MICHELIN X One Truck Tire Service Manual

MICHELIN X One Truck Tire Service Manual
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MWL43101 (05/09)
MICHELIN® X ONE® TRUCK TIRE SERVICE MANUAL
MICHELIN X One Truck Tire Service Manual
Introduction
Read this manual carefully — it is important for the SAFE operation and servicing of your tires.
The purpose of this manual is to provide you, the MICHELIN Truck Tire customer, with some useful
information to help you obtain maximized performance and minimized cost per mile. Your MICHELIN radial
tires are a significant investment and should be protected like any other investment. This manual will show you
how to do this by increasing your knowledge of tires regarding their selection, performance-affecting vehicle
characteristics, maintenance, and tire life extension through repair and retreading. For complete tire
specifications, refer to application data books, contact your local MICHELIN Representative, or refer to the
MICHELIN website: www.michelintruck.com.
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ADDITIONAL REFERENCES
For additional information, consult the following manuals/publications:
MICHELIN Truck Tire Data Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MWL40731
MICHELIN Commercial Truck Tire Nail Hole Radial Tire Repair Manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MWT40163
MICHELIN Crown/Sidewall Repair Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MWT40192
MICHELIN Truck Tire Limited Warranty and Driver’s Manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MWE40021
MICHELIN X One Tire Brochure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MWL41924
MICHELIN X One Driver Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MWL42987
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Technical Bulletins: www.michelintruck.com
CDs/DVDs:
MICHELIN X One Tire Presentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MWV42737
MICHELIN X One Tire Driver Information DVD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MWV42991
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MICHELIN tires and tubes are subject to a continuous
development program. Michelin North America, Inc.
reserves the right to change product specifications at
any time without notice or obligation.
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Please consult rim manufacturer’s load and inflation
limits. Never exceed rim manufacturer’s limits without
permission of component manufacturer.
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Pressure Maintenance
Drivers have commented that an under-inflated MICHELIN X One tire is more likely to be
detected with a simple visual inspection than dual tires. However, pressure is difficult to gauge
visually even for the most experienced driver.
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▲ Do use a properly calibrated gauge when verifying the
air pressure of a MICHELIN X One tire.
▲ Don’t rely on the appearance of the tire.
▲ Do remove and inspect any tire found to be 20% below
the recommended air pressure.
Failure to do so may cause tire failure.
Vehicle Handling
Drivers have commented that the wide, stable footprint of the MICHELIN X One tire can provide
the feel of a much more stable truck compared to traditional dual tires. However, while most
MICHELIN X One tire fitments allow the track of the tractor and trailer to be widened, the
vehicle’s behavior in curves (on ramps or off ramps) is still subject to roll-over at excessive
speeds.
▲ Don’t let the outstanding handling of MICHELIN X One
tires give you a false sense of stability in curves.
▲ Do respect all posted speed limits regardless
of tire fitment.
Failure to do so may cause vehicle to tip.
Rapid Air Loss Techniques
Extensive testing has shown that a rapid air loss on a MICHELIN X One tire will not compromise
the stability and behavior of the vehicle. However, with one tire on each axle end, the loss of air
pressure will allow the wheel and axle end to drop and possibly contact the road surface.
▲ Don’t try to “limp home” or continue to run on a flat tire.
▲ Do down shift or use the trailer brake (when appropriate)
to avoid tire/wheel assembly lock-up.
▲ Do release the brakes intermittently as you slow down
to allow some rotation of the assembly.
Failure to do so may cause irreparable damage to the
tire, wheel, axle components, and vehicle.
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Table of Content
Tire and Wheel Nomenclature .......................... 1-8
MICHELIN X One Tire Maintenance ....... 23-52
SELECTING A TIRE ........................................................................ 2-3
MICHELIN X ONE TIRE — MOUNTING .................................. 24-26
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Equivalent MICHELIN X One Tire Sizes
Mounting Setup
Tire Revolutions Per Mile and Retrofits to
Wheel Preparation
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MICHELIN X One Tires
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Inspecting for Damages
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Tire Marking/Load Range/ISO/DOT Descriptions
Lubricating the Tire and Wheel
DOT Sidewall Markings
Mounting the MICHELIN X One Tire
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Tire Applications and Design
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MICHELIN X ONE TIRE — DEMOUNTING ............................. 27-29
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SELECTING A WHEEL ................................................................... 4-5
Outset/Inset
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2-Bar Demount Method
3-Bar Demount Method
Drop Centers
Demounting the Second Bead
Valve Systems
MISMOUNT .............................................................................. 30-31
WHEEL SYSTEMS ......................................................................... 6-8
Steel vs Aluminum
3 Easy Steps to Help Minimize Mismounted Tires
TIME LABOR STUDY — MICHELIN X ONE TIRE VS DUAL ... 32-33
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Stud Piloted Wheels
Demounting the MICHELIN X One Tires
Special Fasteners
Demounting the Dual
Hub Piloted Wheels
Mounting the MICHELIN X One Tires
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Torque
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Mounting the Dual
Proper Fastener for MICHELIN X One Tire
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AIR INFILTRATION .................................................................... 34-35
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Steel Stud Piloted Wheels
AIR PRESSURE .......................................................................... 36-38
WHEEL SPECIFICATIONS ............................................................ 9-10
14.00 x 22.5" – 15-Degree Drop Center Wheel Specifications
MICHELIN X One Air Pressure Maintenance Practices
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HOW TO PROPERLY MEASURE PRESSURE ............................. 39-44
Special Provision for Steer Axle Use on 13.00 x 22.5" Wheels
Temperature/Pressure Relationship Chart
13.00 x 22.5" – 15-Degree Wheel Specifications
The Use of Nitrogen in MICHELIN Truck Tires
Run-flat and Zipper Ruptures
Truck Technical Specifications ........................ 11-24
Tire Inspection
AXLES AND WHEEL ENDS ....................................................... 12-15
MICHELIN X One Tires Load and Inflation Tables
Axle Identification Tags
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IRREGULAR TIRE WEAR ........................................................... 45-46
Load Ratings
Tractor: Heel-Toe/Block-Edge Wear, Center Wear,
Use of 2” Outset Wheel with MICHELIN X One Tires
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Axle Track Widths
Vehicle Track
River Wear Only
Trailer: Step-Shoulder/Localized Wear, Shoulder Cupping,
Brake Skid
SPINDLES ....................................................................................... 16
ALIGNMENT AND VIBRATION ................................................. 47-49
OVERALL VEHICLE TRACK AND WIDTH ...................................... 17
Introduction
BEARINGS ...................................................................................... 18
Axle Skew
ENGINE COMPUTERS .................................................................... 18
Trailer Alignment
AIR INFLATION AND PRESSURE MONITORING SYSTEMS ..... 19-20
Vibration
The Use of Pressure Monitoring and Inflation
Systems with MICHELIN Truck Tires
Central Tire Inflation (CTI) Systems on Trailers
and Missed Nail Holes
TRUCK TYPE BY WEIGHT CLASS............................................. 21-22
MICHELIN X One Tires in 4x2 Application
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Balance
TREAD DEPTH PULL POINTS......................................................... 50
CARE, CLEANING, AND STORAGE................................................ 51
Diesel Fuel Contamination
Cleaning and Protection
SEALANTS...................................................................................... 52
VALVE STEM INSPECTION............................................................. 52
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Retread and Repair Recommendations ... 53-56
MICHELIN X ONE RETREAD AND
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REPAIR RECOMMENDATIONS............................................ 54-55
Initial Inspection
Shearography
Buffing
Tread Building
Enveloping
Curing
Final Inspection
REPAIR RECOMMENDATION......................................................... 56
RETREAD RECOMMENDATION..................................................... 56
Operation and Handling .................................... 57-68
OPERATION AND HANDLING .................................................. 58-63
Over-steer
Under-steer
Hydroplaning
Rollover Threshold
Jack-knife
Traction
Chains
Stopping Distances
Limping Home
State and Local Regulations
HEAT STUDY ............................................................................ 64-67
Brake Heat Overview
Brake Heat Evaluation: MICHELIN X One Tires vs Duals
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Appendix ......................................................................... 69-74
ISO LOAD INDEX AND SPEED SYMBOL....................................... 70
DEFINITIONS............................................................................. 71-72
SPECIAL TOOLS/MOUNTING TOOLS ...................................... 73-74
Index .................................................................................... 75-76
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Tire and Wheel
Nomenclature
SELECTING A TIRE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3
Equivalent MICHELIN X One Tire Sizes
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Tire Revolutions Per Mile and Retrofits to
MICHELIN X One Tires
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Tire Marking/Load Range/ISO/DOT Descriptions
DOT Sidewall Markings
Tire Applications and Design
SELECTING A WHEEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5
Outset/Inset
Drop Centers
Valve Systems
WHEEL SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-8
Steel vs Aluminum
Stud Piloted Wheels
Special Fasteners
Hub Piloted Wheels
Torque
Proper Fastener for MICHELIN X One Tire Steel
Stud Piloted Wheels
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WHEEL SPECIFICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-10
14.00 x 22.5" – 15-Degree Drop Center Wheel Specifications
Special Provision for Steer Axle Use on 13.00 x 22.5" Wheels
13.00 x 22.5" – 15-Degree Wheel Specifications
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SELECTING
A TIRE
EQUIVALENT MICHELIN X ONE SIZES
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When retrofitting MICHELIN X One tires of equivalent
size, changing engine computer revolutions per minute
(RPM) should be all that is required.
Consult your equipment manufacturer and Michelin
representative for details if you are retrofitting other than
equivalent sizes.
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TIRE REVOLUTIONS PER MILE AND
RETROFITS TO MICHELIN X ONE TIRES
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Gear Ratio: A change in tire dimension will result in
a change in engine RPM at a set cruise speed* that will
result in a change in speed and fuel economy. The effect
of tire size change on gear ratio should be considered in
individual operations.
A decrease in tire radius will increase tractive torque
and increase indicated speed. An increase in tire radius
will reduce tractive torque and decrease indicated speed.
Tire Revs./Mile – Speed – Size: These factors can affect
engine RPM if corresponding changes are not made to
engine ratios.
Example: Going from larger diameter tire to smaller
diameter tire.
If you currently run a 275/80R22.5 MICHELIN XDN 2
tire (511 Tire Revs./Mile) and change to a 445/50R22.5
MICHELIN X One XDN 2 tire (515 Tire Revs./Mile),
the speedometer will indicate a slightly higher speed
than the actual speed the vehicle is traveling.
MICHELIN X One
Tire Size
MICHELIN X One
Tire Revs./Mile
445/50R22.5
515 (X One XDN2)
275/80R22.5
511 (XDN2)
492 (X One XDN2)
11R22.5 or
275/80R24.5
495 (XDN2)
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455/55R22.5
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Dual Size
Dual
Tire Revs./Mile
DOT SIDEWALL MARKINGS
All new tires sold in the United States must have a DOT
(Department of Transportation) number cured into the lower
sidewall. All retreaded tires must also have an additional DOT
branded into the sidewall. It is recommended that the retread DOT
be placed in the lower sidewall near the original DOT code. Certain
states may require labeling in addition to the Federal requirements
certifying compliance with the Industry Standard for Retreading.
Tires manufactured prior to the year 2000 end with 3 digits rather
than 4, the first two numbers indicating the week and the last one
indicating the year of production, followed by a solid triangle to
indicate the decade of 1990s. Tires made or retreaded after the year
1999 will end with a four-digit code: the first two indicate the week,
and the last two indicate the year of manufacture.
Example: DOT B6 D0 AXL X 2006
New tire markings required by the Department of Transportation:
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Tire Size
Optional Code
Plant
MICHELIN
Manufacture Date
DOT
Final Tire Revs./Mile – Initial Tire Revs./Mile =
Initial Tire Revs./Mile
515 - 511 = 0.0078 or .78% (< 1% change)
511
So when your actual speed is 60 mph, your speedometer
will read 60.47 mph.
TIRE MARKINGS/LOAD RANGES/ISO/DOT DESCRIPTIONS
Size
Design
LI/Ply Rating
ISO Load
ISO Speed
Approximate Weight**
445/50R22.5
X One XDA
L/20
161 (10,200 lbs)
L (75 mph)
177
X One XDN 2
L/20
161 (10,200 lbs)
L (75 mph)
182
X One XRV
L/20
161 (10,200 lbs)
L (75 mph)
164
X One XTE
L/20
161 (10,200 lbs)
L (75 mph)
164
L/20
161 (10,200 lbs)
L (75 mph)
161
X One XDN 2
L/20
164 (11,000 lbs)
L (75 mph)
201
X One XTE L/20
164 (11,000 lbs)
L (75 mph)
182
X One XZU S
M/22
166 (11,700 lbs)
M (75 mph)
198
X One XZY 3
M/22
166 (11,700 lbs)
M (75 mph)
202
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X One XTA
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455/55R22.5
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Indicates a cut and chip resistance tread compound for more aggressive environments.
* Exceeding the legal speed limit is neither recommended nor endorsed.
** The weights are estimates only. The actual weight may vary.
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Tire and Wheel Nomenclature
TIRE APPLICATIONS AND DESIGN
Long Haul (A): The Long Haul application is
composed of businesses operating primarily in
common carrier vocations.
Vehicle annual mileage – 80,000 to 200,000.
Regional (E): The Regional application is made
up of businesses such as public utilities; government –
federal, state, and local; food distribution/process;
manufacturing/process; petroleum; and schools
operating within a 300-mile radius.
Vehicle annual mileage – 30,000 to 80,000.
On/Off Road (Y): On/Off Road tires are designed to
provide the durability and performance necessary in highly
aggressive operating conditions at limited speeds.
Vocations such as construction, mining, and logging use
these highly specialized tires.
Vehicle annual mileage – 10,000 to 70,000.
Urban (U): Urban applications are very short mileage
with a high percentage of stop and go. Primarily users are
in retail/wholesale delivery, bus fleets, and sanitation.
Vehicle annual mileage – 20,000 to 60,000.
Want to know how much money you can save by switching to MICHELIN tires?
Use our Weight Savings or Fuel Savings calculator to find out. Go to www.michelintruck/com/toolbox.
MICHELIN X One XTA
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Fuel savings,
Weight Savings,
Even Wear, 13⁄ 32nd
MICHELIN X One XDA
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Fuel Efficient,
Long Tread Life, 24⁄ 32nd
MICHELIN X One XRV
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Exceptional Performance
Long Tread Life, 16⁄ 32nd
MICHELIN X One XTE
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High Scrub, Weight Savings,
Long Tread Life, 16⁄ 32nd
MICHELIN X One XDN 2
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Long Original Life,
Weight Savings
All-Weather Traction, 27⁄ 32nd
MICHELIN X One XZU S
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High Scrub Resistance,
Weight Savings, 23⁄ 32nd
MICHELIN X One XZY 3
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High Scrub Resistance,
Weight Savings, 23⁄ 32nd
Tire and Wheel Nomenclature
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SELECTING
A WHEEL
OUTSET / INSET
Outset: The lateral distance from the wheel centerline to
the mounting surface of the disc. Outset places the wheel
centerline outboard of the mounting (hub face) surface.
Inset: The Inset places the wheel centerline inboard of the
mounting (hub face) surface or over the axle.
USE OF 2" OUTSET WHEELS
WITH MICHELIN X ONE TIRES
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The MICHELIN X One tires (445/50R22.5 and
455/55R22.5) require the use of 14.00 x 22.5" wheels. The
majority of the wheels currently offered have a 2" outset.
Some axle and hub manufacturers have recently clarified
and confirmed their position concerning the use of such
wheels with their respective components. While the
position of the component manufacturers is not totally
consistent, the majority view concerning the retrofit of
duals with MICHELIN X One tires can be summarized
as follows:
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Axle Type*
Spindle Type
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Wheel Recommendation
Drive axles
“R”
2" outset wheels
Trailer axles
“P”
2" outset wheels
Trailer axles
“N”
Check with component manufacturer
Truck and trailer manufacturers may have different
specifications. For optimum track width, stability, and
payload, end-users should talk to their trailer suppliers
about the use of 83.5" axles with zero outset wheels.
End-users that have retrofitted vehicles with 2" outset
wheels should contact their respective vehicle, axle, or
component manufacturers for specific application
approvals or maintenance recommendations.
NOTE: Use of outset wheels may change Gross Axle
Weight Rating (GAWR). Consult vehicle and component
manufacturer.
DROP CENTERS
The Drop Center is the well or center portion of the
wheel. This is what allows the tire to be easily mounted
on a single piece wheel: the tire bead will “drop” into
this cavity.
The 14.00 x 22.50" (15-degree bead seat) drop center
tubeless wheel required for the MICHELIN X One tire
has differently styled drop centers depending on the
manufacturer.
Accuride aluminum (part #29660) and steel wheels as
well as Hayes Lemmerz steel wheels are produced with
a narrow ledge on one side and a long tapered ledge on
the other. The narrow ledge is necessary to ease the
mounting and dismounting process.
The Alcoa aluminum wheel is manufactured with
a narrow ledge on either side. This allows it to be
mounted and dismounted from either side.
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* Many other axle and spindle combinations exist.
Contact axle manufacturer.
Disc Face
Narrow Ledge
Outboard
Inboard
OUTSET
Accuride
Always ensure the narrow ledge is
up when mounting or demounting.
Disc Face
Outboard
Inboard
INSET
Alcoa
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Tire and Wheel Nomenclature
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VALVE SYSTEMS
Always replace the whole valve assembly when a
new tire is mounted.
Ensure the valve stem is installed using the proper
torque value: 80 to 125 in/lbs (7 to 11 ft/lbs) for
aluminum wheels and 35 to 55 in/lbs (3 to 5 ft/lbs)
for tubeless steel wheels.
When an aluminum wheel is used in the outset
position, a TR543E or TR553E valve degree bend
can be used. This valve has a 75-degree bend that
facilitates taking air pressures. If the valve stem is
installed on the inboard side of the wheel, ensure
proper clearance exists between the brake drum and
the valve stem. It is highly recommended that the
older style valve stems be replaced with the newer
style TR553E to minimize corrosion build-up,
thereby minimizing stem leaks.
Per TMC RP 234, Proper Valve Hardware Selection
Guidelines it is recommended that an anti-corrosive
or dielectric compound be used on the valve stem
threads and O-rings prior to installation. This will
prevent corrosion from growing around the O-ring,
which squeezes it and causes leaks. Check with your
aluminum wheel manufacturer or valve stem
supplier for their recommendation of an anticorrosive compound.
Corrosion Related Leak
TR553E Valve (left) and TR543E (right)
When installed in the inset position, the longer
TR545E valve is required.
Note Corrosion On Bottom Valve
TR545E Valve
If the operator uses the wheel as a step when
securing the load, a straight TR542 valve may be
preferable. An angle head pressure gauge will be
required to check air pressure, but it may still be
difficult due to interference with the hub.
TR542 Valve
Checking for loose and leaky valve stems should
be made a part of your regular maintenance schedule.
Methods for checking for loose valve stems are:
– check with a torque wrench,
– check by hand to see if the valve nut is loose,
– spray a soapy solution on the valve to see if there
is a leak.
To protect the valve from dirt and moisture, a heat
resistant metal valve cap with a rubber seal must be
installed. The number one cause of air loss in tires
can be attributed to missing valve caps.
To facilitate air
pressure maintenance, a dual seal
metal flow through
cap may be used
Valve Cap With Rubber Seal
instead of a valve
cap. These should
be installed hand
tight only to prevent damaging the
seal (1.5 - 3 in/lbs). Dual Seal Metal Flow-Through Cap
Tire and Wheel Nomenclature
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WHEEL
SYSTEMS
STEEL VS ALUMINUM
Depending on the vehicle’s vocation, a customer
may choose steel wheels over aluminum. However,
a 14.00 x 22.5" aluminum wheel is up to 68 lbs. lighter
than its steel counterpart. Due to the larger drop center
of the aluminum wheel, it is typically easier to mount
the MICHELIN X One tire on aluminum wheels.
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CAUTION: Do not use the
5995 nut on steel stud
piloted wheels, as the
shoulder will protrude
past the disc face.
STUD PILOTED WHEELS
There are aluminum and steel wheels with 2" outset
currently available in stud piloted configuration. Stud
piloted disc wheels are designed to be centered by the
nuts on the studs. The seating action of ball seat nuts
in the ball seat holes centers the wheel. Fasteners with
left hand threads are used on the left side of the vehicle
and those with right threads are used on the right side
of the vehicle.
From left to right: Aluminum MICHELIN X One tire
fastener, steel or aluminum MICHELIN X One tire
fastener, and steel MICHELIN X One tire fastener.
See application chart on Page 8 for part numbers and
more information.
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HUB PILOTED WHEELS
Both aluminum and steel wheels are currently
available in hub piloted configuration. Hub piloted
disc wheels are designed to center on the hub at the
center hole or bore of the wheel. The wheel center
hole locates the wheel on pilots built into the hub.
Hub piloted wheels use the same 2-piece flange nut
as duals that contact the disc face around the bolt hole.
Only one nut on each stud is used. Hub piloted wheels
have straight bolt holes with no ball seat.
SPECIAL FASTENERS
It is necessary to order “cap nuts” to replace the
inner and outer nuts that are used when mounting
a traditional stud piloted dual assembly. These parts
can be ordered from a wheel distributor in your area.
The part numbers are listed on Page 8. A 50/50 split of
left and right hand threads will be required.
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Tire and Wheel Nomenclature
Hub piloted mounting system:
Correct components must be used.
It is important to note that some hub piloted and
stud piloted wheels may have the same bolt circle
pattern. Therefore, they could mistakenly be
interchanged. Each mounting system requires the
correct mating parts. It is important that the proper
components are used for each type of mounting and
that the wheel is fitted to the proper hub.
If hub piloted wheel components (hubs, wheels,
and fasteners) are mixed with stud piloted wheel
components, loss of torque, broken studs, cracked
wheels, and possible wheel loss can occur, which
can lead to injury or death. These parts are not
designed to be interchangeable. Refer to TMC RP
217B, Attaching Hardware for Disc Wheels, and TMC
RP 608A, Brake Drums and Rotors.
NOTE: Some states and provinces have laws that
dictate sufficient thread engagement or thread
engagement past the nut body. Make sure you know
the laws for the states and provinces in which you
operate and comply.
Most North American manufacturers of highway
trucks, tractors and trailers, which incorporate the
hub piloted wheel mounting system, require wheel
studs and 2-piece flange nuts with metric threads.
Most frequently these are M22 x 1.5. Before installing
2-piece flange nuts apply 2 drops of SAE (Society of
Automotive Engineers) 30W oil to the last 2 or 3
threads at the end of each stud and 2 drops to a
point between the nuts and flanges. This will help
ensure that the proper clamping force is achieved
when final torque is reached. Lubrication is not
necessary with new hardware. To aid in installation
and removal of aluminum wheels, some wheel
manufacturers recommend lubricating the hub bore
and/or pilot pads. Check with your wheel
manufacturer for additional direction.
Note: When retrofitting a dual equipped tractor
with steel wheels to an aluminum wheel with
MICHELIN X One tire, it may be necessary to install
longer studs to obtain proper thread engagement of
the nut. This is due to the aluminum wheel’s disc
face being approximately 1⁄4" thicker than two steel
wheels in dual.
TORQUE
Stud piloted, ball seat mounting system:
Left hand threads are used on the left side of the
vehicle. Right hand threads are used on the right
side of the vehicle. Tighten the nuts to 50 footpounds using the sequence shown. Check that the
wheel is properly positioned, then tighten to
recommended torque using the sequence shown.
It is recommended that studs and nuts on a stud
piloted mounting system should be free of rust and
debris. They should then be torqued “dry” to
450-500 foot-pounds. After 50 to 100 miles of
operation, torque should be rechecked.
Lubricate Here
Torque Sequence:
Both stud piloted and hub piloted wheel systems
use the same torque sequence. Tighten the flange
nuts to 50 foot-pounds using the sequence shown.
Check the disc wheel for positioning on the pilots and
proper seating against the drum face. Tighten to 450
to 500 foot-pounds using sequence shown. After 50 to
100 miles of operation, torque should be rechecked.
Ten Stud
Eight Stud
Tire and Wheel Nomenclature
7
PROPER FASTENERS FOR MICHELIN
X ONE TIRES ON STUD PILOTED WHEELS
®
®
primarily for the Alcoa single mounted stud piloted
aluminum wheel (example: 8.25 x 22.5") and 14.00 x 22.5"
wide base stud piloted steel wheel. Part No. 5995R&L is
for the Alcoa 14.00 x 22.5" wide base stud piloted
aluminum wheel.
The last two fasteners Part No. 5652R&L for a 3⁄4"–16
studs and 5977R&L for a 1-1⁄ 8"–16 studs are specified for
the 14.00 x 22.5" stud piloted steel wheel.
It is important that the proper fasteners be used when
mounting the MICHELIN X One tire on stud piloted
wheels. If a fastener specified for the stud piloted
aluminum wheel is used on a steel wheel, it will bottom
out on the brake drum, and the proper clamping force
necessary to help ensure that the torque on the wheel
remains constant will not be achieved, possibly resulting
in a “wheel off” situation.
In the table below, the top fastener, Part No. 5554R&L is
®
Part No.
®
Replaces
Thread
Hex
High
Application and General Information
For Single Mounting
5554R&L
Alcoa 5554R&L
of Alcoa Forged
3
⁄4" – 16
Budd 706 13/4
11⁄2"
1"
Aluminum Disc Wheels
and Steel Stud Piloted Wide
Single Wheels.
For Alcoa Wide Base Aluminum
Alcoa 5995R&L
5995R&L
Webb 178950R
Wheels – “Long Grip” Cap Nut
3
⁄4" – 16
11⁄2"
13⁄8"
178951L
Larger height provides greater lug
wrench contact with the wheel.
5652R&L Zinc
Dichromate
Plating
5977R&L
Hardened Zinc
Yellow
Dichromate
Plating
Accuride NTL/NTR 25
Budd 37888/9
Gunite 2564/65
Steel Wheel:
3
⁄4" – 16
1
1 ⁄2"
7
⁄8"
Front and Rear
Motor Wheel 84523/24
Alcoa 5977 R&L
Accuride NTL/NTR 25
Alcoa 5552R&L
11⁄8" – 16
11⁄2"
7
⁄8"
Budd 37891/2
NOTE: The table provided is for reference only. Wheel specific questions should be directed to the wheel manufacturer.
8
Tire and Wheel Nomenclature
Single Stud Mounting
Single Large Stud Mounting
Front and Rear
WHEEL
SPECIFICATIONS
14.00 x 22.5" – 15-DEGREE DROP CENTER WHEEL SPECIFICATIONS
Manufacturer
Material
Part No.
Finish
Weight (lbs.)
Outset
Inset
Max Load & Inflation
10-hole, stud located, ball seat mounting – 11.25 in. bolt hole circle
Alcoa
Aluminum
841100
Machined
71
2.0
0.87
12800 @ 125
Alcoa
Aluminum
841102
Polished
71
2.0
0.87
12800 @ 125
Steel
10070TW
White
125
2.00
1.49
11000 @ 125
Hayes Lemmerz
8-hole, hub piloted mounting – 10.827 in. bolt hole circle
Alcoa
Aluminum
841400
Brushed
71
2.0
.87
12800@125
Alcoa
Aluminum
841402
Polished
71
2.0
.87
12800@125
71
2.0
.87
12800@125
10 Hole, 2” outset, hub piloted mounting – 285.75 mm bolt hole circle
Alcoa
Aluminum
841600
Machine Finished
Alcoa
Aluminum
841600DB
Machine Finished Dura-Bright
71
2.0
.87
12800@125
Alcoa
Aluminum
841602
Polished Outside
71
2.0
.87
12800@125
Alcoa
Aluminum
841602DB
Polished Outside Dura-Bright
71
2.0
.87
12800@125
Accuride
Aluminum
29660ANP
Machined
70
2.0
.88
12800@130
Accuride
Aluminum
29660OAP
Polished
70
2.0
.88
12800@130
Accuride
Steel
29890
White
132
2.0
1.38
12800@120
Hayes Lemmerz
Steel
10027TW
White
136
2.0
1.49
11000@125
71
0
-1.13
12800@125
®
®
10 Hole, 0” outset, hub piloted mounting – 285.75 mm bolt hole circle
Alcoa*
Aluminum
841610
Machine Finished
Alcoa*
Aluminum
841610DB
Machine Finished Dura-Bright
71
0
-1.13
12800@125
Alcoa*
Aluminum
841612
Polished
71
0
-1.13
12800@125
Alcoa*
Aluminum
841612DB
Polished Dura-Bright
71
0
-1.13
12800@125
Accuride*
Aluminum
40016ANP
Polished
70
0.56
0.56
12800@130
Accuride*
Aluminum
40016OAP
Polished
70
0.56
0.56
12800@130
Accuride*
Steel
29891
White
132
0
0.63
12800@120
Hayes Lemmerz
Steel
10027TW
White
136
0.51
0
12300@120
71
1.13
0
12800@125
®
®
10 Hole, 1.13” outset, hub piloted mounting – 285.75 mm bolt hole circle
Alcoa
Aluminum
841611
Polished Outside
Alcoa
Aluminum
841611DB
Polished Outside Dura-Bright
71
1.13
0
12800@125
Alcoa
Aluminum
841619
Machine Finished
71
1.13
0
12800@125
Alcoa
Aluminum
841619DB
Machine Finished Dura-Bright
71
1.13
0
12800@125
®
®
NOTE: The table provided is for reference only. Wheel specific questions should be directed to the wheel manufacturer.
*0" Outset Aluminum Wheels: Alcoa uses the mounting face as the reference.
Accuride uses the center line as the reference. This means that an Accuride 0" outset wheel is listed as 0.56" outset wheel.
Alcoa at www.alcoawheels.com; Dura-Bright is a registered trademark of Alcoa
Accuride at www.accuridecorp.com
Hayes Lemmerz at www.hayes-lemmerz.com
®
Tire and Wheel Nomenclature
9
SPECIAL PROVISION FOR STEER AXLE USE ON 13.00 x 22.5" WHEELS
455/55R22.5 load range ‘M’ may be fitted with 13.00 x 22.5" wheels for first life use on the steer axles. The reduced loads shown
in the following table must be observed.
Technical specifications for MICHELIN 455/55R22.5 LRM with 13.00 x 22.5" wheels steer axle, first life only.
Dimension
455/55R22.5
Dimension
455/55R22.5
Load
Loaded Radius
Range
in.
mm.
LRM
19.5
496
RPM
493
Max. Load Single
lbs.
psi
kg.
kPa
10000
120
4535
830
Load
psi
75
80
85
90
95
100
105
110
115
120
Range
kPa
520
550
590
620
660
690
720
760
790
830
LRM
lbs. per axle
13740
14460
15180
15880
16600
17280
17980
18660
19340
20000
kg. per axle
6240
6520
6900
7180
7560
7820
8100
8460
8720
9070
To determine the proper load/inflation table, always refer to the markings on the tire sidewall for maximum load at cold pressure.
Contact your MICHELIN dealer for tires with maximum loads and pressures other than indicated here.
Load and inflation industry standards are in a constant state of change. Michelin continually updates its product information to reflect these changes.
Therefore, printed material may not reflect the current load and inflation information.
NOTE: Never exceed the wheel manufacturer’s maximum air pressure limitation.
In order to be under Federal maximum width of 102", an inset wheel must be used. A 4.32" inset will net 101.5" overall width on some refuse vehicles.
There are currently steel wheels available from Accuride and Hayes Lemmerz. Caution: Ensure the wheel does not interfere with vehicle components when
making full turns.
13.00 x 22.5" – 15-DEGREE WHEEL SPECIFICATIONS
Manufacturer
Material
Part No.
Finish
Weight (lbs.)
Outset
Inset
Max Load & Inflation
10-hole, stud located, ball seat mounting – 11.25" bolt hole circle
Accuride
Steel
29802
White
129
4.95
4.32
11000 @ 110
Hayes Lemmerz
Steel
10060TW
White
121
4.83
4.32
11000 @ 130
10-hole, hub piloted mounting – 285.75 mm bolt hole circle
Accuride
Steel
29811
White
129
4.95
4.32
11000 @ 110
Hayes Lemmerz
Steel
10059TW
White
121
4.83
4.32
11000 @ 130
NOTE: The table provided is for reference only. Wheel specific questions should be directed to the wheel manufacturer.
Accuride at www.accuridecorp.com
Hayes Lemmerz at www.hayes-lemmerz.com
10
Tire and Wheel Nomenclature
Truck Technical
Specifications
AXLES AND WHEEL ENDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-15
Axle Identification Tags
Load Ratings
Use of 2" Outset Wheel with MICHELIN X One Tires
®
®
Axle Track Widths
Vehicle Track
SPINDLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
OVERALL VEHICLE TRACK AND WIDTH . . . . . . . . 17
BEARINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
ENGINE COMPUTERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
AIR INFLATION AND
PRESSURE MONITORING SYSTEMS . . . . . . 19-20
The Use of Pressure Monitoring and Inflation
Systems with MICHELIN Truck Tires
Central Tire Inflation Systems on Trailers
and Missed Nail Holes
TRUCK TYPE BY WEIGHT CLASS . . . . . . . . . . . 21-22
MICHELIN X One Tires in 4x2 Applications
®
®
11
AXLES
AND WHEEL ENDS
AXLE IDENTIFICATION TAGS
There are primarily three manufacturers of drive and trailer axles for the long haul highway market.
ArvinMeritor , DANA, and Hendrickson all supply trailer axles, while only DANA and ArvinMeritor supply drive axles.
™
™
ArvinMeritor — DRIVE AXLE IDENTIFICATION
™
AXLE IDENTIFICATION TAG INFORMATION
Model No. __________________________
Customer No. _______________________
Serial No. __________ Plant_________
Ratio _______________________________
Identification Tag
Location of the identification tag, or stamp number,
for the axles. Location is determined from the left
driver side looking toward the front of the vehicle.
Axle Housing
Identification Tag
A
B
A — Front engine drive — Right rear, next to cover
B — Rear engine drive — Left or right rear, next to
drive unit
Axle
Identification Tag
Carrier
Identification Tag
ArvinMeritor — TRAILER AXLE IDENTIFICATION
™
Beam Type
T = Tubular
T N
Beam Capacity
lbs
N = 22,500
P = 22,500/25,000/30,000
Q = 25,000/30,000
R = 22,500/25,000
4 6 7 0
Modification
1 = Single Wheel
2 = Intermodal
3 = Bolted on Brakes
4 = Manual Bearing Adjustment
6 = Positive Bearing Adjustment
8 = 0.625" Nominal Wall Axle
NOTE: The graphic provided is for reference only. Axle specific questions should be directed to the axle manufacturer.
12
Truck Technical Specifications
Q
kg
10,206
10,206/11,340/13,608
11,340/13,608
10,206/11,340
2 0 2 0
Brake Width
1 = 10" (25 cm)
6 = 6" (15 cm)
7 = 7" or 7.5" (18-19 cm)
9 = 8" (20 cm)
0 = No Brakes
DANA — DRIVE AXLE IDENTIFICATION
Parts Identification
Axle Housing
1 - Axle Housing
Axle Shaft
2 - Axle Shaft Part Number
2
1
S 26 - 1 7 0 D
D - Dual Drive Forward Axle
with Inter-axle Differential
G - Single Rear Axle (Global)
R - Dual Drive Rear Axle
S - Single Rear Axle (N.A.)
T - Tridem Configuration
GAW Rating
X 1000 lbs. (N.A.)
x 1 TN (Global)
Design Level
Gear Type
1 - Standard Single Reduction
2 - Dual Range
5 - Helical Reduction
6 - Helical Overdrive
Head Assembly Series
Options
B - Bus/On-Center Bowl
C - Controlled Traction
D - Differential Lock
E - High Entry Single
F - Flipped/Rolled Over
H - Heavy Wall
I - Integral Brake
L - Limited Slip
N - No Spin Differential
O - Offset Change
P - Lube Pump
R - Retarder Ready
U - Unitized Spindle
W - Wide Track Housing
DANA — AXLE IDENTIFICATION
Identification Tag
0 00 000 0000
E S T- 2 2 5 J
Serial Number
Julian Date
Year
Manufacturer’s Location
Spindle Code
J - “J” Trailer Spindle
D - “D” Trailer Spindle
P - “P” Trailer Spindle
Tube Capacity Rating
(x 100 lbs.)
Brake Code
T - 16 1⁄ 2" x 7" Brake
R - 15" x 8 5⁄ 8" Brake
Extended Service Brake
Eaton
NOTE: The graphic provided is for reference only. Axle specific questions should be directed to the axle manufacturer.
Truck Technical Specifications
13
HENDRICKSON — TRAILER AXLE IDENTIFICATION
Model: VANTRAAX .5836
Description: HKANT40K 165RH 77USHD MA X7SH
®
U - HUS Spindle
Model: VANTRAAX .2157
Description: HKAT 50K 16RH 71NST QD X7SHD
®
N - N Spindle
Model: INTRAAX .2597
Description: AAT 23K 14RH C77USST 7S
®
U - HUS Spindle
Model: INTRAAX .3598
Description: AAL 30K 9RH 71PST
®
P - P Spindle
NOTE: The graphic provided is for reference only. Axle specific questions should be directed to the axle manufacturer.
LOAD RATINGS
The load/capacity rating of a given axle is determined by the axle
housing strength, bearing capacity, and hub capacity. For some ultralightweight axles, the reduced axle housing thickness may be the weak
link, but usually it is the bearings or hub that will be the limiting factor.
These axles and components are typically designed under the
assumption that the action line of the tire load is located between
the two bearings. This is typically found with dual tire mounting
or with single tires with very low outset wheels with the axle
rating being similarly determined.
If wheels with greater outset are used, the resulting
cantilever loading may require lower ratings for some of the
axle components. The level of de-rating and the implications
thereof are determined by the axle manufacturer, so they should
be consulted prior to fitment of outset single wheels.
Prior to contacting the axle manufacturer, you should consult
the axle identification tag to obtain the following information:
– Axle Manufacturer
– Manufacturer’s Model #
– Axle Serial Number
– Axle Capacity
Information on actual operational axle loading
(as opposed to rated load) is crucial, since the axle
manufacturer may recommend de-rating the axle
below the vehicle manufacturer’s GAWR (Gross Axle
Weight Rating).
With this data in hand, contact the particular axle
manufacturer at the numbers listed below for specific
application information.
ArvinMeritor – www.arvinmeritor.com
DANA – www.dana.com
Hendrickson – www.hendrickson-intl.com
™
14
Truck Technical Specifications
Actual Track Width
Wheel
Outset
Wheel
Inset
Actual Track Width
Wheel
Outset
AXLES TRACK WIDTHS
USE OF 2" OUTSET WHEELS WITH
MICHELIN X ONE TIRES
®
®
The MICHELIN X One tires (445/50R22.5 and
455/55R22.5) require the use of 14.00 x 22.5" wheels.
The majority view of the wheels currently offered
have a 2" outset.
Some axle and hub manufacturers have clarified
and confirmed their position concerning the use
of such wheels with their respective components.
While the position of the component manufacturers
is not totally consistent, the majority view
concerning the retrofit of dual with MICHELIN
X One tires can be summarized as follows:
®
®
®
®
Axle Type*
Spindle Type
Wheel Recommendation
Drive axles
“R”
2" outset wheels
Trailer axles
“P”
2" outset wheels
Trailer axles
“N”
Check with component
manufacturer.
* Many other axle and spindle combinations exist.
Contact axle manufacturer.
Truck and trailer manufacturers may have
different specifications. For optimum track width,
stability, and payload, end-users should talk to their
trailer suppliers about the use of 83.5" axles with
zero outset wheels.
A trailer specified with 83.5" inch axles is
intended for single tire use. Switching to dual tire
configuration could exceed the legal maximum
overall width of 102".
End-users that have retrofitted vehicles with
2" outset wheels should contact their respective
vehicle, axle, or component manufacturers for
specific application approvals or maintenance
recommendations.
Three standard trailer axle track widths are available.
They are 71.5", 77.5", and 83.5". A typical tandem drive
axle track width is approximately 72". Check with the
axle manufacturers for other sized options.
Axle width is measured from spindle end to spindle
end (the two widest points).
Axle track is a center to center distance between the
dual or center of single tire to center of single tire.
71.5" is a standard axle track width found on bulk
and liquid tankers.
77.5" is a standard axle track width for 102" wide
trailers.
83.5" is the newer wider track axle intended for use
with wide singles and 0" outset wheels for increased
track width, stability, and payload.
VEHICLE TRACK
With a standard length axle and 2" outset wheels, the
resulting variation in track width is an increase of
approximately 1.5" per side (3" total) as compared to a
dual tire configuration.
End-users that have retrofitted vehicles with 2"
outset wheels should contact their respective vehicle,
axle, or component manufacturers for specific
application approvals or maintenance
recommendations.
Measurements are rounded.
77.5"
Track Width
0" Offset
101.5"
80.5"
Track Width
2" Offset
97.9"
Note: Measurements are nominal values
and could vary with manufacturer.
Truck Technical Specifications
15
SPINDLES
There are three main spindle types you will encounter
when retrofitting MICHELIN X One tires: “N”, “P”, and “R”.
®
®
Outer bearing smaller than inner bearing.
N-TYPE SPINDLES (TAPERED)
The best way to determine what type of spindle
may be fitted to a given axle is to reference the axle
ID data plate affixed to the axle or the suspension ID
tag as described on Pages 12-14. The following
photos display actual tag placements.
Tag Placement
N-type spindles are tapered to the outboard end and
utilize a smaller outboard bearing and a larger inboard
bearing.
Outer and inner bearings the same size.
Tag Placement
A quick rule of thumb is to measure the hub cap.
N-type is usually ~4.5" and the P-type is usually ~6.0".
P-TYPE SPINDLES (STRAIGHT)
P-type is a parallel spindle design (straight shaft) and
utilizes the same sized bearings inboard and outboard.
This is generally a heavier duty axle end.
N-Type Spindle
R-TYPE SPINDLES
R-type is a drive axle spindle configuration.
The R-type spindle for drive axles is typically
straight with bearings of nearly the same size.
16
Truck Technical Specifications
P-Type Spindle
OVERALL
VEHICLE TRACK AND WIDTH
Vehicle track width is determined by taking the
axle track width and adding or subtracting the left
and right wheel outsets or insets respectively.
An easy way to measure this yourself is to start
on the left side of the axle, hooking your tape on
the outside edge of the tread. Stretch the tape to the
right side of the axle and measure to the inside edge
of the tread.
This method also works well for determining the
track width on dual tires.
Without changing the width of your axle, your
track width can change depending on your wheel
outset or inset.
Outset: The lateral distance from the wheel
centerline to the mounting surface of the disc.
Outset places the rim centerline outboard of the
mounting (hub face) surface.
Inset places the rim centerline inboard of the
mounting (hub face) surface or over the axle.
If 2" outset wheels are mounted
backwards, this will significantly
reduce track width and could affect
vehicle stability.
Disc Face
Outboard
Take the measurement where the tape measure
crosses the left edge of the right side tire’s tread.
The measurement you have just taken is your
vehicle’s track width. Simply put, it is the center
to center distance of your tires.
77.5"
77.5"
Dual Tires
Inboard
OUTSET
Overall width of axle assembly is determined
by measuring the outer tire sidewall to outer tire
sidewall. This measurement is taken at the top of the
tire’s sidewall to avoid measuring the sidewall
deflection. The Federal DOT (Department of
Transportation) maximum allowed is 102".
For a close approximation, clip the end of the tape
measure on the left tire’s outside sidewall and pull
the tape to the outer sidewall of the outer tire on the
opposite side. If your measurement is close to 102",
then a more precise method will be required.
80.5"
80.5"
MICHELIN X One Tires
Truck Technical Specifications
17
BEARINGS
Wheel-end bearings for trucks and trailers are
typically the tapered roller type with either grease,
semi-fluid grease, or oil level lubrication.
Anticipated bearing life is compared by running
an ANSI (American National Standards Institute)
L10a test to statistically determine the fatigue life.
The test variables are wheel end loading (amount
and location), bearing end-play, tire and wheel
weight, tire static loaded radius, and duty cycle
(vehicle speed and turn frequency and lateral g
loading). The output is L10a Weighted Bearing
System Life in miles.
The common belief among fleet maintenance
technicians is that bearings do not fail or wear out
in normal service unless subjected to loss of
lubricant, excessive endplay, or excessive preload.
Using standard bearings with a 2" wheel outset on
a N-type spindle arrangement does reduce the L10a
bearing life expectancy. Bearing manufacturers offer
enhanced bearings for trailer and drive axle
applications that provide L10a life with 2" outset
single wheels near that of conventional bearings
with dual wheels.
These bearings have an extra roller with a slightly
different contact geometry between the cup and
cone and are machined to tighter tolerances and a
smoother surface finish.
ENGINE
/
COMPUTERS
Tire revolutions and axle ratio are inputs to the
Engine Control Module (ECM) to manage road
speed. Changing from dual to MICHELIN X One
tires may require changing the Tire Revolutions per
Mile (Tire Revs./Mile) value in the ECM in order to
ensure speed, distance, and fuel economy are
accurate per indications. Reference the MICHELIN
Truck Tire Data Book (MWL40731) for proper
Tire Revs./Mile values for the MICHELIN X One
tires you chose.
®
®
®
®
18
Truck Technical Specifications
®
Timken’s 454-Series wheel bearings*:
• One bearing for Dual and Wide Singles
– Specially designed to handle the 2" outset loads
– Allows consistency within fleet
– Provides flexibility of wheel arrangements
• Compatible with industry standard components
– Use with popular axle and hub designs
– Can retrofit onto existing equipment
™
*For more information on the Timken 454-Series
wheel bearings, visit The Timken Company at
www.timken.com.
®
™
IMPORTANT: Some wheel bearing assemblies have
warranties that may be voided when the wheel ends
are disassembled. Contact your axle and/or
suspension component supplier before removing any
wheel end components.
Cone
Cup
MileMate Set*
®
N Trailer Outer
NP454049 NP454011
Set 440
N Trailer Inner
NP454248 NP454210
Set 441
R Drive Outer
NP454580 NP454572
Set 442
R Drive Inner
NP454594 NP454592
Set 443
P Trailer Inner & Outer NP454445 NP454410
Set 444
*454-Series is a trademark of The Timken Company. Timken and MileMate are the
registered trandemarks of The Timken Company.
See www.timken.com/454wheelbearing for Limited Warranty information.
™
®
®
FUEL ECONOMY
To accurately determine fuel efficiency gains
from switching to MICHELIN X One tires, it is
recommended that SAE (Society of Automotive
Engineers) Fuel Test J1376 be conducted to verify
the values determined by the engine computer.
New EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) engines
may use diesel fuel to clean the DPF (Diesel
Particulate Filter). When checking fuel usage please
be aware of the additional fuel used during
regeneration of the DPF.
®
®
AIR INFLATION AND PRESSURE MONITORING SYSTEMS
Proper inflation pressure is critical to the overall
performance of all tires on the road today.
Today’s radial truck tires will lose less than one psi
per month due to air migration through the casing.
Faster loss of inflation can only occur in
conjunction with some sort of leak in the wheel,
valve stem, or tire structure. Whatever the source of
the leak, it must be identified and corrected to avoid
further damage to that component, possibly leading
to a compromise in safety.
AVAILABLE SYSTEMS
Tire pressure monitoring systems have been
legislated for all vehicles by the TREAD Act
(Transportation Recall Enhancement, Accountability,
and Documentation). The implementation schedule
is in place for vehicles with gross vehicle weight
(GVW) below 10,000 lbs, but is yet to be determined
for heavier vehicles. The existing systems “read” the
pressure in the tire via a sensor mounted on the
valve stem, wheel, or inside the tire. Sensors that are
not physically inside the tire/wheel cavity cannot
accurately measure the internal air temperature, so
are they unable to determine the “cold inflation
pressure.” In addition, external sensors may require
additional air line plumbing that creates additional
potential leak points.
Monitoring systems may provide either pressure
data or a low pressure warning. The pressure data
may be “hot” or “cold” pressure, so it is necessary
that the person viewing that data fully understands
which pressure is reported and what it means. Low
pressure alarm systems only alert the driver when
the pressure in a particular tire (or pair of dual tires
if linked together) is below some fleet-chosen
minimum. This value may be preset by the sensor
supplier or may be programmable by the fleet. Tire
manufacturers, through the Rubber Manufacturers
Association (RMA), have agreed that a tire must be
considered flat if the inflation pressure is 20% or
more below the pressure recommended for that tire.
A flat tire must be removed from the rim, thoroughly
examined, and properly repaired prior to re-inflation
and use.
Some systems provide inflation pressure
information at the sensor site only, so the driver
must walk around the vehicle to gather/view either
the pressure reading or low pressure warning. Other
systems transmit the information to the cab where it
may be viewed by the driver, and/or sent to a central
facility if the vehicle is tracked by satellite
Inflation-only systems are designed to add air
to maintain a preset pressure but do not have the
ability to reduce the pressure should a tire be over
inflated. These systems can account for slower leaks
(determined by the air delivery capacity of the
system) and provide some warning to the driver
when the system is energized (adding air) or when
it cannot keep up with the leak. Almost all inflationonly systems use air from the vehicle air brake
system, so they will be limited in max pressure and
available volumetric flow. In addition, these systems
are usually only applied to trailer axles where
plumbing the air supply line is easier.
Tire inflation systems may add air to tires
determined to be below some fleet chosen pressure.
Some Central Tire Inflation (CTI) systems will also
allow pressure reduction on any tire on the vehicle
to maintain some given pressure level. Such systems
are rather expensive and more often used only on
specialty vehicles (Military, emergency response,
National parks, etc.)
A key factor in any monitoring or inflation system
is determining whether the target or set pressure is a
“hot” pressure or a “cold” one. This should be
discussed with your tire manufacturer’s
representative.
Air inflation systems are not
guarantees against low pressure
situations. All vehicles should still
be subject to pre-trip inspections,
and systems operation should be
verified routinely.
Truck Technical Specifications
19
THE USE OF PRESSURE MONITORING
AND INFLATION SYSTEMS WITH
MICHELIN TRUCK TIRES
In view of the increasing visibility and promotion
for the use of pressure monitoring and/or inflation
systems, Michelin takes the following position:
• Michelin has not and cannot test every system
that is being marketed/manufactured for
effectiveness, performance, and durability.
• The use of these systems does not nullify the
MICHELIN truck tire warranty unless it is
determined that the system somehow contributed
to the failure or reduced performance of the tire.
• Proper air pressure maintenance is important for
the optimal performance of the tires, so it is
important to make sure the system can maintain
the pressures needed and/or can detect accurately
when the pressures are outside of the normal
operating range(s) for the loads being carried.
• It is the responsibility of the system manufacturer
to ensure that the tires are inflated as rapidly as
possible to the optimal operating pressure in
order to prevent internal damage to the tires.
• Michelin strongly urges the customer to put the
responsibility on the system’s manufacturer to
prove and support their claims.
In addition to the foregoing, please refer to the
MICHELIN Truck Tire Warranty Manual
(MWE40021) for a general discussion of what is
and is not covered by the warranty.
®
20
Truck Technical Specifications
CENTRAL TIRE INFLATION SYSTEMS
ON TRAILERS AND MISSED NAIL HOLES
Central Tire Inflation (CTI) systems on trailers can
sometimes make slow leaks caused by nails or other
small objects penetrating the crown area of the tire
undetectable. A slow leak can be compensated for
by the air inflation system. The warning light of the
CTI system will only come on if the pressure in the
tire drops below a certain percent (usually 10%) of
the regulated preset pressure. Even when the
pressure drops below this point, the light will go off
if the system is able to restore and maintain the
preset pressure.
The tires on trailers with CTI systems should
be visually inspected before and after use and any
imbedded objects removed and the tire repaired.
An undetected imbedded object remaining in the
tire can allow air infiltration and consequently a
possible catastrophic failure of the sidewall.
TRUCK
TYPE BY WEIGHT CLASS
CLASS 6
19,501 to 26,000 lbs.
GVW
CLASS 7
26,001 to 33,000 lbs.
GVW
CLASS 8
33,001 lbs. and over
TRAILER
Weight: Not specified
NOTES
Recommended
Applications
TOW
FURNITURE
HOME FUEL
TRASH
FUEL
DUMP
DRY VAN
Contact
Michelin
DOUBLES
For information
on the MICHELIN
X One tire for the 4x2
application, refer to
page 22.
®
STAKE
FIRE ENGINE
CEMENT
LIQUID TANK
COE VAN
SIGHTSEEING/COACH
REEFER
DRY BULK
®
GVW – Gross Vehicle
Weight
The total weight of the
loaded vehicle includes
chassis, body, and
payload.
SCHOOL BUS
TRANSIT BUS
TANDEM AXLE VAN
LOGGER
GCW – Gross
Combination Weight
SINGLE AXLE VAN
RV
BOTTLER
INTERCITY BUS
PLATFORM
Total weight of loaded
tractor-trailer
combination includes
tractor-trailer and
payloads.
LARGE RV
SPREAD AXLE
GAWR – Gross Axle
Weight Rating
TANDEM REFUSE
LOW PROFILE COE
GCW TO 65,000
DROP FRAME
GCW TO 80,000
DUMP
HIGH PROFILE COE
LOW PROFILE
TANDEM COE
REEFER
MEDIUM
CONVENTIONAL
HEAVY CONVENTIONAL
DEEP DROP
Maximum allowable
load weight for a
specific spindle, axle,
wheel, and rim
combination.
Identical vehicles may
appear in different
vehicle weight classes.
This is because of a
difference in the
components installed
in each vehicle such as
engines, transmissions,
rear axles, and even
tires that are not readily
discernible in the
external appearance
of those particular
vehicles.
HEAVY TANDEM
CONVENTIONAL
AUTO TRANSPORTER
HEAVY TANDEM
CONVENTIONAL
SLEEPER
DOLLY
Truck Technical Specifications
21
RECOMMENDATION FOR USE OF MICHELIN X ONE TIRES IN 4x2 APPLICATIONS
®
4x2 Articulated Vehicles
Handling studies have indicated that for certain
types of commercial single axle (4x2) tractors pulling
trailers, handling may be degraded in the event of a
rapid air loss when fitted with single tires. Michelin
recommends that single axle tractors fitted with
MICHELIN X One tires on the driven axle always be
equipped with an Electronic Stability Program (ESP).
®
®
4x2 Straight Chassis Vehicles
Testing has indicated that handling of 4x2 straight
chassis vehicles fitted with single tires on the drive axle
may be degraded in the event of a rapid air loss,
especially when coupled with panic braking. Class 6
and 7 straight trucks fitted with MICHELIN X One tires
should also be equipped with anti-lock brake system
(ABS) and/or ESP. Such degradation in handling has
®
22
Truck Technical Specifications
®
®
been observed both in curve, lane change, and straight
line driving.
Michelin still maintains that all types of motor
vehicles can be controlled in the event of a rapid air
loss under normal, legal driving conditions. Vehicle
control in a rapid air loss situation is a matter of driver
education and training. To assist with this training,
Michelin has produced a video entitled “Rapid Air Loss,
Truck – The Critical Factor” to instruct drivers on how
to handle a rapid air loss situation.
To download or view the video - “Rapid Air Loss,
Truck – The Critical Factor” - please visit our web page
at www.michelintruck.com/michelintruck/toolbox/
videos-demos.jsp
For additional information, please contact your local
MICHELIN sales representative, or contact Michelin
using the website at www.michelintruck. com.
MICHELIN X One Tire
Maintenance
®
®
MICHELIN X ONE TIRE — MOUNTING . . . . . . . . . . . 24-26
®
®
Mounting Setup, Wheel Preparation, Inspecting for
Damages, Lubricating the Tire and Wheel, Mounting
the MICHELIN X One Tire
®
MICHELIN X ONE TIRE — DEMOUNTING . . . . . . . . . 27-29
®
®
2-Bar Demount Method, 3-Bar Demount Method,
Demounting the Second Bead
MISMOUNT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30-31
3 Easy Steps to Help Minimize Mismounted Tires
TIME STUDY — MICHELIN X ONE TIRE VS DUAL . . 32-33
®
®
Demounting the MICHELIN X One Tires vs Dual,
Mounting the MICHELIN X One Tires vs Dual, Torque
®
®
AIR INFILTRATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34-35
AIR PRESSURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36-38
HOW TO PROPERLY MEASURE PRESSURE . . . . . . . . . 39-44
Temperature/Pressure Relationship Chart, The Use of Nitrogen
in MICHELIN Truck Tires, Run-flat and Zipper Ruptures,
Tire Inspection, MICHELIN X One Tires Load and Inflation Tables
®
®
IRREGULAR TIRE WEAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45-46
Tractor: Heel-Toe/Block-Edge Wear, Center Wear,
River Wear Only
Trailer: Step-Shoulder/Localized Wear, Shoulder Cupping,
Brake Skid
ALIGNMENT AND VIBRATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47-49
Introduction, Toe, Axle Skew, Trailer Alignment,
Vibration, and Balance
TREAD DEPTH PULL POINTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
CARE, CLEANING, AND STORAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
SEALANTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
VALVE STEM INSPECTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
23
MICHELIN
®
X ONE TIRE
®
–
MOUNTING
MICHELIN X One tires are easily mounted on 14.00 x 22.5" approved wheels using procedures similar to that of tires
mounted in dual configuration. Correct steps and safety practices should be followed to help ensure a proper mount of
the tire and wheel assembly. These points are covered in the MICHELIN Truck Tire Service Manual (MWL40732).
®
®
MOUNTING SETUP
WHEEL PREPARATION
Be sure to use tools in good condition, along with
approved vegetable-based lubricants, with the proper
ratio of lubricant-to-water. NO petroleum oils/grease,
silicone oils, or solvent-based lubricants should be
used, as these can swell and damage rubber. The
lubricant and brushes should be free of contaminates.
In addition make sure to use all personal protective
equipment like safety glasses, steel toe boots, and
gloves when mounting assemblies.
Mounting tools can include traditional T-45 irons,
wide base Golden tool, and approved mounting
machines.
Ensure a good area is available to perform your
tire work. Floor mats or pads would be beneficial.
Make certain all components (the tire, wheel, and
valve) are identified as correct for the assembly.
Inspect each component for any damages and/or
conditions that would render it unserviceable, and
replace item if necessary.
Make sure the wheel is clean of rust and debris,
and the mounting surface is smooth. Damaged and
leaky valve stems, O-rings, and grommets must be
replaced. You should include in your tire mounting
procedures replacing the valve with a new one for
every mount to safeguard against any possible used
valve/O-ring issues. Ensure the valve stem is
installed using the proper torque value: 80-125
in/lbs (7-11 ft/lbs) for aluminum wheels and 35-55
in/lbs (3-5 ft/lbs) for tubeless steel wheels.
INSPECTING FOR DAMAGES
Mounting Tools
Run-flat Ring in Flex Zone
Work Area
24
MICHELIN X One Tire Maintenance
®
A safety reminder prior to mounting a new tire:
check for any signs of damage from shipping or
storage to the sidewalls, inner liner, or beads.
For a used/repaired/retreaded tire, check for signs
of low inflation pressure or run-flat conditions on
the inner liner (marbling, wrinkles, and
discoloration).
Also, inspect the bead areas
for damage, and if a repair(s)
is noted, inspect to make sure
it’s in good condition. If the
tire is deemed ready for
service, lubricate both beads
of the tire and the wheel.
Run-flat Wrinkling
®
LUBRICATING THE TIRE AND WHEEL
When applying lubricant to the wheel, lubricate
the entire wheel surface from flange to flange. Apply
a liberal amount - lubricating both components will
assist in the ease of the mount and will ensure
proper seating of the beads on the wheel.
MOUNTING THE MICHELIN
X ONE TIRE
®
®
The tire should be mounted and inflated before
the lubricant dries.
With the wheel short side up (narrow side), lay the
tire over the wheel at the valve side and work it on
with proper tubeless tire tools, making full use of the
drop center well (when using a T-45 iron – use the
curved end with a ledge).
Lubricating the Tire
Lubricating the Wheel
Using same iron and method, mount the second
bead. When mounting the second bead, keep one
foot in place to keep the bead seated, and move the
other foot around the tire as each part of the bead is
seated to keep it in place.
Padded bead keepers
can be useful during
the mounting process
by keeping the bead
fixed on the flange,
thus avoiding the need
to keep a foot in place.
MICHELIN X One Tire Maintenance
®
®
25
Lay the tire/wheel assembly horizontally and
inflate to no more than 5 psi to correctly position
the beads on the flanges.
If run-flat is detected, scrap the tire. If no damage
is detected, continue to inflate to the manufacturer’s
recommended operating pressure as listed in the
load and inflation tables.
Please note the lower sidewall “beauty rings”, and
ensure the ring is positioned concentrically in
relation to the rim flange with no greater than 2⁄ 32"
of difference found circumferentially. If the bead(s)
did not seat, deflate tire, relubricate the beads and
wheel flanges, and re-inflate.
Place the assembly in a safety cage (per
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
(OSHA) standards) and continue airing to 20 psi.
An extra wide safety cage is available for safe
inflation of the tire. In most cases, a standard cage
can accommodate the MICHELIN X One assembly.
Check the assembly carefully for any signs of
distortion or irregularities from run-flat. Closely
inspect the sidewalls for bulges/pulled cables that
would indicate the tire ran underinflated. You should
also listen for signs of deterioration in the casing
cables (i.e., crackling sound).
®
26
MICHELIN X One Tire Maintenance
®
®
®
Finally, give the valve stem a check for leakage or
air loss with a squirt of leak finder (soap and water).
If no leak is found, seal with a metal valve cap.
MICHELIN x
®
ONE TIRE
®
All tires must be completely deflated prior to
loosening any nuts and demounting from the vehicle.
Deflate the tire by removing the valve core. Check
the valve stem opening with a wire to make sure it is
not plugged.
–
DEMOUNTING
DO NOT USE HAMMERS
of any type. Striking a
wheel/rim assembly with a
hammer can damage both
the tire and the wheel and
is a direct OSHA* violation.
With the tire assembly lying flat, break the bead
seat of both beads with a bead breaking tool.
* Occupational Safety and Health Administration
Apply the lubricant to all surfaces of the bead area
on both sides of the tire. Make certain that the flange
with the tapered ledge that has the shortest span to
the drop center is facing up.
MICHELIN X One Tire Maintenance
®
®
27
2-BAR DEMOUNT METHOD
3-BAR DEMOUNT METHOD
Beginning at the valve, remove the first bead using
the curved end of the tire irons. Place the two irons
6-8" apart and “walk” through towards the center of
the assembly, placing both irons on the opposite
flange. This will lift the first bead up over the flange.
Remove one of the irons, and continue to work it
around the tire bead taking small “bites” until the
entire bead is removed.
This method is similar to the 2 bar method with
a third iron inserted 8" from the first two. With the
first two irons, “walk” through towards the center
of the assembly, placing both irons on the opposite
flange. This will lift the first bead up over the flange.
Leave both irons in this position. With the third
iron, “walk” through towards the center of the
assembly. This should remove the first bead from
the wheel. Remove the third bar and take additional
"bites" if necessary to fully remove the first bead
from the wheel.
Make sure to have adequate lubrication, and use
the irons correctly to eliminate tire and/or wheel
damage.
28
MICHELIN X One Tire Maintenance
®
®
DEMOUNTING THE SECOND BEAD
SECOND METHOD
Now demount the second bead. There are two
methods to accomplish this task.
The second method for demounting the second
bead is to lay the tire flat on the ground with the
tire irons under the flange of the wheel and with a
rocking motion, disengage the wheel from the tire.
Some technicians find this method to be easier.
FIRST METHOD
The first method is to position the tire/wheel
assembly upwards, with the short side at twelve
o’clock. Place smooth/flat end of two irons under
the tire bead, and turn the irons to lock the lip
against the flange of the wheel. Carefully lower
assembly, using an up and down rocking motion,
and the tire will release from the wheel.
The methods described are the most common way
of mounting and demounting MICHELIN X One
tires using standard tire irons. There is a variety of
other hand tools and automated machines available
through tire supply stores that accommodate
MICHELIN X One tire products.
®
®
®
®
MICHELIN X One Tire Maintenance
®
®
29
MISMOUNT
Mismount occurs when the tire beads do not seat
fully on the tapered rim flange area of the wheel.
As can be seen in this diagram, one of the tire beads
has fully seated against the rim flange. But in another
small area the bead did not “climb” completely up
the tapered area of the wheel. In this area the bead
is tucked further under the rim making the sidewall
slightly shorter. If the tire continues to run, it will
develop “maxi-mini” wear, which is characterized by
the tread depth on one side of the tire being deeper
than on the other side. In this case, balancing will
only be a “band-aid.” In other words, the tire may be
balanced for a few thousand miles, but as the tire
wears, the weights would have to magically shift to
another part of the tire/wheel assembly in order to
maintain proper balance. Because they don’t
magically shift to other locations, the driver usually
comes back after a few thousand miles saying
“whatever you did, it worked for a little while, but
now the vibration has come back.”
Mismount
If the tire mismount is not detected immediately,
the tire may develop localized shoulder wear.
Eventually the tire wear pattern will appear around
the rest of the shoulder, sometimes resulting in a
noticeable ride disturbance.
If mismount is detected early: deflate, dismount,
inspect, re-lube, and re-mount the tire. Sometimes
the irregular wear from mismount may be too
significant to fix. At this point you can either send
the tire to the trailer position or retread the casing.
For a detailed discussion on mismount, please
refer to the Runout and Match Mounting video from
your Michelin Representative.
11
⁄32"
Maxi-Mini Wear
14
⁄32"
30
MICHELIN X One Tire Maintenance
®
®
THERE ARE 3 EASY STEPS TO HELP
MINIMIZE MISMOUNTED TIRES:
1. Use a generous amount of tire lube.
Make sure that you only dilute the lube to the
specifications of the manufacturer. Some shops will
try to dilute the lube additionally to save money.
This is a bad idea because the dollar or two you save
on a bucket of lube won’t be worth replacing a tire
due to irregular wear caused from mismount or
damaged beads.
from touching the ground. The reason you want to
seat the beads with the tire horizontal is that if the
initial inflation is done with the tire and wheel
standing vertically, the weight of the wheel pushing
down on the two beads must be overcome in order
to center the wheel on the tire. A MICHELIN X One
tire wheel weighs between 70 and 125 lbs. and it can
be very hard to overcome gravity if tire beads are
seated with the tire/wheel inflated standing up.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
(OSHA) guidelines require the tire to be inflated in
an approved safety cage. However, the first 3 to 5 psi
of air pressure may be applied to the tire outside the
safety cage to properly seat the beads.
®
®
3. Inspect the guide rib to ensure that the
tire is concentrically mounted.
Using a small machinist’s ruler (available at most
hardware stores for ~$2), check the wheel flange to
the guide rib on your inflated tire. The maximum
variation allowed is 2⁄ 32". You should check the
wheel flange to the guide rib at 4 locations: 12:00,
3:00, 6:00, and 9:00.
2. Inflate the assembly enough to seat the
beads with the tire laying horizontally or
parallel to the ground.
A good practice to follow that will ensure the tire
beads are seated properly is to lay the tire and wheel
horizontally on the ground, or better yet, use a 5 gallon
bucket as a stand, which will keep the bottom sidewall
12
9
3
6
Five gallon bucket filled with weights.
MICHELIN X One Tire Maintenance
®
®
31
TIME LABOR STUDY – MICHELIN
®
X ONE® TIRE VS DUAL ASSEMBLY
MICHELIN X ONE TIRE ASSEMBLY
DEMOUNTING DUAL
• One tire and wheel: deflating, demounting,
re-mounting, and re-inflating.
• Average time for one assembly is around
13-14 minutes.
• Two tires and wheels: deflating, demounting,
re-mounting, and re-inflating.
• One air line.
• Average time is around 18-19 minutes.
®
®
Lubricating Beads for Dismount
Demounting Dual
Demounting MICHELIN X One Tire
®
®
Re-mounting Dual
Having a second air line will cut down the time by
about one third. With multiple air lines, the time is
similar to MICHELIN X One tire.
®
Re-mounting MICHELIN X One Tire
®
®
Re-inflating MICHELIN X One Tire
®
32
MICHELIN X One Tire Maintenance
®
®
®
®
MOUNTING ON VEHICLE –
MICHELIN X ONE TIRE
MOUNTING ON VEHICLE –
DUAL
Mounting MICHELIN X One Tire on the Vehicle
Mounting Dual on the Vehicle
HUB PILOTED SINGLE
HUB PILOTED DUAL
1 assembly
10 flange nuts (Either side)
2 assemblies
10 flange nuts (Either side)
STUD PILOTED SINGLE
STUD PILOTED DUAL
2 assemblies
10 Cap nuts (Left side)
10 Cap nuts (Right side)
4 assemblies
10 inner cap nuts (Left side)
10 inner cap nuts (Right side)
10 outer cap nuts (Left side)
10 outer cap nuts (Right side)
(22 Parts)
(44 Parts)
®
®
®
®
In addition, dual wheels must be clocked for valve
stem access through the hand holes.
Mounting on hub-centered axles for the MICHELIN X One tire or Dual should take ~ 2 minutes for each axle
end. While mounting Dual on axles with stud-centered hubs, additional time is required due to the installation of
an inner and outer nut for each stud and having to line up hand holes.
®
®
TORQUE
Once the tire/wheel assembly is mounted onto the
axle end using an air gun, the final torque of each
wheel nut must be applied using a calibrated torque
wrench to 450-500 foot-pounds. This will only take a
minute to perform, and is a safety procedure that
will help prevent loose and broken components and
potential wheel-offs.
Torque Wrench
MICHELIN X One Tire Maintenance
®
®
33
AIR
INFILTRATION
Air infiltration is an “inside-out” damage. The
air inside the tire is much higher (80-120 psi) than
atmospheric pressure. Modern tubeless tires have
a major advantage over a tube-type tire. When a
tube-type tire is punctured, it only takes seconds
to become flat. A tubeless tire may take weeks or
months for the air to escape – this is because the
inner-liner (airtight lining) is integral to the tire.
One issue with tubeless tires is that even though
they may take a long time to go flat, the air is still
trying to get out. As the high pressure air makes
its way back through the puncture channel, it can
separate products within the tire.
A more severe form of air infiltration on dual tires
results in belt separation and subsequent rapid air loss.
The cause of air infiltration can be from:
• nail or other puncture
• objects left in the tire
• bad repair
• bead damage from mounting/dismounting
• anything that has caused the innerliner to become
damaged
Just as the MICHELIN® X One® tire reacts
differently to air pressure settings, it also reacts
differently to air infiltration. The usual effect of air
infiltration on an MICHELIN® X One® tire can be
seen between the top or protector ply and the tread
rubber. Air infiltration always results in removing
the tire from service (dual or wide single); however,
not having belt separation or large sidewall ruptures
could prevent rapid air loss events.
A dual tire can show this effect on the upper
sidewall, bead area, or between crown belts. Nine
times out of ten, though, it will be in the upper
sidewall and manifest itself as a flap or “smiley face.”
34
MICHELIN X One Tire Maintenance
®
®
AIR INFILTRATIONS ARE AVOIDABLE.
Never use a duckbill hammer to mount tubeless
truck tires, as this is the number one cause of bead
damages.
Remove and repair nails, screws, and other
penetrations promptly, BEFORE they can cause air
infiltration.
NO
Cuts to inner
liner, resulting
in sidewall
separation.
Use proper repair techniques, and inspect all
repairs prior to returning tire to service.
NEVER leave service items inside the tire like repair
parts, valves, caps, etc. NEVER intentionally place
items like golf balls inside the tire to “act” as a
balancing agent, as this can lead to inner-liner
damage.
REMEMBER: Any object that cuts the
inner-liner can lead to air infiltration!
MICHELIN X One Tire Maintenance
®
®
35
AIR
PRESSURE
FOOTPRINT COMPARISONS TO DUAL TIRE FITMENTS
FOOTPRINTS:
MICHELIN X One XDA
versus 275/80R22.5
®
Unloaded - 8,500 lbs/axle
Loaded - 17,000 lbs/axle
36
Unloaded - 8,500 lbs/axle
Unloaded - 8,500 lbs/axle
Loaded - 17,000 lbs/axle
Loaded - 17,000 lbs/axle
MICHELIN X One Tire Maintenance
®
®
®
®
You will notice that switching to single tire
fitments causes a slight reduction in footprint
area when compared to dual. This will not have
a negative impact on your traction.
Your MICHELIN X One tire footprint will be
dependent on air pressure recommendations and
vehicle loads. You should always select a pressure
that will adequately support the loads your fleet
®
®
encounters as defined in the MICHELIN Truck
Tire Data Book (MWL40731). Overinflation of your
MICHELIN X One tires will not only reduce your
footprint but can adversely affect handling, wear,
and ride characteristics. Overinflating your tires
may also result in exceeding the wheel’s maximum
pressure.
®
®
445/50R22.5 MICHELIN X ONE AT 100 PSI
®
®
120 PSI FOOTPRINT OVERLAID ON 100 PSI FOOTPRINT
The photo below demonstrates what occurs to the footprint when you overinflate the same tire to
120 psi. The overinflated footprint’s length and width are reduced (black footprint) when compared
to 100 psi footprint (gray footprint).
Shoulder: -33 mm
Center: -13 mm
MICHELIN X One Tire Maintenance
®
®
37
Tire pressure maintenance advice for users of the
new MICHELIN X One wide single truck tires
®
®
The MICHELIN X One family of truck tires is designed
to replace dual assemblies on drive and trailer positions
in over-the-road applications. Proper air pressure
maintenance is critical to obtain optimized performance
from these tires. Due to the unique casing design of the
MICHELIN X One tires, traditional air pressure
adjustment practices for dual tires may not apply to
MICHELIN X One tires. In order to ensure optimal
performance of these tires, Michelin North America
offers the following guidelines:
1) Cold inflation pressure should be based on
maximum axle load in daily operation. Cold inflation
®
®
®
®
®
®
2)
pressures must not be lower than indicated in the
tables below for actual axle loads. For additional
information, please consult the MICHELIN Truck
Tire Data Book (MWL40731).
A 10 psi incremental change in tire inflation can
alleviate most wear forms derived from vehicle
anomalies, driver influence and/or application.
Always refer to actual axle loads to determine the
initial recommended cold inflation pressure.
Application
Location of Wear
Possible Cause
Shoulder
Pressure too low
Trailer Tires
Drive Tires
Center
Pressure too high
Shoulder
Pressure too high
Center
Pressure too low
MICHELIN INFLATION CHARTS FOR TRUCK TIRES
To select the proper load and inflation table, locate your tire size below, then match your tire's sidewall markings to the
table with the same sidewall markings. If your tire's sidewall markings do not match any table listed, please contact your
Michelin dealer for the applicable load and inflation table.
Industry load and inflation standards are in a constant state of change, and Michelin continually updates its product
information to reflect these changes. Printed material may not reflect the latest load and inflation standards.
NOTE: Never exceed the wheel manufacturer’s maximum air pressure limitation.
S = Single configuration, or 2 tires per axle. Loads are indicated per axle.
WHEEL DIAMETER
PSI
75
80
85
90
95
100
105
110
115
120
125
130
22.5"
kPa
520
550
590
620
660
690
720
760
790
830
860
900
LBS SINGLE 13880
14620
15360
16060
16780
17480
18180
18740
19560
20400
S
10200 LBS AT 120 PSI
KG SINGLE
6300
6640
6960
7280
7620
7940
8240
8500
8860
9250
S
4625 KG AT 830 kPa
LBS SINGLE 15000
15800
16580
17360
18120
18880
19640
20400
21200
22000
S
11000 LBS AT 120 PSI
KG SINGLE
7160
7520
7880
8220
8560
8900
9250
9580
10000
S
5000 KG AT 830 kPa
MAXIMUM LOAD AND
PRESSURE ON SIDEWALL
445/50R22.5 LRL
X
X
X
X
X
One
One
One
One
One
XDA,
XDA-HT Plus,
XDN2,
XTA,
XTE
455/55R22.5 LRL
X One XDA-HT Plus,
X One XDN2,
X One XTE
6800
455/55R22.5 LRM
LBS SINGLE
16580
17360
18120
18880
19640
20400
21200
22000
22600
23400
S
11700 LBS AT 130 PSI
X One XZU S,
X One XZY3
KG SINGLE
7520
7880
8220
8560
8900
9250
9580
10000
10240
10600
S
5300 KG AT 900 kPa
With chip and cut resistant tread compound.
MICHELIN INFLATION CHARTS FOR RV USAGE ONLY
In the load and inflation tables, SINGLE means an axle with one tire mounted on each end, while DUAL means an axle
with two tires mounted on each end. The loads indicated represent the total weight of an axle end, in an RV
application. When one axle end weighs more than the other, use the heaviest of the two end weights to determine the
unique tire pressure for all tires on the axle. The maximum cold air pressure for each axle may vary, depending on their
weights. This table is applicable for all RV axles, whether or not they are power-driven.
WHEEL DIAMETER
PSI
75
80
85
90
95
100
105
110
115
120
22.5"
kPa
520
550
590
620
660
690
720
760
790
830
LBS SINGLE
7000
7370
7740
8100
8460
8820
9170
9510
9860
10200
S
10200 LBS AT 120 PSI
KG SINGLE
3180
3330
3520
3660
3850
3990
4130
4310
4450
4625
S
4625 KG AT 830 kPa
445/50R22.5 LRL
X One XRV
38
MICHELIN X One Tire Maintenance
®
®
MAXIMUM LOAD AND
PRESSURE ON SIDEWALL
HOW
TO PROPERLY MEASURE PRESSURE
inspection, it is recommended that you check your
MICHELIN X One tires daily with an accurate tire
pressure gauge.
Check all tires when cold; at least 3 hours after the
vehicle has stopped. Never bleed air from hot tires.
Underinflation can lead to:
• Adverse handling conditions
• Zipper ruptures
• Casing fatigue and degeneration
• Irregular wear
• Decreased tread life
• Reduced fuel economy
Overinflation can lead to:
• Adverse handling conditions
• Reduced resistance to impacts and penetrations
• Increased stopping distances
• Irregular wear
• Decreased tread life
The first step in properly measuring your
MICHELIN X One tires is to have an accurate
pressure gauge. Pressure gauges should be checked
weekly against a master calibrated pressure gauge.
Tire Billy’s and Thumpers are not considered accurate
tire gauges!
Sometimes, reading the gauge can present
difficulties if personnel are not properly trained.
Spend the time to explain to your personnel the
increments on the gauge and how to properly read
pressure. It is highly recommended that you use a
real tire and let the trainee take the pressure and tell
you what it reads.
Proper air pressure maintenance is critical to
obtain optimized performance from your
MICHELIN X One tires. As part of your pre-trip
®
®
®
®
®
®
THE USE OF NITROGEN
IN MICHELIN TRUCK TIRES
®
Nitrogen is an inert gas and will not adversely
affect the inner liner of the tires nor will it adversely
affect the performance of the tires under normal
operating conditions.
Therefore, the use of nitrogen in MICHELIN Truck
Tires will not affect the warranty associated with
the tires.
Please refer to the MICHELIN Truck Tire Warranty
Manual (MWE40021) for what is and is not covered by
the warranty.
®
TEMPERATURE/PRESSURE
RELATIONSHIP GRAPH
99
98
97
Pressure (psi)
This graph displays the reason
behind checking your tires when
cold. As ambient temperature
increases, pressure increases.
An increase in ambient and/or
operating temperature will result
in an increase in tire pressure.
Checking your tires when hot
will result in an elevated reading.
A good field thumb-rule to use is
that for every 10-degree F increase
in temperature above 65, the tire’s
pressure will increase 2 psi.
100
96
95
94
93
92
91
90
65
70
75
80
85
90
95
100
105
110
115
Ambient Temperature (Degrees F)
MICHELIN X One Tire Maintenance
®
®
39
RUN-FLAT AND ZIPPER RUPTURES
Run-flat: Any tire that is known or suspected to have
run at 80% or less of normal operating pressure.
Normal Operating Pressure: The cold inflation
pressure required to support a given load as
recommended by the tire manufacturer’s data book.
Occasionally, a tire will be flat when it arrives at
the repair facility and there will be no external signs
of a rupture. Note the X-ray photo below on the right
reveals the broken casing ply cords.
If re-inflated, this tire will experience a rapid loss
of air with explosive force. Zipper ruptures can and
have resulted in serious injuries and death!
Zipper Rupture: This condition is a circumferential
rupture in the flex zone of the sidewall. This
damage is associated with underinflation and/or
overloading. Any moisture that is permitted to
reach ply cords will cause corrosion, which can
also result in a zipper rupture.
X-ray Photo of
Broken Cords
on Unruptured
Casing
Circumferential Rupture of Casing Ply or “Zipper
Rupture”
40
MICHELIN X One Tire Maintenance
®
®
You should always use an accurate pressure gauge
to determine the pressure inside the tire. Running
the MICHELIN X One tire helps provide an
additional visual identification of significantly
underinflated tires. Compare the difference between
the MICHELIN X One tire at 30 psi and the inside
dual at 30 psi.
Since many fleets run pressures higher than the
recommended values in the manufacturer’s data
book, it can be confusing as to when a tire should be
considered run-flat. A conservative approach would
be to use 80% of the fleet’s operating pressure as
described in the table below.
®
®
®
®
Fleet Pressure
Run-flat (80%)
130
104
125
100
120
96
115
92
110
88
105
84
100
80
95
76
90
72
MICHELIN X One Tire at 30 PSI
®
®
Inside Dual (left) at 85 PSI and Outside Dual (right)
at 30 PSI
Permanent tire damage due to underinflation
and/or overloading cannot always be
detected. Any tire that is known or suspected
to have been run at 80% or less of normal
operating pressure and/or overloaded could
possibly have permanent structural damage
(steel cord fatigue). Ply cords weakened by
underinflation and/or overloading may break
one after another, until a rupture occurs in
the upper sidewall with accompanying
instantaneous air loss and explosive force.
This can result in serious injury or death.
MICHELIN X One Tire Maintenance
®
®
41
TIRE INSPECTION
Any tire that is determined or suspected to be
run-flat, should be inspected thoroughly prior to
returning to service.
Look for wrinkling, discoloration, cracking, and/or
degradation of the inner liner. Any breach to the
inner liner can result in the introduction of moisture
to the casing and subsequent corrosion. If any signs
of run-flat exist to the inner liner, the tire should be
made unusable and scrapped.
Abrasion marks on the sidewall due to road contact
and/or creases in the sidewall are another indicator
of run-flat. Feel for soft spots in the sidewall flex area.
Using an indirect light source helps identify sidewall
irregularities by producing shadows at the ripples and
bulges. Look for protruding wire filaments indicating
broken sidewall cords.
All patches should be inspected for lifting, cracks,
splits, and general condition.
Potential Zipper Rupture
Ripples or Bulges in the Sidewall Flex Area
Inner Liner Damages
Patch Lifting
Abrasion Marks on the Sidewall
Patch Cracking
42
MICHELIN X One Tire Maintenance
®
®
Remove and repair all penetrating objects and
check the beads for damage that may have occurred
during removal.
If none of these conditions exist, the Rubber
Manufacturers Association (RMA) suggests the
following procedure for returning the tire to service.
1) Place the tire/wheel assembly in an approved
inflation safety cage*. Remain outside of the
tire’s trajectory. Do not place hands in the safety
cage while inspecting the tire or place head close
to the safety cage. After properly seating the
beads, with the valve core removed, adjust the
tire to 20 psi, using a clip-on air chuck with a
pressure regulator and an extension hose.
Penetrating Objects
2) Inspect the mounted tire inflated to 20 psi for
distortions or undulations (ripples and/or
bulges). Listen for popping sounds.
IF ANY OF THESE CONDITIONS ARE PRESENT,
THE TIRE SHOULD BE MADE UNUSABLE AND
SCRAPPED.
If none of these conditions are present, proceed
to the next step.
3) With the valve core still removed, inflate the tire
to 20 psi over the normal recommended
operating pressure. During this step, if any of
above conditions appear, immediately stop
inflation. DO NOT EXCEED MAXIMUM
PRESSURE SPECIFICATION FOR THE WHEEL.
Bead Damage Caused by Mounting/Dismounting
4) Before removing the tire/wheel assembly from
the safety cage, reduce the inflation pressure to
the recommended normal operating pressure.
Remain outside of the tire’s trajectory zone.
* Occupational Safety and Health Administration Standard
1910.177 requires all tubeless and tube-type medium and
large truck tires be inflated using a restraining device or
barrier (e.g., safety cage that conforms to OSHA
standards), and using a clip-on chuck with a pressure
regulator and an extension hose.
MICHELIN X One Tire Maintenance
®
®
43
MICHELIN X ONE TIRES LOAD AND INFLATION TABLES
®
®
To determine the proper load/inflation table, always refer to the markings
on the sidewall for maximum load at cold pressure. Contact your MICHELIN
dealer for tires with maximum loads and pressures other than indicated here.
Load and inflation industry standards are in a constant state of change.
Michelin continually updates its product information to reflect these changes.
Therefore, printed material may not reflect the current load and inflation
information.
NOTE: Never exceed the wheel manufacturer’s maximum
air pressure limitation.
S = Single configuration - 2 tires per axle
WHEEL DIAMETER
PSI
75
80
85
90
95
100
105
110
115
120
125
130
22.5"
kPa
520
550
590
620
660
690
720
760
790
830
860
900
LBS SINGLE 13880
14620
15360
16060
16780
17480
18180
18740
19560
20400
S
10200 LBS AT 120 PSI
KG SINGLE
6300
6640
6960
7280
7620
7940
8240
8500
8860
9250
S
4625 KG AT 830 kPa
LBS SINGLE 15000
15800
16580
17360
18120
18880
19640
20400
21200
22000
S
11000 LBS AT 120 PSI
KG SINGLE
7160
7520
7880
8220
8560
8900
9250
9580
10000
S
5000 KG AT 830 kPa
MAXIMUM LOAD AND
PRESSURE ON SIDEWALL
445/50R22.5 LRL
X
X
X
X
X
One
One
One
One
One
XDA,
XDA-HT Plus,
XDN2,
XTA,
XTE
455/55R22.5 LRL
X One XDA-HT Plus,
X One XDN2,
X One XTE
6800
455/55R22.5 LRM
LBS SINGLE
16580
17360
18120
18880
19640
20400
21200
22000
22600
23400
S
11700 LBS AT 130 PSI
X One XZU S,
X One XZY3
KG SINGLE
7520
7880
8220
8560
8900
9250
9580
10000
10240
10600
S
5300 KG AT 900 kPa
With chip and cut resistant tread compound.
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR MICHELIN 455/55R22.5 LRM WITH 13.00 x 22.5 WHEELS
STEER AXLE, FIRST LIFE ONLY
Loaded
Radius
Load
Range
Dimension
455/55R22.5
13” rim
in.
mm
19.5
496
Revs
Per
Mile
Max Load Single*
lbs.
psi
kg.
kPa
10000
120
4535
830
psi
75
80
85
90
95
100
105
110
115
120
kPa
520
550
590
620
660
690
720
760
790
830
lbs. per axle 13740 14460 15180 15880 16600 17280 17980 18660 19340 20000
LRM
493
kg. per axle
6240
6520
6900
7180
7560
7820
8100
8460
8720
9070
* NOTE: When used on a 13.00" rim the max load and pressure is lower than that indicated on the sidewall.
MICHELIN INFLATION CHARTS FOR RV USAGE ONLY
In the load and inflation tables, SINGLE means an axle with one tire mounted on each end, while DUAL means an axle
with two tires mounted on each end. In an RV application, the loads indicated represent the total weight of an axle
end. When one axle end weighs more than the other, use the heaviest of the two end weights to determine the unique
tire pressure for all tires on the axle. The maximum cold air pressure for each axle may vary, depending on their
weights. This table is applicable for all RV axles, whether or not they are power-driven.
WHEEL DIAMETER
PSI
75
80
85
90
95
100
105
110
115
120
22.5"
kPa
520
550
590
620
660
690
720
760
790
830
LBS SINGLE
7000
7370
7740
8100
8460
8820
9170
9510
9860
10200
S
10200 LBS AT 120 PSI
KG SINGLE
3180
3330
3520
3660
3850
3990
4130
4310
4450
4625
S
4625 KG AT 830 kPa
445/50R22.5 LRL
X One XRV
44
MICHELIN X One Tire Maintenance
®
®
MAXIMUM LOAD AND
PRESSURE ON SIDEWALL
IRREGULAR
TIRE WEAR
TRACTOR:
Heel-Toe
(Condition Code 182)
Appearance:
Drive-lugs around the tire worn high to low from the
front to back edge on tread of tire.
Probable Cause:
High torque, pickup and delivery operations (P&D) plus
mountainous terrain, high braking operations.
Analysis/Correction:
Drive tires should be rotated, front to rear; cross rotation
is permitted, but will accelerate wear and can reduce
removal mileages. With the MICHELIN® X One® tire,
since you have no dual pressure differences, heel and
toe pattern should clear itself up @ 1⁄ 3 worn.
Inset: Notice
appearance of
shoulder-scrub on
side of tread-blocks
inner/outer
shoulders.
Center Wear
(Condition Code 186)
Appearance:
Tire wears more rapidly in the center of the tread,
than in the shoulders.
Probable Cause:
LTL (Less than Truckload) operation + high torque,
incorrect air pressure.
Analysis/Correction:
Five tread depths should be taken in the drive position,
allowing one to recognize wear conditions.
Correction of drive-axle air pressure will reduce the
wear pattern and enhance tire mileage.
13⁄ 32" 14⁄ 32"
11⁄ 32"
14⁄ 32" 13⁄ 32"
River Wear Only
(Condition Code 188)
Appearance:
Tire exhibits circumferential wear along the rib-edges
next to the major shoulder tread-ribs.
Probable Cause:
Characteristic of slow wear-rate of radial tires.
Analysis/Correction:
None, river wear should not be of concern.
MICHELIN X One Tire Maintenance
®
®
45
TRAILER:
Step-Shoulder/Localized Wear
Shoulder Cupping
(Condition Code 187/196)
Appearance:
Tire exhibits step-down wear on one or
both shoulders or localized cupped out
areas.
Probable Cause:
Damaged/bent trailer-axle, incorrect
camber setting, alignment issue, LTL
(Less than Truckload) operation,
incorrect air pressure, suspension
compliance.
Analysis/Correction:
Review tire application with tire
Left Front Trailer Position
(Original)
manufacturer; review inflation
maintenance procedures.
Check trailer alignment for bent or worn parts, or consult trailer OE.
Left Front Trailer Position
(Rotated)
Trailer Rotation:
Irregular wear on the inside shoulder of trailer tires can be rectified by flipping the tire on the wheel, where the
inner shoulder becomes the outside shoulder. Criss-cross rotation may also be helpful depending upon 1st and
2nd trailer axle wear-rates.
Brake Skid
(Condition Code 176)
Appearance:
A tire with brake drag is characterized by
localized abrasion or flat spot if severe.
If left in service, it may continue to grow
across the face of the tread.
Probable Cause:
Tractor/trailer moved prior to system air
pressure building up sufficiently to release
parking brakes: resulting in dragging the
tires or driver over-using hand or trailer
brake.
Analysis/Correction:
Review driver tractor/trailer hook-up and departure instructions. The fleet yard mule driver can be a factor. If they
are in a hurry to move trailers, they may pull away before the air pressure has built up sufficiently to release the
brakes. If the flat spotting is minor, leave the tire in service. If tire induces vibration, has exposed steel or is lower
than the minimum required tread depth, remove the tire from service. Even vehicles equipped with anti-lock
brake systems (ABS) can experience flat spotting, depending on the number and placement of sensors and
modulators used.
46
MICHELIN X One Tire Maintenance
®
®
ALIGNMENT
AND VIBRATION
INTRODUCTION
In order to maximize tire life, the MICHELIN
X One tire-equipped truck needs to be maintained
just like its dual equipped counterpart. Due to
the complexity of today’s trucks, this can be an
overwhelming task. By addressing the primary
causes of the most common tire wear issues,
we can simplify this process. The following 4-step
approach attacks the major sources of tire wear,
alignment wear, and vibration.
1. Air Pressure:
#1 cause of irregular wear issues (Pages 45-46).
2. Toe:
#1 cause of alignment-related wear issues.
3. Axle Skew:
#2 cause of alignment-related wear issues.
4. Radial and Lateral Runout:
#1 cause of vibration-related issues.
®
®
All 4 steps can be performed at the fleet level and
require a minimal investment for tools and training.
For more detailed information on alignment, refer
to TMC RP 642A, Total Vehicle Alignment:
Recommendations for Maximizing Tire and
Alignment-Related Component Life. For more
detailed information on runout and balance, refer to
TMC RP 214C, Tire/Wheel End Balance and Runout.
TOE
Toe is the #1 cause of alignment-related tire wear
generally affecting the steer position. It is also a
parameter that can be checked and adjusted easily
Toe-In
in a shop environment. With the vehicle jacked up
and using a toe scribe, you can mark a line around
the circumference of the left steer tire and repeat the
procedure to the right steer tire. Then letting the
truck down on a frictionless surface (a folded plastic
bag), you can then measure between those two lines
at the same height on both sides. You can use two
equal-sized objects as a reference. The closer you are
to hub height, the more accurate your measurement
will be.
Ideally, you want the rear measurement to be bigger
by 1⁄16" or 1.5 mm. If it is not, you should adjust the
toe by loosening the cross tube clamps and turning
the cross tube to either lengthen or shorten the
overall assembly. Remember to re-tighten the clamps
and recheck your measurement following the
adjustment.
Specification: 1⁄16" Toe In or “Positive Toe.” Note
that there is no tolerance or “slop” for this setting.
Tools Required: Toe scribe, tape measure, spray
paint, and plastic trash bags.
AXLE SKEW
Axle skew is the #2 cause of alignment-related
wear and affects steer, drive, and trailer tires. It is
sometimes referred to as scrub or axle parallelism.
When drive axles are not parallel to each other, it has
a negative effect on all tractor tires. This is due to the
vehicle wanting to pull in the direction where
the axle ends are closest together.
This forces the driver to counter-steer in the
opposite direction. This usually results in feathering
of the steer tires in opposite directions. In other
words, one exhibits toe in and the other exhibits toe
out. If this condition is felt on your steer tires, it is
usually a classic symptom of your rear drive axles
not being parallel with each other. By using a
trammel bar, you can quickly and easily determine
if your tractor has a skew problem.
A
(Distance Between Rear of Tires) –
(Distance Between Front of Tires) = Total Toe
If the value is a negative number (rear measurement
less than the front), then you have Toe Out.
If the value is a positive number (front measurement
less than rear), then you have Toe In.
B
MICHELIN X One Tire Maintenance
®
®
47
Using a plumb bob and string, select two points
on the front axle and two on the rear axle that are
equal from the center of the trailer chassis. Usually,
the point where the springs/air bags mount to the
axle makes a good reference point. On a flat, level
surface, mark four points on the ground
representing the trailer axles and one point for the
trailer kingpin.
Trammel Bar
Specification: < 1⁄ 8" difference between axle ends.
Tools Required: Trammel bar and tape measure
(if scale not present on trammel bar)
E
TRAILER ALIGNMENT
Trailers should not be overlooked when
investigating alignment-related tire wear issues.
Misaligned trailers usually result in rapid and/or
irregular trailer wear, poor tracking, and steer tire
wear due to the driver counter-steering to keep the
trailer in the lane.
X'
X
D
Y
A
Y'
C
Schematic of
Measurement
Details
X = X'
Y = Y'
AD = BC
B
Ideally, you want DE = CE and AD = BC.
This would indicate your axles are not only parallel
but square with the kingpin.
This driver has to constantly counter-steer to the
left to keep the trailer off the shoulder.
Specifications:
Difference between axle ends
< 1⁄ 16" (AD compared to BC)
Difference between kingpin to axle measurements
< 1⁄ 8" (DE compared to CE)
Tools Required: Plumb bob and string, 100 ft. tape
measure.
48
MICHELIN X One Tire Maintenance
®
®
VIBRATION
Tire-induced vibrations are generally the result of
out-of-round assemblies. Common causes for outof-round assemblies are components such as
wheels, drums, and hubs and are corrected by
changing the individual component. The most
common cause stems from mismount or improper
mounting procedures that lead to the tire not seating
concentrically with the wheel. Whether it’s an
individual component part or a mounting issue,
these problems can be identified easily by checking
for radial and lateral runout.
Specifications for MICHELIN X One tires: See TMC
RP 214C, Tire/Wheel End Balance and Runout for
more details on radial and lateral runout readings.
Radial Runout < .095"
Lateral Runout < .095"
®
®
14" x 22.5 Aluminum Wheels < .030"
14" x 22.5 Steel Wheels < .070"
Tools Required: Truck style runout gauge stand with
dial indicator.
BALANCE
The Technology Maintenance Council (TMC) has
specifications for balancing.
Specifications for X One tires: See TMC RP 214C,
Tire/Wheel End Balance and Runout, Appendix B for
more details on balance.
Steer: 24 oz.
Drive: 28 oz
Trailer: 28 oz
®
Tools Required: A static or dynamic wheel balancer
and adapters to accommodate the larger MICHELIN
X One tire and wheel assembly.
®
®
Radial Runout
NOTE: A piece of duct tape wrapped around the
tread will facilitate measuring radial runout on
block style drive tread designs.
When troubleshooting a ride disturbance, it is
standard practice to check the balance. Due to
the major impact runout has on balance, we
recommend that you always check radial and lateral
runout prior to attempting to balance the assembly.
Lateral Runout
MICHELIN X One Tire Maintenance
®
®
49
TREAD
DEPTH PULL POINTS
When setting a fleet standard for tread depth pull
points, there is more to consider than just the legal
DOT (Department of Transportation) minimum tread
depths of 4⁄ 32" steer and 2⁄ 32" drive and trailer.
Most fleets who retread, or even sell their casings
to dealers or other fleets who do retread, will
generally choose a tread depth of 5⁄ 32" or greater to
help ensure that the casing has the best chance of
passing inspection. One reason they choose this
higher than legal minimum depth is that they know
that even if they set it at 5⁄ 32" there will be some
tires that slip through, and may not be removed
until 2⁄ 32" or 3⁄ 32" later. In other words, if a tire that
should be pulled for fleet spec of 5⁄ 32" stays in
service a little longer, it won’t be as big an issue as
the tire that was supposed to be pulled at 3⁄ 32" and
continued to stay in service for an additional 2⁄ 32"
of wear. It is a good safety net for ensuring you meet
DOT minimum requirements, and also for the casing
that becomes more susceptible to stone drilling,
penetrations or cuts.
Additionally, there are also some visual clues that are
molded into every MICHELIN X One tire to alert you
to pull points.
®
®
indicators that it is legally time to pull a drive or
trailer tire. Care should be taken to not take tread
depth measurements at the wear bars. Their
placement is indicated on the sidewall/shoulder
by a miniature Michelin Man.
Don’t Measure Tread Depth Here
Michelin Man Sidewall Indicator
In order to fight irregular and fast wear, traditional
dual tires need to be matched within 4⁄ 32" tread
depth or 1⁄ 4" in diameter and within 10 psi.
MICHELIN X One tires remove this extra
maintenance burden. However, all tires (dual or wide
single) should be within 4⁄ 32" intra-axle (across the
axle) and inter-axle (axle to axle groupings) for proper
engine and braking functions and to reduce wear and
tear on axle differentials.
Finally, some fleets find that it may be better to
pull drive tires at around 10⁄ 32" and move to a trailer
position. If you are running in mud, snow, or other
low traction situations, this may be a great way to
address traction concerns. Experience shows that
worn drive tires perform exceedingly well in trailer
positions.
®
Shoulder Scallops
Mold Line
All MICHELIN X One tires have built-in “scallops”
or small indentations right on the shoulder edge. The
bottom of this scallop corresponds with the normal
wearing surface of the tread. Therefore, when you
wear down to the bottom of this indentation, it is time
to remove the tire for retreading.
Additionally, there is a circumferential raised line
just below the bottom of the scallops. This is where
the tread mold meets the sidewall mold, and the rule
of thumb if using this indicator as a reference is to pull
the tire when the wear reaches 1⁄ 4" ABOVE this line.
Also, there are 2⁄ 32" wear bars molded into the
tread on all MICHELIN X One tires. When these
become level with the tread, they are visual
®
MICHELIN X One Tire Maintenance
®
®
Within 4 ⁄32nds
®
®
50
®
®
Within 4 ⁄32nds
CARE,
CLEANING, AND STORAGE
DIESEL FUEL CONTAMINATION
CLEANING AND PROTECTION
Diesel fuel and other petroleum-based products
can cause blistering, swelling, or a spongy condition.
Swelling is typically seen in the tread, and blistering
is typically seen on the sidewall. The odor of the
petroleum-based product may be evident. The
rubber will also be softer than another part of the
tire with no petrol damage. Generally it may be
30-40 points softer on the shore hardness gauge.
If these conditions are seen or experienced,
scrap the tire.
Soap and water is the best solution to cleaning
tires. If you use a dressing product to “protect” your
tires from aging, use extra care and caution. Tire
dressings that contain petroleum products, alcohol,
or silicone will cause deterioration and/or cracking
and accelerate the aging process. Be sure to refer to
the protectant or dressing label contents to confirm
that none of these harmful chemicals are present.
In many cases, it is not the dressing itself that can
be a problem, but rather the chemical reaction that
the product can have with the antioxidant in the tire.
Heat can make this problem worse. When these
same dressing products are used on a passenger car
tire that is replaced every 3 to 4 years, it is rare to see
a major problem. In many cases, truck tires may last
much longer due to higher mileage yields and
subsequent retread lives, and the chemical reaction
takes place over a longer period.
Swellings in the Tread
Sidewall Contamination
MICHELIN X One Tire Maintenance
®
®
51
SEALANTS
THE USE OF SEALANTS IN MICHELIN
TRUCK TIRES
The use of sealants in MICHELIN Truck Tires does
not affect the tire warranty unless it is determined
that the sealant has adversely affected the inner liner
or the performance of the tires.
Prior to using any type of sealant, Michelin
strongly recommends that the customer make sure
the sealant has been tested and certified by the
sealant manufacturer as being safe for use in tires.
Please consult Michelin prior to using sealants
in any MICHELIN tires that have sensors in them.
The sealant may adversely affect the performance
of the sensors.
Michelin has jointly tested a “non-aqueous”
sealant for use in its regional, urban, sanitation, and
VALVE
on/off road tires. It was determined that the sealant
was both safe and effective in helping to reduce air
loss as a result of punctures.
“Non-aqueous” means the sealant contains little
or no water. Actual sealant testing using the Karl
Fisher Method (ASTM 6304, weight percent)
indicated a water content of less than 3%. Since
the sealant is “non-aqueous,” it does not promote
the oxidation (rusting) of the steel cables when a
puncture does occur.
In order to remain “water free,” it is important
that once the container is opened during usage, it is
resealed after use and stored in an air-conditioned
space if possible. This will prevent the absorption of
moisture from the atmosphere.
STEM INSPECTION
LOOSE AND LEAKY VALVE STEMS
Whether they are new or have been in use over a
period of time, valve stems can become loose. It is
recommended that you verify torque on all wheels
put into service. When installed, they should be
torqued, using the proper tool at 80 to 125 in/lbs
(7 to 11 ft/lbs) for aluminum wheels and 35 to 55
in/lbs (3 to 5 ft/lbs) for steel wheels.
Checking for loose and leaky valve stems should
be made a part of your regular maintenance
schedule.
Methods for checking for loose valve stems:
– check with a torque wrench
– check by hand to see if the valve nut is loose
– spray a soapy solution on the valve to see if there
is a leak
52
MICHELIN X One Tire Maintenance
®
®
Corrosion-Related Leak
Retread and Repair
Recommendations
MICHELIN X ONE RETREAD AND REPAIR
RECOMMENDATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54-55
®
®
Initial Inspection
Shearography
Buffing
Tread Building
Enveloping
Curing
Final Inspection
REPAIR RECOMMENDATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
RETREAD RECOMMENDATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
53
MICHELIN
®
X ONE RETREAD AND REPAIR RECOMMENDATIONS
®
While the MICHELIN X One tire may require
some special equipment to handle the wider tread
and casing, it does not require any special procedure
to be repaired or retreaded. As with any tire, special
care should be given to respect the recommendations
and guidelines associated with the specific product
to ensure optimum performance.
®
®
INITIAL INSPECTION
Inspect the MICHELIN X One casings as defined
by your retread process manufacturer or industry
recommended practices using appropriate
equipment.
When using an electronic liner inspection device,
such as the Hawkinson NDT, a new wide base probe
of at least 275 mm/10.9 inches is required to insure
sufficient and consistent cable contact with the
shoulder/upper sidewall area. (Hawkinson part #
PROBE ASSEMBLY 009). It is recommended to slow
the rotation speed or make several additional cycles
to catch as many small punctures as possible.
®
®
AFTER BUFF INSPECTION
If after buffing, multiple circumferential cracks or
splits remain in one or both shoulders of the tire in
the vicinity of the outside tread groove (Picture 1),
the casing should be rejected. This should not be
confused with a 360 degree product interface line
that sometimes is visible after buff (Picture 2). If this
line is visible, it should be probed; and if found to be
loose material, the casing should be rejected. If it is
tight, continue the retread process.
SHEAROGRAPHY
If using laser shearography inspection, adjust
and/or modify to insure complete imaging shoulder
to shoulder, per equipment manufacturer. Also make
sure the correct vacuum level is applied.
Picture 1
BUFFING
An expandable rim width of 14.5 inches is
required. The beads of the casing should be
lubricated with a fast drying non-petroleum based
tire lubricant. Buffing should not start before casing
reaches target pressure in the expandable rim as
defined by your retread process manufacturer.
Recommended minimum inflation pressure is 1.2
bars or 18 psi. Recommended tread width ranges are
given below and may vary depending on the type
and condition of the MICHELIN X One casing.
The MICHELIN X One casing’s finished, buffed
measured width should follow the same standards
as other casings: no more than 2 mm less than the
tread width and no more than 8 mm more than
tread width.
®
®
54
®
Retread and Repair Recommendations
®
Picture 2
TREAD BUILDING
Expandable rim width of 14.5 inches is
required. Buffing on a more narrow rim can
result in excess undertread remaining in the
shoulder, increasing the operating belt edge
temperature.
Tread building should not begin until tire
pressure has reached the target inflation
pressures in the expandable rim as defined
by your retread process manufacturer.
For cushion to casing extruded bonding
gum application, recommended minimum
inflation pressure is 0.8 bar or 12 psi. Bonding
gum thickness should not exceed 1.5 mm
(2⁄ 32") in the crown and 2.5 mm (3⁄ 32") in
the shoulders.
Note: For non-Michelin wing tread
products, contact MRT Duncan, SC at 1-888678-5470, then press 3 for Technical Support.
Shoulder
Crown
Crown Plies
Body Ply
Inner Liner
Sidewall
A’
A
75 mm
C
10 mm
ENVELOPING
B
Bead
Contact your envelope supplier for the
recommended size envelopes to be used.
CURING
Cure the MICHELIN X One casing
according to cure law for the tread design
per the retread process manufacturer.
®
®
NOTE: For truck sizes, point B is located on the point of
the bead, point A is found 75 mm from B towards the
interior of the casing, and point A is also 75 mm from B
but is located on the exterior of the casing.
FINAL INSPECTION
W
Conduct the final inspection of the
MICHELIN X One casing according to the
retread process manufacturer work method
and specification.
®
L
®
W
D
Note: The retreader is still responsible for
determining if the MICHELIN X One casing
is capable of being retreaded; the same as
would be done for any other tire in the
inspection process.
®
L
®
Sidewall Damage
Crown Damage
W
L
L
L
W
W
L
Bead Damage
Interior Damage
Retread and Repair Recommendations
55
REPAIR RECOMMENDATIONS*
Type of Repair
Application
Spot Repair
(no body ply affected)
Bead Repairs
(rubber damage only)
Bead Repairs
(chafer strip)
Liner Repairs
Quantity Limits
Size Limits
Long Haul, Pickup &
Delivery (P&D)
Max 10 per sidewall
No limit
Severe Service
Max 20 per sidewall
No limit
All
Max 4 per bead
Max width: 150 mm (6 in)
Min distance between repairs: 75 mm (3 in)
Severe Service
(bead toe repair only)
No limit
L = 2 mm x W = 50 mm (1⁄16 in x 2 in)
Min distance between repairs: 75 mm (3 in)
All
Max 4 per bead
L = 25 mm x W = 55 mm (1 in x 2 in)
Min distance between repairs: 75 mm (3 in)
All
If blister diameter is less than 5 mm (3⁄16 in),
leave intact; repair between 5 mm (3⁄16 in)
and 20 mm (3⁄4 in)
No limit
If blister diameter is more than 20 mm (3⁄4 in),
reject casing
Buzzouts
(protector ply and
3rd working ply)
Buzzouts
(2nd working ply;
Infinicoil)
Nail Hole Repairs
Long Haul, P&D
Max 15 per tire
Max diameter: 40 mm (1.6 in)
Max surface: 1600 mm2 (2.5 in2)
Severe Service
Max 60 per tire
Max diameter: 40 mm (1.6 in)
Max surface: 1600 mm2 (2.5 in2)
Long Haul, P&D
Max 3 per tire
Max diameter: 30 mm (1.2 in)
Max surface: 900 mm2 (1.4 in2)
Severe Service
Max 20 per tire
Max diameter: 30 mm (1.2 in)
Max surface: 900 mm2 (1.4 in2)
All
Max 5 per tire
Max diameter: 10 mm (0.4 in)
Crown
Max diameter: 25 mm (1.0 in)
Section Repairs
All
Sidewall
L 70 mm x W 25 mm (2.8 in x 1.0 in)
L 90 mm x W 20 mm (3.8 in x 0.8 in)
L 120 mm x W 15 mm (4.7 in x 0.6 in)
Max 2 per tire
NOTE: Total combined Nail Hole Repairs + Section Repairs = should not exceed 5 total repairs.
RETREAD RECOMMENDATIONS*
Casing Size
445/50R22.5
455/55R22.5
Buff Radius
Circumference
1700 mm (+/- 50 mm)
(67 in)
3070 mm
(121 in)
1700 mm (+/- 50 mm)
(67 in)
3225 mm
(127 in)
Tread Width
Tread Type
Min
Max
Flat Tread
380 mm
390 mm
Wing Tread**
375/420 mm
385/430 mm
Flat Tread
390 mm
400 mm
Wing Tread**
385/430 mm
395/440 mm
* Disclaimer - Documents subject to change.
** For non-MICHELIN wing tread sizes, contact MRT Technical Support at 1-888-678-5470 Option 3.
56
Retread and Repair Recommendations
Operation
and Handling
OPERATION AND HANDLING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58-63
Over-steer
Under-steer
Hydroplaning
Rollover Threshold
Jack-knife
Rapid Air Loss Procedure
Traction
Chains
Stopping Distances
Limping Home
State and Local Regulations
HEAT STUDY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64-67
Brake Heat Overview
Brake Heat Evaluation: MICHELIN X One Tires vs Duals
®
®
57
OPERATION
AND HANDLING
OVER-STEER
UNDER-STEER
Over-steer is when the rear wheels are carving a
larger arc than the front wheels or the intended line
of the turn. This is often described as a “loose”
condition, as the truck feels like the rear end is
coming around.
Under-steer is when the front wheels are carving a
larger arc than the rear wheels. This is often
described as “push” or “pushing,” as the front end
feels like it is plowing off of a corner.
Over-steer: Very Difficult to Correct
Under-steer: Very Easy to Correct
Over-steer is dangerous because once the rear end comes around, the vehicle is
uncontrollable and may enter a spin. Braking only makes this condition worse.
Under-steer is the more desirable condition because you have direct control over
the front tires, and deceleration usually corrects the condition.
The MICHELIN X One tire has a higher cornering stiffness and can generate
more lateral force than standard dual drive tires. Increasing cornering stiffness of
the rear tires promotes under-steer. Additionally, it will take more force to jackknife the vehicle.
®
®
CORNERING STIFFNESS FOR DIFFERENT TIRES
7,000
Cornering Stiffness (N/Deg)
6,000
5,000
4,000
3,000
2,000
MICHELIN X One Tire
®
1,000
®
Two Dual
0
Conventional Wide-Base
0
5,000
10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 30,000 40,000 45,000 50,000
Normal Force (N)
Source: Recent evaluations at a MICHELIN facility in South Carolina.
58
Operation and Handling
HYDROPLANING
Hydroplaning occurs when the tire loses contact
with the road. This can happen when the water
pressure exceeds the contact pressure between the
tire and the road.
A tire’s contact pressure can reduce your chance of
hydroplaning. The MICHELIN X One tire has higher
contact pressure at the edge of the tread, which
provides a wider “sweet spot” than dual tires. In the
graph below, you can see that the contact pressure is
slightly higher in the center and significantly higher
at the shoulders over dual fitments. Note the drop in
contact pressure for dual tires on the graph below.
For example, the contact pressure of a dual tire is
about 90 psi compared to 116 psi for a MICHELIN
X One tire. This will result in the dual tire losing
contact with the road at lower speed than the
MICHELIN X One tire. This means if hydroplaning
occurs at 60 mph for the MICHELIN X One tire, it
will occur at 53 mph on the dual.
®
®
®
®
®
®
®
Factors that increase likelihood of hydroplaning:
– Excess water
– Excessive speed
– Low tread depth
– High tire pressure
– Light loads or bob-tailing
®
Contact Pressure Ratio = 公 90 ÷ 116 = 88%
or
60 mph x 0.88 = 53 mph
In other words, if rain is pouring down and water
is pooling, the truck’s speed needs to decrease in
order to avoid hydroplaning.
1,000
900
Contact Pressure
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
Dual Tire 1
100
Michelin X One Tire
®
0
®
Dual Tire 2
1
3
5
7
9
11
Rib Number
Source: Recent evaluations at a MICHELIN facility in South Carolina.
Operation and Handling
59
ROLLOVER THRESHOLD
77.5"
Track Width
There are two things you can change to make a
vehicle more resistant to rollover:
– Lower the center of gravity
– Increase your track width
0" Outset
The MICHELIN X One tire does both.
®
®
First, the loaded radius of the 445/50R22.5
MICHELIN X One XDN 2 tire is 18.7".
A 275/80R22.5 MICHELIN XDN 2 tire (dual
equivalent) loaded radius is 18.9". See chart below.
For every inch you lower the Center of Gravity, you
gain 3 mph additional safety factor with regard to
rollover threshold.
Second, the track width is measured at the center
of where the load is distributed on the ground.
For dual, this would be measured at the center of the
space between the dual. For the MICHELIN X One
tire, it is simply measured from the center of the left
side tire to the center of the right side tire.
®
®
101.5"
®
®
®
®
80.5"
Track Width
2" Outset
®
97.9"
As you can see, even though the overall width
has reduced, the track width has increased on the
MICHELIN X One tire.
®
®
ROLLOVER THRESHOLD WITH TIRE SIZE
0.42
In summary, the MICHELIN X One tire
improves rollover threshold by increasing
cornering stiffness, increasing track width, and
reducing the center of gravity.
®
Rollover Threshold (g)
®
These improvements have been validated with:
1) Computer simulation where the whole
vehicle is characterized mathematically.
2) Track testing at our internal proving grounds.
3) OE vehicle manufacturers in their independent
testing, including tilt table testing.
0.40
0.38
0.36
0.34
0.32
275/80R22.5 385/65R22.5 425/65R22.5 445/65R22.5
445/50R22.5
Source: Recent evaluations at a MICHELIN facility in South Carolina.
SPECIFICATIONS FOR TREAD DESIGN: MICHELIN X ONE XDN 2
®
Size
Load
Range
Catalog
Number
L
36587
445/50R22.5
®
®
Tread
Depth
Max.
Speed (*)
32nds
mph
in.
mm
in.
mm
in.
mm
27
75
18.7
474
40.4
1026
17.1
435
Loaded Radius
Overall Diameter
Overall Width (‡)
Approved
Rim
Revs
Per Mile
14.00
515
Max. Load and Pressure
Single
lbs.
psi
kg.
kPa
10200
120
4625
830
SPECIFICATIONS FOR TREAD DESIGN: XDN 2
®
Tread Max.
Load Catalog Depth Speed
(*)
Range Number
32nds mph
Size
275/80R22.5
60
(1)
G
63465
Operation and Handling
27
75
in.
mm
in.
mm
in.
mm
Approved
Rims
(Measuring rim
listed first.)
18.9
481
40.6
1030
11.0
279
8.25, 7.50
Loaded
Radius
Overall
Diameter
Overall Width
(‡)
Min. Dual
Spacing (‡)
in
mm
12.2
311
Revs
Per
Mile
511
Max. Load and Pressure
Single
Max. Load and Pressure
Dual
lbs.
psi
kg.
kPa
lbs.
psi
kg.
kPa
6175
110
2800
760
5675
110
2575
760
JACK-KNIFE
When you put the tractor and trailer into an
extreme turn or “jack-knife” situation, the trailer
is very vulnerable to rollover.
Normally, traction has a positive influence on the
handling of the truck. This is no longer true when
you put a truck in a jack-knife condition. Whether
dual or single configuration, you are forcing the tires
to stop rolling and slide sideways. As the photo
below clearly demonstrates, the trailer is twisting
because the tires are holding their position on the
road. This can lead to rollover!
This is especially true for spread axle trailers and
high center of gravity loads. Look at the lateral stress
placed on the tires from the jack-knife situation.
Turning angles should be minimized
to avoid rollover threshold whether
operating with duals or MICHELIN
X One tires.
®
®
Operation and Handling
61
NEVER exceed vehicle limitations because of
improved handling.
A tire with a wider footprint is going to provide
increased lateral stability when cornering. As a result
of this increased lateral stability, the truck will have a
tendency to lean less in turns. The increased lateral
stability should not equate to increased speed.
Always obey posted speed limits on the highways
and curves. A good rule of thumb for vehicles with
high rollover thresholds (i.e., tankers, concrete
mixers) is to take the curves at the posted limit less
10 mph.
RAPID AIR LOSS PROCEDURE
Even though the MICHELIN X One tire is an
innovative product, it still requires proper air
pressure maintenance and visual inspection
practices. Tire failure can and will occur.
Below you will find a handy reference of the
procedure to bring the vehicle to a safe stop
following a rapid air loss event:
®
®
Indications:
(Some or all of the following may apply.)
– No change in handling
– Slight lean (depending on wheel position)
– Vibrations
– Audible noise when rapid air loss occurs
Immediate Actions:
– Accelerate enough to maintain lane position.
(DO NOT apply brakes immediately.)
– Do not apply maximum brake pressure to bring
the vehicle to a stop. This stop should be gradual
by pumping the brakes.
– Creating assembly lock-up can cause irrepairable
damage to tire, wheel, axle components, and
vehicle.
– Pull the vehicle to a safe area.
– Do not attempt to limp further down the
road.
This can be simplified by remembering the following:
DROP
ROLL
and STOP
In other words, the vehicle lean or DROP may be the
first indication of a rapid air loss. Don’t jam on the
brakes! Pumping the brakes will allow the damaged
wheel end to ROLL to a STOP without lock-up.
There are many MICHELIN X One tire training videos
including rapid air loss handling, and specific
application demonstrations. To obtain one of these,
contact your local MICHELIN dealer or the MICHELIN
sales representative in your area.
TRACTION
Traction is dependent on the following variables:
– speed
– tread depth
– conditions (dry or wet, depth of water)
– tread design
– tread rubber compound
– road surface (concrete, asphalt)
CHAINS
Depending on the state in which you are traveling,
chains may or may not be required. If chains are
required, several companies have chains available for
the MICHELIN X One tire. The thing to remember
when purchasing chains for your MICHELIN X One tire
is the tire size, as the 445/50R22.5 chains don’t fit the
455/55R22.5 and vice versa. For more information,
consult your local dealer or go to www.tirechains.com*.
®
®
®
®
Secondary Actions:
–
–
–
–
Turn on flashers
Deploy safety triangles
Inspect vehicle for damage
Call for assistance
* The information provided is for
reference only. Chains-specific
questions should be directed to
the chains manufacturer.
62
Operation and Handling
STOPPING DISTANCES
Stopping distance with the MICHELIN X One tire
is similar to that of a vehicle in dual configuration.
A general rule typically mentioned in Commercial
Driver’s License (CDL) manuals is to allow one
vehicle length or one second between your vehicle
and the one you are following for every 10 mph of
your velocity. For example: if you are driving at 65
mph, allow 6.5 seconds between your vehicle and
the one in front of you. A good way to practice this
is to mark a spot, such as a bridge, road sign, etc.,
that the vehicle you’re following has just passed and
count one-one thousand, two-one thousand, etc.,
to see how long it takes you to reach the same point.
If you count to only four-one thousand, then
increase your following distance.
In wet and/or icy conditions, do not assume that
because you have better traction you will be able to
stop quicker. It is always the best practice to increase
following distances and reduce driving speeds when
traveling in adverse weather conditions.
®
®
LIMPING HOME
Limping on the MICHELIN X One tire can cause
damage to the wheel and casing. Although the tire is
down, it’s possible that it is repairable unless it was
run-flat. Limping home is never recommended even
on dual tires.
DOT (Department of Transportation) Regulation
393.75 states:
®
®
The following provides the top ten reasons not to limp home on
any tire.
10
TOP REASONS
NOT TO LIMP HOME
10. Pavement Damage: when the tire is run to destruction, the
wheel contact damages the road.
9. Wheel Damage: $$$ hundreds of dollars.
8. Destroyed Casing: it may have otherwise been repairable.
$$$ hundreds of dollars.
7. Cargo Damage: load shifts, collisions, roll-overs or fires.
6. Collateral Truck Damage: fairings, tanks, hoses, brakes,
hoods, mudflaps, etc.
5. Wheel and/or Tire Detachment: if the tire/wheel become
detached, they become a projectile.
4. Adverse Handling Conditions: mishandled, a run-flat could
lead to a jack-knife or even a roll-over.
3. Direct D.O.T. Violation: fines and downtime.
2. Creating assembly lock-up can cause irrepairable damage
to tire, wheel, axle components, and vehicle.
1. Endangers Other Vehicles and People: heavy duty truck
accidents can be fatal.
STATE AND LOCAL REGULATIONS
Some states have enacted “Load Per Inch Width” regulations for the
purpose of governing axle weight on (primarily) the steering axle of
commercial vehicles. These regulations provide a carrying capacity
of a certain number of pounds per each cross-sectional inch across
the tire’s width. The determination of the tire’s width can vary from
state to state, but presumably would be based upon either the tire
manufacturer's published technical data for overall width, or the
width as marked on the sidewall of the tire (which may require
conversion from Metric to English units). It is recommended to
contact your state’s DOT office to confirm the current “Load Per Inch
Width” law.
For example, if a state allows for 550 pounds per inch width, a tire
marked 445/50R22.5 could carry up to 9,636 pounds (17.52 x 550) or
a total of 19,272 pounds on the drive axle (2 x 9636). Another way to
look at it is to take the total weight carried and divide by the stated
“Load Per Inch Width” law to determine the appropriate size tire.
If a truck needs to carry 16,000 pounds an axle in a state with a 500
pound per inch width limit (16000/500 = 32), you would need a wide
single tire that is at least 16 inches wide (32/2). In this case a
445/50R22.5 could legally carry the load (445 mm/25.4 mm per inch =
17.5 inches Metric to English conversion).
The two formulas are:
Load Per Inch Width Law x Tire Section Width x Number of Tires =
Gross Axle Weight Limit
Gross Axle Weight/Inch Width Law/Number Of Tires =
Minimum Tire Section Width Needed
State laws and regulations frequently can and do change, so it is
recommended that you consult your local State or Province DOT and
where you will be traveling to be sure there are no restrictions on the
use of the MICHELIN X One tire for your particular operation,
equipment, and weight.
®
®
Operation and Handling
63
HEAT
STUDY
BRAKE HEAT OVERVIEW
Truck brake often reach very high temperatures.
Brake drums can reach temperatures of 600° F or
more and are in very close proximity to the wheels.
This heat can be easily transferred to the wheels and
tires. Brake drum heat is transferred to the wheel
primarily through radiation and convection. The hot
brake drum radiates heat in all directions to the
wheel. In addition, the drum heats the air between
the drum and the wheel. The heated air rises and
transfers additional heat energy to the wheel
through convection. Much of the heat is transferred
to the wheel in the bead mounting area due to its
close proximity to the brake drum. The wheel then
directly conducts heat to the tire bead resulting in
elevated temperatures in the tire bead area.
Excessive bead heat can affect tire life in many
truck tire applications. Vehicles in urban and refuse
service are most commonly associated with bead
heat issues, but any application that experiences
hard braking can be affected.
Results of bead heat:
1. Immediate Failure: In some cases, after periods
of hard braking where brake drums reach very
high temperatures (in excess of 600° F), immediate
failure can occur. This normally occurs when a
truck is brought to a stop for a period of time with
very high brake temperatures. Often this occurs
when an over-the-road truck stops at a truck stop
at the bottom of a long descent. As the heat rises
from the brake drum, there is excessive heat
buildup in the portion of the tire bead directly
above the brake drum (inner bead of inside dual).
The high temperature can cause a breakdown of
the rubber products in the bead area and allow
the steel body cables to unwrap from the bead.
This process results in a tire rapid air loss. This
phenomenon is also common in urban and refuse
fleets when the driver stops for a break after a
period of hard braking.
2. Premature aging of the carcass: Heat is a tire’s
worst enemy! A tire subjected to high heat
conditions over an extended period of time will
experience accelerated aging of the rubber
products. The accelerated aging may result in a
blowout during operation, or it may render the
casing unsuitable for retread. The graph below
demonstrates how operating with bead
temperatures in excess of 200°F will significantly
reduce your casing life.
Duals – Close to Brake Drum
CASING LIFE vs BEAD TEMPERATURE
Bead Temperature (F)
400
350
300
250
200
150
1
10
100
Casing Life (hr)
64
Operation and Handling
1,000
10,000
Bead damage as a result of brake heat is
recognizable in 3 stages of severity. In the first stage,
the bead starts to turn inward. This can be visibly
identified on the tire when it is dismounted.
A straight edge placed across the beads from one
bead to the other no longer rests on the bead point,
but now rests closer to the bead bearing area.
The third stage is when the casing ply fully
unwraps from the bead. In extreme cases, the casing
ply unwraps from the bead all the way around the
tire. At this point the tire completely separates from
the bead wire. The bead wire can entangle itself
around the axle if this type of separation occurs.
3rd Stage – Partial Unwrapping of the Casing Ply
1st Stage – Turning of the Bead
The second stage occurs when the rubber in the
bead area starts to split or crack indicating that the
steel casing plies are starting to unwrap.
3rd Stage – Complete Unwrapping of the Casing Ply
2nd Stage – Bead Splitting from Heat
Operation and Handling
65
BRAKE HEAT EVALUATION:
MICHELIN X ONE TIRES VS DUALS
®
®
MICHELIN X One tire fitments have greater
clearance between the brake drum and the bead of
the tire compared to a dual assembly. In addition,
due to the 2" outset of the wheel for the MICHELIN
X One tires, more brake drum is exposed, which
provides greater air flow around the drum. These
characteristics reduce the heat transfer from the
brakes to the tire and allow the brakes to run cooler.
®
®
®
®
This effect was demonstrated on a closed course
at the Laurens Proving Grounds, Michelin’s 3,000
acre test facility.
The Test
A 4x2 straight truck outfitted with a temperature
logging device was loaded to maximum legal limits
and operated on a closed course with almost
continuous starting and stopping cycles. The truck
was brought up to 30 mph and then stopped
repeatedly for 45 minutes. The temperature logging
device recorded brake drum and wheel temperatures
(in the bead area) every 10 seconds. The test was run
on both MICHELIN X One tires and duals at similar
track temperatures and weather conditions.
®
®
Exposed Brake Drum
After 45 minutes, when the brakes were at their peak temperature, the temperatures from the data loggers were compared.
The brake drums fitted with MICHELIN X One tires were over 100°F cooler and the wheels were over 30°F cooler in the bead
area than when equipped with Duals!
®
®
WHEEL TEMPERATURE
MICHELIN X ONE TIRES vs DUALS
BRAKE TEMPERATURE
MICHELIN X ONE TIRES vs DUALS
®
®
®
®
220
700
200
600
degrees F
degrees F
180
500
400
300
160
140
120
200
100
100
80
Dual
Michelin X One Tire
®
66
Operation and Handling
®
Source: Recent evaluations at a MICHELIN facility in South Carolina.
Thermal Imaging
The thermal image photos were captured after the
repeated stopping test followed by 30 minutes of
driving without braking. A brake drum temperature
advantage for the MICHELIN X One tire of 90°F was
still apparent even after the cool down period.
It is safe to say that for any given truck, brake
®
®
Dual
temperatures on MICHELIN X One tire equipped
vehicles will be significantly cooler than brakes on
trucks running conventional duals. This effect will
be most pronounced during periods of heavy
braking but will persist for some time after braking
has ended.
®
®
MICHELIN X One Tire
®
®
Source: Recent evaluations at a MICHELIN facility in South Carolina.
Operation and Handling
67
68
Operation and Handling
Appendix
ISO LOAD INDEX AND SPEED SYMBOL . . . . . . . . 70
DEFINITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71-72
SPECIAL TOOLS / MOUNTING TOOLS . . . . . . . 73-74
69
ISO
70
LOAD INDEX AND SPEED SYMBOL
LOAD INDEX
SPEED SYMBOL
The ISO* LOAD INDEX is a numerical code
associated with the maximum load a tire can carry
at the speed indicated by its SPEED SYMBOL under
service conditions specified by the tire
manufacturer. (1 kg = 2,205 lbs.)
The ISO* SPEED SYMBOL indicates the speed at
which the tire can carry a load corresponding to its
Load Index under service conditions specified by
the tire manufacturer.
Load Index
kg
lbs
155
3,875
8,540
156
4,000
8,820
157
4,125
9,090
158
4,250
9,370
159
4,375
9,650
160
4,500
9,920
161
4,625
10,200
162
4,750
10,500
163
4,875
10,700
164
5,000
11,000
165
5,150
11,400
166
5,300
11,700
167
5,450
12,000
168
5,600
12,300
169
5,800
12,800
Appendix
Speed
Speed
Symbol
kph
mph
J
K
L
M
N
100
110
120
130
140
62
68
75
81
87
* International Standards Organization
Exceeding the lawful speed limit is neither recommended nor endorsed.
DEFINITIONS
Standard and Low Profile radial truck tire sizes can
be more easily understood by breaking down the
formula into the three components: the section width
in inches or millimeters, aspect ratio, and rim/wheel
diameter.
1. Tire Size:
Standard Size example: 11R22.5
– 11 inch nominal section width, with a height
between 90 and 100% of the section width
– R = radial
– 22.5 wheel diameter
Low Profile example: 445/50R22.5
– 445 millimeter nominal section width
– 50 is the aspect ratio expressed as a height to
width percentage
– R = radial
– 22.5 wheel diameter
2. Aspect Ratio: A nominal number, which
represents the section height, divided by the section
width expressed as a percentage.
Example 445/50R22.5
Aspect Ratio = 50
3. Rims: The approved/preferred rims are designated
for each size tire. MICHELIN X One tires should only
be mounted on the rims shown in the application
specific data book.
®
®
4. Overall Width: The maximum width (cross
section) of the unloaded tires including protruding
side ribs and decorations as measured on the
preferred rim. Overall width will change 0.1 inch
(2.5 mm) for each 1⁄ 4 inch change in rim width.
10. Tire Deflection: Free radius minus the loaded
radius.
11. Tire Revolutions Per Mile: Revolutions per
mile for a tire size and tread is defined as the number
of revolutions that the new tire will make in one mile.
Data is normally presented for the loaded tire at its
rated load and inflation in the drive position.
Tire revolutions per mile (Tire Revs./Mile) can be
determined by measuring using SAE J1025 or
estimated by calculating using a mathematical
equation.
Michelin Equation:
Tire Revs./Mile = 20,168 ⁄ (O.D. - .8d)
O.D. = Overall Diameter
d = Correction for deflection
d = (O.D. ⁄ 2) – SLR
SLR = Static Loaded Radius
(MICHELIN Truck Tire
Service Manual - MWL40732)
At Michelin, the tire revolutions per mile are
officially determined using the Society of Automotive
Engineers (SAE) Recommended Practice. The test tires
are placed as singles on the drive axle of the test
vehicle and set to the corresponding pressure. The
vehicle is then driven over a straight 2-mile section at
45 mph while the number of revolutions are counted.
(Since speed minimally affects the results for radial
tires, other speeds are allowed.) Averaging 4 runs that
are within 1% of each other then derives the tire’s
revolutions per mile measurement.
4. Overall
Width
8. Section
Height
5. Overall Diameter: The diameter of the
unloaded new tire (measured from opposite outer
tread surfaces).
6. Free
Radius
3. Rim
Width
6. Free Radius: One-half the overall diameter
of the unloaded new tire.
7. Nominal Wheel Diameter: Diameter of rim
seat supporting the tire bead given in nearest whole
numbers, e.g. 22.5".
8. Section Height: The distance from rim seat
to outer tread surface of unloaded tire.
5. Overall
Diameter
7. Nominal
Wheel
Diameter
CL
9. Loaded
Radius
9. Loaded Radius: The distance from the wheel
axle centerline to the supporting surface under a tire
properly inflated for its load according to the load and
inflation tables.
10. Deflection
Appendix
71
Afterward, the results are double-checked using
shorter distances that are more easily obtained.
In addition to these, the test tire is compared to a
known baseline tire on a road wheel. This latter
method is very accurate and very repeatable when
using a similar baseline tire with a known tire
revolutions per mile (Tire Revs./Mile).
The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE)
procedure recognizes that within the test method
itself, there will be some variation. In fact there are
other factors that cause variation on the tire
revolutions per mile's among similar tires. Be aware
that they will have the same revolution per mile.
The SAE procedure determines the tire revolutions
per mile to within ± 1.5%.
Some factors, which cause variation among tires, are:
Load and Pressure – A difference in load/pressure
could alter the tire revolutions per mile
measurement by as much as 1.5%. If pressure is
constant, going from an empty vehicle to a fully
loaded vehicle can change revolution per mile by 1
to 1.5%.
Treadwear – The tire revolutions per mile vary
from a new tire to a fully worn tire. This can affect
tire revolutions per mile by as much as 3% from the
rated tire revolutions per mile.
Tread Geometry – The height and stiffness of the
blocks and the shape of the tread pattern can affect
tire revolutions per mile.
Torque – The presence of driving and braking
torque can affect the tire revolutions per mile.
Type and Condition of Pavement – Asphalt vs.
concrete, wet vs. dry can create differences in tire
revolutions per mile.
72
Appendix
CALCULATED TIRE REVOLUTIONS
PER MILE
Example: 445/50R22.5 MICHELIN X One XDN 2
(new tire)
®
O.D.
SLR
d
d
=
=
=
=
®
®
40.4
18.7
(40.4/2) - 18.7
(20.2 - 18.7) = 1.5
Tire Revs./Mile =
=
=
Tire Revs./Mile =
20,168/(40.4 - (.8 x 1.5))
20,168/(40.4 - 1.2)
20,168/39.2
514.489 (Calculated) vs.
Data Book (Measured) tire
revolutions per mile of 515.
All the information required to determine the
proper tire size is contained in the application
specific data books.
To select the proper tire size for a vehicle, it is
necessary to know the maximum axle loads that the
tires will carry and the maximum continuous speed
at which they will operate. The maximum load that a
tire can carry is different if it is mounted in single
configuration rather than in dual. The allowable axle
loads and the required inflation pressures to carry
these loads are shown in the charts for both single
and dual mountings in the current MICHELIN Truck
Tire Data Book (MWL40731). The maximum
allowable continuous speed is also indicated.
SPECIAL
TOOLS
/
MOUNTING TOOLS
Special tools are available to aid in the mounting
and demounting of the MICHELIN X One tire on/off
the wheel and the MICHELIN X One assembly on/off
the vehicle. Due to the size of the tire and wheel these
tools will assist the tire technician in providing both
safe and easy methods of removal and installation.
When removing any tire from a wheel you should
use an Impact Bead Breaker (Slide Hammer) to prevent
bead damage. This is also a safer way to dislodge the
tire beads from the wheel.
®
®
®
®
AFTER YOU MOUNT THE MICHELIN
X ONE TIRE ON THE WHEEL,
YOU MUST CAGE IT!
®
®
An extra wide safety cage is available for safe
inflation of the tire. In most cases, a standard cage
can accommodate the MICHELIN X One assembly.
DOT (Department of Transportation) requires that
all truck tires are to be inflated in an inflation cage.
WARNING! Tire changing can be dangerous and
should be done only by trained personnel using proper
tools and equipment as directed by Federal OSHA
Standard No. 29 CFR Part 1910.177. Tires may explode
during inflation causing injury to operator or
bystander. Wear safety goggles. Keep all parts of body
outside cage. Use extension hose, clip on chuck, and
remote valve.
Consult the MICHELIN Truck Tire Data Book
(MWL40732) for proper inflation.
®
®
Impact Bead Breaker (Slide Hammer)
DO NOT USE HAMMERS
of any type. Striking a
wheel/rim assembly with a
hammer can damage both
the tire and the wheel and
is a direct OSHA violation.
Safety Cage with MICHELIN X One Tire
Appendix
73
TOOLS FOR HANDLING THE
MICHELIN X ONE TIRE ASSEMBLY:
®
®
Tire and wheel dollies are available from commercial
tire supply companies to make the mounting and
removing of the assemblies on/off of the vehicle easier.
There are various types to choose.
Some people have difficulty standing on the tire
using conventional mounting techniques, and good
devices to help “hold” the bead in place without
damaging the wheel are coated bead keepers, shown
here.
Bead Keepers
A tire dolly may provide the lifting assistance to
mount or remove the MICHELIN X One tire assembly,
which may help to avoid possible injury.
®
®
Special Cart for Removing Stuck Wheels
Tire Dolly
74
Appendix
INDEX
A
F
4x2 Tractors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Accuride. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4, 8-10
Air Infiltration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10, 34-35
Air Loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inside cover, 5, 24, 26, 34, 41, 52, 62, 64
Air Pressure . . . . . . Inside cover, 5, 10, 20, 31, 34, 36-39, 44-47, 62
Alcoa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4, 8-9
Alignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46-48
Aluminum Wheels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-9, 24, 49, 52, 60
Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i, 3-4, 6, 8, 14-15, 18, 21-22, 38,
46, 55-56, 62, 64, 71-72
ArvinMeritor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12, 14
Axle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inside Cover, 4, 10, 12-19, 21-23, 33, 36,
38, 44-48, 50, 61-63, 65, 71-72
Axle Housing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-14
Axle Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-14
Axle Shaft. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Axle Skew. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Axle – Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4, 12-13, 15-16, 18, 22, 45, 47, 63, 71
Axle – Steer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10, 44
Axle – Trailer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4, 12-15, 19, 46, 48
Axle – Weight Rating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4, 14
Footprint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inside Cover, 36-37, 62
Fuel Economy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2, 18, 39
B
Balance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30, 47, 49
Bead . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4, 24-29, 30-32, 34-35, 43, 54-56, 64-66, 71-73
Bead Breaking Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27, 73
Bead Damage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34-35, 43, 55, 65, 73
Bead Keepers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25, 74
Bead Repair. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Bearing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14, 16, 18
Beauty Ring. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Block-Edge Wear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Brake . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inside Cover, 5, 7-8, 12-13, 19, 46, 62-67
Brake Skid Wear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Brake Heat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64-67
Buffing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54-56
C
Center Wear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Central Tire Inflation (CTI) System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-20
Clamping Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-8
Chains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Circumferential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26, 40, 45, 47, 50, 54
Computers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2, 18, 60
Contact Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Contact Surface Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Contamination. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Corrosion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5, 40, 42, 52
Curing – Retread Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
D
DANA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-14
Demount/Dismount . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4, 27-29, 32, 73
Differential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13, 50
Dolly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21, 74
DOT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2, 17, 50, 63, 73
Drive Axle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4, 12-13, 15-16, 18, 22, 45, 47, 63, 71
Drop Center. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4, 6, 9, 25, 27
Dual Seal Valve Caps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Dual/Duals . . . . . . . . . . . . . i, 2, 4, 6, 13-14, 17-19, 24, 32-34, 36-38,
41, 45, 47, 49-50, 59-67, 72
G
Gear(ed). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2, 13
Gross Axle Weight (GAWR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4, 14
Gross Vehicle Weight (GVW). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12, 21
Guide Rib. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31, 38, 54
H
Handling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inside Cover, 22, 37, 39, 58, 61-63, 74
Hayes Lemmerz. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4, 9, 10
Heel-Toe Wear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Hendrickson. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12, 14
Hub Pilot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-7, 9-10, 33
Hydroplaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
I
Inflation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii, 9-10, 19-20, 24, 26, 31, 37-41,
43-44, 46, 54-55, 71-73
Inflation – Central Tire Inflation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-20
Inflation – Overinflation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37, 39
Inflation – Underinflation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inside Cover, 39-41
Inner Liner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24, 34-35, 39, 42, 52, 55
Inset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1, 4-5, 9-10, 14, 17
Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . Inside Cover, 19, 39, 42, 50, 52, 54-55, 62
Inspection – Pre Trip. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19, 39
Inspection – Retread Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Inspection – Tire Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Inspection – Valve Stem. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5, 26-27, 52
Irregular Wear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30, 31, 39, 46-47
J
Jack-knife . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58, 61, 63
L
Laurens Proving Grounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Limping Home . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inside cover, 62, 63
Liner Repair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii, 2, 4-5, 9-10, 14, 18, 20, 23, 26, 36-38,
40-41, 44, 59-61, 63, 66, 70-72
Load Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Load Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2, 10
Long Haul/Line Haul . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3, 12, 56
Lube, Lubricants, Lubrication . . . . . . . . 7, 13, 18, 24-28, 30-32, 54
M
MICHELIN X One XDA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3, 36, 38
MICHELIN X One XDA-HT Plus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38, 44
MICHELIN X One XDN 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3, 36-38, 44, 60, 72
MICHELIN X One XTA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3, 38, 44
MICHELIN X One XTE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3, 38, 44
MICHELIN X One XRV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3, 38, 44
MICHELIN X One XZU S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3, 38, 44
MICHELIN X One XZY 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3, 38, 44
Mismount . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30, 49
Missed Nail Hole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Mount/Mounting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-10, 14, 17-19, 24-25, 27-35,
43, 45, 48-49, 64-65, 72, 74
Mounting Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24, 73
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N
Nail Hole Repair. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Nitrogen. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
E
Enveloping - Retread Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Equivalent Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Appendix
75
O
On/Off Road . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3, 52
O-rings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5, 24
OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration) . . 31, 73
Outset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6, 9-10, 14-15, 17-18, 66
Over Inflation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37, 39
Over-Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40-41
Over-Steer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
P
Pickup and Delivery (P&D) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3, 45
Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inside Cover, 5, 10, 19-20, 24, 26,
31, 34, 36-41, 43-47, 54-55, 59, 62, 71-72
Pressure Gauge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inside Cover, 5, 39, 41
Pressure Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . Inside Cover, 5, 20, 38-39, 62
Pressure Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-20
Pressure Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19, 52
Pressure – Cold Inflation Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10, 19, 38, 40, 44
R
Radial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i, 19, 45, 49, 71
Rapid Air Loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inside Cover, 22, 34, 62, 64
Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2, 12, 18, 24, 36, 59, 71
Recreational Vehicle (RV). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Refuse Vehicles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10, 21, 64
Regional Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3, 52
Repair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i, 24, 34-35, 40, 43, 54-56
Repair – Bead Repair. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55-56
Repair – Inner Liner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55-56
Repair – Nail Hole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Repair – Section Repair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Repair – Spot Repair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Retread . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2, 30, 50-51, 55-56, 64
Retrofit/Retrofitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2, 4, 15-16, 18
River Wear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Rollover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inside Cover, 60-63
Rotate/Rotation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45-46
Run-flat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24, 26, 40-42, 63
Runout – Radial and Lateral . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47, 49
S
Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19, 24, 26, 31, 33, 43, 50, 60, 62, 73
Safety Cage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26, 31, 43, 73
Sealant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Section Repair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19, 46, 52
Severe Service/Severe Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Shearography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Shoulder Step Wear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30, 38, 45-46
Sidewall. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i, 2, 10, 17, 20, 24, 26, 30-31, 34-35,
38, 40-44, 50-51, 54-56, 63
Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4, 9-10, 15, 31, 44, 48-50, 60
Specifications – Balance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47, 49
Specifications – Repair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Specifications – Runout. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30, 47, 49
Specifications – Tandem Skew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47-48
76
Appendix
Specifications – Runflat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40-42
Specifications – Toe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Specifications – Trailer Alignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Specifications – Wheel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-10
Speed Symbol (ISO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Spindle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4, 13-16, 18
Spot Repair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Spread Axle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Steel Wheel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6, 8, 10, 24, 52
Steer Axle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10, 44
Stopping Distances. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39, 63
Stud Pilot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-8, 3
T
T45 Tire Irons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-25, 28-29
Tanker/Tank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15, 21, 62-63
Technical Bulletin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i
Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19, 39, 55, 64, 66-67
Temperature Logging Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Thermal Imaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Tire Revolutions Per Mile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2, 10, 18, 44, 71-72
Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-25, 27, 29, 47-49, 52, 73-74
Tools-Bead Breaking. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27, 73
Torque . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2, 5, 7-8, 24, 33, 45, 52, 60, 72, 74
Track Width . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inside Cover, 4, 14-15, 17, 60
Traction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3, 13, 37, 50, 61-63
Trailer Axle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4, 12-15, 19, 46, 48
Tread Act . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Tread Building . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
U
Under Inflation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24, 39-41
Under Steer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Urban. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3, 52, 64
V
Valve. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2, 19, 23-28, 33, 35, 43, 52, 73
Valve Cap. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5, 26
Valve Core . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27, 43
Valve Stem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5, 19, 24, 26-27, 33, 52
Vehicle Track. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Vibration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30, 46-47, 49, 62
W
Wear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3, 18, 30-31, 37-39, 45-48, 50, 72
Wear Bars. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Wear – Block-Edge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Wear – Brake Drag . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Wear – Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Wear – Heel-Toe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Wear – Irregular . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31, 39, 45-48, 54
Wear – River . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Wear – Shoulder Step . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30, 45-46
Wheel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inside Cover, 4-10, 12, 14-15, 17-19, 22-33,
37-38, 43-44, 46-47, 49, 52, 58, 62-64, 66, 68, 71-74
Z
Zipper Rupture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39-40, 42
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To learn more please contact your MICHELIN Sales Representative or visit
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1-800-677-3322, Option #2
Monday through Friday, 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. Eastern Time
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Canada
Michelin North America (Canada), Inc.
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Av. 5 de febrero No. 2113-A
Fracc. Industrial Benito Juarez
7 6120, Querétaro, Qro. Mexico
011 52 442 296 1600
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Copyright © 2009 Michelin North America, Inc. All rights reserved.
The Michelin Man is a registered trademark owned by Michelin North America, Inc.
MWL43101 (05/09)
MICHELIN® X ONE® TRUCK TIRE SERVICE MANUAL
MICHELIN X One Truck Tire Service Manual
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