3.0L Operations Manual

Service Manual

MI-07 Integrated Engine Control

System for 3.0L KEM Engines

LP & Bi-Fuel Systems

2007 Emission-Certified Systems

Manual 36553

WARNING—DANGER OF DEATH OR PERSONAL INJURY

WARNING—FOLLOW INSTRUCTIONS

Read this entire manual and all other publications pertaining to the work to be performed before installing, operating, or servicing this equipment. Practice all plant and safety instructions and precautions. Failure to follow instructions can cause personal injury and/or property damage.

WARNING—OUT-OF-DATE PUBLICATION

This publication may have been revised or updated since this copy was produced. To verify that you have the latest revision, be sure to check the Woodward website: www.woodward.com/pubs/current.pdf

The revision level is shown at the bottom of the front cover after the publication number. The latest version of most publications is available at: www.woodward.com/publications

If your publication is not there, please contact your customer service representative to get the latest copy.

WARNING—OVERSPEED PROTECTION

The engine, turbine, or other type of prime mover should be equipped with an overspeed shutdown device to protect against runaway or damage to the prime mover with possible personal injury, loss of life, or property damage.

The overspeed shutdown device must be totally independent of the prime mover control system. An overtemperature or overpressure shutdown device may also be needed for safety, as appropriate.

WARNING—PROPER USE

Any unauthorized modifications to or use of this equipment outside its specified mechanical, electrical, or other operating limits may cause personal injury and/or property damage, including damage to the equipment. Any such unauthorized modifications: (i) constitute "misuse" and/or "negligence" within the meaning of the product warranty thereby excluding warranty coverage for any resulting damage, and (ii) invalidate product certifications or listings.

CAUTION—POSSIBLE DAMAGE TO EQUIPMENT OR PROPERTY

CAUTION—BATTERY CHARGING

To prevent damage to a control system that uses an alternator or battery-charging device, make sure the charging device is turned off before disconnecting the battery from the system.

CAUTION—ELECTROSTATIC DISCHARGE

Electronic controls contain static-sensitive parts. Observe the following precautions to prevent damage to these parts.

Discharge body static before handling the control (with power to the control turned off, contact a grounded surface and maintain contact while handling the control).

Avoid all plastic, vinyl, and Styrofoam (except antistatic versions) around printed circuit boards.

Do not touch the components or conductors on a printed circuit board with your hands or with conductive devices.

IMPORTANT DEFINITIONS

A

WARNING indicates a potentially hazardous situation which, if not avoided, could result in death or serious injury.

A

CAUTION indicates a potentially hazardous situation which, if not avoided, could result in damage to equipment or property.

A

NOTE provides other helpful information that does not fall under the warning or caution categories.

Revisions—Text changes are indicated by a black line alongside the text.

Woodward Governor Company reserves the right to update any portion of this publication at any time. Information provided by Woodward Governor Company is believed to be correct and reliable.

However, no responsibility is assumed by Woodward Governor Company unless otherwise expressly undertaken.

© Woodward 2007

All Rights Reserved

Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

Contents

R

EGULATORY

C

OMPLIANCE

.........................................................................

V

EPA / CARB Emissions Certification......................................................................v

North American Compliance ..................................................................................v

S

PECIAL

C

ONDITIONS FOR

S

AFE

U

SE

.........................................................

VI

Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC).................................................................... vi

Electrostatic Discharge Awareness...................................................................... vii

C

HAPTER

1. LPG S

YSTEM

O

VERVIEW

......................................................... 3

MI-07 General Description .....................................................................................3

MI-07 System Components ....................................................................................4

Key Components ............................................................................................4

MI-07 System Features ..........................................................................................5

Bi-Fuel System .......................................................................................................6

Customer-Supplied Components ...........................................................................6

LPG Fuel System Operation ..................................................................................7

MI-07 LP Fuel Filter ........................................................................................8

MI-07 Fuel Lock-Off (Electric).........................................................................8

N-2007 Pressure Regulator/Vaporizer ...........................................................9

CA100 Mixer .................................................................................................11

Fuel Trim Valve (FTV) ..................................................................................14

Electronic Throttle System ...................................................................................16

MI-07 Electronic Throttle ..............................................................................16

Ignition System .....................................................................................................18

General Motors (GM) High Energy Ignition (HEI) System ...........................18

Exhaust System....................................................................................................20

Catalytic Muffler ............................................................................................20

SECM ...................................................................................................................22

Fuel Management.........................................................................................22

Throttle Management ...................................................................................23

Engine Speed Governing Modes..................................................................24

Ignition Management ....................................................................................26

SECM Electrical Mounting Recommendations.............................................26

SECM / Sensors ...........................................................................................27

Analog Inputs................................................................................................27

Frequency/Position Inputs ............................................................................27

Digital Inputs .................................................................................................27

Outputs .........................................................................................................28

SECM-48 Wiring Diagram ............................................................................29

C

HAPTER

2. G

ASOLINE

E

NGINES

............................................................... 33

Gasoline Fuel System ..........................................................................................33

Gasoline Fuel System Specifications ...........................................................33

C

HAPTER

3. S

PECIFICATIONS

.................................................................... 34

LP Fuel System Requirements.............................................................................34

Environmental / Electrical Specifications .............................................................34

N-2007 Pressure Regulator Specifications .........................................................35

CA100 Mixer Specifications .................................................................................36

Electronic Throttle System Specifications ............................................................36

SECM Specifications ............................................................................................37

Fuel Trim Valve (FTV) Specifications...................................................................37

Ignition System Specifications..............................................................................37

System Control Performance Specifications........................................................38

Power /Torque ......................................................................................................38

Exhaust Emissions ...............................................................................................38

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Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

Drivability / Transient Response...........................................................................38

Low Idle Speed.....................................................................................................38

Maximum Speed / High Idle .................................................................................38

C

HAPTER

4. R

ECOMMENDED

M

AINTENANCE

.............................................. 39

Maintenance Tests & Inspections ........................................................................39

Test Fuel System for Leaks..........................................................................39

Inspect Engine for Fluid Leaks .....................................................................39

Inspect Vacuum Lines and Fittings ..............................................................39

Inspect Electrical System .............................................................................39

Inspect Foot Pedal Operation.......................................................................40

Check Coolant Level ....................................................................................40

Inspect Coolant Hoses .................................................................................40

Inspect Battery System.................................................................................40

Inspect Ignition System ................................................................................40

Replace Spark Plugs ....................................................................................40

Replace LP Fuel Filter Element....................................................................41

Testing Fuel Lock-off Operation ...................................................................42

Pressure Regulator/Converter Inspection ....................................................42

Fuel Trim Valve Inspection (FTV).................................................................42

Inspect Air/Fuel Valve Mixer Assembly ........................................................42

Inspect for Intake Leaks ...............................................................................42

Inspect Throttle Assembly ............................................................................43

Checking the TMAP Sensor .........................................................................43

Inspect Engine for Exhaust Leaks ................................................................43

Maintenance Schedule .........................................................................................44

C

HAPTER

5. I

NSTALLATION

P

ROCEDURES

.................................................. 46

Hose Connections ................................................................................................47

Removal and Installation of N-2007 LP Regulator/Converter .............................48

Removal and Installation of CA100 Mixer ............................................................49

C

HAPTER

6. T

ESTS AND

A

DJUSTMENTS

..................................................... 52

N-2007 Regulator Service Testing .......................................................................52

Break-Off Test ..............................................................................................52

Pressure Test ...............................................................................................53

AVV (Air Valve Vacuum) Testing .........................................................................55

Ignition Timing Adjustment ...................................................................................55

Connection of MI-07 Service Tool ........................................................................56

Idle Mixture Adjustment ........................................................................................57

C

HAPTER

7. B

ASIC

T

ROUBLESHOOTING

.................................................... 61

Preliminary Checks...............................................................................................61

Basic Troubleshooting ..........................................................................................62

Intermittent Faults .........................................................................................62

Surges and/or Stumbles ...............................................................................63

Engine Cranking but Will Not Start / Difficult to Start ...................................64

Lack of Power, Slow to Respond / Poor High Speed Performance /

Hesitation During Acceleration .....................................................................67

Detonation / Spark Knock.............................................................................69

Backfire .........................................................................................................70

Dieseling, Run-on .........................................................................................70

Rough, Unstable, Incorrect Idle, or Stalling..................................................71

Cuts Out, Misses ..........................................................................................73

Poor Fuel Economy / Excessive Fuel Consumption LPG Exhaust Smell ...74

High Idle Speed ............................................................................................75

Excessive Exhaust Emissions or Odors.......................................................76

Diagnostic Aids for Rich / Lean Operation ...................................................77

Chart T-1 Restricted Exhaust System Check...............................................78

C

HAPTER

8. A

DVANCED

D

IAGNOSTICS

...................................................... 79

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Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

Reading Diagnostic Fault Codes..........................................................................79

Displaying Fault Codes (DFC) from SECM Memory............................................79

Clearing Fault (DFC) Codes.................................................................................79

Fault Action Descriptions..............................................................................81

Fault List Definitions .....................................................................................82

Table 1. Fault List Definitions .......................................................................82

Table 2. Diagnostic Fault Codes (Flash Codes) ..........................................91

C

HAPTER

9. P

ARTS

D

ESCRIPTION

........................................................... 109

LP Fuel System Components for 3.0L Engines .................................................109

CA100 Mixer ...............................................................................................110

N-2007 Regulator .......................................................................................112

A

PPENDIX

............................................................................................... 114

LPG & LPG Fuel Tanks ......................................................................................114

LPG Fuel Tanks..........................................................................................116

Installing LPG Fuel Tanks ..........................................................................116

LPG Fuel Tank Components ......................................................................117

Fuel Gauge .................................................................................................117

Pressure Relief Valve .................................................................................118

Service Valve..............................................................................................118

Quick Disconnect Coupling ........................................................................120

Filler Valve ..................................................................................................120

Abbreviations......................................................................................................122

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Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

List of Figures

Figure 1. MI-07 Bi-Fuel System for 3.0L Engines ..................................................3

Figure 2. MI-07 Closed Loop Fuel System.............................................................4

Figure 3. Inline LP Fuel Filter .................................................................................8

Figure 4. Electric Fuel Lock Assembly ...................................................................8

Figure 5. N-2007 Regulator....................................................................................9

Figure 6. Parts View of N-2007 Regulator ...........................................................10

Figure 7. CA100 Mixer..........................................................................................11

Figure 8. CA100 Mixer Attached to Throttle Body................................................11

Figure 9. Parts View of CA100 Mixer ...................................................................12

Figure 10. Bottom View of Air Valve Assembly ....................................................13

Figure 11. CA100 Mixer Installed with Electronic Throttle ...................................13

Figure 12. Idle Mixture Adjustment Screw ...........................................................14

Figure 13. Fuel Trim Valves Connected to MI-07 System ...................................15

Figure 14. Bosch Electronic Throttle Body...........................................................16

Figure 15. Throttle Body Assembly Exploded View .............................................17

Figure 16. HEGO (O

2

) Sensor..............................................................................20

Figure 17. Foot Pedal ...........................................................................................23

Figure 18. Throttle Position Sensor (TPS) on DV-E5 Throttle .............................23

Figure 19. Peak Torque and Power Available with MI-07 System.......................24

Figure 20. Drive-By-Wire Signal Flow Process ....................................................25

Figure 21. SECM Wiring Diagram for Bi-Fuel System .........................................30

Figure 22. SECM Wiring Diagram for LP System ................................................31

Figure 23. SECM Wiring Diagram for Gasoline System ......................................32

Figure 24. MI-07 System Installed on GM 3.0L Engine .......................................42

Figure 25. Hose Connections for 3.0L Engines ...................................................47

Figure 26. N-2007 Regulator Installed on Engine ................................................48

Figure 27. CA100 Mixer Installed on Engine........................................................50

Figure 28. O-Ring and Spacer Within Mixer Adapter Assembly ..........................50

Figure 29. Throttle Adapter Mount Screws & Vacuum Port Barbs.......................50

Figure 30. Secondary Stage Test Connection .....................................................53

Figure 31. Primary Stage Test Connection ..........................................................53

Figure 32. Magnehelic Gauge Connection to Hose Barb ....................................54

Figure 33. Magnehelic Gauge Connection...........................................................55

Figure 34. KVaser Communication Adapter.........................................................56

Figure 35. Crypt Token Installed on Laptop .........................................................56

Figure 36. Opening the Service Tool Display.......................................................56

Figure 37. FTV Duty Cycle Percentage Displayed on Service Tool ....................58

Figure 38. Installing Tamper Proof Cap ...............................................................59

Figure 39. CA100 Certified Mixer Exploded View ..............................................111

Figure 40. N-2007 Certified Regulator Exploded View ......................................113

Figure A1. LPG Tank Pressure vs Temperature................................................115

Figure A2. Portable Universal Cylinder ..............................................................116

Figure A3. LPG Fuel Tank Components ............................................................117

Figure A4. Service Valve ....................................................................................118

Figure A5. Quick Disconnect Coupling ..............................................................120

Figure A6. Liquid Filler Valve .............................................................................120

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Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

Regulatory Compliance

EPA / CARB Emissions Certification

When properly applied and calibrated, Woodward’s MI-07 control system is capable of meeting Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 2007 Large Spark

Ignition (LSI) emission standards (40 CFR Part 1048.101) when operating properly with an approved three-way catalyst. The emission standards, including appropriate deterioration factors over the useful life of the system, are as follows:

CO: 3.3 g/hp-hr [4.4 g/kW-hr]

Evaporative emissions comply with 40 CFR Part 1048.105. These standards apply only to volatile liquid fuels such as gasoline. Note that the engine crankcase must be closed.

As defined in applicable regulations, the engine control system is designed to maintain emissions compliance for seven (7) years or 5000 hours, whichever occurs first, provided appropriate maintenance is performed as defined in the service manual for the system. Maintenance intervals shall be defined and approved by the regulating body. Component warranty shall comply with regulatory requirements (40 CFR Part 1048.120) for all emission related components. Warranty for non-critical emissions components will be as defined in the individual purchase agreement.

North American Compliance

The N-2007 regulator is UL listed per Category ITPV LP-Gas Accessories,

Automotive Type.

The N-2007 regulator and CA100 mixer have tamper-resistant features approved by the California Air Resources Board (CARB).

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Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

Special Conditions for Safe Use

Field wiring must be suitable for at least 248°F (120°C).

SECM-48 inputs are classified as permanently connected International

Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) measurement Category I. To avoid the danger of electric shock, do not use inputs to make measurements within measurement categories II, III, or IV. See Woodward publication 26377, SECM-

48 Manual, Chapter 2 for additional information on transient over-voltage input ratings.

SECM-48 input power must be supplied from a power supply/battery charger certified to IEC standard with a Safety Extra Low Voltage (SELV) classified output. Input power should be properly fused according to the wiring diagram in

Woodward publication 26377, SECM-48 Manual.

SECM-48 inputs and outputs may only be connected to other circuits certified as

SELV.

The IP-56 Ingress Protection rating of the control depends on the use of proper mating connectors. See Woodward publication 26377, SECM-48 Manual,

Chapter 2: Installation—Wiring Connections, Table 2-1 for information on the proper mating connectors for use with this control.

WARNING—EXPLOSION HAZARD

Do not connect or disconnect while circuit is live unless area is known to be non-hazardous.

Substitution of components may impair suitability for Class I, Division 2, or Zone 2 applications.

Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC)

All MI-07 active electronic components manufactured by the Woodward

Governor Company have been developed and individually tested for electromagnetic compatibility using standardized industry methods under laboratory test conditions. Actual EMC performance may be adversely affected by the wiring harness design, wire routing, the surrounding structure, other EMC generating components, and other factors that are beyond the control of the

Woodward Governor Company. It is the responsibility of the vehicle and/or application manufacturer to confirm that the overall system's EMC performance is in compliance with all standards that they wish to apply for their particular use.

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Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

Electrostatic Discharge Awareness

All electronic equipment is static-sensitive, some components more than others.

To protect these components from static damage, you must take special precautions to minimize or eliminate electrostatic discharges.

Follow these precautions when working with or near the control.

1. Before doing maintenance on the electronic control, discharge the static electricity on your body to ground by touching and holding a grounded metal object (pipes, cabinets, equipment, etc.).

2. Avoid the build-up of static electricity on your body by not wearing clothing made of synthetic materials. Wear cotton or cotton-blend materials as much as possible because these do not store static electric charges as much as synthetics.

3. Keep plastic, vinyl, and Styrofoam materials (such as plastic or Styrofoam cups, cup holders, cigarette packages, cellophane wrappers, vinyl books or folders, plastic bottles, and plastic ash trays) away from the control, the modules, and the work area as much as possible.

CAUTION—ELECTROSTATIC DISCHARGE

To prevent damage to electronic components caused by improper handling, read and observe the precautions in

Woodward manual 82715, Guide for Handling and Protection of

Electronic Controls, Printed Circuit Boards, and Modules.

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Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

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Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

Chapter 1.

LPG System Overview

MI-07 General Description

Woodward’s emission-certified MI-07 control system provides a complete, fully integrated engine management system that meets or exceeds 2007 emission standards for Large Spark Ignited (LSI) engines established by the California Air

Resources Board (CARB) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

The control system is applicable to naturally aspirated engines ranging in size from

1.5L to 8.1L (25 HP to 170 HP) with up to 8 cylinders running on LPG and/or gasoline in mobile industrial applications.

It provides accurate, reliable, and durable control of fuel, spark, and air over the service life of the engine in the extreme operating environment found in heavy-duty, under hood, on-engine electronic controls .

MI-07 is a closed loop system utilizing a catalytic muffler to reduce the emission level in the exhaust gas. In order to obtain maximum effect from the catalyst, an accurate control of the air fuel ratio is required. A small engine control module (SECM) uses two heated exhaust gas oxygen sensors (HEGO) in the exhaust system to monitor exhaust gas content. One HEGO is installed in front of the catalytic muffler and one is installed after the catalytic muffler.

Figure 1. MI-07 Bi-Fuel System for 3.0L Engines

The SECM makes any necessary corrections to the air fuel ratio by controlling the inlet fuel pressure to the air/fuel mixer by modulating the dual fuel trim valves (FTV) connected to the regulator. Reducing the fuel pressure leans the air/fuel mixture and increasing the fuel pressure enriches the air/fuel mixture. To calculate any necessary corrections to the air fuel ratio, the SECM uses a number of different sensors to gain information about the engine’s performance. Engine speed is monitored by the SECM through a variable reluctance (VR) or Hall Effect sensor. Intake manifold air

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Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

temperature and absolute pressure are monitored with a TMAP sensor. The MI-07 system implements a drive-by-wire (DBW) system connecting the accelerator pedal to the electronic throttle through the electrical harness; mechanical cables are not used.

A throttle position sensor (TPS) monitors throttle position in relation to the accelerator pedal position sensor (APP) command. Engine coolant temperature and adequate oil pressure are also monitored by the SECM. The SECM controller has full adaptive learning capabilities, allowing it to adapt control function as operating conditions change. Factors such as ambient temperature, fuel variations, ignition component wear, clogged air filter, and other operating variables are compensated.

MI-07 Closed Loop LP Fuel System

Figure 2. MI-07 Closed Loop Fuel System

MI-07 System Components

The MI-07 control system provides electronic control to the following subsystems on mobile industrial engines:

• Fuel delivery system

• Spark-ignition control system

• Air throttle

• Sensors/Switches/Speed inputs

Key Components

The MI-07 system functions primarily on engine components that affect engine emissions and performance. These key components include the following:

• Engine/Combustion chamber design

• Intake/Exhaust valve configuration, timing and lift

• Intake/Exhaust manifold design

• Catalytic converter and exhaust system

• Throttle body

• Air intake and air filter

• Gaseous fuel mixer †

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Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

• Gaseous fuel pressure regulator

• Fuel trim valves

• Fuel trim orifices

• Small engine control module (SECM), firmware, and calibration

• Fuel system sensors and actuators

• Ignition system including spark plugs, cables, coils and drivers

• Gasoline injectors and fuel pressure regulator (bi-fuel systems only)

(

) Components of MI-07 system manufactured by Woodward

MI-07 System Features

The MI-07 system uses an advanced speed-density control strategy for fuel, spark, and air throttle control. Key features include the following.

• Closed-loop fuel control with fuel specific controls for LPG and gasoline

(MPI) fuels

• Speed-load spark control with tables for dwell, timing, and fuel type

• Speed-load throttle control with table for maximum TPS limiting

• Closed-loop fuel control with two oxygen sensors (one installed pre catalyst and one installed post catalyst). The pre-catalyst oxygen sensor includes adaptive learn to compensate for fuel or component drift. The post-catalyst oxygen sensor includes adaptive learn to compensate the pre-catalyst oxygen sensor setting for oxygen sensor drift and catalyst aging. The pre-catalyst oxygen sensor function includes parameters for transport delay, O

2

set point, excursion rich/lean, jump back rich/lean, and perturbation.

• LPG fuel temperature compensation

• Min/max speed governing

• All-speed isochronous governing

• Fixed-speed isochronous governing with three switch-selectable speeds

• Fuel enrichment and spark timing modifiers for temperature and fuel type

• Transient fuel enrichment based on rate of change of TPS

• Transient wall wetting compensation for gasoline

• Input sensor selection and calibration

• Auxiliary device control for fuel pump, fuel lock-off solenoid, tachometer, MIL, interlocks, vehicle speed limiting, etc.

• CANBus data transfer for speed, torque, etc.

• Anti-restart strategy to inhibit starter engagement while running

Other system features include:

Tamper-Resistance

Special tools, equipment, knowledge, and authorization are required to effect any changes to the MI-07 system, thereby preventing unauthorized personnel from making adjustments that will affect performance or emissions.

Diagnostics

MI-07 is capable of monitoring and diagnosing problems and faults within the system.

These include all sensor input hardware, control output hardware, and control functions such as closed-loop fuel control limits and adaptive learn limits. Upon

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Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

detecting a fault condition, the system notifies the operator by illuminating the MIL and activating the appropriate fault action. The action required by each fault shall be programmable by the OEM customer at the time the engine is calibrated.

Diagnostic information can be communicated through both the service tool interface and the MIL. With the MIL, it is possible to generate a string of flashing codes that correspond to the fault type. These diagnostics are generated only when the engine is not running and the operator initiates a diagnostic request sequence such as repeated actuations of the pedal within a short period of time following reset.

Limp Home Mode

The system is capable of "limp-home" mode in the event of particular faults or failures in the system. In limp-home mode the engine speed is approximately 1000 RPM at no load. A variety of fault conditions can initiate limp-home mode. These fault conditions and resulting actions are determined during calibration and are OEM customer specific.

Service Tool

A scan tool/monitoring device is available to monitor system operation and assist in diagnosis of system faults This device monitors all sensor inputs, control outputs, and diagnostic functions in sufficient detail through a single access point to the SECM to allow a qualified service technician to maintain the system. This Mototune software

(licensed by Mototron Communication) is secure and requires a crypt-token USB device to allow access to information.

Bi-Fuel System

A bi-fuel system operates on either LPG or gasoline. The engine will run on only one fuel at a time. The fuel type can be switched while the engine is stopped or running at low speeds and low loads. The fuel selection switch is a three-position type where the center position is fuel off.

Customer-Supplied Components

MI-07 requires additional components to operate that are not included with the system. These include the wire harness, mixer-to-throttle adapter, air horn adapter, mounting brackets, non-critical fittings, and hoses. These items are application specific and are the responsibility of the packager, manufacturer of record (MOR), or original equipment manufacturer (OEM). Woodward will provide assistance as needed to ensure proper fitting to the MI-07 system components.

NOTE

It is the responsibility of the customer to consult with

Woodward regarding the selection or specification of any components that impact emissions, performance, or durability.

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Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

LPG Fuel System Operation

The principles outlined below describe the operation of MI-07 on an LPG fuel system.

An LPG fuel system consists of the following components:

• Fuel filter (supplied by customer)

• Electric fuel lock-off solenoid valve

• Fuel pressure regulator/vaporizer

• Two orificed fuel trim valves

• Gas/Air mixer with fixed orifice for trim system and fuel temperature sensor

• Miscellaneous customer-supplied hoses and fittings

Fuel is stored in the customer-supplied LPG tank in saturated liquid phase and enters the fuel system from the tank as a liquid and at tank pressure. Fuel passes through a high-pressure fuel filter and lock-off solenoid, and is then vaporized and regulated down to the appropriate pressure to supply the mixer. The regulator controls the fuel pressure to the gas/air mixer.

Dual Dither Valve

The key to meeting emissions requirements when operating in LPG is the dual dither valve hardware in the fuel system. Similar to the Woodward MI-04 system, the dual dither system modulates the fuel pressure regulator outlet pressure by providing an offset to the regulator secondary stage reference pressure. By adding a second dither valve, or fuel trim valve (FTV), the MI-07 system provides smoother, more accurate control of supply pressure resulting in better control of air fuel ratio and emissions.

This smoother control also minimizes wear on fuel system components such as the regulator diaphragm and lever by significantly reducing the pressure pulsations observed with a single FTV.

Regulator Pressure Offset

Regulator pressure offset is achieved through the use of a fixed orifice and a variable orifice in series. The inlet to the fixed orifice is connected to a mixer port that monitors inlet air pressure (roughly equal to ambient pressure). The outlet of the fixed orifice is connected to both the pressure regulator reference port and the inlet to the two FTVs

(the variable orifice) that act in parallel. The outlets of the FTVs are connected to a port at the mixer outlet, referred to as Air Valve Vacuum (AVV). Thus, by modulating the FTVs, the pressure regulator reference pressure can be varied between mixer inlet pressure and AVV. For a given change in the pressure regulator reference pressure, the pressure regulator outlet pressure changes by the same amount and in the same direction. The end result is that a change in FTV modulation changes the outlet pressure of the regulator/fuel inlet pressure of the mixer, and thus the AFR. A major benefit of this trim system results from the use of mixer inlet pressure and AVV as the reference pressure extremes. The pressure differential across the mixer fuel valve is related to these same two pressures, and thus so is fuel flow. Given this arrangement, the bias pressure delta scales with the fuel cone pressure delta. The result is that the trim system control authority and resolution on AFR stays relatively constant for the entire speed and load range of the engine.

SECM

The Small Engine Control Module (SECM) controls the LPG lock-off solenoid valve and the FTVs. The lock-off solenoid is energized when fueling with LPG and the engine is turning. FTV modulation frequency will be varied as a function of RPM by

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Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

the SECM in order to avoid resonance phenomena in the fuel system. FTV control signals will be altered by the SECM in order to maintain a stoichiometric air-fuel ratio.

Control signals are based primarily on feedback from the exhaust gas oxygen sensor, with an offset for fuel temperature.

MI-07 LP Fuel Filter

After exiting the fuel tank, liquid propane passes through a serviceable inline fuel filter to the electric fuel lock off. Figure 3 shows a typical inline type LP fuel filter manufactured by Century. The primary function of the fuel filter is to remove particles and sediments that have found their way into the tank. The LP fuel filter will not remove heavy end solids and paraffins that build up in LPG fuel systems as a result of vaporization.

Figure 3. Inline LP Fuel Filter

MI-07 Fuel Lock-Off (Electric)

The fuel lock-off is a safety shutoff valve normally held closed by spring pressure. It incorporates an electric solenoid and prevents fuel flow to the regulator/converter when the engine is not in operation. This is the first of three safety locks in the MI-07 system.

Figure 4. Electric Fuel Lock Assembly

In the MI-07 design, power is supplied to the fuel lock-off via the main power relay with the SECM controlling the lock-off ground (earth) connection. The lock-off remains in a normally closed (NC) position until the key switch is activated. This supplies power to the lock-off and the SECM, but will not open the lock-off via the main power relay until the SECM provides the lock-off ground connection. This design gives the SECM full control of the lock-off while providing additional safety by closing the fuel lock-off in the unlikely event of a power failure, wiring failure or module failure.

When the liquid service valve in the fuel container is opened, liquid propane flows through the LP filter and through the service line to the fuel lock-off. Liquid propane enters the lock-off through the 1/4” NPT liquid inlet port and stops with the lock-off in the normally closed position. When the engine is cranking, the main power relay applies power to the lock-off and the SECM provides the lock-off ground causing current to flow through the windings of the solenoid creating a magnetic field. The strength of this magnetic field is sufficient to lift the lock-off valve off of its seat against spring pressure. When the valve is open liquid propane, at tank pressure, flows

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Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

through the lock-off outlet to the pressure regulator/converter. A stall safety shutoff feature is built into the SECM to close the lock-off in case of a stall condition. The

SECM monitors three engine states: Crank - when the crankshaft position sensor detects any engine revolutions; Stall - when the key is in the ON position but the crankshaft position sensor detects no engine revolutions; and Run - when the engine reaches pre-idle RPM. When an operator turns on the key switch the lock-off is opened, but if the operator fails to crank the engine the SECM will close the lock-off after a number of seconds (calibration specific).

N-2007 Pressure Regulator/Vaporizer

The pressure regulator/vaporizer receives liquid LPG from the fuel storage tank, drops the pressure, changes the LPG phase from liquid to vapor, and provides vapor phase

LPG at a regulated outlet pressure to the mixer. To offset the refrigeration effect of the vaporization process, the regulator will be supplied with engine coolant flow sufficient to offset the latent heat of vaporization of the

LPG. A thermostat installed in the coolant supply line maintains regulator outlet coolant temperature at or below 140 o

F (60°C) which minimizes the deposit of fuel contaminants and heavy ends in the regulator and assures a more controlled vaporization process with reduced pressure pulsations.

A higher flow pressure regulator is required on larger engines.

Figure 5. N-2007 Regulator

The regulator is normally closed, requiring a vacuum signal (negative pressure) to allow fuel to flow. This is the second of three safety locks in the MI-07 system. If the engine stops, vacuum signal stops and fuel flow will automatically stop when both the secondary (2 nd

stage) valve and the primary (1 st

stage) valve closes. Unlike most other regulator/converters, the N-2007 primary valve closes with fuel pressure rather than against pressure, extending primary seat life and adding additional safety.

Liquid propane must be converted into a gaseous form in order to be used as a fuel for the engine. When the regulator receives the desired vacuum signal it allows propane to flow to the mixer. As the propane flows through the regulator the pressure is reduced in two stages from tank pressure to slightly less than atmospheric pressure. As the pressure of the propane is reduced, the liquid propane vaporizes and refrigeration occurs inside the regulator due to the vaporization of liquid propane. To replace heat lost to vaporization, engine coolant is supplied by the engine driven water pump and pumped through the regulator. Heat provided by this coolant is transferred through to the fuel vaporization chamber.

N-2007 Operation

(Refer to Figure 6.)

Liquid propane, at tank pressure, enters the N-2007 through the fuel inlet port (1).

Propane liquid then flows through the primary valve (2). The primary valve located at the inlet of the expansion chamber (3), is controlled by the primary diaphragm (4), which reacts to vapor pressure inside the expansion chamber. Two springs are used to apply force on the primary diaphragm in the primary diaphragm chamber (5), keeping the primary valve open when no fuel pressure is present.

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Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

A small port connects the expansion chamber to the primary diaphragm chamber. At the outlet of the expansion chamber is the secondary valve (6). The secondary valve is held closed by the secondary spring on the secondary valve lever (7). The secondary diaphragm controls the secondary lever. When the pressure in the expansion chamber reaches 1.5 psig (10.342 kPa) it causes a pressure/force imbalance across the primary diaphragm (8). This force is greater than the primary diaphragm spring pressure and will cause the diaphragm to close the primary valve.

Since the fuel pressure has been reduced from tank pressure to 1.5 psig (10.342 kPa) the liquid propane vaporizes. As the propane vaporizes it takes on heat from the expansion chamber. This heat is replaced by engine coolant, which is pumped through the coolant passage of the regulator. At this point vapor propane will not flow past the expansion chamber of the regulator until the secondary valve is opened. To open the secondary valve, a negative pressure signal must be received from the air/fuel mixer. When the engine is cranking or running a negative pressure signal

(vacuum) travels through the vapor fuel outlet connection of the regulator, which is the regulator secondary chamber, and the vapor fuel inlet of the mixer. The negative pressure in the secondary chamber causes a pressure/force imbalance on the secondary diaphragm, which overcomes the secondary spring force, opening the secondary valve and allowing vapor propane to flow out of the expansion chamber, through the secondary chamber to the mixer.

Figure 6. Parts View of N-2007 Regulator

Because vapor propane has now left the expansion chamber, the pressure in the chamber will drop, causing the primary diaphragm spring force to re-open the primary valve allowing liquid propane to enter the regulator, and the entire process starts again. This creates a balanced condition between the primary and secondary chambers allowing for a constant flow of fuel to the mixer as long as the demand from the engine is present. The fuel flow is maintained at a constant output pressure, due to the calibrated secondary spring. The amount of fuel flowing will vary depending on how far the secondary valve opens in response to the negative pressure signal generated by the air/fuel mixer. The strength of that negative pressure signal developed by the mixer is directly related to the amount of air flowing through the mixer into the engine. With this process, the larger the quantity of air flowing into the engine, the larger the amount of fuel flowing to the mixer.

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Manual 36553

CA100 Mixer

MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

The mixer is installed above the throttle body and meters gaseous fuel into the airstream at a rate that is proportional to the volumetric flow rate of air. The ratio between volumetric airflow and volumetric fuel flow is controlled by the shaping of the mixer fuel cone and biased by the controllable fuel supply pressure delivered by the pressure regulator. Fuel flow must be metered accurately over the full range of airflows. Pressure drop across the mixer air valve must be minimized to assure maximum power output from the engine.

The mixer fuel inlet is fitted with a thermistor-type temperature sensor. This permits the SECM to correct fuel pressure to compensate for variations in fuel temperature. Left uncorrected, fuel temperature variations can cause significant variations in air fuel ratio.

A higher flow mixer is required on larger engines. A lower flow mixer is required on smaller engines.

Figure 7. CA100 Mixer

CA100 Mixer Operation

Vapor propane fuel is supplied to the CA100 mixer by the N-2007 pressure regulator/converter. The mixer uses a diaphragm type air valve assembly to operate a gas-metering valve inside the mixer. The gas-metering valve is normally closed, requiring a negative pressure (vacuum) signal from a cranking or running engine to open. This is the third of the three safety locks in the MI-07 system. If the engine stops or is turned off, the air valve assembly closes the gas-metering valve, stopping fuel flow past the mixer. The gas-metering valve controls the amount of fuel to be mixed with the incoming air at the proper ratio. The air/fuel mixture then travels past the throttle, through the intake manifold and into the engine cylinders where it is compressed, ignited and burned.

Figure 8. CA100 Mixer Attached to Throttle Body

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Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

(Refer to Figure 9.)

The air/fuel mixer is mounted in the intake air stream between the air cleaner and the throttle. The design of the main body incorporates a cylindrical bore or mixer bore, fuel inlet (1) and a gas discharge jet (2). In the center of the main body is the air valve assembly, which is made up of the air valve (3), the gas-metering valve (4), the air valve diaphragm (5), and air valve spring (6). The gas-metering valve is permanently mounted to the air valve diaphragm assembly with a face seal mounted between the two parts.

When the engine is not running this face seal creates a barrier against the gas discharge jet, preventing fuel flow with the aid (downward force) of the air valve spring. When the engine is cranking it begins to draw in air, creating a negative pressure signal. This negative pressure signal is transmitted through four vacuum ports in the air valve.

Figure 9. Parts View of CA100 Mixer

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Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

A pressure/force imbalance begins to build across the air valve diaphragm between the air valve vacuum (AVV) chamber (above the diaphragm) and atmospheric pressure below the diaphragm. Approximately 6 inches H

2

O (14.945 mbar) of negative pressure is required to overcome the air valve spring force and push the air valve assembly upward off the valve seat. Approximately 24 inches H

2

O (59.781 mbar) pulls the valve assembly to the top of its travel in the full open position.

The amount of negative pressure generated is a direct result of throttle position and the amount of air flowing through the mixer to the engine. At low engine speeds, low

AVV causes the air valve diaphragm assembly to move upward a small amount, creating a small venturi. At high engine speeds, high AVV causes the air valve diaphragm assembly to move much farther creating a large venturi. The variable venturi air/fuel mixer constantly matches venturi size to engine demand.

Figure 10. Bottom View of Air Valve Assembly

Figure 11. CA100 Mixer Installed with Electronic Throttle

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Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

A main mixture adjustment valve on the fuel inlet of the CA100 is not available in the

MI-07 system, however an idle mixture adjustment is incorporated into the mixer

(Figure 12). The idle mixture adjustment is an air bypass port, adjusting the screw all the way in, blocks off the port and enriches the idle mixture. Backing out the idle adjustment screw opens the port and leans the idle mixture. The idle mixture screw is a screw with locking threads that is factory set with a tamper resistant cap installed after adjustment. Accurate adjustment of the idle mixture can be accomplished by adjusting for a specific fuel trim valve (FTV) duty cycle with the Service Tool software or with a voltmeter. NOTE: Adjustments should only be performed by trained

service technicians.

New Photo to Come

Figure 12. Idle Mixture Adjustment Screw

Fuel Trim Valve (FTV)

The Fuel Trim Valve (FTV) is a two-way electric solenoid valve and is controlled by a pulse-width modulated (PWM) signal provided by the SECM. Two FTVs are used to bias the output fuel pressure on the LPG regulator/converter (N-2007), by metering air valve vacuum (AVV) into the atmospheric side of the

N-2007 secondary regulator diaphragm. An orifice balance line connected to the air inlet side of the mixer provides atmospheric reference to the N-2007 when the FTVs are closed. The SECM uses feedback voltage from the O

2

sensor to determine the amount of bias needed to the regulator/converter.

In normal operation the N-2007 maintains fuel flow at a constant output pressure, due to the calibrated secondary spring. The amount of fuel flowing from the N-2007 will vary depending on how far the secondary diaphragm opens the secondary valve in response to the negative pressure signal generated by the air/fuel mixer. One side of the N-2007 secondary diaphragm is referenced to FTV control pressure while the other side of the diaphragm reacts to the negative pressure signal from the mixer. If the pressure on the reference side of the N-2007 secondary diaphragm is reduced, the diaphragm will close the secondary valve until a balance condition exists across the diaphragm, reducing fuel flow and leaning the air/fuel mixture.

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Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

Branch-Tee Fitting

A branch-tee fitting is installed in the atmospheric vent port of the N-2007 with one side of the branch-tee connected to the intake side of the mixer forming the balance line and referencing atmospheric pressure. The other side of the branch-tee fitting connects to the FTV inlet (small housing side). The FTV outlet (large housing connector side) connects to the AVV port. When the FTVs are open AVV is sent to the atmospheric side of the N-2007 secondary diaphragm, which lowers the reference pressure, closing the N-2007 secondary valve and leaning the air/fuel mixture. The

MI-07 system is calibrated to run rich without the FTVs. By modulating (pulsing) the

FTVs the SECM can control the amount of AVV applied to the N-2007 secondary diaphragm. Increasing the amount of time the FTVs remain open (modulation or duty cycle) causes the air/fuel mixture to become leaner; decreasing the modulation (duty cycle) enriches the mixture.

Figure 13. Fuel Trim Valves Connected to MI-07 System

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Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

Electronic Throttle System

The electronic throttle system controls engine output (speed and torque) through electronic control of mass airflow to the engine. Any DC motor-actuated or Limited

Angle Torque motor (LAT)-actuated throttle with less than 5A peak and 2A steady state can be controlled. The TPS must be directly coupled to the throttle shaft for direct shaft position measurement.

A commonly used throttle is the Bosch DV-E5. This throttle is available in a variety of bore sizes to meet specific engine needs: 32mm, 40mm, and 54mm are readily available throttle bore sizes; other sizes are possible. The Bosch throttle is a fully validated automotive component incorporating a brushed DC motor with gear reduction, dual throttle position sensors, throttle plate, and cast aluminum housing. In the event of an electrical disconnection or other related failure, the throttle plate returns to a limp-home idle position at a no-load engine speed above curb idle speed.

This provides sufficient airflow for the engine to move the vehicle on level ground. Any throttle bodies used for MI-07 meet or exceed the specification for the Bosch throttle bodies.

In terms of response, the throttle is capable of fully opening and closing in less than

50 msec. Position resolution and steady state control should be 0.25% of full travel or better.

MI-07 Electronic Throttle

Conventional throttle systems rely on a mechanical linkage to control the throttle valve. To meet fluctuating engine demands a conventional system will typically include a throttle valve actuator designed to readjust the throttle opening in response to engine demand, together with an idle control actuator or idle air bypass valve.

In contrast, the MI-07 system uses electronic throttle control (ETC). The SECM controls the throttle valve based on engine RPM, engine load, and information received from the foot pedal. Two potentiometers on the foot pedal assembly monitor accelerator pedal travel. The electronic throttle used in the MI-07 system is a Bosch

32mm or 40mm electronic throttle body DV-E5 (Figure 14). The DV-E5 is a single unit assembly, which includes the throttle valve, throttle-valve actuator (DC motor) and two throttle position sensors (TPS). The SECM calculates the correct throttle valve opening that corresponds to the driver’s demand, makes any adjustments needed for adaptation to the engine’s current operating conditions and then generates a corresponding electrical (driver) signal to the throttle-valve actuator.

Figure 14. Bosch Electronic Throttle Body

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Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

The MI-07 uses a dual TPS design (TPS

1

and TPS

2

). The SECM continuously checks and monitors all sensors and calculations that effect throttle valve position whenever the engine is running. If any malfunctions are encountered, the SECM’s initial response is to revert to redundant sensors and calculated data. If no redundant signal is available or calculated data cannot solve the malfunction, the SECM will drive the system into one of its limp-home modes or shut the engine down, storing the appropriate fault information in the SECM.

There are multiple limp-home modes available with electronic throttle control:

1. If the throttle itself is suspected of being inoperable, the SECM will remove the power to the throttle motor. When the power is removed, the throttle blade returns to its “default” position, approximately 7% open.

2. If the SECM can still control the throttle but some other part of the system is suspected of failure, the SECM will enter a “Reduced Power” mode. In this mode, the power output of the engine is limited by reducing the maximum throttle position allowed.

3. In some cases, the SECM will shut the engine down. This is accomplished by stopping ignition, turning off the fuel, and disabling the throttle.

Gear Drive

Throttle Plate

DC Drive Motor

Picture courtesy of Robert Bosch GmbH

Figure 15. Throttle Body Assembly Exploded View

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Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

Ignition System

Spark-ignited engines require accurate control of spark timing and spark energy for efficient combustion. The MI-07 ignition system provides this control. The system consists of the following components:

• SECM

• Ignition coil(s) *

• Crankshaft position sensor *

• Crankshaft timing wheel *

• Cam position sensor *

(for sequential ignition or fuel injection only)

• Cam timing wheel *

(for sequential ignition or fuel injection only)

• Spark plugs *

(*) Customer-supplied components

The SECM, through use of embedded control algorithms and calibration variables, determines the proper time to start energizing the coil and fire the spark plug. This requires accurate crank/camshaft position information, an engine speed calculation, coil energy information, and target spark timing. The SECM provides a TTL compatible signal for spark control. The coil must contain the driver circuitry necessary to energize the primary spark coil otherwise an intermediary coil driver device must be provided. The SECM controls spark energy (dwell time) and spark discharge timing.

General Motors (GM) High Voltage Switch (HVS) System

The GM 3.0L engine has a distributed ignition system comprised of one coil and a distributor driven from the engine camshaft. The camshaft rotates at half the speed of the engine thereby guaranteeing that each spark plug will fire once for every two revolutions of the engine.

The GM HVS system provides a control interface that allows external control modules to control engine timing and dwell. When the SECM sends a 5-volt signal to the control interface, the coil control module begins charging the coil. When the SECM signal returns to the ground state, the coil discharges into the distributor, which directs the charge to the appropriate spark plug. In this way, the amount of time the SECM signal is in the high state determines the coil dwell. The moment that the signal returns to the ground state determines when the spark plug fires.

The spark timing cannot be altered by rotating the distributor. The SECM uses the crankshaft position sensor to determine the ignition timing, so changing the position of the distributor will have no effect on the timing.

IGNITION SYSTEM COMPONENTS

In a typical distributed ignition system, a crankshaft position sensor generates a basic timing signal by reading notches on the crankshaft, flywheel, or harmonic balancer.

The crank sensor signal goes to the small engine control module (SECM), where it is used to turn the ignition coil on and off via the GM HVS control interface.

The operation of the ignition system is essentially the same as any other ignition system. The coil has a low primary resistance (0.4 to 0.6 ohms) and steps up the

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Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

primary system voltage from 12 volts to as much as 40,000 volts to produce a spark for the spark plug. The distributor assures that the voltage is directed to the spark plug of the proper cylinder. Resistor spark plugs are generally used to suppress electromagnetic interference (EMI).

MISFIRES

Common ignition system ailments include misfiring, hard starting, or a no start. Spark plugs can still be fouled by oil or fuel deposits, as well as pre-ignition and detonation.

If the crankshaft position sensor fails, the loss of the basic timing signal will prevent the system from generating a spark and the engine will not start or run. A failed driver circuit within the SECM will also prevent proper ignition system operation.

It is important to remember that ignition misfire can also be caused by other factors such as worn or fouled spark plugs, loose or damaged coil connector or terminals, dirty fuel injectors, low fuel pressure, intake vacuum leaks, loss of compression in a cylinder, or even contaminated fuel. These other possibilities should all be ruled out before the distributor control module is replaced.

A SECM controlled engine that cranks but fails to start, in many cases, will often have a problem in the crankshaft or camshaft position sensor circuits. Loss of sensor signals may prevent the SECM from properly synchronizing, thereby preventing the engine from starting and running.

IGNITION SYSTEM CHECKS

The ignition coil can be tested with an ohmmeter. Measure primary and secondary resistance and compare to specifications. If resistance is out of specifications, the coil is bad and needs to be replaced.

Also, pay close attention to the tube that wraps around the spark plug. Cracks can allow voltage to jump to ground causing a misfire. The spark plug terminal should also fit tightly.

If a coil tests bad and is replaced, cleaning the connector and wiring harness terminals of the coil and distributor can often avoid future problems. Corrosion at either place can cause intermittent operation and loss of continuity, which may contribute to component failure. Applying dielectric grease to these connections can help prevent corrosion and assure a good electrical connection.

Magnetic crankshaft position sensors can be tested with an ohmmeter, and the sensor output voltage and waveform can be read with an oscilloscope. The variable reluctance crankshaft position sensor can be checked with an ohmmeter. The resistance of the sensor should be greater than 100

Ω and less than 100kΩ. On most vehicles, a defective crank position sensor will usually set a fault code that can be read with the Service Tool.

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Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

Exhaust System

Heated Exhaust Gas Oxygen Sensors (HEGO)

The MI-07 system utilizes two HEGO (O

2

) sensors. One sensor is a pre-catalyst sensor that detects the amount of oxygen in the exhaust stream and is considered the primary control point. Based upon the O

2 sensor feedback, the MI-07 system supplies a stoichiometric air-fuel ratio to the catalytic converter. The catalytic converter then reduces emissions to the required levels. The second sensor is a post-catalyst sensor that detects the amount of oxygen after the catalyst. This sensor is used as a secondary control point to adjust the pre-catalyst setpoint to ensure proper catalyst conversion efficiency.

Once a HEGO sensor reaches approximately

600°F (316°C), it becomes electrically active. The concentration of oxygen in the exhaust stream determines the voltage produced. If the engine is running rich, little oxygen will be present in the exhaust and voltage output will be relatively high.

Conversely, in a lean situation, more oxygen will be present and a smaller electrical potential will be noticed.

Figure 16. HEGO (O

2

) Sensor

In order for the sensor to become active and create an electrical signal below 600°F

(316°C) a heated element is added to the sensor housing. Two wires provide the necessary 12 Vdc and ground signal for the heater element. A fourth wire provides an independent ground for the sensor. The pre-catalyst sensor heater is powered by the main power relay and is always powered. The post-catalyst sensor heater is powered from an additional relay that is controlled by the SECM. This relay is only energized when the SECM calculates that water condensation in the exhaust system and catalytic muffler prior to the sensor should be evaporated. This is to avoid thermal shock of the sensor that could prematurely fail the sensor.

The HEGO stoichiometric air-fuel ratio voltage target is approximately 500 mV and changes slightly as a function of speed and load. When the pre-catalyst HEGO sensor sends a voltage signal less than 450 mV the SECM interprets the air-fuel mixture as lean. The SECM then decreases the PWM duty cycle sent to the fuel trim valves in order to increase the fuel pressure to the mixer inlet; thus richening air-fuel mixture.

The opposite is true if the SECM receives a voltage signal above 450 mV from the

HEGO. The air-fuel mixture would then be interpreted as being too rich and the SECM would increase the duty cycle of the trim valves.

CAUTION

The HEGO sensors are calibrated to work with the MI-07 control system. Use of alternate sensors may impact performance and the ability of the system to diagnose rich and lean conditions.

Catalytic Muffler

In order to meet 2007 emission requirements a 3-way catalyst is necessary.

The MI-07 control system monitors the exhaust stream pre and post catalyst and uses this information to control the air-fuel mixture. By using the signals from the HEGOs, the SECM can increase or decrease the amount of oxygen in the exhaust by modulating the FTVs and adjusting the air-fuel ratio. This control scheme allows the

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Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

SECM to make sure that the engine is running at the correct air to fuel ratio so that the catalyst can perform as required to meet the emissions certification.

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Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

SECM

The Woodward Small Engine Control Module (SECM) controller has full authority over spark, fuel and air. Utilizing a Freescale micro controller, the SECM has 48 pins of I/O and is fully waterproof and shock hardened. To optimize engine performance and drivability, the SECM uses several sensors for closed loop feedback information. These sensors are used by the

SECM for closed loop control in three main categories:

• Fuel Management

• Load/Speed Management

• Ignition Management

The SECM monitors system parameters and stores any out of range conditions or malfunctions as faults in SECM memory. Engine run hours are also stored in memory.

Stored fault codes can be displayed on the Malfunction Indicator Light (MIL) as flash codes or read by the MI-07 Service Tool software through a Controller Area Network

(CAN) communication link.

Constant battery power (12 Vdc) is supplied through the fuse block to the SECM and the main power relays. Upon detecting a key-switch ON input, the SECM will fully power up and energize the main power relays. The energized main power relays supply 12 Vdc power to the heated element of the oxygen sensors, fuel lock-off, fuel trim valves (FTVs), gasoline injectors, gasoline fuel pump, crank sensor, cam sensor, and the ignition coils. The SECM supplies voltage to the electronic throttle actuator, oil pressure switch, fuel temperature sensor, and the coolant temperature sensor.

Transducer or sensor power (+ 5 Vdc) is regulated by the SECM and supplied to the manifold temperature/air pressure (TMAP) sensor, throttle position sensor (TPS), and the accelerator pedal position sensors (APP

1

& APP

2

). The SECM provides a transducer ground for all the sensors, and a low side driver signal controlling the fuel lock-off, MIL, gasoline injectors, gasoline fuel pump, and FTVs.

Fuel Management

During engine cranking at startup, the SECM provides a low side driver signal to the fuel lock-off, which opens the lock-off allowing liquid propane to flow to the

N-2007 regulator. A stall safety shutoff feature is built into the SECM to close the lockoff in case of a stall condition. The SECM monitors three engine states:

Crank, when the crankshaft position sensor detects any engine revolutions

Stall, when the key is in the ON position but the crankshaft position sensor detects no engine revolutions

Run state, when the engine reaches a calibration specific RPM.

When an operator turns on the key switch the lock-off is opened but if the operator fails to crank the engine, the SECM will close the lock-off after a calibration specific number of seconds.

To maintain proper exhaust emission levels, the SECM uses a heated exhaust gas oxygen sensor (HEGO) mounted before the catalyst, to measure exhaust gas content in the LP gas system. Engine speed is monitored by the SECM through a variable reluctance (VR) sensor or Hall-Effect type sensor. Intake manifold air temperature and absolute pressure are monitored with a (TMAP) sensor. The HEGO voltage is converted to an air/fuel ratio value. This value is then compared to a target value in the SECM. The target value is based on optimizing catalyst efficiency for a given load and speed. The SECM then calculates any corrections that need to be made to the air/fuel ratio.

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Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

The system operates in open loop fuel control mode until the engine has done a certain amount of work. This ensures that the engine and HEGO are sufficiently warmed up to stay in control. In open loop control mode, the FTV duty cycle is based on engine speed and load. Once the HEGO reaches operating temperature the fuel management is in closed loop control mode for all steady state conditions, from idle through full throttle. In closed loop mode, the FTV duty cycle is based on feedback from the HEGO sensor. The system may return to open-loop operation when engine load or engine speed vary beyond a chosen threshold.

The SECM makes any necessary corrections to the air-fuel ratio by controlling the inlet fuel pressure to the air-fuel mixer Reducing the fuel pressure leans the air/fuel mixture and increasing the fuel pressure enriches the air-fuel mixture. Control is achieved by modulating the fuel trim valves.

Throttle Management

Drive-by-wire (DBW) refers to the fact that the MI-07 control system has no mechanical linkage from the operator to the throttle body. Instead, the SECM controls the throttle based on input commands such as foot pedals, speed select switches, or even CAN messages. The SECM monitors the input command request and controls the throttle plate by driving a DC motor connected to the throttle. The DC motor rotates the throttle plate to correspond to the requested load by the operator. The

SECM will override the torque request based on governor configuration and engine safety protocols.

The use of electronic throttle control (ETC) ensures that the engine receives only the correct amount of throttle opening for any given situation, greatly improving idle quality and drivability.

Two throttle position sensors (TPS

1

and TPS

2

), which are integral to the DBW throttle assembly, provide feedback for position control by monitoring the exact position of the throttle valve. See Figure 18.

SECM self-calibration and “cross checking” compares both signals and then checks for errors.

Figure 18. Throttle Position Sensor (TPS) on DV-E5 Throttle

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Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

NOTE

The DV-E5 throttle is not a serviceable assembly. If a

TPS sensor fails, the assembly should be replaced.

Engine Speed Governing Modes

For idle speed control, the idle speed is driven by the SECM. Unlike a mechanical system, the idle speed is not adjustable by the end user. The idle speed is adjusted by the SECM based on engine coolant temperature. At these low engine speeds, the

SECM uses spark and throttle to maintain a constant speed regardless of load.

The system governs engine speed through two modes:

1. Accelerator Pedal Position (APP)

2. All Speed Governor

ACCELERATOR PEDAL POSITION (APP)

In APP mode, the MI-07 system has minimum and maximum speed governing through the SECM and DBW throttle. This mode provides automatic minimum speed

governing at a specified idle speed and maximum speed governing at a specified rated speed. In between these speeds is a manufacturer defined pedal follower function. The pedal vs.TPS request table is manufacturer configurable to provide smooth, seamless drivability.

The MI-07 system eliminates the need for air velocity governors. This substantially increases the peak torque and power available for a given system as shown in

Figure 19. When the engine speed reaches the max governing point the speed is controlled by closing the DBW throttle. Using the DBW throttle as the primary engine speed control allows for a smooth transition into and out of the governor. If excessive over speed is detected, the engine is shut down.

MI-07 System 3.0L LPG & Gasoline Performance Curves

New curves to COME

Figure 19. Peak Torque and Power Available with MI-07 System

ALL SPEED GOVERNOR

This function allows the operator to control the engine through an isochronous governor strategy within the torque limits of the engine. The speed set point can be configured by the manufacturer for the engine operating range.

The set point for the governor can be foot pedal, speed select switches, or CAN message (J1939 PGN [0000] [TSC1] SPN898). These modes can be individually selectable.

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Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

Drive-By-Wire Signal Flow Process

Figure 20. Drive-By-Wire Signal Flow Process

Figure 20 describes the signal flow process of the MI-07 DBW section. The foot pedal assembly uses two potentiometers to detect pedal position. These two signals, accelerator pedal position 1 (APP

1

) and accelerator pedal position 2 (APP

2

) are sent directly to the SECM. The SECM uses a series of algorithms to self calibrate and cross check the input signals. A demand position for the throttle will then be derived and sent to the throttle as a throttle position sensor demand (TPSd). This signal will be processed through a PID (Proportional, Integral, Derivative) controller in the SECM to achieve the appropriate motor-current response then passed to the throttle. The throttle moves to the commanded position and provides a feedback signal from the throttle position sensors (TPS

1

and TPS

2

) to the SECM.

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Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

Ignition Management

In the normal course of events, with the engine operating at the correct temperature in defined conditions, the SECM will use load and engine speed to derive the correct ignition timing. In addition to load and speed there are other circumstances under which the SECM may need to vary the ignition timing, including low engine coolant temperature, air temperature, start-up, and idle speed control.

SECM Electrical Mounting Recommendations

In order to prevent the possibility of any SECM malfunctions due to EMI/RFI emissions, engine packagers and OEMs should follow industry “best practices” and the SECM mounting and harness recommendations listed below:

• The SECM should be mounted in a location that minimizes the amount of EMI the module is exposed to by locating it as far as practical from all high tension components, such as ignition coils, distributors, spark plug wires, etc. It is recommended that the SECM be mounted at least 29.5” (749 mm) away from the distributor and ignition coil, and at least 20” (508 mm) from the nearest plug wire.

• All wiring harnesses should be routed to minimize coupling (both radiated and conducted), and be securely fastened to minimize movement and maintain proper clearance between the SECM and all ignition system components.

• The OEM must ensure that a high-quality ground connection between the

SECM and battery negative (–) is provided and can be maintained for the useful life of the vehicle. This may require the use of star-type washers on all ground lug connections between the SECM and the battery and/or special preparation of all mating surfaces that complete the ground connection in order to ensure that the connection is sound.

Engineering judgment must be exercised on all applications to determine if appropriate measures have been implemented to minimize EMI exposure to the

SECM and associated cabling. The above recommendations do not provide any guarantee of proper system performance.

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Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

SECM / Sensors

The 48-pin Small Engine Control Module (SECM) and sensors provide the computational power, algorithm logic, sensor inputs and control outputs to control the system. The SECM receives signals from the sensors, digitizes these signals, and then, through algorithms and calibration maps, computes the desired output response to effect control of fuel, spark and air to the engine. The

SECM also provides a variety of other functions and features. These include system monitoring and diagnostics to aid in maintaining efficient system operation and auxiliary control.

SECM/sensor inputs and control output specifications are specific to the application, but include a selection of the following:

Analog Inputs

The 48-pin SECM is equipped with sufficient analog inputs for the following sensors.

Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) 1bar MAP, 0 to 5 V

Manifold Air Temperature (MAT)

-40°F to 266°F (-40ºC to 130ºC) range, 48 k

Ω to 85 Ω sensor range

Throttle Position Sensor 1&2 (TPS1 & TPS2) 0 to 5 V

Foot Pedal Position 1&2 (FPP1 & FPP2) 0 to 5 V

Coolant Temperature Sensor (CTS)

-40°F to 266°F (-40ºC to 130ºC) range, 48 k

Ω to 85 Ω sensor range

Fuel Temperature Sensor (FTS)

-40°F to 266°F (-40ºC to 130ºC) range, 48 k

Ω to 57 Ω sensor range

HEGO (3) 0 to 1 V

Auxiliary Analog Input (2) 0 to 5 V

Battery Voltage (Vbatt) (1) 8-18 V

With the exception of battery voltage, all inputs are 0-5 Vdc, ground referenced.

Resolution should be 0.1% or better. Accuracy should be 2% or better.

Frequency/Position Inputs

Crankshaft position

Variable reluctance (2-wire, 200 V pp

max) or 0-5 V Hall Effect with calibration selectable pull-up resistor for open collector sensors

Permits speed resolution of 0.25 RPM and crankshaft position resolution of 0.5º

Camshaft position

Variable reluctance (2-wire, 200 V pp

max) or 0-5 V Hall Effect with calibration selectable pull-up resistor for open collector sensors

Digital Inputs

Oil pressure switch

Normally open, internal pull-up resistor provided to detect external switch to ground

Fuel select switch

Three-position switch for bi-fuel applications to detect gasoline mode, LPG mode, and fuel off (center switch position)

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Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

Ground speed select switch

Permits selecting two different maximum engine speeds

Vswitched

Switched battery voltage

Can Input

Governs requested speed

Speed Switch Input

Two-position switch for RPM governing

Outputs

Saturated injector drivers (4)

10A peak, 45 V max, 1 injector per channel capable of continuous on-time. Driver circuit designed for minimum turn-on/turn-off delay.

Minimum pulse width resolution of 1

μsec

FTV drivers (2)

10A peak, 45V max. To drive an on/off fuel trim valve with a minimum impedance of 5 ohms. Capable of continuous on-time.

Drive circuit designed for minimum turn-on /turn-off delay. FTVs will be pulse width modulated between 8 and 40 Hz with a minimum pulse width resolution of 50

μsec

Fuel lock-off solenoid valve

Low side switch, 10A peak, 4A continuous 45 V max.

Gasoline fuel pump drive

Low side switch, 10A, 4A continuous 45 V max.

Electronic Spark Timing (EST) (4)

TTL compatible outputs. Software configured for distributed ignition system

Throttle control (1)

H-Bridge, 5A peak, 2.5A continuous at 2500 Hz PWM includes current feedback for diagnostic purposes

MIL (Malfunction Indicator Lamp)

Low side switch, sufficient to drive a 7W incandescent lamp continuously

CANBus

CAN 2.0b serial communication for J1939 communications, programming, and diagnostics. Requires proper termination resistance per CAN 2.0b

Crank Defeat Relay

Stops starter from engaging while engine is running

Post-Cat O

2

Sensor Heater Relay

Turns on heater to prevent oxygen sensor damage during warmup

Check Engine Lamp

User-configurable warning lamp

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Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

SECM-48 Wiring Diagrams

CAUTION—PROPER WIRING

To prevent system faults be sure to follow good wiring practices. Poor wiring may cause unexpected or intermittent failures not related to MI-07 components.

NOTE

Always refer to MOR-furnished wiring diagrams for your specific application.

The schematics on the next pages are wiring diagrams for all types of 3.0L engine systems.

Figure 21: Bi-fuel system

Figure 22: LP system

Figure 23: Gasoline system

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Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

DWG NO. 9930-1067

Figure 21. SECM Wiring Diagram for Bi-Fuel System

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Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

Figure 22. SECM Wiring Diagram for LP System

DWG NO. 9930-1068

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Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

DWG NO. 9930-1069

Figure 23. SECM Wiring Diagram for Gasoline System

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Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

Chapter 2.

Gasoline Engines

Gasoline Fuel System

A gasoline fuel system includes the following components:

Gasoline fuel pump*

Fuel filter*

Fuel rail*

Pressure regulator*

Fuel injectors*

Small engine control module (SECM) and related sensors and equipment

(*) Supplied by customer

Multi-Point Injection (MPI) is supplied with this system. However, the SECM lacks sufficient channels to drive each injector individually therefore the injectors are driven in batches of two (1 and 4, 2 and 5, 3 and 6). Fuel injection pressure and flow rate depend on engine-specific fuel injection requirements. A variety of regulators and injectors can be used to fit individual needs. The gasoline fuel pressure regulator is a one-way, non-return configuration. All gasoline specific components are automotive production parts and validated to strict automotive standards. Four (4) injection channels are supported by the SECM but only three are used in this application.

Use of unleaded gasoline of 87 octane or higher is recommended for optimal performance of the MI-07 system.

Gasoline Fuel System Specifications

Fuel

87 octane (R+M)/

2

method automotive grade fuel

Fuel System

One-way returnless

Fuel Pump

Minimum of 200 ml/min at rated pressure

Fuel Pressure

Regulator

3 bar

Injectors

Bosch High Impedance (OEM installed)

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Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

Chapter 3.

Specifications

LP Fuel System Requirements

Operating Temperature

Long-term Storage

Temperature

Short-term Storage

Temperature (Heat Soak)

LPG Composition

Requirements

-20 °F to 221°F [-29 °C to 105 °C]

-40 °F to 140 °F [-40 °C to 60 °C]

257 °F [125 °C]

HD5 / HD10 LPG. Failure to use fuel compliant with HD5 or

HD10 standards will void the user warranty.

Fuel Filter Micron Size

10 micron or better at 99% efficiency

Environmental / Electrical Specifications

Ambient Operating

Temperature

LPG Fuel Temperature

Operating Voltage

Over Voltage Operation

-20 °F to 221°F [-29 °C to 105 °C]

-20 °F to 120 °F [-29 °C to 49 °C]

(Due to the low vapor pressure of LPG below -20 °F (-29 °C), repeated cranking to start the engine may be required

8-16 Vdc

18 Vdc for less than 5 minutes

24 Vdc for less than 1 minute

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Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

N-2007 Pressure Regulator

Specifications

Fuel Supply Pressure

10 psi to 250 psi (68.95 kPa to 1723.69 kPa)

Fuel Inlet Fitting

Fuel Outlet Fitting

1/4” NPT

One 3/4” NPT plug. One 3/4" NPT to 5/8” hose fitting.

Fuel Supply Temperature at Tank Outlet

-20 °F to 120 °F [-29 °C to 49 °C]

Primary Pressure Tap

Max Flow

Coolant Flow to Vaporizer

Fuel Outlet Pressure

Setpoints

1/8” NPT with plug

50 lbm/hr LPG

> 1.0 gpm/100bhp, equipped with 140 °F (60 °C) thermostat

-0.7 ± 0.2 inH

2

O @ 1.7 lbm/hr LPG

(-1.744 ± 0.498 mbar) @ 1.7 lbm/hr LPG)

-2.0 ± 0.2 inH

2

O @ 50 lbm/hr LPG

(-4.982 ± 0.498 mbar) @ 50 lbm/hr LPG)

Mounting

Regulator should be installed with centerline of outlet at least 15° below horizontal to permit drainage of any liquid precipitates from LPG fuel.

Diaphragm should be vertically oriented.

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Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

CA100 Mixer Specifications

Fuel

LPG

Fuel Inlet Fitting

Air Intake Flange

Mixer Mounting Flange

Reference Pressure Ports

Air Valve Vacuum (AVV)

Port Size

5/8” hose to 1/2” NPT fitting.

Fuel inlet fitted with Delphi temperature sensor

2.25” (57.15mm) ID inlet, four #10-24 screws in

1.94” (49.28mm) square pattern

1.87” (47.49mm ID outlet, four #12-24 screws arranged in a rectangular pattern

Two 1/8” NPT ports. Pressure readings must be identical within 0.25 inH

2

O (0.623 mbar) at all airflows.

1/4-28 UNF

Fuel Inlet Adjustments

Idle Air Adjustment

Mounting

None

None

Suitable for on-engine mounting in vertical orientation

Electronic Throttle System Specifications

Minimum Electrical

Resistance of Throttle Actuator

1.5 ohms

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Manual 36553

Operating Temperature

MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

SECM Specifications

-20 °F to 221°F [-29 °C to 105 °C]

Long-term Storage Temperature

Short-term Storage Temperature

(Heat Soak)

-40 °F to 140 °F [-40 °C to 60 °C]

257 °F [125 °C]

Operating Voltage

Operating Environment

8-16 Vdc

SECM microprocessor may reset at voltages below 6.3 Vdc

On-engine mounting, underhood automotive. Capable of withstanding spray from a pressure washer.

Fuel Trim Valve (FTV) Specifications

Actuator Type

Operating Voltage

On/off two-position valve compatible with LPG.

8-16 Vdc

Ignition System Specifications

Coil Type

Coil Supply Voltage

Minimum Open Circuit Voltage

Inductive

8-16 Vdc

> 30 kV

35 mJ

Minimum Coil Energy

Maximum Dwell Time

Operating Temperature

Long-term Storage

Temperature

Short-term Storage

Temperature

(Heat Soak)

4 msec

-20 °F to 221°F [-29 °C to 105 °C]

-40 °F to 140 °F [-40 °C to 60 °C]

257 °F [125 °C]

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Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

System Control Performance Specifications

Power /Torque

The MI-07 system maximizes engine power and torque while meeting customerspecific needs for emissions, fuel consumption, durability, and drivability. Bear in mind that engine power is dependent on many variables other than the fuel control system, i.e., compression ratio, friction, valve timing, etc.

Exhaust Emissions

MI-07 is capable of meeting EPA 2007 LSI engine emission standards when operating properly with an approved three-way catalyst. Emission standards must be met on both the LSI engine off-highway transient emissions test cycle and the

ISO 8178 type C2 steady-state emissions test cycle.

The fuel control logic, for both LPG and gasoline, employs a closed-loop exhaust gas oxygen control algorithm in order to compensate for fuel system tolerances, aging, altitude, and fuel composition. The algorithm utilizes dual heated exhaust gas oxygen (HEGO) sensors with an output that switches high and low at stoichiometry. When operated with LPG, the control logic compensates for variations in fuel temperature as measured at the mixer inlet.

Drivability / Transient Response

The engine will meet requirements of the EPA LSI engine transient emissions test cycle. It should start, run, accelerate, decelerate, and stop without hesitation or miss-fire.

Low Idle Speed

The low idle speed setpoint ranges between 500 RPM and 800 RPM, as defined by the OEM during calibration.

Maximum Speed / High Idle

The maximum governed speed setpoint ranges between 1800 RPM and 3000

RPM, as defined by the OEM during calibration.

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Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

Chapter 4.

Recommended Maintenance

Suggested maintenance requirements for an engine equipped with an MI-07 fuel system are contained in this section. The operator should, however, develop a customized maintenance schedule using the requirements listed in this section and any other requirements listed by the engine manufacturer.

Maintenance Tests & Inspections

Test Fuel System for Leaks

• Obtain a leak check squirt bottle or pump spray bottle.

• Fill the bottle with an approved leak check solution.

• Spray a generous amount of the solution on the fuel system fuel lines and connections, starting at the storage container.

• Wait approximately 15-60 seconds, then perform a visual inspection of the fuel system. Leaks will cause the solution to bubble.

• Listen for leaks.

• Smell for LPG odor which may indicate a leak.

• Repair any leaks before continuing.

• Crank the engine through several revolutions. This will energize the fuel lockoff and allow fuel to flow to the pressure regulator/converter. Apply additional leak check solution to the regulator/ converter fuel connections and housing.

Repeat leak inspection as listed above.

• Repair any fuel leaks before continuing.

Inspect Engine for Fluid Leaks

• Start the engine and allow it to reach operating temperatures.

• Turn the engine off.

• Inspect the entire engine for oil and/or coolant leaks.

• Repair as necessary before continuing.

Inspect Vacuum Lines and Fittings

• Visually inspect vacuum lines and fittings for physical damage such as brittleness, cracks and kinks. Repair/replace as required.

• Solvent or oil damage may cause vacuum lines to become soft, resulting in a collapsed line while the engine is running.

• If abnormally soft lines are detected, replace as necessary.

Inspect Electrical System

• Check for loose, dirty or damaged connectors and wires on the harness including: fuel lock-off, TMAP sensor, O

2

sensors, electronic throttle, control relays, fuel trim valves, crank position sensor, and cam position sensor.

• Repair and/or replace as necessary.

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Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

Inspect Foot Pedal Operation

• Verify foot pedal travel is smooth without sticking.

Check Coolant Level

• The items below are a general guideline for system checks. Refer to the engine manufacturer’s specific recommendations for proper procedures.

• Engine must be off and cold.

WARNING—PROPER USE

Never remove the pressure cap on a hot engine.

• The coolant level should be equal to the “COLD” mark on the coolant recovery tank.

• Add approve coolant to the specified level if the system is low.

Inspect Coolant Hoses

• Visually inspect coolant hoses and clamps. Remember to check the two coolant lines that connect to the pressure regulator/converter.

• Replace any hose that shows signs of leakage, swelling, cracking, abrasion or deterioration.

Inspect Battery System

• Clean battery outer surfaces with a mixture of baking soda and water.

• Inspect battery outer surfaces for damage and replace as necessary.

• Remove battery cables and clean, repair and/or replace as necessary.

Inspect Ignition System

• Remove and inspect the spark plugs. Replace as required.

• Remove and inspect distributor cap. Check for cracks or abnormal wear on the output contacts. Replace as required.

• Remove and inspect distributor rotor. Check for abnormal wear on the rotor arm contact. Replace as required.

• Inspect the ignition coil for cracks and heat deterioration. Replace as required.

Replace Spark Plugs

• Using a gentle twisting motion, remove the high voltage leads from the spark plugs. Replace any damaged leads.

• Remove the spark plugs.

• Gap the new spark plugs to the proper specifications.

• Apply anti-seize compound to the spark plug threads and install.

• Re-install the high voltage leads.

CAUTION

Do not over tighten the spark plugs.

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Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

Replace LP Fuel Filter Element

Park the lift truck in an authorized refueling area with the forks lowered, parking brake applied and the transmission in Neutral.

1. Close the fuel shutoff valve on the LP-fuel tank. Run the engine until the fuel in the system runs out and the engine stops.

2. Turn off the ignition switch.

3. Scribe a line across the filter housing covers, which will be used for alignment purposes when re-installing the filter cover.

Filter

Housing

Scribe Point

FUEL FILTER DISASSEMBLY (Steps 4-7)

4. Remove the cover retaining screws (1).

5. Remove top cover (2), magnet (3), spring (4), and filter element (7) from bottom cover (5).

6. Replace the filter element (7).

7. Check bottom cover O-ring seal (6) for damage. Replace if necessary.

8. Re-assemble the filter assembly aligning the scribe lines on the top and bottom covers.

9. Install the cover retaining screws, tightening the screws in an opposite sequence across the cover.

10. Open the fuel valve by slowly turning the valve counterclockwise.

11. Crank the engine several revolutions to open the fuel lock-off. DO NOT

START THE ENGINE. Turn the ignition key switch to the off position.

12. Check the filter housing, fuel lines and fittings for leaks. Repair as necessary.

5

6

4

7

2

3

1

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Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

Testing Fuel Lock-off Operation

• Start engine.

• Locate the electrical connector for the fuel lock (A).

• Disconnect the electrical connector.

• The engine should run out of fuel and stop within a short period of time.

NOTE

The length of time the engine runs on trapped fuel vapor increases with any increase in distance between the fuel lock-off and the pressure regulator/converter.

• Turn the ignition key switch off and re-connect the fuel lock-off connector.

New photo to COME

Figure 24. MI-07 System Installed on GM 3.0L Engine

Pressure Regulator/Converter Inspection

• Visually inspect the pressure regulator/converter (B) housing for coolant leaks.

• Refer to Chapter 5 if the pressure regulator/converter requires replacement.

Fuel Trim Valve Inspection (FTV)

• Visually inspect the fuel trim valves (C) for abrasions or cracking. Replace as necessary.

• To ensure a valve is not leaking a blow-by test can be performed.

1. With the engine off, disconnect the electrical connector to the FTVs.

2. Disconnect the vacuum line from the FTVs to the pressure regulator/converter at the converter’s tee connection.

3. Lightly blow through the vacuum line connected to the FTVs.

Air should not pass through the FTVs when de-energized.

If air leaks past the FTVs when de-energized, replace the FTVs.

Inspect Air/Fuel Valve Mixer Assembly

• Refer to Chapter 5 for procedures regarding the LP mixer (D).

Inspect for Intake Leaks

• Visually inspect the intake throttle assembly (E), and intake manifold for looseness and leaks. Repair as necessary.

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Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

Inspect Throttle Assembly

• Visually inspect the throttle assembly motor housing for coking, cracks, and missing cover-retaining clips. Repair and/or replace as necessary.

NOTE

Refer to Chapter 5 for procedures on removing the mixer and inspecting the throttle plate.

Checking the TMAP Sensor

• Verify that the TMAP sensor (F) is mounted tightly into the manifold or manifold adapter (E), with no leakage.

• If the TMAP is found to be loose, remove the TMAP retaining screw and the

TMAP sensor from the manifold adapter.

• Visually inspect the TMAP O-ring seal for damage. Replace as necessary.

• Apply a thin coat of an approved silicon lubricant to the TMAP O-ring seal.

• Re-install the TMAP sensor into the manifold or manifold adapter and securely tighten the retaining screw.

Inspect Engine for Exhaust Leaks

• Start the engine and allow it to reach operating temperatures.

• Perform visual inspection of exhaust system from the engine all the way to the tailpipe. Any leaks, even after the post-catalyst oxygen sensor, can cause the sensor output to be effected (due to exhaust pulsation entraining air upstream). Repair any/all leaks found. Ensure the length from the postcatalyst sensor to tailpipe is the same as original factory.

• Ensure that wire routing for the oxygen sensors is still keeping wires away from the exhaust system. Visually inspect the oxygen sensors to detect any damage.

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Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

Maintenance Schedule

NOTE

The MI-07 fuel system was designed for use with LPG fuel that complies with HD5 or HD10 LPG fuel standards. Use of noncompliant LPG fuel may require more frequent service intervals and will disqualify the user from warranty claims.

INTERVAL HOURS

CHECK POINT

Daily

Every 250

Hours or 1 month

Every 500

Hours or

3 months

Every

1000

Hours or

6 months

Every

1500

Hours or

9 months

Every

2500

Hours or

1 year

Test fuel system for leaks.

Inspect engine for fluid leaks.

Inspect all vacuum lines and fittings.

Inspect electrical system; check for loose, dirty, or damaged wires and connections.

Inspect isolation mounts on engine control module for cracks and wear; replace as necessary.

Inspect all fuel fittings and hoses.

Inspect foot pedal travel and operation.

Replace timing belt

Check for MIL lamp test at key-on. If MIL lamp remains illuminated (indicating a fault), use pedal to recover fault code(s). Repair faults.

General Maintenance

Prior to any service or maintenance activity

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Check coolant level.

Inspect coolant hoses and fittings for leaks, cracks, swelling, or deterioration.

X

Engine Coolant

X

Inspect battery for damage and corroded cables.

Inspect ignition system.

Replace spark plugs

Engine Ignition

Fuel Lock-Off/Filter

X

X

X

Replace LP fuel filter element.

Inspect lock-off and fuel filter for leaks.

Ensure lock-off stops fuel flow when engine is off.

X

X

X

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Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

CHECK POINT

INTERVAL HOURS

Every

Every 250 Every 500

1000

Daily Hours or 1 Hours or

Hours or month 3 months

Pressure Regulator/Converter

6 months

X

X

Every

1500

Hours or

9 months

Every

2500

Hours or

1 year

Test regulator pressures.

Inspect pressure regulator vapor hose for deposit build-up.

Clean or replace as necessary.

Inspect regulator assembly for fuel/coolant leaks.

X

X

Fuel Trim Valve

Inspect valve housing for wear, cracks or deterioration.

Ensure valve seals in the closed position when the engine is off.

Replace FTV. When indicated by MIL

Carburetor

X

Check air filter indicator.

Check for air leaks in the filter system.

Inspect air/fuel valve mixer assembly for cracks, loose hoses, and fittings. Repair or replace as necessary.

Check for vacuum leaks in the intake system including manifold adapter and mixer to throttle adapter.

Repair or replace throttle assembly.

Inspect air filter.

Replace air filter element.

Check TMAP sensor for tightness and leaks.

X

X

When indicated by MIL

X

X

X

X

X

X

Exhaust & Emission

Inspect engine for exhaust leaks.

Replace PCV valve and breather element.

Replace HEGO sensors

X

When indicated by MIL

Gasoline Engines

X

Replace gasoline fuel filter element.

Inspect gasoline fuel system for leaks.

Confirm gasoline supply pressure is correct.

X

Pressure should be 45-55 psig (310.26-379.21 kPa)

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Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

Chapter 5.

Installation Procedures

WARNING—PROPER USE

LP gas is highly flammable. To prevent personal injury, keep fire and flammable materials away from the lift truck when work is done on the fuel system.

Gas vapor may reduce oxygen available for breathing, cause headache, nausea, dizziness and unconsciousness and lead to injury or death. Always operate the forklift in a well ventilated area.

Liquid propane may cause freezing of tissue or frostbite. Avoid direct contact with skin or tissue; always wear appropriate safety protection including gloves and safety glasses when working with liquid propane.

CAUTION

The regulator/converter and mixer are part of a certified system complying with EPA and CARB 2007 requirements. Only trained, certified technicians should perform disassembly, service or replacement of the regulator/converter or mixer.

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Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

Hose Connections

Proper operation of the closed loop control greatly depends on the correct vacuum hose routing and fuel line lengths. Refer to the connection diagram below for proper routing and maximum hose lengths when reinstalling system components.

NOTE: Preferred mounting of regulator is off engine.

Hose Specifications

Vacuum hose to comply to SAE 1403 Type L or SAE J30 R7 R8 / EPDM textile reinforced / -40

° F to +257° F (-40° C +125° C / Inside Diameter: 7/32” (5.56mm)

Figure 25. Hose Connections for 3.0L Engines

DIAGRAM NOTES

1

2

Trim valves must be positioned vertically with flow in direction shown

Fuel outlet must be min 15

° below horizontal position

3

Only one 90

° fitting permissible on vapor fuel line between mixer and regulator (As shown the temp sensor adaptor is considered the one 90

° fitting.)

9

Setting Idle Adjustment:

1. Set idle adjustment to correct setting.

2. Lock with supplied set screw.

3. Cap after adjustment and locking screw.

1

N-2007 Regulator

2

Plastic WYE Fitting

(black color) for 1/4”

(6.35mm) ID Tube

Hose

6

10

7

8

9

DWG NO 5555-1206 temperature)

Nipple (.625 hex

4mp, 2.5L steel)

Solenoid (AFS Lock

Off Valve)

Brass Tee Fitting.

1/4 Tube x 1/8

NPTF x 1/4 Tube

4

7

Vapor fuel fittings

(regulator and mixer) must have minimum ID of 0.59” (15mm)

Vapor hose length to be as short as possible and have no restrictions for best regulator performance

3

4

Valve (TEV Bosch

Canister)

Plastic WYE Fitting

(blue color) for 1/4”

(6.35mm) ID Tube

Hose

11

12

1/4” (6.35mm) hose barb to 1/8” (3.2mm) male pipe, 125HBL,

.062 flow ID

CA100 Mixer

1/4-28 UNF x 1/4”

(6.35mm) hose barb

5

Adapter

(temperature sensor)

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Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

Removal and Installation of N-2007

LP Regulator/Converter

Follow the procedures below for removal and reinstallation of the N-2007 regulator in certified systems.

N-2007 Removal Steps

Refer to Figure 28.

1. Close the liquid outlet valve in the forklift cylinder or fuel storage container.

2. Purge the system of fuel by starting the engine and running until all trapped fuel in the system is exhausted and the engine shuts down.

3. Key switch in “OFF” position.

4. Remove the fuel inlet line (1) from the lock-off, the two vacuum lines (2) from the branch-tee fitting in the regulator vent and disconnect the lockoff connector (3).

5. Remove the four rear-mounting bolts that hold the regulator to the support bracket. This will allow easier access to the remaining hose clamps.

6. Remove the two cooling lines (4) from the regulator. NOTE: Either drain

the coolant system or clamp off the coolant lines as close to the regulator

as possible to avoid a coolant spill when these lines are disconnected.

7. Remove the fuel vapor outlet hose (5) from the regulator.

8. Remove the nipple extension (6) with the lock-off from the regulator.

Figure 26. N-2007 Regulator Installed on Engine

N-2007 Installation Steps

Refer to Figure 26.

1. Install the nipple extension (6) with the lock-off to the regulator.

2. Install the fuel vapor outlet hose (5) to the regulator.

3. Install the two cooling lines (4) to the regulator.

4. Install the four rear-mounting bolts that hold the regulator to the support bracket. Use a torque wrench and tighten each bolt to 60-70 lbf-in

(6.78-7.91 N-m).

5. Install the fuel inlet line (1) to the lock-off, the two vacuum lines (2) to the branch-tee fitting in the regulator vent and re-connect the lock-off connector (3).

6. Open the liquid outlet valve in the forklift cylinder or fuel storage container.

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Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

Removal and Installation of CA100 Mixer

Follow the procedures below for removal and reinstallation of the CA100 mixer in certified systems.

CA100 Certified Mixer Removal Steps

Refer to Figure 27.

1. Close the liquid outlet valve in the forklift cylinder or fuel storage container.

2. Purge the system of fuel by starting the engine and running until all trapped fuel in the system is exhausted and the engine shuts down.

3. Key switch in “OFF” position.

4. Remove the air cleaner hose (1).

5. Mark the two vacuum lines (2) to the mixer for identification, as they must be reinstalled correctly for proper operation. Remove the two vacuum lines.

6. Remove vapor fuel inlet line (3) from the fuel temperature sensor fitting (4).

7. Disconnect the fuel temperature sensor connector (5).

8. Disconnect the wires leading to the electronic throttle body by pinching the lock tabs on either side of the wiring harness connector. (See Figure 28 for location of connector.)

9. Loosen the four bolts (6) that secure the mixer/adapter/throttle body assembly to the intake manifold.

10. Remove the mixer (9), the adapter (7), and the throttle body (8) as an assembly by gently pulling upwards. Take care not to drop anything down the intake manifold.

11. Gently wiggle and pull to separate mixer and adapter from the throttle body. Take note of the adapter orientation on the mixer, as it must be reinstalled correctly for proper fit on the throttle.

12. Remove the four mounting screws that attach the throttle body adapter to the mixer.

13. Remove the fuel temperature sensor (not shown) from the tee (4).

14. Remove the fuel temperature sensor fitting from the mixer. Take note of the fitting’s orientation on the mixer, as it must be reinstalled correctly for proper fit.

15. Remove the short vacuum port barb from the mixer. (See Figure 29 for location of port barb on mixer.)

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New photo to COME

Figure 27. CA100 Mixer Installed on Engine

Wiring

Harness

Connection

O-Ring

Spacer

Figure 28. O-Ring and Spacer Within Mixer Adapter Assembly

New Photo to COME

Figure 29. Throttle Adapter Mount Screws & Vacuum Port Barbs

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Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

CA100 Mixer Installation Steps

Refer to Figure 27.

1. Install the vacuum port barb onto the mixer (9).

2. Install the fuel temperature sensor fitting (4) onto the mixer.

3. Install the fuel temperature sensor into the fitting.

4. Install the four mounting screws that attach the throttle adapter (7) to the mixer. See Figure 29.

5. Position the mixer/adapter assembly onto the throttle body (8), then drop in the four mounting bolts (6) and gently push down on the assembly until it rests on the throttle body. Be careful not to pinch the

O-ring.

(See Figure 28.)

6. Attach the mixer/throttle body assembly to the intake manifold, making sure gasket is in place. Tighten the four mounting bolts.

7. Connect the wiring harness to the throttle body. (See Figure 28 for location of connector.) Connect the fuel temperature sensor connector

(5) to the sensor.

8. Install the vapor fuel inlet line (3) to the fuel temperature sensor fitting.

9. Install the two vacuum lines (2) to the mixer using the previous marks for identification. Vacuum lines must be installed correctly for proper operation.

10. Install the air cleaner hose (1).

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Chapter 6.

Tests and Adjustments

WARNING—PROPER USE

LP gas is highly flammable. To prevent personal injury, keep fire and flammable materials away from the lift truck when work is done on the fuel system.

Gas vapor may reduce oxygen available for breathing, cause headache, nausea, dizziness and unconsciousness and lead to injury or death. Always operate the forklift in a well ventilated area

Liquid propane may cause freezing of tissue or frostbite. Avoid direct contact with skin or tissue; always wear appropriate safety protection including gloves and safety glasses when working with liquid propane.

CAUTION

The regulator/converter and mixer are part of a certified system complying with EPA and CARB 2007 requirements. Only trained, certified technicians should perform disassembly, service or replacement of the regulator/converter or mixer.

N-2007 Regulator Service Testing

For checking the N-2007 regulator/converter operation, the following tests can be performed (See Chapter 5 for removal/installation of the N-2007 regulator). To check the secondary regulation (output) a simple vacuum hand pump can be used to simulate the vacuum signal transmitted from the air/fuel mixer when the engine is running. See listing below for required hardware.

Break-Off Test

Secondary Stage Test Hardware

1. Hand vacuum pump

2. Regulator vapor outlet test fitting 3/4” NPT x 1/4” hose barb

3. Union Tee 1/4” NPT with three 1/4” NPT x 1/4” hose barb

5. 0-3” WC Magnehelic gauge (inches of water column)

Secondary Stage (Break-Off) Test

1. Connect the vacuum pump, the Magnehelic gauge, and the regulator vapor outlet to the Union Tee fitting (Figure 30). Make sure there is no leakage at any of the fittings.

2. Using the vacuum pump slowly apply enough vacuum to measure above

-2” WC on the gauge. This vacuum signal opens the secondary valve in the N-2007 regulator/converter.

3. Release the vacuum pump lever and you will see the gauge needle start falling back toward zero. When the pressure drops just below the specified break-off pressure (-0.5 +/- 0.35 “ WC) of the secondary spring, the needle should stop moving.

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4. At this point the secondary valve should close. If the secondary valve seat or the secondary diaphragm is leaking the gauge needle will continue to fall toward zero (proportional to the leak size). An excessively rich air/fuel mixture can be caused by a secondary valve seat leak and the regulator should be replaced.

Figure 30. Secondary Stage Test Connection

Pressure Test

Primary Stage Test Hardware

1. Shop air pressure regulator adjusted to 100 psi

2. Shop air hose fitting (1/4” NPT to air hose)

4. Test gauge fitting (1/16” NPT x 1/4” hose barb)

5. Vacuum hose or vinyl tubing

6. 0-60” WC Magnehelic gauge (inches of water column)

Primary Stage Pressure Test

1. Remove the primary test port plug from the side of the regulator and install the 1/16” NPT hose barb fitting (Figure 31).

2.

Connect a compressed air line (shop air ~100 psi) to the liquid propane fuel inlet of the N-2007 regulator (Figure 31).

Figure 31. Primary Stage Test Connection

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3. Apply compressed air, wait for air to exit the hose barb in the test port, and then connect the Magnehelic gauge (Figure 32) to the hose barb using the vacuum hose or vinyl tubing. This prevents the gauge from reading maximum pressure due to the large velocity of compressed air entering the primary chamber.

4. Make sure there is no leakage at any of the fittings. The static pressure should read between 40-60” of water column on the Magnehelic gauge and maintain a constant pressure for 60 seconds.

Figure 32. Magnehelic Gauge Connection to Hose Barb

5. If the pressure reading begins to increase, a leak is most likely present at the primary valve, either the primary valve o-ring or the valve itself. If a leak is present the regulator is defective.

6. If the pressure begins to decrease, the secondary seat is probably not making an adequate seal and is leaking. The regulator is defective.

7. If the test is successful, re-install the primary test port plug and check the fittings for leaks. See Chapter 5 for installation of the N-2007 regulator.

NOTE

The N-2007 primary stage pressure can also be tested at idle on a running engine. The N-2007 primary pressure should be between

40 inH20 (99.635 mbar) and 55 inH20 (136.999 mbar) at 750 RPM, idle.

WARNING

LP gas is highly flammable. To prevent personal injury, keep fire

and flammable materials away from the lift truck when work is done on the fuel system.

Gas vapor may reduce oxygen available for breathing, cause

headache, nausea, dizziness and unconsciousness and lead to injury or death. Always operate the forklift in a well ventilated area

Liquid propane may cause freezing of tissue or frostbite. Avoid direct contact with skin or tissue; always wear appropriate safety protection including gloves and safety glasses when working with liquid propane.

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AVV (Air Valve Vacuum) Testing

Purpose of Test

Check for excessive or inadequate pressure drop across CA100 mixer.

AVV Test Hardware

1. Union Tee fitting, 1/4” (6.35mm) NPT with three 1/4” (6.35mm) NPT x 1/4” (6.35mm) hose barbs.

H

2

O differential pressure Magnehelic gauge.

AVV Test

1. Install Union Tee fitting in the hose between the FTVs and the AVV fitting. Connect this fitting to the low pressure port of the Magnehelic gauge (Figure 33).

2. Leave high pressure port of the Magnehelic gauge exposed to ambient pressure (Figure 33).

3. With the engine fully warmed up and running at idle (750 RPM) place the transmission in Neutral. The AVV should be between 5” and 8” H

2

O of pressure vacuum.

4. If the measured pressure drop is excessively high, check for sticking or binding of the diaphragm air valve assembly inside the mixer. Replace mixer if necessary.

5. If the measured pressure drop is low, check for vacuum leaks in the manifold, throttle, mixer, TMAP sensor and attached hoses.

Figure 33. Magnehelic Gauge Connection

Ignition Timing Adjustment

With the MI-07 system, ignition-timing advance is controlled by the SECM.

The initial ignition timing needs to be set by the MOR. This setup requires a specific technique for each engine installation.

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Connection of MI-07 Service Tool

To use the Service Tool, a Universal Serial Bus (USB) to Controller Area

Network (CAN) communication adapter by KVaser will be required along with a

Crypt Token (Figure 34). The Crypt Token acts as a security key allowing the laptop to retrieve the necessary data from the SECM.

1. Install the Crypt Token in an available USB port in the computer (Figure

35).

2. With the ignition key in the OFF position, connect the KVaser communication cable from a second USB port on the computer to the CAN communications cable on the engine.

(*If your laptop computer does not have a second USB port an appropriate USB hub will need to

be used).

3. Connect a timing light to the engine.

4. Turn the ignition key to the ON position (Do Not Start the

Engine).

5. Launch the MotoView program on your computer and open the Service Tool display (Figure 36).

Figure 34. KVaser

Communication Adapter

Crypt

Token

Figure 35. Crypt Token Installed on Laptop

Figure 36. Opening the Service Tool Display

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Idle Mixture Adjustment

NOTE

Be sure engine is fully warm (ECT>180°F [82°C]) before performing the idle mixture adjustment.

The CA100 mixer requires adjustment of the idle mixture screw to assure optimal emissions and performance. This adjustment accounts for minor part-to-part variations in the fuel system and assures stable performance of the engine at idle.

Once adjusted, the idle mixture screw is sealed with a tamper proof cap, after which it need not be adjusted for the life of the vehicle.

Therefore, the only situations in which the idle mixture screw needs to be adjusted are when the engine is initially fitted with a fuel system at the factory and following the field replacement of the mixer. Under these situations, follow the procedures below for adjustment of the idle mixture screw.

Factory Test Preparation:

1. Install the MI-07 fuel system, wiring harness and SECM-48 control module on the engine.

2. All coolant hoses should be attached, filled with coolant and bled to remove any air.

3. Attach LPG fuel lines.

4. Attach wiring harness to battery power.

5. Attach exhaust system.

6. If present, set fuel select switch to LPG fuel.

When operated at the factory, it is critical to simulate the airflow found on a forklift at idle as nearly as possible in order to achieve the proper air valve lift in the mixer. It may be necessary to place a load on the engine to achieve the required airflow without overspeeding the engine. Means of achieving this load include: a) Place an electrical load on the alternator. The alternator should be able to briefly hold loads of approximately 1.2 kW. b) Attach the engine to a dynamometer.

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Factory Adjustment Procedure:

NOTE

Be sure engine is fully warm (ECT>180°F [82°C]) before performing the idle mixture adjustment.

1. Operating the engine on LPG fuel, start the engine and permit the engine to warm up until the coolant temperature (ECT on Mototune display) is approximately 180°F (82 o

C).

2. Set APP input to minimum.

3. Adjust the load until engine speed reaches 750 RPM.

4. Mototune display parameter LP Fuel Control must display “Closed Loop.”

5. Use the Mototune Service Tool to monitor Duty Cycle % on the Mototune display.

6. To adjust the idle mixture screw, use a 3/16” hex or Allen-type wrench.

Turning the screw in (clockwise) should increase the duty cycle; turning the screw out (counter-clockwise) should decrease the duty cycle.

7. Adjust the idle mixture screw on the mixer until a reading of 40-47% is reached for the FTV Duty Cycle in Closed Loop Idle (Figure 37).

Closed Loop

Duty Cycle%

Figure 37. FTV Duty Cycle Percentage Displayed on Service Tool

8. Use the accelerator pedal to increase RPM above idle momentarily (rev

the engine) then release the pedal to return to idle RPM. The duty cycle setting should remain within the adjustment range (40-47%).

9. Use the Mototune Service Tool to lock the FTV duty cycle. Set display parameter DitherValveDC_ovr = locked (displayed in screen tab Manual

Override 1 under AFR Trim Vales, select “locked” under box labeled

Lock DC%).

10. Use the Mototune Service Tool to monitor throttle position (TPS

1

) and

Exhaust gas oxygen equivalence ratio (“O

2

Value” in Figure 1). While monitoring O

2

, slowly increase the pedal input (APP) to achieve a TPS

1 value of 15%.

11. Use the Mototune Service Tool to unlock the FTV duty cycle. Set display parameter DitherValveDC_ovr = unlocked (displayed in screen tab

Manual Override 1 under AFR Trim Vales, select “unlocked” under box labeled Lock DC%).

12. If at any time in step 10, O

2

was greater than 1.2 go to step 13. If 0

2 remained below 1.2, proceed to Step 15.

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Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

13. Adjust the idle mixture screw on the mixer until a reading of 50-55% is reached for the FTV Duty Cycle in Closed Loop Idle (Figure 37).

14. Use the accelerator pedal to increase RPM above idle momentarily (rev

the engine) then release the pedal to return to idle RPM. The duty cycle setting should remain within the adjustment range (50-55%).

NOTE

If the FTV Duty Cycle reading is NOT between 25-60%, check for possible vacuum leaks, manifold leaks, or a faulty mixer.

15. Turn the ignition key to the OFF position to shut down the engine.

16. Install the tamper proof cap on the idle mixture screw adjustment port using a large pin punch, so that no further adjustments can be made

(Figure 38).

Figure 38. Installing Tamper Proof Cap

Idle Mixture Screw

Under Cap

Tamper

Proof Cap

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Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

Field Adjustment Procedure:

The idle mixture adjustment should only be necessary on a new mixer that does not have the tamper proof cap installed. The method for making the idle mixture adjustment to a running engine is to use the Service Tool software by connecting a laptop computer to the SECM. If you do not have the Service Tool, a multimeter capable of measuring duty cycle, such as a Fluke 87 III, can be used.

If using a multimeter, connect the meter positive lead to the battery positive wire and the meter negative to the FTV signal wire. For the Fluke 87, press the

“RANGE” button until 4 or 40 appears in the lower right-hand corner of the display. Press the “Hz” button twice so that the percent sign (%) appears on the right-hand side of the display. The multimeter will then read the duty cycle percentage the just like the Service Tool shown in Figure 37.

1. After installing a new mixer, operate the engine on LPG fuel. Start the engine and permit it to warm up until the coolant temperature (ECT on

Mototune display) is approximately 180°F (82 o

C).

2. Place the transmission in Neutral.

3. Mototune display parameter LP Fuel Control must display “Closed Loop”.

4. Use the Mototune Service Tool to monitor Duty Cycle % on the Mototune display.

5. To adjust the idle mixture screw, use a hex or Allen-type wrench. Turning the screw in (clockwise) should increase the duty cycle; turning the screw out (counterclockwise) should decrease the duty cycle.

6. Adjust the idle mixture screw on the mixer until a reading of 45-55% is reached for the FTV Duty Cycle in Closed Loop Idle (Figure 37). If engine idle performance is unstable screw the idle screw in slightly to see if stability is obtained, but in no case should duty cycle exceed 60%.

7. Use the accelerator pedal to increase RPM above idle momentarily (rev

the engine) then release the pedal to return to idle RPM. The duty cycle setting should remain within the adjustment range (45-55%).

8. If the FTV duty cycle reading is above 55% adjust the idle adjustment screw outward and re-check the duty cycle reading. Continue to do this until the FTV duty cycle reading is within the optimum range (45-55%).

DO NOT adjust the screw so far outward that the tamper proof cap cannot be installed. A duty cycle measurement at Closed Loop Idle of

40-60% is acceptable if the optimum range of 45-55% cannot be reached through adjustment. If the FTV duty cycle cannot be adjusted below

60%, the mixer is faulty and should be replaced.

NOTE

If the FTV Duty Cycle reading is NOT between 25-60%, check for possible vacuum leaks, manifold leaks, or a faulty mixer.

9. Turn the ignition key to the OFF position to shut down the engine.

10. Install the tamper proof cap on the idle mixture screw adjustment port using a large pin punch, so that no further adjustments can be made

(Figure 38).

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Chapter 7.

Basic Troubleshooting

Preliminary Checks

MI-07 systems are equipped with built-in fault diagnostics. Detected system faults can be displayed by the Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL) and are covered in Chapter 8, Advanced Diagnostics. However, items such as fuel level, plugged fuel lines, clogged fuel filters, and malfunctioning pressure regulators may not set a fault code and usually can be corrected with the basic troubleshooting steps described on the following pages.

If engine or drivability problems are encountered with your MI-07 system, perform the checks in this section before referring to Advanced Diagnostics.

NOTE: Locating a problem in a propane engine is done exactly the same as with a gasoline engine. Consider all parts of the ignition and mechanical systems as well as the fuel system.

BEFORE STARTING . . .

1. Determine that the SECM and the MIL are operating. Verify operation by keying on engine and checking for flash of the MIL.

When the ignition key is turned on, the MIL will illuminate and remain on until the engine is started. Once the engine is started, the MIL will go out unless one or more fault conditions are present. If a detected fault condition exists, the fault or faults will be stored in the memory of the

SECM. Once an active fault occurs the MIL will illuminate and remain

ON. This signals the operator that a fault has been detected by the

SECM.

2. Determine that there are no diagnostic codes stored, or there is a diagnostic code but no MIL.

VISUAL/PHYSICALCHECK

Several of the procedures call for a “Careful Visual/Physical Check” which should include:

• SECM grounds for being clean and tight.

• Vacuum hoses for splits, kinks, and proper connection.

• Air leaks at throttle body mounting and intake manifold.

• Exhaust system leaks.

• Ignition wires for cracking, hardness, proper routing, and carbon tracking.

• Wiring for pinches and cuts.

Also check:

• Connections to determine that none are loose, cracked, or missing

• Fuel level in vehicle is sufficient

• Fuel is not leaking

• Battery voltage is greater than 11.5 volts

• Steering, brakes, and hydraulics are in proper condition and vehicle is safe to operate

NOTE

The Visual/Physical check is very important, as it can often correct a problem without further troubleshooting and save valuable time.

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Basic Troubleshooting

Intermittent Faults

An intermittent fault is the most difficult to troubleshoot since the MIL flashes on at random, causing uncertainty in the number of flashes or the conditions present at the time of the fault. Also, the problem may or may not fully turn “ON” the MIL or store a code.

Therefore, the fault must be present or able to be recreated in order to locate the problem. If a fault is intermittent, use of diagnostic code charts may result in the unnecessary replacement of good components.

CORRECTIVE ACTION

Most intermittent problems are caused by faulty electrical connections or wiring.

Perform careful visual/physical check for:

Poor mating of the connector halves or terminal not fully seated in the connector body (backed out).

Improperly formed or damaged terminal. All connector terminals in problem circuit should be carefully reformed or replaced to insure proper contact tension.

Loose connections or broken wires.

Poor terminal to wire connection crimp.

If a visual/physical check does not find the cause of the problem, perform the following:

(1) Drive the vehicle with a voltmeter or “Service” tool connected to a suspected circuit. Check if circuit is active and signal is reasonable.

(2) Using the “Service” tool, monitor the input signal to the SECM to help detect intermittent conditions.

(3) An abnormal voltage, or “Service” reading, when the problem occurs, indicates the problem may be in that circuit.

(4) If the wiring and connectors check OK, and a diagnostic code was stored for a circuit having a sensor, check sensor.

An intermittent “Service Engine Soon” light with no stored diagnostic code may be caused by:

Ignition coil shortage to ground and arcing at spark plug wires or plugs.

MIL wire to ECM shorted to ground.

SECM grounds (refer to SECM wiring diagrams).

Check for improper installation of electrical options such as lights, 2-way radios, accessories, etc.

EST wires should be routed away from spark plug wires, distributor wires, distributor housing, coil and generator. Wires from SECM to ignition should have a good connection.

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Basic Troubleshooting (cont’d.)

Surges and/or Stumbles

Engine power varies under steady throttle or cruise. Surging and stumbling is characterized by the feeling that the vehicle is speeding up and slowing down with no change in the acceleration pedal.

PRELIMINARY CHECKS

Perform the visual checks as described at start of “ Basic Troubleshooting” chapter.

Be sure driver understands vehicle operation as explained in the operator manual.

PROBABLE CAUSE CORRECTIVE ACTION

Oxygen sensor malfunction

Fuel system malfunction

Ignition system malfunction

Component malfunction

The fuel management system should maintain a stoichiometric air-fuel ratio under all steady state operating conditions following engine warmup.

Failure of the Pre-catalyst O

2

sensor should cause an O

2

sensor fault that can be diagnosed with the

MIL or Service Tool.

NOTE: To determine if the condition is caused by a rich or lean system, the vehicle should be driven at the speed of the complaint. Monitoring precatalyst O

2

adapts*, dither valve duty cycle, or mechanical injector pulse width will help identify problem.

Check fuel supply while condition exists.

Check in-line fuel filter. Replace if dirty or plugged.

Check fuel pressure.

Check for proper ignition voltage output using spark tester.

Check spark plugs.

Remove spark plugs, check for wet plugs, cracks, wear, improper gap, burned electrodes, or heavy deposits.

Repair or replace as necessary.

Check condition of spark plug wires.

Check ignition timing.

Check vacuum lines for kinks or leaks.

Check alternator output voltage. Repair if less than

9 or more than 16 volts.

Exhaust backpressure

Check condition of exhaust system.

Check backpressure before catalyst. It should be less than 3.5 psig (24.13 kPa).

(

*

) Refer to Table 1 for description of gaseous and liquid O

2

adapts.

Related MIL Faults:

Pre-catalyst O

2

sensor errors / O

2

control errors

Dither valve DC faults / EST faults / ETC faults

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Basic Troubleshooting (cont’d.)

Engine Cranking but Will Not Start / Difficult to Start

Engine cranks OK, but does not start for a long time. Does eventually run, or engine starts but immediately dies.

PRELIMINARY CHECKS

Perform the visual checks as described at start of “ Basic Troubleshooting” chapter.

Be sure driver is using correct method to start engine as explained in operator’s manual. Use “clear flood” mode during cranking by fully depressing the pedal and cranking the engine. If engine does not start, continue troubleshooting.

PROBABLE CAUSE CORRECTIVE ACTION

Improper fuel selected

Fuel container empty

Liquid valve closed

Propane excess flow valve closed

Plugged fuel line

Clogged fuel filter

Faulty vapor connection between the pressure regulator/converter and the mixer

Verify “selected” fuel with Service Tool. Make sure fuel select switch is in proper position.

Check for LPG vapor from LPG liquid outlet valve on tank.

Fill fuel container. Do not exceed 80% of liquid capacity.

Slowly open liquid valve.

Reset excess flow valve in LPG tank.

Close liquid valve. Wait for a “click” sound; slowly open liquid valve.

Remove obstruction from the fuel line.

Close liquid fuel valve.

Using caution, disconnect the fuel line

(some propane may escape).

Clear obstruction with compressed air.

Re-connect fuel line.

Slowly open liquid fuel valve.

Leak test.

Repair/replace as required.

See Chapter 4 Fuel Filter replacement.

Check connection

Verify no holes in hose.

Clamps must be tight.

Look for kinked, pinched and/or collapsed hose.

Repair/replace fuel lock-off.

See Chapter 4 Fuel Lock-off.

Test regulator/converter operation and pressure.

See Chapter 6 Tests and Adjustments.

Fuel lock-off malfunction

Pressure regulator/converter malfunction

Incorrect air/fuel or ignition/spark control

No crankshaft position sensor signal

See Chapter 8 Advanced Diagnostics.

Verify the crankshaft position signal is present

See Chapter 8 Advanced Diagnostics.

(continued on next page)

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Basic Troubleshooting (cont’d.)

Engine Cranking but Will Not Start / Difficult to Start (cont’d.)

PROBABLE CAUSE CORRECTIVE ACTION

SECM / control system malfunction

Check Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT) sensor using the Service Tool; compare coolant temperature with ambient temperature on cold engine.

If coolant temperature reading is 5° greater than or less than ambient air temperature on a cold engine, check resistance in coolant sensor circuit or sensor itself. Compare ECT resistance value to

“Diagnostic Aids” chart at end of this section.

Verify that there is no code for Electronic Throttle

Controller (ETC) spring check fault.

Check for 0% APP during cranking.

Cycle key ON and OFF and listen for throttle check

(movement) on key OFF.

Check for oil pressure switch faults.

Check for ETC “sticking” faults.

Check Throttle Position Sensor (TPS) for stuck binding or a high TPS voltage with the throttle closed.

Fuel system malfunction

Check fuel lock off (propane) or fuel pump. The lock off or fuel pump may turn “ON” for some seconds when ignition switch is turned “ON”

(calibration specific).

Check fuel pressure.

Check for contaminated fuel.

Check fuses (visually inspect).

Check propane tank valve & pickup. A faulty in-tank fuel pump check valve will allow the fuel in the lines to drain back to the tank after engine is stopped. To check for this condition, perform fuel system diagnosis.

Check FTV system for proper operation.

Ignition system malfunction

Check for proper ignition voltage output with spark tester.

Check spark plugs. Remove spark plugs, check for wet plugs, cracks, wear, improper gap, burned electrodes, or heavy deposits. Repair or replace as necessary.

Check for:

Bare or shorted wires.

Loose ignition coil ground.

Pickup coil resistance and connections.

Related MIL Faults:

ETC spring check / ETC faults / EST faults / TPS conflict

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Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

APP faults / Encoder error / MAP faults /

Injector faults / Oil pressure faults

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Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

Basic Troubleshooting (cont’d.)

Lack of Power, Slow to Respond / Poor High Speed

Performance / Hesitation During Acceleration

Engine delivers less than expected power. Little or no increase in speed when accelerator pedal is pushed down part way. Momentary lack of response as the accelerator is pushed down. May occur at all vehicle speeds. Usually most severe when first trying to make vehicle move, as from a stop. May cause engine to stall.

PRELIMINARY CHECKS

Perform the visual checks as described at start of “ Basic Troubleshooting” chapter.

Drive vehicle; verify problem exists.

Remove air filter and check for dirt or other means of plugging. Replace if needed.

PROBABLE CAUSE CORRECTIVE ACTION

Fuel system malfunction

Ignition system malfunction

Check for restricted fuel filter.

Check fuel supply.

Check for LPG vapor from LPG liquid outlet valve on tank.

Check for contaminated fuel.

Check for clogged fuel filter and repair or replace as required. See Chapter 4 Fuel Filter replacement

Check for plugged fuel line and remove any obstruction from the fuel line:

Close liquid fuel valve.

Using caution, disconnect the fuel line

(some propane may escape).

Clear obstruction with compressed air.

Re-connect fuel line.

Slowly open liquid fuel valve and leak test.

Check for faulty vapor connection between pressure regulator/converter and mixer:

Verify that there are no holes in hose.

Observe that clamps are tight.

Look for kinked, pinched and/or collapsed hose.

Monitor pre-catalyst O

2

with Service Tool.

Check for proper pressure regulator operation.

See Chapter 6 Test and Adjustments.

Check for proper air/fuel mixer operation.

Check spark advance for excessive retarded ignition timing. Use Service Tool.

Check secondary voltage using an oscilloscope or a spark tester to check for a weak coil.

Check spark plug condition.

Check poor spark plug primary and secondary wire condition.

(continued on next page)

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Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

Basic Troubleshooting (cont’d.)

Lack of Power, Slow to Respond / Poor High Speed Performance

Hesitation During Acceleration (cont’d.)

PROBABLE CAUSE

CORRECTIVE ACTION

Component malfunction

Check SECM grounds for cleanliness and secure connection. See SECM wiring diagrams.

Check alternator output voltage. Repair if less than

9 volts or more than 16 volts.

Check for clogged air filter and clean or replace as required.

Check exhaust system for possible restriction.

Refer to Chart T-1 on later pages.

Inspect exhaust system for damaged or collapsed pipes.

Inspect muffler for heat distress or possible internal failure.

Check for possible plugged catalytic converter by comparing exhaust system backpressure on each side of engine.

Check backpressure by removing Precatalyst O

2

sensor and measuring backpressure with a gauge.

Engine mechanical

See Engine Manufacturer’s Service Manual.

Check engine valve timing and compression

Check engine for correct or worn camshaft.

Related MIL Faults:

EST faults

ETC faults

ETC spring check

TPS faults

APP faults

Encoder error

Delayed Shutdown faults

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Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

Basic Troubleshooting (cont’d.)

Detonation / Spark Knock

A mild to severe ping, usually worse under acceleration. The engine makes sharp metallic knocks that change with throttle opening (similar to the sound of hail striking a metal roof).

PRELIMINARY CHECKS

Perform the visual checks as described at start of “ Basic Troubleshooting” chapter.

PROBABLE CAUSE

Fuel system malfunction

Cooling system malfunction

Ignition system malfunction

Exhaust system malfunction

Engine mechanical

CORRECTIVE ACTION

Check for proper fuel level:

Check for LPG vapor from LPG liquid outlet valve on tank.

Fill fuel container. Do not exceed 80% of liquid capacity.

Check fuel pressure.

To determine if the condition is caused by a rich or lean system, the vehicle should be driven at the speed of the complaint. Monitoring with the Service tool will help identify problem.

Check for obvious overheating problems:

Low engine coolant.

Loose water pump belt.

Restricted air flow to radiator, or restricted water flow through radiator.

Inoperative electric cooling fan.

Correct coolant solution should be a mix of anti-freeze coolant (or equivalent) and water.

High coolant temperature.

Check ignition timing.

Check spark module wiring.

Check exhaust backpressure.

Check for debris clogging the catalyst.

Check that pre-catalyst O

2

sensor is functioning.

Check for excessive oil in the combustion chamber and/or blow by from excessive PCV flow.

Check combustion chambers for excessive carbon build up.

Check combustion chamber pressure by performing a compression test.

Check for incorrect basic engine parts such as cam, heads, pistons, etc.

Related MIL Faults:

EST faults

Encoder error

High coolant temperature faults

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Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

Basic Troubleshooting (cont’d.)

Backfire

Fuel ignites in intake manifold or in exhaust system, making loud popping noise.

PRELIMINARY CHECKS

Perform the visual checks as described at start of “ Basic Troubleshooting” chapter.

Simulate condition by reviewing operation procedure practiced by vehicle operator.

PROBABLE CAUSE

Fuel system malfunction

Ignition system malfunction

Engine mechanical

CORRECTIVE ACTION

Perform fuel system diagnosis check:

Check for fuel leaks.

Check for MIL faults.

Check for damaged components.

Check proper ignition coil output voltage with spark tester.

Check spark plugs. Remove spark plugs, check for wet plugs, cracks, wear, improper gap, burned electrodes, or heavy deposits. Repair or replace as necessary.

Check spark plug wires for crossfire; also inspect spark plug wires and proper routing of plug wires.

Check ignition timing.

Check compression: look for sticking or leaking valves.

Check intake and exhaust manifold for casting flash and gasket misalignment.

Refer to Engine Manufacturer’s Service Manual.

Related MIL Faults:

EST faults / ETC faults / Encoder error

Pre-catalyst O

2

sensor faults

Dieseling, Run-on

Engine continues to run after key is turned “OFF,“ but runs very roughly. If engine runs smoothly, check ignition switch and adjustment.

PRELIMINARY CHECKS

Perform the visual checks as described at start of “ Basic Troubleshooting” chapter.

PROBABLE CAUSE CORRECTIVE ACTION

Fuel system malfunction

Check for fuel leaks or leaking injector.

Ignition switching

Make sure power to system is shut off when key is in

OFF position.

Fuel lock off valve

Make sure lock off valve is closing properly.

Ignition system malfunction

Check spark advance at idle.

Related MIL Faults:

EST faults / ETC faults / Pre-catalyst O

2

sensor faults

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Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

Basic Troubleshooting (cont’d.)

Rough, Unstable, Incorrect Idle, or Stalling

Engine cranks OK, but does not start for a long time. Does eventually run, or may start but immediately dies.

PRELIMINARY CHECKS

Perform the visual checks as described at start of “ Basic Troubleshooting” chapter.

Check for vacuum leaks.

Check that SECM grounds are clean and tight. See SECM wiring diagram.

PROBABLE CAUSE

Fuel system malfunction

Fuel container empty

CORRECTIVE ACTION

Monitor oxygen feedback to help identify the cause of the problem. If the system is running lean or if the system is running rich evaluate further i.e. dither valve duty cycle and injector pulse width.

Check for incorrect minimum idle speed that may be caused by foreign material accumulation in the throttle bore, on the throttle valve, or on the throttle shaft.

Check that the injectors are clean and functioning.

Check for liquid fuel in propane pressure regulator hose. If fuel is present, replace regulator assembly.

The pre-catalyst oxygen (O

2

) sensor should respond quickly to different throttle positions. If it does not, then check the pre-catalyst O

2

sensor for contamination. If the pre-catalyst O

2

sensor is aged or contaminated, the SECM will not deliver correct amount of fuel, resulting in a drivability problem.

Check for LPG vapor from LPG liquid outlet valve on tank.

Fill fuel container. Do not exceed 80% of liquid capacity.

Ignition system malfunction

Check ignition system; wires, plugs, etc.

LPG pressure regulator malfunction

Test regulator operation and pressure.

See Chapter 6 Tests and Adjustments

Air/fuel mixer malfunction Check mixer.

Component malfunction

Engine mechanical

Check throttle for sticking or binding.

Check PCV valve for proper operation by placing finger over inlet hole in valve end several times. Valve should snap back. If not, replace valve.

Check alternator output voltage. Repair if less than 9 or more than 16 volts.

Perform a cylinder compression check.

See Engine Manufacturer’s Service Manual.

(continued on next page)

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Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

Basic Troubleshooting (cont’d.)

Rough, Unstable, Incorrect Idle, or Stalling (cont’d.)

PROBABLE CAUSE

Excess flow valve closed

Clogged fuel filter

Plugged fuel line

Fuel lock-off malfunction

Faulty vapor connection between the pressure regulator/converter and the mixer

Pressure regulator freezes

Vacuum leak

CORRECTIVE ACTION

Reset excess flow valve.

Close liquid valve.

Wait for a “click” sound. Slowly open liquid valve.

Repair/replace as required

See Chapter 4 Fuel Filter Replacement

Remove obstruction from the fuel line.

Close liquid fuel valve.

Using caution, disconnect the fuel line

(some propane may escape).

Clear obstruction with compressed air.

Re-connect fuel line.

Slowly open liquid fuel valve & leak test.

Repair/replace fuel lock-off.

See Chapter 4 Fuel Lock-Off.

Check connection.

Verify no holes in hose.

Clamps must be tight.

Look for kinked, pinched and/or collapsed hose.

Check level in cooling system:

Must be full, check coolant strength.

-35°F (-37°C) minimum.

Check coolant hoses.

Watch for kinks and/or pinched hoses.

Verify one pressure hose and one return hose.

Test regulator. See Chapter 6

Check for vacuum leaks . . .

Between mixer and throttle body.

Between throttle body and intake manifold.

Between intake manifold and cylinder head.

Related MIL Faults:

EST faults

ETC Sticking fault

Pre-catalyst adapts error

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Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

Basic Troubleshooting (cont’d.)

Cuts Out, Misses

Steady pulsation or jerking that follows engine speed, usually more pronounced as engine load increases, sometimes above 1500 RPM. The exhaust has a steady spitting sound at idle or low speed.

PRELIMINARY CHECKS

Perform the visual checks as described at start of “ Basic Troubleshooting” chapter.

PROBABLE CAUSE

Fuel system malfunction

Ignition system malfunction

Component malfunction

Engine mechanical

CORRECTIVE ACTION

Check fuel system specifically for plugged fuel filter, low pressure.

Check for contaminated fuel.

Check injector drivers. Disconnect all injector harness connectors. Use injector test light or equivalent 6-volt test light between the harness terminals of each connector and observe if light blinks while cranking. If test light fails to blink at any connector, it is a faulty injector drive circuit harness, connector, or terminal.

Check lock off for intermittent connection.

Check dither valve operation.

Check for spark on the suspected cylinder(s) using a shop oscilloscope or spark tester or equivalent. If no spark, check for intermittent operation or miss. If there is a spark, remove spark plug(s) in these cylinders and check for cracks, wear, improper gap, burned electrodes, heavy deposits.

Check spark plug wires by connecting ohmmeter to ends of each wire in question. If meter reads over

30,000

Ω, replace wire(s).

Visually inspect wires for moisture, dust, cracks, burns, etc. Spray plug wires with fine water mist to check for shorts.

Check engine ground wire for looseness or corrosion.

Check for electromagnetic interference (EMI). A missing condition can be caused by EMI on the reference circuit. EMI can usually be detected by monitoring engine RPM with Service Tool. A sudden increase in RPM with little change in actual engine

RPM indicates EMI is present. If problem exists, check routing of secondary wires and check distributor ground circuit.

Check intake and exhaust manifolds for casting flash or gasket leaks.

Perform compression check on questionable cylinders. If compression is low, repair as necessary.

Check base engine. Remove rocker covers and check for bent pushrods, worn rocker arms, broken valve springs, worn camshaft lobes, and valve timing.

Repair as necessary.

Related MIL Faults:

EST faults

ETC Sticking fault

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Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

Basic Troubleshooting (cont’d.)

Poor Fuel Economy / Excessive Fuel Consumption

LPG Exhaust Smell

Fuel economy, as measured during normal operation, is noticeably lower than expected. Also, economy is noticeably lower than what it has been in the past.

Propane fuel smell near vehicle sets off carbon monoxide sensors.

PRELIMINARY CHECKS

Perform the visual checks as described at start of “ Basic Troubleshooting” chapter.

Verify operator complaint: identify operating conditions.

Check operator’s driving habits:

Are tires at correct pressure?

Are excessively heavy loads being carried?

Is acceleration too much, too often?

Check air cleaner element (filter) for being dirty or plugged.

Visually (physically) check vacuum hoses for splits, kinks, and proper connections.

PROBABLE CAUSE

Fuel system malfunction

Cooling system malfunction

Ignition system malfunction

Component malfunction

CORRECTIVE ACTION

Check for faulty gasoline pressure regulator.

Check for leaking injector.

Check that dither valve duty cycle is < 15%.

Check for too high propane pressure at mixer

(> 1” positive pressure).

Monitor Pre-catalyst O

2

sensor with Service Tool.

Check engine coolant level.

Check engine thermostat for faulty part (always open) or for wrong heat range.

Check ignition timing.

Check for weak ignition and/or spark control.

Check spark plugs. Remove spark plugs and check for wet plugs, cracks, wear, improper gap, burned electrodes, or heavy deposits. Repair or replace as necessary.

Check for exhaust system restriction or leaks.

Check induction system and crankcase for air leaks.

Check for clogged air filter; clean or replace as required.

Check FTVs for housing cracks or obstructions; repair or replace as required.

Check for vacuum leak. Check system vacuum hoses from regulator to FTVs and mixer. Repair or replace as required.

Air/fuel mixer malfunction Check mixer.

Pressure regulator malfunction / fuel pressure too high

Test regulator operation and pressure.

See Chapter 6 Tests and Adjustments.

Check compression.

Engine mechanical

Refer to Engine Manufacturer’s Service Manual.

Related MIL Faults:

Pre-catalyst O

2

sensor faults / Low side driver / Dither valve duty cycle

EST faults / Fuel adapt faults / Low coolant temperature

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Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

Basic Troubleshooting (cont’d.)

High Idle Speed

Engine idles above the range of 750-1000 RPM.

PRELIMINARY CHECKS

Perform the visual checks as described at start of “ Basic Troubleshooting” chapter.

PROBABLE CAUSE

Incorrect idle speed control

Throttle sticking

Foot pedal sticking or incorrect pedal signal

Engine mechanical

CORRECTIVE ACTION

Check all hoses and gaskets for cracking, kinks, or leaks.

Verify that there are no vacuum leaks.

See Chapter 8 Advanced Diagnostics & Chapter 6

Tests and Adjustments

Replace throttle.

See Fault Code 461: ETC Sticking

Check pedal return spring travel for binding.

Check APP function with Service Tool.

Verify smooth change of APP reading with pedal movement.

See Chapter 8 Advanced Diagnostics.

Check for vacuum hose leak.

Check for PCV malfunction.

Check for defective intake gasket.

Related MIL Faults:

ETC Sticking fault

Idle adapt out of range

MAP Sticking fault

MAP high value

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Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

Basic Troubleshooting (cont’d.)

Excessive Exhaust Emissions or Odors

Vehicle has high CO emissions.

NOTE: Excessive odors do not necessarily indicate excessive emissions.

PRELIMINARY CHECKS

Verify that no stored codes exist.

If emission test shows excessive CO and HC, check items that cause vehicle to run

rich.

If emission test shows excessive NOx, check items that cause vehicle to run lean or too hot.

PROBABLE CAUSE

Cooling system malfunction

Fuel system malfunction

Ignition system malfunction

Component malfunction

CORRECTIVE ACTION

If the Service tool indicates a very high coolant temperature and the system is running lean:

Check engine coolant level.

Check engine thermostat for faulty part

(always open) or for wrong heat range.

Check fan operation

If the system is running rich, refer to “Diagnostic Aids” chart on the next page.

If the system is running lean refer to “Diagnostic Aids” chart on the next page.

Check for properly installed fuel system components.

Check fuel pressure.

Check ignition timing.

Check spark plugs, plug wires, and ignition components.

Check for vacuum leaks.

Check for contamination for catalytic converter (look for the removal of fuel filler neck restrictor).

Check for carbon build-up. Remove carbon with quality engine cleaner. Follow instructions on label.

Check for plugged PCV valve.

Check for stuck or blocked PCV hose.

Check for fuel in the crankcase.

Related MIL Faults:

Low side driver

Fuel adapt faults

EST faults

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Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

Basic Troubleshooting (cont’d.)

Diagnostic Aids for Rich / Lean Operation

SERVICE TOOL

ITEM

Pre-catalyst O

2

A/ D counts

Pre-catalyst O2 sensor switching between high and low

Trim valve duty cycle

Consistently > 250

Always high ADC

> 90%

RICH LEAN

Consistently < 170

Always low ADC

< 10%

Fuel injector pulse width at idle *

< 1.0 msec.

Malfunction codes

• Pre-catalyst O

2

sensor failed rich

• Pre-catalyst O

2

sensor high

• Fuel adapts

Closed loop operation Stuck in open loop

> 8 msec.

• Pre-catalyst O

2 sensor failed lean

• Pre-catalyst O

2 sensor low

• Fuel adapts

Stuck in open loop

(

*)

The duty cycle injector pulse width criteria for lean or rich operation apply only if the O

2

sensor is functioning properly. If the sensor is not operating properly the criteria may be reversed.

RICH OPERATION

LP (Trim valve duty cycle>90%)

• Inspect hoses from AVV port (port on bottom of mixer) to trim valves and regulator for leaks or blockages, replace as necessary.

• Inspect in-line orifices for blockages (in wye), replace as necessary

• Check trim valves for proper operation, replace as necessary

• Check regulator out pressure, replace if out of spec

• Inspect fuel cone for damage, replace mixer assembly as necessary

Gasoline (Injector Pulse Width<1.0 msec)

• Check gasoline fuel pressure

• Check injectors for sticking, replace as necessary

LEAN OPERATION

LP (Trim valve duty cycle<10%)

• Check for vacuum leaks, replace hoses, o-rings, and gaskets as necessary

• Check balance line for blockage, replace as necessary

• Check vapor hose for restrictions, replace as necessary

• Check trim valves for proper operation, replace as necessary

• Check regulator out pressure, replace if out of spec

Gasoline (Injector Pulse Width>8 msec)

• Check system voltage

• Check fuel pressure

Check injectors for sticking or obstructions

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Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

Chart T-1

Restricted Exhaust System Check

Proper diagnosis for a restricted exhaust system is essential before replacement of any components. The following procedures may be used for diagnosis, depending upon engine or tool used.

CHECK AT PRE-CATALYST OXYGEN (O

2

) SENSOR

1. Carefully remove pre-catalyst oxygen (O

2

) sensor.

2. Install exhaust backpressure tester or equivalent in place of O

2

sensor using Snap-On P/N EEVPV311A kit and YA8661 adapter or Mac tool

(see illustration).

3. After completing test described below, be sure to coat threads of O

2 sensor with anti-seize compound prior to re-installation.

Courtesy of GM 1991 Service Manual

for Chevrolet Camaro © 1990

ILLUSTRATION NOTES

[1] Backpressure gage

[2] Pre-catalyst Oxygen (O

2

) sensor

[3] Exhaust manifold

DIAGNOSIS:

1. With the engine idling at normal operating temperature, observe the exhaust system backpressure reading on the gage. Reading should not exceed 1.25 psig (8.61 kPa).

2. Increase engine speed to 2000 RPM and observe gage. Reading should not exceed 3 psig (20.68 kPa).

3. If the backpressure at either speed exceeds specification, a restricted exhaust system is indicated.

4. Inspect the entire exhaust system for a collapsed pipe, heat distress, or possible internal damage, split welds, or cracked pipe.

5. If there are no obvious reasons for the excessive backpressure, the catalytic converter is restricted and should be replaced using current recommended procedures.

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Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

Chapter 8.

Advanced Diagnostics

MI-07 systems are equipped with built-in fault diagnostics. Detected system faults can be displayed by the Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL) as Diagnostic

Fault Codes (DFC) or flash codes, and viewed in detail with the use of the

Service Tool software. When the ignition key is turned on, the MIL will illuminate and remain on until the engine is started. Once the engine is started, the MIL lamp will go out unless one or more fault conditions are present. If a detected fault condition exists, the fault or faults will be stored in the memory of the small engine control module (SECM). Once an active fault occurs the MIL will illuminate and remain ON. This signals the operator that a fault has been detected by the SECM.

Reading Diagnostic Fault Codes

All MI-07 fault codes are three-digit codes. When the fault codes are retrieved

(displayed) the MIL will flash for each digit with a short pause (0.5 seconds) between digits and a long pause (1.2 seconds) between fault codes. A code 12 is displayed at the end of the code list.

EXAMPLE: A code 461 (ETC Sticking) has been detected and the engine has shut down and the MIL has remained

ON

. When the codes are displayed the MIL will flash four times (4), pause, then flash six times (6), pause, then flash one time (1) This identifies a four sixty one (461), which is the ETC Sticking fault. If any additional faults were stored, the SECM would again have a long pause, then display the next fault by flashing each digit. Since no other faults were stored there will be a long pause then one flash (1), pause, then two flashes (2).

This identifies a twelve, signifying the end of the fault list. This list will then repeat.

Displaying Fault Codes (DFC) from SECM Memory

To enter code display mode you must turn

OFF

the ignition key. Now turn

ON

the key but do not start the engine. As soon as you turn the key to the

ON

position you must cycle the foot pedal by depressing it to the floor and then fully releasing the pedal (pedal maneuver). You must fully cycle the foot pedal three (3) times within five (5) seconds to enable the display codes feature of the SECM. Simply turn the key

OFF

to exit display mode. The code list will continue to repeat until the key is turned

OFF

.

Clearing Fault (DFC) Codes

To clear the stored fault codes from SECM memory you must complete the reset fault pedal maneuver.

CAUTION

Once the fault list is cleared it cannot be restored.

First turn

OFF

the ignition key. Now turn

ON

the key but do not start the engine.

As soon as you turn the key to the

ON

position you must cycle the foot pedal by depressing it to the floor and then fully releasing the pedal (pedal maneuver).

You must fully cycle the foot pedal ten (10) times within five (5) seconds to clear the fault code list of the SECM. Simply turn the key

OFF

to exit the reset mode.

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Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

The code list is now clear and the SECM will begin storing new fault codes as they occur.

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Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

Fault Action Descriptions

Each fault detected by the SECM is stored in memory (FIFO) and has a specific action or result that takes place. Listed below are the descriptions of each fault action.

Engine Shutdown: The most severe action is an Engine Shutdown. The MIL will light and the engine will immediately shutdown, stopping spark, closing the fuel lock-off, and turning off the fuel pump and fuel injectors.

Delayed Engine Shutdown: Some faults, such as low oil pressure, will cause the MIL to illuminate for 30 seconds and then shut down the engine.

Cut Throttle: The throttle moves to its default position. The engine will run at idle but will not accelerate.

Turn on MIL: The MIL will light by an active low signal provided by the SECM, indicating a fault condition. The MIL may illuminate with no other action or may be combined with other actions, depending on which fault is active.

Soft Rev Limit / Medium Rev Limit / Hard Rev Limit: System will follow various sequences to bring engine speed back to acceptable levels.

Level4 Power Limit / Level3 Power Limit / Level2 Power Limit / Level1

Power Limit: The maximum engine power output will be limited to one of four possible levels. The engine power is calculated from measured engine parameters (e.g. MAP, RPM, fuel flow, etc).

Disable Gas O

2

Control: In LPG mode, closed loop correction of the air fuel ratio based on the Pre-catalyst O

2

sensor is disabled.

Disable Liquid O

2

Control: In Gasoline mode, closed loop correction of the air fuel ratio based on the Pre-catalyst O

2

sensor is disabled.

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Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

Fault List Definitions

All the analog sensors in the MI-07 system have input sensor range faults. These are the coolant temperature sensor, fuel temperature sensor, throttle position sensors, pedal position sensors, manifold pressure sensor, HEGO sensors, and intake air temperature sensor. Signals to these sensors are converted into digital counts by the SECM. A low/high range sensor fault is normally set when the converted digital counts reach the minimum of 0 or the maximum of 1024

(1024 = 5.0 Vdc with ~ 204 counts per volt).

Additionally, the SECM includes software to learn the actual range of the pedal position and throttle position sensors in order to take full advantage of the sensor range. Faults are set if the learned values are outside of the normal expected range of the sensor (e.g. APP1AdaptLoMin).

Table 1. Fault List Definitions

FAULT DESCRIPTION

(MI04 CODE)

APP1AdaptHiMax

Learned full pedal value of

APP

1

sensor range higher than expected

641

(64)

APP1AdaptHiMin

Learned full pedal value of

APP

1

sensor range lower than expected

651

APP1AdaptLoMax

APP1AdaptLoMin

APP1RangeHigh

APP1RangeLow

APP2AdaptHiMax

Learned idle value of APP

1 sensor range higher than expected

Learned idle value of APP

1 sensor range lower than expected

APP

1

sensor voltage out of range high, normally set if the

APP

1

signal has shorted to power or the ground for the sensor has opened

APP

1

sensor voltage out of range low, normally set if the

APP

1

signal has shorted to ground, circuit has opened or sensor has failed

Learned full pedal value of

APP

2

sensor range higher than expected

661

631

(63)

621

(62)

611

(61)

642

(68)

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Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

Table 1. Fault List Definitions (cont’d.)

FAULT DESCRIPTION

(MI04 CODE)

APP2AdaptHiMin

Learned full pedal value of

APP

2 sensor range lower than expected

652

APP2AdaptLoMax

APP2AdaptLoMin

APP2RangeHigh

APP2RangeLow

APP_Sensors_Conflict

CamEdgesFault

CamSyncFault

CrankEdgesFault

CrankSyncFault

ECTOverTempFault

ECTRangeHigh

Learned idle value of APP

2 sensor range higher than expected

Learned idle value of APP

2 sensor range lower than expected

APP

2

sensor voltage out of range high, normally set if the

APP

2

signal has shorted to power or the ground for the sensor has opened

APP

2

sensor voltage out of range low, normally set if the

APP

2

signal has shorted to ground, circuit has opened or sensor has failed

APP position sensors do no not track well, intermittent connections to APP or defective pedal assembly

No CAM signal when engine is known to be rotating, broken CAM sensor leads or defective CAM sensor

Loss of synchronization on the

CAM sensor, normally due to noise on the signal or an intermittent connection on the

CAM sensor

No crankshaft signal when engine is known to be rotating, broken crankshaft sensor leads or defective crank sensor

Loss of synchronization on the crankshaft sensor, normally due to noise on the signal or an intermittent connection on the crankshaft sensor

Engine Coolant Temperature is High. The sensor has measured an excessive coolant temperature typically due to the engine overheating.

Engine Coolant Temperature

Sensor Input is High. Normally set if coolant sensor wire has been disconnected or circuit has opened to the SECM.

662

632

(67)

622

(66)

612

(65)

691

(69)

191

192

193

194

161

(16)

151

(15)

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Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

Table 1. Fault List Definitions (cont’d.)

CODE

CODE)

ECTRangeLow

ECT_IR_Fault

EST1_Open

EST1_Short

ETCSpringTest

ETC_Open_Fault

ETC_Sticking

FuelSelectConflict

FuelTempRangeHigh

FuelTempRangeLow

Engine Coolant Temperature Sensor Input is

Low. Normally set if the coolant sensor wire has shorted to chassis ground or the sensor has failed.

Engine Coolant Temperature not changing as expected

EST1 output open, possibly open EST1 signal or defective spark module

EST1 output shorted high or low, EST1 signal shorted to ground or power or defective spark module

Electronic Throttle Control Spring Return Test has Failed. The SECM will perform a safety test of the throttle return spring following engine shutdown. If this spring has become weak the throttle will fail the test and set the fault.

NOTE: Throttle assembly is not a serviceable item and can only be repaired

by replacing the DV-EV throttle assembly.

Electronic Throttle Control Driver has failed.

Normally set if either of the ETC driver signals have opened or become disconnected, electronic throttle or SECM is defective.

Electronic Throttle Control is Sticking. This can occur if the throttle plate (butterfly valve) inside the throttle bore is sticking. The plate sticking can be due to some type of obstruction; a loose throttle plate or worn components shaft bearings.

NOTE: Throttle assembly is not a serviceable item and can only be repaired

by replacing the DV-EV throttle assembly.

Conflict in fuel select signals, normally set if one or both of the fuel select signals are shorted to ground

Fuel Temperature Sensor Input is High.

Normally set if the fuel temperature sensor wire has been disconnected or the circuit has opened to the SECM.

Fuel Temperature Sensor Input is Low.

Normally set if the fuel temperature sensor wire has shorted to chassis ground or the sensor has failed.

141

(14)

171

421

431

(42)

481

(28)

471

461

(26)

181

932

931

GasFuelAdaptRangeHi

GasFuelAdaptRangeLo

GasO2FailedLean

In LPG mode, system had to adapt lean more than expected

In LPG mode, system had to adapt rich more than expected

Pre-catalyst O

2

sensor indicates extended lean operation on LPG

731

(73)

721

(72)

751

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Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

Table 1. Fault List Definitions (cont’d.)

FAULT DESCRIPTION

(MI04 CODE)

GasO2FailedLean

Pre-catalyst O

2

sensor indicates extended lean operation on LPG

751

GasO2FailedRich

GasO2NotActive

Pre-catalyst O

2

sensor indicates extended rich operation on LPG

Pre-catalyst O

2

sensor inactive on

LPG, open O

2

sensor signal or heater leads, defective O

2

sensor, or defective FTVs

771

(77)

741

(74)

GasPostO2FailedRich

GasPostO2FailedLean

GasPostO2Inactive

Post-catalyst O

2

sensor control on

LPG has reached rich limit and sensor still reads too lean. This could be caused by oxygen leak before or just after sensor, catalyst failure, sensor failure, or wiring/relay failure causing the sensor to not be properly heated. If any Pre-O

2 sensor faults are set, diagnose these first and after correcting these faults recheck if this fault sets.

Post-catalyst O

2

sensor control on

LPG has reached lean limit and sensor still reads too rich. This could be caused by catalyst failure, sensor failure, or wiring/relay failure causing the sensor to not be properly heated. If any Pre-O

2 sensor faults are set diagnose, these first and after correcting these faults recheck if this fault sets.

Post-catalyst O

2

sensor control on

LPG has sensed the O

2

sensor is not responding as expected.

If any

Pre-O

2

sensor faults are set diagnose these first and after correcting these faults recheck if this fault sets. Possible causes for this fault are sensor disconnected, sensor heater failed, sensor element failed, heater relay, or

SECM control of heater relay is disconnected or failed.

772

752

742

Reserved for Future Use 743

HbridgeFault_ETC

HardOverspeed

(Electronic Throttle Control Driver has Failed)

Indeterminate fault on Hbridge driver for Electronic Throttle Control.

Possibly either ETC+ or ETC- driver signals have been shorted to ground

Engine speed has exceeded the third level (3 of 3) of overspeed protection

491

(29)

571

(57)

Woodward 85

Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

Woodward 86

Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

Table 1. Fault List Definitions (cont’d.)

IATRangeHigh

IATRangeLow

IAT_IR_Fault

Inj1Open

Inj2Open

Inj3Open

FAULT

LSDFault_CrankDisable

LSDFault_Dither1

LSDFault_Dither2

LSDFault_FuelPump

LSDFault_LockOff

LSDFault_MIL

LiqFuelAdaptRangeHi

LiqFuelAdaptRangeLow

LiqO2FailedLean

LiqO2FailedRich

DESCRIPTION

Intake Air Temperature Sensor Input is High normally set if the IAT temperature sensor wire has been disconnected, the circuit has opened to the SECM, or a short to Vbatt has occurred.

Intake Air Temperature Sensor Input is Low normally set if the IAT temperature sensor wire has shorted to chassis ground or the sensor has failed.

Intake Air Temperature not changing as expected

Gasoline Injector 1 open circuit, broken injector 1 wire or defective injector

Gasoline Injector 2 open circuit, broken injector 2 wire or defective injector

Gasoline Injector 3 open circuit, broken injector 3 wire or defective injector

Crank Disable Fault, signal has opened or shorted to ground or power or defective crank disable relay

Dither Valve 1 Fault, signal has opened or shorted to ground or power or defective dither 1 valve

Dither Valve 2 Fault, signal has opened or shorted to ground or power or defective dither 2 valve

Fuel Pump Fault, signal has opened or shorted to ground or power or defective fuel pump

Fuel lock off Valve Fault, signal has opened or shorted to ground or power or defective Fuel lock off valve

Malfunction Indicator Lamp Fault, signal has opened or shorted to ground or power or defective MIL lamp

In Gasoline mode, system had to adapt rich more than expected

In Gasoline mode, system had to adapt lean more than expected

Pre-catalyst O

2

sensor indicates extended lean operation on gasoline

Pre-catalyst O

2

sensor indicates extended rich operation on gasoline

CODE

(MI04 CODE)

381

(38)

371

(37)

391

131

132

133

715

711

(71)

712

716

717

718

821

831

851

871

Woodward 87

Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

Table 1. Fault List Definitions (cont’d.)

FAULT

DESCRIPTION

CODE

(MI04

CODE)

LiqO2NotActive

LiqPostO2FailedRich

LiqPostO2FailedLean

LiqPostO2Inactive

Pre-catalyst O

2

sensor inactive on gasoline, open

O

2

sensor signal or heater leads, defective O

2 sensor

Post-catalyst O

2

sensor control on gasoline has reached rich limit and sensor still reads too lean.

This could be caused by oxygen leak before or just after sensor, catalyst failure, sensor failure, or wiring/relay failure causing the sensor to not be properly heated. If any Pre-O

2

sensor faults are set, diagnose these first and after correcting these faults recheck if this fault sets.

Post-catalyst O

2

sensor control on gasoline has reached lean limit and sensor still reads too rich.

This could be caused by catalyst failure, sensor failure, or wiring/relay failure causing the sensor to not be properly heated. If any Pre-O

2

sensor faults are set, diagnose these first and after correcting these faults recheck if this fault sets.

Post-catalyst O

2

sensor control on gasoline has sensed the O

2

sensor is not responding as expected. If any Pre-O

2

sensor faults are set, diagnose these first and after correcting these faults recheck if this fault sets. Possible causes for this fault are sensor disconnected, sensor heater failed, sensor element failed, heater relay, or

SECM control of heater relay is disconnected or failed.

Reserved

LowOilPressureFault

MAPRangeHigh

MAPRangeLow

MAPTimeRangeHigh

MAPTimeRangeLow

MAP_IR_HI

MAP_IR_LO

Low engine oil pressure

Manifold Absolute Pressure Sensor Input is High, normally set if the TMAP pressure signal wire has become shorted to power, shorted to the IAT signal, the TMAP has failed or the SECM has failed.

Manifold Absolute Pressure Sensor Input is Low, normally set if the TMAP pressure signal wire has been disconnected or shorted to ground or the circuit has opened to the SECM

Manifold Absolute Pressure Sensor Input is High, normally set if the TMAP pressure signal wire has become shorted to power, shorted to the IAT signal, the TMAP has failed or the SECM has failed.

Manifold Absolute Pressure Sensor Input is Low, normally set if the TMAP pressure signal wire has been disconnected or shorted to ground or the circuit has opened to the SECM

MAP sensor indicates higher pressure than expected

MAP sensor indicates lower pressure than expected

841

872

852

842

843

521

(52)

342

332

341

(34)

331

(33)

351

352

Woodward 88

Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

Table 1. Fault List Definitions (cont’d.)

CODE

MAP_STICKING

MediumOverspeed

O2RangeHigh

O2RangeLow

O2_PostCatRangeHig h

O2_PostCatRangeLow

MAP sensor not changing as expected

Engine speed has exceeded the second level

(2 of 3) of overspeed protection

Pre-catalyst O

2

sensor voltage out of range high, sensor signal shorted to power

Pre-catalyst O

2

sensor voltage out of range low, sensor signal shorted to ground

Post-catalyst O

2

sensor voltage out of range high, sensor signal shorted to voltage source

(5V or battery)

Post-catalyst O

2

sensor voltage out of range low, sensor signal shorted to ground

SensVoltRangeHigh Sensor reference voltage XDRP too high

CODE)

353

572

921

911

922

SensVoltRangeLow

ServiceFault1

ServiceFault2

ServiceFault3

Sensor reference voltage XDRP too low

912

561

(56)

551

(55)

991

992

993

ServiceFault4

ServiceFault5

SoftOverspeed

TPS1AdaptHiMin

Service Interval 1 has been reached

Service Interval 2 has been reached

Service Interval 3 has been reached

Service Interval 4 has been reached—time to replace HEGO sensors

Service Interval 5 has been reached

Engine speed has exceeded first level

(1 of 3) of overspeed protection

Learned WOT value of TPS

1

sensor range lower than expected

994

995

573

SysVoltRangeHigh

SysVoltRangeLow

TPS1AdaptHiMax

TPS1AdaptHiMin

System voltage too high

System voltage too low

Learned WOT value of TPS

1

sensor range higher than expected

Learned WOT value of TPS

1

sensor range lower than expected

271

541

(54)

531

(53)

251

(25)

271

TPS1AdaptLoMax

Learned closed throttle value of TPS

1

sensor range higher than expected

281

TPS1AdaptLoMin

Learned closed throttle value of TPS

1

sensor range lower than expected

241

(24)

TPS1RangeHigh

TPS1RangeLow

TPS2AdaptHiMax

TPS

1

sensor voltage out of range high, normally set if the TPS

1

signal has shorted to power or ground for the sensor has opened

TPS

1 sensor voltage out of range low, normally set if TPS

1 signal has shorted to ground, circuit has opened or sensor has failed

Learned WOT value of TPS

2

sensor range higher than expected

231

(23)

221

(22)

252

Woodward 89

Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

TPS2AdaptHiMin

Learned WOT value of TPS

2

sensor range lower than expected

Table 1. Fault List Definitions (cont’d.)

272

FAULT DESCRIPTION

(MI04 CODE)

TPS2AdaptLoMax

Learned closed throttle value of TPS

2 sensor range higher than expected

282

TPS2AdaptLoMin

TPS2RangeHigh

TPS2RangeLow

TPS_Sensors_Conflict

Learned closed throttle value of TPS

2 sensor range lower than expected

TPS

2

sensor voltage out of range high, normally set if the TPS

2

signal has shorted to power or ground for the sensor has opened

TPS

2

sensor voltage out of range low, normally set if TPS

2

signal has shorted to ground, circuit has opened or sensor has failed

TPS sensors differ by more than expected amount.

NOTE: The TPS is not a serviceable item and can only be repaired by replacing

the DV-EV throttle assembly

242

232

222

291

Woodward 90

Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

Table 2. Diagnostic Fault Codes (Flash Codes)

DFC

(MI-04)

PROBABLE FAULT

FAULT ACTION

*

CORRECTIVE ACTION

FIRST CHECK

12

NONE

Signifies the end of one pass through the fault list

NONE

None, used as end of the fault list identification

131

132

133

141

(14)

151

(15)

Inj1Open

Gasoline Injector 1 open circuit, broken injector 1 wire or defective injector

Inj2Open

Gasoline Injector 2 open circuit, broken injector 2 wire or defective injector

Inj3Open

Gasoline Injector 3 open circuit, broken injector 3 wire or defective injector

ECTRangeLow

Coolant Sensor failure or shorted to

GND

ECTRangeHigh

Coolant sensor disconnected or open circuit

TurnOnMil

TurnOnMil

TurnOnMil

TurnOnMil

(1) TurnOnMil

(2)

DelayedEngine

Shutdown

(3)

CheckEngineLight

Check INJ1 wiring for an open circuit

SECM (Signal) A5 to Injector 1

Pin A

Switched 12V to Injector 1 Pin B

Check Injector 1 Resistance, 12 to14 ohms (cold)

Check INJ2 wiring for an open circuit

SECM (Signal) A4 to Injector 2

Pin A

Switched 12V to Injector 2 Pin B

Check Injector 2 Resistance, 12 to14 ohms (cold)

Check INJ3 wiring for an open circuit

SECM (Signal) A to Injector 3 Pin

A

Switched 12V to Injector 3 Pin B

Check Injector 3 Resistance, 12 to14 ohms (cold)

Check ECT sensor connector and wiring for a short to GND

SECM (Signal) Pin B15 To ECT

Pin A

SECM (Sensor GND) Pin B1 to

ECT Pin B

SECM (System GND) Pin A16,

B17

Check if ECT sensor connector is disconnected or for an open ECT circuit

SECM (Signal) Pin B15 to ECT

Pin A

SECM (Sensor GND) Pin B1 to

ECT Pin B

(*

)

Fault actions shown are default values specified by the OEM.

Woodward 91

Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

Table 2. Diagnostic Fault Codes (Flash Codes) cont’d.

DFC

(MI-04)

PROBABLE FAULT

FAULT ACTION

*

CORRECTIVE ACTION

FIRST CHECK

Check coolant system for radiator blockage, proper coolant level and for leaks in the system.

161

(16)

ECTOverTempFault

Engine coolant temperature is high.

The sensor has measured an excessive coolant temperature typically due to the engine overheating.

(1) TurnOnMil

(2) DelayedEngine

Shutdown

(3)

CheckEngineLight

Possible ECT short to GND, check ECT signal wiring

SECM (Signal) Pin B15 to ECT

Pin A

SECM (Sensor GND) Pin B1 to

ECT Pin B

SECM (System GND) Pin A16,

B17

Check regulator for coolant leaks

171

181

ECT_IR_Fault

Engine coolant temperature not changing as expected

FuelSelectConflict

Conflict in fuel select signals, normally set if both of the fuel select signals are shorted to ground

None

TurnOnMil

Check for coolant system problems, e.g. defective or stuck thermostat

191

192

CamEdgesFault

No CAM signal when engine is known to be rotating, broken crankshaft sensor leads or defective

CAM sensor

CamSyncFault

Loss of synchronization on the CAM sensor, normally due to noise on the signal or an intermittent connection on the

CAM sensor

None

None

Check fuel select switch connection for a short to GND

SECM (SIGNAL) Pin A12

SECM (SIGNAL) Pin A15

SECM (Sensor GND) Pin B1

Check CAM sensor connections at distributor

SECM (SIGNAL) Pin B10 to distributor connector Pin B

SECM (Sensor GND) Pin B1 to distributor connector Pin A

SECM 5V (PWR) to distributor connector Pin C

Check for defective CAM sensor in distributor housing.

Check CAM sensor connections at distributor

SECM (SIGNAL) Pin B10 to distributor connector Pin B

SECM (Sensor GND) Pin B1 to distributor connector Pin A

SECM 5V (PWR) to distributor connector Pin C

Check for defective CAM sensor in distributor housing

193

CrankEdgesFault

No crankshaft signal when engine is known to be rotating, broken crankshaft sensor leads or defective crank sensor

None

Check Crankshaft sensor connections

SECM (SIGNAL) Pin B5 to Crank sensor Pin C

SECM (Sensor GND) PIN B1 to

Crank sensor Pin B

SECM 5V (PWR) to Crank sensor Pin A

Check for defective Crank sensor

(*

)

Fault actions shown are default values specified by the OEM.

Woodward 92

Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

Table 2. Diagnostic Fault Codes (Flash Codes) cont’d.

DFC

(MI-04)

PROBABLE FAULT

FAULT

ACTION

*

CORRECTIVE ACTION

FIRST CHECK

Check Crankshaft sensor connections

194

CrankSyncFault

Loss of synchronization on the crankshaft sensor, normally due to noise on the signal or an intermittent connection on the crankshaft sensor

None

SECM (SIGNAL) Pin B5 to Crank sensor Pin C

SECM (Sensor GND) Pin B1 to Crank sensor Pin B

SECM 5V (PWR) to Crank sensor Pin

A

Check for defective Crank sensor

221

(22)

222

231

(23)

232

TPS1RangeLow

TPS

1

sensor voltage out of range low, normally set if the

TPS

1

signal has shorted to ground, circuit has opened or sensor has failed

TPS2RangeLow

TPS

2

sensor voltage out of range low, normally set if the

TPS

2

signal has shorted to ground, circuit has opened or sensor has failed

TPS1RangeHigh

TPS

1

sensor voltage out of range high, normally set if the

TPS

1

signal has shorted to power or the ground for the sensor has opened

TPS2RangeHigh

TPS

2

sensor voltage out of range high, normally set if the

TPS

2

signal has shorted to power or the ground for the sensor has opened

TurnOnMil

TurnOnMil

TurnOnMil

TurnOnMil

Check throttle connector connection and TPS

1

sensor for an open circuit or short to GND

SECM Pin B23 (signal) to ETC Pin 6

SECM Pin B1 (sensor GND) to

ETC Pin 2

SECM (system GND) Pin A16, B17

Check throttle connector connection and TPS

2

sensor for an open circuit or short to GND

SECM Pin B4 (signal) to ETC Pin 5

SECM Pin B1 (sensor GND) to

ETC Pin 2

SECM (system GND) Pin A16, B17

Check throttle connector and TPS

1 sensor wiring for a shorted circuit

SECM Pin B23 (signal) to ETC Pin 6

SECM Pin B1 (sensor GND) to

ETC Pin 2

Check throttle connector and TPS

1 sensor wiring for a shorted circuit

SECM Pin B4 (signal) to ETC Pin 5

SECM pin B1 (sensor GND) to

ETC Pin 2

Check the throttle connector and pins for corrosion.

241

(24)

TPS1AdaptLoMin

Learned closed throttle value of TPS

1

sensor range lower than expected

None

To check the TPS disconnect the throttle connector and measure the resistance from:

TPS Pin 2 (GND) to

Pin 6 (TPS

1

SIGNAL) (0.7

Ω ± 30%)

TPS Pin 3 (PWR) to

Pin 6 (TPS

1

SIGNAL) (1.4

Ω ± 30%)

(

*

)

Fault actions shown are default values specified by the OEM.

Woodward 93

Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

Table 2. Diagnostic Fault Codes (Flash Codes) cont’d.

DFC

(MI-04)

PROBABLE FAULT

FAULT

ACTION

*

CORRECTIVE ACTION

FIRST CHECK

42

TPS2AdaptLoMin

Learned closed throttle value of TPS

2

sensor range lower than expected

None

Check the throttle connector and pins for corrosion.

To check the TPS disconnect the throttle connector and measure the resistance from:

TPS Pin 2 (GND) to

Pin 5 (TPS

2

SIGNAL) (1.3K

Ω ±

30%)

TPS PIN 3 (PWR) to

PIN 5 (TPS

2

SIGNAL) (0.6K

Ω ±

30%)

251

(25)

252

271

272

281

282

291

TPS1AdaptHiMax

Learned WOT value of

TPS

1

sensor range higher than expected

TPS2AdaptHiMax

Learned WOT value of

TPS

2

sensor range higher than expected

TPS1AdaptHiMin

Learned WOT value of

TPS

1

sensor range lower than expected

TPS2AdaptHiMin

Learned WOT value of

TPS

2

sensor range lower than expected

TPS1AdaptLoMax

Learned closed throttle value of TPS

1

sensor range higher than expected

TPS2AdaptLoMax

Learned closed throttle value of TPS

2

sensor range higher than expected

TPS_Sensors_Conflict

TPS sensors differ by more than expected amount

NOTE: The TPS is not

a serviceable item and can only be repaired by replacing the DV-EV

throttle assembly.

None

None

None

None

None

None

(1)

TurnOnMil

(2) Engine

Shutdown

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

Perform checks for DFCs 241 & 242

(

*

)

Fault actions shown are default values specified by the OEM.

Woodward 94

Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

Table 2. Diagnostic Fault Codes (Flash Codes) cont’d.

DFC

(MI-04)

PROBABLE FAULT

FAULT

ACTION

*

CORRECTIVE ACTION

FIRST CHECK

331

(33)

332

341

(34)

MAPTimeRangeLow

Manifold Absolute

Pressure sensor input is low, normally set if the

TMAP pressure signal wire has been disconnected or shorted to ground or the circuit has opened to the

SECM

MAPRangeLow

Manifold Absolute

Pressure sensor input is low, normally set if the

TMAP pressure signal wire has been disconnected or shorted to ground or the circuit has opened to the

SECM

MAPTimeRangeHigh

Manifold Absolute

Pressure Sensor Input is

High, normally set if the

TMAP pressure signal wire has become shorted to power, shorted to the

IAT signal, the TMAP has failed or the SECM has failed.

None

(1)

TurnOnMil

(2)

CutThrottle

None

Check TMAP connector and MAP signal wiring for an open circuit

TMAP Pin 4 to SECM Pin B18

(signal)

TMAP Pin 1 to SECM Pin B1

(sensor GND)

TMAP Pin 3 to SECM Pin B24

(PWR)

Check the MAP sensor by disconnecting the TMAP connector and measuring at the sensor:

TMAP Pin 1(GND) to Pin 4

(pressure signal kPa) (2.4k

Ω -

8.2k

Ω)

TMAP Pin 3 (PWR) to Pin 4

(pressure signal kPa) (3.4k

Ω -

8.2k

Ω)

Check TMAP connector and MAP signal wiring for an open circuit

TMAP Pin 4 to SECM Pin B18

(signal)

TMAP Pin 1 to SECM Pin B1

(sensor GND)

TMAP Pin 3 to SECM Pin B24

(PWR)

Check the MAP sensor by disconnecting the TMAP connector and measuring at the sensor:

TMAP Pin 1(GND) to Pin 4

(pressure signal kPa) (2.4k

Ω -

8.2k

Ω)

TMAP Pin 3 (power) to Pin 4

(pressure signal kPa) (3.4k

Ω -

8.2k

Ω)

Check TMAP connector and MAP signal wiring for a shorted circuit

TMAP Pin 4 to SECM Pin B18

(signal)

TMAP Pin 1 to SECM Pin B1

(sensor GND)

TMAP Pin 3 to SECM Pin B24

(PWR)

Check the MAP sensor by disconnecting the TMAP connector and measuring at the sensor:

TMAP Pin 1(GND) to Pin 4

(pressure signal kPa) (2.4k

Ω -

8.2k

Ω)

TMAP Pin 3 (power) to Pin 4

(pressure signal kPa) (3.4k

Ω -

8.2k

Ω)

(

*

)

Fault actions shown are default values specified by the OEM.

Woodward 95

Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

Table 2. Diagnostic Fault Codes (Flash Codes) cont’d.

DFC

(MI-04)

PROBABLE FAULT

FAULT

ACTION

*

CORRECTIVE ACTION,

FIRST CHECK

342

MAPRangeHigh

Manifold Absolute

Pressure Sensor Input is High, normally set if the TMAP pressure signal wire has become shorted to power, shorted to the

IAT signal, the TMAP has failed or the

SECM has failed

(1)

TurnOnMil

(2)

CutThrottle

Check TMAP connector and MAP signal wiring for a shorted circuit

TMAP Pin 4 to SECM Pin B18 (signal)

TMAP Pin 1 to SECM Pin B1

(sensor GND)

TMAP Pin 3 to SECM Pin B24

(PWR)

Check the MAP sensor by disconnecting the TMAP connector and measuring at the sensor:

TMAP Pin 1(GND) to Pin 4 (pressure signal kPa) (2.4k

Ω - 8.2kΩ)

TMAP Pin 3 (power) to Pin 4

(pressure signal kPa) (3.4k

Ω - 8.2kΩ)

351

352

MAP_IR_HI

MAP sensor indicates higher pressure than expected

MAP_IR_LO

MAP sensor indicates lower pressure than expected

MAP_STICKING

MAP sensor not changing as expected

None

None

Check for vacuum leaks. Check that

TMAP sensor is mounted properly.

Possible defective TMAP sensor.

Possible defective TMAP sensor.

353

371 (37)

IATRangeLow

Intake Air

Temperature Sensor

Input is Low normally set if the IAT temperature sensor wire has shorted to chassis ground or the sensor has failed.

None

TurnOnMil

Check that TMAP sensor is mounted properly. Possible defective TMAP sensor.

Check TMAP connector and IAT signal wiring for a shorted circuit

TMAP Pin 2 to SECM Pin B12 (signal)

TMAP Pin 1 to SECM Pin B1

(sensor GND)

To check the IAT sensor of the TMAP disconnect the TMAP connector and measure the IAT resistance

Resistance is approx 2400 ohms at room temperature.

381 (38)

IATRangeHigh

Intake Air

Temperature Sensor

Input is High normally set if the IAT temperature sensor wire has been disconnected or the circuit has opened to the SECM.

TurnOnMil

Check TMAP connector and IAT signal wiring for a shorted circuit

TMAP Pin 2 to SECM Pin B12 (signal)

TMAP Pin 1 to SECM Pin B1

(sensor GND)

To check the IAT sensor of the TMAP disconnect the TMAP connector and measure the IAT resistance

Resistance is approx 2400 ohms at room temperature.

391

IAT_IR_Fault

Intake Air

Temperature not changing as expected

None

Check connections to TMAP sensor.

Check that TMAP sensor is properly mounted to manifold.

(

*

)

Fault actions shown are default values specified by the OEM.

Woodward 96

Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

Table 2. Diagnostic Fault Codes (Flash Codes) cont’d.

DFC

(MI-04)

PROBABLE FAULT

FAULT

ACTION

*

CORRECTIVE ACTION

FIRST CHECK

Check ignition module wiring and connector for open circuit

421

431

(42)

EST1_Open

EST1 output open, possibly open EST1 signal or defective spark module

EST1_Short

EST1 output shorted high or low, EST1 signal shorted to ground or power or defective spark module

TurnOnMil

TurnOnMil

SECM Pin A9 (EST1) to ignition module Pin B.

Verify GND on ignition module Pin C

Verify +12 Vdc on ignition module Pin

A

Refer to application manual for specific engine details.

Check ignition module wiring and connector for shorts

SECM Pin A9 (EST1) to ignition module Pin B

Verify GND on ignition module Pin C

Verify +12 Vdc on ignition module Pin

A

Refer to application manual for specific engine details.

461

(26)

ETC_Sticking

Electronic Throttle

Control is sticking. This can occur if the throttle plate (butterfly valve) inside the throttle bore is sticking. The plate sticking can be due to some type of obstruction, a loose throttle plate, or worn components shaft bearings.

NOTE: The throttle

assembly is not a serviceable item and can only be repaired by replacing the DV-

EV throttle assembly.

(1)

TurnOnMil

(2)

EngineShu tdown

(3)

CutThrottle

Check for debris or obstructions inside the throttle body

Check throttle-plate shaft for bearing wear

Check the ETC driver wiring for an open circuit

SECM Pin A17 to ETC + Pin 1

SECM Pin A18 to ETC - Pin 4

Check the ETC internal motor drive by disconnecting the throttle connector and measuring the motor drive resistance at the throttle

ETC Pin 1 (+DRIVER) to

Pin 4 (-DRIVER) ~3.0-4.0

Ω

471

ETC_Open_Fault

Electronic Throttle

Control Driver has failed, normally set if either of the ETC driver signals have opened or become disconnected, electronic throttle or

SECM is defective.

None

Check the ETC driver wiring for an open circuit

SECM Pin A17 to ETC + Pin 1

SECM Pin A18 to ETC - Pin 4

Check the ETC internal motor drive by disconnecting the throttle connector and measuring the motor drive resistance at the throttle

ETC Pin 1 (+DRIVER) to

Pin 4 (-DRIVER) ~3.0-4.0

Ω

(

*

)

Fault actions shown are default values specified by the OEM.

Woodward 97

Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

DFC

(MI-04)

Table 2. Diagnostic Fault Codes (Flash Codes) cont’d.

PROBABLE FAULT

FAULT ACTION

*

CORRECTIVE ACTION

FIRST CHECK

Check ETC driver wiring for a shorted circuit

491

(29)

HbridgeFault_ETC

Electronic Throttle Control

Driver has failed.

Indeterminate fault on

Hbridge driver for electronic throttle control.

Possibly either ETC+ or

ETC- driver signals have been shorted to ground

TurnOnMil

SECM Pin A17 to ETC + Pin 1

SECM Pin A18 to ETC - Pin 4

Check the ETC internal motor drive by disconnecting the throttle connector and measuring the motor drive resistance at the throttle

ETC Pin 1 (+DRIVER) to

Pin 4 (-DRIVER) ~3.0-4.0

Ω

521

(52)

LowOilPressureFault

Low engine oil pressure

(1) TurnOnMil

(2) DelayedEngine

Shutdown

(3) CheckEngine

Light

Check engine oil level

Check electrical connection to the oil pressure switch

SECM Pin B9 to Oil Pressure

Switch

531

(53)

541

(54)

SysVoltRangeLow

System voltage too low

SysVoltRangeHigh

System voltage too high

TurnOnMil

TurnOnMil

Check battery voltage

Perform maintenance check on electrical connections to the battery and chassis ground

Check battery voltage during starting and when the engine is running to verify charging system and alternator function

Measure battery power at

SECM with a multimeter

(with key on)

SECM Pin A23 (DRVP) to

SECM Pin A16 (DRVG)

SECM Pin A23 (DRVP) to

SECM Pin B17 (DRVG)

Check battery and charging system voltage

Check battery voltage during starting and when the engine is running

Check voltage regulator, alternator, and charging system

Check battery and wiring for overheating and damage

Measure battery power at

SECM with a multimeter

(with key on)

SECM Pin A23 (DRVP) to

SECM Pin A16 (DRVG)

SECM Pin A23 (DRVP) to

SECM Pin B17 (DRVG)

(

*

)

Fault actions shown are default values specified by the OEM.

Woodward 98

Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

DFC

(MI-04)

Table 2. Diagnostic Fault Codes (Flash Codes) cont’d.

PROBABLE FAULT

FAULT ACTION

*

CORRECTIVE ACTION

FIRST CHECK

551

(55)

561

(56)

571

(57)

572

573

SensVoltRangeLow

Sensor reference voltage XDRP too low

SensVoltRangeHigh

Sensor reference voltage XDRP too high

HardOverspeed

Engine speed has exceeded the third level (3 of 3) of overspeed protection

MediumOverspeed

Engine speed has exceeded the second level (2 of 3) of overspeed protection

SoftOverspeed

Engine speed has exceeded the first level (1 of 3) of overspeed protection

(1) TurnOnMil

(2) EngineShutdown

(1) TurnOnMil

(2) EngineShutdown

(1) TurnOnMil

(2) HardRevLimit

(1) TurnOnMil

(2) MediumRevLimit

(1) TurnOnMil

(2) SoftRevLimit

Measure transducer power at the

TMAP connector with a multimeter

TMAP Pin 3 (PWR) to TMAP Pin 1

(sensor GND)

Verify transducer power at the

SECM with a multimeter

SECM Pin B24 (PWR) to SECM

Pin B1 (sensor GND)

Verify transducer power at ETC with a multimeter

ETC Pin 3 (PWR) to ETC Pin 2

(sensor GND)

Verify transducer power to the foot pedal with a multimeter.

Measure transducer power at the

TMAP connector with a multimeter

TMAP Pin 3 (PWR) to TMAP Pin 1

(sensor GND)

Verify transducer power at the

SECM with a multimeter

SECM Pin B24 (PWR) to SECM

Pin B1 (sensor GND)

Verify transducer power at ETC with a multimeter

ETC Pin 3 (PWR) to ETC Pin 2

(sensor GND)

Verify transducer power to the foot pedal with a multimeter.

Usually associated with additional

ETC faults

Check for ETC Sticking or other ETC faults

Verify if the lift truck was motored down a steep grade

Usually associated with additional

ETC faults

Check for ETC Sticking or other ETC faults

Verify if the vehicle was motored down a steep grade

Usually associated with additional

ETC faults

Check for ETC Sticking or other ETC faults

Verify if the vehicle was motored down a steep grade

611

(61)

APP1RangeLow

APP

1

sensor voltage out of range low, normally set if the

APP

1

signal has shorted to ground, circuit has opened or sensor has failed

(1) TurnOnMil

(2) CheckEngineLight

Check foot pedal connector

Check APP

1

signal at SECM

PIN B7

(

*

)

Fault actions shown are default values specified by the OEM.

Woodward 99

Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

DFC

(MI-04)

Table 2. Diagnostic Fault Codes (Flash Codes) cont’d.

PROBABLE FAULT

FAULT

CORRECTIVE

ACTION

ACTION

*

FIRST CHECK

612

(65)

621

(62)

622

(66)

APP2RangeLow

APP

2

sensor voltage out of range low, normally set if the

APP

2

signal has shorted to ground, circuit has opened or sensor has failed

APP1RangeHigh

APP

1

sensor voltage out of range high, normally set if the

APP

1

signal has shorted to power or the ground for the sensor has opened

APP2RangeHigh

APP

2

sensor voltage out of range high, normally set if the

APP

2

signal has shorted to power or the ground for the sensor has opened

TurnOnMil

(1) TurnOnMil

(2) CheckEngine Light

TurnOnMil

Check foot pedal connector

Check APP

2 signal at SECM

PIN B16

Check foot pedal connector

Check APP

1 signal at SECM

PIN B7

Check foot pedal connector

Check APP

2 signal at SECM

PIN B16

631

(63)

APP1AdaptLoMin

Learned idle value of APP

1 sensor range lower than expected

None

Check APP connector and pins for corrosion

Cycle the pedal several times and check APP

1 signal at SECM

Pin B7

632

(67)

APP2AdaptLoMin

Learned idle value of APP

2 sensor range lower than expected

None

Check APP connector and pins for corrosion

Cycle the pedal several times and check APP

2 signal at SECM

Pin B16

641

(64)

642

(68)

651

652

661

662

APP1AdaptHiMax

Learned full pedal value of

APP

1

sensor range higher than expected

APP2AdaptHiMax

Learned full pedal value of

APP

2

sensor range higher than expected

APP1AdaptHiMin

Learned full pedal value of

APP

1

sensor range lower than expected

APP2AdaptHiMin

Learned full pedal value of

APP

2

sensor range lower than expected

APP1AdaptLoMax

Learned idle value of APP

1 sensor range higher than expected

APP2AdaptLoMax

Learned idle value of APP

2 sensor range higher than expected

None

None

None

None

None

None

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

(

*

)

Fault actions shown are default values specified by the OEM.

Woodward 100

Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

Table 2. Diagnostic Fault Codes (Flash Codes) cont’d.

DFC

(MI-04)

PROBABLE FAULT

FAULT ACTION

*

CORRECTIVE ACTION

FIRST CHECK

691 (69)

APP_Sensors_Conflict

APP position sensors do no not track well, intermittent connections to APP or defective pedal assembly

711 (71)

LSDFault_Dither1

Dither Valve 1 Fault, signal has opened or shorted to ground or power or defective dither

1 valve

712

LSDFault_Dither2

Dither Valve 2 Fault, signal has opened or shorted to ground or power or defective dither

2 valve

1) TurnOnMil

(2) Level1PowerLimit

TurnOnMil

TurnOnMil

Check APP connector and pins for corrosion

Cycle the pedal several times and check APP

1

signal at

SECM Pin B7

Cycle the pedal several times and check APP

2

signal at

SECM Pin B16

Check FTV

1

for an open wire or FTV connector being disconnected

FTV

1

Pin 1 (signal) to

SECM Pin A1

FTV

1

Pin 2 (power) to

SECM (DRVP) Pin A23

Check FTV

1

for an open coil by disconnecting the FTV connector and measuring the resistance

(~26

Ω ± 2Ω )

Check FTV

2

for an open wire or FTV connector being disconnected or signal shorted to GND

FTV

2

Pin 1 (signal) to

SECM Pin A2

FTV

2

Pin 2 (power) to

SECM (DRVP) Pin A23

Check FTV

2

for an open coil by disconnecting the FTV connector and measuring the resistance

(~26

Ω ± 2Ω )

715

LSDFault_CrankDisable

Crank Disable Fault, signal has opened or shorted to ground or power or defective crank disable relay

None

N/A

717

LSDFault_LockOff

Fuel lock off Valve Fault, signal has opened or shorted to ground or power or defective Fuel lock off valve

TurnOnMil

Check fuel lock off valve for an open wire or connector being disconnected or signal shorted to GND

Lockoff Pin B (signal) to

SECM Pin A11 Lockoff Pin

A (power) to SECM (DRVP)

Pin A23

Check CSV for an open coil by disconnecting the CSV connector and measuring the resistance

(~26

Ω ± 3Ω)

(

*

)

Fault actions shown are default values specified by the OEM.

Woodward 101

Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

Table 2. Diagnostic Fault Codes (Flash Codes) cont’d.

DFC

(MI-04)

PROBABLE FAULT

FAULT ACTION

*

CORRECTIVE ACTION

FIRST CHECK

718

LSDFault_MIL

Malfunction Indicator Lamp

Fault, signal has opened or shorted to ground or power or defective MIL lamp

None

Check MIL lamp for an open wire or short to GND.

721 (72)

731 (73)

741 (74)

GasFuelAdaptRangeLo

In LPG mode, system had to adapt rich more than expected

GasFuelAdaptRangeHi

In LPG mode, system had to adapt lean more than expected

GasO2NotActive

Pre-catalyst O

2

sensor inactive on LPG, open O

2 sensor signal or heater leads, defective O

2

sensor

TurnOnMil

TurnOnMil

(1) TurnOnMil

(2) DisableGas

O2Ctrl

Check for vacuum leaks.

Check fuel trim valves, e.g. leaking valve or hose

Check for missing orifice(s).

Check fuel trim valves, e.g. plugged valve or hose.

Check for plugged orifice(s).

Check that Pre-catalyst O

2 sensor connections are

OK.

O

2

(signal) Pin B to SECM

Pin B13

O

2

Pin C (GND) to SECM

(DRVG GND) Pins A16,

B17

O

2

Pin 1 (power) to SECM

(DRVP + 12V) Pin A23

Verify O

2

sensor heater circuit is operating by measuring heater resistance (2.1

Ω ± 0.4Ω)

O

2

Pin C (GND) to Pin D

(power)

(

*

)

Fault actions shown are default values specified by the OEM.

Woodward 102

Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

Table 2. Diagnostic Fault Codes (Flash Codes) cont’d.

DFC

(MI-04)

742

743 Reserved

751

752

PROBABLE FAULT

GasPostO2NotActive

Post-catalyst O

2

sensor inactive on LPG, open O

2 sensor signal or heater leads, defective O

2

sensor.

GasO2FailedLean

Pre-catalyst O

2

sensor indicates extended lean operation on LPG

GasPostO2FailedLean

Post-catalyst O

2

sensor indicates extended lean operation on LPG

FAULT ACTION

*

(1) TurnOnMil

(2) DisableGasPost

O2Ctrl

(1) TurnOnMil

(2) DisableGas

O2Ctrl

(1) TurnOnMil

(2) DisableGasPost

O2Ctrl

771

(77)

GasO2FailedRich

Pre-catalyst O

2

sensor indicates extended rich operation on LPG

(1) TurnOnMil

(2) DisableGas

O2Ctrl

(

*

)

Fault actions shown are default values specified by the OEM.

CORRECTIVE ACTION

FIRST CHECK

Check that Post-catalyst O

2 sensor connections are OK.

O

2

(signal) Pin B to SECM Pin

B19

O

2

Pin C (GND) to SECM

(DRVG GND) Pins A16, B17

O

2

Pin D (power) to Post O

2

Heater Relay. Relay pin 87. This relay only turns on after engine has been running for some time and SECM has calculated that water condensation in exhaust has been removed by exhaust heat. Post O

2

Heater Relay has

SECM (DRVP + 12V) applied to the relay coil power. The relay coil ground is controlled by

SECM Pin A20 to activate the relay to flow current through the post O

2

heater.

Verify O

2

sensor heater circuit is operating by measuring heater resistance (2.1

Ω ± 0.4Ω)

O

2

Pin C (GND) to Pin D (power)

Check for vacuum leaks.

Check fuel trim valves, e.g. leaking valve or hose.

Check for missing orifice(s).

Correct other faults that may contribute to 752 (e.g. faults pertaining to fuel trim valves,

Pre-Cat O

2

, Post Cat O

2

sensor)

Check for vacuum leaks

Check for leaks in exhaust, catalytic converter, HEGO sensors; repair leaks.

Check all sensor connections

(see fault 742 corrective actions).

Check fuel trim valves, e.g. plugged valve or hose.

Check for plugged orifice(s).

Woodward 103

Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

Table 2. Diagnostic Fault Codes (Flash Codes) cont’d.

DFC

(MI-04)

772

821

831

841

PROBABLE FAULT

GasPostO2FailedRich

Pre-catalyst O

2

sensor indicates extended rich operation on LPG

LiqFuelAdaptRangeHi

In Gasoline mode, system had to adapt lean more than expected

LiqFuelAdaptRangeLow

In Gasoline mode, system had to adapt rich more than expected

LiqO2NotActive

Pre-catalyst O

2

sensor inactive on gasoline, open

O2 sensor signal or heater leads, defective O2 sensor

FAULT ACTION

*

(1) TurnOnMil

(2) DisableGasPost

O2Ctrl

TurnOnMil

TurnOnMil

(1) TurnOnMil

(2) DisableLiquid

O2Ctrl

(

*

)

Fault actions shown are default values specified by the OEM.

CORRECTIVE ACTION

FIRST CHECK

Correct other faults that may contribute to 772 (e.g. faults pertaining to FTVs, Pre-Cat

O

2

, Post Cat O

2

sensor)

Look for leaks in exhaust, catalytic converter, HEGO sensors; repair leaks.

Check all sensor connections (see fault 742 corrective actions).

Check for vacuum leaks.

Low gasoline fuel pressure, perform gasoline pressure test.

Injector problems, e.g. plugged, defective injector.

Low gasoline fuel pressure, perform gasoline pressure test

Injector problems, e.g. leaking, defective injector.

Check that Pre-catalyst O

2 sensor connections are

OK.

O

2

(signal) Pin B to SECM

Pin B13

O

2

Pin C (GND) to SECM

(DRVG GNG) Pins A16,

B17

O

2

Pin D (power) to SECM

(DRVP + 12V) PIN A23

Verify O

2

sensor heater circuit is operating by measuring heater resistance (2.1

Ω ± 0.4Ω)

O

2

Pin C (GND) to Pin D

(power)

Woodward 104

Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

Table 2. Diagnostic Fault Codes (Flash Codes) cont’d.

DFC

(MI-04)

842

843

851

852

871

PROBABLE FAULT

LiqPostO2NotActive

Post-catalyst O

2

sensor inactive on gasoline, open O

2 sensor signal or heater leads, defective O

2

sensor.

Reserved

LiqO2FailedLean

Pre-catalyst O

2

sensor indicates extended lean operation on gasoline

LiqPostO2FailedLean

Post-catalyst O

2

sensor indicates extended lean operation on gasoline

LiqO2FailedRich

Pre-catalyst O

2

sensor indicates extended rich operation on gasoline

FAULT

ACTION

*

(1) TurnOnMil

(2) DisableLiqPost

O2Ctrl

(1) TurnOnMil

(2) DisableLiquid

O2Ctrl

(1) TurnOnMil

(2) DisableLiqPost

O2Ctrl

(1) TurnOnMil

(2) DisableLiquid

O2Ctrl

CORRECTIVE ACTION

FIRST CHECK

Check that Post-catalyst O

2 sensor connections are OK.

O

2

(sensor GND) Pin A to

SECM Pin B1

O

2

Pin C (GND) to SECM

(DRVG GND) Pins A16, B17

O

2

Pin D (power) to Post O

2

Heater Relay. Relay pin 87.

This relay only turns on after engine has been running for some time and SECM has calculated that water condensation in exhaust has been removed by exhaust heat.

Post O

2

Heater Relay has

SECM (DRVP + 12V) applied to the relay coil power. The relay coil ground is controlled by

SECM Pin A20 to activate the relay to flow current through the post O

2

heater.

Verify O

2

sensor heater circuit is operating by measuring heater resistance (2.1

Ω ±

0.4

Ω)

O

2

Pin C (GND) to Pin D

(power)

Check for vacuum leaks.

Low gasoline fuel pressure, perform gasoline pressure test.

Injector problems, e.g. plugged, defective injector

Correct other faults that may contribute to 852 (e.g. faults pertaining to Injectors, MAP,

IAT, Pre-Cat O

2

, Post Cat O

2 sensor.

Look for leaks in exhaust, catalytic converter, HEGO sensors; repair leaks.

Check all sensor connections

(see fault 842 corrective actions).

High gasoline fuel pressure, perform gasoline pressure test

Injector problems, e.g. leaking, defective injector

(

*

)

Fault actions shown are default values specified by the OEM.

Woodward 105

Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

Table 2. Diagnostic Fault Codes (Flash Codes) cont’d.

DFC

(MI-04)

872

911

912

921

922

931

PROBABLE FAULT

LiqPostO2FailedRich

Post-catalyst O

2

sensor indicates extended rich operation on gasoline

O2RangeLow

Pre-catalyst O

2

sensor voltage out of range low, sensor signal shorted to ground

O2_PostCatRangeLow

Post-catalyst O

2

sensor voltage out of range low, sensor signal shorted to ground

O2RangeHigh

Pre-catalyst O2 sensor voltage out of range high, sensor signal shorted to power

O2_PostCatRangeHigh

Post-catalyst O

2

sensor voltage out of range low, sensor signal shorted to ground

FuelTempRangeLow

Fuel Temperature

Sensor Input is Low, normally set if the fuel temperature sensor wire has shorted to chassis ground or the sensor has failed.

FAULT

ACTION

*

(1) TurnOnMil

(2) DisableLiqPost

O2Ctrl

(1) TurnOnMil

(2) DisableLiquid O2Ctrl

(3) DisableGas O2Ctrl

(1) TurnOnMil

(2) Disable Gasoline

Post-catalyst O2Ctrl

(3) Disable LPG Postcatalyst O2Ctrl

(1) TurnOnMil

(2) DisableLiquid O2Ctrl

(3) DisableGas O2Ctrl

(1) TurnOnMil

(2) Disable Gasoline

Post-catalyst O2Ctrl

(3) Disable LPG Postcatalyst O2Ctrl

TurnOnMil

CORRECTIVE ACTION

FIRST CHECK

Correct other faults that may contribute to 872 (e.g. faults pertaining to Injectors, MAP, IAT,

Pre-Cat O

2

, Post Cat O

2

sensor.

Look for leaks in exhaust, catalytic converter, HEGO sensors; repair leaks.

Check all sensor connections

(see fault 842 corrective actions).

Check if O

2

sensor installed before the catalyst is shorted to

GND or sensor GND.

O

2

(signal) Pin B to SECM Pin

B13

SECM (DRVG GND) Pins A16,

B17

SECM (sensor GND) Pin B1

Check if O

2

installed after the catalyst sensor is shorted to

GND or sensor GND.

O

2

(signal) Pin B to SECM Pin

B19

Possible sources: SECM

(DRVG GND) Pins A16, B17 and

SECM (sensor GND) Pin B1

Check if O

2

sensor installed before catalyst is shorted to

+5Vdc or battery.

O

2

(signal) Pin B to SECM Pin

B13

SECM (PWR) Pin B24

SECM (power) Pin A23

Check if O

2

sensor installed after catalyst is shorted to +5Vdc or battery.

O

2

(signal) Pin B to SECM Pin

B19

Possible voltage sources:

SECM (PWR) Pin B24 and

SECM (power) Pin A23

Check fuel temp sensor connector and wiring for a short to GND

SECM (signal) Pin B14 to FTS

Pin 1

SECM (sensor GND) Pin B1 to

FTS Pin 2

SECM (GND) Pin A16, B17

(

*

)

Fault actions shown are default values specified by the OEM.

Woodward 106

Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

Table 2. Diagnostic Fault Codes (Flash Codes) cont’d.

DFC

(MI-04)

932

991

992

993

994

995

PROBABLE FAULT

FuelTempRangeHigh

Fuel Temperature Sensor

Input is High normally set if the fuel temperature sensor wire has been disconnected or the circuit has opened to the SECM.

ServiceFault1

Service Interval 1 has been reached

ServiceFault2

Service Interval 2 has been reached

ServiceFault3

Service Interval 3 has been reached

ServiceFault4

Service Interval 4 has been reached—replace HEGO sensors

ServiceFault5

Service Interval 5 has been reached

FAULT

ACTION

*

TurnOnMil

None

None

None

TurnOnMil

TurnOnMil

CORRECTIVE ACTION

FIRST CHECK

Check if fuel temp sensor connector is disconnected or for an open FTS circuit

SECM (signal) Pin B14 to FTS

Pin 1

SECM (sensor GND) Pin B1 to

FTS Pin 2

Perform service procedure related to Service Interval 1

(determined by OEM)

Perform service procedure related to Service Interval 2

(determined by OEM)

Perform service procedure related to Service Interval 3

(determined by OEM)

Replace Pre-catalyst HEGO sensor

Replace Post-catalyst HEGO sensor

Perform service procedure related to Service Interval 5

(determined by OEM)

(

*

)

Fault actions shown are default values specified by the OEM.

Woodward 107

Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK

Woodward 108

Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

Chapter 9.

Parts Description

Fuel System Components for

3.0L Engines

The chart below lists the MI-07 components required for 3.0L engines.

Components shown with part numbers are supplied by Woodward as part of the

MI-07 system package. Components shown with a dot (

•) are supplied by customer.

PART NO.

1751-6068

1689-1081

DESCRIPTION

Engine Control Module (SECM 48pin)

Crankshaft Position Sensor

TMAP Sensor

Fuel Temperature Sensor

1309-6019

Coolant Sensor

Engine Oil Pressure Switch

Fuel Trim Valve

Ignition Coils

1311-1011 Fuel Lock Off Solenoid

5233-1018 Regulator

QTY

1

1

1

2

1

1

1

1

2

1

1

1

1

Woodward 109

REF

NO.

1

2

3

4

5

10

11

12

13

6

7

8

9

14

15

Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

CA100 Mixer

Refer to Figure 39 exploded view on facing page.

Parts List CA100 Mixer

DESCRIPTION

QTY

Torx Screws (T-25) #10-24 x 5/8”

Lockwashers (T-210) #10 SST

Mixer Cover

Mixer Spring

4

4

1

1

Diaphragm 1

Air Valve Assembly

Gas Valve Cone (part of air valve assembly)

Mixer Body

Expansion Plug Cap Ø 1/2” x 1/16” thick (Ø 12.7mm x 27mm)

Fuel Inlet

Air Horn Gasket

Air Horn Adapter 2-1/16” (52.37mm)

Fillister Head Screws SEMS Lockwasher 10-24 UNC x 5/8”

Throttle Body Gasket

Fillister Head Screws SEMS Split Lockwasher #12-24 x 5/8”

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

4

1

4

Woodward 110

Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

Exploded View CA100 Mixer

DWG NO 9097-2008 Rev 2

Figure 39. CA100 Certified Mixer Exploded View

Woodward 111

Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

18

19

20

21

22

23

N-2007 Regulator

Refer to Figure 40 exploded view on facing page.

Parts List Regulator

RE

F

NO.

DESCRIPTION QTY

2

3

4

5

6

7

11

12

15

16

Diaphragm, Primary Assembly

Springs, Primary Assembly

Cover, Primary Assembly

Spring, Secondary Seat, Red

Dowel Pin

Ø 0.094” x 1” L (Ø 2.39mm x 25.4mm L)

Hardened Steel

Diaphragm, Secondary Assembly

1

1

2

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

6 Fillister Head Screws SEMS Split Lockwasher #12-24 x 5/8”

Pan Head Screw SEMS Ext. Tooth Lockwasher #12-24 x 1/4” 1

1

1

O-ring, Size 107 GLT Viton

®

1

Bottom Plate Gasket 1

1

Fillister Head Screws SEMS Split Lockwasher #12-24 x 1-3/8” 6

Hex Head Screws SEMS Split Lockwasher 1/4-20 x 5/8” 4

Plug, Socket Head Pipe (T-086)

Cover, Secondary Diaphragm

Lockwasher, Int. Tooth (T-210) #8 SST

Torx Screws (T-15) #8-32 x 5/8”

1

1

6

6

Woodward 112

Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

Exploded View

P/N 5233-1018 N-2007 Regulator

DWG NO 1326-4039 Rev 100

Figure 40. N-2007 Certified Regulator Exploded View

Woodward 113

Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

Appendix

LPG & LPG Fuel Tanks

Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) consists mainly of propane, propylene, butane, and butylenes in various mixtures. LPG is produced as a by-product of natural gas processing or it can be obtained from crude oil as part of the oil refining process. LPG, like gasoline, is a compound of hydrogen and carbon, commonly called hydrocarbons.

In its natural state, propane is colorless and odorless; an odorant (ethyl mercaptan) is added to the fuel so its presence can be detected. There are currently three grades of propane available in the United States. A propane grade designation of HD5 (not exceeding 5% propylene), is used for internal combustion engines while much higher levels of propylene (HD10) are used as commercial grade propane along with a commercial propane /butane mixture.

APPROXIMATE COMPOSITION OF HD5 PROPANE BY VOLUME

Propane

(C3H8)

Propylene

Butane

(C4H10) Iso-Butane

Methane

(CH4)

TOTAL

90.0% min. 5% max.

An advantage of LPG is the ability to safely store and transport the product in the liquid state. In the liquid state propane is approximately 270 times as dense as it is in a gaseous form. By pressurizing a container of LPG we can effectively raise the boiling point above -44° F (-42° C), keeping the propane in liquid form. The point at which the liquid becomes a gas (boiling point) depends on the amount of pressure applied to the container.

This process operates similarly to an engine coolant system where water is kept from boiling by pressurizing the system and adding a mixture of glycol. For example, water at normal atmospheric pressure will boil at 212° F (100°) C. If an engine’s operating temperature is approximately 230° F (110° C) then the water in an open un-pressurized cooling system would simply boil off into steam, eventually leaving the cooling system empty and overheating the engine. If we install a 10-psig cap on the radiator, pressurizing the cooling system to 10 psig, the boiling point of the water increases to 242° F (117° C), which will cause the water to remain in liquid state at the engine’s operating temperature.

The same principle is applied to LPG in a container, commonly referred to as an

LPG tank or cylinder. Typically an LPG tank is not filled over 80% capacity to allow for a 20% vapor expansion space. Outside air temperature affects an LPG tank and must be considered when using an LPG system. Figure A1 shows the relationship between pressure and temperature in a LPG tank at a steady state condition.

Woodward 114

Manual 36553 MI-07 Engine Control System for 3.0L Engines

300

250

200

150

100

50

LPG Tank Pressure VS Temperature

0

-20 0 20 40 60 80

Te mpe rature , de g F

100 120 140

Figure A1. LPG Tank Pressure vs Temperature

With 128 psig vapor pressure acting against the liquid propane, the boiling point has been raised to slightly more than 80° F (27° C).

Compressed Vapor

128 psig

Liquid Propane

NOTE

Vapor pressure inside an LPG tank depends on the propane temperature, not the amount of liquid inside the tank. A tank that is

3/4 full of liquid propane at 80°F (27°C) will contain the same vapor pressure as a tank that is only 1/4 full of liquid propane.

LPG’s relative ease of vaporization makes it an excellent fuel for low-RPM engines on start-and-stop operations. The more readily a fuel vaporizes, the more complete combustion will be. Because propane has a low boiling point

(-44° F [-42° C]), and is a low carbon fuel, engine life can be extended due to less cylinder wall wash down and little, if any, carbon build up.

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LPG Fuel Tanks

The two styles of LPG storage containers available for industrial use and lift truck applications are portable universal cylinders and permanently mounted tanks.

Portable universal cylinders are used primarily for off-highway vehicles and are constructed in accordance with the DOT-TC (United States Department of

Transport – Transport Canada). The cylinders are referred to as universal because they can be mounted in either a vertical or horizontal position

(Figure A2).

Figure A2. Portable Universal Cylinder

NOTE

A 375-psig relief valve is used on a DOT forklift tank. The relief valve must be replaced with a new valve after the first 12 years and every 10 years thereafter.

The tank must be discarded if the collar is damaged to the point that it can no longer protect the valves. It must also be replaced if the foot ring is bent to the point where the tank will not stand or is easily knocked over.

Installing LPG Fuel Tanks

When installing a tank on a lift truck, the tank must be within the outline of the vehicle to prevent damage to the valves when maneuvering in tight spaces.

Horizontal tanks must be installed on the saddle that contains an alignment pin, which matches the hole in the collar of the tank. When the pin is in the hole, the liquid withdrawal tube is positioned to the bottom of the tank. A common problem is that often these guide-pins are broken off, allowing the tank to be mounted in any position. This creates two problems: (1) Exposure of the liquid withdrawal tube to the vapor space may give a false indication that the tank is empty, when actually it is not. (2). The safety relief valve may be immersed in liquid fuel. If for any reason the valve has to vent, venting liquid can cause a serious safety problem.

CAUTION

Exchange empty tank with a pre-filled replacement tank. Wear safety glasses and gloves when exchanging a tank.

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LPG Fuel Tank Components

2. 80% Stop Bleeder

3. Pressure Relief Valve

4. Service Valve (Tank end male coupling)

7. Vapor Withdrawal Tube (used only with vapor withdrawal)

8. 80% Limiter Tube

9. Liquid Withdrawal Tube

3

7

1

2

8

9

4

5

6

Figure A3. LPG Fuel Tank Components

Fuel Gauge

In Figure A3 a visual fuel gauge is used to show the fuel level in the tank. A mechanical float mechanism detects the liquid propane level. A magnet on the end of the float shaft moves a magnetic pointer in the fuel gauge. Some units have an electronic sending unit using a variable resistor, installed in place of a gauge for remote monitoring of the fuel level. The gauge may be changed with fuel in the tank. DO NOT REMOVE THE FOUR LARGE FLANGE BOLTS THAT

RETAIN THE FLOAT ASSEMBLY WHEN FUEL IS IN THE TANK!

WARNING

It is not a legal practice to fill the tank through the liquid contents gauge.

In some applications a fixed tube fuel indicator is used in place of a float mechanism. A fixed tube indicator does not use a gauge and only indicates when the LPG tank is 80% full. The fixed tube indicator is simply a normally closed valve that is opened during refueling by the fueling attendant. When opened

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during refueling and the tanks LPG level is below 80%, a small amount of vapor will exit the valve. When the LPG tank level reaches 80% liquid propane will begin exiting the valve in the form of a white mist (Always wear the appropriate protective apparel when refueling LPG cylinders). In order for this type of gauge to be accurate, the tank must be positioned properly. When full (80% LPG) the valve is closed by turning the knurled knob clockwise. Typically a warning label surrounds the fixed tube gauge which reads STOP FILLING WHEN LIQUID

APPEARS.

Pressure Relief Valve

A pressure relief valve is installed for safety purposes on all LPG tanks. Portable fuel tank safety pressure relief valves are a normally closed spring-loaded valve and are calibrated to open at 375 psig tank pressure. This will allow propane vapor to escape to the atmosphere. When tank pressure drops below the preset value, the valve closes.

Service Valve

The service valve is a manually operated valve using a small hand wheel to open and close the fuel supply to the service line (fuel supply line). The service valve installs directly into the tank and has two main categories, liquid and vapor service valves. Liquid service valves used on portable LPG tanks use a 3/8”

(NPT) male pipe thread on the service valve outlet for attachment of a quick disconnect coupler.

An excess flow valve is built into the inlet side of the service valve as a safety device in case of an accidental opening of the service line or damage to the service valve itself. The excess flow valve shuts off the flow of liquid propane if the flow rate of the liquid propane exceeds the maximum flow rate specified by the manufacturer.

Outlet

Hydrostatic

Excess Flow

Valve

Figure A4. Service Valve

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CAUTION

The service valve should be completely open when the tank is in use. If the valve is partly open, the vehicle may not get enough fuel to operate efficiently.

In addition to possibly starving the engine for fuel, a partly open valve may restrict the flow enough to prevent the excess flow valve from closing in the event of a ruptured fuel line.

Most liquid service valves have an internal hydrostatic relief valve and are usually labeled “LIQUID WITH INTERNAL RELIEF.” The hydrostatic relief valve protects the fuel service line between the tank and the lock off from over pressurization. The internal hydrostatic relief valve has a minimum opening pressure of 375 psig and a maximum pressure of 500 psig. These relief valves have an advantage over external relief valves because the propane is returned to the tank in the event of an over pressurization instead of venting the propane to the atmosphere.

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Quick Disconnect Coupling

The liquid withdrawal or service valve on a DOT tank has male threads and accepts the female portion of a quick disconnect coupling (Figure A5). The female portion is adapted to the liquid hose going to the fuel system. Both halves are equipped with 100% shutoffs, which open when coupled together to allow fuel flow. The coupler has two seals. One is an o-ring and the other is a flat washer. The o-ring prevents leakage from the shaft on the other coupling and the flat washer seals when the coupler is fully connected.

Figure A5. Quick Disconnect Coupling

NOTE

The flat seal and/or the o-ring will sometimes pop off when disconnecting and slide up the shaft of the mating connector, causing the valve not to open when fully mated. Remove the extra washer or o-ring from the shaft and reconnect the coupling.

Filler Valve

The liquid filler valve (Figure A6) has a male thread to receive a fuel nozzle and typically has a plastic or brass screw on cap that is retained with a small chain or plastic band to keep debris out of the filler valve.

The filler valve is a one-way flow device that uses two check valves to allow fuel to enter the tank but prevent it from exiting. Both check valves are backpressure type check valves, designed so that backpressure from the tank assists the check valves own spring pressure to close the valve. The first valve uses a neoprene on metal seal and the second valve uses a metal on metal seal.

A weakness ring is machined into the filler valve just above the check valves and will allow the filler valve to shear off in case of an accident. The valve will break or shear off above the check valves so that the tank will be sealed and no liquid propane can escape.

Figure A6. Liquid Filler

Valve

Weakness

Ring

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Abbreviations

ACFM Actual cubic feet per minute at the specified suction conditions

Bi-Fuel Able to operate on either of two fuels

CTS Coolant temperature sensor

CNG Compressed natural gas

Dual Fuel Able to run simultaneously on two fuels, e.g. diesel and natural gas. Often this term is incorrectly used to describe bi-fuel operation. Spark-ignited engines are typically bi-fuel while compression ignition engines are dual-fuel.

ECM Engine control module

FPP Foot pedal position

FPV Fuel primer valve

FTS Fuel temperature sensor

FTV Fuel trim valve

GPM Gallons per minute of flow

HEGO Heated exhaust gas oxygen (sensor)

LAT Limited-angle torque motor

LPG Liquified petroleum gas

MAP Manifold absolute pressure

MAT Manifold air temperature

MIL Malfunction indicator lamp

MOR Manufacturer of record for emissions certification on the engine

OEM Original equipment manufacturer

PHI Relative fuel-air ratio or percent of stoichiometric fuel

(actual fuel-air ratio / stoichiometric fuel-air ratio)

SECM Small engine control module

TMAP Temperature and manifold absolute pressure

TPS Throttle position sensor

VDC Voltage of direct current type

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