5 axle owners manual - Rackley Bilt Custom Trailers

5 axle owners manual - Rackley Bilt Custom Trailers
4350 Newton Road Stockton ,Ca 95205
Ph: 209 948 8586 Fax: 209 948 0452
__________________________________________________________________________________________
5 axle owners manual
__________________________________________________________________________________________
Rackley Bilt Custom Trailers Warranty:
With the purchase of a new Rackley trailer we provide a 30 day all inclusive
warranty and 12 months on products manufactured by us. If within 30 days
you should have a problem with any part of the trailer you can bring it back
to our facility for repair. After the 30 days our remaining warranty covers
only the workmanship and/or materials that were originally manufactured
by Rackley Bilt . All repairs required within this time shall be subject to
approval at our facility. Transportation of trailers to our facility is not covered in the warranty and is the sole responsibility of the trailer owner. This
warranty shall be limited to repair/replacement of components manufactured
by Rackley Bilt at our discretion . Under no circumstance will Rackley Bilt
Customs trailers be responsible for any lost revenue ,damages , or injury .
Please be aware that each individual product manufacture may have a
warranty that varies from our warranty , in which case it would then be
addressed by the respective product manufacturer (i.e. wheels , lights ,
bearings ,etc…) . If at any point in the warranty period the trailer should
receive any unauthorized structural repair and /or loads beyond the rating
of the trailer all warranties shall become null and void .
__________________________________________________________________________________________
Please take a moment to read through the manual and get familiar with your new trailer. All
operators / helpers should be qualified and/or supervised at all times when working on and
around the expando to ensure the safety of themselves as well as others . If after reading this
manual you should have any questions, we can be contacted at the above phone number and
address.
1. Under no circumstances should you load / have a load on the neck of the trailer
without the tractor attached.(neck needs to be supported)
2. When loading/unloading trailer make sure all bystanders are at a safe distance.
3. If necessary to have a spotter near the trailer when loading make sure to keep feet
from underneath trailer as heavy loads may cause trailers to drop causing injury.e
4. When trailer is to be opened/closed make sure all people and misc items(i.e. chains
and pry bars) are clear from slide boxes and tires.
5. Before each load the driver should inspect the trailer for any damage .This would
include all lights working properly,no leaking air lines and no structural damage is
evident .
6. Parking should be done on flat ground only. When the trailer has no air ,it also
has no brakes to prevent it from rolling .
4350 Newton Road ,Stockton Ca
Ph: 209 948 8586wFax: 209 948 0452
__________________________________________________________________________________________
Lubrication
1. Check oil level in hubs on a regular basis .At this time it would be a good idea
to inspect the condition of hubs for cracks and leaking seals. If the hubs should
require oil simply remove rubber plug and refill with 85w/140 gear oil to fill
line.
2. On monthly intervals (or as needed in extreme environments) we recommend
greasing the S-Cam bushing to extend component life and quality of brake
accuation.
3. On monthly intervals it is recommended to check/refill the inline lubricator.
Doing so will minimize detrimental corrosion and wear to the pneumatic
components on the trailer. As a trailer ages it may necessitate more oil thus
requiring more frequent oil inspection .To check oil level of lubricator ,
(SMC P/N AL30-N03-Z) you will find 4 “windows” for viewing fluid level .
To remove bowl simply pull black tab down with thumb and rotate bowl 45°
while pulling down on the bowl . Fill with hydraulic oil or pneumatic tool oil
then replace bowl.
Expanding the expando
There are 2 options methods for the opening / closing of our trailer.
1.Manually ,the driver can actuate the air valve and drive a short distance prior to
loading .
3.With the use of our optional remote actuator valve the driver can open/close the
trailer without the need to exit the truck .
5 AXLE BEAVER TAIL PARTS LIST
PART NUMBER:
5-REAR-0001
5-REAR-0002
5-REAR-0003
5-REAR-0004
5-REAR-0005
5-REAR-0006
5-REAR-0007
5-REAR-0008
5-REAR-0009
5-REAR-0010
5-REAR-0011
5-REAR-0012
5-REAR-0013
5-REAR-0014
5-REAR-0015
5-REAR-0016
5-REAR-0017
5-REAR-0018
5-REAR-0019
5-REAR-0020
PART DESCRIPTION:
CATCH BLOCK SMALL
CATCH BLOCK LARGE
CATCH BLOCH---SMALL
CATCH BLOCK----LARGE
REAR WEB
ISLAND PLATE
ISLAND CLEAT
REAR FISH PLATE
INSIDE ISLAND PLATE
OUTSIDE ISLAND BOX
REAR INNER ISLAND BOX
REAR OUTER BOX
OUTSIDE ISLANDS PLATE
REAR ISLAND CAP PLATE
REAR ISLAND ROLL PLATE
REAR INNER BOX
REAR OUTER BOX
INSIDE ISLAND ROLL BEND RIGHT / LEFT
OUTSIDE ROLL PLATE
TAIL LIGHT PLATE BEND FOR RIGHT/LEFT
QTY:
MATERIAL:
2
2
2
2
2
2
6
2
2
4
4
4
2
2
2
4
4
2
2
2
1" T-1
1" T-1
1" T-1
1" T-1
1/4" T-1
1/4" T-1
3/8" T-1
3/8" T-1
3/16" T-1
3/16" T-1
3/16" T-1
3/16" T-1
3/16" T-1
3/16" T-1
3/16" T-1
1/4" T-1
1/4" T-1
3/16" T-1
3/16" T-1
3/16 T-1
GROUP:
FRONT NECK:
PART NUMBER:
NECK
5-NECK-0001
5-NECK-0002
5-NECK-0003
5-NECK-0004
5-NECK-0005
5-NECK-0006
5-NECK-0007
5-NECK-0008
5-NECK-0009
5/3-NECK-0010
5-NECK-0011
5-NECK-0012
5-NECK-0013
5-NECK-0014
5-NECK-0015
5-NECK-0016
5-NECK-0017
5 / 3-NECK-0018
5-NECK-0019
RB200720
PART DESCRIPTION:
NECK WEB
NECK SHACKLE
NECK LATCH PLATE
NECK FISH PLATE
NECK CATCH DOG
ROLLER BRACKET
RAMP CATCH GUSSET
RAMP CATCH CROSS MEMBER
RAMP CATCH GUSSET BOTTOM PLATE
5TH WHEEL PLATE CROSS MEMBER
RAMP SUPPORT CROSS MEMBER
SHACKLE LOCK
5TH WHEEL PLATE STRAP
26" 5TH WHEEL PLATE
40" OPTIONAL 5TH WHEEL PLATE
FORMED EXSPANDO NECK BRACE
NECK RAMP (SHARED WITH 3 AXLE)
RAMP SUPPORT CHANNEL
5 AXLE NECK PIN
QTY:
MATERIAL:
2
2
2
2
2
4
2
2
1
1LFT/1RIGHT
1
2
1/4" T-1
1-1/2" T-1
3/8' T-1
3/8" T-1
1" T-1
1/2" T-1
1/4" T-1
1/4" T-1
1/4" T-1
1/4" T-1
3/16' T-1
1/4" T-1
1
1
1 OPT..
1
2
2
3/8" X 89-3/4" T-1
1/4" T-1
1/4" T-1
1/4" T-1
1/4" T-1
1/4" T-1
2 3" T-1
Lubricator
Series AL10
to 60
How to Order
AL 30
F 03 B
2R
Option
Lubricator
Symbol
Body size
10 20 30 40 50 60
Thread type
Metric thread
(M5)
Rc
NPT
G
Nil
N
F
AL20
Symbol
M5
01
02
03
04
06
10
Port
size 10
M5
1/8
1/4
3/8
1/2
3/4
1
—
—
—
—
—
—
Port size
Body size
20
—
—
—
—
—
30
—
—
—
—
—
40
—
—
—
—
—
50
—
—
—
—
—
Description
1
1000 cm3 tank
10
1000 cm3 tank with level switch (Lowest limit ON)
11
1000 cm3 tank with level switch (Lowest limit OFF)
2
Metal bowl
3
With drain cock
6
Nylon bowl (Including sight dome)
8
Metal bowl with level gauge
C
With bowl guard
R
Flow direction: Right Left
3W
Drain cock with barb fitting: ø6 x ø4 nylon tubing
Z (2) Name plate and caution plate for bowl in imperial units (PSI, °F)
60
—
—
—
—
—
—
JIS Symbol
: Combination available
: Varies depending on the model
Symbol
: Combination not available
: Available only with NPT thread
Optional specifications
1
10 11
2
3
6
8
C
R 3W Z
Applicable lubricator
AL10 AL20 AL30 to 60
PPA
AL
AL30
AL40
AL40-06
AL50
AL60
M5 x 0.8
1/8, 1/4
1/4, 3/8
1/4, 3/8, 1/2
3/4
3/4, 1
1
Fluid
Air
Proof pressure
1.5 MPa
Maximum operating pressure
1.0 MPa
Minimum dripping flow rate (l/min (ANR))
4
15
1/4: 30
3/8: 40
1/4: 30
3/8: 40
1/2: 50
50
190
220
Oil capacity (cm3)
7
25
55
135
135
135
135
0.52
1.06
1.13
AL40-06
AL50
AL60
Class 1 turbine oil (ISO VG32)
–5 to 60°C (With no freezing)
Ambient and fluid temperature
Bowl material
Polycarbonate
Bowl guard
—
Option
Weight (kg)
0.07
0.20
Standard
0.24
0.47
Note 1) • The flow rate is 5 drips/min under the following conditions: Inlet pressure of 0.5 MPa; Class 1
turbine oil (ISO VG32); Temperature at 20°C; Oil adjustment valve fully open.
• Use air consumption flow rate for minimum dripping flow rate.
Accessory Part No.
Accessory
Bracket assembly Note)
Applicable model
AL10
—
AL20
IC
G
AL20
Recommended lubricant
ITV
VY1
AL10
Note)
AMR
VE
Standard Specifications
Port size
AR
VBA
Note) -1, -10, -11 are for a metal bowl with level gauge that comes with drain cock.
Model
AF
VEX
Optional specifications
AL40
AU
IR
Accessory
B
AV
Symbol Description Applicable model
—
—
Nil
∗ When more than one specification is required, indicate in alphanumeric order.
Note 2) For M5 and NPT thread types.
This product is for overseas use only
according to the new Measurement
Law. (The SI unit type is provided for
B (1) With bracket AL20 to AL 60
use in Japan.)
Note 1) Bracket is not assembled and is
supplied loose at the time of shipment.
Accessory/Optional specifications
Accessory With bracket
B
1000 cm3 tank
-1
1000 cm3 tank with level switch (Lowest limit ON) -10
1000 cm3 tank with level switch (Lowest limit OFF) -11
Metal bowl
-2
With drain cock
-3
Nylon bowl (Including sight dome)
-6
Metal bowl with level gauge
-8
With bowl guard
-C
Flow direction: Right Left
-R
Drain cock with barb fitting: ø6 x ø4 nylon tubing -3W
Name plate and caution plate for bowl in imperial units (PSI, °F) -Z
F.R.L.
Accessory
Accessory/Optional Specifications Combinations
Combination
Applicable model
AL30 to 60
AL30 to 60
AL30 to 60
AL10 to 60
AL10 to 60
AL10 to 60
AL30 to 60
AL20
AL10 to 60
AL30 to 60
AL10 to 60
AL30
AL40
AF20P-050AS AF30P-050AS AF40P-050AS AF40P-070AS AF50P-050AS AF50P-050AS
∗ The part number for bracket assembly for 1000 cm3 is AF50P-050AS (applicable to AL30 to AL60).
Note) Assembly includes a bracket and 2 mounting screws.
14-2-61
AL10 to 60
Flow Characteristics (Representative values)
AL10
M5
AL40-06
Working Principle: Type AL10
Rc 3/4
MP
a
Pa
P1
=0
.7
0.5 M
Pa
MPa
P1 = 0.1
0.06
0.06
P1 =
0.3 M
Pressure drop (MPa)
0.08
Ope
Ope
n 1.
n 2.0
5 tu
turns
r ns
turn
turn
0.1
Ope
n 1.0
open
Needle fully
Pressure drop (MPa)
0.08
Open
0.5
0.1
Condition: Inlet pressure 0.7 MPa
P1 =
Series
0.04
0.04
0.02
0.02
Conditions: P1 = 0.5 MPa
Needle: One side fully open
150
0
200
2000
0
AL50
1000
2000
3000
0
4000
0
5000
Rc 3/8
7
0.
15000
AL60
Rc 1
0.1
Pressure drop (MPa)
0.1
0.08
0.
5
=
P1
Pa
.1
M
0.04
P1
=
Pa
7
0.
M
0.02
0.02
0
0
A portion of the air introduced from the IN
side pressurizes the lubricant inside the
bowl. The remainder of the air passes
through the needles o, and flows to the
OUT side. The pressure differential between
the inside of the bowl and the inside of the
sight dome w, causes the lubricant inside
the bowl into the oil passage !0 . The
lubricant drips from the dripping tube !1, and
lubricate the OUT side. The amount of
lubricant is adjusted by the needle o, on the
front face. Turning the needle clockwise
increases the amount of the lubricant, and
turning it counterclockwise until fully opened
shuts off the lubricant. The needle on the
side that is not used should be left fully
opened.
Note) The operating principle for AL20 to 60
types is different from that of AL10
Precautions
Be sure to read before handling.
Refer to pages 14-21-3 to 14-21-4
for Safety Instructions and
Common Precautions.
=0
=
M
Pa
Pa
M
3
0.
Pa
Pa
7
0.
0.06
P1
=
P1
M
M
5
0.
.3
=0
P1
P1 =
0.1 M
Pa
MP
a
0.08
P1
Pressure drop (MPa)
10000
Flow rate (l/min (ANR))
AL30
0.04
M
Pa
M
Pa
Pa
0.02
Flow rate (l/min (ANR))
0.06
P1
P1
MP
a
.1
=0
P1
P1 =
0.04
=
0
=0
Pressure drop (MPa)
.3
M
.7 M
Pa
=0
Pa
.5 M
=0
0.06
P1 =
0.3
P1
MP
a
Pa
0.1 M
0.08
0.02
0
Rc 1
0.1
P1
Pressure drop (MPa)
0.04
8000
=
Rc 1/4
0.1
0.08
6000
P1
AL20
0.06
4000
Flow rate (l/min (ANR))
0.
5
100
=
50
Flow rate (l/min (ANR))
P1
0
0
Selection
0
2000
4000
6000
Rc 1/2
Pressure drop (MPa)
0.1
0.3
MP
a
P1 =
0.5
MPa
P1
=0
.7
MP
a
P1 =
MPa
P1 = 0.1
Warning
1. Do not introduce
air from the outlet side
Piping
as this can damage the damper.
Caution
Warning
1. For AL 10 and AC20 type, replenish the
lubricant after releasing the inlet pressure.
Lubrication cannot take place under a
pressurized condition.
0.02
0
15000
Maintenance
0.04
0
10000
1. Use a check valve (Series AKM) to
prevent back flow of the lubricant when
redirecting the air flow before the
lubricator.
0.08
0.06
5000
Flow rate (l/min (ANR))
Flow rate (l/min (ANR))
AL40
0
2000
4000
6000
Flow rate (l/min (ANR))
8000
Caution
1. Check the dripping amount once a day.
Drip failure can cause damage to the
components that need lubrication.
14-2-62
Lubricator
Series
AL10 to 60
Construction
AL10
AL20
JIS Symbol
w
w
q
q
IN
e
t
IN
OUT
OUT
F.R.L.
y
y
u
r
AV
u
AU
AF
AL30/40
IR
w
w
qe
t
qe
t
IN
AR
AL50/60
IN
OUT
VEX
AMR
OUT
y
r
ITV
r
i
IC
u
VBA
VE
VY1
y
G
u
PPA
AL
Component Parts
No.
Description
q
i
Body
Material
AL30/40/40-06
AL10/20
Zinc die-casted
Housing
—
AL50/60
Aluminum die-casted
Aluminum die-casted
Note
Platinum silver
Platinum silver
Replacement Parts
No.
w
e
r
t
y
u
Description
Sight dome assembly
Lubrication plug assembly
Damper retainer assembly (1)
Damper assembly
Bowl O-ring
Bowl assembly (2)
Material
Part no.
AL40-06
AL40
AL10
AL20
AL30
AL50
PC
AL10P-080AS AL20P-080AS AL20P-080AS AL20P-080AS AL20P-080AS AL20P-080AS
—
—
AL20P-060AS AL30P-060AS AL40P-060AS AL40P-060AS AL40P-060AS
—
—
AL20P-030AS AL30P-030AS AL40P-030AS AL40P-030AS AL50P-030AS
Synthetic resin
—
AL20P-040S AL30P-040S AL40P-040S AL40P-040S AL50P-040AS
NBR
C1SFP-260S C2SFP-260S C3SFP-260S C4SFP-260S C4SFP-260S C4SFP-260S
C4SL (3)
PC
C4SL (3)
C1SL
C2SL
C3SL (3)
C4SL (3)
AL60
AL20P-080AS
AL40P-060AS
AL60P-030AS
AL60P-040AS
C4SFP-260S
C4SL (3)
Note 1) Add “-1” at the end of the part number when ordering a damper retainer assembly for 1000 cm3.
Example) AL30P-030AS-1
Note 2) Including O-ring. Please contact SMC regarding the bowl assembly supply for PSI and °F unit specifications.
Note 3) Bowl assembly for AL30 to AL60 comes with a bowl guard (steel band material).
14-2-63
Series
AL10 to 60
Dimensions
AL10
A
AL20
L
G
K
Bracket
(Option)
F
M
Port size
J
H
IN
OUT
OUT
OUT
B
C
Port size
C
IN
D
B
OUT
Min. clearance
for maintenance
AL50/60
L
G
K
D
Bracket
(Option)
F
Port size
J
H
C
J
M
IN
Bracket
(Option)
IN
OUT
OUT
D
Port size
F
M
E
AL30/40
L
G
K
Min. clearance
for maintenance
R
A
H
C
R
P
OUT
B
B
OUT
P
Min. clearance
for maintenance
AL30, AL40, AL40-06, AL50, AL60
Metal bowl with
level gauge
Metal bowl with Metal bowl with drain
drain cock
cock & level gauge
B
Drain cock with
barb fitting
B
With drain cock
B
Metal bowl
B
Metal bowl with
drain cock
B
Optional
specifications
Min. clearance
for maintenance
B
AL10, AL20
With drain cock
B
Applicable model
R
A
B
R
A
Barb fitting
Applicable tubing: T0604
(mm)
Model
Port size
AL10
AL20
AL30
AL40
AL40-06
AL50
AL60
M5 x 0.8
1/8, 1/4
1/4, 3/8
1/4, 3/8, 1/2
3/4
3/4, 1
1
Accessory specifications
Bracket mounting size
Standard specifications
A
25
40
53
70
75
90
95
B
77
115
142
176
176
250
268
C
26
36
38
40
38
41
45
D
25
40
53
70
70
90
95
P
28
—
57
73
73
—
—
R
35
60
80
110
110
110
110
F
—
30
41
50
50
70
70
G
—
27
40
54
54
66
66
H
—
22
23
26
25
35
35
J
—
5.4
6.5
8.5
8.5
11
11
K
—
8.4
8
10.5
10.5
13
13
L
—
40
53
70
70
90
90
M
—
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
3.2
3.2
Optional specifications
Metal bowl with drain cock Metal bowl with level gauge Metal bowl with drain cock & level gauge
Model
With drain cock
With barb fitting
Metal bowl
AL10
AL20
AL30
AL40
AL40-06
AL50
AL60
B
85
123
153
187
187
261
279
B
—
—
161
195
195
269
287
B
82
121
142
176
176
250
268
14-2-64
E
—
—
—
—
—
47
47
B
85
124
166
200
200
274
292
B
—
—
162
196
196
270
288
B
—
—
186
220
220
294
312
Lubricator
Series
AL10 to 60
Dimensions
Option: 1000 cm3 tank
106
90
E
66
Port size
Bracket
(Option)
106
70
3.2
F.R.L.
IN
OUT
H
P
C
11
13
AV
AU
OUT
AF
AR
IR
Specifications
B
With float switch
VEX
Contact capacity: 15 VA(AC)
15 W(DC)
AMR
Contact point: 1a, 1b
ITV
IC
VE
VY1
Min. clearance
for maintenance
G
PPA
Float switch
Part no: IS400-1 to 2
210
G 1/2
AL
Min. clearance
for maintenance
210
B
VBA
(mm)
Model
Port size
B
C
E
AL30
AL40
AL40-06
AL50
AL60
1/4, 3/8
1/4, 3/8, 1/2
3/4
3/4, 1
1
324
333
333
332
335
38
40
38
41
45
53
70
75
90
95
With bracket
H
25
18
16
35
35
P
—
—
—
47
47
With float switch
B
374
383
383
382
385
14-2-65
Safety Instructions
These safety instructions are intended to prevent a hazardous situation and/or
equipment damage. These instructions indicate the level of potential hazard by labels of
"Caution", "Warning" or "Danger". To ensure safety, be sure to observe ISO 4414 Note 1),
JIS B 8370 Note 2) and other safety practices.
Caution : Operator error could result in injury or equipment damage.
Warning : Operator error could result in serious injury or loss of life.
Danger :
In extreme conditions, there is a possible result of serious injury or loss of life.
Note 1) ISO 4414: Pneumatic fluid power--General rules relating to systems.
Note 2) JIS B 8370: General Rules for Pneumatic Equipment
Warning
1. The compatibility of pneumatic equipment is the responsibility of the person
who designs the pneumatic system or decides its specifications.
Since the products specified here are used in various operating conditions, their compatibility for the
specific pneumatic system must be based on specifications or after analysis and/or tests to meet your
specific requirements. The expected performance and safety assurance will be the responsibility of the
person who has determined the compatibility of the system. This person should continuously review
the suitability of all items specified, referring to the latest catalog information with a view to giving due
consideration to any possibility of equipment failure when configuring a system.
2. Only trained personnel should operate pneumatically operated machinery
and equipment.
Compressed air can be dangerous if an operator is unfamiliar with it. Assembly, handling or repair of
pneumatic systems should be performed by trained and experienced operators.
3. Do not service machinery/equipment or attempt to remove components until
safety is confirmed.
1. Inspection and maintenance of machinery/equipment should only be performed once measures to
prevent falling or runaway of the driver objects have been confirmed.
2. When equipment is to be removed, confirm the safety process as mentioned above. Cut the supply
pressure for this equipment and exhaust all residual compressed air in the system.
3. Before machinery/equipment is restarted, take measures to prevent shooting-out of cylinder piston
rod, etc.
4. Contact SMC if the product is to be used in any of the following conditions:
1. Conditions and environments beyond the given specifications, or if product is used outdoors.
2. Installation on equipment in conjunction with atomic energy, railway, air navigation, vehicles,
medical equipment, food and beverages, recreation equipment, emergency stop circuits, clutch and
brake circuits in press applications, or safety equipment.
3. An application which has the possibility of having negative effects on people, property, or animals,
requiring special safety analysis.
14-21-3
Common Precautions
Be sure to read before handling.
For detailed precautions on every series, refer to main text.
Selection
Warning
1. Confirm the specifications.
Products represented in this catalog are designed for use in
compressed air appllications only (including vacuum), unless
otherwise indicated.
Do not use the product outside their design parameters.
Please contact SMC when using the products in applications
other than compressed air (including vacuum).
Mounting
Warning
1. Instruction manual
Install the products and operate them only after reading the
instruction manual carefully and understanding its contents.
Also keep the manual where it can be referred to as
necessary.
4. Use clean air
If the compressed air supply is contaminated with chemicals,
cynthetic materials, corrosive gas, etc., it may lead to break
down or malfunction.
Operating Environment
Warning
1. Do not use in environments where the product
is directly exposed to corrosive gases,
chemicals, salt water, water or steam.
2. Do not expose the product to direct sunlight
for an extended period of time.
3. Do not use in a place subject to heavy
vibrations and/or shocks.
4. Do not mount the product in locations where it
is exposed to radiant heat.
Maintenance
2. Securing the space for maintenance
When installing the products, please allow access for
maintenance.
3. Tightening torque
When installing the products, please follow the listed torque
specifications.
Piping
Caution
1. Before piping
Make sure that all debris, cutting oil, dust, etc, are removed
from the piping.
2. Wrapping of pipe tape
When screwing piping or fittings into ports, ensure that chips
from the pipe threads or sealing material do not get inside the
piping. Also, when the pipe tape is used, leave 1.5 to 2 thread
ridges exposed at the end of the threads.
Air Supply
Warning
1. Operating fluid
Please consult with SMC when using the product in
applications other than compressed air (including vacuum).
Regarding products for general fluid, please ask SMC about
applicable fluids.
2. Install an air dryer, aftercooler, etc.
Excessive condensate in a compressed air system may cause
valves and other pneumatic equipment to malfunction.
Installation of an air dryer, after cooler etc. is recommended.
3. Drain flushing
If condensate in the drain bowl is not emptied on a regular
basis, the bowl will over flow and allow the condensate to
enter the compressed air lines.
If the drain bowl is difficult to check and remove, it is
recommended that a drain bowl with the auto-drain option be
installed.
For compressed air quality, refer to “Air Preparation
Equipment” catalog.
14-21-4
Warning
1. Maintenance procedures are outlined in the
operation manual.
Not following proper procedures could cause the product to
malfunction and could lead to damage to the equipment or
machine.
2. Maintenance work
If handled improperly, compressed air can be dangerous.
Assembly, handling and repair of pneumatic systems should
be performed by qualified personnel only.
3. Drain flushing
Remove drainage from air filters regularly. (Refer to the
specifications.)
4. Shut-down before maintenance
Before attempting any kind of maintenance make sure the
supply pressure is shut of and all residual air pressure is
released from the system to be worked on.
5. Start-up after maintenance and inspection
Apply operating pressure and power to the equipment and
check for proper operation and possible air leaks. If operation
is abnormal, please verify product set-up parameters.
6. Do not make any modifications to be product.
Do not take the product apart.
SD-02-1336
®
Rotochambers
PUSH ROD
DIAPHRAGM
SPRING
ASSY.
DIAPHRAGM
INNER
GUIDE
DIAPHRAGM
CLAMP
BOOT
YOKE ASSY.
OUTER
DIAPHRAGM
CLAMP
LOCK NUT
MOUNTING STUD
BODY
COVER
DESCRIPTION
The rotochamber is an actuator which converts the energy
of air pressure into mechanical force. The type number of
the rotochamber indicates the actuator’s diaphragm effective
area (Type 30 - 30 sq. in. of diaphragm) and the various
sizes available give a wide range of output force and length
of stroke. The rolling type diaphragm provides long life and
gives a constant output force throughout the entire stroke.
One end of the diaphragm is clamped to the inside wall of
the body by the outer clamp. The other end of the diaphragm
is clamped between the diaphragm guide and inner
diaphragm clamp. The cover is fastened to the outer body
by cap screws. Mounting studs are used to mount the
chambers. A boot retained by a boot retainer is used to
prevent entrance of moisture through the hole in the cover.
A lock nut and yoke with pin are screwed on the threaded
push rod. Most rotochambers now have 3/8 in. NPTF inlet
ports. The long stroke Type 50 employ a 1/2 in. NPTF inlet
port.
OPERATION
Controlled air pressure enters the rotochamber through the
inlet port and acts upon the diaphragm, moving the diaphragm
guide and diaphragm forward. The diaphragm moves along
the inside wall of the cylinder body with a smooth rolling
motion. The forward motion of the diaphragm guide and
diaphragm forces the push plate and push rod forward.
When the rotochamber is used to actuate cam type foundation
brake assemblies, the yoke is connected to a slack adjuster
which in turn is connected to the brake cam shaft. This
forward motion of the push rod rotates the slack adjuster,
cam shaft and cam applying the vehicle brakes.
The rotochamber is also used in industrial applications and
in such cases may be used in clamping or holding
operations.
The greater air pressure admitted to the rotochamber, the
greater the force applied by the push rod and, conversely,
the less air pressure applied to the rotochamber, the less
force applied by the push rod. Push rod force is determined
by multiplying the air pressure delivered by the effective
diaphragm area. For example, if 60 psi is admitted to the
Type 30 rotochamber the lineal force on the end of the push
rod is approximately 1800 lbs.
When air pressure is released from the rotochamber the
rotochamber spring returns the slack adjuster (if applicable),
push rod, diaphragm guide and diaphragm to the released
position.
1
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE
INSTALLING
A. Every month, 8,000 miles, or after 300 operating hours,
depending on type of operation:
1. Before installing chamber, check bracket for distortion,
cracks or any condition which might cause chamber
misalignment or malfunction.
1. Check push rod travel and adjust travel at the slack
adjuster if needed. Push rod travel should be as short
as possible without brakes dragging. Excessive push
rod travel reduces braking efficiency, shortens
diaphragm life, gives slow braking response and
wastes air.
2. Check push rod to slack adjuster alignment from
release to full stroke position to be sure push rod
moves out and returns properly without binding at
the cover hole or with other structures. Also check
the angle formed by the slack adjuster arm and push
rod. It should be 90° or greater when the chamber is
in the applied or released positions.
3. Check tightness of mounting nuts. Check cotter pins
to make sure they are in place.
4. Check all hoses and lines. They should be secure
and in good condition.
B. Every year or after each 100,000 miles or 3,600 operating
hours, depending on type of operation.
1. Disassemble and clean all parts.
2. Install new diaphragm or any other parts if they are
worn or deteriorated.
When the diaphragm, spring, or both are replaced they should
be replaced in the corresponding chamber on the same axle.
OPERATING AND LEAKAGE TESTS
A. Operating Test
1. Apply brakes and observe that the push rods move
out promptly and without binding.
2. Release brakes and observe that the push rods return
to the released position promptly and without binding.
3. Check push rod travel. Push rod travel should be as
short as possible without brakes dragging. Adjust
travel of push rod at slack adjuster if necessary.
B. Leakage Test
1. Loosen rubber boot from around push rod hole in
cover. Make and hold a full brake application.
Coat area with soap suds and check for leakage. No leakage
is permissible. If leakage is detected, the diaphragm must
be replaced.
2. Re-install the chamber on the bracket. Tighten the
mounting nuts securely and evenly.
3. Connect the air lines to the rotochamber and check for
leakage.
4. Insert the push rod yoke pin through the hole in the yoke
and slack adjuster. Make sure the same hole location in
the slack adjuster on each side of the axle is used.
5. The yoke should be adjusted on the push rod so that
with brakes released the angle formed by the push rod
and slack adjuster will be greater than 90° and all slack
adjusters should be at the same angle. With properly
adjusted brakes applied, the angle should still be greater
than 90°.
DISASSEMBLY
For ease in disassembly, if the rotochamber has been in
service and shows signs of rust accumulation, it is
recommended that the chamber be immersed and soaked
in the cleaning or rust dissolving solvent for 24 hours.
1. Remove yoke and lock nut from push rod.
2. Remove rubber boot.
3. Remove cap screws from cover.
4. Remove cover, springs and spring guides (if so
equipped).
5. Remove nuts from body. These nuts secure the outer
clamp to the body and are located at the air inlet end of
the rotochamber.
6. Grasp the push rod and by pulling and wiggling the
entire assembly consisting of push rod and plate,
diaphragm guide, diaphragm, inner and outer clamps
should ease out of the body.
7. Straighten the rolled diaphragm.
8. Remove outer diaphragm clamp.
9. Remove nuts from inside of diaphragm guide.
10. Disassemble inner diaphragm clamp, diaphragm and
push plate rod assembly from the diaphragm guide.
CLEANING AND INSPECTION
1. Clean all metal parts in a good cleaning solvent.
REMOVING
2. Carefully inspect all metal parts for cracks, distortion or
damage. Replace any parts not considered serviceable.
1. Block vehicle wheels.
3. Replace diaphragm and rubber boot.
2. Disconnect line to rotochamber.
3. Remove the yoke pin.
4. Remove the rotochamber.
2
ASSEMBLY
1. Position the diaphragm on end in the inner diaphragm
clamp. The smaller diameter end of the diaphragm should
be against the diaphragm clamp.
2. Place and install the diaphragm guide within the
diaphragm and over the inner diaphragm clamp studs.
3. Install the push plate push rod assembly within the
diaphragm guide and over the inner diaphragm clamp
studs.
4. Install nuts on the inner diaphragm clamp studs and
tighten securely.
5. Place the assembly consisting of the push rod, push
plate, diaphragm guide, diaphragm and inner clamp
inside of the outer clamp.
6. Roll the free end of the diaphragm back and over the
end of the outer diaphragm clamp.
7. Lubricate the inside wall of the body and the rolled
surface of the diaphragm with Murphy’s oil soap.
8. Slide the above assembly into the body. The end of the
diaphragm should fit snugly against the shoulder in the
body. Position the outer diaphragm clamp studs through
the holes at the end of the body, install nuts and tighten
securely.
9. Install spring guide (if so equipped) and install spring
over push rod, and install spring guide on spring (if so
equipped).
10. Install cover over push rod and into body. Attach cover to
body with cap screws, tightening securely.
11. Install boot over push rod attaching to cover.
12. Install lock nut and yoke on push rod.
TESTING OF REBUILT ROTOCHAMBER
Perform “Operating and Leakage” checks.
WARNING! PLEASE READ AND FOLLOW
THESE INSTRUCTIONS TO AVOID
PERSONAL INJURY OR DEATH:
When working on or around a vehicle, the following
general precautions should be observed at all times.
2. Stop the engine and remove ignition key when
working under or around the vehicle. When
working in the engine compartment, the engine
should be shut off and the ignition key should be
removed. Where circumstances require that the
engine be in operation, EXTREME CAUTION should
be used to prevent personal injury resulting from
contact with moving, rotating, leaking, heated or
electrically charged components.
3. Do not attempt to install, remove, disassemble or
assemble a component until you have read and
thoroughly understand the recommended
procedures. Use only the proper tools and observe
all precautions pertaining to use of those tools.
4. If the work is being performed on the vehicle’s air
brake system, or any auxiliary pressurized air
systems, make certain to drain the air pressure from
all reservoirs before beginning ANY work on the
vehicle. If the vehicle is equipped with an AD-IS™
air dryer system or a dryer reservoir module, be
sure to drain the purge reservoir.
5. Following
the
vehicle
manufacturer’s
recommended procedures, deactivate the electrical
system in a manner that safely removes all
electrical power from the vehicle.
6. Never exceed manufacturer’s recommended
pressures.
7. Never connect or disconnect a hose or line
containing pressure; it may whip. Never remove a
component or plug unless you are certain all
system pressure has been depleted.
8. Use only genuine Bendix ® replacement parts,
components and kits. Replacement hardware,
tubing, hose, fittings, etc. must be of equivalent
size, type and strength as original equipment and
be designed specifically for such applications and
systems.
9. Components with stripped threads or damaged
parts should be replaced rather than repaired. Do
not attempt repairs requiring machining or welding
unless specifically stated and approved by the
vehicle and component manufacturer.
10. Prior to returning the vehicle to service, make
certain all components and systems are restored
to their proper operating condition.
1. Park the vehicle on a level surface, apply the
parking brakes, and always block the wheels.
Always wear safety glasses.
3
4
BW1561 © 2004 Bendix Commercial Vehicle Systems LLC. All rights reserved. 3/2004 Printed in U.S.A.
L30036
Rev. 5/03
SERVICE MANUAL
Transit and Coach
Applications
AUTOMATIC BRAKE
ADJUSTERS
Innovative Vehicle
Technology
Table of Contents
Operation .............................................. 1
Typical Parts Identification
and Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1
Steer Axle Applications......................... 2
Drive Axle Applications......................... 2
Installation Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . .3
Routine Visual/Operational Checks . . .5
Service and Lubrication Intervals . . . . .5
Foundation Brake Operational
Check and Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . .6
Brake Adjuster Checking Procedures . .8
Brake Adjuster Operational Check . . . .8
Typical Parts Identification
and Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
Torque Specifications............................10
Frequently Asked Questions ................11
Additional Parts and
Service Information...............................12
Important Notice
This symbol is used throughout this
manual to call attention to procedures where
carelessness or failure to follow specific
instructions may result in personal injury
and/or component damage.
The description and specifications contained in this service
publication are current at the time of printing. Haldex Brake
Products Corp. reserves the right to discontinue or modify its
models and/or procedures and to change specifications at
any time without notice.
Operation
The Haldex automatic brake adjuster is a clearance sensing brake adjuster that maintains
a nominal distance or clearance between lining and drum.
When the Brake Applies:
Upon brake application, the brake adjuster
rotates and moves the shoes into contact
Clutch Assembly
with the drum. The clearance notch
corresponds to the normal lining-to-drum
clearance. As the brake application
continues, the rack moves upward and
rotates the one-way clutch which slips in
“O”Ring
this direction. As the brake torque
increases, the coil spring load is overcome
and the wormshaft is displaced axially,
Adjustment
releasing the cone clutch.
Hex
When the Brake Releases:
When the brake begins its return stroke,
Enclosed
the coil spring load returns to normal and
the cone clutch is again engaged. The rack Rack
is pulled back to its original position in the
notch, and any additional travel brought
Installation
about by lining wear causes the rack to turn
Indicator
the locked one-way clutch and rotates the
wormshaft through the locked cone clutch.
The wormshaft then rotates the worm
wheel and camshaft, adjusting the brakes.
Clearance
Notch
Bushing
Heat Treated
Housing
Direction of Applied
Stroke
Wormshaft
Coil Spring
“O” Ring
Worm Wheel
Control Arm
Fixed Point
Typical Parts Identification and Location
Part Number Identification:
Part Number Identification:
Serial Number Identification:
300-10xxx = Standard service adjuster kit 419-10xxx = Standard service adjuster First 3 digits = Day of year built
300-50xxx = Severe service adjuster kit
419-50xxx = Severe service adjuster
Last 2 digits = Year of build
Part Number: P/N419-50019
Serial Number: S/N33402
Anchor
Stud Pin
Anchor
Bracket
Anchor
Stud Pin
Control Arm
(Single Bend)
Anchor
Bracket
Wear
Bushing
Adjustment
Hex Nut
Indicator
Notch
Installation
Indicator
Wear
Bushing
Control Arm
(Double Bend)
1
Typical Applications
Steer Axle
Figures 1–3 show
typical brackets for
automatic brake adjuster
applications on steer
axle brake assemblies.
Refer to pages 4 and 5
for detailed installation
procedures.
Approx. 1/16”
Figure 1
Steer axle
with clamp
bracket and
round anchor
stud
Figure 2
Spider mount
Figure 3
Steer axle with
strap bracket
Approx. 1/16”
Drive Axle
Figures 4-6 show
typical brackets for
automatic brake adjuster
applications on drive
axle brake assemblies.
Refer to pages 4 and 5
for detailed installation
procedures.
Figure 4
34° drive
axle with
strap bracket
Figure 6
Integral cam
support bracket
Figure 5
Spider mounted
strap bracket
2
Note: Refer to fundamental parts identification and location on page 8.
Installation Procedures
Note: Configuration of anchor bracket and brake adjuster housing may vary,
depending upon axle. Refer to typical applications on Page 2.
Step 1
Anchor Bracket
Note: Block wheels to prevent
vehicle from rolling. Ensure
system tank pressure is
above 100 PSI.
■ Check that the push rod is fully retracted;
apply air to release spring brake. If air is not
available, spring brake must be manually
caged back.
■ Install anchor bracket loosely as illustrated
( fig. 7).
■ Some strap brackets have two mounting
holes. Proper mounting location is
determined by the length of adjuster arm.
5" and 5-1/2" adjuster arm lengths utilize
the shorter hole location while 6" and 6-1/2"
length adjusters utilize the longer hole
locations.
■ Do not tighten anchor bracket fasteners at
this time.
■ Apply “Anti-Seize” type lubricant to camshaft
splines.
Figure 7
Step 2
■ Install the brake adjuster onto the camshaft
with the ad justing hex pointing away from the
brake chamber (fig. 8).
■ Secure the brake adjuster on the camshaft.
Use at least one inner washer and enough
outer washers to allow no more than .060
movement of adjuster on camshaft. (Per
TMC recommended practice RP609-A.)
Note: Do NOT pull push rod out to
meet the brake adjuster.
■ Rotate the 7/16" adjusting hex nut
CLOCKWISE until the clevis hole lines up
with the brake adjuster arm hole.
■ Apply anti-seize to clevis pin, install and
secure with cotter pin.
Figure 8
3
Installation Procedures
Step 3
■ Rotate the control arm away from the
adjusting hex toward the air chamber, until
it comes to a definite internal stop (fig. 9).
■ Most adjusters will be equipped with an
“Installation Indicator.” Indicator must fall
within the slot for proper installation with
brakes fully released (fig. 10).
■ If the control arm position is
wrong, tight brakes will occur
(fig.11).
■ Tighten all anchor bracket fasteners (make
sure the control arm does not move from its
position while tightening fasteners).
Figure 9
Step 4
■ The adjuster must be manually adjusted
at this time.
■ Rotate the adjusting hex clockwise until the
lining lightly contacts the drum.
■ Then back-off the adjuster by turning the
adjusting hex counter-clockwise 1/ 2 of a
turn (fig. 12).
■ A minimum of 13 ft. lbs. is necessary to
overcome the internal clutch. A ratcheting
sound will be present.
■ Do NOT use an impact wrench or
internal damage will occur!
■ FINAL INSPECTION. With full service
brake application, assure that spring brakes
are released, and check that the
“Installation Indicator” is within the slotted
area. IF NOT, REPEAT Step 3.
Note: To ensure proper fit and
function, always replace both
adjuster and mounting bracket.
4
Correct
(Brakes released)
Figure 10
X
I NCORRECT
(Brakes released)
Figure 11
Figure 12
Routine Visual/Operational Checks
■ Haldex strongly recommends that routine visual/operational checks,
including brackets and control arms, be performed at each Preventative
Maintenance Service Interval.
■ Adjusters or anchor brackets that have visual damage, or which fail
the operational checks, MUST be replaced immediately.
■ Automatic adjusters should not be operated as manual adjusters
except as may be necessary to get the vehicle off the road for
service.
Service and Lubrication Intervals
Adjuster Type
Standard Brake Adjuster 419-10...
Lubrication
Interval
Type of
Lubricant
4,000 to 6,000
miles or every
3 months
Standard Chassis
Grease
Visual Check
Interval
Each Preventative
Maintenance
Service Interval
Notes:
Moly-disulfide grease should not be used because it may affect the function of the
internal friction clutches and reduce the reliability of the automatic adjustment.
In no case should the lubrication interval exceed the published intervals shown above.
Every automatic brake adjuster requires inspection at periodic intervals. This inspection should coincide
with the vehicle inspection program where norman vehicle lubrication intervals are scheduled or recommended by the vehicle manufacturer. Perform the following during these intervals:
1. Measure air chamber push-rod stroke @ 90 to 100 PSI per CVSA and DOT requirements.
2. Record stroke measurements to within 1/16” and enter into inspection records.
3. Grease each brake adjuster. Note: Some automatic brake adjuster models manufactured by Haldex
do not require grease. A hex plug may be installed into the adjuster casting to replace a grease fitting.
If present, do not remove hex plug. Contact Haldex if uncertain or require additional information.
4. Visually inspect each brake adjuster for integrity and control arm connection to the associated bracket.
If air chamber stroke exceeds CVSA or DOT maximum allowances, do not manually
adjust the brake adjuster. See “Troubleshooting Procedures” on page 5 to determine
if the adjuster requires replacement.
MANUAL ADJUSTMENT TO THE BRAKE ADJUSTER COULD SHORTEN CLUTCH LIFE
AND MAY VOID THE WARRANTY.
5
Foundation Brake Operational Check and Troubleshooting
Note: ■ Block wheels to prevent vehicle from rolling.
■ Ensure system tank pressure is at 90-100 psi.
■ Check that push rod is fully retracted; apply air to release spring brake.
North American Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance (CVSA)
Uniform Vehicle Inspection Criteria
The applied stroke of the brake should be checked per CVSA guidelines at 90 -100 PSI
reservoir pressure. Applied stroke should be at or less than the specified adjustment
limits as follows:
Standard Clamp Type Brake Chamber
Type
Adjustment Limit
Type
Adjustment Limit
9
1-3/8"
24
1-3/4"
12
1-3/8"
30
2"
16
1-3/4"
36
2-1/4"
20
1-3/4"
DD-3
2-1/4”
Long Stroke Type
Type
Adjustment Limit
16L
2"
20L
2"
24L
2"
Brake Chamber
Type
Adjustment Limit
24L3
2-1/2"
30L3
2-1/2"
NOTE: Long stroke chambers are identified with square
air ports or port bosses and special trapezoid ID tags.
Free Stroke
Measuring the Free Stroke
Free stroke is the amount of movement of the adjuster arm required to move the brake shoes
against the drum. With brakes released, measure from the face of the chamber to the center of
the clevis pin “A” (fig. 13). Use a lever to move the brake adjuster until the brake shoes contact
the drum “B” (fig. 13). The difference between the fully retracted and drum contact
measurement “B”–“A” (fig. 13), is the free stroke. The free stroke range should fall between
3/8"–3/4".
Free Stroke Within Range
If the free stroke is good, but the applied stroke is too long, there is probably a problem with the
foundation brake. Check the following and reference CVSA out-of-service criteria:
Component
6
Brake drums
Brake shoes
Brake shoes
Brake shoes
Brake shoes
Cam bushings
Camshaft
Camshaft
Camshaft
Chamber bracket
Clevis yoke and pin
Return springs
Rollers
Rollers
Spider anchor pins
Cause
Cracked or out of round
Shoe span out of spec
Uneven lining wear
Shoe pad missing
Cracked shoes
Excessive movement
Flat spots on cam head
Cracked/broken splines
Worn bearing journals
Broken/bent
Worn
Broken/stretched or missing
Flat spots, grooved pin/worn
Wrong size
Grooved or scored/worn
Action
Replace or check drum run out
Refer to OEM specs and replace if necessary
Check spider concentricity
Remove & replace shoes
Remove & replace shoes
Remove & replace cam bushings per OEM specs
Replace camshaft
Replace camshaft
Replace camshaft
Replace bracket
Remove & replace
Remove & replace springs
Remove & replace roller and pin
Remove & replace with correct parts
Replace spider or pins, as appropriate for OEM
Free Stroke Above the Range
If the free stroke is above the range and the applied stroke is too long, there is a problem
with the foundation brake or the adjuster. Check the following:
Component
Cause
Action
Camshaft
Camshaft bushings
Camshaft bushings
Air chamber return springs
Air chamber push rod
Binding
Excessive movement
Binding shaft
Broken, weak, missing
Binding on chamber housing
Air system
Shoe return springs
Automatic brake adjuster
Not exhausting completely
Broken, weak, missing
Unknown
Automatic brake adjuster
Unknown
Remove, replace, lubricate camshaft
Remove and replace cam bushings per OEM specs
Lubricate camshaft bushings or replace
Replace chamber
Check adjuster for proper shimming and air chamber
position for proper adjuster arm length
Check for cause of air problem and repair
Replace springs
Check automatic brake adjuster for proper
installation. Refer to Installation Instructions on
pages 3 & 4.
Refer to Automatic Brake Adjuster Checking
Procedures and Operational Check on pages 8 & 9.
Free Stroke Below the Range
If the free stroke is less than 3/8”, a dragging brake can occur. Check the following:
Component
Cause
Action
Wheel bearing
Automatic brake adjuster
Out of adjustment
Unknown
Automatic brake adjuster
Unknown
Readjust per OEM specs
Check automatic brake adjuster for proper control
arm position. Refer to Installation Instructions on
pages 3 & 4.
Refer to Automatic Brake Adjuster Checking
Procedures and Operational Check on pages 8 & 9.
Free Stroke = B minus A
Applied Stroke = C minus A
A
Figure 13
Stroke Measurements
(taken from face of air chamber
to center of clevis pin)
(Fully Retracted)
B
(Drum Contact Using a Lever)
C
(Brake Application at 90-100 PSI
reservoir pressure.)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
7
Automatic Brake Adjuster Checking Procedures
If the brake adjuster is not maintaining the proper applied stroke, before removing the brake adjuster,
check the condition of the foundation brake (see pages 6 & 7). If after inspecting the foundation
brake no apparent problems are found, inspect the automatic brake adjuster to determine if it is
operating properly. The inspection can be performed on or off the vehicle using the following procedures.
Note: ■ Block wheels to prevent vehicle from rolling.
■ Ensure system tank pressure is at 90-100 PSI.
■ Check that push rod is fully retracted; apply air to release spring brake.
■ If air is not available, spring brake must be manually caged back.
■ Do not use air tools on brake adjuster!
On Vehicle Inspection
Component
Cause
Action
Tight or
dragging brakes
Control arm
mispositioned
Realign control arm and anchor bracket.
Check installation procedures on pages 3 & 4.
Excessive
chamber push
rod travel
Improper anchor
bracket connection
to control arm
If anchor bracket to control arm connection
is worn, loose, bent or broken, it must be
re-secured or replaced.
Low clutch torque
Rotate the 7/16" adjustment hex one full turn
counterclockwise. Replace brake adjuster if
the torque is less than 13 ft. lbs. or no
racheting sound occurs.
Unknown
Perform automatic brake adjuster
operational check (see below).
Off Vehicle Inspection
Component
Adjuster not
functioning
properly
8
Cause
Low clutch
torque
Action
Place adjuster arm in vise. Rotate the 7/16"
adjustment hex counterclockwise one full turn to
check de-adjustment torque. After control arm stops
rotating, a minimum of 13 ft. lbs. will be required and
a ratcheting sound will occur. Replace brake adjuster
if the torque is less than 13 ft. lbs. or no
de-adjustment ratcheting sound is present.
Control Arm
slippage
Place adjuster arm in vise. Rotate the control arm
counterclockwise until the control arm rotates to
an INTERNAL STOP. If the installation indicator
goes past the indicator notch or does not stop
rotating (arm slips freely), replace the brake
adjuster.
Unknown
If torque is above 13 ft. lbs., scribe a line on the
adjustment hex. Manually pull the brake adjuster
control arm clockwise then push back counterclockwise until the installation indicator stops in
the indicator notch. The hex will move in a clockwise
direction when the control arm of the brake adjuster is
pushed back counterclockwise. Replace adjuster is
hex does not move.
Worn/missing
control arm wear
bushing, and
anchor stud pin,
if applicable.
Remove and replace pin and bushings. If adjuster
has passed the above checks, re-install adjuster
on vehicle, with new hardware.
Automatic Brake Adjuster Operational Check
Functional operation of the brake adjuster can be performed on the vehicle
by using the following procedure:
■
■
■
Block wheels to prevent vehicle from rolling.
Ensure tank pressure is at 90-100 psi.
Check that the push rod is fully retracted; apply air to release spring brake. If air
is not available, spring brake must be manually caged back.
Manually de-adjust brakes (turn adjustment hex counterclockwise one full turn) to create an
excessive drum to lining clearance condition. (A ratcheting sound should occur.)
Make a full service brake application. On release, allow sufficient time for brake to fully retract.
During the brake release, observe rotation of the adjustment hex (attaching a wrench on the hex
or scribing the hex will make this rotation easier to see).
This rotation indicates that an excessive clearance condition has been determined by the brake
adjuster, and it is making an adjustment to compensate. On each subsequent brake release,
the amount of adjustment and push rod travel will be reduced until the desired clearance is
achieved.
If rotation of the adjustment hex is not observed, refer to Foundation Brake Operational Check
and Troubleshooting Procedures on pages 6 & 7. If foundation brake assembly checks out okay
and hex still does not turn, check control arm and mounting bracket for possible worn, bent or
broken components. If the control arm and mounting bracket check out okay, replace the
adjuster and hardware per procedures on pages 3 & 4.
9
Torque Specifications
Note: Tighten all fasteners to manufacturer’s recommendations unless
otherwise specified below.
Round Anchor
Stud Pin with
Fabricated
Ring Clamp
Torque to
15-20 ft. lbs.
when installed
Flat Anchor
Stud Pin
Torque to
40-50 ft. lbs.
when installed
Round Anchor Stud
Pin with Slide Nut
Torque to 15-20 ft. lbs.
when installed
3/8"-16 Nut
and Bolt
Torque to 15-20 ft.
lbs. when installed
Strap Style
Bracket
Torque to
8-12 ft. lbs.
when installed
U-Bolt Style
Bracket
Torque to
20-30 ft. lbs.
when installed
10
Frequently Asked Questions
1. Will the side of the brake adjuster
with the installation indicator
always face in?
No. Haldex adjusters are normally unhanded.
Always install with the adjusting hex pointing
away from the air chamber.
2. My adjuster doesn’t have an
installation indicator; should I be
concerned?
No. A few applications aren’t manufactured with
installation indicators. However, the set-up and
function are the same regardless. Refer to
pages 3 & 4 for proper installation procedures.
3. Why is there resistance when
backing off the adjuster?
It takes approximately 20-25 lb. ft. of torque to
back off the adjustment hex. (A ratcheting sound
should occur.)
4. How far do I back off the automatic brake adjuster at a brake reline?
1/2 turn. (NOTE: for the first 1/8 turn you may
not hear the ratcheting; this is normal.)
5. How do I know if I need an offset,
angled or straight-armed adjuster?
Haldex manufactures the right adjuster arm for
your specific application. Haldex adjusters are
unhanded (no lefts or rights) in the majority of
applications. Please refer to the Haldex Parts
and Cross Reference Guide for your specific
application (L00090).
6. Why does my replacement ABA
look different from the original I
took off?
The Haldex ABA replacement adjuster has been
designed to fit a number of applications. It is the
same original equipment quality and design of
the adjuster you removed; however, it may look
different on the outside. If you use all the parts
included in the kit, the results will be the same
as the original equipment adjuster.
7. Why is the applied stroke pressure
range 90-100 psi at the reservoir?
This is the pressure recommended by the CVSA
(Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance). Anything
beyond 100 psi measures deflection within the
foundation brake and not true push rod stroke.
8. Some brake chambers have round
port openings and some square;
what is the difference?
Standard brake chambers are identified by
round ports. Long stroke chambers are identified
by square ports and trapezoid ID tags.
9. Can I vary the amount of
lining-to-drum clearance by
moving the control arm?
No, that clearance is set at the factory. If long
or short stroke continues, please refer to the
foundation brake checking procedures on
pages 6 & 7 of this manual.
10.Can I use an air ratchet on the
adjuster?
No. It will damage the internal mechanism
of the adjuster and render it inoperative.
11.Can I access the adjuster through
the rear cover?
No, do not tamper with the rear cover—it
will release the factory set pressure on the
spring and destroy the adjuster and its ability
to properly function.
12.How much control arm bushing
and anchor stud pin wear is
acceptable before replacement is
required?
No more than 1/16."
13.What is the acceptable amount of
camshaft bushing wear?
Automatic adjusters cannot compensate for
worn foundation brake parts. Please refer to
the foundation brake manufacturer’s
recommendations for maximum bushing and
camshaft wear limits.
14.Can wheel bearing adjustment
affect the brake adjuster?
Yes. Improper wheel bearing adjustment could
result in improper brake adjustment. It is
necessary to refer to the axle manufacturer’s
wheel bearing adjustment recommendations. A
loose bearing preload could cause a tight brake.
(continued on page 12)
11
Frequently Asked Questions (continued)
15.Are all Haldex automatic brake
adjusters pre-lubed?
18.Does the control arm need to be
properly set and secured?
Yes. All Haldex brake adjusters are lubricated
at the factory. Please consult the Service and
Lubrication Section on Page 5 for proper
lubrication guidelines.
16.Can I use moly lube with the
Haldex automatic brake adjuster?
No. A high concentration of moly-disulfide can
lower the friction capabilities in the adjusting
clutch parts and decrease automatic adjustment
reliability.
Yes. Without proper placement and attachment,
the adjuster will not function properly. Make
sure the control arm, anchor bracket and wear
items are in good working order to assure the
adjuster will operate as designed.
19.If automatic adjustment stops,
can I operate as a manual brake
adjuster?
17.Can I purchase anchor bracket
wear items separately (i.e., anchor
stud pins, wear bushings)?
No. Completely check out foundation brake
and adjuster to determine cause of problem.
Repair or replace as needed to restore
automatic adjustment.
Yes. Normal wear items like anchor stud pins
and wear bushings are available. Please refer
to the Haldex Parts and Cross Reference Guide
for your specific application (L00090).
Otherwise, contact Haldex Technical
Assistance for the appropriate bracket kit
at 1-800-643-2374.
Additional Information Available
Additional parts and service information on Haldex Automatic Brake Adjusters may be found in
the following materials:
Service Information
Installation and Maintenance Wall Chart . . . . . . . . . .
Installation Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Service Manual (Truck/Trailer) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Parts Information
Parts and Cross Reference Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Supplemental Automatic Brake Adjuster Kits . . . . . .
L60047HBS
ABA10017
L30033HBS
L00090
L20447
These materials may be ordered by contacting your Customer Service Representative
at 1-800-643-2374. Or, you may log in to our website www.hbsna.com with your customer
password to place your order.
12
Commercial Vehicle Systems
North American Sales Division
Haldex Brake Products Corporation
10707 N.W. Airworld Drive
Kansas City, MO 64153-1215
Phone: (816) 891-2470
Fax: (816) 880-9766
North American Sales Division
Haldex Limited
525 Southgate Drive, Unit 1
Guelph, Ontario CANADA N1G 3W6
Phone: (519) 826-7723
Fax: (519) 826-9497
www.haldex.com ---- www.hbsna.com
Rev. 5/03 5M CUT L30036
GO THE DISTANCE.
KINGPIN
REMOVABLE KINGPIN
SPECIFICATIONS
HOLLAND HITCH COMPANY
REMOVABLE KINGPINS PROVIDE:
DIMENSIONS
•
Multiple kingpin settings to vary weight distribution
and overall length.
•
A tapered design for secure installation and
quick removal to prevent kingpin damage
(as may occur with folding goosenecks) and
to ease kingpin replacement.
This series of kingpins is specifically designed for
gooseneck, drop-frame and flatbed trailers but can be
used for van and enclosed trailers if access is provided
through the floor.
5.00˝ SQ.
4.88˝
5.38˝
3.12˝
STANDARD FEATURES INCLUDE:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Kingpins of AISI 4140 steel, quenched and tempered
for wear and strength.
Tapered engagement with the housing for firm,
secure installation.
Locking dowel pin to prevent rotation – an aid in
installation and removal.
Two models - one for standard 2˝ SAE kingpins and
one which is convertible from 2˝ to 3.5˝.
Housings with protective plugs are sold separately
and are available for multiple positions.
Bolster plate thicknesses are designed into the
housings as shown below. Only one kingpin of
the proper configuration is required if replacement
is necessary.
BOLSTER PLATE
THICKNESS
4.00˝ DIA.
2˝ KINGPIN
WITH HOUSING
HOUSING
WITH PLUG
BOLSTER
PLATE
KP-0427
KP-0428
KP-0412
KP-0429
KP-0438
KP-0439
KP-0440
KP-0441
0.25˝
0.31˝
0.38˝
0.50˝
6.00˝ SQ.
5.38˝
4.88˝
3.12˝
BOLSTER PLATE
THICKNESS
5.00˝ DIA.
XL-KP103-01
2˝ KINGPIN
WITH HOUSING
31/2˝ KINGPIN
WITH HOUSING
HOUSING
WITH PLUG
BOLSTER
PLATE
KP-0413
KP-0414
KP-0444
0.38˝
KP-0432
KP-0433
KP-0445
0.50˝
1
HOUSING INSTALLATION
RECOMMENDATIONS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
PARTS BREAKDOWN
The housing is designed for welded installation into
the upper coupler assembly. The design of the upper
coupler is the responsibility of the installer and must
be consistent with the type and capacity of trailer and
design loads for the upper coupler.
The housing is manufactured from AISI 1020 steel
which is readily weldable; a low-hydrogen welding
process is recommended. The “square” external shape
of the housing will aid the attachment of required
bracing or cross members.
Since the tapered hole in the housing is accurately
machined, a welding procedure which alternates
from side to side and which minimizes heat buildup
is recommended to avoid distortion. The hole should
also be protected from weld spatter during coupler
construction.
An access opening must be provided through
the trailer floor for field removal and installation
of the kingpin.
XB-0437
XA-0250
XB-0249
.25˝
.31˝
.38˝
.50˝
XA-0421
XA-0422
XA-0408
XA-0423
XB-0165
XA-0407
XB-0437
XA-0404
KINGPIN INSTALLATION INSTRUCTIONS:
WARNING
1.
2.
3.
XA-0403
The trailer must be securely
chocked and supported to
prevent the trailer from rolling
or falling onto the installer.
XB-0165
.38˝ XA-0410
.50˝ XA-0426
Clean all foreign material from the housing and the
kingpin. The application of a VERY THIN coating of
rust preventative lubricant to the kingpin prior to
installation will aid subsequent removal.
Insert the kingpin into the housing, aligning the dowel
pin in the housing with the key slot on the kingpin.
Hold in place while the washer and nut are installed
by a helper from above.
Tighten the nut to a minimum of 300 foot pounds and
install retaining pin through the castellations of the nut.
IMPORTANT
XA-0409 (3.50˝)
XA-0411 (2.00˝)
KINGPIN PLUGS
XB-0418
XA-10031
The kingpin must be checked
periodically during use and
retightened to proper torque
if necessary.
XB-0351
4.
Housing plugs are recommended to minimize
corrosion and contamination when a kingpin is
not installed in the housing. The plug is installed
in a similar manner but is retained with a finger-tight
thumb nut.
These products are covered by Holland’s Commercial
Products Warranty. Holland reserves the right, without
giving prior notice, to change specifications and
dimensions as designs are altered or improved.
XB-0418
XA-10031
XB-0360
Copyright © September 2002 • The Holland Group, Inc.
Holland USA, Inc. Facilities:
Holland International, Inc.
Holland Hitch of Canada, Ltd.
Holland Equipment, Ltd.
Holland Hitch Western, Ltd.
Denmark, SC
Dumas, AR
Holland, MI
Muskegon, MI
Holland, MI
Phone:
616-396-6501
Fax:
616-396-1511
Woodstock, Ontario • Canada
Phone:
519-537-3494
Fax:
800-565-7753
Norwich, Ontario • Canada
Phone:
519-863-3414
Fax:
519-863-2398
Surrey, British Columbia • Canada
Phone:
604-574-7491
Fax:
604-574-0244
Warrenton, MO
Whitehouse Station, NJ
Wylie, TX
Ph: 888-396-6501 Fax: 800-356-3929
2
XL-KP103-01
WHEEL
SERVICE MANUAL
SAFETY AND MAINTENANCE INSTRUCTIONS
JANUARY 2007
heavy duty truck | LIGHT duty truck | TRAILER | BUS | MOTOR HOME
LIMITED WARRANTY
FOR HEAVY DUTY TRUCK, TRUCK TRAILER,
BUS, RV and MOTORHOME WHEELS
(Wheels with bead seat diameters measured in .5 inch
increments and Alcoa tube type wheels)
Alcoa warrants to the original purchaser, from Alcoa or its authorized distributor,
that a new Alcoa aluminum disc heavy duty truck, truck trailer, bus, 19.5-inch and
22.5-inch RV or motorhome wheel is free from defects in material and workmanship.
Alcoa agrees, without charge, to repair or replace a wheel that fails in normal use and
service because of defects in material and workmanship. Truck, truck trailer, DuraFlange® and the Dura-Bright® surface treatment wheels not used in transit service are
warranted for 60 months from the date of manufacture as shown on the wheel except
the Dura-Flange® rim flange treatment is warranted for a period of 24 months. Alcoa
bus mount wheels (10-hole, 11.25 inch bolt circle, 8.670 inch hub bore with 1.22 inch
diameter bolt holes) and other wheels used in transit service are warranted for 120
months from date of manufacture, except the Dura-Bright® surface treatment on bus
and transit service wheels is warranted for a period of 60 months from the date of
manufacture and the Dura-Flange® rim flange treatment is warranted for 24 months.
Satin finish, polished and Dura-Bright® surface treatment 19.5-inch and 22.5-inch RV
and motorhome wheels are warranted for 120 months from the date of manufacture
as shown on the wheel. Alcoa does not warrant and will not repair or replace or make
adjustment with respect to any wheel that has been subjected to misuse or abuse
including the following:
(a) Using a tire that is oversized according to standards recommended by the Tire and
Rim Association, Inc. or other recognized tire and rim agencies such as ETRTO
(Europe) or others;
(b) Loading the wheel beyond the applicable maximum wheel load as specified by
Alcoa;
(c) Inflating beyond the applicable maximum as specified by Alcoa;
(d) Changing the original condition of the wheel by alteration or by subjecting it to
any processing such as welding or straightening.
(e) Accidents, abnormal or severe operating conditions including without limitation
tire fires, brake fires, severe brake system drags or seizures or running with a flat
tire; or
(f) Failure to follow maintenance and other instructions and warnings set forth in the
Alcoa Heavy Duty Wheel Service Manual, Alcoa Technical Bulletins and other
Alcoa literature. Recommended maintenance includes, without limitation, using
proper torque, periodic cleaning, polishing, valve replacement, periodic inspection
for damage, loose lug nuts and rim flange wear inspections and procedures.
(g) Nicks, scratches and other surface blemishes resulting from improper maintenance,
cleaning, road debris, curbing, accident or operation are not warrantable.
(h) Damage due to cleaning with abrasives, abrasive brushes, steel wool, scouring
pads, or strong chemicals (acids or alkaline).
Dura-Bright® Surface Treated Wheels are warranted against:
(a) Filiform corrosion (worm or hair like lines, generally milky in appearance,
underneath surface protective treatment and emanating from damage to the surface
treatment such as nicks, scratches or damage from mounting hardware or wheel
weights)
(b) Blistering due to loss of adhesion of the surface treatment,
(c) Lift off of the surface treatment due to physical damage (nicks, scratches, gouges)
If nicks, dings, scratches or other damage does occur to the Dura-Bright® treatment
that exposes the aluminum underneath, the metal exposed may naturally oxidize,
but any corrosion will be confined to the metal exposed and will not extend into or
underneath the Dura-Bright® treatment.
Normally, any washing materials or chemicals (including mild acid washes) that can
safely be used on a vehicle, its painted surfaces and components, can safely be used on
the Dura-Bright® surface treatment. The Dura-Bright® treatment prevents corrosion
of aluminum wheels and protects their shine. So long as the treatment remains in place
(see comments (g) and (h) above) and is maintained in accordance with the Alcoa
Dura-Bright® Care and Maintenance manual, it is warranted against corrosion. If
corrosion does occur within the treatment warranty period, subject to the limitations
stated above, Alcoa will replace any wheel exhibiting such corrosion.
There is no warranty that the wheel shall be merchantable or fit
for any particular purpose, nor is there any other warranty, express
or implied, except such as is expressly set forth herein.
Alcoa shall not be liable for any incidental or consequential
damages for any breach of warranty, its liability and the purchaser's
exclusive remedy being limited to repair or replacement of the wheel
as stated in this limited warranty.
Alcoa Wheel Service Manual. This limited warranty should be used in conjunction with
the Alcoa Wheel Service Manual and the Alcoa Dura-Bright® Wheel Finish Care and
Maintenance Manual. The Wheel Service Manual contains important safety information
and warnings, and failure to read and understand this information may result in serious
injury or death. The limited warranty is included with the Wheel Service Manual, but
may appear elsewhere. If you do not have copies of the Wheel Service Manual you
may obtain copies free of charge from Alcoa Wheel Products, 1600 Harvard Avenue,
Cleveland, Ohio 44105, (800) 242-9898 and on the web at www.alcoawheels.com.
WARNING Wheels that are not properly
installed or maintained may not work properly.
Failure to follow proper wheel installation or
maintenance practices may result in injury or
WARNING death.
Follow the proper wheel installation and
maintenance practices as contained in this Alcoa Service
Manual. For additional copies of the manual and other useful
items listed below, available free of charge, or for the most
recent updates, contact Alcoa Wheel Products at 1-800-2429898 option 1 or on the web at www.alcoawheels.com.
To obtain information on free training on proper installation and
maintenance procedures, contact Alcoa Wheel Products at (800)
242-9898 option 1 or on the web at www.alcoawheels.com.
Important information available free from Alcoa:
Alcoa Wheel Service Manuals
• Disc Wheel Service Manual
• Flat Base Wheel Service Manual for Tube Type Tires
Videos
• Safe Wheel and Tire Changing Practices
for Heavy Duty Trucks and Buses
• Maintaining Your Edge Rim Flange Maintenance
• Simple Facts about Hub-Piloted Wheel System
Maintenance
Maintenance Charts
• Zipper Rupture Published by RMA
• Tire Information Service Bulletin Published by RMA
• Heavy & Medium Truck & Trailer Torque Specifications
Published by WRIS
• Demounting & Mounting Procedures for Truck/Bus
Tires Published by RMA
• Multipiece Rim Matching Chart Published by OSHA
• Mounting/Demounting Instructions for Alcoa
Aluminum 19.5" RW Published by Alcoa Wheel Products
• Wheels and Steel Disc 19.5" Wheels
Published by Alcoa Wheel Products
Alcoa Rim Flange Safety Material
• Maintaining Alcoa Aluminum Wheels
Rim Flange Wear Instructions
• Rim Flange Wear Gauge
• Alcoa Technical Bulletin (dated Nov 10, 1997)
Rim Flange Wear
Table of Contents
How to use
this manual
This manual is written in a style
called structured text.
Throughout the manual you
will find numbers which look
like this (See Section 3-1). These
numbers are cross references to
other sections of the manual. The
numbers (3-1) refer to section
3, subtopic 1. You will find the
section number and subtopic
number under the heading
in each section.
▼ Section Number
Page Number ▼
1 Safety ................................................................................................................................2
2 Wheel Specifications.............................................................................................................3
3 Inspection and Maintenance..................................................................................................6
3-1
3-2
3-3
3-4
3-5
3-6
3-7
3-8
3-9
3-10
3-11
3-12
3-13
3-14
Inspect thoroughly and frequently..........................................................................................................6
Wheel alteration......................................................................................................................................6
Excessive heat damage...........................................................................................................................7
Dimension checks...................................................................................................................................8
Cracked or damaged wheel checks.........................................................................................................9
Mounting area.......................................................................................................................................10
Corrosion..............................................................................................................................................11
Stud holes..............................................................................................................................................12
Disc area...............................................................................................................................................12
Rim area................................................................................................................................................13
Gutter area.............................................................................................................................................13
Rim flange wear....................................................................................................................................14
Maintenance against corrosion (non Dura-Bright® surfaced treated wheels).....................................19
Dura-Bright® surface treated wheels cleaning and maintenance........................................................19
4 Alcoa 15° Drop Center Wheel for Tubeless Tires...............................................................20
4-1
4-2
4-3
4-4
4-5
4-6
Recommendations for mounting tubeless tires.....................................................................................20
Mounting tubeless tires.........................................................................................................................21
Mounting tires on reduced well wheels................................................................................................22
Rim width to tire matching...................................................................................................................23
Recommendations for demounting tubeless tires.................................................................................23
Demounting of tubeless tires................................................................................................................24
5 Wheel Installation................................................................................................................25
5-1 Recommendations for proper installation of wheels............................................................................25
5-2 Wheel cap nuts......................................................................................................................................26
5-3 How to measure stud standout..............................................................................................................27
5-4 Stud located ball seats are spherical.....................................................................................................27
5-5 Single and wide base wheel, stud located, ball seat mounting............................................................27
5-6 Dualed wheels, stud located, ball seat mounting.................................................................................28
5-7 Dualed wheels, inner steel/outer aluminum stud located, ball seat mounting.....................................30
5-8 Tightening stud located, ball seat cap nuts...........................................................................................31
5-9Single, dualed and wide base wheels, hub piloted mounting, two-piece flange nuts..........................33
5-10 Tightening hub piloted mounting, two-piece flange nuts.....................................................................34
5-11 Incorrect assemblies..............................................................................................................................36
6 Proper Torque, Wheel Identification, Valves and Surface Maintenance.............................37
6-1
6-2
6-3
6-4
6-5
6-6
Avoid abuse...........................................................................................................................................37
Keep wheel nuts tight...........................................................................................................................37
Balance weights....................................................................................................................................38
Owner/in-service identification............................................................................................................38
Valves....................................................................................................................................................38
Identification.........................................................................................................................................39
7 OSHA Regulations...............................................................................................................40
7-1
OSHA Regulations................................................................................................................................40
8 Glossary of Common Terms................................................................................................45
8-1
8-2
Glossary of Common Terms.................................................................................................................45
Wheel measurement..............................................................................................................................47
9 Conversion Tables................................................................................................................48
9-1Inch Fraction, Decimal and Millimeter Equivalents Chart (Up to 1 Inch)..........................................48
9-2 Conversion Factors...............................................................................................................................49
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
1
Safety
Safe service practices
are a matter of life
and death.
1-1
WARNING An inflated wheel and tire assembly contains enough air pressure to cause an
explosive separation.
Unsafe handling or failure to follow approved mounting and demounting procedures can
WARNING lead to serious injury or death.
Study, understand and follow the procedures contained in this manual.
Safety is serious business. All tire shops must know and follow OSHA work regulations ... no matter
how small the shop.
Safety is everybody’s business. Do not attempt to service any wheel assembly without proper training.
Proper equipment is important. Be sure you have the recommended tools and equipment on hand and
use them according to manufacturer’s instructions.
Tubeless wheels and tires require equal care. Even though tubeless assemblies have fewer parts than
multi-piece wheels, they still require respect and proper handling.
Pay particular attention during crucial steps:
• Removal of tire and wheel assemblies from vehicles
• Demounting tire from wheel
• Inflation of tire
• Handling and storing of inflated assembly
Safety and service information is readily available. Wheel, tire and service equipment manufacturers
offer service manuals and other training materials. Stay up to date on proper procedures and keep
current instructional materials handy in the shop. Study safety and service information and use it on
the job.
Statistics show that in most
industries, at worst, only one
in 1000 serious accidents
result in a fatality. But when
the accident involves tires
and wheels, statistically, one
in every 10 serious accidents
is a fatality. That's 100 times
more often than in most
other industries.
2
Specifications
Alcoa aluminum disc wheel mounting dimensions are consistent with SAE Recommended Practice J694 February 2001. Part numbers listed for all sizes are satin finish
(the last digit of the six-digit numerical part number is “0”). Polished finishes are indicated by changing the last digit of the part number listed to one of the following:
For polished outside only, part number should end in “1.” For polished inside only, part number should end in “2.” For polished both sides, part number should end in
“3.” Only for item numbers marked with a single asterisk (*), part numbers ending in “9” are inset position wheels satin finished (see footnote).
Dura-Bright® surface treated wheels are identified by using the regular numerical part number and the addition of “DB” at the end. Finishes are indicated by changing
the last numerical digit of the part number to one of the following. For brushed both sides, the number is “0.” For buffed outside only, the number is “1.” For buffed
inside only, the number is “2.” For buffed both sides, the number is “3.” Only the wheel part numbers with available surface finishes having the “DB” suffix are available
with the Dura-Bright® option. Dura-Flange® wheels are identified by using the regular numerical part number and the addition of “DF” at the end. Only the wheel part
numbers with available surface finishes having the “DF” suffix are available with the Dura-Flange® option.
Note: The Dura-Bright® surface treatment and the Dura-Flange® options are not currently available together on the same wheel.
2
TUBELESS WHEELS (round hand holes) ENGLISH UNITS
Item no.
Wheel description
Maximum
wheel load1 Wheel
in lbs.
wt. lbs.
Outset
inches3
Inset
inches
Maximum
inflation
PSI—cold
Valve
stem
Part
number2
Available
Finishes4
Stabilizer
Front outer
cap nuts
Rear outer
cap nuts
Six-hole, stud located, ball seat mounting—8.750 in. bolt circle, 6.495 in. hub bore, 1.219 in. bolt hole diameter
DiscMate™: N/A Lug nut covers: 150 Hub covers: N/A Rear inner cap nuts Al/Al: 5988 L&R Rear inner cap nuts Al/Stl: 7896 L&R
1
17.5x6.75-15°DC
5070
32
5.55
4.72
125
TR543C
663170
0, 2
2125
3/4" Stud 5995 L&R,
1-1/8" Stud 5996 L&R
5996 L&R
10-hole, stud located, ball seat mounting—8.750 in. bolt circle, 6.495 in. hub bore, 1.219 in. bolt hole diameter
DiscMate™: N/A Lug nut covers: 150 Hub covers: N/A Rear inner cap nuts Al/Al: 5988 L&R Rear inner cap nuts Al/Stl: 7896 L&R
2
17.5x6.75-15°DC
5070
31
5.55
4.72
125
TR543C
663070
0, 2
2125
3/4" Stud 5995 L&R,
1-1/8" Stud 5996 L&R
5996 L&R
10-hole, stud located, ball seat mounting—11.25 in. bolt circle, 8.73 in. hub bore, 1.219 in. bolt hole diameter
DiscMate™: 3/4 " - 016000, 1-1/8" 017000 Lug nut covers:150 Hub covers: Front - 076015, Hub Covers Rear - 077015
Rear inner cap nuts for wheel P/Ns 883110, 893000, and 983120 only: Al/Al: 5988 L&R Al/Stl: 7896 L&R All other wheel P/Ns: N/A
3
22.5x8.25-15°DC
7200
53
6.66
5.68
120
TR545D
883110
0, 1, 2, 0DB,
1DB, 2DB
2225
3/4" Stud 5995 L&R,
1-1/8" Stud 5996 L&R
4
22.5x9.00-15°DC
9000
60
6.94
5.94
130
TR543C
893000
0, 1, 2
2127
3/4" Stud 5995 L&R,
1-1/8" Stud 5996 L&R
5
22.5x12.25-15°DC
11,400
62
.56
Reversible
—
130
TR543E
823000
0, 2
-
3/4" Stud 5995 L&R,
1-1/8" Stud 5996 L&R
*6
22.5x12.25-15°DC
11,400
66
3.88
2.76
130
TR543E outset
TR545E inset
823050
0, 1, 2, 9
-
3/4" Stud 5995 L&R,
1-1/8" Stud 5996 L&R
7
22.5x12.25-15°DC
11,000
70
5.84
4.68
130
TR545E 823060A
0, 1
-
3/4" Stud 5995 L&R,
1-1/8" Stud 5996 L&R
8
22.5x14.00-15°DC
12,800
71
2.0
—
130
TR543E outset
841100
0, 2
-
3/4" Stud 5995 L&R,
1-1/8" Stud 5996 L&R
9
24.5x8.25-15°DC
7200
59
6.6
5.59
120
TR545D
983120
0, 1, 2
-
3/4" Stud 5995 L&R,
1-1/8" Stud 5996 L&R
††
Eight-hole, hub piloted mounting—275mm bolt circle, 221.1mm hub bore, 26.75mm bolt hole diameter (use two-piece flange nuts)
DiscMate™: 014000 Lug nut covers: 181 Hub covers: N/A Rear inner cap nuts: N/A
††
10
22.5x7.50-15°DC
7300
53
6.28
5.44
120
TR545D
873400
0, 1, 2, 0DB,
1DB, 2DB
2225
39874
11
22.5x8.25-15°DC
7400
50
6.66
5.82
130
TR544D
883440
0, 1, 2, 0DF,
1DF, 2DF
8864
39874
12
22.5x14.00-15°DC
12,800
71
2.0
—
130
TR543E outset
841400
0, 2
-
39874
13
24.5x8.25-15°DC
7300
62
6.6
5.77
120
TR509
983400
0, 1, 2
2245
39874
Continued on the next page.
TUBELESS WHEELS (round hand holes) ENGLISH UNITS — continued
Item no.
Wheel description
Maximum
wheel load1 Wheel
in lbs.
wt. lbs.
Outset
inches3
Inset
inches
Maximum
inflation
PSI—cold
Valve
stem
Part
number2
Available
Finishes4
Stabilizer
Front outer
cap nuts
Rear outer
cap nuts
10-hole, hub piloted mounting—285.75mm bolt circle, 220.1mm hub bore, 26.75mm bolt hole diameter (use two-piece flange nuts)
DiscMate™: 011000 Lug nut covers: 181 Hub covers: Front - 076018 or 076085‡ Rear - 077018 or 077085‡ Rear inner cap nuts: N/A
14
22.5x7.50-15°DC
7300
53
6.28
5.44
120
TR545D
873600
0, 1, 2, 3, 0DB, 2225
1DB, 2DB, 3DB
39874
15
22.5x8.25-15°DC
7400
48
6.66
5.81
130
TR544D
883640
0, 1, 2, 3, 0DB,
1DB, 2DB, 3DB, 8864
0DF, 1DF, 2DF,
3DF
39874
16
22.5x8.25-15°DC
8000
55
6.66
5.69
130
TR543C
885600
0, 1, 2, 0DF,
1DF, 2DF
-
39874
17
22.5x9.00-15°DC
9000
60
6.94
6.04
130
TR544D
893640
0, 1, 2, 3,
0DB, 1DB,
2DB, 3DB
8964
39874
18
22.5x9.00-15°DC
10,000
53
—
3.12
130
TR545E
893630 0, 1, 0DB, 1DB
-
39874
**19
22.5x10.50-15°DC
10,500
68
6.61
5.5
130
TR543
803600 0, 1, 0DB, 1DB
-
39874
—
130
TR543E
823600
0, 2
-
39874
2
§
20
22.5x12.25-15°DC
12,300
63
.56
Reversible
*21
22.5x12.25-15°DC
11,400
66
3.88
2.75
130
TR543E outset
TR545E inset
823650
0, 1, 2, 0DB,
1DB, 2DB,
0DF, 1DF, 2DF,
9, 9DB, 9DF
-
39874
22
22.5x12.25-15°DC
11,000
71
5.8
4.68
130
TR542
823640
0, 1, 0DB,
1DB, 0DF,
1DF
-
39874
*23
22.5x13.00-15°DC
12,300
73
3.5
2.38
130
TR543E outset
TR545E inset
833650
0, 1, 2, 9
-
39874
24
22.5x13.00-15°DC
11,000
74
6.42
5.3
130
TR542
833640
0, 1
-
39874
-
39874
-
39874
††
25
22.5x14.00-15°DC
12,800
71
2.0
—
130
TR543E outset
841600
0, 2, 0DB,
1DB, 2DB
††
26
22.5x14.00-15°DC
12,800
71
1.13
0
130
TR545E outset
TR543E inset
841610
0, 1, 2, 9,
0DB, 1DB,
2DB, 9DB
27
24.5x8.25-15°DC
7400
56
6.6
5.73
130
TR545D
983640
28
24.5x8.25-15°DC
8000
65
6.6
5.63
130
TR545D
985600
§
0, 1, 2, 3, 0DB,
1DB, 2DB, 3DB, 8864
0DF, 1DF, 2DF,
3DF
0, 1, 2, 0DF,
1DF, 2DF
-
39874
-
39874
10-hole, hub piloted bus mounting—11.25 in. bolt circle, 8.670 in. hub bore, 1.219 in. bolt hole diameter (use two-piece flange nuts)
DiscMate™: 015000 Lug nut cover: 182 Hub covers: N/A Rear inner cap nuts: N/A
0, 3, 0DB,
3DB, 0DF,
3DF
29
22.5x8.25-15°DC
7300
53
6.66
5.82
120
TR545D
883610
-
**30
24.5x8.25-15°DC
7300
62
6.6
5.77
120
TR545D
983610 0, 3, 0DB, 3DB 2245
-
-
-
-
Front outer
cap nuts
Rear outer
cap nuts
TUBELESS WHEELS (round hand holes) ENGLISH UNITS (METRIC UNITS)
Item no.
Wheel description
Maximum
wheel load1 Wheel
in lbs.
wt. lbs.
(kg)
(kg)
Outset
inches3
(mm)
Inset
inches
(mm)
Maximum
inflation
PSI—cold
(KPa)
Valve
stem
Part
number2
Available
Finishes4
Stabilizer
Eight-hole, hub piloted mounting—275mm bolt circle, 221.1mm hub bore, 24.75mm bolt hole diameter (use two-piece flange nuts)
DiscMate™: 014000 Lug nut covers: 181 Hub covers: N/A Rear inner cap nuts: N/A
31
17.5x6.75-15°DC
5515
(2500)
29.5
(13.4)
5.55
(141)
4.72
(120)
142
(978)
TR543C
663470
0, 2
2125
39874
32
19.5x6.75RW-15°DC
5515
(2500)
37.0
(16.8)
5.55
(141)
4.72
(120)
142
(978)
TR543C
764490
0, 1, 2, 3
2126
39874
33
19.5x7.50RW-15°DC
6615
(3000)
37.7
(17.1)
6.10
(155)
5.28
(134)
142
(978)
TR543C
773400
0, 1, 2, 3
2126
39874
Continued on the next page.
TUBELESS WHEELS (round hand holes) ENGLISH UNITS (METRIC UNITS) — continued
Item no.
Wheel description
Maximum
wheel load1 Wheel
in lbs.
wt. lbs.
(kg)
(kg)
Outset
inches3
(mm)
Inset
inches
(mm)
Maximum
inflation
PSI—cold
(KPa)
Valve
stem
Part
number2
Available
Finishes4
Stabilizer
Front outer
cap nuts
Rear outer
cap nuts
10-hole, hub piloted mounting—225mm bolt circle, 176.1mm hub bore, 26.50mm bolt hole diameter (use two-piece flange nuts)
DiscMate™: N/A Lug nut covers: 181 Hub covers: N/A Rear inner cap nuts: N/A
34
17.5x6.00-15°DC
5515
(2500)
28.0
(12.7)
5.24
(133)
4.49
(114)
142
(976)
TR543D
663200
0, 1, 2
2125
39874
10-hole, hub piloted mounting—285.75mm bolt circle, 220.1mm hub bore, 26.75mm bolt hole diameter (use two-piece flange nuts)
DiscMate™: 011000 Lug nut covers: 181 Hub covers: Front - 076018 or 076085‡ Rear - 077018 or 077085‡ Rear inner cap nuts: N/A
35
19.5x7.50RW-15°DC
6615
(3000)
37.7
(17.1)
6.10
(155)
5.28
(134)
142
(978)
TR543C
773600
0, 1, 2, 3
2126
2
39874
10-hole, hub piloted mounting—335mm bolt circle, 281.2mm hub bore, 26.75mm bolt hole diameter (use two-piece flange nuts)
DiscMate™: 013000 Lug nut covers: 181 Hub covers for P/N 833580 only: 5811 polished with view port All other P/Ns: N/A Rear inner cap nuts: N/A
†36
22.5x8.25-15°DC
8047
(3650)
52.0
(23.6)
6.57
(167)
5.70
(145)
138
(952)
70MS7
886520 0, 3, 0DB, 3DB
-
39874
†37
22.5x9.00-15°DC
9094
(4125)
54.2
(24.6)
6.89
(175)
6.02
(153)
142
(978)
70MS7
896520 0, 3, 0DB, 3DB
-
39874
‡‡38
22.5x13.00-15°DC
12,800
(5806)
76.0
(34.5)
—
6.12
(155)
130
(896)
TR543
833580
0, 1
-
39874
39
24.5x8.25-15°DC
8500
(3855)
62.6
6.79
5.81
(28.4) (172.5) (147.5)
120
(827)
TR544D
983500
0, 3
-
39874
10-hole, hub piloted mounting—335mm bolt circle, 281.2mm hub bore, 32.87mm bolt hole diameter (use two-piece sleeved cap nuts)
DiscMate™: 018000 Lug nut covers: N/A Hub covers: N/A Rear inner cap nuts: N/A
†40
22.5x8.25-15°DC
(32mm bolt hole)
8047
(3650)
52.0
(23.6)
6.57
(167)
5.70
(145)
138
(952)
70MS7
886510 0, 3, 0DB, 3DB
-
4306.32
4307.32
†41
22.5x9.00-15°DC
(32mm bolt hole)
9094
(4125)
54.2
(24.6)
6.89
(175)
6.02
(153)
142
(978)
70MS7
896510 0, 3, 0DB, 3DB
-
4306.32
4307.32
Six-hole, hub piloted mounting—205mm bolt circle, 160.2mm hub bore, 21.5mm bolt hole dia. (use two-piece flange nuts)
DiscMate™: N/A Lug nut covers: N/A Hub covers: N/A Rear inner cap nuts: N/A
42
17.5x6.00-15°DC
4000
(1814)
29.6
(13.4)
5.0
(127)
4.25
(108)
110
(758)
60MS27
664220
0, 1
-
-
-
Do not exceed maximum wheel load. Customer must compare OEM vehicle load rating to maximum wheel load rating. Do not overinflate. Refer to tire manufacturer's recommendation for proper tire pressure.
Before mounting the tire, perform a wheel fitment check to ensure proper clearance from any obstructions.
1
Capacity ratings as dual or single in highway service — bias-ply or radial. Load ratings in lbs. for items 31 through 42 rounded to nearest multiple of 5.
2
Part numbers listed for all sizes are satin finish (the last digit of the six-digit numerical part number is “0”). Polished finishes are indicated by changing the “0” with any of the suffixes in the adjacent column
(Available Finishes). Some wheels may bear part numbers not shown in this manual. Before servicing these wheels, contact your Alcoa wheel representative for proper load, inflation and part compatibility information.
3
Outset (positive)/inset (negative) — The distance from the rim centerline to the mounting face of the wheel. Inset (negative) places the rim centerline inboard of the wheel mounting face
and outset (positive) places the rim centerline outboard of the wheel mounting face (½ dual spacing = offset).
4
The Dura-Bright® surface treatment and the Dura-Flange® options are not currently available together on the same wheel.
* Part numbers should end in “1” or “9” when used in an inset position and “0” or “2” when used in an outset position.
†
Indicates European New Generation Wheels.
††
Check with vehicle manufacturer or axle manufacturer before retrofitting to outset wide base wheels to insure compatibility with axle and wheel end components. P/Ns 841100, 841400, and 841600 are not
recommended for use on “N” spindle trailer axles.
®
‡
Hub cover system kits P/N 076085 (front) and P/N 077085 (rear) contain screw-on Hug-A-Lug cap nut covers and require a minimum of four threads of the stud to extend above the tightened cap nut for use.
‡‡
The minimum stud standout required for P/N 833580 is 2.375 inches (60.3mm) when using wheel nut P/N 39874. Taller nuts will require more stud standout.
§
P/Ns 885600 and 985600 are Alcoa Severe Service™ Wheels.
** Effective April 1, 2007, the DB Finish Option will fall under the Non-Stock Policy.
Note: Dura-Bright® wheels produced after November 2002 have Alcoa wheel part numbers ending with “DB” (earlier wheels have part numbers ending in a 4 or 7) with bead seat diameters measured in
0.5-inch increments.
Specifications are subject to change without notice. To request a copy of the current Alcoa Specifications Data
brochure for aluminum wheels for trucks, trailers and buses, call toll-free 800-242-9898, option 1. To view online,
go to www.alcoawheels.com. The Spec Data brochure contains current part number availability and complete
specifications such as wheel dimensions, load rating, wheel weight, outset and inset, inflation pressure
and accessory part numbers.
Alcoa provides training, live or on video, on proper wheel installation and maintenance practices free of charge.
Contact Alcoa Wheel and Forged Products at 1-800-242-9898, option 4.
Note: Dura-Bright® wheels produced after November 2002 have Alcoa wheel part numbers ending with “DB” (earlier
wheels have part numbers ending in a 4 or 7). Not all Alcoa wheels are available with the Dura-Bright® surface treatment.
Note: The Dura-Bright® surface treatment and the Dura-Flange® options are not currently available together on the
same wheel. Dura-Bright® is available in all polishing finishes, Dura-Flange® is only available in satin finish.
3
Inspection
Inspect thoroughly
and frequently
3-1
3
Safe operation requires thorough examination of wheels and attaching hardware, at frequent intervals,
both on and off the vehicle.
Wheels that have been in service need to be inspected at regular intervals to assure proper and safe
performance.
It isn't always possible to predict exactly when the useful life of a wheel will end. Wheels will eventually wear out. But generally, older wheels and wheels operating in extreme conditions should be examined more frequently for obvious signs that they should be removed from service.
Examine all exposed areas frequently. Clean wheels and look for cracks or other damage. Also check
the inner dualed wheel when the outer wheel is removed.
During tire changes, thoroughly examine the entire wheel. Pay particular attention to the rim contour
and the surfaces of the rim.
Hidden damage
Do not exceed maximum wheel load. Customer must compare OEM vehicle load rating to maximum wheel load rating.
Do not overinflate. Use the tire manufacturer’s recommended pressure, but under no circumstances
exceed cold tire pressures listed in Section 2 Specifications of this manual. Before mounting the tire,
perform a wheel fitment check to insure proper clearance from any obstructions.
Some forms of wheel damage can be hidden beneath the tire, so whenever a tire is removed,
thoroughly examine the complete wheel. Remove all grease and road dirt. Use a wire brush or steel
wool to remove rubber from the bead seats.
Check mounting holes for the enlargement and elongation which can occur if the cap nuts are not kept
tight (see Section 3-8). Dirt streaks radiating from stud holes may indicate loose cap nuts.
Wheel alteration
3-2
Alcoa does not approve any form of alteration to wheels except minor cosmetic buffing for appearance
purposes or sanding in the rim flange area (see Section 3-12).
Wheels should not be altered by welding, brazing or other heat application in an attempt to repair or
straighten a wheel. Use of adapter plates or bead-locks are not approved on Alcoa wheels.
Wheels should not be painted or otherwise coated in any way that may interfere with the mounting
surfaces.
Any wheel that show signs of alteration should be removed from service and scrapped.
WARNING Welding, brazing or otherwise heating any area of an Alcoa aluminum wheel
will weaken the wheel. Weakened or damaged wheels can lead to an explosive separation
of tires and wheels or wheel failure on the vehicle.
WARNING Explosive separations of tires and wheels or wheel failure on the vehicle could cause
injuries or death.
Never attempt to weld, braze or heat any surface of an Alcoa aluminum wheel.
Excessive
heat damage
WARNING Excessive heat from fire, brake malfunction, wheel bearing failure or other
sources may weaken the metal and cause the wheel/tire assembly to separate explosively.
Exploding wheel/tire assembly can cause death or serious injury.
3-3
WARNING
Immediately and permanently remove from service any wheel that has been exposed to
excessive heat.
Inspect for exposure to excessive heat. A wheel that has been subjected to excessive heat may appear
charred or burned. A wheel that has been exposed to excessive heat may appear to be in good condition if it has been cleaned. Do not use any wheel that has been overheated regardless of appearance.
Even if a wheel does not appear to be obviously burned, check the valve hole, labels, tire bead, brake
drum and DiscMate™ for evidence of charring, melting, blistering or burning.
3
A wheel may discolor from excessive heat. It can appear a dull grayish color and will not polish to a
bright finish as a typical wheel would.
Any wheel run with a flat tire longer than the time necessary to immediately pull off the road should
be checked for excessive heat damage.
A blistered, charred, blackened or cracked-looking
logo decal on an Alcoa wheel may indicate that the
wheel has been exposed to excessive heat.
Inspect all axle end components for
signs of exposure to excessive heat. Pay
particular attention to brake drums (or
discs), DiscMate™ wheel liners and tire
beads. If these components show signs
of over heating, the entire assembly,
including the wheel, should be replaced.
Dimension
checks
3-4
3
Open side circumference check
WARNING Wheels that have been subjected to high pressure tire and rim
separation, run flat, excessive heat or other physical damage may no longer have
­sufficient dimension and contour to retain tire bead while under pressure.
WARNING
Rims that lack proper dimension and contour can lead to explosive ­separation of tire
and rim, causing injury or death.
Follow dimension check procedures described in this section during each wheel
inspection.
Photo #1 shows the
carpenter’s square
even on both bead
seats.
Photo #2 shows an
undersized wheel
that you can clearly
place a .020 card
between the square
and the wheel.
Check all wheels at each tire change for proper contour of the open side of the rim. Place the long leg
of a carpenter’s square across the center of the disc side of the wheel. Extend the short leg across both
rim flanges of the wheel as shown above. Repeat this process at four equidistant points around the
wheel.
The short leg should touch both rim flanges at each point. If a distance greater than the thickness
of a credit card appears between the short leg and the rim flange, the wheel should be removed from
service and scrapped.
The circumference of the bead seat on the open side of the wheel should be checked with each
tire change. The open side is the side opposite the disc face. In the case of center flange wide base
wheels, or wheels with insets less than 3 inches, both rim flanges should be checked. Measure the
circumference of the bead seat on the open side (see illustration below) with a ball tape. Ball tapes
used for measuring wheel circumference can be purchased from the Tire and Rim Association, Inc.,
175 Montrose West Avenue, Copley, Ohio 44321. (330) 666-8121 or at www.us-tra.org.
If the circumference of the bead seat does not match the
required dimension as ­indicated by the ball tape, remove the
wheel from service.
Any wheel known to have been run with a flat tire or operated
under abnormal ­conditions should be checked before continued
service. If a ball tape is unavailable, roll the unmounted wheel
without a tire several revolutions over a smooth, flat, level,
clean ­surface. Any deviation from rolling in a straight line is
an indication of a potential lack of proper dimension and contour. Remove the wheel from service until it can be properly
checked with a ball tape.
Continued on the next page
Dimension checks
(continued)
Tire wear or ride problems
If you experience tire wear or ride problems it may be helpful to check radial run out. Remove
the wheel from the vehicle, deflate and remove the tire (see Section 4-5, for recommendations and
instructions for demounting tubeless tires).
Remount the wheel on the vehicle without the tire. Be sure to follow proper mounting procedures to
assure the wheel is well centered on the hub. Place a dial indicator as illustrated below to trace the bead
seats of the wheel. Rotate the wheel noting the amount of variation shown on the dial indicator. Note:
Alcoa aluminum wheels should be tested for radial run out only at the bead seat surface. A total indicator reading of .040 inches is acceptable.
3
Tire wear can also be caused by improperly seated tires. Inspect the tire for proper seating on the wheel.
The tire beads may not be seated properly. If so, remove the wheel from the vehicle, deflate and break
the bead seats (see Section 4-5 for recommendations and instructions for demounting tubeless tires).
Adequately lubricate the bead seats and properly reseat the tire beads. Reinflate the wheel in a safety
cage or other suitable restraint (refer to OSHA rule 1910.177, paragraph b, see Section 7).
Cracked or
damaged wheel
checks
WARNING Cracked or damaged wheels may cause wheels to fail or come off the
vehicle while the vehicle is moving.
WARNING
Wheels that fail or come off the vehicle while it is moving can cause ­serious injury or
death.
Immediately remove cracked or damaged wheels from service.
Visually inspect wheels for cracks or damage according to Section 3, Inspection and Maintenance.
Remove wheels from service with known or suspected damage.
Mounting area
Stud hole cracks are usually caused by improper torquing (see Sections 5-8, and 6-2), excessive loading or insufficient mounting flange support by the hub or brake drum. Remove wheel from service.
3-6
3
Shown below are stud hole cracks emanating from stud hole to stud hole. Causes are: undersized
diameter of wheel support surface (see specifications on next page), support surface not flat, incorrect
attachment parts (see Section 4-12) and insufficient torque (see Sections 5-8, 5-11, 6-2). Remove
wheel from service.
Support surface should be flat to the diameter recommended on the chart on the following page.
Inspect the hub/drum
contact area thoroughly
for cracks or other damage.
10
Mounting area
(continued)
Corrosion
3-7
Support surface diameters
Support surface should be flat to the diameter recommended on the chart below:
Number
Number of
of Boltns
Bolts
Bolt Circle
Bolt
Circle
Mounting Type
Type
Mounting
Backup Diameter
Diameter
Backup
Thread
Size
Thread
Size
10
11.25 inch
U.S. Stud pilot
13.2-13.5 in.
.750/1.125 in.
10
285.75mm
Hub pilot
13.2-13.4 in.
22mm
10
335mm
Hub pilot
15.0-15.2 in.
22mm
8
275mm
U.S. Stud pilot
13.2-13.5 in.
22mm
8
275mm
ISO Hub pilot
12.4-12.6 in.
20mm
3
Certain environments can lead to corrosion. Some of these are: salt, magnesium chloride and
calcium chloride compounds used for snow removal and highly alkaline materials. If the air
used to fill tubeless tires, or the tire itself, is not dry, the areas of the wheel under the tire can
corrode severely.
Bead seat and valve stem
corrosion are often caused
by entrapped moisture. Mild
corrosion should be removed
thoroughly by wire brush and
the rim protected with nonwater-based tire lubricant (see
Section 4-1). Remove any severely
corroded wheel from service.
Hub bore with severe corrosion. Remove any severely
corroded wheel from service
!
caution
Hub bore gauge with severe corrosion. Remove any
severely corroded wheel from service
CAUTION The use of liquid tire balancers or sealants in Alcoa wheels may
cause extremely rapid corrosion of the wheel rim surface.
Severely corroded wheels are unsuitable for service. Alcoa wheels corroded by
the use of liquid tire balancers or sealants will not be replaced under the Alcoa
limited warranty.
11
Stud holes
3-8
If wheels are run loose, both stud located wheels and hub piloted wheels can be damaged.
Look for wallowed out or elongated ball seats on stud located wheels. On hub piloted wheels
look for elongated stud holes. Over torquing can lead to damaged ball seats on stud located
wheels and can damage the disc surface of hub piloted wheels. Remove damaged wheels
from service.
3
Damaged hub piloted bolt hole. Elongation
from true round (dashed ­circle) indicated by
arrows.
Damaged ball seat contact area. Pounding
of nut on ball seat contact area identified by
arrows.
Disc area
3-9
Inspect both sides of disc area for hand hole cracks. If cracks are found, remove the wheel
from service.
12
Rim area
Check the entire rim area for nicks, gouges and cracks. Loss of air may be caused by cracks in
areas around the valve stem hole. Remove the wheel from service.
3-10
3
Bead seat cracks
Loss of air may be caused by cracks in the bead seat areas around the rim. Remove the wheel
from service if damaged.
3-11
≈
≈
Bead seat cracks are normally caused by overloading of the wheels. If you have this type of
wheel breakage it would be recommended to look into severe service wheels.
13
Rim flange
wear
3-12
3
Irregular wear on the surface of the rim flange is caused by abrasion from the tire chafer and
sidewall. Rim flange wear happens most often in applications with heavy or shifting loads.
If you are experiencing excessive rim flange wear in your operation, consider using Alcoa
Dura-Flange® aluminum wheels. These wheels have been specially treated to significantly
reduce rim flange wear. Remove wheels from service when rim flange wear is excessive.
Excessive wear can be determined using an Alcoa approved wear gauge and procedures
detailed below. If rim flange wear becomes sharp and/or cuts the tire, contact Alcoa for
­recommended maintenance procedures.
Alcoa Rim Flange Wear Gauge Instructions
Rim Acceptable
Rim Acceptable
Rim Gauge
Alcoa P/N 000700
Wheel rim
Rim Gauge
Alcoa P/N 000700
Daylight in this
area indicates
acceptable rim.
Wheel rim
Rim NOT Acceptable
Rim Gauge
Alcoa P/N 000700
Daylight in this
area indicates
acceptable rim.
Wheel rim
No daylight in
this area
indicates
excessive
wear
Remove from service immediately.
To obtain a gauge(s) at no charge and information on free training on proper installation
and maintenance procedures, contact Alcoa Wheel Products at (800) 242-9898 option 1 or
on the web at www.alcoawheels.com.
Determining Rim Flange Wear
STEP 1. Remove the wheel/tire assembly from the vehicle. Remove the valve core to deflate
the tire completely. Remove the tire from the wheel according to OSHA regulations, TMC
recommended practices for tire and rim safety ­procedures and/or the Alcoa Wheel Service
Manual.
Photo 1. Acceptable Rim Flange Wear Condition
14
Rim flange
wear (continued)
STEP 2. After the wheel is separated from the tire, use a ball tape to verify the circumference of the bead seat on the open side is acceptable (see Section 3-4). Check the wheel flange
with the Alcoa Rim Flange Wear Gauge to determine if the wheels must be removed from
service for excessive rim flange wear (photo 1 on previous page).
See Rim Flange Wear Gauge Instructions illustrations on previous page to make this
determination. If you do not have an Alcoa Rim Flange Wear Gauge, contact Alcoa Wheel
Products to obtain a gauge(s) at no charge by calling (800) 242-9898 option 1 or on the
web at www.alcoawheels.com.
STEP 3. If the wheel is deemed to be serviceable by the rim flange gauge, examine the wheel
flange edge for sharpness by using a rubber sharpness gauge. These gauges are constructed by
having a section of tire side wall or a suitable piece of rubber attached to a block of wood
(photo 2). By running the sharpness indicator gauge along the wheel in the area of the wear,
determine if the wear is sharp enough to cut or damage the rubber on the sharpness ­indicator
(photo 3). If the rubber is cut, then follow the edge removal ­instructions below.
NOTICE: Examine the tire for cuts
in the bead area and side wall. If
no damage occurred to these areas,
return the tire to service. Cut tires
should be removed from service.
The tire should be inspected at
this time for any other damage
and be treated per normal tire
procedures recommended by the tire
manufacturer.
NOTICE: Check the wheel at every
tire change or ONCE PER YEAR
for rim flange wear and any sharp
edges. If you follow this practice,
you will significantly reduce the
possibility of a rim flange cutting
into the tire.
Photo 2. A rubber sharpness gauge constructed
from a section of tire side wall or a suitable piece
of rubber attached to a block of wood.
3
Photo 3. Run the sharpness indicator gauge along
the wheel in the area of the wear to determine if
the wear is sharp enough to cut or damage the
rubber on the sharpness ­indicator.
If the flange cuts or appears close to being sharp enough to cut the rubber on the sharpness
indicator gauge, the edge can be removed per the edge removal procedures below. If the rubber is not cut, then the wheel can be returned to service without further work for rim flange
wear.
!
caution
CAUTION Do not run unprotected hands or fingers across worn rim flange
areas of used wheels.
Worn rim flange areas are sharp and can cut hands or fingers. Cuts can lead to
infection.
Always wear gloves when handling used wheels or when testing for edge
sharpness.
15
Rim flange
wear (continued)
Edge Removal Procedures
There are many tools available to remove the sharp edge on the wheel caused by rim flange
wear. Here are some examples of commonly used tools:
File. A file can be used very effectively to remove the edge (photo 4).
3
Photo 4. Removing sharp edge by hand with a
metal file.
Photo 5. Air or electric powered sander.
Air or Electric Powered Sander. This provides a very quick and effective method of removing the edge. Operators should use all care to keep a uniform edge when using these tools
(photo 5).
Air or Electric Grinder. Another quick and effective method of removing the sharp edge
caused by rim flange wear. Be careful as grinding pads may “gum up” from the aluminum
that is removed (photo 6). Care must be used to avoid gouging the wheel.
Photo 6. Air or electric grinder
16
Photo 7. Die grinder.
Rim flange
wear (continued)
Die Grinder. Used with a sanding wheel, cutting stone or grinding tool, this is a version
of an electric grinder. This tool is very quick and effective as well, and care must be taken
to remove metal as uniformly as possible and not to gouge the wheel (photo 7 on previous
page).
!
caution
CAUTION Removing sharp edges with hand or power tools produces metal filings and
sparks. Many power tools have edges that are sharp or may become hot during use. Some
power tools produce excessive noise when used.
Metal filings can be sharp and, when projected by the action of power tools, can cause
serious skin or eye damage. Excessive noise from power tools can harm hearing. Sharp
edges can produce cuts and hot surfaces can cause burns. Cuts and burns can lead to
infection.
3
Always wear appropriate safety gear such as protective eyewear, gloves, ­protective
clothing and hearing protection when using hand or power tools.
.
Photo 8. Adequate repair for sharp edge resulting from rim flange wear removes just enough
metal to smooth the edge.
STEP 4. The photographs show the process of removing the edge. With whatever tool is
selected, work the tool around the wheel’s circumference removing only enough material to
eliminate the sharp edge. This should only be a small amount of metal. Perform this work on
both flanges if there is evidence of sharpness.
Regardless of the method that you choose, the objective is to remove the sharp edge (photo 8).
Remove just enough metal to smooth the edge. Take care to make sure the edge removal is as
uniform as possible. Avoid gouging the wheel.
17
Rim flange
wear (continued)
STEP 5. After the edge is removed, run the sharpness indicator gauge along the area of edge
removal to check for any remaining sharpness. If the rubber is still cut, perform the steps
again to remove the sharp edge. Always remove the minimum amount of material necessary
to eliminate the sharp edge.
STEP 6. Check the rim flange height with the Alcoa Rim Flange Wear gauge to make sure
there is adequate height remaining to safely support the tire. The photograph again shows
how this gauge is used (photo 1). Be sure to move the gauge all around the wheel’s circumference and make sure that no area of the flange is below what the gauge indicates is acceptable. If the entire wheel flange is within the limits of the rim flange wear gauge, the wheel
may be returned to service.
STEP 7. Always inspect the wheel for any other conditions that would warrant removal
from service. Consult the Alcoa Wheel Service Manual or the TMC User’s Guide to Wheels
and Rims.
3
WARNING Welding or brazing the rim flange or any area of an Alcoa aluminum wheel
will weaken the wheel. Weakened or damaged wheels can lead to an explosive separation
of tires and wheels or wheel failure on the vehicle.
WARNING Explosive separations of tires and wheels or wheel failure on the vehicle could cause
injuries or death.
Never attempt to weld or braze any surface of an Alcoa aluminum wheel.
WARNING Returning wheels to service with inadequate flange height as determined by
the Alcoa Rim Flange Wear Gauge can lead to an explosive separation of tires and wheels.
Explosive separation can result in serious injury or death.
WARNING Wheels with flange height that falls below the Alcoa gauge have inadequate rim flange
height to support the tire on the rim. Permanently remove any wheel from service that has
inadequate rim flange height.
WARNING Excessive heat from fire, brake malfunction, wheel bearing failure or other
sources may weaken the metal and cause the wheel/tire assembly to separate explosively.
Exploding wheel/tire assembly can cause death or serious injury.
WARNING
Immediately and permanently remove from service any wheel that has been exposed to
excessive heat.
Always follow safe mounting procedures as recommended using OSHA approved tire inflation cages.
See the Alcoa Wheel Service Manual or OSHA safety wall charts and procedures.
18
Maintenance
against corrosion (non-Dura-Bright®
surface treated
wheels)
3-13
The following information is for standard Alcoa forged aluminum wheels without the Dura-Bright®
surface treatment. (See Section 3-14) for specific instructions on the care and cleaning of Alcoa DuraBright® surface treated wheels.
1. Clean frequently with high pressure water from a hose. The use of a mild detergent will speed the
cleaning process. Use no harsh alkaline cleaners.
2. When tires are removed the entire wheel must be cleaned and inspected. (See Section 3). With a
wire brush, remove any foreign products from the tire side of the rim. Do not use a wire brush to
remove dirt and corrosion products from the appearance surface of the wheel. Generously coat the
entire air chamber surface with an approved surface protectant and lubricant each time the tire is
removed (see Section 4-1).
3. To maintain the original appearance of your Alcoa wheels, the following procedures are recommended:
3
a. After installing new wheels and prior to operating your vehicle, use a sponge, cloth or soft fiber
brush to wash exposed wheel surfaces with a mild detergent and warm water solution.
b. Rinse thoroughly with clean water.
c. Wipe dry to avoid water spots.
d. Wax the cleaned surface with Alcoa Advanced Aluminum Care System Polish
or any automotive polish equivalent.
e. Clean your Alcoa truck wheels as frequently as required to maintain their appearance.
Dura-Bright®
surface treated
wheels cleaning
and maintenance
3-14
1. Clean frequently with high-pressure water. Use a mild detergent, rinse thoroughly with clean
water and wipe dry to avoid water spots. Do not clean with abrasives, abrasive brushes, steel wool,
scouring pads or strong chemicals such as acids or lye-based products. Never spray cold water
on extremely hot wheels. Always allow time to cool before cleaning. DO NOT USE the Alcoa
Aluminum Care System on Dura-Bright® wheels at any time during their service life.
2. When tires are removed, the entire rim must be cleaned and inspected (see Section 3). With a
soft brush, remove any foreign products from the rim (portion of the wheel that supports the tire).
Generously coat the entire air chamber surface with an approved surface protectant and lubricate
each time the tire is removed (see Section 4-1).
3. Once in service, Dura-Bright® wheels can become nicked or scratched by road debris and/or
mechanical damage. If this occurs, continue to follow the normal ­washing and cleaning instructions
provided above. The surface of an Alcoa Dura-Bright® wheel is designed to limit cracking and
peeling if nicked or scratched while in service.
4. Even as durable as Dura-Bright® wheels are, the mounting area can become scratched, marred
or discolored when mounted against another wheel, hub or drum. The use of a wheel mounting
surface guard, such as Alcoa DiscMate™, is highly recommended. The use of the Alcoa Hub Cover
System on Alcoa Dura-Bright® wheels will also assist in limiting such damage and help maintain the
appearance of your Alcoa Dura-Bright® wheels.
19
4
Alcoa 15° Drop Center Wheel
for Tubeless Tires
Recommendations
for mounting
tubeless tires
4-1
NOTICE: For complete
information on tube type
wheels, contact Alcoa at (800)
242-9898 option 2.
4
NOTICE: Alcoa aluminum
nonsymmetrical wheels require
special tire mounting techniques,
see Section 4-3.
WARNING Damaged tires or wheels can lead to an explosive separation of tires and wheels.
Explosive separation can result in serious injury or death.
Inspect tires and wheels for damage before removing from vehicle. If damage is found,
WARNING the tire must be completely deflated before loosening cap nuts. Remove damaged tires or
wheels from service.
WARNING Use of inner tubes in tubeless wheels will hide slow leaks. Slow leaks may
indicate cracked (see Section 2-9) or damaged wheels which lead to wheel failures.
WARNING
Wheel failures can cause accidents which may result in serious injury or death.
Never use an inner tube on an Alcoa tubeless wheel, and always remove cracked or
damaged wheels from service.
1. Do not gouge or nick the wheel. Place aluminum wheels on clean wooden floor or rubber mat
when hand mounting tires. Additional care should be used when mounting Alcoa Dura-Bright® surface
treated wheels since minor nicks and scratches cannot be polished out (see Section 3-14, pages 19 for
specific cautions, care and maintenance procedures). DiscMate™ wheel spacers are recommended for use
with Alcoa Dura-Bright® surface treated wheels to protect the wheel contact surfaces from marring.
2. Always use a rubber, leather-faced or plastic mallet.
3. Inspect the wheel for damage. Do not use a damaged or severely corroded wheel (see Section 3).
4. Clean the wheel face with mild detergent and the tire bead seat areas with a wire brush. Be sure the
wheel is dry before applying tire lubricant.
5. Inspect the tire for damage. Be sure the inside of the tire is dry before it is mounted.
6. Use of a non-water-based lubricant is recommended as a rim surface protectant and tire mounting
lubricant. Coat the entire rim surface (see Section 4-2).
7. Lubricate the rim and tire bead immediately before mounting the tire. Do not use any lubricant
which contains water. Water-based lubricants can promote corrosion attack on the rim surface. The use
of non-water-based lubricants is especially important when mounting tubeless tires as the air in the tire
is contained by the seal between the bead and tire rim.
8. Never lubricate the rim or tire bead with a flammable solution. This can lead to an explosion during
airing of the tire or in subsequent operation of the vehicle (see Warning on next page).
9. If using a tire mounting/demounting machine on aluminum wheels, care should be taken to prevent
gouging the wheel.
10. Use only dry air for tire inflation. The use of moisture traps in the air compressor feed line is recommended.
11. Do not overinflate. Use the tire manufacturer’s recommended pressure, but under no circumstances
exceed cold tire pressures listed in Section 2 Specifications of this manual (see page 3).
12. When inflating a tire in an inflation cage or while mounted on a vehicle, always use a clip-on air
chuck or threaded straight chuck and a remote valve with pressure gauge. Securely anchor the inflation
cage and during inflation or handling of an inflated wheel and tire assembly, stay out of the path of
potential exploding parts or air blasts.
20
Recommendations for
mounting tubeless tires
(continued)
WARNING
WARNING Use of a volatile or flammable material, such as ether or gasoline, as an aid
to seating the tire beads on the wheel can lead to an uncontrolled pressure build-up in the
tire and may result in an explosion.
Explosive separation of the tire and wheel can occur while seating beads in this manner,
while adding air to the tire on or off the vehicle, or later on the road. Loss of vehicle
control can result, which can cause serious injury or death.
Use only approved mechanical or pneumatic bead seating devices.
WARNING A pressurized tire/wheel assembly can explode and separate violently.
This violent separation can cause serious injury or death.
WARNING
Always contain the tire/wheel assembly in an inflation cage during inflation.
4
Mounting
tubeless tires
4-2
NOTICE: Not all tire mounting/
demounting machines work alike.
Be sure to read the operating
or instruction manual for your
particular machine before attempting
to mount or demount tires.
NOTICE: Do not exceed maximum
wheel load. Customer must compare
OEM vehicle load rating to maximum
wheel load rating.
1
Position wheel on machine. Lubricate wheel (entire
air chamber surface) and tire bead using approved
lubricant. Tire beads should be mounted over the rim
flange closest to the wheel well. Push bead over flange
as far as possible.
2
Insert curved end of tool between bead and wheel
flange with tool stop against flange. In circular
motion, use short successive bites to work the bead
over the flange. Push down on tool as bead is worked
over flange.
Refer to tire manufacturer’s
recommendation for proper tire
pressure. Be­fore mounting the tire
perform a wheel fitment check to
insure proper clearance from any
obstructions.
NOTICE: When match mounting
tires on Alcoa wheels locate valve stem
adjacent to low point mark on the
tire.
NOTICE: Alcoa aluminum 19.5"
nonsymmetrical wheels require tires
to be mounted and demounted over
the disc side of the wheel only.
NOTICE: Refer to tire manufacturer’s
recommendation for proper tire
pressure.
3
Lubricate the second tire bead. Start second bead into
the well, holding it in position with the clamp to the
rim flange. Lubricate bead half way around. With
curved end of tool between tire bead and flange, and
the stop towards the wheel, push tool outward to work
tire over flange. Continue to pry bead over flange
using the tool until remaining bead is over flange. Seat
the tire bead using an air ring or other mechanical
bead seating aid.
4
Place tire/wheel assembly inside safety cage or other
suitable restraint (refer to OSHA rule 1910.177,
paragraph b, see Section 7). Refer to tire manufacturer’s
recommendation for proper tire pressure. Using a clipon air chuck or a self-locking straight chuck with remote
valve and pressure gauge, inflate the tire/wheel assembly
to proper pressure. If air escapes, roll tire or use bead
expander to force tire beads against rim. Be sure to
stay out of the path of potential exploding parts or air
blasts.
21
Mounting tubeless
tires (continued)
WARNING Use of a volatile or flammable material, such as ether or gasoline, as an aid to
seating the tire beads on the wheel can lead to an uncontrolled pressure build-up in the tire
and may result in an explosion.
WARNING Explosive separation of the tire and wheel can occur while seating beads in this manner,
while adding air to the tire or later on the road. Loss of vehicle control can result, which
can cause serious injury or death.
Use only approved mechanical or pneumatic bead seating devices.
NOTICE: Not all tire mounting/
demounting machines work alike.
Be sure to read the operating
or instruction manual for your
particular machine before attempting
to mount or demount tires.
!
caution
CAUTION The use of liquid tire balancers or sealants in Alcoa wheels may cause extremely
rapid corrosion of the wheel rim surface.
Severely corroded wheels are unsuitable for service. Alcoa wheels corroded by the use of liquid
tire balancers or sealants will not be replaced under the Alcoa limited warranty.
NOTICE: Do not exceed maximum
wheel load. Customer must compare
OEM vehicle load rating to maximum
wheel load rating.
4
Refer to tire manufacturer’s
recommendation for proper tire
pressure. Be­fore mounting the tire
perform a wheel fitment check to
insure proper clearance from any
obstructions.
NOTICE: When match mounting
tires on Alcoa wheels locate valve stem
adjacent to low point mark on the
tire.
NOTICE: Alcoa aluminum 19.5" RW
nonsymmetrical wheels require tires
to be mounted and demounted over
the disc side of the wheel only.
NOTICE: Refer to tire manufacturer’s
recommendation for proper tire
pressure.
Heavy duty truck tires have a “guide rib” molded into the sidewall next to the tire bead. When the tire is inflated, this ring should be
evenly spaced from the wheel rim all the way around the wheel. Check the position of the ring before removing the assembly from the
inflation cage. If the ring and wheel are not concentric, deflate the assembly in the cage and remount the tire.
Mounting tires
on reduced well
wheels
Reduced well wheels feature an increased underwell diameter and also have a nonsymmetrical sloping
rim profile which provides additional brake drum clearance.
Although tires can be fitted to these reduced well wheels from either side, mounting and particularly
demounting is easier from the disc side of the wheel.
In order to minimize the possibility of bead damage, tires should be fitted to and removed from all
Alcoa reduced well wheels only across the disc side of the wheel.
.
22
Rim width to tire
matching
4-4
Rim width to tire matching chart for medium and heavy trucks.
Tire Size
Approved
Rim Widths
(for both radial
and bias tires)
8R
215/75R
9R
10R
245/75R
11R
17.5HC
17.5
17.5HC
17.5HC
17.5
17.5HC
8 19.5
225/70R 19.5
6.75RW
245/70R 19.5
265/70R 19.5
285/70R 19.5
305/70R 19.5
445/65R 19.5
6.00HC
6.00, 6.75
6.75HC
6.75HC, 7.50HC
6.75, 7.50
8.25HC
5.25, 6.00, 6.75
6.00, 6.00RW, 6.75, 6.75, 6.75RW, 7.50,
7.50RW
7.50, 7.50RW,
8.25, 8.25RW
8.25, 8.25RW, 9.00
8.25, 8.25RW, 9.00
13.00, 14.00
Tire Size
(for both radial
and bias tires)
8
9
10
245/75R
11
255/70R
265/75R
12
295/75R
305/85R
315/80R
365/70R
15
385/65R
425/65R
16.5
18
445/50R
445/55R
445/65R
11
275/80R
285/75R
12
305/75R
22.5
22.5
22.5
22.5
22.5
22.5
22.5
22.5
22.5
22.5
22.5
22.5
22.5
22.5
22.5
22.5
22.5
22.5
22.5
22.5
24.5
24.5
24.5
24.5
24.5
Approved
Rim Widths
5.25, 6.00, 6.75
6.00, 6.75, 7.50
6.75, 7.50, 8.25
6.75, 7.50
7.50, 8.25
7.50, 8.25
7.50, 8.25
8.25, 9.00
8.25, 9.00
8.25, 9.00
9.00, 9.75
10.5
11.75, 12.25
11.75, 12.25
11.75, 12.25, 13.00
12.25, 13.00
13.00, 14.00
14.00
14.00
12.25, 13.00, 14.00
7.50, 8.25
7.50, 8.25
8.25
8.25, 9.00
8.25, 9.00
4
There may be additional rim to tire matches not shown above. Contact the tire manufacturer or your Alcoa wheel representative
for additional information.
Recommendations for
demounting tubeless
tires
WARNING An aluminum wheel can be structurally weakened by ­uncontrolled excessive
heat.
WARNING
Tire/wheel assemblies using wheels that have been exposed to excessive heat may
experience a sudden and unpredictable tire/wheel separation causing serious injury or
death.
Immediately and permanently remove any wheel from service that has been subjected to
uncontrolled excessive heat (such as a tire fire, wheel bearing failure or braking system
drag/seize) or a high pressure tire/wheel ­separation.
4-5
WARNING Damaged tires or wheels can lead to an explosive separation of tires and
wheels.
WARNING
Explosive separation can result in serious injury or death.
Inspect tires and wheels for damage before removing from vehicle. If damage is found, tire
must be completely deflated before loosening cap nuts. Remove damaged tires or wheels
from service.
23
Recommendations for
demounting tubeless
tires (continued)
1. When hand demounting tires from wheels, placing aluminum wheels on a clean wooden floor, or rubber mat is recommended. Additional care should be used when demounting Alcoa Dura-Bright® surface treated wheels since minor nicks and scratches can not be polished out (see Section 3-14, for
specific cautions, care and ­maintenance procedures).
2 Always use a rubber, leather-faced or plastic mallet.
3. Keep tire tools smooth. Use them with care. Rim gouges or nicks may cause cracks.
4. If using a tire mounting/demounting machine on aluminum wheels, care should be taken to
prevent gouging the wheel.
Demounting of
tubeless tires
4
4-6
NOTICE: Not all tire mounting/
demounting machines work alike.
Be sure to read the operating
or instruction manual for your
particular machine before
attempting to mount or demount
tires.
1
Remove the valve core from the valve stem to ensure complete
deflation. Place wheel on machine and ­position tool so flat end
can be driven between tire bead and rim flange. Straighten tool
to a vertical ­position until bead is separated from wheel.
3
Insert curved end of tire tools between tire and wheel, approximately 10 inches apart. Pull one tool toward center of wheel,
then pull second tool in the same manner. To free bead, leave
one tool in position, take out and reinsert the other tool,
curved end between bead and flange, a short distance from
the spanned area. Pry bead free of rim, repeating process until
entire bead is free from wheel.
24
2
Repeat procedure at intervals until bead is totally ­separated
from wheel. Repeat procedure on other side of tire. Tire is now
ready for demounting. Lubricate the tire bead.
4
Insert straight end of tire tool between beads and both rim
flanges, hooking stop on the tool over second flange. Position
inserted tool at 90° angle to tire ­assembly at top of wheel and
lubricate bead areas on both sides of tool. Lean tire assembly
toward tool and rock or bounce to pry off the tire.
5
Wheel Installation
Recommendations for
proper installation of
wheels
1. Make sure all wheel cap nuts are properly torqued — check them often (see Section 5-8). If the wheel is loose, the
holes will pound out (deform). If some cap nuts are tight and others are loose, the wheel may develop cracks or
studs may break. This condition may cause wheel to loosen and disengage from the vehicle. Dirt streaks radiating
from stud holes can ­indicate loose nuts (see Section 3).
5-1
3. Keep all component contact surfaces smooth and clean. Dirt or projections on mounting ­surfaces may lead to
loose wheels. Remove all projections resulting from burrs, nicks, etc. Be sure that loose dirt does not fall onto
mounting surface during assembly.
NOTICE: Do not exceed ­maximum
wheel load. ­Cus­­­tomer must compare
OEM vehicle load rating to
maximum wheel load rating.
5. Additional care should be used when mounting Alcoa Dura-Bright® surface treated wheels since minor nicks
and scratches cannot be polished out (see Section 3-14 for specific cautions, care and maintenance procedures).
Refer to tire manufacturer’s
recommendation for proper tire
pressure. Be­fore mounting the tire
perform a wheel fitment check to
insure proper clearance from any
­ob­structions.
NOTICE: Check for and replace
bent, broken, cracked or damaged
studs. When replacing broken studs,
always replace the studs on each
side of the broken stud. If two or
more studs are broken, replace all
the studs for that wheel position.
Check with the stud manufacturer
for regular maintenance and stud
replacement practices.
2. Be sure the end of the wheel wrench is smooth or cover the wheel mounting surface with a ­protective shield
prior to tightening the cap nuts. The wrench end will mar the wheel around the cap nuts if it is not smooth.
4. Do not introduce any foreign objects such as spacers or high hats into the contact surface areas of the mounting
system unless approved by Alcoa. Do not paint Alcoa forged aluminum wheels.
6. DiscMate™ is a protection gasket designed to be placed between the wheels and also the brake drum/wheel
contact surfaces (see Sections 5-2, 5-6, 5-7, 5-9). DiscMate™ is recommended to be replaced when the tire/wheel
assemblies are removed and reinstalled.
5
WARNING Wheels that are not properly installed or maintained may not work properly.
WARNING
Failure to follow proper wheel installation or maintenance practices may result in injury or
death.
Follow the proper wheel installation and maintenance practices as ­contained in this Alcoa
Wheel Service Manual. For training on proper ­installation and maintenance, available free
of charge from Alcoa, or for the most recent updates, contact Alcoa Wheel Products at
1-800-242-9898 option 1 or on the web at www.alcoawheels.com.
All wheel fastener hardware should be
grade 8 or metric conversion 10.9.
Follow the hardware manufacturer’s
recommendations when replacing
studs.
25
Wheel cap nuts
5-2
WARNING Use of chrome-plated cap nuts which have chrome plating on the surfaces
which contact the wheel can cause reduced and inconsistent wheel clamping.
WARNING
This condition can cause wheels to loosen and disengage from the vehicle, causing injury
or death.
Never use cap nuts with chrome-plated contact surfaces. Use only recommended hardware
on Alcoa aluminum wheels.
There are many types of nuts and studs in use, and their design and specifications are not standardized. The “R” and “L” on cap nut part numbers indicate right and left-hand threads respectively. Alcoa
recommends the following cap nuts for use with Alcoa ­aluminum truck wheels:
Cap Nuts
NOTICE: One-piece flange nuts
are not approved for use on any
Alcoa wheel application.
5
2-piece 33mm hex head flange
nut. Mounts single and dualed
wheels to wheel centering hubs.
Right-hand threads used on both
sides of vehicle. Single wheels
require 2" (50.8 mm) stud standout.
Dualed wheels require 2-13/16
(71.44 mm) stud standout. P/N
39874 (supersedes P/Ns 39701 and
39691); M22-1.5 RH threads.
2-piece 30mm hex head flange nut.
Mounts single and dualed wheels
to wheel centering hubs. Righthand threads used on both sides of
vehicle. P/N 39708; M20x1.5 RH
threads.
2-piece 33mm hex head flange
nut. Mounts dualed wheels with
32mm bolt holes to wheel centering
hubs. Right-hand threads used on
both sides of vehicle. P/N 4307.32;
M22x1.5 RH threads.
1-1/8" cap nut. Mounts ­standard
single wheels and wide base wheels
to 1-1/8" studs. Also mounts outer
dualed wheel to 1-1/8" inner cap
nut. P/N 5996R, 5996L (replaces
P/N 5552R, 5552L).
3/4"x16 cap nut. Mounts Alcoa
wide base wheels to 3/4" studs. Do
not use on steel wheels. P/N 5995R,
5995L (replaces P/N 5554R,
5554L).
26
2 piece 1-1/16" hex head flange nut.
Mounts single and dualed wheels
to wheel centering hubs. Righthand threads used on both sides of
vehicle. P/N 39946; 5/8"x18 RH
threads
2-piece 33mm hex head flange nut.
Mounts single wheels to wheel
centering hubs with 32mm bolt
holes. Right-hand threads used on
both sides of vehicle. P/N 4306.32;
M22x1.5 RH threads.
Inner cap nut, inner thread
3/4"x16, outer thread
1-1/8"x16. For use with
steel inner dual wheel
and aluminum outer dual
wheel with 1.31" (1-5/16)
to 1.44" (1-7/16) stud
standout. P/N 7896R,
7896L (Grade 8).
Inner cap nut, inner thread
3/4"x16, outer thread
1-1/8"x16. For use with
standard length studs (1.31"
[1-5/16] to 1.44" [1-7/16])
stud stand-out) or longer
studs not to exceed 1.88"
[1-7/8] stud standout. Full
internal and external threads. P/N 5978R, 5978L (Grade
8). For studs without exposed shoulders. Do not use with
steel inner dualed wheel.
Inner cap nut for use with
standard length studs
(1.31" [1-5/16] to 1.44"
[1-7/16]) stud standout) or
longer studs not to exceed
1.88" (1-7/8) stud ­
standout. Full internal
and external threads,
counter bore 5/16" deep at open end. Prevents stud from
­bottoming out in cap nut. P/N 5988R, 5988L (Grade 8).
For use with studs with exposed ­shoulders. Do not use
with steel inner dualed wheel.
How to measure
stud standout
Stud standout is measured from the axle end mounting surface (the hub, for inboard mounted drums,
and the drum, for outboard mounted drums) to the first complete thread at the outside end of the
stud.
5-3
Hub
Drum
Exposed
shoulder
Stud standout
Mounting
surface
Inboard mounted drum
Stud located ball
seats are spherical
5-4
Single and wide
base wheel, stud
located, ball seat
mounting
5-5
First full
thread
Drum
First full
thread
Stud standout
Hub
Mounting
surface
Outboard mounted drum
5
The nut seat for the stud located ball seat mounting system is a ­precision-machined
spherical surface. Cap nuts must be properly ­manufactured to assure correct seating. Never use one or two-piece flange nuts on a wheel designed with ball seats (see
Section 5-11).
Ball seat cap nuts may be obtained from your Alcoa Wheel Distributor.
Front wheels are mounted as singles and require 1.8-inch (45.7mm) minimum stud standout. Most
vehicles have 1-1/8-inch studs on the front hubs. Alcoa single cap nuts, Part Nos. 5996R and 5996L,
or equivalents, should be used. Some front hubs have 3/4-inch studs. On these hubs, use Alcoa single
cap nuts, Part Nos. 5995R and 5995L or equivalents.
DiscMate™ wheel spacers are recommended for use with Alcoa Dura-Bright® surface treated wheels to
protect the wheel contact surfaces from marring. DiscMate™ wheel spacers are placed between the
contact surfaces of the Dura-Bright® wheel and the brake drum as shown below and on the next page.
DiscMate™ (when used)
Single Alcoa aluminum wheel
Drum
Outer cap nut
P/N 5996R or L
(See 5-2, page 26)
1-1/8" stud
Hub
1.8"
minimum
stud standout
Correct single mounting with
1-1/8" stud located, ball seat
mount.
Continued on the next page
27
Single and wide
base wheel, stud
located, ball seat
mounting
(continued)
NOTICE: Do not exceed
­maximum wheel load. ­
­­­Cus­­­tomer must compare OEM
vehicle load rating to maximum
wheel load rating.
DiscMate™ (when used)
Drum
5
All wheel fastener hardware should
be grade 8 or metric conversion
10.9. Follow the hardware
manufacturer’s recommendations
when replacing studs.
Outer cap nut
P/N 5996R or L
(See 5-2, page 26)
1-1/8" stud
Hub
Refer to tire manufacturer’s
recommendation for proper tire
pressure. Be­fore mounting the tire
perform a wheel fitment check to
insure proper clearance from any
­ob­structions.
NOTICE: Check for and
replace bent, broken, cracked or
damaged studs. When replacing
broken studs, always replace the
studs on each side of the broken
stud. If two or more studs are
broken, replace all the studs for
that wheel position. Check with
the stud manufacturer for regular
maintenance and stud replacement
practices.
Alcoa aluminum wide base wheel
1.8"
minimum
stud standout
DiscMate™ (when used)
Correct wide base wheel mounting with 1-1/8" stud located, ball
seat mount.
Single Alcoa aluminum wheel
Drum
Outer cap nut
P/N 5995R or L
(See 5-2, page 26)
3/4" stud
Hub
Correct single mounting with
3/4" stud located, ball seat
mount.
1.8"
minimum
stud standout
DiscMate™ (when used)
Alcoa aluminum wide base wheel
Drum
Outer cap nut
P/N 5995R or L
(See 5-2, page 26)
3/4" stud
Hub
1.8"
minimum
stud standout
Correct wide base wheel mounting with 3/4" stud located, ball
seat mount.
Dualed wheels, stud
located, ball seat
mounting
Rear wheels are most frequently mounted as duals. Each inner aluminum wheel is attached by 10 inner
cap nuts. Alcoa recommends use of inner cap nuts 5978R, 5978L, or 5988R, 5988L (see 5-2, page 26).
5-6
Continued on next page.
28
Cap nuts recommended by Alcoa are compatible with Alcoa wheels. Hardware of equal dimensions and
strength may be used.
Dualed wheels,
stud located, ball
seat mounting
(continued)
NOTICE: Do not exceed
­maximum wheel load. ­Cus­­­tomer
must compare OEM vehicle load
rating to maximum wheel load
rating.
Refer to tire manufacturer’s
recommendation for proper tire
pressure. Be­fore mounting the tire
perform a wheel fitment check to
insure proper clearance from any
­ob­structions.
NOTICE: Check for and replace
bent, broken, cracked or damaged
studs. When replacing broken
studs, always replace the studs
on each side of the broken stud.
If two or more studs are broken,
replace all the studs for that
wheel position. Check with the
stud manufacturer for regular
maintenance and stud replacement
practices.
All wheel fastener hardware should
be grade 8 or metric conversion
10.9. Follow the hardware
manufacturer’s recommendations
when replacing studs.
Most vehicles have standard length studs (1.31-inch [1-5/16-inch] to 1.44-inch [1-7/16-inch] stud
standout). Some vehicles use studs longer than standard (up to 1.88-inch [1-7/8-inch] standout).
When changing types of brake drums be sure to check for excessive stud standout (greater than
1.88-inch [1-7/8-inch]). Excessive stud standout may cause the inner cap nut to bottom out on the
longer stud preventing proper seating of the wheel.
Each outer dual wheel is attached by 10 single cap nuts which thread on the inner cap nuts. Use
Alcoa outer cap nuts, Part Nos. 5996R, 5996L or equivalents. Match mounted dual wheels should be
put on the vehicles with the valve stems 180° apart.
DiscMate™ wheel spacers are recommended for use with Alcoa Dura-Bright® surface treated wheels
to protect the wheel contact surfaces from marring. DiscMate™ wheel spacers are placed between
the contact surfaces of the Dura-Bright® wheel and the brake drum and between the dual aluminum
wheels as shown below.
DiscMate™ (when used)
Drum
Alcoa aluminum wheels
Outer cap nut
P/N 5996R or L
(See 5-2, page 26)
3/4" stud
Hub
1.31" to 1.44"
stud standout
5
Inner cap nut
P/N 5978R or L
or P/N 5988R or L
(See 5-2, page 26)
Correct mounting for dual aluminum, stud located / ball seat mount wheels.
WARNING Incorrect inner cap nuts used with dualed aluminum wheels can bottom out on
the unthreaded portion of the stud before the wheels are properly seated.
Improperly seated wheels can run loose, cause stud breakage and disengage from the
vehicle which can cause serious injury or death. Loose running wheels can lead to stud
WARNING breakage.
Use only cap nut 5978R or L, 5988R or L, or their equivalent when mounting dual aluminum wheels.
On occasion Alcoa aluminum truck wheels are operated dualed with a steel inner wheel. In the event
a steel inner wheel is used, extreme care must be exercised to properly seat it to the hub or drum prior
to mounting the outer aluminum wheel. Selection of an inner cap nut capable of fixing the steel inner
wheel and providing adequate external thread length to secure the outer aluminum dualed wheel is
critical to a safe assembly. Alcoa recommends the use of inner cap nuts 7896R and L (Grade 8), or equivalent, for this ­purpose.
29
Dualed wheels, steel
inner / aluminum
outer stud located
ball seat mounting
(continued)
DiscMate™ wheel spacers are recommended for use with Alcoa Dura-Bright® surface treated wheels
to protect the wheel contact surfaces from marring. DiscMate™ wheel spacers are placed between the
contact surfaces of the Dura-Bright® wheel and the brake drum and between the steel and aluminum
wheels as shown below.
Inner steel wheel
DiscMate™ (when used)
Alcoa aluminum wheel
Drum
5-7
Outer cap nut
P/N 5996R or L
(See 5-2, page 26)
3/4" stud
NOTICE: Do not exceed
­maximum wheel load. ­Cus­­­tomer
must compare OEM vehicle load
rating to maximum wheel load
rating.
Refer to tire manufacturer’s
recommendation for proper tire
pressure. Be­fore mounting the tire
perform a wheel fitment check to
insure proper clearance from any
­ob­structions.
5
NOTICE: Check for and replace
bent, broken, cracked or damaged
studs. When replacing broken
studs, always replace the studs
on each side of the broken stud.
If two or more studs are broken,
replace all the studs for that
wheel position. Check with the
stud manufacturer for regular
maintenance and stud replacement
practices.
All wheel fastener hardware should
be grade 8 or metric conversion
10.9. Follow the hardware
manufacturer’s recommendations
when replacing studs.
Hub
Inner cap nut
P/N 7896R or L
(See 5-2, page 26)
1.31" to 1.44"
stud standout
Correct dual mounting for steel inner/aluminum outer stud located ball seat mount.
WARNING Incorrect inner cap nuts used with steel wheels can bottom out on the
unthreaded portion of the stud before the wheels are properly seated.
Improperly seated wheels can run loose, cause stud breakage and disengage from the
vehicle which can cause serious injury or death. Loose running wheels can lead to stud
WARNING breakage.
Use only cap nut 7896R or L or its equivalent when mounting steel inner duals.
WARNING Inadequate wheel support surface can lead to stud hole-to-stud hole fracture
resulting in separation of the outer disc and rim from the vehicle.
WARNING
Separation of the wheel from the vehicle can cause injury or death.
Alcoa aluminum wheels with 11-1/4-inch diameter bolt circle require a support surface at
least 13-3/16-inches in diameter. Check the outer support surface of the inner steel wheel
for flatness and adequate diameter before installing the outer wheel. When the wheels are
serviced, check the mounting surfaces of both wheels for stud hole to stud hole cracks.
If cracks are found, remove the wheel from service. For the support surface diameter
required by other bolt circle sizes, ask your Alcoa representative.
WARNING Use of two-piece flange nuts on ball seat wheels or ball seat cap nuts on hub
piloted wheels is dangerous.
Using the wrong cap nuts can cause loss of torque, broken studs and cracked wheels;
WARNING conditions which can lead to injury or death.
Use only hardware designed specifically for each wheel type. See Section 4-2 for proper
hardware assemblies.
30
Tightening stud
located, ball seat
cap nuts
Cap nuts must be kept tight, and studs and nuts should be checked frequently. Nuts should be
retorqued if necessary. At tire changes, nuts and studs should be inspected for cracks and stripped
or damaged threads. After each wheel mounting, cap nut torque should be checked with a torque
wrench.
5-8
Some states have laws which dictate full thread engagement or thread engagement past the nut body.
Make sure you know the laws for the states in which you operate and comply.
Impact wrenches, if used, should be carefully adjusted to apply torques within the limits recommended. Torquing of cap nuts should be done in recommended sequences.
WARNING Lubricants should not be applied to the cap nut seat or to the cap nut-to-wheel
contact surface.
WARNING
Oiled seats can lead to over-torquing which can stretch studs causing failure of studs.
Failed studs can cause the wheel to disengage from the vehicle, causing injury or death.
Lubricants must be completely removed from the cap nut seats and contact surfaces if
applied accidentally.
WARNING Undertorqued cap nuts allow wheels to run loose, pounding out (deforming)
the ball seats, fatiguing studs or losing nuts. Overtorquing can stretch studs causing them
to fail.
WARNING
5
Both under and overtorquing can lead to wheels coming off, causing injury or death.
Check all parts, including wheels, studs and cap nuts. Check mounting faces of wheels,
hubs and drums. Check for dirt, corrosion or damage. Remove dirt and rust; replace
damaged parts. Follow correct tightening sequences and torque levels.
Continued on next page.
31
Stud located, ball seat mounting system.
Tightening stud
located, ball seat
is recommended that both inner and outer stud threads on stud located mounting systems be
cap nuts (continued) Itlubricated
with SAE 30W oil and torqued between 350 and 400 foot-pounds. If threads are not
lubricated, torque to between 450 and 500 foot-pounds. Note: when dualing steel wheels with Alcoa
aluminum wheels, follow the steel wheel manufacturer’s recommendations regarding the proper torque
and use of thread lubricants to mount the wheel.
WARNING Application of lubricant to the ball seats can cause excessive torque. Over
torque can stretch studs causing them to fail.
Overtorquing can lead to wheel disengagement causing injury or death.
WARNING Do not allow oil to contact ball seats or mounting surfaces of the wheel, hub or drum. Do
not use aerosol cans for lubrication of stud threads.
5
On vehicles equipped to accept wheels manufactured for use with the stud located ball seat mounting
system, wheel studs on the right side of the vehicle have right-hand threads and those on the left have
left-hand threads. The "R" and "L" on the studs and nuts indicate right and left-hand threads respectively (see Section 5-2).
After mounting a wheel over the studs, snug up the cap nuts in the order shown in the illustrations
that follow. After all the cap nuts have been snugged, tighten the cap nuts to the recommended
torques, following the same tightening sequence.
NOTICE: In service, stud
dimensions and condition
may change over time due to
environmental ­conditions,
multiple re-installations,
improper torquing and other
factors. Consult with your hub
and stud manufacturer for
maintenance and replacement
­recommendations.
Five Stud
Six Stud
Eight Stud
Ten Stud
Continued on the next page.
32
Tightening stud
located, ball seat
cap nuts
(continued)
Single, dualed
and wide base
wheels, hub piloted
mounting, two-piece
flange nuts
5-9
NOTICE: Do not exceed
­maximum wheel load. ­Cus­­­tomer
must compare OEM vehicle load
rating to maximum wheel load
rating.
After 5-50 miles of operation or at least the first service opportunity, torque should be rechecked. Loosen outer
cap nuts on every other stud to check the torque on inner cap nuts, then retorque outer cap nuts. Repeat
steps on remaining studs. Check torque frequently from then on. If nuts require frequent tightening, studs
break frequently, or wheel nut seats are pounding out, hardware and mounting practices should be reviewed.
Note: whenever the outer cap nut is loosened ALWAYS retorque the inner cap nut before retorquing the outer
cap nut.
Most U.S. manufacturers of highway trucks, tractors and trailers which incorporate the hub piloted
wheel mounting system require wheel studs and cap nuts with metric threads. Most frequently these
are M22x1.5.
Generally the same diameter stud is used to mount either single or dualed wheels.
Studs on both sides of the vehicle are right-hand threads thereby eliminating the need for flange nuts
peculiar to either the right or left side of the vehicle. The same flange nut is used to mount dualed or
single wheels. Proper stud standout for single wheels is 2.36-inch (60mm) minimum, dualed wheels
require 3.346-inch (85mm) minimum and single wide base wheels require 2.36-inch (60mm).
Some states have laws which dictate full thread engagement or thread engagement past the nut body.
Make sure you know the laws for the states in which you operate and comply.
DiscMate™ wheel spacers are recommended for use with Alcoa Dura-Bright® surface treated wheels
to protect the wheel contact surfaces from marring. DiscMate™ wheel spacers are placed between the
contact surfaces of the Dura-Bright® wheel and the brake drum and between the dual wheels as shown
below.
Note: Some stud located ball seat wheels have the same number of holes and bolt ­circle diameter as
hub piloted wheels. They should not be mixed.
Refer to tire manufacturer’s
recommendation for proper tire
pressure. Be­fore mounting the tire
perform a wheel fitment check to
insure proper clearance from any
­ob­structions.
Drum
NOTICE: Check for and
replace bent, broken, cracked or M22x1.5
damaged studs. When replacing
stud
broken studs, always replace the
studs on each side of the broken
stud. If two or more studs are
broken, replace all the studs for
that wheel position. Check with
the stud manufacturer for regular
maintenance and stud replacement
practices.
All wheel fastener hardware should
be grade 8 or metric conversion
10.9. Follow the hardware
manufacturer’s recommendations
when replacing studs.
1.06" (27mm)
5
DiscMate™ (when used)
DiscMate™ (when used)
33mm hex head
2-piece flange nut
P/N 39874
Drum
M22x1.5
stud
Alcoa
Grooved
Bore™
Hub
Alcoa
Grooved
Bore™
2.36" (60mm) minimum
stud standout single wheels
DiscMates™ (when used)
Hub
2.36" (60mm) minimum
stud standout wide base single wheels
3.346" (85mm) minimum
stud standout dual wheels
Drum
M22x1.5
stud
33mm hex head
2-piece flange nut
P/N 39874
Alcoa Grooved Bore™
Hub
1.38" (35mm) minimum pilot length
for dualed aluminum wheels
Typical assembly of single and dual wheels of hub piloted type with 33mm hex head two-piece flange nut, Part No.
39874. If hex nuts with greater overall height are used, more stud length is required.
Continued on the next page.
33
Single, dualed
and wide base
wheels, hub piloted
mounting,
two-piece
flange nuts
(continued)
Tightening hub
piloted mounting,
two-piece flange
nuts
5 5-10
Hubs designed for steel hub piloted wheels may not have enough pilot length to locate dualed
aluminum wheels. Pay close attention to pilot length, particularly when converting from steel to
aluminum duals. Measure the hub pilot to make sure the hub has a minimum pilot length of 1.38-inch
or 35mm for dualed wheels.
When mounting painted steel inner dual wheels with outer aluminum wheels, be cautious of excessive
paint build-up on the inner steel wheel. Excessive paint can reduce the clamping force and allow the
wheels to become loose.
Match mounted dual wheels should be put on the vehicle with the valve stems 180° apart.
Flange nuts must be kept tight, and studs and nuts should be checked frequently. At tire changes,
nuts and studs should be inspected to be sure they are in good condition. If nuts require frequent
tightening or studs break frequently, hardware and mounting practices should be reviewed.
Impact wrenches, if used, should be carefully adjusted to apply torques within the limits recommended. Torquing of flange nuts should be done in recommended sequences.
WARNING Undertorqued flange nuts allow wheels to run loose and fatigue studs or lose
nuts. Overtorquing can stretch studs causing them to fail.
Both under and overtorquing can lead to wheel disengagement causing injury or death.
WARNING Check all parts including wheels, studs and flange nuts. Check mounting faces of wheels,
hubs and drums. Check for dirt, corrosion or damage. Remove dirt and rust; replace
damaged parts. Follow correct tightening sequences and torque levels.
Two-piece flange nuts with a 33mm hex head design (see Section5-2), used with hub piloted wheels
should be tightened to a torque of 450 to 500 foot-pounds. Two-piece flange nuts with 1-1/2-inch
hex head design and other designs have different torque requirements. Inquire of the manufacturer for
the proper torque values.
Wheel studs on both the right and left side hubs of vehicles utilizing the hub piloted wheel system
have right-hand threads.
Prior to mounting hub piloted wheels, generously coat the wheel pilot or hub pads with a non-waterbased lubricant to minimize corrosion product build-up between the wheel and hub pilot. Excessive
corrosion build-up between the wheel and hub pilots can make wheel removal difficult. Do not lubricate the face of the wheel, hub or brake drum (see illustration on the next page).
Continued on the next page.
34
Tightening hubpiloted mounting,
two-piece flange nuts
Lubricate the hub pads or the wheel hub bore generously with a non-water-based
lubricant.
Lube
here
(continued)
Lube
here
Lube
here
Lube
here
Do NOT lubricate
the face of the hub, wheel face
or brake drum
5
Before installing two-piece flange nuts, lightly lubricate the stud threads and the contact surfaces
between the cap nut and the washer as illustrated below with an SAE 30W oil. This will minimize
corrosion between the mating surfaces. Lubrication is not necessary with new hardware.
Lubricate here
Lubricate here
Position one of the hub’s pilot pads at the twelve o’clock position. After positioning wheels on the
pilot pads, hand tighten all two-piece flange nuts, then tighten to the recommended torque following
the proper sequence shown below for your type wheel. After 5-50 miles of operation or at least the
first service opportunity, torque should be rechecked. Check torque frequently from then on. If nuts
require frequent tightening, studs break frequently, or wheel bolt holes are pounding out, hardware
and mounting practices should be reviewed.
NOTICE: In service, stud
dimensions and condition
may change over time due to
environmental ­conditions, multiple
­re-installations, improper torquing
and other factors. Consult with
your hub and stud manufacturer
for maintenance and ­replacement
recommendations.
Six Stud
Eight Stud
Ten Stud
35
Incorrect assemblies
5-11
WARNING Use of two-piece flange nuts on ball seat wheels, ball seat cap nuts on hub
piloted wheels or single-piece flange nuts in place of two-piece flange nuts is dangerous.
WARNING
Using the wrong wheel nuts can cause loss of torque, broken studs and cracked wheels,
conditions which can lead to injury or death.
Use only hardware designed specifically for each wheel type. See Section 4-2 for proper
hardware assemblies.
The following are examples of incorrect wheel assemblies.
Stud located, ball seat
aluminum wheel
Two-piece
flange nut
5
Insufficient contact area
Do not use two-piece flange nuts with stud located ball seat wheels.
Hub piloted, Alcoa
aluminum wheel
Ball seat cap nut
Insufficient contact area
Incorrect use of ball seat cap nut on hub piloted system.
Do not use ball seat cap nuts with hub piloted wheels.
Little (if any) contact area
No positional location
Incorrect use of flange nut positioned on Alcoa ball seat wheel.
Do not use any flange nut on Alcoa aluminum ball seat wheels.
36
6
Proper Torque, Wheel Identification
and Valves
Avoid abuse
Abuse can shorten the life of a wheel. Lack of care in changing a tire, heavy pounding of the
wheel rim, overloading, exposure to excessive heat or hitting curbs at high speed or a sharp angle
can damage wheels.
6-1
Do not overinflate. Use the tire manufacturer's recommended pressure, but under no circumstances exceed cold tire pressures listed in Section 2 Specifications of this manual. Before
mounting the tire perform a wheel fitment check to insure proper clearance from any obstructions.
Refer to tire manufacturer’s recommendation for proper tire pressure. Before mounting the tire
perform a wheel fitment check to insure proper clearance from any obstructions.
Keep wheel nuts
tight
6-2
Wheel cap nuts must be kept tight (see Section 5-8). When checking the cap nuts on dual disc
wheels utilizing the stud located ball seat mounting system, loosen every other outer cap nut and
then check the torque of the inner cap nuts. Retorque the loosened outer cap nuts. Repeat procedure with the rest of the nuts. Check all cap nuts for proper torque after the first use or any removal.
Inspect wheels and check wheel nuts during service stops (see Section 3). Dirt streaks from cap nuts
may indicate looseness.
6
Flange nuts must be kept tight, and studs and nuts should be checked frequently. At tire changes
nuts and studs should be inspected to be sure they are in good condition. If nuts require frequent
tightening or studs break frequently, hardware and mounting practices should be reviewed.
For proper nut torque, refer to the chart below:
Mount
Type
Nut
Thread
Torque Level Ft-Lb
Lubricated*
Torque Level Ft-Lb
Dry*
Hub piloted using two-piece flange nut
11/16" - 16
M20 x 1.5
M22 x 1.5
300-400
280-330
450-500
Stud piloted, double cap
nut standard type
(7/8" radius)
3/4" - 16
1-1/8" - 16
350-400
350-400
450-500
450-500
Stud piloted, double cap
nut heavy duty type
(1-3/16" radius)
15/16" - 12
1-1/8" - 16
650-800
1-5/16" - 12
750-900
750-900
750-900
*For nuts used on hub piloted wheels, apply two drops of oil to the point between the nut and
flange and two drops to the first two or three threads at the tip of each stud (see Section 5-10).
For nuts used on stud piloted wheels, apply two drops of oil to the first two or three threads at the
tip of each stud only (see Sections 5-8).
NOTE:
1. If using specialty fasteners (cap nuts), consult the manufacturer for recommended torque values.
2. Tightening wheel nuts to their specified torque is extremely important. Undertightening
which results in loose wheels can damage wheels, studs and hubs, and can result in wheel loss.
Overtightening can damage studs, nuts and wheels and results in loose wheels as well.
3. Regardless of the torque method used, all torque wrenches, air wrenches and any other tools
should be calibrated periodically to ensure the proper torque is applied.
37
Balance weights
(clip-on)
6-3
Owner/in-service
identification
Balance weights for Alcoa wheels are available from your Alcoa Wheel Distributor. With radial tires
it may be necessary to temporarily reduce the tire pressure when installing clip-on weights to allow
clearance of the weight clamp over the rim flange. Use of coated balance weights is recommended to
avoid staining and corrosion of the aluminum wheel surface.
Excessive rim flange wear (see Section 3-12) could dictate the use of “stick-on” or adhesive wheel
weights if there is inadequate rim to properly hold a clip-on style weight.
Improperly installed weights could “fly off ” during use and damage the vehicle or cause personal injury. Always follow the recommended procedures in this manual or the wheel weight manufacturers.
Adhesive weights should be applied only to a clean surface on the brake side of the wheel rim. These
weights should be installed only in a location where they will not contact the brake components
during vehicle operation.
Some fleets wish to specially identify wheels as to OWNERSHIP and IN-SERVICE dates. Alcoa recommends that fleets and owner-operators adopt the practice of permanently stamping wheels with the
date they are first placed into service.
1. Use “Lo-Stress” stamps or equivalent.
6-4
6
2. Location of stamped areas on outside disc should be in space outward from a line between hand
hole centers and a minimum of one inch from the periphery of any hand hole.
3. Location of stamped identification on inside of wheel should be as close to the factory identification
stamping as possible.
Note: Use of an impression stamp on Dura-Bright® surface treated wheels can affect the appearance
and performance of the Dura-Bright® surface treatment local to the stamp.
Valves
6-5
Alcoa drop center wheels for tubeless tires come from the factory with air valves installed. If it becomes
necessary to replace an air valve, install it using the following torque values.
10-14 foot-pounds for Part Numbers
TR 509
TR 510
TR 511
7-11 foot-pounds for Part Numbers
TR 542 or 552 Series
TR 543 or 553 Series
TR 544 or 554 Series
TR 545 or 545 Series
60MS27N
70MS7
Replacement valves may be obtained from your authorized Alcoa Wheel Distributor. Always use
silicone o-rings or grommets – not rubber – when reinstalling valve stems. Metal valve stem caps are
recommended instead of plastic. It is recommended that valve stems with o-rings or grommets be
replaced at every tire change.
When replacing valve stems, it is recommended to lubricate the threads and o-ring with a non-waterbased tire lubricant.
When valve stem extensions are used, it is recommended that valve stem stabilizers be used.
38
Identification
6-6
Alcoa wheel identification
Since 1977, all Alcoa aluminum disc wheels have been identified with a stamp that shows the wheel
load rating, maximum inflation pressure, date of manufacture, part number, wheel description and
DOT marking designation.
Prior to June 1996, all Alcoa heavy duty truck wheels had the Alcoa identification symbol
on the
outside of the disc near the hand hole in line with the valve location. This marking was phased out on
heavy duty truck wheels manufactured after June 1996.
ALCOA ® FORGED
MADE IN U.S.A.
Wheel Load Rating
(Pounds)
Maximum
Inflation Pressure
FMVSS 120
Designation
MAX LOAD 7300
LB.
MAX PSI 120
T—DOT
082205
Date of Manufacture
Month/Day/Year
PART NO 883640
22.5X8.25 15° DC
Wheel Description
(prior to 2000, some wheels
may have only Month/Year)
All Dura-Bright® surface treated wheels are designated by the letters “DB” following the part number
such as 883640DB.
6
Note: Dura-Bright® wheels produced after November 2002 have Alcoa wheel part ­numbers ending
with “DB” (earlier wheels have part numbers ending in a 4 or 7) with bead seat diameters measured in
0.5-inch increments. Not all Alcoa wheels are available with the Dura-Bright® surface treatment.
All Dura-Flange® wheels are designated by the letters “DF” following the part number such as
883640DF.
39
7
OSHA Regulations
OSHA Regulations
7-1
Sec. 1910.177 Servicing multi-piece and single piece rim wheels.
(a) Scope
(1)This section applies to the servicing of multi-piece and single piece rim wheels used on large
vehicles such as trucks, tractors, trailers, buses and off-road machines. It does not apply to the
servicing of rim wheels used on automobiles, or on pickup trucks and vans utilizing automobile tires or truck tires designated “LT”.
(2)This section does not apply to employers and places of employment regulated under the
Construction Safety Standards, 29 CFR part 1926; the Agriculture Standards, 29 CFR part
1928; the Shipyard Standards, 29 CFR part 1915; or the Longshoring Standards, 29 CFR part
1918.
(3)All provisions of this section apply to the servicing of both single piece rim wheels and multipiece rim wheels unless designated otherwise.
(b) Definitions
Barrier means a fence, wall or other structure or object placed between a single piece rim wheel
and an employee during tire inflation, to contain the rim wheel components in the event of the
sudden release of the contained air of the single piece rim wheel.
Charts means the U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration publications entitled “Demounting and Mounting Procedures for Truck/Bus Tires” and “Multi-piece
Rim Matching Chart,” the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) publications
entitled “Demounting and Mounting Procedures Truck/Bus Tires” and “Multi-piece Rim Matching
Chart,” or any other poster which contains at least the same instructions, safety precautions and
other information contained in the charts that is applicable to the types of wheels being serviced.
7
Installing a rim wheel means the transfer and attachment of an assembled rim wheel onto a vehicle
axle hub. Removing means the opposite of installing.
Mounting a tire means the assembly or putting together of the wheel and tire ­components to form a
rim wheel, including inflation. Demounting means the opposite of mounting.
Multi-piece rim wheel means the assemblage of a multi-piece wheel with the tire tube and other
components.
Multi-piece wheel means a vehicle wheel consisting of two or more parts, one of which is a side
or locking ring designed to hold the tire on the wheel by interlocking components when the tire is
inflated.
Restraining device means an apparatus such as a cage, rack, assemblage of bars and other
components that will constrain all rim wheel components during an explosive separation of a
multi-piece rim wheel, or during the sudden release of the contained air of a single piece rim wheel.
Rim manual means a publication containing instructions from the manufacturer or other qualified
organization for correct mounting, demounting, maintenance, and safety precautions peculiar to
the type of wheel being serviced.
Rim wheel means an assemblage of tire, tube and liner (where appropriate), and wheel components.
Service or servicing means the mounting and demounting of rim wheels, and related activities
such as inflating, deflating, installing, removing, and handling.
Service area means that part of an employer's premises used for the servicing of rim wheels, or
any other place where an employee services rim wheels.
40
OSHA Regulations
(continued)
Single piece rim wheel means the assemblage of single piece rim wheel with the tire and other
components.
Single piece wheel means a vehicle wheel consisting of one part, designed to hold the tire on the
wheel when the tire is inflated.
Trajectory means any potential path or route that a rim wheel component may travel during an
explosive separation, or the sudden release of the pressurized air, or an area at which an airblast
from a single piece rim wheel may be released. The trajectory may deviate from paths which are
perpendicular to the assembled position of the rim wheel at the time of separation or explosion.
(See appendix A for examples of trajectories.)
Wheel means that portion of a rim wheel which provides the method of attachment of the assembly to the axle of a vehicle and also provides the means to contain the inflated portion of the
assembly (i.e., the tire and/or tube).
(c) Employee Training
(1)The employer shall provide a program to train all employees who service rim wheels in the
hazards involved in servicing those rim wheels and the safety procedures to be followed.
(i)The employer shall assure that no employee services any rim wheel unless the employee
has been trained and instructed in correct procedures of servicing the type of wheel
being serviced, and in the safe operating procedures described in paragraphs (f) and (g)
of this section.
(ii) Information to be used in the training program shall include, at a minimum, the applicable data contained in the charts (rim manuals) and the contents of this standard.
(iii) Where an employer knows or has reason to believe that any of his employees is unable
to read and understand the charts or rim manual, the employer shall assure that the
employee is instructed concerning the contents of the charts and rim manual in a manner
which the employee is able to understand.
(2) The employer shall assure that each employee demonstrates and maintains the ability to
service rim wheels safely, including performance of the following tasks:
(i) Demounting of tires (including deflation);
(ii) Inspection and identification of the rim wheel components;
(iii) Mounting of tires (including inflation with a restraining device or other safeguard
required by this section);
(iv) Use of the restraining device or barrier, and other equipment required by this ­section;
(v) Handling of rim wheels;
(vi) Inflation of the tire when a single piece rim wheel is mounted on a vehicle;
7
(vii) An understanding of the necessity of standing outside the trajectory both during inflation of the tire and during inspection of the rim wheel following inflation; and
(viii)Installation and removal of rim wheels.
(3) The employer shall evaluate each employee's ability to perform these tasks and to service rim
wheels safely, and shall provide additional training as necessary to assure that each employee
maintains his or her proficiency.
(d) Tire servicing equipment.
(1) The employer shall furnish a restraining device for inflating tires on multi-piece wheels.
(2) The employer shall provide a restraining device or barrier for inflating tires on single piece
wheels unless the rim wheel will be bolted onto a vehicle during inflation.
(3) Restraining devices and barriers shall comply with the following requirements:
41
OSHA Regulations
(continued)
(i) Each restraining device or barrier shall have the capacity to withstand the maximum
force that would be transferred to it during a rim wheel separation occurring at 150
percent of the maximum tire specification pressure for the type of rim wheel being
serviced.
(ii) Restraining devices and barriers shall be capable of preventing the rim wheel components
from being thrown outside or beyond the device or barrier for any rim wheel positioned
within or behind the device;
(iii) Restraining devices and barriers shall be visually inspected prior to each day's use and
after any separation of the rim wheel components or sudden release of contained air.
Any restraining device or barrier exhibiting damage such as the following defects shall
be immediately removed from service:
(A) Cracks at welds;
(B) Cracked or broken components;
(C)Bent or sprung components caused by mishandling, abuse, tire explosion or rim
wheel separation;
(D) Pitting of components due to corrosion; or
(E)Other structural damage which would decrease its effectiveness.
(iv) Restraining devices or barriers removed from service shall not be returned to service until
they are repaired and reinspected. Restraining devices or barriers requiring structural
repair such as component replacement or rewelding shall not be returned to service until
they are certified by either the manufacturer or a Registered Professional Engineer as
meeting the strength requirements of paragraph (d)(3)(i) of this section.
(4) The employer shall furnish and assure that an air line assembly consisting of the following
components be used for inflating tires:
7
(i) A clip-on chuck;
(ii) An in-line valve with a pressure gauge or a presettable regulator; and
(iii) A sufficient length of hose between the clip-on chuck and the in-line valve (if one is
used) to allow the employee to stand outside the trajectory.
(5) Current charts or rim manuals containing instructions for the type of wheels being serviced
shall be available in the service area.
(6) The employer shall furnish and assure that only tools recommended in the rim manual for the
type of wheel being serviced are used to service rim wheels.
(e) Wheel component acceptability.
(1) Multi-piece wheel components shall not be interchanged except as provided in the charts or
in the applicable rim manual.
(2) Multi-piece wheel components and single piece wheels shall be inspected prior to assembly.
Any wheel or wheel component which is bent out of shape, pitted from corrosion, broken, or
cracked shall not be used and shall be marked or tagged unserviceable and removed from the
service area. Damaged or leaky valves shall be replaced.
(3) Rim flanges, rim gutters, rings, bead seating surfaces and the bead areas of tires shall be free
of any dirt, surface rust, scale or loose or flaked rubber build-up prior to mounting and inflation.
(4) The size (bead diameter and tire/wheel widths) and type of both the tire and the wheel shall be
checked for compatibility prior to assembly of the rim wheel.
(f) Safe operating procedure - multi-piece rim wheels.
The employer shall establish a safe operating procedure for servicing multi-piece rim wheels
and shall assure that employees are instructed in and follow that procedure. The procedure shall
include at least the following elements:
(1) Tires shall be completely deflated before demounting by removal of the valve core.
(2) Tires shall be completely deflated by removing the valve core before a rim wheel is removed
from the axle in either of the following situations:
42
(i) When the tire has been driven underinflated at 80 percent or less of its recommended
OSHA Regulations
(continued)
pressure, or
(ii) When there is obvious or suspected damage to the tire or wheel components.
(3) Rubber lubricant shall be applied to bead and rim mating surfaces during assembly of the
wheel and inflation of the tire, unless the tire or wheel manufacturer recommends against it.
(4) If a tire on a vehicle is underinflated but has more than 80 percent of the recommended
pressure, the tire may be inflated while the rim wheel is on the vehicle provided remote
control inflation equipment is used, and no employees remain in the trajectory during
inflation.
(5) Tires shall be inflated outside a restraining device only to a pressure sufficient to force the
tire bead onto the rim ledge and create an airtight seal with the tire and bead.
(6) Whenever a rim wheel is in a restraining device the employee shall not rest or lean any part
of his body or equipment on or against the restraining device.
(7) After tire inflation, the tire and wheel components shall be inspected while still within
the restraining device to make sure that they are properly seated and locked. If further
adjustment to the tire or wheel components is necessary, the tire shall be deflated by removal
of the valve core before the adjustment is made.
(8) No attempt shall be made to correct the seating of side and lock rings by hammering, striking
or forcing the components while the tire is pressurized.
(9) Cracked, broken, bent or otherwise damaged rim components shall not be reworked, welded,
brazed, or otherwise heated.
(10) Whenever multi-piece rim wheels are being handled, employees shall stay out of the
trajectory unless the employer can demonstrate that performance of the servicing makes the
employee's presence in the trajectory necessary.
(11) No heat shall be applied to a multi-piece wheel or wheel component.
(g) Safe operating procedure - single piece rim wheels.
7
The employer shall establish a safe operating procedure for servicing single piece rim wheels
and shall assure that employees are instructed in and follow that procedure. The procedure shall
include at least the following elements:
(1) Tires shall be completely deflated by removal of the valve core before demounting.
(2) Mounting and demounting of the tire shall be done only from the narrow ledge side of the
wheel. Care shall be taken to avoid damaging the tire beads while mounting tires on wheels.
Tires shall be mounted only on compatible wheels of matching bead diameter and width.
(3) Nonflammable rubber lubricant shall be applied to bead and wheel mating surfaces before
assembly of the rim wheel, unless the tire or wheel manufacturer recommends against the
use of any rubber lubricant.
(4) If a tire changing machine is used, the tire shall be inflated only to the minimum pressure
necessary to force the tire bead onto the rim ledge while on the tire changing machine.
(5) If a bead expander is used, it shall be removed before the valve core is installed and as soon
as the rim wheel becomes airtight (the tire bead slips onto the bead seat).
(6) Tires may be inflated only when contained within a restraining device, positioned behind a
barrier or bolted on the vehicle with the lug nuts fully tightened.
(7) Tires shall not be inflated when any flat, solid surface is in the trajectory and within one foot
of the sidewall.
(8) Employees shall stay out of the trajectory when inflating a tire.
(9) Tires shall not be inflated to more than the inflation pressure stamped in the sidewall unless a
higher pressure is recommended by the manufacturer.
43
OSHA Regulations
(continued)
(10) Tires shall not be inflated above the maximum pressure recommended by the manufacturer to
seat the tire bead firmly against the rim flange.
(11) No heat shall be applied to a single piece wheel.
(12) Cracked, broken, bent, or otherwise damaged wheels shall not be reworked, ­welded, brazed,
or otherwise heated.
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TC27OC91.036
Appendix B - Ordering Information for NHTSA Charts
OSHA has printed two charts entitled “Demounting and Mounting Procedures
for Truck/Bus Tires” and “Multi-piece Rim Matching Chart,” as part of a continuing campaign to
reduce accidents among employees who service large vehicle rim wheels.
Reprints of the charts are available through the Occupational Safety and Health Administration
(OSHA) Area and Regional Offices. The address and telephone number
of the nearest OSHA office can be obtained by looking in the local telephone directory under U.S.
Government, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration.
Single copies are available without charge.
Individuals, establishments and other organizations desiring single or multiple copies
of these charts may order them from the OSHA Publications Office, U.S. Department
of Labor, Room N-3101, Washington, DC 20210, Telephone (202) 219-4667.
[49 FR 4350, Feb. 3, 1984, as amended at 52 FR 36026, Sept. 25, 1987; 53 FR 34737, Sept. 8,
1988; 61 FR 9239, Mar. 7, 1996]
7
44
8
Glossary of Common Terms
Glossary of
Common Terms
8-1
1/2 DUAL SPACING - One half the distance between the two center lines of dualed wheels. The
dimension is the same as the OUTSET dimension.
1-PIECE FLANGE NUT - A one-piece washer and nut combination not recommended for use on
any Aloca wheel application.
2-PIECE FLANGE NUT - A two-piece washer and nut combination used to secure hub piloted wheels.
AIR CHAMBER - The space enclosed by a tire and wheel rim or inner tube.
BEAD SEAT - The area along the outer edges of the rim where the mounted tire and rim are in contact.
BOLT CIRCLE - The circle defined by the centers of the bolt holes (stud holes) of a wheel, dimensions stated in diameter inches or millimeters.
BOLT HOLE - Hole found in the disc of the wheel through which the bolt (stud) passes.
BORE - See “HUB BORE.”
CENTER BORE - See “HUB BORE.”
CONE LOCK CAP NUT - See “2-PIECE FLANGE NUT.”
DC - Abbreviation for drop center.
DISC AREA - The vertical wheel face which supports the rim.
DISC WHEEL - A one-piece (forged) or two-piece (welded) assembly of a disc and a rim.
DROP CENTER - The well or center portion of the wheel rim.
FLAT BASE WHEEL - A multi-piece wheel with a removable side ring.
FOOT-POUNDS - The measure of the amount of torque applied to a cap nut or other part. May be
measured with a torque wrench.
GUTTER FLANGE - A groove which supports the removable portion of a multi-piece wheel.
HUB BORE - The center hole of a disc wheel, dimensions stated in diameter inches or millimeters.
HUB PILOTED MOUNTING - A wheel mounting system which uses the hub to center the wheel
and two-piece flange nuts to secure it.
in. - Abbreviation for inches.
INNER CAP NUT - Cap nut used to mount the inner wheel in a dualed stud located wheel system.
INSET - The distance from the wheel mounting surface to the rim centerline when the centerline is
placed inboard of the mounting surface.
kg - Abbreviation for kilogram (weight measurement), equal to 1000 grams.
kPa - Abbreviation for kilo Pascals (pressure measurement).
45
8
Glossary of
Common Terms
(continued)
LOCK RING - The third piece of a three rim assembly which positions and supports the side ring to
the rim base.
MAXIMUM INFLATION - The highest amount of air pressure allowed, measured at normal ambient
temperatures.
mm - Abbreviation for millimeters.
MULTI-PIECE WHEEL - A wheel assembly in which the rim portion of the wheel consists of two or
more separate parts.
N-m - Abbreviation for Newton meters
OFFSET - See “OUTSET.”
OPEN SIDE - The side of the wheel opposite the disc face.
OSHA - Abbreviation for the U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Health and Safety
Administration.
OUTER CAP NUT - A cap nut used to secure the outer stud located wheel in a dualed wheel pair
and thread onto the inner cap nut.
OUTSET - The distance from the mounting surface of the wheel to the rim centerline when the
rim centerline is mounted outboard of the hub face. This dimension is the same as the 1/2 DUAL
SPACING dimension.
PILOT PAD - The raised surfaces on a hub used to center a hub piloted wheel.
PSI - Abbreviation for pounds per square inch.
REVERSIBLE - Term applied to a disc wheel which can be reversed on the hub without changing the
position of the tire centerline.
RIM CENTERLINE - A line to the radial axis of the wheel running through the mid point between
the rim flanges.
RIM FLANGE - That portion of the rim which extends above the rim surface which retains the tire
bead.
RIM - That portion of the wheel which supports the tire.
SIDE RING - A removable piece of a multi-piece wheel assembly which provides lateral support for
one tire bead.
8
SINGLE CAP NUT - A cap nut used to secure single wheels or outer dual wheels.
STUD - A threaded bolt extending from the hub surface to which the wheels are secured by the cap
nuts.
STUD LOCATED, BALL SEAT MOUNTING - A wheel mounting system which uses the studs
and spherical ball seat cap nuts to center and secure the wheel.
TIRE BEAD - That surface of the tire which contacts the angled surface of the wheel rim.
TORQUE - The amount of force used to tighten cap nuts. Usually stated in foot-pounds or kilograms
and measured with a torque wrench.
WHEEL MOUNTING FACE - That portion of the wheel face which contacts the hub or brake
drum.
wt. - Abbreviation for weight.
46
Wheel
measurement
8-2
How to measure minimum dual spacing
Minimum dual spacing measurement is determined by the tire manufacturer and may be obtained
from the tire manufacturer's handbook. To determine if the Alcoa aluminum dual wheel assembly
has adequate minimum dual spacing for the selected tires, double the wheel outset measurement of the
Alcoa wheel used. If the doubled outset measurement is equal to or greater than the tire manufacturer's
recommendation, there will be sufficient minimum dual spacing. Wheel inset and outset is given for
each Alcoa wheel on pages 2 and 3. Both inset and outset wheels are measured from the mounting
surface of the wheel to the center line of the rim. Maintaining proper tire inflation and load ratings are
essential to maintaining proper minimum dual spacing.
Dual spacing
Vehicle
clearance
Tire clearance
8
Tire section width
Bolt
circle dia.
Center
hole dia.
Wheel outset
(same as offset
or dual spacing)
Tire center line
Wheel
inset
Backspace
Tire center line
47
9
Inch Fraction,
Decimal and
Millimeter
Equivalents
Chart
(Up to 1 inch)
9-1
9
48
Conversion Tables
Conversion
Factors
Inches to Millimeters
9-2
Inches x
25.4 =
Millimeters
0.03937 =
Inches
Millimeters to Inches
Millimeters x
PSI to kPa
PSI
x
6.8948
=
kPa
kPa
x
0.145
=
PSI
x
0.4536
=
kg
kPa to PSI
Pounds to Kilograms
Pounds
9
Kilograms to Pounds
kg
x
2.2050
=
Pounds
=
N-m
=
Ft-lbs
Foot-pounds to Newton Meters
Ft-lbs
x 0.135582
Newton Meters to Foot-pounds
N-m
x
.737561
49
Alcoa Wheel Products
1600 Harvard Avenue
Cleveland, Ohio 44105
(800) 242-9898
www.alcoawheels.com
Copyright © 2007
Alcoa Wheel Products
All Rights Reserved
Form E37-13584
Printed in USA 03/07/5M
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