HP5890GC_Tutorial

HP5890GC_Tutorial
Tutorial
HP 5890 Series II and
HP 5890 Series II Plus
DHewlett-Packard
Company 1989, 1993, 1994
All Rights Reserved.
Reproduction, adaptation,
or translation without
permission is prohibited,
except as allowed under
the copyright laws.
HP part number
05890-90291
First edition—Jun 1989
Second edition—Jul 1993
Third edition—Jul 1994
Printed in USA
Warranty
The information contained
in this document is subject
to change without notice.
Hewlett-Packard makes no
warranty of any kind with
regard to this material,
including, but not limited
to, the implied warranties
of merchantability and
fitness for a particular
purpose. Hewlett-Packard
shall not be liable for errors
contained herein or for
incidental or consequential
damages in connection with
the furnishing,
performance, or use of this
material.
Little Falls Site
Hewlett-Packard Company
2850 Centerville Road
Wilmington, DE 19808-1610
Safety Information
The HP 5890 Series II and
HP 5890 Series II Plus are
IEC (International
Electrotechnical
Commission) Safety Class 1
instruments. This unit has
been designed and tested in
accordance with recognized
safety standards. Whenever
the safety protection of the
HP 5890 Series II has been
compromised, disconnect
the unit from all power
sources and secure the unit
against unintended
operation.
Safety Symbols
This manual contains
safety information that
should be followed by the
user to ensure safe
operation.
WARNING
A warning calls attention
to a condition or possible
situation that could cause
injury to the user.
CAUTION
A caution calls attention to
a condition or possible
situation that could
damage or destroy the
product or the user’s work.
Contents
Part 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The other manuals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Is the instrument ready? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5
5
5
Part 2. Verify the instrument condition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Is the instrument new or existing? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
What is the as shipped condition? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Restoring the as shipped condition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8
8
8
9
Part 3. Prepare the instrument test column . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
New instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Existing instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10
10
10
Part 4. Select an inlet and detector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
What kind of inlet do I have? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
What kind of detector do I have? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11
11
12
Part 5. Mount the column support bracket in the oven . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13
Part 6. Install the column nuts and ferrules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
New instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Existing instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installing nuts and ferrules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15
15
15
15
Part 7a. The split/splitlesscapillary inlet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
New instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Existing instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Connecting the column . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17
17
17
17
Part 7b. The packed inlet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
New instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Existing instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installing the adapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Connecting the column . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18
18
18
18
20
Part 8a. The thermal conductivity detector (TCD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
New instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Existing instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Connecting the column . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21
21
21
21
Part 8b. The flame ionization detector (FID) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
New instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Existing instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installing the adapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Connecting the column . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
22
22
22
22
23
Contents
Part 9. Set and measure gas flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
New instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Existing instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the carrier flow rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Gas plumbing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Delivery pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Measuring gas flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24
24
24
24
25
26
26
Part 10. Set carrier gas flows for the packed inlet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
28
Part 11. Set carrier gas flows for the split inlet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
29
Part 12. Set gas flows for the FID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
31
Part 13. Set gas flows for the TCD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
33
Part 14. Set the inlet and detector temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Before entering the setpoints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
If you are using the flame ionization detector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
If you are using the thermal conductivity detector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
34
34
35
36
Part 15. Set the oven temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Packed inlet and FID detector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Packed inlet and TCD detector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Split inlet and FID detector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Split inlet and TCD detector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
37
37
38
38
38
Part 16. Send the signal to the recorder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Specify the signal and detector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Check the signal cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
39
39
39
Part 17. Prepare to make a run . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Check gas flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Prepare the thermal conductivity detector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Prepare the flame ionization detector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Check temperature readiness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Turn on your recorder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
41
41
41
42
42
42
Part 18. Analyze the sample . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Find the sample . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Load the syringe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Inject the sample . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
43
43
43
44
Part 19. Examine the chromatogram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Split inlet and TCD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Split inlet and FID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Packed inlet and TCD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Packed inlet and FID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
45
46
47
47
48
Part 20. Some last words . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
49
Tutorial
Part 1. Introduction
Part 1. Introduction
Welcome to the Hewlett•Packard5890 SERIES II Gas Chromatograph.
This manual points out the major functions of this instrument by leading
you through an analysis of the Performance Evaluation Sample supplied
with the instrument.
Two inlets (packed column and split/splitless capillary column) and two
detectors (flame ionization and thermal conductivity) are described here.
For other inlets or detectors, see the Operating Manual.
The other manuals
The Operating and Reference Manuals are included with the instrument;
the Service Manual can be purchased.
Operating Manual: Facts you are likely to need fairly frequently. It
does not cover material that, while certainly
important, is only rarely needed.
Reference Manual:
All information that is not in the Operating Manual.
Is the instrument ready?
This manual assumes that:
C The instrument has been unpacked and installed on the lab
workbench.
C It is connected to some kind of recording device (recorder, integrator,
etc.).
C Helium is the carrier gas and has been plumbed up.
C The gas supplies for the detector have been plumbed up.
5
Tutorial
Part 1. Introduction
If this is not so, please see the instructions in the Installation Manual.
Return to this manual when you’re finished. When everything is ready:
C If the instrument is on, turn it off. The power switch is at the bottom
of the right side near the rear.
C Turn all gases off at the regulators.
Cable connection
cover
Inlet area
Detector vents
Displays
Detector gas controls
Keyboard
Access door to gas
plumbing
Inlet (carrier) gas
controls
Column oven
6
Tutorial
Part 1. Introduction
Cable connection cover
Cable exit
Oven air
exhaust
Power fuses (behind panel)
Power cord
Exit for gas
plumbing
Cryogenic
plumbing
7
Tutorial
Part 2. Verify the instrument condition
Part 2. Verify the instrument condition
Is the instrument new or existing?
In this manual, an instrument is new if it is fresh from the factory, has
just been installed, and you’re the first person to use it. If so, move ahead
to Part 3. If the instrument is not new, then consider it existing. It
must be restored to the as shipped" condition.
What is the as shipped condition?
It's a long list, but these are the important items:
C All gas flow controlling devices are turned off.
C All heaters (inlets, oven, detectors) are turned off.
C The packed inlet does not have an adapter liner installed.
C The capillary inlet has a column nut screwed into the fitting inside
the oven.
C The flame ionization detector (FID) protective brass cap is screwed
onto the fitting inside the oven and there is no adapter liner installed.
C The thermal conductivity detector (TCD) makeup gas adapter is
installed on the fitting inside the oven and a capillary column nut is
screwed into the adapter.
8
Tutorial
Part 2. Verify the instrument condition
Restoring the as shipped condition
To restore an existing instrument to the as shipped" condition:
1. Verify that the main power and all gas flows are turned off.
2. Verify that the hardware in the oven matches the preceding list.
Remove any adapter liners from the inlets and detectors.
3. Turn the main power on.
4. Reset the internal setpoints to their default values by pressing these
keys:
CLEAR
.
6
ENTER
9
Tutorial
Part 3. Prepare the instrument test column
Part 3. Prepare the instrument test column
Your instrument was tested at the factory using a 530 ¿ id capillary
column. A similar column (not the one that was used in testing) is in the
Mainframe Kit shipped with the instrument. It can be used with either
the split/splitless or the packed column inlet.
The column is labeled:
HP•1(Methyl Silicone Gum) Instrument Test
5m x 0.53mm x 2.65 ¿m film thickness
U.S. Patent No. 4,293,415 Made in U.S.A.
This is an instrument test column. It is not a high resolution capillary
column and is not suitable for anything other than testing the
instrument. It is roughly equivalent to an 18•inchpacked column.
When you're finished with this column, store it in a safe place for use by
the next new operator.
New instruments
The column is in the Mainframe Shipping Kit.
Existing instruments
The column is in the safe place where the previous user put it.
10
Tutorial
Part 4. Select an inlet and detector
Part 4. Select an inlet and detector
The two most commonly used inlets and the two most commonly used
detectors are discussed in this manual:
C The split/splitless capillary column inlet
C The packed column inlet
C The thermal conductivity detector
C The flame ionization detector
For other inlets or detectors, see the Operating Manual.
What kind of inlet do I have?
Look at the panels to the left of the oven door. The two that are covered
here are the carrier gas control for packed columns (labeled packed) and
the carrier gas control for capillary columns (labeled split). They look
like this:
Packed
column
gas controls
Capillary
column
gas controls
PACKED
COLUMN
HEAD PRESSURE
INCR
SPLIT
INCR
COLUMN
HEAD PRESSURE
TOTAL FLOW SEPTUM PURGE
INCR
INCR
CARRIER FLOW
SPLIT VENT PURGE VENT
If you have a choice, the packed inlet is much easier to use.
11
Tutorial
Part 4. Select an inlet and detector
What kind of detector do I have?
Look at the small panels. The gas controls for the flame ionization
detector (FID) and the thermal conductivity detector (TCD) look like this:
Thermal
conductivity
detector gas
controls
TCD
OFF
AUX GAS
OFF
REF
Flame ionization
detector gas
controls
FID
OFF
AIR
PRESS
FID IGNITOR
OFF
HYDROGEN
OFF
AUX GAS
Turn off the flow control knobs for the detector you select.
If you have a choice, the thermal conductivity detector is easier to use.
12
Tutorial
Part 5. Mount the column support bracket in the oven
Part 5. Mount the column support bracket in the oven
The instrument test column is supported by a bracket that attaches to
the top of the oven. To open the oven door, press up on the latch below the
lower right corner. There are two sets of slightly oblong holes in the
inside top surface, one set toward the rear and one toward the front of the
oven. These are the mounting holes for the column bracket.
Front mounting holes
Rear mounting holes
Hold the column bracket with the loops at the top pointing toward you.
Squeeze the loops together and slip the hooks on top into the holes in the
top of the oven. Use the pair of holes that best matches the positions of
the injector and detector that you will be using.
13
Tutorial
Part 5. Mount the column support bracket in the oven
Now hold the column so that the metal label is toward you. Slide the
column forward on its frame so that you can hang the frame on the
mounting bracket. Use the position on the bracket that best centers the
column in the oven.
Release enough of the column from the frame at each end so that the
column can reach the inlet and detector fittings. You want a smooth
curve with as little strain on the column as possible. This may require
cutting some length off the column; wait until the next Part before you do
this.
Remove the column (but not the bracket!) from the oven.
14
Tutorial
Part 6. Install the column nuts and ferrules
Part 6. Install the column nuts and ferrules
New instruments
There’s a tube containing graphite ferrules in the Mainframe Shipping
Kit. Column nuts are screwed into the inlet and detector fittings inside
the oven.
Existing instruments
Find two column nuts and two graphite ferrules among the instrument
supplies. The figure below will help you identify them.
Installing nuts and ferrules
Slip a column nut over each end of the column, with the threaded end of
the nut toward the end of the column. Follow it with a graphite ferrule,
with the narrow end toward the column end. See the figure for the correct
arrangement.
Graphite ferrule
Nut
15
Tutorial
Part 6. Install the column nuts and ferrules
You probably got a few graphite fragments inside the column when you
installed the ferrules. These must be removed. Push the ferrules away
from the column end, score the column 1 or 2 cm from the end, and break
off the end. If you need to cut off some excess length so that the column
will connect smoothly to the inlet and detector, do it now.
1 to 2 cm
Score and
break
16
Tutorial
Part 7a. The split/splitless capillary inlet
Part 7a. The split/splitless capillary inlet
New instruments
The correct inlet insert (split mode) was installed at the factory.
Existing instruments
Changing inlet inserts requires some care and practice. To save time,
have someone in the laboratory who is familiar with the instrument
verify that the split mode insert is in place or, if it is not, change the
insert for you. The details are in the Operating Manual.
Connecting the column
Free enough of the inlet end of the column from the column frame so that
it curves smoothly up to the inlet.
Move the nut and ferrule so that approximately 4 mm of the column
extends beyond the ferrule. Mark the column behind the nut.
Typewriter correction fluid works well.
Paint mark
About 4 mm
2
cm 0
Insert the column, nut, and ferrule into the bottom of the inlet. Keep the
mark at the back of the column nut and tighten the nut finger•tight. Use
a wrench to tighten 1/4•turnmore. Avoid overtightening or you may
shatter the column end.
17
Tutorial
Part 7b. The packed inlet
Part 7b. The packed inlet
New instruments
The inlet does not contain an adapter. All of the parts you will need are
in the Packed Injection Port Shipping Kit.
Existing instruments
The inlet probably contains an adapter, but it’s impossible to say which
one. It depends on how the inlet has been used. Have someone who is
familiar with the instrument inspect the inlet and, if necessary, remove
the adapter/insert.
Installing the adapter
Two inlet adapters are provided in the Injection Port Shipping Kit. One
has external threads at one end; this is for use with packed columns.
Select the one with internal threads.
18
Tutorial
Part 7b. The packed inlet
For capillary columns
Place a graphitized Vespel ferrule and a brass nut on the adapter, as
shown here.
If there’s a glass liner in the adapter, replace it with a new one.
Push the adapter, with the liner, ferrule and nut, up into the inlet from
inside the oven. Hold the adapter as far up as it will go and tighten the
brass nut finger•tight. Use a wrench to tighten another 1/4 turn.
19
Tutorial
Part 7b. The packed inlet
Connecting the column
Free enough of the inlet end of the column from the column frame so that
it curves smoothly up to the inlet.
Move the nut and ferrule so that approximately 2 mm of the column
extends beyond the ferrule. Mark the column behind the nut.
Typewriter correction fluid works well.
Paint mark
About 2 mm
2
cm 0
Insert the column, nut, and ferrule into the bottom of the inlet adapter.
Keep the mark at the back of the column nut and tighten the nut
finger•tight. Use a wrench to tighten 1/4•turn more. Avoid
overtightening or you may shatter the column end.
20
Tutorial
Part 8a. The thermal conductivity detector (TCD)
Part 8a. The thermal conductivity detector (TCD)
New instruments
The makeup gas adapter is installed at the factory. A column nut is
attached to it.
Existing instruments
The makeup gas adapter is installed at the factory. Remove any other
fittings that might be attached to it.
Connecting the column
Free enough of the detector end of the column from the column frame so
that it curves smoothly up to the detector.
Insert the column, with its nut and ferrule, into the bottom of the
adapter. Gently push the column up as far as it will go (about 40 mm).
Do not force it.
While holding the column up, tighten the column nut finger•tight. Pull
the column down about 1 mm. Use a wrench to tighten the nut another
1/4 turn. Avoid overtightening or you may shatter the column end.
21
Tutorial
Part 8b. The flame ionization detector (FID)
Part 8b. The flame ionization detector (FID)
New instruments
The adapter and other fittings are in the FID Shipping Kit. The capillary
column jet is installed in the detector at the factory.
Existing instruments
Have someone who is familiar with the instrument verify that the
capillary column jet is in the detector.
Installing the adapter
Two adapters are supplied with this detector. Use the shorter one.
For capillary columns
Remove the protective cap from the detector fitting inside the oven.
Assemble a brass nut and a graphite ferrule on the adapter as shown
here.
22
Tutorial
Part 8b. The flame ionization detector (FID)
Push the adapter, with the ferrule and nut, into the detector fitting from
inside the oven. Hold the adapter as far up as it will go and tighten the
nut finger•tight. Use a wrench to tighten another 1/4 turn.
Connecting the column
Free enough of the detector end of the column from the column frame so
that it curves smoothly up to the detector.
Insert the column, with its nut and ferrule, into the bottom of the
adapter. Gently push the column up as far as it will go (about 40 mm).
Do not force it.
While holding the column up, tighten the column nut finger•tight. Pull
the column down about 1 mm. Use a wrench to tighten the nut another
1/4 turn. Avoid overtightening or you may shatter the column end.
23
Tutorial
Part 9. Set and measure gas flows
Part 9. Set and measure gas flows
New instruments
The gas flows were turned off after final factory testing. You will have to
reset them all.
Existing instruments
If the instrument has been in use, some (perhaps all) of the gas flows
have already been set up. However, you should measure the flows to be
sure that they are correct, especially if the instrument has been used
with anything but HP Series 530 ¿ columns.
Setting the carrier flow rates
Begin by turning off all of the flows. This gives a known starting place
for the rest of the process.
C On the packed panel:
Locate the knob labeled CARRIER FLOW. Turn it clockwise as far as
it will go. Don’t force the knob; when it closes it comes to a slightly
soft" stop.
C On the split panel:
Locate the knob labeled TOTAL FLOW. Turn it clockwise as far as it
will go. Don't force the knob; when it closes it comes to a slightly
soft" stop.
Locate the knob marked SEPTUM PURGE. Turn it
counterclockwise to turn the flow off. There is no definite stop
position; when the knob turns freely (doesn't seem to be touching
anything inside), it's off.
C On the detector gas panels:
Turn all of the knobs clockwise as far as they will go.
24
Tutorial
Part 9. Set and measure gas flows
Gas plumbing
There are two possible plumbing arrangements for each gas:
(optional)
High-pressure
gas source
High-pressure
gas source
Two-stage
regulator
Local
regulator
Instrument
Local
regulator
Instrument
Local
regulator
Instrument
Local
regulator
Instrument
Local
regulator
Instrument
Two-stage
regulator
The high•pressuresource is a gas cylinder. There may be one for each
instrument, or the gas from a single source may be piped around to
several instrument locations.
The local regulator, usually a single stage, is optional when each
instrument has its own gas supply. When a source is shared, each
instrument should have a local regulator.
Local regulators can be wall•or bench•mounted(outside the instrument)
or on an auxiliary panel inside the door on the left side panel. Trace the
lines in your instrument to find out which arrangement you have for each
gas.
25
Tutorial
Part 9. Set and measure gas flows
Delivery pressure
This is the gas pressure at the exit side of the last regulator, regardless
of where that regulator is. It is the pressure that the chromatograph has
available to work with.
Measuring gas flows
You use a soap bubble flowmeter and the adapters that are supplied in
the detector shipping kits. These adapters connect the detector outlet to
the flowmeter.
For flame ionization
detector
For thermal
conductivity
detector
Detector exhaust vent
26
Tutorial
Part 9. Set and measure gas flows
To make a flow measurement:
1. Place some soapy water or leak detection fluid in the flowmeter,
enough to fill the bulb but not cover the gas entrance.
2. With the gas flowing, squeeze and release the bulb to form a soap
film.
3. Time the soap film as it moves between two of the graduations on the
meter.
4. From the volume and time, calculate the flow rate.
5. If necessary, adjust the flow, wait for it to stabilize, and measure
again.
27
Tutorial
Part 10. Set carrier gas flows for the packed inlet
Part 10. Set carrier gas flows for the packed inlet
The internal flow path in the instrument is:
PACKED
COLUMN
HEAD PRESSURE
INCR
IN
CARRIER FLOW
Inlet
Column
Detector
OUT
To set the carrier gas flow:
1. Open the helium cylinder valve and set the delivery pressure of the
two•stageregulator to 410 kPa (60 psi). If there is a local regulator in
the carrier gas line, set the cylinder regulator to 550 kPa (80 psi) and
the local regulator to 410 kPa (60 psi).
2. Attach the bubble flowmeter to the detector outlet. There should be
no flow at this time. If there is, check the detector gas controls to be
sure that they are turned off.
3. Turn the CARRIER FLOW knob in the INCR direction to turn the gas
on. Adjust to achieve a flow of 20 ml/min.
28
Tutorial
Part 11. Set carrier gas flows for the split inlet
Part 11. Set carrier gas flows for the split inlet
The internal flow path in the instrument is:
SPLIT
INCR
COLUMN
HEAD PRESSURE
TOTAL FLOW SEPTUM PURGE
INCR
INCR
Inlet
IN
Column
Detector
OUT
SPLIT VENT PURGE VENT
To set the gas flows:
1. Open the helium cylinder valve and set the delivery pressure of the
two•stageregulator to 410 kPa (60 psi). If there is a local regulator in
the carrier gas line, set the cylinder regulator to 550 kPa (80 psi) and
the local regulator to 410 kPa (60 psi).
2. Attach the bubble flowmeter to the detector outlet. There should be
no flow at this time. If there is, check the detector gas controls to be
sure that they are turned off.
3. Turn the TOTAL FLOW knob in the
on.
INCR direction to turn the flow
4. Turn COLUMN HEAD PRESSURE knob in the INCR direction until
the flow is 15 ml/min. If you cannot, increase TOTAL FLOW until you
can. Use TOTAL FLOW for coarse and COLUMN HEAD PRESSURE
for fine adjustment.
29
Tutorial
Part 11. Set carrier gas flows for the split inlet
5. Move the flowmeter to the split vent. Adjust TOTAL FLOW until the
flow at the split vent is 200 ml/min.
6. Move the flowmeter to the purge vent. Turn the SEPTUM PURGE
knob in the INCR direction until the flow at the purge vent is 5
ml/min.
7. Repeat steps 4, 5, and 6 until all flows are correct.
30
Tutorial
Part 12. Set gas flows for the FID
Part 12. Set gas flows for the FID
The flame ionization detector flows are set on this panel:
FID
OFF
AIR
PRESS
FID IGNITOR
OFF
HYDROGEN
OFF
AUX GAS
The HYDROGEN and AIR gas controls should always be either full on or
full off. Intermediate settings are unstable. Adjust flow by changing the
supply pressure.
The AUX GAS control is an on/offdevice combined with a needle valve
(the screwdriver adjustment in the center) for flow adjustment. The
needle valve is delicate and should not be forced to either end of its
travel.
To set the FID gas flows:
1. Verify that the detector gas flows are turned off on this panel.
2. Attach the flowmeter to the detector exit and verify that the carrier
gas flow rate is about 20 ml/min for the packed inlet or 15 ml/min for
the split inlet.
3. Turn the AUX GAS on (full counterclockwise). With a small flat•blade
screwdriver, turn the screw adjustment in the center of the knob until
the total flow (carrier + makeup gas) is 30 ml/min for the packed
inlet or 35 ml/min for the split inlet.
31
Tutorial
Part 12. Set gas flows for the FID
4. Set the delivery pressure for air to 275 kPa (40 psi). Turn the AIR
knob on (full counterclockwise).
5. Adjust the delivery pressure until the total flow (carrier + makeup gas
+ air) is 430 ml/min for the packed inlet or 435 ml/min for the split
inlet.
6. Turn the AIR knob off (full clockwise).
WARNING
The next step is to set the hydrogen flow. Hydrogen and air form
explosive mixtures and should never be measured together.
7. Verify that the AIR control is off (full clockwise).
Set the delivery pressure for hydrogen to 100 kPa (15 psi). Turn the
HYDROGEN knob on (full counterclockwise). Adjust the delivery
pressure until the total flow (carrier + makeup gas + hydrogen) is 63
ml/min for the packed inlet or 65 ml/min for the split inlet.
8. Leave the carrier gas on. Turn the others off.
32
Tutorial
Part 13. Set gas flows for the TCD
Part 13. Set gas flows for the TCD
The thermal conductivity detector flows are set on this panel:
TCD
OFF
AUX GAS
OFF
REF
The AUX GAS and REF controls are on/offknobs with screwdriver
adjustments in the center. The center adjustments, which control the flow
rates, are delicate needle valves. Avoid forcing them to either end of their
travel.
To set the TCD gas flows:
1. Verify that the detector gas flows are turned off on this panel.
2. Attach the flowmeter to the detector exit and verify that the carrier
gas flow rate is about 20 ml/min for the packed inlet or 15 ml/min for
the split inlet.
3. Turn the AUX GAS on (full counterclockwise). With a small flat•blade
screwdriver, turn the screw adjustment in the center of the knob until
the total flow (carrier + makeup gas) is 21 to 22 ml/min for the
packed inlet or 25 ml/min for the split inlet.
4. Turn the REF knob on (full counterclockwise). With a small flat•blade
screwdriver, turn the screw adjustment in the center of the knob until
the total flow (carrier + makeup gas + reference gas) is 51 to 52
ml/min for the packed inlet or 62 ml/min for the split inlet.
5. Leave the carrier gas on. Turn the others off.
33
Tutorial
Part 14. Set the inlet and detector temperatures
Part 14. Set the inlet and detector temperatures
Open the oven door and look at the top of the oven.
Inlet A
(mounted)
Detector A
(mounted)
Inlet B
position
(not
mounted)
Detector B
position
(not mounted)
(Column omitted for clarity)
There are two mounting positions for inlets and two for detectors. They
are identified by letters: A for the front ones (closest to the door) and B
for the rear ones (closest to the back wall of the oven). Identify which
inlet and detector positions you are using.
Before entering the setpoints
C Verify that the carrier gas flow is on, since heating a zone without
carrier gas could damage it.
C Turn the instrument power on. Wait until the self•testends (about 30
seconds).
34
Tutorial
Part 14. Set the inlet and detector temperatures
C As a precaution, clear any existing temperature settings by pressing
.
CLEAR
6
ENTER
If you are using the flame ionization detector
C Set the inlet temperature to 200^C by pressing
INJ A TEMP
(or
INJ B TEMP
if you are using the B inlet)
The display shows the present temperature (ACTUAL) and the word
OFF (SETPOINT). Now press
2
0
0
ENTER
SETPOINT changes to 200 and the inlet begins to heat. ACTUAL
displays the rising temperature.
C Set the detector temperature to 250^C by pressing
DET A TEMP
(or
DET B TEMP
if you are using the B detector)
The display shows the present temperature (ACTUAL) and the word
OFF (SETPOINT). Now press
2
5
0
ENTER
SETPOINT changes to 250 and the injector begins to heat. ACTUAL
displays the rising temperature.
35
Tutorial
Part 14. Set the inlet and detector temperatures
If you are using the thermal conductivity detector
C Set the inlet temperature to 250^C by pressing
INJ A TEMP
(or
INJ B TEMP
if you are using the B inlet)
The display shows the present temperature (ACTUAL) and the word
OFF (SETPOINT). Now press
2
5
0
ENTER
SETPOINT changes to 250 and the inlet begins to heat. ACTUAL
displays the rising temperature.
C Set the detector temperature to 300^C by pressing
DET A TEMP
(or
DET B TEMP
if you are using the B detector)
The display shows the present temperature (ACTUAL) and the word
OFF (SETPOINT). Now press
3
0
0
ENTER
SETPOINT changes to 300 and the injector begins to heat. ACTUAL
displays the rising temperature.
36
Tutorial
Part 15. Set the oven temperature
Part 15. Set the oven temperature
This analysis uses temperature programming. The oven is at the INIT
VALUE of OVEN TEMP when the sample is injected. It remains at that
temperature for INIT TIME minutes, then heats up at the RATE specified
(in ^C/min) until it reaches FINAL VALUE, where it stays for FINAL TIME
(if any). Then it cools down to INIT VALUE in preparation for the next
analysis.
FINAL VALUE
FINAL TIME
in ^C
OVEN TEMP
RATE
INIT VALUE
INIT TIME
Time in minutes
The details of the program depend on the kind of inlet and the kind of
detector you’re using. That’s four possible sets of key commands. Find the
correct one for your situation below and enter the commands.
Packed inlet and FID detector
ON
INIT TEMP
OVEN TEMP
1
INIT VALUE
1
0
ENTER
(The oven begins to heat to INIT VALUE.)
1
INIT TIME
RATE
1
ENTER
5
FINAL VALUE
1
FINAL TEMP
1
ENTER
8
0
ENTER
ENTER
37
Tutorial
Part 15. Set the oven temperature
Packed inlet and TCD detector
ON
INIT TEMP
OVEN TEMP
1
INIT VALUE
1
0
ENTER
(The oven begins to heat to INIT VALUE.)
1
INIT TIME
RATE
1
ENTER
5
FINAL VALUE
1
FINAL TIME
1
ENTER
0
5
ENTER
ENTER
Split inlet and FID detector
ON
OVEN TEMP
OVEN TEMP
1
INIT VALUE
0
0
ENTER
(The oven begins to heat to INIT VALUE.)
ON
INIT TEMP
RATE
2
0
FINAL VALUE
1
FINAL TIME
1
ENTER
8
0
ENTER
ENTER
Split inlet and TCD detector
ON
OVEN TEMP
OVEN TEMP
1
INIT VALUE
0
0
(The oven begins to heat to INIT VALUE.)
1
INIT TIME
RATE
38
1
ENTER
0
FINAL VALUE
1
FINAL TEMP
2
ENTER
5
ENTER
0
ENTER
ENTER
Tutorial
Part 16. Send the signal to the recorder
Part 16. Send the signal to the recorder
A recorder", as used in this part, is any device that draws a
chromatogram on paper. It could be a strip•chartrecorder, a digital
integrator, or a data system.
To record a chromatogram:
C The signal from the detector must be sent to one of the output channel
connectors in the chromatograph.
C The output channel connector must be connected to the recorder with
a signal cable.
Specify the signal and detector
All HP 5890 SERIES II chromatographs have the SIG 1 output channel
(some may also have a SIG 2 channel). To send the detector output to the
SIGNAL 1 output connector, press
if you are using the A detector
or
SIG 1
A
ENTER
if you are using the B detector
SIG 1
B
ENTER
Check the signal cable
Remove the cover on the top right of the chromatograph by lifting the
rear edge up.
39
Tutorial
Part 16. Send the signal to the recorder
SIGNAL 1 connector
(front)
Locating the Signal 1 connector
C Verify that there is a signal cable between the SIGNAL 1 connector
and your recorder. If not, install one (see the Operating Manual for
details).
C Replace the cover.
40
Tutorial
Part 17. Prepare to make a run
Part 17. Prepare to make a run
These are the steps you go through, or should go through, every time you
analyze a sample.
Check gas flows
Caution
If you are using an FID, do not turn on the hydrogen gas at this time.
Examine all pressure gauges and be certain that they are set correctly. If
there are on/off valves in any of the lines, be sure they are open.
Prepare the thermal conductivity detector
Caution
Verify that the carrier, reference, and makeup gases are on
before continuing. Failure to do this could damage the detector.
Turn on the detector electronics, including the internal switching valve,
by pressing
DET
A
if you are using the A detector
ON
or
DET
B
if you are using the B detector.
ON
This analysis requires the high gain setting of the detector amplifier. The
key command is
gold
DET
A
(or
B
)
ON
The key command is the same as the previous one except for the gold
pre•key. The display above the keys will show the difference.
41
Tutorial
Part 17. Prepare to make a run
Prepare the flame ionization detector
Caution
Verify that the carrier, makeup, and air flows are on and that the
hydrogen flow is off.
1. Turn the detector electronics on by pressing
if you are using the A detector
DET
A
ON
DET
B
ON
or
if you are using the B detector
2. Open the air, hydrogen, and makeup gas controls.
3. Press the FID IGNITOR button on the detector gas panel.
The flame should light within a few seconds. If it does not, turn the
makeup gas down or off and try again. After ignition, restore the normal
makeup gas flow.
There are two ways to verify ignition. If the detector signal is being
displayed or recorded, it will increase to a steady value when the flame
lights. Also, a cold, shiny surface (such as a chrome•platedwrench) will
show condensation when held over the detector exit.
Check temperature readiness
When all heated zones are at their specified temperatures and under
control, the NOT READY light on the front panel is off.
Turn on your recorder
A lot of good data has been lost by forgetting to do this.
42
Tutorial
Part 18. Analyze the sample
Part 18. Analyze the sample
Find the sample
The Performance Evaluation samples are supplied in boxes containing
several glass vials. The correct one to use depends on the combination of
inlet and detector that you are using.
Split inlet
Packed inlet
FID Detector
TCD Detector
8500-4789
(in the inlet kit)
18710-60170
(in the detector kit)
8500-4789
(in the inlet kit)
18710-60170
(in the detector kit)
Load the syringe
Remove one of the vials from the box of samples. The vials are scored at
the narrow section. Wrap the vial with a cloth or paper towel to protect
your fingers and snap the top off.
Use a 10 ¿l (microliter) syringe to inject the sample. Load 1 ¿l of sample
except for the Packed/TCD combination; this needs a 3 ¿l sample size.
Obtain help from someone else in the laboratory if you are not familiar
with these syringes.
Plunger
Barrel
Sample
Knob
Needle
43
Tutorial
Part 18. Analyze the sample
Inject the sample
Verify that the NOT READY light is off. Now you must do three things at
the same time:
C
Inject the sample into the chromatograph.
C
Start the oven temperature programmer by pressing the
C
Start (if required) your recorder.
START
key.
The purpose of the injection is to place a small amount of sample at the
head of the column. The injection should be done in a single quick motion.
Load the syringe.
Inlet
Push the needle
into the inlet as far
as it will go.
Inlet
Push the plunger
down quickly.
START
Press
(If your “recorder”
is an integrator or
data system,
press its START
key too.)
Inlet
Pull the needle out
of the inlet.
Inlet
The whole operation should only take 3 to 4 seconds.
Now watch the chromatogram appear. You can follow the progress of the
temperature program with the lights above the keyboard. When the program
ends, the FINAL TIME light turns off.
C
44
Stop your recorder and examine the chart.
Tutorial
Part 19. Examine the chromatogram
Part 19. Examine the chromatogram
Compare your chromatogram with those that follow.
Don’t expect exact duplication! Your chromatogram is the product of
your instrument, your column, your gas flows, your injection technique,
and your recorder. At least some of these variables are different from the
ones used to generate these chromatograms.
Do look for:
C The right number of peaks
C The right order of peaks
C The right relative sizes
These chromatograms were recorded by an HP 3390A integrator.
45
Tutorial
Part 19. Examine the chromatogram
Split inlet and TCD
START
.11
.25
3.64
.15
.42
3.85
4.45
4.78
6.48
ST
Split inlet and thermal conductivity detector
46
Injection: 1 ¿l of 8500-478
Tutorial
Part 19. Examine the chromatogram
Split inlet and FID
START
Injection: 1 ¿l of 8500-4789.
.40
2.21 2.35
2.64
2.81
3.67
ST
Split inlet and flame ionization detector
Packed inlet and TCD
.05 Injection: 3 ¿l of 18710-60170.
START
1.69
2.38
3.08
ST
Packed inlet and thermal conductivity detector
47
Tutorial
Part 19. Examine the chromatogram
Packed inlet and FID
Injection: 1 ¿l of 18710-60170.
START
.08
1.74
2.33
2.90
ST
Packed inlet and flame ionization detector
48
Tutorial
Part 20. Some last words
Part 20. Some last words
You have now completed an entire analysis, starting with an installed
instrument and finishing with a chromatogram. In the process you
installed a column, set correct gas flows, zone temperatures, and an oven
temperature program, and arranged for the detector signal to go to your
recorder.
You may want to repeat the analysis, either for practice or because you
want to try a different recorder speed, a different sensitivity, or some
other change that might produce a better looking chart. If so, wait for the
NOT READY light to turn off before injecting the sample.
There’s much more to chromatography and to this instrument, but you
have the basic information. The next step is to go to the Operating
Manual to see what other functions are available.
49
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