 1
Performance Test
Chapter 2
Adjustment
Chapter 3
Repair
Chapter 4
Software Update / Installing Options
Chapter 5
Documents
Internet Site
The Internet site at: http://www.rohde-schwarz.com/product/fsq.html provides the
most up to date information on the R&S FSQ.
The current operating manual at a time is available as printable PDF file in the
download area. Also provided for download are firmware updates including the
associated release notes, instrument drivers, current data sheets and application
notes.
Release Notes
The release notes describe the installation of the firmware, new and modified functions, eliminated problems, and last minute changes to the documentation. The corresponding firmware version is indicated on the title page of the release notes. The
current release notes are provided in the Internet.
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
0.5
R&S FSQ
Putting into Operation
1 Putting into Operation
For details refer to the Quick Start Guide chapter 1, “Front and Rear Panel” and
chapter 2, “ Preparing for Use”.
1.1
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Getting Started
2 Getting Started
2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2
2.2 Measuring the Spectrums of Complex Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3
2.2.1 Intermodulation Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3
2.2.1.1 Measurement Example – Measuring the R&S FSQ’s Intrinsic
Intermodulation Distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5
2.3 Measuring Signals in the Vicinity of Noise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.10
2.3.0.1 Measurement Example – Measuring the Level of the Internal
Reference Generator at Low S/N Ratios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.13
2.4 Noise Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.18
2.4.1 Measuring Noise Power Density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.18
2.4.1.1 Measurement Example – Measuring the Intrinsic Noise Power
Density of the R&S FSQ at 1 GHz and Calculating the R&S FSQ’s
Noise Figure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.18
2.4.2 Measurement of Noise Power within a Transmission Channel . . . . . . . 2.21
2.4.2.1 Measurement Example – Measuring the Intrinsic Noise of the
R&S FSQ at 1 GHz in a 1.23 MHz Channel Bandwidth with the
Channel Power Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.21
2.4.3 Measuring Phase Noise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.27
2.4.3.1 Measurement Example – Measuring the Phase Noise of a
Signal Generator at a Carrier Offset of 10 kHz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.27
2.5 Measurements on Modulated Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.29
2.5.1 Measurements on AM Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.29
2.5.1.1 Measurement Example 1 – Displaying the AF of an AM Signal
in the Time Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.29
2.5.1.2 Measurement Example 2 – Measuring the Modulation Depth
of an AM Carrier in the Frequency Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.31
2.5.2 Measurements on FM Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.33
2.5.2.1 Measurement Example – Displaying the AF of an FM Carrier . . . 2.33
2.5.3 Measuring Channel Power and Adjacent Channel Power . . . . . . . . . . 2.36
2.5.3.1 Measurement Example 1 – ACPR Measurement on an IS95
CDMA Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.37
2.5.3.2 Measurement Example 2 – Measuring the Adjacent Channel
Power of an IS136 TDMA Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.42
2.5.3.3 Measurement Example 3 – Measuring the Modulation Spectrum
in Burst Mode with the Gated Sweep Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.45
2.5.3.4 Measurement Example 4 – Measuring the Transient Spectrum
in Burst Mode with the Fast ACP function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.47
2.5.3.5 Measurement Example 5 – Measuring the Adjacent Channel
Power of a W-CDMA Uplink Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.50
2.5.4 Amplitude Distribution Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.54
2.5.4.1 Measurement Example – Measuring the APD and CCDF of
White Noise Generated by the R&S FSQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.55
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
2.1
R&S FSQ
Getting Started
Introduction
2.1
Introduction
This chapter explains how to operate the R&S FSQ using typical measurements as
examples. Additional background information on the settings is given.
All of the following examples are based on the standard settings of the R&S FSQ.
These are set with the PRESET key. A complete list of the standard settings can be
found in chapter “Instrument Functions”, section “R&S FSQ Initial Configuration –
PRESET Key” on page 4.6.
•
“Measuring the Spectrums of Complex Signals” on page 2.3
•
“Measuring Signals in the Vicinity of Noise” on page 2.10
•
“Noise Measurements” on page 2.18
•
“Measurements on Modulated Signals” on page 2.29
Examples of more basic character are described in the Quick Start Guide, chapter 5.
2.2
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R&S FSQ
Getting Started
Measuring the Spectrums of Complex Signals
2.2
2.2.1
Measuring the Spectrums of Complex Signals
Intermodulation Measurements
If several signals are applied to a DUT with non-linear characteristics, unwanted
mixing products are generated – mostly by active components such as amplifiers or
mixers. The products created by 3rd order intermodulation are particularly troublesome as they have frequencies close to the useful signals and, compared with other
products, are closest in level to the useful signals. The fundamental wave of one signal is mixed with the 2nd harmonic of the other signal.
fs1 = 2 × fu1 – fu2
(6)
fs2 = 2 × fu2 – fu1
(7)
where fs1 and fs2 are the frequencies of the intermodulation products and fu1 and fu2
the frequencies of the useful signals.
The following diagram shows the position of the intermodulation products in the frequency domain.
Level
Pu1
Pu2
aD3
Ps1
Ps2
∆f
fs1
∆f
f u1
∆f
fu2
fs2
Frequency
Fig. 2.1 3rd order intermodulation products
Example
fu1 = 100 MHz, fu2 = 100.03 MHz
fs1 = 2 × fu1 – fu2 = 2 × 100 MHz – 100.03 MHz = 99.97 MHz
fs2 = 2 × fu2 – fu1 = 2 × 100.03 MHz – 100 MHz = 100.06 MHz
The level of the intermodulation products depends on the level of the useful signals.
If the level of the two useful signals is increased by 1 dB, the level of the intermodulation products is increased by 3 dB. The intermodulation distance d3 is, therefore,
reduced by 2 dB. Fig. 2.2 shows how the levels of the useful signals and the 3rd
order intermodulation products are related.
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
2.3
R&S FSQ
Getting Started
Measuring the Spectrums of Complex Signals
Output
level
Intercept
point
Compression
Intermodulation
products
Carrier
level
3
aD3
1
1
1
Input level
Fig. 2.2 Level of the 3rd order intermodulation products as a function of the level of the useful
signals
The behavior of the signals can explained using an amplifier as an example. The
change in the level of the useful signals at the output of the amplifier is proportional
to the level change at the input of the amplifier as long as the amplifier is operating
in linear range. If the level at the amplifier input is changed by 1 dB, there is a 1 dB
level change at the amplifier output. At a certain input level, the amplifier enters saturation. The level at the amplifier output does not increase with increasing input
level.
The level of the 3rd order intermodulation products increases 3 times faster than the
level of the useful signals. The 3rd order intercept is the virtual level at which the
level of the useful signals and the level of the spurious products are identical, i.e. the
intersection of the two straight lines. This level cannot be measured directly as the
amplifier goes into saturation or is damaged before this level is reached.
The 3rd order intercept can be calculated from the known slopes of the lines, the
intermodulation distance d2 and the level of the useful signals.
TOI = aD3 / 2 + Pn
(8)
with TOI (Third Order Intercept) being the 3rd order intercept in dBm and Pn the
level of a carrier in dBm.
With an intermodulation distance of 60 dB and an input level, Pw, of –20 dBm, the
following 3rd order intercept is obtained:
TOI = 60 dBm / 2 + (-20 dBm) = 10 dBm.
2.4
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R&S FSQ
Getting Started
Measuring the Spectrums of Complex Signals
2.2.1.1
Measurement Example – Measuring the R&S FSQ’s Intrinsic Intermodulation
Distance
To measure the intrinsic intermodulation distance, use the test setup shown in the
figure below.
Test setup
Signal generator settings (e.g. R&S SMIQ)
Level
Frequency
Signal generator 1
-10 dBm
999.9 MHz
Signal generator 2
-10 dBm
1000.1 MHz
Measurement using the R&S FSQ
1. Set the R&S FSQ to the analyzer mode.
➢ Press the SPECTRUM key.
The R&S FSQ is in the analyzer mode.
2. Set center frequency to 1 GHz and the frequency span to 1 MHz.
➢ Press the FREQ key and enter 1 GHz.
➢ Press the SPAN key and enter 1 MHz.
3. Set the reference level to –10 dBm and RF attenuation to 0 dB.
➢ Press the AMPT key and enter -10 dBm.
➢ Press the RF ATTEN MANUAL softkey and enter 0 dB.
By reducing the RF attenuation to 0 dB, the level to the R&S FSQ input mixer
is increased. Therefore, 3rd order intermodulation products are displayed.
4. Set the resolution bandwidth to 5 kHz.
➢ Press the BW key.
➢ Press the RES BW MANUAL softkey and enter 5 kHz.
By reducing the bandwidth, the noise is further reduced and the
intermodulation products can be clearly seen.
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
2.5
R&S FSQ
Getting Started
Measuring the Spectrums of Complex Signals
5. Measuring intermodulation by means of the 3rd order intercept
measurement function.
➢ Press the MEAS key.
➢ Press the TOI softkey.
The R&S FSQ activates four markers for measuring the intermodulation
distance. Two markers are positioned on the useful signals and two on the
intermodulation products. The 3rd order intercept is calculated from the level
difference between the useful signals and the intermodulation products. It is
then displayed on the screen:
Fig. 2.3
Result of intrinsic intermodulation measurement on the R&S FSQ. The 3rd order
intercept (TOI) is displayed at the top right corner of the grid
The level of a Signal Analyzer’s intrinsic intermodulation products depends on
the RF level of the useful signals at the input mixer. When the RF attenuation
is added, the mixer level is reduced and the intermodulation distance is
increased. With an additional RF attenuation of 10 dB, the levels of the
intermodulation products are reduced by 20 dB. The noise level is, however,
increased by 10 dB.
2.6
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Getting Started
Measuring the Spectrums of Complex Signals
6. Increasing RF attenuation to 10 dB to reduce intermodulation products.
➢ Press the AMPT key.
➢ Press the RF ATTEN MANUAL softkey and enter 10 dB.
The R&S FSQ’s intrinsic intermodulation products disappear below the noise
floor.
Fig. 2.4
If the RF attenuation is increased, the R&S FSQ’s intrinsic intermodulation products disappear below the noise floor.
Calculation method
The method used by the R&S FSQ to calculate the intercept point takes the average
useful signal level PU in dBm and calculates the intermodulation d3 in dB as a function of the average value of the levels of the two intermodulation products. The third
order intercept (TOI) is then calculated as follows:
TOI/dBm = ½ d3 + PU
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
2.7
R&S FSQ
Getting Started
Measuring the Spectrums of Complex Signals
Intermodulation- free dynamic range
The Intermodulation – free dynamic range, i.e. the level range in which no internal intermodulation products are generated if two-tone signals are measured, is
determined by the 3rd order intercept point, the phase noise and the thermal noise of
the R&S FSQ. At high signal levels, the range is determined by intermodulation
products. At low signal levels, intermodulation products disappear below the noise
floor, i.e. the noise floor and the phase noise of the R&S FSQ determine the range.
The noise floor and the phase noise depend on the resolution bandwidth that has
been selected. At the smallest resolution bandwidth, the noise floor and phase noise
are at a minimum and so the maximum range is obtained. However, a large increase
in sweep time is required for small resolution bandwidths. It is, therefore, best to
select the largest resolution bandwidth possible to obtain the range that is required.
Since phase noise decreases as the carrier-offset increases, its influence decreases
with increasing frequency offset from the useful signals.
The following diagrams illustrate the intermodulation-free dynamic range as a function of the selected bandwidth and of the level at the input mixer (= signal level – set
RF attenuation) at different useful signal offsets.
Distortion free dynamic range
1MHz carrier offset
Dynamic range dB
-60
RBW=10 kHz
T.O.I
-70
RBW=1
kHz
RBW=100
Hz
RBW=10
Hz
-80
-90
-100
Thermal noise
-110
-120
-60
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
Mixer level
Fig. 2.5 Intermodulation-free range of the R&S FSQ as a function of level at the input mixer and
the set resolution bandwidth (useful signal offset = 1 MHz, DANL = -157 dBm /Hz, TOI =
25 dBm; typical values at 2 GHz)
The optimum mixer level, i.e. the level at which the intermodulation distance is at its
maximum, depends on the bandwidth. At a resolution bandwidth of 10 Hz, it is
approx. –42 dBm and at 10 kHz increases to approx. -32 dBm.
2.8
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R&S FSQ
Getting Started
Measuring the Spectrums of Complex Signals
Phase noise has a considerable influence on the intermodulation-free range at carrier offsets between 10 and 100 kHz (Fig. 2.6). At greater bandwidths, the influence
of the phase noise is greater than it would be with small bandwidths. The optimum
mixer level at the bandwidths under consideration becomes almost independent of
bandwidth and is approx. –40 dBm.
Distortion free dynamic range
10 to 100 kHz offset
-60
RBW=10 kHz
Dynamic range dB
T.O.I
RBW=1
kHz
RBW=100
Hz
RBW=10
Hz
-70
-80
-90
-100
Thermal noise
-110
-120
-60
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
Mixer level
Fig. 2.6 Intermodulation-free dynamic range of the R&S FSQ as a function of level at the input
mixer and of the selected resolution bandwidth (useful signal offset = 10 to 100 kHz,
DANL = -157 dBm /Hz, TOI = 25 dBm; typical values at 2 GHz).
If the intermodulation products of a DUT with a very high dynamic range are to be
measured and the resolution bandwidth to be used is therefore very small, it is
best to measure the levels of the useful signals and those of the intermodulation
products separately using a small span. The measurement time will be reduced–
in particular if the offset of the useful signals is large. To find signals reliably when
frequency span is small, it is best to synchronize the signal sources and the
R&S FSQ.
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
2.9
R&S FSQ
Getting Started
Measuring Signals in the Vicinity of Noise
2.3
Measuring Signals in the Vicinity of Noise
The minimum signal level a Signal Analyzer can measure is limited by its intrinsic
noise. Small signals can be swamped by noise and therefore cannot be measured.
For signals that are just above the intrinsic noise, the accuracy of the level measurement is influenced by the intrinsic noise of the R&S FSQ.
The displayed noise level of a Signal Analyzer depends on its noise figure, the
selected RF attenuation, the selected reference level, the selected resolution and
video bandwidth and the detector. The effect of the different parameters is explained
in the following.
Impact of the RF attenuation setting
The sensitivity of a Signal Analyzer is directly influenced by the selected RF attenuation. The highest sensitivity is obtained at a RF attenuation of 0 dB. The
R&S FSQ’s RF attenuation can be set in 5 dB steps up to 70 dB. Each additional 5
dB step reduces the R&S FSQ’s sensitivity by 5 dB, i.e. the displayed noise is
increased by 5 dB.
Impact of the reference level setting
If the reference level is changed, the R&S FSQ changes the gain on the last IF so
that the voltage at the logarithmic amplifier and the A/D converter is always the
same for signal levels corresponding to the reference level. This ensures that the
dynamic range of the log amp or the A/D converter is fully utilized. Therefore, the
total gain of the signal path is low at high reference levels and the noise figure of the
IF amplifier makes a substantial contribution to the total noise figure of the
R&S FSQ. The figure below shows the change in the displayed noise depending on
the set reference level at 10 kHz and 300 kHz resolution bandwidth. With digital
bandwidths (≤100 kHz) the noise increases sharply at high reference levels because
of the dynamic range of the A/D converter.
14
12
RBW= 10 kHz
rel. noise level /dB
10
8
6
4
RBW= 300 kHz
2
0
-2
-70
-60
-50
-40
-30
-20
Reference level /dBm
-10
Fig. 2.7 Change in displayed noise as a function of the selected reference level at bandwidths of
10 kHz and 300 kHz (-30 dBm reference level)
2.10
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R&S FSQ
Getting Started
Measuring Signals in the Vicinity of Noise
Impact of the resolution bandwidth
The sensitivity of a Signal Analyzer also directly depends on the selected bandwidth.
The highest sensitivity is obtained at the smallest bandwidth (for the R&S FSQ: 10
Hz, for FFT filtering: 1 Hz). If the bandwidth is increased, the reduction in sensitivity
is proportional to the change in bandwidth. The R&S FSQ has bandwidth settings in
2, 3, 5, 10 sequence. Increasing the bandwidth by a factor of 3 increases the displayed noise by approx. 5 dB (4.77 dB precisely). If the bandwidth is increased by a
factor of 10, the displayed noise increases by a factor of 10, i.e. 10 dB. Because of
the way the resolution filters are designed, the sensitivity of Signal Analyzers often
depends on the selected resolution bandwidth. In data sheets, the displayed average noise level is often indicated for the smallest available bandwidth. The extra
sensitivity obtained if the bandwidth is reduced may therefore deviate from the values indicated above. The following table illustrates typical deviations from the noise
figure for a resolution bandwidth of 10 kHz which is used as a reference value (= 0
dB).
Noise figure
offset /dB
3
digital RBW
analog RBW
2
1
0
-1
0,01
0,1
1
10
100
1000
10000
RBW/kHz
Fig. 2.8 Change in R&S FSQ noise figure at various bandwidths. The reference bandwidth is 10
kHz
Impact of the video bandwidth
The displayed noise of a Signal Analyzer is also influenced by the selected video
bandwidth. If the video bandwidth is considerably smaller than the resolution bandwidth, noise spikes are suppressed, i.e. the trace becomes much smoother. The
level of a sinewave signal is not influenced by the video bandwidth. A sinewave signal can therefore be freed from noise by using a video bandwidth that is small compared with the resolution bandwidth, and thus be measured more accurately.
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
2.11
R&S FSQ
Getting Started
Measuring Signals in the Vicinity of Noise
Impact of the detector
Noise is evaluated differently by the different detectors. The noise display is therefore influenced by the choice of detector. Sinewave signals are weighted in the
same way by all detectors, i.e. the level display for a sinewave RF signal does not
depend on the selected detector, provided that the signal-to-noise ratio is high
enough. The measurement accuracy for signals in the vicinity of R&S FSQ intrinsic
noise is also influenced by the detector which has been selected. The R&S FSQ has
the following detectors:
•
Maximum peak detector
If the max. peak detector s selected, the largest noise display is obtained, since
the R&S FSQ displays the highest value of the IF envelope in the frequency range
assigned to a pixel at each pixel in the trace. With longer sweep times, the trace
indicates higher noise levels since the probability of obtaining a high noise
amplitude increases with the dwell time on a pixel. For short sweep times, the
display approaches that of the sample detector since the dwell time on a pixel is
only sufficient to obtain an instantaneous value.
•
Minimum peak detector
The min. peak detector indicates the minimum voltage of the IF envelope in the
frequency range assigned to a pixel at each pixel in the trace. The noise is strongly
suppressed by the minimum peak detector since the lowest noise amplitude that
occurs is displayed for each test point. If the signal-to-noise ratio is low, the
minimum of the noise overlaying the signal is displayed too low.
At longer sweep times, the trace shows smaller noise levels since the probability
of obtaining a low noise amplitude increases with the dwell time on a pixel. For
short sweep times, the display approaches that of the sample detector since the
dwell time on a pixel is only sufficient to obtain an instantaneous value.
•
Autopeak detector
The Autopeak detector displays the maximum and minimum peak value at the
same time. Both values are measured and their levels are displayed on the screen
joint by a vertical line.
•
Sample detector
The sample detector samples the logarithm of the IF envelope for each pixel of
the trace only once and displays the resulting value. If the frequency span of the
R&S FSQ is considerably higher than the resolution bandwidth (span/RBW >500),
there is no guarantee that useful signals will be detected. They are lost due to
undersampling. This does not happen with noise because in this case it is not the
instantaneous amplitude that is relevant but only the probability distribution.
•
RMS detector
For each pixel of the trace, the RMS detector outputs the RMS value of the IF
envelope for the frequency range assigned to each test point. It therefore
measures noise power. The display for small signals is, however, the sum of
signal power and noise power. For short sweep times, i.e. if only one uncorrelated
sample value contributes to the RMS value measurement, the RMS detector is
equivalent to the sample detector. If the sweep time is longer, more and more
uncorrelated RMS values contribute to the RMS value measurement. The trace
is, therefore, smoothed. The level of sinewave signals is only displayed correctly
if the selected resolution bandwidth (RBW) is at least as wide as the frequency
range which corresponds to a pixel in the trace. At a resolution bandwidth of 1
MHz, this means that the maximum frequency display range is 625 MHz.
2.12
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R&S FSQ
Getting Started
Measuring Signals in the Vicinity of Noise
•
Average detector
For each pixel of the trace, the average detector outputs the average value of the
linear IF envelope for the frequency range assigned to each test point. It therefore
measures the linear average noise. The level of sinewave signals is only
displayed correctly if the selected resolution bandwidth (RBW) is at least as wide
as the frequency range which corresponds to a pixel in the trace. At a resolution
bandwidth of 1 MHz, this means the maximum frequency display range is 625
MHz.
•
Quasipeak detector
The quasipeak detector is a peak detector for EMI measurements with defined
charge and discharge times. These times are defined in CISPR 16, the standard
for equipment used to measure EMI emissions.
2.3.0.1
Measurement Example – Measuring the Level of the Internal Reference Generator at Low S/N Ratios
The example shows the different factors influencing the S/N ratio.
1. Set the R&S FSQ to the analyzer mode.
➢ Press the SPECTRUM key.
The R&S FSQ is in the analyzer mode.
2. Switch on the internal reference generator
➢ Press the SETUP key.
➢ Press the softkeys SERVICE - INPUT CAL.
The internal 128 MHz reference generator is on.
The R&S FSQ’s RF input is off.
3. Set the center frequency to 128 MHz and the frequency span to 100 MHz.
➢ Press the FREQ key and enter 128 MHz.
➢ Press the SPAN key and enter 100 MHz.
4. Set the RF attenuation to 60 dB to attenuate the input signal or to increase
the intrinsic noise.
➢ Press the AMPT key.
➢ Press the RF ATTEN MANUAL softkey and enter 60 dB.
The RF attenuation indicator is marked with an asterisk (*Att 60 dB) to show
that it is no longer coupled to the reference level. The high input attenuation
reduces the reference signal which can no longer be detected in noise.
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
2.13
R&S FSQ
Getting Started
Measuring Signals in the Vicinity of Noise
Fig. 2.9
Sinewave signal with low S/N ratio. The signal is measured with the autopeak
detector and is completely swamped by the intrinsic noise of the R&S FSQ.
5. To suppress noise spikes the trace can be averaged.
➢ Press the TRACE key.
➢ Press the AVERAGE softkey.
The traces of consecutive sweeps are averaged. To perform averaging, the
R&S FSQ automatically switches on the sample detector. The RF signal,
therefore, can be more clearly distinguished from noise.
2.14
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R&S FSQ
Getting Started
Measuring Signals in the Vicinity of Noise
Fig. 2.10 RF sinewave signal with low S/N ratio if the trace is averaged.
6. Instead of trace averaging, a video filter that is narrower than the resolution
bandwidth can be selected.
➢ Press the CLEAR/WRITE softkey in the trace menu.
➢ Press the BW key.
Press the VIDEO BW MANUAL softkey and enter 10 kHz.
The RF signal can be more clearly distinguished from noise.
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
2.15
R&S FSQ
Getting Started
Measuring Signals in the Vicinity of Noise
Fig. 2.11 RF sinewave signal with low S/N ratio if a smaller video bandwidth is selected.
7. By reducing the resolution bandwidth by a factor of 10, the noise is reduced
by 10 dB.
➢ Press the RES BW MANUAL softkey and enter 300 kHz.
The displayed noise is reduced by approx. 10 dB. The signal, therefore,
emerges from noise by about 10 dB. Compared to the previous setting, the
video bandwidth has remained the same, i.e. it has increased relative to the
smaller resolution bandwidth. The averaging effect is, therefore, reduced by
the video bandwidth. The trace will be noisier.
2.16
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Getting Started
Measuring Signals in the Vicinity of Noise
Fig. 2.12 Reference signal at a smaller resolution bandwidth
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
2.17
R&S FSQ
Getting Started
Noise Measurements
2.4
Noise Measurements
Noise measurements play an important role in spectrum analysis. Noise e.g. affects
the sensitivity of radio communication systems and their components.
Noise power is specified either as the total power in the transmission channel or as
the power referred to a bandwidth of 1 Hz. The sources of noise are, for example,
amplifier noise or noise generated by oscillators used for the frequency conversion
of useful signals in receivers or transmitters. The noise at the output of an amplifier
is determined by its noise figure and gain.
The noise of an oscillator is determined by phase noise near the oscillator frequency
and by thermal noise of the active elements far from the oscillator frequency. Phase
noise can mask weak signals near the oscillator frequency and make them impossible to detect.
2.4.1
Measuring Noise Power Density
To measure noise power referred to a bandwidth of 1 Hz at a certain frequency, the
R&S FSQ has an easy-to-use marker function. This marker function calculates the
noise power density from the measured marker level.
2.4.1.1
Measurement Example – Measuring the Intrinsic Noise Power Density of the
R&S FSQ at 1 GHz and Calculating the R&S FSQ’s Noise Figure
1. Set the R&S FSQ to the analyzer mode.
➢ Press the SPECTRUM key.
The R&S FSQ is in the analyzer mode.
2. Set the center frequency to 1 GHz and the span to 1 MHz.
➢ Press the FREQ key and enter 1 GHz.
➢ Press the SPAN key and enter 1 MHz.
3. Switch on the marker and set the marker frequency to 1 GHz.
➢ Press the MKR key and enter 1 GHz.
4. Switch on the noise marker function.
➢ Press the MEAS key.
➢ Press the NOISE MARKER softkey.
The R&S FSQ displays the noise power at 1 GHz in dBm (1Hz).
Since noise is random, a sufficiently long measurement time has to be selected
to obtain stable measurement results. This can be achieved by averaging the
trace or by selecting a very small video bandwidth relative to the resolution
bandwidth.
5. The measurement result is stabilized by averaging the trace
➢ Press the TRACE key.
➢ Press the AVERAGE softkey.
The R&S FSQ performs sliding averaging over 10 traces from consecutive
sweeps. The measurement result becomes more stable.
2.18
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Getting Started
Noise Measurements
Conversion to other reference bandwidths
The result of the noise measurement can be referred to other bandwidths by simple
conversion. This is done by adding 10 · log (BW) to the measurement result, BW
being the new reference bandwidth.
Example
A noise power of –150 dBm (1 Hz) is to be referred to a bandwidth of 1 kHz.
P[1kHz] = -150 + 10 · log (1000) = -150 +30 = -120 dBm(1 kHz)
Calculation method
The following method is used to calculate the noise power:
If the noise marker is switched on, the R&S FSQ automatically activates the sample
detector. The video bandwidth is set to 1/10 of the selected resolution bandwidth
(RBW).
To calculate the noise, the R&S FSQ takes an average over 17 adjacent pixels (the
pixel on which the marker is positioned and 8 pixels to the left, 8 pixels to the right of
the marker). The measurement result is stabilized by video filtering and averaging
over 17 pixels.
Since both video filtering and averaging over 17 trace points is performed in the log
display mode, the result would be 2.51 dB too low (difference between logarithmic
noise average and noise power). The R&S FSQ, therefore, corrects the noise figure
by 2.51 dB.
To standardize the measurement result to a bandwidth of 1 Hz, the result is also corrected by –10 · log (RBWnoise), with RBWnoise being the power bandwidth of the
selected resolution filter (RBW).
Detector selection
The noise power density is measured in the default setting with the sample detector
and using averaging. Other detectors that can be used to perform a measurement
giving true results are the average detector or the RMS detector. If the average
detector is used, the linear video voltage is averaged and displayed as a pixel. If the
RMS detector is used, the squared video voltage is averaged and displayed as a
pixel. The averaging time depends on the selected sweep time (=SWT/625). An
increase in the sweep time gives a longer averaging time per pixel and thus stabilizes the measurement result. The R&S FSQ automatically corrects the measurement result of the noise marker display depending on the selected detector (+1.05
dB for the average detector, 0 dΒ for the RMS detector). It is assumed that the video
bandwidth is set to at least three times the resolution bandwidth. While the average
or RMS detector is being switched on, the R&S FSQ sets the video bandwidth to a
suitable value.
The Pos Peak, Neg Peak, Auto Peak and Quasipeak detectors are not suitable for
measuring noise power density.
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
2.19
R&S FSQ
Getting Started
Noise Measurements
Determining the noise figure
The noise figure of amplifiers or of the R&S FSQ alone can be obtained from the
noise power display. Based on the known thermal noise power of a 50 Ω resistor at
room temperature (-174 dBm (1Hz)) and the measured noise power Pnoise the noise
figure (NF) is obtained as follows:
NF = Pnoise + 174 – g,
where g = gain of DUT in dB
Example:
The measured internal noise power of the R&S FSQ at an attenuation of 0 dB is
found to be –155 dBm/1 Hz. The noise figure of the R&S FSQ is obtained as follows
NF = –155 + 174 = 19 dB
If noise power is measured at the output of an amplifier, for example, the sum of
the internal noise power and the noise power at the output of the DUT is measured. The noise power of the DUT can be obtained by subtracting the internal
noise power from the total power (subtraction of linear noise powers). By means
of the following diagram, the noise level of the DUT can be estimated from the
level difference between the total and the internal noise level.
Fig. 2.13 Correction factor for measured noise power as a function of the ratio of total power to
the intrinsic noise power of the R&S FSQ.
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Getting Started
Noise Measurements
2.4.2
Measurement of Noise Power within a Transmission Channel
Noise in any bandwidth can be measured with the channel power measurement
functions. Thus the noise power in a communication channel can be determined, for
example. If the noise spectrum within the channel bandwidth is flat, the noise marker
from “Measuring Noise Power Density” on page 2.18 can be used to determine the
noise power in the channel by considering the channel bandwidth. If, however,
phase noise and noise that normally increases towards the carrier is dominant in the
channel to be measured, or if there are discrete spurious signals in the channel, the
channel power measurement method must be used to obtain correct measurement
results.
2.4.2.1
Measurement Example – Measuring the Intrinsic Noise of the R&S FSQ at
1 GHz in a 1.23 MHz Channel Bandwidth with the Channel Power Function
Test setup
The RF input of the R&S FSQ remains open-circuited or is terminated with 50 Ω.
Measurement with the R&S FSQ
1. Set the R&S FSQ to the analyzer mode.
➢ Press the SPECTRUM key.
The R&S FSQ is in the analyzer mode.
2. Set the center frequency to 1 GHz and the span to 2 MHz.
➢ Press the FREQ key and enter 1 GHz.
➢ Press the SPAN key and enter 2 MHz.
3. To obtain maximum sensitivity, set RF attenuation on the R&S FSQ to 0 dB.
➢ Press the AMPT key.
➢ Press the RF ATTEN MANUAL softkey and enter 0 dB.
4. Switch on and configure the channel power measurement.
➢ Press the MEAS key.
➢ Press the CHAN PWR ACP softkey.
The R&S FSQ activates the channel or adjacent channel power measurement
according to the currently set configuration.
➢ Press the CP/ACP CONFIG ! softkey.
The R&S FSQ enters the submenu for configuring the channel.
➢ Press the CHANNEL BANDWIDTH softkey and enter 1.23 MHz.
The R&S FSQ displays the 1.23 MHz channel as two vertical lines which are
symmetrical to the center frequency.
➢ Press the PREV key.
The R&S FSQ returns to the main menu for channel and adjacent channel
power measurement.
➢ Press the ADJUST SETTINGS softkey.
The settings for the frequency span, the bandwidth (RBW and VBW) and the
detector are automatically set to the optimum values required for the
measurement.
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Getting Started
Noise Measurements
Fig. 2.14 Measurement of the R&S FSQ’s intrinsic noise power in a 1.23 MHz channel
bandwidth.
5. Stabilizing the measurement result by increasing the sweep time
➢ Press the SWEEP TIME softkey and enter 1 s.
By increasing the sweep time to 1 s, the trace becomes much smoother
thanks to the RMS detector and the channel power measurement display is
much more stable.
6. Referring the measured channel power to a bandwidth of 1 Hz
➢ Press the CHAN PWR / Hz softkey.
The channel power is referred to a bandwidth of 1 Hz. The measurement is
corrected by -10 · log (ChanBW), with ChanBW being the channel bandwidth
that was selected.
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Getting Started
Noise Measurements
Method of calculating the channel power
When measuring the channel power, the R&S FSQ integrates the linear power
which corresponds to the levels of the pixels within the selected channel. The
R&S FSQ uses a resolution bandwidth which is far smaller than the channel bandwidth. When sweeping over the channel, the channel filter is formed by the passband characteristics of the resolution bandwidth (see Fig. 2.15).
-3 dB
Resolution filter
Sweep
Channel bandwith
Fig. 2.15 Approximating the channel filter by sweeping with a small resolution bandwidth
The following steps are performed:
•
The linear power of all the trace pixels within the channel is calculated.
Pi = 10(Li/10)
where
Pi = power of the trace pixel i
Li = displayed level of trace point i
•
The powers of all trace pixels within the channel are summed up and the sum is
divided by the number of trace pixels in the channel.
•
The result is multiplied by the quotient of the selected channel bandwidth and the
noise bandwidth of the resolution filter (RBW).
Since the power calculation is performed by integrating the trace within the channel
bandwidth, this method is also called the IBW method (Integration Bandwidth
method).
Bandwidth selection (RBW)
For channel power measurements, the resolution bandwidth (RBW) must be small
compared to the channel bandwidth, so that the channel bandwidth can be defined
precisely. If the resolution bandwidth which has been selected is too wide, this may
have a negative effect on the selectivity of the simulated channel filter and result in
the power in the adjacent channel being added to the power in the transmit channel.
A resolution bandwidth equal to 1% to 3% of the channel bandwidth should, therefore, be selected. If the resolution bandwidth is too small, the required sweep time
becomes too long and the measurement time increases considerably.
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Getting Started
Noise Measurements
Detector selection
Since the power of the trace is measured within the channel bandwidth, only the
sample detector and RMS detector can be used. These detectors provide measured
values that make it possible to calculate the real power. The peak detectors (Pos
Peak, Neg Peak and Auto Peak) are not suitable for noise power measurements as
no correlation can be established between the peak value of the video voltage and
power.
With the sample detector, a value (sample) of the IF envelope voltage is displayed
at each trace pixel. Since the frequency spans are very large compared with the resolution bandwidth (span/RBW >500), sinewave signals present in the noise might be
lost, i.e. they are not displayed. This is not important for pure noise signals, however,
since a single sample in itself is not important - it is the probability distribution of all
measured values that counts. The number of samples for power calculation is limited to the number of trace pixels (625 for the R&S FSQ).
To increase the repeatability of measurements, averaging is often carried out
over several traces (AVERAGE softkey in the TRACE menu). This gives spurious
results for channel power measurements (max. –2.51 dB for ideal averaging).
Trace averaging should, therefore, be avoided.
With the RMS detector, the whole IF envelope is used to calculate the power for
each trace pixel. The IF envelope is digitized using a sampling frequency which is at
least five times the resolution bandwidth which has been selected. Based on the
sample values, the power is calculated for each trace pixel using the following formula:
P RMS =
1
---- ×
N
N
2
∑ si
i=1
si = linear digitized video voltage at the output of the A/D converter
N = number of A/D converter values per pixel of the trace
PRMS = power represented by a trace pixel
When the power has been calculated, the power units are converted into decibels
and the value is displayed as a trace pixel.
The number of A/D converter values, N, used to calculate the power, is defined by
the sweep time. The time per trace pixel for power measurements is directly proportional to the selected sweep time. The RMS detector uses far more samples for
power measurement than the sample detector, especially if the sweep time is
increased. The measurement uncertainty can be reduced considerably. In the
default setting, the R&S FSQ therefore uses the RMS detector to measure the channel power.
For both detectors (sample and RMS), the video bandwidth (VBW) must at least be
three times the resolution bandwidth, so that the peak values of the video voltage
are not cut off by the video filter. At smaller video bandwidths, the video signal is
averaged and the power readout will be too small.
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Getting Started
Noise Measurements
Sweep time selection
If the sample detector is used, it is best to select the smallest sweep time possible
for a given span and resolution bandwidth. The minimum time is obtained if the setting is coupled. This means that the time per measurement is minimal. Extending
the measurement time does not have any advantages as the number of samples for
calculating the power is defined by the number of trace pixels in the channel.
When using the RMS detector, the repeatability of the measurement results can be
influenced by the selection of sweep times. Repeatability is increased at longer
sweep times.
Repeatability can be estimated from the following diagram:
max. error/dB
0
95 % Confidence
level
0.5
1
99 % Confidence
level
1.5
2
2.5
3
10
100
1000
10000
100000
Number of samples
Fig. 2.16 Repeatability of channel power measurements as a function of the number of samples
used for power calculation
The curves in Fig. 2.16 indicates the repeatability obtained with a probability of 95%
and 99% depending on the number of samples used.
The repeatability with 600 samples is ± 0.5 dB. This means that – if the sample
detector and a channel bandwidth over the whole diagram (channel bandwidth =
span) is used - the measured value lies within ± 0.5 dB of the true value with a probability of 99%.
If the RMS detector is used, the number of samples can be estimated as follows:
Since only uncorrelated samples contribute to the RMS value, the number of samples can be calculated from the sweep time and the resolution bandwidth.
Samples can be assumed to be uncorrelated if sampling is performed at intervals of
1/RBW. The number of uncorrelated samples (Ndecorr) is calculated as follows:
Ndecorr = SWT × RBW
The number of uncorrelated samples per trace pixel is obtained by dividing Ndecorr
by 625 (= pixels per trace).
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R&S FSQ
Getting Started
Noise Measurements
Example
At a resolution bandwidth of 30 kHz and a sweep time of 100 ms, 3000 uncorrelated
samples are obtained. If the channel bandwidth is equal to the frequency display
range, i.e. all trace pixels are used for the channel power measurement, a repeatability of 0.2 dB with a confidence level of 99% is the estimate that can be derived
from Fig. 2.16.
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Noise Measurements
2.4.3
Measuring Phase Noise
The R&S FSQ has an easy-to-use marker function for phase noise measurements.
This marker function indicates the phase noise of an RF oscillator at any carrier in
dBc in a bandwidth of 1 Hz.
2.4.3.1
Measurement Example – Measuring the Phase Noise of a Signal Generator at a
Carrier Offset of 10 kHz
Test setup
Settings on the signal generator (e.g. R&S SMIQ)
Frequency:
100 MHz
Level:
0 dBm
Measurement using R&S FSQ
1. Set the R&S FSQ to the analyzer mode
➢ Press the SPECTRUM key.
R&S FSQ is in the analyzer mode.
2. Set the center frequency to 100 MHz and the span to 50 kHz
➢ Press the FREQ key and enter 100 MHz.
➢ Press the SPAN key and enter 50 kHz.
3. Set the R&S FSQ’s reference level to 0 dBm (=signal generator level)
➢ Press the AMPT key and enter 0 dBm.
4. Enable phase noise measurement
➢ Press the MKR FCTN key.
➢ Press the PHASE NOISE ! softkey.
The R&S FSQ activates phase noise measurement. Marker 1 (=main marker)
and marker 2 (= delta marker) are positioned on the signal maximum. The
position of the marker is the reference (level and frequency) for the phase
noise measurement. A horizontal line represents the level of the reference
point and a vertical line the frequency of the reference point. Data entry for the
delta marker is activated so that the frequency offset at which the phase noise
is to be measured can be entered directly.
5. 10 kHz frequency offset for determining phase noise.
➢ Enter 10 kHz.
The R&S FSQ displays the phase noise at a frequency offset of 10 kHz. The
magnitude of the phase noise in dBc/Hz is displayed in the delta marker output
field at the top right of the screen (delta 2 [T1 PHN]).
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Getting Started
Noise Measurements
6. Stabilize the measurement result by activating trace averaging.
➢ Press the TRACE key.
➢ Press the AVERAGE softkey.
Fig. 2.17 Measuring phase noise with the phase-noise marker function
The frequency offset can be varied by moving the marker with the rotary knob
or by entering a new frequency offset as a number.
2.28
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Getting Started
Measurements on Modulated Signals
2.5
Measurements on Modulated Signals
If RF signals are used to transmit information, an RF carrier is modulated. Analog
modulation methods such as amplitude modulation, frequency modulation and
phase modulation have a long history and digital modulation methods are now used
for modern systems. Measuring the power and the spectrum of modulated signals is
an important task to assure transmission quality and to ensure the integrity of other
radio services. This task can be performed easily with a Signal Analyzer. Modern
Signal Analyzers also provide the test routines that are essential to simplify complex
measurements.
2.5.1
Measurements on AM Signals
The R&S FSQ detects the RF input signal and displays the magnitudes of its components as a spectrum. AM modulated signals are also demodulated by this process. The AF voltage can be displayed in the time domain if the modulation
sidebands are within the resolution bandwidth. In the frequency domain, the AM
sidebands can be resolved with a small bandwidth and can be measured separately.
This means that the modulation depth of a carrier modulated with a sinewave signal
can be measured. Since the dynamic range of a Signal Analyzer is very wide, even
extremely small modulation depths can be measured accurately. The R&S FSQ has
a test routine which measures the modulation depth in %.
2.5.1.1
Measurement Example 1 – Displaying the AF of an AM Signal in the Time
Domain
Test setup
Settings on the signal generator (e.g. R&S SMIQ)
Frequency:
100 MHz
Level:
0 dBm
Modulation:
50 % AM, 1 kHz AF
Measurement with the R&S FSQ
1. Set the R&S FSQ to the analyzer mode
➢ Press the SPECTRUM key.
The R&S FSQ is in the analyzer mode.
2. Set the center frequency to 100 MHz and the span to 0 kHz
➢ Press the FREQ key and enter 100 MHz.
➢ Press the SPAN key and enter 0 Hz.
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Measurements on Modulated Signals
3. Set the reference level to +6 dBm and the display range to linear
➢ Press the AMPT key and enter 6 dBm.
➢ Press the RANGE LINEAR softkey.
4. Use the video trigger to trigger on the AF signal in order to obtain a
stationary display
➢ Press the TRIG key.
➢ Press the VIDEO softkey.
The video trigger level is set to 50% if the instrument is switched on for the first
time. The trigger level is displayed as a horizontal line across the graph. The
R&S FSQ displays the 1 kHz AF signal stably in the time domain.
Fig. 2.18 Measuring the AF signal from a 1 kHz AM carrier
The AM/FM demodulator in the R&S FSQ can be used to output the AF by
means of a loudspeaker.
5. Switch on the internal AM demodulator
➢ Press the MKR FCTN key.
➢ Press the MKR DEMOD softkey.
The R&S FSQ switches the AM demodulator on automatically.
➢ Turn up volume control.
A 1 kHz tone is output by the loudspeaker.
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Measurements on Modulated Signals
2.5.1.2
Measurement Example 2 – Measuring the Modulation Depth of an AM Carrier
in the Frequency Domain
Test setup
Settings on the signal generator (e.g. R&S SMIQ)
Frequency:
100 MHz
Level:
-30 dBm
Modulation:
50 % AM, 1 kHz AF
Measurement with the R&S FSQ
1. Set the R&S FSQ to the analyzer mode
➢ Press the SPECTRUM key.
The R&S FSQ is in the analyzer mode.
2. Set the center frequency to 100 MHz and the span to 0 kHz
➢ Press the FREQ key and enter 100 MHz.
➢ Press the SPAN key and enter 5 kHz.
3. Activate the marker function for AM depth measurement
➢ Press the MEAS key.
➢ Press the MODULATION DEPTH softkey.
The R&S FSQ automatically positions a marker on the carrier signal in the
middle of the graph and one delta marker on each of the lower and upper AM
sidebands. The R&S FSQ calculates the AM modulation depth from the ratios
of the delta marker levels to the main marker level and outputs the numerical
value in the marker info field
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Getting Started
Measurements on Modulated Signals
Fig. 2.19 Measurement of AM modulation depth. The modulation depth is indicated by
MDEPTH = 49.345 %. The frequency of the AF signal is indicated by the delta
markers
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Measurements on Modulated Signals
2.5.2
Measurements on FM Signals
Since Signal Analyzers only display the magnitude of signals by means of the envelope detector, the modulation of FM signals cannot be directly measured as is the
case with AM signals. With FM signals, the voltage at the output of the envelope
detector is constant as long as the frequency deviation of the signal is within the flat
part of the passband characteristic of the resolution filter which has been selected.
Amplitude variations can only occur if the current frequency lies on the falling edge
of the filter characteristic. This effect can be used to demodulate FM signals. The
center frequency of the R&S FSQ is set in a way that the nominal frequency of the
test signal is on the filter edge (below or above the center frequency). The resolution
bandwidth and the frequency offset are selected in a way that the current frequency
is on the linear part of the filter slope. The frequency variation of the FM signal is
then transformed into an amplitude variation which can be displayed in the time
domain.
The R&S FSQ's analog 5th order filters with frequencies from 200 kHz to 3 MHz
have a good filter-slope linearity, if the frequency of the R&S FSQ is set to 1.2 times
the filter bandwidth below or above the frequency of the transmit signal. The useful
range for FM demodulation is then almost equal to the resolution bandwidth.
2.5.2.1
Measurement Example – Displaying the AF of an FM Carrier
Test setup
Settings on the signal generator (e.g. R&S SMIQ)
Frequency:
100 MHz
Level:
-30 dBm
Modulation:
FM 0 kHz deviation (i.e., FM = off), 1 kHz AF
Measurement with the R&S FSQ
1. Set the R&S FSQ to the analyzer mode
➢ Press the SPECTRUM key.
The R&S FSQ is in the analyzer mode.
2. Set the center frequency to 99.64 MHz and the span to 300 kHz.
➢ Press the FREQ key and enter 99.64 MHz.
➢ Press the SPAN key and enter 300 kHz.
3. Set a resolution bandwidth of 300 kHz.
➢ Press the BW key.
➢ Press the RES BW MANUAL softkey and enter 300 kHz.
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Measurements on Modulated Signals
4. Set a display range of 20 dB and shift the filter characteristics to the middle
of the display.
➢ Press the AMPT key.
➢ Press the RANGE LOG MANUAL softkey and enter 20 dB.
➢ Press the NEXT key.
➢ Set the GRID softkey to REL.
➢ Press the PREV softkey.
➢ Using the rotary knob, shift the reference level so that the filter edge intersects
the - 10 dB level line at the center frequency.
The slope of the 300 kHz filter is displayed. This corresponds to the
demodulator characteristics for FM signals with a slope of approx. 5 dB/100
kHz.
Fig. 2.20 Filter edge of a 300 kHz filter used as an FM-discriminator characteristic
5. Set an FM deviation of 100 kHz and an AF of 1 kHz on the signal generator
6. Set a frequency deviation of 0 Hz on the R&S FSQ
➢ Press the SPAN key.
➢ Press the ZERO SPAN.
The demodulated FM signal is displayed. The signal moves across the screen.
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Measurements on Modulated Signals
7. Creating a stable display by video triggering
➢ Press the TRIG key.
➢ Press the VIDEO softkey.
A stationary display is obtained for the FM AF signal
Result: (-10 ±5) dB; this means that a deviation of 100 kHz is obtained if the
demodulator characteristic slope is 5 dB/100 kHz
Fig. 2.21 Demodulated FM signal
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Getting Started
Measurements on Modulated Signals
2.5.3
Measuring Channel Power and Adjacent Channel Power
Measuring channel power and adjacent channel power is one of the most important
tasks in the field of digital transmission for a Signal Analyzer with the necessary test
routines. While, theoretically, channel power could be measured at highest accuracy
with a power meter, its low selectivity means that it is not suitable for measuring
adjacent channel power as an absolute value or relative to the transmit channel
power. The power in the adjacent channels can only be measured with a selective
power meter.
A Signal Analyzer cannot be classified as a true power meter, because it displays
the IF envelope voltage. However, it is calibrated such as to correctly display the
power of a pure sinewave signal irrespective of the selected detector. This calibration is not valid for non-sinusoidal signals. Assuming that the digitally modulated signal has a Gaussian amplitude distribution, the signal power within the selected
resolution bandwidth can be obtained using correction factors. These correction factors are normally used by the R&S FSQ's internal power measurement routines in
order to determine the signal power from IF envelope measurements. These factors
are valid if and only if the assumption of a Gaussian amplitude distribution is correct.
Apart from this common method, the R&S FSQ also has a true power detector, i.e.
an RMS detector. It correctly displays the power of the test signal within the selected
resolution bandwidth irrespective of the amplitude distribution, without additional
correction factors being required. With an absolute measurement uncertainty of <
0.3 dB and a relative measurement uncertainty of < 0.1 dB (each with a confidence
level of 95%), the R&S FSQ comes close to being a true power meter.
There are two possible methods for measuring channel and adjacent channel power
with a Signal Analyzer:
The IBW method (Integration Bandwidth Method) in which the R&S FSQ measures
with a resolution bandwidth that is less than the channel bandwidth and integrates
the level values of the trace versus the channel bandwidth. This method is described
in section “Noise Measurements” on page 2.18
Measurement using a channel filter.
In this case, the R&S FSQ makes measurements in the time domain using an IF filter that corresponds to the channel bandwidth. The power is measured at the output
of the IF filter. Until now, this method has not been used for Signal Analyzers,
because channel filters were not available and the resolution bandwidths, optimized
for the sweep, did not have a sufficient selectivity. The method was reserved for special receivers optimized for a particular transmission method.
The R&S FSQ has test routines for simple channel and adjacent channel power
measurements. These routines give quick results without any complex or tedious
setting procedures.
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Measurements on Modulated Signals
2.5.3.1
Measurement Example 1 – ACPR Measurement on an IS95 CDMA Signal
Test setup
Settings on the signal generator (e.g. R&S SMIQ)
Frequency:
850 MHz
Level:
0 dBm
Modulation:
CDMA IS 95
Measurement with the R&S FSQ
1. Set the R&S FSQ to the analyzer mode.
➢ Press the SPECTRUM key.
The R&S FSQ is in the analyzer mode.
2. Set the center frequency to 850 MHz and frequency deviation to 4 MHz.
➢ Press the FREQ key and enter 850 MHz.
3. Set the reference level to +10 dBm.
➢ Press the AMPT key and enter 10 dBm.
4. Configuring the adjacent channel power for the CDMA IS95 reverse link.
➢ Press the MEAS key.
➢ Press the CHAN PWR ACP ! softkey.
➢ Press the CP/ACP STANDARD softkey.
From the list of standards, select CDMA IS95A REV using the rotary knob or
the cursor down key below the rotary knob and press ENTER.
The R&S FSQ sets the channel configuration according to the IS95 standard
for mobile stations with 2 adjacent channels above and below the transmit
channel. The spectrum is displayed in the upper part of the screen, the numeric
values of the results and the channel configuration in the lower part of the
screen. The various channels are represented by vertical lines on the graph.
The frequency span, resolution bandwidth, video bandwidth and detector are
selected automatically to give correct results. To obtain stable results especially in the adjacent channels (30 kHz bandwidth) which are narrow in
comparison with the transmission channel bandwidth (1.23 MHz) - the RMS
detector is used.
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Measurements on Modulated Signals
5. Set the optimal reference level and RF attenuation for the applied signal
level.
➢ Press the ADJUST REF LVL softkey.
The R&S FSQ sets the optimal RF attenuation and the reference level based
on the transmission channel power to obtain the maximum dynamic range.
The following figure shows the result of the measurement.
Fig. 2.22 Adjacent channel power measurement on a CDMA IS95 signal
The repeatability of the results, especially in the narrow adjacent channels,
strongly depends on the measurement time since the dwell time within the 10
kHz channels is only a fraction of the complete sweep time. A longer sweep
time may increase the probability that the measured value converges to the
true value of the adjacent channel power, but this increases measurement
time.
To avoid long measurement times, the R&S FSQ measures the adjacent
channel power in the time domain (FAST ACP). In the FAST ACP mode, the
R&S FSQ measures the power of each channel at the defined channel
bandwidth, while being tuned to the center frequency of the channel in
question. The digital implementation of the resolution bandwidths makes it
possible to select a filter characteristics that is precisely tailored to the signal.
In case of CDMA IS95, the power in the useful channel is measured with a
bandwidth of 1.23 MHz and that of the adjacent channels with a bandwidth of
30 kHz. Therefore the R&S FSQ jumps from one channel to the other and
measures the power at a bandwidth of 1.23 MHz or 30 kHz using the RMS
detector. The measurement time per channel is set with the sweep time. It is
equal to the selected measurement time divided by the selected number of
channels. The five channels from the above example and the sweep time of
100 ms give a measurement time per channel of 20 ms.
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Getting Started
Measurements on Modulated Signals
Compared to the measurement time per channel given by the span (= 5.1
MHz) and sweep time
(= 100 ms, equal to 0.600 ms per 30 kHz channel) used in the example, this is
a far longer dwell time on the adjacent channels (factor of 12). In terms of the
number of uncorrelated samples this means 20000/33 µs = 606 samples per
channel measurement compared to 600/33µs = 12.5 samples per channel
measurement.
Repeatability with a confidence level of 95% is increased from ± 1.4 dB to ±
0.38 dB as shown in Fig. 2.16. For the same repeatability, the sweep time
would have to be set to 1.2 s with the integration method. The following figure
shows the standard deviation of the results as a function of the sweep time.
ACPR Repeatability IS95
IBWMethod
1,4
Standard dev / dB
1,2
1
Adjacent channels
0,8
Alternate channels
0,6
0,4
Tx channel
0,2
0
10
100
1000
Sweep time/ms
Fig. 2.23 Repeatability of adjacent channel power measurement on IS95-standard signals
if the integration bandwidth method is used
6. Switch to Fast ACP to increase the repeatability of results.
➢ Press the CP/ACP CONFIG ! softkey.
➢ Set the FAST ACP softkey to ON.
➢ Press the ADJUST REF LVL softkey.
The R&S FSQ measures the power of each channel in the time domain. The
trace represents power as a function of time for each measured channel (see
Fig. 2.24). The numerical results from consecutive measurements are much
more stable.
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Getting Started
Measurements on Modulated Signals
Fig. 2.24 Measuring the channel power and adjacent channel power ratio for IS95 signals
in the time domain (Fast ACP)
The following figure shows the repeatability of power measurements in the
transmit channel and of relative power measurements in the adjacent channels
as a function of sweep time. The standard deviation of measurement results is
calculated from 100 consecutive measurements as shown in Fig. 2.23. Take
scaling into account if comparing power values.
ACPR IS95 Repeatability
0,35
Standard dev /dB
0,3
0,25
0,2
Adjacent channels
0,15
0,1
Tx channel
0,05
Alternate channels
0
10
100
1000
Sweep time/ms
Fig. 2.25 Repeatability of adjacent channel power measurements on IS95 signals in the
Fast ACP mode
2.40
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R&S FSQ
Getting Started
Measurements on Modulated Signals
Note on adjacent channel power measurements on IS95 base-station signals
When measuring the adjacent channel power of IS95 base-station signals, the
frequency spacing of the adjacent channel to the nominal transmit channel is
specified as ±750 kHz. The adjacent channels are, therefore, so close to the
transmit channel that the power of the transmit signal leaks across and is also
measured in the adjacent channel if the usual method using the 30 kHz resolution bandwidth is applied. The reason is the low selectivity of the 30 kHz resolution filter. The resolution bandwidth, therefore, must be reduced considerably,
e.g. to 3 kHz to avoid this. This causes very long measurement times (factor of
100 between a 30 kHz and 3 kHz resolution bandwidth).
This effect is avoided with the time domain method which uses steep IF filters.
The 30 kHz channel filter implemented in the R&S FSQ has a very high selectivity so that even with a ±750 kHz spacing to the transmit channel the power of the
useful modulation spectrum is not measured.
The following figure shows the passband characteristics of the 30 kHz channel filter
in the R&S FSQ.
Fig. 2.26 Frequency response of the 30 kHz channel filter for measuring the power in the IS 95
adjacent channel
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R&S FSQ
Getting Started
Measurements on Modulated Signals
2.5.3.2
Measurement Example 2 – Measuring the Adjacent Channel Power of an IS136
TDMA Signal
Test setup
As the modulation spectrum of the IS136 signal leaks into the adjacent channel, it
makes a contribution to the power in the adjacent channel. Exact tuning of the
R&S FSQ to the transmit frequency is therefore critical. If tuning is not precise,
the adjacent channel power ratios in the lower and upper adjacent channels
become asymmetrical. The R&S FSQ’s frequency and the generator frequency
are therefore synchronized.
Settings on the signal generator (e.g. R&S SMIQ)
Frequency:
850 MHz
Level:
-20 dBm
Modulation:
IS136/NADC
Measurement with the R&S FSQ
1. Set the R&S FSQ to the analyzer mode.
➢ Press the SPECTRUM key.
The R&S FSQ is in the analyzer mode.
2. Set up the R&S FSQ for synchronization to an external reference frequency.
➢ Press the SETUP key.
➢ Set the REFERENCE softkey to EXT.
3. Set the center frequency to 850 MHz.
➢ Press the FREQ key and enter 850 MHz.
4. Configure adjacent channel power measurement for IS136 signals.
➢ Press the MEAS key.
➢ Press the CHAN PWR ACP ! softkey.
➢ Press the CP/ACP STANDARD softkey.
➢ Select NADC IS136 from the list of standards and press ENTER.
The R&S FSQ performs the power measurement in 5 channels (in the useful
channel and in the two upper and two lower adjacent channels).
2.42
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R&S FSQ
Getting Started
Measurements on Modulated Signals
5. Setting the optimum reference level and RF attenuation for the
measurement
➢ Press the ADJUST REF LEVEL softkey.
The R&S FSQ sets the optimum RF attenuation and the optimum reference
level on the basis of the measured channel power.
Fig. 2.27 Measuring the relative adjacent channel power of an NADC signal in each of the
two adjacent channels below and above the transmit channel.
To increase repeatability – especially in the adjacent channels – the R&S FSQ’s
Fast ACP routine is recommended.
6. Switching on the Fast ACP routine.
➢ Press the CP/ACP CONFIG ! softkey
➢ Set the FAST ACP softkey to ON.
➢ Press the ADJUST REF LEVEL softkey.
The R&S FSQ makes consecutive measurements on the 5 channels in the
zero span mode using the receive filter specified in IS 136 to define the
resolution bandwidth. The power in each channel is displayed on the graph as
a function of time.
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R&S FSQ
Getting Started
Measurements on Modulated Signals
Fig. 2.28 Measuring adjacent channel power in time domain (Fast ACP)
As the resolution bandwidth is much wider than the one used for the integration
method, the results are much more stable when compared at the same sweep
time.
Repeatability can be influenced by the selected sweep time. The results
become much more stable if long sweep times are selected. Since the
amplitude distribution is different in different channels (part of the modulation
spectrum falls within the first adjacent channel), the repeatability depends on
the spacing of the measured channel from the transmit channel.
Fig. 2.29 shows the standard deviation of results in the different channels as a
function of the selected sweep time. The standard deviation for the various
sweep times was recorded using a signal generator as a source. With real
DUTs the amplitude distributions in adjacent channels may be different so that
the standard deviation could differ from that shown in Fig. 2.25. Standard
deviation of the results of Fast ACP measurement as a function of selected
sweep time evaluated from 100 measurements per sweep time. To evaluate
the correct measuring time for time-critical measurements at a given standard
deviation, the standard deviation of the ACP values at the output of the real
DUT must be determined.
2.44
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R&S FSQ
Getting Started
Measurements on Modulated Signals
NADC Repeatability
1.4
Standard Deviation / dB
1.2
1
0.8
Adj Channels
Alt1 Channels
0.6
0.4
Tx Channel
0.2
0
10
100
1000
Sweep Time / ms
Fig. 2.29 Standard deviation of the results of Fast ACP measurement as a function of
selected sweep time evaluated from 100 measurements per sweep time
2.5.3.3
Measurement Example 3 – Measuring the Modulation Spectrum in Burst Mode
with the Gated Sweep Function
Since transmission systems compliant to IS136 use a TDMA method, the adjacent
channel power must also be measured in burst mode. An IS136 TDMA frame is
divided into 6 time slots. Two of these slots are assigned to a subscriber. This
means that the ratio of transmit time to off-time for IS136 mobile phones is only 1:3
(e.g. time slots 1 and 4)
The R&S FSQ supports the measurement of the adjacent channel power in the
TDMA mode with the Gated Sweep function.
Test setup with the R&S Signal Generator SMIQ
The R&S SMIQ has to be equipped with options R&S SMIQ-B10 or R&S SMIQ-B20
(modulation coder) and R&S SMIQ-B11 (data generator).
Option R&S SMIQ-Z5 is required to trigger the R&S FSQ. This option is connected
to the R&S SMIQ’s parallel output port. The BNC output Trigger 1 of the R&S SMIQZ5 provides a TTL trigger signal on the rising edge of the IS136 burst, which is used
to start the R&S FSQ sweep in the Gated Sweep mode.
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R&S FSQ
Getting Started
Measurements on Modulated Signals
The R&S FSQ’s IF power trigger is not suitable for IS136. It triggers on every
level edge of the input signal. Since the modulation of the IS136 signal causes
level dips even during the transmit burst, there is no way of ensuring that the
R&S FSQ is only triggered on the burst edge.
Settings on signal generator R&S SMIQ
Switch the signal generator to the IS136 burst mode (time slots 1 and 4 are switched
on, the other time slots are switched off).
The R&S SMIQ is set as follows to generate the signal:
1. Press the PRESET key.
2. Press the FREQ key and enter 850 MHz.
3. Press the LEVEL key and enter -20 dBm.
4. Press the RETURN key.
5. Select DIGITAL STANDARD using the rotary knob and press the SELECT key.
6. Select NADC using the rotary knob and press the SELECT key.
7. Press the SELECT key.
8. Select ON using the rotary knob and press the SELECT key.
9. Press the RETURN key.
10.Keep turning the rotary knob until SAVE/RECALL FRAME appears in the list and
select the menu item SAVE/RECALL FRAME using the SELECT key.
11. The cursor is set to GET PREDEFINED FRAME.
12.Press the SELECT key.
13.Select UP1TCH using the rotary knob and press the SELECT key.
In the following operating sequence for the R&S FSQ, it is assumed that steps 1 to 6
of 2.5.3.2“Measurement Example 2 – Measuring the Adjacent Channel Power of an
IS136 TDMA Signal” on page 2.42 have already been performed.
Configuring the Gated Sweep function on the R&S FSQ
➢ Press the TRIG key.
➢ Press the GATED TRIGGER softkey.
➢ Press the EXTERN softkey.
➢ Press the GATE SETTINGS ! softkey.
The R&S FSQ switches to time domain measurement so that the setting of the
Gated Sweep parameters can be checked visually.
➢ Press the SWEEPTIME softkey and enter 10 ms.
Exactly one TDMA burst will be displayed.
➢ Press the GATE DELAY softkey and enter 2 ms or set the Gate Delay using the
rotary knob so that the burst is reliably detected.
➢ Press the GATE LENGTH softkey and enter 5 ms or set the vertical line for the
gate length using the rotary knob so that the burst is reliably detected.
2.46
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R&S FSQ
Getting Started
Measurements on Modulated Signals
Fig. 2.30
Setting the parameters Gate Delay and Gate Length in time domain. The time
interval required to measure the spectrum is indicated by two vertical lines.
➢ Press the PREV key.
The R&S FSQ now performs the ACP measurement only during the switch-on
phase of the TDMA burst. The measurement is stopped during the switch-off
phase.
The selected sweep time is the net sweep time, i.e. the time during which the
R&S FSQ is actually measuring. The complete frame of an IS136 signal takes 40
ms. In the above example, measurement only takes place for 2 x 5 ms within a
frame. The R&S FSQ is therefore only measuring for 25 % of the frame duration.
The total measuring time is therefore four times that for the CW mode.
2.5.3.4
Measurement Example 4 – Measuring the Transient Spectrum in Burst Mode
with the Fast ACP function
In addition to the modulation spectrum or adjacent channel power from the modulation of the RF carrier, the spectrum or adjacent channel power generated by burst
edges is also to be measured in TDMA systems. The spectrum is a pulse spectrum
and must be measured with the peak detector. With the usual IBW method, only the
power of the continuously modulated signal can be measured properly. Even if the
modulation spectrum is transmitted in the TDMA mode, the measurement of the
modulation spectrum will work because the burst edges are blanked out for the
measurement by means of the Gated Sweep function. The R&S FSQ performs
measurements only if the modulation spectrum is continuous when the burst is on.
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R&S FSQ
Getting Started
Measurements on Modulated Signals
However, the IBW method fails for the spectrum created by the burst edges. As the
measurement is carried out with resolution bandwidths that are very small compared
to the signal bandwidth, a spurious amplitude distribution is obtained in the defined
measurement channel because of the resolution bandwidth. The small resolution
bandwidth cannot settle to the peak amplitudes of the test signal. This problem is
avoided in the R&S FSQ by performing time domain measurements with the root
raised cosine filter specified in the IS136 standard.
If the peak detector is used instead of the default RMS detector (which is selected
when the standard is selected), the true adjacent channel power generated by the
burst edges can also be measured.
Test setup
The test setup for this example and the settings for R&S SMIQ are identical to those
described in “Measurement Example 3 – Measuring the Modulation Spectrum in
Burst Mode with the Gated Sweep Function” on page 2.45.
Measurement with the R&S FSQ
1. Set the R&S FSQ to the analyzer mode.
➢ Press the SPECTRUM key.
The R&S FSQ is in the analyzer mode.
2. Synchronize the R&S FSQ to an external reference frequency.
➢ Press the SETUP key.
➢ Set the REFERENCE softkey to EXT.
3. Set the center frequency to 850 MHz
➢ Press the FREQ key and enter 850 MHz.
4. Configure the adjacent channel power measurement for IS136 signals in
Fast ACP mode.
➢ Press the MEAS key.
➢ Press the CHAN PWR ACP ! softkey.
➢ Press the CP/ACP STANDARD softkey.
➢ Select NADC IS136 from the list of standards and press ENTER.
➢ Press the CP/ACP CONFIG ! softkey.
➢ Set the FAST ACP softkey to ON.
The R&S FSQ performs the power measurement in 5 channels (in the useful
channel and in the two upper and lower adjacent channels).
5. Set the optimum reference level and RF attenuation for the measurement.
➢ Press the ADJUST REF LEVEL softkey.
The R&S FSQ sets the optimum RF attenuation and the optimum reference
level on the basis of the measured channel power.
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Getting Started
Measurements on Modulated Signals
6. Select the peak detector and increase the sweep time to 10 s.
➢ Press the TRACE key.
➢ Press the DETECTOR softkey.
➢ Press the DETECTOR MAX PEAK softkey.
➢ Press the SWEEP key.
➢ Press the SWEEP TIME softkey and enter 10 s.
The R&S FSQ measures the adjacent channel power generated by the burst
edges and the modulation.
Fig. 2.31 Adjacent channel power due to modulation spectrum and transient spectrum
The peak power display depends on the selected sweep time. The longer the
sweep time, the higher the probability of measuring the highest peak amplitude of
the signal.
With shorter sweep times, level dips can be seen in the time domain traces.
These level dips come from the burst characteristic of the signal. The numerical
results, however, indicate the peak amplitudes during the measurement in the
corresponding channel.
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R&S FSQ
Getting Started
Measurements on Modulated Signals
2.5.3.5
Measurement Example 5 – Measuring the Adjacent Channel Power of a WCDMA Uplink Signal
Test setup
Settings on the signal generator (e.g. R&S SMIQ)
Frequency:
1950 MHz
Level:
4 dBm
Modulation:
3 GPP W-CDMA Reverse Link
Measurement with the R&S FSQ
1. Set the R&S FSQ to the analyzer mode.
➢ Press the SPECTRUM key.
The R&S FSQ is in the analyzer mode.
2. Set the center frequency to 1950 MHz.
➢ Press the FREQ key and enter 1950 MHz.
3. Switch on the ACP measurement for W-CDMA.
➢ Press the MEAS key.
➢ Press the CHAN PWR ACP ! softkey.
➢ Press the CP/ACP STANDARD softkey.
➢ From the list of standards, select W-CDMA 3GPP REV using the rotary knob
or the cursor down key below the rotary knob and press ENTER.
The R&S FSQ sets the channel configuration to the 3GPP W-CDMA standard
for mobiles with two adjacent channels above and below the transmit channel.
The frequency span, the resolution and video bandwidth and the detector are
automatically set to the correct values. The spectrum is displayed in the upper
part of the screen and the channel power, the level ratios of the adjacent
channel powers and the channel configuration in the lower part of the screen.
The individual channels are displayed as vertical lines on the graph.
4. Set the optimum reference level and the RF attenuation for the applied
signal level.
➢ Press the ADJUST REF LEVEL softkey.
The R&S FSQ sets the optimum RF attenuation and the reference level for the
power in the transmission channel to obtain the maximum dynamic range. The
following figure shows the result of the measurement:
2.50
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R&S FSQ
Getting Started
Measurements on Modulated Signals
Fig. 2.32 Measuring the relative adjacent channel power on a W-CDMA uplink signal
5. Measuring adjacent channel power with the Fast ACP method.
➢ Press the CP/ACP CONFIG ! softkey.
➢ Set FAST ACP softkey to ON.
➢ Press the ADJUST REF LVL softkey.
The R&S FSQ measures the power of the individual channels in the time
domain. A root raised cosine filter with the parameters α = 0.22 and chip rate
3.84 Mcps (= receive filter for 3GPP W-CDMA) is used as the channel filter.
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R&S FSQ
Getting Started
Measurements on Modulated Signals
Fig. 2.33 Measuring the adjacent channel power of a W-CDMA signal with the Fast ACP
method
With W-CDMA, the R&S FSQ’s dynamic range for adjacent channel measurements is limited by the 14-bit A/D converter. The greatest dynamic range is,
therefore, obtained with the IBW method.
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R&S FSQ
Getting Started
Measurements on Modulated Signals
Optimum Level Setting for ACP Measurements on W-CDMA Signals
The dynamic range for ACPR measurements is limited by the thermal noise floor,
the phase noise and the intermodulation (spectral regrowth) of the R&S FSQ. The
power values produced by the R&S FSQ due to these factors accumulate linearly.
They depend on the applied level at the input mixer. The three factors are shown in
the figure below for the adjacent channel (5 MHz carrier offset)
ACLR /dBc
-50
-55
-60
-65
total
ACLR
-70
-75
-80
-85
-90
-20
spectral
regrowth
thermal
noise
phase
noise
-15
-10
-5
0
Mixer level / dBm
Fig. 2.34 The R&S FSQ’s dynamic range for adjacent channel power measurements on W-CDMA
uplink signals is a function of the mixer level.
The level of the W-CDMA signal at the input mixer is shown on the horizontal axis,
i.e. the measured signal level minus the selected RF attenuation. The individual
components which contribute to the power in the adjacent channel and the resulting
relative level (total ACPR) in the adjacent channel are displayed on the vertical axis.
The optimum mixer level is –10 dBm. The relative adjacent channel power (ACPR)
at an optimum mixer level is –77,5 dBc. Since, at a given signal level, the mixer level
is set in 5 dB steps with the 5 dB RF attenuator, the optimum 5 dB range is shown in
the figure: it spreads from –13 dBm to –8 dBm. The obtainable dynamic range in this
range is 76 dB.
To set the attenuation parameter manually, the following method is recommended:
•
Set the RF attenuation so that the mixer level (= measured channel power – RF
attenuation) is between -13 dBm and -8 dBm.
•
Set the reference level to the largest possible value where no overload (IFOVLD)
is indicated.
This method is automated with the R&S FSQ’s ADJUST REF LEVEL function.
Especially in remote control mode, e.g. in production environments, it is best to correctly set the attenuation parameters prior to the measurement, as the time required
for automatic setting can be saved.
To measure the R&S FSQ’s intrinsic dynamic range for W-CDMA adjacent channel power measurements, a filter which suppresses the adjacent channel power
is required at the output of the transmitter. A SAW filter with a bandwidth of 4
MHz, for example, can be used.
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R&S FSQ
Getting Started
Measurements on Modulated Signals
2.5.4
Amplitude Distribution Measurements
If modulation types that do not have a constant envelope in the time domain are
used, the transmitter has to handle peak amplitudes that are greater than the average power. This includes all modulation types that involve amplitude modulation QPSK for example. CDMA transmission modes in particular may have power peaks
that are large compared to the average power.
For signals of this kind, the transmitter must provide large reserves for the peak
power to prevent signal compression and thus an increase of the bit error rate at the
receiver.
The peak power, or the crest factor of a signal is therefore an important transmitter
design criterion. The crest factor is defined as the peak power / mean power ratio or,
logarithmically, as the peak level minus the average level of the signal.
To reduce power consumption and cut costs, transmitters are not designed for the
largest power that could ever occur, but for a power that has a specified probability
of being exceeded (e.g. 0.01%).
To measure the amplitude distribution, the R&S FSQ has simple measurement functions to determine both the APD = Amplitude Probability Distribution and CCDF =
Complementary Cumulative Distribution Function.
In the literature, APD is also used for the probability of amplitude violation. This is
the complimentary function to the APD function of R&S FSQ. The term PDF
(=Probability Density Function) which is frequently used in the literature corresponds to the APD function of R&S FSQ.
In the APD display mode, the probability of occurrence of a certain level is plotted
against the level.
In the CCDF display mode, the probability that the mean signal power will be
exceeded is shown in percent.
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R&S FSQ
Getting Started
Measurements on Modulated Signals
2.5.4.1
Measurement Example – Measuring the APD and CCDF of White Noise Generated by the R&S FSQ
1. Set the R&S FSQ to the analyzer mode.
➢ Press the SPECTRUM key.
The R&S FSQ is in the analyzer mode.
2. Configure the R&S FSQ for APD measurement
➢ Press the AMPT key and enter -60 dBm.
The R&S FSQ’s intrinsic noise is displayed at the top of the screen.
➢ Press the MEAS key.
➢ Press the SIGNAL STATISTIC ! softkey.
➢ Set the APD softkey to ON.
The R&S FSQ sets the frequency span to 0 Hz and measures the amplitude
probability distribution (APD). The number of uncorrelated level
measurements used for the measurement is 100000. The mean power and the
peak power are displayed in dBm. The crest factor (peak power – mean
power) is output as well (see Fig. 2.35).
Fig. 2.35 Amplitude probability distribution of white noise
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R&S FSQ
Getting Started
Measurements on Modulated Signals
3. Switch to the CCDF display mode.
➢ Set the CCDF softkey to ON
The APD measurement is switched off and the CCDF display mode is switched
on.
Fig. 2.36 The CCDF of white noise
The CCDF trace indicates the probability that a level will exceed the mean
power. The level above the mean power is plotted along the x-axis of the
graph.The origin of the axis corresponds to the mean power level. The
probability that a level will be exceeded is plotted along the y-axis.
4. Bandwidth selection
If the amplitude distribution is measured, the resolution bandwidth must be set in
a way that the complete spectrum of the signal to be measured falls within the
bandwidth. This is the only way of ensuring that all the amplitudes will pass
through the IF filter without being distorted. If the selected resolution bandwidth is
too small for a digitally modulated signal, the amplitude distribution at the output
of the IF filter becomes a Gaussian distribution according to the central limit
theorem and so corresponds to a white noise signal. The true amplitude
distribution of the signal therefore cannot be determined.
A video bandwidth which is large in comparison to the resolution bandwidth (≥ 3 x
RBW) must be selected. This ensures that the amplitude peaks of the signal are
not smoothed by the lowpass effect of the video filter. The video bandwidth is set
automatically during statistics measurements.
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R&S FSQ
Getting Started
Measurements on Modulated Signals
Since the video bandwidth of the R&S FSQ is limited to 10 MHz, lowpass filtering
occurs during measurements with a resolution bandwidth of 10 MHz. Additional
band-limiting occurs at a resolution bandwidth of 10 MHz due to the lowpass
filtering at the output of the log amplifier. The latter limits the video signal to a
bandwidth of 8 MHz in order to obtain sufficient suppression of the 20.4 MHz IF.
The level range of the signal amplitudes, e.g. during APD white-noise
measurements, is smaller. For broadband-modulated signals such as W-CDMA
signals, the effect depends on the bandwidth occupied by the signal. At a signal
bandwidth of 4 MHz, the amplitude distribution can be measured correctly with the
effective video bandwidth.
5. Selecting the number of samples
For statistics measurements with the R&S FSQ, the number of samples NSamples
is entered for statistical evaluation instead of the sweep time. Since only
statistically independent samples contribute to statistics, the measurement or
sweep time is calculated automatically. It is indicated on the R&S FSQ display.
The samples are statistically independent if the time difference is at least 1/RBW.
The sweep time SWT is, therefore, expressed as follows:
SWT = NSamples /RBW
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R&S FSQ
Manual Operation
3 Manual Operation
For details refer to the Quick Start Guide chapter 4, “Basic Operation”.
3.1
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
4 Instrument Functions
4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5
4.2 R&S FSQ Initial Configuration – PRESET Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.6
4.3 Mode Selection – Hotkey Bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.8
4.4 Return to Manual Operation – LOCAL Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.9
4.5 Analyzer Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.10
4.5.1 Frequency and Span Selection – FREQ Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.11
4.5.2 Setting the Frequency Span – SPAN Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.15
4.5.3 Level Display Setting and RF Input Configuration – AMPT Key . . . . . . 4.17
4.5.3.1 Electronic Attenuator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.21
4.5.4 Setting the Bandwidths and Sweep Time – BW Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.23
4.5.4.1 Filter Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.28
4.5.5 Sweep Settings – SWEEP Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.34
4.5.6 Triggering the Sweep – TRIG Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.37
4.5.7 Selection and Setting of Traces – TRACE Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.44
4.5.7.1 Selection of Trace Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.44
4.5.7.2 Selection of Detector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.52
4.5.7.3 Mathematical Functions for Traces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.56
4.5.8 Recording the Correction Data – CAL Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.57
4.5.9 Markers and Delta Markers – MKR Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.60
4.5.9.1 Frequency Measurement with the Frequency Counter . . . . . . . . . 4.62
4.5.10 Marker Functions – MKR FCTN Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.67
4.5.10.1 Activating the Markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.68
4.5.10.2 Measurement of Noise Density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.68
4.5.10.3 Phase Noise Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.70
4.5.10.4 Measurement of the Filter or Signal Bandwidth . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.72
4.5.10.5 Measurement of a Peak List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.73
4.5.10.6 AF Demodulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.76
4.5.10.7 Selecting the Trace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.78
4.5.11 Change of Settings via Markers – MKR-> Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.79
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
4.1
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
4.5.12 Power Measurements – MEAS Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.86
4.5.12.1 Power Measurement in Time Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.87
4.5.12.2 Channel and Adjacent-Channel Power Measurements . . . . . . . 4.92
4.5.12.3 Measurement of Occupied Bandwidth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.113
4.5.12.4 Measurement of Signal Amplitude Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.115
4.5.12.5 Measurement of Carrier/Noise Ratio C/N and C/No . . . . . . . . . 4.124
4.5.12.6 Measurement of the AM Modulation Depth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.126
4.5.12.7 Capturing IQ Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.127
4.5.12.8 Measurement of the Third Order Intercept (TOI) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.130
4.5.12.9 Harmonic Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.133
4.5.12.10 Measuring Spurious Emissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.135
4.5.12.11 Spectrum Emission Mask Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.142
4.6 Basic Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.161
4.6.1 Setup of Limit Lines and Display Lines – LINES Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.161
4.6.1.1 Selection of Limit Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.162
4.6.1.2 Entry and Editing of Limit Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.165
4.6.1.3 Display Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.170
4.6.2 Configuration of Screen Display – DISP Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.173
4.6.3 Instrument Setup and Interface Configuration – SETUP Key . . . . . . . 4.179
4.6.3.1 External Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.182
4.6.3.2 External Noise Source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.183
4.6.3.3 Signal Source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.183
4.6.3.4 RF Preamplifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.186
4.6.3.5 Transducer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.186
4.6.3.6 Programming the Interface Configuration and Time Setup . . . . . 4.192
4.6.3.7 System Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.207
4.6.3.8 Service Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.209
4.6.3.9 Firmware Update . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.213
4.6.4 Saving and Recalling Data Sets – FILE Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.215
4.6.4.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.215
4.6.4.2 Operating Concept of File Managers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.220
4.6.5 Measurement Documentation – HCOPY Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.225
4.6.5.1 Selecting Printer Colors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.228
4.7 Tracking Generator – Option R&S FSU-B9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.232
4.7.1 Tracking Generator Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.233
4.7.2 Transmission Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.235
4.7.2.1 Calibration of Transmission Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.235
4.7.2.2 Normalization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.237
4.7.3 Reflection Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.241
4.7.3.1 Calibration of Reflection Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.241
4.7.4 Calibration Mechanism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.242
4.7.5 Frequency-Converting Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.244
4.2
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R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
4.7.6 External Modulation of the Tracking Generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.245
4.7.7 Power Offset of the Tracking Generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.247
4.8 External Generator Control – Option R&S FSP-B10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.248
4.8.1 External Generator Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.249
4.8.2 Transmission Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.250
4.8.2.1 Calibration of Transmission Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.250
4.8.2.2 Normalization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.252
4.8.3 Reflection Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.256
4.8.3.1 Calibration of Reflection Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.256
4.8.4 Calibration Mechanism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.257
4.8.5 Frequency-Converting Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.258
4.8.6 Configuration of an External Generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.259
4.8.7 List of Generator Types Supported by the R&S FSQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.262
4.9 LAN Interface - Option R&S FSP-B16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.266
4.9.1 NOVELL Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.266
4.9.2 MICROSOFT Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.266
4.9.3 Remote Data Transfer with TCP/IP Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.266
4.10 RSIB Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.268
4.10.1 Remote Control via RSIB Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.268
4.10.1.1 Windows Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.268
4.10.1.2 UNIX Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.269
4.11 RSIB Interface Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.270
4.11.1 Overview of Interface Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.270
4.11.1.1 Variables ibsta, iberr, ibcntl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.271
4.11.1.2 Description of Interface Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.272
4.11.2 Programming via the RSIB Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.281
4.11.2.1 Visual Basic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.281
4.11.2.2 Visual Basic for Applications (Winword and Excel) . . . . . . . . . . 4.285
4.11.2.3 C / C++ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.286
4.12 Digital Baseband Interface - Option R&S FSQ-B17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.288
4.12.1 General Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.288
4.12.2 Online Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.290
4.12.3 Signal Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.291
4.12.4 Signal Assignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.292
4.12.4.1 Connector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.292
4.12.4.2 Pin description: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.292
4.12.5 Channel Link Receiver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.294
4.12.6 Cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.295
4.12.7 Remote Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.295
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4.3
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
4.13 LO/IF ports for external mixers - Option R&S FSU-B21 . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.296
4.13.1 Connecting an External Mixer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.296
4.13.2 Manual Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.297
4.13.3 Conversion Loss Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.303
4.13.3.1 Editing a Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.306
4.13.4 Signal Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.310
4.13.4.1 Remarks Concerning Signal Identification with AUTO ID . . . . . 4.311
4.13.5 Introductory Example of Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.317
4.4
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R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Introduction
4.1
Introduction
All functions of the R&S FSQ and their application are explained in detail in this
chapter. The sequence of the described menu groups depends on the procedure
selected for the configuration and start of a measurement:
1. Resetting the instrument
– “R&S FSQ Initial Configuration – PRESET Key” on page 4.6
2. Setting the mode
– “Mode Selection – Hotkey Bar” on page 4.8
– “Return to Manual Operation – LOCAL Menu” on page 4.9
3. Setting the measurement parameters in analyzer mode
– “Analyzer Mode” on page 4.10
4. Basic functions for general settings, printout and data management
– “Setup of Limit Lines and Display Lines – LINES Key” on page 4.161
– “Configuration of Screen Display – DISP Key” on page 4.173
– “Instrument Setup and Interface Configuration – SETUP Key” on page 4.179
– “Saving and Recalling Data Sets – FILE Key” on page 4.215
– “Measurement Documentation – HCOPY Key” on page 4.225
5. Additional and optional functions
– “Tracking Generator – Option R&S FSU-B9” on page 4.232
– “External Generator Control – Option R&S FSP-B10” on page 4.248
– “LAN Interface - Option R&S FSP-B16” on page 4.266
– “LO/IF ports for external mixers - Option R&S FSU-B21” on page 4.296
– “Trigger Port – Option R&S FSP-B28” on page 4.309
The operating concept is described in the Quick Start Guide, chapter 4, “Basic Operation”.
The remote commands (if any) are indicated for each softkey. A detailed description
of the associated remote commands is given in chapter “Remote Control – Description of Commands”.
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
4.5
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
R&S FSQ Initial Configuration – PRESET Key
4.2
PRESET
R&S FSQ Initial Configuration – PRESET Key
Using the PRESET key, the R&S FSQ can be set to a predefined initial state.
The settings are selected in a way that the RF input is always protected against
overload, provided that the applied signal levels are in the allowed range for the
instrument.
The initial instrument state set by the PRESET key can be adapted to arbitrary
applications using the STARTUP RECALL function. With this function the STARTUP RECALL data set is loaded upon pressing the PRESET key. For further information refer to section “Saving and Recalling Data Sets – FILE Key” on
page 4.215.
Pressing the PRESET key causes the R&S FSQ to enter its initial state according to
the following table:
4.6
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R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
R&S FSQ Initial Configuration – PRESET Key
Table 4-1
Initial State of R&S FSQ
Parameter
Settings
Mode
Spectrum
Center frequency
1,8 GHz / 4 GHz / 13,25 GHz / 20 GHz
(R&S FSQ-3/-8/-26/-31/-40)
Center frequency step size
0.1 * center frequency
Span
3,6 GHz / 8 GHz / 26,5 GHz / 40 GHz
(R&S FSQ-3/-8/-26/-31/-40)
RF attenuation
auto (5 dB)
Reference level
-20 dBm
Level range
100 dB log
Level unit
dBm
Sweep time
auto
Resolution bandwidth
auto (3 MHz)
Video bandwidth
auto (10 MHz)
FFT filters
off
Span / RBW
50
RBW / VBW
0,33
Sweep
cont
Trigger
free run
Trace 1
clr write
Trace 2/3
blank
Detector
auto peak
Trace math
off
Frequency offset
0 Hz
Reference level offset
0 dB
Reference level position
100 %
Grid
abs
Cal correction
on
Noise source
off
Input
RF
Display
Full screen, active screen A
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
4.7
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Mode Selection – Hotkey Bar
4.3
Mode Selection – Hotkey Bar
For fast mode selection the R&S FSQ has keys located under the measurement
screen, the so-called hotkeys. These hotkeys are displayed depending on the
options installed on the instrument. According to the selected mode, the corresponding softkey menus are displayed (on the right side of the measurement screen).
In this section, only the hotkeys provided by the basic model are described. For
information on the other hotkeys refer to the corresponding option descriptions.
Fig. 4.14 Hotkey bar of the basic model
SPECTRUM
The SPECTRUM hotkey sets R&S FSQ to analyzer mode. For details on the softkey
menus refer to section “Analyzer Mode” on page 4.10.
The analyzer mode is the default mode of R&S FSQ.
Remote command:
INST:SEL SAN
INST:NSEL 1
MORE
The MORE hotkey switches to side hotkey bar(s) and back to the main hotkey bar.
In the side hotkey bar(s), the hotkeys for the options are located. For further information refer to the descriptions of the corresponding options.
SCREEN A /
SCREEN B
With the SCREEN A / SCREEN B hotkey two different settings can be selected on
the R&S FSQ in the FULL SCREEN display mode.
In the SPLIT SCREEN display mode the key switches between active diagram A
and B.
The key designation indicates the diagram which has been activated by means of
the key.
The currently active window is marked by
gram.
Remote command:
4.8
A
or
B
on the right of the dia-
DISP:WIND<1|2>:SEL
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Return to Manual Operation – LOCAL Menu
4.4
LOCAL
Return to Manual Operation – LOCAL Menu
The LOCAL menu is displayed on switching the instrument to remote control mode.
At the same time, the hotkey bar is blanked out and all keys are disabled except the
PRESET key.
The LOCAL softkey and the DISPLAY UPDATE ON/OFF softkey are displayed.
Depending on the setting of the DISPLAY UPDATE ON/OFF softkey, the diagrams,
traces and diplay fields are displayed or hidden. For further details on the DISPLAY
UPDATE ON/OFF softkey refer to Instrument Setup and Interface Configuration –
SETUP Key.
The LOCAL key switches the instrument from remote to manual operation, with the
assumption that the remote controller has not previously set the LOCAL LOCKOUT
function.
A change in the control mode consists of:
•
Enabling the Front Panel Keys
Returning to manual operation enables all inactive keys and turns on the hotkey
bar. The softkey menu which is displayed is the main menu of the current mode.
•
Inserting the measurement diagrams
The blanked diagrams, traces and display fields are inserted.
•
Generating the message OPERATION COMPLETE
If, at the time of pressing the LOCAL softkey, the synchronization mechanism via
*OPC, *OPC? or *WAI is active, the currently running measurement procedure is
aborted and synchronization is achieved by setting the corresponding bits in the
registers of the status reporting system.
•
Setting Bit 6 (User Request) of the Event Status Register
With a corresponding configuration of the status reporting system, this bit
immediately causes the generation of a service request (SRQ) which is used to
inform the control software that the user wishes to return to front-panel control.
This information can be used, e.g., to interrupt the control program so that the user
can make necessary manual corrections to instrument settings. This bit is set
each time the LOCAL softkey is pressed.
If the LOCAL LOCKOUT function is active in the remote control mode, the frontpanel PRESET key is also disabled. The LOCAL LOCKOUT state is left as soon
as the process controller de-activates the REN line or the GPIB cable is disconnected from the instrument.
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
4.9
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
4.5
Analyzer Mode
The analyzer mode is activated by pressing the SPECTRUM hotkey (see also section “Mode Selection – Hotkey Bar” on page 4.8)
SPECTRUM
The SPECTRUM hotkey selects the mode for spectrum analysis, the so-called analyzer mode.
This mode is the default mode of the R&S FSQ.
The functions provided correspond to those of a conventional spectrum analyzer.
The R&S FSQ measures the frequency spectrum of the test signal over the selected
frequency range with the selected resolution and sweep time, or, for a fixed frequency, displays the waveform of the video signal.
If two displays (screen A and screen B) are opened after switch-on of signal analysis, the analyzer mode is only set for the display activated for entry (marked at the
top right corner of diagram). For the other display, the previous settings remain
valid.
Data acquisition and display of measured values is sequential: first in the upper
and then in the lower display.
4.10
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
4.5.1
Frequency and Span Selection – FREQ Key
The FREQ key is used to specify the frequency axis of the active display window.
The frequency axis can be defined either by the start and stop frequency or by the
center frequency and bwthe span (SPAN key). With two windows (SPLIT SCREEN)
displayed at the same time, the input data always refer to the window selected in the
SYSTEM - DISPLAY menu.
The softkeys in the CF STEPSIZE menu depend on the selected domain: frequency
domain or time domain.
FREQ
CENTER
CF STEPSIZE !
0.1 * SPAN / 0.1 * RBW
0.5 * SPAN / 0.5 * RBW
X * SPAN / X * RBW
= CENTER
= MARKER
MANUAL
START
STOP
FREQUENCY OFFSET
SIGNAL TRACK !
TRACK (ON OFF)
TRACK BW
TRACK THRESHOLD
SELECT TRACE
EXTERNAL MIXER
(option B21)
CENTER
The CENTER softkey opens the window for manually entering the center frequency.
The allowed range of values for the center frequency is:
•
for the frequency domain (span >0):
minspan / 2 ≤ fcenter ≤ fmax – minspan / 2
•
and for the time domain (span = 0):
0 Hz ≤ fcenter ≤ fmax
fcenter
center frequency
minspan
smallest selectable span > 0 Hz (10 Hz)
fmax
max. frequency
Remote command:
CF STEPSIZE
FREQ:CENT 100MHz
The CF STEPSIZE softkey opens a submenu for setting the step size of the center
frequency. The step size can be coupled to the span (frequency domain) or the resolution bandwidth (time domain) or it can be manually set to a fixed value. The softkeys are mutually exclusive selection keys.
The softkeys are presented according to the selected domain (frequency or time).
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
4.11
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
Softkeys in frequency domain:
0.1 * SPAN
The 0.1 * SPAN softkey sets the step size for the center frequency entry to 10% of
the span.
Remote command:
0.5 * SPAN
The 0.5 * SPAN softkey sets the step size for the center frequency entry to 50% of
the span.
Remote command:
X * SPAN
--
The = MARKER softkey sets the step size coupling to MANUAL and the step size to
the value of the marker. This function is especially useful during measurements of
the signal harmonic content at the marker position because by entering the center
frequency each stroke of the STEP key selects the center frequency of another harmonic.
Remote command:
MANUAL
FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK SPAN
FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK:FACT 20PCT
The = CENTER softkey sets the step size coupling to MANUAL and the step size to
the value of the center frequency. This function is especially useful during measurements of the signal harmonic content because by entering the center frequency
each stroke of the STEP key selects the center frequency of another harmonic.
Remote command:
= MARKER
FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK SPAN
FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK:FACT 50PCT
The X * SPAN softkey allows the factor defining the center frequency step size to be
entered as % of the span.
Remote command:
= CENTER
FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK SPAN
FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK:FACT 10PCT
--
The MANUAL softkey activates the window for entering a fixed step size.
Remote command:
FREQ:CENT:STEP 120MHz
Softkeys in time domain:
0.1 * RBW
The 0.1 * RBW softkey sets the step size for the center frequency entry to 10% of
the resolution bandwidth.
AUTO 0.1 * RBW corresponds to the default setting.
Remote command:
0.5 * RBW
The 0.5 * RBW softkey sets the step size for the center frequency entry to 50% of
the resolution bandwidth.
Remote command:
4.12
FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK RBW
FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK:FACT 10PCT
FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK RBW
FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK:FACT 50PCT
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
X * RBW
The X * RBW softkey allows the factor defining the center frequency step size to be
entered as % of the resolution bandwidth.
Values between 1 % and 100 % in steps of 1 % are allowed. The default setting is 10
%.
Remote command:
= CENTER
The = CENTER softkey sets the step size coupling to MANUAL and the step size to
the value of the center frequency. This function is especially useful during measurements of the signal harmonic content because by entering the center frequency
each stroke of the STEP key selects the center frequency of another harmonic.
Remote command:
= MARKER
--
The MANUAL softkey activates the window for entering a fixed step size.
Remote command:
START
--
The = MARKER softkey sets the step size coupling to MANUAL and the step size to
the value of the marker. This function is especially useful during measurements of
the signal harmonic content at the marker position because by entering the center
frequency each stroke of the STEP key selects the center frequency of another harmonic.
Remote command:
MANUAL
FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK RBW
FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK:FACT 20PCT
FREQ:CENT:STEP 120MHz
The START softkey activates the window for manually entering the start frequency.
The allowed range of values for the start frequency is:
0 Hz ≤ fstart ≤ fmax - minspan
fstart
start frequency
minspan smallest selectable span (10 Hz)
fmax
max. frequency
Available for measurements in the frequency domain.
Remote command:
STOP
FREQ:STAR 20MHz
The STOP softkey activates the window for entering the stop frequency.
The allowed range of values for the stop frequency is:
minspan ≤ fstop ≤ fmax
fstop
stop frequency
minspan
smallest selectable span (10 Hz)
fmax
max. frequency
Available for measurements in the frequency domain.
Remote command:
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
FREQ:STOP 2000MHz
4.13
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
FREQUENCY
OFFSET
The FREQUENCY OFFSET softkey activates the window for entering an arithmetical frequency offset which is added to the frequency axis labelling. The allowed
range of values for the offset is -100 GHz to 100 GHz. The default setting is 0 Hz.
Remote command:
SIGNAL
TRACK
FREQ:OFFS 10 MHz
The SIGNAL TRACK softkey switches on the tracking of a signal near the center frequency. The signal is tracked as long it is in the search bandwidth around the center
frequency defined with TRACK BW and above the level threshold defined with
TRACK THRESHOLD.
For that purpose, the maximum signal is determined (PEAK SEARCH) on the
screen and the center frequency is set to this signal (MARKER ->CENTER) after
each frequency sweep within the search bandwidth.
If the signal falls below the level threshold or jumps out of the search bandwidth
around the center frequency, the center frequency is not varied until a signal is in the
search bandwidth above the level threshold. This can be achieved by manually
modifying the center frequency, for example.
On switching on, the softkey is highlighted and the search bandwidth and the threshold value are marked on the diagram by two vertical lines and one horizontal line. All
these lines are provided with the designation TRK.
At the same time a submenu is opened in which the search bandwidth, the threshold
value and the trace can be modified for the maximum search.
The softkey is only available in the frequency domain (span >0).
Remote command:
CALC:MARK:FUNC:STR OFF
TRACK (ON
OFF)
The TRACK (ON OFF) softkey switches on and off signal tracking.
TRACK BW
The TRACK BW softkey defines the bandwidth around the center frequency within
which the largest signal is searched. The frequency range is symmetrical with
respect to the center frequency.
Remote command:
Remote command:
TRACK
THRESHOLD
CALC:MARK:FUNC:STR:THR -70DBM
The SELECT TRACE softkey selects the trace on which signal tracking is to be performed.
Remote command:
4.14
CALC:MARK:FUNC:STR:BAND 10KHZ
The TRACK THRESHOLD softkey defines the threshold value for signal detection.
The value is always entered as an absolute level value.
Remote command:
SELECT TRACE
CALC:MARK:FUNC:STR OFF
CALC:MARK:FUNC:STR:TRAC 1
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
4.5.2
Setting the Frequency Span – SPAN Key
The SPAN key opens a menu which offers various options for setting the span.
The entry of the span (SPAN MANUAL softkey) is automatically active for span > 0
Hz.
For span = 0 Hz the entry for sweep time (SWEEPTIME MANUAL) is automatically
active.
With two windows (SPLIT SCREEN) displayed at the same time, the input data
always refer to the window selected with the SCREEN A/B hotkey.
SPAN
SPAN MANUAL
SWEEPTIME MANUAL
FULL SPAN
ZERO SPAN
LAST SPAN
FREQ AXIS (LIN LOG)
SPAN
MANUAL
The SPAN MANUAL softkey activates the window for manually entering the frequency span. The center frequency is kept constant.
Allowed range of span values:
•
for the time domain (span = 0): 0 Hz
•
and for the frequency domain (span >0): minspan ≤ fspan ≤ fmax
fspan
frequency span
minspan
smallest selectable span (10 Hz)
fmax
max. frequency
Remote command:
SWEEPTIME
MANUAL
The SWEEPTIME MANUAL softkey activates the window for entering the sweep
time manually with Span = 0 Hz.
Remote command:
FULL SPAN
FREQ:SPAN:FULL
The ZERO SPAN softkey sets the span to 0 Hz. The x-axis becomes the time axis
with the grid lines corresponding to 1/10 of the current sweep time (SWT).
Remote command:
LAST SPAN
SWE:TIME 10s
The FULL SPAN softkey sets the span to the full frequency range of R&S FSQ.
Remote command:
ZERO SPAN
FREQ:SPAN 2GHz
FREQ:SPAN 0Hz
After changing the span setting the LAST SPAN softkey activates the previous setting. With this function a fast change between overview measurement (FULL SPAN)
and detailed measurement (manually set center frequency and span) is possible.
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
4.15
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
Only values > 0 Hz are restored, i.e. a transition between time and frequency
domain is not possible.
Remote command:
FREQ AXIS
(LIN LOG)
--
The FREQ AXIS (LIN LOG) softkey switches between linear and logarithmic scaling
of the frequency axis. Switch over is only possible if the stop/start frequency ratio is
≥1.4.
The default state is LIN.
The logarithmic frequency axis is only available in analyzer mode and it is not available in zero span mode, in external mixer mode, with frequency offset or if the ratio
stop frequency / start frequency is below 1.4.
Remote command:
4.16
DISP:WIND<1|2>:TRAC:X:SPAC LIN
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
4.5.3
Level Display Setting and RF Input Configuration – AMPT Key
The AMPT key is used to set the reference level, the maximum level and the display
range of the active window as well as the input impedance and the input attenuation
of the RF input.
The AMPT key opens a menu for setting the reference level and the input attenuation of the active window. The data entry for the reference level (REF LEVEL softkey) is opened automatically.
Further settings regarding level display and attenuation can be made in this menu.
AMPT
REF LEVEL
RANGE LOG 100 dB
RANGE LOG MANUAL
RANGE LINEAR !
RANGE LINEAR %
RANGE LINEAR dB
UNIT !
dBm / dBmV / dBµV /
dBµΑ / dBµW / VOLT /
AMPERE / WATT
RF INPUT (AC DC)
RF ATTEN MANUAL
RF ATTEN AUTO
NOISE CORR (ON OFF)
Side menu
REF LEVEL POSITION
REF LEVEL OFFSET
PHASE SETTINGS (option B71)!
AUTOSCALE
Y-AXIS/DIV
Y-AXIS REF-VALUE
Y-AXIS REF-POS
PHASE OFFSET
PHASE (RAD DEG)
PHASEWRAP
(ON OFF)
GRID (ABS REL)
EL ATTEN AUTO (option B25)
EL ATTEN MANUAL (option B25)
EL ATTEN OFF (option B25)
RF INPUT (50W 75W)
MIXER !
MIXER LVL AUTO
MIXER LVL MANUAL
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
4.17
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
REF LEVEL
The REF LEVEL softkey allows the reference level to be input in the currently active
unit (dBm, dBµV, etc.)
Remote command:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:RLEV -60dBm
RANGE LOG
100 dB
The RANGE LOG 100 dB softkey sets the level display range to 100 dB.
RANGE LOG
MANUAL
The RANGE LOG MANUAL softkey activates the manual entry of the level display
range. Display ranges from 1 to 200 dB are available. Inputs which are not allowed
are rounded to the next valid value.
Remote command:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y 100DB
The default setting is 100 dB.
Remote command:
RANGE
LINEAR
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y 120DB
The RANGE LINEAR softkey selects linear scaling for the level display range of the
R&S FSQ. In addition, it opens a submenu for selecting % or dB for the scaling.
When linear scaling is selected, the % scaling is first activated (see also RANGE
LINEAR dB softkey).
Remote command:
RANGE
LINEAR %
The RANGE LINEAR % softkey selects linear scaling in % for the level display
range, i.e. the horizontal lines are labelled in %. The grid is divided in decadic steps.
Markers are displayed in the selected unit; delta markers are displayed in % referenced to the voltage value at the position of marker 1.
Remote command:
RANGE
LINEAR dB
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LIN
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LIN
The RANGE LINEAR dB softkey selects linear scaling in dB for the level display
range, i.e. the horizontal lines are labelled in dB.
Markers are displayed in the selected unit; delta markers are displayed in dB referenced to the power value at the position of marker 1.
Remote command:
UNIT
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LDB
dBm
dBmV
dBµV
dBµΑ
dBµW
VOLT
AMPERE
WATT
The UNIT softkey opens a submenu to select the unit for the level axis.
The default setting is dBm.
4.18
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
In general, the R&S FSQ measures the signal voltage at the RF input. The level display is calibrated in rms values of an unmodulated sinewave signal. In the default
state, the level is displayed at a power of 1 mW (= dBm). Via the known input resistance of 50 Ω or 75 Ω, conversion to other units is possible. The units dBm, dBmV,
dBµV, dBµA, dBpW, V, A and W are directly convertible.
Remote command:
RF INPUT
(AC DC)
CALC:UNIT:POW DBM
The RF INPUT (AC DC) softkey toggles the RF input of the R&S FSQ between AC
and DC coupling.
The softkey is only available for models 3, 8 and 26.
Remote command:
RF ATTEN
MANUAL
INP:COUP AC
The RF ATTEN MANUAL softkey allows the attenuation to be entered irrespective of
the reference level.
The attenuation can be set in 5 dB steps between 0 and 75 dB.
Other entries will be rounded to the next higher integer value.
If the defined reference level cannot be set for the given RF attenuation, the reference level will be adjusted accordingly and the warning "Limit reached" will be output.
The 0 dB value can be entered only via the numeric keypad in order to protect the
input mixer against accidental overload.
Remote command:
RF ATTEN
AUTO
INP:ATT 40 DB
The RF ATTEN AUTO softkey sets the RF attenuation automatically as a function of
the selected reference level.
This ensures that the optimum RF attenuation desired by the user is always used.
RF ATTEN AUTO is the default setting.
Remote command:
NOISE CORR
(ON OFF)
INP:ATT:AUTO ON
If active, the R&S FSQ corrects the results by its inherent noise. Noise correction
increases the dynamic range.
After you activate noise correction, the R&S FSQ performs a reference measurement of its inherent noise. In the actual measurement, the R&S FSQ then substracts
the noise power from the power in the channel that is measured.
The inherent noise depends on the center frequency, resolution bandwidth and level
setting. Therefore, the R&S FSQ deactivates noise correction if you change one
these parameters. The R&S FSQ shows a message that noise correction is inactive.
The R&S FSQ also deactivates noise correction after you select another measurement (e.g. channel power, spectrum emission mask etc.).
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
4.19
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
After the R&S FSQ deactivates noise correction, you have to activate it again manually. The R&S FSQ performs a new reference measurement.
Remote command:
REF LEVEL
POSITION
POW:NCOR ON
The REF LEVEL POSITION softkey allows the reference level position to be
entered.
The setting range is from -200 to +200%, 0% corresponding to the lower and 100%
to the upper limit of the diagram.
Remote command:
REF LEVEL
OFFSET
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:RPOS 100PCT
The REF LEVEL OFFSET softkey allows the arithmetic level offset to be entered.
This offset is added to the measured level irrespective of the selected unit. The scaling of the y-axis is changed accordingly.
The setting range is ±200 dB in 0.1 dB steps.
Remote command:
PHASE
SETTINGS
DISP:WIND:TRAC:RLEV:OFFS -10dB
The PHASE SETTINGS softkey opens a submenu in which the scaling of the phase
diagram can be configured.
The PHASE SETTINGS softkey and the submenu are only available if option
R&S FSQ-B71 or R&S FSQ-B17 is installed.
AUTOSCALE
The AUTOSCALE softkey performs one-off scaling of the phase diagram so that the
current trace fully utilizes the value range.
Remote command:
Y-AXIS/DIV
The Y-AXIS/DIV softkey is used to determine the value range which is to correspond
to the distance between two horizontal gridlines. The entire displayed value range is
therefore equivalent to 10 times the selected value. With manual entry, the unit
selected using the PHASE RAD/DEG softkey applies (only for the phase diagram).
Remote command:
Y-AXIS REFVALUE
DISP:WIND2:TRAC:Y:RVAL 20DEG
The Y-AXIS REF-POS softkey is used to control the location of the reference position within the grid from 0% to 100%. The default value is 50%.
Remote command:
PHASE
OFFSET
DISP:WIND2:TRAC:Y:PDIV 10DEG
The Y-AXIS REF-VALUE softkey determines the reference value of the diagram at
the reference position. The gridlines are arranged on the basis of this reference
value. The unit selected using the PHASE RAD/DEG softkey applies (only for the
phase diagram).
Remote command:
Y-AXIS REFPOS
DISP:WIND2:TRAC:Y:SCAL:AUTO ONCE
DISP:WIND2:TRAC:Y:RPOS 50
The PHASE OFFSET softkey determines a constant phase value which is added to
the overall phase trace. This allows a test point to be assigned to a desired phase
value.
The unit selected using the PHASE RAD/DEG softkey applies.
Remote command:
4.20
SENS:CORR:OFFS:PHAS 10DEG
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
PHASE
(RAD DEG)
The PHASE (RAD DEG) softkey switches the unit of the phase trace between radians and degrees.
Remote command:
PHASEWRAP
(ON OFF)
The PHASEWRAP (ON OFF) softkey activates/deactivates the phase trace limitation to the value range between –180º and +180º / -pi to +pi.
Remote command:
GRID
(ABS REL)
CALC:UNIT:ANGL RAD
CALC2:FORM PHAS
CALC2:FORM UPHAS
The GRID (ABS REL) softkey switches between absolute and relative scaling of the
level axis.
GRID ABS is the default setting.
ABS
The labelling of the level lines refers to the absolute value of the reference
level.
REL
The upper line of the grid is always at 0 dB.
The scaling is in dB whereas the reference level is always in the set unit
(dBm, dBmV,..).
For setting RANGE LINEAR (linear scaling, labelling of axes in %) the softkey is not
displayed since the unit % itself implies a relative scale.
Remote command:
4.5.3.1
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:MODE ABS
Electronic Attenuator
Besides the mechanical attenuator at the RF input, the R&S FSQ also offers an
electronic attenuation setting (option ELECTRONIC ATTENUATOR R&S FSQ-B25).
The attenuation range is 0 to 30 dB, with the default attenuation being preset by the
mechanical attenuator.
EL ATTEN
MANUAL
The EL ATTEN MANUAL softkey switches the electronic attenuator on and allows
the attenuation of the electronic attenuator to be set.
The attenuation can be varied in 5 dB steps from 0 to 30 dB. Other entries are
rounded to the next lower integer value.
If the defined reference level cannot be set for the given RF attenuation, the reference level will be adjusted accordingly and the warning "Limit reached" will be output.
Remote command:
INP:EATT:AUTO OFF
INP:EATT 10 DB
This function is only available with option ELECTRONIC ATTENUATOR B25.
EL ATTEN
AUTO
The EL ATTEN AUTO softkey switches the electronic attenuator on and automatically sets its attenuation to 0 dB.
The allowed setting range of the reference level ranges from the current reference
level on switching on the electronic attenuator to over 30 dB. If a reference level is
set outside the allowed 30-dB range, setting is performed by means of the mechanical attenuator. From this new reference level to over 30 dB the setting is again performed with the electronic attenuator.
Remote command:
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
INP:EATT:AUTO ON
4.21
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
This function is only available with option ELECTRONIC ATTENUATOR B25.
EL ATTEN OFF
The EL ATTEN OFF softkey switches the electronic attenuator off.
Remote command:
INP:EATT:STAT OFF
This function is only available with option ELECTRONIC ATTENUATOR B25.
RF INPUT
(50Ω 75Ω)
The RF INPUT (50 Ω 75 Ω) softkey switches the input impedance of the instrument
between 50 Ω (= default setting) and 75 Ω.
The setting 75 Ω should be used if the input impedance (50 Ω) is transformed to 75
Ω using the corresponding adapter unit of type RAZ (= 25 Ω in series to the input
impedance of the R&S FSQ). The correction value used for the adoption is 1.76 dB
= 10 log (75Ω / 50Ω).
All levels specified in this operating manual refer to the default setting of the instrument (50 Ω).
Remote command:
MIXER
MIXER LVL
AUTO
The MIXER softkey opens a submenu for defining the maximum mixer level attainable for the selected reference level.
The MIXER LVL AUTO softkey activates the automatic calculation of the mixer level
dependent on the selected reference level and the selected RF attenuation.
Remote command:
MIXER LVL
MANUAL
INP:IMP 50OHM
INP:MIX:AUTO ON
The MIXER LVL MANUAL softkey allows the maximum mixer level attainable at the
reference level to be entered.
The available range is 0 to -100 dBm in 10 dB steps.
Remote command:
4.22
INP:MIX -25DBM
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
4.5.4
Setting the Bandwidths and Sweep Time – BW Key
The BW key calls a menu for setting the resolution bandwidth (RBW), video bandwidth (VBW) and sweep time (SWT) for the frequency sweep. The parameters may
be coupled dependent on the span (stop minus start frequency) or freely set by the
user. When working with a split screen display, the settings always refer to the active
window.
The R&S FSQ offers resolution bandwidths from 10 Hz to 20 MHz in 1, 2, 3, 5, 10
steps and additionally 50 MHz as maximum bandwidth.
Resolution bandwidths up to 100 kHz are realized using digital bandpasses with
Gaussian characteristics. As far as the attenuation characteristic is concerned they
behave like analog filters but have a much higher measurement speed than comparable analog filters. This is due to the fact that the transient response can be compensated as a result of an accurately defined filter behavior.
Bandwidths above 100 kHz are realized using decoupled 5-circuit LC filters.
As an alternative to the analog filters, FFT filters are available for the bandwidths
between 1 Hz and 30 kHz. When working with bandwidths up to 30 kHz, the FFT
algorithm offers considerably higher measurement speeds with all the other settings
remaining the same. The reason is that with analog filters the sweep time required
for a particular span is proportional to (Span/RBW2). When using the FFT algorithm,
however, the sweep time is proportional to (Span/RBW).
The video bandwidths are available in 1, 2, 3, 5, 10 steps between 1 Hz and 10 MHz
(to 30 MHz for resolution bandwidth > 10 MHz). They can be set in accordance with
the resolution bandwidth.
The video filters serve for smoothing the displayed trace. Video bandwidths that are
small compared to the resolution bandwidth average out noise peaks and pulsed
signals, so that only the signal average is displayed. If pulsed signals are to be measured, it is recommended to use a video bandwidth that is large compared to the
resolution bandwidth (VBW ≥ 10 × RBW) for the amplitudes of pulses to be measured correctly.
For analog and digital filters, the R&S FSQ has overload reserves of different magnitude above the reference level. Due to the LO breakthrough the overload display
OVLD responds with digital filters with RBW < 100 kHz, as soon as the start frequency is selected < 6 × RBW; for RBW = 100 kHz as soon as the start frequency
is below 3 MHz.
BW
RES BW MANUAL
VIDEO BW MANUAL
SWEEPTIME MANUAL
RES BW AUTO
VIDEO BW AUTO
SWEEPTIME AUTO
COUPLING RATIO !
RBW / VBW SINE [1/3]
RBW / VBW
PULSE [0.1]
RBW / VBW NOISE [10]
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
4.23
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
RBW / VBW MANUAL
SPAN / RBW AUTO [50]
SPAN / RBW MANUAL
DEFAULT COUPLING
FILTER TYPE
Side menu
MAIN PLL BANDWIDTH
FFT FILTER MODE
VBW MODE (LIN LOG)
The BW key opens a menu for setting the resolution bandwidth, the video bandwidth,
the sweep time and their couplings.
The …BW AUTO softkeys are used to couple the functions. The coupling ratios are
selected by means of the COUPLING RATIO softkey.
The …BW MANUAL softkeys allow a parameter to be entered. This parameter is not
coupled to the other parameters.
With the …BW AUTO softkeys the resolution bandwidth, the video bandwidth and
the sweep time can be entered separately for the frequency domain (span > 0 Hz)
and the time domain (span = 0 Hz).
But with …BW MANUAL softkeys the selected values apply to both the frequency
and time domain.
RES BW
MANUAL
The RES BW MANUAL softkey activates the manual data entry for the resolution
bandwidth.
The resolution bandwidth can be selected in 1/2/3/5/10 steps in the range between
10 Hz and 20 MHz. Additionally a maximum bandwidth of 50 MHz is available. The
nominal resolution bandwidth is the 3 dB bandwidth.
When FFT filters are used, the lower limit of the bandwidth is 1 Hz. FFT filters may
be used with bandwidths up to 30 kHz.
For numeric inputs, the values are always rounded to the nearest possible bandwidth. For rotary knob or UP/DOWN key inputs, the bandwidth is adjusted in steps
either upwards or downwards.
For filter type CHANNEL or RRC, the bandwidth is selected from the list of available
channel filters given in section “Filter Types” on page 4.28.
For data entry, the cursor keys Uu and Ud scroll through this list.
The manual input mode of the resolution bandwidth is indicated by a green asterisk
(*) on the display.
Remote command:
4.24
BAND:AUTO OFF;
BAND 1MHz
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
VIDEO BW
MANUAL
The VIDEO BW MANUAL softkey activates the manual data entry for the video
bandwidth.
The video bandwidth can be selected in 1/2/3/5/10 steps in the range between 1 Hz
and 10 MHz.
For numeric inputs, the values are always rounded to the nearest possible allowed
bandwidth. For rotary knob or UP/DOWN key inputs, the bandwidth is adjusted in
steps either downwards or upwards.
The manual input mode of the video bandwidth is indicated by a green asterisk (*)
on the display.
Remote command:
SWEEPTIME
MANUAL
BAND:VID:AUTO OFF;
BAND:VID 10 kHz
The SWEEPTIME MANUAL softkey activates the manual data entry for the sweep
time. At the same time, the coupling of the sweep time is cancelled. Other couplings
(VIDEO BW, RES BW) remain effective.
In the frequency domain (span > 0 Hz) and for resolution bandwidths above 1 kHz,
the allowed sweep times for spans > 3.2 kHz range from 2.5 ms through to 16000 s.
With spans below 3.2 kHz, the maximum allowed sweep time is reduced to 5 s *
span/Hz.
If FFT filters are used, the sweep time is fixed by the span and the bandwidth and
therefore cannot be set.
In time domain (span = 0 Hz), the range of sweep times is 1 µs to 16000 s is selectable in steps of max. 5% of the sweep time. For numeric inputs, rounding is made to
the nearest possible sweep time. For rotary knob or UP/DOWN key inputs, the
sweep time is adjusted in steps either downwards or upwards.
The manual input mode of the sweep time is indicated by a green asterisk (*) on the
display. If the selected sweep time is too short for the selected bandwidth and span,
level measurement errors will occur. This happens because the available settling
time for the resolution or video filters is too short. In this case, the R&S FSQ outputs
UNCAL on the display and marks the indicated sweep time with a red asterisk (*).
Remote command:
RES BW AUTO
SWE:TIME:AUTO OFF;
SWE:TIME 10s
The RES BW AUTO softkey couples the resolution bandwidth to the selected span.
Changing the span causes automatic adjustment of the resolution bandwidth.
Automatic coupling of resolution bandwidth to span is always recommended when a
favorable setting of the resolution bandwidth in relation to the selected span is
desired for the measurement under request.
The coupling ratio is set in the COUPLING RATIO submenu.
The RES BW AUTO softkey is only available in the frequency domain (span > 0 Hz).
The softkey is deactive in the time domain.
Remote command:
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
BAND:AUTO ON
4.25
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
VIDEO BW
AUTO
The VIDEO BW AUTO softkey couples the video bandwidth to the resolution bandwidth. If the resolution bandwidth is changed, the video bandwidth is automatically
adjusted.
The coupling of the video bandwidth is always recommended when the minimum
sweep time is required for a selected resolution bandwidth. Narrower video bandwidths require longer sweep times due to the longer settling time. Wider bandwidths
reduce the signal/noise ratio.
The coupling ratio is set in the COUPLING RATIO submenu.
The coupling of the video bandwidth to the resolution filter is also permitted for the
time domain display (span = 0).
Remote command:
SWEEPTIME
AUTO
BAND:VID:AUTO ON
The SWEEPTIME AUTO softkey couples the sweep time to the span, video bandwidth (VBW) and resolution bandwidth (RBW). The sweep time is automatically
adjusted on any change in span, resolution bandwidth or video bandwidth.
The softkey is only available in the frequency domain (span >0 Hz). It is blanked in
the time domain.
The R&S FSQ always selects the shortest sweep time possible without falsifying the
signal. The maximum level error compared to using a longer sweep time is < 0.1 dB.
If additional bandwidth and level errors are to be avoided, the sweep time is to be
set to three times the time offered in coupled mode.
Remote command:
COUPLING
RATIO
SWE:TIME:AUTO ON
The COUPLING RATIO softkey opens a submenu for selection of the coupling ratios.
RBW / VBW SINE [1/3]
RBW / VBW PULSE [0.1]
RBW / VBW NOISE [10]
RBW / VBW MANUAL
SPAN / RBW AUTO [50]
SPAN / RBW MANUAL
When the default setting is active, i.e. the COUPLING RATIO softkey is deactivated
(not highlighted), the ratio span/resolution bandwidth (SPAN/RBW) is 50 (this corresponds to SPAN / RBW AUTO [50]) and the ratio resolution bandwidth/video bandwidth (RBW/VBW) is 0.33 (this corresponds to RBW / VBW SINE [1/3]).
If the ratio RBW/VBW or SPAN/RBW is different from the default setting, the COUPLING RATIO softkey is highlighted.
The softkeys RBW/VBW... are selection keys. Only one softkey can be enabled at
any one time. The softkeys are only effective for the VBW AUTO selection in the
main menu.
The softkeys SPAN/RBW... are also selection keys. They are only effective for the
RBW AUTO selection in the main menu.
4.26
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
RBW / VBW
SINE [1/3]
The RBW / VBW SINE [1/3] softkey sets the following coupling ratio:
video bandwidth = 3 × resolution bandwidth.
This is the default setting for the coupling ratio resolution bandwidth/video bandwidth.
This is the coupling ratio recommended if sinusoidal signals are to be measured.
Remote command:
BAND:VID:RAT 3
This setting is only effective for the VBW AUTO selection in the main menu.
RBW / VBW
PULSE [0.1]
The RBW / VBW PULSE [0.1] softkey sets the following coupling ratio:
video bandwidth = 10 × resolution bandwidth or
video bandwidth = 10 MHz (= max. VBW).
This coupling ratio is recommended whenever the amplitudes of pulsed signals are
to be measured correctly. The IF filter is exclusively responsible for pulse shaping.
No additional evaluation is performed by the video filter.
Remote command:
BAND:VID:RAT 10
This setting is only effective for the VBW AUTO selection in the main menu.
RBW / VBW
NOISE [10]
The RBW/VBW NOISE [10] softkey sets the following coupling ratio:
video bandwidth = resolution bandwidth/10
At this coupling ratio, noise and pulsed signals are suppressed in the video domain.
For noise signals, the average value is displayed.
Remote command:
BAND:VID:RAT 0.1
This setting is only effective for the VBW AUTO selection in the main menu.
RBW / VBW
MANUAL
The RBW/VBW MANUAL softkey activates the manual input of the coupling ratio.
The resolution bandwidth/video bandwidth ratio can be set in the range 0.001 to
1000.
Remote command:
BAND:VID:RAT 10
This setting is only effective for the VBW AUTO selection in the main menu.
SPAN / RBW
AUTO [50]
The SPAN/RBW AUTO [50] softkey sets the following coupling ratio:
resolution bandwidth = span/50
This coupling ratio is the default setting of the R&S FSQ
Remote command:
BAND:RAT 0.02
This setting is only effective for the RBW AUTO selection in the main menu.
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
4.27
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
SPAN / RBW
MANUAL
The SPAN/RBW MANUAL softkey activates the manual input of the coupling ratio.
The span / resolution bandwidth ratio can be set in the range 1 to 10000.
If you set the coupling ration via remote control, the value is the reciprocal of the
value that you set via the softkey (RBW / Span).
Remote command:
BAND:RAT 0.1
This setting is only effective for the RBW AUTO selection in the main menu.
DEFAULT
COUPLING
The DEFAULT COUPLING softkey sets all coupled functions to the default state
(AUTO). In addition, the ratio RBW/VBW is set to SINE [1/3] and the ratio SPAN/
RBW to 50 in the COUPLING RATIO submenu (default setting, COUPLING RATIO
softkey not highlighted).
Remote command:
FILTER TYPE
4.5.4.1
BAND:AUTO ON
BAND:VID:AUTO ON
SWE:TIME:AUTO ON
The FILTER TYPE softkey opens the selection list for different filter types. In the
range up to 30 kHz digital band filters with Gaussian characteristic and filtering with
FFT algorithm can be selected.
Filter Types
The R&S FSQ provides the following filter types.
Normal (3 dB) Filter
The resolution bandwidths are implemented by Gaussian filters (analog 5-pole filter)
with the set 3 dB bandwidth. The resolution bandwidths correspond approximately
to the noise bandwidth. For bandwidths up to 100 kHz, digital bandpass filters with a
perfect Gaussian shape are used.
5-Pole Filter
The resolution bandwidths are implemented by 5-pole filters with the set 3 dB bandwidth. The filters are approximations of a Gaussian filter.
For bandwidths up to 100 kHz, the digital bandpass filters operates with a near 5pole shape. For bandwidths greater than 100 kHz it uses the same analog 5-pole filters as the Normal 3 dB filter uses.
The 5-Pole filter is especially suited for measurements on signals with a steep
power ramp or for gated sweeps. This advantage results from the reduced group
delay time and the reduced settling time compared to a Gaussian filter.
However, with a shape factor from -60 dB to -3 dB, the filter’s shape factor is worse
compared to the perfect Gaussian shape of the Normal 3 dB filter.
4.28
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
5-Pole Digital Filter
The resolution bandwidths are implemented by 5-pole filters with the set 3 dB bandwidth. The filters are approximations of a Gaussian filter.
For bandwidths up to 5 MHz, the digital bandpass filter operates with a near 5-pole
shape. For bandwidths greater than 5 MHz, the R&S FSQ uses the same analog 5pole filters as the Normal 3 dB filter.
These digital filters are designed for minimized overshoot and it is a compromise
between 5-pole and gaussian shape.
The 5-Pole Digital filter is especially suited for measurements on signals with steep
power ramps. This results from the reduced power overshoot that the 5-Pole Digital
filter has.
Just like the 5-Pole filter, the 5-Pole Digital filter also has a faster settling time than a
Gaussian filter, but has an inferior shape compared to a Gaussian filter (-60 dB to 3 dB bandwidth)
Table 4-1
Filter type characteristics
Filter Type
Res BW
10 Hz
Normal
5-Pole
5-Pole Digital
digital bandpass filter
(gaussian shape)
digital 5-pole filter
digital 5-pole filter
100 kHz
digital bandpass filter
(gaussian shape)
digital 5-pole filter
digital 5-pole filter
200 kHz
analog 5-pole filter
analog 5-pole filter
digital 5-pole filter
3 MHz
analog 5-pole filter
analog 5-pole filter
digital 5-pole filter
5MHz
analog 5-pole filter
analog 5-pole filter
digital 5-pole filter
10 MHz
analog 5-pole filter
analog 5-pole filter
analog 5-pole filter
analog 5-pole filter
analog 5-pole filter
analog 5-pole filter
(...)
(...)
(...)
50 MHz
FFT Filter
An FFT is performed. For that purpose, the filtered IF signal is digitized and then
transformed into the spectral domain via FFT. The transformation range depends on
the selected filter bandwidths and can be set between 4 kHz to 50 kHz. If the span is
larger than the transformation range, several transformations are performed and the
results are appended to each other in the spectral domain.
If the span is smaller than the transformation range, the measurement results are
interpolated when the number of measurement points provided by the FFT is
smaller than the number of display points in horizontal direction (625). A flattop window serves as a window in the time domain so that high amplitude precision with
good selection is achieved.
Sweep time
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
Defined by the selected bandwidth and span (reason: FFT filtering is a block transformation). It cannot be changed (softkey
deactivated).
4.29
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
Detector
Sample detector and peak detector are available. Peak detector is active when AUTO SELECT is selected.
Video bandwidth
Not defined in case of FFT; therefore cannot be set (softkeys
deactivated).
Compared to bandpasses, FFT filters lead to significantly reduced sweep times. For
a span of 50 kHz and a bandwidth of 100 Hz, for instance, the sweep time is
reduced from 5 s to 40 ms. FFT filters are particularly suitable for stationary signals
(sinusoidal signals or signals that are continuously modulated in time). For burst signals (TDMA) or pulsed signals, normal filters are preferable.
As soon as the FFT filters are active (RBW ≤ 30 kHz) the sweep time display field
(SWT) is replaced by the acquisition time (AQT) display field.
FFT is a block transformation so the result depends on the time relation between
the data set to be transformed and the burst or pulsed signal. A gated sweep measurement for TDMA signals is therefore not provided if FFT filters are used.
Channel Filter
Additionally, a number of especially steep-edged channel filters are available for
power measurements.
The indicated filter bandwidth describes the 3 dB bandwidth.
When you select a channel filter, the automatic coupling of RBW to the span is not
available.
4.30
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
The table below shows a list of available channel filter.
Filter Bandwidth
Filter Type
100 Hz
CFILter
200 Hz
CFILter
300 Hz
CFILter
500 Hz
CFILter
1 kHz
CFILter
1.5 kHz
CFILter
2 kHz
CFILter
2.4 kHz
CFILter
2.7 kHz
CFILter
3 kHz
CFILter
3.4 kHz
CFILter
4 kHz
CFILter
4.5 kHz
CFILter
5 kHz
CFILter
6 kHz
CFILter
7.5 kHz
CFILter
8.5 kHz
CFILter
ETS300 113 (12.5 kHz channels)
9 kHz
CFILter
AM Radio
10 kHz
CFILter
12.5 kHz
CFILter
CDMAone
14 kHz
CFILter
ETS300 113 (20 kHz channels)
15 kHz
CFILter
16 kHz
CFILter
20 kHz
CFILter
21 kHz
CFILter
25 kHz
CFILter
30 kHz
CFILter
50 kHz
CFILter
100 kHz
CFILter
150 kHz
CFILter
FM Radio
192 kHz
CFILter
PHS
200 kHz
CFILter
300 kHz
CFILter
500 kHz
CFILter
J.83 (8-VSB DVB, USA)
1.0 MHz
CFILter
CDMAone
1.2288 MHz
CFILter
CDMAone
1.5 MHz
CFILter
DAB
2.0 MHz
CFILter
3.0 MHz
CFILter
5.0 MHz
CFILter
5.6 MHz
CFILter
DVB-T (Japan)
6 MHz
CFILter
J.83 (8VSB DVB, USA)
6.4 MHz
CFILter
DVB-T
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
Application
A0
SSB
DAB, Satellite
ETS300 113 (25 kHz channels)
PDC
CDPD, CDMAone
4.31
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
RRC Filter
Filters with root-raised cosine characteristic (RRC) available for power measurements
The indicated filter bandwidth is the 3 dB bandwidth. For RRC filters, the fixed roll-off
factor (alpha) is also indicated.
When you select an RRC filter, the automatic coupling of RBW to the span is not
available.
The table below shows a list of available channel filter.
Filter Bandwidth
Filter Type
Application
6 kHz, α=0.2
RRC
APCO
18 kHz, α=0.35
RRC
TETRA
24.3 kHz, α=0.35
RRC
IS 136
1.28 MHz, α=0.22
RRC
3.84 MHz, α=0.22
RRC
4.096 MHz, α=0.22
RRC
Remote command:
MAIN PLL
BANDWIDTH
SENS:BAND:RES:TYPE NORM | FFT | CFIL | RRC
| P5 | P5D
The MAIN PLL BANDWIDTH softkey defines the bandwidth of the main PLL of the
synthesizer of the R&S FSQ and thus influences the phase noise of the R&S FSQ.
Three bandwidth settings are available (Wide, Normal and Narrow). If AUTO is
selected, the bandwidth is set automatically (default).
Remote command:
FFT FILTER
MODE
BAND:PLL AUTO
The softkey FFT FILTER MODE allows to specify between the following three
options for FFT filters:
WIDE:
The FFT filters with the greater partial span (this is the span which is
covered with one FFT analysis) are used always.
AUTO:
The firmware decides whether to use wide or narrow filters to achieve
the best performance of the measurement.
NARROW: The FFT filters with the smaller partial span are used, this allows measurements near a carrier with reduced reference level, because of a
more narrow analog prefilter.
Remote command:
4.32
SENS:BWID:FFT WIDE | AUTO | NARR
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
VBW MODE
(LIN LOG)
The VBW MODE (LIN LOG) softkey determines the position of the video filter in the
signal path for resolution bandwidths ≤ 100 kHz:
•
If LINear is selected, the video filter will be in front of the logarithmic amplifier
(default).
•
If LOGarithmic is selected, the video filter will be behind the logarithmic amplifier.
The essential difference between the two operating modes relates to the settling in
case of falling signal edges:
With LINear, the falling signal edge will be "flatter" than with LOGarithmic.
This is due to the conversion from linear power to logarithmic level units: a reduction
of the linear power by 50% reduces the logarithmic signal level by only 3 dB.
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
4.33
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
4.5.5
Sweep Settings – SWEEP Key
The SWEEP key serves for configuring the sweep mode and opens the SWEEP
softkey menu. In split-screen mode, the entries made are valid for the active window
only.
The CONTINUOUS SWEEP, SINGLE SWEEP and SGL SWEEP DISP OFF softkeys are mutually exclusive selection keys.
SWEEP
CONTINUOUS SWEEP
SINGLE SWEEP
CONTINUE SGL SWEEP
SWEEPTIME MANUAL
SWEEPTIME AUTO
SWEEP COUNT
SWEEP POINTS
SGL SWEEP DISP OFF
CONTINUOUS
SWEEP
The CONTINUOUS SWEEP softkey activates the continuous sweep mode, which
means that the sweep takes place continuously according to the trigger mode set.
When working in the split-screen mode and with different settings in the two windows, screen A is swept first, followed by screen B. When the softkey is pressed,
the sweep is restarted.
CONTINUOUS SWEEP is the default setting of R&S FSQ.
Remote command:
SINGLE
SWEEP
INIT:CONT ON
The SINGLE SWEEP softkey starts n sweeps after triggering. The number of
sweeps is determined by the SWEEP COUNT softkey.
When working in the split-screen mode, the frequency ranges of the two windows
are swept one after the other.
If a trace is swept using TRACE AVERAGE or MAXHOLD, the value set via the
SWEEP COUNT softkey determines the number of sweeps. If 0 has been entered,
one sweep is performed.
Remote command:
CONTINUE
SGL SWEEP
INIT:CONT OFF
The CONTINUE SGL SWEEP softkey repeats the number of sweeps that you have
set as the sweep count without deleting the trace of the last measurement.
Note that the sweep count has to be greater than 1. Otherwise, the trace is deleted
before the sweep is repeated.
Because the old traces are still displayed, CONTINUE SGL SWEEP is useful for
statistical trace modes (Maxhold and Average). In these cases, you can still consider previous results in the signal evaluation.
If SGL SWEEP DISP OFF is active, the screen is switched off also during repeated
sweeps.
Remote command:
4.34
INIT:CONM
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
SWEEPTIME
MANUAL
The SWEEPTIME MANUAL softkey activates the window for entering the sweep
time manually (see also BW menu).
Remote command:
SWEEPTIME
AUTO
The SWEEPTIME AUTO softkey activates the automatic selection of the sweep time
as a function of the bandwidth of the resolution and video filters (see also BW
menu).
Remote command:
SWEEP
COUNT
SWE:TIME 10s
SWE:TIME:AUTO ON
The SWEEP COUNT softkey activates the window for the entry of the number of
sweeps to be performed by R&S FSQ after a single sweep has been started. If
Trace Average, Max Hold or Min Hold is activated, this also determines the number
of averaging or maximum search procedures.
Example
[TRACE1: MAX HOLD]
[SWEEP: SWEEP COUNT: {10} ENTER]
[SINGLE SWEEP]
R&S FSQ performs the Max Hold function over 10 sweeps.
The permissible range for the sweep count is 0 to 32767. For sweep count = 0 or 1,
one sweep is performed. For trace averaging in the continuous-sweep mode,
R&S FSQ performs running averaging over 10 sweeps if sweep count = 0; if sweep
count = 1, no averaging, maxhold or minhold is performed.
The sweep count is valid for all the traces in a diagram.
The number of sweeps set in the TRACE menu is the same as that in the SWEEP
menu.
If SINGLE SWEEP is selected, the measurement stops after the selected number
of sweeps has been performed.
Remote command:
SWEEP
POINTS
SWE:COUN 64
The SWEEP POINTS softkey selects the number of measurement samples
acquired during a sweep.
The following numbers of points per sweep are available: 155, 201, 301, 313, 401,
501, 601, 625 (default), 701, ..., 30001
An increment of 100 is possible for number of points ≥ 201.
Additionally 1251 and 1999 points are available.
The autopeak detector will be disabled while the number of points per sweep is set
to another value than the default.
Remote command:
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
SWE:POIN 501
4.35
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
SGL SWEEP
DISP OFF
The SGL SWEEP DISP OFF softkey deactivates the display while a single sweep is
being performed. Once the sweep has been completed, the trace is shown.
Remote command:
4.36
INIT:DISP OFF
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
4.5.6
Triggering the Sweep – TRIG Key
The TRIG key opens a menu for selection of the various trigger sources, trigger
polarity and external gate function. The active trigger mode is indicated by highlighting the corresponding softkey.
For video trigger, a trigger threshold can be entered, which is represented in the diagram as a horizontal line.
To indicate that a trigger mode other than FREE RUN has been set, the enhancement label TRG is displayed on the screen. If two windows are displayed, TRG
appears next to the appropriate window.
TRIG
FREE RUN
VIDEO
EXTERN
IF POWER
TRIGGER OFFSET
POLARITY (POS NEG)
GATED TRIGGER
GATE SETTINGS !
GATE MODE
(LEVEL EDGE)
POLARITY (POS NEG)
GATE DELAY
GATE LENGTH
SWEEPTIME
Side menu
DELAY COMP
(ON OFF)
FREE RUN
The FREE RUN softkey activates the free-run sweep mode, i.e. start of a sweep is
not triggered. Once a measurement is completed, another is started immediately.
FREE RUN is the default setting of R&S FSQ.
Remote command:
VIDEO
TRIG:SOUR
IMM
The VIDEO softkey activates triggering through the displayed voltage.
For the video triggering mode, a horizontal trigger line is shown in the diagram. It
may be used to set the trigger threshold between 0% and 100% of the overall diagram height.
Remote command:
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
TRIG:SOUR VID
TRIG:LEV:VID 50 PCT
4.37
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
EXTERN
The EXTERN softkey activates triggering via a TTL signal at the input connector
EXT TRIGGER/GATE on the rear panel.
The external trigger level can be adjusted in the range from 0.5 V to 3.5 V. The
default value is 1.4 V.
Remote command:
IF POWER
TRIG:SOUR EXT
SWE:EGAT:SOUR EXT
TRIG:SEQ:LEV:EXT <numeric_value>
The IF POWER softkey activates triggering of the measurement via signals which
are outside the measurement channel.
For this purpose, the R&S FSQ uses a level detector at the second intermediate frequency. The detector threshold can be selected in a range between –50 dBm and 10 dBm at the input mixer. The resulting trigger level at the RF input is calculated via
the following formula:
MixerLevel min + RFAtt – PreampGain ≤ InputSignal ≤ MixerLevel max + RFAtt – PreampGain
The bandwidth at the intermediate frequency is 50 MHz. The R&S FSQ is triggered
as soon as the trigger threshold is exceeded within a 25 MHz range around the
selected frequency (= start frequency in the frequency sweep).
Thus, the measurement of spurious emissions, e.g. for pulsed carriers, is possible
even when the carrier lies outside the selected frequency span.
Remote command:
TRIGGER
OFFSET
TRIG:SOUR IFP
SWE:EGAT:SOUR IFP
The TRIGGER OFFSET softkey activates the window for entering the time offset
between the trigger signal and the start of the sweep.
Triggering is delayed by the entered time with respect to the trigger signal (time
entered > 0) or is started earlier (time entered < 0). The time may be entered in multiples of 125 ns in the range -100 s to 100 s (default 0 s).
A negative offset (pretrigger) can be set in the time domain only (SPAN = 0 Hz)
provided GATED TRIGGER is not active in that domain.
The maximum allowed range and the maximum resolution of the pretrigger is limited by the set sweep time:
max. range = - 499/500 × sweep time
max. resolution = sweep time/500.
Pretriggering is not possible when the rms or the average detector is activated
As a common input signal is used for both trigger and gate when selecting EXTERN
and IF POWER, changes to the gate delay will affect the trigger delay (TRIGGER
OFFSET) as well.
Remote command:
POLARITY
(POS NEG)
TRIG:HOLD
10US
The POLARITY (POS NEG) softkey selects the polarity of the trigger source.
The sweep starts after a positive or negative edge of the trigger signal. The selected
setting is highlighted.
The selection is valid for all trigger modes with the exception of FREE RUN; in the
gate mode, it also applies to the gate polarity.
4.38
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
The default setting is POLARITY POS.
Remote command:
TRIG:SLOP
POS
By using a gate in sweep mode and stopping the measurement while the gate signal
is inactive, the spectrum for pulsed RF carriers can be displayed without the superposition of frequency components generated during switching. Similarly, the spectrum can also be examined for an inactive carrier. The sweep can be controlled by
an external gate or by the internal power trigger.
Fig. 4.1 Pulsed signal GATE OFF
Fig. 4.2 TDMA signal with GATE ON
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
4.39
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
The gated-sweep mode is activated by the GATED TRIGGER softkey. The setting of
the mode takes place in the GATE SETTINGS submenu.
GATED
TRIGGER
The GATED TRIGGER softkey switches the sweep mode with gate on and off.
When gate is switched on, a gate signal applied to the rear panel connector EXT
TRIGGER/GATE or the internal IF power detector controls the sweep of the
R&S FSQ. This selection is made via the EXTERN and IF POWER softkeys for trigger and gate.
The length of the gate signal defines when the sweep is to be interrupted. Here a differentiation is made between edge-triggered and level-triggered modes: in case of
edge triggering the gate length can be set via the GATE LENGTH softkey, while in
case of level triggering the gate length depends on the length of the gate signal.
Gate Mode LEVEL
Gate Mode EDGE
RF
Ext. Gate
Meas. active
Delay
Delay Length
Fig. 4.3 Timing diagram for GATE, GATE DELAY and GATE LENGTH
This softkey requires the EXTERN or IF POWER trigger mode. If a different mode is
active, IF POWER is automatically selected.
Gated-sweep operation is also possible in the time domain. This enables - e.g. in
burst signals - level variations of individual slots to be displayed versus time.
To indicate that a gate is used for the sweep, the enhancement label GAT is displayed on the screen. This label appears to the right of the window for which the
gate is configured.
Remote command:
GATE
SETTINGS
SWE:EGAT ON
SWE:EGAT:SOUR
or:
SWE:EGAT:SOUR
IFP
EXT
GATE MODE (LEVEL EDGE)
POLARITY (POS NEG)
GATE DELAY
GATE LENGTH
SWEEPTIME
The GATE SETTINGS softkey calls a submenu for making all the settings required
for gated-sweep operation.
At the same time, a transition is made to the time domain (span = 0) and the time
parameters GATE DELAY and GATE LENGTH are represented as vertical lines.
This allows the required gate time parameters to be set easily.
4.40
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
For highly accurate setting of gate delay and gate length, the x-axis can be altered
using the SWEEPTIME softkey in a way that the signal range concerned (e.g. one
full burst) is displayed.
Then the sampling time and duration can be set by GATE DELAY and GATE
LENGTH in a way that the desired portion of the signal is shown.
When quitting the submenu, the program will return to the frequency domain provided it was active before. The original span is restored so the desired measurement
can now be performed with the accurately set gate.
Remote command:
GATE MODE
(LEVEL EDGE)
--
The GATE MODE (LEVEL EDGE) softkey selects the trigger mode. Gated sweep is
possible in the level-triggered as well as in the edge-triggered mode.
If level triggering is selected, the GATE LENGTH softkey becomes inactive and cannot be operated.
Remote command:
POLARITY
(POS NEG)
SWE:EGAT:TYPE
EDGE
The POLARITY (POS NEG) softkey controls the polarity of the external gate signal.
In case of level triggering the sweep is stopped by POLARITY POS and a logic ’0’
signal; the signal ’1’ will restart the sweep after the GATE DELAY time has elapsed.
In case of edge triggering the sweep is continued on a ´0´ to ´1´ transition for the
duration of GATE LENGTH after a delay (GATE DELAY) has elapsed.
Changing the polarity automatically implies a transition of the trigger-edge polarity
(POLARITY softkey in the higher menu).
Remote command:
GATE DELAY
SWE:EGAT:POL
POS
The GATE DELAY softkey activates the window for setting the delay time between
the gate signal and the continuation of the sweep.
This may be useful for taking into account a delay between the gate signal and the
stabilization of an RF carrier for example.
As gate delay, values between 125 ns and 100 s may be set. The position of the
delay on the time axis in relation to the sweep is indicated by the line labelled GD.
As there is a common input signal for trigger and gate if EXTERN or IF POWER is
selected, changes to the gate delay will affect the trigger delay (TRIGGER OFFSET)
as well.
Remote command:
GATE LENGTH
SWE:EGAT:HOLD
1US
The GATE LENGTH softkey activates the window for setting the sweep duration of
R&S FSQ in the edge-triggered mode.
Values between 125 ns and 100 s may be set for the gate length. The length of the
gate in relation to the sweep is indicated by the line labelled GL.
This softkey is only available if GATE MODE EDGE (edge triggering) has been
selected.
Remote command:
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
SWE:EGAT:LENG
100US
4.41
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
SWEEPTIME
The SWEEPTIME softkey enables the user to change the time axis to obtain a
higher resolution for positioning gate delay and gate length.
When this is to be done, the sweep time temporarily changes; the original value is
restored when the menu is quit.
Remote command:
--
Measurement example
The modulation spectrum of a GSM 900 signal is to be measured using the gatedsweep function. The signal is generated by a Signal Generator whose RF output is
directly connected to the RF input of R&S FSQ.
Settings on the Signal Generator:
FREQ:
802 MHz
Level:
0 dBm: Return
Digital Mod:
Select: GMSK: Select
Source:
Select: PRBS: Select: Return
Level Attenuation:
Select: 60 dB: Return
The Signal Generator supplies a GMSK-modulated TDMA signal (GSM).
Settings on R&S FSQ:
Conventions:
[KEY]
Menu called by this key. All information between the brackets
refers to this menu.
{Number}
Numeric value to be entered for the parameter on hand.
SOFTKEY
Softkey to be used for making a selection or entering a value.
[PRESET]
[FREQ:
CENTER {802} MHz]
[SPAN
{3.6} MHz]
[AMPT:
REF LEVEL {0} dBm: RF ATTEN MANUAL: {10} dB]
[BW:
RES BW MANUAL: {30} kHz]
[TRACE:
TRACE 1 DETECTOR: RMS]
[SWEEP:
SWEEPTIME MANUAL: {50} ms]
[TRIG:
EXTERN
GATED TRIGGER;
GATE SETTINGS: GATE MODE EDGE; POLARITY POS
SWEEPTIME MANUAL {1} ms: GATE DELAY {300} µs:
GATE LENGTH: {250} µs]
The following figure shows the screen display for setting gate parameters. The vertical lines for gate delay (GD) and gate length (GL) can be adjusted to the burst signal
by entering numeric values or by means of the rotary knob.
4.42
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
Fig. 4.4 Setting GATE DELAY and GATE LENGTH in time domain by means of lines GD and GL
On quitting the GATE SETTINGS menu, R&S FSQ returns to the previous screen.
DELAY COMP
(ON OFF)
The DELAY COMP (ON OFF) softkey enables the filter group delay compensation
for the external trigger and IF power trigger. If a bursted signal is analyzed in zero
span and the delay compensation is on, a change of the RBW will not change the
rising slope of the signal.
Default is OFF.
Remote command:
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
TRIG:HOLD:ADJ:AUTO ON|OFF
4.43
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
4.5.7
Selection and Setting of Traces – TRACE Key
The R&S FSQ is capable of displaying up to three different traces at a time in a diagram. A trace consists of a maximum of 625 pixels on the horizontal axis (frequency
or time). If more measured values than pixels are available, several measured values are combined in one pixel.
The traces are selected using the SELECT TRACE softkey in the menu of the
TRACE key.
The traces can individually be activated for a measurement or frozen after completion of a measurement. Traces that are not activated are blanked.
The display mode can be selected for each trace. Traces can be overwritten in each
measurement (CLEAR/WRITE mode), averaged over several measurements
(AVERAGE mode), or a maximum or minimum value can be determined from several measurements and displayed (MAX HOLD or MIN HOLD).
Individual detectors can be selected for the various traces. The autopeak detector
displays maximum and minimum values connected by a vertical line. The max peak
detector and min peak detector display the maximum and minimum value of the
level within a pixel. The sample detector displays the instantaneous value of the
level at a pixel. The rms detector displays the power (rms value) of the measured
values within a pixel, the average detector the average value.
4.5.7.1
Selection of Trace Functions
The trace functions are subdivided as follows:
•
Display mode of trace (CLEAR/WRITE, VIEW and BLANK)
•
Evaluation of the trace as a whole (AVERAGE, MAX HOLD and MIN HOLD)
•
Evaluation of individual pixels of a trace using detectors
The TRACE key opens a menu offering the setting options for the selected trace.
In this menu, the mode of representing the measured data in the frequency or time
domain in the 625 pixels of the display is determined. Upon start of the measurement, each trace can be displayed either completely new or based on the previous
results.
Traces can be displayed, blanked and copied. Traces can also be corrected with the
aid of mathematical functions.
The measurement detector for the individual display modes can be selected directly
by the user or set automatically by R&S FSQ.
The default setting is trace 1 in the overwrite mode (CLEAR / WRITE), the other
traces 2 and 3 are switched off (BLANK).
The CLEAR/WRITE, MAX HOLD, MIN HOLD, AVERAGE, VIEW and BLANK softkeys are mutually exclusive selection keys.
4.44
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R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
TRACE
SELECT TRACE
CLEAR/WRITE
MAX HOLD
AVERAGE
VIEW
BLANK
SWEEP COUNT
DETECTOR !
AUTO SELECT
DETECTOR AUTO PEAK
DETECTOR MAX PEAK
DETECTOR MIN PEAK
DETECTOR SAMPLE
DETECTOR RMS
DETECTOR AVERAGE
DETECTOR QPK
TRACE MATH !
T1-T2->T1 | T1-T3->T1
TRACE POSITION
TRACE MATH OFF
Side menu
MIN HOLD
HOLD CONT (ON OFF)
AVG MODE
ASCII FILE EXPORT
DECIM SEP
COPY TRACE
SELECT
TRACE
CLEAR/WRITE
The SELECT TRACE softkey activates the entry for the active trace (1, 2, 3).
Remote command:
-- (selected via numeric suffix of: TRACe)
The CLEAR/WRITE softkey activates the overwrite mode for the collected measured values, i.e. the trace is overwritten by each sweep.
In the CLEAR/WRITE display mode all the available detectors can be selected. In
the default mode the autopeak detector (setting AUTO) is selected.
Remote command:
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
DISP:WIND:TRAC:MODE WRIT
4.45
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
MAX HOLD
The MAX HOLD softkey activates the max peak detector.
The R&S FSQ saves the sweep result in the trace memory only if the new value is
greater than the previous one.
The detector is automatically set to MAX PEAK. The maximum value of a signal can
thus be determined over several sweeps.
This is especially useful with modulated or pulsed signals. The signal spectrum is
filled up upon each sweep until all signal components are detected in a kind of envelope.
Remote command:
AVERAGE
DISP:WIND:TRAC:MODE MAXH
The AVERAGE softkey activates the trace averaging function. The average is
formed over several sweeps. Averaging can be performed with any of the detectors
available. If the detector is automatically selected by R&S FSQ, the sample detector
is used.
Depending on the setting of AVG MODE, the logarithmic level values or the measured power/voltage values are averaged.
Remote command:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:MODE AVER
Description of averaging
Averaging is carried out over the pixels derived from the measurement samples.
Several measured values may be combined in a pixel. This means that with linear
level display the average is formed over linear amplitude values and with logarithmic
level display over levels. For this reason the trace must be measured again when
changing between LIN and LOG display mode. The settings CONT/SINGLE
SWEEP and running averaging apply to the average display analogously.
There are two methods for calculating the average. For a sweep count = 0, a running average is calculated according to the following formula:
9 ⋅ TRACE + MeasValue
TRACE = ----------------------------------------------------------------10
Due to the weighting between the new measured value and the trace average, past
values have practically no influence on the displayed trace after about ten sweeps.
With this setting, signal noise is effectively reduced without need for restarting the
averaging process after a change of the signal.
If the sweep count is >1, averaging takes place over the selected number of
sweeps. In this case the displayed trace is determined during averaging according
to the following formula:
1
Trace n = --- ⋅
n
n–1
∑ ( Ti ) + MeasValuen
i=1
where n is the number of the current sweep (n = 2 ... SWEEP COUNT). No averaging is carried out for the first sweep but the measured value is stored in the trace
memory. With increasing n, the displayed trace is increasingly smoothed since there
are more single sweeps for averaging.
4.46
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R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
After the selected number of sweeps the average trace is saved in the trace memory. Until this number of sweeps is reached, a preliminary average is displayed.
After completion of averaging, i.e. when the averaging length defined by SWEEP
COUNT is attained, a running averaging is continued with CONTINUOUS SWEEP
according to the following formula:
( N – 1 ) ⋅ Trace old + MeasValue
Trace = --------------------------------------------------------------------------------N
where
Trace
= new trace
Traceold = old trace
N
= SWEEP COUNT
The display "Sweep N of N" does not change any more until a new start is triggered.
In the SINGLE SWEEP mode, the number of sweeps is triggered with SWEEP
START. The sweeps are stopped when the selected number of sweeps is attained.
The number of the current sweep and the total number of sweeps are shown on the
display: "Sweep 3 of 200".
VIEW
The VIEW softkey freezes the current contents of the trace memory and displays it.
If a trace is frozen by VIEW, the instrument settings can be changed without the displayed trace being modified (exception: level display range and reference level, see
below). The fact that the trace and the current instrument setting do not agree any
more is indicated by an enhancement label "*" at the right edge of the grid.
If in the VIEW display mode the level display range (RANGE) or the reference level
(REF LEVEL) are changed, R&S FSQ automatically adapts the measured data to
the changed display range. This allows an amplitude zoom to be made after the
measurement in order to show details of the trace.
Remote command:
BLANK
The BLANK softkey activates the blanking of the trace on the screen.
Remote command:
SWEEP
COUNT
DISP:WIND:TRAC:MODE VIEW
DISP:WIND:TRAC OFF
The SWEEP COUNT softkey activates the entry of the number of sweeps used for
averaging. The allowed range of values is 0 to 30000 and the following should be
observed:
•
Sweep Count = 0 means running averaging
•
Sweep Count = 1 means no averaging, maxhold or minhold is carried out
•
Sweep Count > 1 means averaging over the selected number of sweeps; in the
continuous sweep mode averaging is performed until the set number of sweeps
is attained and is then continued as running averaging.
The default setting is running averaging (Sweep Count = 0). The number of sweeps
used for averaging is the same for all active traces in the selected diagram.
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
4.47
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
The setting of the sweep count in the TRACE menu is equivalent to the setting in
the SWEEP menu.
Remote command:
SWE:COUN 64
DETECTOR
See following section “Selection of Detector” on page 4.52.
TRACE MATH
See following section “Mathematical Functions for Traces” on page 4.56.
MIN HOLD
The MIN HOLD softkey activates the min peak detector. R&S FSQ saves for each
sweep the smallest of the previously stored/currently measured values in the trace
memory. The detector is automatically set to MIN PEAK. In this way, the minimum
value of a signal can be determined over several sweeps.
This function is useful e.g. for making an unmodulated carrier in a composite signal
visible. Noise, interference signals or modulated signals are suppressed by the min
hold function whereas a CW signal is recognized by its constant level.
Remote command:
HOLD CONT
(ON OFF)
DISP:WIND:TRAC:MODE MINH
The HOLD CONT ON/OFFsoftkey defines whether the traces in min hold and max
hold mode are reset after some specific parameter changes.
•
OFF: The traces are reset after some definite parameter changes (default)
•
ON: This mechanism is switched off.
In general, parameter changes require a restart of the measurement before results
are evaluated (e.g. with markers). For those changes that are known to require a
new measurement (e.g. modification of the span), the trace is automatically reset so
that erroneous evaluations of previous results are avoided.
This mechanism can be switched off for those exceptional cases where the
described behavior is unwelcome.
Remote command:
AVG MODE
:DISP:WIND:TRAC:MODE:HCON ON|OFF
The AVG MODE softkey selects logarithmic or linear averaging for the logarithmic
level display mode.
At the same time the difference calculation is switched between linear and logarithmic in submenu TRACE MATH.
Remote command:
CALC:MATH:MODE LIN|LOG|POW
With logarithmic averaging, the dB values of the display voltage are averaged or
substracted from each other with trace mathematical functions. With linear averaging the level values in dB are converted into linear voltages or powers prior to averaging. Voltage or power values are averaged or offset against each other and
reconverted into level values.
For stationary signals the two methods yield the same result.
Logarithmic averaging is recommended if sinewave signals are to be clearly visible
against noise since with this type of averaging noise suppression is improved while
the sinewave signals remain unchanged.
4.48
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
For noise or pseudo-noise signals the positive peak amplitudes are decreased in
logarithmic averaging due the characteristic involved and the negative peak values
are increased relative to the average value. If the distorted amplitude distribution is
averaged, a value is obtained that is smaller than the actual average value. The difference is -2.5 dB.
This low average value is usually corrected in noise power measurements by a 2.5
dB factor. Therefore the R&S FSQ offers the selection of linear averaging. The trace
data are delogarithmized prior to averaging, then averaged and logarithmized again
for display on the screen. The average value is always correctly displayed irrespective of the signal characteristic.
Following selections are available:
LOG
logarithmic averaging
LIN
linear averaging (delogarithmization depends
selected unit).
on
For units VOLT and AMPERE the level values are converted into linear voltages prior to averaging.
POWER
linear averaging (delogarithmization to power for all
units)
For correct power averaging with units VOLT or AMPERE, selection POWER has
to be used.
ASCII FILE
EXPORT
The ASCII FILE EXPORT softkey stores the active trace in ASCII format, e.g. on a
memory stick.
Remote command:
FORM ASC;
MMEM:STOR:TRAC 1,'TRACE.DAT'
The file consists of the header containing important scaling parameters and a data
section containing the trace data.
The data of the file header consist of three columns, each separated by a semicolon:
parameter name; numeric value; base unit
The data section starts with the key word " Trace <n> " (<n> = number of stored
trace), followed by the measured data in one or several columns (depending on
measurement) which are also separated by a semicolon.
This format can be read in from spreadsheet calculation programs, e.g. MS-Excel. It
is necessary to define ';' as a separator.
Different language versions of evaluation programs may require a different handling of the decimal point. It is therefore possible to select between separators '.'
(decimal point) and ',' (comma) using the DECIM SEP softkey.
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
4.49
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
Example - file header
4.50
File contents
Description
Type; R&S FSQ<model>;
Instrument model
Version;1.00;
Firmware version
Date;01.Jul 2009;
Date of data set storage
Mode;Analyzer;
Instrument mode
Center Freq;55000.000000;Hz
Center frequency
Freq Offset;0.000000;Hz
Frequency offset
Span;90000.000000;Hz
Frequency range (0 Hz with zero span and statistics measurements)
x-Axis;LIN;
Scaling of x-axis linear (LIN) or logarithmic (LOG)
Start;10000.000000;Hz
Stop;100000.000000;Hz
Start/stop of the display range.
Unit:
Hz for span > 0, s for span = 0,
dBm/dB for statistics measurements
Ref.Level;-30.000000;dBm
Reference level
Level Offset;0.000000;dB
Level offset
Ref Position;75.000000;%
Position of reference level referred to diagram limits (0% = lower
edge)
y-Axis;LOG;
Scaling of y-axis linear (LIN) or logarithmic (LOG)
Level Range;100.000000;dB
Display range in y direction. Unit: dB with x-axis LOG, % with x-axis
LIN
RF Att;20.000000;dB
Input attenuation
RBW;100000.000000;Hz
Resolution bandwidth
VBW;30000.000000;Hz
Video bandwidth
SWT;0.005000;s
Sweep time
Trace Mode;AVERAGE;
Display mode of trace:
CLR/WRITE,AVERAGE,MAXHOLD,MINHOLD
Detector;SAMPLE;
Detector set:
AUTOPEAK,MAXPEAK,MINPEAK,AVERAGE,
RMS,SAMPLE
Sweep Count;20;
Number of sweeps set
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
Example - data section of the file
File contents
Description
Trace 1:;;
Selected trace
x-Unit;Hz;
Unit of x values:
Hz with span > 0; s with span = 0;
dBm/dB with statistics measurements
y-Unit;dBm;
Unit of y values:
dB*/V/A/Ω depending on the selected unit with y axis LOG or % with
y-axis LIN
Preamplifier;OFF;
Preamplifier state (OFF, if no preamplifier is available)
Transducer;OFF;
Transducer state:
OFF:No transducer active (or available)
<trd name>selected transducer
Values; 625;
Number of measurement points
10000;-10.3;-15.7
Measured values:
10180;-11.5;-16.9
<x value>, <y1>, <y2>
10360;-12.0;-17.4
<y2> being available only with detector AUTOPEAK and containing
in this case the smallest of the two measured values for a test point.
...;...;
DECIM SEP
The DECIM SEP softkey selects the decimal separator between '.' (decimal point)
and ',' (comma) with floating-point numerals for the ASCII FILE EXPORT function.
With the selection of the decimal separator different language versions of evaluation
programs (e.g. Microsoft Excel) can be supported.
Remote command:
COPY TRACE
FORM:DEXP:DSEP POIN
The COPY TRACE softkey copies the screen contents of the current trace into
another trace memory. The desired memory is selected by entering the number 1, 2
or 3.
Upon copying, the contents of the selected memory is overwritten and the new contents displayed in view mode.
Remote command:
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
TRAC:COPY TRACE1,TRACE2
4.51
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
4.5.7.2
Selection of Detector
The detectors of the R&S FSQ are implemented as pure digital devices. The
following detectors are available:
•
“Peak detectors (MAX PEAK and MIN PEAK)” on page 4.52
•
“Auto peak detector” on page 4.52
•
“Sample detector” on page 4.52
•
“RMS detector” on page 4.53
•
“Average detector” on page 4.53
•
“Quasipeak detector” on page 4.53
The peak detectors compare the current level value with the maximum or minimum
level from the previously sampled data. When the number of samples defined by the
instrument setting is reached, the samples are combined in the displayed pixels.
Each of the 625 pixels of the display thus represents 1/625 of the sweep range and
contains all single measurements (frequency samples) in this subrange in compressed form. For each trace display mode an optimized detector is selected automatically. Since peak detectors and sample detector are connected in parallel, a
single sweep is sufficient for collecting all detector values for 3 traces.
Peak detectors (MAX PEAK and MIN PEAK)
Peak detectors are implemented by digital comparators. They determine the largest
of all positive (max peak) or the smallest of all negative (min peak) peak values of
the levels measured at the individual frequencies which are displayed in one of the
625 pixels. This procedure is repeated for each pixel so that for wide frequency
spans and despite the limited resolution of the display a large number of measurements can be taken into consideration for the display of the spectrum.
Auto peak detector
The AUTOPEAK detector combines the two peak detectors. The max peak detector
and the min peak detector simultaneously determine the maximum and the minimum level within a displayed test point and display it as a single measured value.
The maximum and minimum levels within a frequency point are connected by a vertical line.
Sample detector
The SAMPLE detector routes through the sampled data without any further evaluation and either displays them directly or, for reasons of speed in case of short sweep
times, first writes them into a memory and processes them subsequently.
There is no data reduction, i.e. no summing up of measured values of neighboring
frequencies or time samples. If during a frequency sweep more measured values
are obtained than can be displayed, measured values will be lost. This means that
discrete signals might be lost.
The sample detector therefore can only be recommended for a span-to-resolution
bandwidth ratio of up to approx. 250 in order to ensure that no signal will be suppressed (example: span 1 MHz, -> min. bandwidth 5 kHz).
4.52
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
RMS detector
The RMS detector calculates the root mean square of all samples contained in a
sweep point.
To this effect, R&S FSQ uses the linear voltage after envelope detection. The sampled linear values are squared, summed and the sum is divided by the number of
samples (= root mean square). For logarithmic display the logarithm is formed from
the square sum. For linear display the root mean square value is displayed. Each
pixel thus corresponds to the power of the measured values summed up in the pixel.
The RMS detector supplies the power of the signal irrespective of the waveform
(CW carrier, modulated carrier, white noise or pulsed signal). Correction factors as
needed for other detectors for measuring the power of the different signal classes
are not required.
Average detector
The average detector calculates the linear average of all samples contained in a
sweep point.
To this effect, R&S FSQ uses the linear voltage after envelope detection. The sampled linear values are summed up and the sum is divided by the number of samples
(= linear average value). For logarithmic display the logarithm is formed from the
average value. For linear display the average value is displayed. Each pixel thus
corresponds to the average of the measured values summed up in the pixel.
The average detector supplies the average value of the signal irrespective of the
waveform (CW carrier, modulated carrier, white noise or pulsed signal).
Quasipeak detector
The quasipeak detector resembles the behavior of an analog voltmeter by evaluating the measured values in a pixel.
The quasipeak detector is especially designed for the requirements of EMC measurements and is used for evaluating pulse-shaped spurious.
During a frequency sweep, R&S FSQ increments the 1st local oscillator in steps
that are smaller than approximately 1/10 of the bandwidth. This is to ensure that
the signal level is correctly measured. For narrow bandwidths and wide frequency
spans a very large number of measured values is thus obtained. The number of
frequency steps, however, always is a multiple of 625 (= number of pixels that can
be displayed). With the sample detector selected, only every nth value is displayed. The value of n depends on the number of measured values, i.e. on the frequency span, the resolution bandwidth and the measurement rate.
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
4.53
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
DETECTOR
AUTO SELECT
DETECTOR AUTO PEAK
DETECTOR MAX PEAK
DETECTOR MIN PEAK
DETECTOR SAMPLE
DETECTOR RMS
DETECTOR AVERAGE
DETECTOR QPK
The DETECTOR softkey opens a submenu for selecting the detector for the selected
trace. The softkey is highlighted if the detector is not selected with AUTO SELECT.
The detector can be selected independently for each trace. The AUTO SELECT
mode selects the optimum detector for each display mode of the trace (Clear/Write,
Max Hold or Min Hold).
The softkeys for the detectors are mutually exclusive selection keys.
AUTO SELECT
The AUTO SELECT softkey (= default setting) selects the optimum detector for the
set display mode of the trace (Clear/Write, Max Hold and Min Hold) and the selected
filter mode (bandpass/FFT).
Trace display
Detector (bandpass)
Detector (FFT)
Clear/Write
Auto Peak
Max Peak
Average
Sample
Sample
Max Hold
Max Peak
Max Peak
Min Hold
Min Peak
Max Peak
The detector activated for the specific trace is identified in the respective trace display field as follows:
Detector
Auto Peak
AP
Max Peak
PK
Min Peak
MI
Average
AV
RMS
RM
Sample
SA
Quasipeak
QP
Remote command:
DET:AUTO ON
DETECTOR
AUTO PEAK
The DETECTOR AUTOPEAK softkey activates the autopeak detector.
DETECTOR
MAX PEAK
The DETECTOR MAX PEAK softkey activates the max peak detector. It is recommended for measurement of pulsed signals.
Remote command:
Remote command:
4.54
DET APE
DET POS
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
DETECTOR
MIN PEAK
The DETECTOR MIN PEAK softkey activates the min peak detector. Weak sinewave signals become clearly visible in noise using this detector. In case of a composite signal made up of sinewave and pulsed signals, the pulsed signals are
suppressed.
Remote command:
DETECTOR
SAMPLE
The DETECTOR SAMPLE softkey activates the sample detector.
It is used for measuring uncorrelated signals such as noise. The power can be
determined with the aid of fixed correction factors for evaluation and the logarithmic
function.
Remote command:
DETECTOR
RMS
DET NEG
DET SAMP
The DETECTOR RMS softkey activates the RMS detector.
The RMS detector calculates the root mean square over all samples contained in a
sweep point. In the default state, a sweep point corresponds to one pixel.
The number of samples included in the calculation of a sweep point depends on the
sweep time. Therefore the averaging gets better with a rising sweep time. This also
makes the RMS detector an alternative to averaging over several sweeps (see
TRACE AVERAGE).
As it uses the root mean square to get measurement results, the RMS detector provides the signal power independent of the waveform.
Since the video bandwidth must be at least 10 times the resolution bandwidth
(RBW) to ensure that video filtering does not invalidate the RMS values of the signal, this ratio is set automatically upon activating the detector.
Remote command:
DETECTOR
AVERAGE
DET RMS
The DETECTOR AVERAGE softkey activates the average detector.
The average detector calculates the linear average over all samples contained in a
sweep point. In the default state, a sweep point corresponds to one pixel.
The number of samples included in the calculation of a sweep point depends on the
sweep time. Therefore the averaging gets better with a rising sweep time.
The same relations as for the rms detector apply (see above).
Remote command:
DETECTOR
QPK
DET AVER
The DETECTOR QPK softkey activates the quasipeak detector.
This detector evaluates the sampled level values during the sweep of a pixel like an
analog voltmeter.
On switching the quasipeak detector on the video bandwidth is automatically set to
10*RBW so as to exclude the influence of the video filter on the signal evaluation.
With an active quasipeak detector only the resolution bandwidths 200 Hz, 9 kHz and
120 kHz are available.
Remote command:
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
DET QPE
4.55
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
4.5.7.3
TRACE MATH
Mathematical Functions for Traces
The TRACE MATH softkey opens a submenu in which the difference between the
selected trace to trace 1 is calculated. The softkey is highlighted if a math function is
activated.
T1-T2->T1 |
T1-T3->T1
TRACE POSITION
TRACE MATH OFF
T1-T2->T1 |
T1-T3->T1
The T1-T2 and T1-T3 softkeys subtract the corresponding traces. The result displayed is referred to the zero point defined by TRACE POSITION.
To indicate that the trace has been obtained by subtraction, the difference "1 - 2" or
"1 - 3" is indicated on the trace info of trace 1 and in the TRACE main menu the
TRACE MATH softkey is highlighted.
Remote command:
TRACE
POSITION
CALC:MATH (TRACE1–TRACE2)
CALC:MATH (TRACE1–TRACE3)
The TRACE POSITION softkey activates the entry of the trace position for 0 difference. The position is stated in % of the diagram height.
The range of values extends from -100% to +200%
Remote command:
TRACE MATH
OFF
4.56
CALC:MATH:POS 50PCT
The TRACE MATH OFF softkey switches the math function off.
Remote command:
CALC:MATH:STAT OFF
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
4.5.8
Recording the Correction Data – CAL Key
The R&S FSQ obtains its high measurement accuracy through its inbuilt self-alignment method.
The correction data and characteristics required for the alignment are determined by
comparison of the results at different settings with the known characteristics of the
high-precision calibration signal source of R&S FSQ at 128 MHz. The correction
data are then available in the instrument as a file and can be displayed by means of
the CAL RESULTS softkey.
For service purposes the use of correction data can be deactivated by means of the
CAL CORR ON/OFF softkey. If the correction data recording is aborted, the last
complete correction data set is restored.
The term "Calibration" formerly used for the integrated self alignment was often
mistaken for the "true" calibration of the instrument at the test set in production and
in service. It is therefore no longer used although it appears in the abbreviated
form in the name of keys ("CAL...").
The CAL key opens a menu with the available functions for recording, displaying
and activating the data for self alignment.
CAL
CAL TOTAL
CAL ABORT
CAL CORR (ON OFF)
YIG CORR (ON OFF)
CAL RESULTS
PAGE UP |
PAGE DOWN
CAL TOTAL
The CAL TOTAL softkey starts the recording of correction data of the instrument.
If the correction data recording has failed or if the correction values are deactivated
(CAL CORR = OFF softkey), UNCAL is displayed in the status field.
Remote command:
CAL ABORT
The CAL ABORT softkey interrupts the recording of correction data and restores the
last complete correction data set.
Remote command:
CAL CORR
(ON OFF)
*CAL?
CAL:ABOR
The CAL CORR (ON OFF) softkey switches the calibration data on/off.
•
ON: The status message depends upon the results of the total calibration.
•
OFF: The message UNCAL appears in the status line.
Remote command:
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
CAL:STAT ON
4.57
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
YIG CORR
(ON OFF)
The YIG CORR (ON OFF) softkey switches on or off the automatic, cyclic correction
of the temperature-dependent frequency drift of the YIG filter.
The YIG CORR (ON OFF) softkey is available only on models with a frequency
range ≥ 3 GHz and ≤ 40 GHz.
When switched to ON (default setting), it is checked once per minute whether a frequency correction for the YIG filter is required. Frequency correction is performed if
the temperature has changed by more than 3K relative to the last instance of correction.
If the instrument is operated in a temperature-controlled environment, the cyclic
frequency drift correction can – for time-critical applications – be switched off after
an operating period of ≥ 30 minutes.
Remote command:
CAL RESULTS
CORR:YIG:TEMP:AUTO ON | OFF
The CAL RESULTS softkey calls the CALIBRATION RESULTS table, which shows
the correction data found during calibration.
The CALIBRATION RESULTS table contains the following information:
– date and time of last record of correction values
– overall results of correction value record
– list of found correction values according to function/module
The results have the following meaning:
4.58
PASSED
calibration successful without any restrictions
CHECK
deviation of correction value larger than expected, correction
could however be performed
FAILED
deviations of correction value too large, no correction was possible. The found correction data are not valid.
ABORTED
calibration aborted
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
Remote command:
PAGE UP |
PAGE DOWN
CAL:RES?
The softkeys PAGE UP and PAGE DOWN scroll one page forward or backward in
the CALIBRATION RESULTS table. They have no function when the table is closed.
Remote command:
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
--
4.59
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
4.5.9
Markers and Delta Markers – MKR Key
The markers are used for marking points on traces, reading out measurement
results and for quickly selecting a display section. R&S FSQ provides four markers
per display window. All markers can be used either as markers or delta markers.
The availability of marker functions depends on whether the measurement is performed in the frequency, time or level domain.
The marker that you can move is defined in the following as the active marker.
marker
1
active marker
3
temporary marker
T1
2
delta marker
Fig. 4.5 Examples of marker display
Temporary markers are used in addition to the markers and delta markers to evaluate the measurement results. They disappear when the associated function is deactivated.
The measurement results of the active marker (also called marker values) are displayed in the marker field. The marker info field at the upper right of the display
shows the marker location (here, frequency), the level and the currently selected
trace [T1].
The MKR key calls a menu that contains all marker and delta marker standard functions. If no marker is active, MARKER 1 will be enabled and a peak search on the
trace carried out. Otherwise, the data entry for the marker activated last is opened.
MKR
MARKER (1 2 3 4) /
MARKER (NORM DELT)
SIGNAL COUNT
REFERENCE FIXED !
REF FXD (ON OFF)
REF POINT LEVEL
REF POINT LVL OFFSET
REF POINT FREQUENCY
REF POINT TIME
PEAK SEARCH
MARKER ZOOM
ALL MARKER OFF
Side menu
MKR->TRACE
LINK MKR1 AND DELTA1
4.60
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R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
CNT RESOL ...
Side menu
STEPSIZE STANDARD
STEPSIZE SWP POINTS
MKR FILE EXPORT
DECIM SEP
MARKER
(1 2 3 4) /
MARKER
(NORM DELT)
The MARKER (1 2 3 4).softkey selects the corresponding marker and activates it.
MARKER 1 is always the normal marker. After they have been switched on, MARKERS 2 to 4 are delta markers that refer to MARKER 1. These markers can be converted into markers with absolute value display by means of the MARKER
(NORM DELTA) softkey. When MARKER 1 is the active marker, pressing the
MARKER (NORM DELTA) softkey switches on an additional delta marker.
Pressing the MARKER (1 2 3 4) softkey again switches off the selected marker.
Example
[PRESET]
R&S FSQ is set to the default setting.
[MKR]
On calling the menu, MARKER 1 is switched on ('1' highlighted in
the softkey) and positioned on the maximum value of the trace. It is
a normal marker and the MARKER NORMAL softkey is highlighted.
[MARKER 2]
MARKER 2 is switched on ('2' highlighted in the softkey). It is automatically defined as a delta marker on switching on so the DELTA
is highlighted on softkey MARKER NORM DELTA. The frequency
and level of MARKER 2 with reference to MARKER 1 are output in
the marker info field.
[MARKER
The MARKER NORM DELTA softkey is highlighted. MARKER 2
NORM DELTA] becomes a normal marker. The frequency and level of MARKER 2
are output as absolute values in the marker info field.
[MARKER 2]
MARKER 2 is switched off. MARKER 1 is the active marker for
entry. The frequency and level of MARKER 1 are output in the
marker info field.
Remote command:
CALC:MARK ON
CALC:MARK:X <value>
CALC:MARK:Y?
CALC:DELT ON
CALC:DELT:MODE ABS|REL
CALC:DELT:X <value>
CALC:DELT:X:REL?
CALC:DELT:Y?
When several traces are being displayed, the marker is set to the maximum value
(peak) of the active trace which has the lowest number (1 to 3). In case a marker is
already located there, it will be set to the frequency of the next lowest level (next
peak).
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R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
When the split-screen display mode is active, the marker will be placed in the active
window. A marker can only be enabled when at least one trace in the corresponding
window is visible.
If a trace is turned off, the corresponding markers and marker functions are also
deactivated. If the trace is switched on again (VIEW, CLR/WRITE;..), the markers
along with coupled functions will be restored to their original positions provided the
markers have not been used on another trace.
4.5.9.1
Frequency Measurement with the Frequency Counter
In order to accurately determine the frequency of a signal, R&S FSQ is equipped
with a frequency counter which measures the frequency of the RF signal at the intermediate frequency. Using the measured IF, R&S FSQ calculates the frequency of
the RF input signal by applying the known frequency conversion factors.
The frequency measurement error depends only upon the accuracy of the frequency
standard used (external or internal reference). Although R&S FSQ always operates
synchronously irrespective of the set span, the frequency counter delivers a more
exact result than a measurement performed with a marker. This is due to the following:
•
The marker measures only the position of the pixel on the trace and infers the
frequency of the signal from this value. The trace, however, contains only a limited
number of pixels. Depending upon the selected span, each pixel may contain
many measurement values, which therefore limits the frequency resolution.
•
The resolution with which the frequency can be measured is proportional to the
measurement time. For this reason, the bandwidth is normally made as wide as
possible and the sweep time as short as possible. This results in a loss of
frequency resolution.
For the measurement with the frequency counter, the sweep is stopped at the reference marker, the frequency is counted with the desired resolution and then the
sweep is allowed to continue.
SIGNAL
COUNT
The SIGNAL COUNT softkey switches the frequency counter on/off.
The frequency is counted at the position of the reference marker (MARKER 1). The
sweep stops at the reference marker until the frequency counter has delivered a
result. The time required for a frequency measurement depends on the selected frequency resolution. The resolution is set in the side menu.
If no marker is enabled when the SIGNAL COUNT softkey is pressed, MARKER 1 is
switched on and set at the largest signal.
In addition, the SIGNAL COUNT function is displayed in the marker info field on the
screen with [Tx CNT].
Switching the SIGNAL COUNT function off is accomplished by pressing the softkey
again.
Remote command:
CALC:MARK1:COUN ON;
CALC:MARK:COUN:FREQ?
The resolution of the frequency counter is set in the NEXT menu of the MARKER
menu. R&S FSQ offers counter resolutions between 0.1 Hz and 10 kHz.
4.62
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R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
REFERENCE
FIXED
REF FXD (ON OFF)
REF POINT LEVEL
REF POINT LVL OFFSET
REF POINT FREQUENCY
REF POINT TIME
PEAK SEARCH
The REFERENCE FIXED softkey defines the level and the frequency or time of
MARKER 1 as a reference for one or several delta markers. The measured values
for one or several markers displayed in the marker info field are derived from this
reference point instead of the current values of the reference marker (MARKER 1).
On actuating the softkey, reference fixed is switched on and thus, the level value
and the frequency, time or x-level value of MARKER 1 immediately become the reference point.
Additionally, the REFERENCE FIXED softkey opens the submenu where it is possible to determine manually a reference point with level and frequency, time or x-axis
level, to define a level offset or deactivate the reference point.
The REFERENCE FIXED function is useful for the measurement of the harmonic
suppression at small span (fundamental not represented).
REF FXD
(ON OFF)
The REF FXD (ON OFF) softkey switches on or off the relative measurement to a
fixed reference value (REFERENCE POINT) independent of the trace.
Remote command:
REF POINT
LEVEL
The REF POINT LEVEL softkey enters a reference level independent of the reference marker level. All relative level values of the delta markers refer to this reference level.
Remote command:
REF POINT LVL
OFFSET
CALC:DELT2:FUNC:FIX ON
CALC:DELT2:FUNC:FIX:RPO:Y -10dBm
The REF POINT LVL OFFSET softkey specifies a level offset relevant to the reference level. The relative level values of the delta markers refer to the reference point
level plus the level offset.
The level offset is set to 0 dB on enabling the REFERENCE FIXED or PHASE
NOISE function.
Remote command:
REF POINT
FREQUENCY
With the REF POINT FREQUENCY softkey a reference frequency can be manually
activated for the delta markers when the REFERENCE FIXED or PHASE NOISE
function is used.
Remote command:
REF POINT
TIME
CALC:DELT2:FUNC:FIX:RPO:Y:OFFS 0dB
CALC:DELT2:FUNC:FIX:RPO:X 10.7MHz
The REF POINT TIME softkey activates the entry box for the input of a reference
time for the REFERENCE FIXED function in the time domain (span = 0 Hz).
Remote command:
CALC:DELT2:FUNC:FIX:RPO:X 5MS
For phase noise measurement, input of reference time is not possible.
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R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
PEAK SEARCH
The PEAK SEARCH softkey defines the maximum of the selected trace as reference level for all delta markers when using the REFERENCE FIXED function.
Remote command:
CALC:DELT2:FUNC:FIX:RPO:Y -5DBM
Measurement example
Small-span harmonics measurement to increase sensitivity
CW signal (e.g. 100 MHz, 0 dBm) with harmonics at the RF input of R&S FSQ.
[PRESET]
R&S FSQ is set to the default setting.
[CENTER: 100 MHz]
The center frequency of R&S FSQ is set to 100 MHz.
[SPAN: 1 MHz]
The span is set to 1 MHz.
[AMPL: 3 dBm]
The reference level is set to 3 dBm (3 dB above the
expected RF level).
[MKR]
MARKER 1 is switched on ('1' highlighted in the softkey)
and set to the signal peak.
[MARKER 2]
MARKER 2 is switched on and automatically defined as the
delta marker (DELTA is highlighted on MARKER NORM
DELTA softkey).
[REFERENCE FIXED] The frequency and level of MARKER 1 are a reference for
the delta marker.
MARKER
ZOOM
[CENTER: 200 MHz]
The center frequency is set to 200 MHz (= frequency of the
2nd harmonic). The reference level may have to be
reduced to see the 2nd harmonic from the noise. This does
not affect the reference level set with REFERENCE FIXED.
[MKR->: PEAK]
The delta marker jumps to the 2nd harmonic of the signal.
The level spacing of the harmonic to the fundamental is displayed in the marker info field.
The MARKER ZOOM softkey expands the area around MARKER 1. With the zoom
function, more details of the spectrum can be seen. The desired display range can
be defined in an entry window.
The following sweep is stopped at the position of the reference marker. The frequency of the signal is counted and the measured frequency becomes the new center frequency. The zoomed display range is then configured and the new settings
are used by R&S FSQ for further measurements.
As long as switching to the new frequency display range has not yet taken place,
pressing the softkey will abort the procedure.
If MARKER 1 is not active when the softkey is pressed, it is automatically activated
and set to the highest peak in the window.
If an instrument setting is changed after selection of MARKER ZOOM, the function
is aborted.
The MARKER ZOOM softkey is only available in the frequency domain
(span > 0).
Remote command:
4.64
CALC:MARK1:FUNC:ZOOM 1kHz
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
ALL MARKER
OFF
The ALL MARKER OFF softkey switches off all markers (reference and delta markers). It also switches off all functions and displays associated with the markers/delta
markers.
Remote command:
MKR->TRACE
CALC:MARK:AOFF
The MKR->TRACE softkey places the active marker on a new trace. The trace is
selected via a data entry field. Only those traces can be selected which are visible
on the screen in the same window.
The function of this softkey is identical to that of the MKR->TRACE softkey in the
MKR-> menu (see “MKR->TRACE” on page 4.82).
Example
Three traces are presented on the screen. The marker is always on trace 1 when
switching on.
[MKR ->TRACE] "2"
The marker jumps to trace 2 but remains on the
previous frequency or time.
[MKR ->TRACE] "3"
The marker jumps to trace 3. '
Remote command:
LINK MKR1
AND DELTA1
CALC:MARK1:TRAC 1
CALC:DELT:TRAC 1
With the softkey LINK MKR1 AND DELTA1 the delta marker 1 can be linked to
marker 1, so if the x-axis value of the marker 1 is changed the delta marker 1 will follow on the same x-position. The link is off by default.
Example for setup
•
PRESET
•
TRACE | MAX HOLD
•
TRACE | SELECT TRACE | 2 | AVERAGE
•
MKR (Switches marker1 on)
•
MARKER NORM DELTA | DELTA (Delta Marker 1 ON)
•
MKR-> | MKR->TRACE | 2
•
LINK MKR1 AND DELTA1
Now select the Marker1 (by switching MARKER1 from DELTA back to NORM) and
when changing the x-axis value (by knob wheel or UP/DOWN keys) the delta
marker1 will follow automatically.
The delta marker1 x-value can not be changed away from 0 as long as the link functionality is active.
Remote command:
CNT RESOL ...
CALC:DELT:LINK ON | OFF
The CNT RESOL ... softkeys select the resolution of the frequency counter. They
are selection switches, i.e. only one of the can be active at any one time.
The marker stop time, i.e. the frequency measurement time, depends on the
selected resolution.
Remote command:
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
CALC:MARK1:COUN:RES <value>
4.65
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
Measurement example
The frequency of a CW signal is to be determined by means of the frequency
counter with a resolution of 10 Hz.
STEPSIZE
STANDARD
[PRESET]
R&S FSQ is set to the default setting.
[MARKER]
MARKER 1 is switched on and set to the maximum value of
the displayed spectrum.
[SIGNAL COUNT]
The frequency counter is switched on. R&S FSQ counts the
frequency of the signal at the marker position with a resolution of 1 kHz. The counted frequency is indicated in the
marker info field.
[NEXT]
Changes to the submenu for setting the counter resolution.
[CNT RESOL 10 Hz]
The frequency counter resolution is increased to 10 Hz.
The STEPSIZE STANDARD softkey selects a marker stepsize that moves the
marker from one pixel to the next when you move the marker with the rotary knob.
Remote command:
STEPSIZE
SWP POINTS
The STEPSIZE SWP POINTS softkeys selects a marker stepsize that moves the
marker from one sweep point to the next when you move the marker with the rotary
knob.
Remote command:
MKR FILE
EXPORT
MMEM:STOR:MARK 'C:\marker.txt'
The DECIM SEP softkey selects the decimal separator between '.' (decimal point)
and ',' (comma) for the function MKR FILE EXPORT.
Remote command:
4.66
CALC:MARK:X:SSIZ POIN
The MKR FILE EXPORT softkey saves the data of all active markers of the window
to a specified file. The format of the decimal point is defined by the DECIM SEP softkey.
Remote command:
DECIM SEP
CALC:MARK:X:SSIZ STAN
FORM:DEXP:DSEP POIN
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
4.5.10
Marker Functions – MKR FCTN Key
The MKR FCTN menu offers further measurements with the markers:
– Measurement of noise density (NOISE MEAS softkey)
– Measurement of phase noise (PHASE NOISE softkey)
– Measurement of filter or signal bandwidth (N DB DOWN softkey)
– Activating of AF demodulation (MARKER DEMOD softkey)
On calling the menu, the entry for the last active marker is activated (SELECT
MARKER softkey); if no marker is activated, marker 1 is activated and a maximum
search (PEAK softkey) is performed. The marker can be set to the desired trace by
means of MKR->TRACE softkey.
MKR FCTN
SELECT MARKER
PEAK
NOISE MEAS
PHASE NOISE !
PH NOISE (ON OFF)
REF POINT LEVEL
REF POINT LVL OFFSET
REF POINT FREQUENCY
PEAK SEARCH
AUTO PEAK SEARCH
N DB DOWN
PEAK LIST !
NEW SEARCH
PEAK LIST (ON OFF)
AUTOSEARCH (ON OFF)
SORT MODE (FREQ LEVEL)
PEAK EXCURSION
SEARCH LIMITS
LEFT LIMIT | RIGHT LIMIT
THRESHOLD
SEARCH LIM OFF
MKR SYMBOL (ON OFF)
MKR NUMBER (ON OFF)
MAX PEAK COUNT (50)
PEAK LIST EXPORT
DECIM SEP
MARKER DEMOD !
MKR DEMOD (ON OFF)
AM | FM
SQUELCH
MKR STOP TIME
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4.67
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
CONT DEMOD
MKR->TRACE
4.5.10.1
SELECT
MARKER
Activating the Markers
The SELECT MARKER softkey activates the numerical selection of the marker in
the data entry field. Delta marker 1 is selected by input of ' 0 '.
Moving a marker is only possible for the currently selected marker (the corresponding softkey is highlighted in red).
If the marker is not yet active, selecting a marker turns it on and positions it on the
trace. You can move it later on.
Remote command:
PEAK
CALC:MARK1 ON;
CALC:MARK1:X <value>;
CALC:MARK1:Y?
The PEAK softkey sets the active marker/delta marker to the peak of the trace.
Remote command:
4.5.10.2
NOISE MEAS
CALC:MARK1:MAX
CALC:DELT1:MAX
Measurement of Noise Density
The NOISE MEAS softkey switches the noise measurement for the active marker on
or off. The corresponding marker becomes the NORMAL marker.
During noise measurement, the noise power density is measured at the position of
the marker. In the time domain mode, all points of the trace are used to determine
the noise power density. When measurements are performed in the frequency
domain, two points to the right and left of the marker are used for the measurement
to obtain a stable result.
The noise power density is indicated in the marker field. With a logarithmic amplitude units (dBm, dBmV, dBmµV, dBµA) the noise power density is output in dBm/Hz
i.e. as level in 1 Hz bandwidth with reference to 1 mW. With linear amplitude units (V
or A) the noise voltage density is evaluated in µV/√Hz, the noise current density in
µA/√Hz or the noise power density in µW/Hz.
The following settings have to be made to ensure that the power density measurement yields correct values:
Detector:
Sample or RMS
Video bandwidth:
≤ 0.1 × resolution bandwidth with sample detector
(corresponds to RBW / VBW NOISE)
≥ 3 × resolution bandwidth with RMS detector (corresponds to
RBW / VBW SINE)
In the default setting, the R&S FSQ uses the sample detector for the noise function.
With the sample detector, the trace can additionally be set to AVERAGE to stabilize
the measured values. With RMS detector used, trace averaging must not be used
since in this case it produces too low noise levels which cannot be corrected.
Instead, the sweep time can be increased to obtain stable measurement results.
4.68
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R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
The R&S FSQ uses the following correction factors to evaluate the noise density from
the marker level:
•
Since the noise power is indicated with reference to 1 Hz bandwidth, the
bandwidth correction value is deducted from the marker level. It is 10 × lg (1 Hz/
BWNoise), where BWNoise is the noise or power bandwidth of the set resolution
filter (RBW).
•
Sample detector
As a result of video filter averaging and trace averaging, 1.05 dB is added to the
marker level. This is the difference between the average value and the RMS value
of white noise.
With a logarithmic level axis, 1.45 dB is added additionally. Logarithmic averaging
is thus fully taken into account which yields a value that is 1.45 dB lower than that
of linear averaging.
•
RMS detector
With the exception of bandwidth correction, no further corrections are required for
the RMS detector since it already indicates the power with every point of the trace.
To allow a more stable noise display the adjacent (symmetric to the measurement
frequency) points of the trace are averaged.
In time domain mode, the measured values are averaged versus time (after a
sweep).
Remote command:
CALC:MARK:FUNC:NOIS ON;
CALC:MARK:FUNC:NOIS:RES?
Example: Measurement of inherent R&S FSQ noise
[PRESET]
The R&S FSQ is set to default setting.
[MARKER]
Marker 1 is switched on and set to the maximum value of the displayed spectrum. Set marker to desired frequency using the rotary
knob.
[NOISE]
The R&S FSQ switches the sample detector on and sets the video
bandwidth to 300 kHz (0.1 × RBW). The power density level of inherent noise is displayed in dBm/Hz in the marker info field.
The R&S FSQ noise figure can be calculated from the measured power density
level. It is calculated by subtracting the set RF attenuation (RF Att) from the displayed noise level. 174 is to be added to the result to obtain the R&S FSQ noise
figure.
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
4.69
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
4.5.10.3
PHASE NOISE
Phase Noise Measurement
PH NOISE (ON OFF)
REF POINT LEVEL
REF POINT LVL OFFSET
REF POINT FREQUENCY
PEAK SEARCH
AUTO PEAK SEARCH
The PHASE NOISE softkey switches the PHASE NOISE function on/off. Additionally, the softkey opens the submenu for manually setting the reference point. The
phase noise measurement can be switched off in the submenu.
MARKER 1 (= reference marker) is used as a reference for the phase noise measurement. The frequency and level of the reference marker are used as fixed reference values, i.e. the REFERENCE FIXED function is activated. After switching on
the phase noise measurement the reference level or the center frequency can thus
be set in a way that the carrier is outside the displayed frequency range, or, for
example, a notch filter is switched on to suppress the carrier.
A noise power density measurement is carried out with the delta marker or delta
markers. This measurement corresponds to the NOISE function in the MARKER
menu (MKR). The result of the phase noise measurement is the difference in level
between the reference point and the noise power density.
The following possibilities can be selected on switching on PHASE NOISE:
No marker enabled:
[MKR FCTN]
MARKER 1 is enabled and set to peak.
[PHASE NOISE]
MARKER 1 becomes the reference marker, MARKER 2 the delta
marker; frequency = frequency of the reference marker. The
delta marker is the active marker, i.e. it can be moved with the
rotary knob or adjusted by entering numerals.
The PHASE NOISE function is switched on and the measured
value is output.
Markers are enabled:
[MKR FCTN]
The previous marker configuration remains unchanged.
[PHASE NOISE]
MARKER 1 becomes the reference marker. If other markers are
enabled, they become delta markers and measure the phase
noise at their respective positions.
If further markers are enabled during the phase noise measurement, they automatically become delta markers and measure the phase noise at their respective positions.
When the phase noise measurement is switched off, the marker configuration
remains unchanged and the delta markers measure the relative level to the reference marker (MARKER 1).
4.70
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R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
The PHASE NOISE function measures the noise power at the delta markers
referred to 1 Hz bandwidth. The sample detector is automatically used and the video
bandwidth set to 0.1 times the resolution bandwidth (RBW). The two settings are
taken into account in the correction values used for the noise power measurement.
To obtain stable results, two pixels on the right and the left of the respective delta
marker position are taken for the measurement. The procedure for determining the
noise power is identical to the method used for the noise power measurement (see
NOISE softkey). The measured noise level referred to 1 Hz bandwidth is subtracted
from the carrier level at the reference marker (MARKER 1). The measured values
are displayed in the delta marker field in dBc/Hz (= spacing in dB of the noise power
from the carrier level in 1 Hz bandwidth).
If several delta markers are enabled, only the value read by the active marker is
shown in the marker field. If several delta markers are active, their measurement
results are shown in the marker info field.
The reference value for the phase noise measurement can be defined with REF
POINT LEVEL, REF POINT FREQUENCY and REF POINT LVL OFFSET to differ
from that of the reference marker.
Remote command:
PH NOISE
(ON OFF)
The PH NOISE (ON OFF) softkey switches on/off the phase noise measurement.
Switching on is performed by means of the PHASE NOISE softkey and is only necessary when the phase noise measurement has been switched off in the submenu.
Remote command:
REF POINT
LEVEL
CALC:DELT1:FUNC:PNO ON
CALC:DELT1:FUNC:PNO:RES?
The REF POINT LEVEL softkey activates an entry box for the input of a reference
level other than the reference marker level. The function is identical to that of the
softkey with the same name in the MARKER menu (MKR).
Remote command:
REF POINT LVL
OFFSET
--
CALC:DELT1:FUNC:FIX:RPO:Y -10dB
The REF POINT LVL OFFSET softkey activates an entry box for the input of an
additional level offset for the phase noise calculation.
This level offset is set to 0 dB on when the REFERENCE FIXED or PHASE NOISE
function is enabled.
Remote command:
REF POINT
FREQUENCY
The REF POINT FREQUENCY softkey activates an entry box for the manual input
of a reference frequency for the REFERENCE FIXED or PHASE NOISE function.
Remote command:
PEAK SEARCH
CALC:DELT:FUNC:FIX:RPO:Y:OFFS 10dB
CALC:DELT1:FUNC:FIX:RPO:X 10.7MHz
The PEAK SEARCH sets the reference point level for delta marker 2 in the selected
measurement window to the peak of the selected trace.
Remote command:
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
CALC:DELT:FUNC:FIX:RPO:MAX
4.71
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
AUTO PEAK
SEARCH
The AUTO PEAK SEARCH softkey activates an automatic peak search for the reference fixed marker 1 at the end of each particular sweep.
This function may be used for tracking of a drifting source during a phase noise
measurement. The delta marker 2, which shows the phase noise measurement
result, keeps the delta frequency value. Therefore the phase noise measurement
leads to reliable results in a certain offset although the source is drifting. Only if the
marker 2 is reaching the border of the span, the delta marker value is adjusted to be
within the span. In these cases, choose a larger span.
Remote command:
CALC:DELT:FUNC:PNO:AUTO ON | OFF
Measurement example
The phase noise of a CW signal at 100 MHz with 0 dBm level is to be measured at
800 kHz from the carrier
4.5.10.4
N DB DOWN
[PRESET]
The R&S FSQ is set to the default setting.
[CENTER: 100 MHz]
The center frequency is set to 100 MHz.
[SPAN: 2 MHz]
The span is set to 2 MHz.
[AMPT: 0 dBm]
The reference level is set to 0 dBm.
[MKR FCTN]
MARKER 1 is switched on and positioned at the maximum of the displayed trace.
[PHASE NOISE: 800 kHz]
The phase noise measurement is switched on. The
delta marker is positioned on the main marker and the
measured phase noise value is displayed in the marker
info field. The sample detector is used and the video
bandwidth is set to 3 × RBW. When the phase noise
measurement function is enabled, the entry of the delta
marker frequency is activated. It can be entered
directly.
Measurement of the Filter or Signal Bandwidth
The N DB DOWN softkey activates the temporary markers T1 and T2 which are n
dB below the active reference marker. Marker T1 is placed to the left and marker T2
at the right of the reference marker. The value n can be input in a window.
The default setting is 3 dB.
Span > 0:
The frequency spacing of the two temporary markers is indicated in the
marker info field.
Span = 0:
The pulse width between the two temporary markers is indicated in the
marker info field.
If, for example, it is not possible to form the frequency spacing for the n dB value
because of the noise display, dashes are indicated instead of a measured value.
If a negative value is entered than the markers are placed n dB above the active reference marker. This is then a n dB up function which can be used for notch filter
measurements:
To switch n dB down on or off:
Remote command:
4.72
CALC:MARK1:FUNC:NDBD:STAT ON
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
To query the result pulse width:
Remote command:
CALC:MARK1:FUNC:NDBD:RES?
To query the two marker x-values (in seconds) separated by comma:
Remote command:
CALC:MARK1:FUNC:NDBD:TIME? 'Span = 0
Further remote commands:
Remote command:
4.5.10.5
CALC:MARK1:FUNC:NDBD 3dB
CALC:MARK1:FUNC:NDBD:FREQ? 'Span > 0
Measurement of a Peak List
PEAK LIST
NEW SEARCH
PEAK LIST (ON OFF)
AUTOSEARCH (ON OFF)
SORT MODE (FREQ LEVEL)
PEAK EXCURSION
SEARCH LIMITS
LEFT LIMIT | RIGHT LIMIT
THRESHOLD
SEARCH LIM OFF
MKR SYMBOL (ON OFF)
NEXT PAGE
MKR SYMBOL (ON OFF)
MKR NUMBER (ON OFF)
MAX PEAK COUNT (50)
PEAK LIST EXPORT
DECIM SEP
The PEAK LIST softkey allows the peak values of trace 1 to be determined and
entered in a list with 50 entries max. The order of the entries is defined by the SORT
MODE:
•
FREQ: sorting in ascending order of frequency values (see screenshot); if span =
0, the entries are sorted in ascending order of time values
•
LEVEL: sorting according to level
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
4.73
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
The search range can be restricted by means of the LEFT LIMIT, RIGHT LIMIT and
THRESHOLD softkeys. The definition of the peak values can be modified using the
PEAK EXCURSION softkey.
The peak search marks all peaks with crosses and labels them with an order number as it brings them into a descending order, beginning with the highest peak. If you
encounter a large number of peaks, you can deactivate the labels and crosses.
You can update the peak list at any time by starting a new search. A new search is
required if automatic peak search is inactive. A new search may be also useful, if
automatic search is active but the sweep time is long. You can then start a search
even before the sweep is done. A new search uses the current content of the trace
buffer.
The R&S FSQ lists the results of the peak search in a table below the measurement
diagram. If you turn the autosearch on, the R&S FSQ updates the peak list at the
end of each sweep.
The table shows the following information:
•
Peak order number
•
Peak position (frequency or time depending on operation mode)
•
Peak level
Use the PEAK LIST OFF key to remove the peak list and the labels on the trace.
The peak list is, however, still available and you can query the results in remote
operation.
Remote command:
NEW SEARCH
INIT:CONT OFF;
CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE:SORT X;
INIT;*WAI;
CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE 10;
CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE:COUN?;
CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE:Y?;
CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE:X?
The NEW SEARCH softkey starts a new peak search and adds the results to the
peak list. Note that you have to activate the peak list before results are visible.
The peak search is based on the current content of the trace buffer. Therefore, you
may encounter unexpected results in continuous or single sweep if you start a peak
search without the sweep being finished as parts of the trace may not have been
updated yet.
Remote command:
PEAK LIST
(ON OFF)
Activates and deactivates the peak list that is displayed below the diagram area.
The peak list is always available for a query in remote operation after a search has
been performed, even if it is inactive.
Remote command:
4.74
INIT;*WAI;
CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE 10;
CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE:COUN?;
CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE:Y?;
CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE:X?
CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE:STAT ON | OFF
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
AUTOSEARCH
(ON OFF)
Activates or deactivates an automatic peak search. The R&S FSQ performs the
automatic peak search after it has finished a sweep.
If you need an update of the peak list prior to the end of the sweep, perform a new
search with the NEW SEARCH softkey.
Remote command:
SORT MODE
(FREQ LEVEL)
The SORT MODE (FREQ LEVEL) softkey defines the position of the peak values in
the list:
•
FREQ: sorting in ascending order of frequency values (time values if span = 0)
•
LEVEL: sorting according to level
Remote command:
PEAK
EXCURSION
CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE:SEAR:AUTO ON | OFF
CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE:SORT X;
With level measurements, the PEAK EXCURSION softkey allows the minimum
amount to be entered by which a signal must decrease or increase in order to be
recognized as a maximum by the peak search function.
Values between 0 dB and 80 dB may be entered, the resolution being 0.1 dB
Remote command:
SEARCH
LIMITS
CALC:MARK:PEXC 6dB
Opens a submenu to define peak search search limits.
LEFT LIMIT | RIGHT LIMIT
THRESHOLD
SEARCH LIM OFF
LEFT LIMIT |
RIGHT LIMIT
The LEFT LIMIT and RIGHT LIMIT softkeys define the vertical lines F1/F2 in the frequency domain (span > 0) and T1/T2 in the time domain (span = 0) between which
the search is carried out.
If only one line is active, the F1/T1 line is used as the lower limit; the upper limit is
the stop frequency. If F2/T2 is also active, it defines the upper limit.
Remote command:
THRESHOLD
The THRESHOLD softkey defines a horizontal threshold line which represents the
lower limit of the peak search level range.
Remote command:
SEARCH LIM
OFF
MKR SYMBOL
(ON OFF)
CALC:MARK:X:SLIM:LEFT 1MHZ
CALC:MARK:X:SLIM:RIGH 10MHZ
CALC:MARK:X:SLIM ON
CALC:THR -20dBm
CALC:THR ON
Deactivates peak search limits.
Activates and deactivates the markers symbol (x) that the R&S FSQ places on each
peak. The marker symbol is displayed only when the peak list is turned on.
Remote command:
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
CALC:FUNC:FPE:ANN:MARK:STAT ON | OFF
4.75
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
MKR NUMBER
(ON OFF)
Activates and deactivates the marker label that the R&S FSQ assigns to each peak.
The R&S FSQ ranks the markers according to their power level in descending order,
beginning with the strongest peak.
You can activate marker numbers only if the marker symbol is also active. If the
peak list is inactive, marker numbers cannot be displayed.
Remote command:
MAX PEAK
COUNT (50)
PEAK LIST
EXPORT
Opens a input field to define the maximum number of peak list entries.
Remote command:
CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE:LIST:SIZE <number>
The PEAK LIST EXPORT softkey stores the content of the marker peak list in ASCII
format to the specified file. The format of the decimal point is defined by the DECIM
SEP softkey.
Remote command:
DECIM SEP
CALC:MARK:FPE:ANN:LAB:STAT ON | OFF
MMEM:STOR:PEAK 'C:\filename.txt'
The DECIM SEP softkey selects the decimal separator between '.' (decimal point)
and ',' (comma) for the function PEAK LIST EXPORT.
With the selection of the decimal separator different language versions of evaluation
programs (e.g. Microsoft Excel) can be supported.
Remote command:
4.5.10.6
FORM:DEXP:DSEP POIN
AF Demodulation
The R&S FSQ provides demodulators for AM and FM signals. With these demodulators, a displayed signal can be identified acoustically through the use of the internal loudspeaker or with headphones. The frequency at which the demodulation is
enabled is coupled to the markers. The sweep stops at the frequency determined by
the active marker for the selected time and the RF signal is demodulated. During a
measurement in the time domain (span = 0 Hz) the demodulation is continuously on.
The threshold line (MKR->:SEARCH LIMITS:THRESHOLD) performs a squelch
function in the demodulator. If the threshold is set, the R&S FSQ AF demodulation is
switched on only when the signal to be demodulated exceeds the set threshold.
MARKER
DEMOD
MKR DEMOD (ON OFF)
AM | FM
SQUELCH
MKR STOP TIME
CONT DEMOD
The MARKER DEMOD softkey switches on the audio demodulator and calls a submenu in which the demodulation mode and the duration of the demodulation can be
selected.
Remote command:
4.76
CALC:MARK1:FUNC:DEM ON
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
MKR DEMOD
(ON OFF)
The MKR DEMOD (ON OFF) softkey switches the demodulation on/off.
In the frequency range (span >0), the frequency scan is stopped at the frequency of
the active marker with demodulation switched on – provided that the level is above
the threshold line - and the signal is demodulated during the given stop time.
In the time domain (span = 0) demodulation is continuous.
Remote command:
AM | FM
The softkeys AM and FM are selector switches of which only one may be active at a
time. They set the desired demodulation mode FM or AM. Default setting is AM.
Remote command:
SQUELCH
CALC:MARK1:FUNC:DEM ON
CALC:MARK1:FUNC:DEM:SEL AM
CALC:MARK1:FUNC:DEM:SEL FM
The SQUELCH softkey enables the input of a level threshold below which the audible AF is cut off. The squelch function is associated with the internal trigger function
(TRIGGER menu), which will be switched on automatically with the squelch.
Squelch level and trigger level do have the same value.
The default setting for the squelch is off.
Remote command:
MKR STOP
TIME
CALC:MARK1:FUNC:DEM:SQU ON | OFF
CALC:MARK1:FUNC:DEM:SQU:LEV 80 PCT
The MKR STOP TIME softkey defines the stop time for demodulation at the
marker(s).
The R&S FSQ interrupts the frequency sweep at the marker position and activates
the demodulation for the duration of the stop time (see also MKR DEMOD ON/OFF).
In the time domain (span = 0) the demodulation is continuously active irrespective of
the stop time set.
Remote command:
CONT DEMOD
CALC:MARK1:FUNC:DEM:HOLD 3s
The CONT DEMOD softkey switches on the continuous demodulation in the frequency domain. If the sweep time is long enough, the set frequency range can be
monitored acoustically.
Remote command:
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
CALC:MARK1:FUNC:DEM:CONT ON
4.77
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
4.5.10.7
MKR−>TRACE
Selecting the Trace
The MKR->TRACE softkey sets the active marker to different traces. Only those
traces can be selected which are visible on the screen in the same window.
The function of the softkey is identical to that of the softkey with the same name in
the MKR-> menu.
Example
Three traces are displayed on the screen. The marker is always on Trace 1 on
switching on.
[MKR ->TRACE] "2"
The marker jumps to Trace 2, but remains at
the previous frequency or time.
[MKR ->TRACE] "3"
The marker jumps to Trace 3.
Remote command:
4.78
CALC:MARK:TRAC 2
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
4.5.11
Change of Settings via Markers – MKR-> Key
The MKR-> menu offers functions through which instrument parameters can be
changed with the aid of the currently active marker. The functions can be used on
markers and delta markers.
On opening the menu, the entry for the last active marker is activated; if no marker
was enabled, MARKER 1 is activated and a peak search is performed.
MKR->
SELECT MARKER
PEAK
CENTER = MKR FREQ
REF LEVEL = MKR LVL
NEXT PEAK
NEXT PEAK RIGHT
NEXT PEAK LEFT
SEARCH LIMITS !
LEFT LIMIT /
RIGHT LIMIT
THRESHOLD
SEARCH LIMIT OFF
MKR->TRACE
Side menu
MKR->CF STEPSIZE
MIN
NEXT MIN
NEXT MIN RIGHT
NEXT MIN LEFT
EXCLUDE DC
EXCLUDE LO
PEAK EXCURSION
2. side menu
AUTO MAX PEAK
AUTO MIN PEAK
SELECT
MARKER
The SELECT MARKER softkey activates the numerical selection of the marker in
the data entry field. Delta marker 1 is selected by input of ' 0 '.
Remote command:
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
CALC:MARK1 ON
CALC:MARK1:X <value>
CALC:MARK1:Y?
4.79
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
PEAK
The PEAK softkey sets the active marker/delta marker to the peak of the trace. If no
marker is active when MKR-> menu is called, MARKER 1 is automatically switched
on and the peak search is performed.
Remote command:
CENTER =
MKR FREQ
CALC:MARK:MAX
CALC:DELT:MAX
The CENTER = MKR FREQ softkey sets the center frequency to the current marker
or delta marker frequency.
A signal can thus be set to the center of the frequency display range, for example,
so that it can then be examined in detail with a smaller span.
The softkey is not available in the time domain (zero span).
Remote command:
CALC:MARK:FUNC:CENT
Example
A spectrum is displayed with a large span after PRESET. A signal off the center is to
be examined in detail:
REF LEVEL =
MKR LVL
[PRESET]
R&S FSQ is set to the default setting.
[MKR->]
MARKER 1 is switched on and automatically jumps to
the largest signal of the trace.
[CENTER=MKR FREQ]
The center frequency is set to the marker frequency. The
span is adapted in such a way that the minimum frequency (= 0 Hz) or the maximum frequency is not
exceeded.
[SPAN]
The span can, for example, be reduced using the rotary
knob.
The REF LEVEL = MKR LVL softkey sets the reference level to the current marker
level.
Remote command:
CALC:MARK:FUNC:REF
Example
A spectrum is displayed with a large span after PRESET. A signal off the center is to
be examined in detail:
4.80
[PRESET]
R&S FSQ is set to the default setting.
[MKR->]
MARKER 1 is switched on and automatically jumps to
the largest signal of the trace.
[CENTER=MKR FREQ]
The center frequency is set to the marker frequency.
The span is adapted in such a way that the minimum frequency (= 0 Hz) or the maximum frequency is not
exceeded.
[REF LEVEL = MKR LVL]
The reference level is set to the measured marker level.
[SPAN]
The span can, for example, be reduced using the rotary
knob.
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
NEXT PEAK
The NEXT PEAK softkey sets the active marker/delta marker to the next lower maximum of the selected trace.
Remote command:
NEXT PEAK
RIGHT
The NEXT PEAK RIGHT softkey sets the active marker/delta marker to the next
lower maximum right of the current marker position on the selected trace.
Remote command:
NEXT PEAK
LEFT
CALC:MARK:MAX:RIGH
CALC:DELT:MAX:RIGH
The NEXT PEAK LEFT softkey sets the active marker/delta marker to the next lower
maximum left of the current marker position the selected trace.
Remote command:
SEARCH
LIMITS
CALC:MARK:MAX:NEXT
CALC:DELT:MAX:NEXT
CALC:MARK:MAX:LEFT
CALC:DELT:MAX:LEFT
LEFT LIMIT /
RIGHT LIMIT
THRESHOLD
SEARCH LIMIT OFF
The SEARCH LIMITS softkey limits the search range for maximum or minimum
search. The softkey switches to a submenu in which the search range limits can be
set in the x and y direction.
LEFT LIMIT /
RIGHT LIMIT
The LEFT LIMIT and RIGHT LIMIT softkeys define the two vertical lines F1 and F2
in the frequency domain (span > 0) and T1 / T2 in the time domain (span = 0). The
search is performed between these lines in the frequency and time domain
If only LEFT LIMIT is enabled, line F1/T1 is the lower limit and the upper limit corresponds to the stop frequency. If RIGHT LIMIT is also enabled, it determines the
upper limit.
Remote command:
THRESHOLD
CALC:MARK:X:SLIM:LEFT 1MHZ
CALC:MARK:X:SLIM:RIGH 10MHZ
CALC:MARK:X:SLIM ON
The THRESHOLD softkey defines the threshold line.
The threshold line represents a limit for the level range of the max. search at the
lower end and that of the min. search at the upper end.
Remote command:
SEARCH LIMIT
OFF
CALC:THR -20dBm
CALC:THR ON
The SEARCH LIMIT OFF softkey disables all limits of the search range.
Remote command:
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
CALC:MARK:X:SLIM OFF
CALC:THR OFF
4.81
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
MKR->TRACE
The function of this softkey is identical to that of the MKR->TRACE softkey in the
MKR menu (see “MKR->TRACE” on page 4.65).
MKR->CF
STEPSIZE
The MKR->CF STEPSIZE softkey sets the step size for the center frequency variation to the current marker frequency, and also sets step size adaptation to MANUAL.
CF STEPSIZE remains at this value until the center frequency entry mode in the
STEP menu is switched from MANUAL to AUTO again.
The MKR->CF STEPSIZE function is, above all, useful in the measurement of harmonics with large dynamic range (narrow bandwidth and narrow span).
The softkey is not available in the time domain (span = 0 Hz).
Remote command:
CALC:MARK:FUNC:CST
Example
The harmonics levels of a CW carrier are to be measured at 100 MHz.
MIN
[PRESET]
R&S FSQ is set to the default setting.
[CENTER: 100 MHz]
R&S FSQ sets the center frequency to 100 MHz. The span
is set to 200 MHz.
[SPAN: 100 MHz]
The span is set to 100 MHz.
[MKR->]
MARKER 1 is switched on and set to the maximum value
of the signal.
[NEXT]
R&S FSQ switches to the submenu.
[MKR->CF STEPSIZE]
The step size of the center frequency setting equals the
marker frequency (100 MHz).
[CENTER]
The center frequency entry mode is activated.
[Right key]
The center frequency is set to 200 MHz. The first harmonic
of the test signal is displayed.
[MKR->: PEAK]
The marker is set to the harmonic and the level of the latter
is output in the marker info field.
The MIN softkey sets the active marker/delta marker to the minimum of the selected
trace.
Remote command:
NEXT MIN
The NEXT MIN softkey sets the active marker/delta marker to the next higher minimum of the selected trace.
Remote command:
NEXT MIN
RIGHT
CALC:MARK:MIN:NEXT
CALC:DELT:MIN:NEXT
The NEXT MIN RIGHT softkey sets the active marker/delta marker to the next
higher minimum right of the current marker position on the selected trace.
Remote command:
4.82
CALC:MARK:MIN
CALC:DELT:MIN
CALC:MARK:MIN:RIGH
CALC:DELT:MIN:RIGH
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
NEXT MIN
LEFT
The NEXT MIN LEFT softkey sets the active marker/delta marker to the next higher
minimum left of the current marker position on the selected trace.
Remote command:
EXCLUDE DC
CALC:MARK:MIN:LEFT
CALC:DELT:MIN:LEFT
In the FTT Analyzer, the EXCLUDE DC softkey performs the function of the
EXCLUDE LO softkey. The function can only be activated in the Frequency Domain
mode.
The following therefore applies if the function is active:
The frequency 0 Hz is excluded from the search to ensure that, e.g. with the peak
function, the marker does not move to the DC component at 0 Hz in the case of
span settings which include this frequency. The minimum frequency to which the
marker moves is ≥ 2 × resolution bandwidth (RBW). The largest negative frequency
with a complex input signal is -2 x resolution bandwidth.
If the function is deactivated, the search is not restricted to a specific range. The frequency 0 Hz is included in the marker search functions.
This softkey is available with option R&S FSQ-B71.
Remote command:
EXCLUDE LO
The EXCLUDE LO softkey limits the frequency range for the marker search functions or disables the limit.
activated
Because of the feed through of the first local oscillator to the first
intermediate frequency at the input mixer, the LO is represented as a
signal at 0 Hz. To avoid the marker jumping to the LO at 0 Hz with the
peak function when setting the display range, this frequency is
excluded. The minimum frequency to which the marker jumps, is ≥ 6
× resolution bandwidth (RBW).
deactivated
No restriction to the search range. The frequency 0 Hz is included in
the marker search functions.
Remote command:
PEAK
EXCURSION
CALC:MARK:LOEX ON
CALC:MARK:LOEX ON
The PEAK EXCURSION softkey enables – for level measurements – the entry of a
minimum level value by which a signal must rise or fall so that it will be identified as
a maximum or a minimum by the NEXT PEAK and NEXT MIN search functions.
Valid entries are from 0 dB to 80 dB; the resolution is 0.1 dB.
Remote command:
CALC:MARK:PEXC 10dB
The default setting for the peak excursion is 6 dB. This value is sufficient for the
NEXT PEAK and NEXT MIN functions since, in this mode, the next lower maximum
or next higher minimum will always be detected.
If NEXT PEAK LEFT or NEXT PEAK RIGHT is selected, these functions search for
the next relative maximum left or right of the current marker position irrespective of
the current signal amplitude. Relative maximum is understood to mean a decrease
of the signal amplitude by a defined value – i.e. the peak excursion – right and left of
the amplitude peak.
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
4.83
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
The 6 dB level change set as a default value may be attained already by the inherent noise of the instrument. In such a case, the R&S FSQ would identify noise peaks
as maxima or minima. The value entered for the PEAK EXCURSION should therefore be higher than the difference between the highest and the lowest value measured for the displayed inherent noise.
The following example illustrates the effect of different settings of the PEAK
EXCURSION.
Fig. 4.6 Examples of level measurement with different settings of PEAK EXCURSION
The following table lists the signals as indicated by marker numbers in the diagram
above, as well as the minimum of the amplitude decrease to both sides of the signal:
signal #
min. amplitude decrease to both sides of the signal
1
30 dB
2
29.85 dB
3
7 dB
4
7 dB
With 40 dB peak excursion, NEXT PEAK, NEXT PEAK RIGHT and NEXT PEAK
LEFT will not find any signal, as the signal level does not decrease by more than 30
dB to either side of any signal.
Order of signals detected:
PEAK:
signal 1
NEXT PEAK:
signal 1 (no further signal detected)
or
4.84
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
PEAK:
signal 1
NEXT PEAK LEFT:
signal 1 (no further signal detected)
NEXT PEAK RIGHT: signal 1 (no further signal detected)
With 20 dB peak excursion, NEXT PEAK and NEXT PEAK RIGHT will also detect
signal 2, as the signal level decreases at least by 29.85 dB to either side of this signal, which is now greater than the peak excursion.
Order of signals detected:
PEAK:
Signal 1
NEXT PEAK:
Signal 2
NEXT PEAK:
Signal 2 (no further signal detected)
or
PEAK:
Signal 1
NEXT PEAK LEFT:
Signal 1 (no further signal detected)
NEXT PEAK RIGHT: Signal 2
NEXT PEAK RIGHT: Signal 2 (no further signal detected)
With 6 dB peak excursion, all signals will be detected with NEXT PEAK and NEXT
PEAK RIGHT / NEXT PEAK LEFT.
Order of signals detected:
PEAK:
Signal 1
NEXT PEAK:
Signal 2
NEXT PEAK:
Signal 3
NEXT PEAK:
Signal 4
or
PEAK:
Signal 1
NEXT PEAK LEFT:
Signal 3
NEXT PEAK RIGHT: Signal 1
NEXT PEAK RIGHT: Signal 2
NEXT PEAK RIGHT. Signal 4
AUTO MAX
PEAK
AUTO MIN
PEAK
The AUTO MAX PEAK / AUTO MIN PEAK softkeys add an automatic peak search
action for marker 1 at the end of each particular sweep. This function may be used
during adjustments of a device under test to keep track of the current peak marker
position and level.
The current marker search limit settings (LEFT LIMIT, RIGHT LIMIT, THRESHOLD,
EXCLUDE LO) are taken into account.
Remote command:
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
CALC:MARK:MAX:AUTO ON | OFF
CALC:MARK:MIN:AUTO ON | OFF
4.85
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
4.5.12
Power Measurements – MEAS Key
With its power measurement functions the R&S FSQ is able to measure all the necessary parameters with high accuracy in a wide dynamic range.
A modulated carrier is almost always used (except e.g. SSB-AM) for high-frequency
transmission of information. Due to the information modulated upon the carrier, the
latter covers a spectrum which is defined by the modulation, the transmission data
rate and the signal filtering. Within a transmission band each carrier is assigned a
channel taking into account these parameters. In order to ensure error-free transmission, each transmitter must be conforming to the specified parameters. These
include among others:
•
the output power,
•
the occupied bandwidth, i.e. the bandwidth which must contain a defined
percentage of the power and
•
the power dissipation allowed in the adjacent channels.
Additionally the menu contains functions to determine the modulation depth of AM
modulated signals and to measure the 3rd order intercept point.
The measurements and the corresponding settings are selected in the MEAS menu.
MEAS
TIME DOM POWER !
CHAN PWR ACP MULT CARR ACP !
OCCUPIED BANDWIDTH !
SIGNAL STATISTIC !
C/N / C/NO !
MODULATION DEPTH
IQ MODE
SPECTRUM EMISSION MASK !
SPURIOUS EMISSIONS !
SELECT MARKER
Side menu
TOI
TOI MKR CALC SRCH
HARMONIC DISTOR !
4.86
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
The MEAS key opens the menu to select and set the power measurement.
The following measurements can be selected:
•
Power in the time domain (“TIME DOM POWER” on page 4.88)
•
Channel power and adjacent-channel power in the frequency domain with a single
carrier (“CHAN PWR ACP MULT CARR ACP” on page 4.95)
•
Occupied bandwidth (“OCCUPIED BANDWIDTH” on page 4.113)
•
Carrier-to-noise ratio (“C/N / C/NO” on page 4.124)
•
Amplitude probability distribution (“SIGNAL STATISTIC” on page 4.117)
•
Modulation depth (“MODULATION DEPTH” on page 4.126)
•
Spurious emissions (“SPURIOUS EMISSIONS” on page 4.135)
•
Spectrum Emission Mask (“SPECTRUM EMISSION MASK” on page 4.154)
•
3rd order intercept (“TOI” on page 4.132)
•
Harmonic distortion (“HARMONIC DISTOR” on page 4.133)
The above measurements are carried out alternatively.
4.5.12.1
Power Measurement in Time Domain
With the aid of the power measurement function, the R&S FSQ determines the
power of the signal in the time domain (SPAN = 0 Hz) by summing up the power at
the individual pixels and dividing the result by the number of pixels. In this way it is
possible to measure for example the power of TDMA signals during transmission or
during the muting phase. Both the mean power and the rms power can be measured
by means of the individual power values.
The result is displayed in the marker info field.
The measured values are updated after each sweep or averaged over a userdefined number of sweeps (AVERAGE ON/OFF and NUMBER OF SWEEPS) in
order to determine e.g. the mean power over several bursts. For determination of
the peak value (MAX HOLD ON) the maximum value from several sweeps is displayed.
Example
Marker info field for: MEAN selected, AVERAGE ON and MAX HOLD ON:
MEAN HOLD
MEAN AV
-2.33 dBm
-2.39 dBm
If both the on and off phase of a burst signal are displayed, the measurement range
can be limited to the transmission or to the muting phase with the aid of vertical
lines. The ratio between signal and noise power of a TDMA signal for instance can
be measured by using a measurement as a reference value and after that varying
the measurement range.
Upon switching on power measurement the sample detector is activated (TRACE DETECTOR - SAMPLE).
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
4.87
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
TIME DOM
POWER
POWER (ON OFF)
PEAK
RMS
MEAN
STANDARD DEVIATION
LIMIT (ON OFF)
START LIMIT
STOP LIMIT
Side menu
SET REFERENCE
POWER (ABS REL)
MAX HOLD (ON OFF)
AVERAGE (ON OFF)
NUMBER OF SWEEPS
The TIME DOM POWER softkey activates the power measurement in the time
domain and opens a submenu for configuration of the power measurement.
The submenu allows selection of the type of power measurement (rms or mean
power), the settings for max hold and averaging as well as the definition of limits.
The power evaluation range can be limited by input of limit values.
This softkey is only available in time domain (span = 0).
POWER
(ON OFF)
The POWER (ON OFF) softkey switches the power measurement on and off. When
entering the submenu it is ON since the power measurement is already switched on
with the TIME DOM POWER softkey in the main menu.
The measurement is performed on the trace on which marker 1 is placed. To evaluate another trace, marker 1 should be set on another trace using the SELECT
TRACE softkey in MARKER menu (MKR).
Remote command:
4.88
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:PPE ON
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:PPE:RES?
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:RMS ON
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:RMS:RES?
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:MEAN ON
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:MEAN:RES?
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:SDEV ON
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:SDEV:RES?
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
PEAK
The PEAK softkey switches on the calculation of the positive peak value from the
points of the displayed trace or a segment thereof.
For the maximum peak, the largest peak value obtained since the activation of MAX
HOLD ON is displayed.
With AVERAGE ON, the peak values of a trace are averaged over several sweeps
and displayed.
The number of sweeps over which the average or the maximum value is calculated
is set with the NUMBER OF SWEEPS softkey.
Remote command:
RMS
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:PPE ON
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:PPE:RES?
The RMS softkey switches on the calculation of the rms value from the points of the
displayed trace or a segment of it.
For the maximum peak, the largest rms value obtained since the activation of MAX
HOLD ON is displayed.
With AVERAGE ON, the rms values of a trace are averaged over several sweeps
and displayed.
The number of sweeps over which the average or the maximum value is calculated
is set with the NUMBER OF SWEEPS softkey.
Remote command:
MEAN
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:RMS ON
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:RMS:RES?
The MEAN softkey switches on the calculation of the mean value from the points of
the displayed trace or a segment of it. The linear mean value of the equivalent voltages is calculated.
This can be used for instance to measure the mean power during a GSM burst.
For the maximum peak, the largest mean value obtained since the activation of MAX
HOLD ON is displayed.
With AVERAGE ON, the mean values of a trace are averaged over several sweeps
and displayed.
The number of sweeps over which the average or the maximum value is calculated
is set with the NUMBER OF SWEEPS softkey.
Remote command:
STANDARD
DEVIATION
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:MEAN ON
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:MEAN:RES?
The STANDARD DEVIATION softkey switches on the calculation of the standard
deviation of trace points from the mean value and outputs them as measured value.
The measurement of the mean power is automatically switched on at the same time.
For the maximum peak, the largest standard deviation obtained since the activation
of MAX HOLD ON is displayed.
With AVERAGE ON, the standard deviations of a trace are averaged over several
sweeps and displayed.
The number of sweeps over which the average or the maximum value is calculated
is set with the NUMBER OF SWEEPS softkey.
Remote command:
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:SDEV ON
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:SDEV:RES?
4.89
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
LIMIT (ON OFF)
The LIMIT (ON OFF) softkey selects the limited (ON) or non-limited (OFF) evaluation range.
The evaluation range is defined by the START LIMIT and STOP LIMIT softkeys. If
LIMIT = ON, signals are only searched between the two lines.
If only one limit line is switched on, time line 1 is the lower limit and the upper limit
corresponds to the end of sweep. If time line 2 is also switched on, it defines the
upper limit.
If no limit line is switched on, the evaluation range is not limited.
The default setting is LIMIT = OFF.
Remote command:
START LIMIT
The START LIMIT softkey activates the entry of the left limit of the evaluation range.
Remote command:
STOP LIMIT
CALC:MARK:X:SLIM:LEFT <value>
The STOP LIMIT softkey activates the entry of the right limit of the evaluation range.
Remote command:
SET
REFERENCE
CALC:MARK:X:SLIM OFF
CALC:MARK:X:SLIM:RIGH <value>
The SET REFERENCE softkey sets the power values currently measured as reference values for the calculation of the mean value (MEAN) and the rms value (RMS).
The reference values are used to perform relative measurements.
If the calculation of the mean value (MEAN) and rms value (RMS) is not switched
on, 0 dBm is used as a reference value.
If the average value (AVERAGE) or maximum value (MAX HOLD) is calculated over
several sweeps, the current value is the measured value summed up at the actual
time.
Remote command:
POWER
(ABS REL)
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:REF:AUTO ONCE
The POWER (ABS REL) softkey selects the absolute power measurement (default
setting) or relative power measurement. The reference value for the relative power
is defined by SET REFERENCE.
The value 0 dBm is used if the reference value is not defined.
Remote command:
MAX HOLD
(ON OFF)
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:MODE ABS
The MAX HOLD (ON OFF) softkey switches the display of the maximum peak
obtained from measurements at successive sweeps on and off.
The displayed maximum peak is only updated at the end of a sweep if a higher
value has occurred.
To reset the maxhold trace, turn the maxhold function off and on again.
Remote command:
4.90
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:PHOL ON
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:PPE:PHOL:RES?
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:RMS:PHOL:RES?
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:MEAN:PHOL:RES?
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:SDEV:PHOL:RES?
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
AVERAGE
(ON OFF)
The AVERAGE (ON OFF) softkey switches averaging over successive sweep measurements on and off.
The measured values can be reset by switching the AVERAGE ON / OFF softkey off
and on again.
Remote command:
NUMBER OF
SWEEPS
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:AVER ON
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:PPE:AVER:RES?
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:RMS:AVER:RES?
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:MEAN:AVER:RES?
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:SDEV:AVER:RES?
The NUMBER OF SWEEPS softkey activates the entry of the number of sweeps for
maximum or average value calculation.
SINGLE SWEEP mode
The R&S FSQ performs sweeps until the
selected number of sweeps is reached and
stops then.
CONTINUOUS SWEEP mode Averaging is carried out until the selected
number of sweeps is reached. After that,
averaging is performed in continuous mode
and is then continued as running averaging.
Calculation of the maximum peak (MAX
HOLD) is performed continuously irrespective
of the selected number of sweeps.
The valid range values is 0 to 32767.
Depending on the specified number of sweeps, averaging is carried out according to
the following rules:
NUMBER OF SWEEPS = 0
Continuous averaging is carried out over 10
measured values.
NUMBER OF SWEEPS = 1
No averaging, maxhold or minhold is carried
out.
NUMBER OF SWEEPS > 1
Averaging is carried out over the set number of
measured values.
This setting is equivalent to the setting of the sweep count in the TRACE menu.
Remote command:
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
SWE:COUN <value>
4.91
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
Example
The mean power of a GSM burst with 0 dBm nominal power at 800 MHz is to be
measured.
[PRESET]
Set the R&S FSQ to the default setting.
[FREQ: CENTER: 800 MHz]
Set the center frequency to 800 MHz.
[SPAN: ZERO SPAN]
Select time domain display (span = 0 Hz).
[AMPT: 0 dBm]
Set the reference level to 0 dBm.
[BW: RES BW MANUAL: 30
kHz]
Set the resolution bandwidth to 30 kHz in line
with the requirements of the GSM standard.
[SWEEP: SWEEPTIME
MANUAL 600 µs]
Set the sweep time to 600 µs.
[TRIG: VIDEO: 50%]
Use the video signal as trigger source.
[MEAS]
Call the menu for the measurement functions.
[TIME DOM POWER]
Select power measurement in the time domain.
The R&S FSQ calculates the mean power from
the points of the whole trace.
The submenu for configuration of the power
measurement is opened. MEAN is already
switched on.
[LIMITS ON]
Activate the limitation of the time domain of the
power measurement.
[START LIMIT: 250 µs]
Set the start of the power measurement at 250
µs.
[STOP LIMIT: 500 µs]
Set the end of the power measurement at 500
µs.
The GSM specifications require the power to be measured between 50% and 90%
of the TDMA burst. The time limits set above approximately correspond to the
required time domain.
4.5.12.2
Channel and Adjacent-Channel Power Measurements
For all channel and adjacent-channel power measurements a specified channel
configuration is assumed which is for instance based on a specific radio communication system.
This configuration is defined by the nominal channel frequency (= center frequency
of the R&S FSQ if only one carrier is active), the channel bandwidth, the channel
spacing, the adjacent-channel bandwidth and the adjacent-channel spacing. The
R&S FSQ is able to simultaneously measure the power in up to 18 transmission
channels and up to 12 adjacent channels.
It offers two methods for channel and adjacent-channel power measurement:
4.92
•
The integrated bandwidth method (IBW method), i.e. the integration of trace pixels
within the bandwidth of the channel to be measured to the total power of the
channel,
•
The measurement in time domain (Fast ACP) by means of steep resolution filters
simulating the channel.
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
The two measurements yield the same results. The measurement in time domain
can be performed much faster since the complete signal is measured within a channel at the same time. With the IBW method, the channel is divided into subspectra.
This is done by means of a bandwidth which is small compared to the channel bandwidth. These subspectra are then combined by integration of the trace pixels.
With the IBW method, the transmission channels or adjacent channels are marked
by vertical lines at a distance of half the channel bandwidth to the left and to the right
of the corresponding channel center frequency (see Fig. 4.7).
With the time-domain method, the power versus time is shown for each channel.
The boundaries of the channels are marked by vertical lines (see Fig. 4.8).
For both methods, the results are listed in tables in the lower half of the screen.
The R&S FSQ offers predefined standard settings which can be selected from a
table for the common mobile radio standards. Thus, channel configuration is performed automatically without the need to enter the corresponding parameters manually.
For some standards, the channel power and the adjacent-channel power are to be
weighted by means of a root-raised cosine filter corresponding to a receive filter.
This type of filtering is switched on automatically for both methods on selecting the
standard (e.g. NADC, TETRA or 3GPP W-CDMA).
As of firmware version 4.3x it is possible to configure overlapping adjacent channels. Based on a common carrier channel setting, it is now possible to measure with
two slightly different ADJ channel settings with one single measurement at the same
time.
Example:
ACP Measurement A and Measurement B are using identical TX channel settings
(Channel Bandwidth).
The ADJ settings for Measurement A and measurement B are different.
It is now possible to do both measurements at the same time.
•
Configure the ACP measurement with number of ADJ channels = 2.
•
Define ADJ settings (bandwidth, spacing) as required for measurement A.
•
Define ALT1 settings (bandwidth, spacing) as required for ADJ channel of
measurement B
•
Perform the ACP measurement
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
4.93
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
•
Read the ACP measurement result
The Carrier Power belongs to measurement A and B
The ADJ result is the ADJ result of measurement A
The ALT1 result is the ADJ result of measurement B.
This feature is only supported for ACP but not for Multi Carrier ACP measurement.
Fig. 4.7 Screen display of adjacent-channel power measurement using the IBW method
Fig. 4.8 Screen display of adjacent-channel power measurement using the time-domain method
4.94
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
Limit values for the adjacent-channel power can be defined for the measurement. If
limit checking is switched on, a pass/fail information indicating that the power has
been exceeded is displayed during the measurement in the table in the lower half of
the screen.
With the CP/ACP measurement switched on the functions SPLIT SCREEN and
FULL SCREEN are inhibited.
The channel configuration is defined in the MEAS - CHAN PWR ACP or the MEAS MULT CARR ACP menu.
CHAN PWR
ACP
MULT CARR
ACP
CP/ACP (ON OFF)
CP/ACP STANDARD
CP/ACP CONFIG !
NO. OF ADJ CHAN
NO. OF TX CHAN
CHANNEL BANDWIDTH
CHANNEL SPACING
ACP REF SETTINGS
CP/ACP (ABS REL)
CHAN PWR / HZ
POWER MODE !
CLEAR/WRITE
MAX HOLD
ADJUST SETTINGS
Side menu
ACP LIMIT CHECK
EDIT ACP LIMITS
WEIGHTING FILTER
ADJ REFLVL OFFSET
SELECT TRACE
SET CP REFERENCE
SWEEP TIME
NOISE CORR
(ON OFF)
FAST ACP (ON OFF)
DIAGRAM FULL SIZE
ADJUST REF LVL
SELECT USER STD
SAVE AS USER STD
DELETE USER STD
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
4.95
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
The CHAN PWR ACP and MULT CARR ACP softkeys activate channel or adjacentchannel power measurement either for a single carrier signal (CHAN PWR ACP) or
for several carrier signals (MULT CARR ACP), depending on the current measurement configuration. In addition, they open a submenu for defining the parameters for
channel power measurement. The softkey selected is shown in color to indicate that
a channel or adjacent-channel power measurement is active.
The softkeys are available only for measurements in the frequency domain (span
> 0).
CP/ACP
(ON OFF)
The CP/ACP (ON OFF) softkey switches calculation of the channel power or adjacent-channel power on and off.
With default settings the measurement is performed by integrating the powers at the
display points within the specified channels (IBW method).
The powers of the adjacent channels are measured either as absolute values or as
relative values referenced to the power of a transmission channel. The default setting is relative-value measurement (see CP/ACP ABS/REL softkey).
When multi carrier ACP measurement is activated, the number of test points is
increased to ensure that adjacent-channel powers are measured with adequate
accuracy.
Remote command:
CP/ACP
STANDARD
CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:SEL CPOW|ACP|MCAC
CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:RES?
CPOW|ACP|MCAC
CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW OFF
The CP/ACP STANDARD softkey opens a table for the selection of the settings
according to predefined standards. The test parameters for the channel and adjacent-channel measurements are set according to the mobile radio standard.
The following standards are already provided on the R&S FSQ.
NONE
E-UTRA/LTE Square
E-UTRA/LTE Square/RRC
W-CDMA 4.096 FWD
W-CDMA 4.096 REV
W-CDMA 3GPP FWD
W-CDMA 3GPP REV
CDMA IS95A FWD
CDMA IS95A REV
CDMA IS95C Class 0 FWD
CDMA IS95C Class 0 REV
CDMA J-STD008 FWD
CDMA J-STD008 REV
CDMA IS95C Class 1 FWD
CDMA IS95C Class 1 REV
4.96
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
CDMA2000 DS
CDMA2000 MC1
CDMA2000 MC3
TD-SCDMA
WLAN 802.11a
WLAN 802.11b
WIMAX
WIBRO
USER ()
NADC IS136
TETRA
PDC
PHS
CDPD
For the R&S FSQ, the channel spacing is defined as the distance between the
center frequency of the adjacent channel and the center frequency of the transmission channel. The definition of the adjacent-channel spacing in standards IS95 B
and C, IS97 B and C and IS98 B and C is different. These standards define the
adjacent-channel spacing from the center of the transmission channel to the closest border of the adjacent channel. This definition is also used for the R&S FSQ
when the following standard settings are selected:
CDMA IS95 Class 0 FWD
CDMA IS95 Class 0 REV
CDMA IS95 Class 1 FWD
CDMA IS95 Class 1 REV
The selection of the standard influences the following parameters:
•
channel spacing and adjacent-channel spacing
•
channel bandwidth, adjacent-channel bandwidth, and type of filtering
•
resolution bandwidth
•
video bandwidth
•
detector
•
# of adjacent channels
FAST ACP is not available if a WLAN standard or the WiMAX or WiBro standard is
selected.
Trace mathematics and trace averaging are switched off.
The reference level is not influenced by the selection of a standard. To achieve an
optimum dynamic range, the reference level has to be set in a way that places the
signal maximum close to the reference level without forcing an overload message.
The default setting is CP/ACP STANDARD NONE.
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
4.97
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
As of firmware version 4.4x it is possible to customize ACP User Standards. The
user defined ACP standard can be activated via the entry USER in the standard
selection list. The related configuration file is displayed in brackets. To select
another user defined standard, use the softkey SELECT USER STD.
Remote command:
CP/ACP
CONFIG
SET CP
REFERENCE
CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:PRES <standard>
CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:PRES <file name>
See following section “Setting the Channel Configuration” on page 4.102.
With channel power measurement activated, the SET CP REFERENCE softkey
defines the currently measured channel power as the reference value. The reference value is displayed in the CH PWR REF field; the default value is 0 dBm.
The softkey is available only for multi carrier ACP measurements.
In adjacent-channel power measurement with one or several carrier signals, the
power is always referenced to a transmission channel, i.e. no value is displayed for
CH PWR REF.
Remote command:
SWEEP TIME
SENS:POW:ACH:REF:AUTO ONCE
The SWEEP TIME softkey activates the entry of the sweep time. With the RMS
detector, a longer sweep time increases the stability of the measurement results.
The function of the softkey is identical to the softkey SWEEP TIME MANUAL in the
BW menu.
Remote command:
NOISE CORR
(ON OFF)
SWE:TIME <value>
If the NOISE CORR ON/OFF softkey is activated, the results will be corrected by the
instrument's inherent noise, which increases the dynamic range.
When the function is switched on, a reference measurement of the instrument's
inherent noise is carried out. The noise power measured is then subtracted from the
power in the channel that is being examined.
The inherent noise of the instrument depends on the selected center frequency, resolution bandwidth and level setting. Therefore, the correction function is disabled
whenever one of these parameters is changed. A disable message is displayed on
the screen.
To enable the correction function in conjunction with the changed setting, press the
softkey once more. A new reference measurement is carried out.
Remote command:
FAST ACP
(ON OFF)
SENS:POW:NCOR ON
The FAST ACP ON/OFF softkey switches between the IBW method (FAST ACP
OFF) and the time domain method (FAST ACP ON).
With FAST ACP ON the power measurement is performed in the different channels
in the time domain. The R&S FSQ sets the center frequency consecutively to the different channel center frequencies and measures the power with the selected measurement time (= sweep time/number of channels). The RBW filters suitable for the
selected standard and frequency offset are automatically used (e.g. root raised cos
with IS 136).
A list of available filters is included in section “Filter Types” on page 4.28.
4.98
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
The RMS detector is used for obtaining correct power measurement results. Therefore this requires no software correction factors.
Measured values are output as a list. The powers of the transmission channels are
output in dBm, the powers of the adjacent channels in dBm (CP/ACP ABS) or dB
(CP/ACP REL).
The sweep time is selected depending on the desired reproducibility of results.
Reproducibility increases with sweep time since power measurement is then performed over a longer time period.
As a general approach, it can be assumed that approx. 500 non-correlated measured values are required for a reproducibility of 0.5 dB (99% of the measurements
are within 0.5 dB of the true measured value). This holds true for white noise. The
measured values are considered as non-correlated when their time interval corresponds to the reciprocal of the measured bandwidth.
With IS 136 the measurement bandwidth is approx. 25 kHz, i.e. measured values at
an interval of 40 µs are considered as non correlated. A measurement time of 20 ms
is thus required per channel for 1000 measured values. This is the default sweep
time which the R&S FSQ sets in coupled mode. Approx. 5000 measured values are
required for a reproducibility of 0.1 dB (99%), i.e. the measurement time is to be
increased to 200 ms.
Remote command:
DIAGRAM FULL
SIZE
ADJUST REF
LVL
SENS:POW:HSP ON
The DIAGRAM FULL SIZE softkey switches the diagram to full screen size.
Remote command:
DISP:WIND1:SIZE LARG|SMAL
The ADJUST REF LVL softkey adjusts the reference level of the R&S FSQ to the
measured channel power. This ensures that the settings of the RF attenuation and
the reference level are optimally adjusted to the signal level without overloading the
R&S FSQ or limiting the dynamic range by a too small S/N ratio.
Since the measurement bandwidth for channel power measurements is significantly
lower than the signal bandwidth, the signal path may be overloaded although the
trace is still significantly below the reference level.
Remote command:
SENS:POW:ACH:PRES:RLEV
For manual setting of the test parameters different from the settings made with
ADJUST SETTINGS the following should be observed:
Frequency span
The frequency span must at least cover the channels to be measured plus a measurement margin of 10%.
For channel power measurement, the span is 1.1 × channel bandwidth.
If the frequency span is large in comparison with the channel bandwidth (or the
adjacent-channel bandwidths) being examined, only a few points on the trace are
available per channel. This reduces the accuracy of the waveform calculation for
the channel filter used, which has a negative effect on the measurement accuracy.
We therefore strongly recommend that the formulas mentioned be taken into consideration when selecting the frequency span.
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
4.99
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
Resolution bandwidth (RBW)
To ensure both an acceptable measurement speed and the required selection (to
suppress spectral components outside the channel to be measured, especially of
the adjacent channels), the resolution bandwidth must not be selected too small or
too large. As a general approach, the resolution bandwidth is to be set to values
between 1% and 4% of the channel bandwidth.
A larger resolution bandwidth can be selected if the spectrum within the channel to
be measured and around it has a flat characteristic. In the standard setting, e.g. for
standard IS95A REV at an adjacent channel bandwidth of 30 kHz, a resolution
bandwidth of 30 kHz is used. This yields correct results since the spectrum in the
neighborhood of the adjacent channels normally has a constant level. For standard
NADC/IS136 this is not possible for example, since the spectrum of the transmit signal penetrates into the adjacent channels and a too large resolution bandwidth
causes a too low selection of the channel filter. The adjacent-channel power would
thus be measured too high.
With the exception of the IS95 CDMA standards, the ADJUST SETTINGS softkey
sets the resolution bandwidth (RBW) as a function of the channel bandwidth:
RBW ≤ 1/40 of channel bandwidth.
The maximum possible resolution bandwidth (with respect to the requirement RBW
≤ 1/40) resulting from the available RBW steps (1, 3) is selected.
Video bandwidth (VBW)
For a correct power measurement, the video signal must not be limited in bandwidth. A restricted bandwidth of the logarithmic video signal would cause signal
averaging and thus result in a too low indication of the power (-2.51 dB at very low
video bandwidths). The video bandwidth should therefore be selected at least three
times the resolution bandwidth.
The ADJUST SETTINGS softkey sets the video bandwidth (VBW) as a function of
the channel bandwidth as follows:
VBW ≥ 3 × RBW.
The smallest possible VBW with regard to the available step size will be selected.
Detector
The ADJUST SETTINGS softkey selects the RMS detector.
The RMS detector is selected since it correctly indicates the power irrespective of
the characteristics of the signal to be measured. In principle, the sample detector
would be possible as well. Due to the limited number of trace pixels used to calculate the power in the channel, the sample detector would yield less stable results.
Averaging, which is often performed to stabilize the measurement results, leads to a
too low level indication and should therefore be avoided. The reduction in the displayed power depends on the number of averages and the signal characteristics in
the channel to be measured.
4.100
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
SELECT USER
STD
The softkey SELECT USER STD selects and activates a user defined ACP standard.
After selecting the standard, the user defined standard becomes available for selection in the ACP standard list (USER list item). The corresponding filename is shown
in brackets.
Remote command:
SAVE AS USER
STD
CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:PRES <file name>
As of firmware version 4.4x, you can save the current ACP configuration in a file and
use it as a user defined ACP standard. The data set is stored on the instruments
harddisk in XML file format.
Softkey SAVE AS USER STD opens a dialog box to store the user defined configuration.
The following list shows the parameters that you can customize:
•
Number of Adjacent Channels
•
Channel Bandwidth of TX, ADJ and ALT channels
•
Channel Spacings
•
Resolution Bandwidth, Video Bandwidth
•
ACP Limit State and ACP Limits
•
Sweeptime, Sweeptime Coupling
•
Detector
•
Trace Mode (Clr/Write,..)
Note that the ACP User Standard is not supported for Fast ACP and Multi Carrier
ACP Measurements.
Remote command:
DELETE USER
STD
use SENSe:POWer Subsystem to configure a
user standard
CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:STAN:SAVE <file name>
CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:STAN:CAT?
Opens a dialog box to delete user defined ACP standards.
Remote command:
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:STAN:DEL <standard>
4.101
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
Setting the Channel Configuration
CP/ACP
CONFIG
NO. OF ADJ CHAN
NO. OF TX CHAN
CHANNEL BANDWIDTH
CHANNEL SPACING
ACP REF SETTINGS
CP/ACP (ABS REL)
CHAN PWR / HZ
POWER MODE !
CLEAR/WRITE
MAX HOLD
ADJUST SETTINGS
Side menu
ACP LIMIT CHECK
EDIT ACP LIMITS
WEIGHTING FILTER
ADJ REFLVL OFFSET
SELECT TRACE
The CP/ACP CONFIG softkey opens a submenu for configuration of the channel
power and adjacent channel power measurement independently of the offered standards.
The channel configuration includes the number of channels to be measured, the
channel bandwidths (CHANNEL BANDWIDTH), and the channel spacings (CHANNEL SPACING).
Limit values can additionally be specified for the adjacent-channel power (ACP
LIMIT CHECK and EDIT ACP LIMITS) which are checked for compliance during the
measurement.
NO. OF ADJ
CHAN
The NO. OF ADJ CHAN softkey activates the entry of the number adjacent channels
to be considered in the adjacent-channel power measurement. The number always
refers to a pair of adjacent channels. For example, 3 adjacent channels mean three
lower and three upper channels.
Numbers from 0 to 12 can be entered.
The following measurements are performed depending on the number of the channels.
4.102
0
Only the channel powers are measured.
1
The channel powers and the power of the upper and lower adjacent channel
are measured.
2
The channel powers, the power of the upper and lower adjacent channel and of
the next higher and lower channel (alternate channel 1) are measured.
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
3
The channel power, the power of the upper and lower adjacent channel, the
power of the next higher and lower channel (alternate channel 1) and of the
next but one higher and lower adjacent channel (alternate channel 2) are measured.
With higher numbers the procedure is expanded accordingly.
Remote command:
SENS:POW:ACH:ACP 1
This increased number of adjacent channels is realized for all the relevant settings
like:
ACLR LIMIT CHECK
:CALC:LIM:ACP:ACH:RES?
:CALC:LIM:ACP:ALT1..11:RES?
EDIT ACLR LIMITS
:CALC:LIM:ACP:ACH:STAT ON
:CALC:LIM:ACP:ACH:ABS –10dBm,-10dBm
:CALC:LIM:ACP:ACH:ABS:STAT ON
:CALC:LIM:ACP:ALT1..11 0dB,0dB
:CALC:LIM:ACP:ALT1..11:STAT ON
:CALC:LIM:ACP:ALT1..11:ABS –10dBm,-10dBm
:CALC:LIM:ACP:ALT1..11:ABS:STAT ON
ADJ CHAN
BANDWIDTH
:SENS:POW:ACH:BWID:ALT1..11 30kHz
ADJ CHAN SPACING :SENS:POW:ACH:SPAC:ALT1..11 4MHz
NO. OF TX
CHAN
The NO. OF TX CHAN softkey enables the entry of the number of carrier signals to
be considered in channel and adjacent-channel power measurements.
Numbers from 1 to 18 can be entered.
The softkey is available only for multi carrier ACP measurements.
Remote command:
CHANNEL
BANDWIDTH
SENS:POW:ACH:TXCH:COUN 12
The CHANNEL BANDWIDTH softkey opens a table for defining the channel bandwidths for the transmission channels and the adjacent channels.
The transmission-channel bandwidth is normally defined by the transmission standard. The correct bandwidth is set automatically for the selected standard (see CP/
ACP STANDARD softkey).
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
4.103
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
With the IBW method (FAST ACP OFF), the channel bandwidth limits are marked by
two vertical lines right and left of the channel center frequency. It can in this way be
visually checked whether the entire power of the signal under test is within the
selected channel bandwidth.
Measurements in the time domain (FAST ACP ON) are performed in the zero span
mode. The channel limits are indicated by vertical lines. For measurements requiring
channel bandwidths deviating from those defined in the selected standard the IBW
method is to be used.
Refer to section “Filter Types” on page 4.28 for a list of available filters.
When measuring according to the IBW method (FAST ACP OFF) the bandwidths of
the different adjacent channels are to be entered numerically. Since all adjacent
channels often have the same bandwidth, the other channels Alt1 and Alt2 are set to
the bandwidth of the adjacent channel on entering the adjacent-channel bandwidth
(ADJ). Thus only one value needs to be entered in case of equal adjacent channel
bandwidths. The same holds true for the ALT2 channels (alternate channels 2) when
the bandwidth of the ALT1 channel (alternate channel 1) is entered.
The channel spacings can be set separately by overwriting the table from top to
bottom.
The entry "TX" is only available for the multi carrier ACP measurement.
Remote command:
CHANNEL
SPACING
SENS:POW:ACH:BWID:CHAN 14kHz
SENS:POW:ACH:BWID:ACH 1kHz
SENS:POW:ACH:BWID:ALT1 14kHz
SENS:POW:ACH:BWID:ALT2 14kHz
The CHANNEL SPACING softkey opens a table for defining the channel spacings
for the TX channels as well as for the adjacent channels.
The entry "TX" is only available for the multi carrier ACP measurement.
TX channels
The spacing between every TX channels can be defined separately. Therefore a TX
spacing 1-2 for the spacing between the first and the second carrier, a TX spacing 23 for the spacing between the second and the third carrier and so on can be defined.
In order to allow a convenient setup for the system with equal TX channel spacing,
the value of TX spacing 1-2 will be copied in all the spacing below after entry, the TX
spacing 2-3 will be copied in all the spacing below after entry and so forth.
For different spacings, a setup from top to bottom is necessary.
4.104
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
If the spacings are not equal, the channel distribution according to the center
frequency is as follows:
•
Odd number of TX channels:
The middle TX channel is centered to center frequency.
•
Even number of TX channels:
The two TX channels in the middle are used to calculate the frequency between
those two channels. This frequency is aligned to the center frequency.
Adjacent channels
Since all the adjacent channels often have the same distance to each other, the
entry of the adjacent-channel spacing (ADJ) causes channel spacing ALT1 to be set
to twice and channel spacing ALT2 to three times the adjacent-channel spacing (and
so on). Thus only one value needs to be entered in case of equal channel spacing.
The same holds true for the ALT2 channels when the bandwidth of the ALT1 channel is entered.
The channel spacings can be set separately by overwriting the table from top to
bottom.
If the ACP or MCACP measurement is started, all settings according to the standard including the channel bandwidths and channel spacings are set and can be
adjusted afterwards.
Remote command:
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
SENS:POW:ACH:SPAC:CHAN 20kHz
SENS:POW:ACH:SPAC:ACH 20kHz
SENS:POW:ACH:SPAC:ALT1 40kHz
SENS:POW:ACH:SPAC:ALT2 60kHz
...
4.105
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
ACP REF
SETTINGS
The ACP REF SETTINGS softkey opens a table for selecting the transmission channel to which the adjacent-channel relative power values should be referenced.
TX CHANNEL 1 - 12
Selection of one of the channels.
MIN POWER TX
CHANNEL
The transmission channel with the lowest power is used as
a reference channel.
MAX POWER TX
CHANNEL
The transmission channel with the highest power is used as
a reference channel.
LOWEST & HIGHEST The outer left hand transmission channel is the reference
CHANNEL
channel for the lower adjacent channels, the outer right
hand transmission channel that for the upper adjacent channels.
The softkey is available only for multi carrier ACP measurements.
Remote command:
CP/ACP
(ABS REL)
SENS:POW:ACH:REF:TXCH:MAN 1
SENS:POW:ACH:REF:TXCH:AUTO MIN
The CP ACP (ABS REL) softkey (channel power absolute/relative) switches
between absolute and relative power measurement in the channel.
CP/ACP ABS
The absolute power in the transmission channel and in the adjacent
channels is displayed in the unit of the y-axis, e.g. in dBm, dBmV.
CP/ACP REL
For adjacent-channel power measurements (NO. OF ADJ CHAN >
0), the level of the adjacent channels is displayed relative to the
level of the transmission channel in dBc.
For channel power measurements (NO. OF ADJ CHAN = 0) with a
single carrier, the power of the transmission channel is displayed
relative to the power of a reference channel defined by SET CP
REFERENCE. This means:
1. Declare the power of the currently measured channel as the
reference value, using the SET CP REFERENCE softkey.
2. Select the channel of interest by varying the channel frequency
(R&S FSQ center frequency).
With linear scaling of the y-axis, the power of the new channel relative to the reference channel (CP/CPref) is displayed. With dB scaling, the logarithmic ratio 10lg (CP/CPref) is displayed.
The relative channel power measurement can thus also be used for
universal adjacent-channel power measurements. Each channel
can be measured individually.
Remote command:
4.106
SENS:POW:ACH:MODE ABS
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
CHAN PWR / HZ
The CHAN PWR / HZ softkey toggles between the measurement of the total channel power and the measurement of the channel power referenced to a 1-Hz bandwidth.
1
Channel Bandwidth
The conversion factor is 10 ⋅ lg -----------------------------------------------
By means of this function it is possible e.g. to measure the signal/noise power density or use the additional functions CP/ACP REL and SET CP REFERENCE to
obtain the signal to noise ratio.
Remote command:
POWER MODE
CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:RES:PHZ ON|OFF
The POWER MODE softkey opens the submenu for selecting the power mode.
CLEAR/WRITE
MAX HOLD
CLEAR/WRITE
In the CLEAR/WRITE mode the channel power and the adjacent channel powers
are calculated directly from the current trace (default mode).
MAX HOLD
In MAX HOLD mode the power values are still derived from the current trace, but
they are compared with the previous power value using a maximum algorithm. The
higher value is remained.
MAX HOLD mode is only applicable if the number of adjacent channels is > 0
Remote command:
ADJUST
SETTINGS
CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:MODE WRIT|MAXH
The ADJUST SETTINGS softkey automatically optimizes the instrument settings for
the selected power measurement (see below).
All instrument settings relevant for a power measurement within a specific frequency
range (channel bandwidth) are optimized for the selected channel configuration
(channel bandwidth, channel spacing):
•
Frequency span:
The frequency span should cover at least all channels to be considered in a
measurement.
For channel power measurements, the frequency span is set as follows:
(No. of transmission channels - 1) × transmission channel spacing +
2 × transmission channel bandwidth + measurement margin
For adjacent-channel power measurements, the frequency span is set as a
function of the number of transmission channels, the transmission channel
spacing, the adjacent-channel spacing, and the bandwidth of one of adjacentchannels ADJ, ALT1 or ALT2, whichever is furthest away from the transmission
channels:
(No. of transmission channels - 1) × transmission channel spacing +
2 × (adjacent-channel spacing + adjacent-channel bandwidth) + measurement
margin
The measurement margin is approx. 10% of the value obtained by adding the
channel spacing and the channel bandwidth.
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
4.107
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
•
Resolution bandwidth: RBW ≤ 1/40 of channel bandwidth
•
Video bandwidth: VBW ≥ 3 × RBW
•
Detector: RMS detector
Trace math and trace averaging functions are switched off.
The reference level is not influenced by ADJUST SETTINGS. It can be separately
adjusted with ADJUST REF LVL.
The adjustment is carried out only once; if necessary, the instrument settings can be
changed later.
Remote command:
ACP LIMIT
CHECK
The ACP LIMIT CHECK softkey switches the limit check for the ACP measurement
on and off.
Remote command:
EDIT ACP
LIMITS
SENS:POW:ACH:PRES ACP|CPOW|MCAC|OBW
CALC:LIM:ACP ON
CALC:LIM:ACP:ACH:RES?
CALC:LIM:ACP:ALT:RES?
The EDIT ACP LIMITS softkey opens a table for defining the limits for the ACP measurement.
The following rules apply for the limits:
•
A separate limit can be defined for each adjacent channel. The limit applies to both
the upper and the lower adjacent channel.
•
A relative and/or absolute limit can be defined. The check of both limit values can
be activated independently.
•
The R&S FSQ checks adherence to the limits irrespective of whether the limits are
absolute or relative or whether the measurement is carried out with absolute or
relative levels. If both limits are active and if the higher of both limit values is
exceeded, the measured value is marked accordingly.
Measured values exceeding the limit are marked by a preceding asterisk.
4.108
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
Remote command:
WEIGHTING
FILTER
CALC:LIM:ACP ON
CALC:LIM:ACP:ACH 0dB,0dB
CALC:LIM:ACP:ACH:STAT ON
CALC:LIM:ACP:ACH:ABS –10dBm,-10dBm
CALC:LIM:ACP:ACH:ABS:STAT ON
CALC:LIM:ACP:ALT1 0dB,0dB
CALC:LIM:ACP:ALT1:STAT ON
CALC:LIM:ACP:ALT1:ABS –10dBm,-10dBm
CALC:LIM:ACP:ALT1:ABS:STAT ON
CALC:LIM:ACP:ALT2 0dB,0dB
CALC:LIM:ACP:ALT2:STAT ON
CALC:LIM:ACP:ALT2:ABS –10dBm,-10dBm
CALC:LIM:ACP:ALT2:ABS:STAT ON
The softkey WEIGHTING FILTER opens a dialog to specify the filter configuration
parameter for all TX Channels and Adjacent Channels.
Some of the digital standards specify weighting filter to be taken into account. In that
case the required filter is implicitely activated by the selection of the ACP standard.
The weighting filter parameters can be manually controlled for NORMAL ACP, if no
predefined standard is selected (standard NONE or USER). The softkey is not available for FAST ACP.
The dialog box contains the following paramaters:
•
TX CH: Toggles the weighting filter state. You can set a weighting filter for up to
18 TX channels and 11 alternate channels. If active, the channel is check marked.
•
Alpha: Specifies the roll-off factor of the weighting filter. The default value is 0.22.
Possible range is from 0 to 1.
Most of the standards require identical settings for all channels. It is sufficient to configure the first table entry (TX1) in that case. All the subsequent channels are
adjusted to the same value.
The filter settings can be set separately by overwriting the table from top to bottom
(TX1 -> TX2 -> TX3 -> (...) -> TX18 -> ADJ -> ALT1 -> (...) -> ALT12
To adjust the weigthing filter settings of a predefined standard:
•
Select the predefine standard (CP/ACP STANDARD)
•
Use SAVE AS USER STD to create an own user standard
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
4.109
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
•
Select this user standard (CP/ACP STANDARD USER) with the specified name
•
Change the weigthing filter configuration
•
Save the user standard again with SAVE AS USER STD
Note that in version 4.4x, it is possible to specifiy separate filter configuration for all
the TX channels and all the ADJ channels. As of firmware version 4.5x, the separate
weigthing filter configurations are supported for the Multicarrier ACP measurement
as well.
Remote command:
ADJ REFLVL
OFFSET
see SENSe:POWer Subsystem
Defines an additional level offset to the measured mean power to be taken into
account for the analyzer's reference level setting.
It is a modification to the ADJUST REF LEVEL function specific to user standards.
Proceed as follows to adjust the offset value for a predefined standard:
➢ Select a predefine standard with the CP/ACP STANDARD
➢ Create a new user standards with SAVE AS USER STD
➢ Select the user standard you just created with SELECT USER STD
➢ Change the offset
➢ Save the user standard again to keep the current settings.
Remote command:
SELECT TRACE
POW:ACH:PRES:RLEV:OFFS 10dB
The SELECT TRACE softkey selects the trace on which the CP/ACP measurement
is to be performed. Only activated traces can be selected, i.e. traces not set to
BLANK.
Remote command:
SENS:POW:TRAC 1
Measurement of adjacent-channel power for a specific standard:
The adjacent-channel power is to be measured for a signal at 800 MHz with 0 dBm
level in line with IS136.
4.110
[PRESET]
Set the R&S FSQ to the default setting.
[FREQ: CENTER:
800 MHz]
Set the center frequency to 800 MHz.
[AMPT: 0 dBm]
Set the reference level to 0 dBm.
[MEAS]
Call the menu for the measurement functions.
[CHAN PWR / ACP]
Select the channel and adjacent-channel power measurement function. The measurement is performed with the
default settings or a previously defined setting. The submenu for setting the desired new configuration is opened.
[CP/ACP STANDARD:
select IS136: ENTER]
Select the NADC (IS136) standard.
[CP/ACP CONFIG]
Call the submenu for configuration of the adjacent-channel power measurement.
[NO. OF ADJ CHAN: 2
ENTER]
Select two adjacent channels for the measurement, i.e.
the adjacent channel and the alternate channel are measured.
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
[ADJUST SETTINGS]
PREV
[ADJUST REF LVL]
Set the optimum span, resolution bandwidth (RBW), video
bandwidth (VBW) and detector automatically for the measurement. The absolute channel power and the relative
power of the adjacent channels are displayed on the
screen.
Change to the main menu for channel power measurement.
Set the reference level equal to the channel power measured.
Measurement with user-specific channel configuration:
Measurement of the adjacent-channel power ratio (ACPR) of an IS95 CDMA signal
at 800 MHz, level 0 dBm. Similar to example 1, the setting can be simplified by using
CP/ACP STANDARD.
[PRESET]
Set the R&S FSQ to the default setting.
[FREQ: CENTER: 800
MHz]
Set the center frequency to 800 MHz.
[AMPT: 0 dBm]
Set the reference level to 0 dBm.
[MEAS]
Call the menu for the measurement functions.
[CHAN PWR / ACP]
Select the channel and adjacent-channel power measurement function. The measurement is carried out with the
default settings or a previously defined setting. The submenu for setting the desired new configuration is opened.
[CP/ACP CONFIG]
Call the submenu for defining the channel configuration.
[NO. OF ADJ CHAN:
2 ENTER]
Select two adjacent channels for the measurement, i.e.
the adjacent channel and the alternate channel are measured.
Set the channel bandwidth to 1.23 MHz in accordance
[CHANNEL
BANDWIDTH: 1.23 MHz: with IS 95. Set the adjacent-channel bandwidth to 30 kHz.
Ud: 30 kHz]
Upon entry of 30 kHz for the adjacent channel the alternate channels are also set to 30 kHz.
[CHAN SPACING: 1.25 Open the list for entering the channel spacings.
MHz:Ud 885 kHz: Ud: 1.98 MHz] Ud: 2.97 MHz]
Upon entry of 885 kHz for the adjacent channel the channels ALT1 and ALT2 are set to 1770 kHz and 2655 kHz.
Upon entry of 1.98 MHz for the alternate channel 1 the
alternate channel 2 is set to 2.97 MHz.
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
4.111
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
[ADJUST SETTINGS]
PREV
[ADJUST REF LVL]
Automatically set the optimum span (= 5 MHz), resolution
bandwidth (RBW = 30 kHz), video bandwidth (VBW = 300
kHz) and detector (RMS) for the measurement. The absolute channel power and the relative power of the adjacent
channels and alternate channels are displayed on the
screen.
Go to the main menu for channel power measurement.
Set the reference level equal to the channel power measured.
Measurement of signal/noise power density (C/No) of an IS95 CDMA signal
(frequency 800 MHz, level 0 dBm)
[PRESET]
Set the R&S FSQ to the default setting.
[FREQ: CENTER:
800 MHz]
Set the center frequency to 800 MHz.
[AMPT: 0 dBm]
Set the reference level to 0 dBm.
MEAS]
Call the menu for the measurement functions.
[CHAN PWR / ACP]
Select the channel and adjacent-channel power measurement. The measurement is performed with the default setting or a previously defined setting. The submenu for
setting the desired new configuration is opened.
[CP/ACP CONFIG]
Call the submenu for defining the channel configuration.
[NO. OF ADJ CHAN: 0
ENTER]
Do not select an adjacent channel for the measurement,
i.e. the measurement is carried out in one channel only.
[CHANNEL
Set the channel bandwidth to 1.23 MHz in line with IS95.
BANDWIDTH: 1.23 MHz]
[ADJUST SETTINGS]
PREV
[ADJUST REF LVL]
Set the optimum span (= 5 MHz), resolution bandwidth
(RBW = 30 kHz), video bandwidth (VBW = 300 kHz) and
detector (RMS) for the measurement automatically. The
absolute channel power and the relative power of the
adjacent channels and alternate channels are displayed
on the screen.
Go to the main menu for channel power measurement
Set the reference level equal to the channel power measured.
[SET CP REFERENCE] Set the measured channel power as a reference for the
subsequent measurements.
4.112
[CP/ACP ABS / REL]
Select relative measurement related to the reference
power set with SET REFERENCE (result 0 dB).
[CHAN PWR / HZ]
Select power measurement related to 1 Hz bandwidth
(result -60.9 dB).
[FREQ: CENTER: 805
MHz]
Set the center frequency to 805 MHz. The R&S FSQ measures the channel power at 1.23 MHz bandwidth and outputs the result in dB relative to the reference power and 1
Hz bandwidth.
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
4.5.12.3
Measurement of Occupied Bandwidth
An important characteristics of a modulated signal is its occupied bandwidth. In a
radio communications system for instance the occupied bandwidth must be limited
to enable distortion-free transmission in adjacent channels. The occupied bandwidth
is defined as the bandwidth containing a defined percentage of the total transmitted
power. A percentage between 10% and 99.9% can be set on the R&S FSQ.
OCCUPIED
BANDWIDTH
OCCUP BW (ON OFF)
% POWER BANDWIDTH
CHANNEL BANDWIDTH
ADJUST REF LVL
ADJUST SETTINGS
The OCCUPIED BANDWIDTH softkey activates measurement of the occupied
bandwidth according to the current configuration and opens the submenu for configuring the measurement. The softkey is available only in frequency domain (span >
0) and is highlighted when the measurement is switched on.
In the spectrum display mode, this measurement determines the bandwidth that
contains a predefined percentage of the power of the displayed frequency range (%
POWER BANDWIDTH softkey). The occupied bandwidth is output in the marker display field and marked on the trace by temporary markers.
OCCUP BW
(ON OFF)
•
The softkey is only available in the frequency domain (span > 0).
•
The measurement is performed on the trace with marker 1. In order to evaluate
another trace, marker 1 must be placed on another trace by means of SELECT
TRACE in the MARKER menu
The OCCUP BW ON/OFF softkey switches measurement of the occupied bandwidth on or off.
Remote command:
% POWER
BANDWIDTH
CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:SEL OBW
CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:RES? OBW
CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW OFF
The % POWER BANDWIDTH softkey opens the entry of the percentage of power
related to the total power in the displayed frequency range which defines the occupied bandwidth (percentage of total power).
The valid range of values is 10% to 99.9%.
Remote command:
CHANNEL
BANDWIDTH
SENS:POW:BWID 99PCT
The CHANNEL BANDWIDTH softkey opens an input window for defining the channel bandwidth for the transmission channel. For measurements in line with a specific
transmission standard, the bandwidth specified by the standard for the transmission
channel must be entered. The default setting is 14 kHz.
The specified channel bandwidth is used for optimization of the test parameters of
the R&S FSQ with ADJUST SETTINGS.
Remote command:
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
SENS:POW:ACH:BWID 14kHz
4.113
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
ADJUST REF
LVL
The ADJUST REF LVL softkey adjusts the reference level of the R&S FSQ to the
measured total power of the signal. The softkey is activated after the first sweep with
the measurement of the occupied bandwidth has been completed and the total
power of the signal is thus known.
Adjusting the reference level ensures that the signal path of the R&S FSQ will not be
overloaded and the dynamic range not limited by too low a reference level.
Since the measurement bandwidth for channel power measurements is significantly
lower than the signal bandwidth, the signal path may be overloaded although the
trace is distinctly below the reference level. If the measured channel power is equal
to the reference level, the signal path cannot be overloaded.
Remote command:
ADJUST
SETTINGS
SENS:POW:ACH:PRES:RLEV
The ADJUST SETTINGS softkey optimizes the instrument settings for the measurement of the occupied bandwidth according to the specified channel bandwidth.
All instrument settings relevant for power measurement within a specific frequency
range are optimized:
•
frequency span: 3 × channel bandwidth
•
resolution bandwidth: RBW ≤ 1/40 of channel bandwidth
•
video bandwidth: VBW ≥ 3 × RBW
•
detector: RMS
The reference level is not influenced by ADJUST SETTINGS. For an optimum
dynamic range it should be selected in a way that the signal maximum is close to the
reference level. The adjustment is carried out only once; if necessary, the instrument
settings may be changed later.
Remote command:
SENS:POW:ACH:PRES OBW
Measurement principle
For example, the bandwidth containing 99% of the signal power is to be determined.
The routine first calculates the total power of all displayed points of the trace. In the
next step, the points from the right edge of the trace are summed up until 0.5% of
the total power is reached. Auxiliary marker 1 is positioned at the corresponding frequency. Then the R&S FSQ sums up the points from the left edge of the trace until
0.5% of the power is reached. Auxiliary marker 2 is positioned at this point. 99% of
the power is now between the two markers. The distance between the two frequency markers is the occupied bandwidth which is displayed in the marker info
field.
A prerequisite for correct measurement is that only the signal to be measured is visible on the screen of the R&S FSQ. An additional signal would invalidate the measurement.
To ensure correct power measurement especially for noise signals and to obtain the
correct occupied bandwidth, the following settings should be selected:
4.114
RBW
<< occupied bandwidth (approx. 1/20 of occupied bandwidth, for voice
communication type. 300 Hz or 1 kHz)
VBW
≥ 3 × RBW
Detector
RMS or sample
Span
≥2 to 3 × occupied bandwidth
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
Some of the measurement specifications (e.g. PDC, RCR STD-27B) require measurement of the occupied bandwidth using a peak detector. The detector setting of
the R&S FSQ has to be changed accordingly then.
Example
Measurement of occupied bandwidth of a PDC signal at 800 MHz, level 0 dBm
[PRESET]
Set the R&S FSQ to the default setting.
[FREQ: CENTER: 800
MHz]
Set the center frequency to 800 MHz.
[AMPT: 0 dBm]
Set the reference level to 0 dBm.
[MEAS]
Call the menu for the measurement functions.
[OCCUPIED
BANDWIDTH]
Select measurement of the occupied bandwidth and open
the submenu for configuring the measurement.
[% POWER
BANDWIDTH: 99%]
Select 99% for the bandwidth to be measured.
[CHANNEL
BANDWIDTH: 21 kHz]
Enter the channel bandwidth of 21 kHz specified by PDC.
[ADJUST SETTINGS]
Optimize the measurement parameters for the specified
channel bandwidth.
Allow for a complete frequency sweep so that the
R&S FSQ can determine the total signal power.
[ADJUST REF LVL]
Adjust the reference level to the measured signal power.
[TRACE: DETECTOR:
PDC requires measurement of the occupied bandwidth
using a
DETECTOR MAX PEAK] peak detector. Therefore, switch on the peak detector
instead of the RMS detector selected by ADJUST SETTINGS.
4.5.12.4
Measurement of Signal Amplitude Statistics
Digital modulated signals are similar to white noise within the transmit channel, but
are different in their amplitude distribution. In order to transmit the modulated signal
without distortion all amplitudes of the signal have to be transmitted linearly, e.g.
from the output power amplifier. Most critical are the peak amplitude values, of
course.
Degradation in transmit quality caused by a transmitter two port network is dependent on the amplitude of the peak values as well as on their probability.
The probability of amplitude values can be measured with the APD function (Amplitude Probability Distribution). During a selectable measurement time all occurring
amplitude values are assigned to an amplitude range. The number of amplitude values in the specific ranges is counted and the result is displayed as a histogram.
Each bar of the histogram represents the percentage of measured amplitudes within
the specific amplitude range.
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
4.115
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
video
voltage
ADC
address
RAM
read
write
clock
logic
CPU
display
Fig. 4.9 Simplified block diagram for APD measurement
Fig. 4.10 Display of the amplitude probability distribution
Fig. 4.11 Display of the complementary cumulative distribution function (CCDF)
Alternate to the histogram display of the APD the Complementary Cumulative Distribution Function (CCDF) can be displayed. It shows the probability of an amplitude
exceeding a specific value.
For the APD function the x-axis is scaled in absolute values in dBm, whereas for the
CCDF function the x-axis is scaled relative to the MEAN POWER measured.
4.116
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
Definitions:
Crest factor = peak voltage to rms
CCDF = complementary cumulative distribution function
During an active statistic measurement, the functions FULL SCREEN,
SPLIT SCREEN and selection of the active diagram via the SCREEN A / SCREEN
B hotkeys are disabled.
SIGNAL
STATISTIC
The SIGNAL STATISTIC softkey opens a submenu for measurement of signal
statistics.
APD (ON OFF)
CCDF (ON OFF)
PERCENT MARKER
RES BW
NO OF SAMPLES
SCALING !
X-AXIS REF LEVEL
X-AXIS RANGE
Y-UNIT (% ABS)
Y-AXIS MAX VALUE
Y-AXIS MIN VALUE
ADJUST SETTINGS
DEFAULT SETTINGS
MEAN PWR POSITION
ADJUST SETTINGS
CONT MEAS
SINGLE MEAS
Side menu
GATED TRIGGER
GATE RANGES
In the submenu measurement of amplitude probability density (APD) and complementary cumulative distribution (CCDF) can be selected alternately. Only one of the
signal statistic functions can be switched on at a time.
In default mode all statistic functions are switched off.
With a statistic function switched on the R&S FSQ is set into zero span mode automatically.
The R&S FSQ measures the statistics of the signal applied to the RF input with the
resolution bandwidth set. In order not to influence the peak amplitudes the video
bandwidth is automatically set to 10 times the resolution bandwidth. The sample
detector is used for detecting the video voltage.
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
4.117
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
APD (ON OFF)
The APD (ON OFF) softkey switches on or off the amplitude probability distribution
function. When the APD function is switched on, the CCDF function is switched off
automatically.
Remote command:
CCDF (ON OFF)
The CCDF (ON OFF) softkey switches on or off the complementary cumulative distribution function. When the CCDF function is switched on, the APD function is
switched off automatically.
Remote command:
PERCENT
MARKER
CALC:STAT:APD ON
CALC:STAT:CCDF ON
The PERCENT MARKER softkey positions marker 1 on a particular probability
value. Thus, the power which is exceeded with a given probability can be determined very easily.
If marker 1 is in the switched-off state, it will be switched on automatically.
Remote command:
RES BW
CALC:MARK:Y:PERC 0...100%
The RES BW softkey sets the resolution bandwidth in the menu STATISTIC FUNCTION directly without switching to the corresponding menu (BW). The function of the
softkey is identical to the softkey RES BW MANUAL in the BW menu.
For correct measurement of the signal statistics the resolution bandwidth has to be
wider than the signal bandwidth in order to transmit the actual peaks of the signal
amplitude correctly. Video bandwidth is set to 10 MHz automatically with a statistic
function switched on.
Remote command:
NO OF
SAMPLES
BAND 3 MHz
The NO OF SAMPLES softkey sets the number of power measurements taken into
account for the statistics.
Please note that the overall measurement time is influenced by the number of samples selected as well as by the resolution bandwidth set up for the measurement as
the resolution bandwidth directly influences the sampling rate.
Remote command:
SCALING
CALC:STAT:NSAM <value>
The SCALING softkey opens a submenu that allows changing the scaling parameters for both the x- and the y-axis.
X-AXIS REF LEVEL
X-AXIS RANGE
Y-UNIT (% ABS)
Y-AXIS MAX VALUE
Y-AXIS MIN VALUE
ADJUST SETTINGS
DEFAULT SETTINGS
MEAN PWR POSITION
4.118
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R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
X-AXIS REF
LEVEL
The X-AXIS REF LEVEL softkey changes the level settings of the instrument and
sets the maximum power to be measured.
The function is identical to softkey REF LEVEL in AMPT menu.
For the APD function this value is mapped to the right diagram border. For the
CCDF function there is no direct representation of this value on the diagram as the
x-axis is scaled relatively to the MEAN POWER measured.
Remote command:
X-AXIS RANGE
CALC:STAT:SCAL:X:RLEV <value>
The X-AXIS RANGE softkey changes the level range to be covered by the statistics
measurement selected.
The function is identical to softkey RANGE LOG MANUAL in AMPT menu.
Remote command:
Y-UNIT (% ABS)
CALC:STAT:SCAL:X:RANG <value>
The softkey Y-UNIT (% ABS) defines the scaling type on the y-axis. The default
case are the absolute probability. This can be changed to percent values. The softkeys Y-AXIS MIN and Y-AXIS MAX are using values based on the Y-UNIT setting.
Remote command:
CALC:STAT:SCAL:Y:UNIT PCT | ABS
The 0.01%, 0.1%, 1% and 10% value from the CCDF measurement are shown in
the bottom screen half. Those values can also queried via remote:
Remote command:
Y-AXIS MAX
VALUE
CALC:STAT:CCDF:X? P0_01 | P0_1 |
P1 | P10
The Y-AXIS MAX VALUE softkey defines the upper limit of the displayed probability
range.
Values on the y-axis are normalized which means that the maximum value is 1.0. As
the y-axis scaling has a logarithmic axis the distance between max and min value
must be at least one decade.
Remote command:
Y-AXIS MIN
VALUE
CALC:STAT:SCAL:Y:UPP <value>
The Y-AXIS MIN VALUE softkey defines the lower limit of the displayed probability
range.
As the y-axis scaling has a logarithmic axis the distance between max and min value
must be at least one decade. Valid values are in the range 0 < value < 1.
Remote command:
ADJUST
SETTINGS
CALC:STAT:SCAL:Y:LOW <value>
The ADJUST SETTINGS softkey optimizes the level settings of the R&S FSQ
according to the measured peak power in order to gain maximum sensitivity of the
instrument.
The level range is adjusted according to the measured difference between peak and
minimum power for APD measurement and peak and mean power for CCDF measurement in order to obtain maximum power resolution.
Remote command:
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
CALC:STAT:SCAL:AUTO ONCE
4.119
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
DEFAULT
SETTINGS
The DEFAULT SETTINGS softkey resets the x- and y-axis scalings to their PRESET
values.
•
x-axis ref level: -20 dBm
•
x-axis range APD: 100 dB
•
x-axis range CCDF: 20 dB
•
y-axis upper limit: 1.0
•
y-axis lower limit: 1E-6
Remote command:
MEAN PWR
POSITION
Defines the relative X position of the mean power value for the CCDF measurement.
The default position is 0% (left corner of the grid). This softkey is available if the
CCDF measurement is switched on.
Remote command:
ADJUST
SETTINGS
CONT MEAS
CALC:STAT:SCAL:X:MPOS <numeric_value>
see “ADJUST SETTINGS” on page 4.119
The CONT MEAS softkey starts collecting a new sequence of sample data and calculating the APD or CCDF curve depending on the selected measurement. The next
measurement is started automatically as soon as the indicated number of samples
has been reached.
Remote command:
SINGLE MEAS
CALC:STAT:PRES
INIT:CONT ON;
INIT:IMM
The SINGLE MEAS softkey starts collecting a new sequence of sample data and
calculating the APD or CCDF curve depending on the selected measurement. At the
beginning of the measurement previously obtained measurement results are discarded.
Remote command:
INIT:CONT OFF;
INIT:IMM
Hint for usage of the marker functions with measurement of signal
statistics
With the signal statistic measurement level always is displayed on x-axis. Y-axis
always is a normalized value between 0 and 1. In contrary to use of marker in frequency or time domain marker is input in level values and the output is in percentage values.
Example
Measurement of CCDF of a IS95 BTS signal, level 0 dBm, frequency 800 MHz
4.120
[PRESET]
Switch on preset settings.
[FREQ: CENTER: 800
MHz]
Set center frequency to 800 MHz.
[AMPT: 10 dBm]
Set reference level to 10 dBm.
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
GATED
TRIGGER
[BW: 3 MHz]
Set resolution bandwidth to 3 MHz (resolution bandwidth
shall be wider then signal bandwidth (1.25 MHz) in order
to have the complete signal within the resolution bandwidth).
[MEAS]
Call the menu for measurement functions.
[SIGNAL STATISTIC]
Call the menu for signal statistics measurement.
[CCDF ON /OFF]
Switch on measurement of the complementary cumulative
distribution function. The R&S FSQ switches to zero span
mode. The power of the signal and the CCDF is calculated
for the number of samples selected. With the CCDF function sample detector and video bandwidth are set automatically.
[NO OF SAMPLES:
10000]
Set the number of measurement samples to 10000.
[SINGLE MEAS]
Start the measurement sequence. At the end the resulting
trace will display the CCDF for the measured 10000 samples.
Statistic measurements on pulsed signals can be done using the GATED TRIGGER
softkey. An external frame trigger is required as a time (frame) reference.
The gate ranges define the part of the I/Q capture data taken into account for the
statistics calculation.
These ranges are defined relative to a reference point T=0. The gate interval is
repeated every period time until the end of the I/Q capture buffer.
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
4.121
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
The reference point T=0 is defined by the external trigger event and the instrument's
trigger offset.
GATED TRIGGER activates the gating for statistics functions. The trigger source is
changed to EXTERN if this function is switched on.
The I/Q data capturing is repeated until the configured number of valid samples is
reached. If the active gate period is outside the I/Q capture buffer or the resulting
gate time is zero the measurement will not reach its end. In this case, the range
start and stop values have to be checked.
Remote command:
GATE RANGES
SWE:EGAT ON
The GATED RANGES softkey opens a table to configure up to 3 gate ranges for
each trace.
Comment
Comment string
Period
Period of the signal to be measured
Range x Start
Begin of time period to be taken into account
Range x Stop
End of time period to be taken into account
Use Range
YES / NO: Allows to temporarily disable a range
The timing values have full numerical resolution and are only rounded for display.
Remote command:
4.122
SWE:EGAT:TRACE<1..3>:COMM
SWE:EGAT:TRACE<1..3>:STAT<1..3> ON
SWE:EGAT:TRACE<1..3>:STAR<1..3> <value>
SWE:EGAT:TRACE<1..3>:STOP<1..3> <value>
SWE:EGAT:TRACE<1..3>:PER <value>
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
Gated statistics configuration example:
A statistics evaluation has to be done over the useful part of the signal between t3
and t4. The period of the GSM signal is 4.61536 ms
t1
External positive trigger slope
t2
Begin of burst (after 25 µs)
t3
Begin of useful part, to be used for statistics (after 40 µs)
t4
End of useful part, to be used for statistics (after 578 µs)
t5
End of burst (after 602 µs)
The instrument has to be configured as follows:
Trigger Offset
t2 - t1 = 25 µs now the gate ranges are relative to t2
Range 1 Start
t3 - t2 = 15 µs start of range 1 relative to t2
Range 1 End
t4 - t2 = 553 µs end of range 1 relative to t2
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
4.123
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
4.5.12.5
Measurement of Carrier/Noise Ratio C/N and C/No
Using the carrier/noise measurement function, the R&S FSQ determines the C/N
ratio which can also be shown normalized to a 1 Hz bandwidth (function C/No).
To determine the noise power, a channel at the set center frequency is examined.
The bandwidth of the channel is fixed by means of the CHANNEL BANDWIDTH
function.
The largest signal in the frequency span is the carrier. It is searched when the function is activated and is marked by means of the REFERENCE FIXED marker. The
noise power of the channel is subtracted from the signal level obtained (C/N), and in
the case of a C/No measurement it is referred to a 1 Hz bandwidth.
There are two methods for measuring the carrier/noise ratio:
1. The carrier is outside the channel examined:
In this case, it is sufficient to switch on the desired measurement function and to
set the channel bandwidth. The carrier/noise ratio is displayed on the screen.
2. The carrier is inside the channel examined:
In this case, the measurement must be performed in two steps. First, the
reference measurement is performed with the carrier being active. This is done by
switching on either the C/N or the C/No measurement and waiting for the end of
the next measurement run. Then, the carrier is switched off so that only the noise
of the test setup is active in the channel. The carrier/noise ratio is displayed after
the subsequent measurement has been completed.
The ADJUST SETTINGS function facilitates the selection of the frequency span
appropriate for the channel bandwidth: it automatically sets the SPAN to approx. 4 ×
channel bandwidth.
The RMS detector is enabled when the power measurement is switched on
(TRACE-DETECTOR-RMS).
C/N /
C/NO
The C/N C/NO softkey opens the submenu for configuring the carrier/noise ratio
measurement.
C/N / C/NO
CHANNEL BANDWIDTH
ADJUST SETTINGS
The user can choose between measurement without (C/N) and measurement with
reference to the bandwidth (C/No). In addition, it is possible to select the bandwidth
of the channel and to adapt the span.
The measurements are only available in the frequency domain (span >0).
C/N /
C/NO
The C/N and C/NO softkeys enable and disable the measurement of the carrier/
noise ratio, the C/No measurement also being referred to a 1 Hz bandwidth.
The maximum value of the current trace is determined when the function is activated
and is marked by means of the REFERENCE FIXED marker.
4.124
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R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
The measurement is performed on the trace where MARKER 1 is located. To measure another trace, MARKER 1 has to be shifted to the trace in question using the
SELECT TRACE softkey in the MARKER menu.
If no marker is active, MARKER 1 is activated when the function is switched on.
Remote command:
CHANNEL
BANDWIDTH
CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:SEL CN
CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:RES? CN
CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:SEL CN0
CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:RES? CN0
CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW OFF
The CHANNEL BANDWIDTH softkey opens a window for selecting the measurement channel bandwidth.
If the bandwidth of the adjacent channel is changed, the bandwidths of all subsequent channels are automatically set to the same value.
The default setting is 14 kHz.
The specified channel bandwidth allows the optimal setting of the measurement
parameters of the R&S FSQ using ADJUST SETTINGS.
Remote command:
ADJUST
SETTINGS
SENS:POW:ACH:BWID 14kHz
The ADJUST SETTINGS softkey adjusts the frequency span and selects the RMS
detector.
For the carrier/noise ratio measurement, the span is set to:
4 × channel bandwidth + measurement margin
The adjustment is performed once; if necessary, the setting can be changed later
on.
Remote command:
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
SENS:POW:ACH:PRES CN | CN0
4.125
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
4.5.12.6
MODULATION
DEPTH
Measurement of the AM Modulation Depth
The MODULATION DEPTH softkey switches on the measurement of the AM modulation depth. An AM-modulated carrier is required on the screen for ensuring correct
operation.
The level value of MARKER 1 is taken as the carrier level. When this function is activated, MARKER 2 and MARKER 3 are automatically set symmetrically to the carrier
on the adjacent peak values of the trace as delta markers and MARKER 2 is activated for the entry.
When the position of MARKER 2 (delta) is changed, MARKER 3 (delta) is moved
symmetrically with respect to the reference marker (MARKER 1).
If the data entry is activated for MARKER 3 (MARKER 1 2 3 4 softkey), the latter can
be moved for fine adjustment irrespective of MARKER 2.
The R&S FSQ calculates the power at the marker positions from the measured levels. The AM modulation depth is calculated from the ratio between the power values
at the reference marker and at the delta markers. When the powers of the two AM
side bands are unequal, the mean value of the two power values is used for AM
modulation depth calculation.
Measurement example
The AM modulation depth of a carrier modulated with 1 kHz is to be measured at
100 MHz.
[PRESET]
The R&S FSQ is set to the default setting.
[CENTER: 100 MHz]
The center frequency is set to 100 MHz.
[SPAN: 5 kHz]
The span is set to 5 kHz.
[AMPT: 0 dBm]
The reference level is set to 0 dBm.
[MKR FCTN]
MARKER 1 is switched on and positioned at the maximum
of the displayed trace.
[MODULATION DEPTH: The measurement of the AM modulation depth is switched
1 kHz]
on. MARKERS 2 and 3 (delta markers) are set to the adjacent peak values of the trace and are activated for the frequency entry.
The AM modulation depth is output in % in the marker info
field.
When 1 kHz is entered, MARKER 2 can be exactly positioned on 1 kHz and MARKER 3 at -1 kHz from the reference marker.
Remote command:
4.126
CALC:MARK:FUNC:MDEP ON;
CALC:MARK:FUNC:MDEP:RES?
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
4.5.12.7
Capturing IQ Data
The IQ Mode allows to capture I/Q data and save the IQ data to a file. In addition it is
possible to down convert a RF signal to the baseband and send a continous data
stream to the digital output (with option R&S B17).
The recall of a data set or a warm boot using an active IQ measurement mode is
only performed with the IQ Mode state switched to off and has to be manually
reactivated if required due to compatibility reasons.
IQ MODE
The IQ MODE softkey opens a submenu with the softkeys needed for the IQ Mode.
IQ MODE (ON OFF)
IQ SETTINGS
CENTER
CAPTURE & EXPORT
DIG IQ OUT STREAM
DIG IQ OUT DEFAULT
IQ MODE
(ON OFF)
The IQ MODE (ON OFF) softkey switches the I/Q Capture Mode ON or OFF.
Remote command:
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
TRAC:IQ:STAT ON | OFF
4.127
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
IQ SETTINGS
The IQ SETTINGS softkey opens a dialog box to enter various parameters to capture I/Q data.
•
IF FILTER BW: IF Filter Bandwidt
•
SAMPLE RATE: Sample Rate
•
TRIGGER SOURCE: Trigger Source (FREE RUN / EXTERN /IF POWER)
Use ENTER to change the current selection.
•
TRIGGER SLOPE: Trigger Slope (POSITIVE/NEGATIVE)
Use ENTER to change the current selection.
•
PRE TRIGGER SAMPLES: Number of Samples before trigger
•
NUMBER OF SAMPLES: Number of Samples
•
DATA FORMAT: Storage format (PAIR / BLOCK)
•
PAIR: I/Q pairs
•
BLOCK:I values first, Q values last
Use the AMPT key to configure the reference level and / or Attenuation settings. In
the SIGNAL SOURCE menu, you can select RF- or Analog Baseband input (with
option R&S FSQ-B71).
Remote command:
CENTER
The CENTER softkey specifies the center frequency. See also the description of the
CENTER softkey.
Remote command:
CAPTURE &
EXPORT
TRAC:IQ:STAT ON | OFF
TRAC:IQ:SET …
TRAC:IQ:DATA?
TRAC:IQ:DATA:MEM?
TRAC:IQ:DATA:FORM IQB | IQP
FREQ:CENT 4 GHZ
The CAPTURE & EXPORT softkey opens a dialog box to enter the file name to be
used to store the I/Q data capture. With ENTER the data capturing is started and the
data is stored in the specified file. The default path for the storage location is:
D:\R_S\INSTR\TEMP.
A message box "IQ capturing in progress" indicates the running capture process.
For a larger number of samples "Writing captured Samples to file" indicates the storage progress.
4.128
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R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
Before capturing the data, the R&S FSQ checks for available disk space. For a very
large number of samples the export file is split in several files. The file number is part
of the file extension in that case, e.g. ".d00" or ".d01" instead of *.dat. The maximum
number of I/Q samples per file is 50 GSamples (= 50*1024*1024 Samples). This
limit is only reachable with option R&S FSQ-B100.
Do not forget to remove unrequired capture data from harddisk. The analyzer
application needs available free disk space (e.g. for temporary file, save/recall
data).
Remote command:
DIG IQ OUT
STREAM
TRAC:IQ:STAT ON
TRAC:IQ:SET
TRAC:IQ:DATA
TRAC:IQ:DATA:MEM?
TRAC:IQ:DATA:FORM IQB | IQP
The DIG IQ OUT STREAM softkey switches the digital baseband data streaming on
and off. The softkey is only available if option R&S FSQ-B17 is installed and the RF
input is used as signal source.
To generate a continuous output stream of digital baseband data, the trigger source
EXTERNAL is used.
Note that it is not allowed to connect a trigger signal to the external trigger input. The
I/Q capture would be halted in that case.
Note also that if you perform a warm boot or recall data sets in I/Q mode, it is automatically deactivated. You have to manually reactivate I/Q mode if you recall a data
set or perform a warm boot in I/Q measurement mode. This is because of compatibility reasons.
Remote command:
DIG IQ OUT
DEFAULT
OUTP:DIQ:STAT ON
Sets the I/Q settings to following defaults:
•
IF Filter Bandwidth: 50 MHz
•
Sample Rate: 81.6 MHz
•
Trigger Source: EXTERN
•
Trigger Slope: POSITIVE
•
Pretrigger Samples: 0
•
Data Format: PAIR
It also activates the Digital Baseband Output. The softkey is only available if option
R&S FSQ-B17 is installed.
Remote command:
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
---
4.129
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
4.5.12.8
Measurement of the Third Order Intercept (TOI)
If several signals are applied to a transmission two port device with nonlinear characteristic, intermodulation products appear at its output by the sums and differences
of the signals. The nonlinear characteristic produces harmonics of the useful signals
which intermodulate at the characteristic. The intermodulation products of lower
order have a special effect since their level is largest and they are near the useful
signals. The intermodulation product of third order causes the highest interference.
It is the intermodulation product generated from one of the useful signals and the
2nd harmonic of the second useful signal in case of two-tone modulation.
The frequencies of the intermodulation products are above and below the useful signals. Fig. 4.12 Intermodulation products PU1 and PU2 shows intermodulation products PI1 and PI2 generated by the two useful signals PU1 and PU2.
P
U1
Level
P
U2
aD3
PI2
PI1
∆f
f
I1
∆f
f
U1
∆f
f
U2
f
I2
Frequency
Fig. 4.12 Intermodulation products PU1 and PU2
The intermodulation product at fI2 is generated by mixing the 2nd harmonic of useful
signal PU2 and signal PU1, the intermodulation product at fI1 by mixing the 2nd harmonic of useful signal PU1 and signal PU2.
fI1 = 2 × fU1 - fU2
(15)
fI2 = 2 × fU2 - fU1
(16)
The level of the intermodulation products depends on the level of the useful signals.
If the two useful signals are increased by 1 dB, the level of the intermodulation products increases by 3 dB, which means that spacing aD3 between intermodulation signals and useful signals is reduced by 2 dB. This is illustrated in Fig. 4.13
Dependence of intermodulation level on useful signal level.
4.130
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
Intercept point
Output
level
Compression
Intermodulation
product
Useful signal
3
1
1
1
Input level
Fig. 4.13 Dependence of intermodulation level on useful signal level
The useful signals at the two port output increase proportionally with the input level
as long as the two port is in the linear range. A level change of 1 dB at the input
causes a level change of 1 dB at the output. Beyond a certain input level, the two
port goes into compression and the output level stops increasing. The intermodulation products of the third order increase three times as much as the useful signals.
The intercept point is the fictitious level where the two lines intersect. It cannot be
measured directly since the useful level is previously limited by the maximum two
port output power.
It can be calculated from the known line slopes and the measured spacing aD3 at a
given level according to the following formula.
a D3
IP3 = -------- + P N
2
(17)
The 3rd order intercept point (TOI), for example, is calculated for an intermodulation
of 60 dB and an input level PU of -20 dBm according to the following formula:
60
IP3 – ------ + ( – 20dBm ) – 10dBm
2
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
(18)
4.131
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
TOI
The TOI softkey enables the measurement of the 3rd order intercept point.
A two-tone signal with equal carrier levels is expected at the R&S FSQ input.
MARKER 1 and MARKER 2 (both normal markers) are set to the maximum of the
two signals. MARKER 3 and MARKER 4 (both delta markers) are placed on the
intermodulation products. When the function is enabled, the frequency entry is activated for the delta markers. They can be set manually.
The R&S FSQ calculates the third order intercept from the level spacing between
normal markers and delta markers and outputs it in the marker info field.
Remote command:
CALC:MARK:FUNC:TOI ON;
CALC:MARK:FUNC:TOI:RES?
Example
A two-tone signal with frequencies of 100 MHz and 101 MHz is applied to the RF
input of the R&S FSQ. The level of the two signals is -10 dBm.
SELECT
MARKER
[PRESET]
The R&S FSQ is set to the default setting.
[CENTER: 100.5 MHz]
The center frequency is set to 100.5 MHz.
[SPAN: 3 MHz]
The span is set to 3 MHz.
[AMPT: -10 dBm]
The reference level is set to -10 dBm.
[MKR FCTN]
MARKER 1 is switched on and set to the signal peak.
[TOI]
The R&S FSQ sets the 4 markers to the useful signals and
the intermodulation products and calculates the third order
intercept. The result is output in the marker info field.
The SELECT MARKER softkey activates the selection of a marker for functions
MODULATION DEPTH and TOI. Thus, the markers can be fine-adjusted for these
functions.
The markers are numerically selected in a data entry field. Delta marker 1 is
selected by entering '0'.
If the marker is in the switch-off state, it will be switched on and can thus be shifted.
Remote command:
TOI MKR CALC
SRCH
CALC:MARK1 ON;
CALC:MARK1:X <value>;
CALC:MARK1:Y?
The TOI measurement is based on positioning the markers 3 and 4 onto the position
of the calculated intermodulation products. The accuracy of these frequency calculations depend on the precision of the two carrier frequencies found with peak search.
The softkey TOI MKR CALC SRCH allows to switch between the calculated marker
position (CALC) and perfoming a local peak search near the expected frequencies
(SRCH) instead of the faster position calculation.
By default, the faster CALC method is used.
Remote command:
4.132
CALC:MARK:FUNC:TOI:MARK CALC
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
4.5.12.9
HARMONIC
DISTOR
Harmonic Measurement
HARMONIC (ON OFF)
NO. OF HARMONICS
HARMONIC SWEEPTIME
HARMONIC RBW AUTO
ADJUST SETTINGS
The HARMONIC DISTOR softkey opens this submenu and activates the harmonic
distortion measurement.
In the upper screen the zero span sweeps on all harmonics are shown, separated by
a grid line. This allows a very good overview about the measurement. In the lower
screen the mean RMS results are displayed in numerical values and the THD values
can be seen in the marker info field.
The resolution bandwidth will be automatically adjusted: RBWn = RBW1 * n, if that
RBW is not available the next higher value is used.
The results can be obtained via the following remote commands:
Trace read out via the normal trace subsystem. The first harmonic frequency can be
read out via the center frequency command.
THD value comma separated in % and dB:
Remote command:
CALC:MARK:FUNC:HARM:DIST? TOT
Comma separated list of harmonic levels, for each harmonic one value:
Remote command:
HARMONIC
(ON OFF)
CALC:MARK:FUNC:HARM:LIST?
The HARMONIC (ON OFF) softkey activates the harmonic distortion measurement.
With this measurement it is possible to measure easily the harmonics e.g. from a
VCO. In addition the THD (total harmonic distortion) is calculated in % and dB.
There are 2 possible modes within the harmonic measurement. When entering the
harmonic measurement from a frequency sweep (span > 0 Hz) an automatic search
for the first harmonic is carried out within that given frequency range. Also a level
adjust will be carried out. Is the zero span mode active before entering the harmonic
measurement, the center frequency is unchanged.
Remote command:
CALC:MARK:FUNC:HARM:STAT ON | OFF
The results can be obtained via the following remote commands:
Trace read out via the normal trace subsystem. The first harmonic frequency can be
read out via the center frequency command.
THD value comma separated in % and dB:
Remote command:
CALC:MARK:FUNC:HARM:DIST? TOT
Comma separated list of harmonic levels, for each harmonic one value:
Remote command:
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
CALC:MARK:FUNC:HARM:LIST?
4.133
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
NO. OF
HARMONICS
With the softkey NO. OF HARMONICS the number of harmonics which shall be
measured can be adjusted. The range is from 1 to 26.
Remote command:
HARMONIC
SWEEPTIME
HARMONIC
RBW AUTO
ADJUST
SETTINGS
The HARMONIC SWEEPTIME softkey allows to set the value how long the zero
span measurement on each harmonic frequency shall take place. This is an alias
softkey to the normal sweep time of the zero span, therefore the same parser command is to be used.
The softkey HARMONIC RBW AUTO disables the resolution bandwidth.
Remote command:
CALC:MARK:FUNC:HARM:BAND:AUTO ON | OFF
The ADJUST SETTINGS softkey activates the frequency search in the frequency
range from before starting the harmonic measurement (if harmonic measurement
was started from frequency sweep) and the level adjust.
Remote command:
4.134
CALC:MARK:FUNC:HARM:NHAR <numerical
value>
CALC:MARK:FUNC:HARM:PRES
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
4.5.12.10
Measuring Spurious Emissions
All real amplifiers also generate unwanted RF products outside the assigned frequency band. These spurious emissions are usually measured across a wide frequency range, for example from 9 kHz to 7 GHz. The analyzer settings are specified
for each frequency range.
SPURIOUS
EMISSIONS
SPURIOUS (ON OFF)
SWEEP LIST !
EDIT SWEEP LIST
INS BEFORE RANGE
INS AFTER RANGE
DELETE RANGE
NEXT RANGES
PREVIOUS RANGES
ADJUST AXIS
START MEAS
STOP MEAS
LIST EVALUATION
IF SHIFT !
PAGE UP / PAGE DOWN
SAVE SWEEP LIST
LOAD SWEEP LIST
DELETE SWEEP LIST
START MEAS
STOP MEAS
Side menu
PEAK SEARCH
PEAKS PER RANGE
MARGIN
VIEW PEAK LIST !
SORT BY FREQUENCY
SORT BY DELTA LIM
ASCII FILE EXPORT
DECIM SEP
PAGE UP / PAGE DOWN
NOISE CORR (ON OFF)
In the Spurious Emissions measurement mode, the R&S FSQ performs measurements in predefined frequency ranges with settings that can be specified individually
for each of these ranges.
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
4.135
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
For this purpose, the SWEEP TABLE settings or the current device settings are
used. Up to 20 subranges can be defined (they need not directly follow one another)
across which the R&S FSQ sweeps in subsequent order. However, the measurement ranges must not overlap. The measurement parameters can be selected independently from each other in every subrange (SWEEP LIST menu, EDIT SWEEP
LIST).
Limit lines are defined and displayed irrespective of the sweep ranges, i.e. they are
not part of the sweep ranges. The unit of the limit lines is restricted to dB or dBm.
The frequency range where measurements are actually performed is set by the start
and stop frequency parameters of the R&S FSQ; these parameters are independent
of the sweep ranges. It is thus possible to define sweep ranges for a measurement
task that can be stored and reloaded and to quickly and easily set the frequency
range to be actually measured by means of two parameters; complex editing in the
sweep table is not necessary.
When a limit line is defined in steps, the weaker limit is used at the frequency point
with the straight vertical section.
SPURIOUS
(ON OFF)
The SPURIOUS (ON OFF) softkey switches the spurious emissions measurement
on or off according to the current configuration.
Remote command:
SWEEP LIST
The SWEEP LIST softkey opens a submenu where predefined sweep ranges can
be edited, or new ranges generated or deleted. A table listing the current sweep
ranges is displayed.
Remote command:
EDIT SWEEP
LIST
4.136
SWEEP:MODE LIST switches the spurious list on
SWEEP:MODE AUTO switches the spurious list off
--
The EDIT SWEEP LIST softkey opens the table for editing the sweep ranges.
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
In the SWEEP LIST table, the individual sweep ranges are set.
Range Start:
Start frequency of the range
Range Stop:
Stop frequency of the range
Filter Type:
NORMAL (3dB),CHANNEL, RRC, 5-POLE
RBW:
Resolution filter bandwidth
VBW:
Video filter bandwidth
VBW:
Video filter bandwidth; not applicable for CHANNEL and RRC
filters
Sweep Time Mode:
AUTO, MANUAL
Sweep Time:
Sweep time; if AUTO is indicated for the sweep time mode, the
automatically calculated sweep time is displayed. If the cell is
edited, the associated sweep time mode is automatically set to
MANUAL.
Detector:
Specifies the range detector:
AUTO PEAK, MAX PEAK, MIN PEAK, SAMPLE, RMS, AVERAGE
REF-Level:
Reference level in dBm
The upper edge of the displayed screen area is the value of
the maximum reference level, corrected by the associated
transducer factor.
RF-Attenuator-Mode: AUTO, MANUAL
RF-Attenuator:
Number; as with Sweep Time
PRE-AMP:
ON, OFF
preamplifier selection (options B23, B25, if available)
Sweep Points:
Number of sweep points per range (sweep segment). The
maximum number of sweep points is 8001.
Stop after Sweep:
ON, OFF
if ON, the sweep is stopped after the range and continued only
if confirmed by you via a message box (bit 10 of the “STATus:
OPERation Register” on page 5.28).
Transd. factor:
NONE or factor (enter via selection list)
Limit check:
ON, OFF (common for all ranges)
Limit:
Limit in dBm (enter via selection list)
A temporary limit line _SPUL_IN_ is used, based on the range
limits. This temporary limit line is created at measurement start
and may be copied for other purposes.
Remote command:
INS BEFORE
RANGE
INS AFTER
RANGE
SENS:LIST:RANG<1…20>:…
The INS BEFORE RANGE softkey inserts a range in front of the marked line.
Remote command:
--
The INS AFTER RANGE softkey inserts a range following the marked line.
Remote command:
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
--
4.137
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
DELETE
RANGE
The DELETE RANGE softkey deletes the current range. All higher ranges are set
back by one.
Remote command:
NEXT RANGES
The NEXT RANGES softkey activates the displays of the next higher subranges, i.e.
6 to 10, 11 to 15 or 16 to 20.
Remote command:
PREVIOUS
RANGES
--
The ADJUST AXIS softkey automatically adjusts the frequency axis of measurement diagram so that the start frequency matches the start frequency of the first
sweep range, and the stop frequency of the last sweep range.
Remote command:
START MEAS
--
The PREVIOUS RANGES softkey activates the displays of the next lower subranges, i.e. 1 to 5, 6 to 10 or 11 to 15.
Remote command:
ADJUST AXIS
LIST:RANGe<1…20>:DELete
-(via FREQuency:STARt <num_value> /
FREQuency:STOP <num_value>)
Using the START MEAS softkey, you can start the measurement while the submenu
is simultaneously exited.
When the measurement is started, the R&S FSQ sets up the measurement diagram
in the selected measurement window and starts the measurement in the selected
mode.
With SINGLE, a single frequency sweep occurs; afterwards the R&S FSQ remains
on the stop frequency.
With CONTINUOUS, the measurement continues until it is stopped.
You can stop the measurement with STOP SWEEP.
If a STOP AFTER SWEEP point has been defined in the range, the sweep stops
automatically at the end of the respective range to allow you to change the external
circuitry, for example. This is indicated in a message box:
SWEEP Range# reached CONTINUE/BREAK
If CONTINUE is selected, the sweep is continued in the next range. If BREAK is
selected, the sweep is stopped.
Remote command:
STOP MEAS
The STOP MEAS softkey stops the measurement. The measurement data can be
analyzed.
Remote command:
4.138
INIT:SPUR starts the measurement
INIT:CONM starts the measurement after a BREAK
has been reached
ABORt stops the measurement after a range has been
reached
ABORt
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
LIST
EVALUATION
The LIST EVALUATION softkey activates or deactivates the spurious emission measurement LIST EVALUATION. The peak search evaluation is automatically done
during measurement and the results are displayed in a table in the lower part of the
screen.
Following results are listed:
•
frequency range
•
frequency of the absolute peak power in this range
•
level delta to the limit with margin in dB
•
limit check state (by color change and an asterisk at the end of the line if failed)
If LIST EVALUATION is switched on, the functions PEAKS PER RANGE, MARGIN,
PEAK SEARCH and VIEW PEAK LIST are not available.
Remote command:
IF SHIFT
SAVE SWEEP
LIST
Refer to the IF SHIFT softkey in the setup menu.
Opens a dialog box to save customized configurations for spurious emission measurements. The R&S FSQ stores the configurations on its harddisk as an xml file.
Remote command:
LOAD SWEEP
LIST
LIST:STAN:SAVE '<filename'>
Opens a dialog box to load customized spurious emmission measurement configurations.
Remote command:
DELETE
SWEEP LIST
CALC1:PEAK:AUTO ON | OFF
LIST:PRES '<filename>'
Opens a dialog box to delete customized spurious emission measurement configuration files.
Remote command:
LIST:STAN:DEL '<filename>'
STOP MEAS
See “STOP MEAS” on page 4.138.
START MEAS
See “START MEAS” on page 4.138.
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
4.139
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
PEAK SEARCH
The PEAK SEARCH softkey starts the process of determining the list of the subrange maximums from the existing sweep results. This procedure can be repeated
as often as desired, e.g. to experiment with the various threshold settings.
It is activated only after a measurement has been performed with START MEAS.
Remote command:
PEAKS PER
RANGE
The PEAKS PER RANGE softkey activates entry of the number of peaks per range
that are stored in the list. The value range extends from 1 to 50. Once the selected
number of peaks has been reached, the peak search is stopped in the current range
and continued in the next range. The default value is 25.
Remote command:
MARGIN
CALC:PEAK:SUBR 1...50
The MARGIN softkey activates entry of the margin, i.e. the acceptance threshold for
determining the peak list. The limit line is shifted by this value when the maximums
are determined. The value range extends from -200 dB to 200 dB. The default value
is 6 dB.
Remote command:
VIEW PEAK
LIST
CALC:PEAK
CALC:PEAK:MARG –200dB...200dB
The VIEW PEAK LIST softkey opens the submenu for viewing the peak list.
It is activated for display only after a PEAK search has been performed with PEAK
SEARCH.
If no limit check is active, a delta limit of +200dB is listed.
Remote command:
SORT BY
FREQUENCY
The SORT BY FREQUENCY softkey sorts the table according to the entries in the
FREQUENCY column in descending order.
Remote command:
SORT BY
DELTA LIM
--
The SORT BY DELTA LIM softkey sorts the table according to the entries in the
DELTA LIM column (default) in descending order. If no limit line has been specified,
an offset of 200 dB is assumed for all peaks.
Remote command:
ASCII FILE
EXPORT
TRACe? SPURious
--
The ASCII FILE EXPORT softkey stores the peak list in ASCII format in a file.
The file has a header containing important parameters for scaling, several data sections containing the sweep settings per range and a data section containing the
peak list.
The header data is made up of three columns, separated by ';':
parameter name; numeric value; base unit
4.140
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
Table 4-1
Example: ASCII export table - file header
File contents
Explanation
Type;R&S FSQ;
Model
Version;3.90;
Firmware version
Date;02.Aug 2006;
Storage date of data set
Mode;ANALYZER; SPURIOUS;
Operating mode of the device
Start;9000.000000;Hz
Stop;7000000000.000000;Hz
Start/stop of the span
Unit: Hz
x-Axis;LIN;
Linear (LIN) or logarithmic (LOG) (future feature)
scaling of the x-axis
Sweep Count;1;
Selected number of sweeps
The data section for the measurement values starts with the key word "TRACE <n>:
", where <n> includes the number of the used trace. Next comes the peak list with
several columns also separated by ';'.
Table 4-2
Example: ASCII export table - file data section
File contents
Explanation
TRACE 1:
Selected trace
Trace Mode;CLR/WRITE;
Display mode of trace:
CLR/WRITE,AVERAGE,MAX HOLD,MIN HOLD,
VIEW, BLANK
x-Unit;Hz;
Unit of x values:
y-Unit;dBm;
Unit of y values:
Margin;6.000000:s
Peak List margin
Values;8;
Number of measurement points
1;1548807257.5999999000;65.602280;-5.602280
Measurement values:
<Trace>;<x value>; <y value>;<delta limit>
1;1587207214.4000001000;65.327530;-5.327530
1;2112006624.0000000000;4.388008;55.611992
Spreadsheet programs such as MS Excel can read this format. Use ';' as the delimiter for the table cells.
Different language versions of evaluation programs may require different handling
of the decimal point. Using the DECIM SEP softkey, you can thus choose between
the delimiters '.' (decimal point) and ',' (comma).
Remote command:
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
MMEM:STOR:SPUR,'F:\TEST.ASC'
4.141
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
DECIM SEP
In the case of floating-point numbers, use the DECIM SEP softkey to select between
'.' (decimal point) and ',' (comma) as the decimal delimiter for the ASCII FILE
EXPORT function.
By selecting the decimal delimiter, various language versions of evaluation programs (e.g. MS Excel) are supported.
Remote command:
PAGE UP /
PAGE DOWN
FORM:DEXP:DSEP POIN
Using PAGE UP and PAGE DOWN, you can scroll forward and backward through
the peak list pages.
They are active only as long as a peak list is displayed.
NOISE CORR
(ON OFF)
The noise correction for spurious emission measurements is available only if the
spurious emission measurement is active.
Note that noise correction for spurious emission measurements is available only if
the detector in the sweep list is the same in every sweep range.
For details on the effetcs of noise correction see NOISE CORR (ON OFF).
4.5.12.11
Spectrum Emission Mask Measurement
The Spectrum Emission Mask (SEM) measurement defines a measurement that
monitors compliance with a spectral mask. The SEM measurement of the base unit
allows a flexible definition of all parameters in the SEM measurement. The analyzer
performs measurements in predefined frequency ranges with settings that can be
specified individually for each of these ranges.
For this purpose, the SWEEP LIST settings or the current instrument settings are
used. Up to 20 subranges can be defined (they need not directly follow one another)
across which the analyzer sweeps in subsequent order. However, the measurement
ranges must not overlap. The measurement parameters can be selected independently from each other in every subrange (SWEEP LIST menu, EDIT SWEEP LIST).
In the Spectrum Emission Mask, as in the Spurious Emissions measurement, a
range defines a segment, for which you can define the following parameters separately: start and stop frequency, RBW, VBW, sweep time, reference level, attenuator
settings, and limit values. Via the sweep list, you define the ranges and their settings
(for details on settings refer to the SWEEP LIST softkey).
The following rules apply to ranges:
•
The minimum span of a range is 10 Hz.
•
The individual ranges must not overlap (but need not directly follow one another).
•
The maximum number of ranges is 20.
•
A minimum of three ranges is mandatory.
•
The reference range cannot be deleted (it is marked in with "Ref").
The frequency range where measurements are actually performed is set by the start
and stop frequency parameters of the analyzer; these parameters are independent
of the sweep ranges. It is thus possible to define sweep ranges for a measurement
task that can be stored and reloaded and to quickly and easily set the frequency
range to be actually measured by means of two parameters; complex editing in the
sweep table is not necessary.
4.142
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
Provided XML Files for the Spectrum Emission Mask Measurement
You can change the settings manually or via XML files. The XML files offer a quick
way to change the configuration. A set of ready-made XML files for different standards is already provided. For details see the table below. You can also create and
use your own XML files (for details see “Format Description of Spectrum Emission
Mask XML files” on page 4.148). All XML files are stored under D:\r_s\instr\sem_std.
Use the LOAD STANDARD softkey for quick access to the available XML files.
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
4.143
4.144
cmda2000 BC1 DL
cmda2000 BC1 UL
...\default1.xml
...\BW_15_0_MHz__CFlower1GHz.xml
...\BW_20_0_MHz__CFhigher1GHz.xml
LTE Category B (Freq. < 1GHz) DL
LTE Category B (Freq. > 1GHz) DL
LTE Category B (Freq. < 1GHz) DL
...\BW_10_0_MHz__CFhigher1GHz.xml
...\BW_10_0_MHz__CFlower1GHz.xml
...\BW_05_0_MHz__CFhigher1GHz.xml
...\BW_05_0_MHz__CFlower1GHz.xml
LTE Category B (Freq. < 1GHz) DL
LTE Category B (Freq. > 1GHz) DL
...\BW_03_0_MHz__CFlow1GHz.xml
LTE Category B (Freq. < 1GHz) DL
LTE Category B (Freq. > 1GHz) DL
...\BW_03_0_MHz__CFhigher1GHz.xml
LTE Category B (Freq. > 1GHz) DL
...\BW_01_4_MHz__CFlower1GHz.xml
...\BW_01_4_MHz__CFhigher1GHz.xml
D:\r_s\instr\sem_std\EUTRA-LTE\UL\CategoryB
LTE Category A (Freq. < 1GHz) DL
LTE Category A (Freq. < 1GHz) DL
LTE Category A (Freq. > 1GHz) DL
...\BW_15_0_MHz__CFhigher1GHz.xml
...\BW_20_0_MHz__CFlower1GHz.xml
LTE Category A (Freq. < 1GHz) DL
LTE Category A (Freq. > 1GHz) DL
...\BW_10_0_MHz__CFlower1GHz.xml
LTE Category A (Freq. < 1GHz) DL
LTE Category A (Freq. > 1GHz) DL
...\BW_10_0_MHz__CFhigher1GHz.xml
...\BW_05_0_MHz__CFhigher1GHz.xml
...\BW_05_0_MHz__CFlower1GHz.xml
LTE Category A (Freq. < 1GHz) DL
LTE Category A (Freq. > 1GHz) DL
...\BW_03_0_MHz__CFlow1GHz.xml
LTE Category A (Freq. < 1GHz) DL
LTE Category A (Freq. > 1GHz) DL
...\BW_03_0_MHz__CFhigher1GHz.xml
LTE Category A (Freq. > 1GHz) DL
...\BW_01_4_MHz__CFlower1GHz.xml
...\BW_01_4_MHz__CFhigher1GHz.xml
D:\r_s\instr\sem_std\EUTRA-LTE\DL\CategoryA
cmda2000 BC0 UL
...\default0.xml
D:\r_s\instr\sem_std\cdma2000\UL
cmda2000 BC0 DL
...\default1.xml
Displayed standard characteristics*
...\default0.xml
D:\r_s\instr\sem_std\cdma2000\DL
Path and file name
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
LTE Category B (Freq. < 1GHz) DL
...\BW_20_0_MHz__CFhigher1GHz.xml
...\BW_20_0_MHz__CFlower1GHz.xml
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
LTE UL
LTE UL
LTE UL
...\BW_10_0_MHz.xml
...\BW_15_0_MHz.xml
...\BW_20_0_MHz.xml
W–CDMA 3GPP (43,INF)dBm DL
W–CDMA 3GPP (-INF,31)dBm DL
...\PowerClass_43_INF.xml
...\PowerClass_negINF_31.xml
...\3GPP_UL.xml
WiBro TTA (40,INF)dBm DL
WiBro TTA (-INF,29)dBm DL
...\PowerClass_40_INF.xml
...\PowerClass_negINF_29.xml
...\PowerClass_negINF_23.xml
WIMAX System Type_E DL
WIMAX System Type_F DL
WIMAX System Type_G DL
...\System_Type_E.xml
...\System_Type_F.xml
...\System_Type_G.xml
D:\R_S\instr\sem_std\WIMAX\DL\ETSI\...MHz (1.75 MHz, 2.00 MHz, 3.50 MHz, 7.00 MHz, 14.00 MHz, 28.00 MHz)
WiBro TTA (23,INF)dBm UL
WiBro TTA (-INF,23)dBm UL
...\PowerClass_23_INF.xml
D:\r_s\instr\sem_std\WIBRO\UL
WiBro TTA (29,40)dBm DL
...\PowerClass_29_40.xml
D:\r_s\instr\sem_std\WIBRO\DL
W–CDMA 3GPP UL
W–CDMA 3GPP (39,43)dBm DL
...\PowerClass_39_43.xml
D:\r_s\instr\sem_std\WCDMA\3GPP\UL
W–CDMA 3GPP (31,39)dBm DL
...\PowerClass_31_39.xml
D:\r_s\instr\sem_std\WCDMA\3GPP\DL
LTE UL
...\BW_05_0_MHz.xml
D:\r_s\instr\sem_std\EUTRA-LTE\UL\Standard
LTE Category B (Freq. < 1GHz) DL
LTE Category B (Freq. > 1GHz) DL
...\BW_15_0_MHz__CFlower1GHz.xml
LTE Category B (Freq. > 1GHz) DL
Displayed standard characteristics*
...\BW_15_0_MHz__CFhigher1GHz.xml
Path and file name
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
4.145
4.146
WIMAX 20MHz DL
WIMAX System Type_F UL
WIMAX System Type_G UL
...\System_Type_F.xml
...\System_Type_G.xml
WIMAX 20MHz UL
...\20MHz.xml
802.11 low-power U.S. 4.9GHz public safety band Mask L 10MHz
802.11 low-power U.S. 4.9GHz public safety band Mask L 20MHz
...\802_11_lowpower_US_4_9GHz_public_safety_band_Mask_L_10MHz.xml
...\802_11_lowpower_US_4_9GHz_public_safety_band_Mask_L_20MHz.xml
ETSI 5GHz RLAN
...\ETSI.xml
ETSI 5GHz RLAN
...\ETSI.xml
...\802_11b.xml
80211b
802.11a 20MHz 5GHz band
...\802_11a_20MHz_5GHz_band.xml
D:\R_S\instr\sem_std\WLAN\802_11b
802.11a 10MHz 5GHz band
...\802_11a_10MHz_5GHz_band.xml
D:\R_S\instr\sem_std\WLAN\802_11a
802.11n 40MHz 5GHz band
...\802_11n_40MHz_5GHz_band.xml
D:\R_S\instr\sem_std\WLAN\802_11_TURBO
802.11 high-power U.S. 4.9GHz public safety band Mask M 20MHz
802.11 low-power U.S. 4.9GHz public safety band Mask L 5MHz
...\802_11_lowpower_US_4_9GHz_public_safety_band_Mask_L_5MHz.xml
802.11 high-power U.S. 4.9GHz public safety band Mask M 10MHz
...\802_11_highpower_US_4_9GHz_public_safety_band_Mask_M_10MHz.xml
...\802_11_highpower_US_4_9GHz_public_safety_band_Mask_M_20MHz.xml
802.11 high-power U.S. 4.9GHz public safety band Mask M 5MHz
...\802_11_highpower_US_4_9GHz_public_safety_band_Mask_M_5MHz.xml
D:\R_S\instr\sem_std\WLAN\802_11
WIMAX 10MHz UL
...\10MHz.xml
D:\R_S\instr\sem_std\WIMAX\UL\IEEE
WIMAX System Type_E UL
...\System_Type_E.xml
D:\R_S\instr\sem_std\WIMAX\UL\ETSI...MHz (1.75 MHz, 2.00 MHz, 3.50 MHz, 7.00 MHz, 14.00 MHz, 28.00 MHz)
WIMAX 10MHz DL
...\20MHz.xml
Displayed standard characteristics*
...\10MHz.xml
D:\R_S\instr\sem_std\WIMAX\DL\IEEE
Path and file name
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
802.11n 40MHz 5GHz band
802.11p 10MHz US 5GHz band power class C 20dBm
802.11p 10MHz US 5GHz band power class D 28.8dBm
...\802_11p_10MHz_US_5GHz_band_power_class_B_10dBm.xml
...\802_11p_10MHz_US_5GHz_band_power_class_C_20dBm.xml
...\802_11p_10MHz_US_5GHz_band_power_class_D_28_8dBm.xml
BC: band class
UL: uplink
DL: downlink
TTA: telecommunications technology association
*abbreviations:
802.11p 10MHz US 5GHz band power class A 0dBm
802.11p 10MHz US 5GHz band power class B 10dBm
...\802_11p_10MHz_US_5GHz_band_power_class_A_0dBm.xml
802.11p 5MHz US 5GHz band power class B 10dBm
802.11p 5MHz US 5GHz band power class D 28.8dBm
...\802_11p_5MHz_US_5GHz_band_power_class_D_28_8dBm.xml
...\802_11p_5MHz_US_5GHz_band_power_class_C_20dBm.xml
...\802_11p_5MHz_US_5GHz_band_power_class_B_10dBm.xml
802.11p 5MHz US 5GHz band power class A 0dBm
802.11p 5MHz US 5GHz band power class C 20dBm
...\802_11p_5MHz_US_5GHz_band_power_class_A_0dBm.xml
D:\R_S\instr\sem_std\WLAN\802_11p
802.11n 20MHz 5GHz band
...\802_11n_40MHz_5GHz_band.xml
802.11j 20MHz 4.9 and 5GHz band
802.11j 10MHz 4.9 and 5GHz band
Displayed standard characteristics*
...\802_11n_20MHz_5GHz_band.xml
D:\R_S\instr\sem_std\WLAN\802_11n
...\802_11j_20MHz_4_9_and_5GHz_band.XML
D:\R_S\instr\sem_std\WLAN\802_11j_20MHz
...\802_11j_10MHz_4_9_and_5GHz_band.xml
D:\R_S\instr\sem_std\WLAN\802_11j_10MHz
Path and file name
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
4.147
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
Format Description of Spectrum Emission Mask XML files
The files for importing range settings are in XML format and therefore obey the rules
of the XML standard. Below, the child nodes, attributes, and structure defined for the
data import is described. Build your own XML files according to these conventions
because the instrument can only interpret XML files of a known structure. For example files look in the D:\r_s\instr\sem_std folder.
It is mandatory to follow the structure exactly as shown below or else the analyzer
is not able to interpret the XML file and error messages are shown on the screen.
For this reason is it recommended to make a copy of an existing file and edit the
copy of the file. The default files can be found in the D:\r_s\instr\sem_std folder.
Basically, the file consists of three elements that can be defined.
•
The first element of the structure is the BaseFormat element. It carries information
about basic settings. In this element only the ReferencePower child node has any
effects on the measurement itself. The other attributes and child nodes are used
to display information about the Spectrum Emission Mask Standard on the
measurement screen. The child nodes and attributes of this element are shown in
Table 4-3.
In the example above (PowerClass_31_39.xml under
D:\r_s\instr\sem_std\WCDMA\3GPP),
these attributes are defined as follows:
Standard="W-CDMA 3GPP"
LinkDirection="DL"
PowerClass="(31,39)dBm"
•
4.148
The second element is the PowerClass element, which is embedded in the
BaseFormat element. It carries settings information about the power classes. The
child nodes and attributes of this element are shown in Table 4-4.
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
•
The third element is the Range element, which in turn is embedded in the
PowerClass element. It carries the settings information of the range. There have
to be at least three defined ranges: one reference range and at least one range to
either side of the reference range. The maximum number of ranges is twenty.
Note that there are two Limit nodes to be defined: one that gives the limit in
absolute values and one in relative values. Make sure units for the Start and Stop
nodes are identical for each Limit node. For details refer to the SWEEP LIST
softkey and the corresponding parameter description. The child nodes and
attributes of this element are shown in Table 4-5.
The following tables show the child nodes and attributes of each element and show
if a child node or attribute is mandatory for the analyzer to interpret the file or not.
Since the hierarchy of the XML can not be seen in the tables, either view one of the
default files already stored on the analyzer in the D:\r_s\instr\sem_std directory or
check the structure as shown below.
Below, a basic example of the structure of the file is shown, containing all mandatory
attributes and child nodes. Note that the PowerClass element and the range element are themselves elements of the Base Format element and are to be inserted
where noted. The separation is done here simply for reasons of a better overview.
Also, no example values are given here to allow a quick reference to the tables
above. Italic font shows the placeholders for the values.
•
The Base Format element is structered as follows:
<RS_SEM_ACP_FileFormat Version="1.0.0.0" Date="2008-02-28T15:21:39Z">
<Name>Standard</Name>
<Instrument>
<Type>Instrument Type</Type>
<Application>Application</Application>
</Instrument>
<MinimumSweepPoints>30001</MinimumSweepPoints>
<LinkDirection Name="Name">
<ReferencePower>
<Method>Method</Method>
</ReferencePower>
<PowerClass Index="n">
<!-- For contents of the PowerClass node see Table 4-4 -->
<!-- Define up to four PowerClass nodes -->
</PowerClass>
</LinkDirection>
</RS_SEM_ACP_File>
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
4.149
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
•
The PowerClass element is structered as follows:
<PowerClass Index="n">
<StartPower Unit="dBm" InclusiveFlag="true" Value="StartPowerValue"/>
<StopPower Unit="dBm" InclusiveFlag="false" Value="StopPowerValue"/>
<DefaultLimitFailMode>Limit Fail Mode</DefaultLimitFailMode>
<Range Index="n">
<!-- For contents of the Range node see Table 4-5 -->
<!-- Define up to twenty Range nodes -->
</Range>
...
</PowerClass>
•
The Range element is structered as follows:
<Range Index="n">
<Name="Name">
<ChannelType>Channel Type</Channel Type>
<WeightingFilter>
<Type>FilterType</Type>
<RollOffFactor>Factor</RollOffFactor>
<Bandwith>Bandwidth</Bandwidth>
</WeightingFilter>
<FrequencyRange>
<Start>RangeStart</Start>
<Stop>RangeStop</Stop>
</FrequencyRange>
<Limit>
<Start Unit="Unit" Value="Value"/>
<Stop Unit="Unit" Value="Value"/>
</Limit>
<Limit>
<Start Unit="Unit" Value="Value"/>
<Stop Unit="Unit" Value="Value"/>
</Limit>
<RBW Bandwidth="Bandwidth" Type="FilterType"/>
<VBW Bandwidth="Bandwidth"/>
<Detector>Detector</Detector>
<Sweep Mode="SweepMode" Time="SweepTime"/>
4.150
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
<Amplitude>
<ReferenceLevel Unit="dBm" Value="Value"/>
<RFAttenuation Mode="Auto" Unit="dB" Value="Value"/>
<Preamplifier State="State"/>
</Amplitude>
</Range>
Table 4-3
Child Node
Attributes and child nodes of the BaseFormat element
Attribute
Value
FileFormatVersion
1.0.0.0
Date
"YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS"
Date in ISO 8601 format
No
<string>
Name of the standard
Yes
Type
FSP
Name of the instrument
No
Application
SA
Name of the application
No
MinimumSweepPoints
Value
<SweepPoints>
No
LinkDirection
Name
Downlink | Uplink | None
Yes
ShortName
DL | UL
No
Name
Instrument
Parameter
Description
Mandator
y
Yes
ReferencePower
Yes
Method
TX Channel Power | TX
Channel Peak Power
Yes
ReferenceChannel
<string>
No
Table 4-4
Child Node
StartPower
StopPower
Attributes and child nodes of the PowerClass element
Attribute
Value
Parameter
Description
Mandatory
Index
0
Only index 0 is currently
supported, others are
ignored
Yes
Value
<power in dBm>
Start power must equal
the stop power of the
previous power class.
The StartPower value of
the first range is -200
Yes
Unit
dBm
Yes
InclusiveFlag
“true”
Yes
Value
<power in dBm>
Unit
dBm
Yes
InclusiveFlag
“false”
Yes
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
Stop power must equal
the start power of the
next power class. The
StopPower value of the
last range is 200
Yes
4.151
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
Child Node
Attribute
Value
DefaultLimitFailMode
Mandatory
Yes
Absolute | Relative |
Absolute and Relative |
Absolute or Relative
Table 4-5
Child Node
Parameter
Description
Attributes and child nodes of the Range element (normal ranges)
Attribute
Value
Parameter
Description
Mandatory
Index
0...19
Indexes are continous
and have to start with 0
Yes
Name
<string>
Name of the range
Only if
ReferenceChannel
contains a name and
range is reference
range
ShortName
<string>
Short name of the range
No
ChannelType
TX | Adjacent
Yes
WeightingFilter
Only if
ReferencePower
method is "TX
Channel Power" and
the range is the
reference range"
Type
RRC | CFILTer
Type of weighting filter
Yes
RollOfffactor
0...1
Excess filter bandwidth
Only if filter type is
RRC
Bandwidth
<bandwidth in Hz>
Filter bandwidth
Only if filter type is
RRC
FrequencyRange
Yes
Start
<frequency in Hz>
Start value of the range
Yes
Stop
<frequency in Hz>
Stop value of the range
Yes
A Range must contain
exactly two limit nodes;
one of the limit nodes
has to have a relative
unit (e.g. dBc), the other
one must have an
absolute unit (e.g. dBm)
Yes
Limit
Start
Stop
LimitFailMode
4.152
Value
<numeric value>
Power limit at start
frequency
Yes
Unit
dBm/Hz | dBm | dBc | dBr | dB
Sets the unit of start
frequency
Yes
Value
<numeric value>
Power limit at stop
frequency
Yes
Unit
dBm/Hz | dBm | dBc | dBr | dB
Sets the unit of stop
frequency
Yes
Absolute | Relative | Absolute
and Relative | Absolute or
Relative
No (if specified, it has
to be equal to DefaultLimitFailMode
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
Child Node
Attribute
Value
RBW
Bandwidth
<bandwidth in Hz>
Yes
Type
NORM | CFIL | RRC | P5 | P5D
No
Bandwidth
<bandwidth in Hz>
Yes
NEG | POS | SAMP | RMS |
AVER
No (if specified, it has
to be equal in all
ranges)
Mode
Manual | Auto
Yes
Time
<time in sec>
No
VBW
Detector
Sweep
Parameter
Description
Amplitude
ReferenceLevel
RF Attenuation
Mandatory
No
Value
<power in dBm>
Yes, if the
ReferenceLevel child
node is used
Unit
dBm
Yes, if the
ReferenceLevel child
node is used
Mode
Manual | Auto
Yes, if the
ReferenceLevel child
node is used
ASCII File Export Format (Spectrum Emission Mask)
The first part of the file lists information about the R&S FSQ and the general setup.
File Content
Description
RefType;CPOWER;
Reference range settings
TxBandwidth;9540000M;Hz
FilterState; ON;
Alpha;0.22;
PeaksPerRange;1;
Evaluation list information
Values;4;
0;-22500000;-9270000;1000000;2986455000;
-74.762840270996094;-10.576210021972656;
-45.762840270996094;PASS;
1;-9270000;-4770000;100000;2991405000;
-100.17695617675781;-35.990325927734375;
-1.490325927734375;PASS
3;4770000;9270000;100000;3005445000;
-100.17695617675781;-35.990325927734375
;-1.490325927734375;PASS;
4;9270000;22500000;1000000;3018225000;
-74.762840270996094;-10.576210021972656;
-45.762840270996094;PASS;
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
information about each peak:
<range number>;
<start frequency>
<stop frequency>
<resolution bandwidth of range>
<frequency of peak>
<absolute power of peak in dBm>
<relative power of peak in dBc>
(related to the channel power)
<distance to the limit line in dB>
(positive value means above the
limit line)
<limit fail> (pass = 0, fail = 1)
4.153
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
SPECTRUM
EMISSION
MASK
The softkey menu of the Spectrum Emission Mask measurement contains the following softkeys.
SPEC EM (ON OFF)
SWEEP LIST
!
EDIT SWEEP LIST
INS BEFORE RANGE
INS AFTER RANGE
DELETE RANGE
NEXT RANGES
PREVIOUS RANGES
REFERENCE RANGE !
POW REF CHAN PEAK
TX BANDWIDTH
RRC FILT (ON OFF)
ALPHA BT
START MEAS
STOP MEAS
LIST EVAL !
LIST EVAL (ON OFF)
MARGIN
IF SHIFT !
IF SHIFT OFF
IF SHIFT A
IF SHIFT B
AUTO
SAVE AS STANDARD
LOAD STANDARD
RESTORE STANDARDS
START MEAS
STOP MEAS
CONTINUOUS SWEEP
SINGLE SWEEP
SAVE AS STANDARD
LOAD STANDARD
DELETE STANDARD
NOISE CORR (ON OFF)
SPEC EM (ON
OFF)
Switches the Spectrum Emission Mask measurement on or off according to the current configuration.
Remote command:
4.154
SENS:SWE:MODE ESP
INIT:ESP
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
SWEEP LIST
Opens a submenu to edit the sweep list and displays the SWEEP LIST dialog box.
After a preset, the sweep list contains a set of default ranges and parameters. For
each range, you can change the parameters listed below. To insert or delete ranges,
use the INS BEFORE RANGE, INS AFTER RANGE and DELETE RANGE softkeys.
EDIT SWEEP LIST
INS BEFORE RANGE
INS AFTER RANGE
DELETE RANGE
NEXT RANGES
PREVIOUS RANGES
REFERENCE RANGE !
POW REF CHAN PEAK
TX BANDWIDTH
RRC FILT (ON OFF)
ALPHA BT
START MEAS
STOP MEAS
EDIT SWEEP
LIST
Configures the sweep list.
•
Range Start
Start frequency of the range (relative to Center Frequency = Carrier Frequency)
Remote command:
•
ESP:RANG1:STAR 1000000
Range Stop
Stop frequency of the range (relative to Center Frequency = Carrier Frequency)
Remote command:
•
ESP:RANG1:STOP 10000000
Filter Type
Normal, Channel, RRC, 5-Pole, 5-Pole Digital
Remote command:
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
ESP:RANG1:FILT:TYPE RRC
4.155
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
•
RBW
Resolution filter bandwidth
Remote command:
•
ESP:RANG1:BAND:RES 5000
VBW
Video filter bandwidth; not applicable for Channel and RRC filters.
Remote command:
•
ESP:RANG1:BAND:VID 5000000
Sweep Time Mode
AUTO, MANUAL
Remote command:
•
ESP:RANG1:SWE:TIME:AUTO ON
Sweep Time
Shows the current sweep time. The R&S FSQ automatically calculates the sweep
time if AUTO mode is selected and displays the corresponding value in this field.
If the field is edited, the sweep time mode is automatically set to MANUAL.
Remote command:
•
ESP:RANG1:SWE:TIME 1
REF Level
Reference level in dBm. The uppermost grid line in the measurement diagram
represents the reference level, corrected by the associated transducer factor.
The unit depends on the unit selected via the UNIT softkey.
Remote command:
•
ESP:RANG1:RLEV 0
RF Attenuator Mode
AUTO, MANUAL
Remote command:
•
ESP:RANG1:INP:ATT:AUTO ON
RF Attenuator
Shows the current RF attenuation. The R&S FSQ automatically calculates the RF
attenuation if AUTO mode is selected and displays the corresponding value in this
field. If the field is edited, the RF Attenuator mode is automatically set to MANUAL.
Remote command:
•
ESP:RANG1:INP:ATT 10
PRE AMP
Activates (ON) or deactivates (OFF) the preamplifier if option R&S FSU-B23,
R&S FSU-B24 or R&S FSU-B25 is installed.
Remote command:
4.156
ESP:RANG1:INP:GAIN:STAT ON
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
•
Transd. Factor
Shows the name of the transducer factor that is used for the measurement, or
NONE if no transducer factor is selected.
To select a transducer factor highlight this field with the rotary knob and press the
ENTER key to open the transducer selection list. Select the name of the
transducer factor you need with the rotary knob or NONE if you have to work
without a transducer factor.
Remote command:
•
ESP:RANG1:TRAN <string>
Limit Check
Sets the type of limit check for all ranges.
ABSOLUTE:
Checks only the defined absolute limits.
RELATIVE:
Checks only the relative limits. Relative limits are defined as relative to the
measured power in the reference range.
ABS & REL:
Combines the absolute and relative limit. The limit check fails when both limits are
violated.
ABS or REL:
Combines the absolute and relative limit. The limit check fails when one of the
limits is violated.
Remote command:
•
ESP:RANG1:LIM:STAT ABS | REL | AND | OR
Abs Limit Start
Sets the absolute limit value at the start frequency of the range. The unit depends
on the unit selected via the UNIT softkey.
Remote command:
•
ESP:RANG1:LIM:ABS:STAR 10
Abs Limit Stop
Sets the absolute limit value at the stop frequency of the range. The unit depends
on the unit selected via the UNIT softkey.
Remote command:
•
ESP:RANG1:LIM:ABS:STOP 20
Rel Limit Start
Sets the relative limit value at the start frequency of the range. The unit is dBc.
Remote command:
•
ESP:RANG1:LIM:REL:STAR -20
Rel Limit Stop
Sets the relative limit value at the stop frequency of the range. The unit is dBc.
Remote command:
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
ESP:RANG1:LIM:REL:STOP -20
4.157
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
INS BEFORE
RANGE
INS AFTER
RANGE
DELETE
RANGE
Inserts a range to the left of the current range / column of the sweep list.
Remote command:
ESP:RANG1:INS:BEF
Inserts a range to the right of the current range / column of the sweep list.
Remote command:
ESP:RANG1:INS:AFT
Deletes the current range / column from the sweep list. All ranges above the deleted
one are adjusted by one (e.g. Range 6 turns to Range 5).
Remote command:
ESP:RANG:DEL
NEXT RANGES
Scrolls through the sweep list in forward direction if more than 5 ranges are defined.
The first page shows Range 1 through 5, the second page shows Range 6 to 11 etc.
PREVIOUS
RANGES
Scrolls through the sweep list in backwards direction if more than 5 ranges are
defined. The first page shows Range 1 through 5, the second page shows Range 6
to 11 etc.
REFERENCE
RANGE
Opens a submenu to define additional parameters for the reference power measurement.
POW REF CHAN PEAK
TX BANDWIDTH
RRC FILT (ON OFF)
ALPHA BT
POW REF
CHAN PEAK
Selects the type of power measurement in the reference range.
•
Peak
Measures the highest peak within the reference range.
•
Chan
Measures the channel power within the reference range (integral bandwidth
method).
Remote command:
TX
BANDWIDTH
ESP:RTYP PEAK
Defines the bandwidth used for measuring the channel power. Possible values are
from 20 Hz to the span of the reference range.
Remote command:
ESP:BWID 20 HZ
RRC FILT
(ON OFF)
Activates or deactivates the RRC filter.
ALPHA BT
Sets the rolloff factor of the RRC filter.
Remote command:
Remote command:
4.158
ESP:FILT:RRC:STAT ON
ESP:FILT:RRC:ALPH 0.22
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
START MEAS
Starts the Spectrum Emission Mask measurement. In Single Sweep mode, the
R&S FSQ automatically stops the measurement.
Remote command:
STOP MEAS
Stops the Spectrum Emission Mask measurement.
Remote command:
CONTINUOUS
SWEEP
SINGLE SWEEP
LIST EVAL
INIT:ESP
ABOR
For more information see CONTINUOUS SWEEP.
For more information see SINGLE SWEEP.
Opens a submenu to edit the list evaluation settings.
LIST EVAL (ON OFF)
MARGIN
LIST EVAL
(ON OFF)
Activates or deactivates the list evaluation.
A peak search evaluation is performed automatically during the measurement. The
results are displayed in a table below the measurement diagram.
By default, the list evaluation is active.
The evaluation table shows the following results:
•
frequency range
•
frequency of the absolute peak power in the corresponding range.
•
frequency of the peak power in the corresponding range.
•
difference between the limit line and the current power level in dB.
•
result of the limit check (color and an asterisk indicate a failed limit check).
The trace, limit line, result of the limit check and the channel power of the reference
range are displayed in full screen, too, if the LIST EVALUATION is inactive.
Remote command:
CALC:ESP:PSE:AUTO ON
MARGIN
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the margin used for the limit check/peak search.
IF SHIFT
For more information see IF SHIFT.
SAVE AS
STANDARD
Opens a dialog box to save customized configurations for spectrum emission mask
measurements. The R&S FSQ stores the configurations on its harddisk as an xml
file.
Remote command:
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
ESP:STAN:SAVE 'filename'
4.159
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Analyzer Mode
LOAD
STANDARD
Opens a dialog box to select a customized standard in the *.xml file format. Refer to
the description of “Provided XML Files for the Spectrum Emission Mask Measurement” on page 4.143 and “Format Description of Spectrum Emission Mask XML
files” on page 4.148 for more information on provided standards and customizing
standards.
Remote command:
RESTORE
STANDARDS
Restores the original *.xml files that came with the R&S FSQ. Note that files of the
same name are overwritten.
Remote command:
DELETE
STANDARD
SENS:ESP:PRES:REST
Opens a dialog box to delete a customized spectrum emission mask configuration
files.
Remote command:
NOISE CORR
(ON OFF)
SENS:ESP:PRES 'xml_file'
ESP:STAN:DEL 'filename'
The noise correction for the spectrum emission mask measurement is available only
when the measurement is active.
For details see NOISE CORR (ON OFF).
4.160
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Basic Settings
4.6
Basic Settings
In this section, the general settings, printout, and instrument settings are described
in detail.
4.6.1
Setup of Limit Lines and Display Lines – LINES Key
Limit lines are used to define amplitude curves or spectral distribution boundaries on
the display screen which are not to be exceeded. They indicate, for example, the
upper limits for interference radiation or spurious waves which are allowed from a
device under test (DUT). For transmission of information in TDMA (e.g. GSM), the
amplitude of the bursts in a timeslot must adhere to a curve which must fall within a
specified tolerance band. The lower and upper limits may each be specified by a
limit line. Then, the amplitude curve can be controlled either visually or automatically
for any violations of the upper or lower limits (GO/NOGO test).
The instrument supports limit lines with a maximum of 50 data points. 8 of the limit
lines stored in the instrument can be used simultaneously and activated in the splitscreen mode either in Screen A, Screen B or in the two windows. The number of
limit lines stored in the instrument is only limited by the capacity of the flash disk
used.
For each limit line, the following characteristics must be defined:
•
The name of the limit line. The limit line data are stored under this name and can
be examined in the table LIMIT LINES.
•
The domain in which the limit line is to be used. Here, a distinction is made
between the time domain (span = 0 Hz) and the frequency domain (span > 0 Hz).
•
The reference of the interpolation points to the x-axis. The limit line may be
specified either for absolute frequencies or times or for frequencies which are
related to the set center frequency and times related to the time on the left edge
of the diagram.
•
The reference of the interpolation points to the y-axis. The limit line can be
selected either for absolute levels or voltages or referred to the set maximum level
(Ref Lvl). The position on the display depends on the REF LEVEL POSITION.
•
With relative reference values for the y-axis, it is possible to enter an absolute
threshold (THRESHOLD) which lowers the relative limit values (see below).
•
The type of limit line (upper or lower limit). With this information and the active limit
checking function (Table LIMIT LINES, LIMIT CHECK ON, the R&S FSQ checks
for compliance with each limit.
•
The limit line units to be used. The units of the limit line must be compatible with
the level axis in the active measurement window.
•
The measurement curve (trace) to which the limit line is assigned. For the
R&S FSQ, this defines the curve to which the limit is to be applied when several
traces are simultaneously displayed.
•
For each limit line, a margin can be defined which serves as a threshold for
automatic evaluation.
•
In addition, commentary can be written for each limit line, e.g. a description of the
application.
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
4.161
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Basic Settings
Display lines are exclusively used to optically mark relevant frequencies or points in
time (span = 0) as well as constant level values. It is not possible to check automatically whether the marked level values have been underranged or exceeded.
4.6.1.1
LINES
Selection of Limit Lines
The LINES key opens the menu for fixing the limit lines and the display lines.
SELECT LIMIT LINE
EDIT LIMIT LINE /
NEW LIMIT LINE !
NAME
VALUES
INSERT VALUE
DELETE VALUE
SHIFT X LIMIT LINE
SHIFT Y LIMIT LINE
SAVE LIMIT LINE
COPY LIMIT LINE
DELETE LIMIT LINE
X OFFSET
Y OFFSET
DISPLAY LINES !
DISPLAY LINE 1 /
DISPLAY LINE 2
FREQUENCY LINE 1/
FREQUENCY LINE 2
TIME LINE 1 /
TIME LINE 2
PHASE LINE 1 /
PHASE LINE 2
The SELECTED LIMIT LINE display field provides information concerning the characteristics of the marked limit lines.
In the LIMIT LINES table, the limit lines compatible to the settings of the active
screen can be enabled.
4.162
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Basic Settings
New limit lines can be specified and edited in the NEW LIMIT LINE and EDIT LIMIT
LINE submenus, respectively.
The horizontal and vertical lines of the DISPLAY LINES submenu mark individual
levels or frequencies (span > 0) or times (span = 0) in the diagram.
The SELECTED LIMIT LINE table provides information about the characteristics of
the marked limit line:
Name
name
Domain
frequency or time
Unit
vertical scale
X-Axis
interpolation
Limit
upper/lower limit
X-Scaling
absolute or relative frequencies/times
Y-Scaling
absolute or relative Y units
Threshold
absolute limit with relative Y units
Comment
commentary
The characteristics of the limit line are set in the EDIT LIMIT LINE (=NEW LIMIT
LINE) submenu.
SELECT LIMIT
LINE
The SELECT LIMIT LINE softkey activates the LIMIT LINES table and the selection
bar jumps to the uppermost name in the table.
The following information is offered in the columns of the table:
Name
Enable the limit line.
Compatible
Indicates if the limit line is compatible with the measurement
window of the given trace.
Limit Check
Activate automatic violation check for upper/lower limits.
Trace
Select the measurement curve to which the limit is assigned.
Margin
Define margin.
Name and Compatible - Enabling limit lines
A maximum of 8 limit lines can be enabled at any one time. In split screen mode,
they may be assigned to screen A, screen B or to both screens. A check mark at the
left edge of a cell indicates that this limit line is enabled.
A limit line can only be enabled when it has a check mark in the Compatible column,
i.e. only when the horizontal display (time or frequency) and vertical scales are identical to those of the display in the measurement window.
Lines with the unit dB are compatible to all dB(..) settings of the y-axis.
If the scale of the y-axis or the domain (frequency or time axis) are changed, all noncompatible limit lines are automatically switched off in order to avoid misinterpretation. The limit lines must be enabled anew when the original display is re-displayed.
Remote command:
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
CALC:LIM3:NAME "GSM1"
CALC:LIM3:UPP:STAT ON
CALC:LIM4:LOW:STAT ON
4.163
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Basic Settings
Limit Check - Activate automatic limit violation check
When LIMIT CHECK ON is activated, the R&S FSQ tests if the signal violates a limit
line in the active screen. In the center of the diagram, a display window appears
which indicates the results of the limit check test:
LIMIT CHECK: PASSED
No violations of active limits.
LIMIT CHECK: FAILED
One or more active limit lines were violated. The
message contains the names of the limit lines
which were violated or whose margins were not
complied with.
LIMIT CHECK: MARGIN
The margin of at least one active limit lines was
not complied with, however, no limit line was violated. The message contains the names of the
limit lines whose margins were not complied with.
The following example shows two active limit lines:
LIMIT CHECK: FAILED
LINE VHF_MASK: Failed
LINE UHF2MASK: Margin
A check for violations of limit lines takes place only if the limit line of the assigned
measurement curve (trace) is enabled.
If LIM CHECK is set to OFF for all active limit lines, then the limit line check is not
executed.
Remote command:
CALC:LIM:STAT ON
INIT;*WAI
CALC:LIM:FAIL?
Trace - Select the measurement curve to which the limit line is assigned.
The selection of the measurement curve (trace) takes place in an entry window.
Allowed are the integer entries 1, 2 or 3. The default setting is trace 1. If the selected
limit line is not compatible with the assigned measurement curve, then the limit line
is disabled (display and limit check).
Remote command:
CALC:LIM:TRAC 1
NEW LIMIT
LINE
See following section “Entry and Editing of Limit Lines” on page 4.165.
EDIT LIMIT
LINE
See following section “Entry and Editing of Limit Lines” on page 4.165.
COPY LIMIT
LINE
The COPY LIMIT LINE softkey copies the data file describing the marked limit line
and saves it under a new name. In this way, a new limit line can be easily generated
by a parallel shift or editing of an existing limit line. The name can be arbitrarily chosen and input via an entry window (max. of 8 characters).
Remote command:
4.164
CALC:LIM3:COPY 2
or
CALC:LIM3:COPY "GSM2"
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Basic Settings
DELETE LIMIT
LINE
The DELETE LIMIT LINE softkey erases the selected limit line. Before deletion, a
message appears requesting confirmation.
Remote command:
X OFFSET
CALC:LIM3:DEL
The X OFFSET softkey horizontally shifts a limit line, which has been specified for
relative frequencies or times (x-axis). The softkey opens an entry window, where the
value for shifting may be entered numerically or via the rotary knob.
This softkey does not have any effect on limit lines that represent absolute values
for the x-axis.
Remote command:
Y OFFSET
CALC:LIM3:CONT:OFFS 10kHz
The Y OFFSET softkey vertically shifts a limit line, which has relative values for the
y-axis (levels or linear units such as volt). The softkey opens an entry window where
the value for shifting may be entered numerically or via the rotary knob.
This softkey does not have any effect on limit lines that represent absolute values
for the y-axis.
Remote command:
4.6.1.2
CALC:LIM3:LOW:OFFS 3dB
CALC:LIM3:UPP:OFFS 3dB
Entry and Editing of Limit Lines
A limit line is characterized by
•
its name
•
the assignment of domain (frequency or time)
•
the scaling in absolute or relative times or frequencies
•
the vertical unit
•
the interpolation
•
the vertical scaling
•
the vertical threshold (only with relative vertical scaling)
•
the margin
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Instrument Functions
Basic Settings
•
the definition of the limit line as either upper or lower limit.
•
the data points for frequency/time and level.
At the time of entry, the R&S FSQ immediately checks that all limit lines are in accordance with certain guidelines. These guidelines must be observed if specified operation is to be guaranteed.
•
The frequencies/times for each data point must be entered in ascending order,
however, for any single frequency/time, two data points may be input (vertical
segment of a limit line).
The data points are allocated in order of ascending frequency/time. Gaps are not
allowed. If gaps are desired, two separate limit lines must be defined and then
both enabled.
EDIT LIMIT
LINE /
NEW LIMIT
LINE
•
The entered frequencies/times need not necessarily be selectable in R&S FSQ. A
limit line may also exceed the specified frequency or time domains. The minimum
frequency for a data point is -200 GHz, the maximum frequency is 200 GHz. For
the time domain representation, negative times may also be entered. The valid
range is -1000 s to +1000 s.
•
The minimum/maximum value for a limit line is -200 dB to +200 dB for the
logarithmic or 10-20 to 10+20 or -99.9% to + 999.9% for the linear amplitude scales.
NAME
VALUES
INSERT VALUE
DELETE VALUE
SHIFT X LIMIT LINE
SHIFT Y LIMIT LINE
SAVE LIMIT LINE
The EDIT LIMIT LINE and NEW LIMIT LINE softkeys both call the EDIT LIMIT LINE
submenu used for editing limit lines. In the table heading, the characteristics of the
limit line can be entered. The data points for frequency/time and level values are
entered in the columns.
4.166
Name
Enter name.
Domain
Select domain.
Unit
Select units.
X-Axis
Select interpolation
Limit
Select upper and lower limit value.
X-Scaling
Entry of absolute or relative values for the x-axis
Y-Scaling
Entry of absolute or relative values for the y-axis
Margin
Entry of margin.
Threshold
Entry of vertical threshold (only with relative vertical
scaling)
Comment
Enter comments.
Time/Frequency
Enter time/frequency for the data points.
Limit/dBm
Enter magnitudes for the data points.
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R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Basic Settings
Domain, unit, X scaling and Y scaling cannot be modified as soon as reference
values have been entered in the data section of the table.
NAME
The NAME softkey assigns a name to a limit line.
Name - Enter name
A maximum of 8 characters is permitted for each name. All names must be compatible with the MS DOS conventions for file names. The instrument stores all limit lines
with the .LIN extension.
Remote command:
CALC:LIM3:NAME "GSM1"
Domain - Select time or frequency domain
The default setting is frequency.
A change in domain (frequency/time) is only permitted when the data point table is
empty.
Remote command:
CALC:LIM3:CONT:DOM FREQ
X-Axis - Select interpolation
Linear or logarithmic interpolation can be carried out between the frequency reference points of the table. The ENTER key toggles between LIN and LOG selection.
Remote command:
CALC:LIM3:CONT:SPAC LIN
CALC:LIM3:UPP:SPAC LIN
CALC:LIM3:LOW:SPAC LIN
Scaling - selection of absolute or relative scaling
The limit line can either be scaled in absolute (frequency or time) or relative units.
Any of the unit keys may be used to toggle between ABSOLUTE and RELATIVE,
the cursor must be positioned in the X Scaling
or the Y Scaling line.
X-Scaling ABSOLUTE
The frequencies or times are interpreted as absolute
physical units.
X-Scaling RELATIVE
In the data point table, the frequencies are referred to the
currently set center frequency. In time domain mode, the
left boundary of the diagram constitutes the reference.
Y-Scaling ABSOLUTE
The limit values refer to absolute levels or voltages.
Y-Scaling RELATIVE
The limit values refer to the reference level (Ref Level) or,
in case a reference line is set, to the reference line.
Limit values with the unit dB are always relative values.
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Instrument Functions
Basic Settings
The RELATIVE scaling is always suitable, if masks for bursts are to be defined in the
time domain, or if masks for modulated signals are required in the frequency
domain.
An X offset with half the sweep time may be entered in order to shift the mask in the
time domain into the center of screen.
Remote command:
CALC:LIM3:CONT:MODE ABS
CALC:LIM3:UPP:MODE ABS
CALC:LIM3:LOW:MODE ABS
Unit - Select the vertical scale units for the limit line
The selection of units takes place in a selection box. The default setting is dBm.
Remote command:
CALC:LIM3:UNIT DBM
Limit - Select upper/lower limit
A limit line can be defined as either an upper or lower limit.
Remote command:
-- (defined by key words :UPPer or :LOWer)
Margin - Setting a margin.
The margin is defined as the signal-level distance to the limit line. When the limit line
is defined as an upper limit, the margin means that the level is below the limit line.
When the limit line is defined as a lower limit, the margin means that the level is
above the limit line. The default setting is 0 dB (i.e. no margin).
Remote command:
CALC:LIM3:UPP:MARG 10dB
CALC:LIM3:LOW:MARG 10dB
Threshold – Selection of the threshold value with relative Y scaling
With relative Y scaling, an absolute threshold value can be defined which lowers the
relative limit values. The function is useful especially for mobile radio applications
provided the limit values are defined in relation to the carrier power as long as they
are above an absolute limit value.
Example:
Ref -20 dBm
Att 10 dB
RBW 300 Hz
VBW 3 kHz
SWT 100 ms
Marker [T1]
-28.4 dBm
200.0100 MHz
resulting limit
absolute threshold
relative limit line
Center
4.168
200 MHz
10 kHz/
Span 100 kHz
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R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Basic Settings
The preset value is at -200 dBm. The field is displayed if the value RELATIVE is
entered in the field Y-SCALING.
Remote command:
CALC:LIM3:UPP:THR -30 dBm
or
CALC:LIM3:LOW:THR -30 dBm
Comment - Enter comments
Comments are arbitrary, however, they must be less than 41 characters long.
Remote command:
VALUES
CALC:LIM3:COMM "Upper limit"
The VALUES softkey activates the entry of the data points in the table columns
Time/Frequency and Limit/dB. Which table columns appear depends upon the
Domain selection in the table heading.
The desired frequency/time data points are entered in ascending order (two
repeated frequencies/time values are permitted).
Remote command:
INSERT VALUE
The INSERT VALUE softkey creates an empty line above the current cursor position
where a new data point may be entered. However, during the entry of new values, it
is necessary to observe an ascending order for frequency/time.
Remote command:
DELETE VALUE
--
The DELETE VALUE softkey deletes the data point at the cursor position. All succeeding data points are shifted down accordingly.
Remote command:
SHIFT X LIMIT
LINE
CALC:LIM3:CONT:DATA 1MHz,3MHz,30MHz
CALC:LIM3:UPP:DATA -10,0,0
CALC:LIM3:LOW:DATA -30,-40,-40
--
The SHIFT X LIMIT LINE softkey calls an entry window where the complete limit line
may be shifted parallel in the horizontal direction.
The shift takes place according to the horizontal scale:
– in the frequency domain in Hz, kHz, MHz or GHz
– in the time domain in ns, µs, ms or s
In this manner, a new limit line can be easily generated based upon an existing limit
line which has been shifted horizontally and stored (SAVE LIMIT LINE softkey)
under a new name (NAME softkey).
Remote command:
SHIFT Y LIMIT
LINE
CALC:LIM3:CONT:SHIF 50KHz
The SHIFT Y LIMIT LINE softkey calls an entry window where the complete limit line
may be shifted parallel in the vertical direction.
The shift takes place according to the vertical scale:
– for logarithmic units, relative, in dB
– for linear units, as a factor
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Instrument Functions
Basic Settings
In this manner, a new limit line can be easily generated based upon an existing limit
line which has been shifted vertically and stored (SAVE LIMIT LINE softkey) under a
new name (NAME softkey).
Remote command:
SAVE LIMIT
LINE
The SAVE LIMIT LINE softkey stores the currently edited limit line. The name can be
entered in an input window (max. 8 characters)
Remote command:
4.6.1.3
CALC:LIM3:CONT:UPP:SHIF 20dB
CALC:LIM3:CONT:LOW:SHIF 20dB
--
Display Lines
Display lines help to evaluate a trace – as do markers. The function of a display line
is comparable to that of a ruler that can be shifted on the trace in order to mark
absolute values.
The R&S FSQ provides two different types of display lines:
•
two horizontal level lines for marking levels – Display Line 1/2,
•
two vertical frequency or time lines for marking frequencies or points in time –
Frequency/Time Line 1/2.
Each line is identified by one of the following abbreviations:
D1
Display Line 1
D2
Display Line 2
F1
Frequency Line 1
F2
Frequency Line 2
T1
Time Line 1
T2
Time Line 2
The level lines are continuous horizontal lines across the entire width of a diagram
and can be shifted in y direction.
The frequency or time lines are continuous vertical lines across the entire height of
the diagram and can be shifted in x direction.
The DISPLAY LINES submenu for activating and setting the display lines appears
different depending on the display mode set in the active measurement window (frequency or time domain).
If the spectrum is shown (span ≠ 0) the TIME LINE 1 and TIME LINE 2 softkeys are
disabled, whereas in the time domain (span = 0) the FREQUENCY LINE 1 and
FREQUENCY LINE 2 softkeys are not available.
Working with display lines
The softkeys for setting and switching the display lines on/off work like triple
switches:
Initial situation: The line is off (softkey with gray background)
1st press: The line is switched on (softkey with red background) and the data input
function is activated. The position of the display line can be selected by means of
the rotary knob, the step keys or a numerical entry in the appropriate field. The data
input function is disabled if another function is activated. The line, however, remains
switched on (softkey with green background).
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Instrument Functions
Basic Settings
2nd press: The line is switched off (softkey with gray background).
Initial situation: The line is on (softkey with green background)
1st press: The data input function is activated (softkey with red background). The
position of the display line can be selected by means of the rotary knob, the step
keys or a numerical entry in the appropriate field. The data input function is disabled
if another function is activated. The line, however, remains switched on (softkey with
green background).
2nd press: The line is switched off (softkey with gray background).
DISPLAY
LINES
DISPLAY LINE 1 /
DISPLAY LINE 2
FREQUENCY LINE 1/
FREQUENCY LINE 2
TIME LINE 1 /
TIME LINE 2
PHASE LINE 1 /
PHASE LINE 2
DISPLAY LINE 1
/ DISPLAY
LINE 2
The DISPLAY LINE 1/2 softkeys enable or disable the level lines and allow the user
to enter the position of the lines.
The level lines mark the selected level in the measurement window.
These softkeys are only available in the time domain (span = 0).
Remote command:
FREQUENCY
LINE 1/
FREQUENCY
LINE 2
CALC:DLIN:STAT ON
CALC:DLIN -20dBm
The FREQUENCY LINE 1/2 softkeys enable or disable the frequency lines 1/2 and
allow the user to enter the position of the lines.
The frequency lines mark the selected frequencies in the measurement window.
These softkeys are only available in the frequency domain (span > 0).
Remote command:
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CALC:FLIN:STAT ON
CALC:FLIN 120MHz
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R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Basic Settings
TIME LINE 1 /
TIME LINE 2
The TIME LINE 1/2 softkeys enable or disable the time lines 1/2 and allow the user
to enter the position of the lines.
The time lines mark the selected times or define search ranges (see section “Marker
Functions – MKR FCTN Key” on page 4.67).
The two softkeys cannot be used in the frequency domain (span > 0).
Remote command:
PHASE LINE 1 /
PHASE LINE 2
CALC:TLIN:STAT ON
CALC:TLIN 10ms
The PHASE LINE 1/2 softkeys activate/deactivate phase lines 1/2 and activate entry
of the line position.
The phase lines mark the selected phases in the measurement window.
Entries are made in the currently selected phase unit.
The line is adapted automatically if the unit is changed using the PHASE RAD/DEG
softkey in the AMPT menu.
The line will, however, not be adapted automatically if the phase offset is changed
using the PHASE OFFSET softkey in the AMPT menu.
The PHASE LINE 1/2 softkeys are only available if option R&S FSQ-B71 is
installed.
Remote command:
4.172
CALC:PLIN1:STAT ON
CALC:PLIN1 120DEG
CALC:PLIN2:STAT ON
CALC:PLIN2 140DEG
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R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Basic Settings
4.6.2
Configuration of Screen Display – DISP Key
The DISPLAY menu allows the configuration of the diagram display on the screen
and also the selection of the display elements and colors. The POWER SAVE mode
is also configured in this menu for the display.
The test results are displayed on the screen of the R&S FSQ either in a full-screen
window or in two windows. The two windows are called diagram A and diagram B.
In the default setting, the two windows are completely decoupled from each other,
i.e. they behave like two separate instruments. This is very useful, for example with
harmonics measurements or measurements on frequency-converting DUTs, since
the input signal and the output signal lie in different frequency ranges.
However, specific settings of the two windows (reference level, center frequency)
can be coupled, if required, so that with CENTER B = MARKER A for example, the
shift of the marker in diagram A causes the frequency range (zoomed in some
cases) to be shifted along diagram B.
New settings are performed in the diagram selected via SCREEN A or SCREEN B
hotkey. If only one window is displayed, it is the diagram in which the measurements
are performed; the diagram not displayed is not active for measurements.
Fig. 4.14 Typical split-screen display, settings are uncoupled
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Instrument Functions
Basic Settings
DISP
The DISP key opens the menu for configuring the screen display and selecting the
active diagram in SPLIT SCREEN mode.
FULL SCREEN
SPLIT SCREEN
REF LEVEL COUPLED
CENTER B = MARKER A |
CENTER A = MARKER B
CONFIG DISPLAY !
SCREEN TITLE
TIME+DATE (ON OFF)
LOGO (ON OFF)
ANNOTATION (ON OFF)
DATA ENTRY OPAQUE
DEFAULT COLORS 1/
DEFAULT COLORS 2
DISPLAY PWR SAVE
Side menu
SELECT OBJECT
BRIGHTNESS
TINT
SATURATION
PREDEFINED COLORS
FULL SCREEN
The FULL SCREEN softkey selects the display of one diagram. This corresponds to
the default setting of R&S FSQ.
In the FULL SCREEN mode, it is possible to switch between two different device
settings by selecting the active window (screen A or screen B).
Switching between SCREEN A and SCREEN B is performed by means of the corresponding key in the hotkey bar (for details refer to “Mode Selection – Hotkey Bar” on
page 4.8).
It should be noted that the measurements in the FULL SCREEN mode are performed only in the visible (active) window.
The active window is marked by
Remote command:
SPLIT
SCREEN
A
or
B
on the right of the diagram.
DISP:FORM SING
DISP:WIND<1|2>:SEL
The SPLIT SCREEN softkey selects the display of two diagrams. The upper diagram is designated SCREEN A, the lower diagram SCREEN B.
Switching between SCREEN A and SCREEN B is performed via the corresponding
key in the hotkey bar. The active window is marked by highlighting fields
B
and
on the right of the diagram.
Remote command:
4.174
A
DISP:FORM SPL
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Instrument Functions
Basic Settings
REF LEVEL
COUPLED
The REF LEVEL COUPLED softkey switches the coupling of the reference level on
and off. In addition to the reference level, the mixer level and input attenuation are
coupled with one another.
For the level measurement, the same reference level and input attenuation must be
set for the two diagrams.
Remote command:
CENTER B =
MARKER A |
CENTER A =
MARKER B
INST:COUP RLEV
The CENTER B = MARKER A and CENTER A = MARKER B softkeys couple the
center frequency in diagram B with the frequency of marker 1 in diagram A and the
center frequency in diagram B with the frequency of marker 1 in diagram B. The two
softkeys are mutually exclusive.
This coupling is useful, e.g. for viewing the signal at the marker position in diagram
A with higher frequency resolution or in the time domain in diagram B.
If marker 1 is off, it is switched on and set to the maximum of the trace in the active
diagram.
Remote command:
CONFIG
DISPLAY
INST:COUP CF_B
INST:COUP CF_A
SCREEN TITLE
TIME+DATE (ON OFF)
LOGO (ON OFF)
ANNOTATION (ON OFF)
DATA ENTRY OPAQUE
DEFAULT COLORS 1/
DEFAULT COLORS 2
DISPLAY PWR SAVE
Side menu
SELECT OBJECT
BRIGHTNESS
TINT
SATURATION
PREDEFINED COLORS
The CONFIG DISPLAY softkey opens a submenu allowing additional display items
to be added to the screen. In addition, the display power-save mode (DISPLAY
PWR SAVE softkey) and the colors of the display elements can be set here.
SCREEN TITLE
The SCREEN TITLE softkey activates the entry of a title for the active diagram A or
B. It switches on or off a title that is already input. The length of the title is limited to
max. 20 characters.
Remote command:
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
DISP:WIND1:TEXT 'Noise Meas'
DISP:WIND1:TEXT:STATe ON
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Instrument Functions
Basic Settings
TIME+DATE
(ON OFF)
The TIME+DATE (ON OFF) softkey switches on or off the display of date and time
above the diagram.
Remote command:
LOGO
(ON OFF)
The LOGO (ON OFF) softkey switches the Rohde & Schwarz company logo displayed in the upper left corner of the display screen on or off.
Remote command:
ANNOTATION
(ON OFF)
•
ON: Frequency information is displayed.
•
OFF: Frequency information is not outputted to the display. This can be used for
example to protect confidential data.
--
The DEFAULT COLORS 1/2 softkeys restores the default settings for brightness,
color tint and color saturation for all display screen elements.
The color schemes have been selected to give optimum visibility of all picture elements at an angle of vision from above or below. DEFAULT COLORS 1 is active in
the default setting of the instrument.
Remote command:
DISPLAY PWR
SAVE
DISP:ANN:FREQ ON
The DATA ENTRY OPAQUE softkey sets the data entry windows to opaque. This
means that entry windows are underlaid with the background color for tables.
Remote command:
DEFAULT
COLORS 1/
DEFAULT
COLORS 2
DISP:LOGO ON
The ANNOTATION (ON OFF) softkey switches the displaying of frequency information on the screen on and off.
Remote command:
DATA ENTRY
OPAQUE
DISP:TIME OFF
DISP:CMAP:DEF1
DISP:CMAP:DEF2
The DISPLAY PWR SAVE softkey is used to switch on/off the power-save mode for
the display and to enter the time for the power-save function to respond. After the
elapse of this time the display is completely switched off, i.e. including backlighting.
This mode is recommended for saving the TFT display especially when the instrument is exclusively operated in remote control.
The power-save mode is configured as follows:
•
The first keystroke activates the power-save mode and opens the editor for the
response time. The response time is entered in minutes between 1 and 6 minutes
and is confirmed by ENTER.
•
The power-save mode is deactivated by pressing the key again.
On leaving the menu with the power-save mode in the activated state, the softkey is
highlighted in color on returning to the menu and opens again the editor for the
response time. Pressing again the key switches off the power-save mode.
Remote command:
4.176
DISP:PSAV ON
DISP:PSAV:HOLD 15
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Instrument Functions
Basic Settings
SELECT
OBJECT
The SELECT OBJECT softkey activates the SELECT DISPLAY OBJECT table, with
which a graphics element can be selected. After selection, the brightness, tint and
saturation of the selected element can be changed using the softkeys of the same
name. The color changes by means of the PREDEFINED COLORS softkey can be
seen immediately on the display screen.
BRIGHTNESS
The BRIGHTNESS softkey activates entry of the brightness of the selected graphics
element.
Values between 0 and 100% can be entered.
Remote command:
TINT
The TINT softkey activates the entry of the color tint of the selected element. The
entered value is related to a continuous color spectrum ranging from red (0%) to
blue (100%).
Remote command:
SATURATION
DISP:CMAP3:HSL< hue>,<sat>,<lum>
DISP:CMAP3:HSL <hue>,<sat>,<lum>
The SATURATION softkey activates the entry of the color saturation for the selected
element.
The range of inputs is from 0 to 100%.
Remote command:
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DISP:CMAP3:HSL <hue>,<sat>,<lum>
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Basic Settings
PREDEFINED
COLORS
The PREDEFINED COLORS softkey activates a table, with which the predefined
colors for the display screen elements can be selected.
Remote command:
4.178
DISP:CMAP1 to 26:PDEF <color>
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Instrument Functions
Basic Settings
4.6.3
Instrument Setup and Interface Configuration – SETUP Key
The SETUP key opens the menu for configuration of the R&S FSQ:
SETUP
REFERENCE FREQUENCY
REFERENCE INTERNAL /
EXTERNAL
REFERENCE EXT (INT)
REFERENCE FREQUENCY
REF BW (NORM WIDE)
NOISE SRC (ON OFF)
SIGNAL SOURCE !
YIG FILTER (ON OFF)
IQ DITHER ON OFF
RF PATH
BASEBAND ANALOG !
BASEBAND DIGITAL !
DIGITAL BB INFO
EX-IQ BOX
PREAMP
TRANSDUCER !
TRANSDUCER FACTOR
NEW FACTOR /
EDIT TRD FACTOR !
TRD FACTOR NAME
TRD FACTOR UNIT
TRD FACTOR VALUES
INSERT LINE
DELETE LINE
SAVE TRD FACTOR
DELETE FACTOR
VIEW TRANSDUCER
REFLVL ADJ AUTO MAN
PAGE UP
PAGE DOWN
GENERAL SETUP !
GPIB !
GPIB ADDRESS
ID STRING FACTORY
ID STRING USER
GPIB LANGUAGE
IF GAIN (NORM PULS)
SWEEP REP (ON OFF)
COUPLING (FSP HP)
REV STRING FACTORY
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Basic Settings
REV STRING USER
COM INTERFACE
TIME+DATE
CONFIGURE NETWORK
COMPUTER NAME
IP ADDRESS
SUBNET MASK
DHCP (ON OFF)
CONFIGURE NETWORK
SHOW CONFIG
NETWORK LOGIN
OPTIONS !
INSTALL OPTION
REMOVE OPTION
EXPERT MODE
REBOOT
PAGE UP / PAGE DOWN
INSTALL (FW EXT)
Side menu
SOFT FRONTPANEL
REGISTRY READ ONLY
LXI !
DISPLAY (ON OFF)
INFO
PASSWORD
DESC
LAN RESET
SYSTEM INFO !
HARDWARE INFO
STATISTICS
SYSTEM MESSAGES
CLEAR ALL MESSAGES
SERVICE !
INPUT RF
INPUT CAL
SELFTEST
SELFTEST RESULTS
ENTER PASSWORD
1. Side menu
CAL GEN 128 MHZ
CAL GEN COMB PULSE
2. side menu
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Basic Settings
COMMAND TRACKING
EXPORT / IMPORT DEV
DATA
Side menu
FIRMWARE UPDATE !
FIRMWARE UPDATE
RESTORE FIRMWARE
UPDATE PATH
OPEN START MENU
FM DEMOD ANALOG !
POWER METER !
IF SHIFT !
IF SHIFT OFF
IF SHIFT A
IF SHIFT B
AUTO
The following settings can be modified here:
•
The REFERENCE INT/EXT softkey determines the source of the reference. For
details refer to section “External Reference” on page 4.182.
•
The NOISE SRC ON/OFF softkey switches on and off the voltage supply for an
external noise source. For details refer to section “External Noise Source” on
page 4.183.
•
The SIGNAL SOURCE softkey opens a submenu to switch YIG filter, IQ dither
and RF path. For details refer to section “Signal Source” on page 4.183
•
The PREAMP softkey switches on the RF preamplifier gain. This softkey is only
available with option EL. ATTENUATOR (B25). For details refer to section “RF
Preamplifier” on page 4.186.
•
The TRANSDUCER softkey opens a submenu for entering the correction
characteristics for transducers. For details refer to section “TRANSDUCER” on
page 4.187.
•
The GENERAL SETUP softkey opens a submenu for all the general settings such
as GPIB address, date and time as well as the configuration of the device
interfaces. FIRMWARE OPTIONS can be installed under this menu item. For
details refer to section “GENERAL SETUP” on page 4.192.
•
The SYSTEM INFO softkey opens a submenu for displaying the hardware
configuration of the instrument, the switching cycle statistics and system
messages. For details refer to section “SYSTEM INFO” on page 4.207.
•
The SERVICE softkey opens a submenu in which special device functions and
system information can be selected for servicing. The password required for
service functions can be entered in this submenu. For details refer to section
“SERVICE” on page 4.209.
•
The FIRMWARE UPDATE opens a submenu to update the firmware version, to
restore the firmware and to update the firmware path. For details refer to section
“Firmware Update” on page 4.213.
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Instrument Functions
Basic Settings
4.6.3.1
•
The IF SHIFT softkey opens a submenu to activate or deactivate 1st IF shifting.
For details refer to “IF SHIFT” on page 4.214.
•
The SERVICE FUNCTIONS softkey enables additional special settings for
servicing and troubleshooting. It is available after entering the corresponding
password under the SERVICE softkey.
External Reference
The R&S FSQ can use the internal reference source or an external reference
source as frequency standard from which all internal oscillators are derived. A 10
MHz crystal oscillator is used as internal reference source. In the default setting
(internal reference), this frequency is available as output signal at rear-panel connector REF OUT, e.g. to synchronize other instruments to the reference of the
R&S FSQ.
In the setting REFERENCE EXT, the connector REF IN is used as input connector
for an external frequency standard. In this case all internal oscillators of the
R&S FSQ are synchronized to the external reference frequency.
REFERENCE
FREQUENCY
As of firmware version 4.4x, the firmware provides the REFERENCE FREQUENCY
softkey. This softkey opens a submenu to configure the reference more precisely.
To maintain the setup of a test system, the reference settings do not change if a preset is performed.
REFERENCE
INTERNAL /
EXTERNAL
The REFERENCE INTERNAL / EXTERNAL softkey activates the internal or external reference signal.
If the external reference is selected, you can set the frequency of the external reference with the REFERENCE FREQUENCY softkey.
Remote command:
REFERENCE
EXT (INT)
ROSC:SOUR EXT
ROSC:SOUR INT
The REFERENCE EXT (INT) softkey provides a fail-safe if the external reference
signals fails for any reason.
The softkey activates the use of an external reference signal. However, if the
R&S FSQ detects an unlock due to a missing external reference signal, the reference signal source automatically switches to use the internal reference signal.
Once the R&S FSQ has switched to the internal reference signal it stays with the
internal reference. You have to switch back to the external reference signal manually
(press REFERENCE EXTERNAL and then activate REFERENCE EXT (INT) again).
The current source (internal or external) is indicated in the lower part of the softkey.
Remote command:
REFERENCE
FREQUENCY
ROSC:SOUR EAUT
The REFERENCE FREQUENCY softkey sets the frequency of the external reference. The range is from 1 MHz to 20 MHz with the default value being 10 MHz.
The reference frequency does not change after a preset to maintain the setup of a
test system.
Remote command:
4.182
ROSC:EXT:FREQ 10 MHZ
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R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Basic Settings
REF BW (NORM
WIDE)
The REF BW (NORM WIDE) softkey controls the PLL bandwidth used to synchronize with the external reference signal. Possible settings are NORM (PLL bandwidth
about 3 Hz) or WIDE (PLL bandwidth about 30 Hz). The default setting is NORM.
The reference settings do not change after a preset to maintain the setup of a test
system.
The softkey is available only if the external reference frequency is 10 MHz.
This function requires a synthesizer board revision with hardware code 7 or above .
You can check this information in the “HWC” column of the hardware info window
(see “HARDWARE INFO” on page 4.207).
Remote command:
4.6.3.2
NOISE SRC
(ON OFF)
External Noise Source
The NOISE SRC (ON OFF) softkey switches on or off the supply voltage for an
external noise source which is connected to the NOISE SOURCE connector on the
rear panel of the instrument.
Remote command:
4.6.3.3
SIGNAL
SOURCE
ROSC:EXT:PLL NORM | WIDE
DIAG:SERV:NSO ON
Signal Source
The SIGNAL SOURCE softkey opens the submenu for switching on or off the YIG
FILTER, the IQ DITHER and RF PATH.
YIG FILTER (ON OFF)
IQ DITHER ON OFF
RF PATH
BASEBAND ANALOG !
BASEBAND DIGITAL !
DIGITAL IN FULL SCALE
DIGITAL IN SAMPLE RATE
FULL SCALE AUTO SET /
SAMPLE RATE AUTO SET
DIGITAL BB INFO
EX-IQ BOX
DIGITAL BB INFO
EX-IQ BOX
YIG FILTER
(ON OFF)
In order to carry out broadband signal analysis, the YIG filter at the input of the
R&S FSQ can be removed from the signal path.
The YIG (ON OFF) softkey switches the YIG to the RF path by means of relays or
bypasses the filter. With bypassed YIG filters, the maximum bandwidth can be used
for signal analysis. However, image-frequency rejection is no longer ensured.
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R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Basic Settings
The YIG filter operates only if the frequency in the signal path exceeds 3.6 GHz.
The command has, therefore, no effect if the frequency is below this threshold.
Remote command:
IQ DITHER ON
OFF
INP:FILT:YIG ON|OFF
If option R&S FSQ-B72 is installed, this softkey switches the dither signal on and off.
If on, the R&S FSQ adds a noise signal into the signal path of the baseband input.
Dithering improves the linearity of the A/D converter at low signal levels or low modulation.
Improving the linearity also improves the accuracy of the displayed signal levels.
The signal has a bandwidth of 2 MHz with a center frequency of 38.92 MHz.
The default setting in OFF.
Remote command:
RF PATH
IQ:DITH ON|OFF
The RF PATH softkey selects the RF Input Path of the analyzer. This softkey is not
available in FFT analyzer mode.
This softkey is only available with option R&S FSQ-B71 or R&S FSQ-B17. Refer to
the manual of the R&S FSQ-B71 or the R&S FSQ-B17 for details.
Remote command:
BASEBAND
ANALOG
INP:SEL RF | AIQ | DIQ
The BASEBAND ANALOG softkey opens a submenu to configure the analog baseband input.
This softkey is only available with option R&S FSQ-B71. Refer to the R&S FSQ-B71
manual for details on the functions available in the submenu.
BASEBAND
DIGITAL
The BASEBAND DIGITAL softkey opens a submenu to configure the digital baseband input.
This softkey is only available with option R&S FSQ-B17.
DIGITAL IN FULL SCALE
DIGITAL IN SAMPLE RATE
FULL SCALE AUTO SET /
SAMPLE RATE AUTO SET
DIGITAL BB INFO
EX-IQ BOX
DIGITAL IN
FULL SCALE
The DIGITAL IN FULL SCALE softkey opens a dialog to define the voltage corresponding to the maximum input value of the digital baseband input (value 7FFF
hex). The default is 1 Volt.
FULL SCALE AUTO SET is switched off if you configure the full scale value manually.
This softkey is available with option FSQ-B17.
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R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Basic Settings
DIGITAL IN
SAMPLE RATE
The DIGITAL IN SAMPLE RATE softkey defines the input date sample rate read by
the digital baseband input. The default value is 81.6 MHz.
SAMPLE RATE AUTO SET is switched off if you configure the full scale value manually.
This softkey is only available with option FSQ-B17.
FULL SCALE
AUTO SET /
SAMPLE RATE
AUTO SET
Depending on the capability of the digital base band signal source, the I/Q data's
sample rate and/or the full scale value are passed to the LVDS input interface of the
R&S FSQ.
The FULL SCALE AUTO SET and SAMPLE RATE AUTO SET softkeys initiate an
automatic adjustment of the related input paramaters.
A conflict between the received values (full scale, sample rate) and the R&S FSQ’s
allowed ranges is dindicated by a red colored "BDI" enhancement label to the right
of the grid.
The same happens if the AUTO SET function is active but the sending device does
not support this feature. The related AUTO SET function has to be switched off and
you have to configure the parameter manually.
The softkeys are only available with option FSQ-B17.
DIGITAL BB
INFO
The DIGITAL BB INFO softkey opens a message box that shows the status information of the connected digital baseband device (input and output).
Depending on the capability of the digital base band signal source the I/Q data's
sample rate and/or the full scale value are transferred to the LVDS input interface of
the analyzer and displayed in the Digital Baseband Info table. The analyzer automatically adjusts the related input parameters (DIGITAL IN FULL SCALE and DIGITAL IN SAMPLE RATE) if the AUTO SET functions are switched on.
The Digital Baseband Info dialog box shows the following items:
•
Connected Device: Name of the connected device
•
Serial Number: Serial number of the connected device
•
Port Name: Port name of the connected device
•
Full Scale Value: Full scale value of the I/Q data sent by the connected device. “--” indicates that the information is not sent by the connected device. It is not
possible to use FULL SCALE AUTO SET in that case and you have to configure
the setting manually. “Auto” indicates that AUTO SET is active. If the value
exceeds the allowed range of the analyzer, the R&S FSQ ouputs a warning
message.
•
Sample Rate: Sample rate of the I/Q data sent by the connected device. “---”
indicates that the information is not sent by the connected device. It is not possible
to use SAMPLE RATE AUTO SET in that case and you have to configure the
setting manually. “Auto” indicates that AUTO SET is active. If the value exceeds
the allowed range of the analyzer, the R&S FSQ ouputs a warning message.
•
Max Transfer Rate: Maximum interface clock rate to transfer the I/Q data.
•
Connection Protocol: State of the connection protocol. The analyzer is able to
communicate with the sending or receiving device.
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4.185
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Basic Settings
•
PRBS Test Deskewing: An alignment process is started if the output or input of the
R&S FSQ-B17 is connected to a digital baseband source/sink. The current state
of this process is shown here. Possible states are "not yet started", "failed" or
"passed".
This softkey is only available with option R&S FSQ-B17.
Remote command:
EX-IQ BOX
INP:DIQ:CDEV?
OUTP:DIQ:CDEV?
The EX-IQ BOX softkey opens a dialog to configure an R&S EX-IQ-Box connected
to the digital baseband input or output.
This softkey is only available with option R&S FSQ-B17.
For more information refer to the manual for option R&S FSQ-B17.
4.6.3.4
RF Preamplifier
To improve the noise figure, a low-noise preamplifier with variable gain at the RF
input can be switched into the signal path.
PREAMP
The PREAMP softkey switches the preamplifier on or off. The preamplifier is
switched off by pressing the softkey again.
The only possible value with option el. attenuator (B25) is 20 dB.
Remote command:
INP:GAIN:STAT ON
'Switches the 20 dB preamplifier on.
The PREAMP softkey is only available with option el. attenuator (B25) or option
low noise preamp (B24).
4.6.3.5
Transducer
Activating Transducer Factors
The TRANSDUCER softkey opens a submenu enabling the user to activate or deactivate defined transducer factors, to generate new transducer factors or to edit existing ones. A table with the transducer factors defined is displayed.
As soon as a transducer is activated, the unit of the transducer is automatically used
for all the level settings and outputs. The unit cannot be changed in the AMPT menu
since the R&S FSQ and the transducer used are regarded as one measuring instrument. Only if the transducer has the unit dB, will the unit originally set on the
R&S FSQ be maintained and can be changed.
If a transducer factor is active, TDF is displayed in the enhancement labels column.
After all transducers have been switched off, the R&S FSQ returns to the unit that
was used before a transducer was activated.
In the analyzer mode, an active transducer for a sweep is calculated once in
advance for every point displayed and is added to the result of the level measurement during the sweep. If the sweep range changes, the correction values are calculated again. If several measured values are combined, only one value is taken
into consideration.
If the active transducer factor is not defined for the entire sweep range, the values
missing are replaced by zeroes.
4.186
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R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Basic Settings
TRANSDUCER
The TRANSDUCER softkey opens a submenu for editing existing transducer factors
or creating new transducer factors.
TRANSDUCER FACTOR
NEW FACTOR /
EDIT TRD FACTOR !
TRD FACTOR NAME
TRD FACTOR UNIT
TRD FACTOR VALUES
INSERT LINE
DELETE LINE
SAVE TRD FACTOR
DELETE FACTOR
VIEW TRANSDUCER
REFLVL ADJ AUTO MAN
PAGE UP
PAGE DOWN
A table with the available factors is displayed, and the active transducer can be
selected from this list.
The TRANSDUCER FACTOR table contains all the defined factors with name and
unit. If the number of transducer factors defined exceeds the number of lines available in the table, the user has to scroll through the table.
Only one factor at a time can be activated. A check sign next to the name indicates
that the transducer is active.
TRANSDUCER
FACTOR
The TRANSDUCER FACTOR softkey selects a transducer factor.
Remote command:
CORR:TRAN:SEL <name>
CORR:TRAN ON | OFF
EDIT TRD
FACTOR
The EDIT TRD FACTOR softkey gives access to the submenu for editing and generating transducer factors. For details refer to section “Entry and Editing of Transducer
Factors” on page 4.188.
NEW FACTOR
The NEW FACTOR softkey gives access to the submenu for editing and generating
transducer factors. For details refer to section “Entry and Editing of Transducer Factors” on page 4.188.
DELETE
FACTOR
The DELETE FACTOR softkey deletes the selected transducer factor.
To prevent deletion by mistake, deletion has to be confirmed.
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4.187
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Basic Settings
Remote command:
VIEW
TRANSDUCER
The VIEW TRANSDUCER softkey activates the display of the active transducer factor or set. During the measurement, the interpolated characteristic of the active
transducer factor or set is shown in the diagram instead of the measured values.
Remote command:
REFLVL ADJ
AUTO MAN
CORR:TRAN DEL
CORR:TRAN:VIEW ON
When a transducer factor is used, the trace is moved by a calculated shift. However,
an upward shift reduces the dynamic range for the displayed values. With the softkey REFLVL ADJ an automatic reference level offset adaptation allows to restore
the original dynamic range by also shifting the reference level by the maximum
value of the transducer factor.
If transducers are active the function is automatically set to AUTO to obtain the best
dynamic performance.
Remote command:
CORR:TRAN:SEL 'FACTOR1'
CORR:TRAN:ADJ:RLEV ON | OFF
PAGE UP
The PAGE UP softkey is used to scroll through large tables that cannot completely
be displayed on the screen.
PAGE DOWN
The PAGE DOWN softkey is used to scroll through large tables that cannot completely be displayed on the screen.
Entry and Editing of Transducer Factors
A transducer factor is characterized by the following:
•
Reference values with frequency and factor (Values)
•
Unit of the factor (Unit) and
•
Name (Name) to distinguish the various factors.
During entry the R&S FSQ checks the transducer factor for compliance with specific
rules that must be met to ensure correct operation.
•
The frequencies for the reference values must always be entered in ascending
order. Otherwise the entry will not be accepted and the following message is
displayed:
WRONG FREQUENCY SEQUENCE !
•
4.188
The frequencies entered may exceed the frequency range of the R&S FSQ since
only the set frequency range is taken into account for measurements. The
minimum frequency of a reference value is 0 Hz, the maximum frequency
200 GHz.
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Basic Settings
•
The value range for the transducer factor is ±200 dB. If the minimum or maximum
value is exceeded, the R&S FSQ outputs the following message:
out of range
•
Gain has to be entered as a negative value, and attenuation as a positive value.
The softkeys in the UNIT submenu of the AMPT key cannot be operated if the
transducer is on.
NEW
FACTOR /
EDIT TRD FAC
TOR
The NEW FACTOR and EDIT TRD FACTOR softkeys give access to the submenu
for editing and generating transducer factors.
TRD FACTOR NAME
TRD FACTOR UNIT
TRD FACTOR VALUES
INSERT LINE
DELETE LINE
SAVE TRD FACTOR
Depending on the softkey selected, either the table with the data of the factor
marked (EDIT TRD FACTOR softkey) or an empty table (NEW FACTOR softkey) is
displayed. This table is empty except for the following entries:
Unit:
dB
Interpolation:
LIN for linear frequency scaling
LOG for logarithmic frequency scaling
The features of the factor are entered in the header of the table, and the frequency
and the transducer factor are entered in the columns.
Name
Entry of name
Unit
Selection of unit
Interpolation
Selection of interpolation
Comment
Entry of comment
FREQUENCY
Entry of frequency of reference values
TDF/dB
Entry of transducer factor.
During editing, a transducer factor remains stored in the background until the factor
edited is saved with the SAVE TRD FACTOR softkey or until the table is closed. A
factor that was edited by mistake can be restored by leaving the entry function.
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
4.189
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Basic Settings
Name - Entry of name
TRD FACTOR
NAME
The TRD FACTOR NAME softkey is used to enter the name of the transducer factor.
A maximum of 8 characters is permissible for the name. The characters have to
comply with the convention of DOS file names. If the name exceeds 8 characters,
the name is truncated. The unit automatically stores all transducer factors with the
extension .TDF. If an existing name is changed, the factor stored under the previous
name is retained and will not be overwritten automatically with the new name. The
previous factor can be deleted at a later time, using DELETE. Thus, factors can be
copied.
Remote command:
CORR:TRAN:SEL <name>
Unit – Selection of unit
TRD FACTOR
UNIT
The TRD FACTOR UNIT softkey gives access to a box for selecting the unit of the
transducer factor.
The default setting is dB.
Remote command:
CORR:TRAN:UNIT <string>
Entry of value
TRD FACTOR
VALUES
The TRD FACTOR VALUES softkey defines the reference values of the transducer.
The desired reference values for FREQUENCY and TDF/dB must be entered in
ascending order of frequencies. After the frequency has been entered, the scrollbar
automatically goes to the associated level value.
The table can be edited after entry of the first value using the INSERT LINE and
DELETE LINE softkeys. To change individual values later on, the value has to be
selected and a new one entered.
Remote command:
CORR:TRAN:DATA <freq>,<level>
Interpolation - Selection of interpolation
Linear or logarithmic interpolation can be performed between the frequency reference values of the table. The ENTER key allows the user to select LIN or LOG (toggle function).
Remote command:
CORR:TRAN:SCAL LIN|LOG
The following diagrams show the effect that interpolation has on the calculated
trace:
4.190
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Basic Settings
Fig. 4.15 Linear frequency axis and linear interpolation
Fig. 4.16 Logarithmic frequency axis and interpolation
Comment - Entry of comment
Any comment with a maximum length of 50 characters can be entered.
Remote command:
INSERT LINE
The INSERT LINE softkey inserts an empty line above the marked reference value.
When entering a new reference value in the line, the ascending order of frequencies
must be taken into consideration, however.
Remote command:
DELETE LINE
--
The DELETE LINE softkey deletes the marked reference value (complete line). The
reference values that follow move one line up.
Remote command:
SAVE TRD
FACTOR
CORR:TRAN:COMM <string>
--
The SAVE TRD FACTOR softkey saves the changed table in a file on the internal
hard disk.
If there is already a transducer factor that has the same name, a confirmation query
is output.
If the new factor is active, the new values become immediately valid.
Remote command:
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
-(executed automatically after the definition of the
reference values)
4.191
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Basic Settings
4.6.3.6
Programming the Interface Configuration and Time Setup
The GENERAL SETUP softkey opens a submenu in which the general instrument
parameters can be set up. In addition to the configuration of the digital interfaces
(IECBUS, COM), the date and time may be entered.
You can edit the current setting directly in the table that the R&S FSQ displays.
GENERAL
SETUP
GPIB !
GPIB ADDRESS
ID STRING FACTORY
ID STRING USER
GPIB LANGUAGE
IF GAIN (NORM PULS)
SWEEP REP (ON OFF)
COUPLING (FSP HP)
REV STRING FACTORY
REV STRING USER
COM INTERFACE
TIME+DATE
CONFIGURE
NETWORK
COMPUTER NAME
IP ADDRESS
SUBNET MASK
DHCP (ON OFF)
CONFIGURE NETWORK
SHOW CONFIG
NETWORK LOGIN
OPTIONS !
INSTALL OPTION
REMOVE OPTION
EXPERT MODE
REBOOT
PAGE UP
PAGE DOWN
INSTALL (FW EXT)
Side menu
SOFT FRONTPANEL
LXI !
DISPLAY (ON OFF)
INFO
PASSWORD
DESC
LAN RESET
4.192
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R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Basic Settings
Selecting the GPIB Address
GPIB
The GPIB softkey opens a submenu for setting the parameters of the remote-control
interface.
Remote command:
GPIB ADDRESS
--
The GPIB ADDRESS softkey enables the entry of the GPIB address.
Valid addresses are 0 through 30. The default address is 20.
Remote command:
ID STRING
FACTORY
ID STRING
USER
SYST:COMM:GPIB:ADDR 20
The ID STRING FACTORY softkey selects the default response to the *IDN? query.
Remote command:
--
The ID STRING USER softkey opens an editor for entering a user-defined response
to the *IDN? query.
Max. length of output string: 36 characters
Remote command:
GPIB
LANGUAGE
--
The GPIB LANGUAGE softkey opens a list of selectable remote-control languages:
•
SCPI
•
71100C
•
71200C
•
71209A
•
8560E
•
8561E
•
8562E
•
8563E
•
8564E
•
8565E
•
8566A
•
8566B
•
8568A
•
8568A_DC
•
8568B
•
8568B_DC
•
8591E
•
8594E
•
PSA89600
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
4.193
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Basic Settings
For 8566A/B, 8568A/B and 8594E, command sets A and B are available. Command sets A and B differ in the rules regarding the command structure from the
command structure of “SCPI”. Therefore, correct recognition of SCPI commands is
not ensured in these operating modes.
Selecting a language different from "SCPI" will set the GPIB address to 18 if it was
20 before.
Start / stop frequency, reference level and # of sweep points will be adapted to the
selected instrument model.
8568A_DC and 8568B_DC are using DC input coupling as default if it is supported
by the instrument.
The HP model 8591E is compatible to HP model 8594E, the HP models 71100C,
71200C, and 71209A are compatible to HP models 8566A/B.
On switching between remote-control languages, the following settings or changes
will be made:
SCPI:
➢ The instrument will perform a PRESET.
8566A/B, 8568A/B, 8594E:
➢ The instrument will perform a PRESET.
➢ The following instrument settings will then be changed:
Model
# of Trace
Points
Start Freq.
Stop Freq.
Ref Level
Input
Coupling
8566A/B
1001
2 GHz
22 GHz
0 dBm
DC
8568A/B
1001
0 Hz
1.5 GHz
0 dBm
AC
8560E
601
0 Hz
2.9 GHz
0 dBm
AC
8561E
601
0 Hz
6.5 GHz
0 dBm
AC
8562E
601
0 Hz
13.2 GHz
0 dBm
AC
8563E
601
0 Hz
26.5 GHz
0 dBm
AC
8564E
601
0 Hz
40 GHz
0 dBm
AC
8565E
601
0 Hz
50 GHz
0 dBm
AC
8594E
401
0 Hz
3 GHz
0 dBm
AC
Notes regarding switch over to 8566A/B and 8568A/B on R&S FSUP
•
The stop frequency indicated in the table may be limited to the corresponding
frequency of the R&S FSQ, if required.
Remote command:
4.194
SYST:LANG "SCPI" | "8560E" | "8561E" |
"8562E" | "8563E" | "8564E" | "8565E" |
"8566A" | "8566B" | "8568A" |
"8568A_DC" | "8568B" | "8568B_DC" |
"8591E" | "8594E" | "71100C" | "71200C" |
"71209A"
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Basic Settings
IF GAIN
(NORM PULS)
The IF GAIN (NORM PULS) softkey configures the internal IF gain settings in HP
emulation mode due to the application needs. This setting is only taken into account
for resolution bandwidth < 300 kHz.
NORM
Optimized for high dynamic range,
overload limit is close to reference level.
PULS
Optimized for pulsed signals,
overload limit up to 10 dB above reference level.
This softkey is only available, if a HP languge is selected via the GPIB LANGUAGE
softkey.
Remote command:
SWEEP REP
(ON OFF)
SYST:IFG:MODE PULS
The SWEEP REP (ON OFF) softkey controls a repeated sweep of the E1 and MKPK
HI HP model commands (for details on the commands refer to “GPIB Commands of
HP Models 856xE, 8566A/B, 8568A/B and 8594E” on page 6.262). If the repeated
sweep is OFF, the marker is set without sweeping before.
In single sweep mode, switch off this softkey before you set the marker via the E1
and MKPK HI commands in order to avoid sweeping afresh.
This softkey is only available, if a HP languge is selected via the GPIB LANGUAGE
softkey.
Remote command:
COUPLING
(FSP HP)
SYST:RSW ON
The COUPLING (FSP HP) softkey controls the default coupling ratios for:
•
span and resolution bandwidth (Span/RBW) and
•
resolution bandwidth and video bandwidth (RBW/VBW)
for the HP emulation mode.
In case of FSP the standard parameter coupling of the instrument is used. As a
result in most cases a shorter sweeptime is used than in case of HP.
The softkey is only available in HP emulation mode.
Remote command:
REV STRING
FACTORY
The REV STRING FACTORY softkey selects the default response for the “REV?”
remote command. It is available if a HP language is selected (“GPIB LANGUAGE”
softkey).
Remote command:
REV STRING
USER
SYST:HPC FSP
SYST:REV:FACT
The REV STRING USER softkey opens a dialog box to define a customized
response for the “REV?” remote command. The maximum length of the output string
is 40 characters.
The softkey is available if a HP language is selected (“GPIB LANGUAGE” softkey).
Remote command:
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
SYST:REV <string>
4.195
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Basic Settings
Serial Interface Configuration
COM
INTERFACE
The COM INTERFACE softkey activates the COM INTERFACE table for entry of the
serial interface parameters.
The following parameters can be configured in the table:
Baud rate
data transmission rate
Bits
number of data bits
Parity
bit parity check
Stop bits
number of stop bits
HW-Handshake
hardware handshake protocol
SW-Handshake
software handshake protocol
Owner
assignment to the measuring instrument or computer
Baud – Data transmission rate
The R&S FSQ supports baud rates between 110 and 128000 baud. The default setting is 9600 baud.
Remote command:
SYST:COMM:SER:BAUD 9600
Bits – Number of data bits per word
For the transmission of text without special characters, 7 bits are adequate. For
binary data as well as for text with special characters, 8 bits must be selected
(default setting).
Remote command:
4.196
SYST:COMM:SER:BITS 7
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Basic Settings
Parity – Bit parity check
NONE
no parity check (default setting)
EVEN
even parity check
ODD
odd parity check
Remote command:
SYST:COMM:SER:PAR NONE
Stop bits – Number of stop bits
Available are 1 and 2. The default setting is 1 stop bit.
Remote command:
SYST:COMM:SER:SBIT 1
HW-Handshake – Hardware handshake protocol
The integrity of data transmission can be improved by the use of a hardware handshake mechanism, which effectively prevents uncontrolled transmission of data and
the resulting loss of data bytes. For hardware handshake additional interface lines
are used to transmit acknowledge signals with which the data transmission can be
controlled and, if necessary, stopped until the receiver is ready to receive data
again.
A prerequisite for using hardware handshaking is, however, that the interface lines
(DTR and RTS) are connected on both transmitter and receiver. For a simple 3-wire
connection, this is not the case and hardware handshake cannot be used here.
Default setting is NONE.
Remote command:
SYST:COMM:SER:CONT:DTR OFF
SYST:COMM:SER:CONT:RTS OFF
SW-Handshake – Software handshake protocol
Besides the hardware handshake mechanism using interface lines, it is also possible to achieve the same effect by using a software handshake protocol. Here, control bytes are transmitted in addition to the normal data bytes. These control bytes
can be used, as necessary, to stop data transmission until the receiver is ready to
receive data again.
In contrast to hardware handshaking, software handshaking can be realized even
for a simple 3-wire connection.
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One limitation is, however, that software handshaking cannot be used for the transmission of binary data, since the control characters XON and XOFF require bit combinations that are also used for binary data transmission.
Default setting is NONE.
Remote command:
SYST:COMM:SER:PACE NONE
Owner – Assignment of the interface
The serial interface can be assigned alternatively to the measuring instrument section or to the computer section.
If the interface is assigned to one section of the instrument, it is not available to the
other section.
INSTRUMENTThe interface is assigned to the measuring instrument section.
Outputs to the interface from the computer section are not possible and will get lost.
OS
The interface is assigned to the computer section. It cannot be
used by the measuring instrument section. This means that
remote control of the instrument via the interface is not possible.
Setting Date and Time
TIME+DATE
The TIME+DATE softkey activates the entry of time and date for the internal realtime clock.
Time - Input of time
In the corresponding dialog box, the time is partitioned into two input fields so that
hours and minutes can be entered independently.
Remote command:
SYST:TIME 21,59
Date - Input of Date
In the corresponding dialog box, the date is partitioned into 3 input fields so that day,
month and year can be input separately.
For the selection of the month, pressing a unit key opens a list of abbreviations
wherein the desired month can be selected.
Remote command:
4.198
SYST:DATE 1009,03,01
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Configuration of Network Settings
The instrument can be connected to an Ethernet LAN (local area network) by means
of the LAN Interface. This allows data transmission via the network and the use of
network printers. The network card is able to handle both 10 MHz Ethernet IEEE
802.3 and 100 MHz Ethernet IEEE 802.3u.
For more details see the Quick Start Guide 6, “ LAN Interface”.
CONFIGURE
NETWORK
The CONFIGURE NETWORK softkey opens the following submenu:
COMPUTER NAME
IP ADDRESS
SUBNET MASK
DHCP (ON OFF)
CONFIGURE
NETWORK
SHOW CONFIG
The Network Configuration softkeys above are available from firmware Version
4.3x.
Instruments shipped with Windows XP Service Pack1 require an additional installation package (LXI installer) if the softkeys are not visible. This installation package is available on the R&S instrument's download area.
The configuration via softkeys is only possible if the LAN is connected to the
instrument.
COMPUTER
NAME
The COMPUTERNAME softkey opens a dialog to enter the computer name. The
naming conventions of Windows apply.
For more details see the Quick Start Guide.
IP ADDRESS
The IP ADDRESS softkey opens a dialog to configure the instrument's IP address.
The TCP/IP protocol is preinstalled with the IP address 10.0.0.10. If the DHCP
server is available (DHCP ON) the softkey is not available.
For more details see the Quick Start Guide.
SUBNET MASK
The SUBNET MASK softkey opens a dialog to configure the instrument's TCP/IP
subnet mask. The TCP/IP protocol is preinstalled with the subnet mask
255.255.255.0.
The subnet mask consists of four number blocks separated by dots. Each block contain 3 numbers in maximum (e.g.100.100.100.100), but also one ore two numbers
are allowed in a block (as an example see the preinstalled address).
For more details see the Quick Start Guide.
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DHCP (ON OFF)
If the DHCP (ON OFF) softkey is set ON, a new IP address is assigned each time
the instrument is restarted. This address must first be determined on the instrument
itself.
To avoid problems, use a fixed IP address.
Using a DHCP server is not suitable for remote operation of the R&S FSU.
CONFIGURE
NETWORK
The CONFIGURE NETWORK softkey opens the dialog box with the network settings.
The softkey is used to modify an existing network configuration after the corresponding tabs are selected. For more information see the Quick Start Guide.
A PC keyboard with trackball (or mouse instead) is required for the installation/
configuration of the network support.
Remote command:
SHOW CONFIG
4.200
--
The SHOW CONFIG softkey shows the current network configuration.
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NETWORK
LOGIN
The NETWORK LOGIN softkey opens the dialog box with the auto login settings.
As of firmware version 4.6x, the default username is “instrument” with the password
“894129”.
As of firmware version 4.4x, the default username is “instrument” with the password
“123456”.
Prior to firmware version 4.4x, the default username and password were both“instrument”.
When a network is installed, the default user name 'instrument' and its password can
be adapted to a new user (see the Quick Start Guide 6, “ LAN Interface”.).
With the 'Auto Login' option active, an automatic registration is performed during
booting with the specified user name and password. Otherwise the Windows XP
login request is displayed during booting.
A PC keyboard with trackball (or mouse instead) is required for the installation/
configuration of the network support.
For information on deactivating/activating the auto login mechanism see section
“Logging on to the Network“ in chapter ’LAN Interface’ of the Quick Start Guide.
Remote command:
--
Managing Firmware Options
The OPTIONS softkey opens a table that shows all available applications and a submenu to manage firmware applications.
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The table provides the following information:
•
Description
Application of the firmware option. Active options are check marked.
To activate or deactivate an option move the cursor to the option in question and
press the ENTER key. Note that some options can not be deactivated. The cursor
will skip those. Note also that some options are combined to groups. You can only
activate or deactivate them as a whole.
•
Name
Name of the firmware option.
•
Code
License key of the firmware option.
If you have installed several firmware options, the required resources may exceed
the available system memory on instruments shipped with a system memory size
below 1GByte. Most applications require additional memory space once activated.
These resources are not released when you exit the application to allow a fast reactivation of this application for measurement performance reasons.
To avoid memory issues, you can manually activate or deactivate a license key. If
the license key is inactive, the application hot key is not visible in the hot key menu.
•
Min Mem/MB
Shows the additional minimum base system memory required by the application.
This memory remains allocated after you have exited the application. In that case,
it is not available for other applications.
•
Max Mem/MB
Shows the additional maximum base system memory required by the application.
This means that the complete memory requirement for an option is the sum of minimum memory and maximum memory. In the figure above, e.g. 6.4 MB + 3.4 MB for
option K40.
The complete instrument memory requirement is the sum of all options’ minimum
memory (“Min Mem”) requirements plus the maximum memory (“Max Mem”)
requirement of the option that needs the most maximum memory. In the figure
above it would be 16 MB + 6.4 MB + 47.9 MB (for option K8).
The complete memory that is required is the sum of all minimum memory values
plus the greatest maximum value of all active firmware options. The available system memory is shown in the bottom line.
If you can not activate an option you need you can save system memory by
•
checking if the option that needs the most memory (Max Mem) is still required.
Deactivate this option to reduce maximum memory allocation.
•
reducing the base memory allocation. Deactivate all options with a minimum
memory unequal to 0.
When you use the EXPERT MODE, you can deactivate the memory check.
Remote command:
4.202
*OPT?
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OPTIONS
Opens a table that provides information about installed firmware options. Also opens
a submenu to manage firmware options.
INSTALL OPTION
REMOVE OPTION
EXPERT MODE
REBOOT
PAGE UP /
PAGE DOWN
INSTALL (FW EXT)
INSTALL
OPTION
The INSTALL OPTION softkey opens the data entry for the license keycode of a
firmware option.
On entry of a valid license key the message OPTION KEY OK is displayed in the
status line and the firmware option appears in table FIRMWARE OPTIONS.
If the license key is valid and accepted, the R&S FSQ activates that option by
default. If the R&S FSQ has memory issues, you have to deactivate other applications before you can use the option (see OPTIONS softkey).
On entry of an invalid license key the message OPTION KEY INVALID is displayed
in the status line.
Remote command:
REMOVE
OPTION
The REMOVE OPTION softkey removes all firmware options from the instruments.
Execution of this function must be confirmed in a message box in order to avoid
removal of the firmware options by mistake.
Remote command:
EXPERT MODE
--
--
The EXPERT MODE softkey switches off the option key memory check.
This function is useful if all the required applications do not fit into the available system memory, but the worst case settings (concerning memory usage) of the applications is not required for a certain test case.
Example: An application may only need the maxmimum memory if a certain function
(e.g. FFT calculation) is active. If this function is not used, it is possible to enable an
additional application.
The analyzer may crash do to "low memory" conditions if the expert mode is
switched on.
Remote command:
REBOOT
---
The REBOOT softkey performs the shutdown and reboot of the operating system
and the analyzer firmware. The reboot will free allocated resources.
Remote command:
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---
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PAGE UP /
PAGE DOWN
The PAGE UP and PAGE DOWN softkeys scroll through the Firmware Option List
dialog box.
Remote command:
INSTALL
(FW EXT)
---
The INSTALL FW EXT softkey opens a dialog to select and start a Firmware Extension Installer MSI File. This softkey is only visible if an application requires an extension of the Windows XP environment.
Due to the installer package size it is not allowed to install these FW Extension
Pages on instruments with option R&S FSQ-B18 - Removable Harddisk and therefore this softkey is not available in that case.
A message window will pop up when an option key code is entered for an application requiring a certain FW Extension Package. After installation of the FW Extension Package the option key has to be entered a second time.
Emulation of the Instrument Front Panel
SOFT
FRONTPANEL
The SOFT FRONTPANEL softkey switches the display of the front panel keys on
and off.
When the front-panel keys are displayed on the screen, the instrument can be controlled by clicking the respective button with the mouse. This is especially useful
when the instrument in a different site is controlled via a remote-control program,
such as, for instance, the remote desktop of Windows XP, and the screen contents
are transferred to the controller via remote link. For more information see the Quick
Start Guide).
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Display resolution
When the display of the front-panel keys is switched on, the screen resolution of the
instrument changes to 1024x768 pixels. Only a section of the total screen is then
displayed on the LC display, which will automatically be shifted on mouse moves.
In order to obtain a complete display of the user interface, an external monitor is to
be plugged into the corresponding connector at the rear panel. Prior to performing
the resolution change the user is prompted for confirmation whether the required
monitor is connected.
Switching off the front-panel display restores the original screen resolution.
Key assignment
Button labels largely correspond to those of the front-panel keys. The rotation function of the rotary knob is assigned to the 'KNOB LEFT' and 'KNOB RIGHT' buttons,
the press function (<ENTER>) to 'KNOB PRESS'.
The labels of the softkey buttons (F1 to F9) and of the hotkey buttons (C-F1 to C-F7)
indicate that the keys can be operated directly by means of the corresponding function keys F1 to F9 or <CTRL>F1 to <CTRL>F7 of a USB or PS/2 keyboard.
Remote command:
REGISTRY
READ ONLY
SYST:DISP:FPAN ON
The REGISTRY READ ONLY softkey turns a write protection for the Windows XP
registry on and off.
If REGISTRY READ ONLY is on, any modification to the registry is cashed into RAM
and gets lost after you reboot the instrument. The active write protection is indicated
in the Statistics dialog box in the System Info menu.
The function is available if the “Registry Write Filter” package is installed. This tool is
available with Windows XP SP2 or SP3.
You can also turn the function on and of in the Windows Start menu: Start - Programs - Accessories - System Tools - Activate Registry Readonly / Deactivate Registry Readonly.
Do not update the firmware or drivers on the R&S FSQ while the Registry Read
Only funtion is active.
Doing so will result in an incomplete installation.
LXI
The LXI softkey opens a submenu to configure LXI.
DISPLAY (ON OFF)
INFO
PASSWORD
DESC
LAN RESET
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LXI Activation
The LXI has to be activated after the firmware update.
1. Connect the R&S FSQ to the LAN.
2. Open the Windows Start Menu either with the OPEN START MENU softkey, the
CRTL-ESC shortcut or the Windows key.
3. Select LXI Configuration.
LXI Deactivation
1. Open the Windows Start Menu and select the LXI Configuration item.
2. Select the Turn LXI Off item.
DISPLAY
(ON OFF)
The DISPLAY (ON OFF) softkey switches the LXI Observer dialog box on or off.
The color of the LXI logo shows the state of the LAN indicator.
•
green: device connected
•
red: device disconnected or limited (Fault Back Auto IP)
A flashing LXI logo is used as Device Indication.
Remote command:
INFO
SYST:LXI:DISP ON | OFF
The INFO softkey opens an window that shows the current parameters of LXI class
C, including the current version, class and various computer parameters like the
computer name or IP adress.
While active, the dialog is not updated.
Remote command:
PASSWORD
The PASSWORD softkey shows the currently set password. You can also change
the current password using this softkey. The password is required to change settings
via the web browser (e.g. IP parameter). An empty password is not valid, i.e. you
must enter a password. By default, the password is LxiWebIfc.
Remote command:
DESC
SYST:LXI:MDES <string>
The LAN RESET softkey resets the LAN configuration to a state required by the LXI
standard. For example, the TCP/IP mode is set to DHCP and Dynamic DNS and
ICMP Ping are enabled. In addition, the analyzer sets the password and the instrument description to their initial states.
Remote command:
4.206
SYST:LXI:PASS 'password'
The DESC softkey opens a dialog box to view or change the LXI instrument description. This description is used on some of the LXI web sites.
Remote command:
LAN RESET
SYST:LXI:INFO?
SYST:LXI:LANR
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4.6.3.7
System Information
The SYSTEM INFO softkey opens a submenu in which detailed information on module data, device statistics and system messages is displayed.
SYSTEM INFO
HARDWARE INFO
STATISTICS
SYSTEM MESSAGES
CLEAR ALL
MESSAGES
Display of Module Data
HARDWARE
INFO
The HARDWARE INFO softkey opens a table in which the modules (INSTALLED
COMPONENTS) installed in the instrument are listed together with the corresponding hardware revisions.
Table HARDWARE INFO consists of six columns:
SERIAL #
serial number
COMPONENT
name of module
ORDER #
order number
MODEL
model number of the module
REV
main modification index of the module
SUB REV
secondary modification index of the module
The screenshot lists the components of an R&S FSQ without options.
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Display of Device Statistics
STATISTICS
The STATISTICS softkey opens the table STATISTICS. This table contains the
model information, serial number, firmware version, and specifications version of the
basic device. Additionally, the operating time of the instrument, the power-on cycles
as well as attenuator switching cycles are displayed.
For newly delivered devices the data sheet version (document of the hardware properties) is shown. For already delivered devices dashes (--.--) are displayed.
Remote command:
--
Display of System Messages
SYSTEM
MESSAGES
The SYSTEM MESSAGES softkey opens a submenu including a table in which the
generated system messages are displayed in the order of their occurrence. The
most recent messages are placed at the top of the list.
The following information is available:
No
Device-specific error code
MESSAGE
Brief description of the message
COMPONENT
On hardware messages:
name of the affected module
On software messages:
if needed, the name of the affected software components
DATE/TIME
Date and time of the occurrence of the message
Messages that have occurred since the last call to the SYSTEM MESSAGES menu
are marked with an asterisk '*'.
The CLEAR ALL MESSAGES softkey is activated and allows clearing of the error
buffer.
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If the number of error messages exceeds the capacity of the error buffer, the message appearing first is "Message buffer overflow".
Remote command:
CLEAR ALL
MESSAGES
The CLEAR ALL MESSAGES softkey deletes all messages in the table.
The softkey is only available when table SYSTEM INFO is active.
Remote command:
4.6.3.8
SYST:ERR?
SYST:ERR?
Service Menu
The service menu offers a variety of additional functions which are used for maintenance and/or trouble shooting.
The service functions are not necessary for normal measurement operation. However, incorrect use can affect correct operation and/or data integrity of the
R&S FSQ.
Therefore, many of the functions can only be used after entering a password. They
are described in the instrument service manual.
SERVICE
INPUT RF
INPUT CAL
SELFTEST
SELFTEST RESULTS
ENTER PASSWORD
Side menu
CAL GEN 128 MHZ
CAL GEN COMB PULSE
Side menu
COMMAND TRACKING
EXPORT / IMPORT DEV DATA
The SERVICE softkey opens a submenu for selection of the service function.
The INPUT RF and INPUT CAL softkeys are mutually exclusive selection switches.
Only one switch can be active at any one time.
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General Service Functions
INPUT RF
The INPUT RF softkey switches the input of the R&S FSQ to the input connector
(normal position).
After PRESET, RECALL or R&S FSQ power on, the INPUT RF is always selected.
Remote command:
INPUT CAL
The INPUT CAL softkey switches the RF input of the R&S FSQ to the internal calibration source (128 MHz) and activates the data entry of the output level of the calibration source. Possible values are 0 dB and –30 dB.
Remote command:
ENTER
PASSWORD
DIAG:SERV:INP CAL;
DIAG:SERV:INP:CSO 0 DBM
The ENTER PASSWORD softkey allows the entry of a password.
The R&S FSQ contains a variety of service functions which, if incorrectly used, can
affect correct operation of the R&S FSQ. These functions are normally not accessible and are only usable after the entry of a password (see instrument service manual).
Remote command:
CAL GEN 128
MHZ
DIAG:SERV:INP RF
SYST:PASS "Password"
The CAL GEN 128 MHZ softkey selects a sinusoidal signal at 128 MHz as output
signal for the internal calibration source. The internal pulse generator will be
switched off.
CAL GEN 128 MHZ is the default setting of the R&S FSQ.
Remote command:
CAL GEN
COMB PULSE
DIAG:SERV:INP CAL
DIAG:SERV:INP:PULS OFF
This softkey switches the internal pulse generator on and allows the pulse frequency
to be entered.
Available pulse frequencies are 10 kHz, 62,5 kHz, 1 MHz, 128 MHz, and 640 MHz.
Remote command:
CAL GEN
COMB RECT
DIAG:SERV:INP:PULS ON;
DIAG:SERV:INP:PULS:PRAT <value>
The CAL GEN COMB RECT softkey switches the internal pulse generator on and
allows the pulse frequency to be entered.
Available pulse frequencies are 5 kHz, 31.25 kHz, 50 kHz, 250 kHz, and 500 kHz.
The availability of the softkey depends on the revision of the internal hardware.
Remote command:
COMMAND
TRACKING
4.210
DIAG:SERV:INP:RECT ON
DIAG:SERV:INP:RECT:PRAT 128MHz
The COMMAND TRACKING softkey activates or deactivates the SCPI error log
function. All remote control commands received by the R&S FSQ are recorded in
the following log file:
D:\R_S\instr\log\IEC_CMDS.LOG
Logging the commands may be extremely useful for debug purposes, e.g. in order
to find misspelled keywords in control programs.
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If this softkey is activated, the R&S FSQ becomes slower.
Remote command:
EXPORT /
IMPORT DEV
DATA
--
The EXPORT DEV DATA softkey opens a dialog to export device specific data to a
memory stick.
The export function automatically creates a sub folder using the instrument name
and the serial number, e.g. FSQ40_123000 and copies device specific files to this
folder:
•
Option license key codes
•
Board specific data
•
Frequency response correction file (option FSQ-B72 only)
IMPORT DEV DATA reads these data back onto the instrument.
Select the folder, where the instrument specific sub folder is located and press
OPEN. A dialog asks to perform a reboot when the import is done.
This function is helpful to backup device specific data, e.g. the option license keys. It
is also helpful if you have to use a removable flash disk (R&S FSQ-B18) for more
than one device. In this case:
•
Export the instrument data of device 1.
•
Switch instrument 1 off.
•
Remove the flash disk from device 1.
•
Insert the flash disk into device 2.
•
Switch instrument 2 on
•
Import the instrument data of device 2 (saved before).
Note that a new export of the specific instrument data is required whenever:
•
A new option key was inserted.
•
The Rohde & Schwarz Service refitted a board.
•
The Rohde & Schwarz Service performed a device calibration.
Remote command:
---
Selftest
SELFTEST
The SELFTEST softkey initiates the selftest of the instrument modules.
With this function the instrument is capable of identifying a defective module in case
of failure.
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During the selftest a message box appears in which the current test and its result is
shown. The test sequence can be aborted by pressing ENTER ABORT.
All modules are checked consecutively and the test result (selftest PASSED or
FAILED) is output in the message box.
Remote command:
SELFTEST
RESULTS
*TST?
The SELFTEST RESULTS softkey calls the SELFTEST table in which the results of
the module test are displayed.
In case of failure a short description of the failed test, the defective module, the
associated value range and the corresponding test results are indicated.
Remote command:
PAGE UP /
PAGE DOWN
DIAG:SERV:STES:RES?
The PAGE UP or PAGE DOWN softkey sets the SELFTEST RESULTS table to the
next or previous page.
Remote command:
--
Hardware Adjustment
Some of the R&S FSQ modules can be realigned. This realignment can become
necessary after calibration due to temperature drift or aging of components (see service manual instrument).
The realignment should be carried out by qualified personnel since the changes
considerably influence the measurement accuracy of the instrument. This is the
reason why the softkeys REF FREQUENCY, CAL SIGNAL POWER and SAVE
CHANGES can only be accessed after entering a password.
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4.6.3.9
Firmware Update
For the latest firmware version refer to the Rohde & Schwarz internet site and download the most up-to-date firmware.
A detailed description about performing the firmware update in the intrument is given
in the release note, provided on this CD. The release note is also downloadable
from the Rohde & Schwarz internet site.
The installation of a new firmware version can be performed using a memory stick.
The installation program is called in the SETUP menu.
FIRMWARE
UPDATE
FIRMWARE UPDATE
RESTORE FIRMWARE
UPDATE PATH
The FIRMWARE UPDATE softkey opens the subdirectory for installing/deinstalling
new firmware versions.
Remote command:
FIRMWARE
UPDATE
The FIRMWARE UPDATE softkey starts the installation program and leads the user
through the remaining steps of the update.
Remote command:
RESTORE
FIRMWARE
UPDATE PATH
--
"SYST:FIRM:UPD 'D:\USER\FWUPDATE'"
The RESTORE FIRMWARE softkey restores the previous firmware version
Remote command:
--
The UPDATE PATH softkey is used to select the drive and directories under which
the archive files for the firmware update are stored.
The firmware update can thus also be performed via network drives or USB memory
sticks/USB-CD-ROM drives.
Remote command:
APPL SETUP
RECOVERY
"SYST:FIRM:UPD 'D:\USER\FWUPDATE'"
The APPL SETUP RECOVERY (Application Setup Recovery) softkey controls the
instrument behaviour when changing the active application, e.g from SPECTRUM to
FM DEMOD and back from FM DEMOD to SPECTRUM.
In the default state OFF a few parameters of the current analyzer setting are passed
to the application (e.g. center frequency, level settings) or from the application back
to the analyzer mode.
If APPL SETUP RECOVERY is switched ON, the settings of the applications are
independent of each other. Leaving the FM DEMOD application will restore the previous state of the ANALYZER.
The individual application settings are stored on the internal harddisk.
Remote command:
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SYST:APPL:SREC ON
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OPEN START
MENU
The OPEN START MENU softkey opens the windows XP start menu and therefore
provides an easy access to standard windows functions if a mouse is connect.
FM DEMOD
ANALOG
The FM DEMOD ANALOG softkey opens a submenu to use the FM demodulation.
For details refer to “Broadband FM Demodulator - Option R&S FSU-B27” on
page 4.306.
The default setting for FM DEMOD ANALOG is OFF.
POWER
METER
The POWER METER softkey opens a submenu for measurements with power sensors. For details refer to the Software Manual of the application firmware R&S FSK9 on the options CD-ROM.
IF SHIFT
The IF SHIFT softkey opens a submenu to activate or deactivate 1st IF shifting.
Input signals at a frequency of half the 1st IF (in the frequency range of 2270 MHz to
2350 MHz) reduce the dynamic range of the analyzer. This problem only occurs for
low RF attenuation values. It can be overcome by shifting the 1st IF.
The 1st IF shifting is automatically done for ACP measurements if the center frequency ( = signal frequency) is in the range of 2270 MHz to 2350 MHz. The IF
SHIFT setting is therefore ignored for ACP measurements.
IF SHIFT OFF
The IF SHIFT OFF softkey deactivates the 1st IF shifting.
Remote command:
IF SHIFT A
The IF SHIFT A softkey is appropriate for input signals in the frequency range of
2270 MHz to 2310 MHz.
Remote command:
IF SHIFT B
SWE:IF:SHIF B
AUTO automatically selects the suitable 1st IF shifting. The Signal Frequency has to
be specified for that purpose in the Signal Frequency dialog.
Remote command:
4.214
SWE:IF:SHIF A
The IF SHIFT B softkey is appropriate for input signals in the frequency range of
2310 MHz to 2350 MHz.
Remote command:
AUTO
SWE:IF:SHIF OFF
SWE:IF:SHIF AUTO
SWE:IF:SHIF:FREQ <numeric value>
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4.6.4
4.6.4.1
Saving and Recalling Data Sets – FILE Key
Overview
The FILE key calls the following functions:
•
Storage/loading functions for storing (SAVE) instrument settings such as
instrument configurations (measurement/display settings, etc.) and measurement
results from working memory to permanent storage media, or to load (RECALL)
stored data into working memory.
•
Functions for management of storage media (FILE MANAGER). Included are
among others functions for listing files, formatting storage media, copying, and
deleting/renaming files.
The R&S FSQ is capable of internally storing complete instrument settings with
instrument configurations and measurement data in the form of data sets. The
respective data are stored on the internal hard disk or, if selected, on a memory stick
or on a flash disk. The hard disk and flash disk drives have the following names:
flash disk F:, hard disk D: (hard disk C: is reserved for instrument software)
It is possible to load data sets stored with another instrument of the same analyzer
family. However, keep the following restrictions in mind:
•
The frequency range of the loading instrument must include the range of the
instrument used to store the data set.
Example: A R&S FSQ40 can load a data set, saved with a R&S FSQ26 but a
R&S FSQ8 can not load a data set saved with a R&S FSQ26. A R&S FSQ with
a frequency range of at least 26 GHz is required.
•
An instrument with an additional option can load a data set saved with an
instrument without this option, but not the other way round.
Example: A FSQ 8 with option R&S FSQ-B17 can load a data set, saved with a
R&S FSQ8 without this option but not the other way round.
FILE
SAVE | RECALL!
SAVE FILE
RECALL FILE
SELECT PATH
SELECT FILE
EDIT FILE NAME
EDIT COMMENT
SELECT ITEMS!
SELECT ITEMS
ENABLE ALL ITEMS
DISABLE ALL ITEMS
DELETE FILE
NEW FOLDER
STARTUP RECALL
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Instrument Functions
Basic Settings
FILE MANAGER !
EDIT PATH
NEW FOLDER
PASTE
SORT MODE !
NAME
DATE
EXTENSION
SIZE
2 FILE LISTS
Side menu
Measurement
Documentation –
HCOPY Key
For details on storing and loading instrument settings refer to the Quick Start Guide,
chapter “ Storing and Loading Instrument Settings”.
SAVE |
RECALL
The SAVE softkey opens the Save dialog box for entering the data set to be stored.
The RECALL softkey activates the Recall dialog box to enter the data set to be
loaded. The RECALL table shows the current settings regarding the data set.
The entries are edited with the rotary knob or the CURSOR UP / DOWN key and is
confirmed by pressing the rotary knob or the ENTER key.
Subdirectories are opened by the CURSOR RIGHT Ur key and closed with the
CURSOR LEFT Ul key.
In the Save dialog box, the field already contains a suggestion for a new name: the
file name used in the last saving process is counted up to the next unused name.
For example, if the name last used was "test_004", the new name "test_005" is suggested, but only if this name is not in use. If the name "test_005" is already in use,
the next free name is suggested, e.g. "test_006". You can change the suggested
name to any name conform to the following naming conventions.
The name of a settings file consists of a base name followed by an underscore and
three numbers, e.g. "limit_lines_005". In the example, the base name is "limit_lines".
The base name can contain characters, numbers and underscores. The file extension is added automatically and can not be changed.
The SAVE / RECALL table contains the entry fields for editing the data set.
Path
Directory in which the data set is stored.
Files
List of data sets already stored.
File Name
Name of data set.
The name can be entered with or without drive name and directory; the
drive name and directory, if available, will then appear in the Path field.
The extension of the data name is ignored.
Comment
Comment regarding the data set.
Items
Selection of settings to be stored/loaded.
Remote command:
4.216
MMEM:STOR:STAT 1,"c:\test02"
MMEM:LOAD:STAT 1,"c:\test02"
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Instrument Functions
Basic Settings
SAVE FILE
The SAVE FILE softkey sets the focus on the File Name field to enter a conforming
file name.
RECALL FILE
The RECALL FILE softkey sets the focus on the Files field to choose a stored file to
restore.
SELECT PATH
The SELECT PATH softkey sets the focus on the Path field and opens the pull-down
list to choose the correct path to store the file.
SELECT FILE
The SELECT FILE softkey sets the focus on the Files field to choose a already
stored file. In addition, the DELETE softkey is displayed. The list Files lists all data
sets which are stored in the selected directory.
Remote command:
EDIT FILE
NAME
--
The EDIT FILE NAME softkey sets the focus on the File Name field and.
In the Save dialog box, the field already contains a suggestion for a new name: the
file name used in the last saving process is counted up to the next unused name.
For example, if the name last used was "test_004", the new name "test_005" is suggested, but only if this name is not in use. If the name "test_005" is already in use,
the next free name is suggested, e.g. "test_006". You can change the suggested
name to any name conform to the following naming conventions.
The name of a settings file consists of a base name followed by an underscore and
three numbers, e.g. "limit_lines_005". In the example, the base name is "limit_lines".
The base name can contain characters, numbers and underscores. The file extension is added automatically and can not be changed.
EDIT
COMMENT
The EDIT COMMENT softkey activates the entry of commentary concerning the current data set. The focus is set on the Comment field and an on-screen keyboard
opens.
For further information on how to enter the comment text via the front panel of the
unit, see the Quick Start Guide, chapter 4, “Basic Operation”.
Remote command:
SELECT ITEMS
MMEM:COMM "Setup for FM measurement"
The SELECT ITEMS softkey moves the selection bar to the first line, left column of
the Items field. An entry is selected. Position the entry focus to the corresponding
partial data set using the cursor keys and then press the ENTER key in the desired
line. The selection is cleared by pressing the key again.
The following submenu is opend:
SELECT ITEMS
ENABLE ALL ITEMS
DISABLE ALL ITEMS
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Basic Settings
Remote command:
MMEM:SEL:HWS ON (Current Settings)
MMEM:SEL:LIN:ALL ON (All Limit Lines)
MMEM:SEL:TRAC ON (All Traces)
MMEM:SEL:SCD ON (Source Cal Data)
MMEM:SEL:TRAN:ALL ON (All Transducers)
Note that the command MMEM:SEL:SCD ON (Source Cal Data) is only available
with option R&S FSQ-B09 or R&S FSQ-B10.
The Save dialog box offers the following selectable data subsets in the Items field.
Current Settings
These settings include:
•
current configuration of general instrument parameters
•
current measurement hardware settings
•
active limit lines:
A data set may contain maximum 8 limit lines for each
window. It always contain the activated limit lines and the
de-activated limit lines used last, if any. Consequently, the
combination of the restored deactivated limit lines depends
on the sequence of use with command MMEM:LOAD.
•
the activated transducer factor
•
user-defined color settings
•
configuration for hardcopy output
•
active transducer set:
A data set may contain maximum 4 transducer factors. It
always contain the activated factors and the factors used
and de-activated last, if any. Consequently, the combination
of the restored deactivated transducer factors depends on
the sequence of use with the command MMEM:LOAD.
•
SELECT ITEMS
ENABLE ALL
ITEMS
DISABLE ALL
ITEMS
4.218
settings of tracking generator
(only with option R&S FSQ B9)
All Limit Lines
all limit lines
All Transducer
all transducer factors
All Transducers
all transducer
All Traces
all traces which are not blanked
Source Cal Data
correction data for tracking generator
(only with options R&S FSQ B9 or R&S FSQ B10)
The SELECT ITEMS softkey sets the focus on the Items field to select the appropriate item to be stored.
The ENABLE ALL ITEMS softkey marks all partial data sets.
Remote command:
MMEM:SEL:ALL
The DISABLE ALL ITEMS softkey deselects all partial data sets.
Remote command:
MMEM:SEL:NONE
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Instrument Functions
Basic Settings
DELETE FILE
The DELETE FILE softkey sets the focus on the File Name field to enter the file
name to be deleted. Alternatively the file to be deleted can be choosen from the
Files list. A message box opens to confirm the deletion.
Remote command:
MMEM:DEL "test03"
NEW FOLDER
The NEW FOLDER softkey opens an on-screen keyboard to enter a new folder
name.
DEFAULT
CONFIG
The DEFAULT CONFIG softkey establishes the default selection of the data subset
to be saved and outputs DEFAULT in the ITEMS field of the SAVE/RECALL DATA
SET table.
Remote command:
STARTUP
RECALL
MMEM:SEL:DEF
The STARTUP RECALL softkey activates the selection of a data set which is automatically loaded when the instrument is powered on and after PRESET. For this purpose the Dialog Startup Recall is opened (analogously to DATA SET LIST).
The field Files lists all data sets stored in the selected directory. The currently
selected data set is checked.
In addition to the data sets stored by the user, the data set FACTORY, which specifies the settings of the instrument before it was last switched off (Standby), is always
present (when unit is delivered).
To select a data set, the entry focus is set to the corresponding entry by means of
the rotary knob and the data set is activated by pressing the rotary knob or the
ENTER key.
If a data set other than FACTORY is chosen, this data set will be loaded when the
unit is switched on or after pressing the PRESET key. Any settings can be assigned
to the PRESET key.
Remote command:
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MMEM:LOAD:AUTO 1,"D:\user\config\test02"
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R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Basic Settings
4.6.4.2
FILE
MANAGER
Operating Concept of File Managers
The FILE MANAGER softkey opens a menu for managing storage media and files.
The designation and the letter of the current drive are displayed in the upper left corner of the File Manager dialog.
The table below shows the files of the current directory and potential subdirectories.
A file or a directory in the table is selected via cursor keys. The ENTER key is used
to switch from one subdirectory to another. The softkeys COPY, RENAME, CUT and
DELETE are only visible if the entry focus is set to a file and not to a directory.
The dots ".." open up the next higher directory.
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Instrument Functions
Basic Settings
EDIT PATH
The EDIT PATH softkey activates the input of the directory which will be used in subsequent file operations.
Use CURSOR UP / DOWN to select a drive and confirm your selection with ENTER.
Open subdirectories by using CURSOR RIGHT, and use CURSOR LEFT to close
them again.
When you have found the subdirectory you looked for, mark it with ENTER.
Remote command:
NEW FOLDER
MMEM:MSIS "a:"
MMEM:CDIR "D:\user "
The NEW FOLDER softkey creates subdirectories.
The entry of an absolute path name (e.g. "\USER\MEAS") as well as the path relative to the current directory (e.g. "..\MEAS") is possible.
Remote command:
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MMEM:MDIR "D:\user\test"
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R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Basic Settings
COPY
The COPY softkey opens the help line editor to enter the target directory for a copying process. The file is also copied into the clipboard and can be copied into a different directory at a later time by means of PASTE.
Files can also be copied to a different storage medium by indicating a certain drive
letter (e.g. D:). The selected files or directories will be copied after terminating the
entry with the ENTER key.
Remote command:
RENAME
The RENAME softkey opens the help line editor to rename a file or a directory (analogously to the COPY softkey).
Remote command:
CUT
MMEM:COPY "D:\user\set.cfg","a:"
MMEM:MOVE "test02.cfg","set2.cfg"
The CUT softkey shifts the selected file into the clipboard from where it can be copied into a different directory at a later time by means of PASTE.
The file in the output directory will only be deleted if the PASTE softkey has been
pressed.
Remote command:
PASTE
The PASTE softkey copies files from the clipboard to the current directory. The
directory is changed by means of the cursor keys and subsequent pressing of
ENTER or via the EDIT PATH softkey.
Remote command:
4.222
--
--
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Instrument Functions
Basic Settings
DELETE
The DELETE softkey deletes the selected file.
A confirmation query is displayed to avoid unintentional deletion of files.
Remote command:
SORT MODE
MMEM:DEL "test01.hcp"
MMEM:RDIR "D:\user\test"
NAME
DATE
EXTENSION
SIZE
The SORT MODE softkey opens the submenu to select the sorting mode for the displayed files.
Directory names are located at the top of the list after the entry for the next higher
directory level ("..").
Remote command:
NAME
The NAME softkey sorts the file list by name.
Remote command:
DATE
--
--
The DATE softkey sorts the file list by date.
Remote command:
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--
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R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Basic Settings
EXTENSION
The EXTENSION softkey sorts the file list by file extension.
Remote command:
SIZE
The SIZE softkey sorts the file list by size
Remote command:
2 FILE LISTS
--
--
The 2 FILE LISTS softkey opens a second window for the File Manager. The entry
focus can be moved between the two windows by means of SCREEN A and
SCREEN B hotkeys. Files can thus very easily be copied and shifted from one directory to the other.
The second file list can also be opened in the Full Screen mode via SCREEN B or
SCREEN A hotkey.
Remote command:
4.224
-
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R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Basic Settings
4.6.5
Measurement Documentation – HCOPY Key
The HCOPY key opens the HARDCOPY menu for starting and configuring the printout. The installation and configuration of printers is described in the Quick Start
Guide chapters 1, “Preparing for Use”, 6, “LAN Interface”and appendix A
HCOPY
PRINT SCREEN
PRINT TRACE
PRINT TABLE
DEVICE SETUP
DEVICE 1 / 2
COLORS !
COLOR (ON OFF)
SCREEN COLORS
OPTIMIZED COLOR SET
USER DEFINED !
SELECT OBJECT
BRIGHTNESS
TINT
SATURATION
PREDEFINED COLORS
SET TO DEFAULT
COMMENT
Side menu
INSTALL PRINTER
Pressing one of the softkeys PRINT SCREEN, PRINT TRACE or PRINT TABLE in
the HCOPY menu initiates the print job. The printer parameters defined in the
DEVICE SETTINGS menu are used for setting up the printer configuration. All of the
display items to be printed are written to the printer buffer. Since the printer runs in
the background, the instrument may be operated immediately after pressing the
PRINT softkey.
With PRINT SCREEN selected, all the diagrams with traces and status displays are
printed as they occur on the screen. Softkeys, open tables and data entry fields are
not printed.
The PRINT TRACE function allows individual traces to be printed. With PRINT
TABLE, tables can be printed.
The DEVICE 1 / 2 softkeys are used for selecting and configuring the output interface. For detailed information refer to “DEVICE 1 / 2” on page 4.227.
If the Print to File option in the Hardcopy Setup dialog box is selected, the printout is
directed to a file. Upon pressing one of the PRINT... softkeys, the file name to which
the output data is to be written is requested. An entry field is then opened for entering the file name. For detailed information refer to section “DEVICE SETUP” on
page 4.227.
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Instrument Functions
Basic Settings
The COLORS submenu allows switch over between black-and-white and color printouts (default), provided that the printer connected can produce color printouts. In
addition, the colors are set in this submenu. For detailed information refer to section
“Selecting Printer Colors” on page 4.228.
•
SCREEN
Output in screen colors.
•
OPTIMIZED (default)
Instead of light colors, dark colors are used for
traces and markers: trace 1 blue, trace 1 black,
trace 3 green, markers turquoise.
•
USER DEFINED
This option enables the user to change the colors
at will. It provides the same setting functions as
the DISPLAY – CONFIG DISPLAY – NEXT menu.
•
With SCREEN and OPTIMIZED selected, the background will always be white
and the grid black. With USER DEFINED, these colors can be selected, too.
•
Upon activation of the submenu, the color display is switched over to the
selected printout colors. When the menu is quit, the original color setting is
restored.
The COMMENT SCREEN A / B softkeys allow text to be added to the printout (date
and time are inserted automatically).
Use the INSTALL PRINTER softkey to install additional printer drivers.
PRINT
SCREEN
The PRINT SCREEN softkey starts the output of test results.
All the diagrams, traces, markers, marker lists, limit lines etc. are printed out as long
as they are displayed on the screen. All the softkeys, tables and open data entry
fields are not printed out. Moreover, comments, title, date, and time are output at the
bottom margin of the printout.
Remote command:
PRINT TRACE
The PRINT TRACE softkey starts the output of all curves visible on the display
screen without auxiliary information. Specifically, no markers or display lines are
printed.
Remote command:
PRINT TABLE
HCOP:ITEM:WIND:TRAC:STAT ON
HCOP:IMM
The PRINT TABLE softkey starts the output of all tables and info lists visible on the
display screen without the measurement diagrams and other information lying
behind.
Remote command:
4.226
HCOP:ITEM:ALL
HCOP:IMM
HCOP:ITEM:WIND:TABL:STAT ON
HCOP:IMM
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R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Basic Settings
DEVICE
SETUP
The DEVICE SETUP softkey opens the dialog where the file format and the printer
can be selected. For details on selecting and configuring printers, and printing out
the measurement results refer to the Quick Start Guide chapter 1, “Preparing for
Use” and chapter “Printing Out Measurement Results”.
Remote command:
DEVICE 1 / 2
The R&S FSQ is able to manage two hardcopy settings independently of each
other. They are selected via the DEVICE 1 / 2 softkey, which displays also the associated setting if the DEVICE SETUP dialog is open. For details on selecting and configuring printers, and printing out the measurement results refer to the Quick Start
Guide chapter 1, “Preparing for Use” and chapter “Printing Out the Measurement
Results”.
Remote command:
COLORS
--
The COLORS softkey gives access to the submenu where the colors for the printout
can be selected (see section “Selecting Printer Colors” on page 4.228).
Remote command:
COMMENT
HCOP:DEV:LANG GDI;
SYST:COMM:PRIN:ENUM:FIRS?;
SYST:COMM:PRIN:ENUM:NEXT?;
SYST:COMM:PRIN:SEL <Printer>;
HCOP:PAGE:ORI PORT;
HCOP:DEST "SYST:COMM:PRIN";
HCOP:DEST "SYST:COMM:MMEM"
--
The COMMENT softkey opens an entry field in which a comment of two lines (100
characters per line) can be entered for screen A or B.
If the user enters more than 100 characters, the excess characters appear on the
second line on the print-out. At any point, a manual line-feed can be forced by entering the @ character.
The comment is printed below the diagram area. The comment text appears on the
hardcopy, but not on the display screen.
If a comment should not be printed, it must be cleared.
If the instrument is reset by a click on the PRESET key, all entered comments are
cleared.
The COMMENT softkey opens the auxiliary line editor where the desired letters
can be entered in the text field by means of rotary knob and cursor keys.
After clicking the COMMENT softkey, the auxiliary line editor can be reached with
the Ud key. Pressing the rotary knob or the ENTER key inserts the selected characters in the text line.
After editing is completed, return to the text line with the Uu key and confirm the
comment text with ENTER.
If the entered comment should be aborted, quit the auxiliary line editor with ESC.
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R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Basic Settings
Only after the auxiliary line editor has been closed with ESC can the softkeys and
hardkeys be operated again.
A detailed description of the auxiliary line editor can be found in the Quick Start
Guide, chapter 4, “Basic Operation”.
Remote command:
INSTALL
PRINTER
HCOP:ITEM:WIND2:TEXT 'Comment'
A certain number of printer drivers is already installed on the R&S FSQ.
The INSTALL PRINTER softkey opens the Printers and Faxes dialog where more
printer drivers can be installed.
For details refer to the Quick Start Guide, appendix A.
Remote command:
4.6.5.1
COLORS
--
Selecting Printer Colors
COLOR (ON OFF)
SCREEN COLORS
OPTIMIZED COLOR SET
USER DEFINED !
SELECT OBJECT
BRIGHTNESS
TINT
SATURATION
PREDEFINED COLORS
SET TO DEFAULT
The COLORS softkey gives access to the submenu where the colors for the printout
can be selected. To facilitate color selection, the selected color combination is displayed when the menu is entered. The previous colors are restored when the menu
is exited.
For details on selecting and configuring printers, and printing out the measurement
results refer to the Quick Start Guide chapter 1, “Preparing for Use” and chapter
“Printing Out the Measurement Results”.
Remote command:
4.228
--
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R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Basic Settings
COLOR
(ON OFF)
The (COLOR ON OFF) softkey switches over from color output to black-and-white
output. All color-highlighted areas are printed in white and all color lines in black.
This improves the contrast on the printout. The default setting is COLOR ON.
Remote command:
SCREEN
COLORS
HCOP:DEV:COL ON
The SCREEN COLORS softkey selects the current screen colors for the printout.
The background is always printed in white and the grid in black.
Remote command:
OPTIMIZED
COLOR SET
HCOP:CMAP:DEF1
The OPTIMIZED COLOR SET softkey selects an optimized color setting for the
printout to improve the visibility of the colors on the hardcopy.
Trace 1 is blue, trace 2 black, trace 3 green, and the markers are turquoise.
The other colors correspond to the display colors of the DISP – CONFIG DISPLAY –
DEFAULT COLORS 1 softkey.
The background is always printed in white and the grid in black.
Remote command:
USER DEFINED
HCOP:CMAP:DEF2
The USER DEFINED softkey opens a submenu for user-defined color selection (see
submenu USER DEFINED COLORS).
Remote command:
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HCOP:CMAP:DEF3
4.229
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Basic Settings
SELECT
OBJECT
The SELECT OBJECT softkey allows picture elements to be selected to change
their color setting. After selection, the PREDEFINED COLORS, BRIGHTNESS,
TINT and SATURATION softkeys enable the user to change the colors or brightness, the hue and the color saturation of the element selected.
Remote command:
BRIGHTNESS
--
The BRIGHTNESS softkey serves for determining the brightness of the graphic element selected.
A value between 0 and 100% can be entered.
Remote command:
TINT
The TINT softkey serves for determining the hue of the element selected. The percentage entered refers to a continuous color spectrum from red (0%) to blue
(100%).
Remote command:
SATURATION
HCOP:CMAP5:HSL <hue>,<sat>,<lum>
HCOP:CMAP5:HSL <hue>,<sat>,<lum>
The SATURATION softkey serves for determining the saturation of the element
selected.
A value between 0 and 100% can be entered.
Remote command:
4.230
HCOP:CMAP5:HSL <hue>,<sat>,<lum>
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R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Basic Settings
PREDEFINED
COLORS
The PREDEFINED COLORS softkey opens a list from which predefined colors for
the displayed elements can be selected:
Remote command:
SET TO
DEFAULT
HCOP:CMAP1 ... 26:PDEF <color>
The SET TO DEFAULT softkey reactivates the default color setting (= OPTIMIZED
COLOR SET).
Remote command:
--
--
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R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Tracking Generator – Option R&S FSU-B9
4.7
Tracking Generator – Option R&S FSU-B9
During normal operation (without a frequency offset), the tracking generator emits a
signal exactly at the receive frequency of the R&S FSQ.
For frequency-converting measurements it is possible to set a constant frequency
offset of ±200 MHz between the receive frequency of the R&S FSQ and the output
signal of the tracking generator.
Moreover, an I/Q modulation or AM and FM modulation of the output signal can be
provided using two analog input signals.
The output power is level-controlled and can be set in 0.1 dB steps in the range from
-30 dBm to +5 dBm (-100 to + 5 dBm with option R&S FSU-B12).
The tracking generator can be used in all operating modes. Acquisition of test setup
calibration values (SOURCE CAL) and normalization using these correction values
(NORMALIZE) is only possible in the NETWORK operating mode.
The RF characteristics of some DUTs is especially sensitive concerning the input
VSWR. In such cases insertion of 20 dB attenuation between the DUT and the
tracking generator output is highly recommended.
The tracking generator is activated by means of the NETWORK hotkey in the hotkey
bar at the bottom of the screen (for details refer to section “Mode Selection – Hotkey
Bar” on page 4.8.)
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R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Tracking Generator – Option R&S FSU-B9
4.7.1
Tracking Generator Settings
The NETWORK hotkey opens a menu for selecting the functions of the tracking
generator.
NETWORK
SOURCE ON/OFF
SOURCE POWER
POWER OFFSET
SOURCE CAL !
CAL TRANS
CAL REFL SHORT
CAL REFL OPEN
NORMALIZE
REF VALUE POSITION
REF VALUE
RECALL
SAVE AS TRD FACTOR
FREQUENCY OFFSET
MODULATION
EXT AM
EXT FM
EXT I/Q
MODULATION OFF
POWER SWEEP
POWER SWP ON/OFF
START POWER
STOP POWER
Additional softkeys are available in the displayed menus for controlling an external
generator if option External Generator Control R&S FSP-B10 is fitted. For detailed
information see section “External Generator Control – Option R&S FSP-B10” on
page 4.248.
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4.233
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Tracking Generator – Option R&S FSU-B9
SOURCE ON/
OFF
The SOURCE ON/OFF softkey switches the tracking generator on or off. Default
setting is OFF
•
When the tracking generator is switched on the maximum stop frequency is
limited to 3.6 GHz. This upper limit is automatically reduced by a frequency
offset set up for the tracking generator.
•
In order to meet the data sheet accuracy for measurements with active tracking
generator the start frequency must be set to ≥ 3 × Resolution Bandwidth.
•
The minimum sweeptime for measurements with data sheet accuracy is 100 ms
in frequency domain (span > 0 Hz). Selecting a sweeptime below this limit will
result in the sweeptime indicator field SWT being supplied with a red asterisk
and the message UNCAL being displayed.
•
FFT filters (FILTER TYPE FFT in BW menu) are not available when the tracking
generator is active.
Remote command:
SOURCE
POWER
OUTP:STAT ON
The SOURCE POWER softkey allows the tracking generator output power to be
selected.
The output power can be set in 0.1 dB steps from -30 dBm to +5 dBm (-100 to + 5
dBm with option R&S FSU-B12).
If the tracking generator is off, it is automatically switched on when an output power
value is entered.
The default output power is -20 dBm.
Remote command:
SOURCE
POWER
SOUR:POW -20dBm
The permissible setting range is -200 dB to +200 dB in steps of 0.1 dB. Positive offsets apply to an amplifier and negative offsets to an attenuator subsequent to the
tracking generator.
The default setting is 0 dB. Offsets <> 0 are marked by the activated enhancement
label LVL.
Remote command:
4.234
SOUR:POW:OFFS -10dB
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Instrument Functions
Tracking Generator – Option R&S FSU-B9
4.7.2
Transmission Measurement
This measurement will yield the transmission characteristics of a two-port network.
The built-in tracking generator serves as a signal source. It is connected to the input
connector of the DUT. The input of the R&S FSQ is fed from the output of the DUT.
Fig. 4.17 Test setup for transmission measurement
A calibration can be carried out to compensate for the effects of the test setup (e.g.
frequency response of connecting cables).
4.7.2.1
SOURCE CAL
Calibration of Transmission Measurement
CAL TRANS
CAL REFL SHORT
CAL REFL OPEN
NORMALIZE
REF VALUE POSITION
REF VALUE
RECALL
SAVE AS TRD FACTOR
The SOURCE CAL softkey opens a submenu comprising of the calibration functions
for the transmission and reflection measurement.
For information on the calibration of the reflection measurement
(CAL REFL SHORT and CAL REFL OPEN) and its mechanisms, refer to section
“Calibration of Reflection Measurement” on page 4.241.
To carry out a calibration for transmission measurements the whole test setup is
through-connected (THRU).
CAL TRANS
The CAL TRANS softkey triggers the calibration of the transmission measurement.
It starts a sweep that records a reference trace. This trace is then used to calculate
the difference for the normalized values.
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
4.235
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Tracking Generator – Option R&S FSU-B9
Fig. 4.18 Calibration curve for transmission measurement
During the calibration the following message is displayed:
After the calibration the following message is displayed:
This message will be cleared automatically after approx. 3 seconds.
Remote command:
4.236
CORR:METH TRAN
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Tracking Generator – Option R&S FSU-B9
4.7.2.2
NORMALIZE
Normalization
The NORMALIZE softkey switches the normalization on or off. The softkey is only
available if the memory contains a correction trace.
It is possible to shift the relative reference point within the grid using the REF VALUE
POSITION softkey. Thus, the trace can be shifted from the upper border of the grid
to the vertical center of the grid:
Fig. 4.19 Normalized display
In SPLIT SCREEN operation, the normalization is switched on in the currently active
window. Different types of normalization can be active in the two windows.
Normalization is aborted when the NETWORK operating mode is quit.
Remote command:
REF VALUE
POSITION
CORR ON
The REF VALUE POSITION softkey marks a reference position in the active window
at which the normalization result (calculated difference with a reference trace) is displayed.
If no reference line is active, the softkey switches on a reference line and activates
the input of its position. The line can be moved within the grid boundaries.
The reference line is switched off by pressing the softkey again.
The function of the reference line is explained in the section “Calibration Mechanism” on page 4.242.
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
4.237
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Tracking Generator – Option R&S FSU-B9
Fig. 4.20 Normalized measurement, shifted with REF VALUE POSITION 50%
Remote command:
REF VALUE
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:RPOS 10PCT
The REF VALUE softkey activates the input of a value which is assigned to the reference line.
With default settings the reference line corresponds to a difference of 0 dB between
the currently measured trace and the reference trace. Setting the REF VALUE to a
different value helps to compensate for changes to the level conditions in the signal
path after the calibration data have been recorded. If e.g. after a source calibration a
10 dB attenuation is inserted into the signal path between DUT and R&S FSQ input,
the measurement trace will be moved by 10 dB down. Entering a REF VALUE of –
10 dB will then result in the reference line for difference calculation being moved by
10 dB down as well. This means that the measured trace will be placed on it, as displayed in Fig. 4.21.
REF VALUE always refers to the active window.
4.238
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Tracking Generator – Option R&S FSU-B9
Fig. 4.21 Measurement with REF VALUE -10 dB and REF VALUE POSITION 50%
After the reference line has been moved by entering a REF VALUE of –10 dB the
deviation from the nominal power level can be displayed with high resolution (e.g.
1 dB/div). The power is still displayed in absolute values, which means that in the
above example 1 dB below the nominal power (reference line) = 11 dB attenuation.
Fig. 4.22 Measurement of a 10dB attenuator pad with 1dB/DIV
Remote command:
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:RVAL -10dB
4.239
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Tracking Generator – Option R&S FSU-B9
RECALL
The RECALL softkey restores the R&S FSQ settings that were used during source
calibration.
This can be useful if device settings were changed after calibration (e.g. center frequency, frequency deviation, reference level, etc.).
The softkey is only available if:
•
the NETWORK mode has been selected
•
the memory contains a calibration data set.
Remote command:
SAVE AS TRD
FACTOR
SAVE AS TRD FACTOR uses the normalized measurement data to generate a
transducer factor with up to 625 points. The trace data are converted to a transducer
with unit dB after the transducer name has been entered. The number of points is
defined by SWEEP COUNT. The frequency points are allocated in equidistant steps
between start and stop frequency. The generated transducer factor can be further
adapted in the SETUP menu – TRANSDUCER. The SAVE AS TRD FACTOR softkey is only available if normalization is switched on.
Remote command:
4.240
CORR:REC
CORR:TRAN:GEN <name>'
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Tracking Generator – Option R&S FSU-B9
4.7.3
Reflection Measurement
Scalar reflection measurements can be carried out by means of a reflection-coefficient measurement bridge.
Fig. 4.23 Test Setup for Reflection Measurement
4.7.3.1
Calibration of Reflection Measurement
The calibration mechanism for reflection measurement is basically the same as the
one used for transmission measurement.
CAL REFL
SHORT
The CAL REFL SHORT softkey starts the short-circuit calibration.
If both calibrations (open circuit, short circuit) are carried out, the calibration curve is
calculated by averaging the two measurements and stored in the memory. The order
of the two calibration measurements is free.
After the calibration the following message is displayed:
The message is cleared after approx. 3 seconds.
Remote command:
CAL REFL
OPEN
CORR:METH REFL
CORR:COLL THR
The CAL REFL OPEN softkey starts the open-circuit calibration. During calibration
the following message is displayed:
Remote command:
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
CORR:METH REFL
CORR:COLL OPEN
4.241
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Tracking Generator – Option R&S FSU-B9
4.7.4
Calibration Mechanism
Calibration means a calculation of the difference between the currently measured
power and a reference curve, independent of the selected type of measurement
(transmission/reflection). The hardware settings used for measuring the reference
curve are included in the reference data set.
Even with normalization switched on, the device settings can be changed in a wide
area without stopping the normalization. This reduces the necessity to carry out a
new normalization to a minimum.
For this purpose the reference dataset (trace with 625 measured values) is stored
internally as a table of 625 points (frequency/level).
Differences in level settings between the reference curve and the current device settings are taken into account automatically. If the span is reduced, a linear interpolation of the intermediate values is applied. If the span increases, the values at the left
or right border of the reference data set are extrapolated to the current start or stop
frequency, i.e. the reference data set is extended by constant values.
An enhancement label is used to mark the different levels of measurement accuracy. This enhancement label is displayed at the right diagram border when normalization is switched on and a deviation from the reference setting occurs. Three
accuracy levels are defined:
Table 4-6
Measurement accuracy levels
Accuracy
Enhancement
label
Reason/Limitation
High
NOR
No difference between reference setting and
measurement
Medium
APX
(approximation)
Change of the following settings:
• coupling (RBW, VBW, SWT)
• reference level, RF attenuation
• start or stop frequency
• output level of tracking generator
• frequency offset of tracking generator
• detector (max. peak, min. peak, sample, etc.)
Change of frequency:
• max. 625 points within the set sweep limits
(corresponds to a doubling of the span)
-
4.242
Aborted
normalization
• 625 and more extrapolated points within the current
sweep limits (in case of span doubling)
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Tracking Generator – Option R&S FSU-B9
At a reference level (REF LEVEL) of -10 dBm and at a tracking generator output
level of the same value the R&S FSQ operates without overrange reserve, i.e. the
R&S FSQ is in danger of being overloaded if a signal is applied whose amplitude
is higher than the reference line. In this case, either the message OVLD for overload is displayed in the status line or the display range is exceeded (clipping of the
trace at the upper diagram border = Overrange).
Overloading can be avoided as follows:
•
Reducing the output level of the tracking generator (SOURCE POWER,
NETWORK menu)
•
Increasing the reference level (REF LEVEL, AMPT menu)
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
4.243
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Tracking Generator – Option R&S FSU-B9
4.7.5
Frequency-Converting Measurements
For frequency-converting measurements (e.g. on converter units) the tracking generator is able to set a constant frequency offset between the output frequency of the
tracking generator and the receive frequency of the R&S FSQ.
Up to an output frequency of 200 MHz the measurement can be carried out in both
inverted and normal positions.
Fig. 4.24 Test setup for frequency converting measurements
FREQUENCY
OFFSET
The FREQUENCY OFFSET softkey activates the input of the frequency offset
between the output signal of the tracking generator and the input frequency of the
R&S FSQ. Possible offsets are in a range of ±200 MHz in 0.1 Hz steps.
The default setting is 0 Hz. Offsets <> 0 Hz are marked with the enhancement label
FRQ.
If a positive frequency offset is entered, the tracking generator generates an output
signal above the receive frequency of the R&S FSQ. In case of a negative frequency
offset it generates a signal below the receive frequency of the R&S FSQ. The output
frequency of the tracking generator is calculated as follows:
Tracking generator frequency = receive frequency + frequency offset.
Remote command:
4.244
SOUR:FREQ:OFFS 50MHz
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Tracking Generator – Option R&S FSU-B9
4.7.6
External Modulation of the Tracking Generator
MODULATION
EXT AM
EXT FM
EXT I/Q
MODULATION OFF
The MODULATION softkey opens a submenu for selecting different modulation
modes.
The time characteristics of the tracking generator output signal can be influenced by
means of external signals (input voltage range -1 V to +1 V).
Two BNC connectors at the rear panel are available as signal inputs. Their function
changes depending on the selected modulation:
•
TG IN I / AM and
•
TG IN Q / FM
The modulation modes can be combined with each other and with the frequency offset function up to a certain degree. The following table shows which modulation
modes are possible at the same time and which ones can be combined with the frequency offset function.
Table 4-7
Simultaneous modes of modulation (tracking generator)
Modulation
Frequency
offset
Frequency offset
EXT AM
#
EXT FM
#
EXT I/Q
#
EXT AM
EXT FM
EXT I/Q
#
#
#
#
#
# = can be combined
EXT AM
The EXT AM softkey activates an AM modulation of the tracking generator output
signal.
The modulation signal is applied to the TG IN I / AM connector. An input voltage of
1 V corresponds to 100% amplitude modulation.
Switching on an external AM disables the active I/Q modulation.
Remote command:
EXT FM
SOUR:AM:STAT ON
The EXT FM softkey activates the FM modulation of the tracking generator output
signal.
The modulation frequency range is 1 kHz to 100 kHz, the deviation can be set in 1decade steps in the range of 100 Hz to 10 MHz at an input voltage of 1 V. The phase
deviation h should not exceed the value 100.
Phase deviation h = deviation / modulation frequency
The modulation signal is applied to the TG IN Q / FM connector.
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
4.245
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Tracking Generator – Option R&S FSU-B9
Switching on an external FM disables the active I/Q modulation.
Remote command:
EXT I/Q
SOUR:FM:STAT ON
SOUR:FM:DEV 10MHz
The EXT I/Q softkey activates the external I/Q modulation of the tracking generator.
The signals for modulation are applied to the two input connectors TG IN I and
TG IN Q at the rear panel of the unit. The input voltage range is ±1 V into 50 Ω.
Switching on an external I/Q modulation disables the following functions:
– active external AM
– active external FM
Functional description of the quadrature modulator:
I channel
0°
I mod
RF IN
RF OUT
90°
Q channel
Q mod
Fig. 4.25 I/Q modulation
I/Q modulation is performed by means of the built-in quadrature modulator. The RF
signal is divided into two orthogonal I and Q components (in phase and quadrature
phase). Amplitude and phase are controlled in each path by the I and Q modulation
signal. By adding the two components an RF output signal is generated that can be
controlled in amplitude and phase.
Remote command:
MODULATION
OFF
The MODULATION OFF softkey switches off the modulation of the tracking generator.
Remote command:
4.246
SOUR:DM:STAT ON
SOUR:AM:STAT OFF
SOUR:FM:STAT OFF
SOUR:DM:STAT OFF
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
Tracking Generator – Option R&S FSU-B9
4.7.7
POWER
SWEEP
Power Offset of the Tracking Generator
POWER SWP ON/OFF
START POWER
STOP POWER
The POWER SWEEP softkey opens a submenu for activates or deactivates the
power sweep.
POWER SWP
ON/OFF
The POWER SWP ON/OFF softkey activates or deactivates the power sweep. If the
power sweep is ON the enhancement label TGPWR is shown and the Signal Analyzer is set in zero span mode (span = 0Hz). During the sweep time of the zero span
the power at the internal tracking generator is changed linear from start power to
stop power. The start and stop power values are shown on the right side below the
diagram.
Remote command:
START POWER
:SOUR:POW:MODE SWE
:SOUR:POW:MODE FIX
The START POWER softkey defines the start power of the power sweep.
The start power can be set between -30 dBm and +5 dBm.
With the option R&S FSU-B12 the power can be set between -100 and + 5 dBm.
Remote command:
STOP POWER
:SOUR:POW:STAR –20dBm
The STOP POWER softkey defines the stop power of the power sweep.
The start power can be set between -30 dBm and +5 dBm.
With the option R&S FSU-B12 the power can be set between -100 and + 5 dBm.
The stop value can be smaller than the start value.
Remote command:
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
:SOUR:POW:STOP –10dBm
4.247
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
External Generator Control – Option R&S FSP-B10
4.8
External Generator Control – Option R&S FSP-B10
The external generator control option permits to operate a number of commercially
available generators as tracking generator on the R&S FSQ. Thus, scalar network
analysis with the R&S FSQ is also possible outside the frequency range of the internal tracking generator when the appropriate generators are used.
The R&S FSQ also permits to set a frequency offset for frequency-converting measurements when external generators are used. For harmonics measurements or frequency-converting measurements, it is also possible to enter a factor, by which the
generator frequency is increased or reduced compared with the receive frequency
of the R&S FSQ. Only make sure that the resulting generator frequencies do not
exceed the allowed setting range of the generator.
The level range to be set also depends on the generator used.
The generator is controlled via the – optional – second GPIB interface of the
R&S FSQ (= IEC2, supplied with the option) and, with some Rohde & Schwarz generators, additionally via the TTL synchronization interface included in the AUX interface of the R&S FSQ.
The use of the TTL interface enables considerably higher measurement rates as
pure GPIB control, because the frequency stepping of the R&S FSQ is directly
coupled with the frequency stepping of the generator.
Therefore, the frequency sweep differs according to the capabilities of the generator
used:
•
In the case of generators without TTL interface, the generator frequency is first set
for each frequency point via GPIB, then the setting procedure has to be completed
before recording of measured values is possible.
•
In the case of generators with TTL interface, a list of the frequencies to be set is
entered into the generator before the beginning of the first sweep. Then the sweep
is started and the next frequency point selected by means of the TTL handshake
line TRIGGER. The recording of measured values is only enabled when the
generator signals the end of the setting procedure via the BLANK signal. This
method is considerably faster than pure GPIB control.
With the SELECT GENERATOR softkey, a list of the supported generators with the
frequency and level range as well as the capabilities used is included.
The external generator can be used in all operating modes. Recording of test setup
calibration values (SOURCE CAL) and normalization with the correction values
(NORMALIZE) are only possible in the NETWORK mode.
In order to enhance measurement accuracy a common reference frequency
should be used for both the R&S FSQ and the generator. If no independent 10
MHz reference frequency is available, it is recommended to connect the reference
output of the generator with the reference input of the R&S FSQ and to enable
usage of the external Reference on the R&S FSQ via SETUP - REFERENCE
EXT.
Like the internal tracking generator, the external generator is activated by means of
the hotkey bar: MORE hotkey - NETWORK hotkey (for details refer to section “Mode
Selection – Hotkey Bar” on page 4.8).
4.248
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
External Generator Control – Option R&S FSP-B10
4.8.1
NETWORK
External Generator Settings
The NETWORK hotkey opens the menu for setting the functions of the external generator.
SOURCE POWER
POWER OFFSET
SOURCE CAL !
CAL TRANS
CAL REFL SHORT
CAL REFL OPEN
NORMALIZE
REF VALUE POSITION
REF VALUE
RECALL
SAVE AS TRD FACTOR
FREQUENCY OFFSET
EXT SOURCE !
EXT SRC ON / OFF
SELECT GENERATOR
FREQUENCY SWEEP
GEN REF INT / EXT
Other softkeys are available in the displayed menus for controlling the internal
tracking generator when option Tracking Generator R&S FSU-B9 is fitted. For
detailed information see section “Tracking Generator – Option R&S FSU-B9” on
page 4.232.
SOURCE
POWER
The SOURCE POWER softkey activates the entry of the generator output level. The
value range depends on the selected generator. For detailed information see “List of
Generator Types Supported by the R&S FSQ” on page 4.262.
If both option External Generator Control B10 and option Tracking Generator B9 are
installed, the softkey will modify the output power of the generator currently in use.
The default output power is -20 dBm.
Remote command:
POWER
OFFSET
SOUR:EXT:POW –20dBm
The POWER OFFSET softkey activates the entry of a constant level offset of the
generator. With this offset, attenuator pads or amplifiers connected to the output
connector of the generator can be handled during the input and output of output levels.
The permissible setting range is -200 dB to +200 dB in steps of 0.1 dB. Positive offsets handle a subsequent amplifier and negative offsets an attenuator pad.
The default setting is 0 dB; offsets <> 0 are marked by the activated enhancement
label LVL.
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
4.249
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
External Generator Control – Option R&S FSP-B10
The softkey is available with option R&S FSQ-B9.
Remote command:
4.8.2
SOUR:POW:OFFS -10dB
Transmission Measurement
The transmission characteristic of a two-port network is measured. The external
generator serves as a signal source. It is connected to the input connector of the
DUT. The input of the R&S FSQ is fed from the output of the DUT.
Fig. 4.26 Test setup for transmission measurement
A calibration can be carried out to compensate for the effects of the test setup (e.g.
frequency response of connecting cables).
4.8.2.1
SOURCE CAL
Calibration of Transmission Measurement
CAL TRANS
CAL REFL SHORT
CAL REFL OPEN
NORMALIZE
REF VALUE POSITION
REF VALUE
RECALL
SAVE AS TRD FACTOR
The SOURCE CAL softkey opens a submenu comprising the calibration functions
for the transmission and reflection measurement.
For information on the calibration of the reflection measurement
(CAL REFL SHORT and CAL REFL OPEN) and its mechanisms, refer to section
“Calibration of Reflection Measurement” on page 4.256.
To carry out a calibration for transmission measurements the whole test setup is
through-connected (THRU).
4.250
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
External Generator Control – Option R&S FSP-B10
CAL TRANS
The CAL TRANS softkey triggers the calibration of the transmission measurement.
It starts a sweep that records a reference trace. This trace is then used to obtain the
differences to the normalized values.
Fig. 4.27 Calibration curve for transmission measurement
During the calibration the following message is displayed:
After the calibration sweep the following message is displayed:
This message is cleared after approx. 3 seconds.
Remote command:
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
CORR:METH TRAN
4.251
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
External Generator Control – Option R&S FSP-B10
4.8.2.2
NORMALIZE
Normalization
The NORMALIZE softkey switches normalization on or off. The softkey is only available if the memory contains a correction trace.
It is possible to shift the relative reference point within the grid using the REF VALUE
POSITION softkey. Thus, the trace can be shifted from the top grid margin to the
middle of the grid:
Fig. 4.28 Normalized display
In the SPLIT SCREEN setting, the normalization is switched on in the current window. Different normalizations can be active in the two windows.
Normalization is aborted when the NETWORK mode is quit.
Remote command:
REF VALUE
POSITION
CORR ON
The REF VALUE POSITION softkey (reference position) marks a reference position
in the active window on which the normalization (difference formation with a reference curve) is performed.
When pressed for the first time, the softkey switches on the reference line and activates the input of its position. The line can be shifted within the grid limits.
The reference line is switched off by pressing the softkey again.
The function of the reference line is explained in the section “Calibration Mechanism” on page 4.257.
4.252
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
External Generator Control – Option R&S FSP-B10
Fig. 4.29 Normalized measurement, shifted with REF VALUE POSITION 50%
Remote command:
REF VALUE
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:RPOS 10PCT
The REF VALUE softkey activates the input of a level difference which is assigned
to the reference line.
In the default setting, the reference line corresponds to a level difference of 0 dB. If
e.g. a 10-dB attenuator pad is inserted between DUT and R&S FSQ input between
recording of the calibration data and normalization, the trace will be shifted down by
10 dB. By entering a REF VALUE of –10 dB the reference line for difference formation can also be shifted down by 10 dB so that it will again coincide with the trace
(see Fig. 4.30).
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
4.253
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
External Generator Control – Option R&S FSP-B10
Fig. 4.30 Measurement with REF VALUE -10dB and REF VALUE POSITION 50%
After the reference line has been shifted by entering REF VALUE –10 dB, departures from the nominal value can be displayed with high resolution (e.g. 1 dB / Div.).
The absolute measured values are still displayed, in the above example, 1 dB below
nominal value (reference line) = 11 dB attenuation.
Fig. 4.31 Measurement of a 10-dB attenuator pad with 1dB/DIV
Remote command:
4.254
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:RVAL -10dB
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
External Generator Control – Option R&S FSP-B10
RECALL
The RECALL softkey restores the instrument setting with which the calibration was
carried out.
This can be useful if the device setting was changed after calibration (e.g. center frequency setting, frequency deviation, reference level, etc.).
The softkey is only available if:
•
the NETWORK mode has been selected
•
the memory contains a calibration data set.
Remote command:
SAVE AS TRD
FACTOR
CORR:REC
SAVE AS TRD FACTOR uses the normalized measurement data to generate a
transducer factor with up to 625 points. The trace data are converted to a transducer
with unit dB after the transducer name has been entered. The number of points is
defined by SWEEP COUNT. The frequency points are allocated in equidistant steps
between start and stop frequency. The generated transducer factor can be further
adapted in the menu SETUP – TRANSDUCER. SAVE AS TRD FACTOR is only
available if normalization is switched on.
Remote command:
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
CORR:TRAN:GEN <name>'
4.255
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
External Generator Control – Option R&S FSP-B10
4.8.3
Reflection Measurement
Scalar reflection measurements can be carried out by means of a reflection-coefficient bridge.
Fig. 4.32 Test setup for reflection measurement
4.8.3.1
Calibration of Reflection Measurement
The calibration mechanism essentially corresponds to that of the transmission measurement.
CAL REFL
SHORT
The CAL REFL SHORT softkey starts the short-circuit calibration.
If both calibrations (open circuit, short circuit) are carried out, the calibration curve is
formed by averaging the two measurements and stored in the memory. The order of
measurements is optional.
After the calibration the following message is displayed:
The display is cleared after approx. 3 seconds.
Remote command:
CAL REFL
OPEN
The CAL REFL OPEN softkey starts the open-circuit calibration. During calibration
the following message is displayed:
Remote command:
4.256
CORR:METH REFL
CORR:COLL THR
CORR:METH REFL
CORR:COLL OPEN
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
External Generator Control – Option R&S FSP-B10
4.8.4
Calibration Mechanism
Calibration means a calculation of the difference between the currently measured
power and a reference curve, independent of the selected type of measurement
(transmission/reflection). The hardware settings used for measuring the reference
curve are included in the reference data set.
Even with normalization switched on, the device settings can be changed in a wide
area without stopping the normalization. This reduces the necessity to carry out a
new normalization to a minimum.
For this purpose, the reference dataset (trace with 625 measured values) is stored
as a table with 625 points (frequency/level).
Differences in level settings between the reference curve and the current device settings are taken into account automatically. If the span is reduced, a linear interpolation of the intermediate values is applied. If the span increases, the values at the left
or right border of the reference data set are extrapolated to the current start or stop
frequency, i.e. the reference data set is extended by constant values.
An enhancement label is used to mark the different levels of measurement accuracy. This enhancement label is displayed at the right diagram border when normalization is switched on and a deviation from the reference setting occurs. Three
accuracy levels are defined.
At a reference level (REF LEVEL) of -10 dBm and at a tracking generator output
level of the same value the analyzer operates without overrange reserve, i.e. the
analyzer is in danger of being overloaded if a signal is applied whose amplitude is
higher than the reference line. In this case, either the message OVLD for overload
is displayed in the status line or the display range is exceeded (clipping of the trace
at the upper diagram border = Overrange).
Overloading can be avoided as follows:
•
Reducing the output level of the tracking generator (SOURCE POWER,
NETWORK menu)
•
Increasing the reference level (REF LEVEL, AMPT menu)
Table 4-8
Measurement accuracy levels
Accuracy
Enhancement
label
Reason/Limitation
High
NOR
No difference between reference setting and measurement
Medium
APX
(approximation)
Change of the following settings:
• coupling (RBW, VBW, SWT)
• reference level, RF attenuation
• start or stop frequency
• output level of tracking generator
• frequency offset of tracking generator
• detector (max. peak, min. peak, sample, etc.)
Change of frequency:
• max. 625 points within the set sweep limits (corresponds to
a doubling of the span)
-
Aborted
normalization
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
• more than 500 extrapolated points within the current sweep
limits (in case of span doubling)
4.257
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
External Generator Control – Option R&S FSP-B10
4.8.5
Frequency-Converting Measurements
For frequency-converting measurements (e.g. on converters) the external generator
is able to set a constant frequency offset between the output frequency of the generator and the receive frequency of the R&S FSQ and, in addition, the generator frequency as a multiple of the R&S FSQ.
Fig. 4.33 Test setup for frequency-converting measurements
FREQUENCY
OFFSET
The FREQUENCY OFFSET softkey activates the input of the frequency offset
between the output signal of the generator and the input frequency of the R&S FSQ.
The value range depends on the selected generator.
The default setting is 0 Hz. Offsets <> 0 Hz are marked with the enhancement label
FRQ.
If a positive frequency offset is entered, the tracking generator generates an output
signal above the receive frequency of the analyzer. In case of a negative frequency
offset it generates a signal below the receive frequency of the analyzer. The output
frequency of the generator is calculated as follows:
Generator frequency = receive frequency + frequency offset
Remote command:
4.258
SOUR:EXT:FREQ:OFFS 1GHZ
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
External Generator Control – Option R&S FSP-B10
4.8.6
EXT SOURCE
Configuration of an External Generator
EXT SRC ON / OFF
SELECT GENERATOR
FREQUENCY SWEEP
GEN REF INT / EXT
The EXT SOURCE softkey opens a submenu for configuration of the external generator.
The R&S FSQ is able to manage two generators, one of which can be active at the
time.
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
4.259
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
External Generator Control – Option R&S FSP-B10
EXT SRC ON /
OFF
The EXT SRC ON / OFF softkey switches the external generator on or off.
It can only be switched on successfully if the generator has been selected by means
of SELECT GENERATOR and configured correctly by means of FREQUENCY
SWEEP. If one of these conditions is not fulfilled, an error message will be output.
When switching on the external generator by means of EXT SRC ON, the
R&S FSQ switches off the internal tracking generator and starts programming the
generator settings via the GPIB interface IEC2.
Programming requires takeover of the remote control at this interface by the
R&S FSQ. To avoid any access conflicts, ensure that no other controller is connected to the IEC2 interface or the external generator when selecting EXT SRC
ON.
The maximum stop frequency is limited to the maximum generator frequency. This
upper limit is automatically reduced by the set frequency offset of the generator
and a set multiplication factor.
With the external generator switched on, the FFT filters (FILTER TYPE FFT in the
menu BW) are not available.
If an error occurs on the GPIB when programming the external generator, the generator will automatically be switched off and the following error message will be
output:
When the external generator is switched off using EXT SRC OFF, the GPIB control
is handed over again at the IEC2 interface, i.e. a different controller will then take
over the control of the signal generator.
Remote command:
SELECT
GENERATOR
SOUR:EXT ON
The SELECT GENERATOR softkey opens a table for selection of the generator and
definition of GPIB address and control interface.
The table permits configuration of two generators so that switching between two different configurations is easily possible.
The individual fields contain the following settings:
•
SRC
Index of generator selected
4.260
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R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
External Generator Control – Option R&S FSP-B10
•
TYPE
The field opens the list with the available generators:
After completion of the selection, the remaining fields of the table are filled with
the generator characteristics.
A list of generator types supported by the R&S FSQ is to be found in section “List
of Generator Types Supported by the R&S FSQ” on page 4.262.
•
IFC
This field selects the interface type of external generator 1 or 2. The following
types are available:
– GPIB: GPIB only, suitable for all generators of other manufacturers and some
Rohde & Schwarz instruments
– TTL: GPIB and TTL interface for synchronization, for most of the Rohde &
Schwarz generators, see table above.
The two operating modes differ in the speed of the control: Whereas, with pure
GPIB operation, each frequency to be set must be individually transferred to the
generator, additional use of the TTL interface permits to program a total frequency
list at once and subsequently perform the frequency stepping via TTL handshake,
which is a big advantage in terms of speed.
Generators equipped with the TTL interface can also be operated with GPIB only.
Only one of the two generators can be operated with TTL interface at a time. The
other generator must be configured for GPIB.
•
GPIB ADDR
GPIB address of the respective generator. Addresses from 0 to 30 are possible.
•
MODE
Operating mode of generator. The generator activated using the FREQUENCY
SWEEP softkey is automatically set to remote mode (REMOTE), the other to
manual operation (LOCAL).
•
F MIN F MAX
Frequency range of generator. Select the start and stop frequency of the
R&S FSQ in a way that the specified range is not exceeded. If the start frequency
lies below F MIN, the generator is only switched on when F MIN is reached. If the
stop frequency lies above F MAX, it is limited to F MAX when the generator is
switched on using the EXT SRC ON/OFF softkey.
•
P MIN P MAX
Level range of generator. This field defines the allowed input range for the
POWER column in the FREQUENCY SWEEP table.
Remote command:
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
SYST:COMM:RDEV:GEN2:TYPE 'SMA01A'
SYST:COMM:RDEV:GEN:LINK TTL
SYST:COMM:GPIB:RDEV:GEN1:ADDR 28
4.261
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
External Generator Control – Option R&S FSP-B10
4.8.7
List of Generator Types Supported by the R&S FSQ
The R&S SMA and R&S SMU require the following firmware versions:
•
R&S SMA: V2.10.x or higher
•
R&S SMU: V1.10 or higher
Generator
4.262
Interface
Type
Generator
Min Freq
Generator
Max Freq
Generator
Min Power
Generator
Max Power
dBm
dBm
SMA100A1)
TTL
9 kHz
6.0 GHz
-145
+30
SMB100A1)
TTL
9 kHz
6.0 GHz
-145
+30
SMBV100A1)
TTL
9 kHz
6.0 GHz
-145
+30
SMC100A1)
GPIB
9 kHz
6.0 GHz
-120
+19
SME02
TTL
5 kHz
1.5 GHz
-144
+16
SME03
TTL
5 kHz
3.0 GHz
-144
+16
SME06
TTL
5 kHz
6.0 GHz
-144
+16
SMF100A1)
TTL
100 kHz
43.5 GHz
-130
+30
SMG
GPIB
100 kHz
1.0 GHz
-137
+13
SMGL
GPIB
9 kHz
1.0 GHz
-118
+30
SMGU
GPIB
100 kHz
2.16 GHz
-140
+13
SMH
GPIB
100 kHz
2.0 GHz
-140
+13
SMHU
GPIB
100 kHz
4.32 GHz
-140
+13
SMIQ02B
TTL
300 kHz
2.2 GHz
-144
+13
SMIQ02E
GPIB
300 kHz
2.2 GHz
-144
+13
SMIQ03B
TTL
300 kHz
3.3 GHz
-144
+13
SMIQ03E
GPIB
300 kHz
3.3 GHz
-144
+13
SMIQ04B
TTL
300 kHz
4.4 GHz
-144
+10
SMIQ06B
TTL
300 kHz
6.4 GHz
-144
+10
SMJ03
TTL
100 kHz
3 GHz
-145
+13
SMJ06
TTL
100 kHz
6 GHz
-145
+13
SML01
GPIB
9 kHz
1.1 GHz
-140
+13
SML02
GPIB
9 kHz
2.2 GHz
-140
+13
SML03
GPIB
9 kHz
3.3 GHz
-140
+13
SMP02
TTL
10 MHz
20 GHz
-130
+17
SMP03
TTL
10 MHz
27 GHz
-130
+13
SMP04
TTL
10 MHz
40 GHz
-130
+12
SMP22
TTL
10 MHz
10 GHz
-130
+20
SMR2)
TTL
10 MHz
60 GHz
-130
+13
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
External Generator Control – Option R&S FSP-B10
Generator
1)
Interface
Type
Generator
Min Freq
Generator
Max Freq
Generator
Min Power
Generator
Max Power
dBm
dBm
SMT02
GPIB
5.0 kHz
1.5 GHz
-144
+13
SMT03
GPIB
5.0 kHz
3.0 GHz
-144
+13
SMT06
GPIB
5.0 kHz
6.0 GHz
-144
+13
SMV03
GPIB
9 kHz
3.3 GHz
-140
+13
SMU200A3)
TTL
100 kHz
6 GHz
-145
+19
SMX
GPIB
100 kHz
1.0 GHz
-137
+13
SMY01
GPIB
9 kHz
1.04 GHz
-140
+13
SMY02
GPIB
9 kHz
2.08 GHz
-140
+13
HP8254A
GPIB
250 kHz
4 GHz
-135
+25
HP8257D
GPIB
250 kHz
7 GHz
-135
+25
HP8340A
GPIB
10 MHz
26.5 GHz
-110
10
HP8648
GPIB
9 kHz
4 GHz
-136
10
HP83620A
GPIB
10 MHz
20 GHz
-110
13
HP ESG-A
Series
GPIB
250 kHz
4 GHz
-136
20
HP ESG-B
Series
GPIB
250 kHz
3 GHz
-136
+10
The upper frequency limit depends on the frequency option the generator is fitted with.
In the dialog box that selects the generator, the upper frequency is indicated by the extension of the generator type (e.g. generator type
SMBV100A6 means an SMBV100A with an upper frequency of 6 GHz).
The respective frequency is indicated by the name of the generator as shown by the dialog on the R&S FSQ, e.g. the SMBV100A6 means an
upper frequency limit of 6 GHz.
2)
The upper frequency limit, minimum and maximum power depends on the model of the R&S SMR. In addition, the minimum and maximum
power depends on whether options R&S SMR-B15/-B17 is installed or not. The lower frequency limit depends on whether option
R&S SMR-B11 is installed or not.
Refer to the data sheet of the R&S SMR for more information.
3)
The upper frequency limit, minimum and maximum power depend on which RF Path option R&S SMU-B10x is installed and on whether
option R&S SMU-B31 is installed or not.
Refer to the data sheet of the R&S SMU for more information.
FREQUENCY
SWEEP
The FREQUENCY SWEEP softkey opens a table for setting the generator level as
well as the multiplier and the offset used to derive the generator frequency from the
analyzer frequency.
This table also permits configuration of two generators so that switching between
two different configurations is easily possible.
The individual fields contain the following settings:
•
SRC
Index of selected generator
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
4.263
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
External Generator Control – Option R&S FSP-B10
•
STATE
Selects the active generator. Only one generator can be active at a time. The
operating mode of the active generator is set to remote control in the SELECT
GENERATOR table.
•
POWER
Permits to enter the generator level within the limits P MIN to P MAX of the
SELECT GENERATOR table.
•
NUM
Numerator,
•
DEN
Denominator,
•
OFFSET
Offset, used to derive the generator frequency from the current frequency of the
R&S FSQ according to the following formula:
Numerator
F Generator = F Analyzer ⋅ ----------------------------------- + F Offset
Denominator
Note that the frequencies resulting from start and stop frequency of the R&S FSQ
do not exceed the allowed generator range:
– If the start frequency lies below F MIN, the generator is only switched on when
F MIN is reached.
– If the stop frequency lies above F MAX, the generator is switched off. When
the generator is subsequently switched on using the EXT SRC ON/OFF
softkey, the stop frequency is limited to F MAX.
– If the stop frequency lies below F MIN, the generator is switched off and the
following error message output:
– In the time domain (Span = 0 Hz) the generator frequency is derived from the
set receive frequency of the R&S FSQ using the calculation formula.
For the sake of clarity, the formula is also displayed in the table.
The offset setting can be used to sweep in the reverse direction. This can be
achieved by setting a negative offset in the formula above:
Example for reverse sweep:
FAnalyzerStart= 100 MHz
FAnalyzerStop = 200 MHz
FOffset = -300 MHz
Numerator = Denominator = 1
→ FGeneratorStart = 200 MHz
→ FGeneratorStop = 100 MHz
4.264
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
External Generator Control – Option R&S FSP-B10
If the offset is adjusted in a way that the sweep of the generator crosses the 0 Hz
Frequency, it is indicated by the additional statement “via 0 Hz”.
Example for reverse sweep via 0 Hz
FAnalyzerStart= 100 MHz
FAnalyzerStop = 200 MHz
FOffset = -150 MHz
Numerator = Denominator = 1
→ FGeneratorStart = 50 MHz
→ FGeneratorStop = 50 MHz via 0 Hz
Remote command:
•
:SOUR:EXT:FREQ:NUM 1
:SOUR:EXT:FREQ:DEN 1
:SOUR:EXT:FREQ:OFFS -300MHZ
RESULT
The frequency range of the generator resulting from the calculation formula. An
asterisk (*) after the upper limit indicates that the stop frequency of the R&S FSQ
must be adapted when the generator is switched on in order not to exceed its
maximum frequency. In the following illustration, this is true for the upper
generator at a stop frequency of 3.2 GHz of the R&S FSQ, whereas the lower
generator does not yet require an adaptation:
Remote command:
GEN REF INT /
EXT
SOUR:EXT:POW –30dBm
SOUR:EXT:FREQ:NUM 4
SOUR:EXT:FREQ:DEN 3
SOUR:EXT:FREQ:OFFS 100MHZ
The GEN REF INT / EXT softkey switches over the reference oscillator of the generator (switch over between internal and external reference source). Selection EXT
allows connecting the external generator to an external reference frequency source.
The internal reference source is selected as the default setting.
Remote command:
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
SOUR:EXT1:ROSC INT
4.265
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
LAN Interface - Option R&S FSP-B16
4.9
LAN Interface - Option R&S FSP-B16
The instrument can be connected to an Ethernet LAN (local area network) using the
LAN interface connector on the rear panel. This makes it possible to transfer data
over the network and to use network printers. In addition, the instrument can be
remote-controlled via the network. For details, refer to the Quick Start Guide.
4.9.1
NOVELL Networks
The operating system NETWARE from NOVELL is a server-based system. Data
cannot be exchanged between individual workstations; data transfer takes place
between the PC and a server. This server provides memory space and the connection to network printers. On a server, data is organized in directories as under DOS
and mapped to the workstation as virtual drives. A virtual drive behaves like an additional hard disk on the workstation, and the data can be edited accordingly. Network
printers can also be addressed like normal printers.
There are two versions of the NOVELL network operating system: bindery-based
(NETWARE 3) and NDS-based (more recent versions of NETWARE). With the older
version (NETWARE 3), each server manages its resources on its own and is independent. A user must be managed on each server separately. In the case of NDSbased versions, all resources in the network are managed together in the NDS
(NOVELL DIRECTORY SERVICE). The user must log into the network only once
and is given access to the resources according to his/her access rights. The individual resources and users are managed as objects in a hierarchical tree (NDS TREE).
The position of the object in the tree is referred to as "CONTEXT" with NETWARE
and must be known for access to the resources.
4.9.2
MICROSOFT Network
In case of a MICROSOFT network, data can be exchanged both between workstations (peer to peer) and between workstations and servers. The latter can supply
access to files and connection to the printers. On a server, data is organized in
directories as under DOS and mapped to the workstation as virtual drives. A virtual
drive behaves like an additional hard disk on the workstation, and the data can be
edited accordingly. Network printers can also be addressed like normal printers. A
connection is possible to DOS, WINDOWS FOR WORKGROUPS, WINDOWS95/
98/ME, WINDOWS NT/XP.
4.9.3
Remote Data Transfer with TCP/IP Services
The protocol TCP/IP allows the transfer of files between different computer systems.
This requires a program running on the two computers that controls this data transfer. It is not necessary that the same operating or file system is used by both computers. For example, a file transfer between DOS/WINDOWS and UNIX is possible.
One of the two partners must be configured as Host and the other one as Client.
However, they may change their roles. Usually, the system which is able to perform
several processes at the same time will play the host role. The file transfer program
usually used under TCP/IP is FTP (File Transfer Protocol). An FTP host is installed
as standard on the majority of UNIX systems.
If the TCP/IP services are installed, a terminal connection is possible using Start Programs - Accessories - Telnet or a data transfer via FTP by means of Start - Run
ftp - OK. Thus all computer systems supporting these universal protocols can be
addressed (UNIX, VMS, etc.).
For further information, refer to the corresponding XP literature.
4.266
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
LAN Interface - Option R&S FSP-B16
File Transfer via FTP
The total scope of functions and commands is described in the FTP literature. The
following table therefore only contains the major functions:
Setting up the connection
➢ Click Start and then Run in the task bar.
➢ The DOS command FTP starts the program.
➢ The command OPEN <xx.xx.xx.xx> sets up the connection. (xx.xx.xx.xx = IP
address e.g. 89.0.0.13)
Data transfer
•
The command PUT <file name> transfers the data to the target system.
•
The command GET <file name> transfers the data from the target system.
•
The command TYPE B transfers the data in BINARY format; no conversion takes
place.
•
The command TYPE A transfers the data in ASCII format, converting control
characters so that text files can also be read on the target system.
Examples
PUT C:\AUTOEXEC.BAT
sends the file AUTOEXEC.BAT to the target system.
LCD DATA
changes the current directory on the local machine to subdirectory DATA
CD SETTING
changes to the subdirectory SETTING on the target system
file name = file name e.g. DATA.TXT
Changing the directories
•
The command LCD <path> changes the directory on the local machine as with
DOS.
•
The command LDIR shows the directory contents on the local machine.
These commands refer to the file system of the R&S FSQ. If the “L” is omitted ahead
of the commands, they apply to the target system.
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
4.267
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
RSIB Protocol
4.10
RSIB Protocol
The instrument is equipped with an RSIB protocol as standard, which allows the
instrument to be controlled by means of Visual C++ and Visual Basic programs, but
also by means of the Windows applications WinWord and Excel as well as National
Instruments LabView, LabWindows/CVI and Agilent VEE. The control applications
run on an external computer in the network.
A UNIX operating system can be installed on an external computer in addition to a
Windows operating system. In this case, the control applications are created either
in C or C++. The supported UNIX operating systems include:
•
Sun Solaris 2.6 Sparc Station
•
Sun Solaris 2.6 Intel Platform
•
Red Hat Linux 6.2 x86 Processors
4.10.1
Remote Control via RSIB Protocol
4.10.1.1
Windows Environment
To access the measuring instruments via the RSIB protocol, the file RSIB32.DLL
must be copied to the Windows system32 directory or to the directory of the control
applications. For 16-bit applications, the file RSIB.DLL must be additionally copied
to the directories mentioned. The files RSIB.DLL and RSIB32.DLL are included on
the instrument in directory D:\R_S\Instr\RSIB.
For the different programming languages, there are files available that contain the
declarations of the DLL functions and the definition of the error codes.
Visual Basic (16 bit):
'RSIB.BAS'
(D:\R_S\Instr\RSIB)
Visual Basic (32 bit):
'RSIB32.BAS'
(D:\R_S\Instr\RSIB)
C:/C++:
'RSIB.H'
(D:\R_S\Instr\RSIB)
For C/C++: programs, import libraries are additionally available.
Import library for RSIB.DLL:
RSIB.LIB'
(D:\R_S\Instr\RSIB)
Import library for RSIB32.DLL: RSIB32.LIB'
(D:\R_S\Instr\RSIB)
The control is performed using the Visual C++ or Visual Basic programs WinWord,
Excel, LabView, LabWindows/CVI or Agilent VEE. Every application that can load a
DLL is able to use the RSIB protocol. The programs use the IP address of the instrument or its host name to set up the connection.
Via VisualBasic:
ud = RSDLLibfind ("82.1.1.200", ibsta, iberr, ibcntl)
Return to manual operation is possible via the front panel (LOCAL key) or via the
RSIB protocol:
Via RSIB:
ud = RSDLLibloc (ud, ibsta, iberr, ibcntl);
or
ud = RSDLLibonl (ud, 0, ibsta, iberr, ibcntl);
4.268
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
RSIB Protocol
4.10.1.2
UNIX Environment
To access the measuring equipment via the RSIB interface, copy the
librsib.so.X.Y file to a directory for which the control application has read
rights. X.Y in the file name indicates the version number of the library, for example
1.0.
The librsib.so.X.Y library is created as a shared library. The applications using
the library need not consider its version. They simply link the library with the lrsib
option. The following instructions have to be observed so that linking can be successfully performed and the library can be found during program execution:
File link:
•
Use the operating system command In to create a file with the link name
librsib.so and pointing to librsib.so.X.Y in a directory for which the
control application has read rights. Example:
$ ln –s /usr/lib/librsib.so.1.0 /usr/lib/librsib.so
Linker options for creating applications:
•
-lrsib : import library
•
-Lxxx : path information where the import library can be found. This is where the
above file link has been created. Example: -L/usr/lib.
Additional linker options for creating applications (only under Solaris):
•
-Rxxx: path information where the library is searched for during the program run:
-R/usr/lib.
Run-time environment:
•
Set environment variable LD_RUN_PATH to the directory in which the file link has
been created. This is necessary only if librsib.so cannot be found in the
default search path of the operating system and the -R linker option (only Solaris)
was not specified.
For C/C++ programming, the declarations of the library functions and the definition
of error codes are contained in:
C/C++:
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
'RSIB.H'
(D:\R_S\Instr\RSIB)
4.269
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
RSIB Interface Functions
4.11
RSIB Interface Functions
This section lists all functions of the DLL "RSIB.DLL" or "RSIB32.DLL" or
"librsib.so", which allow control applications to be produced.
4.11.1
Overview of Interface Functions
The library functions are adapted to the interface functions of National Instruments
for GPIB programming. The functions supported by the libraries are listed in the following table.
4.270
Function
Description
RSDLLibfind()
Provides a handle for access to a device.
RSDLLibwrt()
Sends a zero-terminated string to a device.
RSDLLilwrt()
Sends a certain number of bytes to a device.
RSDLLibwrtf()
Sends the contents of a file to a device.
RSDLLibrd()
Reads data from a device into a string.
RSDLLilrd()
Reads a certain number of bytes from a device.
RSDLLibrdf()
Reads data from a device into a file.
RSDLLibtmo()
Sets time-out for RSIB functions.
RSDLLibsre()
Switches a device to the local or remote state.
RSDLLibloc()
Temporarily switches a device to the local state.
RSDLLibeot()
Enables/disables the END message for write operations.
RSDLLibrsp()
Performs a serial poll and provides the status byte.
RSDLLibonl()
Sets the device online/offline.
RSDLLTestSRQ()
Checks whether a device has generated an SRQ.
RSDLLWaitSrq()
Waits until a device generates an SRQ.
RSDLLSwapBytes
Swaps the byte sequence for binary numeric display (only
required for non-Intel platforms).
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
RSIB Interface Functions
4.11.1.1
Variables ibsta, iberr, ibcntl
As with the National Instrument interface, the successful execution of a command
can be checked by means of the variables ibsta, iberr and ibcntl. For this purpose, all RSIB functions are assigned references to these three variables.
Status word - ibsta
The status word ibsta provides information on the status of the RSIB interface. The
following bits are defined:
Bit designation
Bit
Hex code
Description
ERR
15
8000
Is set when an error has occurred on calling a
function. If this bit is set, iberr contains an error
code that specifies the error in greater detail.
TIMO
14
4000
Is set when a time-out has occurred on calling a
function.
CMPL
8
0100
Is set if the response of the GPIB parser has been
read out completely. If a parser response is read out
with the function RSDLLilrd() and the length of the
buffer is insufficient for the answer, the bit will be
cleared.
Error variable - iberr
If the ERR bit (8000h) is set in the status word, iberr contains an error code which
allows the error to be specified in greater detail. Extra error codes are defined for the
RSIB protocol, independent of the National Instruments interface.
Error
Error code
Description
IBERR_CONNECT
2
Setup of the connection to the measuring instrument
has failed.
IBERR_NO_DEVICE
3
A function of the interface has been called with an
illegal device handle.
IBERR_MEM
4
No empty memory available.
IBERR_TIMEOUT
5
Time-out has occurred.
IBERR_BUSY
6
The RSIB protocol is blocked by a function that is still
running.
IBERR_FILE
7
Error when reading or writing to a file.
IBERR_SEMA
8
Error upon creating or assigning a semaphore (only
under UNIX).
Count variable - ibcntl
The variable ibcntl is updated with the number of transferred bytes each time a
read or write function is called.
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
4.271
R&S FSQ
Instrument Functions
RSIB Interface Functions
4.11.1.2
Description of Interface Functions
RSDLLibfind()
The function provides a handle for access to the device with the name udName.
VB format:
Function RSDLLibfind (ByVal udName$, ibsta%,
iberr%, ibcntl&) As Integer
C format:
short WINAPI RSDLLibfind( char far *udName,
short far *ibsta, short far *iberr, unsigned
long far *ibcntl)
C format (UNIX): short RSDLLibfind( char *udName, short
*ibsta, short *iberr, unsigned long *ibcntl)
Parameters:
udName
Example:
ud = RSDLLibfind ("89.10.38.97", ibsta,
iberr, ibcntl)
IP address of device
The function must be called prior to all other functions of the interface.
As return value, the function provides a handle that must be indicated in all functions
for access to the device. If the device with the name udName is not found, the handle has a negative value.
RSDLLibwrt
This function sends data to the device with the handle ud.
VB format:
Function RSDLLibwrt (ByVal ud%, ByVal Wrt$,
ibsta%, iberr%, ibcntl&) As Integer
C format:
short WINAPI RSDLLibwrt( short ud, char far
*Wrt, short far *ibsta, short far *iberr,
unsigned long far *ibcntl )
C format (UNIX): short RSDLLibwrt( short ud, char *Wrt, short
*ibsta, short *iberr, unsigned long *ibcntl
)
Parameters:
Example:
ud
Device handle
Wrt
String sent to the device.
RSDLLibwrt(ud, "SENS:FREQ:STAR?", ibsta,
iberr, ibcntl)
This function allows setting and query commands to be sent to the measuring instruments. Whether the data is interpreted as a complete command can be set using the
function RSDLLibeot().
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RSDLLilwrt
This function sends Cnt bytes to a device with the handle ud.
VB format:
Function RSDLLilwrt (ByVal ud%, ByVal Wrt$,
ByVal Cnt&, ibsta%, iberr%, ibcntl&) As
Integer
C format:
short WINAPI RSDLLilwrt( short ud, char far
*Wrt, unsigned long Cnt, short far *ibsta,
short far *iberr, unsigned long far *ibcntl)
C format (UNIX): short RSDLLilwrt( short ud, char *Wrt,
unsigned long Cnt, short *ibsta, short
*iberr, unsigned long *ibcntl)
Parameters:
Example:
ud
Device handle
Wrt
String sent to the GPIB parser.
Cnt
Number of bytes sent to the device.
RSDLLilwrt (ud, '......', 100, ibsta,
iberr, ibcntl)
Like RSDLLibwrt() this function sends data to a device. The only difference is that
binary data can be sent as well. The length of the data is not determined by a zeroterminated string, but by the indication of Cnt bytes. If the data is to be terminated
with EOS (0Ah), the EOS byte must be appended to the string.
RSDLLibwrtf
This function sends the contents of a file$ file to the device with the handle ud.
VB format:
Function RSDLLibwrtf (ByVal ud%, ByVal
file$, ibsta%, iberr%, ibcntl&) As Integer
C format:
short WINAPI RSDLLibwrt( short ud, char far
*Wrt, short far *ibsta, short far *iberr,
unsigned long far *ibcntl )
C format (UNIX): short RSDLLibwrt( short ud, char *Wrt, short
*ibsta, short *iberr, unsigned long *ibcntl
)
Parameters:
Example:
ud
Device handle
file
File whose contents is sent to the
device.
RSDLLibwrtf(ud, "C:\db.sav", ibsta, iberr,
ibcntl)
This function allows setting and query commands to be sent to the measuring instruments. Whether the data is interpreted as a complete command can be set using the
function RSDLLibeot().
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RSDLLibrd()
The function reads data from the device with the handle ud into the string Rd.
VB format:
Function RSDLLibrd (ByVal ud%, ByVal Rd$,
ibsta%, iberr%, ibcntl&) As Integer
C format:
short WINAPI RSDLLibrd( short ud, char far
*Rd, short far *ibsta, short far *iberr,
unsigned long far *ibcntl )
C format (UNIX): short RSDLLibrd( short ud, char *Rd, short
*ibsta, short *iberr, unsigned long *ibcntl
)
Parameters:
Example:
ud
Device handle
Rd
String to which the read data is copied.
RSDLLibrd (ud, Rd, ibsta, iberr, ibcntl)
This function fetches the responses of the GPIB parser to a query.
In the case of Visual Basic programming, a string of sufficient length must be generated beforehand. This can be done during the definition of the string or using the
command Space$().
Generation of a string of the length 100:
– Dim Rd as String * 100
– Dim Rd as String
Rd = Space$(100)
RSDLLilrd
This function reads Cnt bytes from the device with the handle ud.
VB format:
Function RSDLLilrd (ByVal ud%, ByVal Rd$,
ByVal Cnt&, ibsta%, iberr%, ibcntl&) As
Integer
C format:
short WINAPI RSDLLilrd( short ud, char far
*Rd, unsigned long Cnt, short far *ibsta,
short far *iberr, unsigned long far *ibcntl
)
C format (UNIX): short RSDLLilrd( short ud, char *Rd,
unsigned long Cnt, short *ibsta, short
*iberr, unsigned long *ibcntl )
Parameters:
Example:
ud
Device handle
cnt
Maximum number of bytes copied from
the DLL into the target string Rd.
RSDLLilrd (ud, RD, 100, ibsta, iberr,
ibcntl)
Like the function RSDLLibrd(), this function reads data from a device. The only
difference is that in this case the maximum number of bytes to be copied to the target string Rd can be indicated by means of Cnt. This function prevents writing
beyond the end of the string.
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RSDLLibrdf()
Reads data from the device with the handle ud into the file file .
VB format:
Function RSDLLibrdf (ByVal ud%, ByVal
file$, ibsta%, iberr%, ibcntl&) As Integer
C format:
short WINAPI RSDLLibrd( short ud, char far
*file, short far *ibsta, short far *iberr,
unsigned long far *ibcntl )
C format (UNIX): short RSDLLibrd( short ud, char *file, short
*ibsta, short *iberr, unsigned long *ibcntl
)
Parameters:
Example:
ud
Device handle
file
File to which the read data is written.
RSDLLibrdf (ud, "c:\db.sav", ibsta, iberr,
ibcntl)
The file name may as well include a drive or path specification.
RSDLLibtmo
This function defines the time-out for a device. The default value for the time-out is
set to 5 seconds.
VB format:
Function RSDLLibtmo (ByVal ud%, ByVal tmo%,
ibsta%, iberr%, ibcntl&) As Integer
C format:
void WINAPI RSDLLibtmo( short ud, short tmo,
short far *ibsta, short far *iberr, unsigned
long far *ibcntl )
C format (UNIX): short RSDLLibtmo( short ud, short tmo, short
*ibsta, short *iberr, unsigned long *ibcntl
)
Parameters:
Example:
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ud
Device handle
tmo
Time-out in seconds
RSDLLibtmo (ud, 10, ibsta, iberr, ibcntl)
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RSDLLibsre
This function sets the device to the 'LOCAL' or 'REMOTE' state.
VB format:
Function RSDLLibsre (ByVal ud%, ByVal v%,
ibsta%, iberr%, ibcntl&) As Integer
C format:
void WINAPI RSDLLibsre( short ud, short v,
short far *ibsta, short far *iberr, unsigned
long far *ibcntl)
C format (UNIX): short RSDLLibsre( short ud, short v, short
*ibsta, short *iberr, unsigned long
*ibcntl)
Parameters:
Example:
ud
Device handle
v
State of device
0 - local
1 - remote
RSDLLibsre (ud, 0, ibsta, iberr, ibcntl)
RSDLLibloc
This function temporarily switches the device to the 'LOCAL' state.
VB format:
Function RSDLLibloc (ByVal ud%, ibsta%,
iberr%, ibcntl&) As Integer
C format:
void WINAPI RSDLLibloc( short ud, short far
*ibsta, short far *iberr, unsigned long far
*ibcntl)
C format (UNIX): short RSDLLibloc( short ud, short *ibsta,
short *iberr, unsigned long *ibcntl)
Parameter:
ud
Example:
RSDLLibloc (ud, ibsta, iberr, ibcntl)
Device handle
After switch over to LOCAL state, the instrument can be manually operated via the
front panel. On the next access to the instrument by means of one of the functions of
the library, the instrument is switched again to the REMOTE state.
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RSDLLibeot
This function enables or disables the END message after write operations.
VB format:
Function RSDLLibeot (ByVal ud%, ByVal v%,
ibsta%, iberr%, ibcntl&) As Integer
C format:
void WINAPI RSDLLibsre( short ud, short v,
short far *ibsta, short far *iberr, unsigned
long far *ibcntl)
C format (UNIX): short RSDLLibsre( short ud, short v, short
*ibsta, short *iberr, unsigned long
*ibcntl)
Parameters:
Example:
ud
Device handle
v
0 - no END message 1 – send END
message
RSDLLibeot (ud, 1, ibsta, iberr, ibcntl)
If the END message is disabled, the data of a command can be sent with several
successive calls of write functions. The END message must be enabled again
before sending the last data block.
RSDLLibrsp
This function performs a serial poll and provides the status byte of the device.
VB format:
Function RSDLLibrsp(ByVal ud%, spr%,
ibsta%, iberr%, ibcntl&) As Integer
C format:
void WINAPI RSDLLibrsp( short ud, char far*
spr, short far *ibsta, short far *iberr,
unsigned long far *ibcntl)
C format (UNIX): short RSDLLibrsp( short ud, char *spr,
short *ibsta, short *iberr, unsigned long
*ibcntl)
Parameters:
Example:
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ud
Device handle
spr
Pointer to status byte
RSDLLibrsp(ud, spr, ibsta, iberr, ibcntl)
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RSDLLibonl
This function switches the device to 'online' or 'offline' mode. When it is switched to
‘offline’ mode, the interface is released and the device handle becomes invalid. By
calling RSDLLibfind again, the communication is set up again.
VB format:
Function RSDLLibonl (ByVal ud%, ByVal v%,
ibsta%, iberr%, ibcntl&) As Integer
C format:
void WINAPI RSDLLibonl( short ud, short v,
short far *ibsta, short far *iberr,
unsigned long far *ibcntl)
C format:
short RSDLLibonl( short ud, short v, short
*ibsta, short *iberr, unsigned long
*ibcntl)
Parameters:
ud
Device handle
v
Device state
0 - local
1 - remote
Example:
RSDLLibonl(ud, 0, ibsta, iberr, ibcntl)
RSDLLTestSRQ
This function checks the status of the SRQ bit.
VB format:
Function RSDLLTestSrq (ByVal ud%, Result%,
ibsta%, iberr%, ibcntl&) As Integer
C format:
void WINAPI RSDLLTestSrq( short ud, short
far *result, short far *ibsta, short far
*iberr, unsigned long far *ibcntl)
C format (UNIX):
short RSDLLTestSrq( short ud, short
*result, short *ibsta, short *iberr,
unsigned long *ibcntl)
Parameters:
ud
Device handle
result
Reference to an integer value in which
the library returns the status of the
SRQ bit
0 - no SRQ
1 - SRQ active, device requests service
Example:
RSDLLTestSrq (ud, result%, ibsta, iberr,
ibcntl)
This function corresponds to the function RSDLLWaitSrq. The only difference is
that RSDLLTestSRQ immediately returns the current status of the SRQ bit, whereas
RSDLLWaitSrq waits for an SRQ to occur.
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RSDLLWaitSrq
This function waits until the device triggers an SRQ with the handle ud.
VB format:
Function RSDLLWaitSrq (ByVal ud%, Result%,
ibsta%, iberr%, ibcntl&) As Integer
C format:
void WINAPI RSDLLWaitSrq( short ud, short
far *result, short far *ibsta, short far
*iberr, unsigned long far *ibcntl)
C format (UNIX):
short RSDLLWaitSrq( short ud, short
*result, short *ibsta, short *iberr,
unsigned long *ibcntl)
Parameters:
ud
Device handle
result
Reference to an integer value in which
the library returns the status of the
SRQ bit
0 - No SRQ occurred during the timeout
1 - SRQ occurred during the time-out
Example:
RSDLLWaitSrq( ud, result, ibsta, iberr,
ibcntl );
The function waits until one of the following two events occurs.
•
The measuring instrument triggers an SRQ.
•
No SRQ occurs during the time-out defined with RSDLLibtmo().
RSDLLSwapBytes
This function changes the display of binary numbers on non-Intel platforms.
VB format:
Not provided at present since it is
required only on non-Intel platforms.
C format:
void WINAPI RSDLLSwapBytes( void far
*pArray, const long size, const long count)
C format (UNIX):
void RSDLLSwapBytes( void *pArray, const
long size, const long count)
Parameters:
pArray
Array in which modifications are made
size
Size of a single element in pArray
count
Number of elements in pArray
Example:
RSDLLSwapBytes( Buffer, sizeof(float),
ibcntl/sizeof(float))
This function swaps the display of various elements from Big Endian to Little Endian
and vice versa. It is expected that a coherent storage area of elements of the same
file type (size byte) is transferred to pArray. This function has no effect on Intel
platforms.
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Different types of processor architecture store data in different byte sequences. For
example, Intel processors store data in the reverse order of Motorola processors.
Comparison of byte sequences:
4.280
Byte sequence
Use in
Display in memory
Description
Big Endian
Motorola processors,
network standard
Most significant byte at
least significant address
The most significant
byte is at the left end
of the word.
Little Endian
Intel processors
Least significant byte at
least significant address
The most significant
byte is at the right
end of the word.
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4.11.2
Programming via the RSIB Protocol
4.11.2.1
Visual Basic
Programming tips
Access to the functions of the RSIB.DLL
To create Visual Basic control applications, the file RSIB.BAS must be added to a
project for 16-bit Basic programs and the file RSIB32.BAS for 32-bit Basic programs
(D:\R_S\INSTR\RSIB) so that the functions of the RSIB.DLL or RSIB32.DLL can be
accessed.
Generating a response buffer
Prior to calling the functions RSDLLibrd() and RSDLLilrd(), a string of sufficient length must be generated. This is possible either by defining the string or using
the command Space$().
Generating a string of the length 100:
– Dim Response as String * 100
– Dim Response as String
Response = Space$(100)
If a response is to be output as a string from the measuring instrument, the
appended blanks can be removed using the Visual Basic Function RTrim().
Example:
Response = Space$(100)
Call RSDLLibrd(ud, Response, ibsta, iberr, ibcntl)
Response = RTrim(Response)
' Output of Response
Reading out trace data in real format
Using the function declarations in the file RSIB.BAS or RSIB32.BAS the responses
of the device can be assigned to one string only. If the data are to be read into an
array with float values, the header and the useful data must be read out with separate function calls.
Example of a header
# 4 2004
Prefix for
binary data
Number of digits of
the following length
indication
Length of data, e.g.
501 pixels
4 bytes/pixel
In order to enable the trace data to be directly read into a float array, a special function declaration must be created.
Declare Function RSDLLilrdTraceReal Lib "rsib32.dll" Alias "RSDLLilrd" (ByVal
ud%, Rd As Single, ByVal Cnt&, ibsta%, iberr%, ibcntl&) As Integer
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Example
Dim ibsta As Integer
' Status variable
Dim iberr As Integer
' Error variable
Dim ibcntl As Long
' Count variable
Dim ud As Integer
' Handle for measuring instrument
Dim Result As String
' Buffer for simple results
Dim Digits As Byte
' Number of digits of length indication
Dim TraceBytes As Long
' Length of trace data in bytes
Dim TraceData(625) As Single
' Buffer for floating point Binary data
' Set up connection to instrument
ud = RSDLLibfind("89.10.38.97", ibsta, iberr, ibcntl)
' Query trace data in real format
Call RSDLLibwrt(ud, "FORM:DATA REAL,32", ibsta, iberr, ibcntl)
Call RSDLLibwrt(ud, "TRACE? TRACE1", ibsta, iberr, ibcntl)
' Read number of digits of length indication
Result = Space$(20)
Call RSDLLilrd(ud, Result, 2, ibsta, iberr, ibcntl)
Digits = Val(Mid$(Result, 2, 1))
' Read length indication
Result = Space$(20)
Call RSDLLilrd(ud, Result, Digits, ibsta, iberr, ibcntl)
TraceBytes = Val(Left$(Result, Digits))
'and store
' Read out trace data
Call RSDLLilrdTraceReal(ud, TraceData(0), TraceBytes, ibsta, iberr,ibcntl)
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Programming examples
In this example, the start frequency of the instrument is queried.
Dim ibsta As Integer
' Status variable
Dim iberr As Integer
' Error variable
Dim ibcntl As Long
' Count variable
Dim ud As Integer
' Handle for measuring instrument
Dim Response As String
' Response string
' Set up connection to measuring instrument
ud = RSDLLibfind("89.10.38.97", ibsta, iberr, ibcntl)
If (ud < 0) Then
' Error treatment
End If
' Send query command
Call RSDLLibwrt(ud, "FREQ:START?", ibsta, iberr, ibcntl)
' Provide space for response
Response = Space$(100)
' Read response from measuring instrument
Call RSDLLibrd(ud, Response, ibsta, iberr, ibcntl)
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In this example, a Save/Recall of the instrument setups is performed.
Dim ibsta As Integer
' Status variable
Dim iberr As Integer
' Error variable
Dim ibcntl As Long
' Count variable
Dim ud As Integer
' Handle for measuring instrument
Dim Cmd As String
' Command string
' Set up connection to measuring instrument
ud = RSDLLibfind("89.10.38.97", ibsta, iberr, ibcntl)
If (ud < 0) Then
' Error treatment
End If
' Request instrument settings
Cmd = "SYST:SET?"
Call RSDLLibwrt(ud, Cmd, ibsta, iberr, ibcntl)
' Store instrument response in file
Call RSDLLibrdf(ud, "C:\db.sav", ibsta, iberr, ibcntl)
' Reset instrument
Call RSDLLibwrt(ud, "*RST", ibsta, iberr, ibcntl)
Call
Call
Call
Call
' and restore the previous settings
' to this end disable the END message
RSDLLibeot(ud, 0, ibsta, iberr, ibcntl)
' first send off command
RSDLLibwrt(ud, "SYST:SET ", ibsta, iberr, ibcntl)
' enable the END message again
RSDLLibeot(ud, 1, ibsta, iberr, ibcntl)
' and send the data
RSDLLibwrtf(ud, "C:\db.sav", ibsta, iberr, ibcntl)
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4.11.2.2
Visual Basic for Applications (Winword and Excel)
Programming tips
The programming language Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) is supported as a
macro language by various manufacturers. The programs Winword and Excel use
this language for the versions Winword 97 or Excel 5.0 and higher.
For macros created with Visual Basic for Applications, the same tips are valid as for
Visual Basic Applications.
Programming example
Using the macro QueryMaxPeak, a single sweep with subsequent query of the
maximum peak is performed. The result is entered in a Winword or Excel document.
Sub QueryMaxPeak()
Dim ibsta As Integer
' Status variable
Dim iberr As Integer
' Error variable
Dim ibcntl As Long
' transferred characters
Dim ud As Integer
' Unit Descriptor (handle)for instrument
Dim Response As String
' Response string
' Set up connection to measuring instrument
ud = RSDLLibfind("89.10.38.97", ibsta, iberr, ibcntl)
If (ud < 0) Then
Call MsgBox("Device with address 89.10.38.97 could" & _
"not be found", vbExclamation)
End
End If
' Determine maximum peak in the range 1-2MHZ
Call RSDLLibwrt(ud, "*RST", ibsta, iberr, ibcntl)
Call RSDLLibwrt(ud, "INIT:CONT OFF", ibsta, iberr, ibcntl)
Call RSDLLibwrt(ud, "FREQ:START 1MHZ", ibsta, iberr, ibcntl)
Call RSDLLibwrt(ud, "FREQ:STOP 2MHZ", ibsta, iberr, ibcntl)
Call RSDLLibwrt(ud, "INIT:IMM;*WAI", ibsta, iberr, ibcntl)
Call RSDLLibwrt(ud, "CALC:MARK:MAX;Y?", ibsta, iberr, ibcntl)
Response = Space$(100)
Call RSDLLibrd(ud, Response, ibsta, iberr, ibcntl)
Response = RTrim(Response)
' Cut off space
' Insert value in current document (Winword)
Selection.InsertBefore (Response)
Selection.Collapse (wdCollapseEnd)
' Terminate connection to measuring instrument
Call RSDLLibonl(ud, 0, ibsta, iberr, ibcntl)
End Sub
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The entry of the peak value in the Winword document can be replaced as follows for
Excel:
' Insert value in current document (Excel)
ActiveCell.FormulaR1C1 = Response
4.11.2.3
C / C++
Programming tips
Access to the functions of the RSIB32.DLL (Windows platforms)
The functions of the RSIB32.DLL are declared in the header file RSIB.H. The DLL
functions can be linked to a C/C++ program in different ways.
•
Enter one of the supplied import libraries (RSIB.LIB or RSIB32.LIB) into the
linker options.
•
Load the library using the function LoadLibrary() during runtime and
determine the function pointers of the DLL functions using GetProcAddress().
Before the end of the program, the RSIB.DLL must be unloaded again using the
function FreeLibrary().
When import libraries are used, the DLL is automatically loaded immediately before
the application is started. At the end of the program, the DLL is unloaded again
unless it is still used by other applications.
Access to librsib.so functions (UNIX platforms)
The functions of librsib.so are declared in the header file RSIB.H. Uppercase/
lowercase characters for file names are typically observed under UNIX. The library
functions are linked to a C/C++ program by entering the -lrsib linker option.
The shared library librsib.so is automatically loaded on starting the application.
The accessibility (for example via standard path) of the library must be ensured.
Refer to section “UNIX Environment” on page 4.269.
Query of strings
If instrument responses are to be further processed as strings, a zero termination
must be appended.
Example
char buffer[100];
...
RSDLLibrd( ud, buffer, &ibsta, &iberr, &ibcntl );
buffer[ibcntl] = 0;
Programming example
In the following C program example, a single sweep is started on the device with the
IP address 89.10.38.97 and subsequently a marker is set to maximum level. Prior to
the search for maximum, a synchronization to the end of the sweep is performed.
For this purpose the command "*OPC" (Operation complete) is used to create a
service request at the end of the sweep, for which the control program waits with the
function RSDLLWaitSrq(). Then the maximum is determined ("CALC:MARK:
MAX") and the level read out ("Y?").
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#define MAX_RESP_LEN 100
short
unsigned long
short
short
char
char
ibsta, iberr;
ibcntl;
ud;
srq;
MaxPegel[MAX_RESP_LEN];
spr;
// Determine handle for instrument
ud = RSDLLibfind( "89.10.38.97", &ibsta, &iberr, &ibcntl );
// if instrument exists
if ( ud >= 0 )
{
// Set timeout for RSDLLWaitSrq() to 10 seconds
RSDLLibtmo( ud, 10, &ibsta, &iberr, &ibcntl );
// Activate SRQ generation via event status register (ESR)
// and enable ESB bit in SRE register
RSDLLibwrt( ud, "*ESE 1;*SRE 32", &ibsta, &iberr, &ibcntl );
// Set single sweep, trigger sweep and use "*OPC" to cause
// the generation of a service request at the end of the sweep
RSDLLibwrt( ud, "INIT:CONT off;INIT;*OPC", &ibsta, &iberr, &ibcntl );
// Wait for SRQ (end of sweep)
RSDLLWaitSrq( ud, &srq, &ibsta, &iberr, &ibcntl );
// Clear RQS/MSS bit
RSDLLibrsp( ud, &spr, &ibsta, &iberr, &ibcntl );
// if sweep is terminated
if (srq)
{
// then set marker to first maximum and query the level
RSDLLibwrt( ud, "CALC:MARK:MAX;Y?", &ibsta, &iberr, &ibcntl );
RSDLLilrd( ud, MaxPegel, MAX_RESP_LEN, &ibsta, &iberr, &ibcntl );
MaxPegel[ibcntl] = 0;
}
// End connection to instrument
RSDLLibonl (ud, 0, &ibsta, &iberr, &ibcntl ) ;
}
else
{
; // Error Instrument not found
}
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Digital Baseband Interface - Option R&S FSQ-B17
4.12
Digital Baseband Interface - Option R&S FSQ-B17
The instrument complies with the emission requirements stipulated by EN 55011
class A. This means that the instrument is suitable for use in industrial environments. In accordance with EN 61000-6-4, operation is not covered in residential,
commercial, business areas nor in small-size companies.
The instrument must not be operated in residential, commercial, busi-ness areas
or in small-size companies, unless additional measures are taken so that
EN 61000-6-3 is met.
4.12.1
General Description
For evaluation of IQ data, the R&S FSQ in standard configuration provides internal
IQ memory for capturing IQ data, which can be output via GPIB or the LAN interface. The optional digital baseband interface (R&S FSQ-B17) provides an online IQ
data output on the rear panel of the R&S FSQ.
The output of online data via the IQ data interface is configured via remote control.
Measurements with the digital baseband interface are possible in the following applications and operating modes.
•
Spectrum mode
•
FFT analysis mode
•
R&S FS-K7 (Analog Demodulation)
•
R&S FSQ-K70 (Vector Signal Analysis)
•
R&S FS-K72/ -K73/ -K74(+) (3GPP FDD Base Station and User Equipment)
•
R&S FSQ-K90/ -K91 (WLAN measurements)
•
R&S FSQ-K92/ -K93/ -K94 (WiMAX measurements)
•
R&S FSQ-K10x (3GPP LTE measurements)
Fig. 4.19 shows the location of the IQ interface in the digital signal processing chain.
Fig. 4.19 Block diagram of the IQ downconverter
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The RF input signal is down-converted to a fixed IF frequency of 20.4 MHz. The IF
signal is digitized using an A/D converter with 81.6 MHz sampling rate. An analog
bandpass filter in front of the A/D con-verter limits the spectrum (bandwidth is userselectable).
The digital IF is down-converted to the IQ baseband using a digital mixer fed by a
numerical controlled oscillator (NCO). Before further processing, a digital equalizer
filter corrects the amplitude and phase distortion of the analog signal path of the
R&S FSQ.
The output sampling rate can be adapted to the actual signal bandwidth by means of
downsampling. This is done by a resampler which reduces the sampling rate from
81.6 MHz to 40.8 MHz, followed by a 2-n decimation (with n = 0 to 12); the reduction
of the sampling rate is continuously programmable.
Finally, the output sampling rate can be adjusted from 81.6 MHz to 10 kHz. Prior to
downsampling in the resampler and the decimation filter block, the I/Q signal is filtered by low pass filters in order to avoid aliasing products due to the decimation.
As long as there is no trigger signal, the I/Q data is written continuously into the IQ
memory and in paral-lel is accessible online at the I/Q interface R&S FSQ-B17. The
word length of the data is 20 bits fixed point for each I and Q.
In order to get an uninterrupted data stream when using the R&S FSQ-B17 online
interface, the trigger mode must be set to EXTERNAL and no trigger signal must be
applied to the EXT TRIGGER input at the same time.
With the trigger mode set to EXTERNAL, the instrument waits for a trigger signal
while the data acquisition is running in an endless loop. As any trigger event would
stop the data ac-quisition, no signal may be connected to the EXT TRIGGER
input. Trigger mode IMMEDIATE (free run) is also not appropriate, as it does not
provide data acquisition in an endless loop, which is required for a continuous data
stream.
Depending on the sample rate, the following bandwidths are available:
Sample rate (from)
Sample rate (to)
Max. bandwidth
81.6 MHz
40.8 MHz
30 MHz
40.8 MHz
20.4 MHz
0.68 sampling rate
20.4 MHz
10 kHz
0.8 sampling rate
The selected IF bandwidth (RBW setting) limits the equalized bandwidth as follows:
RBW
Equalized band-width
<3 MHz
not equalized
3 MHz
2 MHz
5 MHz
3 MHz
10 MHz
7 MHz
20 MHz
17 MHz
50 MHz
28 MHz
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Digital Baseband Interface - Option R&S FSQ-B17
4.12.2
Online Interface
The online interface is an LVDS interface, compatible with LVDS channel link introduced by National Semiconductor. Compatible receiver and deserializer:
DS90CR486 (also suitable: DS90CR484)
For additional information please refer to:
http://www.national.com/appinfo/lvds/files/channellink_design_guide.pdf
http://www.national.com/ds/DS/DS90CR486.pdf
Fig. 4.20 shows a general overview of the IQ data interface.
Fig. 4.20 R&S FSQ LVDS interface connection overview
Fig. 4.21 shows the functional timing diagram of the interface.
Fig. 4.21 Functional timing diagram
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Digital Baseband Interface - Option R&S FSQ-B17
4.12.3
Signal Description
Clock:
Sample clock from the R&S FSQ with a frequency of 81.6
MHz. It writes the parallel IQ data into the channel link transmitter with the positive edge. The user application must read
the transmitted data out of the channel link receiver also
with the positive edge of this signal.
I_DATA0:19:
Real data 20 bits
Q_DATA0:19:
Imaginary data 20 bits
ENABLE:
Signals the validity of individual data during a data transmission.
DATA_VALID:
Defines the start and stop event of the data transmission.
The transmission starts on the rising edge of DATA_VALID
and stops on the falling edge. Data are only valid while
DATA_VALID is "high".
The user-defined sampling rate can be lower than the fixed 81.6 MHz data rate of
the interface. When the sampling rate is lower than 81.6 MHz, not all transmitted
data are valid samples. The ENABLE bit in state "high" indicates the valid samples.
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Instrument Functions
Digital Baseband Interface - Option R&S FSQ-B17
4.12.4
Signal Assignment
4.12.4.1
Connector
Fig. 4.22 Connector on R&S FSQ rear panel, connector front view.
Connector type: 26 pin female 0.050" Mini D Ribbon connector (e.g.: 3M 102XX1210VE series)
4.12.4.2
Pin description:
This table shows the multiplexed data at the output of the LVDS transmitter.
DS90CR483 is used as transmitter. For further information on multiplexing/demultiplexing scheme, please refer to:
http://www.national.com/ds.cgi/DS/DS90CR483.pdf)
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Pin
Signal
Level
1
reserved for future use
2
GND
0V
Ground, shield of pair 1-14, for future use
3
SDAT0_P
LVDS
Serial data channel 0 positive pin; carries the bits VALID,
ENABLE, MARKER_1, Reserve_1, RE_0, RE_1
4
SDAT1_P
LVDS
Serial data channel 1 positive pin; carries the bits RE_2,
RE_3, RE_4, RE_5, RE_6, RE_7
5
SDAT2_P
LVDS
Serial data channel 2 positive pin; carries the bits RE_8,
RE_9, RE_10, RE_11, RE_12, RE_13
6
CLK1_P
LVDS
Clock 1 positive pin; clock for transmission on LVDS link
7
S_CLK
TTL
(for future use)
8
+5VD
+5.0V
Supply voltage (for future use)
9
SDAT3_P
LVDS
Serial data channel 3 positive pin; carries the bits RE_14,
RE_15, RE_16, RE_17, RE_18, RE_19
10
SDAT4_P
LVDS
Serial data channel 4 positive pin; carries the bits
TRIGGER_1, TRIGGER_2, MARKER_2, Reserve_2, IM_0,
IM_1
11
SDAT5_P
LVDS
Serial data channel 5 positive pin; carries the bits IM_2, IM_3,
IM_4, IM_5, IM_6, IM_7
12
SDAT5_P
LVDS
Serial data channel 6 positive pin; carries the bits IM_8, IM_9,
IM_10, IM_11, IM_12, IM_13
SDAT7_P
LVDS
Serial data channel 7 positive pin; carries the bits IM_14,
IM_15, IM_16, IM_17, IM_18, IM_19
14
reserved for future use
15
SDAT0_M
LVDS
Serial data channel 0 negative pin
16
SDAT1_M
LVDS
Serial data channel 1 negative pin
17
SDAT2_M
LVDS
Serial data channel 2 negative pin
18
CLK1_M
LVDS
Clock 1 negative pin
19
DGND
0V
Power ground; ground return for 5V supply voltage (for future
use)
20
S_DATA
TTL
(for future use)
21
SDAT3_M
LVDS
Serial data channel 3 negative pin
22
SDAT4_M
LVDS
Serial data channel 4 negative pin
23
SDAT5_M
LVDS
Serial data channel 5 negative pin
24
SDAT6_M
LVDS
Serial data channel 6 negative pin
25
SDAT7_M
LVDS
Serial data channel 7 negative pin
26
GND
0V
LVDS ground; shielding of transmission lines and shielding of
cable
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Digital Baseband Interface - Option R&S FSQ-B17
4.12.5
Channel Link Receiver
This table shows the demultiplexed data at LVDS receiver output. (Recommended
receiver: DS90CR486 or DS90CR484).
For further information on multiplexing/demultiplexing scheme, please refer to:
http://www.national.com/ds/DS/DS90CR486.pdf
Data bit
Signal name
D47
IM_19
Imaginary part, bit 19, Q signal (MSB)
D46
IM_18
Imaginary part, bit 18, Q signal
D45
IM_17
Imaginary part, bit 17, Q signal
D29
IM_1
Imaginary part, bit 1, Q signal
D28
IM_0
Imaginary part, bit 0, Q signal (LSB)
D27
Reserve_2
reserved for future use
D26
MARKER_2
Marker bit 2, e.g. marking of beginning or end of a burst (high
= active / low = inactive)
D25
TRIGGER_2
Trigger bit 2, marking of trigger event (high = active / low =
inactive)
D24
TRIGGER_1
Trigger bit 1, marking of trigger event (high = active / low =
inactive)
D23
RE_19
Real part, bit 19, I signal (MSB)
D22
RE_18
Real part, bit 18, I signal
D21
RE_17
Real part, bit 17, I signal
D5
RE_1
Real part, bit 1, I signal
D4
RE_0
Real part, bit 0, I signal (LSB)
D3
Reserve_1
reserved for future use
D2
MARKER_1
Marker bit 1, e.g. marking of beginning or end of a burst (high
= active / low = inactive)
D1
ENABLE*
Indicates valid data word (high = valid, low = invalid)
D0
VALID*
Indicates valid data transmission (high = valid, low = invalid)
...
...
* The data rate is always 81.6 MHz. The sampling rate can be set from 10 kHz to
81.6 MHz. When the sampling rate is lower than 81.6 MHz, not all transmitted data
are valid samples. The ENABLE bit indi-cates the valid samples. The VALID bit is
high during the entire data transmission.
4.294
D47 to D28:
one 20-bit-wide sample, imaginary part
D23 to D4:
one 20-bit-wide sample, real part
D27 to D24, D3 to D0:
control bits for data transmission
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Instrument Functions
Digital Baseband Interface - Option R&S FSQ-B17
4.12.6
Cable
The cable configuration (twisted pairs, shielding) must match the signal assignment.
The LVDS transmission lines must be twisted pairs with a characteristic impedance
of 100 ± 10 ohms, each pair individually shielded. Conductor size of the additional
wires: AWG28.
Connectors on cable: 26 pin male 0.050" Mini D Ribbon plug (e.g.: 3M 103XX-3210
Series). Maximum cable length: 2 m (e.g.: 3M 14526-EZHB-200-0QC cable with
200 cm length)
4.12.7
Remote Operation
The R&S FSQ is operated as a receiver (zero span). The instrument is tuned to the
signal to be meas-ured by setting the center frequency and the reference level. For
best performance, the reference level should be set slightly higher than or equal to
the expected peak power of the signal.
The digital down conversion and the online interface (R&S FSQ-B17) are controlled
by the Trace:IQ subsystem (for additional information refer to “TRACe:IQ Subsystem”).
Analyzing an RF signal: Programming example
The following signal has to be measured:
carrier frequency
peak power
bandwidth
5 GHz
-10 dBm
22 MHz
The wanted sampling rate is 36 MHz
Depending on the signal bandwidth, the IF bandwidth (RBW) = 50 MHz must be
chosen.
*RST
sets the instrument to a defined default status
INST:SEL SAN
selects the operating mode spectrum analyzer
FREQ:CENT 5GHz/
ets the center frequency to 5 GHz
FREQ:SPAN 0
sets the span = zero
DISP:TRAC1:Y:RLEV -10dBm
sets the reference level to -10 dBm
TRAC:IQ:SET
NORM,50MHz,36MHz,EXT,
POS,0,1000
configures the measurement *)
Filter type: Normal
RBW: 50 MHz
Sample Rate: 36 MHz
Trigger Source: External
Trigger Slope: Positive
Pretrigger Samples: 0
# of Samples: 1000
TRACE:IQ:STATE ON
enables acquisition of I/Q data
OUTPUT:DIQ ON
enables digital I/Q data output interface
INPUT:SELECT RF
selects the RF input as signal input
INIT:IMM
starts data acquisition and transmission
* Only the settings of RBW, sample rate and trigger source EXT are relevant to the digital baseband interface. The other parameters can be
set as shown as default.
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LO/IF ports for external mixers - Option R&S FSU-B21
4.13
4.13.1
LO/IF ports for external mixers - Option R&S FSUB21
Connecting an External Mixer
To increase the frequency range, the R&S FSQ26/40 can be operated with external
mixers.
Both two-port and three-port mixers can be used. Connect mixer as follows:
Use the coaxial cable supplied to feed in the LO signal.
If no external mixers are connected to the R&S FSQ, cover the two front connectors 'LO OUT / IF IN' and 'IF IN' with the SMA caps supplied.
To activate the operation mode, press softkey EXTERNAL MIXER in the frequency
menu.
Three-port mixer:
➢ Connect the 'LO OUT / IF IN' output of the R&S FSQ to the LO port of the external
mixer.
➢ Connect the 'IF IN' input of the R&S FSQ to the IF port of the external mixer.
➢ Feed the signal to be measured to the RF input of the external mixer.
Two-port mixer:
➢ Connect the 'LO OUT / IF IN' output of the R&S FSQ to the LO/IF port of the
external mixer. The nominal LO level is 15.5 dBm.
Because of the diplexer contained in the R&S FSQ the IF signal can be tapped
from the line which is used to feed the LO signal to the mixer.
➢ Feed the signal to be measured to the RF input of the external mixer.
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LO/IF ports for external mixers - Option R&S FSU-B21
4.13.2
Manual Operation
The FREQ hardkey opens the menu for selecting the frequency and the frequency
range (details see “Frequency and Span Selection – FREQ Key” on page 4.11)
extended by the following functions for external mixing:
FREQ
EXTERNAL MIXER !
EXT MIXER ON/OFF
SELECT BAND
CONV LOSS TABLE !
EDIT TABLE /
NEW TABLE !
INSERT LINE
DELETE LINE
SAVE TABLE
PAGE UP /
PAGE DOWN
LOAD TABLE !
PAGE UP /
PAGE DOWN
DELETE TABLE
COPY TABLE
PAGE UP /
PAGE DOWN
ACCEPT BIAS
LO LEVEL
SIGNAL ID / AUTO ID /
AUTO ID THRESHOLD
Frequency range
The frequency of the input signal can be expressed as a function of the LO frequency and the selected harmonic of the 1st LO as follows:
fin = n * fLO + fIF
where:
fin
frequency of input signal
n
order of harmonic used for conversion
fLO
frequency of 1st LO 7...15.5 GHz
fIF
intermediate frequency 404.4 MHz
The LO frequency range cannot be used to the full due to the signal identification
functions.
(SIGNAL ID and AUTO ID, see section “Signal Identification” on page 4.310).
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Full-screen level
The maximum reference level to be set is 0 dBm. If an IF signal with a level of -20
dBm is applied to the LO OUT / IF IN or IF IN input of the R&S FSQ, full screen level
will be attained.
When digital filters are used (IF bandwidths = 100 kHz) the overload limit is typically
approx. 3 dB above the set reference level. IF signals with higher levels cause the A/
D converter to be overloaded (display ‘IFOVL’).
If an analog IF filter is used, the overload limit is determined by the IF amplifier. In
this case, the 1 dB compression point is approximately 6 dB above the reference
level. Overload display ‘OVL’ appears at higher levels.
In addition to the dynamic range of the R&S FSQ, the 1 dB compression point of the
mixer has to be taken into account. The levels of the input signals should lie well
below this value to avoid generation of harmonics of these signals in the mixer.
These are converted by the LO signals harmonics of higher order and appear in the
displayed spectrum.
EXTERNAL
MIXER
The EXTERNAL MIXER softkey opens a submenu for setting the parameters of the
external mixer. The softkey automatically switches on the external mixer.
EXT MIXER ON/
OFF
External mixing is switched on or off by the EXT MIXER ON/OFF softkey.
SELECT BAND
Remote command:
MIX ON
The SELECT BAND softkey opens a submenu for selecting the waveguide band
and the harmonic to be used and for setting all necessary parameters. The configuration can be stored using the function SAVE of FILE menu.
Remote command:
--
When the table SELECT BAND is open and you press Enter in a BIAS field the table
is automatically closed. When the BIAS value is now changed the immediately effect
on the measurement trace can be seen.
The table contains the following parameters for each band:
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Instrument Functions
LO/IF ports for external mixers - Option R&S FSU-B21
BAND - Designation of waveguide band
Remote command:
MIX:HARM:BAND E
RANGE - Frequency range
The frequency range of the waveguide band or the frequency range which is covered by the selected harmonic is shown in this field.
Remote command:
--
HARMONIC# - Order of harmonic
Order of harmonic used for conversion The order is selected automatically depending on the definition made in the EVEN / ODD HARMONICS column. The lowest
order is selected that allows conversion of input signals in the whole band.
If due to LO frequency the conversion is not possible using one harmonic, the band
is splitted. Frequency range and order of harmonic of the resulting parts are shown
within the field.
Within the band USER the order of harmonic is defined by the user. The resulting
frequency range will be automatically entered into the field RANGE. The order of
harmonic can be between 2 and 66, the lowest usable frequency being 26,5 GHz.
Remote command:
MIX:HARM 5
EVEN/ODD HARMONICS - Designation of harmonic to be used
Defines if only even, only odd, or even and odd harmonics can be used for conversion.
EVEN/ODD
EVEN
ODD
Depending on what has been selected within this field the order of harmonic to be
used for conversion will change (shown in the field HARMONIC#).
Within the band USER this field is not editable.
Remote command:
MIX:HARM:TYPE EODD
PORTS - Type of mixer
Defines if a two- or three-port mixer is used.
PORTS
2
3
Remote command:
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MIX:PORT 3
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BIAS - Bias current
The bias current can range from -10 mA to 10 mA.
The current corresponds to the short-circuit current. The actual bias current is lower
because of the forward voltage of the mixer diode(s).
If CONV LOSS TABLE is activated, changes of the bias current are temporary only,
i.e. the bias current will not be changed within the file selected in CONV LOSS
TABLE. To store the changes press ACCEPT BIAS softkey. (See section “Bias Current” on page 4.302.)
Remote command:
MIX:BIAS 7mA
AVG CONV LOSS - Average of conversion loss of the external mixer
Sets the conversion loss of the mixer for higher harmonics in bands with two harmonics.
Remote command:
MIX:LOSS -12DB
CONV LOSS TABLE - Conversion loss depending on frequency
Alternatively to the average value stated under AVG CONV LOSS, conversion loss
can be taken into account as a function of frequency. The CONV LOSS TABLE field
gives the name (without extension) of a binary file stored on the hard disk. The file
contains the following data of the associated mixer:
– type designation of mixer
– serial No. of mixer
– waveguide band
– frequency range
– order of harmonic
– number of ports (2 / 3)
– bias current
– conversion loss as a function of frequency
Within an edit box the tables suited for the band can be selected. Only those tables
are allowed that cover the whole frequency range and correspond to the harmonic
used.
SELECT
<NONE>
Band_A_4
Mixer_4
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Instrument Functions
LO/IF ports for external mixers - Option R&S FSU-B21
After selection of a file the parameters BIAS for the SELECT BAND table are taken
from that file. The selected mixer type must correspond to the file entry PORTS. It is
not possible to modify these parameters during operation.
Only that part of the table is taken into account that contains reference values for frequencies that are covered by the selected order of harmonic. (See section “Conversion Loss Tables” on page 4.303)
Remote command:
CONV LOSS
TABL
The CONV LOSS TABLE softkey opens a submenu for selecting and editing of conversion loss tables. (See section “Conversion Loss Tables” on page 4.303)
Remote command:
ACCEPT BIAS
MIX:LOSS:TABL mix_1_4
--
The ACCEPT BIAS softkey stores the bias setting selected in the table SELECT
BAND in the file specified in the table.
The user is prompted to confirm the storage. The new setting will be stored only
when confirmed with YES.
This softkey can only be used if CONV LOSS TABLE (conversion loss taken into
account by means of frequency-dependent values) is active.
Remote command:
LO LEVEL
The softkey LO LEVEL changes the LO level of the external mixer LO port from 13.0
dBm to 17.0 dBm in 0.1 dB steps. Default value is 15.5 dB.
Remote command:
SIGNAL ID /
AUTO ID /
AUTO ID
THRESHOLD
--
[SENSe1:]MIXer:LOPower 16.0dBm
The SIGNAL ID, AUTO ID and AUTO ID THRESHOLD softkeys are used for signal
identification.
Remote command:
MIX:SIGN ON
See section “Signal Identification” on page 4.310.
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LO/IF ports for external mixers - Option R&S FSU-B21
Bias Current
Single-diode mixers generally require a DC voltage which is applied via the LO line.
This DC voltage is to be tuned to the minimum conversion loss versus frequency.
Such a DC voltage can be set via the BIAS function using the D/A converter of the
R&S FSQ. The value to be entered is not the voltage but the short-circuit current.
The current is defined in the SELECT BAND table or set to the value of the Conversion Loss table.
Fig. 4.34 Bias circuit of the R&S FSQ
The voltage U0 at the output of the operational amplifier can be set in the range –2.0
to +2.0 V An open-circuit voltage Vbias of –0.5 to +0.5 V is obtained accordingly at
the output of the voltage divider. A short-circuit current of Ishort = V0 / 200 Ω = -10
mA to + 10 mA is obtained for a short circuit at the output of the voltage divider. For
using biasing it is not important to know exactly the current flowing through the diode
since the conversion loss must be set to minimum with the frequency. It therefore
makes no difference whether the setting is performed by an open-circuit voltage or
by a short-circuit current.
A DC return path is ensured via the 66 Ω resistor, which is an advantage in some
mixers.
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Instrument Functions
LO/IF ports for external mixers - Option R&S FSU-B21
4.13.3
Conversion Loss Tables
Conversion loss tables allow the conversion loss of the mixer to be taken into
account as a function of frequency.
CONV LOSS
TABLE
EDIT TABLE /
NEW TABLE !
INSERT LINE
DELETE LINE
SAVE TABLE
PAGE UP /
PAGE DOWN
LOAD TABLE !
PAGE UP /
PAGE DOWN
DELETE TABLE
COPY TABLE
PAGE UP /
PAGE DOWN
The CONV LOSS TABLE softkey opens a submenu for selecting and editing of conversion loss tables. A list box containing all tables currently available opens by
pressing the softkey.
Remote command:
Name:
Band:
Harmonic#:
Bias:
Comment:
Freq. range:
--
RS_Band_U_4
U
4
0.00 mA
PREVIEW
Mixer:
S/N:
Ports:
FS_Z60
12345678
2
40.000 GHz to 60.000 GHz
TABLES
Band_A_2
Band_A_4
Band_Q_4
RS_Band_U_4
Band_W_8
Press ENTER to edit table
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Instrument Functions
LO/IF ports for external mixers - Option R&S FSU-B21
The PREVIEW window shows the information characterizing the marked file:
Name
name of marked file
Mixer
type of mixer
Band
waveguide band
S/N
serial No. of mixer
Harmonic#
order of harmonic used for conversion
Ports
type of mixer (two or three port mixer)
Bias
bias current
Comment
comment
Freq range
frequency range
The TABLES table lists the files stored on the hard disk.
EDIT TABLE /
NEW TABLE
The EDIT TABLE or NEW TABLE softkey activates a submenu for editing or generating a file (see following section “Editing a Table” on page 4.306).
Remote command:
LOAD TABLE
CORR:CVL:SEL 'LOSS_T_4'
The LOAD TABLE softkey opens a submenu with a table TABLES ON DISK specifying all files stored on the inserted disk with mixer correction data (.ACL extension).
The file selected is copied onto the hard disk.
TABLES ON DISK
Band_A_2
Band_A_4
Band_Q_4
RS_Band_U_4
Band_W_8
Press ENTER to load table
Remote command:
--
This function is needed, for example, for the initial loading of correction data of a
new mixer to the hard disk of the R&S FSQ.
The correction data are stored in ASCII format.
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Instrument Functions
LO/IF ports for external mixers - Option R&S FSU-B21
Example
# Mixer Name
R&S FS-Z60
# Serial Number
832439/001
# Band
U
# Number of Harmonic
4
# Bias
0.0
# Ports
2
#Comment
R&S FS-Z60 (40..60 GHZ).
# Date
21.02.2003
# Calibration data
(40000000000, 17.49)
(40410000000, 17.5755102)
(40820000000, 17.56102041)
...
...
...
(58780000000, 19.86081633)
(59180000000, 20.08387755)
(59590000000, 19.91693878)
(60000000000, 19.95)
DELETE TABLE
The DELETE TABLE softkey deletes the selected file from the hard disk of the
R&S FSQ.
If the key is pressed, a window opens in which the user is prompted to confirm or
abort deleting.
Remote command:
COPY TABLE
CORR:CVL:CLE
The COPY TABLE softkey copies the selected table. The table is stored under
another name and can be edited later on.
Remote command:
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--
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4.13.3.1
EDIT TABLE /
NEW TABLE
Editing a Table
INSERT LINE
DELETE LINE
SAVE TABLE
PAGE UP /
PAGE DOWN
The EDIT TABLE or NEW TABLE softkey activates a submenu in which all entries of
an existing table can be modified or in which a new table can be generated
Remote command:
--
The table either contains data of the mixer selected or no data at all.
Name:
Band:
Harmonic#:
Bias:
Comment:
EDIT CONVERSION LOSS TABLE
RS_Band_U_4
Mixer:
U
S/N:
4
Ports:
0.00 mA
FREQUENCY
40.000 GHz
41.000 GHz
42.000 GHz
43.000 GHz
44.000 GHz
45.000 GHz
46.000 GHz
47.000 GHz
48.000 GHz
49.000 GHz
50.000 GHz
51.000 GHz
52.000 GHz
53.000 GHz
54.000 GHz
55.000 GHz
56.000 GHz
57.000 GHz
58.000 GHz
FS_Z60
12345678
2
CONV LOSS /dB
20.5
20.8
20.9
21.1
21.4
21.7
22.2
22.7
23.1
23.3
23.7
24.0
24.5
24.8
25.4
25.8
26.2
26.6
26.8
Data and type designation of the mixer can be entered into the header of the
table.The columns contain the frequencies and the corresponding conversion
losses.
Name - File name
The name of the table is identical with the name of the file (without extension) in
which the table is stored. The entry in this field is mandatory. The name may consist
of a maximum of 10 characters and ends with the harmonic used, e.g. Mixer_2. The
.ACL extension will automatically be appended at storing.
Remote command:
4.306
CORR:CVL:SEL 'LOSS_T_4'
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Instrument Functions
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Mixer - Type designation of mixer
The information in the Mixer field shows the user at a glance to which mixer a file
belongs. Entries in this field are optional.
Remote command:
CORR:CVL:MIX 'FS_Z60'
Band - Designation of waveguide band
A waveguide band can be selected from a list. This field is mandatory.
Remote command:
CORR:CVL:BAND E
S/N - Serial number
Serial number of the mixer. Entries in this field are optional.
Remote command:
CORR:CVL:SNUM '123.4567'
Harmonic# - Order of harmonic
Order of harmonic used for conversion. For the conversion loss is valid for one harmonic only, entries in this field are mandatory.
Remote command:
CORR:CVL:HARM 4
Ports - Two- or three-port mixer
A list is displayed from which the number of ports (two or three) of the mixer used
can be selected. The entry in this field is mandatory.
Remote command:
CORR:CVL:PORT 3
Bias - Bias setting
The bias current required for the mixer has to be entered in this field. The setting
range is between -10 mA and +10 mA.
The entry in this field is mandatory.
The current corresponds to the short-circuit current. The actual bias current is
lower because of the forward voltage of the mixer diode(s).
Remote command:
CORR:CVL:BIAS 7mA
See section “Bias Current” on page 4.302.
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Comment
The comment can be freely defined by the user. It may consist of a maximum of 60
characters. This field need not necessarily to be filled in.
Remote command:
CORR:CVL:COMMENT 'MIXER FOR BAND U'
FREQUENCY/CONV LOSS - Conversion loss table
The reference values must be entered in order of increasing frequencies. A maximum of 50 reference values can be entered.
Correction values for frequencies between the reference values are obtained by
interpolation. Linear interpolation is performed if the table contains only two values.
If it contains more than two reference values, spline interpolation is carried out.
Outside the frequency range covered by the table the conversion loss is assumed to
be the same (see illustration below) as that for the first and last reference value.
Remote command:
CORR:CVL:DATA 1MHZ,-30DB,2MHZ,-40DB
Frequency
qu
INSERT LINE
The INSERT LINE softkey inserts a blank line at the cursor position. Subsequent
entries are shifted downwards by one line.
Remote command:
DELETE LINE
--
The SAVE TABLE softkey stores the edited table on the hard disk under the name
given in the field NAME. The .ACL extension is automatically appended to the file
name.
Remote command:
4.308
--
The DELETE LINE softkey deletes the marked line in the reference value table.
Remote command:
SAVE TABLE
Top limit of table
Bottom limit of table
Conversion loss
Conversion loss
outside the range
covered by the table
--
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
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Instrument Functions
LO/IF ports for external mixers - Option R&S FSU-B21
PAGE UP /
PAGE DOWN
The PAGE UP / PAGE DOWN softkeys allow to scroll through the selection list.
Remote command:
--
With the PREV hardkey, an edited table can be accepted, checked for consistency
with permissible values and stored on the hard disk under the specified table name.
The user has to confirm whether he wants to store the table (YES) or not (NO) or
whether storage is to be aborted (CANCEL). After storage has been aborted, the
table comes up again and the user can continue editing.
When the file is stored, an extension is added automatically.
If the name of the table to be stored is already used by another file, the user is asked
if the old table is to be overwritten. If the user does not wish to overwrite the old file,
he can further edit the new table, e.g. assign it a new name not used so far.
Upon exiting the EDIT menu, the table can be activated from the relevant selection
list.
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4.13.4
Signal Identification
In the EXTERNAL MIXER submenu (see section “EXTERNAL MIXER” on
page 4.298), the SIGNAL ID and AUTO ID softkeys activate the functions for setting
the signal identification.
Remote command:
SIGNAL ID
MIX:SIGN ON
The SIGNAL ID softkey activates or deactivates visual signal identification.
Two sweeps are performed alternately. Trace 1 shows the test sweep, trace 2 shows
the reference sweep. Trace 3 is not available.
Ref -10 dBm
RBW 3 MHz
VBW 10 MHz
SWT 115 ms
Marker 1 [T1 ]
-21.75 dBm
52.019230769 GHz
-10
1
-20
1 AP
CLRWR
2 AP
CLRWR
B
-30
-40
-50
-60
-70
-80
-90
-100
-110
Center
50 GHz
2 GHz/
Span 20 GHz
The reference sweep is performed using a LO setting shifted downwards by 2*IF/
Harmonic#. Input signals in the wanted sideband that are converted by means of the
set harmonic are displayed in both traces at the same position on the frequency
axis. Image signals and mixer products caused by other harmonics are displayed in
both traces at different positions.
The user identifies the signals visually by comparing the two traces.
Since the LO frequency is displaced downwards in the reference sweep, the conversion loss of the mixer may differ from the test sweep.
Therefore the level should only be measured in the test sweep (trace 1).
Mathematical functions with traces and trace copy cannot be used in the SIGNAL ID
menu.
AUTO ID
The AUTO ID softkey activates or deactivates automatic signal identification.
AUTO ID basically functions like SIGNAL ID. However, the test and reference
sweeps are converted into a single trace by a comparison of maximum peak values
of each sweep point. The result of this comparison is displayed in trace 3 if SIGNAL
ID is active at the same time. If SIGNAL ID is not active, the result can be displayed
in each of the traces 1 to 3 Unwanted mixer products are suppressed in this calculated trace.
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Instrument Functions
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As described for the function SIGNAL ID, real input signals are displayed at the
same frequency in the test and reference sweeps, i.e. theoretically identical signal
levels are expected in the two sweeps at the frequency of the real mixer product. If
the level difference is lower than the tolerance set with AUTO ID THRESHOLD, the
signal obtained in the test sweep is displayed.
If a signal occurs only in the test sweep or reference sweep, it is an unwanted mixer
product. The level of this signal is compared to the noise floor in the other sweep. If
the S/N ratio is sufficiently large, the tolerance limit for the maximum permissible
level difference is exceeded. This means that the signal with the lower level, i.e.
noise in this case, is displayed.
It should be noted that AUTO ID functions according to the fail-safe principle, i.e.
unwanted mixer products may not be detected as such but signals which are in fact
real input signals are not blanked out. See also “Remarks Concerning Signal Identification with AUTO ID” on page 4.311.
AUTO ID
THRESHOLD
AUTO ID THRESHOLD allows the maximum permissible level difference to be fixed
between test sweep and reference sweep during automatic comparison (function
AUTO ID). The input range is between 0.1 dB and 100 dB.
Values of about 10 dB (i.e. default setting) generally yield satisfactory results.
See also “Remarks Concerning Signal Identification with AUTO ID” on page 4.311.
4.13.4.1
Remarks Concerning Signal Identification with AUTO ID
Type of signal
The automatic comparison of the test sweep and reference sweep with AUTO ID
can only be usefully applied for signals with time-constant spectrum since the two
sweeps are always required to determine the actual spectrum.
Tolerance for the comparison of test sweep and reference
Since the LO frequency is displaced downwards in the reference sweep, the conversion loss of the mixer may differ from that of the test sweep. The reasons for this are
the LO output power of the R&S FSQ varying with the frequency and the non-ideal
characteristics of the mixer. A certain tolerance should therefore be permitted for the
comparison of the signal levels in the test sweep and reference sweep. The user
can set this tolerance using the function AUTO ID THRESHOLD.
If the tolerance set is too tight the signal collected with the reference sweep may be
displayed even for the identification of real signals.
Example
A signal with a frequency of 52.5 GHz is applied to the mixer input. Let the signal
level be –30 dBm. The conversion loss of the mixer is 28 dB at this frequency in the
test sweep and 35 dB in the reference sweep. The user has entered a tolerance of 5
dB and a conversion loss of 28 dB. Thus, the signal is recorded with the correct level
of –30 dBm in the test sweep, a signal level of –37 dBm is obtained in the reference
sweep. As the difference (7 dB) between the levels is >5 dB, the signal with the
lower level is displayed, i.e. the signal of the reference sweep. Since the set conversion loss is adapted to the test sweep, the signal displayed on the R&S FSQ has a
level of –37 dBm yielding incorrect level display.
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Instrument Functions
LO/IF ports for external mixers - Option R&S FSU-B21
The tolerance entered corresponds to the minimum S/N ratio which signals should
have to ensure correct identification. If the S/N ratio of a mixer product is less than
the tolerance, the decision criterion is fulfilled even if only the noise floor is recorded
in the reference sweep at the frequency of this mixer product. Unwanted mixer products are therefore not detected as such by AUTO ID. They can only be identified by
a visual comparison of the two traces using the function SIGNAL ID.
In order to avoid the visual identification of such unwanted mixer products it is useful
to perform the measurement test in two steps:
In the first step the tolerance is set to the minimum value (0.1 dB). This enables
unwanted mixer products with low S/N ratio to be detected and blanked out.
- [ FREQUENCY : EXTERNAL MIXER : AUTO ID ]
- [ FREQUENCY : EXTERNAL MIXER : AUTO ID THRESHOLD : 0.1 dB ]
To determine the signal levels of real input signals the tolerance is to be set to the
minimum value, e.g. 10 dB, in the second step.
- [ FREQUENCY : EXTERNAL MIXER : AUTO ID THRESHOLD : 10 dB ]
The real input signals are then displayed with the correct level.
Mixer products with low S/N ratio
If the S/N ratio of a mixer product is less than the tolerance set with AUTO ID
THRESHOLD, the level difference between the test sweep and reference sweep at
the frequency of this mixer product is always within limits, even if the signal occurs in
one of the sweeps only. Such mixer products cannot be identified by AUTO ID. It is
therefore recommended to perform a visual comparison of the test sweep and reference sweep using the function SIGNAL ID.
An unwanted signal having a S/N ratio corresponding approximately to the tolerance
set with AUTO ID THRESHOLD may not be blanked out permanently. Due to the
fact that the noise display varies from one sweep to another, the S/N ratio changes
and thus the level difference between the test sweep and reference sweep measured at a frequency too. As a result, the criterion for detecting unwanted signals is
not fulfilled. To blank out unwanted signals permanently an almost constant noise
indication is therefore required. This can be achieved by reducing the video bandwidth. Since the average noise indication lies well below the generated noise peak
values, the minimum level diminishes. For identification using AUTO ID signals
should have this minimum level.
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Instrument Functions
LO/IF ports for external mixers - Option R&S FSU-B21
Examining unwanted mixer products with small span
With large spans in which non-modulated sinewave signals are represented as single lines, unwanted mixer products are generally completely blanked out. If the user,
however, examines closer the frequency range containing a blanked signal using a
small span, e.g. an image-frequency response, the spectrum represented in Fig.
4.35 is obtained.
RBW 200 kHz
* VBW 100 kHz
Ref -10 dBm
SWT 20 ms
Marker 1 [T1 ]
-81.79 dBm
59.151966026 GHz
-10
-20
1 SA
VIEW
Delta 2 [T1 ]
-10.01 dB
96.153846085 kHz
B
-30
-40
-50
-60
-70
1
-80
2
-90
-100
-110
Center
59.15236667 GHz
1 MHz/
Span
10 MHz
Fig. 4.35 Components of a mixer product blanked out with AUTO ID
There are components of a blanked signal the level difference of which is smaller
than the tolerance predefined with AUTO ID THRESHOLD as compared with the
noise floor. These components are therefore not blanked out. The tolerance chosen
was 10 dB in this example which can be seen at the level difference between marker
and delta marker (display 'Delta 2 [T1]').
Using AUTO ID with large spans
As already described, the comparison of maximum peak values of test and reference sweep is performed for each sweep point. A trace comprises yyy…10000
sweep values the number of which is reduced to build the 625 pixels. Each pixel
contains the maximum value of the sweep points it consists of. Therefore a pixel can
contain information of a number of frequency steps.
If unwanted mixer products represented at frequencies which slightly differ from
each other occur in the test sweep and reference sweep, the two mixer products
from the test sweep and the reference sweep are displayed by the same sweep
point. They will not be detected as unwanted mixer products by AUTO ID and therefore not be blanked out. Illustration of this follows:
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Instrument Functions
LO/IF ports for external mixers - Option R&S FSU-B21
RBW 3 MHz
VBW 10 MHz
SWT 80 ms
Ref -20 dBm
Marker 1 [T1 ]
-55.56 dBm
29.615384615 GHz
-30
A
-40
1 AP
CLRWR
1
-50
-60
-70
-80
-90
-100
-110
Center 33.2 GHz
Ref
1.34 GHz/
RBW 2 MHz
VBW 5 MHz
SWT 20 ms
0 dBm
Marker 1 [T1 ]
-36.84 dBm
29.608814103 GHz
-10
-20
1 AP
CLRWR
-30
B
1
-40
2
-50
2 AP
CLRWR
Span 13.4 GHz
Delta 2 [T2 ]
-18.47 dB EXT
16.506410256 MHz
-60
-70
-80
-90
Center 29.61538462 GHz
10 MHz/
Span 100 MHz
Fig. 4.36 Screen A: Unwanted mixer product not detected by AUTO ID
Screen B: Unwanted mixer product not detected by AUTO ID and examined with a small
span using SIGNAL ID
An input signal consisting of a large number of spectral components is shown in Fig.
4.36, screen A. Unwanted mixer products are blanked out with AUTO ID. If a signal
identified as real is examined at approx. 29.615 GHz (see marker in Fig. 4.36) with a
reduced span using SIGNAL ID (see Fig. 4.36, screen B), it can be seen that the
mixer products represented in the test sweep and reference sweep differ by approx.
16.5 MHz in their frequency. For the span of 13.4 GHz set in Fig. 4.36, screen A, a
frequency range of 21,4 MHz is displayed by one sweep point (selection 625 sweep
points).
Very small spans should therefore be selected to ensure correct signal identification
by means of AUTO ID.
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Instrument Functions
LO/IF ports for external mixers - Option R&S FSU-B21
Display of mixer products at the same frequency
If the input signal consists of a very large number of spectral components, it will
become more and more probable that two different unwanted mixer products will be
displayed at the same frequency in the test sweep and reference sweep. Such a
case is shown in Fig. 4.37.
* RBW 30 kHz
VBW 100 kHz
SWT 20 ms
Ref -30 dBm
-30
-40
1 SA
AVG
2 SA
AVG
T1
1
-50
T2
Marker 1 [T1 ]
-45.03 dBm
29.468133910 GHz
ndB [T1]
3.00
BW 19.871794872
Temp 1 [T1 ndB]
-47.99
29.468123654
Temp 2 [T1 ndB]
-48.09
29.468143526
dB
kHz
B
dBm
GHz
dBm
GHz
-60
-70
-80
-90
-100
-110
-120
-130
Center
29.46813391 GHz
20 kHz/
Sp an
200 kHz
Fig. 4.37 Different mixer products represented at the same frequency in the test sweep and
reference sweep
The external mixer has been working using 2nd order harmonic. The signal recorded
in the test sweep is displayed by trace 1. The IF filter of the R&S FSQ is represented
at a 3 dB bandwidth of 20 kHz, the real IF bandwidth being 30 kHz. If, however, the
3 dB bandwidth (trace 2) of the signal recorded in the reference sweep is examined,
it will be found to be larger exactly by a factor of 2. This shows that the two products
were generated by mixing with LO harmonics of different orders
The signal recorded in the test sweep was generated by mixing with 3rd order harmonic. Since the frequency axis scaling is based on the 2nd order, the mixer product
or the resulting diagram of the IF filter is compressed by a factor of 2/3.
The signal recorded in the reference sweep was generated by mixing with the fundamental of the LO signal. Since the frequency axis scaling is based on the 2nd
order, the mixer product or the resulting diagram of the IF filter is expanded by a factor of 2.
Automatic identification with a large span is not possible since the two mixer products are displayed at the same frequency. The diagram shown in Fig. 4.38 is
obtained when examining products with a narrow span using AUTO ID. The user
can easily recognize unwanted mixer products from the clear diagram obtained
using AUTO ID or SIGNAL ID.
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LO/IF ports for external mixers - Option R&S FSU-B21
* RBW 30 kHz
Ref -30 dBm
VBW 100 kHz
SWT 20 ms
-30
A
-40
1 SA
AVG
-50
-60
-70
-80
EXT
-90
-100
-110
-120
-130
Center
29.46813403 GHz
20 kHz/
Span
200 kHz
Fig. 4.38 Signal as in Fig. 4.36, but with the use of AUTO ID
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Instrument Functions
LO/IF ports for external mixers - Option R&S FSU-B21
4.13.5
Introductory Example of Operation
The following example serves to explain the operation of external mixers as well as
the required settings:
A sine wave signal with f = 14.5 GHz is applied to the input of a multiplier. The spectrum at the multiplier output is to be recorded in the range of 52 to 60 GHz using a 2port mixer for the V band. The mixer used is a double-diode mixer.
Conventions for setting the analyzer during measurement:
[ <KEY> ]
Press a key on the front panel, e.g. [ FREQUENCY ]
[ <SOFTKEY> ]
Press a softkey, e.g. [ EXTERNAL MIXER ]
[ <nn unit> ]
Enter a value and terminate by entering the unit,
e.g. [ 1 MHz ]
Successive entries are separated by [:],
e.g. [ FREQUENCY: EXTERNAL MIXER : SELECT BAND ].
The example of operation is described in the following steps:
1. Test setup
2. Activating the external mixing and selecting the mode
3. Default setting
4. Level correction
5. Frequency-dependent level correction
6. Level correction with average value
7. Taking into account the cable loss in the IF path
8. Functions for signal identification
1. Test setup
➢ Connect the 'LO OUT / IF IN' output of the R&S FSQ to the LO/IF port of the
external mixer.
➢ Connect the multiplier to the external mixer.
➢ Apply a sinewave signal with f = 14.5 GHz to the input of the multiplier.
2. Activating the external mixing and selecting the mode
➢ Activate the external mixing with
[ FREQUENCY : EXTERNAL MIXER ]
3. Default setting
➢ Prior to the measurement select the required band (in this case the V band)
with
[ FREQUENCY : EXTERNAL MIXER : SELECT BAND]
➢ Select the V band using the cursor keys and ENTER
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Instrument Functions
LO/IF ports for external mixers - Option R&S FSU-B21
4. Level correction
The conversion loss of the mixer can be taken into account both as a function of
frequency and with an average value. The frequency-dependent level correction
is used in this example for obtaining a higher precision. First select a table valid
for the selected band. As an alternative, level correction based on average value
can be used (see “Level correction with average value” on page 4.319).
5. Frequency-dependent level correction
➢ Activate a selection list which contains all tables stored on the hard disk of the
R&S FSQ with
[FREQUENCY : EXTERNAL MIXER : SELECT BAND]
➢ Select the CONV LOSS TABLE field by means of the cursor keys.
➢ If a file with correction data already exists for the mixer used, select a table
valid with the cursor keys or the rotary knob and confirm with ENTER.
➢ If such a table is not yet available, create a new table with
[CONV LOSS TABLE : EDIT TABLE]
or copy from a disk to the hard disk of the R&S FSQ with
[CONV LOSS TABLE : LOAD TABLE]
(See section “Conversion Loss Tables” on page 4.303)
and select the file created or loaded from a disk in the selection list as
described before.
A selected file is marked by √ and will be drawn into the table SELECT BAND.
No further settings are necessary since the selected file contains all required
parameters.
➢ Quit the SELECT BAND menu using
[ ESC ] key
A span is automatically set which covers the whole V band (50 to 75 GHz).
➢ Set the frequency range to be examined using
[ FREQUENCY START : 52 GHz ]
and
[ FREQUENCY STOP : 60 GHz ]
➢ Reduce video bandwidth with
[ SWEEP COUPLING : VIDEO BW MANUAL : 1 MHz ]
A correct signal identification using AUTO ID is thus possible (see also
“Remarks Concerning Signal Identification with AUTO ID” on page 4.311).
The display shown in Fig. 4.39 is obtained.
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Instrument Functions
LO/IF ports for external mixers - Option R&S FSU-B21
RBW 3 MHz
* VBW 1 MHz
Ref -20 dBm
SWT 50 ms
Marker 1 [T 1 ]
- 36.07 dBm
58.0128 20513 GHz
-20
A
-30
1 AP
CLRWR
1
-40
-50
-60
-70
EXT
-80
-90
-100
-110
-120
Center
56 GHz
800 MHz/
Span
8 GHz
Fig. 4.39 Spectrum at the multiplier output recorded with an external mixer
6. Level correction with average value
If an average value is to be taken into account instead of the frequency-dependent
level correction, enter the following parameters for the selected band in the
SELECT BAND table:
➢ Enter the table with
[ FREQUENCY : EXTERNAL MIXER : SELECT BAND} dB ]:
➢ Enter the average of the conversion loss into the field AVG CONV LOSS:
{conversion loss} dB ]
➢ Enter the type of mixer (in this example 2-port mixer) into the field PORTS.
➢ Enter the permissible harmonic (in this example even, since a double-diode
mixer is used) into the field EVEN/ODD HARMONICS:
By pressing ENTER a list box will be opened to select the permissible
harmonic.
The entered average value is taken into account for the spectrum display
irrespective of the frequency. The precision that can be obtained depends on
the frequency response of the mixer. With this type of level correction
measurements can be easily performed at single frequencies.
7. Taking into account the cable loss in the IF path
On performing level correction, the conversion loss of the mixer and also the
insertion loss a0 of the cable used to tap off the IF signal are to be taken into
account. This additional loss is frequency-dependent.
➢ Determine the insertion of the cable at the intermediate frequency fIF = 404.4
MHz.
➢ For level correction with average value, add the cable insertion loss to the
average conversion loss.
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LO/IF ports for external mixers - Option R&S FSU-B21
➢ For frequency-dependent level correction, increase every reference value by
the insertion loss to the same extent.
➢ For this the cable loss can be entered via a transducer table.
Such a table should only contain two reference values (band start and end) for
which a0 is specified.
8. Functions for signal identification
The spectrum represented in Fig. 4.39 contains the input signal and also a large
number of unwanted mixer products. Two functions are provided by the R&S FSQ
to identify real input signals. The implemented methods are described in section
“Signal Identification” on page 4.310. The AUTO ID function is used in this
example.
➢ Activate the function AUTO ID with
[ FREQUENCY : EXTERNAL MIXER : SIGNAL ID : AUTO ID ] .
To obtain a display with the correct level when using AUTO ID, the tolerance
limit taken as a basis for the use of AUTO ID is to be adapted to the mixer (see
explanations on the AUTO ID function and “Remarks Concerning Signal
Identification with AUTO ID” on page 4.311). The tolerance limit has been set
to 5 dB in this example.
➢ Adapt the tolerance limit with
[ FREQUENCY : EXTERNAL MIXER : SIGNAL ID : AUTO ID THRESHOLD :
{tolerance limit} dB ].
The trace shown in Fig. 4.40 is obtained in which unwanted mixer products are
blanked out.
RBW 3 MHz
* VBW 1 MHz
Ref -20 dBm
SWT 50 ms
Marker 1 [T 1 ]
- 35.08 dBm
58.0000 00000 GHz
-20
-30
1 AP
CLRWR
A
1
-40
-50
-60
-70
EXT
-80
-90
-100
-110
-120
Center
56 GHz
800 MHz/
Span
8 GHz
Fig. 4.40 Output spectrum of the multiplier recorded with an external mixer and AUTO ID
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R&S FSQ
Remote Control – Basics
5 Remote Control – Basics
5.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3
5.2 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3
5.3 Getting Started . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4
5.4 Starting Remote Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5
5.4.1 Display Contents during Remote Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5
5.4.2 Remote Control via GPIB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.6
5.4.2.1 Setting the Device Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.6
5.4.2.2 Return to Manual Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.6
5.4.3 Remote Control via RS-232-Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.7
5.4.3.1 Setting the Transmission Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.7
5.4.3.2 Return to Manual Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.7
5.4.3.3 Restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.8
5.4.4 Remote Control in a Network (LAN Interface) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.9
5.4.4.1 Setting the Device Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.9
5.4.4.2 Return to Manual Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.9
5.5 Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.10
5.5.1 GPIB Interface Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.10
5.5.2 Device Messages (Commands and Device Responses) . . . . . . . . . . . 5.10
5.6 Structure and Syntax of the Device Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.11
5.6.1 SCPI Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.11
5.6.2 Structure of a Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.11
5.6.3 Structure of a Command Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.14
5.6.4 Responses to Queries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.15
5.6.5 Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.16
5.6.6 Overview of Syntax Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.18
5.6.7 Instrument Model and Command Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.18
5.6.8 Input Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.19
5.6.9 Command Recognition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.19
5.6.10 Instrument Data Base and Instrument Hardware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.19
5.6.11 Status Reporting System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.20
5.6.12 Output Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.20
5.6.13 Command Sequence and Command Synchronization . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.20
5.7 Status Reporting System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.22
5.7.1 Structure of an SCPI Status Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.22
5.7.2 Overview of the Status Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.24
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Remote Control – Basics
5.7.3 Description of the Status Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.26
5.7.3.1 Status Byte (STB) and Service Request Enable Register
(SRE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.26
5.7.3.2 IST Flag and Parallel Poll Enable Register (PPE) . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.27
5.7.3.3 Event-Status Register (ESR) and Event-Status-Enable
Register (ESE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.27
5.7.3.4 STATus:OPERation Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.28
5.7.3.5 STATus:QUEStionable Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.29
5.7.3.6 STATus:QUEStionable:ACPLimit Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.30
5.7.3.7 STATus:QUEStionable:DIQ Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.31
5.7.3.8 STATus:QUEStionable:FREQuency Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.32
5.7.3.9 STATus:QUEStionable:LIMit<1|2> Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.32
5.7.3.10 STATus:QUEStionable:LMARgin<1|2> Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.33
5.7.3.11 STATus:QUEStionable:POWer Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.34
5.7.4 Application of the Status Reporting Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.35
5.7.4.1 Service Request, Making Use of the Hierarchy Structure . . . . . . . 5.35
5.7.4.2 Serial Poll . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.35
5.7.4.3 Parallel Poll . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.35
5.7.4.4 Query by Means of Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.36
5.7.4.5 Error Queue Query . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.36
5.7.5 Resetting Values of the Status Reporting System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.37
5.2
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Overview
5.1
Overview
This chapter contains the following:
•
instructions on how to put the R&S FSQ into operation via remote control,
•
a general introduction to remote control of programmable instruments. This
includes the description of the command structure and syntax according to the
SCPI standard, the description of command execution and of the status registers,
•
diagrams and tables describing the status registers used in the R&S FSQ.
In chapter “Remote Control – Description of Commands”, all remote control functions are described in detail. The subsystems are listed by alphabetical order
according to SCPI.
Program examples for the R&S FSQ can be found in chapter “Remote Control –
Programming Examples”. The remote control interfaces and their interface functions
are described in chapter “Maintenance and Instrument Interfaces”.
5.2
Introduction
The instrument is equipped with an GPIB interface according to standard IEC 625.1/
IEEE 488.2 and an RS-232 interface. The connectors are located at the rear of the
instrument and permit to connect a controller for remote control.
In addition, the instrument can be remotely controlled in a local area network (LAN
interface).
The instrument supports the SCPI version 1997.0 (Standard Commands for Programmable Instruments). The SCPI standard is based on standard IEEE 488.2 and
aims at the standardization of device-specific commands, error handling and the
status registers (see section “SCPI Introduction” on page 5.11).
The tutorial "Automatic Measurement Control – A tutorial on SCPI and IEEE 488.2"
from John M. Pieper (R&S order number 0002.3536.00) offers detailed information
on concepts and definitions of SCPI. For remote control in a network, refer to section
“Remote Control in a Network (LAN Interface)” on page 5.9.
This section assumes basic knowledge of GPIB programming and operation of the
controller. A description of the interface commands can be obtained from the relevant manuals.
The requirements of the SCPI standard placed on command syntax, error handling
and configuration of the status registers are explained in detail in the following sections. Tables provide a fast overview of the bit assignment in the status registers.
The tables are supplemented by a comprehensive description of the status registers.
The program examples for GPIB programming are all written in VISUAL BASIC.
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5.3
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Remote Control – Basics
Getting Started
5.3
Getting Started
The short and simple operating sequence provided below enables you to quickly put
the instrument into operation and set its basic functions. As a prerequisite, the GPIB
address, which is factory-set to 20, must remain unchanged.
1. Connect instrument and controller using GPIB cable.
2. Write and start the following program on the controller:
CALL IBFIND("DEV1", analyzer%)
'Open port to the instrument
CALL IBPAD(analyzer%, 20)
'Inform controller about instrument address
CALL IBWRT(analyzer%, '*RST;*CLS')
'Reset instrument
CALL IBWRT(analyzer%, 'FREQ:CENT 100MHz')
'Set center frequency to 100 MHz
CALL IBWRT(analyzer%, 'FREQ:SPAN 10MHz')
'Set span to 10 MHz
CALL IBWRT(analyzer%, 'DISP:TRAC:Y:RLEV -10dBm')
'Set reference level to -10 dBm
The instrument now performs a sweep in the frequency range of 95 MHz to 105
MHz.
3. To return to manual operation, press the LOCAL key at the front panel.
5.4
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Starting Remote Control
5.4
Starting Remote Control
On power-on, the instrument is always in the manual operating state ("LOCAL"
state) and can be operated via the front panel.
It is switched to remote control ("REMOTE" state)
GPIB
as soon as it receives an addressed command from a controller.
if it is controlled in a network (RSIB interface), as soon as it receives a command
from a controller.
RS-232
as soon as it receives the command "@REM" from a controller.
During remote control, operation via the front panel is disabled. The instrument
remains in the remote state until it is reset to the manual state via the front panel or
via remote control interfaces. Switching from manual operation to remote control
and vice versa does not affect the remaining instrument settings.
5.4.1
Display Contents during Remote Control
During remote control, only the LOCAL softkey appears, with which it is possible to
return to manual operation.
In addition, the display of diagrams and results can be blanked out with the command "SYSTem:DISPlay:UPDate OFF" (default in remote control) to obtain optimum performance during remote control.
During program execution it is recommended to activate the display of results by
means of "SYSTem:DISPlay:UPDate ON" so that it is possible to follow the
changes in the device settings and the recorded measurement curves on the
screen.
If the instrument is exclusively operated in remote control, it is recommended to
switch on the power-save mode (POWER SAVE). In this mode, the required display is completely switched off after a preset time.
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Remote Control – Basics
Starting Remote Control
5.4.2
5.4.2.1
Remote Control via GPIB
Setting the Device Address
In order to operate the instrument via the GPIB, it must be addressed using the set
GPIB address. The GPIB address of the instrument is factory-set to 20. It can be
changed manually in the SETUP - GENERAL SETUP menu or via remote control.
Addresses 0 to 30 are permissible.
Manually:
1. Call SETUP - GENERAL SETUP menu
2. Enter desired address in table GPIB-ADDRESS
3. Terminate input using the ENTER key
Via GPIB:
CALL IBFIND("DEV1", analyzer%)
'Open port to the instrument
CALL IBPAD(analyzer%, 20)
'Inform controller about old address
CALL IBWRT(analyzer%, "SYST:COMM:GPIB:ADDR 18")
'Set instrument to new address
CALL IBPAD(analyzer%, 18)
'Inform controller about new address
5.4.2.2
Return to Manual Operation
Return to manual operation is possible via the front panel or remote control.
Manually:
Press the LOCAL softkey or the PRESET key
•
Before the transition, command processing must be completed as otherwise
transition to GPIB is performed immediately.
•
The keys can be disabled by the universal command LLO (see chapter
“Maintenance and Instrument Interfaces”, section “Interface Messages” on
page 8.5) in order to prevent unintentional transition. In this case, transition to
manual operation is only possible via GPIB.
•
The keys can be enabled again by deactivating the REN line of the GPIB (see
chapter “Maintenance and Instrument Interfaces”, section “Bus Lines” on
page 8.4).
Via GPIB:
CALL IBLOC(analyzer%)
'Set instrument to manual operation
5.6
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Starting Remote Control
5.4.3
5.4.3.1
Remote Control via RS-232-Interface
Setting the Transmission Parameters
To enable an error-free and correct data transmission, the parameters of the unit
and the controller should have the same setting.
Parameters can be manually changed in menu SETUP-GENERAL SETUP in table
COM PORT or via remote control using the following command:
SYST:COMM:SER:…
The transmission parameters of the COM interface are factory-set to the following
values:
baudrate = 9600, data bits = 8, stop bits = 1, parity = NONE and owner =
INSTRUMENT.
For remote control, the interface should be allocated to the operating system (owner
= OS) so that the control characters including @ can be recognized by the interface.
Manually:
Setting the COM interface
1. Call SETUP-GENERAL SETUP menu
2. Select desired baudrate, bits, stopbit, parity in table COM PORT.
3. Set owner to OS in table COM PORT.
4. Terminate input using the ENTER key.
5.4.3.2
Return to Manual Operation
Return to manual operation is possible via the front panel or via RS-232 interface.
Manually:
Press the LOCAL softkey or the PRESET key.
•
Before the transition, command processing must be completed as otherwise
transition to remote control is performed immediately
•
The keys can be enabled again by sending the control string "@LOC" via RS232 (see chapter “Maintenance and Instrument Interfaces”, section “RS-232-C
Interface (COM)” on page 8.8).
Via RS-232:
v24puts(port,"@LOC");
Set instrument to manual operation.
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Starting Remote Control
5.4.3.3
Restrictions
The following restrictions apply if the unit is remote-controlled via the RS-232-C
interface:
No interface messages, only control strings (see interface description in chapter
“Maintenance and Instrument Interfaces”, section “RS-232-C Interface (COM)” on
page 8.8).
Only the Common Commands *OPC? can be used for command synchronization,
*WAI and *OPC are not available.
Block data cannot be transmitted.
5.8
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Starting Remote Control
5.4.4
Remote Control in a Network (LAN Interface)
Via the LAN interface, the R&S FSQ can be remotely controlled in a local area network.
The LAN interface consists of a connector, a network interface card and protocols
(VXI-11 and RSIB). For details on the connector and its use refer to the Quick Start
Guide, chapter 1, "Front and Rear Panel".
Instrument access via VXI11 or RSIB is usually achieved from high level programming platforms by using VISA as an intermediate abstraction layer. VISA encapsulates the low level VXI, RSIB or even GPIB function calls and thus makes the
transport interface transparent for the user. The necessary VISA library is available
as a separate product. For details contact your local R&S sales representative.
5.4.4.1
Setting the Device Address
For control of the instrument in a network, it must be accessed using the preselected
IP address. The IP address of the instrument (device address) is defined in the network configuration.
Setting the IP address:
1. Call SETUP - GENERAL SETUP – CONFIGURE NETWORK menu.
2. Select Protocols tab.
3. Under Properties, set IP address for TCP/IP protocol (for details refer to the Quick
Start Guide chapter 6, “ LAN Interface”).
5.4.4.2
Return to Manual Operation
Return to manual operation can be made manually via the front panel or remotely
via the RSIB interface.
Manually:
Press LOCAL softkey or PRESET key.
Make sure that the execution of commands is completed prior to switch over since
otherwise the instrument will switch back to remote control immediately.
Via RSIB interface:
CALL RSDLLibloc(analyzer%, ibsta%, iberr%, ibcntl&)
'Set device to manual operation
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Remote Control – Basics
Messages
5.5
Messages
The messages transferred via the data lines of the GPIB (see chapter “Maintenance
and Instrument Interfaces”, section “GPIB Interface” on page 8.3) can be divided
into two groups:
– “GPIB Interface Messages”
– “Device Messages (Commands and Device Responses)”
5.5.1
GPIB Interface Messages
Interface messages are transferred on the data lines of the GPIB, the "ATN" control
line being active. They are used for communication between controller and instrument and can only be sent by a controller which has the remote control. Interface
commands can be subdivided into
– universal commands and
– addressed commands.
Universal commands act on all devices connected to the GPIB without previous
addressing, addressed commands only act on devices previously addressed as listeners. The interface messages relevant to the instrument are listed in chapter
“Maintenance and Instrument Interfaces”, section “Interface Functions” on page 8.5.
5.5.2
Device Messages (Commands and Device Responses)
Device messages are transferred on the data lines of the GPIB, the "ATN" control
line not being active. ASCII code is used.
A distinction is made according to the direction in which they are sent on the GPIB:
– Commands are messages the controller sends to the instrument. They operate
the device functions and request informations.
The commands are subdivided according to two criteria:
•
According to the effect they have on the instrument:
Setting commands cause instrument settings such as reset of the instrument
or setting the center frequency. Queries cause data to be provided for output
on the GPIB, e.g. for identification of the device or polling the marker.
•
According to their definition in standard IEEE 488.2:
Common Commands are exactly defined as to their function and notation in
standard IEEE 488.2. They refer to functions such as management of the
standardized status registers, reset and selftest.
Device-specific commands refer to functions depending on the features of
the instrument such as frequency setting. A majority of these commands has
also been standardized by the SCPI committee (cf. section “SCPI Introduction”
on page 5.11).
– Device responses are messages the instrument sends to the controller after a
query. They can contain measurement results, instrument settings and
information on the instrument status (cf. section “Responses to Queries” on
page 5.15).
Structure and syntax of the device messages are described in the following section.
5.10
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Structure and Syntax of the Device Messages
5.6
5.6.1
Structure and Syntax of the Device Messages
SCPI Introduction
SCPI (Standard Commands for Programmable Instruments) describes a standard
command set for programming instruments, irrespective of the type of instrument or
manufacturer. The goal of the SCPI consortium is to standardize the device-specific
commands to a large extent. For this purpose, a model was developed which
defines the same functions inside a device or for different devices. Command systems were generated which are assigned to these functions. Thus it is possible to
address the same functions with identical commands. The command systems are of
a hierarchical structure.
Fig. 5.1 illustrates this tree structure using a section of command system SENSe,
which controls the device-specific settings, that do not refer to the signal characteristics of the measurement signal. Further examples of structure and syntax are
taken from this command system.
SCPI is based on standard IEEE 488.2, i.e. it uses the same syntactic basic elements as well as the common commands defined in this standard. Part of the syntax
of the device responses is defined with greater restrictions than in standard IEEE
488.2 (see section “Responses to Queries” on page 5.15).
5.6.2
Structure of a Command
The commands consist of a so-called header and, in most cases, one or more
parameters. Header and parameter are separated by a "white space" (ASCII code 0
to 9, 11 to 32 decimal, e.g. blank). The headers may consist of several key words.
Queries are formed by directly appending a question mark to the header.
The commands used in the following examples are not in every case implemented
in the instrument.
Common commands
Common commands consist of a header preceded by an asterisk "*" and one or
several parameters, if any.
Examples:
*RST
RESET, resets the device
*ESE 253
EVENT STATUS ENABLE, sets the bits of the event status enable register
*ESR?
EVENT STATUS QUERY, queries the contents of the event status register.
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Remote Control – Basics
Structure and Syntax of the Device Messages
Device-specific commands
Hierarchy:
Device-specific commands are of hierarchical structure (see Fig. 5.1). The different
levels are represented by combined headers. Headers of the highest level (root
level) have only one key word. This key word denotes a complete command system.
Example:
SENSe
This key word denotes the command system SENSe.
For commands of lower levels, the complete path has to be specified, starting on the
left with the highest level, the individual key words being separated by a colon ":".
Example:
SENSe:FREQuency:SPAN 10MHZ
This command lies in the third level of the SENSe system. It sets the frequency
span.
Fig. 5.1 Tree structure the SCPI command systems using the SENSe system by way of example
Some key words occur in several levels within one command system. Their effect
depends on the structure of the command, that is to say, at which position in the
header of a command they are inserted.
Examples:
SOURce:FM:POLarity NORMal
This command contains key word POLarity in the third command level. It defines the
polarity between modulator and modulation signal.
SOURce:FM:EXTernal:POLarity NORMal
This command contains key word POLarity in the fourth command level. It defines
the polarity between modulation voltage and the resulting direction of the modulation
only for the external signal source indicated.
Optional key words
Some command systems permit certain key words to be optionally inserted into the
header or omitted. These key words are marked by square brackets in the description. The full command length must be recognized by the instrument for reasons of
compatibility with the SCPI standard. Some commands are considerably shortened
by these optional key words.
Example:
[SENSe]:BANDwidth[:RESolution]:AUTO
This command couples the resolution bandwidth of the instrument to other parameters. The following command has the same effect:
BANDwidth:AUTO
5.12
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Structure and Syntax of the Device Messages
An optional key word must not be omitted if its effect is specified in detail by a
numeric suffix.
Long and short form
The key words feature a long form and a short form. Either the short form or the long
form can be entered, other abbreviations are not permissible.
Example:
STATus:QUEStionable:ENABle 1= STAT:QUES:ENAB 1
The short form is marked by upper-case letters, the long form corresponds to the
complete word. Upper-case and lower-case notation only serve the above purpose, the instrument itself does not make any difference between upper-case and
lower-case letters.
Parameter
The parameter must be separated from the header by a "white space". If several
parameters are specified in a command, they are separated by a comma ",". A few
queries permit the parameters MINimum, MAXimum and DEFault to be entered. For
a description of the types of parameter, refer to section “Parameters” on page 5.16.
Example:
SENSe:FREQuency:STOP? MAXimum
This query requests the maximal value for the stop frequency. Response: 3.5E9
Numeric suffix
If a device features several functions or features of the same kind, e.g. inputs, the
desired function can be selected by a suffix added to the command. Entries without
suffix are interpreted like entries with the suffix 1.
Example:
SYSTem:COMMunicate:SERial2:BAUD 9600
This command sets the baudrate of a second serial interface.
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Structure and Syntax of the Device Messages
5.6.3
Structure of a Command Line
A command line may consist of one or several commands. It is terminated by a
<New Line>, a <New Line> with EOI or an EOI together with the last data byte. The
IEC/IEEE driver of the controller usually produces automatically an EOI together
with the last data byte.
Several commands in a command line are separated by a semicolon ";". If the next
command belongs to a different command system, the semicolon is followed by a
colon.
Example:
CALL IBWRT(analyzer%,"SENSe:FREQuency:CENTer 100MHz;:INPut:
ATTenuation 10")
This command line contains two commands. The first one is part of the SENSe
command system and is used to determine the center frequency of the
instrument. The second one is part of the INPut command system and sets the
input signal attenuation.
If the successive commands belong to the same system, having one or several levels in common, the command line can be abbreviated. For that purpose, the second
command after the semicolon starts with the level that lies below the common levels
(see also Fig. 5.1). The colon following the semicolon must be omitted in this case.
Example:
CALL IBWRT(analyzer%, "SENSe:FREQuency:STARt 1E6;:SENSe:
FREQuency:STOP 1E9")
This command line is represented in its full length and contains two commands
separated from each other by the semicolon. Both commands are part of the
SENSe command system, subsystem FREQuency, i.e. they have two common
levels.
When abbreviating the command line, the second command begins with the level
below SENSe:FREQuency. The colon after the semicolon is omitted.
The abbreviated form of the command line reads as follows:
CALL IBWRT(analyzer%,
"SENSe:FREQuency:STARt 1E6;STOP 1E9")
However, a new command line always begins with the complete path.
Example:
CALL IBWRT(analyzer, "SENSe:FREQuency:STARt 1E6")
CALL IBWRT(analyzer%, "SENSe:FREQuency:STOP 1E9")
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5.6.4
Responses to Queries
A query is defined for each setting command unless explicitly specified otherwise. It
is formed by adding a question mark to the associated setting command. According
to SCPI, the responses to queries are partly subject to stricter rules than in standard
IEEE 488.2.
1. The requested parameter is transmitted without header.
Example: INPut:COUPling?
Response: DC
2. Maximum values, minimum values and all further quantities, which are requested
via a special text parameter are returned as numerical values.
Example: SENSe:FREQuency:STOP? MAX
Response: 3.5E9
3. Numerical values are output without a unit. Physical quantities are referred to the
base units or to the units set using the Unit command.
Example: SENSe:FREQuency:CENTer?
Response: 1E6 for 1 MHz
4. Truth values <Boolean values> are returned as 0 (for OFF) and 1 (for ON).
Example: SENSe:BANDwidth:AUTO?
Response: 1 for ON
5. Text (character data) is returned in a short form.
Example: SYSTem:COMMunicate:SERial:CONTrol:RTS?
Response (for standard): STAN
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5.6.5
Parameters
Most commands require a parameter to be specified. The parameters must be separated from the header by a "white space". Permissible parameters are numerical
values, Boolean parameters, text, character strings and block data. The type of
parameter required for the respective command and the permissible range of values
are specified in the command description
Numerical values
Numerical values can be entered in any form, i.e. with sign, decimal point and exponent. Values exceeding the resolution of the instrument are rounded up or down.
The mantissa may comprise up to 255 characters, the exponent must lie inside the
value range -32000 to 32000. The exponent is introduced by an "E" or "e". Entry of
the exponent alone is not permissible. In the case of physical quantities, the unit can
be entered. Permissible unit prefixes are G (giga), MA (mega), MOHM and MHZ are
also permissible), K (kilo), M (milli), U (micro) and N (nano). It the unit is missing, the
base unit is used.
Example:
SENSe:FREQuency:STOP 1.5GHz = SENSe:FREQuency:STOP 1.5E9
Special numerical
The texts MINimum, MAXimum, DEFault, UP and DOWN are interpreted as values
special numerical values.
In the case of a query, the numerical value is provided.
Example:
Setting command: SENSe:FREQuency:STOP MAXimum
Query: SENSe:FREQuency:STOP?
Response: 3.5E9
MIN/MAX
MINimum and MAXimum denote the minimum and maximum value.
DEF
DEFault denotes a preset value which has been stored in the EPROM. This value
conforms to the default setting, as it is called by the *RST command
UP/DOWN
UP, DOWN increases or reduces the numerical value by one step. The step width
can be specified via an allocated step command (see annex C, List of Commands)
for each parameter which can be set via UP, DOWN.
INF/NINF
INFinity, Negative INFinity (NINF) Negative INFinity (NINF) represent the
numerical values -9.9E37 or 9.9E37, respectively. INF and NINF are only sent as
device responses.
NAN
Not A Number (NAN) represents the value 9.91E37. NAN is only sent as device
response. This value is not defined. Possible causes are the division of zero by
zero, the subtraction of infinite from infinite and the representation of missing
values.
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Boolean Parameters
Boolean parameters represent two states. The ON state (logically true) is represented by ON or a numerical value unequal to 0. The OFF state (logically untrue) is
represented by OFF or the numerical value 0. 0 or 1 is provided in a query.
Example:
Setting command: DISPlay:WINDow:STATe ON
Query: DISPlay:WINDow:STATe?
Response: 1
Text
Text parameters observe the syntactic rules for key words, i.e. they can be entered
using a short or long form. Like any parameter, they have to be separated from the
header by a white space. In the case of a query, the short form of the text is provided.
Example:
Setting command: INPut:COUPling
GROund
Query: INPut:COUPling?
Response: GRO
Strings
Strings must always be entered in quotation marks (' or ").
Example:
SYSTem:LANGuage "SCPI"
or
SYSTem:LANGuage 'SCPI'
Block data
Block data is a transmission format which is suitable for the transmission of large
amounts of data. A command using a block data parameter has the following structure.
Example:
HEADer:HEADer #45168xxxxxxxx
ASCII character # introduces the data block. The next number indicates how many
of the following digits describe the length of the data block. In the example, the 4 following digits indicate the length to be 5168 bytes. The data bytes follow. During the
transmission of these data bytes, all End or other control signs are ignored until all
bytes are transmitted.
This format only supports a byte count up to 9 digits for the number of bytes. For
more than 999999999 bytes, following additional format is used.
Example:
HEADer:HEADer #(1100000000) xxxxxxxx
The byte length count if put into brackets. In the example, the byte counts indicates
a length of 1.100.000.000 bytes. The data bytes follow the close bracket.
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5.6.6
Overview of Syntax Elements
The following survey offers an overview of the syntax elements.
a
:
The colon separates the key words of a command.
In a command line the colon after the separating semicolon marks the
uppermost command level.
;
The semicolon separates two commands of a command line. It does not
alter the path.
,
The comma separates several parameters of a command.
?
The question mark forms a query.
*
The asterisk marks a common command.
"
Quotation marks introduce a string and terminate it.
#
The double dagger introduces block data.
A white space (ASCII code 0 to 9, 11 to 32 decimal, e.g. blank) separates
header and parameter.
5.6.7
Instrument Model and Command Processing
The instrument model shown in Fig. 5.2 has been made viewed from the standpoint
of the servicing of remote commands. The individual components work independently of each other and simultaneously. They communicate by means of so-called
"messages".
GPIB
Input unit with
input puffer
Command
recognition
Data set
Instrument
hardware
GPIB
Status
reporting
system
Output unit with
output buffer
Fig. 5.2 Instrument model in the case of remote control by means of the GPIB
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5.6.8
Input Unit
The input unit receives commands character by character from the GPIB and collects them in the input buffer. The input unit sends a message to the command recognition as soon as the input buffer is full or as soon as it receives a delimiter,
<PROGRAM MESSAGE TERMINATOR>, as defined in IEEE 488.2, or the interface
message DCL.
If the input buffer is full, the GPIB traffic is stopped and the data received up to then
are processed. Subsequently the GPIB traffic is continued. If, however, the buffer is
not yet full when receiving the delimiter, the input unit can already receive the next
command during command recognition and execution. The receipt of a DCL clears
the input buffer and immediately initiates a message to the command recognition.
5.6.9
Command Recognition
The command recognition analyses the data received from the input unit. It proceeds in the order in which it receives the data. Only a DCL is serviced with priority,
a GET (Group Execute Trigger), e.g., is only executed after the commands received
before as well. Each recognized command is immediately transferred to the instrument data base but without being executed there at once.
Syntactical errors in the command are recognized in the command recognition and
supplied to the status reporting system. The rest of a command line after a syntax
error is analyzed further if possible and serviced.
If the command recognition recognizes a delimiter (<PROGRAM MESSAGE SEPARATOR> or <PROGRAM MESSAGE TERMINATOR>) or a DCL, it requests the
instrument data base to set the commands in the instrument hardware as well now.
Subsequently it is immediately prepared to process commands again. This means
for the command servicing that further commands can already be serviced while the
hardware is still being set ("overlapping execution").
5.6.10
Instrument Data Base and Instrument Hardware
Here the expression "instrument hardware" denotes the part of the instrument fulfilling the actual instrument function - signal generation, measurement etc. The controller is not included.
The instrument data base is a detailed reproduction of the instrument hardware in
the software.
GPIB setting commands lead to an alteration in the data set. The data base management enters the new values (e.g. frequency) into the data base, however, only
passes them on to the hardware when requested by the command recognition.
The data are only checked for their compatibility among each other and with the
instrument hardware immediately before they are transmitted to the instrument
hardware. If the detection is made that an execution is not possible, an "execution
error" is signalled to the status reporting system. The alteration of the data base are
cancelled, the instrument hardware is not reset.
GPIB queries induce the data base management to send the desired data to the output unit.
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5.6.11
Status Reporting System
The status reporting system collects information on the instrument state and makes
it available to the output unit on request. The exact structure and function are
described in section “Overview of the Status Registers” on page 5.24.
5.6.12
Output Unit
The output unit collects the information requested by the controller, which it receives
from the data base management. It processes it according to the SCPI rules and
makes it available in the output buffer. If the instrument is addressed as a talker
without the output buffer containing data or awaiting data from the data base management, the output unit sends error message "Query UNTERMINATED" to the status reporting system. No data are sent on the GPIB, the controller waits until it has
reached its time limit. This behavior is specified by SCPI.
5.6.13
Command Sequence and Command Synchronization
What has been said above makes clear that all commands can potentially be carried
out overlapping.
In order to prevent an overlapping execution of commands, one of commands
*OPC, *OPC? or *WAI must be used. All three commands cause a certain action
only to be carried out after the hardware has been set and has settled. By a suitable
programming, the controller can be forced to wait for the respective action to occur.
Command
Action after the hardware has settled
Programming the controller
*OPC
Setting the operation-complete bit in the ESR
- Setting bit 0 in the ESE
- Setting bit 5 in the SRE
- Waiting for service request (SRQ)
*OPC?
Writing a "1" into the output buffer
Addressing the instrument as a talker
*WAI
Continuing the GPIB handshake
Sending the next command
An example as to command synchronization can be found in chapter “Remote Control – Programming Examples”.
For a couple of commands the synchronization to the end of command execution is
mandatory in order to obtain the desired result. The affected commands require
either more than one measurement in order to accomplish the desired instrument
setting (e.g. auto range functions), or they require a longer period of time for execution. If a new command is received during execution of the corresponding function
this may either lead to either to an aborted measurement or to invalid measurement
data.
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The following list includes the commands, for which a synchronization via *OPC,
*OPC? or *WAI is mandatory:
Command
Purpose
INIT
start measurement
INIT:CONM
continue measurement
CALC:MARK:FUNC:ZOOM
zoom frequency range around marker 1
CALC:STAT:SCAL:AUTO ONCE
optimize level settings for signal statistic measurement functions
[SENS:]POW:ACH:PRES:RLEV
optimize level settings for adjacent channel power measurements
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5.7
Status Reporting System
The status reporting system (cf. Fig. 5.4) stores all information on the present operating state of the instrument, e.g. that the instrument presently carries out a calibration and on errors which have occurred. This information is stored in the status
registers and in the error queue. The status registers and the error queue can be
queried via GPIB.
The information is of a hierarchical structure. The register status byte (STB) defined
in IEEE 488.2 and its associated mask register service request enable (SRE) form
the uppermost level. The STB receives its information from the standard event status register (ESR) which is also defined in IEEE 488.2 with the associated mask register standard event status enable (ESE) and registers STATus:OPERation and
STATus:QUEStionable which are defined by SCPI and contain detailed information
on the instrument.
The IST flag ("Individual STatus") and the parallel poll enable register (PPE) allocated to it are also part of the status reporting system. The IST flag, like the SRQ,
combines the entire instrument status in a single bit. The PPE fulfills the same function for the IST flag as the SRE for the service request.
The output buffer contains the messages the instrument returns to the controller. It is
not part of the status reporting system but determines the value of the MAV bit in the
STB and thus is represented in Fig. 5.4.
5.7.1
Structure of an SCPI Status Register
Each SCPI register consists of 5 parts which each have a width of 16 bits and have
different functions (cf. Fig. 5.3). The individual bits are independent of each other,
i.e. each hardware status is assigned a bit number which is valid for all five parts.
For example, bit 3 of the STATus:OPERation register is assigned to the hardware
status "wait for trigger" in all five parts. Bit 15 (the most significant bit) is set to zero
for all parts. Thus the contents of the register parts can be processed by the controller as positive integer.
Fig. 5.3 The status-register model
CONDition part
The CONDition part is directly written into by the hardware or the sum bit of the next
lower register. Its contents reflects the current instrument status. This register part
can only be read, but not written into or cleared. Its contents is not affected by reading.
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PTRansition part
The Positive-TRansition part acts as an edge detector. When a bit of the CONDition
part is changed from 0 to 1, the associated PTR bit decides whether the EVENt bit is
set to 1.
PTR bit =1: the EVENt bit is set.
PTR bit =0: the EVENt bit is not set.
This part can be written into and read at will. Its contents is not affected by reading.
NTRansition part
The Negative-TRansition part also acts as an edge detector. When a bit of the CONDition part is changed from 1 to 0, the associated NTR bit decides whether the
EVENt bit is set to 1.
NTR-Bit = 1: the EVENt bit is set.
NTR-Bit = 0: the EVENt bit is not set.
This part can be written into and read at will. Its contents is not affected by reading.
With these two edge register parts the user can define which state transition of the
condition part (none, 0 to 1, 1 to 0 or both) is stored in the EVENt part.
EVENt part
The EVENt part indicates whether an event has occurred since the last reading, it is
the "memory" of the condition part. It only indicates events passed on by the edge filters. It is permanently updated by the instrument. This part can only be read by the
user. During reading, its contents is set to zero. In linguistic usage this part is often
equated with the entire register.
ENABle part
The ENABle part determines whether the associated EVENt bit contributes to the
sum bit (cf. below). Each bit of the EVENt part is ANDed with the associated ENABle
bit (symbol '&'). The results of all logical operations of this part are passed on to the
sum bit via an OR function (symbol '+').
ENABle-Bit = 0: the associated EVENt bit does not contribute to the sum bit
ENABle-Bit = 1: if the associated EVENT bit is "1", the sum bit is set to "1" as well.
This part can be written into and read by the user at will. Its contents is not affected
by reading.
Sum bit
As indicated above, the sum bit is obtained from the EVENt and ENABle part for
each register. The result is then entered into a bit of the CONDition part of the
higher-order register.
The instrument automatically generates the sum bit for each register. Thus an event,
e.g. a PLL that has not locked, can lead to a service request throughout all levels of
the hierarchy.
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The service request enable register SRE defined in IEEE 488.2 can be taken as
ENABle part of the STB if the STB is structured according to SCPI. By analogy, the
ESE can be taken as the ENABle part of the ESR.
5.7.2
Overview of the Status Registers
The following figure shows the status registers used by the R&S FSQ base unit. The
status registers used by the R&S FSQ options are described in the separate software manuals.
5.24
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Fig. 5.4 Overview of the status registers (base unit)
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5.7.3
5.7.3.1
Description of the Status Registers
Status Byte (STB) and Service Request Enable Register (SRE)
The STB is already defined in IEEE 488.2. It provides a rough overview of the instrument status by collecting the pieces of information of the lower registers. It can thus
be compared with the CONDition part of an SCPI register and assumes the highest
level within the SCPI hierarchy. A special feature is that bit 6 acts as the sum bit of
the remaining bits of the status byte.
The STATUS BYTE is read out using the command "*STB?" or a serial poll.
The STB implies the SRE. It corresponds to the ENABle part of the SCPI registers
as to its function. Each bit of the STB is assigned a bit in the SRE. Bit 6 of the SRE
is ignored. If a bit is set in the SRE and the associated bit in the STB changes from 0
to 1, a Service Request (SRQ) is generated on the GPIB, which triggers an interrupt
in the controller if this is appropriately configured and can be further processed
there.
The SRE can be set using command "*SRE" and read using "*SRE?".
Bit
No.
Meaning
2
Error Queue not empty
The bit is set when an entry is made in the error queue.
If this bit is enabled by the SRE, each entry of the error queue generates a Service Request.
Thus an error can be recognized and specified in greater detail by polling the error queue. The
poll provides an informative error message. This procedure is to be recommended since it
considerably reduces the problems involved with GPIB control.
3
QUEStionable status sum bit
The bit is set if an EVENt bit is set in the QUEStionable: status register and the associated
ENABle bit is set to 1.
A set bit indicates a questionable instrument status, which can be specified in greater detail
by polling the QUEStionable status register.
4
MAV bit (message available)
The bit is set if a message is available in the output buffer which can be read.
This bit can be used to enable data to be automatically read from the instrument to the
controller (cf. chapter “Remote Control – Programming Examples”).
5
ESB bit
Sum bit of the event status register. It is set if one of the bits in the event status register is set
and enabled in the event status enable register.
Setting of this bit implies an error or an event which can be specified in greater detail by polling
the event status register.
6
MSS bit (master status summary bit)
The bit is set if the instrument triggers a service request. This is the case if one of the other
bits of this registers is set together with its mask bit in the service request enable register SRE.
7
OPERation status register sum bit
The bit is set if an EVENt bit is set in the OPERation-Status register and the associated
ENABle bit is set to 1.
A set bit indicates that the instrument is just performing an action. The type of action can be
determined by polling the OPERation-status register.
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5.7.3.2
IST Flag and Parallel Poll Enable Register (PPE)
By analogy with the SRQ, the IST flag combines the entire status information in a
single bit. It can be queried by means of a parallel poll (cf. section “Parallel Poll” on
page 5.35) or using command "*IST?".
The parallel poll enable register (PPE) determines which bits of the STB contribute
to the IST flag. The bits of the STB are ANDed with the corresponding bits of the
PPE, with bit 6 being used as well in contrast to the SRE. The Ist flag results from
the ORing of all results. The PPE can be set using commands "*PRE" and read
using command "*PRE?".
5.7.3.3
Event-Status Register (ESR) and Event-Status-Enable Register (ESE)
The ESR is already defined in IEEE 488.2. It can be compared with the EVENt part
of an SCPI register. The event status register can be read out using command
"*ESR?".
The ESE is the associated ENABle part. It can be set using command "*ESE" and
read using command "*ESE?".
Bit
No.
Meaning
0
Operation Complete
This bit is set on receipt of the command *OPC exactly when all previous commands have
been executed.
1
This bit is not used
2
Query Error
This bit is set if either the controller wants to read data from the instrument without having
send a query, or if it does not fetch requested data and sends new instructions to the
instrument instead. The cause is often a query which is faulty and hence cannot be executed.
3
Device-dependent Error
This bit is set if a device-dependent error occurs. An error message with a number between
-300 and -399 or a positive error number, which denotes the error in greater detail, is entered
into the error queue (cf. chapter “Error Messages”).
4
Execution Error
This bit is set if a received command is syntactically correct, however, cannot be performed
for other reasons. An error message with a number between -200 and -300, which denotes
the error in greater detail, is entered into the error queue (cf. chapter “Error Messages”).
5
Command Error
This bit is set if a command which is undefined or syntactically incorrect is received. An error
message with a number between -100 and -200, which denotes the error in greater detail, is
entered into the error queue (cf. chapter “Error Messages”).
6
User Request
This bit is set on pressing the LOCAL key.
7
Power On (supply voltage on)
This bit is set on switching on the instrument.
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5.7.3.4
STATus:OPERation Register
In the CONDition part, this register contains information on which actions the
instrument is being executing or, in the EVENt part, information on which actions the
instrument has executed since the last reading. It can be read using commands
"STATus:OPERation:CONDition?" or "STATus:OPERation[:EVENt]?".
Bit
No.
Meaning
0
CALibrating
This bit is set as long as the instrument is performing a calibration.
1 to 2
These bits are not used
3
SWEeping
This bit is set while the R&S FSQ performs a sweep.
The bit is only supported in Spectrum mode (full screen, frequency and time domain).
4
MEASuring
This bit is set while the R&S FSQ performs a measurement.
The bit is only supported in Spectrum mode (full screen, frequency and time domain).
5
Waiting for TRIGger
This bit is set while the instrument is waiting for a trigger.
The bit is only supported for I/Q measurements (TRACe:IQ state is on).
6 to 7
These bits are not used.
8
HardCOPy in progress
This bit is set while the instrument is printing a hardcopy.
9
This bit is not used
10
Sweep Break
This bit is set when the end of a sweep range during spurious measurements has been
reached.
Command “INIT:CONM” has to be used to proceed.
5.28
11 to
14
These bits are not used
15
This bit is always 0
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5.7.3.5
STATus:QUEStionable Register
This register comprises information about indefinite states which may occur if the
unit is operated without meeting the specifications. It can be queried by commands
STATus:QUEStionable:CONDition?
and
STATus:QUEStionable[:
EVENt]?.
Bit
No.
Meaning
0 to 2
These bits are not used.
3
POWer
This bit is set if a questionable power occurs (cf. also section “STATus:QUEStionable:POWer
Register” on page 5.34)
4
This bit is not used.
5
FREQuency
The bit is set if a frequency is questionable (cf. section “STATus:QUEStionable:FREQuency
Register” on page 5.32)
6
This bit is not used.
7
This bit is not used
8
CALibration
The bit is set if a measurement is performed uncalibrated (equivalent to label "UNCAL")
9
LIMit (device-specific)
This bit is set if a limit value is violated (see also section “STATus:QUEStionable:LIMit<1|2>
Register” on page 5.32)
10
LMARgin
This bit is set if a margin is violated (see also section “STATus:QUEStionable:LMARgin<1|2>
Register” on page 5.33)
11
This bit is not used
12
ACPLimit
This bit is set if a limit for the adjacent channel power measurement is violated (see also
section “STATus:QUEStionable:ACPLimit Register” on page 5.30)
13 to
14
These bits are not used
15
This bit is always 0.
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5.7.3.6
STATus:QUEStionable:ACPLimit Register
This register comprises information about the observance of limits during adjacent
power measurements. It can be queried with commands STATus:QUEStionable:
ACPLimit:CONDition? and STATus:QUEStionable:ACPLimit[:EVENt]?.
Bit
No.
Meaning
0
ADJ UPPer FAIL(Screen A)
This bit is set if in screen A. the limit is exceeded in the upper adjacent channel
1
ADJ LOWer FAIL (Screen A)
This bit is set if in screen A the limit is exceeded in the lower adjacent channel.
2
ALT1 UPPer FAIL (Screen A)
This bit is set if in screen A the limit is exceeded in the upper 1st alternate channel.
3
ALT1 LOWer FAIL (Screen A)
This bit is set if in screen A the limit is exceeded in the lower 1st alternate channel.
4
ALT2 UPPer FAIL (Screen A)
This bit is set if in screen A the limit is exceeded in the upper 2nd alternate channel.
5
ALT2 LOWer FAIL (Screen A)
This bit is set if in screen A the limit is exceeded in the lower 2nd alternate channel.
6
ALT3 to 11 LOWer/UPPer FAIL (Screen A)
This bit is set if in screen A the limit is exceeded in one of the lower or upper alternate channels
3 to 11.
7
not used
8
ADJ UPPer FAIL (Screen B)
This bit is set if in screen B the limit is exceeded in the upper adjacent channel.
9
ADJ LOWer FAIL (Screen B)
This bit is set if in screen B the limit is exceeded in the lower adjacent channel.
10
ALT1 UPPer FAIL (Screen B)
This bit is set if in screen B the limit is exceeded in the upper 1st alternate channel.
11
ALT1 LOWer FAIL (Screen B)
This bit is set if in screen B the limit is exceeded in the lower 1st alternate channel.
12
ALT2 UPPer FAIL (Screen B)
This bit is set if in screen B the limit is exceeded in the upper 2nd alternate channel.
13
ALT2 LOWer FAIL (Screen B)
This bit is set if in screen B the limit is exceeded in the lower 2nd alternate channel.
14
ALT3 to 11 LOWer/UPPer FAIL (screen B)
This bit is set if in screen B the limit is exceeded in one of the lower or upper alternate channels
3 to 11.
15
5.30
This bit is always set to 0.
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5.7.3.7
STATus:QUEStionable:DIQ Register
This register comprises information about the connection state of the digital baseband input and the digital baseband output with option R&S FSQ-B17. It can be
queried with commands 'STATus:QUEStionable:DIQ:CONDition?' and 'STATus:QUEStionable:DIQ[:EVENt]?'
Bit
No.
Meaning
0
Digital I/Q Input Device connected
This bit is set if a device is recognized and connected to the Digital Baseband Input of the
analyzer.
1
Digital I/Q Input Connection Protocol in progress
This bit is set while the connection between analyzer and digital baseband data signal source
(e.g. R&S SMU, R&S Ex-IQ-Box) is established.
2
Digital I/Q Input Connection Protocol error
This bit is set if an error occurred during establishing of the connect between analyzer and
digital baseband data signal source (e.g. R&S SMU, R&S Ex-IQ-Box) is established.
3
not used
4
Digital I/Q Sample Rate Auto Set Error
This bit is set if function SAMPLE RATE AUTO SET is switched ON and the requested I/Q
data rate exceeds the allowed range of the instrument's DIGITAL IN SAMPLE RATE setting.
In addition, this bit is set if the connected digital baseband data signal source does not
support this feature but the function is switched ON.
5
Digital I/Q Full Scale Auto Set Error
This bit is set if function FULL SCALE AUTO SET is switched ON and the requested Full
Scale value exceeds the allowed range of the instrument's DIGITAL IN FULL SCALE setting.
In addition, this bit is set if the connected digital baseband data signal source does not
support this feature but the function is switched ON.
6
Digital I/Q Input PLL Locked (with connected R&S Ex-IQ-Box only)
This bit is set if the R&S Ex-IQ-Box PLL is locked.
7
R&S Ex-IQ-Box Input Device configured (with connected R&S Ex-IQ-Box only)
This bit is set if a R&S Ex-IQ-Box is connected as input device and configured.
8
Digital I/Q Output Device connected
This bit is set if a device is recognized and connected to the Digital Baseband Output.
9
Digital I/Q Output Connection Protocol in progress
This bit is set while the connection between analyzer and digital baseband data signal sink
(e.g. R&S SMU, R&S Ex-IQ-Box) is established.
10
Digital I/Q Output Connection Protocol error
This bit is set if an error occurred during establishing of the connect between analyzer and
digital baseband data signal sink (e.g. R&S SMU, R&S Ex-IQ-Box) is established.
11-13
not used
14
Digital I/Q Output (with connected R&S Ex-IQ-Box only)
This bit is set if the R&S Ex-IQ-Box PLL is locked.
15
R&S Ex-IQ-Box Output Device configured (with connected R&S Ex-IQ-Box only)
This bit is set if a device is recognized and connected to the Digital Baseband Output of the
analyzer.
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5.31
R&S FSQ
Remote Control – Basics
Status Reporting System
5.7.3.8
STATus:QUEStionable:FREQuency Register
This register comprises information about the reference and local oscillator.
It can be queried with commands STATus:QUEStionable:FREQuency:CONDition? and STATus:QUEStionable:FREQuency[:EVENt]?.
Bit
No.
Meaning
0
OVEN COLD
This bit is set if the reference oscillator has not yet attained its operating temperature. 'OCXO'
will then be displayed.
1
LO UNLocked (Screen A)
This bit is set if the local oscillator no longer locks. 'LOUNL will then be displayed.
2 to 8
not used
9
LO UNLocked (Screen B)
This bit is set if the local oscillator no longer locks.' LOUNL' will then be displayed.
5.7.3.9
10 to
14
not used
15
This bit is always 0.
STATus:QUEStionable:LIMit<1|2> Register
This register comprises information about the observance of limit lines in the corresponding measurement window (LIMit 1 corresponds to Screen A, LIMit 2 to Screen
B). It can be queried with commands STATus:QUEStionable:LIMit<1|2>:
CONDition? and STATus:QUEStionable:LIMit<1|2>[:EVENt]?.
Bit
No.
Meaning
0
LIMit 1 FAIL
This bit is set if limit line 1 is violated.
1
LIMit 2 FAIL
This bit is set if limit line 2 is violated.
2
LIMit 3 FAIL
This bit is set if limit line 3 is violated.
3
LIMit 4 FAIL
This bit is set if limit line 4 is violated.
4
LIMit 5 FAIL
This bit is set if limit line 5 is violated.
5
LIMit 6 FAIL
This bit is set if limit line 6 is violated.
6
LIMit 7 FAIL
This bit is set if limit line 7 is violated.
7
LIMit 8 FAIL
This bit is set if limit line 8 is violated.
5.32
8 to 14
not used
15
This bit is always 0.
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R&S FSQ
Remote Control – Basics
Status Reporting System
5.7.3.10
STATus:QUEStionable:LMARgin<1|2> Register
This register comprises information about the observance of limit margins in the corresponding measurement window (LMARgin1 corresponds to Screen A, LMARgin2
corresponds to Screen B). It can be queried with commands STATus:QUEStionable:LMARgin<1|2>:CONDition?
and
"STATus:QUEStionable:LMARgin<1|2>[:EVENt]?.
Bit
No.
Meaning
0
LMARgin 1 FAIL
This bit is set if limit margin 1 is violated.
1
LMARgin 2 FAIL
This bit is set if limit margin 2 is violated.
2
LMARgin 3 FAIL
This bit is set if limit margin 3 is violated.
3
LMARgin 4 FAIL
This bit is set if limit margin 4 is violated.
4
LMARgin 5 FAIL
This bit is set if limit margin 5 is violated.
5
LMARgin 6 FAIL
This bit is set if limit margin 1 is violated.
6
LMARgin 7 FAIL
This bit is set if limit margin 7 is violated.
7
LMARgin 8 FAIL
This bit is set if limit margin 8 is violated.
8 to
14
not used
15
This bit is always 0.
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R&S FSQ
Remote Control – Basics
Status Reporting System
5.7.3.11
STATus:QUEStionable:POWer Register
This register comprises all information about possible overloads of the unit.
It can be queried with commands STATus:QUEStionable:POWer:CONDition?
and STATus:QUEStionable:POWer[:EVENt]?.
Bit
No.
Meaning
0
OVERload (Screen A)
This bit is set if the RF input is overloaded. 'OVLD' will then be displayed.
1
UNDerload (Screen A)
This bit is set if the RF input is underloaded. 'UNLD' will then be displayed.
2
IF_OVerload (Screen A)
This bit is set if the IF path is overloaded. 'IFOVL' will then be displayed.
3
Overload Trace (Screen A)
This bit is set if the input is overloaded (OVLD or IFOVL) and the Trace Modes AVERAGE ,
MAXHOLD or MINHOLD are active.
'OVTRC' will then be displayed.
This bit only clears if the sweep is started again. A temporary overload will therefore be
detected, e.g. if the overload condition occurs only on sweep number 10 of 1000 during the
average process.
4 to 6
not used
7
Input Overload
This bit is set if an overload at the RF input has been detected.
Use “INPut<1|2>:ATTenuation:PROTection:RESet” to reconnect the RF input with the input
mixer.
8
OVERload (Screen B)
This bit is set if the RF input is overloaded. 'OVLD' will then be displayed.
9
UNDerload (Screen B)
This bit is set if the RF input is underloaded. 'UNLD' will then be displayed.
10
IF_OVerload (Screen B)
This bit is set if the IF path is overloaded. 'IFOVL' will then be displayed.
11
Overload Trace (Screen B)
This bit is set if the input is overloaded (OVLD or IFOVL) and the Trace Modes AVERAGE ,
MAXHOLD or MINHOLD are active.
'OVTRC' will then be displayed.
This bit only clears if the sweep is started again.
5.34
12 to
14
not used
15
This bit is always 0.
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
R&S FSQ
Remote Control – Basics
Status Reporting System
5.7.4
Application of the Status Reporting Systems
In order to be able to effectively use the status reporting system, the information
contained there must be transmitted to the controller and further processed there.
There are several methods which are represented in the following. Detailed program
examples are to be found in chapter “Remote Control – Programming Examples”.
5.7.4.1
Service Request, Making Use of the Hierarchy Structure
Under certain circumstances, the instrument can send a service request (SRQ) to
the controller. Usually this service request initiates an interrupt at the controller, to
which the control program can react with corresponding actions. As evident from
Fig. 5.4, an SRQ is always initiated if one or several of bits 2, 3, 4, 5 or 7 of the status byte are set and enabled in the SRE. Each of these bits combines the information of a further register, the error queue or the output buffer. The corresponding
setting of the ENABle parts of the status registers can achieve that arbitrary bits in
an arbitrary status register initiate an SRQ. In order to make use of the possibilities
of the service request, all bits should be set to "1" in enable registers SRE and ESE.
Examples (cf. Fig. 5.4 and chapter “Remote Control – Programming Examples”):
Use of command "*OPC" to generate an SRQ at the end of a sweep.
➢ CALL IBWRT(analyzer%, "*ESE 1")Set bit 0 in the ESE (Operation
Complete)
➢ CALL IBWRT(analyzer%, "*SRE 32")Set bit 5 in the SRE (ESB)
After its settings have been completed, the instrument generates an SRQ.
The SRQ is the only possibility for the instrument to become active on its own. Each
controller program should set the instrument in a way that a service request is initiated in the case of malfunction. The program should react appropriately to the service request. A detailed example for a service request routine is to be found in
chapter “Remote Control – Programming Examples”.
5.7.4.2
Serial Poll
In a serial poll, just as with command "*STB", the status byte of an instrument is queried. However, the query is realized via interface messages and is thus clearly
faster. The serial-poll method has already been defined in IEEE 488.1 and used to
be the only standard possibility for different instruments to poll the status byte. The
method also works with instruments which do not adhere to SCPI or IEEE 488.2.
The VISUAL BASIC command for executing a serial poll is "IBRSP()". Serial poll is
mainly used to obtain a fast overview of the state of several instruments connected
to the GPIB.
5.7.4.3
Parallel Poll
In a parallel poll, up to eight instruments are simultaneously requested by the controller by means of a single command to transmit 1 bit of information each on the
data lines, i.e., to set the data line allocated to each instrument to logically "0" or "1".
By analogy to the SRE register which determines under which conditions an SRQ is
generated, there is a parallel poll enable register (PPE) which is ANDed with the
STB bit by bit as well considering bit 6. The results are ORed, the result is then sent
(possibly inverted) as a response in the parallel poll of the controller. The result can
also be queried without parallel poll by means of command "*IST".
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5.35
R&S FSQ
Remote Control – Basics
Status Reporting System
The instrument first has to be set for the parallel poll using quick-BASIC command
"IBPPC()". This command allocates a data line to the instrument and determines
whether the response is to be inverted. The parallel poll itself is executed using
"IBRPP()".
The parallel-poll method is mainly used in order to quickly find out after an SRQ
which instrument has sent the service request if there are many instruments connected to the GPIB. To this effect, SRE and PPE must be set to the same value. A
detailed example as to the parallel poll is to be found in chapter “Remote Control –
Programming Examples”.
5.7.4.4
Query by Means of Commands
Each part of every status register can be read by means of queries. The individual
commands are indicated in the detailed description of the registers. What is returned
is always a number which represents the bit pattern of the register queried. Evaluating this number is effected by the controller program.
Queries are usually used after an SRQ in order to obtain more detailed information
on the cause of the SRQ.
5.7.4.5
Error Queue Query
Each error state in the instrument leads to an entry in the error queue. The entries of
the error queue are detailed plain-text error messages which can be looked at in the
ERROR menu via manual operation or queried via the GPIB using SYSTem:
ERRor? command. Each call of SYSTem:ERRor? provides an entry from the error
queue. If no error messages are stored there any more, the instrument responds
with 0, "No error".
The error queue should be queried after every SRQ in the controller program as the
entries describe the cause of an error more precisely than the status registers.
Especially in the test phase of a controller program the error queue should be queried regularly since faulty commands from the controller to the instrument are
recorded there as well.
5.36
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R&S FSQ
Remote Control – Basics
Status Reporting System
5.7.5
Resetting Values of the Status Reporting System
The table below comprises the different commands and events causing the status
reporting system to be reset. None of the commands, except for *RST and SYSTem:
PRESet influences the functional instrument settings. In particular, DCL does not
change the instrument settings.
Event
Switching on
supply voltage
Power-On-StatusClear
DCL,SDC
(Device Clear,
Selected
Device Clear)
*RST or
SYSTem:
PRESet
STATus:
PRESet
*CLS
—
—
yes
Effect
0
1
Clear STB,ESR
—
yes
—
Clear SRE,ESE
—
yes
—
—
—
Clear PPE
—
yes
—
—
—
Clear EVENTt parts of the
registers
—
yes
—
—
Clear Enable parts of all
OPERation and QUEStionable
registers, Fill Enable parts of all
other registers with "1".
—
yes
—
—
yes
—
Fill PTRansition parts with "1" ,
Clear NTRansition parts
—
yes
—
—
yes
—
Clear error queue
yes
yes
—
—
—
yes
Clear output buffer
yes
yes
yes
1)
1)
1)
Clear command processing and
input buffer
yes
yes
yes
—
—
—
yes
1) Every command being the first in a command line, i.e., immediately following a <PROGRAM MESSAGE TERMINATOR> clears the output
buffer.
Operating Manual 1313.9681.12 - 02
5.37
R&S FSQ
Remote Control – Description of Commands
6 Remote Control – Description of
Commands
6.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4
6.2 Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5
6.3 Common Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.8
6.4 ABORt Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.12
6.5 CALCulate Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.13
6.5.1 CALCulate:DELTamarker Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.14
6.5.2 CALCulate:DLINe Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.22
6.5.3 CALCulate:ESPectrum Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.23
6.5.4 CALCulate:FLINe Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.24
6.5.5 CALCulate:LIMit Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.25
6.5.5.1 General CALCulate:LIMit:... Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.26
6.5.5.2 CALCulate:LIMit:ACPower Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.30
6.5.5.3 CALCulate:LIMit:CONTrol Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.37
6.5.5.4 CALCulate:LIMit:LOWer Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.39
6.5.5.5 CALCulate:LIMit:UPPer Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.42
6.5.6 CALCulate:MARKer Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.45
6.5.6.1 General CALCulate:MARKer:... Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.45
6.5.6.2 CALCulate:MARKer:FUNCtion Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.54
6.5.6.3 CALCulate:MARKer:FUNCtion:FPEaks Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . 6.63
6.5.6.4 CALCulate:MARKer:FUNCtion:HARMonics Subsystem . . . . . . . . 6.68
6.5.6.5 CALCulate:MARKer:FUNCtion:POWer Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . 6.71
6.5.6.6 CALCulate:MARKer:FUNCtion:STRack Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . 6.79
6.5.6.7 CALCulate:MARKer:FUNCtion:SUMMary Subsystem . . . . . . . . . 6.81
6.5.7 CALCulate:MATH Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.91
6.5.8 CALCulate:PEAKsearch I PSEarch Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.93
6.5.9 CALCulate:STATistics Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.94
6.5.10 CALCulate:THReshold Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.98
6.5.11 CALCulate:TLINe Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.99
6.5.12 CALCulate:UNIT Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.100
6.6 CALibration Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.101
6.7 DIAGnostic Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.103
6.8 DISPlay Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.107
6.9 FORMat Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.116
6.10 HCOPy Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.117
6.11 INITiate Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.122
6.1
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R&S FSQ
Remote Control – Description of Commands
6.12 INPut Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.125
6.12.1 INPut:DIQ Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.129
6.13 INSTrument Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.131
6.14 MMEMory Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.133
6.15 OUTPut Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.146
6.16 SENSe Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.148
6.16.1 SENSe:AVERage Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.149
6.16.2 SENSe:BANDwidth Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.151
6.16.3 SENSe:CORRection Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.155
6.16.4 SENSe:DETector Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.163
6.16.5 SENSe:ESPectrum Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.164
6.16.6 SENSe:FM Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.172
6.16.7 SENSe:FREQuency Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.174
6.16.8 SENSe:IQ Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.177
6.16.9 SENSe:LIST Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.178
6.16.10 SENSe:MIXer Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.188
6.16.11 SENSe:MPOWer Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.192
6.16.12 SENSe:POWer Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.197
6.16.13 SENSe:ROSCillator Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.206
6.16.14 SENSe:SWEep Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.208
6.17 SOURce Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.214
6.17.1 Internal Tracking Generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.214
6.17.2 SOURce:EXTernal Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.217
6.18 STATus Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.220
6.19 SYSTem Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.229
6.20 TRACe Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.242
6.20.1 General Trace Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.242
6.20.2 Number and Format of the Measurement Values for the Different
Operating Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.245
6.20.3 TRACe:IQ Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.247
6.21 TRIGger Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.259
6.22 UNIT Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.261
6.23 GPIB Commands of HP Models 856xE, 8566A/B, 8568A/B and
8594E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.262
6.23.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.262
6.23.2 Command Set of Models 8560E, 8561E, 8562E, 8563E, 8564E,
8565E, 8566A/B, 8568A/B, 8591E, 8594E, 71100C, 71200C, and
71209A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.262
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R&S FSQ
Remote Control – Description of Commands
6.23.3 Special Features of the Syntax Parsing Algorithms for 8566A and
8568A Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.280
6.23.4 856x: Emulation of the Spurious Response Measurement Utility
85672A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.281
6.23.4.1 General commands for Spurious . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.281
6.23.4.2 Commands for TOI-Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.281
6.23.4.3 Commands for Harmonic Distortion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.282
6.23.4.4 Commands for Spurious . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.283
6.23.5 856x: Emulation of the Phase Noise Utility 85671A . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.284
6.23.6 Special Behavior of Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.285
6.23.7 Model-Dependent Default Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.287
6.23.8 Data Output Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.288
6.23.9 Trace Data Output Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.288
6.23.10 Trace Data Input Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.288
6.23.11 GPIB Status Reporting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.289
6.24 Differences in GPIB Behavior between the FSP and the FSE
Families of Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.290
6.3
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R&S FSQ
Remote Control – Description of Commands
Introduction
6.1
Introduction
This chapter describes all remote control commands of the R&S FSQ in detail. For details on the notation of the remote control commands refer to “Notation” on page 6.5.
Before sending a command sequence consisting of commands described in chapter 6, please make
sure that the analyzer mode is active, by one of the following actions:
•
Perform a preset (*RST).
•
Use the INST:SEL SAN command.
The remote control commands are sorted according to the subsystem they belong to. The following
subsystems are included in this chapter:
•
“Common Commands” on page 6.8
•
“ABORt Subsystem” on page 6.12
•
“CALCulate Subsystem” on page 6.13
•
“CALibration Subsystem” on page 6.101
•
“DIAGnostic Subsystem” on page 6.103
•
“DISPlay Subsystem” on page 6.107
•
“FORMat Subsystem” on page 6.116
•
“HCOPy Subsystem” on page 6.117
•
“INITiate Subsystem” on page 6.122
•
“INPut Subsystem” on page 6.125
•
“INSTrument Subsystem” on page 6.131
•
“MMEMory Subsystem” on page 6.133
•
“OUTPut Subsystem” on page 6.146
•
“SENSe Subsystem” on page 6.148
•
“SOURce Subsystem” on page 6.214
•
“STATus Subsystem” on page 6.220
•
“SYSTem Subsystem” on page 6.229
•
“TRACe Subsystem” on page 6.242
•
“TRIGger Subsystem” on page 6.259
•
“UNIT Subsystem” on page 6.261
An alphabetical list of all remote commands is provided at the end of this chapter in section “Alphabetical
List of Remote Commands” on page 6.337. Additionally, a subset of remote commands of HP models is
supported. These commands are listed in section “GPIB Commands of HP Models 856xE, 8566A/B,
8568A/B and 8594E” on page 6.262.
For information on differences between the FSP and FSE families refer to section “Differences in GPIB
Behavior between the FSP and the FSE Families of Instruments” on page 6.290.
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6.4
R&S FSQ
Remote Control – Description of Commands
Notation
6.2
Notation
In the following sections, all commands implemented in the instrument are first listed in tables and then
described in detail, arranged according to the command subsystems. The notation is adapted to the
SCPI standard. The SCPI conformity information is included in the individual description of the commands.
Table of
Commands
Command:
In the command column, the table provides an overview of the
commands and their hierarchical arrangement (see indentations).
Parameter:
The parameter column indicates the requested parameters
together with their specified range.
Unit:
The unit column indicates the base unit of the physical parameters.
Comment:
In the comment column an indication is made on:
– whether the command does not have a query form,
– whether the command has only one query form
– whether the command is implemented only with a certain option
of the instrument
Indentations
The different levels of the SCPI command hierarchy are represented in the table by means of indentations to the right. The lower
the level, the further the indentation to the right. Please note that
the complete notation of the command always includes the higher
levels as well.
Example:
SENSe:FREQuency:CENTer is represented in the table as follows:
SENSe first level
:FREQuency second level
:CENTer third level
Individual
description
The individual description contains the complete notation of the
command. An example for each command, the *RST value and
the SCPI information are included as well.
The operating modes for which a command can be used are indicated by the following abbreviations:
– A – analyzer
– A-F – analyzer - frequency domain only
– A-T – analyzer - time domain only (zero span)
The analyzer mode is implemented in the base unit. For the other modes, the corresponding options are required.
6.5
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R&S FSQ
Remote Control – Description of Commands
Notation
Upper/lower case
notation
Upper/lower case letters are used to mark the long or short form of the key words
of a command in the description (see chapter “Remote Control – Basics”). The
instrument itself does not distinguish between upper and lower case letters.
Special characters |
A selection of key words with an identical effect exists for several commands.
These key words are indicated in the same line; they are separated by a vertical
stroke. Only one of these key words needs to be included in the header of the
command. The effect of the command is independent of which of the key words is
used.
Example:
SENSe:FREQuency:CW|:FIXed
The two following commands with identical meaning can be created. They set
the frequency of the fixed frequency signal to 1 kHz:
SENSe:FREQuency:CW 1E3 = SENSe:FREQuency:FIXed 1E3
A vertical stroke in parameter indications marks alternative possibilities in the
sense of "or". The effect of the command is different, depending on which
parameter is used.
Example: Selection of the parameters for the command
DISPlay:FORMat FULL | SPLit
If parameter FULL is selected, full screen is displayed, in the case of SPLit, split
screen is displayed.
[ ]
Key words in square brackets can be omitted when composing the header (cf.
chapter “Remote Control – Basics”, section “Optional key words” on page 5.12).
The full command length must be accepted by the instrument for reasons of compatibility with the SCPI standards.
Parameters in square brackets can be incorporated optionally in the command or
omitted as well.
{ }
Parameters in braces can be incorporated optionally in the command, either not at
all, once or several times.
Description of
parameters
Due to the standardization, the parameter section of SCPI commands consists
always of the same syntactical elements. SCPI has therefore specified a series of
definitions, which are used in the tables of commands. In the tables, these established definitions are indicated in angled brackets (< to >) and will be briefly
explained in the following (see also chapter “Remote Control – Basics”, section
“Parameters” on page 5.16).
<Boolean>
This key word refers to parameters which can adopt two states, "on" and "off". The
"off" state may either be indicated by the key word OFF or by the numeric value 0,
the "on" state is indicated by ON or any numeric value other than zero. Parameter
queries are always returned the numeric value 0 or 1.
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6.6
R&S FSQ
Remote Control – Description of Commands
Notation
<numeric_value>
<num>
These key words mark parameters which may be entered as numeric values or be
set using specific key words (character data).
The following key words given below are permitted:
– MINimum – This key word sets the parameter to the smallest possible value.
– MAXimum – This key word sets the parameter to the largest possible value.
– DEFault – This key word is used to reset the parameter to its default value.
– UP – This key word increments the parameter value.
– DOWN – This key word decrements the parameter value.
The numeric values associated to MAXimum/MINimum/DEFault can be queried by
adding the corresponding key words to the command. They must be entered following the quotation mark.
Example:
SENSe:FREQuency:CENTer? MAXimum
returns the maximum possible numeric value of the center frequency as result.
<arbitrary block
program data>
6.7
This key word is provided for commands the parameters of which consist of a
binary data block.
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R&S FSQ
Remote Control – Description of Commands
Common Commands
6.3
Common Commands
The common commands are taken from the IEEE 488.2 (IEC 625-2) standard. A particular command
has the same effect on different devices. The headers of these commands consist of an asterisk "*" followed by three letters. Many common commands refer to the status reporting system which is described
in detail in chapter “Remote Control – Basics”.
Command
Function
Comment
*CAL?
Calibration Query
query only
*CLS
Clear Status
no query
*ESE
Parameter
0 to 255
Event Status Enable
*ESR?
Standard Event Status Query
query only
*IDN?
Identification Query
query only
*IST?
Individual Status Query
query only
*OPC
Operation Complete
*OPT?
Option Identification Query
query only
no query
*PCB
0 to 30
Pass Control Back
*PRE
0 to 255
Parallel Poll Register Enable
*PSC
0|1
Power On Status Clear
*RST
Reset
*SRE
0 to 255
no query
Service Request Enable
*STB?
Status Byte Query
query only
*TRG
Trigger
no query
*TST?
Self Test Query
query only
*WAI
Wait to continue
no query
*CAL?
CALIBRATION QUERY initiates a calibration of the instrument and subsequently queries the
calibration status. Any responses > 0 indicate errors.
*CLS
CLEAR STATUS sets the status byte (STB), the standard event register (ESR) and the EVENt-part of
the QUEStionable and the OPERation register to zero. The command does not alter the mask and
transition parts of the registers. It clears the output buffer.
*ESE
0 to 255
EVENT STATUS ENABLE sets the event status enable register to the value indicated. The query form
*ESE? returns the contents of the event status enable register in decimal form.
*ESR?
STANDARD EVENT STATUS QUERY returns the contents of the event status register in decimal form
(0 to 255) and subsequently sets the register to zero.
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6.8
R&S FSQ
Remote Control – Description of Commands
Common Commands
*IDN?
IDENTIFICATION QUERY queries the instrument identification.
Example:
"Rohde&Schwarz, FSQ-8, 123456/789, 4.45"
FSQ-8 = Device name
123456/789 = Serial number of the instrument
4.45 = Firmware version number
*IST?
INDIVIDUAL STATUS QUERY returns the contents of the IST flag in decimal form (0 | 1). The IST flag
is the status bit which is sent during a parallel poll (cf. chapter “Remote Control – Basics”).
*OPC
OPERATION COMPLETE sets bit 0 in the event status register when all preceding commands have
been executed. This bit can be used to initiate a service request (cf. chapter “Remote Control –
Basics”).
*OPC?
OPERATION COMPLETE QUERY writes message "1" into the output buffer as soon as all preceding
commands have been executed (cf. chapter “Remote Control – Basics”).
*OPT?
OPTION IDENTIFICATION QUERY returns all options currently active on the instrument. The
individual options are separated by commas.
Position
Option
1
implemented
Audio Demodulator
2
R&S FSU-B4
OCXO
3 to 6
reserved
7
R&S FSU-B9
Tracking Generator / can be I/Q-modulated
8
R&S FSP-B10
Ext. Generator Control
9
reserved
10
R&S FSU-B12
Attenuator f. Tracking Generator
11
R&S FSQ-B17
Digital Baseband
12 to 13
reserved
14
implemented
LAN Interface
15
R&S FSQ-B100
I/Q memory extension
16 to 18
6.9
reserved
19
R&S FSU-B21
Ext. Mixer
21
R&S FSQ-B23
RF-Preamplifier 3.6 to 26.5 GHz
22
R&S FSU-B24
RF-Preamplifier 20 Hz to ≥ 40 GHz
23
R&S FSU-B25
Electronic Attenuator
24
R&S FS-K74
HSDPA BTS
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R&S FSQ
Remote Control – Description of Commands
Common Commands
Position
Option
25
R&S FSQ-B72
(new)
IQ Bandwidth Extension for R&S FSQ
(120 MHz BW for f < 3.6 GHz)
*OPT-Code Pos. 48 is also displayed for R&S FSQ-B72
26
R&S FS-K76
TD SCDMA BTS
27
reserved
28
R&S FS-K30
Noise Figure and Gain Measurments
29
R&S FS-K40
Phase Noise Tests
30
R&S FS-K5
GSM-GSM/EDGE
31
R&S FS-K77
TD SCDMA UE
32
R&S FS-K7
FM Demodulator
33
R&S FS-K8
Application Firmware Bluetooth® Transmitter measurement
34
R&S FS-K9
Power sensor measurements
35
R&S FS-K72
WCDMA 3G FDD BTS
36
R&S FS-K73
WCDMA 3G FDD UE
37
reserved
38
R&S FS-K82
CDMA2000 Downlink
39
R&S FS-K83
CDMA2000 Uplink
40
R&S FS-K84
1xEV-DO Downlink
41
R&S FS-K85
1xEV-DOUpnlink
42
R&S FS-K86
1xEV-DV Downlink
43
R&S FSQ-K90
W-Lan 802.11a
44
R&S FSQ-K91
W-Lan 802.11b/g
45
R&S FSQ-K92
W-Lan 802.16
46
reserved
47
R&S FSQ-B71
I/Q Baseband Input
48
R&S FSQ-B72
I/Q Bandwidth Extension for FSQ
49
R&S FSQ-K70
Vector Analysis
50...51
reserved
Example:
0,B4,0,0,0,0,B9,B10,0,B12,B17,0,0,0,B100,B27,0,0,B21,0,0,0,B25,K74,0,K76,0,0,0,K5,K77,K7,K8,K
9,K72,K73,0,K82,K83,K84,K85,0,0,0,0,0,B71,B72,K70,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0
*PCB
0 to 30
PASS CONTROL BACK indicates the controller address which the GPIB control is to be returned to
after termination of the triggered action.
*PRE
0 to 255
PARALLEL POLL REGISTER ENABLE sets the parallel poll enable register to the indicated value.
The query form *PRE? returns the contents of the parallel poll enable register in decimal form.
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6.10
R&S FSQ
Remote Control – Description of Commands
Common Commands
*PSC
0|1
POWER ON STATUS CLEAR determines whether the contents of the ENABle registers are preserved
or reset during power-up.
*PSC = 0
causes the contents of the status registers to be preserved. Thus
a service request can be generated when switching on the instrument, if the status registers ESE and SRE are suitably configured.
*PSC <> 0
Resets the registers.
The query form *PSC? reads out the contents of the power-on-status-clear flag. The response can be
0 or 1.
*RST
RESET sets the instrument to a defined default status. The command essentially corresponds to
pressing the PRESET key. The default setting is indicated in the description of the commands.
*SRE
0 to 255
SERVICE REQUEST ENABLE sets the service request enable register to the indicated value. Bit 6
(MSS mask bit) remains 0. This command determines under which conditions a service request is
generated. The query form *SRE? reads the contents of the service request enable register in decimal
form. Bit 6 is always 0.
*STB?
READ STATUS BYTE QUERY reads out the contents of the status byte in decimal form.
*TRG
TRIGGER initiates all actions in the currently active test screen expecting a trigger event. This
command corresponds to INITiate:IMMediate (cf. section “TRIGger Subsystem” on page 6.259).
*TST?
SELF TEST QUERY initiates the selftest of the instrument and outputs an error code in decimal form
(0 = no error).
*WAI
WAIT-to-CONTINUE permits servicing of subsequent commands only after all preceding commands
have been executed and all signals have settled (cf. section “*OPC” on page 6.9 and chapter “Remote
Control – Basics”).
6.11
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R&S FSQ
Remote Control – Description of Commands
ABORt Subsystem
6.4
ABORt Subsystem
The ABORt subsystem contains the commands for aborting triggered actions. An action can be triggered
again immediately after being aborted. All commands trigger events, and therefore they have no *RST
value.
ABORt
This command aborts a current measurement and resets the trigger system.
Example:
"ABOR;INIT:IMM"
Characteristics: *RST value: 0
SCPI: conform
Mode:
A
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6.12
R&S FSQ
Remote Control – Description of Commands
CALCulate Subsystem
6.5
CALCulate Subsystem
The CALCulate subsystem contains commands for converting instrument data, transforming and carrying out corrections. These functions are carried out subsequent to data acquisition, i.e. following the
SENSe subsystem.
The numeric suffix is used in CALCulate to make the distinction between the two measurement windows
SCREEN A and SCREEN B:
CALCulate1 = Screen A
CALCulate2 = Screen B.
For commands without suffix, screen A is selected automatically.
Full Screen
The settings are valid for the measurement window selected with the numeric suffix.
They become effective as soon as the corresponding measurement window has been
selected as active measurement window using the command DISPLay[:WINDow<1|2>]:SELect. Triggering measurements and querying measured values is
possible only in the active measurement window.
Split Screen
The settings are valid for the measurement window selected by means of the numeric
suffix and become effective immediately.
6.13
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R&S FSQ
Remote Control – Description of Commands
CALCulate Subsystem
6.5.1
CALCulate:DELTamarker Subsystem
The CALCulate:DELTamarker subsystem controls the delta-marker functions in the instrument.
The measurement windows are selected via CALCulate1 (screen A) or 2 (screen B).
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:AOFF
This command switches off all active delta markers.
The measurement windows are selected via CALCulate1 (screen A) or 2 (screen B).
Example:
"CALC:DELT:AOFF"
'Switches off all delta markers in screen A.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:FUNCtion:FIXed:RPOint:MAXimum[:PEAK]
<numeric_value>
This command sets the reference point level for all delta markers in the selected measurement window
for a measurement with fixed reference point (CALC:DELT:FUNC:FIX:STAT ON) to the peak of the
selected trace.
For phase noise measurements (CALCulate:DELTamarker:FUNCtion:PNOise:STATe ON), the
command defines a new reference point level for delta marker 2 in the selected measurement window.
Example:
"CALC:DELT:FUNC:FIX:RPO:MAX"
'Sets the reference point level for the delta marker in screen A to the peak of the
trace.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:FUNCtion:FIXed:RPOint:X
<numeric_value>
This command defines a new reference frequency (span > 0) or time (span = 0) for all delta markers
in the selected measurement window for a measurement with fixed reference value (CALCulate:
DELTamarker:FUNCtion:FIXed:STATe ON).
For phase noise measurements (CALCulate:DELTamarker:FUNCtion:PNOise:STATe ON), the
command defines a new reference frequency or time for delta marker 2 in the selected measurement
window.
Example:
"CALC2:DELT:FUNC:FIX:RPO:X 128MHz"
'Sets the reference frequency in screen B to 128 MHz.
Characteristics: *RST value: - (FUNction:FIXed[:STATe] is set to OFF)
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
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6.14
R&S FSQ
Remote Control – Description of Commands
CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:FUNCtion:FIXed:RPOint:Y
<numeric_value>
This command defines a new reference point level for all delta markers in the selected measurement
window for a measurement with fixed reference point. (CALCulate:DELTamarker:FUNCtion:
FIXed:STATe ON).
For phase noise measurements (CALCulate:DELTamarker:FUNCtion:PNOise:STATe ON), the
command defines a new reference point level for delta marker 2 in the selected measurement window.
Example:
"CALC:DELT:FUNC:FIX:RPO:Y -10dBm"
'Sets the reference point level for delta markers in screen A to -10 dBm.
Characteristics: *RST value: - (FUNction:FIXed[:STATe] is set to OFF)
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:FUNCtion:FIXed:RPOint:Y:OFFSet <numeric_value>
This command defines an additional level offset for the measurement with fixed reference value
(CALCulate:DELTamarker:FUNCtion:FIXed:STATe ON). For this measurement, the offset is
included in the display of all delta markers of the selected measurement window.
For phase noise measurements (CALCulate:DELTamarker:FUNCtion:PNOise:STATe ON), the
command defines an additional level offset which is included in the display of delta marker 2 in the
selected measurement window.
Example:
"CALC:DELT:FUNC:FIX:RPO:Y:OFFS 10dB"
'Sets the level offset for the measurement with fixed reference value or the phase
noise measurement in screen A to 10 dB.
Characteristics: *RST value: 0 dB
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:FUNCtion:FIXed[:STATe]
ON | OFF
This command switches the relative measurement to a fixed reference value on or off. Marker 1 will
be activated previously and a peak search will be performed, if necessary. If marker 1 is activated, its
position becomes the reference point for the measurement. The reference point can then be modified
with commands CALCulate:DELTamarker:FUNCtion:FIXed:RPOint:X and to:RPOint:Y
independently of the position of marker 1 and of a trace. It is valid for all delta markers in the selected
measurement window as long as the function is active.
Example:
"CALC2:DELT:FUNC:FIX ON"
'Switches on the measurement with fixed reference value for all delta markers in
screen B.
"CALC2:DELT:FUNC:FIX:RPO:X 128 MHZ"
'Sets the reference frequency in screen B to 128 MHz.
"CALC2:DELT:FUNC:FIX:RPO:Y 30 DBM"
'Sets the reference level in screen B to +30 dBm
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific.
Mode:
6.15
A
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R&S FSQ
Remote Control – Description of Commands
CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:FUNCtion:PNOise:AUTO
ON | OFF
This command adds an automatic peak search action for the reference fixed marker 1 at the end of
each particular sweep. This function may be used for tracking of a drifting source whilst phase noise
measurement. The delta marker 2 which shows the phase noise measurement result keeps the delta
frequency value. Therefore the phase noise measurement in a certain offset is valid although the
source is drifting. Only when the marker 2 is reaching the border of the span the delta marker value is
adjusted to be within the span. Choose a larger span in such situations.
Example:
"CALC:DELT:FUNC:PNO 1"
’Switches the phase noise measurement on.
“CALC:DELT:FUNC:PNO:AUTO ON”
’Activates the automatic peak search.
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
The suffix at DELTamarker is ignored.
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:FUNCtion:PNOise:RESult?
This command queries the result of the phase noise measurement in the selected measurement
window. The measurement will be switched on, if necessary.
Example:
"CALC:DELT:FUNC:PNO:RES?"
'Outputs the result of phase noise measurement of the selected delta marker in
screen A.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
This command is only a query and therefore has no *RST value.
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:FUNCtion:PNOise[:STATe]
ON | OFF
This command switches on or off the phase noise measurement with all active delta markers in the
selected measurement window. The correction values for the bandwidth and the log amplifier are taken
into account in the measurement.
Marker 1 will be activated, if necessary, and a peak search will be performed. If marker 1 is activated,
its position becomes the reference point for the measurement.
The reference point can then be modified with commands CALCulate:DELTamarker:FUNCtion:
FIXed:RPOint:X and ...:RPOint:Y independently of the position of marker 1 and of a trace (the
same commands used for the measurement with fixed reference point).
The numeric suffix <1...4> with DELTamarker is not relevant for this command.
Example:
"CALC:DELT:FUNC:PNO ON"
'Switches on the phase noise measurement with all delta markers in screen A.
"CALC:DELT:FUNC:FIX:RPO:X 128 MHZ"
'Sets the reference frequency to 128 MHz.
"CALC:DELT:FUNC:FIX:RPO:Y 30 DBM"
'Sets the reference level to +30 dBm
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
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6.16
R&S FSQ
Remote Control – Description of Commands
CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:LINK
ON | OFF
This command links delta marker 1 to marker 1. If you change the horizontal position of the marker, so
does the delta marker.
The suffix at DELTamarker can only be 1 or not present, because the functionality is only available for
marker 1 and delta marker 1.
Example:
"CALC1:DELT1:LINK ON"
Switches the link of marker1/delta marker 1 on.
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:MAXimum:LEFT
This command positions the specified delta marker to the next smaller maximum value to the left of
the current value (i.e. descending X values). The corresponding delta marker will be activated first, if
necessary.
Example:
"CALC:DELT:MAX:LEFT"
'Sets delta marker 1 in screen A to the next smaller maximum value to the left of
the current value.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:MAXimum:NEXT
This command positions the specified delta marker to the next smaller maximum value of the trace.
The corresponding delta marker will be activated first, if necessary.
Example:
"CALC1:DELT2:MAX:NEXT"
'Sets delta marker 2 in screen A to the next smaller maximum value.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:MAXimum[:PEAK]
This command positions the specified delta marker to the current maximum value of the trace. If
necessary, the corresponding delta marker will be activated first.
Example:
"CALC2:DELT3:MAX"
'Sets delta marker 3 in screen B to the maximum value of the associated trace.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
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CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:MAXimum:RIGHt
This command positions the specified delta marker to the next smaller maximum value to the right of
the current value (i.e. ascending X values). The corresponding delta marker is activated first, if
necessary.
Example:
"CALC2:DELT:MAX:RIGH"
'Sets delta marker 1 in screen B to the next smaller maximum value to the right of
the current value.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:MINimum:LEFT
This command positions the specified delta marker to the next higher minimum value to the left of the
current value (i.e. descending X values). The corresponding delta marker will be activated first, if
necessary.
Example:
"CALC:DELT:MIN:LEFT"
'Sets delta marker 1 in screen A to the next higher minimum to the left of the current
value.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:MINimum:NEXT
This command positions the specified delta marker to the next higher minimum value of the trace. The
corresponding delta marker will be activated first, if necessary.
Example:
"CALC1:DELT2:MIN:NEXT"
'Sets delta marker 2 in screen A to the next higher minimum value.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:MINimum[:PEAK]
This command positions the specified delta marker to the current minimum value of the trace. The
corresponding delta marker will be activated first, if necessary.
Example:
"CALC2:DELT3:MIN"
'Sets delta marker 3 in screen B to the minimum value of the associated trace.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
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Remote Control – Description of Commands
CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:MINimum:RIGHt
This command positions the specified delta marker to the next higher minimum value to the right of the
current value (i.e. ascending X values). The corresponding delta marker will be activated first, if
necessary.
Example:
"CALC2:DELT:MIN:RIGH"
'Sets delta marker 1 in screen B to the next higher minimum value to the right of
the current value.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:MODE
ABSolute | RELative
This command switches between relative and absolute frequency input of the delta marker (or time
with span = 0). It affects all delta markers independent of the measurement window.
Example:
"CALC:DELT:MODE ABS"
'Switches the frequency/time indication for all delta markers to absolute values.
"CALC:DELT:MODE REL"
'Switches the frequency/time indication for all delta markers to relative to marker 1.
Characteristics: *RST value: REL
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>[:STATe]
ON | OFF
This command switches on and off the delta marker if delta marker 1 is selected. If marker 2, 3 or 4 is
selected and used as a marker, it is switched to delta marker mode. If the corresponding marker is not
activated, it will be activated and positioned on the maximum of the measurement curve.
If no numeric suffix is indicated, delta marker 1 is selected automatically.
The measurement windows are selected via CALCulate1 (screen A) or 2 (screen B).
Example:
"CALC:DELT3 ON"
'Switches marker 3 in screen A to delta marker mode.
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
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CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:TRACe
1 to 3
This command assigns the selected delta marker to the indicated measurement curve. The selected
measurement curve must be active, i.e. its state must be different from "BLANK".
The measurement windows are selected via CALCulate1 (screen A) or 2 (screen B).
Example:
"CALC:DELT3:TRAC 2"
'Assigns deltamarker 3 to trace 2 in screen A.
"CALC2:DELT:TRAC 3"
'Assigns delta marker 1 to trace 3 in screen B.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:X 0 to MAX (frequency | sweep time)
This command positions the selected delta marker in the indicated measurement window to the
indicated frequency (span > 0), time (span = 0) or level (APD measurement = ON or CCDF
measurement = ON). The input is in absolute values or relative to marker 1 depending on the
command CALCulate:DELTamarker:MODE. If the reference fixed measurement (CALCulate:
DELTamarker:FUNCtion:FIXed:STATe ON) is active, relative values refer to the reference
position are entered. The query always returns absolute values.
Example:
"CALC:DELT:MOD REL"
'Switches the input for all delta markers to relative to marker 1.
"CALC:DELT2:X 10.7MHz"
'Positions delta marker 2 in screen A 10.7 MHz to the right of marker 1.
"CALC2:DELT:X?"
'Outputs the absolute frequency/time of delta marker 1 in screen B
"CALC2:DELT:X:REL?"
'Outputs the relative frequency/time/level of delta marker 1 in screen B
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:X:RELative?
This command queries the frequency (span > 0) or time (span = 0) of the selected delta marker relative
to marker 1 or to the reference position (for CALCulate:DELTamarker:FUNCtion:FIXed:STATe
ON). The command activates the corresponding delta marker, if necessary.
Example:
"CALC:DELT3:X:REL?"
'Outputs the frequency of delta marker 3 in screen B relative to marker 1 or relative
to the reference position.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
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Remote Control – Description of Commands
CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:Y?
This command queries the measured value of the selected delta marker in the indicated measurement
window. The corresponding delta marker will be activated, if necessary. The output is always a relative
value referred to marker 1 or to the reference position (reference fixed active).
To obtain a valid query result, a complete sweep with synchronization to the sweep end must be
performed between the activation of the delta marker and the query of the y value. This is only possible
in single-sweep mode.
Depending on the unit defined with CALC:UNIT or on the activated measuring functions, the query
result is output in the units below:
•
DBM | DBPW | DBUV | DBMV | DBUA: Output unit DB
•
WATT | VOLT | AMPere: Output unit W | V | A
•
Statistics function (APD or CCDF) on: Dimensionless output
Example:
"INIT:CONT OFF"
'Switches to single-sweep mode.
"INIT;*WAI"
'Starts a sweep and waits for its end.
"CALC:DELT2 ON"
'Switches on delta marker 2 in screen A.
"CALC:DELT2:Y?"
'Outputs measurement value of delta marker 2 in screen A.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
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CALCulate Subsystem
6.5.2
CALCulate:DLINe Subsystem
The CALCulate:DLINe subsystem controls the settings for the display lines. The measurement windows
are selected by CALCulate 1 (screen A) or 2 (screen B).
CALCulate<1|2>:DLINe<1|2>
MINimum .. MAXimum (depending on current unit)
This command defines the position of Display Line 1 or 2. These lines enable the user to mark any
levels in the diagram. The unit depends on the setting made with CALC:UNIT.
Example:
"CALC:DLIN -20dBm"
Characteristics: *RST value: - (STATe to OFF)
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:DLINe<1|2>:STATe
ON | OFF
This command switches Display Line 1 or 2 (level lines) on or off.
Example:
"CALC:DLIN2:STAT OFF"
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
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CALCulate Subsystem
6.5.3
CALCulate:ESPectrum Subsystem
The following chapter describes remote control commands that configure the list evaluation for the Spectrum Emission Mask measurement.
CALCulate<1|2>:ESPectrum:PSEarch | PEAKsearch:AUTO
ON | OFF
This command activates or deactivates the list evaluation of the Spectrum Emission Mask
measurement.
Example:
“CALC:ESP:PSE:AUTO OFF”
’Deactivates the list evaluation
Characteristics: RST value: ON
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:ESPectrum:PSEarch | PEAKsearch:MARGin
-200dB … +200dB
This command sets the margin used for the limit check/peak search of the Spectrum Emission Mask
measurement.
Example:
“CALC:ESP:PSE:MARG 10"
' sets the margin to 10 dB
Characteristics: *RST value: 6 dB
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
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CALCulate Subsystem
6.5.4
CALCulate:FLINe Subsystem
The CALCulate:FLINe subsystem controls the settings for the frequency limit lines. The measurement
windows are selected by CALCulate 1 (screen A) or 2 (screen B).
CALCulate<1|2>:FLINe<1|2>
0 to fmax
This command defines the position of the frequency lines.
The frequency lines mark the frequencies specified in the measurement window. Frequency lines are
only available with SPAN > 0.
Example:
"CALC:FLIN2 120MHz"
Characteristics: *RST value: - (STATe to OFF)
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A-F
CALCulate<1|2>:FLINe<1|2>:STATe
ON | OFF
This command switches the frequency line on or off.
Example:
"CALC:FLIN2:STAT ON"
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A-F
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Remote Control – Description of Commands
CALCulate Subsystem
6.5.5
CALCulate:LIMit Subsystem
The CALCulate:LIMit subsystem consists of the limit lines and the corresponding limit checks. Limit lines
can be defined as upper or lower limit lines. The individual Y values of the limit lines correspond to the
values of the x-axis (CONTrol). The number of X and Y values must be identical.
In spectrum analyzer mode, 8 limit lines can be active or checked at the same time (marked by LIMIT1 to
LIMIT8) in screen A and/or screen B. The measurement window is selected via CALCulate1 (screen A)
or 2 (screen B). The limit check can be switched on separately for each measurement screen and limit
line. WINDow1 corresponds to screen A, WINDow2 to screen B.
Each limit line can be assigned a name (max. 8 letters) under which the line is stored in the instrument.
An explanatory comment can also be given for each line (max. 40 characters).
The subsystem is divided into the description of the general limit commands, of the commands for ACP
limit settings (“CALCulate:LIMit:ACPower Subsystem” on page 6.30), of the commands for defining the
x-axis (“CALCulate:LIMit:CONTrol Subsystem” on page 6.37), and of the commands for defining the
lower and upper limit values (“CALCulate:LIMit:LOWer Subsystem” on page 6.39/“CALCulate:LIMit:
UPPer Subsystem” on page 6.42).
Example (analyzer mode):
Definition and use of a new limit line 5 for trace 2 in screen A and trace 1 in screen B with the following
features:
•
upper limit line
•
absolute x-axis in the frequency domain
•
5 ref. values: 126 MHz/-40 dB, 127 MHz/-40 dB, 128 MHz/-20 dB, 129 MHz/-40 dB, 130 MHz/-40 dB
•
relative y-axis with unit dB
•
absolute threshold value at -35 dBm
•
no safety margin
Definition of the line (example for analyzer mode):
1. Defining the name: CALC:LIM5:NAME 'TEST1'
2. Entering the comment: CALC:LIM5:COMM 'Upper limit line'
3. Associated trace in screen A: CALC1:LIM5:TRAC 2
4. Associated trace in screen B: CALC2:LIM5:TRAC 1
5. Defining the x-axis range: CALC:LIM5:CONT:DOM FREQ
6. Defining the x-axis scaling: CALC:LIM5:CONT:MODE ABS
7. Defining the y-axis unit: CALC:LIM5:UNIT DB
8. Defining the y-axis scaling: CALC:LIM5:UPP:MODE REL
9. Defining the x-axis values: CALC:LIM5:CONT 126MHZ, 127MHZ, 128MHZ, 129MHZ, 130MHZ
10.Defining the y values: CALC:LIM5:UPP -40, -40, -30, -40, -40
11. Defining the y threshold value: CALC:LIM5:UPP:THR -35DBM
The definition of the safety margin and shifting in X and/or Y direction can take place as from here (see
commands below).
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CALCulate Subsystem
Switching on and evaluating the line in screen A (example for analyzer mode):
1. Switching on the line in screen A: CALC1:LIM5:UPP:STAT ON
2. Switching on the limit check in screen A: CALC1:LIM5:STAT ON
3. Starting a new measurement with synchronization: INIT;*WAI
4. Querying the limit check result: CALC1:LIM5:FAIL?
Switching on and evaluating the line in screen B is performed in the same way by using CALC2 instead of
CALC1.
6.5.5.1
General CALCulate:LIMit:... Commands
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:ACTive?
This commands queries the names of all active limit lines. The numeric suffixes at CALCulate<1|2>
and LIMit<1...8> are ignored.
Return value:
The return values are sorted in alphabetic order. If no limit line is active, an empty
string is returned.
Example:
"CALC:LIM:ACT?"
Characteristics: *RST value: -SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
This command is a query only and therefore has no *RST value.
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:CATalog?
This command queries all the names of the limit lines saved on the hard disc.
Up to 8 limit lines can be defined at the same time. The numeric suffixes <1|2> of CALCulate indicate
the measurement window.
Return value:
The syntax of the return values is:
<sum of file length of all following files>,<free spaces on hard disc>,<1st file
name>,<1st file length>, <2nd file name>,<2 nd file length>,....,<n th file
name>,<nth file length>
Example:
"CALC:LIM:CAT?"
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
This command is a query only and therefore has no *RST value.
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Remote Control – Description of Commands
CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:CLEar[:IMMediate]
This command deletes the result of the current limit check for all limit lines.
Up to 8 limit lines can be defined at the same time. The numeric suffixes <1|2> of CALCulate indicate
the measurement window.
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value.
Example:
"CALC:LIM:CLE"
'Deletes the result of the limit check in screen A.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: conform
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:COMMent
<string>
This command defines a comment for the limit line selected (max. 40 characters).
Up to 8 limit lines can be defined at the same time. The comment is independent from the
measurement window.
Example:
"CALC:LIM5:COMM 'Upper limit for spectrum'"
'Defines the comment for limit line 5.
Characteristics: *RST value: blank comment
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:COPY
1 to 8 | <name>
This command copies one limit line onto another one.
Up to 8 limit lines can be defined at the same time. The command is independent of the measurement
window.
Parameter:
1 to n ::= number of the new limit line or
<name> ::= name of the new limit line given as a string
Example:
"CALC:LIM1:COPY 2"
'Copies limit line 1 to line 2.
"CALC:LIM1:COPY 'FM2'"
'Copies limit line 1 to a new line named 'FM2'.
Characteristics: *RST value: -SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
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CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:DELete
This command deletes the selected limit line.
Up to 8 limit lines can be defined at the same time. The command is independent of the measurement
window.
Example:
"CALC:LIM1:DEL"
'Deletes limit line 1.
Characteristics: *RST value: -SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:FAIL?
This command queries the result of the limit check of the limit line. It should be noted that a complete
sweep must have been performed for obtaining a valid result. A synchronization with *OPC, *OPC? or
*WAI should therefore be provided.
Up to 8 limit lines can be defined at the same time. The numeric suffixes <1|2> of CALCulate indicate
the measurement window. The result of the limit check responds with 0 for PASS, 1 for FAIL, and 2 for
MARGIN.
Example:
"INIT;*WAI"
'Starts a new sweep and waits for its end.
"CALC2:LIM3:FAIL?"
'Queries the result of the check for limit line 3 in screen B.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: conform
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:NAME
<name of limit line>
This command assigns a name to a limit line. If it does not exist already, a limit line with this name is
created.
The name of the limit line may contain a maximum of 8 characters.
Up to 8 limit lines can be defined at the same time. The command is independent of the measurement
window.
Example:
"CALC:LIM1:NAME 'FM1'"
'Assigns the name 'FM1' to limit line 1.
Characteristics: *RST value: 'REM1' to 'REM8' for lines 1 to 8
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
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Remote Control – Description of Commands
CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:STATe
ON | OFF
This command switches on or off the limit check for the selected limit line.
The result of the limit check can be queried with CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:CLEar[:IMMediate].
Up to 8 limit lines can be defined at the same time. The numeric suffixes <1|2> of CALCulate indicate
the measurement window.
Example:
"CALC:LIM:STAT ON"
'Switches on the limit check for limit line 1 in screen A.
"CALC2:LIM:STAT OFF"
'Switches off the limit check for limit line 1 in screen B.
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: conform
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:TRACe
1 to 3
This command assigns a limit line to a trace.
Up to 8 limit lines can be defined at the same time. The numeric suffixes <1|2> of CALCulate indicate
the measurement window.
Example:
"CALC:LIM2:TRAC 3"
'Assigns limit line 2 to trace 3 in screen A.
"CALC2:LIM2:TRAC 1"
'Assigns limit line 2 to trace 1 in screen B at the same time.
Characteristics: *RST value: 1
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:UNIT
DB | UNITLESS
DBM | DBPW | WATT | DBUV | DBMV | VOLT | DBUA | AMPere |
This command defines the unit for the associated limit line.
The definition is valid regardless of the measurement window.
Specification of the DB unit automatically switches the limit line over to relative mode. Units other than
DB cause the limit line to switch over to absolute mode.
Example:
"CALC:LIM4:UNIT DBUV"
'Sets the unit of limit line 4 to dBµV.
Characteristics: *RST value: DBM
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
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CALCulate Subsystem
6.5.5.2
CALCulate:LIMit:ACPower Subsystem
The CALCulate:LIMit:ACPower subsystem defines the limit check for adjacent channel power measurement.
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:ACPower:ACHannel:ABSolute
200DBM
-200DBM to 200DBM, -200 to
This command defines the absolute limit value for the lower/upper adjacent channel during adjacent
channel power measurement (Adjacent Channel Power) in the selected measurement window.
It should be noted that the absolute limit value has no effect on the limit check as soon as it is below
the relative limit value defined with CALCulate:LIMit:ACPower:ACHannel:RELative. This
mechanism allows automatic checking of the absolute basic values of adjacent channel power as
defined in mobile radio standards.
The numeric suffixes <1...8> in LIMIt are irrelevant for this command.
Parameter:
The first value is the limit for the lower and the upper adjacent channel. The second
limit value is ignored but must be indicated for reasons of compatibility with the FSE
family.
Example:
"CALC:LIM:ACP:ACH:ABS -35DBM, -35DBM"
'Sets the absolute limit value in screen A for the power in the lower and upper
adjacent channel to -35 dBm.
Characteristics: *RST value: -200DBM
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:ACPower:ACHannel:ABSolute:STATe
ON | OFF
This command activates the limit check for the adjacent channel when adjacent channel power
measurement (Adjacent Channel Power) is performed. Before the command, the limit check for the
channel/adjacent channel measurement must be globally switched on using CALC:LIM:ACP ON.
The result can be queried with CALCulate:LIMit:ACPower:ACHannel:RESult?. It should be
noted that a complete measurement must be performed between switching on the limit check and the
result query, since otherwise no valid results are available.
The numeric suffixes <1...8> in LIMIt are irrelevant for this command.
Example:
"CALC:LIM:ACP:ACH 30DB, 30DB"
'Sets the relative limit value in screen A for the power in the lower and upper
adjacent channel to 30 dB below the channel power.
"CALC:LIM:ACP:ACH:ABS -35DBM, -35DBM"
'Sets the absolute limit value in screen A for the power in the lower and upper
adjacent channel to -35 dBm.
"CALC:LIM:ACP ON"
'Switches on globally the limit check for the channel/adjacent channel
measurement in screen A.
"CALC:LIM:ACP:ACH:REL:STAT ON"
'Switches on the check of the relative limit values for adjacent channels in
screen A.
"CALC:LIM:ACP:ACH:ABS:STAT ON"
'Switches on the check of absolute limit values for the adjacent channels in
screen A.
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Remote Control – Description of Commands
CALCulate Subsystem
"INIT;*WAI"
'Starts a new measurement and waits for the sweep end.
"CALC:LIM:ACP:ACH:RES?"
'Queries the limit check result in the adjacent channels in screen A.
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:ACPower:ACHannel[:RELative]
0 to 100dB, 0 to 100dB
This command defines the relative limit of the upper/lower adjacent channel for adjacent channel
power measurements in the selected measurement window. The reference value for the relative limit
value is the measured channel power.
It should be noted that the relative limit value has no effect on the limit check as soon as it is below the
absolute limit value defined with CALCulate:LIMit:ACPower:ACHannel:ABSolute. This
mechanism allows automatic checking of the absolute basic values of adjacent channel power as
defined in mobile radio standards.
The numeric suffixes <1...8> are irrelevant for this command.
Parameter:
The first numeric value is the limit for the upper (lower) adjacent channel. The
second value is ignored but must be indicated for reasons of compatibility with the
FSE family.
Example:
"CALC:LIM:ACP:ACH 30DB, 30DB"
'Sets the relative limit value in screen A for the power in the lower and upper
adjacent channel to 30 dB below the channel power.
Characteristics: *RST value: 0 dB
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:ACPower:ACHannel[:RELative]:STATe
ON | OFF
This command activates the limit check for the relative limit value of the adjacent channel when
adjacent channel power measurement is performed. Before the command, the limit check must be
activated using CALCulate:LIMit:ACPower:STATe ON.
The result can be queried with CALCulate:LIMit:ACPower:ACHannel:RESult?. It should be
noted that a complete measurement must be performed between switching on the limit check and the
result query, since otherwise no valid results are available.
The numeric suffixes <1...8> are irrelevant for this command.
Example:
"CALC:LIM:ACP:ACH 30DB, 30DB"
'Sets the relative limit value in screen A for the power in the lower and upper
adjacent channel to 30 dB below the channel power.
"CALC:LIM:ACP:ACH:ABS -35DBM, -35DBM"
'Sets the absolute limit value in screen A for the power in the lower and upper
adjacent channel to -35 dBm.
"CALC:LIM:ACP ON"
'Switches on globally the limit check for the channel/adjacent channel
measurement in screen A.
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CALCulate Subsystem
"CALC:LIM:ACP:ACH:REL:STAT ON"
'Switches on the check of the relative limit values for adjacent channels in
screen A.
"CALC:LIM:ACP:ACH:ABS:STAT ON"
'Switches on the check of absolute limit values for the adjacent channels in
screen A.
"INIT;*WAI"
'Starts a new measurement and waits for the sweep end.
"CALC:LIM:ACP:ACH:RES?"
'Queries the limit check result in the adjacent channels in screen A.
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:ACPower:ACHannel:RESult?
This command queries the result of the limit check for the upper/lower adjacent channel in the selected
measurement window when adjacent channel power measurement is performed.
If the power measurement of the adjacent channel is switched off, the command produces a query
error.
The numeric suffixes <1...8> are irrelevant for this command.
Parameter:
The result is returned in the form <result>, <result> where
<result> = PASSED | FAILED, and where the first returned value denotes the
lower, the second denotes the upper adjacent channel.
Example:
"CALC:LIM:ACP:ACH 30DB, 30DB"
'Sets the relative limit value in screen A for the power in the lower and upper
adjacent channel to 30 dB below the channel power.
"CALC:LIM:ACP:ACH:ABS -35DBM, -35DBM"
'Sets the absolute limit value in screen A for the power in the lower and upper
adjacent channel to -35 dB.
"CALC:LIM:ACP ON"
'Switches on globally the limit check for the channel/adjacent channel
measurement in screen A.
"CALC:LIM:ACP:ACH:STAT ON"
'Switches on the limit check for the adjacent channels in screen A.
"INIT;*WAI"
'Starts a new measurement and waits for the sweep end.
"CALC:LIM:ACP:ACH:RES?"
'Queries the limit check result in the adjacent channels in screen A.
Characteristics: *RST value: -SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
This command is a query and therefore has no *RST value.
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Remote Control – Description of Commands
CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:ACPower:ALTernate<1...11>:ABSolute
-200DBM to 200DBM
-200DBM to 200DBM,
This command defines the absolute limit value for the lower/upper alternate adjacent channel power
measurement (Adjacent Channel Power) in the selected measurement window.
The numeric suffix after ALTernate<1...11> denotes the alternate channel. The numeric suffixes
<1...8> are irrelevant for this command.
It should be noted that the absolute limit value for the limit check has no effect as soon as it is below
the relative limit value defined with CALCulate:LIMit:ACPower:ALTernate<1...11>:
RELative. This mechanism allows automatic checking of the absolute basic values defined in mobile
radio standards for the power in adjacent channels.
Parameter:
The first value is the limit for the lower and the upper alternate adjacent channel.
The second limit value is ignored but must be indicated for reasons of compatibility
with the FSE family.
Example:
"CALC:LIM:ACP:ALT2:ABS -35DBM, -35DBM"
'Sets the absolute limit value in screen A for the power in the lower and upper
second alternate adjacent channel to -35 dBm.
Characteristics: *RST value: -200DBM
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:ACPower:ALTernate<1...11>:ABSolute:STATe
ON | OFF
This command activates the limit check for the alternate adjacent channels in the selected
measurement window for adjacent channel power measurement (Adjacent Channel Power).
Before the command, the limit check must be globally switched on for the channel/adjacent channel
power with the command CALCulate:LIMit:ACPower:STATe ON.
The numeric suffix after ALTernate<1...11> denotes the alternate channel. The numeric suffixes
<1...8> are irrelevant for this command.
The result can be queried with CALCulate:LIMit:ACPower:ALTernate<1...11>:RESult?. It
should be noted that a complete measurement must be performed between switching on the limit
check and the result query, since otherwise no valid results are available.
Example:
"CALC:LIM:ACP:ALT2 30DB, 30DB"
'Sets the relative limit value in screen A for the power in the lower and upper
second alternate adjacent channel to 30 dB below the channel power.
"CALC:LIM:ACP:ALT2:ABS -35DBM, -35DBM"
'Sets the absolute limit value in screen A for the power in the lower and upper
second alternate adjacent channel to -35 dBm.
"CALC:LIM:ACP ON"
'Switches on globally the limit check for the channel/adjacent channel
measurement in screen A.
"CALC:LIM:ACP:ACH:REL:STAT ON"
Switches on the check of the relative limit values for the alternative adjacent
channels in screen A.
"CALC:LIM:ACP:ACH:ABS:STAT ON"
'Switches on the check of absolute limit values for the alternative adjacent
channels in screen A.
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Remote Control – Description of Commands
CALCulate Subsystem
"INIT;*WAI"
'Starts a new measurement and waits for the sweep end.
"CALC:LIM:ACP:ACH:RES?"
'Queries the limit check result in the second alternate adjacent channels in
screen A.
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:ACPower:ALTernate<1...11>[:RELative]
0 to 100dB, 0 to 100dB.
This command defines the limit for the alternate adjacent channels in the selected measurement
window for adjacent channel power measurements. The reference value for the relative limit value is
the measured channel power.
The numeric suffix after ALTernate<1...11> denotes the alternate channel. The numeric suffixes
<1...8> are irrelevant for this command.
It should be noted that the relative limit value has no effect on the limit check as soon as it is below the
absolute limit defined with CALCulate:LIMit:ACPower:ALTernate<1...11>:ABSolute. This
mechanism allows automatic checking of the absolute basic values of adjacent channel power as
defined in mobile radio standards.
Parameter:
The first value is the limit for the lower and the upper alternate adjacent channel.
The second limit value is ignored but must be indicated for reasons of compatibility
with the FSE family.
Example:
"CALC:LIM:ACP:ALT2 30DB, 30DB"
'Sets the relative limit value in screen A for the power in the lower and upper
alternate adjacent channel to 30 dB below the channel power.
Characteristics: *RST value: 0DB
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:ACPower:ALTernate<1...11>[:RELative]:STATe
ON | OFF
This command activates the limit check for the alternate adjacent channels in the selected
measurement window for adjacent channel power measurements. Before the command, the limit
check must be activated using CALCulate:LIMit:ACPower:STATe ON.
The numeric suffix after ALTernate<1...11> denotes the alternate channel. The numeric suffixes
<1...8> are irrelevant for this command.
The result can be queried with CALCulate:LIMit:ACPower:ALTernate<1...11>:RESult?. It
should be noted that a complete measurement must be performed between switching on the limit
check and the result query, since otherwise no valid results are obtained.
Example:
"CALC:LIM:ACP:ALT2 30DB, 30DB"
'Sets the relative limit value in screen A for the power in the lower and upper
second alternate adjacent channel to 30 dB below the channel power.
"CALC:LIM:ACP:ALT2:ABS -35DBM, -35DBM"
'Sets the absolute limit value in screen A for the power in the lower and upper
second alternate adjacent channel to -35 dBm.
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Remote Control – Description of Commands
CALCulate Subsystem
"CALC:LIM:ACP ON"
'Switches on globally the limit check for the channel/adjacent channel
measurement in screen A.
"CALC:LIM:ACP:ACH:REL:STAT ON"
'Switches on the check of the relative limit values for the alternate adjacent
channels in screen A.
"CALC:LIM:ACP:ACH:ABS:STAT ON"
'Switches on the check of absolute limit values for the alternate adjacent channels
in screen A.
"INIT;*WAI"
'Starts a new measurement and waits for the sweep end.
"CALC:LIM:ACP:ALT:RES?"
'Queries the limit check result in the second alternate adjacent channels in
screen A.
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:ACPower:ALTernate<1...11>:RESult?
This command queries the result of the limit check for the alternate adjacent channels in the selected
measurement window for adjacent channel power measurements.
The numeric suffix after ALTernate<1...11> denotes the alternate channel. The numeric suffixes
<1...8> are irrelevant for this command.
If the power measurement of the adjacent channel is switched off, the command produces a query
error.
Parameter:
The result is returned in the form <result>, <result> where
<result> = PASSED | FAILED and where the first (second) returned value denotes
the lower (upper) alternate adjacent channel.
Example:
"CALC:LIM:ACP:ALT2 30DB, 30DB"
'Sets the relative limit value in screen A for the power in the lower and upper
second alternate adjacent channel to 30 dB below the channel power.
"CALC:LIM:ACP:ALT2:ABS -35DBM, -35DBM"
'Sets the absolute limit value in screen A for the power in the lower and upper
second alternate adjacent channel to -35 dBm.
"CALC:LIM:ACP ON"
'Switches on globally the limit check for the channel/adjacent channel
measurement in screen A.
"CALC:LIM:ACP:ALT:STAT ON"
'Switches on the limit check for the adjacent channels in screen A.
"INIT;*WAI"
'Starts a new measurement and waits for the sweep end.
"CALC:LIM:ACP:ALT:RES?"
'Queries the limit check result in the second alternate adjacent channels in
screen A.
6.35
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Remote Control – Description of Commands
CALCulate Subsystem
Characteristics: *RST value: -SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
This command is a query and therefore has no *RST value.
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:ACPower[:STATe]
ON | OFF
This command switches on and off the limit check for adjacent channel power measurements in the
selected measurement window. The commands CALCulate:LIMit:ACPower:ACHannel:STATe
or CALCulate:LIMit:ACPower:ALTernate:STATe must be used in addition to specify whether
the limit check is to be performed for the upper/lower adjacent channel or for the alternate adjacent
channels.
The numeric suffixes <1...8> are irrelevant for this command.
Example:
"CALC:LIM:ACP ON"
'Switches on the ACP limit check in screen A.
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
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Remote Control – Description of Commands
CALCulate Subsystem
6.5.5.3
CALCulate:LIMit:CONTrol Subsystem
The CALCulate:LIMit:CONTrol subsystem defines the x-axis (CONTrol-axis).
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:CONTrol[:DATA]
<numeric_value>,<numeric_value>.
This command defines the x-axis values (frequencies or times) of the upper or lower limit lines.
The values are defined independently of the measurement window.
In analyzer mode, the unit of values depends on the frequency or time domain of the x-axis, i.e. it is
HZ with CALC:LIM:CONT:DOM FREQ and S with CALC:LIM:CONT:DOM TIME.
Example:
"CALC:LIM2:CONT 1MHz,30MHz,100MHz, 300MHz,1GHz"
'Defines 5 reference values for the x-axis of limit line 2.
"CALC:LIM2:CONT?"
'Outputs the reference values for the x-axis of limit line 2 separated by a comma.
Characteristics: *RST value: - (LIMit:STATe is set to OFF)
SCPI: conform
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:CONTrol:DOMain
FREQuency | TIME
This command selects the domain of the limit line (frequency or time domain).
Example:
"CALC:LIM2:CONT:DOM TIME"
'Defines the time domain for the x-axis of limit line 2.
Characteristics: *RST value: FREQuency
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:CONTrol:MODE
RELative | ABSolute
This command selects the relative or absolute scaling for the x-axis of the selected limit line. The
definition is independent of the measurement window.
Example:
"CALC:LIM2:CONT:MODE REL"
'Defines the x-axis of limit line 2 as relatively scaled.
Characteristics: *RST value: ABSolute
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:CONTrol:OFFSet
<numeric_value>
This command defines an offset for the x-axis value of the selected relative limit line in the frequency
or time domain.
The unit of values depends on the frequency or time domain of the x-axis, i.e. it is HZ with CALC:LIM:
CONT:DOM FREQ and S with CALC:LIM:CONT:DOM TIME.
Example:
"CALC:LIM2:CONT:OFFS 100us"
'Sets the X offset for limit line 2 (defined in the time domain) to 100µs.
Characteristics: *RST value: 0
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
6.37
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Remote Control – Description of Commands
CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:CONTrol:SHIFt
<numeric_value>
This command moves a limit line by the indicated value in x direction. In contrast to CALC:LIM:CONT:
OFFS, the line is shifted by modifying the individual x values and not by means of an additive offset.
The shift is independent of the measurement window.
In analyzer mode, the unit of values depends on the frequency or time domain of the x-axis, i.e. it is
HZ with CALC:LIM:CONT:DOM FREQ and S with CALC:LIM:CONT:DOM TIME.
Example:
"CALC:LIM2:CONT:SHIF 50KHZ"
'Shifts all reference values of limit line 2 by 50 kHz.
Characteristics: *RST value: -SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:CONTrol:SPACing
LINear | LOGarithmic
This command selects linear or logarithmic interpolation for the calculation of limit lines from frequency
points.
Example:
"CALC:LIM:CONT:SPAC LIN"
Characteristics: *RST value: LIN
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
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Remote Control – Description of Commands
CALCulate Subsystem
6.5.5.4
CALCulate:LIMit:LOWer Subsystem
The CALCulate:LIMit:LOWer subsystem defines the lower limit line.
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:LOWer[:DATA]
<numeric_value>,<numeric_value>...
This command defines the values for the selected lower limit line.
Up to 8 limit lines can be defined at the same time. This command is independent of the measurement
window.
The number of values for the CONTrol axis and for the corresponding LOWer limit line has to be
identical. Otherwise default values are entered for missing values or not necessary values are deleted.
The unit must be identical with the unit selected by CALC:LIM:UNIT. If no unit is indicated, the unit
defined with CALC:LIM:UNIT is automatically used.
If the measured values are smaller than the LOWer limit line, the limit check signals errors.
In analyzer mode, the units DEG, RAD, S, HZ, PCT are not available.
Example:
"CALC:LIM2:LOW -30,-40,-10,-40,-30"
'Defines 5 lower limit values for limit line 2 in the preset unit.
"CALC:LIM2:LOW?"
'Outputs the lower limit values of limit line 2 separated by a comma.
Characteristics: *RST value: - (LIMit:STATe is set to OFF)
SCPI: conform
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:LOWer:MARGin
<numeric_value>
This command defines a margin to a lower limit line, at which out-of-limit values are signaled (if the
limit check is active), but not handled as a violation of the limit value. The margin is independent of the
measurement window.
Example:
"CALC:LIM:LOW:MARG 10dB"
Characteristics: *RST value: 0
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:LOWer:MODE
RELative | ABSolute
This command selects the relative or absolute scaling for the y-axis of the selected lower limit line.
The setting is independent of the measurement window.
Selecting RELative causes the unit to be switched to DB.
Example:
"CALC:LIM:LOW:MODE REL"
'Defines the y-axis of limit line 2 as relative scaled.
Characteristics: *RST value: ABSolute
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
6.39
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Remote Control – Description of Commands
CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:LOWer:OFFSet
<numeric_value>
This command defines an offset for the y-axis of the selected relative lower limit line. In contrast to
CALC:LIM:LOW:SHIFt, the line is not shifted by modifying the individual Y values but by means of
an additive offset. The offset is independent of the measurement window.
Example:
"CALC:LIM2:LOW:OFFS 3dB"
'Shifts limit line 2 in the corresponding measurement windows by 3 dB upwards.
Characteristics: *RST value: 0
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:LOWer:SHIFt
<numeric_value>
This command shifts a limit line by the indicated value in Y direction. In contrast to CALC:LIM:LOW:
OFFS, the line is shifted by modifying the individual Y values but not by means of an additive offset.
Up to 8 limit lines can be defined at the same time. The shift is independent of the measurement
window.
Example:
"CALC:LIM3:LOW:SHIF 20DB"
'Shifts all Y values of limit line 3 by 20 dB.
Characteristics: *RST value: -SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:LOWer:SPACing
LINear | LOGarithmic
This command selects linear or logarithmic interpolation for the lower limit line.
Example:
"CALC:LIM:LOW:SPAC LIN"
Characteristics: *RST value: LIN
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:LOWer:STATe
ON | OFF
This command switches on or off the indicated limit line. The limit check is activated separately with
CALC:LIM:STAT ON.
Up to 8 limit lines can be defined at the same time. The numeric suffixes <1|2> of CALCulate indicate
the measurement window.
In analyzer mode, the result of the limit check can be queried with CALCulate:LIMit<1...8>:
FAIL?.
Example:
"CALC:LIM4:LOW:STAT ON"
'Switches on limit line 4 (lower limit) in screen A.
"CALC2:LIM4:LOW:STAT ON"
'Switches on limit line 4 (lower limit) also in screen B.
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: conform
Mode:
A
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Remote Control – Description of Commands
CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:LOWer:THReshold
<numeric_value>
This command defines an absolute threshold value for limit lines with relative y-axis scaling
independently of the measurement window. The absolute threshold value is used in the limit check as
soon as it exceeds the relative limit value.
The unit must correspond to the unit selected with CALC:LIM:UNIT (except dB which is not allowed).
If no unit is indicated, the unit defined with CALC:LIM:UNIT is automatically used (exception: dBm
instead of dB).
The units DEG, RAD, S, HZ, PCT are not available.
Example:
"CALC:LIM2:LOW:THR -35DBM"
'Defines an absolute threshold value for limit line 2.
Characteristics: *RST value: -200 dBm
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
6.41
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Remote Control – Description of Commands
CALCulate Subsystem
6.5.5.5
CALCulate:LIMit:UPPer Subsystem
The CALCulate:LIMit:UPPer subsystem defines the upper limit line.
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:UPPer[:DATA]
<numeric_value>,<numeric_value>...
This command defines the values for the upper limit lines.
Up to 8 limit lines can be defined at the same time. This command is independent of the measurement
window.
The number of values for the CONTrol axis and for the corresponding UPPer and/or LOWer limit line
have to be identical. Otherwise default values are entered for missing values or not necessary values
are deleted.
The unit must be identical with the unit selected by CALC:LIM:UNIT. If no unit is indicated, the unit
defined with CALC:LIM:UNIT is automatically used.
In analyzer mode, the units DEG, RAD, S, HZ, PCT are not available.
In analyzer mode, the limit check signals errors if the measured values exceed the UPPer limit line.
Example:
"CALC:LIM2:UPP -10,0,0,-10,-5"
'Defines 5 upper limit values for limit line 2 in the preset unit.
"CALC:LIM2:UPP?"
'Outputs the upper limit values for limit line 2 separated by a comma.
Characteristics: *RST value: - (LIMit:STATe is set to OFF)
SCPI: conform
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:UPPer:MARGin
<numeric_value>
This command defines a margin to an upper limit line, at which out-of-limit values are signaled (if the
limit check is active), but not handled as a violation of the limit value. The margin is independent of the
measurement window.
Example:
"CALC:LIM2:UPP:MARG 10dB"
'Defines the margin of limit line 2 to 10 dB below the limit value.
Characteristics: *RST value: 0
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:UPPer:MODE
RELative | ABSolute
This command selects the relative or absolute scaling for the y-axis of the selected upper limit line. The
setting is independent of the measurement window.
Selecting RELative causes the unit to be switched to DB.
Example:
"CALC:LIM2:UPP:MODE REL"
'Defines the y-axis of limit line 2 as relative scaled.
Characteristics: *RST value: ABSolute
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
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Remote Control – Description of Commands
CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:UPPer:OFFSet
<numeric_value>
This command defines an offset for the y-axis of the selected relative upper limit line. In contrast to
CALC:LIM:UPP:SHIFt, the line is not shifted by modifying the individual Y values but by means of
an additive offset. The offset is independent of the measurement window.
Example:
"CALC:LIM2:UPP:OFFS 3dB"
'Shifts limit line 2 by 3 dB upwards in the corresponding measurement windows.
Characteristics: *RST value: 0
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:UPPer:SHIFt
<numeric_value>
This command moves a limit line by the indicated value in Y direction. In contrast to CALC:LIM:UPP:
OFFS, the line is shifted by modifying the individual Y values and not by means of an additive offset.
Up to 8 limit lines can be defined at the same time. The shift is independent of the measurement
window.
Example:
"CALC:LIM3:UPP:SHIF 20DB"
'Shifts all Y values of limit line 3 by 20 dB.
Characteristics: *RST value: -SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:UPPer:SPACing
LINear | LOGarithmic
This command selects linear or logarithmic interpolation for the upper limit line.
Example:
"CALC:LIM:UPP:SPAC LIN"
Characteristics: *RST value: LIN
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:UPPer:STATe
ON | OFF
This command switches on or off the indicated limit line. The limit check is activated separately with
CALC:LIM:STAT ON.
Up to 8 limit lines can be defined at the same time. The numeric suffixes <1|2> of CALCulate indicate
the measurement window.
In analyzer mode, the result of the l imit check can be queried with CALCulate:LIMit<1...8>:
FAIL?.
Example:
"CALC1:LIM4:UPP:STAT ON"
'Switches on limit line 4 (upper limit) in screen A.
"CALC2:LIM4:UPP:STAT ON"
'Switches on limit line 4 (upper limit) in screen B.
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: conform
Mode:
6.43
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Remote Control – Description of Commands
CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:UPPer:THReshold
<numeric_value>
This command defines an absolute threshold value for limit lines with relative y-axis scaling
independently of the measurement window. The absolute threshold value is used in the limit check as
soon as it exceeds the relative limit value.
The unit must correspond to the unit selected with CALC:LIM:UNIT (except dB which is not possible).
If no unit is indicated, the unit defined with CALC:LIM:UNIT is automatically used (exception: dBm
instead of dB).
In analyzer mode, the units DEG, RAD, S, HZ, PCT are not available.
Example:
"CALC:LIM2:UPP:THR -35DBM"
'Defines an absolute threshold value for limit line 2.
Characteristics: *RST value: -200 dBm
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
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Remote Control – Description of Commands
CALCulate Subsystem
6.5.6
CALCulate:MARKer Subsystem
The CALCulate:MARKer subsystem checks the marker functions in the instrument.
The measurement windows are selected via CALCulate1 (screen A) or 2 (screen B).
The subsystem is divided into the description of the general marker commands (“General CALCulate:
MARKer:... Commands” on page 6.45) and of the marker functions (“CALCulate:MARKer:FUNCtion
Subsystem” on page 6.54). The description of marker functions is subdivided again into the commands
for transient measurement (“CALCulate:MARKer:FUNCtion:ADEMod Subsystem” on page 6.97), the
commands for harmonic distortion measurement (“CALCulate:MARKer:FUNCtion:HARMonics Subsystem” on page 6.68), for control of power measurement(“CALCulate:MARKer:FUNCtion:POWer Subsystem” on page 6.71), for settings of signal track (“CALCulate:MARKer:FUNCtion:STRack Subsystem”
on page 6.79) and for controlling the main power functions (“CALCulate:MARKer:FUNCtion:SUMMary
Subsystem” on page 6.81).
6.5.6.1
General CALCulate:MARKer:... Commands
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:AOFF
This command switches off all active markers in the indicated measurement window.
All delta markers and active marker/delta marker measurement functions are also switched off.
Example:
"CALC:MARK:AOFF"
'Switches off all markers in screen A.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1>:COUNt
ON | OFF
This command switches on or off the frequency counter at the marker position in the selected
measurement window. The count result is queried with CALCulate:MARKer:COUNt:FREQuency?.
Frequency counting is possible only for marker 1 in every measurement window. If it is activated for
another marker, it is automatically de-activated for the previous marker.
It should be noted that a complete sweep must be performed after switching on the frequency counter
to ensure that the frequency to be measured is actually reached. The synchronization to the sweep
end required for this is possible only in single-sweep mode.
Example:
"INIT:CONT OFF"
'Switches to single-sweep mode.
"CALC:MARK ON"
'Switches on marker 1 in screen A.
"CALC:MARK:COUN ON"
'Switches on the frequency counter for marker 1.
"INIT;*WAI"
'Starts a sweep and waits for the end.
"CALC:MARK:COUN:FREQ?"
'Outputs the measured value in screen A.
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
6.45
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Remote Control – Description of Commands
CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1>:COUNt:FREQuency?
This command queries the result of the frequency counter for marker 1 in the selected measurement
window. Before the command, the frequency counter should be switched on and a complete
measurement performed to obtain a valid count result. Therefore, a single sweep with synchronization
must be performed between switching on the frequency counter and querying the count result.
Example:
"INIT:CONT OFF"
'Switches to single-sweep mode.
"CALC:MARK ON"
'Switches the marker in screen A on.
"CALC:MARK:COUN ON"
'Switches the frequency counter for the marker.
"INIT;*WAI"
'Starts a sweep and waits for the end.
"CALC:MARK:COUN:FREQ?"
'Outputs the measured value of the marker in screen A.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
This command is only a query and therefore has no *RST value.
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:COUNt:RESolution
0.1 | 1 | 10 | 100 | 1000 | 10000 Hz
This command specifies the resolution of the frequency counter in the selected measurement window.
The setting is independent of the selected marker, i.e. the numeric suffix in MARKer<1...4> is
irrelevant.
Example:
"CALC:MARK:COUN:RES 1kHz"
'Sets the resolution of the frequency counter to 1 kHz.
Characteristics: *RST value: 1kHz
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:LOEXclude
ON | OFF
This command switches the local oscillator suppression for peak search on or off. This setting is valid
for all markers and delta markers in all measurement windows. The numeric suffixes 1|2 and 1...4 are
irrelevant.
Example:
"CALC:MARK:LOEX ON"
Characteristics: *RST value: ON
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A-F
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Remote Control – Description of Commands
CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:MAXimum:AUTO
ON | OFF
This command switches an automatic maximum peak search for marker 1 at the end of each particular
sweep on and off. The current marker search limit settings (LEFT LIMIT, RIGHT LIMIT, THRESHOLD,
EXCLUDE LO) are taken into account. The numeric suffix at MARKer<1...4> is irrelevant.
Example:
"CALC:MARK:MAX:AUTO ON"
Activates the auto search function for marker 1.
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:MAXimum:LEFT
This command positions the specified marker to the next smaller maximum value to the left of the
current value (i.e. in descending X values) on the trace.
If no next smaller maximum value is found on the trace (level spacing to adjacent
values < peak excursion), an execution error (error code: -200) is produced.
Example:
"CALC:MARK2:MAX:LEFT"
'Positions marker 2 in screen A to the next lower maximum value to the left of the
current value.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:MAXimum:NEXT
This command positions the specified marker to the next smaller maximum value of the corresponding
trace.
If no next smaller maximum value is found on the trace (level spacing to adjacent
values < peak excursion), an execution error (error code: -200) is produced.
Example:
"CALC:MARK2:MAX:NEXT"
'Positions marker 2 in screen A to the next 'lower maximum value.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
6.47
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Remote Control – Description of Commands
CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:MAXimum[:PEAK]
This command positions the specified marker to the current maximum value of the corresponding
trace. The corresponding marker is activated first or switched to the marker mode.
If no maximum value is found on the trace (level spacing to adjacent values < peak
excursion), an execution error (error code: -200) is produced.
Example:
"CALC:MARK2:MAX"
'Positions marker 2 in screen A to the maximum value of 'the trace.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:MAXimum:RIGHt
This command positions the specified marker to the next smaller maximum value to the right of the
current value (i.e. in ascending X values) on the corresponding trace.
If no next smaller maximum value is found on the trace (level spacing to adjacent
values < peak excursion), an execution error (error code: -200) is produced.
Example:
"CALC:MARK2:MAX:RIGH"
'Positions marker 2 in screen A to the next lower maximum value to the right of the
current value.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:MINimum:AUTO
ON | OFF
This command switches an automatic minimum peak search for marker 1 at the end of each particular
sweep on and off. The current marker search limit settings (LEFT LIMIT, RIGHT LIMIT, THRESHOLD,
EXCLUDE LO) are taken into account. The numeric suffix at MARKer<1...4> is irrelevant.
Example:
"CALC:MARK:MIN:AUTO ON"
Activates the auto search function for marker 1.
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
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Remote Control – Description of Commands
CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:MINimum:LEFT
This command positions the specified marker to the next higher minimum value to the left of the current
value (i.e. in descending X direction) on the corresponding trace.
If no next higher minimum value is found on the trace (level spacing to adjacent
values < peak excursion), an execution error (error code: -200) is produced.
Example:
"CALC:MARK2:MIN:LEFT"
'Positions marker 2 in screen A to the next higher minimum value to the left of the
current value.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:MINimum:NEXT
This command positions the specified marker to the next higher minimum value of the corresponding
trace.
If no next higher minimum value is found on the trace (level spacing to adjacent
values < peak excursion), an execution error (error code: -200) is produced.
Example:
"CALC:MARK2:MIN:NEXT"
'Positions marker 2 in screen A to the next higher maximum value.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:MINimum[:PEAK]
This command positions the specified marker to the current minimum value of the corresponding trace.
The corresponding marker is activated first or switched to marker mode, if necessary.
If no minimum value is found on the trace (level spacing to adjacent values < peak
excursion), an execution error (error code: -200) is produced.
Example:
"CALC:MARK2:MIN"
'Positions marker 2 in screen A to the minimum value of the trace.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
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Remote Control – Description of Commands
CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:MINimum:RIGHt
This command positions the specified marker to the next higher minimum value to the right of the
current value (i.e. in ascending X direction) on the corresponding trace.
If no next higher minimum value is found on the trace (level spacing to adjacent
values < peak excursion), an execution error (error code: -200) is produced.
Example:
"CALC:MARK2:MIN:RIGH"
'Positions marker 2 in screen A to the next higher minimum value to the right of the
current value.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:PEXCursion
<numeric_value>
This command defines the peak excursion, i.e. the spacing below a trace maximum which must be
attained before a new maximum is recognized, or the spacing above a trace minimum which must be
attained before a new minimum is recognized. The set value is valid for all markers and delta markers.
The unit depends on the selected operating mode.
Example:
"CALC:MARK:PEXC 10dB"
'Defines peak excursion 10 dB.
Characteristics: *RST value: 6dB
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
The numeric suffix in MARKer<1...4> is irrelevant.
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>[:STATe]
ON | OFF
This command switches on or off the selected marker. If no indication is made, marker 1 is selected
automatically. If marker 2, 3 or 4 is selected and used as a delta marker, it is switched to marker mode.
The measurement windows are selected via CALCulate1 (screen A) or 2 (screen B).
Example:
"CALC:MARK3 ON"
'Switches marker 3 in screen A on or to marker mode.
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:TRACe
1 to 3
This command assigns the selected marker (1...4) to the indicated measurement curve. The
corresponding trace must be active, i.e. its status must be different from "BLANK".
If necessary, the corresponding marker is switched on prior to the assignment.
The measurement windows are selected via CALCulate1 (screen A) or 2 (screen B).
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Remote Control – Description of Commands
CALCulate Subsystem
Example:
"CALC:MARK3:TRAC 2"
'Assigns marker 3 in screen A to trace 2.
"CALC2:MARK:TRAC 3"
'Assigns marker 1 in screen B to trace 3.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:X
0 to MAX (frequency | sweep time)
This command positions the selected marker to the indicated :
•
frequency (span > 0)
•
time (span = 0)
•
level (APD/CCDF measurement)
If marker 2, 3 or 4 is selected and used as delta marker, it is switched to marker mode.
The measurement windows are selected via CALCulate1 (screen A) or 2 (screen B).
Example:
"CALC1:MARK2:X 10.7MHz"
'Positions marker 2 in screen A to frequency 10.7 MHz.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:X:SLIMits:LEFT
0 to MAX (frequency | sweep time)
This command sets the left limit of the search range for markers and delta markers in the selected
measurement window. Depending on the x-axis domain, the indicated value defines:
•
frequency (span > 0)
•
time (span = 0)
The function is independent of the selection of a marker, i.e. the numeric suffix in MARKer<1...4> is
irrelevant.
If the time domain power measurement is active, this command limits the evaluation range to the trace.
The function is only available if the search limit for marker and delta marker is
switched on (CALC:MARK:X:SLIM ON).
Example:
"CALC:MARK:X:SLIM ON"
'Switches the search limit function on for screen A.
"CALC:MARK:X:SLIM:LEFT 10MHz"
'Sets the left limit of the search range in screen A to 10 MHz.
Characteristics: *RST value: - (is set to the left diagram border on switching on search limits)
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
6.51
A
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Remote Control – Description of Commands
CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:X:SLIMits:RIGHt
0 to MAX (frequency | sweep time)
This command sets the right limit of the search range for markers and delta markers in the selected
measurement window. Depending on the x-axis domain the indicated value defines a frequency (span
> 0) or time (span = 0). The function is independent of the selection of a marker, i.e. the numeric suffix
in MARKer<1...4> is irrelevant.
If the time domain power measurement is active, this command limits the evaluation range to the trace.
The function is only available if the search limit for marker and delta marker is
switched on (CALC:MARK:X:SLIM ON).
Example:
"CALC:MARK:X:SLIM ON"
'Switches the search limit function on for screen A.
"CALC:MARK:X:SLIM:RIGH 20MHz"
'Sets the right limit of the search range in screen A to 20 MHz.
Characteristics: *RST value: - (is set to the right diagram border on switching on search limits)
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:X:SLIMits[:STATe] ON | OFF
This command switches between a limited (ON) and unlimited (OFF) search range in the selected
measurement window. The function is independent of the selection of a marker, i.e. the numeric suffix
MARKer<1...4> is irrelevant.
If the time domain power measurement is active, this command limits the evaluation range on the
trace.
Example:
"CALC:MARK:X:SLIM ON"
'Switches on search limitation in screen A.
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:X:SSIZe
STANdard | POINts
This command defines the marker step size when you change the position of a marker with the rotary
knob.
The numeric suffixes at CALCulate and MARKer are irrelevant.
Parameter:
STANdard
The step size of the marker is one pixel.
POINts
The step size of the marker is one sweep point.
The number of sweep points in a trace depends on the number of sweep points you
have set.
Example:
"CALC:MARK:X:SSIZ POIN"
'The step size of the marker is one sweep point.
Characteristics: *RST value: STANdard
SCPI: device-specific
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Remote Control – Description of Commands
CALCulate Subsystem
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:Y:PERCent
0 to100%
This command positions the selected marker in the selected window to the given probability. If marker
2, 3 or 4 is selected and used as a delta marker, it is switched to marker mode.
The command is only available with the CCDF measurement switched on.
The associated level value can be determined with the CALC:MARK:X? command.
Example:
"CALC1:MARK:Y:PERC 95PCT"
'Positions marker 1 in screen A to a 'probability of 95%.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:Y?
This command queries the measured value of the selected marker in the indicated measurement
window. The corresponding marker is activated before or switched to marker mode, if necessary.
To obtain a valid query result, a complete sweep with synchronization to the sweep end must be
performed between the activation of the marker and the query of the y value. This is only possible in
single-sweep mode.
The query result is output in the unit determined with the CALCulate<1|2>:UNIT:POWer command.
Only with linear level scaling is the output in %.
Example:
"INIT:CONT OFF"
'Switches to single-sweep mode.
"CALC:MARK2 ON"
'Switches marker 2 in screen A.
"INIT;*WAI"
'Starts a sweep and waits for the end.
"CALC:MARK2:Y?"
'Outputs the measured value of marker 2 in screen A.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
6.53
A
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Remote Control – Description of Commands
CALCulate Subsystem
6.5.6.2
CALCulate:MARKer:FUNCtion Subsystem
The measurement window is selected by CALCulate 1 (screen A) or 2 (screen B).
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:CENTer
This command sets the center frequency of the selected measurement window equal to the frequency
of the indicated marker.
If marker 2, 3 or 4 is selected and used as delta marker, it is switched to the marker mode.
Example:
"CALC:MARK2:FUNC:CENT"
'Sets the center frequency of screen A to the frequency of marker 2.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A-F
This command is an "event" and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:CSTep
This command sets the step width of the center frequency in the selected measurement window to the
X value of the current marker.
If marker 2, 3 or 4 is selected and used as delta marker, it is switched to the marker mode.
Example:
"CALC2:MARK3:FUNC:CST"
'Sets the center frequency of screen B to the same value as the frequency of
marker 3.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A-F
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:DEModulation:CONTinuous ON | OFF
This command switches on or off the continuous demodulation in the frequency domain (span >0) in
the selected measurement window. Thus acoustic monitoring of the signals can be performed in the
frequency domain. The function does not depend on the selected marker, i.e. the numeric suffix <1...4>
is irrelevant.
Example:
"CALC2:MARK3:FUNC:DEM:CONT ON"
'Switches on the continuous demodulation in screen B.
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
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Remote Control – Description of Commands
CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:DEModulation:HOLDoff
10ms to 1000s
This command defines the hold time at the marker position for the demodulation in the frequency
domain (span > 0). The setting is independent of the measurement window and the selected marker,
i.e. the suffixes <1|2> and <1...4> are irrelevant
Example:
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:DEM:HOLD 3s"
Characteristics: *RST value: - (DEModulation is set to OFF)
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:DEModulation:SELect
AM | FM
This command selects the demodulation type for the audio demodulator. The command is independent
of the measurement window and of the selected marker, i.e. suffixes 1|2 and 1...4 are irrelevant.
Example:
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:DEM:SEL FM"
Characteristics: *RST value: AM
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:DEModulation:SQUelch:LEVel
0 to 100 PCT
This command sets the trigger level for the squelch function.
Example:
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:DEM:SQU ON"
'Switches on the sqelch function.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:DEM:SQU:LEV 80 PCT"
’Sets the squelch to 80%.
Characteristics: *RST value: 50PCT
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:DEModulation:SQUelch[:STATe]
ON | OFF
This command enables or disables the squelch function for the audio output.
This function is linked to the video trigger. Therefore, Gated Trigger is not available.
Example:
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:DEM:SQU ON"
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
Mode:
6.55
A
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Remote Control – Description of Commands
CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:DEModulation[:STATe]
ON | OFF
This command switches on or off the audio demodulator when the indicated marker is reached in the
selected measurement window. In the frequency domain (span > 0) the hold time can be defined at
the corresponding marker position with CALCulate:MARKer:FUNCtion: DEModulation:HOLD.
In the time domain (span = 0) the demodulation is permanently active.
Example:
"CALC2:MARK3:FUNC:DEM ON"
'Switches on the demodulation for marker 3 in screen B.
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:MDEPth:RESult?
This command queries the AM modulation depth in the indicated measurement window.
A complete sweep with synchronization to sweep end must be performed between switching on the
function and querying the measured value to obtain a valid query result. This is only possible in singlesweep mode.
The numeric suffix <1...4> of :MARKer is irrelevant for this command.
Example:
"INIT:CONT OFF"
'Switches to single-sweep mode.
"CALC:MARK:X 10MHZ"
'Sets the reference marker (marker 1) to the carrier signal at 10 MHz.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:MDEP ON"
'Switches on the modulation depth measurement in screen A.
"INIT;*WAI"
'Starts a sweep and waits for the end.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:MDEP:RES?"
'Outputs the measured value of screen A.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
This command is only a query and therefore has no *RST value.
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:MDEPth[:STATe]
This command switches on the measurement of the AM modulation depth. An AM-modulated carrier
is required on the screen for correct operation. If necessary, marker 1 is previously activated and set
to the largest signal available.
The level value of marker 1 is regarded as the carrier level. On activating the function, marker 2 and
marker 3 are automatically set as delta markers symmetrically to the carrier to the adjacent maxima of
the trace.
If the position of delta marker 2 is changed, delta marker 3 is moved symmetrically with respect to the
reference marker (marker 1). If the position of delta marker 3 is changed, fine adjustment can be
performed independently of delta marker 2.
The R&S FSQ calculates the power at the marker positions from the measured levels.
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CALCulate Subsystem
The AM modulation depth is calculated from the ratio of power values at the reference marker and the
delta markers. If the two AM sidebands differ in power, the average value of the two power values is
used for calculating the AM modulation depth.
The numeric suffix <1...4> of :MARKer is irrelevant with this command.
Example:
"CALC:MARK:X 10MHZ"
'Sets the reference marker (marker 1) to the carrier signal at 10 MHz
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:MDEP ON"
'Switches on the modulation depth measurement in screen A.
"CALC:DELT2:X 10KHZ"
'Sets delta markers 2 and 3 to the signals at 10 kHz from the carrier signal
"CALC:DELT3:X 9.999KHZ"
'Corrects the position of delta marker 3 relative to delta marker 2.
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:MSUMmary?
time>, <period>, < # of pulses to measure>
<time offset of first pulse>, <measurement
The commands of this subsystem are used to determine the power of a sequence of signal pulses
having the same interval. The number of pulses to be measured as well as the measurement time and
the period can be set. To define the position of the first pulse in the trace, a suitable offset can be
entered.
The evaluation is performed on the measurement data of a previously recorded trace. The data
recorded during the set measurement time is combined to a measured value for each pulse according
to the detector specified and the indicated number of results is output as a list.
P
Measurement
Time
Measurement
Time
Period
Measurement
Time
Period
t
Time offset of
first pulse
Trace start
TRACE 1 of the selected screen is always used by the function. The suffix of MARKer will be ignored.
Example:
"DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:RLEV –10dBm"
'Sets the reference level to 10 dBm
"INP:ATT 30 dB"
'Sets the input attenuation to 30 dB
"FREQ:CENT 935.2MHz;SPAN 0Hz"
'Sets the receive frequency to 935.2 MHz and the span to 0 Hz
"BAND:RES 1MHz;VID 3MHz"
'Sets the resolution bandwidth to 1 MHz and the video bandwidth to 3 MHz
6.57
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Remote Control – Description of Commands
CALCulate Subsystem
"DET RMS"
'Sets the RMS detector
"TRIG:SOUR VID;LEV:VID 50 PCT"
'Selects the trigger source VIDeo and sets the level of the video trigger source to
50 PCT
"SWE:TIME 50ms"
'Sets the sweep time to 50 ms
"INIT;*WAI"
'Starts the measurement with synchronization
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:MSUM? 50US,450US,576.9US,8"
'Queries 8 bursts with an offset of 50 µs, a test time of 450 µs and a period of
576.9 µs
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A-T
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:NDBDown
<numeric_value>
This command defines the level spacing of the two delta markers to the right and left of marker 1 in the
selected measurement window. Marker 1 is always used as the reference marker. The numeric suffix
<1...4> is irrelevant for this command.
The temporary markers T1 and T2 are positioned by n dB below the active reference marker. The
frequency spacing of these markers can be queried with CALCulate:MARKer:FUNCtion:
NDBDown:RESult?.
If a negative value is entered than the markers are placed n dB above the active reference marker.
This is then a n dB up function which can be used for notch filter measurements:
Example:
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:NDBD 3dB"
'Sets the level spacing in screen A to 3 dB.
Characteristics: *RST value: 6dB
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:NDBDown:FREQuency?
This command queries the two frequencies of the N-dB-down marker in the selected measurement
window. The numeric suffix <1...4> is irrelevant for this command. The two frequency values are
separated by comma and output in ascending order.
A complete sweep with synchronization to sweep end must be performed between switching on the
function and querying the measured value to obtain a valid query result. This is only possible in singlesweep mode.
Example:
"INIT:CONT OFF"
'Switches to single-sweep mode.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:NDBD ON"
'Switches on the n-dB-down function in screen A.
"INIT;*WAI"
'Starts a sweep and waits for the end.
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CALCulate Subsystem
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:NDBD:FREQ?"
'Outputs the frequencies of the temporary markers in screen A.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
This command is only a query and therefore has no *RST value.
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:NDBDown:RESult?
This command queries the frequency spacing (bandwidth) of the N-dB-down markers in the selected
measurement window. The numeric suffix <1...4> is irrelevant for this command.
A complete sweep with synchronization to sweep end must be performed between switching on the
function and querying the measured value in order to obtain a valid query result. This is only possible
in single-sweep mode.
Example:
"INIT:CONT OFF"
'Switches to single-sweep mode.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:NDBD ON"
'Switches on the n-dB-down function in screen A.
"INIT;*WAI"
'Starts a sweep and waits for the end.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:NDBD:RES?"
'Outputs the measured value of screen A.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
This command is only a query and therefore has no *RST value.
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:NDBDown:STATe
ON | OFF
This command switches the "N dB Down" function on or off in the selected measurement window.
Marker 1 is activated first, if necessary. The numeric suffix <1...4> is irrelevant for this command.
Example:
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:NDBD:STAT ON"
'Switches on the N-dB-down function in screen A.
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:NDBDown:TIME?
This command queries the two time values of the "N dB Down" markers in the specified measurement
window. The suffix <1...4> has no meaning with this command. The two time values are output in
ascending order, separated by commas.
To obtain a valid query response, a complete sweep with synchronization to the sweep end must have
been performed in between activating the function and querying the measurement results. This is
possible only in single-sweep mode.
Example:
6.59
"INIT:CONT OFF"
'Switches to single-sweep mode.
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R&S FSQ
Remote Control – Description of Commands
CALCulate Subsystem
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:NDBD ON"
'Switches on the "N dB Down" function in screen A.
"INIT;*WAI"
'Starts a sweep and waits for the end.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:NDBD:TIME?"
'Outputs the time values of the temporary markers in screen A.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A-T
This command is a query only and thus has no *RST value
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:NOISe:RESult?
This command queries the result of the noise measurement.
A complete sweep with synchronization to the sweep end must be performed between switching on
the function and querying the measured value in order to obtain a valid query result. This is only
possible in single-sweep mode.
Example:
"INIT:CONT OFF"
'Switches to single-sweep mode.
"CALC:MARK2 ON"
'Switches on marker 2 in screen A.
"CALC:MARK2:FUNC:NOIS ON"
'Switches on noise measurement for marker 2.
"INIT;*WAI"
'Starts a sweep and waits for the end.
"CALC:MARK2:FUNC:NOIS:RES?"
'Outputs the noise result of marker 2 in screen A.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:NOISe[:STATe]
ON | OFF
This command switches the noise measurement on or off for all markers of the indicated measurement
window. The noise power density is measured at the position of the markers. The result can be queried
with CALCulate:MARKer:FUNCtion:NOISe:RESult?.
Example:
"CALC2:MARK:FUNC:NOIS ON"
'Switches on the noise measurement for screen B.
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
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Remote Control – Description of Commands
CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:REFerence
This command sets the reference level to the power measured by the indicated marker. If the selected
marker was used as delta marker, it is switched to marker mode.
Example:
"CALC:MARK2:FUNC:REF"
'Sets the reference level of screen A to the level of marker 2.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:TOI:MARKer
CALCulate | SEARch
This command controls the positioning of the intercept markers 3 and 4 for TOI measurement, based
on the two carrier signals.
•
CALCulate:
Calculates the intermodulation product frequencies.
•
SEARch:
Performs a local peak search near the expected intermodulation product frequencies.
Example:
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:TOI:MARK SEAR"
' selects TOI marker search mode
Characteristics: *RST value: CALC
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:TOI:RESult?
This command queries the third-order intercept point measurement in the indicated measurement
window.
A complete sweep with synchronization to sweep end must be performed between switching on the
function and querying the measured value to obtain a valid query result. This is only possible in singlesweep mode.
The numeric suffix <1...4> of :MARKer is irrelevant of this command.
Example:
"INIT:CONT OFF"
'Switches to single-sweep mode.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:TOI ON"
'Switches the intercept measurement in screen A.
"INIT;*WAI"
'Starts a sweep and waits for the end.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:TOI:RES?"
'Outputs the measured value of screen A.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
This command is only a query and therefore has no *RST value.
6.61
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Remote Control – Description of Commands
CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:TOI[:STATe]
ON | OFF
This command initiates the measurement of the third-order intercept point.
A two-tone signal with equal carrier levels is expected at the RF input of the instrument. Marker 1 and
marker 2 (both normal markers) are set to the maximum of the two signals. Delta marker 3 and delta
marker 4 are positioned to the intermodulation products. The delta markers can be modified separately
afterwards with the commands CALCulate:DELTamarker3:X and CALCulate:DELTamarker4:
X.
The third-order intercept is calculated from the level spacing between the normal markers and the delta
markers.
The numeric suffix <1...4> of :MARKer is irrelevant for this command.
Example:
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:TOI ON"
'Switches on the measurement of the third-order intercept in screen A.
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:ZOOM
<numeric_value>
This command defines the range to be zoomed around marker 1 in the selected measurement window.
Marker 1 is activated first, if necessary.
The subsequent frequency sweep is stopped at the marker position and the frequency of the signal is
counted. This frequency becomes the new center frequency, and the zoomed span is set. In order to
recognize the end of the operation the synchronization to the sweep end should be activated. This is
only possible in single-sweep mode.
Example:
"INIT:CONT OFF"
'Switches to single-sweep mode
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:ZOOM 1kHz;*WAI"
'Activates zooming in screen A and waits for its end.
for phase noise mode
"CALC1:MARK1:FUNC:ZOOM 10"
'Zooms in around marker 1 by a factor of 10.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
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Remote Control – Description of Commands
CALCulate Subsystem
6.5.6.3
CALCulate:MARKer:FUNCtion:FPEaks Subsystem
The CALCulate:MARKer:FUNCtion:FPEaks subsystem controls the marker peak list and its functions.
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:FPEaks:ANNotation:LABel[:STATe]
ON | OFF
This command activates and deactivates the peak list marker label.
Note that the peak list marker symbols have to active in order for the labels to appear. You can activate
them with CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:FPEaks:ANNotation:MARKer[:STATe].
The numeric suffix at MARKer is irrelevant.
Example:
"INIT:CONT OFF"
'activates single sweep mode.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE ON"
'turns the peak list on.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE:SEAR:AUTO ON"
'makes the R&S FSQ perform a peak search after the sweep.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE:LIST:SIZE 5"
'adds five peaks to the list.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE:SORT Y"
'sorts the list by y values in decreasing order.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE:ANN:MARK ON"
'activates peak list markers.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE:ANN:LAB ON"
'activates peak list marker labels.
"INIT;*WAI"
'starts the measurement and synchronizes to end.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE:COUN?"
'returns the number of detected peaks.
"CALC:MARK:FUNK:FPE:Y?"
'returns the level of the peaks,
e.g. '-37.5,-58.3,-59.6'.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE:X?"
'returns the horizontal position of the peaks,
'e.g. '107.5E6, 153.8E6, 187,9E6'.
"TRAC? FPE"
'returns the peak list.
Characteristics: *RST value: ON
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
6.63
A
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R&S FSQ
Remote Control – Description of Commands
CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:FPEaks:ANNotation:MARKer[:STATe]
ON | OFF
This command activates and deactivates the peak list markers (visualized as crosses).
The numeric suffix at MARKer is irrelevant.
Example:
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE ON"
'turns the peak list on.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE:ANN:MARK ON"
'activates peak list markers.
Characteristics: *RST value: ON
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:FPEaks:COUNt?
This query reads out the number of maxima found during the search. If no search for maxima has been
performed, 0 is returned.
The numeric suffix at MARKer is irrelevant.
Example:
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE 3"
'searches the 3 highest maxima for trace 1
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE:COUN?"
'queries the number of maxima found
Characteristics: *RST value: -SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:FPEaks[:IMMediate] <numeric_value>
This command searches the selected trace for the indicated number of maxima. The results are
entered in a list and can be queried with commands CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPEaks:X? and CALC:
MARK:FUNC:FPEaks:Y?. The number of maxima found can be queried with CALC:MARK:FUNC:
FPEaks:COUNt?. The trace to be examined is selected with CALC:MARK:TRACe. The order of the
results in the list can be defined with CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPEaks:SORT.
The number of maxima found depends on the waveform and value set for the Peak Excursion
parameter (CALC:MARK:PEXC), however, a maximum number of 50 maxima are determined. Only the
signals which exceed their surrounding values at least by the value indicated by the peak excursion
parameter will be recognized as maxima. Therefore, the number of maxima found is not automatically
the same as the number of maxima desired.
The numeric suffix at MARKer is irrelevant.
Example:
"INIT:CONT OFF"
'switches to single-sweep mode
"INIT;*WAI"
'starts measurement and synchronizes to end
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE:SORT X"
'sets the sort mode to increasing X values
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE 3"
'searches the 3 highest maxima
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Remote Control – Description of Commands
CALCulate Subsystem
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE:COUN?"
'queries the number of maxima found
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE:Y?"
'queries the level of maxima found
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE:X?"
'queries the frequencies (span <> 0) or time (span = 0) of maxima found.
Characteristics: *RST value: -SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:FPEaks:LIST:SIZE
1 to 50
This command sets the maximum length of the peak list.
Alternately to this command you can use CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:FPEaks[:
IMMediate] to set the number of peaks.
The number of maxima found depends on the waveform and value set for the Peak Excursion
parameter (CALC:MARK:PEXC), however, a maximum number of 50 maxima are determined. Only the
signals which exceed their surrounding values at least by the value indicated by the peak excursion
parameter will be recognized as maxima. Therefore, the number of maxima found is not automatically
the same as the number of maxima desired.
The numeric suffix at MARKer is irrelevant.
Example:
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE:LIST:SIZE 12"
'searches for 12 peaks.
Characteristics: *RST value: -SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:FPEaks:SEARch:AUTO
ON | OFF
This command activates and deactivates automatic peaks search after a sweep is done.
The numeric suffix at MARKer is irrelevant.
Example:
"INIT:CONT OFF"
'starts single sweep mode.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE:STAT ON"
'activate peak list.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE:SEAR:AUTO ON"
'starts peak list auto search.
Characteristics: *RST value: ON
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
6.65
A
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R&S FSQ
Remote Control – Description of Commands
CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:FPEaks:SORT
X|Y
This command sets the sort mode for the search for maxima.
Parameter:
X: the maxima are sorted in the list of responses according to increasing X values
Y: the maxima are sorted in the list of responses according to decreasing Y values
The numeric suffix at MARKer is irrelevant.
Example:
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE:SORT Y"
'sets the sort mode to decreasing y values
Characteristics: *RST value: -SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:FPEaks:STATe
ON | OFF
This command activates or deactivates the peak list.
Once a search has been performed, the peak list is available even if the peak list is turned off (state
OFF). The following commands therefore still return results:
•
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:FPEaks:COUNt?
•
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:FPEaks:X?
•
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:FPEaks:Y?
•
TRACe<1|2>[:DATA] FPEaks
Example:
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE:STAT ON"
activates the peak list.
"CALC;MARK:FUNC:FPE:LIST:SIZE 10"
sets the number of peaks to 10.
"INIT;*WAI"
starts a measurement ans synchronizes to the end of the sweep.
"TRAC? FPE"
queries the peak list
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE:STAT OFF"
turns the peak list off.
"TRAC? FPE"
queries the peak list stored in the memory.
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
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Remote Control – Description of Commands
CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:FPEaks:X?
This query reads out the list of X values of the maxima found. The number of available values can be
queried with CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPEaks:COUNt?.
With sort mode X, the X values are in increasing order; with sort mode Y the order corresponds to the
decreasing order of the Y values.
Example:
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE:SORT Y"
'sets the sort mode to decreasing y values
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE 3"
'searches the 3 highest maxima for trace 1
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE:COUN?"
'queries the number of maxima found
"CALC:MARK:FPE:FUNC:X?"
'queries the frequencies (span <> 0) or time (span = 0) of the maxima found.
Return value:
"107.5E6,153.8E6,187.9E6"
'frequencies in increasing order
"2.05E-3,2.37E-3, 3.71e-3"
'times in increasing order
Characteristics: *RST value: -SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:FPEaks:Y?
This query reads out the list of X values of the maxima found. The number of available values can be
queried with CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPEaks:COUNt?.
With sort mode X, the X values are in increasing order; with sort mode Y the order corresponds to the
decreasing order of the Y values.
Example:
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE:SORT Y"
'sets the sort mode to decreasing y values
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE 3"
'searches the 3 highest maxima for trace 1
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE:COUN?"
'queries the number of maxima found
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE:Y?"
'queries the levels of the maxima found.
Return value:
"-37.5,-58.3,-59.6"
'level in decreasing order
Characteristics: *RST value: -SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
6.67
A
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R&S FSQ
Remote Control – Description of Commands
CALCulate Subsystem
6.5.6.4
CALCulate:MARKer:FUNCtion:HARMonics Subsystem
The CALCulate:MARKer:FUNCtion:HARMonics subsystem contains the commands for Harmonic Distortion measurement
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:HARMonics:BANDwidth:AUTO
ON | OFF
This command specifies whether the resolution bandwidth of the 2nd to the nth harmonic should be
identical to the bandwidth of the first harmonic (OFF) or to the next largest bandwidth (corresponding
to the harmonic) of the multiple of the bandwidth of the first harmonic (ON).
Example:
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:HARM:BAND:AUTO OFF"
'Switches automatic bandwidth expansion off.
Characteristics: *RST value: ON
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A-F, A-T
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:HARMonics:BANDwidth[:LIST]?
This command returns the resolution bandwidth values used by the harmonic measurment. A separate
value for every harmonic frequency is automatically calculated. It is possible to query the calculated
values with this command.
The function is independent of the marker selection, i.e. the suffix <1|2> or <1...4> of CALCulate or
MARKer is irrelevant.
Example:
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:HARM:BAND?"
' Returns the used bandwidth values of the harmonics measurement.
Characteristics: *RST value:SCPI: device-specific
This command is a query and therefore has no *RST value.
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:HARMonics:DISTortion? TOTal
This command queries the results of the total harmonic distortion (THD).
A complete sweep with synchronization to sweep end should be performed between switching on the
function and querying the measured value to obtain a valid query result. This is only possible in the
single-sweep mode.
The function is independent of the marker selection, i.e. the suffix <1|2> or <1...4> of CALCulate
or MARKer is irrelevant.
Example:
"INIT:CONT OFF"
’Switches to single-sweep mode.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:HARM:NHARM 3"
'Sets the number of harmonics to 3.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:HARM ON"
’Switches on the measurement of harmonics.
"INIT;*WAI"
’Starts a sweep and waits for the end.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:HARM:DIST? TOT"
’Outputs the total harmonic distortion in % and dB.
Characteristics: *RST value: -SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A-F, A-T
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Remote Control – Description of Commands
CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:HARMonics:LIST?
This command reads out the list of harmonics. The first value is the absolute power of the first
harmonic in the unit set via UNIT. The other values are relative to the carrier signal and are output
in dB.
The numeric values are output, separated by commas. The number corresponds to that of the
harmonics to be measured, which are defined with CALC:MARK:FUNC:HARM:NHARM.
A complete sweep with synchronization to sweep end should be performed between switching on the
function and querying the measured value to obtain a valid query result. This is only possible in the
single-sweep mode.
The function is independent of the marker selection, i.e. the suffix <1|2> or <1...4> of CALCulate
or MARKer is irrelevant.
Example:
"INIT:CONT OFF"
’Switches to single-sweep mode.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:HARM:NHARM 3"
'Sets the number of harmonics to 3.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:HARM ON"
’Switches on the measurement of harmonics.
"INIT;*WAI"
’Starts a sweep and waits for the end.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:HARM:LIST?"
’Outputs the three measured harmonics, separated by commas.
Characteristics: *RST value: -SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A-F, A-T
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:HARMonics:NHARmonics
1 to 26
This command defines the number of harmonics of a carrier signal to be measured. The function is
independent of the marker selection, i.e. the suffix <1|2> or <1...4> of CALCulate or MARKer is
irrelevant.
Example:
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:HARM:NHARM 3"
'Sets the number of harmonics to be measured to 3.
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
6.69
A-F
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R&S FSQ
Remote Control – Description of Commands
CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:HARMonics:PRESet
This command optimizes the device settings depending on the mode in which the harmonic
measurement was started:
If the harmonic measurement was started in the frequency domain (span > 0), the frequency and the
level of the first harmonic are calculated, from which the measurement list is set up.
If the measurement was started in the time domain (span = 0), the frequency of the first harmonic is
not changed. The level, however, is not calculated.
The function is independent of the marker selection, i.e. the suffix <1|2> or <1...4> of CALCulate
or MARKer is irrelevant.
Example:
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:HARM:PRES"
'Optimizes the device setting for the measurement of harmonics.
Characteristics: *RST value: -SCPI: device-specific
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
Mode:
A-F, A-T
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:HARMonics[:STATe]
ON | OFF
This command switches on or off the measurement of the harmonics of a carrier signal. The carrier
signal is the first harmonic. The function is independent of the marker selection, i.e. the suffix <1|2>
or <1...4> of CALCulate or MARKer is irrelevant. It is only available in the frequency domain (span >
0).
If the measurement is started in the frequency domain (span > 0), the last span will define the search
range for the first harmonic. The level for the first harmonic will also be calculated in the frequency
domain. However, the measurement can also be started in the time domain (span = 0), in which case
the center frequency and the level used will remain unchanged.
Example:
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:HARM ON"
'Switches on the measurement of harmonics.
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A-F^
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Remote Control – Description of Commands
CALCulate Subsystem
6.5.6.5
CALCulate:MARKer:FUNCtion:POWer Subsystem
The CALCulate:MARKer:FUNCtion:POWER subsystem contains the commands for control of power
measurement.
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:POWer:MODE
WRITe | MAXHold
This command selects the Clear Write or Maxhold for Channel Power values.
Example:
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:MODE MAXH"
'Maxhold for Channel Power values
Characteristics: *RST value: WRITe
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A-F
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:POWer:PRESet NADC | TETRA | PDC | PHS | CDPD |
FWCDma | RWCDma | F8CDma | R8CDma | F19Cdma | R19Cdma | FW3Gppcdma | RW3Gppcdma
| D2CDma | S2CDma | M2CDma | FIS95A | RIS95A | FIS95C0 | RIS95C0 | FJ008 | RJ008 | FIS95C1
| RIS95C1 | TCDMa | NONE | AWLan | BWLan | WIMax | WIBro | EUTRa | REUTra | <string>'
This command selects the power measurement setting for a standard in the indicated measurement
window and previously switches on the corresponding measurement, if required. The function is
independent of the marker selection, i.e. the numeric suffix <1...4> of MARKer is irrelevant.
The configuration for a standard comprises of the parameters weighting filter, channel bandwidth and
spacing, resolution and video bandwidth, as well as detector and sweep time
Meaning of the CDMA standard abbreviations:
FIS95A, F8CDma
CDMA IS95A forward
RIS95A, R8CDma
CDMA IS95A reverse
FJ008, F19CDma
CDMA J-STD008 forward
RJ008, R19CDma
CDMA J-STD008 reverse
FIS95C0
CDMA IS95C Class 0 forward
RIS95C0
CDMA IS95C Class 0 reverse
FIS95C1
CDMA IS95C Class 1 forward
FIS95R1
CDMA IS95C Class 1 reverse
FWCDma
W-CDMA 4.096 MHz forward
RWCDma
W-CDMA 4.096 MHz reverse
FW3Gppcdma
W-CDMA 3.84 MHz forward
RW3Gppcdma
W-CDMA 3.84 MHz reverse
D2CDma
CDMA2000 direct sequence
S2CDma
CDMA2000 MC1 multi carrier with 1 carrier
M2CDma
CDMA2000 MC3 multi carrier with 3 carriers
TCDMa
TD-SCDMA
AWLan
WLAN 802.11a
BWLan
WLAN 802.11b
WIMax
WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) IEEE 802.16-2004/Cor1-2005
6.71
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Remote Control – Description of Commands
CALCulate Subsystem
WIBro
WiMAX WiBro (Wireless Broadband) IEEE 802.16-2004/Cor1-2005
EUTRa
E-UTRA/LTE Square
Use this standard setting to measure the assumed adjacent channel carrier configuration, E-UTRA of
same BW. In this mode, on all channels a square filter is applied.
REUTra
E-UTRA/LTE Square/RRC
Use this standard setting to measure the assumed adjacent channel carrier configuration, 1.28, 3.84, 7.68,
Mcps UTRA. In this mode, a square filter is applied to the Tx channel and a RRC filter is applied to the
adjacent, alternate channels.
<string>
<string> is the file name of a customized standard that has been saved with SAVE AS USER STD.
The settings for standards IS95A and C differ as far as the calculation method of
channel spacings is concerned. For IS95A and J-STD008 the spacing is calculated from the center of the main channel to the center of the corresponding adjacent channel, for IS95C from the center of the main channel to the nearest border
of the adjacent channel.
Example:
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:PRES BWLan"
Selects the standard setting for WLAN 802.11b.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A-F
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:POWer:RESult:PHZ
ON | OFF
This command switches the query response of the power measurement results in the indicated
measurement window between output of absolute values (OFF) and output referred to the
measurement bandwidth (ON).
The measurement results are output with CALCulate:MARKer:FUNCtion:POWer:RESult?
Parameter:
ON: Results output referred to measurement bandwidth.
OFF: Results output in absolute values.
Example of channel/adjacent channel measurement:
"SENS2:POW:ACH:ACP 3"
'Sets the number of adjacent channels in screen B to 3.
"SENS2:POW:ACH:BAND 30KHZ"
'Sets the bandwidth of the main channel to 30 kHz.
"SENS2:POW:ACH:BAND:ACH 40KHZ"
'Sets the bandwidth of all adjacent channels to 40 kHz.
"SENS2:POW:ACH:BAND:ALT1 50KHZ"
'Sets the bandwidth of all alternate adjacent channels to
50 kHz.
"SENS2:POW:ACH:BAND:ALT2 60KHZ"
'Sets the bandwidth of alternate adjacent channel 2 to
60 kHz.
"SENS2:POW:ACH:SPAC 30KHZ"
'Sets the spacing between channel and adjacent channel as well as between all adjacent channels to 30 kHz.
"SENS2:POW:ACH:SPAC:ALT1 40KHZ"
'Sets the spacing between adjacent channel and alternate adjacent channel as well as between all alternate
adjacent channels to 40 kHz.
"SENS2:POW:ACH:SPAC:ALT2 50KHZ"
'Sets the spacing between alternate adjacent channel 1
and alternate adjacent channel 2 to 50 kHz.
"SENS2:POW:ACH:MODE ABS"
'Switches on absolute power measurement.
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CALCulate Subsystem
"CALC2:MARK:FUNC:POW:SEL ACP"
'Switches the adjacent channel power measurement in
screen B.
"INIT:CONT OFF"
'Switches to single-sweep mode.
"INIT;*WAI"
'Starts a sweep and waits for the end.
"CALC2:MARK:FUNC:POW:RES:PHZ ON"
'Output of results referred to the channel bandwidth.
"CALC2:MARK:FUNC:POW:RES? ACP"
'Queries the result of the adjacent channel power measurement in screen B referred to the channel bandwidth.
If only the channel power is to be measured, all commands for defining the bandwidths of adjacent
channels as well as the channel spacings are not necessary. The number of adjacent channels is set
to 0 with SENS2:POW:ACH:ACP 0.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A-F
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:POWer:RESult? ACPower | AOBandwidth |
AOBWidth | CPOWer | MCACpower | OBANdwidth | OBWidth | CN | CN0
This command queries the result of the power measurement performed in the selected window.
If necessary, the measurement is switched on prior to the query.
The channel spacings and channel bandwidths are configured in the SENSe:POWer:ACHannel
subsystem.
To obtain a valid result, a complete sweep with synchronization to the end of the sweep must be
performed before a query is output. Synchronization is possible only in the single-sweep mode.
The parameters CN and CN0 are available from firmware version 1.40.
Parameters:
ACPower:
adjacent channel power measurement
Results are output in the following sequence, separated by commas:
1. Power of transmission channel
2. Power of lower adjacent channel
3. Power of upper adjacent channel
4. Power of lower alternate channel 1
5. Power of upper alternate channel 1
6. Power of lower alternate channel 2
7. Power of upper alternate channel 2
The number of measured values returned depends on the number of adjacent/
alternate channels selected with SENSe:POWer:ACHannel:ACPairs.
With logarithmic scaling (RANGE LOG), the power is output in the currently
selected level unit; with linear scaling (RANGE LIN dB or LIN %), the power is
output in W. If SENSe:POWer:ACHannel:MODE REL is selected, the adjacent/
alternate-channel power is output in dB.
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CALCulate Subsystem
AOBandwidth |
AOBWidth
Measurement of occupied bandwidth, all results. The results include the left and
right frequency/level information
Results are output in the following sequence, separated by commas:
1. Occupied bandwidth in Hz
2. T1 marker position in Hz (left marker)
3. T1 marker level
4. T2 marker position in Hz (right marker)
5. T2 marker level
Note:
The Occupied Bandwidth is marker position T2 - T1
CPOWer:
Channel power measurement
With logarithmic scaling (RANGE LOG), the channel power is output in the currently selected level unit; with linear scaling (RANGE LIN dB or LIN %), the channel power is output in W.
MCACpower:
Channel/adjacent channel power measurement with several carrier signals
Results are output in the following sequence, separated by commas:
1. Power of carrier signal 1
2. Power of carrier signal 2
3. Power of carrier signal 3
4. Power of carrier signal 4
5. Power of carrier signal 5
6. Power of carrier signal 6
7. Power of carrier signal 7
8. Power of carrier signal 8
9. Power of carrier signal 9
10.Power of carrier signal 10
11. Power of carrier signal 11
12.Power of carrier signal 12
13.Total power of all carrier signals
14.Power of lower adjacent channel
15.Power of upper adjacent channel
16.Power of lower alternate channel 1
17.Power of upper alternate channel 1
18.Power of lower alternate channel 2
19.Power of upper alternate channel 2
The number of measured values returned depends on the number of
carrier signals and adjacent/alternate channels selected with
SENSe:POWer:ACHannel:TXCHannel:COUNt and SENSe:POWer:ACHannel:ACPairs.
If only one carrier signal is measured, the total value of all carrier signals will not
be output.
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CALCulate Subsystem
With logarithmic scaling (RANGE LOG), the power is output in dBm; with linear
scaling (RANGE LIN dB or LIN %), the power is output in W. If SENSe:POWer:
ACHannel:MODE REL is selected, the adjacent/alternate-channel power is output in dB.
OBANdwidth |
OBWidth:
Measurement of occupied bandwidth
CN:
Measurement of carrier-to-noise ratio
The occupied bandwidth in Hz is returned.
The carrier-to-noise ratio in dB is returned.
CN0:
Measurement of carrier-to-noise ratio referenced to 1 Hz bandwidth.
The carrier-to-noise ratio in dB/Hz is returned.
Example of channel/adjacent channel power measurement:
"SENS2:POW:ACH:ACP 3"
'Sets the number of adjacent/alternate channels in
screen B to 3.
"SENS2:POW:ACH:BAND 30KHZ"
'Sets the bandwidth of the transmission channel to
30 kHz.
"SENS2:POW:ACH:BAND:ACH 40KHZ"
'Sets the bandwidth of each adjacent channel to 40 kHz.
"SENS2:POW:ACH:BAND:ALT1 50KHZ"
'Sets the bandwidth of each alternate channel to 50 kHz.
"SENS2:POW:ACH:BAND:ALT2 60KHZ"
'Sets the bandwidth of alternate channel 2 to 60 kHz.
"SENS2:POW:ACH:SPAC 30KHZ"
'Sets the spacing between the transmission channel and
the adjacent channel to 30 kHz, the spacing between the
transmission channel and alternate channel 1 to 60 kHz,
and the spacing between the transmission channel and
alternate channel 2 to 90 kHz.
"SENS2:POW:ACH:SPAC:ALT1 100KHZ"
'Sets the spacing between the transmission channel and
alternate channel 1 to 100 kHz, and the spacing between
the transmission channel and alternate channel 2 to
150 kHz.
"SENS2:POW:ACH:SPAC:ALT2 140KHZ"
'Sets the spacing between the transmission channel and
alternate channel 2 to 140 kHz.
"SENS2:POW:ACH:MODE ABS"
'Switches on absolute power measurement.
"CALC2:MARK:FUNC:POW:SEL ACP"
'Switches on the adjacent channel power measurement in
screen B.
"INIT:CONT OFF"
'Switches over to single-sweep mode.
"INIT;*WAI"
'Starts a sweep and waits for the end of the sweep.
"CALC2:MARK:FUNC:POW:RES? ACP"
'Queries the result of adjacent channel power measurement in screen B.
"SENS2:POW:ACH:REF:AUTO ONCE"
'Defines the measured channel power as the reference
value for relative power measurements.
If the channel power only is to be measured, all commands relating to adjacent/alternate channel
bandwidth and channel spacings are omitted. The number of adjacent/alternate channels is set to 0
with SENS2:POW:ACH:ACP 0.
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Example of occupied bandwidth measurement:
"SENS2:POW:BAND 90PCT"
'Defines 90% as the percentage of the power to be contained in the bandwidth range to be measured.
"INIT:CONT OFF"
'Switches over to single-sweep mode.
"INIT;*WAI"
'Starts a sweep and waits for the end of the sweep.
"CALC2:MARK:FUNC:POW:RES? OBW"
'Queries the occupied bandwidth measured in screen B.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A-F
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:POWer:SELect
OBANdwidth | OBWidth | CN | CN0
ACPower | CPOWer | MCACpower |
This command selects – and switches on – one of the above types of power measurement in the
selected measurement window. This function is independent of the selected marker, i.e. the numerical
suffix <1...4> appended to MARKer has no effect.
The channel spacings and channel bandwidths are configured in the SENSe:POWer:ACHannel
subsystem.
Please note the following:
If CPOWer is selected, the number of adjacent channels (command: [SENSe:]POWer:ACHannel:
ACPairs) is set to 0. If ACPower is selected, the number of adjacent channels is set to 1, unless
adjacent channel power measurement is switched on already.
This command is a query and therefore has no *RST value.
The channel/adjacent channel power measurement is performed for the trace
selected with SENSe:POWer:TRACe 1|2|3.
The occupied bandwidth measurement is performed for the trace on which marker 1 is positioned. To
select another trace for the measurement, marker 1 is to be positioned on the desired trace by means
of CALC:MARK:TRAC 1|2|3.
The parameters CN and CN0 are available only from firmware version 1.40.
Parameter:
ACPower: adjacent channel power measurement with a single carrier signal
CPOWer: Channel power measurement with a single carrier signal (equivalent to
adjacent channel power measurement with NO. OF ADJ CHAN = 0)
MCACpower: Channel/adjacent channel power measurement with several carrier
signals
OBANdwidth | OBWidth: Measurement of occupied bandwidth
CN: Measurement of carrier-to-noise ratio
CN0: Measurement of carrier-to-noise ratio referenced to 1 Hz bandwidth
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CALCulate Subsystem
Example:
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:SEL ACP"
'Switches on adjacent channel power measurement in window A.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A-F
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:POWer:STANdard:CATalog?
This command returns all predefine ACP standards and all user standards. The numeric suffixes at
MARKer are irrelevant for this command.
Example:
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:STAN:CAT?”
'get all available ACP standards
Characteristics: *RST value:SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:POWer:STANdard:DELete
<name>
This command removes the ACP user standard <name>. It is not possible to remove predefine ACP
standards. The numeric suffixes at MARKer are irrelevant for this command.
Example:
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:SEL ACP"
' activate ACP measurement
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:PRES FW3G"
' use WCDMA 3GPP as basis
"CALC:LIM:ACP:ACH:REL -60,-60"
' change ACP limit to -60dBc
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:STAN:SAVE 'my_acp_std"
' save as ACP USER standard my_acp_std
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:STAN:DEL 'my_acp_std"
' delete the user standard my_acp_std
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:POWer:STANdard:SAVE
<file_name>
This command saves the current ACP settings as an ACP user standard. The numeric suffixes at
MARKer are irrelevant for this command.
Example:
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:SEL ACP"
' activate ACP measurement
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:PRES FW3G"
' use WCDMA 3GPP as basis
"CALC:LIM:ACP:ACH:REL -60,-60"
' change ACP limit to -60dBc
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:STAN:SAVE 'my_acp_std"
' save as ACP user standard my_acp_std
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
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CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:POWer[:STATe] OFF
This command switches off the power measurement in the selected measurement window.
Example:
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW OFF"
'Switches off the power measurement in screen A.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A-F
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value.
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CALCulate Subsystem
6.5.6.6
CALCulate:MARKer:FUNCtion:STRack Subsystem
The CALCulate:MARKer:FUNCtion:STRack subsystem defines the settings of the signal track.
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:STRack:BANDwidth|BWIDth
10Hz to MAX(SPAN)
These commands have the same function. For the selected measurement window they define the
bandwidth around the center frequency within which the largest signal is searched. The function is
independent of the selected marker, i.e. the numeric suffix <1...4> of MARKer is irrelevant. It is only
available in the frequency domain (span > 0).
The entry of the search bandwidth is only possible if the Signal Track function is
switched on (CALC:MARK:FUNC:STR ON).
Example:
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:STR:BAND 1MHZ"
'Sets the search bandwidth for screen A to 1 MHz.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:STR:BWID 1MHZ"
'Alternative command for the same function.
Characteristics: *RST value: -- (= span/10 on activating the function)
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A-F
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:STRack[:STATe]
ON | OFF
This command switches the signal-track function on or off for the selected measurement window. The
function is independent of the selected marker, i.e. the numeric suffix <1...4> of MARKer is irrelevant.
With signal track activated, the maximum signal is determined after each frequency sweep and the
center frequency is set to the frequency of this signal. Thus with drifting signals the center frequency
follows the signal.
Example:
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:STR ON"
'Switches on the signal track function for screen A.
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A-F
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:STRack:THReshold
-330dBm to +30dBm
This command defines the threshold above which the largest signal is searched for in the selected
measurement window. The function is independent of the selected marker, i.e. the numeric suffix
<1...4> of MARKer is irrelevant. It is only available in the frequency domain (span > 0).
Note that the definition of the search bandwidth is possible only if the signal track function is on (CALC:
MARK:FUNC:STR ON).
The response unit depends on the settings defined with CALC:UNIT.
Example:
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:STR:THR -50DBM"
'Sets the threshold for signal tracking in screen A to -50 dBm.
Characteristics: *RST value: -120 dBm
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
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CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:STRack:TRACe
1 to 3
This command defines the trace on which the largest signal is searched for in the selected
measurement window. The function is independent of the selected marker, i.e. the numeric suffix
<1...4> of MARKer is irrelevant. It is only available in the frequency domain (span > 0).
Example:
"CALC2:MARK:FUNC:STR:TRAC 3"
'Defines trace 3 in screen B as the trace for signal tracking.
Characteristics: *RST value: 1
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A-F
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CALCulate Subsystem
6.5.6.7
CALCulate:MARKer:FUNCtion:SUMMary Subsystem
This subsystem contains the commands for controlling the time domain power functions. These are provided in the marker subsystem for reasons of compatibility with the FSE family.
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:SUMMary:AOFF
This command switches off all time domain measurements in the selected measurement window. The
function is independent of the marker selection, i.e. the numeric suffix <1...4> of :MARKer is irrelevant.
It is only available in the time domain (span = 0).
Example:
"CALC2:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:AOFF"
'Switches off the time domain power measurement functions in screen B.
Characteristics: *RST value: _
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A-T
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:SUMMary:AVERage
ON | OFF
This command switches on or off averaging for the active time domain power measurement in the
indicated window. The function is independent of the marker selection, i.e. the numeric suffix <1...4>
of :MARKer is irrelevant. It is only available in the time domain (span = 0).
Averaging is reset by switching it off and on again.
The number of results required for the calculation of average is defined with [SENSe<1|2>:
]AVERage:COUNt.
It should be noted that synchronization to the end of averaging is only possible in single-sweep mode.
Example:
"INIT:CONT OFF"
'Switches to single-sweep mode.
"CALC2:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:AVER ON"
'Switches on the calculation of average in screen B.
"AVER:COUN 200"
'Sets the measurement counter to 200.
"INIT;*WAI"
'Starts a sweep and waits for the end.
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A-T
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:SUMMary:MEAN:AVERage:RESult?
This command queries the result of the measurement of the averaged mean value in the selected
measurement window. The query is only possible if averaging has been activated previously using
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:SUMMary:AVERage.
The function is independent of the marker selection, i.e. the numeric suffix <1...4> of :MARKer is
irrelevant. It is only available in the time domain (span = 0).
A complete sweep with synchronization to sweep end must be performed between switching on the
function and querying the measured value to obtain a valid query result. This is only possible in singlesweep mode.
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CALCulate Subsystem
Example:
"INIT:CONT OFF"
'Switches to single-sweep mode.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:MEAN ON"
'Switches on the function in screen A.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:AVER ON"
'Switches on the average value calculation in screen A.
"INIT;*WAI"
'Starts a sweep and waits for the end.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:MEAN:AVER:RES?"
'Outputs the result of screen A.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A-T
This command is only a query and therefore has no *RST value.
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:SUMMary:MEAN:PHOLd:RESult?
This command queries the result of the measurement of the mean value with active peak hold in the
selected measurement window. The query is only possible if the peak hold function has been switched
on previously using CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:SUMMary:AVERage
The query is possible only if the peak hold function is active. The function is independent of the marker
selection, i.e. the numeric suffix <1...4> of :MARKer is irrelevant. It is only available in the time domain
(span = 0).
A complete sweep with synchronization to sweep end must be performed between switching on the
function and querying the measured value to obtain a valid query result. This is only possible in singlesweep mode.
Example:
"INIT:CONT OFF"
'Switches to single-sweep mode
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:MEAN ON"
'Switches on the function in screen A
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:PHOL ON"
'Switches on the peak value measurement in screen A
"INIT;*WAI"
'Starts a sweep and waits for the end
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:MEAN:PHOL:RES?"
'Outputs the result of screen A.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A-T
This command is only a query and therefore has no *RST value.
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CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:SUMMary:MEAN:RESult?
This command queries the result of the measurement of the mean value in the selected measurement
window.
The function is independent of the marker selection, i.e. the numeric suffix <1...4> of :MARKer is
irrelevant. It is only available in the time domain (span = 0).
A complete sweep with synchronization to sweep end must be performed between switching on the
function and querying the measured value to obtain a valid query result. This is only possible in singlesweep mode.
Example:
"INIT:CONT OFF"
'Switches to single-sweep mode.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:MEAN ON"
'Switches on the function in screen A.
"INIT;*WAI"
'Starts a sweep and waits for the end.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:MEAN:RES?"
'Outputs the result of screen A.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A-T
This command is only a query and therefore has no *RST value.
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:SUMMary:MEAN[:STATe]
ON | OFF
This command switches on or off the measurement of the mean value in the selected measurement
window.
The function is independent of the marker selection, i.e. the numeric suffix <1...4> of :MARKer is
irrelevant. It is only available in the time domain (span = 0).
The measurement is performed on the trace on which marker 1 is positioned. In
order to evaluate another trace, marker 1 must be positioned on another trace with
CALC:MARK:TRAC 1|2|3.
Example:
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:MEAN ON"
'Switches on the function in screen A.
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A-T
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:SUMMary:MODE
ABSolute | RELative
This command selects absolute or relative time domain power measurement in the indicated
measurement window. The function is independent of the marker selection, i.e. the numeric suffix
<1...4> of :MARKer is irrelevant. It is only available in the time domain (span = 0).
The reference power for relative measurement is defined with CALCulate:MARKer:FUNCtion:
SUMMary:REFerence:AUTO ONCE. If the reference power is not defined, the value 0 dBm is used.
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Example:
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:MODE REL"
'Switches the time domain power measurement to relative.
Characteristics: *RST value: ABSolute
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A-T
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:SUMMary:PHOLd
ON | OFF
This command switches on or off the peak-hold function for the active time domain power
measurement in the indicated measurement window. The function is independent of the marker
selection, i.e. the numeric suffix <1...4> of :MARKer is irrelevant. It is only available in the time domain
(span = 0). The peak-hold function is reset by switching it off and on again.
Example:
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:PHOL ON"
'Switches on the function in screen A.
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A-T
The peak-hold function is reset by switching off and on, again.
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:SUMMary:PPEak:AVERage:RESult?
This command is used to query the result of the measurement of the averaged positive peak value in
the selected measurement window. The query is only possible if averaging has been activated
previously using CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:SUMMary:AVERage.
The function is independent of the marker selection, i.e. the numeric suffix <1...4> in MARKer is
irrelevant. It is only available in the time domain (span = 0).
A complete sweep with synchronization to sweep end must be performed between switching on the
function and querying the measured value to obtain a valid query result. This is only possible in singlesweep mode.
Example:
"INIT:CONT OFF"
'Switches to single-sweep mode.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:PPE ON"
'Switches on the function in screen A.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:AVER ON"
'Switches on the calculation of average in screen A.
"INIT;*WAI"
'Starts a sweep and waits for the end.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:PPE:AVER:RES?"
'Outputs the result of screen A.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A-T
This command is only a query and therefore has no *RST value.
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CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:SUMMary:PPEak:PHOLd:RESult?
This command is used to query the result of the measurement of the positive peak value with active
peak hold function. The query is only possible if the peak hold function has been activated previously
using CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:SUMMary:PHOLd.
The function is independent of the marker selection, i.e. the numeric suffix <1...4> of :MARKer is
irrelevant. It is only available in the time domain (span = 0).
A complete sweep with synchronization to sweep end must be performed between switching on the
function and querying the measured value to obtain a valid query result. This is only possible in singlesweep mode.
Example:
"INIT:CONT OFF"
'Switches to single-sweep mode.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:PPE ON"
'Switches on the function in screen A.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:PHOL ON"
'Switches on the measurement of the peak value in screen A.
"INIT;*WAI"
'Starts a sweep and waits for the end.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:PPE:PHOL:RES?"
'Outputs the result of screen A.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A-T
This command is only a query and therefore has no *RST value.
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:SUMMary:PPEak:RESult?
This command is used to query the result of the measurement of the positive peak value in the selected
measurement window. The measurement may have to be switched on previously.
The function is independent of the marker selection, i.e. the numeric suffix <1...4> of MARKer is
irrelevant. It is only available in the time domain (span = 0).
A complete sweep with synchronization to sweep end must be performed between switching on the
function and querying the measured value to obtain a valid query result. This is only possible in singlesweep mode.
Example:
"INIT:CONT OFF"
'Switches to single-sweep mode.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:PPE ON"
'Switches on the function in screen A.
"INIT;*WAI"
'Starts a sweep and waits for the end.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:PPE:RES?"
'Outputs the result of screen A.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A-T
This command is only a query and therefore has no *RST value.
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CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:SUMMary:PPEak[:STATe]
ON | OFF
This command switches on or off the measurement of the positive peak value in the selected
measurement window.
The function is independent of the marker selection, i.e. the numeric suffix <1...4> of MARKer is
irrelevant. It is only available in the time domain (span = 0).
Example:
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:PPE ON"
'Switches on the function in screen A.
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A-T
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:SUMMary:REFerence:AUTO
ONCE
With this command the currently measured average value (…:SUMMary:MEAN) and RMS value (…:
SUMMary:RMS)are declared as reference values for relative measurements in the indicated
measurement window. The function is independent of the marker selection, i.e. the numeric suffix
<1 to 4> of :MARKer is irrelevant. It is only available in the time domain (span = 0).
If the measurement of RMS value and average is not activated, the reference value 0 dBm is used.
If the function …:SUMMary:AVERage or …:SUMMary:PHOLd is switched on, the current value is the
accumulated measurement value at the time considered.
Example:
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:REF:AUTO ONCE"
'Takes the currently measured power in screen A as reference value for the relative
time domain power measurement.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A-T
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:SUMMary:RMS:AVERage:RESult?
This command queries the result of the measurement of the averaged RMS value in the selected
measurement window. The query is only possible if averaging has been activated previously using
CALCulate:MARKer:FUNCtion:SUMMary:AVERage ON.
The function is independent of the marker selection, i.e. the numeric suffix <1...4> of :MARKer is
irrelevant. It is only available in the time domain (span = 0).
A complete sweep with synchronization to sweep end must be performed between switching on the
function and querying the measured value to obtain a valid query result. This is only possible in singlesweep mode.
Example:
"INIT:CONT OFF"
'Switches to single-sweep mode.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:RMS ON"
'Switches on the function in screen A.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:AVER ON"
Switches on the average value calculation in screen A.
"INIT;*WAI"
'Starts a sweep and waits for the end.
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CALCulate Subsystem
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:RMS:AVER:RES?"
'Outputs the result of screen A.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A-T
This command is only a query and therefore has no *RST value.
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:SUMMary:RMS:PHOLd:RESult?
This command queries the result of the measurement of the RMS value with active peak hold in the
selected measurement window. The query is only possible only if the peak hold function has been
activated previously using CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:SUMMary:PHOLd.
The function is independent of the marker selection, i.e. the numeric suffix <1...4> of :MARKer is
irrelevant. It is only available in the time domain (span = 0).
A complete sweep with synchronization to sweep end must be performed between switching on the
function and querying the measured value to obtain a valid query result. This is only possible in singlesweep mode.
Example:
"INIT:CONT OFF"
'Switches to single-sweep mode.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:RMS ON"
'Switches on the function in screen A.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:PHOL ON"
'Switches on the peak value measurement in screen A.
"INIT;*WAI"
'Starts a sweep and waits for the end.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:RMS:PHOL:RES?"
'Outputs the result of screen A.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A-T
This command is only a query and therefore has no *RST value.
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:SUMMary:RMS:RESult?
This command queries the result of the measurement of the RMS power value in the selected
measurement window.
The function is independent of the marker selection, i.e. the numeric suffix <1...4> of :MARKer is
irrelevant. It is only available in the time domain (span = 0).
A complete sweep with synchronization to sweep end must be performed between switching on the
function and querying the measured value to obtain a valid query result. This is only possible in singlesweep mode.
Example:
"INIT:CONT OFF"
'Switches to single-sweep mode.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:RMS ON"
'Switches on the function in screen A.
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CALCulate Subsystem
"INIT;*WAI"
'Starts a sweep and waits for the end.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:RMS:RES?"
'Outputs the result of screen A.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A-T
This command is only a query and therefore has no *RST value.
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:SUMMary:RMS[:STATe]
ON | OFF
This command switches on or off the measurement of the effective (RMS) power in the selected
measurement window. If necessary the function is switched on previously.
The function is independent of the marker selection, i.e. the numeric suffix <1...4> of :MARKer is
irrelevant. It is only available in the time domain (span = 0).
Example:
"CALC2:MARK:FUNC:SUM:RMS ON"
'Switches on the function in screen B.
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A-T
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:SUMMary:SDEViation:AVERage:RESult?
This command queries the result of the averaged standard deviation determined in several sweeps in
the selected measurement window. The query is possible only if averaging is active. The function is
independent of the marker selection, i.e. the numeric suffix <1...4> of :MARKer is irrelevant. It is only
available in the time domain (span = 0).
A complete sweep with synchronization to sweep end must be performed between switching on the
function and querying the measured value to obtain a valid query result. This is only possible in singlesweep mode.
Example:
"INIT:CONT OFF"
'Switches to single-sweep mode.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:SDEV ON"
'Switches on the function in screen A.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:AVER ON"
'Switches on the calculation of average in screen A.
"INIT;*WAI"
'Starts a sweep and waits for the end.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:MEAN:SDEV:RES?"
'Outputs the result of screen A.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A-T
This command is only a query and therefore has no *RST value.
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CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:SUMMary:SDEViation:PHOLd:RESult?
This command queries the maximum standard deviation value determined in several sweeps in the
selected measurement window. The query is possible only if the peak hold function is active.
The function is independent of the marker selection, i.e. the numeric suffix <1...4> of :MARKer is
irrelevant. It is only available in the time domain (span = 0).
A complete sweep with synchronization to sweep end must be performed between switching on the
function and querying the measured value to obtain a valid query result. This is only possible in singlesweep mode.
Example:
"INIT:CONT OFF"
'Switches to single-sweep mode.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:SDEV ON"
'Switches on the function in screen A.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:PHOL ON"
'Switches on the peak value measurement in screen A.
"INIT;*WAI"
'Starts a sweep and waits for the end.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:SDEV:PHOL:RES?"
'Outputs the result of screen A.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A-T
This command is only a query and therefore has no *RST value.
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:SUMMary:SDEViation:RESult?
This command queries the results of the standard deviation measurement. The function is
independent of the marker selection, i.e. the numeric suffix <1...4> of :MARKer is irrelevant. It is only
available in the time domain (span = 0).
A complete sweep with synchronization to sweep end must be performed between switching on the
function and querying the measured value to obtain a valid query result. This is only possible in singlesweep mode.
Example:
"INIT:CONT OFF"
'Switches to single-sweep mode.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:SDEV ON"
'Switches on the function in screen A.
"INIT;*WAI"
'Starts a sweep and waits for the end.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:SDEV:RES?"
'Outputs the result of screen A.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A-T
This command is only a query and therefore has no *RST value.
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CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:SUMMary:SDEViation[:STATe]
ON | OFF
This command switches on or off the measurement of the standard deviation in the selected
measurement window. The function is independent of the marker selection, i.e. the numeric suffix
<1...4> of :MARKer is irrelevant. It is only available in the time domain (span = 0).
On switching on the measurement, the mean power measurement is switched on as well.
Example:
"CALC2:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:SDEV ON"
'Switches on the measurement of the standard deviation in screen B.
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:SUMMary[:STATe]
ON | OFF
This command switches on or off the previously selected time domain power measurements. Thus one
or several measurements can be first selected and then switched on and off together with CALC:
MARK:FUNC:SUMMary:STATe.
The function is independent of the marker selection, i.e. the suffix of MARKer is irrelevant. It is only
available in the time domain (span = 0).
Example:
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:STAT ON"
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A-T
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CALCulate Subsystem
6.5.7
CALCulate:MATH Subsystem
The CALCulate:MATH subsystem allows to process data from the SENSe-subsystem in numeric expressions.
The measurement windows are selected by CALCulate1 (screen A) and CALCulate2 (screen B).
CALCulate<1|2>:MATH[:EXPression][:DEFine]
(<expr>)
This command defines the mathematical expression for relating traces to trace1.
The CALCulate<1|2>:MATH:STATe command switches the mathematical relation of traces on or off.
The measurement windows are selected via CALCulate1 (screen A) or 2 (screen B).
Parameter:
<expr>::= 'OP1 - OP2'
OP1 ::= TRACE1
OP2 ::= TRACE2 | TRACE3
Example:
"CALC1:MATH (TRACE1 - TRACE2)"
'Selects the subtraction of trace 1 from trace 2 in screen A.
"CALC2:MATH (TRACE1 - TRACE3)"
'Selects the subtraction of trace 1 from trace 3 in screen B.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: conform
Mode:
A-T
CALCulate<1|2>:MATH:MODE
LINear | LOGarithmic | POWer
This command selects linear or logarithmic (= video) calculation of the mathematical functions related
to the traces. The calculation of the average is one of the affected functions. The setting is valid for all
measurement windows, i.e. the numeric suffix <1|2> of CALCulate is irrelevant.
For more information see “AVG MODE” on page 4.48.
Example:
"CALC:MATH:MODE LIN"
'Switches on the linear calculation.
Characteristics: *RST value: LOG
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A-T
CALCulate<1|2>:MATH:POSition
-100PCT to 200PCT
This command defines the position of the result of the trace mathematics in the selected measurement
window. The indication is in % of the screen height, with 100% corresponding to the upper diagram
border.
Example:
"CALC:MATH:POS 50PCT"
'Sets the position in screen A to the horizontal diagram center.
Characteristics: *RST value: 50 %
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
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CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate<1|2>:MATH:STATe
ON | OFF
This command switches the mathematical relation of traces on or off.
The measurement windows are selected via CALCulate1 (screen A) or 2 (screen B).
Example:
"CALC:MATH:STAT ON"
'Switches on the trace mathematics in screen A.
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: conform
Mode:
A-T
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CALCulate Subsystem
6.5.8
CALCulate:PEAKsearch I PSEarch Subsystem
CALCulate<1|2>:PEAKsearch|PSEarch:AUTO
ON | OFF
By using this command, the peak list in the spurious measurement is calculated automatically after a
measurement. For each range, exactly one peak value is calculated.
The SENSe suffix is unused.
Example:
"CALC:PEAK:AUTO ON"
’Switches the automatic peak search on.
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:PEAKsearch|PSEarch[:IMMediate]
This command activates the generation of a peak list.
The numeric suffix in CALCULATE<1|2> is not significant.
Example:
"CALC:PEAK"
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
CALCulate<1|2>:PEAKsearch|PSEarch:MARGin
MINimum .. MAXimum
This command defines the margin for the peak search.
The numeric suffix in CALCULATE<1|2> is not significant.
Example:
"CALC:PEAK:MARG 5 dB"
Characteristics: *RST value: 6 dB
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:PEAKsearch|PSEarch:SUBRanges
1 to 500
This command defines the number of peaks per subrange that will be stored in the peak list.
The numeric suffix in CALCULATE<1|2> is not significant.
Example:
"CALC:PEAK:SUBR 10"
Characteristics: *RST value: 25
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
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CALCulate Subsystem
6.5.9
CALCulate:STATistics Subsystem
The CALCulate:STATistics subsystem controls the statistical measurement functions in the instrument.
The measurement window cannot be selected with these functions. The numeric suffix <1|2> in CALCulate is therefore ignored.
CALCulate<1|2>:STATistics:APD[:STATe] ON | OFF
This command switches on or off the measurement of amplitude distribution (APD). On activating this
function, the CCDF measurement is switched off.
Example:
"CALC:STAT:APD ON"
'Switches on the APD measurement.
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:STATistics:CCDF[:STATe]
ON | OFF
This command switches on or off the measurement of the complementary cumulative distribution
function (CCDF). On activating this function, the APD measurement is switched off.
Example:
"CALC:STAT:CCDF ON"
'Switches on the CCDF measurement.
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:STATistics:CCDF:X<1...3>?
P0_01 | P0_1 | P1 | P10
This command reads out the level values for the probabilities 0.01%, 0.1%, 1% and 10%. The trace is
selected by means of the numeric suffix <1...3>.
The desired result is selected by means of the following parameters:
Parameter:
P0_01: Level value for 0.01% probability
P0_1: Level value for 0.1% probability
P1: Level value for 1% probability
P10: Level value for 10% probability
Example:
"CALC:STAT:CCDF:X? P1"
'Reads out the level values for 1% probability.
Characteristics: *RST value: -SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
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CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate<1|2>:STATistics:NSAMples 100 to 1E9
This command sets the number of measurement points to be acquired for the statistical measurement
functions.
Example:
"CALC:STAT:NSAM 500"
'Sets the number of measurement points to be acquired to 500.
Characteristics: *RST value: 100000
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:STATistics:PRESet
This command resets the scaling of the X and Y axes in a statistical measurement. The following
values are set:
•
x-axis ref level: -20 dBm
•
x-axis range APD: 100 dB
•
x-axis range CCDF: 20 dB
•
y-axis upper limit: 1.0
•
y-axis lower limit: 1E-6
Example:
"CALC:STAT:PRES"
'Resets the scaling for statistical functions
Characteristics: *RST value: -SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
CALCulate<1|2>:STATistics:RESult<1...3>?
MEAN | PEAK | CFACtor | ALL
This command reads out the results of statistical measurements of a recorded trace. The trace is
selected with the numeric suffix <1...3> attached to RESult.
The required result is selected via the following parameters:
Parameter:
MEAN: Average (=RMS) power in dBm measured during the measurement time.
PEAK: Peak power in dBm measured during the measurement time.
CFACtor: Determined CREST factor (= ratio of peak power to average power) in
dB.
ALL: Results of all three measurements mentioned before, separated by commas:
<mean power>,<peak power>,<crest factor>
Example:
"CALC:STAT:RES2? ALL"
'Reads out the three measurement results of trace 2. Example of answer string:
5.56,19.25,13.69 i.e. mean power: 5.56 dBm, peak power 19.25 dBm, CREST
factor 13.69 dB
Characteristics: *RST value: -SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
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CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate<1|2>:STATistics:SCALe:AUTO
ONCE
This command optimizes the level setting of the instrument depending on the measured peak power,
in order to obtain maximum instrument sensitivity.
To obtain maximum resolution, the level range is set as a function of the measured spacing between
peak power and the minimum power for the APD measurement and of the spacing between peak
power and mean power for the CCDF measurement. In addition, the probability scale for the number
of test points is adapted.
+
Subsequent commands have to be synchronized with *WAI, *OPC or *OPC? to the
end of the auto range process which would otherwise be aborted.
Example:
"CALC:STAT:SCAL:AUTO ONCE;*WAI"
'Adapts the level setting for statistical measurements and activates the
synchronization.
Characteristics: *RST value: -SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
CALCulate<1|2>:STATistics:SCALe:X:MPOSition
0 … 100
This command defines the relative X position of the mean power value for the CCDF measurement.
The default position is 0% (left corner of the grid). This function is only available if the statistics
measurement function CCDF is switched on.
Example:
"CALC:STAT:SCAL:X:MPOS 10.0"
' set the mean power position to 10%
Characteristics: *RST value: 0
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:STATistics:SCALe:X:RANGe
1dB to 200dB
This command defines the level range for the x-axis of the measurement diagram. The setting is
identical to the level range setting defined with the command DISPlay:WINDow:TRACe:Y:SCALe.
Example:
"CALC:STAT:SCAL:X:RANG 20dB"
Characteristics: *RST value: 100dB
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
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CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate<1|2>:STATistics:SCALe:X:RLEVel -130dBm to 30dBm
This command defines the reference level for the x-axis of the measurement diagram. The setting is
identical to the reference level setting using the command DISPlay:WINDow:TRACe:Y:RLEVel.
With the reference level offset <> 0 the indicated value range of the reference level is modified by the
offset.
The unit depends on the setting performed with CALC:UNIT.
Example:
"CALC:STAT:SCAL:X:RLEV -60dBm"
Characteristics: *RST value: -20dBm
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:STATistics:SCALe:Y:LOWer
1E-9 to 0.1
This command defines the lower limit for the y-axis of the diagram in statistical measurements. Since
probabilities are specified on the y-axis, the entered numerical values are dimensionless.
Example:
"CALC:STAT:SCAL:Y:LOW 0.001"
Characteristics: *RST value: 1E-6
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:STATistics:SCALe:Y:UNIT
PCT | ABS
This command toggles the scaling of y-axis between percentage and absolute.
Example:
"CALC:STAT:SCAL:Y:UNIT PCT"
'toggle to percentage
Characteristics: *RST value: ABS
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:STATistics:SCALe:Y:UPPer
1E-8 to 1.0
This command defines the upper limit for the y-axis of the diagram in statistical measurements. Since
probabilities are specified on the y-axis, the entered numerical values are dimensionless.
Example:
"CALC:STAT:Y:UPP 0.01"
Characteristics: *RST value: 1.0
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
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CALCulate Subsystem
6.5.10
CALCulate:THReshold Subsystem
The CALCulate:THReshold subsystem controls the threshold value for the maximum/minimum search of
markers. The measurement windows are selected by CALCulate 1 (screen A) or 2 (screen B).
CALCulate<1|2>:THReshold
MINimum to MAXimum (depending on current unit)
This command defines the threshold value for the maximum/minimum search of markers with marker
search functions MAX PEAK, NEXT PEAK, etc. in the selected measurement window. The associated
display line is automatically switched on.
Example:
"CALC:THR -82DBM"
'Sets the threshold value for screen A to -82 dBm.
Characteristics: *RST value: - (STATe to OFF)
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:THReshold:STATe
ON | OFF
This command switches on or off the threshold line in the selected measurement window. The unit
depends on the setting performed with CALC:UNIT.
Example:
"CALC2:THR:STAT ON"
'Switches on the threshold line in screen B.
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
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CALCulate Subsystem
6.5.11
CALCulate:TLINe Subsystem
The CALCulate:TLINe subsystem controls the settings for the time lines. The measurement windows are
selected by CALCulate 1 (screen A) or 2 (screen B).
CALCulate<1|2>:TLINe<1|2>
0 to 1000s
This command defines the position of the time lines.
The time lines mark the times specified in the measurement window. Time lines are only available with
SPAN = 0.
Example:
"CALC:TLIN 10ms"
Characteristics: *RST value: - (STATe auf OFF)
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A-T
CALCulate<1|2>:TLINe<1|2>:STATe
ON | OFF
This command switches the time line on or off.
Example:
"CALC:TLIN2:STAT ON"
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
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CALCulate Subsystem
6.5.12
CALCulate:UNIT Subsystem
The CALCulate:Unit subsystem defines the units for power measurement settings.
CALCulate<1|2>:UNIT:POWer DBM | V | A | W | DBPW | WATT | DBUV | DBMV | VOLT | DBUA |
AMPere | DBPT | DBUV_M | DBUA_M
This command selects the unit for power in the selected measurement window.
Example:
"CALC:UNIT:POW DBM"
'Sets the power unit for screen A to dBm.
Characteristics: *RST value: dBm
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
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CALibration Subsystem
6.6
CALibration Subsystem
The commands of the CALibration subsystem determine the data for system error correction in the
instrument.
CALibration:ABORt
This command aborts the acquisition of correction data and restores the last complete correction data
set.
Example:
"CAL:ABOR"
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
CALibration[:ALL]?
This command initiates the acquisition of system error correction data. A "0" is returned if the
acquisition was successful.
During the acquisition of correction data, the instrument does not accept any
remote control commands, except
*RST
CALibration:ABORt
In order to recognize when the acquisition of correction data is completed, the MAV bit in the status
byte can be used. If the associated bit is set in the Service Request Enable Register, the instrument
generates a service request after the acquisition of correction data has been completed.
Example:
"*CLS"
'Resets the status management.
"*SRE 16"
'Enables MAV bit in the Service Request Enable Register.
"*CAL?"
'Starts the correction data recording and then a service request is generated.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: conform
Mode:
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CALibration Subsystem
CALibration:RESult?
This command outputs the results of the correction data acquisition. The lines of the result table (see
chapter “Instrument Functions”, section “Recording the Correction Data – CAL Key” on page 4.57) are
output as string data separated by commas:
Return value:
"Total Calibration Status: PASSED","Date (dd/mm/yyyy): 12/07/
2006",
"Time: 16:24:54","Runtime:00.06"
Example:
"CAL:RES?"
Characteristics: *RST value: -SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
CALibration:STATe
A
ON | OFF
This command determines whether the current calibration data are taken into account by the
instrument (ON) or not (OFF).
Example:
"CAL:STAT OFF"
'Sets up the instrument to ignore the calibration data.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: conform
Mode:
A
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Remote Control – Description of Commands
DIAGnostic Subsystem
6.7
DIAGnostic Subsystem
The DIAGnostic subsystem contains the commands which support instrument diagnostics for maintenance, service and repair. In accordance with the SCPI standard, all of these commands are device-specific.
The measurement windows are selected by DIAGnostic1 (screen A) or DIAGnostic2 (screen B).
DIAGnostic<1|2>:SERVice:CSOource[:POWer]
<numeric_value>
This command switches the level of the 128 MHz reference signal source between 0 dBm and -30 dBm
in the selected measurement window.
Example:
"DIAG:SERV:CSO 0DBM"
Characteristics: *RST value: -30 dBm
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
DIAGnostic<1|2>:SERVice:HWINfo?
This command queries the contents of the module info table. Table lines are output as string data and
are separated by commas.
"<component 1>|<serial #>|<order #>|<model>|<HWC>|<rev>|<sub rev>",
"<component 2>|<serial #>|<order #>|<model>|<HWC>|<rev>|<sub rev>", ...
The individual columns of the table are separated from each other by '|'.
The numeric suffix <1|2> is ignored with this command.
Example:
"DIAG:SERV:HWIN?"
Result (shortened):
"RF_ATTEN_7|650551/007|1067.7684|02|00|20|04",
"IF-FILTER|648158/037|1093.5540|03|01|07|05",
...
Characteristics: *RST value: -SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
DIAGnostic<1|2>:SERVice:INPut:PULSed:PRATe
10 kHz | 62.5 kHz | 1 MHz | 128 MHz | 640 MHz
This command selects the pulse rate for the pulsed calibration signal in the selected measurement
window.
Example:
"DIAG:SERV:INP:PULS:PRAT 62.5 kHz"
Characteristics: *RST value: 128 MHz
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
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Remote Control – Description of Commands
DIAGnostic Subsystem
DIAGnostic<1|2>:SERVice:INPut:PULSed[:STATe]
ON | OFF
This command toggles the calibration signal in the selected measurement window between pulsed and
non-pulsed.
The selection takes effect only if the RF input has been set to the internal reference signal using the
DIAGnostic<1|2>:SERVice:INPut[:SELect] command.
Example:
"DIAG:SERV:INP CAL"
"DIAG:SERV:INP:PULS ON"
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
DIAGnostic<1|2>:SERVice:INPut:RECTangle:PRATe
<numeric_value>
This command sets the frequency of the rectangle calibration signal in the selected measurement
window (suffix <1|2>).
5 kHz | 31.25 kHz | 50 kHz | 250 kHz | 500 kHz can be set.
Example:
"DIAG:SERV:INP:RECT:PRAT 128 MHz"
Characteristics: *RST value: 5 kHz
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
DIAGnostic<1|2>:SERVice:INPut:RECTangle[:STATe]
ON | OFF
This command switches the rectangle calibration signal on or off in the selected measurement window
(suffix <1|2>). The setting takes effect only if the RF input is set to the internal reference signal (DIAG:
SERV:INP CAL command).
If the rectangle calibration signal is switched on, the pulsed calibration signal is
switched off.
Example:
"DIAG:SERV:INP CAL"
"DIAG:SERV:INP:RECT ON"
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
DIAGnostic<1|2>:SERVice:INPut[:SELect] CALibration | RF
This command toggles between the RF input on the front panel and the internal 128 MHz reference
signal in the selected measurement window. The level of the 128-MHz signals can be selected by
DIAGnostic<1|2>:SERVice:CSOource[:POWer] command.
Example:
"DIAG:SERV:INP CAL"
’ Selects the internal reference signal.
Characteristics: *RST value: RF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
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Remote Control – Description of Commands
DIAGnostic Subsystem
DIAGnostic<1|2>:SERVice:NSOurce
ON | OFF
This command switches the 28 V supply of the noise source at the rear panel on or off.
The numeric suffix <1|2> is ignored with this command.
Example:
"DIAG:SERV:NSO ON"
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
DIAGnostic<1|2>:SERVice:SFUNction
’<string>’
This command activates a service function which can be selected by indicating the five parameters:
function group number, board number, function number, parameter 1 and parameter 2 (see service
manual). The contents of the parameter string is identical to the code to be entered in the data entry
field of manual operation.
The entry of a service function is accepted only if the system password Level 1 or Level 2 has been
entered previously (command: SYSTem:SECurity).
The numeric suffix <1|2> is ignored with this command.
The service functions of the instrument are not identical to those of the FSE family.
That is why the remote command differs in syntax and data format.
Example:
"DIAG:SERV:SFUN '2.0.2.12.1'"
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
DIAGnostic<1|2>:SERVice:STESt:RESult?
This command reads the results of the selftest out of the instrument. The lines of the result table are
output as string data separated by commas:
The numeric suffix <1|2> is ignored with this command.
Parameter:
"Total Selftest Status: PASSED","Date (dd/mm/yyyy): 09/07/
2006
TIME: 16:24:54","Runtime: 00:06", ...
Example:
"DIAG:SERV:STES:RES?"
Characteristics: *RST value: -SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
This command is only a query and therefore has no *RST value.
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Remote Control – Description of Commands
DIAGnostic Subsystem
DIAGnsotic:SERVice:VERSinfo?
This command queries the version information of all available measurement applications.
Example:
"DIAG:SERV:VERS?"
Return value:
Instrument Firmware|4.75,
BIOS|V2.1-20-1,
Image|01.21,
Data Sheet|01.01,
GSM K5 ANALYZER K5|4.70|permanent,
FM DEMODULATOR K7||permanent,
BLUETOOTH K8||permanent,
POWER METER K9||permanent,
NOISE MEASURE K30|4.70|permanent,
PHASE NOISE MEASURE K40|4.70|permanent,
VECTOR SIGNAL ANALYSIS K70|4.70|permanent,
WCDMA BTS ANALYZER K72|4.70|permanent,
WCDMA HSDPA BTS K74|4.70|permanent,
TD-SCDMA BTS ANALYZER K76|4.70|permanent,
TD-SCDMA MS ANALYZER K77|4.70|permanent,
CDMA2000 BTS K82|4.70|permanent,
CDMA2000 MS K83|4.70|permanent,
1X EV DATA ONLY BTS K84|4.70|permanent,
1X EV DATA ONLY MS K85|4.70|permanent,
WLAN ABG K91|4.70|permanent,
FSQ 802_16E K93|4.70|permanent,
FSQ 802_16 Mimo UPGRADE K94|4.70|permanent,
LTE FDD DOWNLINK K100|4.70|permanent
Characteristics: *RST value: -SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
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Remote Control – Description of Commands
DISPlay Subsystem
6.8
DISPlay Subsystem
The DISPLay subsystem controls the selection and presentation of textual and graphic information as
well as of measurement data on the display.
The measurement windows are selected by WINDow1 (screen A) or WINDow2 (screen B).
DISPlay:ANNotation:FREQuency
ON | OFF
This command switches the x-axis annotation on or off.
Example:
"DISP:ANN:FREQ OFF"
Characteristics: *RST value: ON
SCPI: conform
Mode:
A
DISPlay:CMAP<1...26>:DEFault<1|2>
This command resets the screen colors of all display items to their default settings. Two default settings
DEFault1 and DEFault2 are available. The numeric suffix of CMAP is irrelevant.
Example:
"DISP:CMAP:DEF2"
'Selects default setting 2 for setting the colors.
Characteristics: *RST value: -SCPI: conform
Mode:
A
This command is an event and therefore has no query and no *RST value.
DISPlay:CMAP<1...26>:HSL
<hue>,<sat>,<lum>
This command defines the color table of the instrument.
Each numeric suffix of CMAP is assigned one or several graphical elements which can be modified by
varying the corresponding color setting. The following assignment applies:
CMAP1
Background
CMAP2
Grid
CMAP3
Function field + status field + data entry text
CMAP4
Function field LED on
CMAP5
Function field LED warn
CMAP6
Enhancement label text
CMAP7
Status field background
CMAP8
Trace 1
CMAP9
Trace 2
CMAP10
Trace 3
CMAP11
Marker
CMAP12
Lines
CMAP13
Measurement status + limit check pass
CMAP14
Limit check fail
CMAP15
Table + softkey text
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Remote Control – Description of Commands
DISPlay Subsystem
CMAP16
Table + softkey background
CMAP17
Table selected field text
CMAP18
Table selected field background
CMAP19
Table + data entry field opaque title bar
CMAP20
Data entry field opaque text
CMAP21
Data entry field opaque background
CMAP22
3D shade bright part
CMAP23
3D shade dark part
CMAP24
Softkey state on
CMAP25
Softkey state data entry
CMAP26
Logo
Parameter:
hue = TINT
sat = SATURATION
lum = BRIGHTNESS
The value range is 0 to 1 for all parameters.
Example:
"DISP:CMAP2:HSL 0.3,0.8,1.0"
'Changes the grid color.
Characteristics: *RST value: -SCPI: conform
Mode:
A
The values set are not changed by *RST.
DISPlay:CMAP<1...26>:PDEFined BLACk | BLUE | BROWn | GREen | CYAN | RED | MAGenta |
YELLow | WHITe | DGRAy | LGRAy | LBLUe | LGREen | LCYan | LRED | LMAGenta
This command defines the color table of the instrument using predefined color values. Each numeric
suffix of CMAP is assigned one or several graphical elements which can be modified by varying the
corresponding color setting.
The same assignment as for DISPlay:CMAP<1...26>:HSL applies.
Example:
"DISP:CMAP2:PDEF GRE"
Characteristics: *RST value: -SCPI: conform
Mode:
A
The values set are not changed by *RST.
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Remote Control – Description of Commands
DISPlay Subsystem
DISPlay:FORMat SINGle | SPLit
This command switches the measurement result display between FULL SCREEN and SPLIT
SCREEN. The coupling of settings between screen A and screen B can be selected with the command
INSTrument:COUPle.
In full-screen display the active measurement window can be selected with DISPlay:WINDow<1|2>:
SELect.
Example:
"DISP:FORM SPL"
'Switches the display to 2 measurement windows.
Characteristics: *RST value: SINGle
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
DISPlay:LOGO
A
ON | OFF
This command switches the company logo on the screen on or off.
Example:
"DISP:LOGO OFF"
Characteristics: *RST value: ON
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
DISPlay:PSAVe:HOLDoff
1 to 60
This command sets the hold off time for the power-save mode of the display. The available value range
is 1 to 60 minutes, the resolution 1 minute. The entry is dimensionless.
Example:
"DISP:PSAV:HOLD 30"
Characteristics: *RST value: 15
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
DISPlay:PSAVe[:STATe]
ON | OFF
This command switches on or off the power-save mode of the display. With the power-save mode
activated the display including backlight is completely switched off after the elapse of the response
time (see command DISPlay:PSAVe:HOLDoff).
This mode is recommended for preserving the display especially if the instrument
is exclusively operated via remote control.
Example:
"DISP:PSAVe ON"
'Switches on the power-save mode.
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
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Remote Control – Description of Commands
DISPlay Subsystem
DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:ACTive?
This command returns the active measurement window. The numeric response has following
meaning:
1
Screen A
2
Screen B
3
Screen C
4
Screen D
Example:
"DISP:WIND:ACT?"
returns the active window
Characteristics: *RST value: -SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
The numeric suffix at WINDow<1|2> is irrelevant.
DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:SELect
This command selects the active measurement window. WINDow1 corresponds to SCREEN A,
WINDow2 to SCREEN B.
In full screen mode, the measurements are only performed in the active measurement window.
Measurements are therefore initiated in the active window and result queries (marker, trace data and
other results) answered also in the active window.
Initiating measurements and querying results in the inactive window yields an error message
(execution error).
In split screen mode, the selection of the active window for result queries is irrelevant.
In full screen mode, settings can also be performed in the inactive measurement window. They
become effective as soon as the corresponding window becomes active.
Example:
"DISP:WIND2:SEL"
'Selects screen B as active measurement window.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCREEN A active
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
This command is an event and therefore has no query.
DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:SIZE
LARGe | SMALl
This command switches the measurement window for channel and adjacent channel power
measurements to full screen or half screen. Only "1" is allowed as a numerical suffix.
Example:
"DISP:WIND1:SIZE LARG"
'Switches the measurement window to full screen.
Characteristics: *RST value: SMALl
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
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Remote Control – Description of Commands
DISPlay Subsystem
DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:TEXT[:DATA] <string>
This command defines a comment (max. 20 characters) which can be displayed on the screen in the
selected measurement window.
Example:
"DISP:WIND2:TEXT 'Noise Measurement'"
'Defines the title for screen B
Characteristics: *RST value: "" (empty)
SCPI: conform
Mode:
A
DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:TEXT:STATe
ON | OFF
This command switches on or off the display of the comment (screen title) in the selected
measurement window.
Example:
"DISP:TEXT:STAT ON"
'Switches on the title of screen B.
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: conform
Mode:
A
DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:TIME
ON | OFF
This command switches on or off the screen display of date and time. The numeric suffix in
WINDow<1| 2> is irrelevant.
Example:
"DISP:TIME ON"
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:TRACe<1...3>:CLEar
This command clears all active traces.
Clearing all traces is useful, e.g. when you perform a peak search using the current trace buffer before
the end of the sweep. The search is not influenced by the part of the trace that has not yet been
updated.
The numeric suffix at TRACe is irrelevant.
This command is an event and therefore has no query.
Example:
"*RST"
'Preset the R&S FSQ.
"FREQ:CENT 1GHZ"
"FREQ:SPAN 100MHZ"
"SWE:TIME 5 s"
'set the center frequency, span and sweep time.
"DISP:TRAC1:MODE MAXH"
"DISP:TRAC2:MODE WRIT"
'set the trace mode for trace 1 and trace 2.
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Remote Control – Description of Commands
DISPlay Subsystem
"INIT:CONT OFF"
'select single sweep mode
"DISP:TRAC:CLE"
'clear all traces.
"INIT:IMM"
'start the sweep.
Characteristics: *RST value: -SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:TRACe<1...3>:MODE
WRITe | VIEW | AVERage | MAXHold | MINHold
This command defines the type of display and the evaluation of the traces in the selected
measurement window. WRITE corresponds to the Clr/Write mode of manual operation.
The trace is switched off (= BLANK in manual operation) with the DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:
TRACe<1...3>[:STATe] command.
The number of measurements for AVERage, MAXHold and MINHold is defined with the [SENSe<1|2>:
]AVERage:COUNt or [SENSe<1|2>:]SWEep:COUNt command.
Synchronization to the end of the indicated number of measurements is only possible in single-sweep
mode.
If calculation of average values is active, selection between logarithmic and linear averaging is
possible. For more detail see command [SENSe<1|2>:]AVERage:TYPE.
Example:
"INIT:CONT OFF"
'Switching to single-sweep mode.
"SWE:COUN 16"
'Sets the number of measurements to 16.
"DISP:WIND1:TRAC3:MODE MAXH"
'Switches on the calculation of the for trace 3 in screen A.
"INIT;*WAI"
'Starts the measurement and waits for the end of the 16 sweeps.
Characteristics: *RST value: WRITe for TRACe1, STATe OFF for TRACe2/3
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:TRACe<1...3>:MODE:HCONtinuous
ON | OFF
This command specifies whether or not the traces with peak or minimum value detection are reset after
specific parameter changes.
Usually the measurement must be restarted after a parameter change, before an evaluation of the
measurement results is performed (e.g. with a marker). In cases in which a change causes a
compulsory new measurement, the trace is automatically reset in order to prevent erroneous
measurements of previous measurement results (e.g. when the span changes). For applications in
which this behavior is not desired, this mechanism can be switched off.
Parameter:
OFF: The traces are reset after specific parameter changes.
ON: The reset mechanism is switched off.
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DISPlay Subsystem
Example:
"DISP:WIND1:TRAC3:MODE:HCON ON"
'The reset mechanism is switched off for measurement window 1.
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:TRACe<1...3>[:STATe]
ON | OFF
This command switches on or off the display of the corresponding trace in the selected measurement
window.
Example:
"DISP:WIND1:TRAC3 ON"
Characteristics: *RST value: ON for TRACe1, OFF for TRACe2 and 3
SCPI: conform
Mode:
A
DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:TRACe<1...3>:X:SPACing
LINear | LOGarithmic
This command toggles between linear and logarithmic display.
Example:
"DISP:TRAC:X:SPAC LIN"
Characteristics: *RST value: LINear
SCPI: conform
Mode:
A
The numeric suffix in TRACe<1...3> is irrelevant.
DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:TRACe<1...3>:Y[:SCALe]
10dB to 200dB
This command defines the display range of the y-axis (level axis) in the selected measurement window
with logarithmic scaling (DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:TRACe<1...3>:Y:SPACing).
For linear scaling, the display range is fixed and cannot be modified. The numeric suffix at
TRACe<1...3> is irrelevant.
Example:
"DISP:TRAC:Y 110dB"
Characteristics: *RST value: 100dB
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:TRACe<1...3>:Y[:SCALe]:MODE
ABSolute | RELative
This command defines the scale type of the y-axis (absolute or relative) in the selected measurement
window. SYSTem:DISPlay is set to OFF, this command has no immediate effect on the screen. The
numeric suffix in TRACe<1...3> is irrelevant.
Example:
"DISP:TRAC:Y:MODE REL"
Characteristics: *RST value: ABS
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
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Remote Control – Description of Commands
DISPlay Subsystem
DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:TRACe<1...3>:Y[:SCALe]:RLEVel
-130dBm to 30dBm
This command defines the reference level in the selected measurement window. Depending on the
coupling of the measurement windows, it is valid for both screens or only for the selected measurement
window (INSTrument:COUPle). The unit depends on the setting defined with the CALCulate<1|2>:
UNIT:POWer command.
The numeric suffix at TRACe<1...3> is irrelevant.
If the reference level offset is not 0 (DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:TRACe<1...3>:Y[:SCALe]:RLEVel:
OFFSet), the indicated value range of the reference level is modified by the offset.
Example:
"DISP:TRAC:Y:RLEV -60"
Characteristics: *RST value: -20
SCPI: conform
Mode:
A
DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:TRACe<1...3>:Y[:SCALe]:RLEVel:OFFSet
-200dB to 200dB
This command defines the offset of the reference level in the selected measurement window.
Depending on the coupling of the measurement windows, it is valid for both screens or only for the
selected measurement window (INSTrument:COUPle).
The numeric suffix at TRACe<1...3> is irrelevant.
Example:
"DISP:TRAC:Y:RLEV:OFFS -10dB"
Characteristics: *RST value: 0dB
SCPI: conform
Mode:
A
DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:TRACe<1...3>:Y[:SCALe]:RPOSition
0 to 100PCT
This command defines the position of the reference value in the selected measurement window. The
numeric suffix in TRACe<1...3> is irrelevant.
In NETWORK mode (Tracking Generator/Ext. Generator Option R&S FSU-B9/R&S FSP-B10) with
active normalization, RPOSition defines the reference point for the output of the normalized
measurement results.
Example:
"DISP:TRAC:Y:RPOS 50PCT"
Characteristics: *RST value:
100PCT(analyzer mode)
50 PCT (NETWORK mode)
Characteristics: SCPI: conform
Mode:
A
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Remote Control – Description of Commands
DISPlay Subsystem
DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:TRACe<1...3>:Y[:SCALe]:RVALue
<numeric_value>
If the tracking generator option or the external generator control option (R&S FSU-B9/R&S FSP-B10)
is available and the normalization in the NETWORK mode is activated, this value defines the power
value assigned to the reference position in the selected measurement window. This value corresponds
to the parameter REFERENCE VALUE in manual operation.
The numeric suffix at TRACe<1...3> is irrelevant.
Example:
"DISP:TRAC:Y:RVAL 0"
'Sets the power value assigned to the reference position to 0 dB (Tracking
Generator/Ext. Generator Control option).
Characteristics: *RST value:
0 dB (NETWORK mode)
Mode:
A
DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:TRACe<1...3>:Y:SPACing
LINear | LOGarithmic | LDB
This command toggles between linear and logarithmic display in the selected measurement window.
On a linear scale, switch over between the unit % (command DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LIN) and
the unit dB (command DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LDB) is also possible.
If the FM demodulator (R&S FS-K7) is active and result display AF spectrum of FM, AM or PM is
selected, only the parameters LINear and LOGarithmic are permissible.
The numeric suffix in TRACe<1...3> is irrelevant.
Example:
"DISP:TRAC:Y:SPAC LIN"
Characteristics: *RST value: LOGarithmic
SCPI: conform
Mode:
A
DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:TRACe<1...3>:Y:UNIT?
This command returns the Y unit that has been set.
This command is only a query and has the *RST value from the UNIT:POWer command.
The numeric suffix in TRACe<1...3> has no significance.
Example:
"DISP:WIND1:TRAC:Y:UNIT?"
Characteristics: *RST value: DBM
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
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Remote Control – Description of Commands
FORMat Subsystem
6.9
FORMat Subsystem
The FORMat subsystem specifies the data format of the data transmitted from and to the instrument.
FORMat[:DATA]
ASCii | REAL | UINT [, 8 | 32]
This command specifies the data format for the data transmitted from the instrument to the control PC.
The format settings are valid for the binary transmission of trace data (see also TRACe[:DATA]).
Example:
"FORM REAL,32"
"FORM ASC"
"FORM UINT,8"
Characteristics: *RST value: ASCii
SCPI: conform
Mode:
A
The data format is either ASCII or one of the formats REAL. ASCII data are transmitted in plain text,
separated by commas. REAL data are transmitted as 32-bit IEEE 754 floating-point numbers in the
"definite length block format".
The FORMat command is valid for the transmission of trace data. The data format of trace data
received by the instrument is automatically recognized, regardless of the format which is programmed.
Incorrect format setting will result in numerical conversion, which may lead to
incorrect results.
FORMat:DEXPort:DSEParator
POINt | COMMA
This command defines which decimal separator (decimal point or comma) is to be used for outputting
measurement data to the file in ASCII format. Different languages of evaluation programs (e.g.
Microsoft Excel) can thus be supported.
Example:
"FORM:DEXP:DSEP POIN
'Sets the decimal point as separator.
Characteristics: *RST value: -- (factory setting is POINt; *RST does not affect setting)
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
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HCOPy Subsystem
6.10
HCOPy Subsystem
The HCOPy subsystem controls the output of display information for documentation purposes on output
devices or files. The instrument allows two independent printer configurations which can be set separately with the numeric suffix <1|2>.
HCOPy:ABORt
This command aborts a running hardcopy output.
Example:
"HCOP:ABOR"
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: conform
Mode:
A
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
HCOPy:CMAP<1...26>:DEFault<1|2|3>
This command resets the colors for a hardcopy to the selected default settings. DEFault1(SCREEN
COLORS, but background white), DEFault2 (OPTIMIZED COLOR SET) and DEFault3 (USER
DEFINED). The numeric suffix in CMAP is not significant.
Example:
"HCOP:CMAP:DEF2"
'selects OPTIMIZED COLOR SET for the color settings of a hardcopy.
Characteristics: *RST value: -SCPI: conform
Mode:
A
This command is an event and therefore has no query and no *RST value.
HCOPy:CMAP<1...26>:HSL
<hue>,<sat>,<lum>
This command defines the color table in USER DEFINED COLORS mode.
To each numeric suffix of CMAP is assigned one or several picture elements which can be modified
by varying the corresponding color setting. The following assignment applies:
CMAP1
Background
CMAP2
Grid
CMAP3
Function field + status field + data entry text
CMAP4
Function field LED on
CMAP5
Function field LED warn
CMAP6
Enhancement label text
CMAP7
Status field background
CMAP8
Trace 1
CMAP9
Trace 2
CMAP10
Trace 3
CMAP11
Marker
CMAP12
Lines
CMAP13
Measurement status + limit check pass
CMAP14
Limit check fail
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R&S FSQ
Remote Control – Description of Commands
HCOPy Subsystem
CMAP15
Table + softkey background
CMAP16
Table + softkey text
CMAP17
Table selected field text
CMAP18
Table selected field background
CMAP19
Table + data entry field opaque title bar
CMAP20
Data entry field opaque text
CMAP21
Data entry field opaque background
CMAP22
3D shade bright part
CMAP23
3D shade dark part
CMAP24
Softkey state on
CMAP25
Softkey state data entry
CMAP26
Logo
Parameter:
hue = tint
sat = saturation
lum = brightness
The value range is 0 to 1 for all parameters
Example:
"HCOP:CMAP2:HSL 0.3,0.8,1.0"
'Changes the grid color.
Characteristics: *RST value: -SCPI: conform
Mode:
A
The values set are not changed by *RST.
HCOPy:CMAP<1...26>:PDEFined BLACk | BLUE | BROWn | GREen | CYAN | RED | MAGenta |
YELLow | WHITe | DGRAy | LGRAy | LBLUe | LGREen | LCYan | LRED | LMAGenta
This command defines the color table in USER DEFINED COLORS using predefined color values. To
each numeric suffix of CMAP is assigned one or several picture elements which can be modified by
varying the corresponding color setting. The same assignment as for :HCPOy:CMAP<1...26>:HSL
applies
Example:
"HCOP:CMAP2:PDEF GRE"
Characteristics: *RST value: -SCPI: conform
Mode:
A
The values set are not changed by *RST.
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R&S FSQ
Remote Control – Description of Commands
HCOPy Subsystem
HCOPy:DESTination<1|2>
<string>
This command selects the printer output medium (Disk, Printer or Clipboard) associated with
configuration 1 or 2.
The type of instrument is selected with SYSTem:COMMunicate:PRINter:
SELect, which will automatically select a default output medium. Therefore the
command HCOPy:DESTination should always be sent after setting the device
type.
Parameter:
<string>::= 'SYST:COMM:GPIB' | 'SYST:COMM:SER' | 'SYST:COMM:CENT' |
'MMEM' | 'SYST:COMM:PRIN' | 'SYST:COMM:CLIP'
'MMEM': Directs the hardcopy to a file. Command MMEM:NAME '<file_name>'
defines the file name. All formats can be selected for HCOPy:DEVice:LANGuage.
'SYST:COMM:PRIN': Directs the hardcopy to the printer. The printer is selected
with command SYSTEM:COMMunicate:PRINter:SELect.
GDI should be selected for HCOPy:DEVice:LANGuage.
'SYST:COMM:CLIP': Directs the hardcopy to the clipboard. EWMF should be
selected for HCOPy:DEVice:LANGuage.
Example:
"SYST:COMM:PRIN:SEL2 'LASER on LPT1'"
'Selects the printer and output medium for device 2
"HCOP:DEST2 'SYST:COMM:PRIN'"
'Selects the printer interface as device 2.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: conform
Mode:
A
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
HCOPy:DEVice:COLor
ON|OFF
This command selects between color and monochrome hardcopy of the screen.
Example:
"HCOP:DEV:COL ON"
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: conform
Mode:
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Remote Control – Description of Commands
HCOPy Subsystem
HCOPy:DEVice:LANGuage<1|2>
GDI | WMF | EWMF | BMP
This command determines the data format for the printed output.
Parameter:
GDI (Graphics Device Interface): Default format for output to a printer that has
been configured under Windows. Must be selected for output to the printer
interface (HCOPy:DEVice 'SYST:COMM:PRIN'). Can be used for output to a file
(HCOPy:DEVice 'SYST:COMM:MMEM'). The printer driver that was configured
under Windows is used to generate a file format that is specific to the printer. GDI
is available only for HCOPY:MODE SCReen.
WMF (WINDOWS Metafile) and EWMF (Enhanced Metafile Format): Data formats
for output to files which can be directly processed at a later point in time for
documentation purposes using suitable software. WMF can be used only for output
to a file (HCOPy:DEVice 'SYST:COMM:MMEM'), EWMF can also be used for
output to the clipboard (HCOPy:DEVice 'SYST:COMM:CLIP').
BMP (Bitmap): Data format, exclusively for output to files (HCOPy:DEVice
'SYST:COMM:MMEM').
BMP is available only for HCOPY:MODE SCReen.
Example:
"HCOP:DEV:LANG WMF"
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: conform
Mode:
A
HCOPy[:IMMediate<1|2>]
This command starts a hardcopy output. The numeric suffix selects which printer configuration (1 or 2)
is to be used for the hardcopy output. If there is no suffix, configuration 1 is automatically selected.
Example:
"HCOP"
"HCOPy:IMM1"
'Starts the hardcopy output to device 1 (default).
"HCOPy:IMM2"
'Starts the output to device 2.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: conform
Mode:
A
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
HCOPy:ITEM:ALL
This command selects the complete screen to be output.
The hardcopy output is always provided with comments, title, time and date. As an alternative to the
whole screen, only traces (commands 'HCOPy:ITEM:WINDow:TRACe:STATe ON') or tables
(command 'HCOPy:ITEM:WINDow:TABLe:STATe ON') can be output.
Example:
"HCOP:ITEM:ALL"
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: conform
Mode:
A
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
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R&S FSQ
Remote Control – Description of Commands
HCOPy Subsystem
HCOPy:ITEM:WINDow<1|2>:TABle:STATe
ON | OFF
This command selects the output of the currently displayed tables.
Example:
"HCOP:ITEM:WIND:TABL:STAT ON"
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
The command HCOPy:DEVice:ITEM:WINDow<1|2>:TABle:STATe
HCOPy:DEVice:ITEM:ALL enables the output of the whole screen.
HCOPy:ITEM:WINDow<1|2>:TEXT
OFF as well as command
<string>
This command defines the comment text for measurement window 1 or 2 for printout, with a maximum
of 100 characters; line feed by means of character @).
Example:
"HCOP:ITEM:WIND2:TEXT 'comment'"
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
HCOPy:ITEM:WINDow<1|2>:TRACe:STATe
ON | OFF
This command selects the output of the currently displayed trace.
Example:
"HCOP:ITEM:WIND:TRACe:STAT ON"
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
The command HCOPy:ITEM:WINDow<1|2>:TRACe:STATe
ITEM:ALL enables the output of the whole screen.
HCOPy:PAGE:ORIentation<1|2>
OFF as well as command HCOPy:
LANDscape | PORTrait
The command selects the format of the output (portrait and landscape) (hardcopy unit 1 or 2).
The command is only available provided that the output device "printer" (HCOP:
DEST 'SYST:COMM:PRIN') has been selected.
Example:
"HCOP:PAGE:ORI LAND"
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: conform
Mode:
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Remote Control – Description of Commands
INITiate Subsystem
6.11
INITiate Subsystem
The INITiate subsystem controls the init-measurement function in the selected measurement window.
The measurement windows are assigned to INITiate1 (screen A) and INITiate2 (screen B).
INITiate<1|2>:CONMeas
This command repeats the number of sweeps that you have set as the sweep count without deleting
the trace of the last measurement (INITiate:IMMediate always resets the trace).
Note that the sweep count has to be greater than 1. Otherwise, the trace is deleted before the sweep
is repeated.
Because the old traces are still displayed, CONTINUE SGL SWEEP is useful for statistical trace
modes (Maxhold and Average). In these cases, you can still consider previous results in the signal
evaluation.
The single-sweep mode is automatically switched on. Synchronization to the end of the indicated
number of measurements can then be performed with the command *OPC, *OPC? or *WAI. In the
continuous-sweep mode, synchronization to the sweep end is not possible since the overall
measurement "never" ends.
Example:
"INIT2:CONT OFF"
'Switches to single-sweep mode.
"DISP:WIND:TRAC:MODE AVER
'Switches on trace averaging.
"SWE:COUN 20"
Setting the sweep counter to 20 sweeps.
"INIT2;*WAI"
'Starts the measurement and waits for the end of the 20 sweeps.
"INIT2:CONM;*WAI"
'Continues the measurement (next 20 sequences) and waits for the end.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
INITiate<1|2>:CONTinuous ON | OFF
This command determines whether the trigger system is continuously initiated (continuous) or
performs single measurements (single).
In analyzer mode, this setting refers to the sweep sequence (switching between continuous/single
sweep).
Example:
"INIT:CONT OFF"
'Switches the sequence in screen B to single sweep.
"INIT:CONT ON"
'Switches the sequence to continuous sweep.
Characteristics: *RST value: ON
SCPI: conform
Mode:
A
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R&S FSQ
Remote Control – Description of Commands
INITiate Subsystem
INITiate<1|2>:DISPlay
ON | OFF
This command configures the behavior of the display during a single sweep.
The numeric suffix of INITiate is irrelevant with this command.
Parameter:
OFF: the display is switched off during the measurement,
ON: the display is switched on during the measurement.
Example:
"INIT2:CONT OFF"
'Switches to single-sweep mode
"INIT2:DISP OFF"
'Sets the display behavior to OFF
"INIT2;*WAI"
'Starts the measurement with display switched off.
Characteristics: *RST value: ON
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
INITiate<1|2>:ESPectrum
This command starts a Spectrum Emission Mask measurement. The measurement can be stopped in
continuous sweep mode with ABORt.
Example:
"SENS:SWE:MODE ESP"
' activates the SEM measurement
"INIT:CONT OFF"
' Set to Single Sweep
"INIT:ESP"
' Starts a SEM measurement
Characteristics: *RST value:SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
INITiate<1|2>[:IMMediate]
The command initiates a new sweep in the indicated measurement window.
With Sweep Count > 0 or Average Count > 0, this means a restart of the indicated number of
measurements. With trace functions MAXHold, MINHold and AVERage, the previous results are reset
on restarting the measurement.
In single-sweep mode, synchronization to the end of the indicated number of measurements can be
achieved with the command *OPC, *OPC? or *WAI. In continuous-sweep mode, synchronization to
the sweep end is not possible since the overall measurement never ends.
Example:
"INIT2:CONT OFF"
'Switches to single-sweep mode.
"DISP:WIND:TRAC:MODE AVER
'Switches on trace averaging.
"SWE:COUN 20"
Setting the sweep counter to 20 sweeps.
"INIT2;*WAI"
'Starts the measurement and waits for the end of the 20 sweeps.
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Remote Control – Description of Commands
INITiate Subsystem
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: conform
Mode:
A
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
INITiate<1|2>:SPURious
This command starts a new spurious measurement.
Example:
"INIT:CONT OFF"
'switches to single-sweep mode
"INIT:SPUR;*WAI"
'starts the measurement by waiting for the end of the 20 measurements
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
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R&S FSQ
Remote Control – Description of Commands
INPut Subsystem
6.12
INPut Subsystem
The INPut subsystem controls the input characteristics of the RF inputs of the instrument. The measurement windows are assigned to INPut1 (screen A) and INPut2 (screen B).
INPut<1|2>:ATTenuation 0 to 75dB
This command programs the input attenuator. To protect the input mixer against damage from
overloads, the setting 0 dB can be obtained by entering numerals, not by using the command DEC.
The step width is 5 dB, the range is 0 dB to..75 dB.
In analyzer mode, the attenuation set on the step attenuator is coupled to the reference level of the
instrument. If the attenuation is programmed directly, the coupling to the reference level is switched off.
Example:
"INP:ATT 40dB"
'Sets the attenuation on the attenuator to 40 dB and switches off the coupling to the
reference level.
Characteristics: *RST value: 10 dB (AUTO is set to ON)
SCPI: conform
Mode:
A
INPut<1|2>:ATTenuation:AUTO
ON | OFF
This command automatically couples the input attenuation to the reference level (state ON) or
switches the input attenuation to manual entry (state OFF). The minimum input attenuation set with the
coupling switched on is 10 dB (with electronic attenuator option: 5 dB).
Example:
"INP:ATT:AUTO ON"
'Couples the attenuation set on the attenuator to the reference level.
Characteristics: *RST value: ON
SCPI: conform
Mode:
A
INPut<1|2>:ATTenuation:PROTection:RESet
The R&S FSQ is equipped with an overload protection mechanism. This mechanism becomes active
as soon as the power at the input mixer exceeds a value of 27 dBm. It ensures that the connection
between RF input and input mixer is cut off.
The command resets the attenuator into the state that it had before the overload condition was
detected. It re-connects the RF input with the input mixer.
This command comes into effect only if the reason for the overload condition has
been eliminated. Otherwise the connection between RF input and input mixer is
left open.
Example:
"INP:ATT:PROT:RES"
Characteristics: *RST value: -SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
This command is an event and therefore has no query and no *RST value.
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Remote Control – Description of Commands
INPut Subsystem
INPut:COUPling
AC | DC
This command switches the input coupling of the RF input between AC and DC.
The softkey is only available for models 3, 8 and 26.
Example:
"INP:COUP DC"
Characteristics: *RST value: AC
SCPI: conform
Mode:
INPut<1|2>:EATT
A
0 to 30dB
This command programs the attenuation of the electronic input attenuator. The attenuation can be
varied in 5 dB steps from 0 to 30 dB. Other entries are rounded to the next lower integer value. If the
attenuation is programmed directly, the coupling to the reference level is switched off.
If the defined reference level cannot be set with the given RF attenuation, this level is adapted to the
maximum possible value.
The electronic attenuator is switched off in the default state.
Example:
"INP:EATT:STAT ON"
'Switches the electronic attenuator into the signal path.
"INP:EATT 15dB"
'Sets the attenuation of the electronic attenuator to 15 dB and switches off the
coupling to the reference level.
Characteristics: *RST value: 0 dB (state is set to OFF)
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
The command is only available with the electronic attenuator option B25.
INPut<1|2>:EATT:AUTO
ON | OFF
This command automatically couples the electronic input attenuation to the reference level and the
attenuation of the mechanical attenuator (state ON) or switches the input attenuation to manual entry
(state OFF).
Example:
"INP:EATT:STAT ON"
'Switches the electronic attenuator into the signal path.
"INP:EATT:AUTO ON"
'Couples the attenuation of the electronic attenuator to the reference level.
Characteristics: *RST value: ON
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
The command is only available with the electronic attenuator option B25.
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Remote Control – Description of Commands
INPut Subsystem
INPut<1|2>:EATT:STATe
ON | OFF
This command switches the electronic input attenuation into the signal path (state ON) or removes it
from the signal path (state OFF).
Example:
"INP:EATT:STAT ON"
'Switches the electronic attenuator into the signal path.
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
The command is only available with the option electronic attenuator B25.
INPut<1|2>:FILTer:YIG[:STATe]
ON | OFF
This command switches the YIG filter for image rejection into the signal path (ON) or removes it from
the signal path (OFF).
Example:
"INP:FILT:YIG OFF"
'YIG filter switch off
Characteristics: *RST value: ON
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
INPut<1|2>:GAIN:STATe
ON | OFF
This command switches the preamplifier for the instrument on or off. The switchable gain is fixed to 20
dB.
Example:
"INP:GAIN:STAT ON"
'Switches the 20 dB preamplifier on.
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: conform
Mode:
A
The command is only available with the RF preamplifier (R&S FSQ-B23) or electronic attenuator
(R&S FSU-B25) option.
INPut<1|2>:IMPedance
50 | 75
This command sets the nominal input impedance of the instrument. The set impedance is taken into
account in all level indications of results.
The setting 75 Ω should be selected, if the 50 Ω input impedance is transformed to a higher impedance
using a 75 Ω adapter of the RAZ type (= 25 Ω in series to the input impedance of the instrument). The
correction value in this case is 1.76 dB = 10 log (75Ω / 50Ω).
Example:
"INP:IMP 75"
Characteristics: *RST value: 50 Ω
SCPI: conform
Mode:
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Remote Control – Description of Commands
INPut Subsystem
INPut<1|2>:MIXer:AUTO
ON | OFF
This command enables/disables the automatic setup of the mixer level.
Example:
"INP:MIX:AUTO ON"
Characteristics: *RST value: ON
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
INPut<1|2>:MIXer[:POWer]
<numeric value>
This command defines the desired power at the input mixer of the R&S FSQ. On any change to the
reference level the RF attenuation will be adjusted in a way that makes the difference between
reference level and RF attenuation come as close to the desired mixer level as possible.
Example:
"INP:MIX -30"
Characteristics: *RST value: - 25 dBm
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
INPut<1|2>:SELect
A
AIQ | DIQ | RF
This command switches the baseband inputs on (AIQ, DIG) or off (RF).
The suffix <1|2> is irrelevant. This command is not available in the FFT Analyzer mode.
Parameter:
AIQ: Analog baseband input, requires option R&S FSQ-B71
DIQ: Digital baseband input, requires option R&S FSQ-B17
RF: RF inpuaiq:
Example:
"INP:SEL DIQ"
Selects the digital baseband input
Characteristics: *RST value: RF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
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R&S FSQ
Remote Control – Description of Commands
INPut Subsystem
6.12.1
INPut:DIQ Subsystem
The INPut:DIQ subsystem controls the digital baseband input.
This subsystem is available only with option R&S FSQ-B17.
INPut<1|2>:DIQ:CDEVice?
This command queries the current configuration and status of the Digital Baseband input of option
R&S FSQ-B17. The returned string includes the name of the connected device, the serial number of
this device, the port name and the sample rate, separated by comma, e.g. “AMU200A,100266,Out A,
80000000.0”.
The suffix <1|2> is irrelevant.
Example:
"INP:DIQ:CDEV?"
queries the current input configuration.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
This command is a query and therefore has no *RST value.
INPut<1|2>:DIQ:RANGe:AUTO
ON | OFF
This command controls the auto set function of the digital baseband input full scale value.
Depending on the digital baseband signal source, the full scale value of the I/Q data is passed to the
R&S FSQ LVDS input interface.
If the full scale level of the signal source is outside the R&S FSQ supported range, it shows the “BDI”
enhancement label. The “BDI” label is also visible if the signal source does not support automatic
matching.
The suffix <1|2> is irrelevant.
The command is available with option R&S FSQ-B17.
Parameter:
ON
Automatically matches the full scale value of the digital baseband input to that of
the signal source.
OFF
The R&S FSQ does not match the full scale value. You can set it manually with
“INPut<1|2>:DIQ:RANGe[:UPPer]”.
Example:
"INP:DIQ:RANG:AUTO OFF"
disbales automatic matching of the full scale value.
"INP:DIQ:RANG 1.2"
sets the voltage to 1.2 V.
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
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Remote Control – Description of Commands
INPut Subsystem
INPut<1|2>:DIQ:RANGe[:UPPer]
<numeric value>
This command defines the voltage corresponding to the maximum input value of the digital baseband
input ( value 7FFF hex).
The suffix <1|2> is irrelevant.
Example:
"INP:DIQ:RANG 1.2"
sets the voltage to 1.2 V.
Characteristics: *RST value: 1
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
INPut<1|2>:DIQ:SRATe <numeric value>
This command defines the input date sample rate read by the digital baseband input.
The suffix <1|2> is irrelevant.
Example:
"INP:DIQ:SRAT 81.6 MHz"
sets the input sample rate to 81.6 MHz.
Characteristics: *RST value: 81.6 MHz
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
INPut<1|2>:DIQ:SRATe:AUTO ON | OFF
This command controls the auto set function of the digital baseband input sample rate.
Depending on the digital baseband signal source, the sample rate of the I/Q data is passed to the
R&S FSQ LVDS input interface.
If the sample rate of the signal source is outside the R&S FSQ supported range, it shows the “BDI”
enhancement label. The “BDI” label is also visible if the signal source does not support automatic
matching.
Parameter:
ON
Automatically matches the sample rate of the digital baseband input to that of the
signal source.
OFF
The R&S FSQ does not match the sample rate. You can set it manually with
“INPut<1|2>:DIQ:SRATe”.
Example:
"INP:DIQ:SRAT:AUTO OFF"
disbales automatic matching of the sample rate.
"INP:DIQ:SRAT 81.6MHZ"
sets the sample rate to 81.6 MHz.
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
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R&S FSQ
Remote Control – Description of Commands
INSTrument Subsystem
6.13
INSTrument Subsystem
The INSTrument subsystem selects the operating mode of the unit either via text parameters or fixed
numbers. Only operating modes available for the base unit and the models and the options described in
this manual (see “Documentation Overview” on page 0.3) are listed. For details on the other operating
modes refer to the corresponding separate manuals.
INSTrument:COUPle
NONE | RLEVel | CF_B | CF_A
In analyzer mode, this command selects the parameter coupling between the two measurement
windows screen A and B.
Parameter:
NONE: No coupling. The two measurement windows are operated like two
independent "virtual" devices.
RLEVel: The reference levels of the two measurement windows are coupled.
CF_B: The center frequency of screen B is coupled to the frequency of marker 1 in
screen A.
CF_A: The center frequency of screen A is coupled to the frequency of marker 1 in
screen B.
Example:
"INST:COUP NONE"
'Switches off the coupling of measurement windows. This leads to two independent
"virtual" devices.
Characteristics: *RST value: NONE
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
INSTrument:NSELect
<numeric value>
This command enables you to switch between the modes by using numbers.
Parameter:
1: Analyzer mode
3: FM demodulator mode
12: BLUETOOTH
Example:
"INST:NSEL 1"
'Switches to the analyzer mode.
Characteristics: *RST value: 1
SCPI: conform
Mode:
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R&S FSQ
Remote Control – Description of Commands
INSTrument Subsystem
INSTrument[:SELect]
SANalyzer | ADEMod | BTOoth
This command enables you to switch between modes by entering the mode designation.
Parameter:
SANalyzer: spectrum analyzer
ADEMod: FM demodulator
BTOoth: BLUETOOTH
Example:
"INST SAN"
'Switches the instrument to SPECTRUM.
Characteristics: *RST value: SANalyzer
SCPI: conform
Mode:
A
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R&S FSQ
Remote Control – Description of Commands
MMEMory Subsystem
6.14
MMEMory Subsystem
The MMEMory (mass memory) subsystem provides commands which allow for access to the storage
media of the instrument and for storing and loading various instrument settings.
The various drives can be addressed via the "mass storage unit specifier" <msus> using the conventional DOS syntax. The internal hard disk is addressed by "D:", the flash disk by "F:".
For reasons of compatibility with the FSE instruments, addressing the hard disk by
"C:" is also accepted. Since hard disk "C:" is reserved for instrument software, all
read and write operations are rerouted to hard disk "D:" in normal operation (service level 0).
The file names <file_name> are indicated as string parameters with the commands being enclosed in
quotation marks. They also comply with DOS conventions.
DOS file names consist of max. 8 ASCII characters and an extension of up to three characters separated
from the file name by a dot "." Both, the dot and the extension are optional. The dot is not part of the file
name. DOS file names do not distinguish between uppercase and lowercase notation. All letters and digits are permitted as well as the special characters "_", "^", "$", "~", "!", "#", "%", "&", "-", "{", "}", "(", ")", "@"
and "`". Reserved file names are CLOCK$, CON, AUX, COM1 to COM4, LPT1 to LPT3, NUL and PRN.
The two characters "*" and "?" have the function of so-called "wildcards", i.e., they are variables for
selection of several files. The question mark "?" replaces exactly one character, the asterisk means any
of the remaining characters in the file name. "*.*" thus means all files in a directory.
MMEMory:CATalog:LONG?
<path>
This command queries the directories and files in the given path.
Parameter:
<path>::= DOS path
Example:
"MMEM:CAT:LONG? 'D:\USER\DATA'"
'queries the contents of directory D:\USER\DATA
Return value:
<used_bytes_in_this_directory>,<free_bytes_on_this_disk>,
"<file_name>,<file_type>,<filesize_in_bytes>",
"<file_name>,<file_type>,<filesize_in_bytes>", …
with
<file_name>: name of file or directory
<file_type>: DIR (directory), ASCii (ASCII file), BINary (binary file) and STATe (file
with device settings)
<filesize_in_bytes>: size of file, 0 for directories
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: conform
Mode:
6.133
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Remote Control – Description of Commands
MMEMory Subsystem
MMEMory:CATalog?
<path>
This command reads the indicated directory. According to DOS convention, wild card characters can
be entered in order to query e.g. a list of all files of a certain type.
The path name should be in conformance with DOS conventions and may also include the drive name.
Parameter:
<path>::= DOS Path name
Example:
"MMEM:CAT? 'D:\USER\DATA'"
'Returns the contents of the D:\USER\DATA directory
"MMEM:CAT? 'D:\USER\DATA\*.LOG'"
'Returns all files in D:\USER\DATA with .LOG extension
"MMEM:CAT? 'D:\USER\DATA\SPOOL?.WMF'"
'Returns all files in D:\USER\DATA whose names start with SPOOL, have 6 letters
and the .WMF extension .
Return value:
List of file names in the form of strings separated by commas, i.e.
'SPOOL1.WMF','SPOOL2.WMF','SPOOL3.WMF'
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: conform
Mode:
A
MMEMory:CDIRectory
<directory_name>
This command changes the current directory.
In addition to the path name, the indication of the directory may contain the drive name. The path name
complies with the DOS conventions.
Parameter:
<directory_name>::= DOS path name
Example:
"MMEM:CDIR 'D:\USER\DATA'"
'Returns the list of files in directory D:\USER\DATA.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: conform
Mode:
A
MMEMory:CLEar:ALL
This command deletes all device settings in the current directory. The current directory can be selected
with MMEM:CDIR. The default directory is D:.
Example:
"MMEM:CLE:ALL"
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
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Remote Control – Description of Commands
MMEMory Subsystem
MMEMory:CLEar:STATe
1,<file_name>
This command deletes the instrument setting selected by <file_name>. All associated files on the
mass memory storage are cleared. A list of the extensions used is included under MMEMory:LOAD:
STATe.
The file name includes indication of the path and may also include the drive. The path name complies
with DOS conventions.
Parameter:
<file_name> ::= DOS file name without extension
Example:
"MMEM:CLE:STAT 1,'TEST'"
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
MMEMory:COMMent
<string>
This command defines a comment (max. 60 characters) for a device setting to be stored.
Example:
"MMEM:COMM 'Setup for FM measurement'"
Characteristics: *RST value: blank comment
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
MMEMory:COPY
A
<file_source>,<file_destination>
This command copies the files indicated in <file_source> to the destination directory indicated with
<file_destination> or to the destination file indicated by <file_destination> when <file_source> is just a
file.
The indication