IFS1460S-JT I&M Manual

IFS1460S-JT I&M Manual
Motorhome Suspensions
IFS1460S-JT
Owner’s Manual
| Independent Front Suspension
Maintenance Instructions
Service Parts
Document #: D707623
Revision: B
Revision Date: 5/12
1-800-753-0050
w w w. r e y c o g r a n n i n g . c o m
Reyco Granning Suspensions
1205 Industrial Park Drive
Mount Vernon, MO 65712
Phone: 417-466-2178
Fax: 417-466-3964
Table of Contents
Introduction .................................................................4
Service Notes.....................................................................................................4
Identification......................................................................................................5
Vehicle Towing Information .............................................................................6
Maintenance Schedule.......................................................................................7
Maintenance Record..........................................................................................8
Parts Lists ....................................................................9
Unit Assembly ...................................................................................................9
Control Arm Components ...............................................................................10
Control Arm Assemblies .................................................................................11
Steering Components ......................................................................................12
Air Spring and Shock Components.................................................................14
Sway Bar Components ....................................................................................15
Disc Brake Components..................................................................................16
King Pin Components .....................................................................................17
Steering Knuckle Carrier Components ...........................................................18
Lubrication ................................................................19
Lubricant Specifications and Intervals............................................................19
General Lubrication.........................................................................................19
Ball Joints ........................................................................................................19
Ball Studs on Tie Rods, Crank Rod, and Drag Link.......................................19
Brake S-Cam Tube and Automatic Slack Adjuster.........................................20
Carrier Bearing and Kingpin ...........................................................................20
Wheel Bearings ...............................................................................................21
Troubleshooting.........................................................22
Inspection ...................................................................26
General Inspection...........................................................................................26
Inspecting the Control Arm Bushings for Wear .............................................26
Inspecting the Tie Rod Ends ...........................................................................27
Inspecting the ABS Sensor and Tone Ring.....................................................27
Inspecting the Shock Absorber .......................................................................28
Inspecting the Air Spring and Ride Height .....................................................28
Air Spring Inspection...................................................................................................... 28
Ride Height Inspection ................................................................................................... 28
Inspecting the Steering Arm Bearings ............................................................29
Inspecting the Steering Arm Ball Joints..........................................................29
Seal Inspection ................................................................................................................ 29
Table of Contents
Endplay Inspection.......................................................................................................... 30
Inspecting Wheel Bearing Endplay.................................................................30
Inspecting the Knuckle Carrier Bearing and Seal ...........................................31
Inspecting the Kingpin Vertical Endplay........................................................31
Adjusting Suspension Ride Height .................................................................31
Adjustments ...............................................................33
Adjusting Wheel End Play ..............................................................................33
Adjusting the Maximum Wheel Turn Angle ..................................................34
Inspection Before Alignment ..........................................................................36
Wheels and Tires............................................................................................................. 36
Front Suspension............................................................................................................. 36
Rear Axle and Suspension .............................................................................................. 36
Front Wheel Alignment...................................................................................37
Equipment ....................................................................................................................... 37
General............................................................................................................................ 37
Preparation ...................................................................................................................... 37
Adjusting the Camber Angle...........................................................................38
Eccentric Camber Adjustment ........................................................................................ 38
Bar Pin Camber Adjustment ........................................................................................... 39
Adjusting the Caster Angle .............................................................................40
Eccentric Caster Adjustment........................................................................................... 41
Adjusting the Toe-In .......................................................................................42
Repairs .......................................................................43
General Procedures..........................................................................................43
Cleaning the Parts............................................................................................43
Ground or Polished Parts ................................................................................................ 43
Rough Parts..................................................................................................................... 44
Drying ............................................................................................................................. 44
Preventing Corrosion ...................................................................................................... 44
Replacing Tie Rod Ends..................................................................................44
Removal .......................................................................................................................... 44
Installation....................................................................................................................... 44
Replacing the Steering Arm Ball Joints ..........................................................45
Removal .......................................................................................................................... 45
Installation....................................................................................................................... 45
Replacing the Bell Crank, Idler, and Crank Steering Arm Bearings ..............45
Removal .......................................................................................................................... 46
Installation....................................................................................................................... 46
Replacing the Upper and Lower Control Arm Bushings................................46
Upper Control Arm Removal.......................................................................................... 47
Upper Control Arm Installation ...................................................................................... 47
Lower Control Arm Removal ......................................................................................... 48
Table of Contents
Lower Control Arm Installation...................................................................................... 48
Replacing Wheel Bearings, Oil Seals, and Hub Caps.....................................49
Removal .......................................................................................................................... 49
Installation....................................................................................................................... 50
Replacing Brake Components .........................................................................51
Brake Chambers.............................................................................................................. 51
Other Brake Components................................................................................................ 51
Replacing the ABS Sensor and Tone Ring .....................................................51
Sensor Removal .............................................................................................................. 52
Sensor Installation........................................................................................................... 52
Tone Ring Removal and Installation .............................................................................. 52
Replacing the Shock Absorber........................................................................52
Removal .......................................................................................................................... 52
Installation....................................................................................................................... 53
Replacing the Air Spring.................................................................................53
Removal .......................................................................................................................... 53
Installation....................................................................................................................... 53
Replacing the Sway Bar and Components ......................................................53
Vertical Linkage Removal .............................................................................................. 53
Vertical Linkage Installation........................................................................................... 53
Replacing the Steering Knuckle Carrier Bearings ..........................................54
Removal .......................................................................................................................... 54
Installation....................................................................................................................... 54
Torque Tables............................................................57
Introduction
Introduction
Service Notes
This Service Manual describes the correct service and repair procedures for the
ReycoGranning® IFS1460 Independent Front Suspension model with 14,600 lb Gross Axle
Weight Rating (GAWR). Overloading the suspension may result in adverse ride and handling
characteristics.
You must read and understand all procedures and safety precautions presented in this manual
before conducting any service work on the suspension.
Proper tools must be used to perform the maintenance and repair procedures in this manual.
Some procedures require the use of special tools for safe and correct service. Failure to use
the proper and/or special tools when required can cause personal injury and/or damage to
suspension components.
You must follow your company safety procedures and use proper safety equipment when you
service or repair the suspension.
The information contained in this manual was current at the time of printing and is subject to
change without notice or liability. Reyco Granning LLC reserves the right to modify the
suspension and/or procedures and to change specifications at any time without notice and
without incurring obligation.
Reyco Granning LLC uses the following types of notices for potential safety problems and to
give information that will prevent damage to equipment.
WARNING
A warning indicates procedures that must be followed exactly. Serious personal
injury can occur if the procedure is not followed.
CAUTION
A caution indicates procedures that must be followed exactly. Damage to equipment
or suspension components and personal injury can occur if the procedure is not
followed.
NOTE
A note indicates an operation, procedure or instruction that is important for correct
service.
Identification
The suspension model and serial number are stamped on an aluminum tag that is riveted to
the front of the suspension sub-frame assembly (Figure 1). The serial number is used by
Reyco Granning LLC for control purposes and should be referred to when servicing the
suspension or requesting technical support (Figure 2).
Serial Tag
Figure 1- Suspension Identification Location
Figure 2 - Suspension Serial Number Tag
Model
IFS1460S-JT
GAWR
(lb)
14,600
Wheel
Cut
55°
Sway
Bar
--
Disc
Brakes
X
Model Identification Table
Drum
Brakes
Vehicle Towing Information
If a vehicle is disabled and needs to be towed by the front end to service center, check the
OEM/Coach Builder towing procedures for the recommended method. Check with local
authorities and Department of Transportation (DOT) for permissible towing methods before
towing. Some states do not permit towing by chains and/or straps.
The preferred towing apparatus is the type that cradles the front tires. If the towing apparatus
cannot be attached to the front tires or directly to the chassis frame rails, then the suspension
sub-frame may be used for attachment.
WARNING
Attaching towing equipment to improper locations and failure to utilize OEM/Coach
Builder recommended towing methods could result in one or more of the following:
··Loss of vehicle control.
··Possible disconnection from tow vehicle.
··Damage to the suspension and/or vehicle.
Do Not attach tow apparatus (hooks, chains, straps, etc.) to suspension upper and lower
control arms, sway bar and brackets, brake components, tie rods, steering arms, or steering
knuckle carrier assemblies (Figure 3).
Upper
Control
Arm
Steering
Knuckle
Carrier
Tie Rod
Steering Arm
Lower
Control
Arm
Brake
Components
Figure 3 – Improper Tow Equipment Attachment Locations
Maintenance Schedule
GENERAL
MAINTENANCE
SERVICE TO BE PERFORMED
MILEAGE IN THOUSANDS
12
Steering Arm Ball Joints
Control Arm Bushings
24
36
Check axial endplay.
48
60
72
84
96
X2
X
Inspect for ruptured seals.
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X2
Check that cotter pin is installed.
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X2
Check bolt torque.
X2
X
Inspect for contact between control arm and mount.
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X2
Inspect for bushing wear.
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X2
Inspect ball socket endplay.
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X2
Check for looseness of taper connection.
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X2
Check that cotter pin is installed.
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X2
Brake System
Inspect slack adjuster for correct stroke.
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X2
Inspect for air leaks using soapy water solution.
X
Air Springs
Inspect for proper clearance (1” minimum all around).
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X2
X
X
X
X
X
X
X2
Tie Rod Ends
Shock Absorbers
Kingpins
Steering Arm Bearings
Check upper mount nut and lower mount bolt torque.
X
Inspect for signs of chafing or wear.
X
Inspect for air leaks using soapy water solution.
X
Inspect for air leaks using soapy water solution.
X
Check mounting nut torque.
X
Inspect shocks for signs of fluid leak, broken eye
ends, loose fasteners, or worn bushings.
X
Check for wear.
X
X2
Inspect vertical endplay.
X
X2
Check nut torque.
X
X2
Inspect bearings for excessive radial play.
Carrier Bearings
Check axial endplay.
Wheels
Check bearing endplay.
X
X
X
X
X
X
X2
X2
X2
X
Check wheel nut torque1.
X
3
Front Alignment
Inspect toe-in .
Air Fittings and Air Lines
Inspect for air leaks using soapy water solution.
X
Inspect for signs of chafing, cracking, or wear.
X
Sway Bar Bushings
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Check mounting bolt torque.
X
X
X
X2
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X2
X2
X
Inspect for bushing wear.
X2
X
X
X
X2
1. Wheel nuts must be re-tightened to proper torque specifications as per the vehicle or chassis manufacturer’s Owner Guide.
2. Continue to perform specified maintenance every 12,000 miles or at previous interval.
3. Final stage manufacturer should complete toe-in inspection and adjustment after completion of vehicle.
Maintenance Record
Name of Owner
Address of Owner
Date of Purchase
Name and Address of Dealer
Model of Vehicle
Vehicle Identification Number
Suspension Model Number:
Suspension Serial Number:
IFS1460S-JT
Inspection and Maintenance Item
Date
Mileage
Service Performed
Parts List
Parts Lists
Unit Assembly
Item
Part No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
706988-01
700944-01
700973-02
703182-01
705619-01
705620-01
701924-01
705633-01
Description
Sub frame Assembly
Lower Control Arm Assembly
Tie Rod Assembly, RH
Upper Control Arm Assembly
Bell Crank Assembly, LH
Idler Arm Assembly
Crank Arm Assembly
Carrier Assembly, LH
Item
Part No.
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
705633-02
705951-01
700973-01
702030-01
705800-01
705800-02
700973-03
Description
Carrier Assembly, RH
Air Spring Assembly
Tie Rod Assembly, LH
Relay Rod
Height Control Valve Arm, LH
Height Control Valve Arm, RH
Crank Arm Link Assembly
1
14
6
9
12
10
13
4
8
3
7
15
11
2
5
Control Arm Components
Item
Part No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
703182-01
700944-01
700245-01
8490
292
100122-P1
Description
Assembly, Upper Control Arm
Assembly, Lower Control Arm
Boss, Eccentric
Spacer
Hex Head Bolt 7/8-9 x 8.50, Gr. 8, ZN
Lock Nut 7/8-9”, Gr. C
Item
Part No.
7
8
9
10
11
12
293
701683-04
100039-P1
702516-02
168
166
Description
Socket Set Screw 10-24 x .38”
Hardened Flat Washer, 7/8”
Hex Head Bolt 3/4-10 x 2.75, Gr. 8, Zn
Hex Head Bolt 1 1/8-12 x 7.75, Gr. 8, ZY
Hardened Flat Washer, 1 1/8”
Lock Nut 1 1/8-12, Gr. C
1
12
11
5
7
9
3
6
2
8
4
10
Control Arm Assemblies
Item
1
2
Part No.
Description
703181-01 Upper Control Arm, LH & RH
700939-01 Lower Control Arm, LH & RH
Item
Part No.
3
8382
Description
Bushing
Steering Components
Item
Part No.
Description
1
700973-01 Tie Rod Assembly, LH
2
700973-02 Tie Rod Assembly, RH
3
700975-01 Bell Crank
4
705620-01 Idler Arm Assembly
5
701925-01 Crank Arm
6
700973-03 Crank Rod Assembly
7
167
Hex Head Bolt 1-14 x 6”, Gr. 8
8
2571
Hardened Flat Washer 1”
9
702030-01 Relay Rod
10
89422312 Lock Nut 1”, Gr. C
*Components are the same in Bell Crank, Idler Arm and Crank Arm
**Components of Ball Joint Kit K705382.
Part No.
**11
**12
13
*14
*15
*16
**17
*18
19
20
705382-02
705382-03
101445-P1
6966
8654
701378-01
705382-01
7348
701924-01
705619-01
Description
Slotted Nut, M20x1.5
Cotter Pin, 1.40 x .15 Dia.
Cotter Pin- 1/8 X 1 1/2
Snap Ring
Shim
Bearing
Ball Joint (40mm)
Spacer
Crank Arm Assembly
Bell Crank Assembly
2
4
7
12
11
13
9
1
8
10
14
5
6
17
15
19
3
20
16
18
Tie Rod Assemblies
Item
Part No.
1
2
3
4
103712
6632
700971-01
103736
Description
Item
Part No.
5
6
7
8
101445-P1
105564
700971-02
8455
Tie Rod End, RH
Clamp
Tube, Tie Rod
Tie Rod End, LH
Description
Cotter Pin
Tie Rod End, LH
Tube, Link
Tie Rod End, RH
1
3
2
4
7
8
6
5
Air Spring and Shock Components
Item
Part No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
705951-01
100727-P1
705692-01
705692-02
707357-01
152
263
149
100263-P1
8120382
Description
Item
Part No.
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
700184-04
89422850
276
302
208
8131017
100678-P1
70017-06
705800-01
705800-02
Air Spring Assembly (IFS1460)
HHB 3/4-10 x 4.0, Gr. 8, ZN
Lower Air Spring Mount, LH
Lower Air Spring Mount, RH
Lower Shock Mount
HFW 3/4
HFW 3/8"
HHB 5/8-18 x 3.0, Gr. 8, ZN
HHB 3/8-16 x 1, Gr. 8, ZN
SLW 3/8"
19
Description
HHB 5/8-18 x 1.75, Gr. 8, ZN
HFW 5/8”
FHB 1/2-13 x 1.75, Gr. 8, ZN
FHB 3/8-16 x 1.25" Gr. 8 ZN
LFN 3/4-10, Gr. G, ZN
FW 3/4"
HHB 3/4-10 x 3.5, Gr. 8, ZN
Asy, Shock
Arm, HCV, LH
Arm, HCV, RH
1
9
8
10
7
11
19
12
3
13
15
18
2
16
6
16
17
15
5
Notch on lower shock mount
always is towards the front of
the unit
14
Sway Bar Components
Item
1
2
Part No.
Description
Item
703165-01 Asy, Mount, UCA, Sway Bar
307
FHB 1/2-13 x 1.50, Gr. 8, Zinc
3
1
2
3
Part No.
89422301 LN 1/2-13, Gr. 8
Description
Disc Brake Components
Item No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
Part No.
126
4599
7977
1784
6972
6967
6968
6969
6970
266
7328
6946
7329
700947-01
700947-02
700525-22
700525-21
Description
Hex Head Bolt 5/8-18x2, Gr. 8, ZN
Locking Flange Nut 5/8-18x.75, Gr. G, PH
Oil Seal Assy - Guardian
Bearing - Taper 2-5/8 (HM212049)
Bearing - Taper 1-3/4 (3782)
Inner Nut (IFS)
Spindle Lockwasher
Washer, Spindle (IFS)
Spindle Outer Nut (IFS)
Flange Head Bolt 5/16-18x.75, Gr. 5, ZC
ABS Sensor (Straight w/Lead)
ABS Sensor Spring Retainer
ABS Sensor Bushing
Steering Arm, LH
Steering Arm, LH
Castle Nut 1 1/8”
Cotter Pin 3/16”
Item No.
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
Part No.
700525-14
700525-18
700525-17
700984-01
700984-02
700525-16
700984-06
705988-06
707240-01
707240-02
700690-04
703553-02
707306-01
707306-02
700024-01
700017-01
705998-05
Description
Adapter, Steering Stop
FW 7/8”
Jan Nut 1/2”
Steering Knuckle Assy, LH
Steering Knuckle Assy, RH
Key
Assy, Steering Stop
Hub and Rotor Assembly
Caliper Assy, LH
Caliper Assy, RH
Hex Head Bolt M20x2.5-60 Gr. 10.9
Flat Washer 20mm
Torque Plate Assy, LH
Torque Plate Assy, RH
Hub Cap Gasket Stemco
Hub Cap
Brake Pads**
**Not Shown
3
26
23
21 22
30
17
24
4
5
31
32
2
29
15
16 20
19
25
18
30
27
6
7
8
9
10
33
34
14
King Pin Components
Item
Part No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
Description
!-7:89*&7.3,<
.1 *&1
-.2?
-.2?
.3,.3&5
&80*9.3,.3&5
7*&8*.99.3,!
8
7
6
4
5
3
2
10
9
1
Oil seal is on the top
of the thrust bearing
towards the carrier side
11
12
Item
Part No.
7
8
9
10
11
12
8120393
100507-P1
700525-11
700525-08
700984-03
700525-10
Description
FW 5/16
=
King Pin
Draw Key, Short
Draw Key, Long
Steering Knuckle Carrier Components
Item
1
2
3
4
5
6
Part No.
702621-01
702621-02
702836-01
702619-01
702623-01
Description
&(-.3.3,&77.*7
&(-.3.3,&77.*7
Upper Bar Pin
Lower Bar Pin
Seal
Outer Collar
-.2
Item
Part No.
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
702834-01
702622-01
702835-01
702623-02
702618-01
702620-01
7352
Description
Bearing
Spacer
Cup
-.2
51.9411&7
*9&.3.3,.3,
7*&8*%*70>)7&:1.( -:94++
4
1
6
10
8
9
4
2
7
3
13
Left Hand Steering Knuckle Carrier Shown
5
11
12
Lubrication
Lubrication
Lubricant Specifications and Intervals
COMPONENT
SERVICE INTERVAL
Ball Studs on Ends
of Tie Rods, Crank
Rod, Drag Link
Which ever comes first: 50,000
miles (80,000 kilometers) or
once a year.
Kingpin
Which ever comes first: 50,000
miles (80,000 kilometers) or
once a year.
CHANGE INTERVAL
LUBRICANT SPECIFICATION
Multi-Purpose Chassis Grease
N/A
NLGI Grade 1 or 2 Lithium Base
Multi-Purpose Chassis Grease
N/A
NLGI Grade 1 or 2 Lithium Base
Which ever comes first: 50,000
miles (80,000 kilometers) or
once a year.
N/A
Mobillith AW2
Amoco L Industrial 861
Exxon Ronex MP
Brake S-Cam Tube
and Automatic Slack
Adjuster 1
Which ever comes first: Brakes
relined. 50,000 miles (80,000
kilometers) or once a year.
N/A
Wheel End
1000 miles (1600 kilometers)
Check fluid level.
Carrier Bearings
Multi-Purpose Chassis Grease
Which ever comes first: Seals
replaced, brakes relined,
100,000 miles (160,000 km),
or once a year.
NLGI Grade 1 or 2 Lithium Base
Gear Oil
SAE 80W/90 or equivalent
1. Moly-disulfide type grease is not recommended since it may lower friction capabilities in the adjusting clutch parts of the
automatic slack adjuster.
General Lubrication
Ball Joints
Proper lubrication practices are important
in maximizing the service life of your
ReycoGranning® Independent Front
Suspension.
The ball joints are lubricated and sealed
for their service life and do not require
lubrication. Check for oil or grease marks
on the exterior of the seal and if found
verify that the seal has not been ruptured.
If the seal has been ruptured then the ball
joint must be replaced because it cannot be
re-lubricated.
CAUTION
Do not mix lubricants of different
grades. Do not mix mineral and
synthetic lubricants. Different brands
of the same grade may be mixed.
Ball Studs on Tie Rods,
Crank Rod, and Drag
Link
1. Review lubricant specification and
interval requirements before servicing.
CAUTION
Never mix oil bath and grease packed
wheel ends.
2. Apply lubricant to grease fitting until
new lubricant discharges from the dust
boot (Figure 4).
Brake S-Cam Tube and
Automatic Slack
Adjuster
3. Apply lubricant to the automatic slack
adjuster until new lubricant discharges
from the cone clutch adjacent the
adjusting hex nut. (Figure 4).
1. Review lubricant specification and
interval requirements before servicing.
Carrier Bearing and
Kingpin
2. Apply lubricant to the S-cam tube until
new lubricant discharges from the Scamshaft bushing seal next to the
automatic slack adjuster. (Figure 4).
1. Apply lubricant to both upper and
lower carrier bearings and kingpin
bushings until new lubricant
discharges from the carrier bearing
seals and in between the steering
knuckle kingpin housing and carrier.
Grease Fittings
Grease Fittings
Grease Fittings
Figure 4 – Location of lubrication fittings. Note: Left side only shown.
3. Check the hub cap for external oil
marks. The vent plug will normally
weep a small amount of oil. Oil marks
in other locations should be addressed
by replacing the hub cap seal, window
gasket, or tightening the pipe fill plug.
Wheel Bearings
1. Review lubricant specification and
interval requirements before servicing.
2. Check oil level through hub cap
window. If level is below the “add”
level line then remove the pipe plug
and fill with recommended oil until
“full” level is achieved. (Figure 5).
Add oil slowly since the heavy weight
oil will settle slowly in the hub. (Note:
The hub cap window can only be
cleaned with mild soap and water.
Aromatic solvents should not be used,
as they will impair the transparency of
the window.)
Figure 5 - Wheel Bearing Oil Level
Troubleshooting
Troubleshooting
SYMPTOMS
Tires wear out quickly or have
uneven tire tread wear.
Note: Wear pattern will indicate
possible cause(s). Consult
tire manufacturer for
guidance.
POSSIBLE CAUSES
REMEDIES
Tires have incorrect pressure.
Put specified air pressure in tires.
Tires out of balance.
Balance or replace tires.
Incorrect toe-in setting.
Adjust toe-in to specified setting.
Incorrect ride height.
Adjust ride height to specified setting.
Incorrect rear axle alignment.
Align rear axle to specified thrust angle.
Incorrect steering arm geometry.
Adjust tie rod lengths as required.
Improper (mismatched) tires and wheels.
Install correct tire and wheel combination.
Improper oversized tires.
Install correct tire and wheel combination.
Vehicle is difficult to steer.
Tires not uniform.
Install correct tire and wheel combination.
Note: Engine must be running for
power steering to be active
and able to provide
steering assist.
Tires have incorrect pressure.
Put specified air pressure in tires.
Incorrect steering arm geometry.
Adjust tie rod lengths as required.
Steering arms binding.
Check steering arm bearings and lubricate
as needed.
Steering arm ball joints binding.
Inspect ball joints for wear and replace as
required.
Tie rod ends binding.
Inspect tie rod ends for wear and lubricate as
needed.
Kingpin binding.
Inspect, lubricate, and repair as required.
Steering column linkage binding.
Align or adjust as required.
Steering miter box binding.
Check steering miter box and repair or
replace as required.
Steering gear valve binding.
Inspect, repair or replace as required.
Steering wheel to column interference.
Align or adjust as required.
Power steering pump fluid level low
and/or possible leak in system.
Add fluid, tighten connections and correct as
needed.
Power steering pump pressure and flow
below specification.
Conduct pump flow and relief pressure tests
and adjust, repair or replace as needed.
Air in power steering system.
Add fluid, tighten connections and bleed
system.
Contaminated or incorrect fluid.
Replace with correctly specified fluid.
Obstruction with steering gear pitman arm
or within hydraulic lines.
Inspect, remove obstruction(s) and repair or
replace as required.
Obstruction within wheelhouse.
Inspect, remove obstruction(s) as required.
Excessive internal steering gear leakage.
Inspect, repair or replace as required.
SYMPTOMS
Vehicle wanders side-toside…loose steering.
Steering wheel has large
amplitude, rotational
oscillations when hitting large
bumps.
POSSIBLE CAUSES
REMEDIES
Vehicle overloaded or unevenly loaded
driver side to passenger side.
Improper (mismatched) tires and wheels.
Tires have incorrect pressure.
Check wheel loads and correct as needed.
Incorrect toe-in setting.
Incorrect wheel caster setting.
Tie rod end connection loose or ball stud
worn.
Steering arm mounts loose.
Steering arm ball joints binding or worn.
Adjust toe-in to specified setting.
Adjust wheel caster to specified setting.
Inspect ball stud connections and wear.
Kingpin worn.
Wheel bearings out of adjustment.
Loose steering gear mounting.
Loose pitman arm.
Steering column linkage worn.
Steering gear adjustment.
Steering column mis-aligned.
Worn knuckle carrier bearings.
Loose knuckle carrier mounting bolts.
Loose wheel nuts.
Vehicle pulls to one side
without the brakes applied.
Vehicle overloaded or unevenly loaded
driver side to passenger side.
Improper (mismatched) tires and wheels.
Tires have incorrect pressure.
Unequal ride height side to side.
Improper brake adjustment.
Incorrect rear axle alignment.
Incorrect caster and/or camber setting.
Wheel bearings out of adjustment.
Loose steering gear mounting.
Tie rod end connection loose or ball stud
worn.
Bent spindle or steering arm.
Frame or underbody out of alignment.
Incorrect toe-in setting.
Mis-aligned belts in radial tires.
Steering gear valve binding.
Steering gear not centered.
Excessive internal steering gear leakage.
Excessive water puddling on road.
Install correct tire and wheel combination.
Put correct air pressure in tires based on
wheel load.
Check and tighten to specification.
Inspect ball joints for wear or contamination
and replace as required.
Check and replace as required.
Check wheel bearing end play and adjust as
required.
Check mounting and secure as needed.
Check pitman arm and tighten as required.
Check for wear and repair or replace as
needed.
Check and adjust to specification.
Realign steering column as required.
Check, adjust, or replace as needed.
Check and tighten as needed.
Check and tighten to specification.
Check wheel loads and correct as needed.
Install correct tire and wheel combination.
Put correct air pressure in tires based on
wheel load.
Inspect ride height and adjust to specified
setting.
Inspect and adjust calipers as required.
Align rear axle to specified thrust angle.
Check and adjust as required.
Check wheel bearing end play and adjust as
required.
Check mounting and secure as needed.
Inspect ball stud connections and wear.
Inspect and replace as required.
Inspect and correct as required.
Adjust toe-in to specified setting.
Check and replace as needed.
Inspect, repair or replace as required.
Inspect and adjust as required.
Inspect, repair or replace as required.
Avoid water puddles on road.
SYMPTOMS
Vehicle pulls to one side
with the brakes applied.
Vehicle rolls side to side
excessively.
Front tires lock up during
hard braking or ABS
malfunction light remains lit.
POSSIBLE CAUSES
REMEDIES
Grease, oil or dirt on brake pads.
Replace brake pads as required.
Brake pads are glazed.
Deglaze brake pads by burnishing or replace
as required.
Brake pads are not a balanced set,
different friction codes or pad brand.
Replace brake pads as required.
Loose or broken brake pads.
Replace brake pads as required.
Brake rotor warped.
Re-machine or replace brake rotor as
required.
Defective brake rotor.
Inspect for defects and replace as required.
Uneven brake adjustment side to side.
Adjust caliper as required.
Different brake air chamber size
Replace with same size brake air chambers .
Brake chambers air pressure uneven side
to side.
Check side-to-side air pressure and correct
as needed.
Rear axle brakes mis-adjusted or
contaminated.
Check, adjust, or replace as required.
ABS system malfunction.
Check ABS system for proper function.
Air leak or obstruction in air brake lines.
Check fittings with soapy water solution and
remove obstructions.
Brake air chamber air leak or diaphragm
damaged.
Check chamber for air leak and damaged
diaphragm.
Excessive water puddling on road.
Avoid water puddles on road.
Front and/or rear shock absorbers worn.
Replace shock absorbers as needed.
Shock mounting loose.
Check and tighten as required.
Shock eye bushings worn.
Check and replace as needed.
Sway bar bushings worn.
Check sway bar bushings and replace as
needed.
Sway bar mounting brackets loose.
Check sway bar mounting brackets and
tighten as needed.
Control arm pivot bushings worn.
Inspect and replace as required.
Internal leak in height control valve.
Check height control valve and replace as
required.
ABS sensor malfunction.
Inspect ABS sensor installation and replace
sensor as required.
ABS CPU or system malfunction.
Check and repair or replace as required.
ABS sensor electrical connection faulty.
Check ABS sensor connection and lead
wire.
Tone ring on hub damaged.
Check for damage and replace as required.
SYMPTOMS
POSSIBLE CAUSES
REMEDIES
Front shock absorbers worn.
Vehicle ride is too harsh
and/or suspension contacts
stops excessively.
Vehicle ride is too soft.
Vehicle has unequal turning
radius right to left.
Suspension does not
maintain ride height.
Brakes are noisy.
Replace shock absorbers as needed.
Incorrect ride height.
Adjust ride height to specified setting.
Vehicle overloaded.
Check wheel loads and correct as needed.
Air spring supply lines leaking or
obstructed.
Check air line connections and remove
obstructions.
Vehicle system air pressure below
specification.
Check air pressure and correct as needed.
Jounce bumper in air spring worn or
broken.
Check and replace air spring as required.
Front shock absorbers worn.
Replace shock absorbers as needed.
Incorrect ride height.
Adjust ride height to specified setting.
Incorrect steering arm geometry.
Adjust tie rod lengths as required.
Steering gear not centered.
Inspect and adjust as required.
Steering stops mis-algined.
Adjust as necessary.
Tie rod clamps positioned improperly.
Check orientation and adjust as needed.
Air leak.
Check connections with soapy water solution
and repair or replace as needed.
Internal leak in height control valve.
Check height control valve and replace as
required.
Height control valve linkage loose.
Check and tighten linkage as needed.
Air spring chafed or worn.
Check air spring and replace as needed.
Vehicle system pressure too low
Check air pressure and correct as needed.
Grease, oil or dirt on brake pads.
Replace brake pads as required.
Brake pads are glazed.
Deglaze brake pads by burnishing or replace
as required.
Brake pads are not a balanced set,
different friction codes or pad brand.
Replace brake pads as required.
Loose or broken brake pads.
Replace brake pads as required.
Brake rotor warped.
Re-machine brake rotor as required.
Defective brake rotor.
Inspect for defects and replace as required.
Refer to Bendix Disc Brakes manual Y006471 for troubleshooting of the disc brakes
or contact Customer service at 1-800-247-2725.
Inspection
Inspection
General Inspection
WARNING
Perform a thorough visual inspection of
the suspension to ensure proper assembly
and to identify broken parts and loose
fasteners each time the vehicle suspension
is serviced. Do the following during an
inspection.
··Wheel Alignment - Follow the
guidelines in the Front Wheel
Alignment section for wheel alignment
inspection intervals. Check wheel
alignment if excessive steering effort,
vehicle wander, or abnormal tire wear is
evident.
··Fasteners - Check that all the fasteners
are tightened to the proper tightening
torque. Use a calibrated torque wrench to
check torque.
··Wear and Damage - Inspect components
of the suspension for wear and damage.
Look for bent or broken components.
Replace all worn or damaged
components.
··Operation - Check that all components
move freely through the complete wheel
turning arc.
Never work under a vehicle supported
by only a jack(s). Jacks can slip or fall
over and cause serious personal injury.
Always use safety stands. Do not place
jacks or safety stands under the lower
control arms to support the vehicle.
Lower control arms are not stationary
components and could move allowing
the vehicle drop causing serious
personal injury.
The vehicle may be supported on safety
stands by the suspension subframe or
chassis frame for inspections that require
removal of the wheel and tires or deflation
of the air springs. Always secure the
vehicle by setting the parking brake and
block the drive wheels to prevent vehicle
movement before inspections.
Inspecting the Control
Arm Bushings for Wear
NOTE
CAUTION
It is recommended that the bushings in
all of the control arms be replaced at
the same time if one is found worn.
Reyco Granning LLC recommends
replacing any damaged or out-ofspecification components.
Reconditioning or field repairs of front
suspension components is prohibited.
Some cast components are heattreated. These components as well as
other non-heat treated castings cannot
be bent, welded, heated, or repaired in
any way without reducing the strength
or life of the component thus voiding
the warranty. Only genuine
ReycoGranning® replacement
components are allowed.
1. Check clearance between each control
arm and subframe-bushing mount.
Look for contact pattern as evidence of
bushing wear. Replace worn bushings
in both control arm housings as
needed.
2. Check for bushing bulging between the
control arm and subframe mount or
presence of small rubber particles near
subframe bushing mount.
3. Check that the control arm mounting
bolts are tight. Recommended torque is
460-490 ft-lb. for lower control arms
and 950-1050 ft-lb for upper control
arms. See Torque Table. A loose joint
will result in wear between the bushing
inner sleeve and sub-frame mount.
4. Measure the axial movement with a
scale. If the movement is greater than
1/8 inch (3mm) replace the tie rod end
immediately. If the socket moves but
the movement is less than 1/8 inch
(3mm) then the tie rod end should be
replaced before 1/8” (3mm) movement
occurs.
5. Check dust boot for damage. Replace
as needed.
Inspecting the Tie Rod
Ends
6. Check tie rod clamp orientation
(Figure 6)
WARNING
Do not use a wrench or other object to
apply leverage when inspecting tie rod
end sockets. Applying leverage can
yield incorrect results and damage
components. Component damage can
lead to the loss of steering control.
1. With the engine on, lightly rock the
steering wheel and have an assistant
observe any looseness in the two
mating tapers or any movement of the
stud nut at both ends of the tie rod.
(Figure 6). If looseness is found in
either place go to step 2, otherwise
skip to step 3.
Figure 6 - Tie Rod
Inspecting the ABS
Sensor and Tone Ring
2. Remove the tie rod end ball stud from
the taper mount and visually inspect
both. If either of the mating tapers
shows distortion or wear, then both
components must be replaced. Torque
tie rod castle nuts to 90-100 ft-lb. See
Torque Table.
1. The tires and brake drums may be
removed if needed to ease inspection
of tone ring and sensor.
2. Disconnect the ABS sensor lead from
the chassis connector.
3. The ABS sensor test will require a
voltmeter that can measure AC voltage
on a millivolt scale.
4. Connect the voltmeter to the connector
pins of the ABS sensor lead.
5. Set the voltmeter scale to millivolts
and the voltage source to AC volts.
3. With the engine off and the wheels
steered straight ahead, grab the tie rod
near its end and try to move the socket
in a direction parallel to the ball stud
axis. (Figure 6). Be sure to only apply
hand pressure to the tie rod.
6. Rotate the wheel hub by hand and
record the voltage output from the
ABS sensor. A minimum output of
800 millivolts is normal.
7. If the minimum voltage output is not
achieved, check lead wire connections
and repeat Step 3. Otherwise, if the
minimum voltage output is not
achieved after repeating Step 3 then go
to Step 5.
8. Check physical gap between the sensor
and tone ring (Figure 7). The brake
drum must be removed to inspect gap.
The maximum allowable gap is .027
inch. If the gap is greater than .027
inch, press on the wire lead end of the
sensor and push the sensor into contact
with the tone ring. Check that the ABS
spring retainer and bushing are not
unseated. Re-seat components as
needed.
9. Inspect the tone ring on the hub for
physical damage and proper
installation onto the hub. The tone ring
should have a maximum run out of
.008 inch relative to the hub/spindle
centerline.
10. Repeat Step 3. If voltage output is less
than 800 millivolts then replace the
ABS sensor (Note: Check voltage
output of new sensor).
Inspecting the Shock
Absorber
1. Check shock absorbers for oil leakage,
bent components, missing or broken
components, excessive corrosion, or
worn bushings. Replace shock
absorbers if any of the above items is
present.
Inspecting the Air
Spring and Ride Height
.7 57.3,385*(9.43
4. Refer to Firestone’s Preventative
Maintenance Checklist for additional
air spring information.
5. Check the outside diameter of the air
spring for irregular wear or heat
checking.
6. Check airlines to make sure contact
does not exist between the airlines and
the outside diameter of the air spring.
Re-secure airlines to prevent contact as
needed. Check for airline and fitting
leaks with soapy water solution.
7. Check to see that there is minimum of
1-inch clearance around the
circumference of the air spring while it
is energized with air.
8. Check the air spring piston for build up
of foreign material. Remove any
foreign material that is present.
.)**.,-9385*(9.43
1. Dump and re-inflate the air
suspension.
2. Verify the ride height by measuring
from wheel center to the bottom of the
frame (“A”) or air spring height (“B”).
If the dimensions are not within +/.125” of (Figure 8), readjust.
Figure 7 - ABS Sensor & Tone Ring Gap
“B”
“A”
Steering Arm
Bearings
Unit
IFS1460
Ride Height “A”
6.19”
Figure 9
Air Spring “B”
9.00”
Figure 8 - Ride Height Measurement
Inspecting the Steering
Arm Ball Joints
Inspecting the Steering
Arm Bearings
*&1385*(9.43
1. Check that steering arm pivots are free
of foreign material and bearing seals
are in place.
1. Inspect the ball joint seal outer surface
for presence of oil “wetting”. The
entire outer seal surface should be dry.
Use a mechanics mirror and flashlight
to inspect the entire seal. Use a blunt
object as needed to inspect between
seal convolutes.
2. Start vehicle engine. Oscillate the
steering wheel and observe the motion
of the steering arms (Figure 9). The
steering arms should not exhibit any
noticeable conical motion about their
pivot axes.
2. If oil “wetting” is found, then inspect
the entire wet area to confirm the seal
has a rupture(s) and oil source is from
internal grease leaking from the ball
joint. If seal is ruptured, then the ball
joint must be replaced.
3. If any conical motion is observed
check pivot bolt torque which should
be 460-490 ft-lb. See Torque Table.
Otherwise, replace the bearing set of
the steering arm that exhibits conical
motion.
3. Skip ball joint endplay measurement.
NOTE
Care must be taken to not damage ball
joint seals during inspection. Seals that
are ruptured during inspection must
be replaced. Do not apply excessive
force to pry ball joints.
3)51&>385*(9.43
4. Attach a dial indicator with a magnetic
base to the face of the wheel, hub, or
brake drum. The dial indicator may
also be attached to the bottom of the
brake drum if the wheel is removed.
1. Install a dial indicator with a magnetic
base so that the base is fixed to the
steering arm. Place the indicator tip on
the flat area of the relay rod adjacent
the castle nut.
5. Place the tip of the dial indicator on
the center of the steering knuckle
spindle. Set the dial indicator on zero.
(Figure 10).
2. Using a C-clamp, squeeze the relay
arm and the steering arm together to
seat the ball joint. Do not apply
excessive clamp load.
3. Set the dial indicator on “zero”.
4. Release the clamp. Place the pry bar
between the steering arm and relay
arm. Do not allow the pry bar to
contact the ball joint seal. Firmly pry
upward using the steering arm as a
fulcrum to lift the relay arm. The pry
load must not cause the relay arm to
rotate thus causing the relay to change
orientation.
5. Record the dial indicator reading. A
reading greater than .040” will require
ball joint replacement.
Figure 10 - Wheel End Play Measurement
6. Inspect ball joint seal for damage and
replace the ball joint if damaged
during measurement process.
NOTE
Do not push/pull at the top and the
bottom of the tire, drum, or hub.
Pushing or pulling at the top and the
bottom will not yield a true
measurement of the endplay.
Inspecting Wheel
Bearing Endplay
1. If the tire and wheel are not removed
make sure all the wheel nuts are
tightened to the specified torque of
450-500 ft-lb. See Torque Table.
6. Measure the endplay by
simultaneously pushing/pulling on
each side of the tire, drum, or hub
while observing the dial indicator. The
endplay is the total travel observed. If
the endplay is not within .001-.004”,
see the section on adjusting the wheel
bearing endplay.
2. If the tire and wheel are removed
(recommended for aluminum wheels)
secure the brake drum to the hub with
the wheel nuts or remove the brake
drum.
3. Remove the vent plug from the
hubcap.
6. If the steering knuckles binds or less
than .001 inch endplay is measured,
remove shims from the shim pack. See
repair section for kingpin.
Inspecting the Knuckle
Carrier Bearing and
Seal
7. If the vertical endplay measurement is
more than .025 inches, then install
shims. See repair section for kingpin.
1. Inspect the seals for damage.
2. Place the magnetic base of a dial
indicator on the knuckle carrier and
position the tip of the dial on the end
of the bar pin such that axial
movement can be measured.
Adjusting Suspension
Ride Height
3. Set the dial indicator to “0” (zero).
The height control valve (HCV) and
linkage should be checked regularly for
proper clearance, operation and
adjustment.
4. Place a pry bar between the control
arm and carrier and pry to measure
axial movement of the bar pin. Do not
pry on seal. Measure and record the
dial indicator reading.
NOTE
5. If the axial endplay is more than “0”
inch, then replace the carrier bearings.
See repair section on knuckle carrier.
Improperly adjusted ride height will
result in incorrect wheel alignment
measurements and may result in
abnormal tire wear. Check the ride
height prior to front suspension
alignment.
Inspecting the Kingpin
Vertical Endplay
The ride height of the front suspension is
the distance from the bottom of the chassis
frame rail to the center of the wheel
spindle. An alternate measurement may be
taken as the height of the air spring (See
Figure 11).
1. Turn the tire straight ahead.
2. Place the magnetic base of a dial
indicator on the knuckle carrier and
position the tip of the dial on top of the
king pin bearing cap such that vertical
movement can be measured.
3. Place a portable jack and a suitable
block (one with clearance for the
grease fitting) under the lower king pin
grease cap area.
“B”
“A”
4. Set the dial indicator to “0” (zero).
5. Raise the jack until the dial indicator
shows the end of vertical travel.
Measure and record the dial indicator
reading. Vertical inspection clearance
must be .001-.025 inches.
Figure 11
Unit
IFS1460
Ride Height “A”
6.19”
Air Spring “B”
9.00”
Properly adjusted ride height results in
correct suspension travel and alignment.
The ride height should not be adjusted to
adjust chassis rake angle.
5. C: Tighten the retaining nuts. Note: It
is recommended that the upper and
lower studs be positioned parallel to
each other. Torque to 8-12 ft-lb. After
adjusting the length, it is
recommended to dump and re-inflate
the air suspension to obtain the ride
height. Allow the suspension to settle.
CAUTION
Adjusting the ride height can cause the
front end to raise or lower
unexpectedly due to vertical
movements at the connection of the
vertical link and the horizontal arm of
the height control valve.
6. If not already completed, adjust the
rear suspension per manufacturer’s
recommendations.
Verify at each axle that the side-to-side
ride heights are within .25” of each other.
1. Park the vehicle on a level surface.
2. Exhaust or “dump” and re-inflate the
air suspension. Allow the Suspension
to settle.
3. Check ride height of rear suspension:
A: On vehicles with front suspension
equipped with (2) height control
valves, check and adjust the rear
suspension first.
B: On vehicles with front suspension
equipped with a single height control
valve, check and adjust the rear
suspension after finish adjusting the
front.
4. Measure either the wheel center to
bottom of frame (“A”) or air spring
height (“B”). If the dimensions are not
within ±1/8” of measurements in
Figure 11, adjust as follows.
A: Loosen the height control valve
linkage stud retaining nuts.
B: Raise or lower the L-shaped linkage
stud as necessary.
Adjustments
Adjustments
7. Remove the hubcap bolts, hubcap, and
gasket. Take care not to damage the
gasket for re-installation. Place the
components in a location to prevent
contamination. Note that solvents may
damage the hubcap window.
Adjusting Wheel End
Play
1. Secure the vehicle by setting the
parking brake and block the drive
wheels to prevent vehicle movement.
NOTE
WARNING
When removing or installing the inner
and outer spindle nuts, use the correct
wrench sockets to avoid damaging the
nuts. Do not use impact driver to
tighten inner and outer nuts. Only use
a torque wrench to tighten the nuts.
Never work under a vehicle supported
by only a jack(s). Jacks can slip or fall
over and cause serious personal injury.
Always use safety stands. Do not place
jacks or safety stands under the lower
control arms to support the vehicle.
Lower control arms are not stationary
components and could move allowing
the vehicle drop causing serious
personal injury.
8. Unbend the retainer washer and
remove the spindle outer nut, retainer
washer, and locking washer. Loosen
the inner spindle nut.
9. Seat the bearings by tightening the
inner spindle nut to 180 ft-lb. while
rotating the wheel in both directions.
2. Raise the vehicle until the front wheels
are off the ground. Support the raised
vehicle with safety stands.
10. Rotate the hub and drum ten (10)
complete revloutions
3. If the tire and wheel are not removed
make sure all the wheel nuts are
tightened to the specified torque of
450-500 ft-lb. See Torque Table.
11. Loosen the inner spindle nut
completely and then tighten the nut to
20 ft-lb.
4. If the tire and wheel are removed
(recommended for aluminum wheels)
secure the brake drum to the hub with
the wheel nuts or remove the brake
drum.
12. Back off the inner spindle nut 1/4 turn.
NOTE
If the dowel pin of the inner spindle
nut and a hole in the locking washer
are not aligned, turn the locking
washer over and re-install. If
required, loosen the inner spindle nut
just enough for alignment.
5. Place an oil drip tub beneath the hub to
catch oil. Rotate the hub such that the
hubcap drain plug is facing upwards.
Remove the drain plug from the
hubcap and place it in a container for
re-installation.
6. Rotate the hub such that the drain hole
faces downward and drain the oil from
hub cavity. Wait a few minutes for
most of the oil to drain before
continuing to the next step.
19. Check the hubcap for external oil
leakage at the drain plug or gasket. For
leaks at the drain plug check for
application of thread sealant to threads
and tightness. For leaks at the gasket,
replace the gasket. The vent plug will
normally weep a small amount of oil.
CAUTION
Never tighten the inner spindle nut to
align the dowel pin with hole in locking
washer. This can pre-load the
bearings and cause premature bearing
failure.
13. Install spindle locking washer, retainer
washer and outer spindle nut. Tighten
outer spindle nut to 200-300 ft-lb. See
Torque Table.
14. Verify that wheel endplay is between
.001-.004 inches. (See inspecting
wheel endplay section). If not, loosen
outer nut, re-index the inner nut
accordingly, and repeat Steps 9 thru 13
until proper endplay is achieved.
Figure 12 - Wheel Bearing Oil Level
15. Bend retainer washer over one wrench
flat of the outer nut.
16. Install hubcap gasket and hubcap.
Tighten the cap screws to 20-30 ft-lb.
See Torque Table. Replace the hubcap
vent plug if removed.
Adjusting the Maximum
Wheel Turn Angle
17. Fill the hub cavity with the appropriate
amount and type of lubricant and
secure drain plug.
CAUTION
Do not adjust maximum wheel turn
angle greater than 55°. Misadjustment of the wheel turn angle can
cause damage to steering system
components.
18. Check oil level through the hubcap
window. (Figure 12). If level is below
the “add” level line, then fill with
recommended oil until “full” level is
achieved. Add oil slowly since the
heavy weight oil will settle slowly in
the hub. (Note: The hubcap window
can only be cleaned with mild soap
and water. Aromatic solvents should
not be used, as they will impair the
transparency of the window.)
The turn angle may require adjustment if
the front tires rub against the frame,
suspension, body, or the steering gear has
been serviced/replaced. Use an alignment
machine to check the wheel turn angle.
See the measurement procedure of the
alignment machine manufacturer.
The steering stop bolt on the steering
knuckle controls the maximum turn angle.
If the stop bolt is missing, bent, or broken;
replace the stop bolt(s) or jam nut(s) and
follow the procedure below for
adjustment. Inspect other suspension
components for damage.
1. Drive the front tires on a suitable
device that allows the front wheels to
turn and measures the wheel turn
angle.
2. Secure the vehicle by setting the
parking brake and block the drive
wheels to prevent vehicle movement.
CAUTION
NOTE
In power steering systems, the
hydraulic pressure should relieve or
“drop off” when the steered wheels
approach the steering stops in either
direction. If the pressure does not
relieve, the components of the front
suspension may be damaged.
Unequal toe-in side to side or an outof-center steering gear can result in
unequal turn angles and steering pull
while steering straight ahead. The
drag link length may be adjusted to
attain steering gear on center condition
while maintaining equal toe-in side to
side. Do not adjust the length of the
drag link or tie rods to center the
steering wheel. This can cause the
steering gear to become off center.
If the steering stop bolts are adjusted to
reduce wheel turn angle, the steering gear
poppet valves will require readjustment. If
the poppets are not re-adjusted properly,
then the steering gear will not reduce
power assist properly and steering
components will be damaged. Refer to
TRW’s TAS Steering Gear Service
Manual for readjusting the poppets.
3. Check that the steering gear is centered
and the tires are steered straight ahead
with equal toe-in side to side. If either
of these two conditions is not met, then
adjust toe-in first before centering the
steering gear. See Adjusting the ToeIn Section.
4. Check that the lengths of the outer tie
rods are equal to each other within 1/8
inch. If not, adjust lengths according
to the adjusting the toe-in section
before adjusting the steering stops.
5. Turn the steering wheel until the
steering stop bolt contacts the knuckle
carrier or the steering wheel stops
turning. Measure the turn angle of the
wheel on the same side as the direction
of turn.
Unit
IFS1460
Steering Stop Length “A”
.76”
6. If the wheel turn angle differs from
guidelines then adjust as follows.
Figure 13 - Steering Stop Bolt
7. Loosen the jam nut on the stop bolt.
8. Turn the stop bolt until the specified
wheel turn angle is achieved and the
bolt head contacts the knuckle carrier.
2. Check the suspension ride height and
adjust as needed to the specified
height.
9. Tighten the jam nut to 50-75 ft-lb. See
Torque Table.
3. Check for worn ball joints, tie rod
ends, steering arm bearings, control
arm bushings, knuckle carrier
bearings, and damaged suspension
components. Replace worn
components as needed.
CAUTION
After readjusting the steering stop(s)
check that the steering poppets are
reset properly and that the front tires
do not contact the frame, suspension,
or body. Also check that other
components are not abnormally
contacting one another.
4. Check for loose ball joint and tie rod
end tapered connections, tie rod end
jam nuts, steering arm mounts, and
chassis steering system components.
Inspect connections for wear and
replace as needed. Tighten connections
as needed.
5. Check the wheel bearing adjustment
and adjust as needed.
10. Repeat checking and adjustment for
turning the opposite direction.
6. Inspect the shock absorbers for wear
and damage.
Inspection Before
Alignment
*&7=1*&3) :85*38.43
Front tire wear and incorrect steering can
be caused by the rear axle and/or
suspension.
See the General Inspection section and
check the following before conducting
front wheel alignment measurements.
1. Check that all fasteners are tightened
to the specified torque.
$-**18&3)!.7*8
2. Check the suspension ride height and
adjust as needed to specified height.
1. Check that the front tires are inflated to
the appropriate pressure based on the
tire loading.
3. Check that all connection joints
between the suspension and axle are
secure.
2. Check that the front tires are the same
size and type.
4. Check for worn suspension bushings
or damaged suspension components.
3. Check that all the wheel nuts are
tightened to the specified torque of
450-500 ft-lb. See Torque Table.
5. Check that the rear axle is correctly
aligned.
4. Check that the wheel and tire
assemblies are balanced.
6. Check that the frame is not bent.
7. Refer to any additional
recommendations and specifications
from the manufacturer of the chassis
on rear axles and suspensions.
7439 :85*38.43
1. Check that all fasteners are tightened
to the specified torque.
1. Follow the alignment equipment
manufacturer’s procedures for
preparing the vehicle for front and rear
wheel alignment measurements.
NOTE
Total vehicle alignment is
recommended when aligning the front
suspension.
2. Secure the vehicle by setting the
parking brake and block the drive
wheels to prevent vehicle movement.
Front Wheel Alignment
6:.52*39
NOTE
Tuthill recommends that suitable
alignment equipment be used to measure
the wheel alignment characteristics:
camber, caster, and toe-in. The alignment
equipment must be properly calibrated for
accurate measurements. Only qualified
personnel should conduct the wheel
alignment measurements.
An out-of-center steering gear can
result in unequal wheel turn angles.
The steering gear should remain
centered during toe-in adjustment. Do
not adjust the length of the drag link
or tie rods to center the steering wheel.
This can cause the steering gear to
become off center.
*3*7&1
The overall toe-in of the front wheels
should be checked every 24,000 miles or 2
years. When the vehicle does not steer
correctly or the front tires develop an
abnormal tire wear pattern, the camber,
caster, and toe-in should be measured and
adjusted as needed. Toe-in typically has
the largest effect on tire wear.
3. Check that the steering gear is centered
when the tires are steered straight
ahead (i.e. equal toe-in side to side).
Center the steering gear according to
guidelines.
4. Measure and record the individual
wheel camber, caster, and toe-in of the
front suspension. Also measure and
record the cross camber cross caster,
and overall toe-in.
The maximum wheel turn angle should be
checked and adjusted as needed.
5. If adjustment to camber and caster is
required then follow the steps below.
Otherwise, go to the “Adjusting the
Toe-In” section to adjust the toe-in as
needed.
Eccentric adapters are installed in the
lower control arm mounts. The purpose of
the adapters is to provide additional
adjustment of camber and caster to
minimize vehicle drifts or pulls to one side
of the road.
The lower bar pin of the knuckle carrier
bearing marked with a “B” may also be
used to provide additional camber
adjustment.
7*5&7&9.43
WARNING
Camber is the angle of the wheel with
respect to the ground as viewed from the
front or rear of the vehicle (Fig. 14).
Camber is positive when the distance
between centers of the front wheels at the
top is greater than the distance at the
ground.
The wheel camber angle is affected by the
ride height of the suspension. If the ride
height is set too high, then the camber
measurement will be more positive. See
the inspecting and adjusting suspension
ride height sections before measuring
camber. The table below lists the
recommended camber angles.
Never work under a vehicle supported
by only a jack(s). Jacks can slip or fall
over and cause serious personal injury.
Always use safety stands. Do not place
jacks or safety stands under the lower
control arms to support the vehicle.
Lower control arms are not stationary
components and could move allowing
the vehicle drop causing serious
personal injury.
6. Raise the vehicle until the front wheels
are off the ground. Support the raised
vehicle with safety stands.
Nominal Camber Values-Degrees
Unloaded
Loaded
Left
+1/4°(±1/4°)
+1/4°(±1/4°)
Right
+1/4°(±1/4°)
+1/4°(±1/4°)
Adjusting the Camber
Angle
Positive
Camber
Negative
Camber
((*397.(&2'*7)/:892*39
The setscrew in the eccentric adapter
denotes the orientation of the eccentricity
of the adapter. When the setscrew is in the
12 o’clock position, then the adapter is in
the “neutral” position. There are two
adapters at each lower control arm mount
and they must be oriented the same.
Figure 14 – Camber Angle
CAUTION
Do not alter components to adjust the
camber.
Neutral Position
Neutral Position
Positive Camber
Positive Camber
Negative Camber
Negative Camber
FORWARD
Figure 15 – Eccentric Camber Adjustment
4. Tighten the adapter locknuts to 460490 ft-lb. See Torque Table.
When the setscrews in both lower control
arm mounts are oriented closer to the
suspension centerline, the tire camber
becomes more negative. When the
setscrews in both control arm mounts are
oriented farther from the suspension
centerline, the tire camber becomes more
positive (Fig. 15). The eccentric adapters
at both lower control arm mounts must be
oriented the same to affect only camber.
5. Tighten the setscrews to 30-40 ft-lb.
See Torque Table.
6. Remove the jack stands and lower
vehicle completely. Check that the
suspension is at the proper ride height.
7. Re-measure the camber and readjust as
needed.
&7.3&2'*7)/:892*39
1. Loosen both lower control arm
mounting bolts at the eccentric
adapters. Do not remove the bolts
because the adapters must remain
engaged in control arm mounting plate
for adjustment.
The lower bar pin of the knuckle carrier
bearing marked with a “B” on the end is
configured such that it can be re-oriented
to provide camber adjustment. Lower bar
pins are factory installed with the “B”
located closest to the lower control arm.
The wheel camber becomes more positive
when the lower bar pin is re-oriented such
that the “B” is located farthest from the
lower control arm.
2. Loosen the setscrews.
3. Rotate each eccentric adapter to the
same orientation as needed based on
measured wheel camber. The eccentric
adapters at each control arm mount
must have the same orientation.
1. Place a portable jack under the tire to
secure and support it.
Adjusting the Caster
Angle
CAUTION
Do not remove both upper and lower
knuckle carrier mounting bolts at the
same time. The knuckle carrier must
be secured and supported properly if
both upper and lower mounting bolts
are removed.
Positive
Caster
Negative
Caster
NOTE
Lower control arm may move
downward due to the internal gas
charge in the shock absorber. A
portable jack may be needed to align
the lower control arm with the knuckle
carrier bar pin.
Figure 16 – Caster Angle
CAUTION
Do not adjust the suspension ride
height or alter components to adjust
the caster.
2. Remove the bottom knuckle carrier
mounting bolts from the lower control
arm. Heat may need to be applied to
the control arm to loosen the thread
adhesive. The control arm temperature
must not exceed 300°F. Do not apply
heat directly to the bar pin or mounting
bolts.
The caster angle is the angle between a
vertical axis and the axis defined by the
king pin when viewed from the side of the
vehicle. When the king pin axis appears
rotated clockwise relative to the vertical
axis, then the caster is positive. Positive
caster creates a self-aligning moment to
stabilize the vehicle when driving straight
ahead (Figure 16).
The caster angle is indirectly measured
from the change in wheel camber as the
wheel is turned through a prescribed turn
angle. Therefore, the calculated caster is
affected by the ride height of the
suspension. See the inspecting and
adjusting suspension ride height sections
before measuring caster. The table below
lists the recommended caster angles.
3. Raise the jack to separate the bar pin
from the control arm and re-orient it.
4. Lower the jack to align the bar pin
with the control arm. Apply Loctite
#271 to mounting bolt threads and
tighten to 275-300 ft-lb. See Torque
Table.
Nominal Caster Values-Degrees
Unloaded
Loaded
Left
+3°(±1/2°)
+3°(±1/2°)
Right
+3°(±1/2°)
+3°(±1/2°)
the “neutral” position. There are two
adapters at each lower control arm mount
and they must be oriented the same.
Positive
Caster
When the setscrews in the forward lower
control arm mount are oriented closer to
the frame rail and the setscrews in the
rearward lower control arm mount are
oriented farther from the frame rail, the
caster becomes more negative (Fig. 18).
Negative
Caster
Lower
Control Arm
Rear
Eccentrics
Front
Eccentrics
((*397.(&89*7)/:892*39
When the setscrews in the forward lower
control arm mount are oriented farther
from the frame rail and the setscrews in
the rearward control arm mount are
oriented closer to the frame rail, the caster
becomes more positive.
The setscrew in the eccentric adapter
denotes the orientation of the eccentricity
of the adapter. When the setscrew is in the
12 o’clock position, then the adapter is in
The eccentric adapters at both lower
control arm mounts must be oriented
opposite each other to affect caster.
FORWARD
Figure 17 – Lower control arm movement
Neutral Position
Neutral Position
Positive Caster
Positive Caster
A
B
Negative Caster
VIEW A-A
LH Front Eccentric View
Scale 1:2
Negative Caster
A
B
FORWARD
Figure 18 – Eccentric Caster Adjusment
VIEW B-B
LH Rear Eccentric View
Scale 1:2
1. Loosen both lower control arm
mounting bolts at the eccentric
adapters. Do not remove the bolts
because the adapters must remain
engaged in control arm mounting plate
for adjustment.
the tendency of the tires to toe-out when
the vehicle is driven straight ahead.
Incorrect toe-in can result in rapid tire
wear.
1. Measure the length of the outer tie
rods. Reference length is 17 inches.
2. Loosen the setscrews.
2. If the lengths of the outer tie rods are
not within 1/8 inch of each other, then
adjust their lengths such that they are
within 1/8 inch of each other. Loosen
the tie rod clamps on each end of the
tie rod and turn the center tube to
change the length.
3. Rotate the eccentric adapters at the
forward and rearward control arm
mounts opposite one another as needed
based on measured wheel caster. The
eccentric adapters at each control arm
mount must have the same orientation.
4. Tighten the adapter locknuts to 460490 ft-lb. See Torque Table.
3. Adjust the length of both outer tie rods
equally such that the toe-in on each
side is 1/16” ± 1/32” and the over all
toe-in is 1/8” ± 1/16”. Tighten tie rod
clamp nuts to 50-60 ft-lb. See Torque
Table. Refer to Figure 6 for tie rod
clamp orientation.
5. Tighten the setscrews to 30-40 in-lb.
See Torque Table.
6. Remove the jack stands and lower
vehicle completely. Check that the
suspension is at the proper ride height.
7. Re-measure caster and readjust as
needed.
Adjusting the Toe-In
CAUTION
Do not alter components to adjust the
toe-in.
CAUTION
Improperly oriented tie rod clamps
can cause binding in the suspension
steering system.
Wheel toe-in is the relationship of the
distance between the centers of the front
and rear of the front wheels. When the
front distance is less than the rear distance,
the wheels are “toed-in”. Toe-in is
designed into the suspension to counteract
Repairs
Repairs
General Procedures
WARNING
Repair or reconditioning of front
suspension components is not allowed.
Components that are damaged or worn
must be replaced. Several major
components are heat treated and tempered.
Never work under a vehicle supported
by only a jack(s). Jacks can slip or fall
over and cause serious personal injury.
Always use safety stands. Do not place
jacks or safety stands under the lower
control arms to support the vehicle.
Lower control arms are not stationary
components and could move allowing
the vehicle drop causing serious
personal injury.
WARNING
The components cannot be bent,
welded, heated altered, or repaired in
any way without reducing the strength
or life of the component and voiding
the warranty.
The vehicle may be supported on safety
stands by the suspension sub-frame or
chassis frame for repairs that require
removal of the wheel and tires or deflation
of the air springs. Always secure the
vehicle by setting the parking brake and
block the drive wheels to prevent vehicle
movement before performing repairs.
The following operations are prohibited on
front suspension components.
1. Welding of or to the steering knuckles,
control arms, steering arms, knuckle
carrier, tie rod assemblies, the brakes,
the hubs, and the brake drums.
Cleaning the Parts
2. Hot or cold bending of the steering
knuckles, control arms, steering arms,
knuckle carrier, tie rod assemblies, ball
joints, and the subframe except control
arm and steering arm mounts which
may be cold bent to facilitate bushing
and bearing replacement.
WARNING
If you use cleaning solvents, hot
solution tanks or alkaline solutions
incorrectly, serious personal injury can
occur. To prevent injury, follow the
instructions supplied by the
manufacturer. Do NOT use gasoline to
clean parts. Gasoline can explode.
3. Drilling out control arm and steering
arm mounting holes and ball stud
tapered holes.
4. Spray welding of bearing diameters on
the steering knuckle spindle, steering
arm bores and pivot tube. Spray
welding of ball studs or tapered holes
for the ball joint and tie rod ends.
74:3)4741.8-*)&798
Use a cleaning solvent to clean ground or
polished parts and surfaces. DO NOT
clean ground or polished parts with hot
solution tank or with water, steam or
alkaline solutions. These solutions will
cause corrosion of the parts.
5. Milling or machining of any
component except that control arm
bushing bores may be honed to remove
any burrs.
4:,-&798
4. Inspect the tie rod end ball stud and
mating component tapered hole(s).
Replace components with worn
tapered hole(s). If the grease seal is
damaged during removal, replace it
before installation.
Rough parts can be cleaned with the
ground and polished parts. Rough parts
also can be cleaned in hot solution tanks
with a weak alkaline solution. Parts should
remain in the hot solution tanks until they
are completely cleaned.
389&11&9.43
7>.3,
1. Clean the mating component tapered
hole(s) of any contamination. Insert
the tie rod end ball stud into the
tapered hole and secure it with the
castle nut.
Parts must be dried immediately after
cleaning. Dry parts with clean paper or
rags, or compressed air. Do not dry
bearings by spinning with compressed air.
7*;*39.3,47748.43
CAUTION
Apply light oil to cleaned and dried parts
that are not damaged and are to be
immediately assembled. Do NOT apply oil
to the brake linings or the brake drums. If
the parts are to be stored, apply a good
corrosion preventative to all surfaces and
place them inside special paper or
containers that prevent corrosion. Do NOT
apply corrosion preventative to the brake
linings or the brake drums/rotors.
Tighten the castle nuts to the specified
torque. If the castle nuts are not
tightened to the specified torque, the
parts will be damaged and serious
personal injury may occur.
2. Tighten the castle nut to 90-100 ft-lb.
See Torque Table.
3. Install the cotter pins. If necessary,
tighten the castle nut to align the hole
in the ball stud and slots in the castle
nut. Do not loosen the castle nut to
install the cotter pin.
Replacing Tie Rod Ends
*24;&1
1. Remove the cotter pins from the tie rod
end ball stud(s).
4. Lubricate tie rod end as needed.
2. Remove the castle nuts from the tie rod
end ball stud(s).
CAUTION
Do not strike the component mating
taper directly with a steel hammer.
Parts can break and cause serious
personal injury. Wear eye protection.
3. Disconnect the tie rod end ball stud
from the mating component tapered
hole using a suitable tool.
Replacing the Steering
Arm Ball Joints
5. Inspect the ball joint stud and relay rod
tapered hole(s). Replace relay rod if
tapered hole(s) is worn.
The thread-in mount type ball joints are
installed with a thread adhesive and may
require the threads to be warmed to ease
removal. If heat is applied to the ball joint
threads, the steering arm temperature must
not exceed 300°F and the heat should be
applied at the bottom of the ball joint base
only. Applying heat to the ball joint will
damage the ball joint by destroying its
internal components as well as the external
seal permanently, degrading the lubricant,
and restricting ball stud movement.
389&11&9.43
1. Clean the threaded hole in steering arm
of any contamination.
2. Apply thread adhesive Loctite #242 to
the ball joint base threads and thread it
into the steering arm by hand.
3. Tighten the base of the ball joint to
325-375 ft-lb. See Torque Table.
4. Clean the relay rod tapered hole(s) of
any contamination. Insert the ball joint
stud into the tapered hole and secure it
with the castle nut.
It is recommended that the appropriate
tools be used to remove the ball stud taper
from the relay rod and to remove the ball
joint base from the steering arm.
CAUTION
*24;&1
Tighten the castle nuts to the specified
torque. If the castle nuts are not
tightened to the specified torque, the
parts will be damaged and serious
personal injury may occur.
1. Remove the cotter pins from the ball
joint ball stud(s).
2. Remove the castle nuts from the ball
joint ball stud(s).
5. Tighten the castle nut to 155-170 ft-lb.
See Torque Table.
CAUTION
6. Install the cotter pins. If necessary,
tighten the castle nut to align the hole
in the ball stud and slots in the castle
nut. Do not loosen the castle nut to
install the cotter pin.
Do not strike the component mating
taper directly with a steel hammer.
Parts can break and cause serious
personal injury. Wear eye protection.
3. Disconnect the ball joint ball stud from
the steering arm tapered hole using a
suitable tool.
Replacing the Bell
Crank, Idler, and Crank
Steering Arm Bearings
4. Secure the steering arm and remove
the ball joint using a ball joint spanner
wrench or similar device on the base.
Steering arm may be removed to
facilitate ball joint removal. See the
steering arm replacement section as
needed.
Replace the bell crank, idler, and crank
steering arm bearings in sets. The
replacement bearings should be installed
by pressing on the outer raceway only.
Pressing on the inner raceway will damage
the bearing.
The inner grease cavity of the steering
arms should be cleaned when the bearings
are replaced.
*24;&1
7. Insert the pivot sleeve into the lower
bearing. Use a rubber mallet or similar
tool to drive the inner sleeve into the
bearings such that the bottom-retaining
ring is seated against the bottom inner
race. Do not use a steel hammer to
install the sleeve because bearing
raceways can be damaged.
1. Follow the procedures for removal of
the relay rod from the ball joint in the
bell crank and idler steering arm.
8. Install upper retaining ring. Reseat
lower retaining ring against the lower
inner race as needed.
2. Follow the procedures for removal of
tie rod ends for the crank steering arm.
9. Determine the number of shims needed
by stacking the shims and placing the
stack between the upper retaining ring
and inner race until a snug fit is
achieved. Remove one shim from the
stack and this is the number of shims
needed. A maximum of six shims may
be used.
3. Remove the pivot bolt that mounts the
steering arm and remove the steering
arm from the subframe.
4. Remove the retaining rings from the
pivot sleeve and remove the sleeve. A
rubber or brass hammer may be used
to remove the sleeve. Retain shims.
10. Remove the upper retaining ring,
install the shims determined in step 9
onto the inner sleeve at upper inner
race, and re-install the upper retaining
ring. Check that upper retaining ring is
properly seated in the groove of the
inner sleeve.
5. Support the steering arm bearing
housing and press the bearing out of
each end of the steering arm.
389&11&9.43
1. Clean out the steering arm grease
cavity.
11. Place the steering arm in its mount and
install the pivot bolt. Tighten the pivot
bolt lock nut to 575-625 ft-lb. See
Torque Table.
2. Inspect steering arm bearing housing
bores and remove burrs by honing.
Replace steering arm if the bore is
damaged.
12. Follow the procedures for installation
of the relay rod or tie rod.
3. Pack the steering arm bearing with
grease.
Replacing the Upper
and Lower Control Arm
Bushings
4. Support the steering arm bearing
housing and press the bearing into
each end of the steering arm. Note that
the seal side of the bearing should face
out.
The sub-frame control arm mounts may
require widening to accommodate
replacement bushings. A suitable jack may
be used to increase the width of the control
arm mounts by cold bending. Care must be
taken to not exceed 5.00” width after
5. Inspect the pivot sleeve and remove
burrs with emery cloth.
6. Install one retaining ring onto pivot
sleeve.
widening. The control arm mounts should
be inspected for damage.
2. Remove knuckle carrier mounting
bolts from the control arm. Heat may
need to be applied to the control arm to
loosen the thread adhesive. The control
arm temperature must not exceed
300°F. Do not apply heat directly to
the bar pin or mounting bolts.
Both control arm bushings and mounting
hardware except eccentric adapters must
be replaced in a control arm when
bushings are serviced. It is recommended
to replace the control arm bushings and
mounting fasteners in all of the control
arms at the same time.
3. Disconnect sway bar connector at
sway bar if so equipped with a sway
bar.
4. Loosen and remove control arm
mounting locknuts.
The control arm housings must be
properly supported during bushing
removal. The bores of the control arm
housings may be honed to remove any
burrs.
5. Support control arm and remove
control arm mounting bolts. Remove
the control arm.
6. Remove the sway bar bracket and
linkage from the control arm and retain
for installation.
CAUTION
Use of a cutting torch to remove
control arm bolts will permanently
damage control arm bushings and can
result in damage to subframe.
7. Press the bushings out of the housings.
Support the housing properly.
"55*743974172389&11&9.43
1. Inspect the housing bores and remove
any burrs in the housing bores by
honing.
It is recommended that the wheel and tire
be removed to provide proper
accessibility. Disconnect the vertical
height control valve linkage from the
horizontal arm to prevent unintentional
inflation of the air spring.
2. Press the bushings into the housings
using a suitable tool to apply pressure
to only the outer metal of the bushing.
Support the housing properly.
"55*743974172*24;&1
3. Re-install the sway bar bracket and
linkage if removed.
1. Place a portable jack under the knuckle
carrier to secure and support it.
4. Place the control arm in its mount
location. Install the control arm
mounting hardware and tighten snugly.
CAUTION
5. Orient the control arm at suspension
ride height and tighten the bolts to
950-1050 ft-lb. See Torque Table.
Do not remove both upper and lower
knuckle carrier mounting bolts at the
same time unless the knuckle carrier is
properly secured.
6. Reconnect the sway bar linkage.
Tighten mounting bolt to 75-85 ft-lb.
See Torque Table.
7. Apply Loctite #242 to mounting bolt
threads and tighten to 350-375 ft-lb.
See Torque Table.
6. Loosen and remove control arm
mounting locknuts.
7. Support control arm and remove
control arm mounting bolts. Retain
eccentric adapters for installation.
Remove the control arm.
4<*743974172 *24;&1
1. Place a portable jack under the knuckle
carrier to secure and support it.
8. Remove spacer tubes from bushings
and retain for installation.
9. Press the bushings out of the housings.
Support the housing properly.
CAUTION
4<*743974172389&11&9.43
Do not remove both upper and lower
knuckle carrier mounting bolts at the
same time unless the knuckle carrier is
properly secured.
1. Inspect the housing bores and remove
any burrs in the housing bores by
honing.
2. Press the bushings into the housings
using a suitable tool to apply pressure
to only the outer metal of the bushing.
Support the housing properly.
NOTE
Lower control arm may move
downward due to the internal gas
charge in the shock absorber. A
portable jack may be needed to align
the lower control arm with the knuckle
carrier bar pin.
3. Install the spacer tubes in bushings.
4. Place the control arm in its mount
location. Install the control arm
eccentric adapters and mounting
hardware and tighten snugly. Orient
the eccentric adapters the same as
before removal.
2. Remove knuckle carrier mounting
bolts from the control arm. Heat may
need to be applied to the control arm to
loosen the thread adhesive. The control
arm temperature must not exceed
300°F. Do not apply heat directly to
the bar pin or mounting bolts.
5. Orient the control arm at suspension
ride height and tighten the bolts to
460-490 ft-lb. See Torque Table.
6. Note orientation of bar pin in carrier
bearing. Lower the jack to align the
bar pin with the control arm.
3. Note orientation of lower bar pin in
carrier bearing. Raise the jack as
needed to separate the bar pin from the
control arm.
7. Apply Loctite #242 to mounting bolt
threads and tighten to 350-375 ft-lb.
See Torque Table.
8. Compress shock absorber and connect
the lower bar pin mount to the lower
shock bracket using the mounting
hardware. Tighten the nuts to 30-40 ftlb. See Torque Table.
4. Remove and retain the lower shock bar
pin mounting hardware. Shock will
extend due to internal gas charge.
Rotate bar pin to provide clearance
with mounting bracket.
5. Note orientation of eccentric adapters
for installation.
Replacing Wheel
Bearings, Oil Seals, and
Hub Caps
NOTE
When removing or installing the inner
and outer spindle nuts, use the correct
wrench sockets to avoid damaging the
nuts. Do not use impact driver to
tighten inner and outer nuts. Only use
a torque wrench to tighten the nuts.
If the wheel nuts have chrome covers,
remove them with special pliers equipped
with plastic non-marring jaws. Place them
in a container to prevent damage or loss.
On aluminum wheels, place a plastic antiscuff guard over the wheel nuts and loosen
the wheel nuts. On steel wheels, remove
the wheel hubcap nuts if present and the
wheel hubcap before loosening the wheel
nuts. Place the wheel hubcap in safe
location to prevent damage. Place the
wheel and/or wheel hubcap nuts in a
container to prevent contamination or loss.
4. Unbend the spindle washer and
remove the outer spindle nut, spindle
washer, locking “D” washer and inner
spindle nut. Retain all components for
re-assembly except discard the spindle
washer.
Remove the wheel and tire assembly and
place it aside. Mark the tire to ensure it
can be identified for installation on same
side as removed. Remove the brake rotor
assembly and place it aside. Mark the rotor
assembly to ensure it can be identified for
installation on same side as removed.
6. Tug sharply on the hub to unseat the
outer bearing without completely
removing the hub. Wipe up any oil
spilled on the brake assembly as
quickly and completely as possible.
Remove the outer bearing and place it
in a container to prevent
contamination.
5. Place a shop towel on top of the lower
brake shoe to prevent oil from dripping
onto the brake lining.
*24;&1
7. Remove the hub from the spindle and
place it on the floor with its stud side
facing downwards. Protect the wheel
studs from damage. Wipe the excess
oil off spindle with a clean shop towel
to prevent oil dripping onto the brake
assembly. If oil saturates or
significantly contaminates the brake
lining then replace the lining.
1. Place an oil drip tub beneath the hub to
catch oil. Rotate the hub such that the
hubcap drain plug is facing upwards.
Remove the drain plug from the
hubcap and place it in a container for
re-installation.
2. Rotate the hub such that the drain hole
faces downward and drain the oil from
hub cavity. Wait a few minutes for
most of the oil to drain before
continuing to the next step.
8. Remove the hub seal and discard it.
Remove the wear ring from the spindle
and discard it.
3. Remove the hubcap bolts, hubcap, and
gasket. Take care not to damage the
gasket for re-installation. Place the
components in a location to prevent
contamination. Note that the hub cap
window may be damaged by solvents.
9. Inspect the inner cup (outer bearing
race for the inner bearing) and outer
cup in the hub for damage. Replace the
bearing cups if worn or damaged.
10. Inspect the bearing areas on the
spindle for wear or damage. Burrs may
be removed by light application of
emery cloth. Replace steering knuckle
if the spindle is damaged.
6. Pre-lubed outer bearing and place it
onto the spindle until it seats on the
outer cup in the hub. The inner spindle
nut may be used to guide the bearing
onto the spindle. The hub should be
supported to prevent misalignment and
binding.
389&11&9.43
1. Place the hub seal assembly with axle
ring onto the spindle so the words “Oil
Bearing Side” face outboard. Do not
place the seal in the hub bore.
7. Install the inner spindle nut and tighten
hand tight.
8. Seat the bearings by tightening the
inner spindle nut to 180 ft-lb while
rotating the wheel in both directions.
2. Drive the seal onto the spindle using
the appropriate seal installation tool
and a 3-5lb hammer. (Reference
Stemco P/N 0155220) The wear ring is
fully seated when it is square and flush
with the face of the inner bearing
shoulder of the spindle. Reseat the seal
onto the wear ring if it becomes
dislodged after seating.
9. Rotate the hub and drum ten (10)
complete revolutions.
10. Loosen the inner spindle nut
completely and then tighten the nut to
20 ft-lb.
11. Back off the inner spindle nut 1/4 turn.
NOTE
NOTE
If the dowel pin of the inner spindle
nut and a hole in the locking washer
are not aligned, turn the locking
washer over and re-install. If
required, loosen the inner spindle nut
just enough for alignment.
Do not drive bearings onto the spindle
with a steel hammer or similar
instrument. Bearing inner race is a
tight slip fit with spindle.
3. Pre-lube the inner bearing and place it
onto spindle with small end of taper
facing outward. Seat the inner race
against the shoulder of the spindle.
CAUTION
4. Press the ABS sensor outward about
¼”. Do not use a sharp tool on lead
wire end of the sensor. See section for
the inspection of ABS sensor as
needed.
Never tighten the spindle nut to align
the cotter pin with hole in castle nut.
This can pre-load the bearings and
cause premature bearing failure.
5. Place the hub onto the spindle until it
seats on the inner bearing. Do not
“ram” the hub onto the seal.
12. Install spindle locking “D” washer,
retainer washer and outer spindle nut.
Tighten outer spindle nut to 200-300
ft-lb. See Torque Table.
13. Verify that wheel endplay is between
.001-.004 inches. (See inspecting
wheel endplay section). If not, loosen
outer nut, re-index the inner nut
accordingly, and repeat Steps 8 thru 12
until proper endplay is achieved.
18. Check the hubcap for external oil
leakage at the drain plug or gasket. For
leaks at the drain plug check for
application of thread sealant to threads
and tightness. For leaks at the gasket,
replace the gasket. The vent plug will
normally weep a small amount of oil.
14. Bend retainer washer over one wrench
flat of the outer nut.
19. Install the wheel and tire assembly and
the wheel nuts.
15. Install hubcap gasket and hubcap.
Tighten the cap screws to 20-30 ft-lb.
See Torque Table. Replace the hubcap
vent plug if removed.
20. On aluminum wheels, use a plastic
anti-scuff guard over the wheel nuts.
Tighten the wheel nuts to 450-500 ftlb. See Torque Table for sequence.
16. Fill the hub cavity with the appropriate
amount and type of lubricant and
secure drain plug.
21. Replace the wheel hubcap nuts and
hubcaps if removed to service the
wheel bearings.
17. Check oil level through the hubcap
window. (Figure 19). If level is below
the “add” level line, then fill with
recommended oil until “full” level is
achieved. Add oil slowly since the
heavy weight oil will settle slowly in
the hub. (Note: The hubcap window
can only be cleaned with mild soap
and water. Aromatic solvents should
not be used, as they will impair the
transparency of the window.)
Replacing Brake
Components
7&0*-&2'*78
The brake air chambers should be replaced
if damaged or malfunctioning. Refer to
manufacturer guidelines for correct
function of the brake air chambers.
9-*77&0*42543*398
The brake pads should be replaced when
they are worn beyond the manufacturers
limits. Refer to the brake manufacturers
guidelines for servicing the brakes.
Replacing the ABS
Sensor and Tone Ring
The anti-lock brake system (ABS) of the
vehicle should be diagnosed by a qualified
technician before the anti-lock brake
sensors or the tone rings are replaced.
Replacement parts must be equivalent to
the vehicle manufacturers to ensure proper
function of the anti-lock brake system. The
anti-lock brake sensor and tone ring
Figure 19 - Wheel Bearing Oil Level
cannot be repaired and must be replaced if
damaged or malfunctioning.
7. If the minimum reading is still not
obtained, then replace the sensor and
repeat the installation procedure.
*3847*24;&1
8. Route and secure the sensor lead wire
the same as the removed sensor.
1. Remove the brake drum to provide
access to sensor.
2. Press sensor out of steering knuckle.
Do not pull sensor out by its lead wire.
9. Connect the sensor lead wire to the
chassis. Secure wire lead to prevent
damage during suspension movement.
3. Remove tie straps that secure the
sensor lead wire and disconnect the
sensor lead wire from the chassis wire
harness.
!43*.3,*24;&1&3)
389&11&9.43
Follow the hub manufacturer’s guidelines
for removal and installation of the tone
ring.
*3847389&11&9.43
1. Check that the sensor bushing is
properly seated in the steering knuckle
and the sensor spring retainer is seated
properly in the sensor bushing.
Replacing the Shock
Absorber
2. Press the sensor into the steering
knuckle until the sensor end contacts
the tone ring.
CAUTION
3. Connect a volt meter to the connector
pins of the sensor lead wire. Set the
volt meter to read AC voltage on a
scale of 1-10V.
The shock absorber is gas pressurized
and must not be punctured or be
subjected to excessive heat which can
result in serious personal injury. The
shock will expand to its full extended
length if not restrained.
4. Spin the hub by hand and read the
voltage output of the sensor. A
minimum reading of 0.8V AC is
normal. Skip to step 8 if minimum
reading is obtained.
*24;&1
1. Remove lower shock thru bolt
mounting hardware and retain for
installation. Do not remove lower
shock mount bracket from lower
control arm.
5. If the minimum reading is not obtained
then check the volt meter connection
and proximity of the sensor and tone
ring. The air gap between the sensor
and tone ring should not exceed .027”.
Repeat step 4.
2. Remove upper shock bushing
mounting hardware and retain for
installation.
6. If the minimum reading is not
obtained, check the tone ring for
damage and its installation. The tone
ring should have a maximum runout of
.008”. Replace as needed and repeat
step 4.
389&11&9.43
1. Attach air spring to upper air spring
mount. Note that the shorter bolt is
located towards the front. Tighten
mounting hardware snugly.
1. Position shock in suspension such that
the thru bolt is connected to the lower
shock mounting bracket tabs.
2. Attach air spring to lower air spring
mount. Tighten lower mounting bolts
to 20-30 ft-lb. See Torque Table.
2. Attach upper shock bushing to
suspension sub-frame with mounting
hardware. Do not tighten.
3. Tighten the upper mounting bolts to
20-30 ft-lb. See Torque Table.
3. Tighten lower thru mounting bolt and
nut to 170-190 ft-lb. See Torque Table
Tighten nuts to 30-40 ft-lb. See
Torque Table.
4. Apply Permatex or equivalent thread
sealant to the threads of the air
connection fitting and install the
fitting.
4. Tighten upper mounting nut to 170190 ft-lb. See Torque Table.
5. Connect the airline to the fitting.
6. Inflate the air spring by un-securing
the HCV horizontal arm and
reconnecting the vertical linkage to it.
Replacing the Air
Spring
7. Check the airline and fitting for air
leaks.
The correct air spring must be installed.
The use of a substitute air spring is not
allowed and may cause unequal load
sharing between the air springs and cause
adverse ride and handling characteristics.
Replacing the Sway Bar
and Components
*24;&1
It is recommended that the sway bar
mounting bushings and the vertical
linkages be replaced all at the same time.
1. Deflate the air spring by disconnecting
one end of the vertical HCV linkage
from the horizontal arm. Rotate the
horizontal HCV arm downward and
secure it in place.
#*79.(&1.30&,**24;&1
1. Disconnect sway vertical linkage at
upper control arm bracket on both
sides. Retain hardware for installation.
2. Disconnect the airline at the air spring
inlet port and remove the connection
fitting from the inlet port.
2. Secure the sway bar to prevent rotation
and disconnect the lower connection to
the sway bar on both sides.
3. Remove the bolts and washers from
the upper air spring mount studs. Note
location of bolts and washers.
#*79.(&1.30&,*389&11&9.43
4. Remove the bolts that secure the air
spring to the lower air spring mount.
1. Attach the sway bar vertical linkage to
the upper and lower mounts.
389&11&9.43
2. Tighten the mounting nuts to 80-90 ftlb. See Torque Table.
2. Remove the steering knuckle carrier
mounting bolts from the upper and
lower control arms. Heat may need to
be applied to the control arm to loosen
the thread adhesive. The control arm
temperature must not exceed 300°F.
Do not apply heat directly to the bar
pin or mounting bolts.
Replacing the Steering
Knuckle Carrier
Bearings
It is recommended to replace all the
steering knuckle carrier bearings at the
same time.
3. Remove steering knuckle carrier.
4. Support fixed shoulder end of the bar
pin.
The wheel and tire should be removed to
provide access. The steering knuckle may
be removed to provide easier handling of
steering knuckle carrier assembly.
5. Remove retaining clip and outer collar
from the split ring.
6. Apply approximately 400 lb press load
to the spacer and remove the split
collar.
CAUTION
7. Remove spacer and shims.
The knuckle carrier must be secured
and supported properly when upper
and lower mounting bolts are removed.
8. Press bar pin out of bearing cones.
9. Remove outer seals from both sides of
bearings.
*24;&1
10. Remove bearing raceways from the
steering knuckle carrier. Do not
damage bores.
1. Note installed orientation of the upper
and lower bar pin. Lower bar pins are
factory installed with the “B” located
closest to the lower control arm.
11. Clean the remaining grease from the
bearing cavity.
389&11&9.43
CAUTION
1. Inspect bearing raceway and seal bores
in steering knuckle carrier for burrs or
damage. Inspect the bar pin for burrs
or damage. Remove burrs and replace
damaged components.
Do not apply excessive preload to
bearings.
NOTE
2. Press a bearing race into each steering
knuckle carrier bore until fully seated.
Lower control arm may move
downward due to the internal gas
charge in the shock absorber. A
portable jack may be needed to align
the lower control arm with the knuckle
carrier bar pin.
3. Pack a bearing cone with grease and
place it onto the bar pin and seat the
inner race on the shoulder.
4. Note the position and orientation of
bar pin relative to the carrier. The
shoulder end of the bar pin faces
forward on the upper bar pin location.
The shoulder end of the bar pin faces
rearward on the lower bar pin location.
16. Place the outer collar around the split
collar. Install the retaining clip around
the split collar on the outside of the
outside collar.
5. Insert the bar pin into the steering
knuckle carrier until the bearing cone
is seated in the raceway.
18. Check bearing preload by rotating the
bar pin. Slight to medium drag should
be felt. If too loose, add one shim. If
too tight, remove one shim.
17. Press a seal into each seal bore until
fully seated.
6. Turn the steering knuckle carrier over
and support the shoulder end of the bar
pin.
19. Fill bearing cavity with grease.
20. Install steering knuckle carrier
mounting bolts in control arms. Note
orientation of bar pin. Apply Loctite
#242 to mounting bolt threads and
tighten to 350-375 ft-lb. See Torque
Table.
7. Pack a bearing cone with grease and
place it onto the bar pin end opposite
the shoulder and seat it in the raceway.
8. Place the spacer onto the bar pin and
seat it against the inner raceway.
9. Apply approximately 400 lb of press
load to the spacer. Place the split collar
into the groove of the bar pin and
against the spacer.
10. Use a “feeler” gage to measure the gap
between the split collar and shoulder
of the groove in the bar pin. Record
measurement.
11. Remove the load. Then remove the
split collar and spacer.
12. Using the gap measurement from Step
10, place a number of shims equivalent
to the gap measurement onto the bar
pin against the inner raceway.
13. Place the spacer onto the bar pin.
14. Apply approximately 400 lb of press
load to the spacer such that the split
collar can be inserted into the groove
of the bar pin. Make sure the split
collar is fully seated in the groove.
15. Remove the press load.
This page intentionally left blank.
Torque Tables
Torque Tables
Most threaded fasteners are covered by
specifications that define required
mechanical properties, such as tensile
strength, yield strength, proof load, and
hardness. These specifications are
carefully considered in initial selection of
fasteners for a given application. To
assure continued satisfactory vehicle
performance, replacement fasteners used
should be of the correct strength, as well as
the correct nominal diameter, thread pitch,
length, and finish.
Grade Markings on Bolts
Grade
Lock Nut
Grade B, F
Lock Nut:
Grade C, G
3 Dots
6 Dots
Identification
Grade Markings on Lock Nuts
Torque Table 1
APPLICATIONS
Upper Control Arm Bushing Pivot Bolt
Lower Control Arm Bushing Pivot Bolt
Eccentric Set Screw
Steering Knuckle Carrier Mounting Bolt
Lower Air Spring Mount Bolt (into carrier)
Air Spring Upper Mount Bolt (into cradle)
FASTENER SIZE
1-1/8-12 Grade C
7/8-9 Grade C
#10-24x3/8
3/4-10 Grade 8
5/8-18 Grade 8
3/8-16 Grade 5
3/8-16 Grade 8
1/2-13 Grade 8
1-14 Grade 8
M56x1.5
M20x1.5
7/8-14
5/8-11 Grade B
3/4-10 Grade C
3/4-10 Grade C
3/8-16 Grade 8
3/4-10
1/2-20 Grade B
1-1/8-12 Grade C
1/2-13 Grade C
7/16-20 Grade G
5/16-18 Grade 8
1-1/2-18
1-1/2-12
M20x2.5
TORQUE SPECIFICATION (ft-lb)
(CLEAN AND DRY)
950-1050(1)
460-490(1)
30-40 in-lb
350-375(1,4)
170-190(1,4)
20-30(1)
20-30(1)
20-30(1)
575-625(1)
325-375(2)
155-170(3)
90-100
50-60
170-190
170-190
30-40(1)
85-115(2)
50-75
550-1025
75-85
30-45
20-30(1)
See Adjusting the Wheel Bearings Section
200-300
300-330
Air Spring Lower Mount Bolt
Idler Arm, Bell Crank & Crank Arm Mount Lock Bolt
Idler Arm & Bell Crank Ball Joint Base
Idler Arm & Bell Crank Ball Joint Castle Nut
Tie Rod Castle Nut
Tie Rod Clamp Nut
Upper Shock Eye Mount Lock Nut
Lower Shock Eye Mount Lock Nut
Lower Shock Mount Bracket Bolt
Steering Stop Adapter
Steering Stop Jam Nut
Steering Arm Castle Nut
Sway Bar Upper Control Arm Bracket Nut
Kingpin Draw Key Nut
Kingpin Cap Bolt
Spindle Nut
Spindle Outer Nut
Disc Brake Caliper Mount Screw
1) Torque applied to bolt head.
2) Apply thread adhesive Loctite #242 or equivalent to threads of fastener threaded into tapped hole.
3) Install cotter pin after tightening.
4) Apply thread adhesive Loctite #271 or equivalent to threads of fastener threaded into tapped hole.
Torque Tables
Torque Table 2
APPLICATIONS
FASTENER SIZE
TORQUE SEQUENCE
TORQUE SPEC.
(ft-lb) (CLEAN AND
DRY)
ABS
3
Brake Spider and Torque Plate Mount Capscrews
5/8-18 Grade 8
170-190
6
1
2
5
4
7
Driver Side
1
Hub Cap Bolt
5/16-18 Grade 5
6
3
4
5
20-30(1)
2
9
Wheel Nut
M22x1.5
(Hub Piloted)
(2)
450-500
(Dry Threads)
6
7
3
8
4
10
1) Torque applied to bolt head
2) Recheck wheel nut torque after first 50-100 miles.
1
2
5
IS0 9001:2008 Certified
1-800-753-0050
w w w. r e y c o g r a n n i n g . c o m
Mount Vernon
1205 Industrial Park Drive
Mount Vernon,MO 65712
(800) 753-0050,Fax (417) 466-3964
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement