NH - Scene7
SEBU8172-02
July 2012
Operation and
Maintenance
Manual
1104D Industrial Engine
NH (Engine)
NJ (Engine)
Important Safety Information
Most accidents that involve product operation, maintenance and repair are caused by failure to
observe basic safety rules or precautions. An accident can often be avoided by recognizing potentially
hazardous situations before an accident occurs. A person must be alert to potential hazards. This
person should also have the necessary training, skills and tools to perform these functions properly.
Improper operation, lubrication, maintenance or repair of this product can be dangerous and
could result in injury or death.
Do not operate or perform any lubrication, maintenance or repair on this product, until you have
read and understood the operation, lubrication, maintenance and repair information.
Safety precautions and warnings are provided in this manual and on the product. If these hazard
warnings are not heeded, bodily injury or death could occur to you or to other persons.
The hazards are identified by the “Safety Alert Symbol” and followed by a “Signal Word” such as
“DANGER”, “WARNING” or “CAUTION”. The Safety Alert “WARNING” label is shown below.
The meaning of this safety alert symbol is as follows:
Attention! Become Alert! Your Safety is Involved.
The message that appears under the warning explains the hazard and can be either written or
pictorially presented.
Operations that may cause product damage are identified by “NOTICE” labels on the product and in
this publication.
Perkins cannot anticipate every possible circumstance that might involve a potential hazard. The
warnings in this publication and on the product are, therefore, not all inclusive. If a tool, procedure,
work method or operating technique that is not specifically recommended by Perkins is used,
you must satisfy yourself that it is safe for you and for others. You should also ensure that the
product will not be damaged or be made unsafe by the operation, lubrication, maintenance or
repair procedures that you choose.
The information, specifications, and illustrations in this publication are on the basis of information that
was available at the time that the publication was written. The specifications, torques, pressures,
measurements, adjustments, illustrations, and other items can change at any time. These changes can
affect the service that is given to the product. Obtain the complete and most current information before
you start any job. Perkins dealers or Perkins distributors have the most current information available.
When replacement parts are required for this
product Perkins recommends using Perkins
replacement parts.
Failure to heed this warning can lead to premature failures, product damage, personal injury or
death.
SEBU8172-02
Table of Contents
3
Table of Contents
Maintenance Interval Schedule ............................ 69
Warranty Section
Foreword ................................................................. 4
Safety Section
Safety Messages .................................................... 6
General Hazard Information ................................... 9
Burn Prevention .................................................... 10
Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention ............. 11
Crushing Prevention and Cutting Prevention ........ 13
Mounting and Dismounting ................................... 13
High Pressure Fuel Lines ..................................... 13
Before Starting Engine .......................................... 15
Engine Starting ..................................................... 15
Engine Stopping ................................................... 16
Electrical System .................................................. 16
Engine Electronics ................................................ 17
Product Information Section
Model Views ......................................................... 18
Product Identification Information ........................ 23
Operation Section
Lifting and Storage ................................................ 25
Gauges and Indicators .......................................... 27
Features and Controls .......................................... 29
Engine Diagnostics ............................................... 36
Engine Starting ..................................................... 40
Engine Operation .................................................. 43
Engine Stopping ................................................... 44
Cold Weather Operation ....................................... 46
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities .................................................... 50
Maintenance Recommendations .......................... 67
Warranty Information .......................................... 105
Index Section
Index ................................................................... 106
4
Foreword
Foreword
Literature Information
This manual contains safety, operation instructions,
lubrication and maintenance information. This
manual should be stored in or near the engine area
in a literature holder or literature storage area. Read,
study and keep it with the literature and engine
information.
English is the primary language for all Perkins
publications. The English used facilitates translation
and consistency in electronic media delivery.
Some photographs or illustrations in this manual
show details or attachments that may be different
from your engine. Guards and covers may have
been removed for illustrative purposes. Continuing
improvement and advancement of product design
may have caused changes to your engine which are
not included in this manual. Whenever a question
arises regarding your engine, or this manual, please
consult with your Perkins dealer for the latest
available information.
Safety
This safety section lists basic safety precautions.
In addition, this section identifies hazardous,
warning situations. Read and understand the basic
precautions listed in the safety section before
operating or performing lubrication, maintenance and
repair on this product.
Operation
Operating techniques outlined in this manual are
basic. They assist with developing the skills and
techniques required to operate the engine more
efficiently and economically. Skill and techniques
develop as the operator gains knowledge of the
engine and its capabilities.
The operation section is a reference for operators.
Photographs and illustrations guide the operator
through procedures of inspecting, starting, operating
and stopping the engine. This section also includes a
discussion of electronic diagnostic information.
Maintenance
The maintenance section is a guide to engine care.
The illustrated, step-by-step instructions are grouped
by fuel consumption, service hours and/or calendar
time maintenance intervals. Items in the maintenance
schedule are referenced to detailed instructions that
follow.
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Use fuel consumption or service hours to determine
intervals. Calendar intervals shown (daily, annually,
etc.) may be used instead of service meter intervals
if they provide more convenient schedules and
approximate the indicated service meter reading.
Recommended service should be performed at the
appropriate intervals as indicated in the Maintenance
Interval Schedule. The actual operating environment
of the engine also governs the Maintenance Interval
Schedule. Therefore, under extremely severe,
dusty, wet or freezing cold operating conditions,
more frequent lubrication and maintenance than is
specified in the Maintenance Interval Schedule may
be necessary.
The maintenance schedule items are organized for
a preventive maintenance management program. If
the preventive maintenance program is followed, a
periodic tune-up is not required. The implementation
of a preventive maintenance management program
should minimize operating costs through cost
avoidances resulting from reductions in unscheduled
downtime and failures.
Maintenance Intervals
Perform maintenance on items at multiples of the
original requirement. Each level and/or individual
items in each level should be shifted ahead or back
depending upon your specific maintenance practices,
operation and application. We recommend that
the maintenance schedules be reproduced and
displayed near the engine as a convenient reminder.
We also recommend that a maintenance record be
maintained as part of the engine's permanent record.
See the section in the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Maintenance Records” for information
regarding documents that are generally accepted
as proof of maintenance or repair. Your authorized
Perkins dealer can assist you in adjusting your
maintenance schedule to meet the needs of your
operating environment.
Overhaul
Major engine overhaul details are not covered in the
Operation and Maintenance Manual except for the
interval and the maintenance items in that interval.
Major repairs are best left to trained personnel or
an authorized Perkins dealer. Your Perkins
dealer offers a variety of options regarding overhaul
programs. If you experience a major engine failure,
there are also numerous after failure overhaul options
available from your Perkins dealer. Consult with
your dealer for information regarding these options.
SEBU8172-02
California Proposition 65 Warning
Diesel engine exhaust and some of its constituents
are known to the State of California to cause cancer,
birth defects, and other reproductive harm.
Battery posts, terminals and related accessories
contain lead and lead compounds. Wash hands
after handling.
5
Foreword
6
Safety Section
Safety Messages
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Safety Section
The Universal Warning label (1) is located on both
sides of the valve mechanism cover base. Refer to
illustration 1.
i02864025
Safety Messages
There may be several specific warning signs on your
engine. The exact location and a description of the
warning signs are reviewed in this section. Please
become familiar with all warning signs.
Ensure that all of the warning signs are legible. Clean
the warning signs or replace the warning signs if
the words cannot be read or if the illustrations are
not visible. Use a cloth, water, and soap to clean
the warning signs. Do not use solvents, gasoline, or
other harsh chemicals. Solvents, gasoline, or harsh
chemicals could loosen the adhesive that secures the
warning signs. The warning signs that are loosened
could drop off of the engine.
Replace any warning sign that is damaged or
missing. If a warning sign is attached to a part of the
engine that is replaced, install a new warning sign on
the replacement part. Your Perkins dealer or your
distributor can provide new warning signs.
(1) Universal Warning
Do not operate or work on this equipment unless
you have read and understand the instructions
and warnings in the Operation and Maintenance
Manuals. Failure to follow the instructions or
heed the warnings could result in serious injury
or death.
Illustration 1
Typical example
g01154807
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Illustration 2
(1) Universal warning
(2) Hand (High Pressure)
Contact with high pressure fuel may cause fluid
penetration and burn hazards. High pressure fuel spray may cause a fire hazard. Failure to follow these inspection, maintenance and service instructions may cause personal injury or death.
7
Safety Section
Safety Messages
g01268960
8
Safety Section
Safety Messages
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g01426636
Illustration 3
(2) Hand (High Pressure)
Illustration 4
(3) Ether
g01154858
Illustration 5
g01154809
Typical example
Typical example
The warning label for the Hand (High Pressure) (2)
is located on the top of the fuel manifold. Refer to
illustration 4.
The ether warning label (3) is located on the cover of
the inlet manifold. Refer to illustration 4.
(3) Ether
Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such as
ether. Such use could result in an explosion and
personal injury.
Note: The location of this label will depend on the
application of the engine.
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9
Safety Section
General Hazard Information
i02328435
General Hazard Information
Report all necessary repairs.
Do not allow unauthorized personnel on the
equipment.
Ensure that the power supply is disconnected before
you work on the bus bar or the glow plugs.
Perform maintenance on the engine with the
equipment in the servicing position. Refer to the
OEM information for the procedure for placing the
equipment in the servicing position.
Pressure Air and Water
Pressurized air and/or water can cause debris
and/or hot water to be blown out. This could result in
personal injury.
Illustration 6
g00104545
Attach a “Do Not Operate” warning tag or a similar
warning tag to the start switch or to the controls
before you service the equipment or before you
repair the equipment.
The direct application of pressurized air or
pressurized water to the body could result in personal
injury.
When pressurized air and/or water is used for
cleaning, wear protective clothing, protective shoes,
and eye protection. Eye protection includes goggles
or a protective face shield.
The maximum air pressure for cleaning purposes
must be below 205 kPa (30 psi). The maximum
water pressure for cleaning purposes must be below
275 kPa (40 psi).
Fluid Penetration
Pressure can be trapped in the hydraulic circuit long
after the engine has been stopped. The pressure can
cause hydraulic fluid or items such as pipe plugs to
escape rapidly if the pressure is not relieved correctly.
Illustration 7
g00702020
Wear a hard hat, protective glasses, and other
protective equipment, as required.
Do not wear loose clothing or jewelry that can snag
on controls or on other parts of the engine.
Make sure that all protective guards and all covers
are secured in place on the engine.
Keep the engine free from foreign material. Remove
debris, oil, tools, and other items from the deck, from
walkways, and from steps.
Never put maintenance fluids into glass containers.
Drain all liquids into a suitable container.
Obey all local regulations for the disposal of liquids.
Use all cleaning solutions with care.
Do not remove any hydraulic components or parts
until pressure has been relieved or personal injury
may occur. Do not disassemble any hydraulic
components or parts until pressure has been relieved
or personal injury may occur. Refer to the OEM
information for any procedures that are required to
relieve the hydraulic pressure.
10
Safety Section
Burn Prevention
SEBU8172-02
Contact with high pressure fuel may cause fluid
penetration and burn hazards. High pressure fuel spray may cause a fire hazard. Failure to follow these inspection, maintenance and service instructions may cause personal injury or death.
After the engine has stopped, you must wait for 60
seconds in order to allow the fuel pressure to be
purged from the high pressure fuel lines before any
service or repair is performed on the engine fuel lines.
Illustration 8
g00687600
Always use a board or cardboard when you check
for a leak. Leaking fluid that is under pressure can
penetrate body tissue. Fluid penetration can cause
serious injury and possible death. A pin hole leak can
cause severe injury. If fluid is injected into your skin,
you must get treatment immediately. Seek treatment
from a doctor that is familiar with this type of injury.
Containing Fluid Spillage
Care must be taken in order to ensure that fluids
are contained during performance of inspection,
maintenance, testing, adjusting and repair of the
engine. Make provision to collect the fluid with a
suitable container before any compartment is opened
or before any component is disassembled.
• Only use the tools that are suitable for collecting
fluids and equipment that is suitable for collecting
fluids.
• Only use the tools that are suitable for containing
fluids and equipment that is suitable for containing
fluids.
Obey all local regulations for the disposal of liquids.
i02334785
Burn Prevention
Do not touch any part of an operating engine.
Allow the engine to cool before any maintenance is
performed on the engine.
Allow the pressure to be purged in the air system, in
the hydraulic system, in the lubrication system, or in
the cooling system before any lines, fittings or related
items are disconnected.
Coolant
When the engine is at operating temperature, the
engine coolant is hot. The coolant is also under
pressure. The radiator and all lines to the heaters or
to the engine contain hot coolant.
Any contact with hot coolant or with steam can cause
severe burns. Allow cooling system components to
cool before the cooling system is drained.
Check the coolant level after the engine has stopped
and the engine has been allowed to cool.
Ensure that the filler cap is cool before removing the
filler cap. The filler cap must be cool enough to touch
with a bare hand. Remove the filler cap slowly in
order to relieve pressure.
Cooling system conditioner contains alkali. Alkali can
cause personal injury. Do not allow alkali to contact
the skin, the eyes, or the mouth.
Oils
Hot oil and hot lubricating components can cause
personal injury. Do not allow hot oil to contact the
skin. Also, do not allow hot components to contact
the skin.
Batteries
Electrolyte is an acid. Electrolyte can cause personal
injury. Do not allow electrolyte to contact the skin or
the eyes. Always wear protective glasses for servicing
batteries. Wash hands after touching the batteries
and connectors. Use of gloves is recommended.
SEBU8172-02
11
Safety Section
Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention
i04823662
Fire Prevention and Explosion
Prevention
Exhaust shields (if equipped) protect hot exhaust
components from oil or fuel spray in a line, a tube,
or a seal failure. Exhaust shields must be installed
correctly.
Do not weld on lines or tanks that contain flammable
fluids. Do not flame cut lines or tanks that contain
flammable fluid. Clean any such lines or tanks
thoroughly with a nonflammable solvent prior to
welding or flame cutting.
Wiring must be kept in good condition. Ensure that
all electrical wires are correctly routed and securely
attached. Check all electrical wires daily. Repair any
wires that are loose or frayed before you operate the
engine. Clean all electrical connections and tighten
all electrical connections.
Illustration 9
g00704000
All fuels, most lubricants, and some coolant mixtures
are flammable.
Flammable fluids that are leaking or spilled onto hot
surfaces or onto electrical components can cause
a fire. Fire may cause personal injury and property
damage.
After the emergency stop button is operated, ensure
that you allow 15 minutes, before the engine covers
are removed.
Determine whether the engine will be operated in an
environment that allows combustible gases to be
drawn into the air inlet system. These gases could
cause the engine to overspeed. Personal injury,
property damage, or engine damage could result.
If the application involves the presence of combustible
gases, consult your Perkins dealer and/or your
Perkins distributor for additional information about
suitable protection devices.
Remove all flammable combustible materials or
conductive materials such as fuel, oil, and debris from
the engine. Do not allow any flammable combustible
materials or conductive materials to accumulate on
the engine.
Store fuels and lubricants in correctly marked
containers away from unauthorized persons. Store
oily rags and any flammable materials in protective
containers. Do not smoke in areas that are used for
storing flammable materials.
Do not expose the engine to any flame.
Eliminate all wiring that is unattached or unnecessary.
Do not use any wires or cables that are smaller than
the recommended gauge. Do not bypass any fuses
and/or circuit breakers.
Arcing or sparking could cause a fire. Secure
connections, recommended wiring, and correctly
maintained battery cables will help to prevent arcing
or sparking.
Contact with high pressure fuel may cause fluid
penetration and burn hazards. High pressure fuel spray may cause a fire hazard. Failure to follow these inspection, maintenance and service instructions may cause personal injury or death.
After the engine has stopped, wait for 60 seconds in
order to allow the fuel pressure to be purged from the
high-pressure fuel lines before any service or repair
is performed on the engine fuel lines.
Ensure that the engine is stopped. Inspect all lines
and hoses for wear or for deterioration. Properly
route all hoses. The lines and hoses must have
adequate support and secure clamps.
Properly install oil filters and fuel filters. The filter
housings must be tightened to the correct torque.
Refer to the Disassembly and Assembly manual for
more information.
12
Safety Section
Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention
SEBU8172-02
Incorrect jumper cable connections can cause
an explosion that can result in injury. Refer to
the Operation Section of this manual for specific
instructions.
Do not charge a frozen battery.Charging a frozen
battery may cause an explosion.
The batteries must be kept clean. The covers
(if equipped) must be kept on the cells. Use the
recommended cables, connections, and battery box
covers when the engine is operated.
Fire Extinguisher
Make sure that a fire extinguisher is available. Be
familiar with the operation of the fire extinguisher.
Inspect the fire extinguisher and service the fire
extinguisher regularly. Obey the recommendations
on the instruction plate.
Illustration 10
g00704059
Use caution when you are refueling an engine. Do
not smoke while you are refueling an engine. Do not
refuel an engine near open flames or sparks. Always
stop the engine before refueling.
Lines, Tubes, and Hoses
Do not bend high-pressure lines. Do not strike
high-pressure lines. Do not install any lines that are
damaged.
Leaks can cause fires. Consult your Perkins dealer
or your Perkins distributor for replacement parts.
Replace the parts if any of the following conditions
are present:
• High-pressure fuel line or lines are removed.
• End fittings are damaged or leaking.
• Outer coverings are chafed or cut.
• Wires are exposed.
• Outer coverings are ballooning.
• Flexible parts of the hoses are kinked.
• Outer covers have embedded armoring.
Illustration 11
g02298225
Gases from a battery can explode. Keep any open
flames or sparks away from the top of a battery. Do
not smoke in battery charging areas.
Never check the battery charge by placing a metal
object across the terminal posts. Use a voltmeter or
a hydrometer.
• End fittings are displaced.
Make sure that all clamps, guards, and heat shields
are installed correctly in order to prevent vibration,
rubbing against other parts, and excessive heat.
SEBU8172-02
13
Safety Section
Crushing Prevention and Cutting Prevention
i02143194
Crushing Prevention and
Cutting Prevention
i02861106
High Pressure Fuel Lines
Support the component correctly when work beneath
the component is performed.
Unless other maintenance instructions are provided,
never attempt adjustments while the engine is
running.
Stay clear of all rotating parts and of all moving
parts. Leave the guards in place until maintenance
is performed. After the maintenance is performed,
reinstall the guards.
Keep objects away from moving fan blades. The fan
blades will throw objects or cut objects.
When objects are struck, wear protective glasses in
order to avoid injury to the eyes.
Chips or other debris may fly off objects when objects
are struck. Before objects are struck, ensure that no
one will be injured by flying debris.
i02235492
Mounting and Dismounting
Inspect the steps, the handholds, and the work area
before mounting the engine. Keep these items clean
and keep these items in good repair.
Mount the engine and dismount the engine only at
locations that have steps and/or handholds. Do not
climb on the engine, and do not jump off the engine.
Face the engine in order to mount the engine or
dismount the engine. Maintain a three-point contact
with the steps and handholds. Use two feet and one
hand or use one foot and two hands. Do not use any
controls as handholds.
Do not stand on components which cannot support
your weight. Use an adequate ladder or use a work
platform. Secure the climbing equipment so that the
equipment will not move.
Do not carry tools or supplies when you mount the
engine or when you dismount the engine. Use a hand
line to raise and lower tools or supplies.
Contact with high pressure fuel may cause fluid
penetration and burn hazards. High pressure fuel spray may cause a fire hazard. Failure to follow these inspection, maintenance and service instructions may cause personal injury or death.
14
Safety Section
High Pressure Fuel Lines
SEBU8172-02
g01425090
Illustration 12
(1) High pressure line
(2) High pressure line
(3) High pressure line
(4) High pressure line
The high pressure fuel lines are the fuel lines that
are between the high pressure fuel pump and the
high pressure fuel manifold and the fuel lines that are
between the fuel manifold and cylinder head. These
fuel lines are different from fuel lines on other fuel
systems.
This is because of the following differences:
• The high pressure fuel lines are constantly charged
with high pressure.
• The internal pressures of the high pressure fuel
lines are higher than other types of fuel system.
• The high pressure fuel lines are formed to shape
and then strengthened by a special process.
Do not step on the high pressure fuel lines. Do not
deflect the high pressure fuel lines. Do not bend or
strike the high pressure fuel lines. Deformation or
damage of the high pressure fuel lines may cause a
point of weakness and potential failure.
(5) High pressure fuel manifold (rail)
(6) High pressure line
Do not check the high pressure fuel lines with the
engine or the starting motor in operation. After the
engine has stopped allow 60 seconds to pass in order
to allow the pressure to be purged before any service
or repair is performed on the engine fuel lines.
Do not loosen the high pressure fuel lines in order
to remove air from the fuel system. This procedure
is not required.
Visually inspect the high pressure fuel lines before
the engine is started. This inspection should be each
day.
If you inspect the engine in operation, always use
the proper inspection procedure in order to avoid
a fluid penetration hazard. Refer to Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “General Hazard Information”.
• Inspect the high pressure for the following:
damage, deformation, a nick, a cut, a crease, or
a dent
SEBU8172-02
15
Safety Section
Before Starting Engine
• Do not operate the engine with a fuel leak. If there
is a leak do not tighten the connection in order
to stop the leak. The connection must only be
tightened to the recommended torque. Refer to
Disassembly and Assembly Manual, “Fuel Injection
Lines - Remove and Fuel Injection Lines - Install”.
See the Service Manual for repairs and for
adjustments.
i02251260
Engine Starting
• If the high pressure fuel lines are torqued correctly
and the high pressure fuel lines are leaking the
high pressure fuel lines must be replaced.
• Ensure that all clips on the high pressure fuel lines
are in place. Do not operate the engine with clips
that are damaged, missing or clips that are loose.
Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such as
ether. Such use could result in an explosion and
personal injury.
• Do not attach any other item to the high pressure
fuel lines.
• Loosened high pressure fuel lines must be
replaced. Also removed high pressure fuel lines
must be replaced. Refer to Disassembly and
Assembly Manual, “ Fuel Injection Lines - Install”.
i02813489
Before Starting Engine
If a warning tag is attached to the engine start switch
or to the controls DO NOT start the engine or move
the controls. Consult with the person that attached
the warning tag before the engine is started.
All protective guards and all protective covers must
be installed if the engine must be started in order
to perform service procedures. To help prevent an
accident that is caused by parts in rotation, work
around the parts carefully.
Start the engine from the operator's compartment or
from the engine start switch.
Before the initial start-up of an engine that is new,
serviced or repaired, make provision to shut the
engine off, in order to stop an overspeed. This may
be accomplished by shutting off the air and/or fuel
supply to the engine.
Overspeed shutdown should occur automatically for
engines that are controlled electronically. If automatic
shutdown does not occur, press the emergency stop
button in order to cut the fuel and/or air to the engine.
Inspect the engine for potential hazards.
Before starting the engine, ensure that no one is on,
underneath, or close to the engine. Ensure that the
area is free of personnel.
If equipped, ensure that the lighting system for the
engine is suitable for the conditions. Ensure that all
lights work correctly, if equipped.
All protective guards and all protective covers must
be installed if the engine must be started in order
to perform service procedures. To help prevent an
accident that is caused by parts in rotation, work
around the parts carefully.
Do not bypass the automatic shutoff circuits. Do not
disable the automatic shutoff circuits. The circuits are
provided in order to help prevent personal injury. The
circuits are also provided in order to help prevent
engine damage.
Always start the engine according to the procedure
that is described in the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Engine Starting” topic in the Operation
Section. Knowing the correct procedure will help to
prevent major damage to the engine components.
Knowing the procedure will also help to prevent
personal injury.
To ensure that the jacket water heater (if equipped)
and/or the lube oil heater (if equipped) is working
correctly, check the water temperature gauge
and/or the oil temperature gauge during the heater
operation.
Engine exhaust contains products of combustion
which can be harmful to your health. Always start the
engine and operate the engine in a well ventilated
area. If the engine is started in an enclosed area,
vent the engine exhaust to the outside.
Note: The engine is equipped with a device for cold
starting. If the engine will be operated in very cold
conditions, then an extra cold starting aid may be
required. Normally, the engine will be equipped with
the correct type of starting aid for your region of
operation.
These engines are equipped with a glow plug starting
aid in each individual cylinder that heats the intake
air in order to improve starting.
16
Safety Section
Engine Stopping
SEBU8172-02
i02234873
Grounding Practices
Engine Stopping
Stop the engine according to the procedure in
the Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Engine
Stopping (Operation Section)” in order to avoid
overheating of the engine and accelerated wear of
the engine components.
Use the Emergency Stop Button (if equipped) ONLY
in an emergency situation. Do not use the Emergency
Stop Button for normal engine stopping. After an
emergency stop, DO NOT start the engine until the
problem that caused the emergency stop has been
corrected.
Stop the engine if an overspeed condition occurs
during the initial start-up of a new engine or an engine
that has been overhauled.
To stop an electronically controlled engine, cut the
power to the engine and/or shutting off the air supply
to the engine.
Illustration 13
g01162916
Typical example
(1) Starting motor to engine block
(2) Ground to starting motor
(3) Ground to battery
i02234878
Electrical System
Never disconnect any charging unit circuit or battery
circuit cable from the battery when the charging unit
is operating. A spark can cause the combustible
gases that are produced by some batteries to ignite.
To help prevent sparks from igniting combustible
gases that are produced by some batteries, the
negative “−” cable should be connected last from the
external power source to the negative “−” terminal
of the starting motor. If the starting motor is not
equipped with a negative “−” terminal, connect the
cable to the engine block.
Check the electrical wires daily for wires that
are loose or frayed. Tighten all loose electrical
connections before the engine is started. Repair all
frayed electrical wires before the engine is started.
See the Operation and Maintenance Manual for
specific starting instructions.
Illustration 14
g01162918
Typical example
(4) Ground to engine
(5) Ground to battery
Correct grounding for the engine electrical system
is necessary for optimum engine performance
and reliability. Incorrect grounding will result in
uncontrolled electrical circuit paths and in unreliable
electrical circuit paths.
SEBU8172-02
17
Safety Section
Engine Electronics
Uncontrolled electrical circuit paths can result in
damage to the crankshaft bearing journal surfaces
and to aluminum components.
• Derate
Engines that are installed without engine-to-frame
ground straps can be damaged by electrical
discharge.
The following monitored engine operating conditions
have the ability to limit engine speed and/or the
engine power:
To ensure that the engine and the engine electrical
systems function correctly, an engine-to-frame
ground strap with a direct path to the battery must be
used. This path may be provided by way of a direct
engine ground to the frame.
• Engine Coolant Temperature
The connections for the grounds should be tight and
free of corrosion. The engine alternator must be
grounded to the negative “-” battery terminal with
a wire that is adequate to handle the full charging
current of the alternator.
• Intake Manifold Air Temperature
The power supply connections and the ground
connections for the engine electronics should always
be from the isolator to the battery.
i02650954
Engine Electronics
Tampering with the electronic system installation
or the OEM wiring installation can be dangerous
and could result in personal injury or death and/or
engine damage.
Electrical Shock Hazard. The electronic unit injectors use DC voltage. The ECM sends this voltage
to the electronic unit injectors. Do not come in
contact with the harness connector for the electronic unit injectors while the engine is operating.
Failure to follow this instruction could result in
personal injury or death.
This engine has a comprehensive, programmable
Engine Monitoring System. The Electronic Control
Module (ECM) has the ability to monitor the engine
operating conditions. If any of the engine parameters
extend outside an allowable range, the ECM will
initiate an immediate action.
The following actions are available for engine
monitoring control:
• Warning
• Shutdown
• Engine Oil Pressure
• Engine Speed/Timing
The Engine Monitoring package can vary for different
engine models and different engine applications.
However, the monitoring system and the engine
monitoring control will be similar for all engines.
Note: Many of the engine control systems and display
modules that are available for Perkins Engines will
work in unison with the Engine Monitoring System.
Together, the two controls will provide the engine
monitoring function for the specific engine application.
Refer to Troubleshooting for more information on the
Engine Monitoring System.
18
Product Information Section
Model Views
SEBU8172-02
Product Information
Section
Model Views
i02861104
Model View Illustrations
The following model views show typical features
of the engine. Due to individual applications, your
engine may appear different from the illustrations.
Illustration 15
The 1104D NJ engine is turbocharged and aftercooled.
g01425089
SEBU8172-02
19
Product Information Section
Model Views
g01428165
Illustration 16
The 1104D NH engine is turbocharged.
Front left engine view
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
Front lifting eye
Water outlet
Rear lifting eye
Fuel manifold (rail)
Electronic control module
(6) Secondary fuel filter
(7) Water pump
(8) Oil Filler
(9) Oil gauge
(10) Oil sampling valve
(11) Oil filter
(12) Crankshaft pulley
(13) Drive Belt
(14) Belt tensioner
20
Product Information Section
Model Views
SEBU8172-02
g01428176
Illustration 17
Rear right engine view
(15)
(16)
(17)
(18)
Alternator
Exhaust manifold
Turbocharger
Wastegate solenoid
(19) Drain plug or coolant sampling valve
(20) Starting Motor
(21) Oil drain plug
(22) Primary fuel filter
Note: The primary fuel filter may be mounted off the
engine.
i04925801
Engine Description
(23) Hand fuel priming pump
(24) Flywheel
(25) Flywheel housing
Engine Specifications
Note: The front end of the engine is opposite the
flywheel end of the engine. The left and the right
sides of the engine are determined from the flywheel
end. The number 1 cylinder is the front cylinder.
Emissions Control Systems
The 1104 Electronic Engine models NH and NJ are
designed for the following applications: machine and
industrial mobile equipment. The engine is available
in the following type of aspiration:
• Turbocharged
• Turbocharged aftercooled
• In-line 4 cylinder
NH - Direct Diesel Injection, Turbocharger, and
Engine Control Module
NJ - Direct Diesel Injection, Turbocharger with Air to
Air Charge Cooler and Engine Control Module
SEBU8172-02
21
Product Information Section
Model Views
• Engine speed governing
• Control of the injection pressure
• Cold start strategy
• Automatic air/fuel ratio control
• Torque rise shaping
• Injection timing control
• System diagnostics
For more information on electronic engine features,
refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Features and Controls” topic (Operation Section).
Engine Diagnostics
g01187485
Illustration 18
(A) Exhaust valves
(B) Inlet valves
Table 1
1104 Electronic Engine Specifications
Operating Range (rpm)
Number of Cylinders
750 to 2640(1)
4 In-Line
Bore
105 mm (4.13 inch)
Stroke
127 mm (5.0 inch)
Aspiration
Compression Ratio
Displacement
Firing Order
Rotation (flywheel end)
NH Turbocharged engine
NJ Turbocharged engine
that is aftercooled
16.2:1
4.4 L (269 in3)
1,3,4,2
Counterclockwise
Valve Lash Setting (Inlet)
0.35 mm (0.013 inch)
Valve Lash Setting
(Exhaust)
0.35 mm (0.013 inch)
(1)
The operating rpm is dependent on the engine rating, the
application, and the configuration of the throttle.
Electronic Engine Features
The engine operating conditions are monitored.
The Electronic Control Module (ECM) controls the
response of the engine to these conditions and to
the demands of the operator. These conditions and
operator demands determine the precise control of
fuel injection by the ECM. The electronic engine
control system provides the following features:
• Engine monitoring
The engine has built-in diagnostics in order to ensure
that the engine systems are functioning correctly. The
operator will be alerted to the condition by a “Stop or
Warning” lamp. Under certain conditions, the engine
horsepower and the vehicle speed may be limited.
The electronic service tool may be used to display
the diagnostic codes.
There are three types of diagnostic codes: active,
logged, and event.
Most of the diagnostic codes are logged and stored
in the ECM. For additional information, refer to
the Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Engine
Diagnostics” topic (Operation Section).
The ECM provides an electronic governor that
controls the injector output in order to maintain the
desired engine rpm.
Engine Cooling and Lubrication
The cooling system consists of the following
components:
• Gear-driven centrifugal water pump
• Water temperature regulator which regulates the
engine coolant temperature
• Gear-driven rotor type oil pump
• Oil cooler
The engine lubricating oil is supplied by a rotor type
oil pump. The engine lubricating oil is cooled and the
engine lubricating oil is filtered. The bypass valves
can provide unrestricted flow of lubrication oil to
the engine if the oil filter element should become
plugged.
22
Product Information Section
Model Views
Engine efficiency, efficiency of emission controls, and
engine performance depend on adherence to proper
operation and maintenance recommendations.
Engine performance and efficiency also depend on
the use of recommended fuels, lubrication oils, and
coolants. Refer to this Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Maintenance Interval Schedule” for more
information on maintenance items.
SEBU8172-02
SEBU8172-02
23
Product Information Section
Product Identification Information
Product Identification
Information
Perkins dealers or Perkins distributors need all of
these numbers in order to determine the components
that were included with the engine. This permits
accurate identification of replacement part numbers.
i02378644
Plate Locations and Film
Locations
The numbers for fuel setting information for electronic
engines are stored within the personality module.
These numbers can be read by using the Electronic
Service Tool.
Serial Number Plate (1)
The engine serial number plate is located on the left
side of the cylinder block to the rear of the engine.
Illustration 20
g01094203
Serial number plate
i02164876
Reference Numbers
Illustration 19
g01248563
Location of the serial number plate
Perkins engines are identified by an engine serial
number.
An example of an engine number is
NH*****U000001J.
***** ____________________ The list number for the engine
NH _________________________________________Type of engine
U ____________________________Built in the United Kingdom
000001 ___________________________Engine Serial Number
J _____________________________________Year of Manufacture
Information for the following items may be needed to
order parts. Locate the information for your engine.
Record the information in the appropriate space.
Make a copy of this list for a record. Keep the
information for future reference.
Record for Reference
Engine Model _______________________________________________
Engine Serial number _____________________________________
Engine Low Idle rpm ______________________________________
Engine Full Load rpm _____________________________________
Primary Fuel Filter _________________________________________
Water Separator Element ________________________________
Secondary Fuel Filter Element __________________________
24
Product Information Section
Product Identification Information
SEBU8172-02
Lubrication Oil Filter Element ___________________________
Auxiliary Oil Filter Element _______________________________
Total Lubrication System Capacity _____________________
Total Cooling System Capacity _________________________
Air Cleaner Element _______________________________________
Fan Drive Belt ______________________________________________
Alternator Belt ______________________________________________
i02861254
Emissions Certification Film
Illustration 21
Typical example
g01440937
SEBU8172-02
25
Operation Section
Lifting and Storage
Operation Section
Some removals require lifting the fixtures in order to
obtain correct balance and safety.
To remove the engine ONLY, use the lifting eyes that
are on the engine.
Lifting and Storage
i02164186
Engine Lifting
Lifting eyes are designed and installed for specific
engine arrangements. Alterations to the lifting eyes
and/or the engine make the lifting eyes and the lifting
fixtures obsolete. If alterations are made, ensure
that correct lifting devices are provided. Consult
your Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor for
information regarding fixtures for correct engine
lifting.
i02308881
Engine Storage
If the engine is not started for a month or longer the
lubricating oil will drain from the cylinder walls and
from the piston rings. Rust can form on the cylinder
walls. Rust on the cylinder walls will cause increased
engine wear and a reduction in engine service life.
Perkins are not responsible for damage which may
occur when an engine is in storage after a period in
service.
Your Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor can
assist in preparing the engine for extended storage
periods.
If an engine is out of operation and if use of the
engine is not planned for more than one month, a
complete protection procedure is recommended.
Illustration 22
g01097527
NOTICE
Never bend the eyebolts and the brackets. Only load
the eyebolts and the brackets under tension. Remember that the capacity of an eyebolt is less as the angle
between the supporting members and the object becomes less than 90 degrees.
When it is necessary to remove a component at an
angle, only use a link bracket that is properly rated for
the weight.
Use a hoist to remove heavy components. Use
an adjustable lifting beam to lift the engine. All
supporting members (chains and cables) should be
parallel to each other. The chains and cables should
be perpendicular to the top of the object that is being
lifted.
To help prevent excessive engine wear and corrosion
to the engine, use the following guidelines:
1. Completely clean the outside of the engine.
2. Ensure that the vehicle is on level ground.
3. Drain the fuel system completely and refill
the system with preservative fuel. 1772204
POWERPART Lay-Up 1 can be mixed with
the normal fuel in order to change the fuel into
preservative fuel.
If preservative fuel is not available, the fuel system
can be filled with normal fuel. This fuel must be
discarded at the end of the storage period together
with the fuel filter elements.
26
Operation Section
Lifting and Storage
SEBU8172-02
9. If equipped, replace the crankcase breather
element. Seal the end of the breather pipe.
Personal injury can result from hot coolant. Any
contact with hot coolant or with steam can cause
severe burns. Allow cooling system components
to cool before the cooling system is drained.
4. Drain and refill the cooling system. Refer to this
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Cooling
System coolant (Commercial Heavy Duty Change or Cooling System coolant (ELC) Change” for information on draining, flushing and
refilling the cooling system.
Contact with high pressure fuel may cause fluid
penetration and burn hazards. High pressure fuel spray may cause a fire hazard. Failure to follow these inspection, maintenance and service instructions may cause personal injury or death.
5. Operate the engine until the engine reaches
normal operating temperature. Stop the engine.
After the engine has stopped, you must wait for 60
seconds in order to allow the fuel pressure to be
purged from the high pressure fuel lines before any
service or repair is performed on the engine fuel
lines. If necessary, perform minor adjustments.
Repair any leaks from the low pressure fuel
system and from the cooling, lubrication or air
systems. Replace any high pressure fuel line that
has leaked. Refer to Disassembly and assembly
Manual, “Fuel Injection Lines - Install”.
6. Drain the lubricating oil from the oil pan.
Renew the canister(s) of the lubricating oil filter.
Fill the oil pan to the Full Mark on the engine oil
level gauge with new, clean lubricating oil. Add
1762811 POWERPART Lay-Up 2 to the oil in
order to protect the engine against corrosion. If
1762811 POWERPART Lay-Up 2 is not available,
use a preservative of the correct specification
instead of the lubricating oil. If a preservative is
used, this must be drained completely at the end
of the storage period and the oil pan must be
refilled to the correct level with normal lubricating
oil.
7. Operate the engine in order to circulate engine oil.
8. Disconnect the battery. Ensure that the battery is
in a fully charged condition. Protect the terminals
against corrosion. 1734115 POWERPART
Lay-Up 3 can be used on the terminals. Put the
battery into safe storage.
10. Remove the valve mechanism cover. Spray
1762811 POWERPART Lay-Up 2 around the
rocker shaft assembly.
11. Remove the glow plugs. Slowly rotate the
crankshaft. By checking the valves, position the
piston at BDC. Spray 1762811 POWERPART
Lay-Up 2 for two seconds into the cylinder bore.
This procedure must be carried out on each
cylinder.
12. Install the glow plugs. Install the valve mechanism
cover.
13. Remove the pipes that are installed between
the air filter assembly and the turbocharger.
Spray 1762811 POWERPART Lay-Up 2 into
the turbocharger. The duration of the spray is
printed on the container. Seal the turbocharger
with waterproof tape.
14. Remove the exhaust pipe from the output side of
the turbocharger. Spray 1762811 POWERPART
Lay-Up 2 into the turbocharger. The duration of
the spray is printed on the container. Seal the
turbocharger with waterproof tape.
15. Seal the vent of the fuel tank or the fuel filler cap
with waterproof tape.
16. Remove the alternator drive belt and put the drive
belt into storage.
17. In order to prevent corrosion to the outside
of the engine, spray the engine with 1734115
POWERPART Lay-Up 3. Do not spray the area
inside the alternator.
SEBU8172-02
27
Operation Section
Gauges and Indicators
Gauges and Indicators
1. Remove the load.
2. Stop the engine.
i02861754
Gauges and Indicators
Your engine may not have the same gauges or all of
the gauges that are described. For more information
about the gauge package, see the OEM information.
Gauges provide indications of engine performance.
Ensure that the gauges are in good working order.
Determine the normal operating range by observing
the gauges over a period of time.
Noticeable changes in gauge readings indicate
potential gauge or engine problems. Problems may
also be indicated by gauge readings that change
even if the readings are within specifications.
Determine and correct the cause of any significant
change in the readings. Consult your Perkins dealer
or your Perkins distributor for assistance.
Some engine applications are equipped with Indicator
Lamps. Indicator lamps can be used as a diagnostic
aid. There are two lamps. One lamp has an orange
lens and the other lamp has a red lens.
These indicator lamps can be used in two ways:
• The indicator lamps can be used to identify the
current operational status of the engine. The
indicator lamps can also indicate that the engine
has a fault. This system is automatically operated
via the ignition switch.
• The indicator lamps can be used to identify active
diagnostic codes. This system is activated by
pressing the Flash Code button.
Refer to the Troubleshooting Guide, “Indicator
Lamps” for further information.
NOTICE
If no oil pressure is indicated, STOP the engine. If
maximum coolant temperature is exceeded, STOP
the engine. Engine damage can result.
Engine Oil Pressure – The oil pressure
should be greatest after a cold engine is
started. The typical engine oil pressure with
SAE10W40 is 350 to 450 kPa ( 50 to 65 psi) at rated
rpm.
A lower oil pressure is normal at low idle. If the load
is stable and the gauge reading changes, perform
the following procedure:
3. Check and maintain the oil level.
Jacket Water Coolant Temperature –
Typical temperature range is 83° to 95°C
(181.4° to 171°F). The maximum allowable
temperature at sea level with the pressurized cooling
system at 48 kPa (7 psi) is 103 °C (217.4 °F). Higher
temperatures may occur under certain conditions.
The water temperature reading may vary according
to load. The temperature reading should never
exceed 7 °C (44.6 °F) below the boiling point for the
pressurized system that is being used.
A 100 kPa (14.5 psi) radiator cap may be installed on
the cooling system. The temperature of this cooling
system must not exceed 112 °C (233.6 °F).
If the engine is operating above the normal range
and steam becomes apparent, perform the following
procedure:
1. Reduce the load and the engine rpm.
2. Determine if the engine must be shut down
immediately or if the engine can be cooled by
reducing the load.
3. Inspect the cooling system for leaks.
Tachometer – This gauge indicates engine
speed (rpm). When the throttle control lever
is moved to the full throttle position without
load, the engine is running at high idle. The engine is
running at the full load rpm when the throttle control
lever is at the full throttle position with maximum
rated load.
NOTICE
To help prevent engine damage, never exceed the
high idle rpm. Overspeeding can result in serious
damage to the engine. Operation at speeds exceeding high idle rpm should be kept to a minimum.
Ammeter – This gauge indicates the
amount of charge or discharge in the
battery charging circuit. Operation of the
indicator should be to the “+” side of “0” (zero).
Fuel Level – This gauge indicates the fuel
level in the fuel tank. The fuel level gauge
operates when the “START/STOP” switch
is in the “on” position.
28
Operation Section
Gauges and Indicators
Service Hour Meter – The gauge indicates
total operating hours of the engine.
SEBU8172-02
SEBU8172-02
29
Operation Section
Features and Controls
Features and Controls
“Warning”
i02651062
Monitoring System
The “Warning” lamp and the warning signal (orange
lamp) turn “ON” and the warning signal is activated
continuously in order to alert the operator that one or
more of the engine parameters is not within normal
operating range.
“Warning/Derate”
If the Shutdown mode has been selected and the
warning indicator activates, engine shutdown may
take as little as 20 seconds from the time the warning indicator is activated. Depending on the application, special precautions should be taken to
avoid personal injury. The engine can be restarted
following shutdown for emergency maneuvers, if
necessary.
NOTICE
The Engine Monitoring System is not a guarantee
against catastrophic failures. Programmed delays
and derate schedules are designed to minimize false
alarms and provide time for the operator to stop the
engine.
The following parameters are monitored:
• Coolant temperature
• Intake air temperature
• Engine intake manifold pressure
• Engine Oil pressure
• Pressure in the fuel rail
• Engine speed/timing
Programmable Options and
Systems Operation
If the Warning/Derate/Shutdown mode has been
selected and the warning indicator activates,
bring the engine to a stop whenever possible. Depending on the application, special precautions
should be taken to avoid personal injury.
The engine can be programmed to the following
modes:
The “Diagnostic” lamp turns “ON” and the warning
signal (red lamp) is activated. After the warning, the
engine power will be derated. The warning lamp will
begin to flash when the derating occurs.
The engine will be derated if the engine exceeds
preset operational limits. The engine derate is
achieved by restricting the amount of fuel that is
available for each injection. The amount of this
reduction of fuel is dependent on the severity of the
fault that has caused the engine derate, typically up
to a limit of 50%. This reduction in fuel results in a
predetermined reduction in engine power.
“Warning/Derate/Shutdown”
The “Diagnostic” lamp turns “ON” and the warning
signal (red lamp) is activated. After the warning,
the engine power will be derated. The engine will
continue at the rpm of the set derate until a shutdown
of the engine occurs. The engine can be restarted
after a shutdown for use in an emergency.
A shutdown of the engine may occur in as little
as 20 seconds. The engine can be restarted after
a shutdown for use in an emergency. However,
the cause of the initial shutdown may still exist.
The engine may shut down again in as little as 20
seconds.
If there is a signal for low oil pressure or for coolant
temperature, there will be a two second delay in
order to verify the condition.
For each of the programmed modes, refer to
Troubleshooting , “Indicator Lamps” for more
information on Indicator Lamps.
For more information or assistance for repairs, consult
your Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor.
30
Operation Section
Features and Controls
SEBU8172-02
i02296746
Monitoring System
Table 2
Warning
Lamp
Shutdown
Lamp
ON
ON
OFF
OFF
ON
Lamp Status
Description of lamp status
Engine Status
Lamp check
When the engine start switch is turned to the
“ON” position both lamps will illuminate for 2
seconds only.
The engine has not been
started.
No faults
There are no active diagnostic faults.
The engine is running
normally.
OFF
Active
diagnostic
fault
An active diagnostic fault has been detected.
The engine is running
normally.
ON
FLASHING
Active
diagnostic
fault
A serious active diagnostic fault has been
detected and an engine derate has been
invoked.
The engine is running
but the engine has been
derated.
FLASHING
OFF
Warning
One or more of the engine protection values
has been exceeded.
The engine is running
normally.
FLASHING
FLASHING
Derate and
warning
One or more of the engine protection values
has been exceeded.
The engine is running
but the engine has been
derated.
ON
ON
Engine
shutdown
One or more of the engine protection values has
been exceeded or a serious active diagnostic
fault has been detected.
The engine is shutdown or
shutdown is imminent.
i02861773
Sensors and Electrical
Components
Sensor Locations
Illustration 23 shows the typical locations of the
sensors and the ECM on the engine. Specific engines
may appear different from the illustration due to
differences in applications.
SEBU8172-02
31
Operation Section
Features and Controls
g01425443
Illustration 23
(1) Coolant temperature sensor
(2) Intake manifold pressure sensor
(3) Inlet air temperature sensor
(4) Fuel pressure sensor
(5) Electronic control module
(6) Primary position sensor
Illustration 24 shows the sensors and the ECM in
position on the engine.
(7) Secondary position sensor
(8) Engine oil pressure sensor
32
Operation Section
Features and Controls
SEBU8172-02
g01425468
Illustration 24
Failure of Sensors
All Sensors
A failure of any of the sensors may be caused by one
of the following malfunctions:
• Sensor output is open.
• Sensor output is shorted to “- battery” or “+ battery”.
• Measured reading of the sensor is out of the
specification.
Programmable Monitoring System
(PMS)
The Programmable Monitoring System determines
the level of action that is taken by the Electronic
Control Module (ECM) in response to a condition
that can damage the engine. These conditions are
identified by the ECM from the signals that are
produced from the following sensors.
• Coolant Temperature Sensor
• Intake manifold Air Temperature Sensor
• Intake manifold Pressure Sensor
• Fuel Pressure Sensor
SEBU8172-02
33
Operation Section
Features and Controls
• Engine Oil Pressure Sensor
Electronic Control Module 5
• Primary Speed/Timing Sensor
The ECM is the control computer of the engine. The
ECM provides power to the electronics. The ECM
monitors data that is input from the sensors of the
engine. The ECM acts as a governor in order to
control the speed and the power of the engine.
• Secondary Speed/Timing Sensor
Coolant Temperature Sensor 1
The coolant temperature sensor monitors engine
coolant temperature. The output of the ECM (5) can
indicate a high coolant temperature through a relay
or a lamp. The coolant temperature sensor is used
by the ECM to determine initiation of the Cold Start
Condition.
Failure of the Coolant Temperature
Sensor
The ECM (5) will detect a failure of the coolant
temperature sensor. The diagnostic lamp will warn the
operator about the status of the coolant temperature
sensor. A failure of the coolant temperature sensor
will not cause a shutdown of the engine or any
horsepower change. In order to check the correct
operation of the sensor, refer to Troubleshooting,
“Engine Temperature Sensor Circuit - Test”.
Intake Manifold Air Temperature
Sensor 2
Note: This sensor can have two different locations.
The location will depend on the type of engine.
The intake manifold air temperature sensor measures
the intake air temperature. A signal is sent to the
ECM (5). The intake manifold air temperature sensor
is also used by the ECM to determine initiation of the
Cold Start Strategy.
In order to check the correct operation of the sensor,
refer to Troubleshooting, “EngineTemperature Sensor
Circuit - Test”.
Intake Manifold Pressure Sensor 3
The intake manifold pressure sensor measures
pressure in the manifold. A signal is sent to the ECM
(5).
Fuel Pressure Sensor 4
The fuel pressure sensor measures the fuel pressure
in the fuel manifold. A signal is sent to the ECM (5).
The ECM adjusts injection timing and fuel pressure
for the best engine performance, the best fuel
economy and the best control of exhaust emissions.
Primary Speed/Timing Sensor 6
If the ECM (5) does not receive a signal from the
primary speed/timing sensor , the “DIAGNOSTIC”
lamp will indicate a diagnostic fault code which will be
logged in the ECM memory.
If the ECM does not receive a signal from the primary
speed/timing sensor (7), the ECM will read the signal
from the secondary speed/timing sensor (8). The
ECM continually checks in order to determine if there
is a signal from both sensors.
Intermittent failure of the sensors will cause erratic
engine control.
Failure of the Primary Speed/Timing
Sensor
Correct operation of the primary speed/timing
sensor is essential. Software in the ECM protects
against reverse running of the engine. If the primary
speed/timing sensor fails there is no automatic
protection against reverse running. In some
applications, it is possible for the transmission to
run the engine in reverse. In this event, Stop the
engine immediately. Turn the keyswitch to the “OFF”
position.
In order to check the correct operation of the sensor,
refer to Troubleshooting, “Engine speed/Timing
sensor - Test”.
Secondary Speed/Timing Sensor 7
The signal from the secondary speed/timing sensor
is used by the ECM (5) on engine start-up in order
to check the stroke of the pistons. The secondary
speed/timing sensor may be used by the ECM
in order to operate the engine if the primary
speed/timing sensor is faulty.
In order to check the correct operation of the sensor,
refer to Troubleshooting, “Engine speed/Timing
sensor-Test”.
34
Operation Section
Features and Controls
SEBU8172-02
Engine Oil Pressure Sensor 8
• Operating level
Note: This sensor can have two different locations.
The location will depend on the type of engine.
• Operating rpm
The engine oil pressure sensor is an absolute
pressure sensor that measures the engine oil
pressure in the main oil gallery. The engine oil
pressure sensor detects engine oil pressure for
diagnostic purposes. The engine oil pressure sensor
sends a signal to the ECM (5).
Low Oil Pressure Warning
The particular shutoff may need to be reset before
the engine will start.
NOTICE
Always determine the cause of the engine shutdown.
Make necessary repairs before attempting to restart
the engine.
Be familiar with the following items:
The setpoint for the low pressure warning is
dependent upon the engine speed. The fault will be
active and logged only if the engine has been running
for more than 8 seconds.
• Types and locations of shutoff
• Conditions which cause each shutoff to function
• The resetting procedure that is required to restart
Very Low Oil Pressure Warning
the engine
The very low oil pressure setpoint is dependent
upon the engine speed. If the DERATE mode of the
engine monitoring system is selected, the ECM (5)
will derate the engine power. The engine horsepower
will be limited.
Failure of the Engine Oil Pressure Sensor
The ECM (5) will detect failure of the engine oil
pressure sensor. The diagnostic lamp warns the user
about the status of the engine oil pressure sensor.
The engine oil pressure related strategies will be
disabled in the event of a failure of the engine oil
pressure sensor. A failure of the engine oil pressure
sensor will not cause a shutdown of the engine or
any horsepower change. In order to check the correct
operation of the sensor, refer to Troubleshooting, “5
Volt Sensor Supply Circuit - Test”.
i02858345
Engine Shutoffs and Engine
Alarms
Alarms
The alarms are electrically operated. The operation
of the alarms are controlled by the ECM.
The alarm is operated by a sensor or by a switch.
When the sensor or the switch is activated a signal
is sent to the ECM. An event code is created by
the ECM. The ECM will send a signal in order to
illuminate the lamp.
Your engine may be equipped with the following
sensors or switches:
Coolant level – The low coolant level switch
indicates when the coolant level is low.
Coolant temperature – The coolant temperature
sensor indicates high jacket water coolant
temperature.
Intake manifold air temperature – The intake
manifold air temperature sensor indicates high intake
air temperature.
Shutoffs
Intake manifold pressure – The intake manifold
pressure sensor checks the rated pressure in the
engine manifold.
The shutoffs are electrically operated or mechanically
operated. The electrically operated shutoffs are
controlled by the ECM.
Fuel rail pressure – The fuel rail pressure sensor
checks for high pressure or low pressure in the fuel
rail.
Shutoffs are set at critical levels for the following
items:
Engine oil pressure – The engine oil pressure
sensor indicates when oil pressure drops below rated
system pressure, at a set engine speed.
• Operating temperature
• Operating pressure
SEBU8172-02
35
Operation Section
Features and Controls
Engine overspeed – The primary speed/timing
sensor checks the engine speed. The alarm is
activated at 3000 RPM.
Air filter restriction – The switch checks the air
filter when the engine is operating.
User defined switch – This switch can shut down
the engine remotely.
Water in fuel switch – This switch checks for water
in the primary fuel filter when the engine is operating.
Note: The sensing element of the coolant
temperature switch must be submerged in coolant
in order to operate.
Engines may be equipped with alarms in order
to alert the operator when undesirable operating
conditions occur.
NOTICE
When an alarm is activated, corrective measures must
be taken before the situation becomes an emergency
in order to avoid possible engine damage.
If corrective measures are not taken within a
reasonable time, engine damage could result. The
alarm will continue until the condition is corrected.
The alarm may need to be reset.
Testing
Turning the keyswitch to the ON position will check
the indicator lights on the control panel. All the
indicator lights will be illuminated for two seconds
after the keyswitch is operated. Replace suspect
bulbs immediately.
Refer to Troubleshooting for more information.
i02237393
Overspeed
An overspeed condition is detected by the Electronic
Control Module (ECM). The event code will be
logged if the engine speed exceeds 3000 rpm. The
“DIAGNOSTIC” lamp will indicate a diagnostic active
code. The diagnostic active code will remain active
until the engine speed drops to 2800 rpm.
36
Operation Section
Engine Diagnostics
SEBU8172-02
Engine Diagnostics
i02855276
i02651093
Self-Diagnostics
Perkins electronic engines have the capability to
perform a self-diagnostics test. When the system
detects an active problem, a diagnostic lamp
is activated. Diagnostic codes will be stored in
permanent memory in the Electronic Control Module
(ECM). The diagnostic codes can be retrieved
by using the electronic service tool. Refer to
Troubleshooting , “Electronic Service Tools” for
further information.
Some installations have electronic displays that
provide direct readouts of the engine diagnostic
codes. Refer to the manual that is provided
by the OEM for more information on retrieving
engine diagnostic codes. Alternatively refer to
Troubleshooting , “Indicator Lamps” for further
information.
Active codes represent problems that currently exist.
These problems should be investigated first.
Logged codes represent the following items:
• Intermittent problems
• Recorded events
Diagnostic Flash Code
Retrieval
“Diagnostic” Lamp
Use the “DIAGNOSTIC” Lamp or an electronic
service tool to determine the diagnostic flash code.
Use the following procedure to retrieve the flash
codes if the engine is equipped with a “DIAGNOSTIC”
lamp:
1. Turn the keyswitch “ON/OFF” two times within 3
seconds.
A flashing“YELLOW” lamp indicates a 3 digit code for
the engine. The sequence of flashes represents the
system diagnostic message. Count the first sequence
of flashes in order to determine the first digit of the
flash code. After a two second pause, the second
sequence of flashes will identify the second digit of
the flash code. After the second pause, the third
sequence of flashes will identify the flash code.
Any additional flash codes will follow after a pause.
These codes will be displayed in the same manner.
Flash Code 551 indicates that No Detected Faults
have occurred since the ignition keyswitch has been
turned to the ON position.
For further information, assistance for repairs, or
troubleshooting, refer to the Service Manual or
consult an authorized Perkins dealer.
• Performance history
The problems may have been repaired since the
logging of the code. These codes do not indicate that
a repair is needed. The codes are guides or signals
when a situation exists. Codes may be helpful to
troubleshoot problems.
When the problems have been corrected, the
corresponding logged fault codes should be cleared.
i02651107
Diagnostic Lamp
A diagnostic lamp is used to indicate the existence of
an active fault. Refer to Troubleshooting , “Indicator
Lamps” for more information. A fault diagnostic
code will remain active until the problem is repaired.
The diagnostic code may be retrieved by using the
electronic service tool. Refer to Troubleshooting ,
“Electronic Service Tools” for more information.
Table 3 lists the flash codes and the table also gives
a brief description of the flash codes.
Note: Table 3indicates the potential effect on engine
performance with “ACTIVE” flash codes.
Some codes record events. Also, some codes
may also indicate that a mechanical system needs
attention. Troubleshooting is not required for code
“551”. Code 001 will not display a flash code. Some
codes will limit the operation or the performance of
the engine.
Table 3 indicates the potential effect on the engine
performance with active flash codes. Table 3 also
forms a list of Electronic diagnostic codes and
descriptions.
SEBU8172-02
37
Operation Section
Engine Diagnostics
Table 3
Flash Codes for the Industrial Engine
Effect On Engine Performance
Diagnostic Flash Code
Engine
Misfire
Low
Power
Reduced
Engine
Speed
Suggested Operator Action
(1)
Engine
Shutdown
Shut
Down the
Engine (2)
Service (3)
111
Cylinder 1 Fault
X
X
X
112
Cylinder 2 Fault
X
X
X
113
Cylinder 3 Fault
X
X
X
114
Cylinder 4 Fault
X
X
X
133
Intake Manifold
Temperature sensor
fault (5)
X
141
Primary Speed/
Timing Sensor Fault
142
Secondary
Speed/Timing
Sensor Fault
143
Timing Calibration
Fault
144
Engine Operation
Mode Selector
Switch Fault
X
X
151
High Air Filter
Restriction
X
X
154
Throttle Position
sensor Fault
X
X
155
Secondary Throttle
Position sensor
Fault
X
X
157
Oil Pressure Sensor
Fault(5)
X
159
Fuel Rail Pressure
Sensor Fault
X
162
High Pressure Fuel
Pump Fault
X
168
Coolant
Temperature Sensor
Fault
169
Low Engine Coolant
177
Wastegate Solenoid
Fault
185
High Exhaust
Temperature
X
X
197
Intake Manifold
Pressure Sensor
Fault
X
X
199
Glow Plug Start
Relay Fault
Schedule a
Service. (4)
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
(continued)
38
Operation Section
Engine Diagnostics
SEBU8172-02
(Table 3, contd)
Flash Codes for the Industrial Engine
Effect On Engine Performance
Diagnostic Flash Code
Engine
Misfire
Low
Power
Suggested Operator Action
(1)
Reduced
Engine
Speed
Engine
Shutdown
X
X
Shut
Down the
Engine (2)
Service (3)
Schedule a
Service. (4)
415
Incorrect Engine
Software
426
Machine Security
System Module
Fault (6)
429
Keyswitch Fault
511
Intermittent Battery
Power to ECM
514
SAE J1939 Data
Link Fault
516
5 Volt Sensor DC
Power Supply
Fault(5)
X
X
517
8 Volt Sensor DC
Power Supply Fault
X
X
527
Check Customer
Parameters or
System Parameters
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
(5)
(1)
An “X” indicates that the effect on engine performance may occur if the code is active.
Shut Down the Engine: Operate the engine cautiously. Get immediate service. Severe engine damage may result.
(3) The operator should go to the nearest location that has a qualified service program.
(4) Schedule Service: The problem should be investigated when the operator has access to a qualified service program.
(5) These Flash Codes may affect the system under specific environmental conditions such as engine start-up at cold temperature and
cold weather operation at high altitudes.
(6) The engine will not start.
(2)
i01902949
Fault Logging
The system provides the capability of Fault Logging.
When the Electronic Control Module (ECM)
generates an active diagnostic code, the code will
be logged in the memory of the ECM. The codes
that have been logged by the ECM can be identified
by the electronic service tool. The active codes that
have been logged will be cleared when the fault
has been rectified or the fault is no longer active.
The following logged faults can not be cleared from
the memory of the ECM without using a factory
password: Overspeed, low engine oil pressure, and
high engine coolant temperature.
SEBU8172-02
39
Operation Section
Engine Diagnostics
i02651197
Engine Operation with Active
Diagnostic Codes
If a diagnostic lamp illuminates during normal engine
operation, the system has identified a situation that is
not within the specification. Use the electronic service
tool to check the active diagnostic codes.
The active diagnostic code should be investigated.
The cause of the problem should be corrected as
soon as possible. If the cause of the active diagnostic
code is repaired and there is only one active
diagnostic code, the diagnostic lamp will turn off.
Operation of the engine and performance of the
engine can be limited as a result of the active
diagnostic code that is generated. Acceleration rates
may be significantly slower and power outputs may
be automatically reduced. Refer to Troubleshooting
, “Troubleshooting with a Diagnostic Code” for more
information on the relationship between each active
diagnostic code and the possible effect on engine
performance.
i01902995
Engine Operation with
Intermittent Diagnostic Codes
If a diagnostic lamp illuminates during normal engine
operation and the diagnostic lamp shuts off, an
intermittent fault may have occurred. If a fault has
occurred, the fault will be logged into the memory of
the Electronic Control Module (ECM).
In most cases, it is not necessary to stop the engine
because of an intermittent code. However, the
operator should retrieve the logged fault codes
and the operator should reference the appropriate
information in order to identify the nature of the event.
The operator should log any observation that could
have caused the lamp to light.
• Low power
• Limits of the engine speed
• Excessive smoke, etc
This information can be useful to help troubleshoot
the situation. The information can also be used for
future reference. For more information on diagnostic
codes, refer to the Troubleshooting Guide for this
engine.
40
Operation Section
Engine Starting
SEBU8172-02
Engine Starting
i02322203
Starting the Engine
i02322201
Before Starting Engine
Before the engine is started, perform the required
daily maintenance and any other periodic
maintenance that is due. Refer to the Operation
and Maintenance Manual, “Maintenance Interval
Schedule” for more information.
• Open the fuel supply valve (if equipped).
NOTICE
All valves in the fuel return line must be open before
and during engine operation to help prevent high fuel
pressure. High fuel pressure may cause filter housing
failure or other damage.
If the engine has not been started for several weeks,
fuel may have drained from the fuel system. Air
may have entered the filter housing. Also, when fuel
filters have been changed, some air pockets will be
trapped in the engine. In these instances, prime the
fuel system. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Fuel System - Prime” for more information
on priming the fuel system.
Engine exhaust contains products of combustion
which may be harmful to your health. Always start
and operate the engine in a well ventilated area
and, if in an enclosed area, vent the exhaust to the
outside.
• Do not start the engine or move any of the controls
if there is a “DO NOT OPERATE” warning tag or
similar warning tag attached to the start switch or
to the controls.
• Reset all of the shutoffs or alarm components (if
Note: Do not adjust the engine speed control during
start-up. The electronic control module (ECM) will
control the engine speed during start-up.
Starting the Engine
1. Disengage any equipment that is driven by the
engine.
2. Turn the keyswitch to the RUN position. Leave the
keyswitch in the RUN position until the warning
light for the glow plugs is extinguished.
3. When the warning light for the glow plugs is
extinguished turn the keyswitch to the START
position in order to engage the electric starting
motor and crank the engine.
Note: The operating period of the warning light for
the glow plugs will change due to the temperature
of the engine.
NOTICE
Do not engage the starting motor when flywheel is
turning. Do not start the engine under load.
If the engine fails to start within 30 seconds, release
the starter switch or button and wait two minutes to
allow the starting motor to cool before attempting to
start the engine again.
4. Allow the keyswitch to return to the RUN position
after the engine starts.
5. Repeat step 2 through step 4 if the engine fails
to start.
i02325155
Cold Weather Starting
equipped).
• Ensure that any equipment that is driven by the
engine has been disengaged from the engine.
Minimize electrical loads or remove any electrical
loads.
Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such as
ether. Such use could result in an explosion and
personal injury.
Startability will be improved at temperatures below
−18 °C (0 °F) from the use of a jacket water heater
or extra battery capacity.
SEBU8172-02
When Group 2 diesel fuel is used, the following items
provide a means of minimizing starting problems
and fuel problems in cold weather: Engine oil pan
heaters, jacket water heaters, fuel heaters, and fuel
line insulation.
41
Operation Section
Engine Starting
i02322204
Starting with Jump Start
Cables
Use the procedure that follows for cold weather
starting.
Note: Do not adjust the engine speed control during
start-up. The electronic control module (ECM) will
control the engine speed during start-up.
1. Disengage any driven equipment.
2. Turn the keyswitch to the RUN position. Leave the
keyswitch in the RUN position until the warning
light for the glow plugs is extinguished.
NOTICE
Do not engage the starting motor when flywheel is
turning. Do not start the engine under load.
If the engine fails to start within 30 seconds, release
the starter switch or button and wait two minutes to
allow the starting motor to cool before attempting to
start the engine again.
3. When the warning light for the glow plugs is
extinguished turn the keyswitch to the START
position in order to engage the electric starting
motor and crank the engine.
Note: The operating period of the warning light for
the glow plugs will change due to the temperature
of the engine.
4. Allow the keyswitch to return to the RUN position
after the engine starts.
5. Repeat step 2 through step 4 if the engine fails
to start.
Note: The engine should not be “raced” in order to
speed up the warm up process.
6. Allow the engine to idle for three to five minutes, or
allow the engine to idle until the water temperature
indicator begins to rise. When idling after the
engine has started in cold weather, increase the
engine rpm from 1000 to 1200 rpm. This will
warm up the engine more quickly. Maintaining
an elevated low idle speed for extended periods
will be easier with the installation of a hand
throttle. Allow the white smoke to disperse before
proceeding with normal operation.
7. Operate the engine at low load until all systems
reach operating temperature. Check the gauges
during the warm-up period.
Improper jump start cable connections can cause
an explosion resulting in personal injury.
Prevent sparks near the batteries. Sparks could
cause vapors to explode. Do not allow jump start
cable ends to contact each other or the engine.
Note: If it is possible, first diagnose the reason for
the starting failure. Refer to Troubleshooting, “Engine
Will Not Crank and Engine Cranks But Will Not Start”
for further information. Make any necessary repairs.
If the engine will not start only due to the condition
of the battery, either charge the battery, or start the
engine by using another battery with jump start
cables.
The condition of the battery can be rechecked after
the engine has been switched OFF.
NOTICE
Using a battery source with the same voltage as the
electric starting motor. Use ONLY equal voltage for
jump starting. The use of higher voltage will damage
the electrical system.
Do not reverse the battery cables. The alternator can
be damaged. Attach ground cable last and remove
first.
Turn all electrical accessories OFF before attaching
the jump start cables.
Ensure that the main power switch is in the OFF position before attaching the jump start cables to the engine being started.
1. Turn the start switch on the stalled engine to the
OFF position. Turn off all the engine's accessories.
2. Connect one positive end of the jump start cable
to the positive cable terminal of the discharged
battery. Connect the other positive end of the jump
start cable to the positive cable terminal of the
electrical source.
42
Operation Section
Engine Starting
SEBU8172-02
3. Connect one negative end of the jump start cable
to the negative cable terminal of the electrical
source. Connect the other negative end of the
jump start cable to the engine block or to the
chassis ground. This procedure helps to prevent
potential sparks from igniting the combustible
gases that are produced by some batteries.
4. Start the engine.
5. Immediately after the engine is started, disconnect
the jump start cables in reverse order.
After jump starting, the alternator may not be able to
fully recharge batteries that are severely discharged.
The batteries must be replaced or charged to the
proper voltage with a battery charger after the engine
is stopped. Many batteries which are considered
unusable are still rechargeable. Refer to Operation
and Maintenance Manual, “Battery - Replace” and
Testing and Adjusting Manual, “Battery - Test”.
i02330138
After Starting Engine
Note: In ambient temperatures from 0 to 60°C
(32 to 140°F), the warm-up time is approximately
three minutes. In temperatures below 0°C (32°F),
additional warm-up time may be required.
When the engine idles during warm-up, observe the
following conditions:
Do not check the high pressure fuel lines with the
engine or the starting motor in operation. If you
inspect the engine in operation, always use the
proper inspection procedure in order to avoid a
fluid penetration hazard. Refer to Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “General hazard Information”.
• Check for any fluid or for any air leaks at idle rpm
and at one-half full rpm (no load on the engine)
before operating the engine under load. This is not
possible in some applications.
• Allow the engine to idle for three to five minutes, or
allow the engine to idle until the water temperature
indicator begins to rise. Check all gauges during
the warm-up period.
Note: Gauge readings should be observed and
the data should be recorded frequently while the
engine is operating. Comparing the data over time
will help to determine normal readings for each
gauge. Comparing data over time will also help
detect abnormal operating developments. Significant
changes in the readings should be investigated.
SEBU8172-02
43
Operation Section
Engine Operation
Engine Operation
i02330149
Fuel Conservation Practices
i02330143
Engine Operation
Correct operation and maintenance are key factors
in obtaining the maximum life and economy of
the engine. If the directions in the Operation and
Maintenance Manual are followed, costs can be
minimized and engine service life can be maximized.
The engine can be operated at the rated rpm after the
engine reaches operating temperature. The engine
will reach normal operating temperature if the engine
is operated at low idle speed and operated with a
light load. This procedure is more effective than idling
the engine at no load. The engine should reach
operating temperature in a few minutes.
Gauge readings should be observed and the data
should be recorded frequently while the engine
is operating. Comparing the data over time will
help to determine normal readings for each gauge.
Comparing data over time will also help detect
abnormal operating developments. Significant
changes in the readings should be investigated.
The efficiency of the engine can affect the fuel
economy. Perkins design and technology in
manufacturing provides maximum fuel efficiency in
all applications. Follow the recommended procedures
in order to attain optimum performance for the life
of the engine.
• Avoid spilling fuel.
Fuel expands when the fuel is warmed up. The fuel
may overflow from the fuel tank. Inspect fuel lines for
leaks. Repair the fuel lines, as needed.
• Be aware of the properties of the different fuels.
Use only the recommended fuels.
• Avoid unnecessary idling.
Shut off the engine rather than idle for long periods of
time.
• Observe the air cleaner service indicator frequently.
Keep the air cleaner elements clean.
• Maintain the electrical systems.
One damaged battery cell will overwork the alternator.
This will consume excess power and excess fuel.
• Ensure that the drive belts are correctly adjusted.
The drive belts should be in good condition.
• Ensure that all of the connections of the hoses are
tight. The connections should not leak.
• Ensure that the driven equipment is in good
working order.
• Cold engines consume excess fuel. Utilize heat
from the jacket water system and the exhaust
system, when possible. Keep cooling system
components clean and keep cooling system
components in good repair. Never operate the
engine without water temperature regulators.
All of these items will help maintain operating
temperatures.
44
Operation Section
Engine Stopping
SEBU8172-02
Engine Stopping
i02330274
After Stopping Engine
i02334873
Stopping the Engine
Note: Before you check the engine oil, do not operate
the engine for at least 10 minutes in order to allow
the engine oil to return to the oil pan.
NOTICE
Stopping the engine immediately after it has been
working under load, can result in overheating and accelerated wear of the engine components.
Avoid accelerating the engine prior to shutting it down.
Avoiding hot engine shutdowns will maximize turbocharger shaft and bearing life.
Note: Individual applications will have different
control systems. Ensure that the shutoff procedures
are understood. Use the following general guidelines
in order to stop the engine.
1. Remove the load from the engine. Reduce the
engine speed (rpm) to low idle. Allow the engine
to idle for five minutes in order to cool the engine.
2. Stop the engine after the cool down period
according to the shutoff system on the engine and
turn the ignition key switch to the OFF position.
If necessary, refer to the instructions that are
provided by the OEM.
Contact with high pressure fuel may cause fluid
penetration and burn hazards. High pressure fuel spray may cause a fire hazard. Failure to follow these inspection, maintenance and service instructions may cause personal injury or death.
• After the engine has stopped, you must wait for
60 seconds in order to allow the fuel pressure to
be purged from the high pressure fuel lines before
any service or repair is performed on the engine
fuel lines. If necessary, perform minor adjustments.
Repair any leaks from the low pressure fuel
system and from the cooling, lubrication or air
systems. Replace any high pressure fuel line that
has leaked. Refer to Disassembly and assembly
Manual, “Fuel Injection Lines - Install”.
• Check the crankcase oil level. Maintain the oil level
between the “MIN” mark and the “MAX” mark on
the engine oil level gauge.
• If the engine is equipped with a service hour meter,
i01903586
Emergency Stopping
note the reading. Perform the maintenance that
is in the Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Maintenance Interval Schedule”.
• Fill the fuel tank in order to help prevent
NOTICE
Emergency shutoff controls are for EMERGENCY use
ONLY. DO NOT use emergency shutoff devices or
controls for normal stopping procedure.
The OEM may have equipped the application with
an emergency stop button. For more information
about the emergency stop button, refer to the OEM
information.
Ensure that any components for the external system
that support the engine operation are secured after
the engine is stopped.
accumulation of moisture in the fuel. Do not overfill
the fuel tank.
NOTICE
Only use antifreeze/coolant mixtures recommended in
the Coolant Specifications that are in the Operation
and Maintenance Manual. Failure to do so can cause
engine damage.
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pressure.
• Allow the engine to cool. Check the coolant level.
SEBU8172-02
• Check the coolant for correct antifreeze protection
and the correct corrosion protection. Add the
correct coolant/water mixture, if necessary.
• Perform all required periodic maintenance on all
driven equipment. This maintenance is outlined in
the instructions from the OEM.
45
Operation Section
Engine Stopping
46
Operation Section
Cold Weather Operation
SEBU8172-02
Cold Weather Operation
i02717265
Cold Weather Operation
• Install the correct specification of engine lubricant
before the beginning of cold weather.
• Check all rubber parts (hoses, fan drive belts, etc)
weekly.
• Check all electrical wiring and connections for any
fraying or damaged insulation.
Perkins Diesel Engines can operate effectively in
cold weather. During cold weather, the starting and
the operation of the diesel engine is dependent on
the following items:
• The type of fuel that is used
• The viscosity of the engine oil
• The operation of the glow plugs
• Optional Cold starting aid
• Keep all batteries fully charged and warm.
• Fill the fuel tank at the end of each shift.
• Check the air cleaners and the air intake daily.
Check the air intake more often when you operate
in snow.
• Ensure that the glow plugs are in working order.
Refer to Testing and Adjusting Manual, “Glow Plug
- Test”.
• Battery condition
This section will cover the following information:
• Potential problems that are caused by cold weather
operation
• Suggest steps which can be taken in order to
Personal injury or property damage can result
from alcohol or starting fluids.
Alcohol or starting fluids are highly flammable and
toxic and if improperly stored could result in injury
or property damage.
minimize starting problems and operating problems
when the ambient air temperature is between
0° to−40 °C (32° to 40 °F).
The operation and maintenance of an engine in
freezing temperatures is complex . This is because
of the following conditions:
Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such as
ether. Such use could result in an explosion and
personal injury.
• Weather conditions
• For jump starting with cables in cold weather,
• Engine applications
Recommendations from your Perkins dealer or
your Perkins distributor are based on past proven
practices. The information that is contained in
this section provides guidelines for cold weather
operation.
Hints for Cold Weather Operation
• If the engine will start, operate the engine until a
minimum operating temperature of 81 °C (177.8 °F)
is achieved. Achieving operating temperature will
help prevent the intake valves and exhaust valves
from sticking.
• The cooling system and the lubrication system
for the engine do not lose heat immediately upon
shutdown. This means that an engine can be shut
down for a period of time and the engine can still
have the ability to start readily.
refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Starting with Jump Start Cables.” for instructions.
Viscosity of the Engine Lubrication
Oil
Correct engine oil viscosity is essential. Oil viscosity
affects the amount of torque that is needed to
crank the engine. Refer to this Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Fluid Recommendations” for
the recommended viscosity of oil.
Recommendations for the Coolant
Provide cooling system protection for the lowest
expected outside temperature. Refer to this Operation
and Maintenance Manual, “Fluid Recommendations”
for the recommended coolant mixture.
SEBU8172-02
47
Operation Section
Cold Weather Operation
In cold weather, check the coolant often for the
correct glycol concentration in order to ensure
adequate freeze protection.
• Free operation of the valves is prevented.
Engine Block Heaters
• Pushrods may become bent.
Engine block heaters (if equipped) heat the
engine jacket water that surrounds the combustion
chambers. This provides the following functions:
• Other damage to valve train components can
• Startability is improved.
• Warm up time is reduced.
An electric block heater can be activated once
the engine is stopped. An effective block heater
is typically a 1250/1500 W unit. Consult your
Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor for more
information.
Idling the Engine
When idling after the engine is started in cold
weather, increase the engine rpm from 1000 to 1200
rpm. This will warm up the engine more quickly.
Maintaining an elevated low idle speed for extended
periods will be easier with the installation of a hand
throttle. The engine should not be “raced” in order to
speed up the warm up process.
While the engine is idling, the application of a light
load (parasitic load) will assist in achieving the
minimum operating temperature. The minimum
operating temperature is 82 °C (179.6 °F).
Recommendations for Coolant
Warm Up
Warm up an engine that has cooled below normal
operating temperatures due to inactivity. This should
be performed before the engine is returned to full
operation. During operation in very cold temperature
conditions, damage to engine valve mechanisms can
result from engine operation for short intervals. This
can happen if the engine is started and the engine is
stopped many times without being operated in order
to warm up completely.
When the engine is operated below normal operating
temperatures, fuel and oil are not completely burned
in the combustion chamber. This fuel and oil causes
soft carbon deposits to form on the valve stems.
Generally, the deposits do not cause problems and
the deposits are burned off during operation at
normal engine operating temperatures.
When the engine is started and the engine is stopped
many times without being operated in order to warm
up completely, the carbon deposits become thicker.
This can cause the following problems:
• Valves become stuck.
result.
For this reason, when the engine is started,
the engine must be operated until the coolant
temperature is 71 °C (160 °F) minimum. Carbon
deposits on the valve stems will be kept at a minimum
and the free operation of the valves and the valve
components will be maintained.
In addition, the engine must be thoroughly warmed in
order to keep other engine parts in better condition
and the service life of the engine will be generally
extended. Lubrication will be improved. There will be
less acid and less sludge in the oil. This will provide
longer service life for the engine bearings, the piston
rings, and other parts. However, limit unnecessary
idle time to ten minutes in order to reduce wear and
unnecessary fuel consumption.
The Water Temperature Regulator and
Insulated Heater Lines
The engine is equipped with a water temperature
regulator. When the engine coolant is below the
correct operating temperature jacket water circulates
through the engine cylinder block and into the
engine cylinder head. The coolant then returns to the
cylinder block via an internal passage that bypasses
the valve of the coolant temperature regulator. This
ensures that coolant flows around the engine under
cold operating conditions. The water temperature
regulator begins to open when the engine jacket
water has reached the correct minimum operating
temperature. As the jacket water coolant temperature
rises above the minimum operating temperature the
water temperature regulator opens further allowing
more coolant through the radiator to dissipate excess
heat.
The progressive opening of the water temperature
regulator operates the progressive closing of the
bypass passage between the cylinder block and
head. This ensures maximum coolant flow to
the radiator in order to achieve maximum heat
dissipation.
Note: Perkins discourages the use of all air flow
restriction devices such as radiator shutters.
Restriction of the air flow can result in the following:
high exhaust temperatures, power loss, excessive
fan usage, and reduction in fuel economy.
48
Operation Section
Cold Weather Operation
A cab heater is beneficial in very cold weather. The
feed from the engine and the return lines from the
cab should be insulated in order to reduce heat loss
to the outside air.
Insulating the Air Inlet and Engine
Compartment
When temperatures below −18 °C (−0 °F) will be
frequently encountered, an air cleaner inlet that
is located in the engine compartment may be
specified. An air cleaner that is located in the engine
compartment may also minimize the entry of snow
into the air cleaner. Also, heat that is rejected by the
engine helps to warm the intake air.
Additional heat can be retained around the engine by
insulating the engine compartment.
SEBU8172-02
i02685960
Fuel and the Effect from Cold
Weather
Note: Only use grades of fuel that are recommended
by Perkins. Refer to this Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Fluid Recommendations”.
The following components provide a means of
minimizing problems in cold weather:
• Glow plugs (if equipped)
• Engine coolant heaters, which may be an OEM
option
• Fuel heaters, which may be an OEM option
• Fuel line insulation, which may be an OEM option
The cloud point is a temperature that allows wax
crystals to form in the fuel. These crystals can cause
the fuel filters to plug.
The pour point is the temperature when diesel fuel
will thicken. The diesel fuel becomes more resistant
to flow through fuel lines, fuel filters,and fuel pumps.
Be aware of these facts when diesel fuel is
purchased. Consider the average ambient air
temperature for the engine's application. Engines that
are fueled in one climate may not operate well if the
engines are moved to another climate. Problems can
result due to changes in temperature.
Before troubleshooting for low power or for poor
performance in the winter, check the fuel for waxing.
Low temperature fuels may be available for engine
operation at temperatures below 0 °C (32 °F). These
fuels limit the formation of wax in the fuel at low
temperatures.
For more information on cold weather operation, refer
to the Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Cold
Weather Operation and Fuel Related Components in
Cold Weather”.
SEBU8172-02
49
Operation Section
Cold Weather Operation
i02323237
Fuel Related Components in
Cold Weather
Fuel Tanks
Condensation can form in partially filled fuel tanks.
Top off the fuel tanks after you operate the engine.
Fuel tanks should contain some provision for draining
water and sediment from the bottom of the tanks.
Some fuel tanks use supply pipes that allow water
and sediment to settle below the end of the fuel
supply pipe.
Some fuel tanks use supply lines that take fuel
directly from the bottom of the tank. If the engine is
equipped with this system, regular maintenance of
the fuel system filter is important.
Drain the water and sediment from any fuel storage
tank at the following intervals: weekly, service
intervals, and refueling of the fuel tank. This will help
prevent water and/or sediment from being pumped
from the fuel storage tank and into the engine fuel
tank.
Fuel Filters
A primary fuel filter is installed between the fuel
tank and the engine fuel inlet. After you change
the fuel filter, always prime the fuel system in order
to remove air bubbles from the fuel system. Refer
to the Operation and Maintenance Manual in the
Maintenance Section for more information on priming
the fuel system.
The location of a primary fuel filter is important in cold
weather operation. The primary fuel filter and the fuel
supply line are the most common components that
are affected by cold fuel.
Fuel Heaters
Note: The OEM may equip the application with fuel
heaters. If this is the case, the temperature of the fuel
must not exceed 73 °C (163 °F) at the fuel transfer
pump.
For more information about fuel heaters (if equipped),
refer to the OEM information.
50
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
SEBU8172-02
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
i04262329
Refill Capacities
Lubrication System
The refill capacities for the engine crankcase
reflect the approximate capacity of the crankcase
or sump plus standard oil filters. Auxiliary oil filter
systems will require additional oil. Refer to the OEM
specifications for the capacity of the auxiliary oil filter.
Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Maintenance Section” for more information on
Lubricant Specifications.
Table 4
Engine
Refill Capacities
Compartment or System
Crankcase Oil Sump
Minimum
Maximum
(1)
(2)
6 L (1.32
Imp gal)
14 L (3.1
Imp gal)
(1)
The minimum value is the approximate capacity for the
crankcase oil sump (aluminum) which includes the standard
factory installed oil filters. Engines with auxiliary oil filters will
require additional oil. Refer to the OEM specifications for the
capacity of the auxiliary oil filter. The design of the oil pan can
change the oil capacity of the oil pan.
(2) Approximate capacity of the largest crankcase oil sump. Refer
to OEM for more information.
Cooling System
Refer to the OEM specifications for the External
System capacity. This capacity information will
be needed in order to determine the amount of
coolant/antifreeze that is required for the Total
Cooling System.
SEBU8172-02
51
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
Table 5
Engine
Refill Capacities
Liters
Compartment or System
Engine Only
External System Per
Engine
Engine
TA(1)
TTA(2)
9 L (1.97 Imp gal)
9.4 L (2.07 Imp gal)
OEM(3)
(1)
Single Turbocharger
Series Turbochargers
(3) The External System includes a radiator or an expansion tank with the following components: heat exchanger and piping. Refer to the
OEM specifications. Enter the value for the capacity of the External System in this row.
(2)
i02865363
Fluid Recommendations
General Lubricant Information
Because of government regulations regarding the
certification of exhaust emissions from the engine,
the lubricant recommendations must be followed.
• EMA____________ Engine Manufacturers Association
• API_____________________American Petroleum Institute
• SAE___________________________________________Society Of
Automotive Engineers Inc.
EMA Guidelines
The “Engine Manufacturers Association
Recommended Guideline on Diesel Engine Oil” is
recognized by Perkins. For detailed information
about this guideline, see the latest edition of EMA
publication, “EMA DHD -1”.
API Licensing
The Engine Oil Licensing and Certification System by
the American Petroleum Institute (API) is recognized
by Perkins. For detailed information about this
system, see the latest edition of the “API publication
No. 1509”. Engine oils that bear the API symbol are
authorized by API.
Illustration 25
g00546535
Typical API symbol
Terminology
Certain abbreviations follow the nomenclature of
“SAE J754”. Some classifications follow “SAE J183”
abbreviations, and some classifications follow the
“EMA Recommended Guideline on Diesel Engine
Oil”. In addition to Perkins definitions, there are other
definitions that will be of assistance in purchasing
lubricants. Recommended oil viscosities can be found
in this publication, “Fluid Recommendations/Engine
Oil” topic (Maintenance Section).
Engine Oil
Commercial Oils
NOTICE
For applications above 168 kW CI-4 oil must be used.
52
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
SEBU8172-02
Table 6
API Classifications for the 1104D Industrial Engine
Oil Specification
Maintenance
Interval
CH-4/CI-4
500 Hours
CI-4
500 Hours
CG-4
250 Hours
Maintenance intervals for engines that use
biodiesel – The oil change interval can be adversely
affected by the use of biodiesel. Use oil analysis in
order to monitor the condition of the engine oil. Use
oil analysis also in order to determine the oil change
interval that is optimum.
Note: These engine oils are not approved by
perkins and these engine oils must not be
used:CC, CD, CD-2, and CF-4.
The performance of commercial diesel engine
oils is based on API classifications. These API
classifications are developed in order to provide
commercial lubricants for a broad range of diesel
engines that operate at various conditions.
Only use commercial oils that meet the following
classifications:
• API____________________________________________ CH-4 CI-4
In order to make the correct choice of a commercial
oil, refer to the following explanations:
EMA DHD-1 – The EMA has developed lubricant
recommendations as an alternative to the API oil
classification system. DHD-1 is a Recommended
Guideline that defines a level of oil performance for
these types of diesel engines: high speed, four stroke
cycle, heavy-duty, and light duty. DHD-1 oils may
be used in Perkins engines when the following oils
are recommended: API CH-4 and API CG-4. DHD-1
oils are intended to provide superior performance in
comparison to API CG-4.
DHD-1 oils will meet the needs of high performance
Perkins diesel engines that are operating in many
applications. The tests and the test limits that are
used to define DHD-1 are similar to the new API
CH-4 classification. Therefore, these oils will also
meet the requirements for diesel engines that require
low emissions. DHD-1 oils are designed to control the
harmful effects of soot with improved wear resistance
and improved resistance to plugging of the oil filter.
These oils will also provide superior piston deposit
control for engines with either two-piece steel pistons
or aluminum pistons.
All DHD-1 oils must complete a full test program
with the base stock and with the viscosity grade of
the finished commercial oil. The use of “API Base
Oil Interchange Guidelines” are not appropriate for
DHD-1 oils. This feature reduces the variation in
performance that can occur when base stocks are
changed in commercial oil formulations.
DHD-1 oils are recommended for use in extended oil
change interval programs that optimize the life of the
oil. These oil change interval programs are based
on oil analysis. DHD-1 oils are recommended for
conditions that demand a premium oil. Your Perkins
distributor has the specific guidelines for optimizing
oil change intervals.
API CH-4 – API CH-4 oils were developed in order to
meet the requirements of the new high performance
diesel engines. Also, the oil was designed to
meet the requirements of the low emissions diesel
engines. API CH-4 oils are also acceptable for use
in older diesel engines and in diesel engines that
use high sulfur diesel fuel. API CH-4 oils may be
used in Perkins engines that use API CG-4 and API
CF-4 oils. API CH-4 oils will generally exceed the
performance of API CG-4 oils in the following criteria:
deposits on pistons, control of oil consumption, wear
of piston rings, valve train wear, viscosity control,
and corrosion.
Three new engine tests were developed for the API
CH-4 oil. The first test specifically evaluates deposits
on pistons for engines with the two-piece steel piston.
This test (piston deposit) also measures the control
of oil consumption. A second test is conducted
with moderate oil soot. The second test measures
the following criteria: wear of piston rings, wear of
cylinder liners, and resistance to corrosion. A third
new test measures the following characteristics with
high levels of soot in the oil: wear of the valve train,
resistance of the oil in plugging the oil filter, and
control of sludge.
In addition to the new tests, API CH-4 oils have
tougher limits for viscosity control in applications that
generate high soot. The oils also have improved
oxidation resistance. API CH-4 oils must pass an
additional test (piston deposit) for engines that use
aluminum pistons (single piece). Oil performance is
also established for engines that operate in areas
with high sulfur diesel fuel.
All of these improvements allow the API CH-4 oil to
achieve optimum oil change intervals. API CH-4 oils
are recommended for use in extended oil change
intervals. API CH-4 oils are recommended for
conditions that demand a premium oil. Your Perkins
distributor has specific guidelines for optimizing oil
change intervals.
SEBU8172-02
53
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
Some commercial oils that meet the API
classifications may require reduced oil change
intervals. To determine the oil change interval, closely
monitor the condition of the oil and perform a wear
metal analysis.
NOTICE
Failure to follow these oil recommendations can cause
shortened engine service life due to deposits and/or
excessive wear.
Total Base Number (TBN) and Fuel Sulfur
Levels for Direct Injection (DI) Diesel
Engines
The Total Base Number (TBN) for an oil depends on
the fuel sulfur level. For direct injection engines that
use distillate fuel, the minimum TBN of the new oil
must be 10 times the fuel sulfur level. The TBN is
defined by “ASTM D2896”. The minimum TBN of the
oil is 5 regardless of fuel sulfur level. Illustration 26
demonstrates the TBN.
NOTICE
Operating Direct Injection (DI) diesel engines with fuel
sulphur levels over 0.5 percent will require shortened
oil change intervals in order to help maintain adequate
wear protection.
Table 7
Percentage of Sulfur in
the fuel
Oil change interval
Lower than 0.5
Normal
0.5 to 1.0
0.75 of normal
Greater than 1.0
0.50 of normal
Lubricant Viscosity Recommendations
for Direct Injection (DI) Diesel Engines
The correct SAE viscosity grade of oil is determined
by the minimum ambient temperature during
cold engine start-up, and the maximum ambient
temperature during engine operation.
Refer to Table 8 (minimum temperature) in order to
determine the required oil viscosity for starting a cold
engine.
Refer to Table 8 (maximum temperature) in order to
select the oil viscosity for engine operation at the
highest ambient temperature that is anticipated.
Generally, use the highest oil viscosity that is
available to meet the requirement for the temperature
at start-up.
Table 8
Illustration 26
g00799818
(Y) TBN by “ASTM D2896”
(X) Percentage of fuel sulfur by weight
(1) TBN of new oil
(2) Change the oil when the TBN deteriorates to 50 percent of
the original TBN.
Engine Oil Viscosity
EMA LRG-1
API CH-4
Viscosity Grade
Ambient Temperature
Minimum
Maximum
SAE 0W20
−40 °C (−40 °F)
10 °C (50 °F)
Use the following guidelines for fuel sulfur levels that
exceed 1.5 percent:
SAE 0W30
−40 °C (−40 °F)
30 °C (86 °F)
SAE 0W40
−40 °C (−40 °F)
40 °C (104 °F)
• Choose an oil with the highest TBN that meets one
SAE 5W30
−30 °C (−22 °F)
30 °C (86 °F)
SAE 5W40
−30 °C (−22 °F)
40 °C (104 °F)
SAE 10W30
−20 °C (−4 °F)
40 °C (104 °F)
SAE 15W40
−10 °C (14 °F)
50 °C (122 °F)
of these classifications: EMA DHD-1 and API CH-4.
• Reduce the oil change interval. Base the oil
change interval on the oil analysis. Ensure that the
oil analysis includes the condition of the oil and a
wear metal analysis.
Excessive piston deposits can be produced by an oil
with a high TBN. These deposits can lead to a loss
of control of the oil consumption and to the polishing
of the cylinder bore.
Synthetic Base Stock Oils
Synthetic base oils are acceptable for use in
these engines if these oils meet the performance
requirements that are specified for the engine.
54
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
Synthetic base oils generally perform better than
conventional oils in the following two areas:
• Synthetic base oils have improved flow at low
temperatures especially in arctic conditions.
• Synthetic base oils have improved oxidation
stability especially at high operating temperatures.
Some synthetic base oils have performance
characteristics that enhance the service life of the
oil. Perkins does not recommend the automatic
extending of the oil change intervals for any type of
oil.
Re-refined Base Stock Oils
Re-refined base stock oils are acceptable for
use in Perkins engines if these oils meet the
performance requirements that are specified by
Perkins. Re-refined base stock oils can be used
exclusively in finished oil or in a combination with new
base stock oils. The specification for the US military
and the specifications of other heavy equipment
manufacturers also allow the use of re-refined base
stock oils that meet the same criteria.
The process that is used to make re-refined base
stock oil should adequately remove all wear metals
that are in the used oil and all the additives that
are in the used oil. The process that is used to
make re-refined base stock oil generally involves the
process of vacuum distillation and hydrotreating the
used oil. Filtering is adequate for the production of
high quality, re-refined base stock oil.
SEBU8172-02
Aftermarket Oil Additives
Perkins does not recommend the use of aftermarket
additives in oil. It is not necessary to use aftermarket
additives in order to achieve the engine's maximum
service life or rated performance. Fully formulated,
finished oils consist of base oils and of commercial
additive packages. These additive packages are
blended into the base oils at precise percentages in
order to help provide finished oils with performance
characteristics that meet industry standards.
There are no industry standard tests that evaluate
the performance or the compatibility of aftermarket
additives in finished oil. Aftermarket additives may
not be compatible with the finished oil's additive
package, which could lower the performance of the
finished oil. The aftermarket additive could fail to
mix with the finished oil. This could produce sludge
in the crankcase. Perkins discourages the use of
aftermarket additives in finished oils.
To achieve the best performance from a Perkins
engine, conform to the following guidelines:
• Select the correct oil, or a commercial oil that meets
the “EMA Recommended Guideline on Diesel
Engine Oil” or the recommended API classification.
• See the appropriate “Lubricant Viscosities” table in
order to find the correct oil viscosity grade for your
engine.
• At the specified interval, service the engine. Use
new oil and install a new oil filter.
Lubricants for Cold Weather
• Perform maintenance at the intervals that are
When an engine is started and an engine is operated
in ambient temperatures below −20 °C (−4 °F), use
multigrade oils that are capable of flowing in low
temperatures.
Oil analysis
These oils have lubricant viscosity grades of SAE
0W or SAE 5W.
When an engine is started and operated in ambient
temperatures below −30 °C (−22 °F), use a synthetic
base stock multigrade oil with an 0W viscosity grade
or with a 5W viscosity grade. Use an oil with a pour
point that is lower than −50 °C (−58 °F).
Perkins recommends the following lubricants for use
in cold weather conditions:
Use a commercial oil that is API:CI-4, CI-4 PLUS,
CH-4, and CG-4. The oil must have one of the
following lubricant viscosity grades: SAE 0W-20, SAE
0W-30, SAE 0W-40, SAE 5W-30, and SAE 5W-40
specified in the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Maintenance Interval Schedule”.
Some engines may be equipped with an oil sampling
valve. If oil analysis is required the oil sampling valve
is used to obtain samples of the engine oil. The oil
analysis will complement the preventive maintenance
program.
The oil analysis is a diagnostic tool that is used to
determine oil performance and component wear
rates. Contamination can be identified and measured
through the use of the oil analysis. The oil analysis
includes the following tests:
• The Wear Rate Analysis monitors the wear of the
engine's metals. The amount of wear metal and
type of wear metal that is in the oil is analyzed. The
increase in the rate of engine wear metal in the
oil is as important as the quantity of engine wear
metal in the oil.
SEBU8172-02
55
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
• Tests are conducted in order to detect
contamination of the oil by water, glycol or fuel.
• The Oil Condition Analysis determines the loss of
the oil's lubricating properties. An infrared analysis
is used to compare the properties of new oil to the
properties of the used oil sample. This analysis
allows technicians to determine the amount of
deterioration of the oil during use. This analysis
also allows technicians to verify the performance
of the oil according to the specification during the
entire oil change interval.
i02788820
Fluid Recommendations
(Fuel Specification)
• Glossary
• ISO International Standards Organization
• ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials
• HFRR High Frequency Reciprocating Rig for
Lubricity testing of diesel fuels
• FAME Fatty Acid Methyl Esters
• CFR Co-ordinating Fuel Research
• LSD Low Sulfur Diesel
• ULSD Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel
• RME Rape Methyl Ester
• SME Soy Methyl Ester
• EPA Environmental Protection Agency of the
United States
General Information
NOTICE
Every attempt is made to provide accurate, up to date
information. By use of this document you agree that
Perkins Engines Company Limited is not responsible
for errors or omissions.
NOTICE
These recommendations are subject to change without notice. Contact your local Perkins distributor for
the most up to date recommendations.
Diesel Fuel Requirements
Satisfactory engine performance is dependent on
the use of a good quality fuel. The use of a good
quality fuel will give the following results: long engine
life and acceptable exhaust emissions levels. The
fuel must meet the minimum requirements that are
stated in table 9.
NOTICE
The footnotes are a key part of the Perkins Specification for Distillate Diesel Fuel Table. Read ALL of the
footnotes.
56
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
SEBU8172-02
Table 9
Perkins Specification for Distillate Diesel Fuel
(1)
Property
UNITS
Requirements
“ASTM”Test
“ISO”Test
Aromatics
%Volume
35% maximum
D1319
“ISO”3837
Ash
%Weight
0.01% maximum
D482
“ISO”6245
Carbon Residue on
10% Bottoms
%Weight
0.35% maximum
D524
“ISO”4262
Cetane Number (2)
-
40 minimum
D613/D6890
“ISO”5165
Cloud Point
°C
The cloud point must
not exceed the lowest
expected ambient
temperature.
D2500
“ISO”3015
Copper Strip
Corrosion
-
No. 3 maximum
D130
“ISO”2160
Density at 15 °C
(59 °F) (3)
Kg / M
801 minimum and 876
maximum
No equivalent test
“ISO 3675 ”“ISO 12185”
Distillation
°C
10% at 282 °C
(539.6 °F) maximum
90% at 360 °C (680 °F)
maximum
D86
“ISO”3405
Flash Point
°C
legal limit
D93
“ISO”2719
Thermal Stability
-
Minimum of 80%
reflectance after aging
for 180 minutes at
150 °C (302 °F)
D6468
No equivalent test
Pour Point
°C
6 °C (42.8 °F) minimum
below ambient
temperature
D97
“ISO”3016
%mass
1% maximum
D5453/D26222
“ISO 20846 ”“ISO 20884”
“MM” “/S (cSt)”
The viscosity of the
fuel that is delivered to
the fuel injection pump.
“1.4 minimum/4.5
maximum”
D445
“ISO”3405
Water and sediment
% weight
0.1% maximum
D1796
“ISO”3734
Water
% weight
0.1% maximum
D1744
No equivalent test
Sediment
% weight
0.05% maximum
D473
“ISO”3735
Gums and Resins (6)
mg/100mL
10 mg per 100 mL
maximum
D381
“ISO”6246
Sulfur
(1)(4)
Kinematic Viscosity
(5)
3
2
(continued)
SEBU8172-02
57
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
(Table 9, contd)
Lubricity corrected
wear scar diameter at
60 °C (140 °F). (7)
mm
0.52 maximum
D6079
“ISO”12156-1
(1)
This specification includes the requirements for Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD). ULSD fuel will have ≤ 15 ppm (0.0015%) sulfur. Refer to
“ASTM D5453”, “ASTM D2622”, or “ISO 20846, ISO 20884” test methods. This specification includes the requirements for Low Sulfur
Diesel (LSD). LSD fuel will have ≤500 ppm (0.05%) sulfur. Refer to following:“ASTM 5453, ASTM D2622”, “ISO 20846”, and “ISO 20884
test methods”.
(2) A fuel with a higher cetane number is recommended in order to operate at a higher altitude or in cold weather.
(3) “Via standards tables, the equivalent API gravity for the minimum density of 801 kg / m 3 (kilograms per cubic meter) is 45 and for the
maximum density of 876 kg / m3 is 30”.
(4) Regional regulations, national regulations or international regulations can require a fuel with a specific sulfur limit. Consult all applicable
regulations before selecting a fuel for a given engine application. Perkins fuel systems and engine components can operate on high sulfur
fuels. Fuel sulfur levels affect exhaust emissions. High sulfur fuels also increase the potential for corrosion of internal components.
Fuel sulfur levels above 0.5% may significantly shorten the oil change interval. For additional information, refer to this manual, “Fluid
recommendations (General lubricant Information)”.
(5) The values of the fuel viscosity are the values as the fuel is delivered to the fuel injection pumps. Fuel should also meet the minimum
viscosity requirement and the fuel should meet the maximum viscosity requirements at 40 °C (104 °F) of either the “ASTM D445” test
method or the “ISO 3104” test method. If a fuel with a low viscosity is used, cooling of the fuel may be required to maintain 1.4 cSt or
greater viscosity at the fuel injection pump. Fuels with a high viscosity might require fuel heaters in order to lower the viscosity to 4.5
cSt at the fuel injection pump.
(6) Follow the test conditions and procedures for gasoline (motor).
(7) The lubricity of a fuel is a concern with low sulfur and ultra low sulfur fuel. To determine the lubricity of the fuel, use the “ISO 12156-1
or ASTM D6079 High Frequency Reciprocating Rig (HFRR)” test. If the lubricity of a fuel does not meet the minimum requirements,
consult your fuel supplier. Do not treat the fuel without consulting the fuel supplier. Some additives are not compatible. These additives
can cause problems in the fuel system.
Viscosity
NOTICE
Operating with fuels that do not meet the Perkins recommendations can cause the following effects: Starting difficulty, poor combustion, deposits in the fuel injectors, reduced service life of the fuel system, deposits in the combustion chamber, and reduced service life of the engine.
Diesel Fuel Characteristics
Perkins Recommendation
Cetane Number
Fuel that has a high cetane number will give a shorter
ignition delay. This will produce a better ignition
quality. Cetane numbers are derived for fuels against
proportions of cetane and heptamethylnonane in the
standard CFR engine. Refer to “ISO 5165” for the
test method.
Cetane numbers in excess of 45 are normally
expected from current diesel fuel. However, a cetane
number of 40 may be experienced in some territories.
The United States of America is one of the territories
that can have a low cetane value. A minimum cetane
value of 40 is required during average starting
conditions. A higher cetane value may be required
for operations at high altitudes or in cold weather
operations.
Fuel with a low cetane number can be the root cause
of problems during cold start.
Viscosity is the property of a liquid of offering
resistance to shear or flow. Viscosity decreases with
increasing temperature. This decrease in viscosity
follows a logarithmic relationship for normal fossil
fuel. The common reference is to kinematic viscosity.
This is the quotient of the dynamic viscosity that is
divided by the density. The determination of kinematic
viscosity is normally by readings from gravity flow
viscometers at standard temperatures. Refer to “ISO
3104” for the test method.
The viscosity of the fuel is significant because fuel
serves as a lubricant for the fuel system components.
Fuel must have sufficient viscosity in order to lubricate
the fuel system in both extremely cold temperatures
and extremely hot temperatures. If the kinematic
viscosity of the fuel is lower than 1.4 cSt at the fuel
injection pump damage to the fuel injection pump
can occur. This damage can be excessive scuffing
and seizure. Low viscosity may lead to difficult hot
restarting, stalling and loss of performance. High
viscosity may result in seizure of the pump.
Perkins recommends kinematic viscosities of 1.4 and
4.5 mm2/sec that is delivered to the fuel injection
pump.
58
Maintenance Section
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SEBU8172-02
Density
Lubricity
Density is the mass of the fuel per unit volume
at a specific temperature. This parameter has a
direct influence on engine performance and a direct
influence on emissions. This determines the heat
output from a given injected volume of fuel. This
is generally quoted in the following kg/m at 15 °C
(59 °F).
This is the capability of the fuel to prevent pump
wear. The fluid's lubricity describes the ability of the
fluid to reduce the friction between surfaces that are
under load. This ability reduces the damage that is
caused by friction. Fuel injection systems rely on the
lubricating properties of the fuel. Until fuel sulfur limits
were mandated, the fuel's lubricity was generally
believed to be a function of fuel viscosity.
Perkins recommends a value of density of 841 kg/m
in order to obtain the correct power output. Lighter
fuels are acceptable but these fuels will not produce
the rated power.
Sulfur
The level of sulfur is governed by emissions
legislations. Regional regulation, national regulations
or international regulations can require a fuel with
a specific sulfur limit. The sulfur content of the fuel
and the fuel quality must comply with all existing local
regulations for emissions.
By using the test methods “ASTM D5453, ASTM
D2622, or ISO 20846 ISO 20884”, the content of
sulfur in low sulfur diesel (LSD) fuel must be below
500 PPM 0.05%. By using the test methods “ASTM
D5453, ASTM D2622, or ISO 20846 ISO 20884”, the
content of sulfur in ultra low sulfur (ULSD) fuel must
be below 15 PPM 0.0015%. The use of LSD fuel and
the use of ULSD fuel are acceptable provided that
the fuels meet the minimum requirements that are
stated in table 9. The lubricity of these fuels must not
exceed wear scar diameter of 0.52 mm (0.0205 inch).
The fuel lubricity test must be performed on a HFRR,
operated at 60 °C (140 °F). Refer to “ISO 12156-1 ”.
In some parts of the world and for some applications,
high sulfur fuels above 0.5% by mass might only
be available. Fuel with very high sulfur content
can cause engine wear. High sulfur fuel will have
a negative impact on emissions of particulates.
High sulfur fuel can be used provided that the local
emissions legislation will allow the use. High sulfur
fuel can be used in countries that do not regulate
emissions.
When only high sulfur fuels are available, it will
be necessary that high alkaline lubricating oil is
used in the engine or that the lubricating oil change
interval is reduced. Refer to this Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Fliud Recommendations
(Genernal Lubrication Information)” for information
on sulfur in fuel.
The lubricity has particular significance to the current
low viscosity fuel, low sulfur fuel and low aromatic
fossil fuel. These fuels are made in order to meet
stringent exhaust emissions. A test method for
measuring the lubricity of diesel fuels has been
developed and the test is based on the HFRR
method that is operated at 60 °C (140 °F). Refer to
“ISO 12156 part 1 and CEC document F06-A-96” for
the test method.
Lubricity wear scar diameter of 0.52 mm (0.0205 inch)
MUST NOT be exceeded. The fuel lubricity test must
be performed on a HFRR, operated at 60 °C (140 °F).
Refer to “ISO 12156-1 ”.
Fuel additives can enhance the lubricity of a fuel.
Contact your fuel supplier for those circumstances
when fuel additives are required. Your fuel supplier
can make recommendations for additives to use and
for the proper level of treatment.
Distillation
This is an indication of the mixture of different
hydrocarbons in the fuel. A high ratio of light weight
hydrocarbons can affect the characteristics of
combustion.
Classification of the Fuels
Diesel engines have the ability to burn a wide variety
of fuels. These fuels are divided into four general
groups: Ref to table 10
SEBU8172-02
59
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
• “JP7 (MIL-T-38219)”
Table 10
Fuel Groups
Classification
Group 1
Preferred fuels
Group 2
Group 3
Group 4
Full life of the
Product
Permissible
fuels with an
appropriate fuel
additive
These fuels
MAY cause
reduced
engine life and
performance
Permissible
fuels with an
appropriate fuel
additive
These fuels
WILL cause
reduced
engine life and
performance
Biodiesel
Group 1 Specifications (Preferred Fuels)
This group of fuel specifications is considered
acceptable:
• EN590 DERV Grade A, B, C, E, F, Class, 0, 1, 2,
3, and 4
• “BS2869 Class A2” Off-Highway Gas Oil Red
Diesel
• “ASTM D975”, Class 1D , and Class 2D
• “NATO F63”
• JP8
• JP5
• “Jet A1 (ASTM D1655)”
• “Jet A (ASTM D1655)”
• “NATO F34 ”
Note: These fuels are only acceptable provided that
these fuels are used with an appropriate fuel additive.
These fuels must meet the requirements that are
stated in table 9. Fuel samples should be analyzed
for the compliance. These fuels MUST NOT exceed
lubricity wear scar diameter of 0.52 mm (0.0205 inch).
The fuel lubricity test must be performed on a
HFRR, operated at 60 °C (140 °F). Refer to “ISO
12156-1 ”. Fuels must have minimum viscosity of
1.4 centistokes that is delivered to the fuel injection
pump. Fuel cooling may be required in order to
maintain minimum viscosity of 1.4 centistokes that is
delivered to the fuel injection pump.
Group 3 Specifications (Permissible
Fuels)
• “JIS K2204 Grades 1,2,3 and Special Grade 3”
This group of fuel specification must be used only
with the appropriate fuel additive. This fuel WILL
reduce engine life and performance.
• 5% FAME to “EN14214” can be mixed with the fuel
“JIS 2203#1 and #2 Toyu”
This grade of fuel must meet the minimum lubricity
requirements that are stated in table 9.
that meets the requirements that are stated in table
9. This blend is commonly known as B5.
Note: The use of LSD fuel and the use of ULSD
fuel is acceptable provided that the fuels meet the
minimum requirements that are stated in table 9. The
lubricity of these fuels must not exceed wear scar
diameter of 0.52 mm (0.0205 inch). The lubricity test
must be performed on a HFRR, operated at 60 °C
(140 °F). Refer to “ISO 12156-1 ”. By using the test
methods “ASTM D5453, ASTM D2622, or ISO 20846
ISO 20884”, the content of sulfur in LSD fuel must be
below 500 PPM 0.05%. By using the test methods
“ASTM D5453, ASTM D2622, or ISO 20846 ISO
20884”, the content of sulfur in ULSD fuel must be
below 15 PPM 0.0015%.
Group 2 Specifications (Permissible
Fuels)
This group of fuel specifications is considered
acceptable, but only with an appropriate fuel additive,
but these fuels MAY reduce the engine life and
performance.
Note: These fuels are only acceptable provided that
these fuels are used with an appropriate fuel additive.
These fuels must meet the requirements that are
stated in table 9. Fuel samples should be analyzed
for the compliance. These fuels MUST NOT exceed
lubricity wear scar diameter of 0.52 mm (0.0205 inch).
The fuel lubricity test must be performed on a
HFRR, operated at 60 °C (140 °F). Refer to “ISO
12156-1 ”. Fuels must have minimum viscosity of
1.4 centistokes that is delivered to the fuel injection
pump. Fuel cooling may be required in order to
maintain minimum viscosity of 1.4 centistokes that is
delivered to the fuel injection pump.
60
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
Group 4 Biodiesel
Biodiesel is a fuel that can be defined as mono-alkyl
esters of fatty acids. Biodiesel is a fuel that can
be made from a variety of feedstock. The most
commonly available biodiesel in europe is Rape
Methyl Ester (REM). This biodiesel is derived from
rapeseed oil. Soy Methyl Ester (SME) is the most
common biodiesel in the United States. This biodiesel
is derived from soybean oil. Soybean oil or rapeseed
oil are the primary feedstocks. These fuels are
together known as Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME).
Raw pressed vegetable oils are NOT acceptable for
use as a fuel in any concentration in compression
engines. Without esterification, these oils gel in the
crankcase and the fuel tank. These fuels may not be
compatible with many of the elastomers that are used
in engines that are manufactured today. In original
forms, these oils are not suitable for use as a fuel
in compression engines. Alternate base stocks for
biodiesel may include animal tallow, waste cooking
oils, or a variety of other feedstocks. In order to use
any of the products that are listed as fuel, the oil
must be esterified.
Note: Engines that are manufactured by Perkins
are certified by use of the prescribed Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA) and European Certification
fuels. Perkins does not certify engines on any other
fuel. The user of the engine has the responsibility
of using the correct fuel that is recommended by
the manufacturer and allowed by the EPA and other
appropriate regulatory agencies.
SEBU8172-02
• The oil change interval can be affected by the use
of biodiesel. Use Services Oil Analysis in order
to monitor the condition of the engine oil. Use
Services Oil Analysis also in order to determine the
oil change interval that is optimum.
• Confirm that biodiesel is acceptable for use with
the manufacturer of the fuel filters.
• In a comparison of distillate fuels to biodiesel,
biodiesel provides less energy per gallon by 5% to
7%. Do NOT change the engine rating in order to
compensate for the power loss. This will help avoid
engine problems when the engine is converted
back to 100 percent distillate diesel fuel.
• The compatibility of the elastomers with biodiesel
is being monitored. The condition of seals and
hoses should be monitored regularly.
• Biodiesel may pose low ambient temperature
problems for both storage and operation. At low
ambient temperatures, fuel may need to be stored
in a heated building or a heated storage tank. The
fuel system may require heated fuel lines, filters,
and tanks. Filters may plug and fuel in the tank may
solidify at low ambient temperatures if precautions
are not taken. Consult your biodiesel supplier for
assistance in the blending and attainment of the
proper cloud point for the fuel.
• Biodiesel has poor oxidation stability, which
Use of FAME fuels is permissible. However, the
following conditions apply:
can result in long term problems in the storage
of biodiesel. The poor oxidation stability may
accelerate fuel oxidation in the fuel system.
This is especially true in engines with electronic
fuel systems because these engines operate at
higher temperatures. Consult the fuel supplier for
oxidation stability additives.
• The FAME fuel must comply with “EN14214”.
• Biodiesel is a fuel that can be made from a variety
Recommendation for the use of biodiesel
• A maximum of 5% mixture of FAME can be used
in mineral oil diesel fuel, provided that the fuel
complies with the fuel specification that is listed in
table 9. This blend is commonly known as B5. No
mixture above 5% is acceptable. Concentrations
above 5% will lead to reduced product service life
and potential failure of the fuel injection equipment.
Note: When biodiesel, or any blend of biodiesel is
used, the user has the responsibility for obtaining the
proper local exemptions, regional exemptions, and/or
national exemptions that are required for the use
of biodiesel in any Perkins engine that is regulated
by emissions standards. Biodiesel that meets EN
14214 is acceptable. The biodiesel must be blended
with an acceptable distillate diesel fuel at the
maximum stated percentages. However, the following
operational recommendations must be followed:
of feedstock. The feedstock that is used can
affect the performance of the product. Two of the
characteristics of the fuel that are affected are
cold flow and oxidation stability. Contact your fuel
supplier for guidance.
• Biodiesel or biodiesel blends are not recommended
for engines that will operate occasionally. This
is due to poor oxidation stability. If the user is
prepared to accept some risk, then limit biodiesel
to a maximum of B5. Examples of applications that
should limit the use of biodiesel are the following:
Standby Generator sets and certain emergency
vehicles
SEBU8172-02
61
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
• Biodiesel is an excellent medium for microbial
contamination and growth. Microbial contamination
and growth can cause corrosion in the fuel system
and premature plugging of the fuel filter. The
use of conventionalanti-microbial additives and
the effectiveness of conventional anti-microbial
additives in biodiesel is not known. Consult your
supplier of fuel and additive for assistance.
• Care must be taken in order to remove water
from fuel tanks. Water accelerates microbial
contamination and growth. When biodiesel is
compared to distillate fuels, water is naturally more
likely to exist in the biodiesel.
Fuel for Cold Weather Operation
The European standard “EN590” contains climate
dependant requirements and a range of options. The
options can be applied differently in each country.
There are 5 classes that are given to arctic climates
and severe winter climates. 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4.
Fuel that complies with “EN590 ” CLASS 4 can be
used at temperatures as low as −44 °C (−47.2 °F).
Refer to “EN590” for a detailed discretion of the
physical properties of the fuel.
The diesel fuel “ASTM D975 1-D” that is used in the
united states of america may be used in very cold
temperatures that are below −18 °C (−0.4 °F).
In extreme cold ambient conditions, you may also
use fuels that are listed in the table 11. These fuels
are intended to be used in temperatures that can be
as low as −54 °C (−65.2 °F).
Table 11
Light Distillate Fuels
Specification
Grade
“MIL-T-5624R”
JP-5
“MIL-T-83133D”
JP-8
“ASTM D1655”
Jet-A-1
(1)
(1)
The use of these fuels is acceptable with an appropriate fuel
additive and the fuels must meet minimum requirements that
are stated in Table 9. Fuel samples should be analyzed for
the compliance. Fuels MUST NOT exceed 0.52 mm lubricity
wear scar diameter that is tested on a HFFR . The test must be
performed at 60 °C. Refer to “ISO 12156-1”. Fuels must have
minimum viscosity of 1.4 centistokes that is delivered to the
fuel injection pump. Fuel cooling may be required in order to
maintain minimum viscosity of 1.4 centistokes that is delivered
to the fuel injection pump.
Mixing alcohol or gasoline with diesel fuel can produce an explosive mixture in the engine crankcase
or the fuel tank. Alcohol or gasoline must not be
used in order to dilute diesel fuel. Failure to follow
this instruction may result in death or personal injury.
There are many other diesel fuel specifications that
are published by governments and by technological
societies. Usually, those specifications do not review
all the requirements that are addressed in table 9. To
ensure optimum engine performance, a complete fuel
analysis should be obtained before engine operation.
The fuel analysis should include all of the properties
that are stated in the table 9.
Fuel Additive
Supplemental diesel fuel additives are not generally
recommended. This is due to potential damage to
the fuel system or the engine. Your fuel supplier
or the fuel manufacturer will add the appropriate
supplemental diesel fuel additives.
Perkins recognizes the fact that additives may
be required in some special circumstances. Fuel
additives need to be used with caution. Contact
your fuel supplier for those circumstances when
fuel additives are required. Your fuel supplier can
recommend the appropriate fuel additive and the
correct level of treatment.
Note: For the best results, your fuel supplier should
treat the fuel when additives are required. The treated
fuel must meet the requirements that are stated in
table 9.
i02962446
Fluid Recommendations
(Coolant Specifications)
General Coolant Information
NOTICE
Never add coolant to an overheated engine. Engine
damage could result. Allow the engine to cool first.
NOTICE
If the engine is to be stored in, or shipped to an area
with below freezing temperatures, the cooling system
must be either protected to the lowest outside temperature or drained completely to prevent damage.
62
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
SEBU8172-02
Table 12
NOTICE
Frequently check the specific gravity of the coolant for
proper freeze protection or for anti-boil protection.
Clean the cooling system for the following reasons:
• Contamination of the cooling system
• Overheating of the engine
• Foaming of the coolant
NOTICE
Never operate an engine without water temperature
regulators in the cooling system. Water temperature
regulators help to maintain the engine coolant at the
proper operating temperature. Cooling system problems can develop without water temperature regulators.
Many engine failures are related to the cooling
system. The following problems are related to cooling
system failures: Overheating, leakage of the water
pump, and plugged radiators or heat exchangers.
These failures can be avoided with correct cooling
system maintenance. Cooling system maintenance is
as important as maintenance of the fuel system and
the lubrication system. Quality of the coolant is as
important as the quality of the fuel and the lubricating
oil.
Coolant is normally composed of three elements:
Water, additives, and glycol.
Water
Water is used in the cooling system in order to
transfer heat.
Distilled water or deionized water is
recommended for use in engine cooling systems.
DO NOT use the following types of water in cooling
systems: Hard water, softened water that has been
conditioned with salt, and sea water.
If distilled water or deionized water is not available,
use water with the properties that are listed in Table
12.
Acceptable Water
Property
Maximum Limit
Chloride (Cl)
40 mg/L
Sulfate (SO4)
100 mg/L
Total Hardness
170 mg/L
Total Solids
340 mg/L
Acidity
pH of 5.5 to 9.0
For a water analysis, consult one of the following
sources:
• Local water utility company
• Agricultural agent
• Independent laboratory
Additives
Additives help to protect the metal surfaces of
the cooling system. A lack of coolant additives or
insufficient amounts of additives enable the following
conditions to occur:
• Corrosion
• Formation of mineral deposits
• Rust
• Scale
• Foaming of the coolant
Many additives are depleted during engine operation.
These additives must be replaced periodically.
Additives must be added at the correct concentration.
Overconcentration of additives can cause the
inhibitors to drop out-of-solution. The deposits can
enable the following problems to occur:
• Formation of gel compounds
• Reduction of heat transfer
• Leakage of the water pump seal
• Plugging of radiators, coolers, and small passages
Glycol
Glycol in the coolant helps to provide protection
against the following conditions:
• Boiling
SEBU8172-02
63
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
• Freezing
• Cavitation of the water pump
For optimum performance, Perkins recommends a
1:1 mixture of a water/glycol solution.
Note: Use a mixture that will provide protection
against the lowest ambient temperature.
Note: 100 percent pure glycol will freeze at a
temperature of −23 °C (−9 °F).
Most conventional antifreezes use ethylene glycol.
Propylene glycol may also be used. In a 1:1 mixture
with water, ethylene and propylene glycol provide
similar protection against freezing and boiling. See
Tables 13 and 14.
Table 13
Ethylene Glycol
Concentration
Freeze Protection
50 Percent
−36 °C (−33 °F)
60 Percent
−51 °C (−60 °F)
NOTICE
Do not use propylene glycol in concentrations that exceed 50 percent glycol because of propylene glycol's
reduced heat transfer capability. Use ethylene glycol
in conditions that require additional protection against
boiling or freezing.
Table 14
Propylene Glycol
Concentration
Freeze Protection
50 Percent
−29 °C (−20 °F)
To check the concentration of glycol in the coolant,
measure the specific gravity of the coolant.
NOTICE
Do not use a commercial coolant/antifreeze that only meets the ASTM D3306 specification. This type of
coolant/antifreeze is made for light automotive applications.
Perkins recommends a 1:1 mixture of water and
glycol. This mixture of water and glycol will provide
optimum heavy-duty performance as a antifreeze.
This ratio may be increased to 1:2 water to glycol if
extra freezing protection is required.
Note: A commercial heavy-duty antifreeze that
meets “ASTM D4985” specifications MAY require a
treatment with an SCA at the initial fill. Read the label
or the instructions that are provided by the OEM of
the product.
In stationary engine applications and marine engine
applications that do not require anti-boil protection
or freeze protection, a mixture of SCA and water
is acceptable. Perkins recommends a six percent
to eight percent concentration of SCA in those
cooling systems. Distilled water or deionized water
is preferred. Water which has the recommended
properties may be used.
Table 15
Coolant Service Life
Coolant Type
Service Life
Perkins ELC
6,000 Service Hours or
Three Years
Commercial Heavy-Duty
Antifreeze that meets
“ASTM D4985”
3000 Service Hours or
Two Years
Perkins POWERPART
SCA
3000 Service Hours or
Two Years
Commercial SCA and
Water
3000 Service Hours or
Two Years
Coolant Recommendations
ELC
• ELC____________________________Extended Life Coolant
Perkins provides ELC for use in the following
applications:
• SCA___________________Supplement Coolant Additive
• ASTM__________________________________________American
Society for Testing and Materials
The following two coolants are used in Perkins diesel
engines:
Preferred – Perkins ELC
Acceptable – A commercial heavy-duty antifreeze
that meets “ASTM D4985” specifications
• Heavy-duty spark ignited gas engines
• Heavy-duty diesel engines
• Automotive applications
64
Maintenance Section
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SEBU8172-02
The anti-corrosion package for ELC is different from
the anti-corrosion package for other coolants. ELC
is an ethylene glycol base coolant. However, ELC
contains organic corrosion inhibitors and antifoam
agents with low amounts of nitrite. Perkins ELC
has been formulated with the correct amount of
these additives in order to provide superior corrosion
protection for all metals in engine cooling systems.
ELC Cooling System Cleaning
ELC is available in a premixed cooling solution with
distilled water. ELC is a 1:1 mixture. The Premixed
ELC provides freeze protection to −36 °C (−33 °F).
The Premixed ELC is recommended for the initial
fill of the cooling system. The Premixed ELC is also
recommended for topping off the cooling system.
Clean water is the only cleaning agent that is required
when ELC is drained from the cooling system.
Containers of several sizes are available. Consult
your Perkins distributor for the part numbers.
ELC Cooling System Maintenance
Correct additions to the Extended Life
Coolant
NOTICE
Use only Perkins products for pre-mixed or concentrated coolants.
Mixing Extended Life Coolant with other products reduces the Extended Life Coolant service life. Failure to
follow the recommendations can reduce cooling system components life unless appropriate corrective action is performed.
In order to maintain the correct balance between
the antifreeze and the additives, you must maintain
the recommended concentration of ELC. Lowering
the proportion of antifreeze lowers the proportion of
additive. This will lower the ability of the coolant to
protect the system from pitting, from cavitation, from
erosion, and from deposits.
NOTICE
Do not use a conventional coolant to top-off a cooling
system that is filled with Extended Life Coolant (ELC).
Do not use standard supplemental coolant additive
(SCA).
When using Perkins ELC, do not use standard SCA's
or SCA filters.
Note: If the cooling system is already using ELC,
cleaning agents are not required to be used at
the specified coolant change interval. Cleaning
agents are only required if the system has been
contaminated by the addition of some other type of
coolant or by cooling system damage.
Before the cooling system is filled, the heater control
(if equipped) must be set to the hot position. Refer
to the OEM in order to set the heater control. After
the cooling system is drained and the cooling system
is refilled, operate the engine until the coolant level
reaches the normal operating temperature and
until the coolant level stabilizes. As needed, add
the coolant mixture in order to fill the system to the
specified level.
Changing to Perkins ELC
To change from heavy-duty antifreeze to the Perkins
ELC, perform the following steps:
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that all fluids are
contained during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting and the repair of the
product. Be prepared to collect the fluid with suitable
containers before opening any compartment or disassembling any component containing fluids.
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
mandates.
1. Drain the coolant into a suitable container.
2. Dispose of the coolant according to local
regulations.
3. Flush the system with clean water in order to
remove any debris.
4. Use Perkins cleaner to clean the system. Follow
the instruction on the label.
5. Drain the cleaner into a suitable container. Flush
the cooling system with clean water.
6. Fill the cooling system with clean water and
operate the engine until the engine is warmed to
49° to 66°C (120° to 150°F).
SEBU8172-02
NOTICE
Incorrect or incomplete flushing of the cooling system
can result in damage to copper and other metal components.
To avoid damage to the cooling system, make sure to
completely flush the cooling system with clear water.
Continue to flush the system until all the signs of the
cleaning agent are gone.
7. Drain the cooling system into a suitable container
and flush the cooling system with clean water.
Note: The cooling system cleaner must be thoroughly
flushed from the cooling system. Cooling system
cleaner that is left in the system will contaminate the
coolant. The cleaner may also corrode the cooling
system.
8. Repeat Steps 6 and 7 until the system is
completely clean.
9. Fill the cooling system with the Perkins Premixed
ELC.
ELC Cooling System Contamination
NOTICE
Mixing ELC with other products reduces the effectiveness of the ELC and shortens the ELC service life.
Use only Perkins Products for premixed or concentrate coolants. Failure to follow these recommendations can result in shortened cooling system component life.
ELC cooling systems can withstand contamination to
a maximum of ten percent of conventional heavy-duty
antifreeze or SCA. If the contamination exceeds ten
percent of the total system capacity, perform ONE of
the following procedures:
• Drain the cooling system into a suitable container.
Dispose of the coolant according to local
regulations. Flush the system with clean water. Fill
the system with the Perkins ELC.
• Drain a portion of the cooling system into a suitable
container according to local regulations. Then, fill
the cooling system with premixed ELC. This should
lower the contamination to less than 10 percent.
• Maintain the system as a conventional Heavy-Duty
Coolant. Treat the system with an SCA. Change
the coolant at the interval that is recommended for
the conventional Heavy-Duty Coolant.
65
Maintenance Section
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Commercial Heavy-Duty Antifreeze and
SCA
NOTICE
Commercial Heavy-Duty Coolant which contains
Amine as part of the corrision protection system must
not be used.
NOTICE
Never operate an engine without water temperature
regulators in the cooling system. Water temperature
regulators help to maintain the engine coolant at the
correct operating temperature. Cooling system problems can develop without water temperature regulators.
Check the antifreeze (glycol concentration) in
order to ensure adequate protection against boiling
or freezing. Perkins recommends the use of a
refractometer for checking the glycol concentration.
Perkins engine cooling systems should be tested at
500 hour intervals for the concentration of SCA.
Additions of SCA are based on the results of the test.
An SCA that is liquid may be needed at 500 hour
intervals.
Refer to Table 16 for part numbers and for quantities
of SCA.
Table 16
Perkins Liquid SCA
Part Number
Quantity
21825735
10
Adding the SCA to Heavy-Duty Coolant
at the Initial Fill
Commercial heavy-duty antifreeze that meets “ASTM
D4985” specifications MAY require an addition of
SCA at the initial fill. Read the label or the instructions
that are provided by the OEM of the product.
Use the equation that is in Table 17 to determine the
amount of Perkins SCA that is required when the
cooling system is initially filled.
Table 17
Equation For Adding The SCA To The Heavy-Duty
Coolant At The Initial Fill
V × 0.045 = X
V is the total volume of the cooling system.
X is the amount of SCA that is required.
66
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
SEBU8172-02
Table 18 is an example for using the equation that
is in Table 17.
Cleaning the System of Heavy-Duty
Antifreeze
Table 18
Perkins cooling system cleaners are designed
to clean the cooling system of harmful scale
and corrosion. Perkins cooling system cleaners
dissolve mineral scale, corrosion products, light oil
contamination and sludge.
Example Of The Equation For Adding The SCA To
The Heavy-Duty Coolant At The Initial Fill
Total Volume
of the Cooling
System (V)
Multiplication
Factor
Amount of
SCA that is
Required (X)
15 L (4 US gal)
× 0.045
0.7 L (24 oz)
Adding The SCA to The Heavy-Duty
Coolant For Maintenance
Heavy-duty antifreeze of all types REQUIRE periodic
additions of an SCA.
Test the antifreeze periodically for the concentration
of SCA. For the interval, refer to the Operation
and Maintenance Manual, “Maintenance Interval
Schedule” (Maintenance Section). Test the
concentration of SCA.
Additions of SCA are based on the results of the
test. The size of the cooling system determines the
amount of SCA that is needed.
Use the equation that is in Table 19 to determine the
amount of Perkins SCA that is required, if necessary:
Table 19
Equation For Adding The SCA To The Heavy-Duty
Coolant For Maintenance
V × 0.014 = X
V is the total volume of the cooling system.
X is the amount of SCA that is required.
Table 20 is an example for using the equation that
is in Table 19.
Table 20
Example Of The Equation For Adding The SCA To
The Heavy-Duty Coolant For Maintenance
Total Volume
of the Cooling
System (V)
Multiplication
Factor
Amount of
SCA that is
Required (X)
15 L (4 US gal)
× 0.014
0.2 L (7 oz)
• Clean the cooling system after used coolant is
drained or before the cooling system is filled with
new coolant.
• Clean the cooling system whenever the coolant is
contaminated or whenever the coolant is foaming.
SEBU8172-02
67
Maintenance Section
Maintenance Recommendations
Maintenance
Recommendations
• Electronic components for the driven equipment
• ECM
i04103075
Welding on Engines with
Electronic Controls
• Sensors
• Electronically controlled valves
• Relays
• Aftertreatment ID module
NOTICE
Because the strength of the frame may decrease,
some manufacturers do not recommend welding onto
a chassis frame or rail. Consult the OEM of the equipment or your Perkins dealer regarding welding on
a chassis frame or rail.
NOTICE
Do not use electrical components (ECM or ECM sensors) or electronic component grounding points for
grounding the welder.
Proper welding procedures are necessary in order
to avoid damage to the engines ECM, sensors, and
associated components. When possible, remove
the component from the unit and then weld the
component. If removal of the component is not
possible, the following procedure must be followed
when you weld on a unit equipped with an Electronic
Engine. The following procedure is considered to be
the safest procedure to weld on a component. This
procedure should provide a minimum risk of damage
to electronic components.
NOTICE
Do not ground the welder to electrical components
such as the ECM or sensors. Improper grounding can
cause damage to the drive train bearings, hydraulic
components, electrical components, and other components.
Clamp the ground cable from the welder to the component that will be welded. Place the clamp as close
as possible to the weld. This will help reduce the possibility of damage.
Note: Perform the welding in areas that are free from
explosive hazards.
1. Stop the engine. Turn the switched power to the
OFF position.
2. Ensure that the fuel supply to the engine is turned
off.
3. Disconnect the negative battery cable from the
battery. If a battery disconnect switch is provided,
open the switch.
4. Disconnect all electronic components from
the wiring harnesses. Include the following
components:
Illustration 27
g01075639
Use the example above. The current flow from the welder to
the ground clamp of the welder will not damage any associated
components.
(1) Engine
(2) Welding electrode
(3) Keyswitch in the OFF position
(4) Battery disconnect switch in the open position
(5) Disconnected battery cables
(6) Battery
(7) Electrical/Electronic component
(8) Minimum distance between the component that is being welded
and any electrical/electronic component
(9) The component that is being welded
(10) Current path of the welder
(11) Ground clamp for the welder
68
Maintenance Section
Maintenance Recommendations
5. Connect the welding ground cable directly to
the part that will be welded. Place the ground
cable as close as possible to the weld in order to
reduce the possibility of welding current damage
to the following components. Bearings, hydraulic
components, electrical components, and ground
straps.
Note: If electrical/electronic components are used
as a ground for the welder, or electrical/electronic
components are located between the welder ground
and the weld, current flow from the welder could
severely damage the component.
6. Protect the wiring harness from welding debris
and spatter.
7. Use standard welding practices to weld the
materials.
SEBU8172-02
SEBU8172-02
69
Maintenance Section
Maintenance Interval Schedule
i04949917
Maintenance Interval Schedule
Every 1000 Service Hours
Engine Valve Lash - Inspect/Adjust ...................... 87
Every 2000 Service Hours
When Required
Battery - Replace ..................................................
Battery or Battery Cable - Disconnect ..................
Engine - Clean ......................................................
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Dual Element) Clean/Replace ....................................................
Engine Oil Sample - Obtain ..................................
Fuel System - Prime .............................................
Severe Service Application - Check .....................
71
72
79
80
84
89
99
Aftercooler Core - Inspect ..................................... 70
Alternator - Inspect ............................................... 71
Belt Tensioner - Inspect ........................................ 73
Engine Mounts - Inspect ....................................... 83
Exhaust Manifold - Inspect ................................... 87
Starting Motor - Inspect ...................................... 100
Turbocharger - Inspect ........................................ 100
Water Pump - Inspect ......................................... 104
Every 3000 Service Hours
Daily
Alternator Belt - Inspect/Adjust/Replace ............... 71
Alternator Belt - Inspect/Adjust/Replace ............... 71
Cooling System Coolant Level - Check ................ 77
Driven Equipment - Check .................................... 79
Engine Air Cleaner Service Indicator - Inspect ..... 82
Engine Air Precleaner - Check/Clean ................... 83
Engine Oil Level - Check ...................................... 83
Fuel System Primary Filter/Water Separator Drain ................................................................... 93
V-Belts - Inspect/Adjust/Replace ........................ 101
Walk-Around Inspection ...................................... 102
Every 3000 Service Hours or 2 Years
Every 4000 Service Hours
Aftercooler Core - Clean/Test ............................... 70
Every 12 000 Service Hours or 6 Years
Cooling System Coolant (ELC) - Change ............. 75
Every 50 Service Hours or Weekly
Fuel Tank Water and Sediment - Drain ................. 97
Commissioning
Fan Clearance - Check ......................................... 88
Every 250 Service Hours
Engine Oil and Filter - Change ............................. 87
Initial 500 Service Hours
Engine Valve Lash - Inspect/Adjust ...................... 87
Every 500 Service Hours
Fan Clearance - Check ......................................... 88
V-Belts - Inspect/Adjust/Replace ........................ 101
Every 500 Service Hours or 1 Year
Battery Electrolyte Level - Check ..........................
Cooling System Supplemental Coolant Additive
(SCA) - Test/Add .................................................
Crankcase Breather (Canister) - Replace .............
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Dual Element) Clean/Replace ....................................................
Engine Oil and Filter - Change .............................
Fuel System Primary Filter (Water Separator)
Element - Replace ..............................................
Fuel System Secondary Filter - Replace ..............
Hoses and Clamps - Inspect/Replace ..................
Radiator - Clean ....................................................
Cooling System Coolant (Commercial Heavy-Duty) Change ............................................................... 73
72
78
79
80
84
90
94
97
98
70
Maintenance Section
Aftercooler Core - Clean/Test
SEBU8172-02
i02322260
Aftercooler Core - Clean/Test
Personal injury can result from air pressure.
1. Remove the core. Refer to the OEM information
for the correct procedure.
Personal injury can result without following proper procedure. When using pressure air, wear a protective face shield and protective clothing.
2. Turn the aftercooler core upside-down in order to
remove debris.
Maximum air pressure at the nozzle must be less
than 205 kPa (30 psi) for cleaning purposes.
8. Dry the core with compressed air. Direct the air in
the reverse direction of the normal flow.
Personal injury can result from air pressure.
Personal injury can result without following proper procedure. When using pressure air, wear a protective face shield and protective clothing.
Maximum air pressure at the nozzle must be less
than 205 kPa (30 psi) for cleaning purposes.
3. Pressurized air is the preferred method for
removing loose debris. Direct the air in the
opposite direction of the fan's air flow. Hold the
nozzle approximately 6 mm (.25 inch) away from
the fins. Slowly move the air nozzle in a direction
that is parallel with the tubes. This will remove
debris that is between the tubes.
4. Pressurized water may also be used for cleaning.
The maximum water pressure for cleaning
purposes must be less than 275 kPa (40 psi). Use
pressurized water in order to soften mud. Clean
the core from both sides.
NOTICE
Do not use a high concentration of caustic cleaner to
clean the core. A high concentration of caustic cleaner
can attack the internal metals of the core and cause
leakage. Only use the recommended concentration of
cleaner.
9. Inspect the core in order to ensure cleanliness.
Pressure test the core. If necessary, repair the
core.
10. Install the core. Refer to the OEM information for
the correct procedure.
11. After cleaning, start the engine and accelerate
the engine to high idle rpm. This will help in the
removal of debris and drying of the core. Stop the
engine. Use a light bulb behind the core in order
to inspect the core for cleanliness. Repeat the
cleaning, if necessary.
i02322295
Aftercooler Core - Inspect
Note: Adjust the frequency of cleaning according to
the effects of the operating environment.
Inspect the aftercooler for these items: damaged fins,
corrosion, dirt, grease, insects, leaves, oil, and other
debris. Clean the aftercooler, if necessary.
For air-to-air aftercoolers, use the same methods that
are used for cleaning radiators.
5. Back flush the core with a suitable cleaner.
6. Steam clean the core in order to remove any
residue. Flush the fins of the aftercooler core.
Remove any other trapped debris.
7. Wash the core with hot, soapy water. Rinse the
core thoroughly with clean water.
Personal injury can result from air pressure.
Personal injury can result without following proper procedure. When using pressure air, wear a protective face shield and protective clothing.
Maximum air pressure at the nozzle must be less
than 205 kPa (30 psi) for cleaning purposes.
SEBU8172-02
71
Maintenance Section
Alternator - Inspect
After cleaning, start the engine and accelerate the
engine to high idle rpm. This will help in the removal
of debris and drying of the core. Stop the engine.
Use a light bulb behind the core in order to inspect
the core for cleanliness. Repeat the cleaning, if
necessary.
• Check the belt of cracks, splits, glazing, grease,
and splitting.
Inspect the fins for damage. Bent fins may be opened
with a “comb”.
Note: If parts of the aftercooler system are repaired
or replaced, a leak test is highly recommended.
Inspect these items for good condition: Welds,
mounting brackets, air lines, connections, clamps,
and seals. Make repairs, if necessary.
i02322311
Alternator - Inspect
Perkins recommends a scheduled inspection of
the alternator. Inspect the alternator for loose
connections and correct battery charging. Check the
ammeter (if equipped) during engine operation in
order to ensure correct battery performance and/or
correct performance of the electrical system. Make
repairs, as required.
Illustration 28
Check the alternator and the battery charger for
correct operation. If the batteries are correctly
charged, the ammeter reading should be very near
zero. All batteries should be kept charged. The
batteries should be kept warm because temperature
affects the cranking power. If the battery is too cold,
the battery will not crank the engine. When the
engine is not run for long periods of time or if the
engine is run for short periods, the batteries may not
fully charge. A battery with a low charge will freeze
more easily than a battery with a full charge.
Replace
g01251375
Typical example
Adjustment
This type of belt has an automatic belt tensioner.
Refer to Disassembly and Assembly manual,
“Alternator Belt - Remove and Install”.
i02322315
Battery - Replace
i02491869
Alternator Belt Inspect/Adjust/Replace
(Poly V-Belt)
Inspection
To maximize the engine performance, inspect the belt
(1) for wear and for cracking. Replace the belt if the
belt is worn or damaged.
• If the belt (1) has more than four cracks per
25.4000 mm (1 inch) the belt must be replaced.
Batteries give off combustible gases which can
explode. A spark can cause the combustible gases to ignite. This can result in severe personal injury or death.
Ensure proper ventilation for batteries that are in
an enclosure. Follow the proper procedures in order to help prevent electrical arcs and/or sparks
near batteries. Do not smoke when batteries are
serviced.
72
Maintenance Section
Battery Electrolyte Level - Check
SEBU8172-02
The battery cables or the batteries should not be
removed with the battery cover in place. The battery cover should be removed before any servicing is attempted.
All lead-acid batteries contain sulfuric acid which
can burn the skin and clothing. Always wear a face
shield and protective clothing when working on or
near batteries.
Removing the battery cables or the batteries with
the cover in place may cause a battery explosion
resulting in personal injury.
1. Remove the filler caps. Maintain the electrolyte
level to the “FULL” mark on the battery.
1. Switch the engine to the OFF position. Remove
all electrical loads.
2. Turn off any battery chargers. Disconnect any
battery chargers.
3. The NEGATIVE “-” cable connects the NEGATIVE
“-” battery terminal to the NEGATIVE “-” terminal
on the starting motor. Disconnect the cable from
the NEGATIVE “-” battery terminal.
4. The POSITIVE “+” cable connects the POSITIVE
“+” battery terminal to the POSITIVE “+” terminal
on the starting motor. Disconnect the cable from
the POSITIVE “+” battery terminal.
Note: Always recycle a battery. Never discard a
battery. Dispose of used batteries to an appropriate
recycling facility.
5. Remove the used battery.
If the addition of water is necessary, use distilled
water. If distilled water is not available use clean
water that is low in minerals. Do not use artificially
softened water.
2. Check the condition of the electrolyte with a
suitable battery tester.
3. Install the caps.
4. Keep the batteries clean.
Clean the battery case with one of the following
cleaning solutions:
• Use a solution of 0.1 kg (0.2 lb) baking soda
and 1 L (1 qt) of clean water.
• Use a solution of ammonium hydroxide.
Thoroughly rinse the battery case with clean water.
i02323088
6. Install the new battery.
Note: Before the cables are connected, ensure that
the engine start switch is OFF.
Battery or Battery Cable Disconnect
7. Connect the cable from the starting motor to the
POSITIVE “+” battery terminal.
8. Connect the NEGATIVE “-” cable to the NEGATIVE
“-” battery terminal.
i02747977
Battery Electrolyte Level Check
When the engine is not run for long periods of time or
when the engine is run for short periods, the batteries
may not fully recharge. Ensure a full charge in order
to help prevent the battery from freezing. If batteries
are correctly charged, the ammeter reading should
be very near zero, when the engine is in operation.
The battery cables or the batteries should not be
removed with the battery cover in place. The battery cover should be removed before any servicing is attempted.
Removing the battery cables or the batteries with
the cover in place may cause a battery explosion
resulting in personal injury.
1. Turn the start switch to the OFF position. Turn the
ignition switch (if equipped) to the OFF position
and remove the key and all electrical loads.
2. Disconnect the negative battery terminal. Ensure
that the cable cannot contact the terminal. When
four 12 volt batteries are involved, two negative
connection must be disconnected.
SEBU8172-02
73
Maintenance Section
Belt Tensioner - Inspect
3. Remove the positive connection.
4. Clean all disconnected connection and battery
terminals.
Install the belt. Refer to Disassembly and Assembly,
“Alternator Belt - Remove and Install”.
i02854855
5. Use a fine grade of sandpaper to clean the
terminals and the cable clamps. Clean the items
until the surfaces are bright or shiny. DO NOT
remove material excessively. Excessive removal
of material can cause the clamps to not fit
correctly. Coat the clamps and the terminals with
a suitable silicone lubricant or petroleum jelly.
Cooling System Coolant
(Commercial Heavy-Duty) Change
6. Tape the cable connections in order to help
prevent accidental starting.
8. In order to connect the battery, connect the
positive connection before the negative connector.
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained
during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to
collect the fluid with suitable containers before opening any compartment or disassembling any component containing fluids.
i02870187
Dispose of all fluids according to Local regulations and
mandates.
7. Proceed with necessary system repairs.
Belt Tensioner - Inspect
NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.
Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened
component life.
Clean the cooling system and flush the cooling
system before the recommended maintenance
interval if the following conditions exist:
• The engine overheats frequently.
• Foaming of the coolant is observed.
• The oil has entered the cooling system and the
coolant is contaminated.
• The fuel has entered the cooling system and the
coolant is contaminated.
Note: When the cooling system is cleaned, only
clean water is needed.
Illustration 29
g01429637
Typical example
Drain
Remove the belt. Refer to Disassembly and
Assembly, “Alternator Belt - Remove and Install”.
Ensure that the belt tensioner is securely installed.
Visually inspect the belt tensioner (1) for damage.
Check that the roller on the tensioner rotates freely.
Some engines have a guide roller (2). Ensure that
the guide roller is securely installed. Visually inspect
the guide roller for damage. Ensure that the guide
roller can rotate freely.
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pressure.
74
Maintenance Section
Cooling System Coolant (Commercial Heavy-Duty) - Change
1. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.
Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in
order to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap.
SEBU8172-02
3. Fill the cooling system with clean water. Install the
cooling system filler cap.
4. Start and run the engine at low idle until the
temperature reaches 49 to 66 °C (120 to 150 °F).
5. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.
Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in
order to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap. Open the drain cock or remove
the drain plug on the engine. Open the drain cock
or remove the drain plug on the radiator. Allow
the water to drain. Flush the cooling system with
clean water.
Fill
1. Close the drain cock or install the drain plug on the
engine. Close the drain cock or install the drain
plug on the radiator.
NOTICE
Do not fill the cooling system faster than 5 L
(1.3 US gal) per minute to avoid air locks.
Illustration 30
g01244659
Typical example
2. Open the drain cock or remove the drain plug (1)
on the engine. Open the drain cock or remove the
drain plug on the radiator.
Allow the coolant to drain.
NOTICE
Dispose of used engine coolant or recycle. Various
methods have been proposed to reclaim used coolant
for reuse in engine cooling systems. The full distillation
procedure is the only method acceptable by Perkins to
reclaim the coolant.
For information regarding the disposal and the
recycling of used coolant, consult your Perkins
distributor.
Flush
1. Flush the cooling system with clean water in order
to remove any debris.
2. Close the drain cock or install the drain plug in the
engine. Close the drain cock or install the drain
plug on the radiator.
NOTICE
Do not fill the cooling system faster than 5 L
(1.3 US gal) per minute to avoid air locks.
Cooling system air locks may result in engine damage.
Cooling system air locks may result in engine damage.
2. Fill the cooling system with Commercial
Heavy-Duty Coolant. Add Supplemental Coolant
Additive to the coolant. For the correct amount,
refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Fluid Recommendations” topic (Maintenance
Section) for more information on cooling system
specifications. Do not install the cooling system
filler cap.
3. Start and run the engine at low idle. Increase the
engine rpm to high idle. Run the engine at high
idle for one minute in order to purge the air from
the cavities of the engine block. Decrease the
engine speed to low idle. Stop the engine.
4. Check the coolant level. Maintain the coolant level
within 13 mm (0.5 inch) below the bottom of the
pipe for filling. Maintain the coolant level in the
expansion bottle (if equipped) at the correct level.
SEBU8172-02
75
Maintenance Section
Cooling System Coolant (ELC) - Change
• Foaming of the coolant is observed.
• The oil has entered the cooling system and the
coolant is contaminated.
• The fuel has entered the cooling system and the
coolant is contaminated.
Note: When the cooling system is cleaned, only
clean water is needed when the ELC is drained and
replaced.
Illustration 31
g00103639
Filler cap
5. Clean the cooling system filler cap and inspect the
gasket. If the gasket is damaged, discard the old
filler cap and install a new filler cap. If the gasket
is not damaged, use a suitable pressurizing pump
in order to pressure test the filler cap. The correct
pressure is stamped on the face of the filler cap. If
the filler cap does not retain the correct pressure,
install a new filler cap.
6. Start the engine. Inspect the cooling system for
leaks and for correct operating temperature.
i02490917
Cooling System Coolant (ELC)
- Change
Note: Inspect the water pump and the water
temperature regulator after the cooling system has
been drained. This is a good opportunity to replace
the water pump, the water temperature regulator and
the hoses, if necessary.
Drain
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pressure.
1. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.
Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in
order to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap.
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained
during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to
collect the fluid with suitable containers before opening any compartment or disassembling any component containing fluids.
Dispose of all fluids according to Local regulations and
mandates.
NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.
Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened
component life.
Clean the cooling system and flush the cooling
system before the recommended maintenance
interval if the following conditions exist:
• The engine overheats frequently.
Illustration 32
Typical example
g01244659
76
Maintenance Section
Cooling System Coolant (ELC) - Change
2. Open the drain cock or remove the drain plug (1)
on the engine. Open the drain cock or remove the
drain plug on the radiator.
Allow the coolant to drain.
SEBU8172-02
2. Fill the cooling system with Extended Life
Coolant (ELC). Refer to the Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Fluid Recommendations”
topic (Maintenance Section) for more information
on cooling system specifications. Do not install the
cooling system filler cap.
NOTICE
Dispose of used engine coolant or recycle. Various
methods have been proposed to reclaim used coolant
for reuse in engine cooling systems. The full distillation
procedure is the only method acceptable by Perkins to
reclaim the coolant.
3. Start and run the engine at low idle. Increase the
engine rpm to high idle. Run the engine at high
idle for one minute in order to purge the air from
the cavities of the engine block. Decrease the
engine speed to low idle. Stop the engine.
For information regarding the disposal and the
recycling of used coolant, consult your Perkins dealer
or your Perkins distributor.
4. Check the coolant level. Maintain the coolant level
within 13 mm (0.5 inch) below the bottom of the
pipe for filling. Maintain the coolant level in the
expansion bottle (if equipped) at the correct level.
Flush
1. Flush the cooling system with clean water in order
to remove any debris.
2. Close the drain cock or install the drain plug in the
engine. Close the drain cock or install the drain
plug on the radiator.
NOTICE
Do not fill the cooling system faster than 5 L
(1.3 US gal) per minute to avoid air locks.
Cooling system air locks may result in engine damage.
Illustration 33
g00103639
Filler cap
3. Fill the cooling system with clean water. Install the
cooling system filler cap.
4. Start and run the engine at low idle until the
temperature reaches 49 to 66 °C (120 to 150 °F).
5. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.
Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in
order to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap. Open the drain cock or remove
the drain plug on the engine. Open the drain cock
or remove the drain plug on the radiator. Allow
the water to drain. Flush the cooling system with
clean water.
Fill
1. Close the drain cock or install the drain plug on the
engine. Close the drain cock or install the drain
plug on the radiator.
NOTICE
Do not fill the cooling system faster than 5 L
(1.3 US gal) per minute to avoid air locks.
Cooling system air locks may result in engine damage.
5. Clean the cooling system filler cap and inspect the
gasket. If the gasket is damaged, discard the old
filler cap and install a new filler cap. If the gasket
is not damaged, use a suitable pressurizing pump
in order to pressure test the filler cap. The correct
pressure is stamped on the face of the filler cap. If
the filler cap does not retain the correct pressure,
install a new filler cap.
6. Start the engine. Inspect the cooling system for
leaks and for correct operating temperature.
SEBU8172-02
77
Maintenance Section
Cooling System Coolant Level - Check
i04408743
Cooling System Coolant Level
- Check
Engines With a Coolant Recovery
Tank
Note: The cooling system may not have been
provided by Perkins. The procedure that follows
is for typical cooling systems. Refer to the OEM
information for the correct procedures.
Check the coolant level when the engine is stopped
and cool.
NOTICE
When any servicing or repair of the engine cooling
system is performed, the procedure must be performed with the engine on level ground. This will allow
you to accurately check the coolant level. This will
also help in avoiding the risk of introducing an air lock
into the coolant system.
1. Observe the coolant level in the coolant recovery
tank. Maintain the coolant level to “COLD FULL”
mark on the coolant recovery tank.
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pressure.
Illustration 34
g02590196
Filler cap
4. Clean filler cap and the receptacle. Reinstall the
filler cap and inspect the cooling system for leaks.
Note: The coolant will expand as the coolant heats
up during normal engine operation. The additional
volume will be forced into the coolant recovery tank
during engine operation. When the engine is stopped
and cool, the coolant will return to the engine.
Engines Without a Coolant
Recovery Tank
Check the coolant level when the engine is stopped
and cool.
2. Loosen filler cap slowly in order to relieve any
pressure. Remove the filler cap.
3. Pour the correct coolant mixture into the tank.
Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Refill Capacities and Recommendations” for
information on the correct mixture and type of
coolant. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Refill Capacities and Recommendations”
for the cooling system capacity. Do not fill the
coolant recovery tank above “COLD FULL” mark.
Illustration 35
Cooling system filler cap
g00285520
78
Maintenance Section
Cooling System Supplemental Coolant Additive (SCA) - Test/Add
SEBU8172-02
Add the SCA, If Necessary
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pressure.
1. Remove the cooling system filler cap slowly in
order to relieve pressure.
2. Maintain the coolant level at the maximum mark
that is correct for your application. If the engine is
equipped with a sight glass, maintain the coolant
level to the correct level in the sight glass.
3. Clean the cooling system filler cap and inspect the
gasket. If the gasket is damaged, discard the old
filler cap and install a new filler cap. If the gasket
is not damaged, use a suitable pressurizing pump
in order to pressure test the filler cap. The correct
pressure is stamped on the face of the filler cap. If
the filler cap does not retain the correct pressure,
install a new filler cap.
4. Inspect the cooling system for leaks.
i03644948
Cooling System Supplemental
Coolant Additive (SCA) Test/Add
Cooling system coolant additive contains alkali.
To help prevent personal injury, avoid contact with
the skin and the eyes. Do not drink cooling system
coolant additive.
Test for SCA Concentration
Heavy-Duty Coolant/Antifreeze and SCA
NOTICE
Do not exceed the recommended six percent supplemental coolant additive concentration.
Use a Coolant Conditioner Test Kit in order to check
the concentration of the SCA.
NOTICE
Do not exceed the recommended amount of supplemental coolant additive concentration. Excessive
supplemental coolant additive concentration can form
deposits on the higher temperature surfaces of the
cooling system, reducing the engine's heat transfer
characteristics. Reduced heat transfer could cause
cracking of the cylinder head and other high temperature components. Excessive supplemental coolant
additive concentration could also result in radiator
tube blockage, overheating, and/or accelerated water
pump seal wear. Never use both liquid supplemental
coolant additive and the spin-on element (if equipped)
at the same time. The use of those additives together
could result in supplemental coolant additive concentration exceeding the recommended maximum.
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pressure.
NOTICE
When any servicing or repair of the engine cooling
system is performed the procedure must be performed
with the engine on level ground. This will allow you to
accurately check the coolant level. This will also help
in avoiding the risk of introducing an air lock into the
coolant system.
1. Slowly loosen the cooling system filler cap in
order to relieve the pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap.
Note: Always discard drained fluids according to
local regulations.
2. If necessary, drain some coolant from the cooling
system into a suitable container in order to allow
space for the extra SCA.
3. Add the correct amount of SCA. Refer to the
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Refill
Capacities and Recommendations” for more
information on SCA requirements.
SEBU8172-02
79
Maintenance Section
Crankcase Breather (Canister) - Replace
4. Clean the cooling system filler cap and inspect the
gasket. If the gasket is damaged, discard the old
filler cap and install a new filler cap. If the gasket
is not damaged, use a suitable pressurizing pump
in order to pressure test the filler cap. The correct
pressure is stamped on the face of the filler cap. If
the filler cap does not retain the correct pressure,
install a new filler cap.
3. Lubricate the O ring seal (2) on the new canister
(3) with clean engine lubricating oil. Install the new
canister. Tighten the canister to 12 N·m (8 lb ft).
Do not overtighten the canister.
4. Remove the container. Dispose of the old canister
and any split oil in a safe place.
i02151646
i02866782
Crankcase Breather (Canister)
- Replace
NOTICE
Ensure that the engine is stopped before any servicing
or repair is performed.
Driven Equipment - Check
Refer to the OEM specifications for more information
on the following maintenance recommendations for
the driven equipment:
• Inspection
• Adjustment
Note: The breather assembly is not installed on all
engines.
• Lubrication
1. Place a container under the canister (1).
• Other maintenance recommendations
2. Clean the outside of the canister. Use a suitable
tool in order to remove the canister.
Perform any maintenance for the driven equipment
which is recommended by the OEM.
i01909392
Engine - Clean
Personal injury or death can result from high voltage.
Moisture can create paths of electrical conductivity.
Make sure that the electrical system is OFF. Lock
out the starting controls and tag the controls “DO
NOT OPERATE”.
NOTICE
Accumulated grease and oil on an engine is a fire hazard. Keep the engine clean. Remove debris and fluid
spills whenever a significant quantity accumulates on
the engine.
Illustration 36
Typical example
g01428096
NOTICE
Failure to protect some engine components from
washing may make your engine warranty invalid.
Allow the engine to cool for one hour before washing
the engine.
80
Maintenance Section
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Dual Element) - Clean/Replace
Periodic cleaning of the engine is recommended.
Steam cleaning the engine will remove accumulated
oil and grease. A clean engine provides the following
benefits:
SEBU8172-02
• Operating in dirty conditions may require more
frequent service of the air cleaner element.
• The air cleaner element should be replaced at least
one time per year. This replacement should be
performed regardless of the number of cleanings.
• Easy detection of fluid leaks
• Maximum heat transfer characteristics
• Ease of maintenance
Note: Caution must be used in order to prevent
electrical components from being damaged by
excessive water when the engine is cleaned.
Pressure washers and steam cleaners should not be
directed at any electrical connectors or the junction of
cables into the rear of the connectors. Avoid electrical
components such as the alternator, the starter, and
the ECM. Protect the fuel injection pump from fluids
in order to wash the engine.
i02334355
Engine Air Cleaner Element
(Dual Element) - Clean/Replace
NOTICE
Never run the engine without an air cleaner element
installed. Never run the engine with a damaged air
cleaner element. Do not use air cleaner elements with
damaged pleats, gaskets or seals. Dirt entering the
engine causes premature wear and damage to engine
components. Air cleaner elements help to prevent airborne debris from entering the air inlet.
Replace the dirty air cleaner elements with clean air
cleaner elements. Before installation, the air cleaner
elements should be thoroughly checked for tears
and/or holes in the filter material. Inspect the gasket
or the seal of the air cleaner element for damage.
Maintain a supply of suitable air cleaner elements
for replacement purposes.
Dual Element Air Cleaners
The dual element air cleaner contains a primary air
cleaner element and a secondary air cleaner element.
The primary air cleaner element can be used up
to six times if the element is properly cleaned and
properly inspected. The primary air cleaner element
should be replaced at least one time per year. This
replacement should be performed regardless of the
number of cleanings.
The secondary air cleaner element is not serviceable.
Refer to the OEM information for instructions in order
to replace the secondary air cleaner element.
When the engine is operating in environments that
are dusty or dirty, air cleaner elements may require
more frequent replacement.
NOTICE
Never service the air cleaner element with the engine
running since this will allow dirt to enter the engine.
Servicing the Air Cleaner Elements
Note: The air filter system may not have been
provided by Perkins. The procedure that follows
is for a typical air filter system. Refer to the OEM
information for the correct procedure.
If the air cleaner element becomes plugged, the air
can split the material of the air cleaner element.
Unfiltered air will drastically accelerate internal
engine wear. Refer to the OEM information for the
correct air cleaner elements for your application.
• Check the precleaner (if equipped) and the dust
bowl daily for accumulation of dirt and debris.
Remove any dirt and debris, as needed.
Illustration 37
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
g00736431
Cover
Primary air cleaner element
Secondary air cleaner element
Air inlet
1. Remove the cover. Remove the primary air
cleaner element.
2. The secondary air cleaner element should be
removed and discarded for every three cleanings
of the primary air cleaner element.
SEBU8172-02
81
Maintenance Section
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Dual Element) - Clean/Replace
Note: Refer to “Cleaning the Primary Air Cleaner
Elements”.
Two methods may be used in order to clean the
primary air cleaner element:
3. Cover the air inlet with tape in order to keep dirt
out.
• pressurized air
4. Clean the inside of the air cleaner cover and body
with a clean, dry cloth.
5. Remove the tapefrom the air inlet. Install the
secondary air cleaner element. Install a primary
air cleaner element that is new or cleaned.
6. Install the air cleaner cover.
• Vacuum cleaning
Pressurized Air
Personal injury can result from air pressure.
7. Reset the air cleaner service indicator.
Personal injury can result without following proper procedure. When using pressure air, wear a protective face shield and protective clothing.
Cleaning the Primary Air Cleaner
Elements
Maximum air pressure at the nozzle must be less
than 205 kPa (30 psi) for cleaning purposes.
Refer to the OEM information in order to determine
the number of times that the primary filter element can
be cleaned. When the primary air cleaner element is
cleaned, check for rips or tears in the filter material.
The primary air cleaner element should be replaced
at least one time per year. This replacement should
be performed regardless of the number of cleanings.
Pressurized air can be used to clean primary air
cleaner elements that have not been cleaned more
than three times. Use filtered, dry air with a maximum
pressure of 207 kPa (30 psi). Pressurized air will not
remove deposits of carbon and oil.
NOTICE
Do not tap or strike the air cleaner element.
Do not wash the primary air cleaner element.
Use low pressure (207 kPa; 30 psi maximum) pressurised air or vacuum cleaning to clean the primary
air cleaner element.
Take extreme care in order to avoid damage to the air
cleaner elements.
Do not use air cleaner elements that have damaged
pleats, gaskets or seals.
Refer to the OEM information in order to determine
the number of times that the primary air cleaner
element can be cleaned. Do not clean the primary
air filter element more than three times. The primary
air cleaner element must be replaced at least one
time per year.
Cleaning the air filter element will not extend the life
of the air filter element.
Visually inspect the primary air cleaner element
before cleaning. Inspect air cleaner elements for
damage to the pleats, the seals, the gaskets and
the outer cover. Discard any damaged air cleaner
element.
Illustration 38
g00281692
Note: When the primary air cleaner elements are
cleaned, always begin with the clean side (inside)
in order to force dirt particles toward the dirty side
(outside).
Aim the air hose so that air flows along the length of
the filter. Follow the direction of the paper pleats in
order to prevent damage to the pleats. Do not aim
the air directly at the face of the paper pleats.
Note: Refer to “Inspecting the Primary Air Cleaner
Elements”.
82
Maintenance Section
Engine Air Cleaner Service Indicator - Inspect
SEBU8172-02
Vacuum Cleaning
i02335405
Vacuum cleaning is a good method for removing
accumulated dirt from the dirty side (outside) of a
primary air cleaner element. Vacuum cleaning is
especially useful for cleaning primary air cleaner
elements which require daily cleaning because of a
dry, dusty environment.
Cleaning from the clean side (inside) with pressurized
air is recommended prior to vacuum cleaning the
dirty side (outside) of a primary air cleaner element.
Note: Refer to “Inspecting the Primary Air Cleaner
Elements”.
Inspecting the Primary Air Cleaner
Elements
Engine Air Cleaner Service
Indicator - Inspect
Some engines may be equipped with a different
service indicator.
Some engines are equipped with a differential gauge
for inlet air pressure. The differential gauge for inlet
air pressure displays the difference in the pressure
that is measured before the air cleaner element and
the pressure that is measured after the air cleaner
element. As the air cleaner element becomes dirty,
the pressure differential rises. If your engine is
equipped with a different type of service indicator,
follow the OEM recommendations in order to service
the air cleaner service indicator.
The service indicator may be mounted on the air
cleaner element or in a remote location.
Illustration 39
g00281693
Inspect the clean, dry primary air cleaner element.
Use a 60 watt blue light in a dark room or in a similar
facility. Place the blue light in the primary air cleaner
element. Rotate the primary air cleaner element.
Inspect the primary air cleaner element for tears
and/or holes. Inspect the primary air cleaner element
for light that may show through the filter material. If it
is necessary in order to confirm the result, compare
the primary air cleaner element to a new primary air
cleaner element that has the same part number.
Do not use a primary air cleaner element that has
any tears and/or holes in the filter material. Do not
use a primary air cleaner element with damaged
pleats, gaskets or seals. Discard damaged primary
air cleaner elements.
Illustration 40
g00103777
Typical service indicator
Observe the service indicator. The air cleaner
element should be cleaned or the air cleaner element
should be replaced when one of the following
conditions occur:
• The yellow diaphragm enters the red zone.
• The red piston locks in the visible position.
Test the Service Indicator
Service indicators are important instruments.
• Check for ease of resetting. The service indicator
should reset in less than three pushes.
• Check the movement of the yellow core when
the engine is accelerated to the engine rated
speed. The yellow core should latch at the greatest
vacuum that is attained.
SEBU8172-02
83
Maintenance Section
Engine Air Precleaner - Check/Clean
If the service indicator does not reset easily, or if the
yellow core does not latch at the greatest vacuum,
the service indicator should be replaced. If the new
service indicator will not reset, the hole for the service
indicator may be restricted.
• Incorrect mounting of the engine
The service indicator may need to be replaced
frequently in environments that are severely dusty.
Any engine mount that shows deterioration should
be replaced. Refer to the OEM information for the
recommended torques.
• Deterioration of the engine mounts
• Loose engine mounts
i02343354
Engine Air Precleaner Check/Clean
i02335785
Engine Oil Level - Check
Hot oil and hot components can cause personal
injury. Do not allow hot oil or hot components to
contact the skin.
Illustration 41
g00287039
Typical example
(1) Wing nut
(2) Cover
(3) Body
Remove wing nut (1) and cover (2). Check for an
accumulation of dirt and debris in body (3). Clean the
body, if necessary.
Illustration 42
g01165836
(Y) “Min” mark. (X) “Max” mark.
After cleaning the precleaner, install cover (2) and
wing nut (1).
NOTICE
Perform this maintenance with the engine stopped.
Note: When the engine is operated in dusty
applications, more frequent cleaning is required.
Note: Ensure that the engine is either level or that
the engine is in the normal operating position in order
to obtain a true level indication.
i02323089
Engine Mounts - Inspect
Note: The engine mounts may not have been
supplied by Perkins. Refer to the OEM information
for further information on the engine mounts and the
correct bolt torque.
Inspect the engine mounts for deterioration and for
correct bolt torque. Engine vibration can be caused
by the following conditions:
Note: After the engine has been switched OFF, wait
for ten minutes in order to allow the engine oil to drain
to the oil pan before checking the oil level.
1. Maintain the oil level between the “ADD” mark (Y)
and the “FULL” mark (X) on the engine oil dipstick.
Do not fill the crankcase above the “FULL” mark
(X).
84
Maintenance Section
Engine Oil Sample - Obtain
SEBU8172-02
NOTICE
Operating your engine when the oil level is above the
“FULL” mark could cause your crankshaft to dip into
the oil. The air bubbles created from the crankshaft
dipping into the oil reduces the oil's lubricating characteristics and could result in the loss of power.
2. Remove the oil filler cap and add oil, if necessary.
Clean the oil filler cap. Install the oil filler cap.
i01907674
Engine Oil Sample - Obtain
The condition of the engine lubricating oil may be
checked at regular intervals as part of a preventive
maintenance program. Perkins include an oil
sampling valve as an option. The oil sampling valve
(if equipped) is included in order to regularly sample
the engine lubricating oil. The oil sampling valve is
positioned on the oil filter head or the oil sampling
valve is positioned on the cylinder block.
Perkins recommends using a sampling valve in order
to obtain oil samples. The quality and the consistency
of the samples are better when a sampling valve is
used. The location of the sampling valve allows oil
that is flowing under pressure to be obtained during
normal engine operation.
Obtain the Sample and the Analysis
Hot oil and hot components can cause personal
injury. Do not allow hot oil or hot components to
contact the skin.
In order to help obtain the most accurate analysis,
record the following information before an oil sample
is taken:
• The date of the sample
• Engine model
• Engine number
• Service hours on the engine
• The number of hours that have accumulated since
the last oil change
• The amount of oil that has been added since the
last oil change
Ensure that the container for the sample is clean and
dry. Also ensure that the container for the sample is
clearly labelled.
To ensure that the sample is representative of the
oil in the crankcase, obtain a warm, well mixed oil
sample.
To avoid contamination of the oil samples, the tools
and the supplies that are used for obtaining oil
samples must be clean.
The sample can be checked for the following: the
quality of the oil, the existence of any coolant in the
oil, the existence of any ferrous metal particles in
the oil, and the existence of any nonferrous metal
particles in the oil.
i02867741
Engine Oil and Filter - Change
Hot oil and hot components can cause personal
injury. Do not allow hot oil or hot components to
contact the skin.
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained
during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to
collect the fluid with suitable containers before opening any compartment or disassembling any component containing fluids.
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
mandates.
NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.
Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened
component life.
Do not drain the engine lubricating oil when the
engine is cold. As the engine lubricating oil cools,
suspended waste particles settle on the bottom of
the oil pan. The waste particles are not removed with
draining cold oil. Drain the oil pan with the engine
stopped. Drain the oil pan with the oil warm. This
draining method allows the waste particles that are
suspended in the oil to be drained properly.
Failure to follow this recommended procedure will
cause the waste particles to be recirculated through
the engine lubrication system with the new oil.
SEBU8172-02
85
Maintenance Section
Engine Oil and Filter - Change
Drain the Engine Lubricating Oil
Note: Ensure that the vessel that will be used is large
enough to collect the waste oil.
After the engine has been run at the normal operating
temperature, stop the engine. Use one of the
following methods to drain the engine oil pan:
Replace the Oil Filter
NOTICE
Perkins oil filters are manufactured to Perkins specifications. Use of an oil filter that is not recommended
by Perkins could result in severe damage to the engine bearings, crankshaft, etc., as a result of the larger
waste particles from unfiltered oil entering the engine
lubricating system. Only use oil filters recommended
by Perkins.
1. Remove the oil filter with a suitable tool. A
horizontally installed oil filter can be drained
before removal.
Note: The following actions can be carried out as
part of the preventive maintenance program.
2. Cut the oil filter open with a suitable tool. Break
apart the pleats and inspect the oil filter for metal
debris. An excessive amount of metal debris in
the oil filter may indicate early wear or a pending
failure.
Use a magnet to differentiate between the ferrous
metals and the nonferrous metals that are found in
the oil filter element. Ferrous metals may indicate
wear on the steel and cast iron parts of the engine.
Nonferrous metals may indicate wear on the
aluminum parts, brass parts or bronze parts of the
engine. Parts that may be affected include the
following items: main bearings, rod bearings, and
turbocharger bearings.
Illustration 43
g01428532
Typical example
• If the engine is equipped with a drain valve, turn the
drain valve knob counterclockwise in order to drain
the oil. After the oil has drained, turn the drain valve
knob clockwise in order to close the drain valve.
• If the engine is not equipped with a drain valve,
remove the oil drain plug (1) in order to allow the oil
to drain. If the engine is equipped with a shallow oil
pan, remove the bottom oil drain plugs from both
ends of the oil pan.
After the oil has drained, the oil drain plugs should be
cleaned and installed. If necessary, replace the O
ring seal. Tighten the drain plug to 34 N·m (25 lb ft).
Due to normal wear and friction, it is not
uncommon to find small amounts of debris in the
oil filter.
86
Maintenance Section
Engine Oil and Filter - Change
SEBU8172-02
Horizontal Oil Filter
Illustration 44
g01187802
Typical example
3. Clean the sealing surface of the oil filter head (2).
Ensure that the union is secure in the filter head.
4. Apply clean engine oil to the O ring seal (3) for
the new oil filter.
NOTICE
Do not fill the oil filters with oil before installing them.
This oil would not be filtered and could be contaminated. Contaminated oil can cause accelerated wear to
engine components.
5. Install the oil filter. Tighten the oil filter to 12 N·m
(8.8 lb ft). Do not overtighten the oil filter.
Illustration 45
g01428535
Typical example
Note: Some oil filters may be installed horizontally.
Refer to illustration 45. This type of oil filter assembly
can be drained before the filter is removed. Start at
step 1 in order to remove the oil filter and install the
oil filter.
Fill the Oil Pan
1. Remove the oil filler cap. Refer to this
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Fluid
Recommendations” for more information on
suitable oils. Fill the oil pan with the correct
amount of new engine lubricating oil. Refer
to this Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Refill Capacities” for more information on refill
capacities.
NOTICE
If equipped with an auxilliary oil filter system or a remote filter system, follow the OEM or the filter manufacture's remonmendations. Under filling or over filling
the crankcase with oil can cause engine damage.
2. Start the engine and run the engine at “LOW
IDLE” for two minutes. Perform this procedure in
order to ensure that the lubrication system has
oil and that the oil filters are filled. Inspect the oil
filter for oil leaks.
SEBU8172-02
87
Maintenance Section
Engine Oil and Filter - Change
3. Stop the engine and allow the oil to drain back to
the oil pan for a minimum of ten minutes.
Ensure that the engine can not be started while
this maintenance is being performed. To help prevent possible injury, do not use the starting motor
to turn the flywheel.
Hot engine components can cause burns. Allow
additional time for the engine to cool before measuring/adjusting valve lash clearance.
Ensure that the engine is stopped before measuring
the valve lash. The engine valve lash can be
inspected and adjusted when the temperature of the
engine is hot or cold.
Illustration 46
g01165836
(Y) “Min” mark. (X) “Max” mark.
4. Remove the engine oil level gauge in order to
check the oil level. Maintain the oil level between
the “MIN” and “MAX” marks on the engine oil level
gauge.
Refer to Systems Operation/Testing and Adjusting,
“Engine Valve Lash - Inspect/Adjust” for more
information.
i02862580
Exhaust Manifold - Inspect
i02869394
Engine Oil and Filter - Change
(CG-4 Oil)
CG-4 engine oil may be used. If this grade of engine
oil is used a 250 hour service interval is required for
the engine oil and the engine oil filter.
i02503009
Engine Valve Lash Inspect/Adjust
This maintenance is recommended by Perkins as
part of a lubrication and preventive maintenance
schedule in order to help provide maximum engine
life.
NOTICE
Only qualified service personel should perform this
maintenance. Refer to the Service Manual or your authorized Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor for
the complete valve lash adjustment procedure.
Operation of Perkins engines with incorrect valve lash
can reduce engine efficiency, and also reduce engine
component life.
Illustration 47
g01425829
1. Inspect the exhaust manifold for damage. If
necessary, replace the exhaust manifold. Refer to
Disassembly and Assembly, “Exhaust Manifold
- Remove and Install”.
2. Check the torque on all the bolts (1). The bolts
must be tightened in the sequence that is shown
in illustration 48.
88
Maintenance Section
Fan Clearance - Check
Illustration 48
SEBU8172-02
g01363916
3. Tighten the bolts to the following torque 40 N·m
(29.5 lb ft).
i02683336
Fan Clearance - Check
There are different types of cooling systems. Refer to
the OEM for information on clearance for the fan.
Ensure that the engine is stopped. Ensure that the
cooling system is full. The clearance between the
cover (1) and the fan (2) will require checking. The
gap (A) between the edge of the cover and the tip of
the fan blade must be checked in four equally spaced
positions.
SEBU8172-02
89
Maintenance Section
Fuel System - Prime
g01348394
Illustration 49
Adjustment of the cover will change the clearance
(gap) between the edge of the cover and the tip of
the fan blade. Ensure that the cover is centralized to
the fan.
The maximum clearance is 12.5 mm (0.4921 inch).
The minimum clearance is 6 mm (0.2362 inch).
i02871014
Fuel System - Prime
Contact with high pressure fuel may cause fluid
penetration and burn hazards. High pressure fuel spray may cause a fire hazard. Failure to follow these inspection, maintenance and service instructions may cause personal injury or death.
Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual ,
“General Hazard Information and High Pressure Fuel
Lines” before adjustments and repairs are performed.
Note: Refer to Systems Operation, Testing
and Adjusting, “Cleanliness of Fuel System
Components” for detailed information on the
standards of cleanliness that must be observed
during ALL work on the fuel system.
Ensure that all adjustments and repairs are performed
by authorized personnel that have had the correct
training.
NOTICE
Do not crank the engine continuously for more than
30 seconds. Allow the starting motor to cool for two
minutes before cranking the engine again.
If air enters the fuel system, the air must be purged
from the fuel system before the engine can be
started. Air can enter the fuel system when the
following events occur:
90
Maintenance Section
Fuel System Primary Filter (Water Separator) Element - Replace
SEBU8172-02
• The fuel tank is empty or the fuel tank has been
Note: Operating the engine for this period of time will
help ensure that the fuel system is free of air.
• The low pressure fuel lines are disconnected.
Note: Do not loosen the high pressure fuel line
in order to purge air from the fuel system. This
procedure is not required.
partially drained.
• A leak exists in the low pressure fuel system.
• The fuel filter has been replaced.
Hand Fuel Priming Pump
Use the following procedures in order to remove air
from the fuel system:
1. Ensure that the fuel system is in working order.
Check that the fuel supply valve (if equipped) is in
the “ON” position.
Contact with high pressure fuel may cause fluid
penetration and burn hazards. High pressure fuel spray may cause a fire hazard. Failure to follow these inspection, maintenance and service instructions may cause personal injury or death.
After the engine has stopped, you must wait for
60 seconds in order to allow the fuel pressure to
be purged from the high pressure fuel lines before
any service or repair is performed on the engine
fuel lines. If necessary, perform minor adjustments.
Repair any leaks from the low pressure fuel system
and from the cooling, lubrication or air systems.
Replace any high pressure fuel line that has leaked.
Refer to Disassembly and Assembly Manual, “Fuel
Injection Lines - Install”.
If you inspect the engine in operation, always use
the proper inspection procedure in order to avoid
a fluid penetration hazard. Refer to Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “General hazard Information”.
i02869425
Fuel System Primary Filter
(Water Separator) Element Replace
Type One Filter
Illustration 50
g01476592
Typical example
2. Operate the fuel priming pump (1). Count the
number of operations of the fuel priming pump.
After 100 depressions of the fuel priming pump
stop.
3. The engine fuel system should now be primed and
the engine should now be able to start.
4. Operate the engine starter and crank the engine.
After the engine has started, operate the engine at
low idle for a minimum of five minutes, immediately
after air has been removed from the fuel system.
Fuel leaked or spilled onto hot surfaces or electrical components can cause a fire. To help prevent possible injury, turn the start switch off when
changing fuel filters or water separator elements.
Clean up fuel spills immediately.
Note: Refer to Testing and Adjusting Manual
, “Cleanliness of Fuel System Components”
for detailed information on the standards of
cleanliness that must be observed during ALL
work on the fuel system.
SEBU8172-02
91
Maintenance Section
Fuel System Primary Filter (Water Separator) Element - Replace
NOTICE
Ensure that the engine is stopped before any servicing
or repair is performed.
7. Use a suitable tool in order to remove canister (4).
Discard the old seals (5 and 6) and the canister in
a safe place.
8. Clean glass bowl (3).
After the engine has stopped, you must wait for
60 seconds in order to allow the fuel pressure to
be purged from the high pressure fuel lines before
any service or repair is performed on the engine
fuel lines. If necessary, perform minor adjustments.
Repair any leaks from the low pressure fuel system
and from the cooling, lubrication or air systems.
Replace any high pressure fuel line that has leaked.
Refer to Disassembly and assembly Manual, “Fuel
Injection Lines - Install”.
1. Turn the fuel supply valve (if equipped) to the OFF
position before performing this maintenance.
2. Place a suitable container under the water
separator in order to catch any fuel that might
spill. Clean up any spilled fuel. Clean the outside
of the water separator.
Illustration 52
g01259366
Typical example
9. Install the new canister. Do not use a tool in order
to install the canister. Tighten the canister by hand.
10. Install new O ring seal (5) onto setscrew (2).
Install new O ring seal (6) into the glass bowl.
11. Align the glass bowl to the canister. Ensure that
the sensor (if equipped) is in the correct position.
Install setscrew (2). Tighten the setscrew to a
torque of 5 N·m (44 lb in).
12. If equipped, install the wiring harness to the
sensor.
Illustration 51
g01259363
Typical example
3. Install a suitable tube onto drain (1). Open the
drain (1). Allow the fluid to drain into the container.
Remove the tube.
4. Tighten drain (1) by hand pressure only.
5. If equipped, remove the wiring harness from the
sensor on the bottom of the glass bowl.
6. Hold glass bowl (3) and remove screw (2).
Remove glass bowl (3) from canister (4).
13. Remove the container and dispose of the fuel in
a safe place.
14. The secondary filter must be replaced at the same
time as the primary filter. Refer to the Operation
and Maintenance Manual , “Fuel System Filter Replace”.
Type Two Filter
Note: Refer to Testing and Adjusting Manual
, “Cleanliness of Fuel System Components”
for detailed information on the standards of
cleanliness that must be observed during ALL
work on the fuel system.
92
Maintenance Section
Fuel System Primary Filter (Water Separator) Element - Replace
SEBU8172-02
After the engine has stopped, you must wait for
60 seconds in order to allow the fuel pressure to
be purged from the high pressure fuel lines before
any service or repair is performed on the engine
fuel lines. If necessary, perform minor adjustments.
Repair any leaks from the low pressure fuel system
and from the cooling, lubrication or air systems.
Replace any high pressure fuel line that has leaked.
Refer to Disassembly and assembly Manual, “Fuel
Injection Lines - Install”.
NOTICE
Ensure that the engine is stopped before any servicing
or repair is performed.
1. Turn the fuel supply valve (if equipped) to the OFF
position before performing this maintenance.
2. Place a suitable container under the water
separator in order to catch any fuel that might
spill. Clean up any spilled fuel. Clean the outside
of the water separator.
Illustration 54
g01429125
6. Rotate bowl (3) counterclockwise in order to
remove the bowl. Remove O ring seal (2). Clean
the bowl.
Illustration 53
g01429124
3. Install a suitable tube onto drain (1). Open drain
(1). Allow the fluid to drain into the container.
Remove the tube.
4. Tighten drain (1) by hand pressure only.
5. If equipped, remove the wiring harness from the
sensor on the bottom of the bowl .
Illustration 55
g01429126
SEBU8172-02
93
Maintenance Section
Fuel System Primary Filter/Water Separator - Drain
7. Use a suitable tool in order to remove old canister
(4).
i02869410
Fuel System Primary
Filter/Water Separator - Drain
Fuel leaked or spilled onto hot surfaces or electrical components can cause a fire. To help prevent possible injury, turn the start switch off when
changing fuel filters or water separator elements.
Clean up fuel spills immediately.
NOTICE
Ensure that the engine is stopped before any servicing
or repair is performed.
Illustration 56
g01429127
8. Lubricate O ring seal (5 ) with clean engine oil on
the new canister. Install new canister (6). Spin
on the canister until the O ring seal contacts the
sealing surface. Then rotate the canister 360
degree in order to tighten the canister correctly.
9. Remove cap (8) from the threaded end of the new
canister and remove new O ring seal (7). Install
the new O ring seal into bowl (3).
10. Lubricate O ring seal (7) with clean engine oil.
Install the bowl onto the new canister. Tighten the
bowl to 15 N·m (11 lb ft).
11. If equipped, install the wiring harness to the
sensor. Open the fuel supply valve.
12. Remove the container and dispose of the fluid in
a safe place.
13. The secondary filter must be replaced at the same
time as the primary filter. Refer to the Operation
and Maintenance Manual , “Fuel System Filter Replace”.
After the engine has stopped, you must wait for
60 seconds in order to allow the fuel pressure to
be purged from the high pressure fuel lines before
any service or repair is performed on the engine
fuel lines. If necessary, perform minor adjustments.
Repair any leaks from the low pressure fuel system
and from the cooling, lubrication or air systems.
Replace any high pressure fuel line that has leaked.
Refer to Disassembly and Assembly Manual, “Fuel
Injection Lines - Install”.
NOTICE
The water separator can be under suction during normal engine operation. Ensure that the drain valve is
tightened securely to help prevent air from entering
the fuel system.
1. Place a suitable container under the water
separator in order to catch any fuel that might spill.
Clean up any spilled fuel.
94
Maintenance Section
Fuel System Secondary Filter - Replace
SEBU8172-02
1. Install a suitable tube onto drain (1). Loosen vent
screw (2).
2. Open drain (1). Allow the fluid to drain into the
container.
3. Tighten drain (1) by hand pressure only. Remove
the tube and dispose of the drained fluid in a safe
place.
4. Tighten vent screw to 6 N·m (53 lb in).
i02869989
Fuel System Secondary Filter Replace
Illustration 57
g01476633
Type One
Typical example
2. Install a suitable tube onto the drain (1). Open the
drain (1). Allow the fluid to drain into the container.
3. Tighten the drain (1) by hand pressure only.
Remove the tube and dispose of the drained fluid
in a safe place.
Primary Filter with a Vent Screw
Fuel leaked or spilled onto hot surfaces or electrical components can cause a fire. To help prevent possible injury, turn the start switch off when
changing fuel filters or water separator elements.
Clean up fuel spills immediately.
Note: Refer to Testing and Adjusting Manual
, “Cleanliness of Fuel System Components”
for detailed information on the standards of
cleanliness that must be observed during ALL
work on the fuel system.
NOTICE
Ensure that the engine is stopped before any servicing
or repair is performed.
This fuel filter can be identified by the six drain holes
in the filter. Refer to illustration 59.
Illustration 58
g01371846
Typical example
Note: Not all primary filters require vent screw (2).
This primary fuel filter that has a vent screw may be
installed on a fuel system that has a low fuel tank.
SEBU8172-02
Illustration 59
95
Maintenance Section
Fuel System Secondary Filter - Replace
g01429525
Illustration 60
g01429517
Typical example
Typical example
After the engine has stopped, you must wait for
60 seconds in order to allow the fuel pressure to
be purged from the high pressure fuel lines before
any service or repair is performed on the engine
fuel lines. If necessary, perform minor adjustments.
Repair any leaks from the low pressure fuel system
and from the cooling, lubrication or air systems.
Replace any high pressure fuel line that has leaked.
Refer to Disassembly and Assembly Manual, “Fuel
Injection Lines - Install”.
2. Clean the outside of the fuel filter. Use a suitable
tool in order to remove the canister (2) from the
engine and dispose of the canister in a safe place.
1. Ensure that the fuel supply valve (if equipped) is in
the OFF position. Place a suitable container under
the fuel filter in order to catch any fuel that might
spill. Clean up any spilled fuel.
3. Ensure that dirt can not enter the new canister. Do
not fill the canister with fuel before the canister is
installed. Lubricate the O ring seal (1) with clean
engine oil on the new canister.
4. Install the new canister. Do not use a tool in order
to install the canister. Tighten the canister by hand.
5. Spin on the canister until the O ring seal contacts
the sealing surface. The canister will require a ¾ of
a full turn in order to tighten the canister correctly.
6. Prime the fuel system. Refer to the Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Fuel System - Prime” for
more information.
Type Two
Fuel leaked or spilled onto hot surfaces or electrical components can cause a fire. To help prevent possible injury, turn the start switch off when
changing fuel filters or water separator elements.
Clean up fuel spills immediately.
Note: Refer to Testing and Adjusting Manual
, “Cleanliness of Fuel System Components”
for detailed information on the standards of
cleanliness that must be observed during ALL
work on the fuel system.
96
Maintenance Section
Fuel System Secondary Filter - Replace
SEBU8172-02
NOTICE
Ensure that the engine is stopped before any servicing
or repair is performed.
Illustration 62
g01429516
Typical example
Illustration 61
g01429532
This fuel filter can be identified by the 12 drain holes
in the filter. Refer to illustration 61.
After the engine has stopped, you must wait for
60 seconds in order to allow the fuel pressure to
be purged from the high pressure fuel lines before
any service or repair is performed on the engine
fuel lines. If necessary, perform minor adjustments.
Repair any leaks from the low pressure fuel system
and from the cooling, lubrication or air systems.
Replace any high pressure fuel line that has leaked.
Refer to Disassembly and Assembly Manual, “Fuel
Injection Lines - Install”.
1. Ensure that the fuel supply valve (if equipped) is in
the OFF position. Place a suitable container under
the fuel filter in order to catch any fuel that might
spill. Clean up any spilled fuel.
2. Clean the outside of the fuel filter. Use a suitable
tool in order to remove the canister (2) from the
engine and dispose of the canister in a safe place.
3. Ensure that dirt can not enter the new canister. Do
not fill the canister with fuel before the canister is
installed. Lubricate the O ring seal (1) with clean
engine oil on the new canister.
4. Install the new canister. Do not use a tool in order
to install the canister. Tighten the canister by hand.
5. Spin on the canister until the O ring seal contacts
the sealing surface. Then rotate the canister 360
degree in order to tighten the canister correctly.
6. Remove the container and dispose of the fuel in a
safe place. If equipped, open the fuel supply valve.
7. Prime the fuel system. Refer to the Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Fuel System - Prime” for
more information.
SEBU8172-02
97
Maintenance Section
Fuel Tank Water and Sediment - Drain
i02335436
Fuel Tank Water and Sediment
- Drain
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained
during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting, and repair of the product. Be prepared
to collect the fluid with suitable containers before
opening any compartment or disassembling any component containing fluids.
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
mandates.
Fuel Tank
Fuel quality is critical to the performance and to the
service life of the engine. Water in the fuel can cause
excessive wear to the fuel system.
Water can be introduced into the fuel tank when the
fuel tank is being filled.
Condensation occurs during the heating and cooling
of fuel. The condensation occurs as the fuel passes
through the fuel system and the fuel returns to the
fuel tank. This causes water to accumulate in fuel
tanks. Draining the fuel tank regularly and obtaining
fuel from reliable sources can help to eliminate water
in the fuel.
Some fuel tanks use supply pipes that allow water
and sediment to settle below the end of the fuel
supply pipe. Some fuel tanks use supply lines that
take fuel directly from the bottom of the tank. If
the engine is equipped with this system, regular
maintenance of the fuel system filter is important.
Fuel Storage Tanks
Drain the water and the sediment from the fuel
storage tank at the following intervals:
• Weekly
• Service intervals
• Refill of the tank
This will help prevent water or sediment from being
pumped from the storage tank into the engine fuel
tank.
If a bulk storage tank has been refilled or moved
recently, allow adequate time for the sediment to
settle before filling the engine fuel tank. Internal
baffles in the bulk storage tank will also help trap
sediment. Filtering fuel that is pumped from the
storage tank helps to ensure the quality of the fuel.
When possible, water separators should be used.
i02349879
Hoses and Clamps Inspect/Replace
Drain the Water and the Sediment
Fuel tanks should contain some provision for draining
water and draining sediment from the bottom of the
fuel tanks.
Open the drain valve on the bottom of the fuel tank
in order to drain the water and the sediment. Close
the drain valve.
Check the fuel daily. Allow five minutes after the
fuel tank has been filled before draining water and
sediment from the fuel tank.
Fill the fuel tank after operating the engine in
order to drive out moist air. This will help prevent
condensation. Do not fill the tank to the top. The
fuel expands as the fuel gets warm. The tank may
overflow.
Contact with high pressure fuel may cause fluid
penetration and burn hazards. High pressure fuel spray may cause a fire hazard. Failure to follow these inspection, maintenance and service instructions may cause personal injury or death.
If you inspect the engine in operation, always use
the proper inspection procedure in order to avoid
a fluid penetration hazard. Refer to Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “General hazard Information”.
Inspect all hoses for leaks that are caused by the
following conditions:
• Cracking
• Softness
• Loose clamps
98
Maintenance Section
Radiator - Clean
Replace hoses that are cracked or soft. Tighten any
loose clamps.
Check for the following conditions:
• End fittings that are damaged or leaking
• Outer covering that is chafed or cut
• Exposed wire that is used for reinforcement
• Outer covering that is ballooning locally
• Flexible part of the hose that is kinked or crushed
• Armoring that is embedded in the outer covering
A constant torque hose clamp can be used in place
of any standard hose clamp. Ensure that the constant
torque hose clamp is the same size as the standard
clamp.
Due to extreme temperature changes, the hose will
harden. Hardening of the hoses will cause hose
clamps to loosen. This can result in leaks. A constant
torque hose clamp will help to prevent loose hose
clamps.
Each installation application can be different. The
differences depend on the following factors:
• Type of hose
• Type of fitting material
SEBU8172-02
1. Stop the engine. Allow the engine to cool.
2. Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in
order to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap.
Note: Drain the coolant into a suitable, clean
container. The coolant can be reused.
3. Drain the coolant from the cooling system to a
level that is below the hose that is being replaced.
4. Remove the hose clamps.
5. Disconnect the old hose.
6. Replace the old hose with a new hose.
7. Install the hose clamps with a torque wrench.
Note: For the correct coolant, see this Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Fluid Recommendations”.
8. Refill the cooling system. Refer to the OEM
information for further information on refilling the
cooling system.
9. Clean the cooling system filler cap. Inspect the
cooling system filler cap's seals. Replace the
cooling system filler cap if the seals are damaged.
Install the cooling system filler cap.
10. Start the engine. Inspect the cooling system for
leaks.
• Anticipated expansion and contraction of the hose
• Anticipated expansion and contraction of the
fittings
Replace the Hoses and the Clamps
Refer to the OEM information for further information
on removing and replacing fuel hoses (if equipped).
The coolant system and the hoses for the coolant
system are not usually supplied by Perkins. The
following text describes a typical method of replacing
coolant hoses. Refer to the OEM information for
further information on the coolant system and the
hoses for the coolant system.
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pressure.
i02335774
Radiator - Clean
The radiator is not usually supplied by Perkins. The
following text describes a typical cleaning procedure
for the radiator. Refer to the OEM information for
further information on cleaning the radiator.
Note: Adjust the frequency of cleaning according to
the effects of the operating environment.
Inspect the radiator for these items: Damaged fins,
corrosion, dirt, grease, insects, leaves, oil, and other
debris. Clean the radiator, if necessary.
SEBU8172-02
99
Maintenance Section
Severe Service Application - Check
• Performance such as power range, speed range,
and fuel consumption
Personal injury can result from air pressure.
• Fuel quality
Personal injury can result without following proper procedure. When using pressure air, wear a protective face shield and protective clothing.
• Operational Altitude
Maximum air pressure at the nozzle must be less
than 205 kPa (30 psi) for cleaning purposes.
• Oil selection and maintenance
Pressurized air is the preferred method for removing
loose debris. Direct the air in the opposite direction
to the fan's air flow. Hold the nozzle approximately
6 mm (0.25 inch) away from the radiator fins. Slowly
move the air nozzle in a direction that is parallel with
the radiator tube assembly. This will remove debris
that is between the tubes.
Pressurized water may also be used for cleaning.
The maximum water pressure for cleaning purposes
must be less than 275 kPa (40 psi). Use pressurized
water in order to soften mud. Clean the core from
both sides.
Use a degreaser and steam for removal of oil and
grease. Clean both sides of the core. Wash the core
with detergent and hot water. Thoroughly rinse the
core with clean water.
If the radiator is blocked internally, refer to the OEM
Manual for information regarding flushing the cooling
system.
After cleaning the radiator, start the engine. Allow
the engine to operate at low idle speed for three to
five minutes. Accelerate the engine to high idle. This
will help in the removal of debris and the drying of
the core. Slowly reduce the engine speed to low idle
and then stop the engine. Use a light bulb behind
the core in order to inspect the core for cleanliness.
Repeat the cleaning, if necessary.
Inspect the fins for damage. Bent fins may be opened
with a “comb”. Inspect these items for good condition:
Welds, mounting brackets, air lines, connections,
clamps, and seals. Make repairs, if necessary.
i02335775
Severe Service Application Check
Severe service is the application of an engine that
exceeds the current published standards for that
engine. Perkins maintains standards for the following
engine parameters:
• Maintenance intervals
• Coolant type and maintenance
• Environmental qualities
• Installation
• The temperature of the fluid in the engine
Refer to the standards for the engine or consult your
Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor in order to
determine if the engine is operating within the defined
parameters.
Severe service operation can accelerate component
wear. Engines that operate under severe conditions
may need more frequent maintenance intervals in
order to ensure maximum reliability and retention of
full service life.
Due to individual applications, it is not possible
to identify all of the factors which can contribute
to severe service operation. Consult your Perkins
dealer or your Perkins distributor for the unique
maintenance that is necessary for the engine.
The operating environment, incorrect operating
procedures and incorrect maintenance procedures
can be factors which contribute to a severe service
application.
Environmental Factors
Ambient temperatures – The engine may be
exposed to extended operation in extremely
cold environments or hot environments. Valve
components can be damaged by carbon buildup if
the engine is frequently started and stopped in very
cold temperatures. Extremely hot intake air reduces
engine performance.
Quality of the air – The engine may be exposed
to extended operation in an environment that is
dirty or dusty, unless the equipment is cleaned
regularly. Mud, dirt and dust can encase components.
Maintenance can be very difficult. The buildup can
contain corrosive chemicals.
Buildup – Compounds, elements, corrosive
chemicals and salt can damage some components.
100
Maintenance Section
Starting Motor - Inspect
SEBU8172-02
Altitude – Problems can arise when the engine is
operated at altitudes that are higher than the intended
settings for that application. Necessary adjustments
should be made.
Incorrect Operating Procedures
NOTICE
Turbocharger bearing failures can cause large quantities of oil to enter the air intake and exhaust systems.
Loss of engine lubricant can result in serious engine
damage.
Minor leakage of oil into a turbocharger under extended low idle operation should not cause problems as
long as a turbocharger bearing failure has not occured.
• Extended operation at low idle
• Frequent hot shutdowns
• Operating at excessive loads
When a turbocharger bearing failure is accompanied
by a significant engine performance loss (exhaust
smoke or engine rpm up at no load), do not continue
engine operation until the turbocharger is renewed.
• Operating at excessive speeds
• Operating outside the intended application
Incorrect Maintenance Procedures
• Extending the maintenance intervals
• Failure to use recommended fuel, lubricants and
coolant/antifreeze
i02177969
Starting Motor - Inspect
Perkins recommends a scheduled inspection of the
starting motor. If the starting motor fails, the engine
may not start in an emergency situation.
Check the starting motor for correct operation. Check
the electrical connections and clean the electrical
connections. Refer to the Systems Operation, Testing
and Adjusting Manual, “Electric Starting System Test” for more information on the checking procedure
and for specifications or consult your Perkins dealer
or your Perkins distributor for assistance.
i04149590
Turbocharger - Inspect
A regular visual inspection of the turbocharger is
recommended. If the turbocharger fails during engine
operation, damage to the turbocharger compressor
wheel and/or to the engine may occur. Damage to the
turbocharger compressor wheel can cause additional
damage to the pistons, the valves, and the cylinder
head.
A visual inspection of the turbocharger can minimize
unscheduled downtime. A visual inspection of the
turbocharger can also reduce the chance for potential
damage to other engine parts.
Removal and Installation
For options regarding the removal, installation,
and replacement, consult your Perkins dealer or
your Perkins distributor. Refer to the Disassembly
and Assembly, “Turbocharger - Remove and
Turbocharger - Install” and Systems Operation,
Testing and Adjusting, “Turbocharger - Inspect” for
further information.
Inspecting
NOTICE
The compressor housing for the turbocharger must
not be removed from the turbocharger for inspection
or removed for the cleaning of the compressor.
1. Remove the pipe from the turbocharger exhaust
outlet and remove the air intake pipe to the
turbocharger. Visually inspect the piping for the
presence of oil. Clean the interior of the pipes
in order to prevent dirt from entering during
reassembly.
2. Check for obvious heat discoloration of the
turbocharger. Check for any loose bolts or any
missing bolts. Check for damage to the oil supply
line and the oil drain line. Check for cracks in
the housing of the turbocharger. Ensure that the
compressor wheel can rotate freely.
3. Check for the presence of oil. If oil is leaking from
the back side of the compressor wheel, there is a
possibility of a failed turbocharger oil seal.
SEBU8172-02
101
Maintenance Section
V-Belts - Inspect/Adjust/Replace
The presence of oil may be the result of extended
engine operation at low idle. The presence of oil
may also be the result of a restriction of the line
for the intake air (clogged air filters), which causes
the turbocharger to slobber.
4. Inspect the bore of the housing of the turbine
outlet for corrosion.
If the belts are too loose, vibration causes
unnecessary wear on the belts and pulleys. Loose
belts may slip enough to cause overheating.
To accurately check the belt tension, a suitable gauge
should be used.
5. Fasten the air intake pipe and the exhaust outlet
pipe to the turbocharger housing. Ensure that all
clamps are installed correctly and that all clamps
are tightened securely.
i02866087
V-Belts - Inspect/Adjust/
Replace
Illustration 64
Inspection
g01003936
Typical example
(1) Belt tension gauge
Fit the gauge (1) at the center of the longest free
length and check the tension. The correct tension for
a used belt is 355 N (79.8 lb). If the tension of the
belt is below 250 N (56 lb) adjust the belt to 355 N
(79.8 lb).
Note: The correct tension for a new belt or new belts
is 535 N (120 lb). A higher tension is required in
order to compensate for the stretch that is in a new
belt. Only use the higher tension on a belt that has
not been used. A used belt is a belt that has been in
operation for 30 minutes or a longer period of time.
If twin belts are installed, check and adjust the
tension on both belts.
Illustration 63
g01249073
Arrangement for the V-belts
To maximize the engine performance, inspect the
belts for wear and for cracking. Replace belts that are
worn or damaged.
For applications that require multiple drive belts,
replace the belts in matched sets. Replacing only
one belt of a matched set will cause the new belt to
carry more load because the older belt is stretched.
The additional load on the new belt could cause the
new belt to break.
102
Maintenance Section
Walk-Around Inspection
SEBU8172-02
Adjustment
i03577563
Walk-Around Inspection
Inspect the Tube of the Crankcase
Breather
Illustration 65
g01427780
Typical example
1. Loosen nut (2) and the bolt (3).
2. Move the alternator in order to increase or
decrease the belt tension. Tighten the nut (2) and
the bolt (3) to 22 N·m (16 lb ft).(1).
Replace
Refer to Disassembly and Assembly manual, “VBelts - Remove and Install” for more information.
Illustration 66
g01905095
Inspect the breather tube (1) for damage. Ensure that
the outlet (2) is clean and free from any obstructions.
Ice can cause obstructions in adverse weather
conditions.
Inspect the Engine for Leaks and
for Loose Connections
A walk-around inspection should only take a few
minutes. When the time is taken to perform these
checks, costly repairs and accidents can be avoided.
For maximum engine service life, make a thorough
inspection of the engine compartment before starting
the engine. Look for items such as oil leaks or coolant
leaks, loose bolts, worn belts, loose connections and
trash buildup. Make repairs, as needed:
• The guards must be in the correct place. Repair
damaged guards or replace missing guards.
• Wipe all caps and plugs before the engine is
serviced in order to reduce the chance of system
contamination.
SEBU8172-02
103
Maintenance Section
Walk-Around Inspection
High Pressure Fuel Lines
NOTICE
For any type of leak (coolant, lube, or fuel) clean up the
fluid. If leaking is observed, find the source and correct
the leak. If leaking is suspected, check the fluid levels
more often than recommended until the leak is found
or fixed, or until the suspicion of a leak is proved to be
unwarranted.
NOTICE
Accumulated grease and/or oil on an engine is a fire
hazard. Remove the accumulated grease and oil. Refer to this Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Engine - Clean” for more information.
• Ensure that the cooling system hoses are correctly
clamped and that the cooling system hoses are
tight. Check for leaks. Check the condition of all
pipes.
• Inspect the water pump for coolant leaks.
Note: The water pump seal is lubricated by the
coolant in the cooling system. It is normal for a small
amount of leakage to occur as the engine cools down
and the parts contract.
Excessive coolant leakage may indicate the need to
replace the water pump. Remove the water pump.
Refer to Disassembly and Assembly , “Water Pump Remove and Install”. For more information, consult
your Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor.
• Inspect the lubrication system for leaks at the front
crankshaft seal, the rear crankshaft seal, the oil
pan, the oil filters and the rocker cover.
• Inspect the piping for the air intake system and the
elbows for cracks and for loose clamps. Ensure
that hoses and tubes are not contacting other
hoses, tubes, wiring harnesses, etc.
• Ensure that the areas around the rotating parts are
clear.
• Inspect the alternator belts and any accessory
drive belts for cracks, breaks or other damage.
• Inspect the wiring harness for damage.
Belts for multiple groove pulleys must be replaced as
matched sets. If only one belt is replaced, the belt will
carry more load than the belts that are not replaced.
The older belts are stretched. The additional load on
the new belt could cause the belt to break.
Contact with high pressure fuel may cause fluid
penetration and burn hazards. High pressure fuel spray may cause a fire hazard. Failure to follow these inspection, maintenance and service instructions may cause personal injury or death.
After the engine has stopped, you must wait for
10 minutes in order to allow the fuel pressure to
be purged from the high pressure fuel lines before
any service or repair is performed on the engine
fuel lines. If necessary, perform minor adjustments.
Repair any leaks from the low pressure fuel system
and from the cooling, lubrication or air systems.
Replace any high pressure fuel line that has leaked.
Refer to Disassembly and assembly Manual, “Fuel
Injection Lines - Install”.
If you inspect the engine in operation, always use
the proper inspection procedure in order to avoid
a fluid penetration hazard. Refer to Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “General hazard Information”.
Visually inspect the high pressure fuel lines for
damage or signs of fuel leakage. Replace any
damaged high pressure fuel lines or high pressure
fuel lines that have leaked.
Ensure that all clips on the high pressure fuel lines
are in place and that the clips are not loose.
• Inspect the rest of the fuel system for leaks. Look
for loose fuel line clamps.
• Drain the water and the sediment from the fuel
tank on a daily basis in order to ensure that only
clean fuel enters the fuel system.
• Inspect the wiring and the wiring harnesses for
loose connections and for worn wires or frayed
wires. Check for any loose tie-wraps or missing
tie-wraps.
• Inspect the ground strap for a good connection and
for good condition.
• Disconnect any battery chargers that are not
protected against the current drain of the starting
motor. Check the condition and the electrolyte level
of the batteries, unless the engine is equipped with
a maintenance free battery.
• Check the condition of the gauges. Replace any
gauges that are cracked. Replace any gauge that
can not be calibrated.
104
Maintenance Section
Water Pump - Inspect
SEBU8172-02
i02499304
Water Pump - Inspect
A failed water pump may cause severe engine
overheating problems that could result in the following
conditions:
• Cracks in the cylinder head
• A piston seizure
• Other potential damage to the engine
Illustration 67
g01249453
(1) Weep hole
Note: The water pump seal is lubricated by the
coolant in the cooling system. It is normal for a small
amount of leakage to occur as the engine cools down
and parts contract.
Visually inspect the water pump for leaks. The water
pump is not a serviceable item. In order to install
a new water pump, refer to the Disassembly and
Assembly Manual, “Water Pump - Remove and
Install”.
SEBU8172-02
105
Warranty Section
Warranty Information
Warranty Section
Warranty Information
i01903596
Emissions Warranty
Information
This engine may be certified to comply with exhaust
emission standards and gaseous emission standards
that are prescribed by the law at the time of
manufacture, and this engine may be covered by an
Emissions Warranty. Consult your authorized Perkins
dealer or your authorized Perkins distributor in order
to determine if your engine is emissions certified and
if your engine is subject to an Emissions Warranty.
106
Index Section
SEBU8172-02
Index
D
A
After Starting Engine .............................................
After Stopping Engine............................................
Aftercooler Core - Clean/Test ................................
Aftercooler Core - Inspect......................................
Alternator - Inspect ................................................
Alternator Belt - Inspect/Adjust/Replace (Poly
V-Belt)..................................................................
Adjustment .........................................................
Inspection...........................................................
Replace..............................................................
42
44
70
70
71
Diagnostic Flash Code Retrieval ...........................
“Diagnostic” Lamp..............................................
Diagnostic Lamp....................................................
Driven Equipment - Check.....................................
71
71
71
71
E
B
Battery - Replace................................................... 71
Battery Electrolyte Level - Check .......................... 72
Battery or Battery Cable - Disconnect ................... 72
Before Starting Engine .................................... 15, 40
Belt Tensioner - Inspect ......................................... 73
Burn Prevention..................................................... 10
Batteries............................................................. 10
Coolant............................................................... 10
Oils..................................................................... 10
C
Cold Weather Operation........................................ 46
Hints for Cold Weather Operation...................... 46
Idling the Engine ................................................ 47
Recommendations for Coolant Warm Up .......... 47
Recommendations for the Coolant .................... 46
Viscosity of the Engine Lubrication Oil............... 46
Cold Weather Starting ........................................... 40
Cooling System Coolant (Commercial Heavy-Duty) Change ................................................................ 73
Drain .................................................................. 73
Fill ...................................................................... 74
Flush .................................................................. 74
Cooling System Coolant (ELC) - Change.............. 75
Drain .................................................................. 75
Fill ...................................................................... 76
Flush .................................................................. 76
Cooling System Coolant Level - Check ................. 77
Engines With a Coolant Recovery Tank............. 77
Engines Without a Coolant Recovery Tank........ 77
Cooling System Supplemental Coolant Additive
(SCA) - Test/Add.................................................. 78
Add the SCA, If Necessary ................................ 78
Test for SCA Concentration ............................... 78
Crankcase Breather (Canister) - Replace ............. 79
Crushing Prevention and Cutting Prevention ........ 13
36
36
36
79
Electrical System ................................................... 16
Grounding Practices .......................................... 16
Emergency Stopping ............................................. 44
Emissions Certification Film .................................. 24
Emissions Warranty Information.......................... 105
Engine - Clean....................................................... 79
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Dual Element) Clean/Replace ..................................................... 80
Cleaning the Primary Air Cleaner Elements ...... 81
Servicing the Air Cleaner Elements ................... 80
Engine Air Cleaner Service Indicator - Inspect...... 82
Test the Service Indicator................................... 82
Engine Air Precleaner - Check/Clean.................... 83
Engine Description ................................................ 20
Electronic Engine Features................................ 21
Engine Cooling and Lubrication ......................... 21
Engine Diagnostics ............................................ 21
Engine Specifications......................................... 20
Engine Diagnostics................................................ 36
Engine Electronics................................................. 17
Engine Lifting......................................................... 25
Engine Mounts - Inspect........................................ 83
Engine Oil and Filter - Change .............................. 84
Drain the Engine Lubricating Oil ........................ 85
Fill the Oil Pan.................................................... 86
Horizontal Oil Filter ............................................ 86
Replace the Oil Filter ......................................... 85
Engine Oil and Filter - Change (CG-4 Oil)............. 87
Engine Oil Level - Check ....................................... 83
Engine Oil Sample - Obtain ................................... 84
Obtain the Sample and the Analysis.................. 84
Engine Operation................................................... 43
Engine Operation with Active Diagnostic Codes ... 39
Engine Operation with Intermittent Diagnostic
Codes .................................................................. 39
Engine Shutoffs and Engine Alarms...................... 34
Alarms................................................................ 34
Shutoffs.............................................................. 34
Testing................................................................ 35
Engine Starting ................................................ 15, 40
Engine Stopping .............................................. 16, 44
Engine Storage...................................................... 25
Engine Valve Lash - Inspect/Adjust ....................... 87
Exhaust Manifold - Inspect .................................... 87
SEBU8172-02
107
Index Section
F
H
Fan Clearance - Check.......................................... 88
Fault Logging......................................................... 38
Features and Controls ........................................... 29
Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention ............. 11
Fire Extinguisher ................................................ 12
Lines, Tubes, and Hoses ................................... 12
Fluid Recommendations........................................ 51
Engine Oil .......................................................... 51
General Lubricant Information ........................... 51
Fluid Recommendations (Coolant Specifications).. 61
ELC Cooling System Maintenance .................... 64
General Coolant Information.............................. 61
Fluid Recommendations (Fuel Specification) ........ 55
Diesel Fuel Characteristics ................................ 57
Diesel Fuel Requirements.................................. 55
General Information ........................................... 55
Foreword ................................................................. 5
California Proposition 65 Warning ....................... 5
Literature Information........................................... 4
Maintenance ........................................................ 4
Maintenance Intervals.......................................... 4
Operation ............................................................. 4
Overhaul .............................................................. 4
Safety................................................................... 4
Fuel and the Effect from Cold Weather ................. 48
Fuel Conservation Practices.................................. 43
Fuel Related Components in Cold Weather .......... 49
Fuel Filters ......................................................... 49
Fuel Heaters ...................................................... 49
Fuel Tanks.......................................................... 49
Fuel System - Prime .............................................. 89
Hand Fuel Priming Pump................................... 90
Fuel System Primary Filter (Water Separator)
Element - Replace ............................................... 90
Type One Filter .................................................. 90
Type Two Filter................................................... 91
Fuel System Primary Filter/Water Separator Drain .................................................................... 93
Primary Filter with a Vent Screw ........................ 94
Fuel System Secondary Filter - Replace ............... 94
Type One ........................................................... 94
Type Two ........................................................... 95
Fuel Tank Water and Sediment - Drain ................. 97
Drain the Water and the Sediment..................... 97
Fuel Storage Tanks ............................................ 97
Fuel Tank ........................................................... 97
High Pressure Fuel Lines ...................................... 13
Hoses and Clamps - Inspect/Replace ................... 97
Replace the Hoses and the Clamps .................. 98
G
Gauges and Indicators .......................................... 27
General Hazard Information .................................... 9
Containing Fluid Spillage ................................... 10
Fluid Penetration.................................................. 9
Pressure Air and Water........................................ 9
I
Important Safety Information ................................... 2
L
Lifting and Storage ................................................ 25
M
Maintenance Interval Schedule ............................. 69
Maintenance Recommendations ........................... 67
Maintenance Section ............................................. 50
Model View Illustrations......................................... 18
Model Views .......................................................... 18
Monitoring System........................................... 29–30
Programmable Options and Systems
Operation ......................................................... 29
Mounting and Dismounting.................................... 13
O
Operation Section.................................................. 25
Overspeed ............................................................. 35
P
Plate Locations and Film Locations.......................
Serial Number Plate (1) .....................................
Product Identification Information ..........................
Product Information Section ..................................
23
23
23
18
R
Radiator - Clean ....................................................
Reference Numbers ..............................................
Record for Reference.........................................
Refill Capacities.....................................................
Cooling System..................................................
Lubrication System ............................................
98
23
23
50
50
50
S
Safety Messages .....................................................
(1) Universal Warning ..........................................
(2) Hand (High Pressure).....................................
(3) Ether ...............................................................
Safety Section .........................................................
6
6
7
8
6
108
Index Section
SEBU8172-02
Self-Diagnostics..................................................... 36
Sensors and Electrical Components ..................... 30
Coolant Temperature Sensor 1 .......................... 33
Electronic Control Module 5............................... 33
Engine Oil Pressure Sensor 8............................ 34
Failure of Sensors.............................................. 32
Fuel Pressure Sensor 4 ..................................... 33
Intake Manifold Air Temperature Sensor 2......... 33
Intake Manifold Pressure Sensor 3.................... 33
Primary Speed/Timing Sensor 6 ........................ 33
Programmable Monitoring System (PMS) ......... 32
Secondary Speed/Timing Sensor 7 ................... 33
Sensor Locations ............................................... 30
Severe Service Application - Check ...................... 99
Environmental Factors ....................................... 99
Incorrect Maintenance Procedures .................. 100
Incorrect Operating Procedures....................... 100
Starting Motor - Inspect ....................................... 100
Starting the Engine ................................................ 40
Starting the Engine ............................................ 40
Starting with Jump Start Cables ............................ 41
Stopping the Engine .............................................. 44
T
Table of Contents..................................................... 3
Turbocharger - Inspect ........................................ 100
Inspecting......................................................... 100
Removal and Installation.................................. 100
V
V-Belts - Inspect/Adjust/Replace .........................
Adjustment .......................................................
Inspection.........................................................
Replace............................................................
101
102
101
102
W
Walk-Around Inspection ...................................... 102
High Pressure Fuel Lines................................. 103
Inspect the Engine for Leaks and for Loose
Connections ................................................... 102
Inspect the Tube of the Crankcase Breather ... 102
Warranty Information ........................................... 105
Warranty Section ................................................. 105
Water Pump - Inspect.......................................... 104
Welding on Engines with Electronic Controls ........ 67
Product and Dealer Information
Note: For product identification plate locations, see the section “Product Identification Information” in the Operation
and Maintenance Manual.
Delivery Date:
Product Information
Model:
Product Identification Number:
Engine Serial Number:
Transmission Serial Number:
Generator Serial Number:
Attachment Serial Numbers:
Attachment Information:
Customer Equipment Number:
Dealer Equipment Number:
Dealer Information
Name:
Branch:
Address:
Dealer Contact
Sales:
Parts:
Service:
Phone Number
Hours
©2012 Perkins Engines Company Limited
All Rights Reserved
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