Enbridge LP/MP Safety Manual

Enbridge LP/MP Safety Manual
LP/MP Safety Manual
Liquids Pipelines and Major Projects
Uncontrolled Copy If Printed
Effective Date: 01-05-2015
Version #:
1.4
Version Date: 06-01-2015
Enbridge Pipelines Inc. and Enbridge Energy Company, Inc.
This material is protected by copyright and is the exclusive property of Enbridge
Pipelines Inc. and Enbridge Energy Company, Inc. No external distribution or
transmission of this material is permitted without the prior written consent of Enbridge
Pipelines Inc. and Enbridge Energy Company, Inc. Applications for the copyright holder’s
written permission to reproduce any part of this publication should be addressed to the
Manual Custodian
Enbridge Pipelines Inc. and Enbridge Energy Company, Inc. assumes no responsibility
for errors or omissions in this document or for incidental or consequential damages that
may result from the external use or duplication of this material.
LP/MP Safety Manual
Created By:
Enbridge Liquids Pipelines and Major Projects
Health and Safety
January 2015
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LP/MP Safety Manual
Version:1.4
Version Date: 06-01-2015
Table of Contents
Table of Contents .................................................................................................... 3
Values ..................................................................................................................... 9
Principles ............................................................................................................... 10
Lifesaving Rules .................................................................................................... 11
1.0
1.1
2.0
Occupational Health and Safety Management System ............................ 12
LP/MP Safety Manual Supports the OHSMS ....................................... 12
Responsibilities ....................................................................................... 14
2.1
Management ........................................................................................ 14
2.2
People Leaders.................................................................................... 14
2.3
Workers ............................................................................................... 14
2.4
Contractors .......................................................................................... 15
2.5
Health and Safety ................................................................................ 15
2.6
Enbridge Site Inspector ........................................................................ 16
3.0
Incident Reporting ................................................................................... 17
3.1
Incident Reporting ................................................................................ 17
3.2
Investigations ....................................................................................... 17
3.3
Contractor’s Verbal and Written Report of Incident .............................. 17
3.4
Incident Classification and EnCompass Incident Management System 19
4.0
General Safety ........................................................................................ 20
4.1
Right to Refuse Unsafe Work ............................................................... 20
4.2
Visitors and Site Access ...................................................................... 20
4.3
Safety Orientations .............................................................................. 21
4.4
Inspections and Observations .............................................................. 21
4.5
Safety Meetings ................................................................................... 22
4.6
Alcohol and Drug Policy ....................................................................... 22
4.7
Worksite Rules..................................................................................... 23
4.8
Working Alone ..................................................................................... 23
4.9
Journey Management Plan .................................................................. 25
4.10
Housekeeping ...................................................................................... 25
4.11
Training and Competency .................................................................... 26
4.12
Ignition Sources ................................................................................... 26
4.13
Bonding and Grounding ....................................................................... 28
4.14
Hot Work .............................................................................................. 31
4.15
Cutting and Welding ............................................................................. 32
4.16
Portable Fire Extinguishers .................................................................. 32
4.17
Fire Prevention and Protection ............................................................. 36
4.18
Entering Buildings Containing Natural Gas Products or Equipment ...... 38
4.19
Vehicles, Equipment and Tool Use, Maintenance and Inspection ........ 38
4.20
Ladder Safety....................................................................................... 39
4.21
Walkways, Stairways, Exits, Landings and Openings ........................... 40
4.22
Scaffolds and non-mobile Elevated Work Platforms ............................. 40
4.23
Safeguards, Barricades, and Warning Signs ........................................ 43
4.24
Brush Cutting ....................................................................................... 45
4.25
Severe and Inclement Weather ............................................................ 47
4.26
Work in the Dark .................................................................................. 50
4.27
Extended Hours ................................................................................... 50
4.28
Fatigue Management ........................................................................... 50
4.29
Sanitary Facilities ................................................................................. 51
4.30
Abrasive Blasting ................................................................................. 51
4.31
Fire Watch and Safety Watch ............................................................... 53
4.32
Hydrostatic and Pneumatic Testing ...................................................... 56
4.33
Pigging ................................................................................................. 57
4.34
Warehouse, Lay-Down and Storage Areas .......................................... 58
4.35
Rail Locations ...................................................................................... 59
4.36
High-Pressure Water Jetting ................................................................ 59
5.0
5.1
Hazard Assessment ............................................................................. 61
5.2
Pre-Job Meetings/Tailgates .................................................................. 65
5.3
Hazardous and Restricted Areas.......................................................... 65
5.4
Open System ....................................................................................... 76
5.5
Site Planning ........................................................................................ 76
6.0
Safe Work Permit and Work Authorization Standard................................ 78
6.1
Responsibilities for Issuing Safe Work Permits and Work Authorization
78
6.2
Safe Work Permit Requirements .......................................................... 81
6.3
Work Authorization Requirements ........................................................ 85
6.4
Suspension of Work Authorization and Safe Work Permits .................. 85
7.0
4
Hazard Assessment, Elimination and Control Standard ........................... 61
Personal Protective Equipment Standard ................................................ 87
7.1
Personal Protective Equipment ............................................................ 87
7.2
Head Protection ................................................................................... 95
7.3
Eye and Face Protection ...................................................................... 96
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7.4
Hand Protection ................................................................................... 98
7.5
Foot Protection .................................................................................... 99
7.6
Hearing Conservation ........................................................................ 101
7.7
High-Visibility Safety Apparel ............................................................. 103
7.8
Flame Resistant Garments ................................................................ 104
7.9
Respiratory Protective Program ......................................................... 106
7.10
Additional PPE Requirements ............................................................ 113
8.0
Confined Space Entry Standard ............................................................ 114
8.1
Responsibilities .................................................................................. 114
8.2
Training and Qualification .................................................................. 118
8.3
Confined Space Classes .................................................................... 120
8.4
Work Practices................................................................................... 121
8.5
Confined Space Entry Permit ............................................................. 121
8.6
Confined Space Hazard Assessment ................................................. 122
8.7
Isolation Requirements ...................................................................... 123
8.8
Ventilation Requirements ................................................................... 123
8.9
Atmospheric Monitoring and Sampling ............................................... 125
8.10
Confined Space Procedure Requirements ......................................... 126
8.11
Pre-Job Entry Meeting ....................................................................... 127
8.12
On-Site Evacuation and Rescue ........................................................ 127
8.13
Top-Entry Confined Spaces ............................................................... 129
8.14
Confined Space Signage ................................................................... 129
9.0
Injury Prevention Standard .................................................................... 130
Injury Prevention ................................................................................ 130
Traction and Slipping .......................................................................... 130
9.3
Line of Fire and Pinch Points ............................................................. 130
9.4
Industrial Hygiene .............................................................................. 132
9.5
Assessment and Prevention of Ergonomic Hazards........................... 132
10.0
First Aid and Bloodborne Pathogens Standard ...................................... 136
10.1
Program Requirements ...................................................................... 136
10.2
Controls ............................................................................................. 136
10.3
Standard Precautions ........................................................................ 137
10.4
First Aid ............................................................................................. 138
11.0
Safety Equipment Standard ................................................................... 139
11.1
First Aid Equipment............................................................................ 139
11.2
Portable Atmospheric Monitoring and Sampling................................. 141
11.3
Standard Safety Equipment ............................................................... 146
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12.0
12.1
General Requirements for Drivers ...................................................... 152
12.2
Distracted Driving and Use of Communication Devices ...................... 153
12.3
Vehicle Safety and Signage ............................................................... 153
12.4
Vehicle Operation............................................................................... 155
12.5
Commercial Motor Vehicles- Canada ................................................. 156
12.6
Commercial Motor Vehicles- United States ........................................ 162
12.7
Powered Mobile Elevating Work Platforms ......................................... 165
12.8
Powered Mobile Equipment ............................................................... 166
12.9
All Terrain and Off Road Vehicles ...................................................... 169
12.10
Aircraft ............................................................................................ 170
12.11
Signalers and Spotters ................................................................... 172
13.0
Electrical Safety Standard...................................................................... 175
13.1
Limited Approach Boundaries ............................................................ 176
13.2
High Voltage ...................................................................................... 180
13.3
Low Voltage ....................................................................................... 180
13.4
Exposed Electrical Equipment/Conductors ......................................... 181
14.0
Hazardous Materials Standard .............................................................. 182
14.1
Characteristics of Products Transported by Pipeline .......................... 182
14.2
Storage and Transportation ................................................................ 183
14.3
Radiation and Radiography ................................................................ 186
14.4
Asbestos Management Program ........................................................ 188
14.5
GHS/WHMIS/HAZCOM...................................................................... 189
14.6
Respiratory Hazards .......................................................................... 190
14.7
Nitrogen (Pipeline Purging) ................................................................ 194
15.0
Ground Disturbance Standard ............................................................... 196
15.1
Damage Prevention ........................................................................... 196
15.2
Positive Identification (Exposure) of Below Grade Facilities ............... 198
15.3
Mechanical Clearance ........................................................................ 200
15.4
Roles and Responsibilities ................................................................. 201
15.5
Pile Driving, Auguring, Boring, and Drilling ......................................... 203
16.0
6
Vehicles and Mobile Equipment Standard ............................................. 152
Excavation Safety Standard................................................................... 204
16.1
Mechanical Excavation....................................................................... 204
16.2
Worker Protection .............................................................................. 205
16.3
Classification of Soil and Rock ........................................................... 206
16.4
Sloping ............................................................................................... 207
16.5
Exits and Entrances ........................................................................... 207
16.6
Material Storage ................................................................................. 207
16.7
Fences and Barricades ...................................................................... 208
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Winter Conditions .............................................................................. 209
Fall Protection and Travel Restraint Standard ....................................... 210
17.1
Personal Fall Arrest System............................................................... 210
17.2
Fall Protection Plan ............................................................................ 210
17.3
Rescue .............................................................................................. 211
17.4
Fall Protection Equipment .................................................................. 211
18.0
Control of Hazardous Energy Standard ................................................. 214
18.1
Isolation ............................................................................................. 214
18.2
Responsibilities .................................................................................. 214
18.3
Locks ................................................................................................. 215
18.4
Tags .................................................................................................. 217
18.5
Additional Lockout/Tagout Equipment ................................................ 218
18.6
Isolation Points .................................................................................. 219
18.7
Piping Isolation Methods .................................................................... 220
18.8
General Isolation Steps...................................................................... 221
18.9
Authorized Removal of Locks ............................................................ 223
18.10
Contractor ...................................................................................... 223
18.11
Complex Group Control Process .................................................... 224
19.0
Material Handling Standard ................................................................... 225
19.1
Classification of Lifts .......................................................................... 225
19.2
Preparation, Operation and Responsibilities ...................................... 226
19.3
Cranes ............................................................................................... 230
19.4
Using Excavation Equipment for Lifting .............................................. 231
19.5
Inspection and Maintenance .............................................................. 231
19.6
Requirements .................................................................................... 232
19.7
Hoisting and Rigging .......................................................................... 233
20.0
Tools and Equipment Standard ............................................................. 243
20.1
Tool and Equipment Operation .......................................................... 243
20.2
Electric Tools and Equipment ............................................................ 244
20.3
Gas-Operated Equipment .................................................................. 245
20.4
Air-Operated Tools and Equipment .................................................... 245
20.5
Equipment and Machine Guarding ..................................................... 246
20.6
Compressed Gas Cylinders ............................................................... 246
20.7
Propane Bottles and Accessories ...................................................... 249
20.8
Portable Heaters ................................................................................ 249
Acronyms ............................................................................................................ 251
Defined Terms ..................................................................................................... 254
7
Appendix.............................................................................................................. 273
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Values
Safety
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Relentlessly ensure the safety of our communities, customers, employees,
contractors, and partners
Take a proactive approach to identifying and preventing safety issues
Take immediate action when a safety issue is identified
Continually seek ways to improve safety performance
Integrity
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Maintain truth in all interactions
Do the right thing; do not take the easy way out
Take accountability for our actions, without passing the blame to others
Follow through on commitments
Respect
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Value the contributions of others
Take the time to understand the perspective of others
Treat everyone with unfailing dignity
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Principles
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Lifesaving Rules
Lifesaving Rule #1
Hazard Management
Lifesaving Rule #2
Driving Safety
Lifesaving Rule #3
Confined Space Entry
Lifesaving Rule #4
Ground Disturbance
Lifesaving Rule #5
Isolation of Energized Systems
Lifesaving Rule #6
Reporting of Safety Related Incidents
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1.0 Occupational Health and Safety Management
System
The Occupational Health and Safety Management System (OHSMS) establishes
accountabilities for managing Enbridge’s health and safety functions and provides
the direction and governance for achieving safety excellence. The OHSMS is found
in the Governance Document Library (GDL) in the Integrated Management Systems
(IMS) and is known as IMS-04. The OHSMS also contains Enbridge’s Health and
Safety Policy.
The OHSMS provides the framework for Enbridge to successfully:
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1.1
evaluate and continually improve the management of health and safety
establish clear roles and responsibilities for achieving health and safety
objectives and performance targets
measure, monitor, and report health and safety performance
anticipate, recognize, evaluate, and control health and safety hazards and
risks
identify non-compliant conditions and ensure appropriate corrective actions
and effective resolution in a timely manner
provide a health and safety program that fosters a robust safety culture and
aligns with applicable industry Standards
ensure effective processes for developing and maintaining job competencies
LP/MP Safety Manual Supports the OHSMS
This LP/MP Safety Manual supports the OHSMS by outlining the minimum
Standards to which Workers shall adhere to. The Standards shall:



meet or exceed legislative requirements in jurisdictions where Enbridge
operates
serve as a basis for creating work procedures
help establish safe work practices
Specific terms are used to indicate whether an action is mandatory or
recommended. The following words have specific meanings:
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
“shall” is used where an action is mandatory
“should” is used where an action is recommended
“may” is used where alternatives are equally acceptable
Acronyms and defined terms are found at the end of this manual. Defined terms are
capitalized throughout this manual.
Some additional terms are capitalized, but do not appear on the list of defined
terms, such as the job titles of some Enbridge personnel and some Enbridge
departments.
Certain Standards and some sections within Standards are supported by additional
policies, practices, processes, documentation and forms. These shall be referenced
where applicable.
Any variance to a Standard, practice or requirement as set out in this manual is
required to be approved by the appropriate Vice President or designate responsible
for the work. Variances shall be applied for using the Variance Request form
located in the appendix. All variances are applicable only to a specific project or
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Standard and do not create policy. All variances shall be reviewed during annual
reviews of the LP/MP Safety Manual. Contractor variances shall be reviewed as
part of the Contractor Health and Safety Management System assessment. A
variance shall always be in compliance with Applicable Legislation. The variance
process can be found in the GDL (under IMS-04 Tier 2 processes).
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2.0
2.1
Responsibilities
Management
Enbridge management and Contractor management are accountable for safety
performance.
Both Enbridge management and Contractor management shall ensure their
respective workforces operate in compliance with all applicable health and safety
requirements which shall include Applicable Legislation and Enbridge’s Health and
Safety policies and Standards as follows:
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complies with Enbridge’s policies, Standards and regulatory requirements
mitigates actual and potential hazards
maintains awareness of the health and safety impact of work activities
investigates health and safety Incidents to prevent recurrence
monitors and assures Workers are Qualified
identifies, manages, and communicates hazards in the workplace, through
pre-job Hazard Assessments
stops and corrects unsafe work as appropriate
wears, provides and appropriately uses proper Personal Protective
Equipment (PPE), tools, and equipment and applies training appropriately
verifies that Suppliers, Visitors, and other Workers under their control
conduct themselves in accordance with the requirements of this manual and
the Enbridge Health and Safety Policy and Principles, as well as other
applicable Enbridge policies and Standards
In addition to the measures noted above, Enbridge management and Contractor
management shall build a culture of proactive health and safety and continuous
Workforce support for the OHSMS. Management shall be accountable for safety
performance.
2.2
People Leaders
People Leaders are responsible for:
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
2.3
ensuring that Workers receive required training and are Qualified to perform
the task they are assigned
enforcement of the health and safety Standards in this manual, and ensuring
the desired health and safety outcomes are achieved
ensuring that actual and potential hazards are mitigated
ensuring each worker is fit for duty, i.e., is able to perform the physical
demands of the job in a safe, and effective manner, and is are free of
impairment from such things including without limitation, fatigue, alcohol or
drugs
Workers
Workers shall comply with all Enbridge health and safety policies, Standards and
Applicable Legislation. Workers shall:

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
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immediately report all incidents to their People Leader
support investigations by providing full cooperation as requested
wear proper PPE and use appropriate tools and equipment
stop work if unsafe conditions or unsafe work practices/behaviors occur
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complete required training and display competency in the performance of
their work
participate in pre-job meetings and hazard assessments
have the proper training and authorization to operate equipment
be fit for duty by being able to perform the physical demands of the job in a
safe, and effective manner, and be are free of impairment from such things
including without limitation, fatigue, alcohol or drugs
As noted, Workers have a responsibility to stop unsafe work. Workers also have the
right and responsibility to refuse unsafe work without fear of retaliation.
2.4
Contractors
Contractors and Subcontractors shall comply with Enbridge health and safety
Standards set out in this manual. If a Contractor has a health and safety standard or
policy materially different from Enbridge's, the Contractor shall follow the most
stringent requirement.
All Contractors shall:
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

comply with all contractual obligations and Applicable Legislation
ensure their employees and Subcontractors are orientated to and comply
with Enbridge's requirements in this manual
hold regularly scheduled and documented safety meetings for the duration
of the assigned work or project
ensure all workers are trained and Qualified to perform their assigned work
activities
conduct formal safety inspections of their work area’s (e.g., weekly or pershift) and ensure all identified deficiencies are tracked and corrected and all
tracking and corrective actions are documented
Contractors who fail to comply with the Standards and requirements set out in this
manual may be subject to the shutdown of their work and/or termination of their
contract with Enbridge. Such shutdown or termination is applicable to all Contractor
activities or undertakings, including construction, maintenance, or other activities
under the oversight of an Enbridge Site Inspector or Enbridge Operations
Representative.
Some Standards in this manual set out additional, specific requirements for
Contractors. Unless otherwise specified by the contract, Contractors not working
under the direct supervision of an Enbridge Operations Representative shall comply
with the additional Contractor requirements detailed in the Boilerplate found the
appendix for section 2.4.
2.5
Health and Safety
Each Enbridge region, department, project and Worksite has designated health and
safety personnel responsible for the following:



sustaining and promoting a workplace health and safety culture
coaching and mentoring People Leaders to improve health and safety
performance
auditing for compliance with safety Standards and the Lifesaving Rules for
high risk work
15

analyzing health and safety performance data and trends, identifying
opportunities for improvement, and making health and safety
recommendations
Examples of designated health and safety personnel include Project Safety
Inspector, Construction Safety Coordinator, Field Safety Coordinators and/or
Regional Safety Coordinator.
2.6
Enbridge Site Inspector
The Enbridge Site Inspector shall be responsible for enforcing compliance with the
OHSMS, the Standards in this manual, and all Applicable Legislation on site. The
Enbridge Site Inspector shall also:
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
16
monitor all Contractor field activities to ensure compliance with Enbridge and
project specific policies and Standards
monitor the Contractor to ensure compliance with regulatory requirements,
including permits and to ensure any other health and safety expectations are
achieved
assist in project-related incident response and investigation processes
notify the Project Safety Inspector/Construction Safety Coordinator/Regional
Safety Coordinator(s) of all Incidents and safety concerns
consult with the Project Safety Inspector/Construction Safety
Coordinator/Regional Safety Coordinator(s) on all issues concerning safety
and health
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3.0
3.1
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Version Date: 06-01-2015
Incident Reporting
Incident Reporting
Enbridge maintains a comprehensive incident reporting system set out in its
Operations and Maintenance Manual (OMM) Book 1 – General Compliance
Reference – to ensure compliance with internal and regulatory reporting
requirements.
All work-related Incidents of which an employee becomes aware shall be reported
immediately to a People Leader or, in the case of Contractor personnel, to an
Enbridge Representative. Incident reporting requirements apply to all Workers. The
following incidents shall be reported:
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occupational Injuries and illnesses
Motor Vehicle Incidents (MVIs)
any property damage
Near Misses
Below Grade Facility Contacts
fire or explosion
Process Safety Incidents
releases, leaks and spills
For clarity, ordinary wear and tear of a vehicle is not considered an MVI or property
damage.
Adhere to the applicable Incident reporting guidelines (e.g., OMM Book 1) for
individual business units where applicable.
3.2
Investigations
All Incidents and Near Misses shall be investigated to determine basic and root
causes as well as system needs. The depth of investigation shall be dependent on
the classification and severity of the incident as well as the potential for loss.
Learnings from investigations shall be used to determine corrective and
preventative actions aimed at preventing recurrence. Investigations will focus on
fact-finding and not place blame. Each investigation shall be initiated immediately,
once the location and conditions are deemed safe.
Incident notifications for all Enbridge and Contractor Incidents shall be recorded in
the EnCompass Incident Management System.
3.3
Contractor’s Verbal and Written Report of Incident
Incidents that occur when a Contractor is working for Enbridge shall be reported
verbally immediately to the specified Enbridge Representative.
An initial written report shall be completed and provided to Enbridge by the
Contractor within 48 hours of an Incident. The initial report can be in draft form.
A detailed final report shall be submitted within 7 calendar days of the incident
unless additional investigation time is necessary. If so, a request for more time shall
be made to the specified Enbridge Representative.
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Contractor Incidents that occur off of Enbridge Locations, including all work related
MVI’s, shall be immediately reported to an Enbridge Representative. The purpose of
this notification is for information only. Such incidents may or may not be
recordable.
The Contractor’s investigation report shall include all relevant details of the Incident,
including but not limited to:
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date/time/location of the Incident
type of incident, e.g., injury, illness, MVI, property, Near Miss
detailed Incident description
persons involved
injured Worker information; including nature of injury; body part and location
description or nature of property or other damage
immediate, basic, and root causes, e.g., substandard practices or
conditions, work or environmental conditions, job or process-related factors,
personal factors, etc.
preventive actions taken and/or recommended measures to prevent
recurrence (e.g., need for systems/controls, or changes to work processes
or systems)
statements from injured Worker(s), witnesses, supervisor(s), or others as
required
photographs and drawings
police report (if applicable)
follow-up actions taken by the Contractor
report to be signed and dated by an authorized Contractor representative
Where a Contractor is required by Applicable Legislation to report an Incident to an
Authority Having Jurisdiction (e.g. workers compensation authority or provincial,
federal or state occupational health and safety regulator), the Contractor shall report
such Incident in accordance with Applicable Legislation. The Contractor shall also
ensure it completes within a reasonable time frame or a defined time frame, as the
case may be, any corrective actions required of it in response to the Incident.
Following an Incident report, the Contractor shall regularly update the Enbridge
Representative on the status of follow-up actions.
The Contractor shall classify injuries/illnesses in accordance with Applicable
Legislation that applies to the Contractor’s business operations. Enbridge reserves
the right to record and classify injuries internally based on available information for
purposes of maintaining Contractor safety performance metrics.
In addition, the Contractor shall cooperate and provide all required information, as
permitted by law, to assist Enbridge’s internal investigation of any Incident.
Similarly, Contractors are responsible for their Subcontractors and shall conduct a
detailed Incident investigation of Subcontractor Incidents.
Each Contractor and Subcontractor shall have a Modified Work element in their
health and safety program. The Modified Work element shall include but is not
limited to:
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having the relevant medical and/or Workers’ compensation form(s) readily
available to an injured Worker, for the Worker to complete and provide to a
physician
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data tracking to indicate if the injury warrants lost time, Modified Work, or no
work restrictions
an overall focus on facilitating an injured Worker’s return to work as soon as
possible
Incident Classification and EnCompass Incident Management
System
Enbridge will determine and record the final classification of all Incidents.
All Incidents shall be entered into the Enbridge EnCompass Incident Management
System.
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4.0
4.1
General Safety
Right to Refuse Unsafe Work
Workers have the right, responsibility, and authority to refuse any work where there
are reasonable grounds to believe it is dangerous to the health and safety of
themselves or any person at an Enbridge Worksite.
In addition, Workers are responsible to stop any work that they reasonably believe
presents an imminent or serious threat to the life or health of a Worker or other
person exposed to a hazard, condition or activity.
If a Worker has a safety concern, or refuses work the Worker reasonably believes is
unsafe, the Worker shall immediately contact their People Leader before
proceeding with the work. All refusals of unsafe work shall be investigated and
addressed with the Worker before the work proceeds. If unsafe work conditions,
activities or hazards are identified during the investigation, corrective measures
shall be implemented to resolve such conditions, activities or hazards before the
work proceeds.
Workers also have the right to know about the hazards associated with their work
and to participate in the mitigation of the hazards.
Any form of retaliation against a Worker who in good faith refuses unsafe work is
prohibited.
4.2
Visitors and Site Access
Prior to accessing an Enbridge Worksite, each Visitor shall report to the designated
security or site contact for clearance.
The term Visitor includes non-Enbridge personnel, Contractors not performing
assigned work activity at that location, and Enbridge employees from other
locations.
Visitors shall be at a Worksite only for work-specific purposes. At a minimum,
Visitors shall be required to:
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sign in and out
provide an Enbridge point of contact, with name and telephone number
provide their vehicle description and license plate number
provide a personal/contact cellphone number while on premises
provide positive identification, e.g., government issued photo identification
provide proof that the required safety orientations have been completed
attend a site-specific safety orientation
comply with Enbridge rules and regulations for that Worksite
display visitor identification as directed
if required by Enbridge, provide and wear PPE or designated apparel
Contractors shall provide advance notice to Operations/Management at the
Worksite of their intent to bring Visitors on site. Unauthorized persons shall not be
allowed on Enbridge property.
Contractors shall provide advance notice to Operations Management or the
Enbridge Representative of expected deliveries of equipment and/or materials to
the Worksite. Any equipment and/or materials brought onto Enbridge Worksites
shall have prior authorization.
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Workers shall ensure Visitors are escorted at all times when visiting an Enbridge
Location.
Workers shall immediately report to their People Leader:
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
4.3
unknown personnel
unidentified vehicles or vehicles operating out of the ordinary in a manner
not consistent with their intended use
objects found or missing (e.g., parcels/packages)
suspicious activities (e.g., loitering, taking of unauthorized pictures/video)
actual or perceived threats to harm or injure persons or property
Safety Orientations
Prior to working at a Worksite, each Worker shall complete the safety orientations
required by the applicable training matrix. This may include, but is not limited to the
following:



new employee safety orientations
facility/site/project specific safety orientations
Safety orientation for office employees visiting field locations (also required
for visits to Vendor and Supplier facilities)
Contractors shall have their own orientation program. This program shall:


4.4
familiarize new Workers with the Contractor’s rules, policies, procedures,
site-specific hazards and any other relevant requirements or health and
safety matters; and
similarly familiarize new Workers with all Enbridge health and safety
requirements
Inspections and Observations
Inspections shall be completed as outlined in the Enbridge OHSMS or in
accordance with the Contractor’s inspection process.
Inspections shall occur at all Enbridge Locations to identify and recognize safety
hazards or when other safety concerns need to be addressed. The inspection
details shall be documented on an inspection checklist or similar document.
Enbridge’s safety observation program process is a proactive program where
Workers conduct observations of work activities to identify safe and/or unsafe
behaviors and actions. If required, corrective measures are implemented to prevent
Incidents (e.g., injury or loss) from occurring.
The program’s main objectives are:




Injury and loss prevention
increased safety awareness
fostering a positive workplace safety culture
recognizing Workers for their safe actions
The safety observation process requires all Workers to participate in the safety
observations program.
21
Training shall be provided to Workers who conduct safety observations. When a
safety observation is conducted, the Workers being observed shall be informed, and
shall actively participate in the process.
When the safety observation is complete, a two-way conversation shall take place
between the observer and the observed, to discuss the findings and any corrective
measures. Safety observations shall be reported, recorded and tracked over time to
identify trends or issues.
The number of safety observations required is set by Enbridge’s senior
management, or department managers (per business unit) or project management,
in accordance with business targets and shall be communicated to Workers.
4.5
Safety Meetings
Safety meetings shall be conducted in accordance with this manual, and as
required by Applicable Legislation.
Departmental safety meetings shall be held quarterly, at a minimum.
Regional safety meetings shall be held monthly, at a minimum.
Safety stand downs shall be conducted as required.
At a minimum, Contractors shall conduct and document:


a daily “tailgate” safety meeting; to review work permits and health and
safety issues associated with the day’s work, and/or in some cases, prior to
a specific high-risk task
a weekly (or once per work rotation), formal safety meeting to review all
health and safety issues; the Contractor shall provide a copy of the written
minutes of this meeting to the Enbridge Representative
Please refer to section 5.2 – Pre-Job Meetings/Tailgates for more information on
pre-job meetings.
4.6
Alcohol and Drug Policy
Enbridge is committed to providing workplaces that protect people, property and the
environment from harm. It recognizes that the use of illicit drugs and the
inappropriate use of alcohol, medication (prescribed or over-the- counter) or other
substances can adversely affect work performance and the health, safety and wellbeing of employees, contractors, consultants, worksite visitors and the public.
Working under the influence or possession of alcohol or illegal drugs while working
is prohibited. Any person taking a drug (including a medically prescribed drug)
which may impair their ability to work safety shall advise his/her supervision to
ensure that safety on the job will not be compromised.
All Alcohol and Drug Testing shall be done in accordance with the provisions set out
the applicable policy and applicable regulatory requirements and standards.
All Enbridge employees and contractors must comply with the applicable company
Alcohol & Drug Policies and the Applicable Legislation, as outlined in the following:

22
The Alcohol & Drug Free Workplace Policy for Enbridge Employees located
on eLINK under Policies & Resources > Human Resources
LP/MP Safety Manual
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4.7
Version:1.4
Version Date: 06-01-2015
LP/MP Canadian Contractor Alcohol & Drug Policy located in the
Governance Documents Library>IMS-04>Contractor Safety Management
and ISN Bulletin Board
US DOT and Non-DOT Drug and Alcohol requirements for Contractors
located in the Governance Documents Library>IMS-04>Contractor Safety
Management and ISN Bulletin Board.
Worksite Rules
Workers shall adhere to the following rules while at the Worksite:
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
smoking, including electronic cigarettes, is only allowed outdoors in marked,
designated areas; a proper waste container shall be provided, along with a
20 lb. ABC fire extinguisher
pets are not allowed on Enbridge Locations
firearms, weapons and archery equipment are prohibited on Enbridge
Locations
all tools and equipment shall be used in accordance with the manufacturers’
specifications
cameras, audio-visual and communications equipment are only allowed in
Hazardous and Restricted Areas with a Safe Work Permit and the
permission of regional operations when on brown field sites
Guidelines for Work Attire apply
Unless prohibited by Applicable Legislation (e.g., vehicles, busses, labs, offices
etc.), smoking is permitted on the ROW providing that the ROW is stripped of
vegetation and the work activity is outdoors on exposed mineral soil. The
Contractor shall keep the ROW free of discarded cigarette butts by providing an
adequate number of waste containers and maintain 20 lb. ABC fire extinguishers
readily available via portable equipment and/or work vehicles. Smoking outside of
unmarked areas on the ROW is prohibited in hazardous areas including near
refueling operations, and within 30m (100 ft.) of any exposed operating facility.
The dress code for field office attire will consist of:



long pants (no shorts)
shirts (no sleeveless shirts)
closed toe and closed heel shoes
Enbridge has a Respectful Workplace Policy. Personal conduct shall remain safe
and professional at all times. The following misconduct will not be tolerated and will
result in disciplinary action up to and including termination:

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
4.8
harassment (including sexual harassment)
horseplay
violence or threatening behavior
property damage
violation of Enbridge’s Respectful Workplace Policy; the Respectful
Workplace Policy can be found on ELink under Policies & Procedures
Working Alone
23
Working alone practices shall be developed for Enbridge Locations. The practices
shall include considerations for both normal and unexpected work situations.
This includes Workers required to travel alone to remote locations or where there is
no routine interaction with other people. Working alone practices shall include, but
not be limited to:




specific controls for identified hazards
effective communication devices/systems
an escalation strategy for when contact with a Worker is lost
rules setting out types of work that cannot be completed while working
alone, including, but not limited to:
o Confined Space Entry work
o certain High Voltage electrical work
o certain Open System work
o energized substation work
o work in excavations
o work where the use of fall arrest equipment at heights over 2 m (6 ft.)
is required
o working with quick acting toxic materials (identified by the Safety
Data Sheet (SDS))
o using supplied air equipment or SCBA
o work involving a risk of drowning
o work on equipment that cannot be locked out once a guard or other
safety mechanism is removed
o operation of any motorized or manual materials handling equipment
with an obstructed view
The practices shall also ensure that Workers do not work alone in hazardous
conditions unless appropriate safety precautions are taken, which may include but
are not limited to:



personal Atmospheric Monitoring
protection from weather conditions
frequent communication at specific intervals
Workers shall not work alone in conditions that are or may be considered
Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH).
The Hazard Assessment shall determine:




the hazards for each type of work being performed
the hazards for each Worksite where Workers will potentially work alone
the length of time the Worker is out of contact
factors and considerations to ensure the availability of help
Working alone controls may include, but are not limited to:


24
“man down” or lone worker alarm or pendant
frequent “check-ins” with a designated contact person that:
o are visual or two way contacts (or, a one-way system may be
acceptable if it allows the worker to call or signal for help and will
send a call for help if the worker does not reset the device after a
predetermined interval)
o are of a frequency not to exceed 2 hours (in some cases the duration
could be shorter based on the Hazard Assessment)
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o

activates the escalation strategy if contact cannot be made, or there
are unusual delays in re-establishing contact
provision for emergency rescue and first aid
Effective means of communication include, but are not limited to:
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

4.9
portable or cell telephone
walkie-talkie
personal alarm or pager
periodic site visits
electronic methods, such as online web applications
check-in system and requirement for updating an individual’s status while
working alone
GPS-based communication device (e.g., SPOT Messenger)
use of software or hardware to assist with communication in circumstances
of poor network coverage
Journey Management Plan
People Leaders with staff (including those with staff in offices) that may be travelling
as part of their role shall develop a Journey Management Plan when Workers are
travelling more than 2 hours. The plan shall include:





contact information and travel schedule (identifying the route, timeline of
travel and stops to be made)
emergency contacts and emergency response guidelines
communication frequency
weather and travel considerations
changes to travel plans
If the Workers journey is hindered by weather or other emergencies, the individual’s
first priority should be to move to a safe location, contact emergency personnel if
necessary, then contact his or her People Leader as soon as reasonably possible.
4.10
Housekeeping
Good housekeeping practices shall be maintained at all Enbridge Locations
including, administrative and field offices, staging areas, on or off-site storage
areas, and construction right-of-ways (ROWs).
The use of industrial style dumpsters is recommended in areas where large
volumes of waste can be expected. Garbage shall not be allowed to accumulate on
a construction ROW. Ensure waste receptacles are emptied regularly and all
garbage is collected and removed as required. Wildlife risks need to be assessed
when determining waste receptacle and removal criteria.
To maintain a clean, hazard-free workplace, all groups shall follow the general
practices for safe housekeeping which include but are not limited to:




ongoing Worksite cleanup
individual cleanup duties for all Workers
materials piled, stacked, or otherwise stored to prevent tipping or collapsing
materials stored away from overhead powerlines
25

4.11
work, travel and emergency equipment areas kept tidy, well-lit, and
ventilated
Training and Competency
Prior to performing work tasks, Workers working at Enbridge Locations shall be
trained and Qualified to competently perform the work. If a Worker is not Qualified
to perform the work, the Worker shall only perform the work under the supervision
of a Qualified Worker until such time the Worker is deemed to be Qualified.
Work on Enbridge Locations shall ensure the span of control meets applicable
industry practices, in regards to training, Competency, and Worker qualifications,
e.g., proper journeymen to apprentice ratios, Operator Qualification (OQ) Plans will
be used when appropriate.
Workers shall be trained:





according to the applicable Enbridge training matrix or the Contractor’s
internal requirements
in the operation of vehicles, tools and equipment that they are required to
use
in the safe work practices and hazards associated with the vehicles, tools
and equipment they use
to safely carry out the tasks or work activities associated with their job
function
beyond the requirements set out in this manual when required by Applicable
Legislation
Contractors shall be able to provide proof of training of its Workers to an Enbridge
Representative upon request.
If a Worker’s training, certification or qualification for a Critical work task or duty is or
becomes expired, it shall not be considered valid and the Worker shall be required
to complete the required training and receive a valid certification before the Worker
will be permitted to perform the Critical work task or duty to which the certification
applies.
4.12
Ignition Sources
Ignition sources have the potential to cause fires and/or explosions in areas where
flammable vapors/gases are potentially present in the air. Ignition sources are
typically created during Hot Work activities. Ignition sources include:





sparks (e.g., from electrical tools and equipment; welding, cutting and
grinding; static electricity)
use of lighters, matches, cigarettes
open flames (e.g., portable torches and heating units)
surfaces with enough heat to vaporize a combustible material (e.g., catalytic
converter of an automobile in dry grass)
combustion engines or sources (e.g. vehicles/equipment, generators,
compressors, mowers)
Vehicles and equipment left unattended in a Restricted or Hazardous Area shall be
shut off and not restarted until Atmospheric Monitoring confirms the absence of
hazardous vapors.
The following precautions shall be made to eliminate or minimize ignition sources:
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When in Hazardous and Restricted Areas:
o test for oxygen levels and flammable atmospheres prior to
introducing ignition sources and continuously monitor these areas
while ignition sources are present
o if a flammable atmosphere is present, use only explosion-proof
electrical installations and explosion-proof electrical equipment
o use only intrinsically safe electronic devices unless the air is initially
tested and continuously monitored for flammable vapors and the
equipment is listed on the SWP
o shutdown vehicles and equipment whenever possible or when left
unattended (do not restart the vehicle or equipment until Atmospheric
Monitoring confirms the absence of a flammable atmosphere)
o use non-sparking tools that are kept clean and free from ferrous or
other contaminants which may hamper non-sparking properties
o control all potential ignition sources
o ground and bond as required in section 4.13 Bonding and Grounding
do not stop vehicles or equipment in areas where there is combustible
ground cover like dry grass, weeds or straw
leave strike-anywhere matches and lighters with open mechanisms,
including disposable lighters in designated areas (e.g., left inside a vehicle
or locker)
do not position portable light plants and/or generator sets near combustible
or flammable material
do not drill metals without sufficient lubrication
do not mechanically cut pipe at speeds that produce excessive heat
inspect and maintain equipment regularly (e.g.,friction in a defective or
under-lubricated equipment bearing can overheat the bearing and cause a
fire by vaporizing and igniting lubricating oil)
ensure diesel-fueled equipment is equipped with:
o an exhaust system fitted with a functional spark arrester (excluding
turbocharged equipment); to remain effective, spark arresters shall
be periodically blown clean with compressed air through the cleanout
plug
o an air intake system fitted with a positive air shut-off with a rev limiter;
if not equipped in this manner, then initial and constant Atmospheric
Monitoring is required when the diesel-driven equipment is used in
Hazardous or Restricted Areas
Pyrophoric iron sulfide is a black deposit that can build up in locations such as
storage tanks, seal pots, piping and metal sumps. It develops when sulfur comes in
contact with iron. When the deposit dries, it can ignite spontaneously. Precautions
include:




identify equipment where iron sulfide is suspected
tanks and vessels shall be purged of hydrocarbon vapors before opening.
when iron sulfide is suspected to be present, provisions shall be made to
keep the inner surfaces of opened equipment wet
disposal of accumulated iron sulfide shall be handled quickly and carefully to
avoid creating a hazard
Pyrophoric iron sulfide deposits may develop in tanks where sour crude oil or
refined products have been stored. These deposits can ignite spontaneously when
27
they dry out. Use water spray to soak iron sulfide at least once every 24 hours, or
more frequently if considered necessary by Operations Management.
In cone roof tanks, iron sulfide deposits may develop above the normal level of oil in
the tank, or in the sludge at the bottom of the tanks (through scale from the roof
having flaked off). Iron sulfide in the sludge at the bottom of the tank is not a
spontaneous ignition hazard in the tank, but it will ignite spontaneously if allowed to
dry out in the sun.
On tanks with pantograph seals, iron sulfide deposits may develop in the vapor
space between the sealing ring and the shell of the tank. Spray water into the vapor
space at least once every 24 hours, or as often as necessary to keep this space
damp. Other types of floating roof tanks do not require wetting down unless there is
reason to suspect pyrophoric iron sulfide may be present.
4.13
Bonding and Grounding
Electric charges can build up on an object or liquid when certain liquids (e.g.,
petroleum solvents, fuels) move in contact with other materials. This can occur
when liquids are poured, pumped, agitated, stirred or flow through pipes. This
buildup of electrical charge is called static electricity. Static electricity can potentially
discharge (cause an explosion) when sufficient amounts of flammable or
combustible substances are located nearby.
To prevent the buildup of static electricity and prevent sparks from causing a fire, it
is important to bond or ground exposed metal. Bonding is done by making an
electrical connection from one metal container to the other. Grounding is done by
connecting the container to an already grounded object that will conduct electricity.
This ensures that there will be no difference in electrical potential between the two
containers and, therefore, no sparks will be formed.
Bonding and/or Grounding shall be completed as required, including, but not limited
to the following tasks:

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




cutting and separating a pipeline
separating flanges
loading or off-loading at sump tank locations
dispensing flammable liquids from bulk drums into a secondary container
removing an accessory attachment from a fixed Facility (e.g., a mixer from a
tank)
using abrasive blasting equipment to clean tanks
hydrovacing
spray painting
when using compressors, pumps and generators
Bonding and/or grounding may be required for the following tasks:


drawing samples from the pipeline
draining oil from the pipeline into a pan
Enbridge Employee specific procedures for bonding, grounding and mitigating
induced voltage can be found in the OMM’s, Book 3.
In some cases, such as where piping forms an electrical bond, it may not be
necessary to install bonding cables. Bonding cables shall meet Enbridge
requirements set out in this manual, industry standards and Applicable Legislation.
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Prior to use and during use, all portable equipment used in Bonding and Grounding
work (e.g., welding units, generators, portable light plants, air compressors, etc.)
shall be properly grounded, in accordance with manufacturers’ specifications and
Worksite requirements.
Workers shall:







wear appropriate hand protection when there is potential exposure to
induced high voltage, including when handling pipe, valves, casing or
measuring equipment
avoid breaking, cutting or detaching bonding cables once they are in place,
for as long as a fire hazard exists
ground or electrically bond containers to each other when transferring liquids
only fill portable fuel containers when they are on the ground (never do so in
truck beds, on tailgates or in the trunks of vehicles)
immediately contact Qualified Workers if there are any concerns about
induced high voltage and work equipment
ensure each bonding or grounding point is clean and free of paint, with a
positive connection
never use chains for bonding or grounding purposes
Bonding cables:



when drawing oil or product samples from the line, or when loading or offloading at sump tank locations, use an uncovered braided copper wire with
an alligator clip brazed/clamped to each end (or use other suitable bonding
cable)
each pipeline crew shall have at least 2 prefabricated bonding cables made
of minimum 10 gauge stranded copper wire with a spade connector
brazed/clamped on each end and at least 2 grounding clamps for attaching
the bonding cable to the pipe
attach one end of the bonding cable to a ground consisting of a copper
ground rod
Induced Voltage
Where the pipeline follows a power line ROW, a hazard may exist if the pipeline lies
within the electrical field generated by overhead transmission lines. The pipe can
carry a hazardous AC voltage, known as induced voltage, which occurs as a result
of stray electromagnetic field from the power lines. This hazard can also apply to
pipe set up near high voltage sources on cribbing for welding.
Additional factors:


The voltage level depends on the current in the transmission lines, the
geometric configuration of the pipeline with respect to the transmission lines,
and the length of pipeline paralleling the transmission line.
Induced voltage caused by proximity to overhead transmission lines may
continue to affect pipelines, even when the pipeline no longer parallels the
transmission cables. Induced voltage can be a hazard for up to 16 km (10
mi) beyond the point of departure.
29
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

Once a Below Grade Facility is exposed, it shall be checked for induced
voltage prior to commencing work on the facility. The facility shall be
continually checked for induced voltage as required or monitored based on
the Hazard Assessment.
The industry-accepted safe limit for induced voltage limit on pipelines,
appurtenances and other below grade facilities is 15V. Therefore, bonding
and grounding is required to bleed off any charge in excess of 15V.
If further aid is required to reduce the induced voltage to below 15V, contact
Operations Engineering to determine the need to install a grounding grid for
bonding and grounding Below Grade Facilities, vehicles and equipment. If a
grounding grid is installed, before starting work, ensure induced voltages on
the bonded pipe, vehicles and equipment have been reduced to an
acceptable level
Potential induction sites/areas (T-lines) shall be tested by a Qualified
Worker.
Only Qualified Electrical Workers are to mitigate induced voltage hazards
and shall do so according to specific procedures established at a regional
level.
When the potential for induced voltage exists, a Hazard Assessment shall
be completed and reviewed, with the involvement of the Workers doing the
work.
Contractors shall develop a safe work plan for controlling induced voltage. This plan
shall include, but is not limited to, the following:




specialized PPE
measuring/testing
grounding requirements for planned work
work stoppage for adverse weather conditions
Table 1 Installing Bonding Cables
Task
Abrasive Blasting
Equipment for Tank
Cleaning
Cutting, Installing and
Separating of a
Pipeline
1.
Blasting Hose
Nozzle
1.
Tank Shell or Tank
Roof
1.
Grounding Clamp
on one side of
separation
Second cable from
grounding clamp on
one side of
separation
1.
Grounding Clamp on
other side of
separation
Grounding clamp on
pipe section to be
removed or installed
Attach alligator clip
on one end of
bonding cable
(unbraided copper)
to sample point on
pipeline (i.e., pipe,
valve)
Pipeline
1.
Other end of bonding
cable to alligator clip
on metal sample
container
1.
Metal Drain Tray
2.
1.
Drawing Samples
from Pipeline
1.
Draining Oil From
Pipeline to Pan
30
Bond To
Bond From
2.
Notes
Ensure clamps make contact with
clean, bare metal.
First cable shall be long enough to
span the work area.
Second cable shall be long enough to
clear the hazardous area when
removing or installing pipe section.
For plastic drain trays, second end of
bonding cable shall remain in contact
with liquid being drained into tray at all
times.
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Loading or Off-loading
at Sump Tank
Locations
1.
Object being
loaded/off-loaded
1.
Dispensing from Bulk
Drums to Secondary
Container
1.
Bulk Drum
1.
Clean, bare metal
on accessory
attachment
1.
Flange
Removing accessory
attachments from
fixed facilities
For fiberglass sump tanks, attach
second end to specified bonding point.
2.
Sump tank or piping
connection at
loading/off-loading
Facility
Secondary Container
1.
Fixed Facility
Bonding cable shall be long enough to
clear the hazardous area when
removing attachments or span of work
area when separating flanges.
1.
Flange

One container shall be grounded, and
the other container bonded to the
grounded container.
1. Wand/Gun
1. Grounding Mat # 1
For distances greater than (>) 2m (6
2. Dig Tube
2. Grounding Mat # 2
ft.) from the Hydrovac truck, it may not
3. Mat # 1
3. Mat # 2
be necessary to bond the mat to the
4. Mat #1
4. Hydrovac Truck
truck (Step 4).
Note: Some tasks require more than one bonding cable. The numbers listed in this table represent
steps to be taken for proper bonding (i.e., bond 1 to 1, and 2 to 2, etc.).
Hydrovacing Near
Underground
Electrical Wires
4.14
Hot Work
Prior to commencing Hot Work ensure:

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



Hot Work has been added to the Safe Work Permit (SWP)
all movable fire hazards are removed and combustible materials (e.g. oil,
rags, gasoline, paper) are removed from the Hot Work area and placed a
safe distance away from the Hot Work
verification of a non-explosive environment with an Atmospheric Monitoring
device
ensure continuous monitoring of Hot Work area during Hot Work in
Hazardous and Restricted Areas and after the Hot Work has been
completed in accordance with the Fire Watch standards set out in section
4.31 of this manual
if fire hazards cannot be removed, then guards shall be used to confine
heat, sparks and slag
fire extinguishers are in place as per section 4.16 of this manual
Monitor the environment during Hot Work to ensure an unknown or previously
undetected flammable atmosphere does not develop.
A Safety Watch is required when engaged in certain Hot Work activities, including
but not limited to:



welding, flame cutting, arc-air gouging or grinding in Hazardous Areas or
Restricted Areas
any Hot Work on or around Open Systems
any Hot Work where product or vapors are present
A Safety Watch shall be maintained after Hot Work is completed in accordance with
section 4.31. The number of Safety Watches and the period of time a Safety Watch
will be maintained shall be determined based on the Hazard Assessment and
Applicable Legislation.
31
4.15
Cutting and Welding
When welding and cutting precautions shall be taken against exposure to:






excessive ultraviolet radiation
burns
fire and/or explosion
asphyxiation
exposure to toxic gases
fumes or dusts
If welding or cutting cannot be conducted safely, then it shall not be performed until
safe to do so following a Hazard Assessment. Remove flammable materials and
products from the immediate vicinity when cutting or welding.
Where required, use partitions to enclose welding and cutting activities. Before work
begins, the welder, or welder’s helper, shall ensure that no other Worker is at risk of
exposure to the arc flash, cutting slag or the spark path. Ensure non-essential
Workers are removed from the Hot Work area and are restricted from gaining
unauthorized access.
Turn welding machines off at the end of each workday or when left unattended.
The ground return line from the work being welded shall:



4.16
be a single cable rated for the load of the welding machine
be in good condition
only be clamped to the material being welded
Portable Fire Extinguishers
Workers may attempt to extinguish a fire only if safe to do so and if they are
confident in their abilities to effectively extinguish the fire. If Workers cannot ensure
their own safety or if there is a risk of being trapped in the fire, Workers shall
immediately evacuate.
Select and install portable fire extinguishers in accordance with Applicable
Legislation. Provide appropriate fire protection, taking into consideration the building
structure (e.g. metal or wooden studs or ceiling tiles), potential fuel sources (e.g.,
parts cleaner, wooden cabinets, plywood walls or electrical panels), and occupancy
hazards (e.g., lunchrooms). Inspect and maintain portable fire extinguishers
according to Tables 1, 2 and 3.
A minimum guideline for fire extinguisher placement is as follows:








32
2 – 20 lb. ABC for any work done in Hazardous or Restricted Areas
1 – 20 lb. ABC for each work area within fenced locations
1 – 20 lb. ABC for each office and storage trailer
1 – 20 lb. ABC for each designated outdoor smoking area
1 –10 lb. (at a minimum) ABC for pickup trucks not carrying refueling fuel
tanks
1 –5 lb. for ATVs and UTVs
1- 20 lb. fire extinguisher is mandatory within 22 m (75 ft.) of any work
activity; including ROW restoration projects
each portable fire extinguisher shall cover no more than 230 m2 (2500 ft2)
LP/MP Safety Manual
Version:1.4
Version Date: 06-01-2015
Unless specific instructions indicate otherwise, position portable fire extinguishers
so that travel distance to the extinguisher from the working area is:



≤ 23 m (75 ft.) for Class A fires (e.g., wood, paper)
≤ 15 m (50 ft.) for Class B fires (flammable/combustible liquids)
≤ 23 m (75 ft.) for Class D fires
Distances for Class C fires (electrical) are based on the surrounding fire hazards
(Class A or Class B).
Portable fire extinguishers for Class D hazards are required in work areas where
combustible metal powders, flakes, shavings, or similarly sized products are
generated at least once every two weeks.
Contractors shall supply any additional fire extinguishers as required by applicable
fire codes and the Hazard Assessment. Contractors are expected to meet the
minimum portable fire extinguisher requirements for work areas and equipment.
Portable fire extinguishers shall be:



stored above the floor or ground (hand-held models), to prevent
condensation and subsequent corrosion on extinguisher bases
mounted in accordance with manufacturers’ specifications when stored on
vehicles or equipment, or where otherwise subjected to shock and vibration
when placed outdoors, covered for protection
Regional and/or Project Office’s shall have:



one 10-lb to 20-lb dry chemical extinguisher inside each entrance door,
rated according to the hazards in the building
one 20-lb CO2 extinguisher outside the entry to any room housing
electronics (e.g., computer server room, UPS room, measurement room)
one 10-lb to 20-lb dry chemical extinguisher in the boiler room, rated
according to the hazards in the room
Pump Stations and compressor buildings shall have:





one 20-lb or 30-lb dry chemical extinguisher immediately inside each
compressor building or pump room/shelter
minimum of one 20-lb or 30-lb dry chemical extinguisher in each manifold
area
one 15-lb carbon dioxide (CO2) or 7-lb Halon extinguisher inside each
control room door and in the hallway outside the switchgear cubicle door
one 20-lb or 30-lb dry chemical extinguisher in the pump room, positioned so
that the travel distance from anywhere in the pump room to the extinguisher
is no more than 9 m (30 ft.)
one wheeled extinguisher immediately inside or outside the most frequently
used doorway of pump rooms/shelters; if two shelters are less than 15 m (50
ft.) apart, one wheeled extinguisher may be placed between the two shelters
33
Pipeline Maintenance (PLM) shall have accessible:



two 20-lb or 30-lb dry chemical extinguishers to be taken to pipeline repair
jobs (including natural gas venting operations); the extinguishers shall be
strategically located upwind of the work being completed and be
immediately accessible
additional 20-lb or 30-lb dry chemical extinguishers strategically located in
PLM and welding shops based on Hazards
one 30-lb ABC dry chemical extinguisher at each door and strategically
located in work and welding shops
Remote maintenance bases should have:

four 20-lb or 30-lb dry chemical extinguishers to be taken to Worksites as
needed, based on the Hazard Assessment at each site
For Regional Operations remote locations that do not have ready access to fire
extinguishers, refer to Table 4 for the amounts of fire extinguisher supplies that
should be maintained. If recommended amounts are not maintained, a current list of
supplies shall be kept on file. If a Worksite has access to a 24-hr. supply source,
supplies kept on-site are at the discretion of the Operations Management. Worksites
with ABC-rated fire extinguishers shall establish access to a supply of ABC dry
chemical extinguishing agent. Dry chemical extinguishers stored or used outside
during winter conditions should be equipped with nitrogen gas cartridges rather than
carbon dioxide gas cartridges.
For information on Fixed Extinguishing Systems (e.g., CO2, Halon, fixed hydrant)
please see the Fire Protection, Extinguishment Engineering Standard.
Table 1 Inspection Frequency for Fire Suppression Equipment
Type of Equipment
Inspection Frequency
portable fire extinguishers (hand-held)



monthly
when placed in service
after repairs and use
portable fire extinguishers (wheeled)



monthly
when placed in service
after repairs and use
fixed systems (hydrant systems)



annually
when placed in service
after repairs and use
fixed systems (CO2 and Halon systems)





annually (minimum)1
monthly (visual inspections)2
semiannually (for high-pressure cylinders) 3
when placed in service
after repairs and use
foam trailers



monthly4
when placed in service
after repairs and use
NOTES
34
LP/MP Safety Manual
1.
2.
3.
4.
Version:1.4
Version Date: 06-01-2015
A Qualified service contractor shall inspect and test systems annually.
A Site Supervisor shall visually inspect systems monthly.
A Qualified service contractor shall inspect high-pressure cylinders semiannually. During the
inspection, cylinders shall be weighed and the date of the last hydrostatic test noted. Any
container that shows a loss in net content of more than 10% shall be refilled or replaced.
Each region/area shall assign a Qualified employee to inspect foam trailers using the Foam
Trailer Check Sheet.
Table 2-Maintenance Frequency for Portable Fire Extinguishers
Extinguisher
cartridge-type dry chemical
extinguishers stored on vehicles
cartridge-type dry chemical
extinguishers stored in buildings or
outdoors
Maintenance Frequency





annually
if evidence of corrosion or
mechanical damage
annually, not to exceed 365
days
if evidence of corrosion or
mechanical damage
conductivity test annually on
all CO2 hose assemblies
whenever evidence of
corrosion or mechanical
damage found on tank
CO2 extinguishers

Rechargeable Stored Pressure
1
Extinguishers

every 6 years

if evidence of corrosion or
mechanical damage
every 3 years
if evidence of corrosion or
mechanical damage
Halon stored pressure extinguishers
liquid-charged AFFF foam
extinguishers


wheeled fire extinguishers


2
annually
if evidence of corrosion or
mechanical damage
Hydrostatic Test
Frequency
every 12 years
every 12 years
every 5 years
every 12 years
every 12 years
every 5 years
every 12 years
NOTES
1.
2.
Non-rechargeable stored pressure extinguishers are not internally inspected or hydrostatically
tested. These extinguishers are removed from service at a maximum interval of 12 years from
the date of manufacture, or sooner when exhibiting signs of corrosion or mechanical damage.
Rechargeable stored pressure extinguishers shall be emptied and subjected to the applicable
internal examination procedure as outlined in the manufacturer service manual and NFPA
10.7.3.
Table 3-Hydrostatic Test Frequency for Cartridges and Cylinders
Cartridge/Cylinder
nitrogen cartridges on hand-held
extinguishers
Ansul CO2 cartridges on hand-held
extinguishers
nitrogen cylinders on wheeled fire
extinguishers
Hydrostatic Test Frequency
exempt (CAN), every 10 years (USA)
exempt
every 5 years
35
Table 4 Stock Amounts—Fire Extinguisher Supplies
Location
Supplies
1
Minimum Quantity
Attended pump station
Purple K
500 lb
Pump station—ENB (NW)
ABC, Plus 50 or Purple K
500 lb
Delivery location and electric station with
150-lb extinguisher(s)
Purple K
200 lb
PLM shop or designated location
Purple K
500 lb
Remote maintenance base—ENB (NW)
ABC, Plus 50 or Purple K
200 lb
Worksite with 350-lb nitrogen
extinguisher(s)
nitrogen cylinders/cartridges
1
Worksite with 150-lb nitrogen
extinguisher(s)
nitrogen cylinders/cartridges
1
location with 20-lb or 30-lb nitrogen
extinguisher(s)
nitrogen cylinders/cartridges
half as many as
extinguishers in
outdoor use (2
minimum )
location with 4-lb, 10-lb, 20-lb, or 30-lb CO2
extinguisher(s)
CO2 cartridges
half as many as
extinguishers in
indoor use
NOTES
1.
4.17
or as determined by the Operations Management at their discretion
Fire Prevention and Protection
Take all necessary precautions to prevent fires, including, but not limited to, the
following:










eliminate/control ignition sources
collect and secure garbage daily until it can be properly disposed
store fuels, volatile solvents or any other flammable substances in
containers that are clearly labeled, approved for their contents and located in
a safe place away from ignition sources
ensure flammable liquid containers are electrically bonded when liquids are
being transferred from one to another
flammable substances and quantities of chemical in excess of that needed
for one day’s work shall be stored in an approved storage Facility, isolated
from the actual work areas
post visible signs stating “NO SMOKING OR OPEN FLAMES WITHIN 8
METERS (25 FEET) OF THIS AREA” in areas where flammable substances
are stored or used
guard against clothing becoming contaminated with flammable liquids
clean up spills promptly
store and dispose of oily rags in approved containers of not more than 5
gallon capacity with self-closing lids designed to relieve internal pressure
when subjected to fire exposure
implement other fire prevention controls based on an assessment of the
hazards
A fire protection plan may be required based on the potential fire hazards.
Projects shall prepare a fire protection plan to prevent wildfires within or adjacent to
the work areas. The plan shall contain effective prevention and control measures to
36
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address the potential for uncontrolled fires during Hot Work activities. Such
measures may include the following:




controlling smoke and open flames
controlling sparks from construction equipment and welding or grinding
operations
position fire suppression and other special equipment close to the Worksite
and/or consulting with local fire departments about emergency response
arrangements
providing fire extinguishers of appropriate size and type
Burning shall not be permitted on Enbridge property or ROW without prior
authorization from the Operations Regional Manager or Construction Manager or
designate. Green Field burning is to be conducted in accordance with all regulatory
requirements. When authorization to burn has been received, complete the
following:




Submit a detailed Hazard Assessment for approval prior to the
commencement of burning
obtain a burning permit from the Authority Having Jurisdiction prior to
commencement of burning and follow Applicable Legislation
provide a continuous Safety Watch for at least 1 hour after the fire is
completely extinguished
supply a minimum of two 30 lb. (or 4 – 20 lb.) ABC dry chemical fire
extinguishers that are readily available
For the location of facility fire suppression equipment, see the location’s Site Safety
Plot Plan.
37
4.18 Entering Buildings Containing Natural Gas Products or
Equipment
Buildings containing natural gas are provided with fixed gas detection equipment
that is equipped with an alarm. The alarm will be triggered at the following
concentrations of natural gas:


20% of LEL – low level alarm (audible and visible)
40% of LEL – high level alarm (audible and visible); results in an emergency
shutdown
If the alarm for a fixed gas detection system has been triggered, conduct initial
Atmospheric Monitoring from outside the compressor building, if possible.
Before entering any buildings where natural gas is present, operate valves as
necessary to shut down or bypass the source of gas and/or ventilate the building
(e.g., open doors and windows).
The minimum entry criteria for entering buildings containing natural gas products or
equipment are:



at <10% LEL, entry is allowed
at 10-20% LEL, entry is allowed if:
o only cold work is planned
o Safety Watch is present at all times
at >20% LEL, entry is allowed for inspecting or opening and closing valves
to reduce gas levels provided:
o a Safety Watch is present at all times monitoring atmospheric levels
o a safety harness and lifeline are used and an employee trained in
their use is present and in control of the lifeline
o self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) or a supplied-air
respirator (SAR) with egress bottle is used
Conduct continuous Atmospheric Monitoring while approaching the work area to
verify acceptable conditions. If concentrations are higher than prepared for, exit the
area and reassess the situation.
4.19
Vehicles, Equipment and Tool Use, Maintenance and Inspection
Ensure that all vehicles, equipment and tools are inspected, maintained and used
according to Enbridge requirements, manufacturers’ specifications and Applicable
Legislation.
Any vehicles, equipment or tools that are found to have defects or malfunctions
shall be tagged “Do Not Operate” and removed from service. Isolate all Hazardous
Energy prior to servicing, maintaining or inspecting equipment.
Refer to manufacturers’ weather and temperature limitations for equipment prior to
use in extreme weather conditions.
Only Qualified Workers shall perform maintenance activities on tools and
equipment. Tools and equipment that specify that they shall be returned to the
supplier or manufacturer for service, repair, calibration or adjustment shall be
returned at the required intervals.
All Contractor equipment dispatched to an Enbridge Location shall be in good
working order and have the relevant operation, testing and maintenance records,
plus maintenance instructions. These records may be requested by Enbridge
38
LP/MP Safety Manual
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Version Date: 06-01-2015
representatives prior to the equipment being used at Enbridge Locations, or at any
time.
4.20
Ladder Safety
Ladders shall:





be inspected before and after each use for any cracks or defects; if
defective, repair immediately, or tag and remove from service
not be used to form a walkway between two platforms or surfaces
not be erected on boxes, carts, tables, or other unstable surfaces
be carried horizontally below shoulder level
have the proper weight rating for the task
Ladders shall be inspected periodically and after any occurrence which could affect
their safe use. Such inspections shall be done by a Qualified Worker.
If a job-site constructed ladder is defective, repair it immediately. All other defective
ladders shall be tagged and removed from service.
Workers using ladders shall:















always face the ladder when going up, down, or performing any work activity
maintain a three-point contact at all times when climbing or descending
ensure the ladders footings are placed on a firm and level base
not use items such as chairs, barrels, or boxes in place of a ladder
carry small articles in pockets or in a belt
use Fall Protection when working from ladders at heights greater than 2 m (6
ft.) when it is not possible to maintain three-point contact, unless the ladder
is situated directly in front of the work and the Worker does not need to lean
to conduct the task
use the proper type of ladder best suited for the job
used only non-conductive ladders in or around electrical cubicles,
switchgear rooms, or when working on any electrical installation
not climb beyond the 3rd last step or rung from the top of a ladder
not straddle the space between a ladder and another object
set up barricades and warning signs when using a ladder in a doorway or
passageway
barricade, lock or otherwise secure immediately adjacent doors prior to
working on a ladder
lift or lower larger articles from elevated locations by a hand line or a hoist
have ladders above 2 m (6 ft.) held by a person when it is not secured
secure ladders at the base, when a kick-out hazard exists
To mitigate the hazards potentially involved when using ladders over 2 m (6 ft.) in
height, consider using alternatives such as scaffolding, work platforms or elevating
devices.
39
Step ladders shall:




be placed at right angles to the work
not be used to brace or support work
not have either of the top two rungs used as a step
be used as per manufacturers’ specifications
Extension ladders shall:







have the base of the ladder placed at a 4 to 1 operating angle
extend at least 1 m (3 ft.) above the landing platform
be tied off at the top of the ladder to prevent it from slipping or being moved
or blown over
have slip-resistant footing
be climbed by grasping the rungs, not the side rails
be erected so that the upper section rests on the bottom section maintaining
the minimum overlap of sections as shown on the ladder label
have the locking ladder hooks secure before climbing
Constructed job-site ladders shall meet or exceed Applicable Legislation for the type
of work required.
4.21
Walkways, Stairways, Exits, Landings and Openings
Walkways shall be designated and kept clear of hazards, debris, snow and ice.
Stairways, landings and exits shall:


have hand and guard rails when over 1.3 m (4 ft.)
comply with Applicable Legislation including building codes
All floor, walkway, vault, handrail and ground openings that present a fall hazard of
over 1.3 m (4 ft.) shall be properly marked and guarded when Workers could be
present.
Exposed duct banks and conduit shall not be used as walkways.
Building exits shall be marked and shall have emergency lighting where required by
Applicable Legislation.
4.22
Scaffolds and non-mobile Elevated Work Platforms
Workers using scaffolds, Swing stage scaffolds and non-mobile elevated work
platforms shall use Personal Fall Protection systems when working at heights
greater than 2 m (6 ft.) without proper guardrails.
Workers shall not:


sit or climb on the edge of the Swing stage, work cage or scaffold handrails
use ladders, unsecured planks or other devices as a work platform
Workers shall:


40
check the scaffold inspection tag prior to use to ensure the scaffold is fit for
the intended use
lift or lower larger articles from elevated locations by a hand line or a hoist
LP/MP Safety Manual
Version:1.4
Version Date: 06-01-2015
Scaffolds shall:






be installed, inspected, maintained, and repaired in accordance with the
manufacturers’ specifications and Applicable Legislation
be erected and dismantled under the supervision of a Qualified person,
competent in their construction and use
be erected plumb to ensure maximum structural capacity of the system
have a maximum height of three times the minimum base width unless
additional stabilizing supports are used
have a Qualified person confirm that the scaffold is erected properly and
attach an inspection tag (which includes the load rating) prior to allowing
work to commence
use components and planking that are in good repair
If the scaffold is higher than 15 m (50 ft.), it shall be designed by a professional
engineer, and erected, used and maintained in accordance with the engineered
design.
Workers who are involved in erecting, disassembling, moving, operating, repairing,
maintaining, or inspecting a scaffold shall be trained to recognize any hazards
associated with the work.
All Workers who perform work while on a scaffold shall be trained by a Qualified
person to recognize the hazards associated with the type of scaffold being used and
to understand the procedures to control or minimize those hazards.
When erecting and dismantling supported scaffolds, a Qualified Worker shall ensure
that all fall protection requirements are met and that a safe means of access is
provided.
Scaffold components shall meet all Applicable Legislation as well as the following
requirements set out in this manual:


scaffold bases shall:
o be set on level and compacted soils
o have base plates (preferably with screw jacks to allow for
adjustment) and should rest centrally on mudsills
o have mudsills continuous under at least two consecutive end frames
or supports
o have mudsills that are not constructed by joining smaller pieces of
wood together
o have blocks under supports for wedging and bridging
o not have a smaller dimension than 1/3 of the height of the scaffold
without outriggers
o have outriggers on base plates, fastened at approximately 1/3 of the
total height when required
o have bridging that is secured in place, when bridging is required
scaffold supports and bracing shall:
o be securely fastened in accordance with manufacturers’
specifications
o have all structural members in place
o have all cross braces in place
41
o





be tied or secured to a building or other structural supports if the
height exceeds 3 times the smallest base dimension
o increase the number of ties if hoarding/enclosure is used in windy
conditions or if there are other dynamic loads caused by the work
being done on the scaffold
o have ties that are placed as the scaffold is being erected
scaffold planking shall:
o be manufactured scaffold planks that are used, stored, inspected and
maintained according to manufacturers’ specifications; or solid sawn
lumber planks that are rated as scaffold grade or better
o be visually inspected before installation
 subject the plank to a load test if the visual inspection reveals
damage that could affect its strength or function
o extend the required distance from the support and overlap as
required
o be secured to prevent movement in any direction
scaffold platforms shall:
o be identified as light or heavy duty
o be fully planked between the front uprights and the guardrail system
scaffold guardrails shall:
o be installed on all platforms above 1.2 m (4 ft.)
scaffold toe boards shall:
o be used on the outer edges and the ends if the height of the scaffold
planking is greater than 2 m (6 ft.)
scaffold ladders shall:
o be installed as the scaffold is being built
o shall extend 1 m (3 ft.) above the top of the scaffold platform and
shall be secured at the top when using portable and built-in ladders
o portable ladders shall:
 be secured at the bottom or tied to the scaffold at waist height
and flagged
Internal stairways or built-in ladders are required for scaffolds greater than 9.1 m
(30 ft.) high.
Attachable vertical scaffold ladders exceeding 6.1 m (20 ft.) in height shall be
equipped with one of the following:



a safety cage that complies with Applicable Legislation
proper fall protection
rest platforms
Workers shall not climb braces or end frames.
Using equipment to hoist Workers to a work area is prohibited unless it is
demonstrated that conventional means would be more hazardous, or that
conventional means would not be possible because of the project’s structural
design or Worksite conditions. (In this case conventional means refers to the
erection, dismantling and/or use of means such as ladders, stairways, scaffolds,
personnel hoists, aerial lifts or elevating work platforms.)
Swing stages or suspended scaffolds, work cage platforms and man baskets shall:


42
not exceed the Manufacturer’s Rated Working Load
have the manufacturer’s platform load rating clearly labeled and visible to all
Workers
LP/MP Safety Manual
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

Version:1.4
Version Date: 06-01-2015
be installed by a Qualified Worker
have rigging hardware (e.g., hooks, shackles, rings, bolts, slings, chains,
wire ropes, splices) capable of supporting at least 10 times the rated
capacity of the maximum load to which it may be subjected
use wire rope suspension lines that are free of kinks, birdcaging, excessive
wear, broken wires, flat spots and other defects
When used for hoisting Workers, Swing stage or suspended scaffolds, work cage
platforms and man baskets shall be designed and certified by a professional
engineer. A copy of the certification, equipment drawings, and the most recent
inspection certificate shall be available upon Enbridge’s request
Swing stages require a redundant system for control (such as a deadman
switch/pedal or tandem operation) and properly sized and secured hangers or
stirrups.
For work cages, when it is not practicable to provide a separate personal fall arrest
system using a vertical lifeline for each worker in the work cage, then there shall be
a separate support attached between the work cage and the hoist line. The support
shall be above the hook that is capable of holding the weight of the work cage and
any potential contents.
Non-Mobile Elevated Work Platforms
All non-mobile elevated work platforms shall be equipped with:





handrails
midrails
toeboards
skid-resistant working surfaces
wire mesh from the top rail to the toeboard if required by the Hazard
Assessment
When Swing stages and work cages are being used, emergency rescue procedures
shall be documented in the fall protection plan or critical lift plan and communicated
to all Workers.
4.23
Safeguards, Barricades, and Warning Signs
Unprotected temporary openings in floors or elevated work platforms shall:



be covered with plywood that is at least ¾ of an inch in thickness
have secured coverings capable of supporting twice the maximum intended
load
only be removed to perform a particular task
Coverings shall only be removed to perform a particular task. Coverings shall be
replaced immediately after the task is complete or as appropriate during the task if
other Workers are present near the work area.
Suitable safeguards, flagging or barricades with warning signs or flashing lights
shall be used to protect Workers from any work activity that may endanger them.
Examples of such activities include sand blasting, open excavations, temporary
openings in floors, construction, arc flash in pre-fab areas, pressure testing or
overhead work.
43
Barricades shall be inspected periodically to ensure protection for Workers is
adequate, and that barricades are still present and in good condition.
Flagging shall be used as a warning to Workers of hazards that exist in work areas.
Flagging tape shall be:




installed to completely encompass the work area containing the potential
hazard, including access from levels above or below
prominently placed when conditions or activities may or do present a hazard
to Workers or the public
placed to ensure Workers cannot enter the area where the hazard exists,
without prior knowledge of the hazard
removed when the potential hazard no longer exists
Workers shall not enter flagged or barricaded areas until they:



obtain permission to enter from Workers in control of the area
understand the hazards within the area
take necessary safety precautions
The following types of flagging shall be used:


RED – “Danger Do Not Enter” – Red with black lettering. This type of
flagging is used where there is danger of an imminent hazard, such as
falling objects. Only Workers involved in the work and aware of the hazards
are allowed in these areas. All others must obtain prior permission from the
flagging owner (i.e., Worker who installed the flagging).
YELLOW – “Caution” – Yellow with black lettering. This type of flagging
provides a warning that a hazard exists in the area. Yellow flagging can be
crossed by workers other than those who installed it, but awareness of the
surrounding work areas is required
A flagging tag shall be attached to all flagging tape. Multiple tags may be required
depending on work area and hazards. The Worker installing the tape shall complete
the tag with the following information:




name of the person who installed the flagging
phone number or radio channel for contact
date on which the flagging was installed
reason for the use of flagging
Instead of flagging and barricades a Safety Watch may be used to prevent Workers
from entering the hazardous area, but only if the area is small enough to be easily
managed and the Safety Watch remains in place until the hazard no longer exists.
Warning signs identifying known hazards shall be posted to warn Workers and
others in the area of the specific hazard. All signs shall be constructed in a
professional manner and shall meet Applicable Legislation and Enbridge’s design
and installation Standards, which are be found in the Engineering Standards (IMS08).
Warnings signs include, but are not limited to:


44
Directional Signs
o Installed as required
No Trespassing/Open Ditch
o The signs shall be:
LP/MP Safety Manual
Version:1.4
Version Date: 06-01-2015






4.24
posted at all entries to the ROW
face the intersecting road/highway, where construction
activities are being conducted
 display a contact telephone number for unauthorized Workers
to contact
Construction Warning Signs
o All crossings of any Interstate, Highway, municipal or private roads
shall be posted with construction warning signs, which are designed
and positioned in accordance with the requirements of the Applicable
Legislation. Such signs shall be clearly visible to traffic, as
appropriate to the crossing, e.g., visible from two or more directions
High Pressure Testing Signs
o Shall be posted:
 at all entries to the ROW, public access points, while sections
are under test
 facing intersecting roads/highways
Smoke Warning Signs
o Warning signs shall be used to warn traffic of poor visibility due to
smoke from brush burning operations. All such warning signs shall
be in accordance with Applicable Legislation
Other Warning Signs shall be erected as required by Applicable Legislation
or by Enbridge to warn workers and/or the public of a range of potential
hazards such as:
o traffic hazards (e.g., STOP, slow, curve, steep hill, noise hazards,
caution, work crews ahead, suggested speed restrictions, trucks
turning, work in/over navigable waters)
o signs indicating venting in progress during any venting activities (like
opening pig traps)
o “Caution: Open Hole” or similar when there is an opening
o overhead hazards
o respiratory hazards
o other PPE requirements (e.g., hard hat, hearing protection, eye
protection required)
Brush Cutting
When using motorized equipment for cutting or clearing brush, Workers shall:







check the cutting area for any metal, large stones or other hard material that
could damage the blades or cutter disc
regularly clean accumulated debris from the top of the cutter’s fuel tank and
from the engine, pumps and axle protection plates on a regular basis
ensure other Workers do not approach the brush cutter’s articulating joint
when the brush cutter is operating
operate brush cutters with protective guards installed
wear additional PPE as required by the Hazard Assessment
ensure each brush cutter has protective guards and only operate brush
cutters with the guards installed
dispose of brush and slash by mulching and spreading on an area
designated by the regional/project manager or an Enbridge ROW agent or
landowner
45
A Worker shall not operate a brush cutter when other workers are within 150 m (500
ft.) of the front or sides of the brush cutter (see manufacturers’ recommendations).
Brush cutting is a Ground Disturbance activity when it meets the criteria in the
Ground Disturbance definition. Ground Disturbance precautions shall be in place
prior to beginning brush cutting.
46
LP/MP Safety Manual
4.25
Version:1.4
Version Date: 06-01-2015
Severe and Inclement Weather
Workers shall check and monitor weather reports prior to issuing and approving
permits. Permits suspended due to inclement weather shall be revalidated once
weather conditions improve.
If potential or imminent severe weather is forecast, the hazards due to severe
weather need to be identified and controls implemented. Controls can include, but
are not limited to:



have Workers work remotely
send Workers home from Enbridge Locations to avoid travel in severe
weather
close offices and Worksites
Severe weather considerations include:




lightning
o take shelter when thunder is heard; work shall not recommence until
30 minutes after the final observation of thunder
o when an electrical storm is visible from the Worksite, the following
work shall be stopped: all testing or grounding for mitigating induced
voltage; work in or around structures (e.g., tanks, side-booms,
cranes, dozers, etc.); work outside of compressor/pump buildings;
work on ROWs
o where practicable, use lightning detectors to supplement visual and
auditory detection of electrical storms; use the detector’s
specifications to determine detection ranges and action plans
heavy rain
o avoid driving on flooded access roads or ROWs
o avoid crossing bridges if water level is high and fast flowing
o stay out of trenches, excavations and below ground level unsheltered
entry points
hail/freezing rain:
o take cover during hailstorms
o expect slippery walking and driving conditions
o be aware of possible damage to trees and power lines due to ice
buildup
o avoid travel in these conditions
extreme heat/heat stress guidelines
o consult the climatic condition reports from your local weather service
during Hazard Assessment
o apply the correction factor and repeat the Hazard Assessment
o
o
o
o
process whenever climatic conditions change more than +/- 5 F or
o
~+/-3 C (see Table 1)
determine the amount of cloud cover, the exertion level of the work
being conducted and the type of clothing being worn to calculate the
correction factor (Table 2)
reduce the physical demands of work (e.g., excessive lifting, digging
with heavy objects)
provide recovery areas (e.g., air-conditioned enclosures, rooms for
rehydration)
47
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
use shifts (e.g., early morning, cool part of the day, night work)
use relief Workers
use worker pacing
take steps to protect workers from exposure to UV radiation such as
sunscreen, PPE, and clothing with UV protection and wide brims
assign extra Workers and limit worker occupancy or the number of
Workers present, especially in confined or enclosed spaces
train Workers to recognize the signs and symptoms of heat stress;
and to know and follow heat stress prevention measures
provide water nearby on the Worksite (Workers should drink about
one cup of water every 20 to 30 minutes, even if they are not thirsty)
Table 1-Heat Index from Temperature and Relative Humidity Readings *
o
o
Actual Temperature F ( C)
Relative
Humidity
70
(21.1)
75
(23.9)
80
(26.7)
85
(29.4)
90
(32.2)
95
(35.0)
100
(37.8)
105
(40.6)
110
(43.3)
70
(21.1)
75
80
85
90
95
100
105
110
0%
(23.9)
(26.7)
(29.4)
(32.2)
(35.0)
(37.8)
(40.6)
(43.3)
10%
70
(21.1)
75
80
85
90
95
100
105
110
(23.9)
(26.7)
(29.4)
(32.2)
(35.0)
(37.8)
(40.6)
(43.3)
70
75
80
85
90
96.8
102.2
109.4
116.6
(21.1)
(23.9)
(26.7)
(29.4)
(32.2)
(36.0)
(39.0)
(43.0)
(47.0)
70
75
80.6
87.8
95
102.2
109.4
118.4
125.6
(21.1)
(23.9)
(27.0)
(31.0)
(35.0)
(39.0)
(43.0)
(48.0)
(52.0)
70
77.0
84.2
91.4
98.6
107.6
116.6
125.6
(21.1)
(25.0)
(29.0)
(33.0)
(37.0)
(42.0)
(47.0)
(52.0)
71.6
80.6
87.8
95
104
113
122
(22.0)
(27.0)
(31.0)
(35.0)
(40.0)
(45.0)
(50.0)
75.2
82.4
91.4
98.6
109.4
118.4
129.2
(24.0)
(28.0)
(33.0)
(37.0)
(43.0)
(48.0)
(54.0)
77.0
86
95
104
113
123.8
(25.0)
(30.0)
(35.0)
(40.0)
(45.0)
(51.0)
80.6
87.8
98.6
107.6
118.4
(27.0)
(31.0)
(37.0)
(42.0)
(48.0)
82.4
91.4
100.4
111.2
122
(28.0)
(33.0)
(38.0)
(44.0)
(50.0)
84.2
95
104
114.8
127.4
(29.0)
(35.0)
(40.0)
(46.0)
(53.0)
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
* This table is based on: working conditions with little or no radiant heat; Workers wearing regular
summer clothing; un-acclimatized Workers doing moderate work or acclimatized Workers doing heavy
work.
48
LP/MP Safety Manual
Version:1.4
Version Date: 06-01-2015
Table 2 -Correction Factor (in 0F) for Radiation Heat, Clothing, and Workload
1
2
60%
cloud
cover
2
3
4
4
6
9
100% cloud
cover
Clothing
FR + Vest
1
FR + Regular Tyvek +
Vest
4
4
0%
cloud
cover
4
5
4
6
8
7
8
9
8
9
11
10
12
15
30% cloud
cover
Work Type
Light work
Moderate
work
Heavy work
Light work
Moderate
work
Heavy work
**The numbers in Table 2 indicate an increase in the heat index as a correction factor to reflect cloud
coverage, clothing and type of work. For example; performing heavy work with FR clothing + vest with
100% cloud coverage would add 4°F to the heat index to obtain the final heat index. The work rest
schedule would have to be determined based on the final heat index.
1
Regular Tyvek suit is made of polypropylene. This is considered a breathable fabric. (Chemical
resistant suits are coated with polyethylene. This type of garment is impermeable with no
breathability.)

extreme cold guidelines
o wear layers of warm clothing and cover as much exposed skin as
possible
o
o train Workers to recognize signs and symptoms of cold related
conditions in other Workers
o take 10 minute warm up breaks as required by Table 3, calculating
for wind chill (Note that these TLVs are applicable to Workers in dry
clothing)
Table 3-TLVs Work/Warm-up Schedule for Outside Workers based on a 4-Hour Shift
Air Temperature –
Sunny Sky
°C
(approx
)
°F
(approx
)
-40° to
-42°
-15° to
–
19°
-20° to
–
24°
-25°to –
29°
-30° to
–
34°
-35° to
–
39°
-40°to –
44°
-43° &
below
-45° &
below
-26° to
-28°
-29° to
-31°
-32° to
-34°
-35° to
-37°
-38° to
-39°
No Noticeable
Wind
Max.
No. of
Work
Breaks*
Perio
*
d
5 mph (8 km/h)
Wind
Max.
No. of
Work
Break
Perio
s
d
10 mph (16
km/h) Wind
Max.
No. of
Work
Break
Perio
s
d
15 mph (24
km/h) Wind
Max.
No. of
Work
Break
Perio
s
d
20 mph (32
km/h) Wind
Max.
No. of
Work
Break
Perio
s
d
(Norm breaks) 1
(Norm breaks)
1
75
min.
2
55
min.
3
40
min.
4
(Norm breaks) 1
75
min.
2
55
min.
3
40
min.
4
30
min.
5
75
min.
2
55
min.
3
40
min.
4
30
min.
5
55
min.
3
40
min.
4
30
min.
5
40
min.
4
30
min.
5
30
5
min.
Non-emergency
work should
cease
Nonemergency
work should
cease
Nonemergency
work should
cease
Nonemergency
work should
cease
Nonemergency
work should
cease
*2013 TLVs and BEIs – Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents
and Biological Exposure Indices. Cincinnati: American Conference of Governmental
Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), 2013-page 202
49


high wind
o when wind conditions exceed 50 km/hr (30 mph) or more, the Hazard
Assessment shall be reviewed and adjusted to take the wind
conditions into consideration, or the activity shall be suspended until
wind conditions are more favorable
o consider other hazards such as dust and debris, secure any loose
materials
geographic work locations that can be prone to earthquakes, hurricanes
and/or tornados
Refer to existing emergency management plans for guidance in specific severe
weather conditions.
4.26
Work in the Dark
Work after dusk shall not be permitted unless the following conditions are met:




For Contractor work, prior approval shall be obtained from the Enbridge
Representative
there is a minimum of two (2) Workers, or communications exist to outside
areas to request assistance if required
adequate lighting is provided to illuminate the work
regular “night shift” work shall require prior project approval
Night security Workers shall:


4.27
not work alone, unless they have an adequate communication plan in place
to contact other Workers or emergency assistance as needed
maintain communications and check in at least every two hours with a
control room or other Workers familiar with the Worksite and the Emergency
Response Plan for that project and/or operating facility
Extended Hours
The Contractor shall submit an “After Hours Work Plan” to the Site Inspector or Site
Supervisor prior to any extension of regular work hours or the addition of an extra
shift. This plan is intended to be used when Contractors are required to work after
regular hours in the absence of an Enbridge Representative. This plan does remove
the requirement for a Contractor to have a Working Alone Policy.
The Site Inspector shall review and authorize the plan to ensure adequate
coordination of the activities, and to ensure that emergency response and security
issues have been addressed. Operations Management shall approve extended
work hours within an operating Facility.
4.28
Fatigue Management
Regional, Department or Project Management shall implement a fatigue
management plan when Workers are at an increased risk from fatigue-related
effects. The fatigue management plan shall consider:





50
extended length of shift worked (beyond 12 hours)
extended consecutive days worked (beyond 10 consecutive days)
extended travel time to and from the Worksite (total work day, including
travel, exceeds 14 hours)
excessive physical effort required as part of normal work activity
environmental extremes (e.g., heat, cold, noise, vibration, lighting)
LP/MP Safety Manual
Version:1.4
Version Date: 06-01-2015
The fatigue management program should consider the following:






identification of the factors that lead to fatigue
assessment of the risks associated with the factors that contribute to fatigue
identification of control measures to manage exposure to fatigue
implementation of the selected control measures
rehabilitation/return to work
management approval processes
Contractors shall provide advanced notice to the Enbridge Representative of work
that falls under the fatigue management plan.
4.29
Sanitary Facilities
Regional, Department or Project Management shall:


provide adequate sanitary facilities at the Worksite for the size and type of
Workforce to be employed
provide Workers with sufficient drinking fluids and provide access to toilets
and hand washing facilities in accordance with Applicable Legislation
Workers shall:



4.30
use the facilities provided
ensure that all facilities are adequately serviced and properly stocked
ensure facilities are adequately secured
Abrasive Blasting
All Workers engaged in abrasive blasting activities shall be trained and Qualified to
perform their assigned tasks, duties and responsibilities. This includes but is not
limited to the operator, the attendant and the safety watch.
Notification of abrasive blasting work shall be submitted to the appropriate agency
or Authority Having Jurisdiction, in accordance with Applicable Legislation.
Only Enbridge approved abrasive blast media shall be used. Recycled glass-based
media is recommended. Abrasive blast media containing crystalline silica shall not
be used.
The entity performing the work (i.e., Enbridge or the Contractor) shall use
reasonable efforts to collect spent abrasive blast media and is responsible for
collecting, storing, testing, and disposing of spent abrasive blast media in
accordance with the Waste Management Plan. The entity performing the work shall
contact the Enbridge Environment Department for assistance in obtaining the
approved disposal methods, record retention requirements and approvals. The
records shall contain the type and volume of abrasive blast media, laboratory
results and disposal location.
Equipment shall be inspected daily before use, including testing of safety shutdown
and control (deadman) switches. Inspection details shall be documented. Safety
shutdown and control (deadman) switches shall not be disabled for any reason.
Intrinsically safe switches are to be used when applicable, or as determined by the
Hazard Assessment.
51
Hoses shall have whip checks and clips/wires properly installed to prevent
accidental decoupling. Whenever possible, do not place hoses and lines on main
roadways or walkways.
The blast nozzle control (deadman) switch shall be located near the nozzle in a
position where the operator’s hands will be when using the device. When released,
the control switch shall immediately stop the flow of material. The control switch
shall be guarded, to prevent inadvertent activation. Abrasive blasting equipment
used to clean tanks shall have the blasting hose nozzle bonded electrically to the
tank shell or the tank roof.
Workers shall wear additional PPE as required by the Hazard Assessment to
protect against exposure to high velocity abrasive matter, airborne respirable
particulates (potentially contaminated) and noise.
Site Preparation/Work Control












52
post warning signs within 15m (50 ft.) of the work area
where the abrasive blasting will affect other Workers erect barricades or
rope off area to warn workers and prevent access to work area
only Workers equipped with the required PPE shall enter the work area
Workers not directly involved in the abrasive blasting operation shall stay upwind whenever possible
conduct initial and continuous Atmospheric Monitoring in Hazardous and
Restricted areas
equipment and vehicles should be protected from debris projected from the
work area
do not allow abrasive blasting within 3 m (10 ft.) of any tank vent whether or
not the vents are open, unless the tank has been cleaned and declared gas
free by a Qualified Worker; if a tank has not been cleaned and declared gas
free, clean areas within 3 m (10 ft.) of tank vents with hand tools such as
scrapers, wire brushes and similar equipment
when abrasive blasting for extended periods, a Worker rotation plan shall be
implemented to reduce exposure time
ensure the abrasive blast pot is shut off and depressurized before being
filled
do not re-use abrasive blast media
provide a designated area for the removal of PPE separate from the
lunch/office space to eliminate cross contamination; establish and practice
personal hygiene Standards (e.g. wash before you eat)
implement dust control/collection measures:
o line the bottom of the work area with 4 mm (mil) polyethylene
sheeting (contact the Environmental Department for alternatives to
this requirement based on blasting media and project scope)
o erect a shroud (e.g. tarpaulin) in densely populated areas, or if
migrating dusts are problematic and/or as required by applicable
regulations
o consider using a portable air filtration system with High-Efficiency
Particulate Air (HEPA) filter when using a shroud or in a Confined
Space
LP/MP Safety Manual
o
o
Version:1.4
Version Date: 06-01-2015
consider using a negative pressure HEPA filter exhaust system when
blasting within a tank
stop work and collect spent abrasive blast media as required
The operator shall:




4.31
have the nozzle under control before the air is turned on
not reposition from the immediate work area (e.g., lateral or vertical body
movement) while discharging blasting media
have control of the nozzle’s control (deadman) switch
When reasonably practicable, before leaving the worksite at the end of each
day, remove and dispose of coveralls and shower where practical
Fire Watch and Safety Watch
The role of a Fire Watch or Safety Watch is to protect Workers by monitoring for
hazards during a work activity. A Qualified Worker shall be assigned the Fire Watch
or Safety Watch role and instructed on the scope of work. This Worker shall not be
assigned or perform other duties.
If the Fire Watch or Safety Watch leaves the work area the work activity shall stop,
unless there is another Qualified worker who can assume Fire Watch or Safety
Watch duties.
The Fire Watch and Safety Watch shall have the ability to clearly communicate to
the Workers under their care and access emergency response and Site Supervision
as required.
One or more Fire Watches (also known as spark watches) may be required when
Hot Work is being conducted, based on the Hazard Assessment.
If hot work is being conducted in a Hazardous or Restricted Area, then a Fire Watch
is required and shall be maintained for at least one half hour after the work is
completed.
In addition, when hot work is conducted within 15 m (45 ft.) of an area with
flammable or combustible contents, the Fire Watch shall check the area four hours
after the work is completed, and document the results, unless:


all flammable and combustible materials within 15 m. (45 ft.) are removed
from the hot work area, or lined with noncombustible materials
an approved engineering weld procedure is used when conducting hot work
activities on pipelines and tanks containing product
A Safety Watch is required when specified by the Hazard Assessment or Applicable
Legislation. The person(s) planning and supervising the work shall assign a Safety
Watch. The scope of the work and Hazard Assessment will determine the
necessary qualifications for the Safety Watch position.
Examples of work activities where a Safety Watch may be required include:



electrical
open system
emergency response
53


54
drainup
Working Excavations
LP/MP Safety Manual
Version:1.4
Version Date: 06-01-2015
At a minimum, the qualifications to be a Fire Watch or Safety Watch include:


valid certification for mandatory safety training based on the scope of work
the Worker shall be Qualified, knowledgeable and experienced relative to
the scope of work, specifically the safety aspects
Additional qualifications such as a Journeyman Ticket may be required depending
on the scope of work and the Hazard Assessment.
55
4.32
Hydrostatic and Pneumatic Testing
Testing activities shall be carried out in accordance with Enbridge requirements for
Hazard Assessments, Open System work, test planning and site preparation,
contract requirements and Applicable Legislation.
Where necessary, permits shall be obtained by Enbridge or the Contractor as
specified in the contract between Enbridge and the Contractor. Copies of all permits
shall be in the possession of the Contractor site supervisor as well as the Enbridge
Site Inspector.
For Worksite(s) where a section of piping is being tested, an Enbridge Site
Inspector shall be on-site. The Enbridge Site Inspector shall be Qualified and shall
provide on-site coordination of the test plan and shall witness the test.
At the testing location:




The piping being tested shall be fitted with approved enclosures at each
end, i.e., test heads
there shall be a safe means of access and egress for trenches, and properly
installed scaffolding at the test heads
there shall be adequate lighting when night work is necessary, and a fire
extinguisher at both ends of a test section
there shall be adequate heating and lighting facilities for test Workers
located a minimum of 15 m (50 ft.) away from any testing facilities
Other requirements include:





ensure that only the Workers directly involved in the testing are in the
immediate vicinity of test heads, pressure pumps, or exposed piping during
testing
to prevent them from moving or violently separating, ensure temporary
piping or hoses used during pressuring and depressurizing activities
anchored or secured by such method(s) as whip check connections, steel
braid line wrap, or staking to the ground
ensure the use of appropriate hoses, piping, fittings, valves, etc., and that
such equipment has an adequate pressure rating for the service; inspect the
equipment before use, to ensure it is in good condition
persons not directly involved in the testing shall be kept back a minimum of
30 m (100 ft.) from the pipeline, by the use of signs, fencing, and verbal
warnings
provide a safe means to release pressure from both ends of the piping
section; pressure shall be released prior to loosening or removal of fittings
Hydrostatic Testing
Two zones shall be established around any hydro test; a 15 m (50 ft.) exclusion
zone and a 30 m (100 ft.) zone. These requirements shall be followed during all
hydro tests. Unique circumstances may require additional measures to ensure the
safety of Workers and the public.
Whenever possible, expand the 15 m (50 ft.) zone requirements to the 30 m (100
ft.) zone dimensions.
56
LP/MP Safety Manual
Version:1.4
Version Date: 06-01-2015
If leaks are observed (through gauge drop or visual inspection) then the pressure
must be reduced to zero PSI prior to entering the exclusionary zone. No
adjustments of any kind are to be performed on pressurized piping.
Fuel containers, propane tanks, and other fuel storage shall not be permitted within
the 15 m (50 ft.) zone. Testing trailers shall be parked with the entrance facing away
from the test area. The testing trailer door(s) shall remain closed during testing
operations. If it is necessary to test indoors, the 15 m (50 ft.) exclusion zone shall
encompass the entire room in which the test is completed.
15 m (50 ft.) Zone (Exclusion Zone)
 The boundary of this zone shall be marked with red flagging, stating
“Danger- Do Not Enter”. All unnecessary equipment and workers shall stay
out of this zone when the pipe is pressurized above normal operating
pressures.
 Squeeze pumps, water tanks, and temperature recorders may be located in
this zone. Temperature recorders and other equipment shall be checked
prior to pressurization and 15 minutes after the pipe reaches full pressure.
This will help keep the number of Workers in the area to a minimum during
the critical pressurization time.
 Ensure the 15 m (50 ft.) zone applies over the entire length of the pipeline
being tested. Note: Within populated areas, traffic control is required and
shall be identified in the Hazard Assessment and as part of the SWP.
 Workers shall stay in their vehicles if they are within this zone monitoring the
pipeline during the hydro test, with the exception of checking for leaks or
opening or closing valves.
 Hydro test signs shall be placed on public access points and located at a
point 15 m (50 ft.) from the pipeline.
30 m (100 ft.) Zone
 this zone will not be marked; the public and other Workers shall stay at least
33 m (100 ft.) away from the pipe
 this zone applies over the entire length of the pipeline section being tested
 the public shall be kept out, except when crossing the pipeline in vehicles
 Landowners along the right-of-way shall be notified in advance of the hydrotest and those living within the 30 m (100 ft.) zone shall be evacuated
 in the event piping and equipment is present in the test area or within 33 m
(100 ft.), of the pressurized components, the area shall be flagged and
remain off limits to all Workers during the test
 when testing trailers or vehicles are parked, extra precautions shall be taken
(e.g., stage behind large equipment)
Pneumatic Testing
 adhere to Engineering’s specifications for pneumatic testing
 both ends of the test section shall have a flange, test head, or trap welded to
the pipe
 distinct warning signs shall be posted during air pressure testing, such as
“DANGER, AIR PRESSURE TESTING IN PROGRESS”
4.33
Pigging
57
Pigging activities shall be carried out in accordance with, but not limited to the
Hazard Assessment, Open System work and pipeline purging procedures, as well
Applicable Legislation.
Where required, permits shall be obtained. Copies of all permits shall be in the
possession of the Contractor site supervisor as well as the Enbridge Site Inspector.
For pigging, the following requirements apply:










4.34
pipeline sections shall be fitted with approved enclosures at each end, e.g.,
sending and receiving traps
only those Workers directly involved in pigging shall be allowed in the
immediate vicinity of sending and receiving traps, pressure pumps, or
exposed piping during pigging
there shall be adequate heated and lighted facilities for pigging Workers,
located a minimum of 15 m (50 ft.) away from any pigging facilities
with the exception of vacuum truck hoses, temporary piping or hoses used
during pressuring and depressurizing activities shall be anchored or secured
by such method(s) as whip check connections, steel braid line wrap, or
staking to the ground (such measures are to prevent piping or hoses from
moving or violently separating)
hoses, piping, fittings, valves, etc. shall have an adequate pressure rating for
use during pigging
ensure the area directly in front of the pig trap is flagged, to prevent persons
from inadvertently walking or working within 15 m (50 ft.) of any pigging
facilities
ensure a safe means to release pressure from both ends of the section;
pressure shall be released prior to loosening or removal of fittings
Atmospheric Testing and Monitoring shall be performed to determine if SAR
or SCBA are required and the level of protection needed
full-mask respirators with the appropriate cartridges shall be worn be
Workers prior to opening any valves for pigging
if vacuum trucks are used, then their out-take hose shall be equipped with a
stake and attached ribbon to indicate wind direction, plus a H2S warning sign
Warehouse, Lay-Down and Storage Areas
Warehouse, lay-down and storage areas shall be designated as work areas where
PPE is required. This includes hardhats, eye protection and safety footwear.
Additional PPE, such as hearing protection, may be required based on the Hazard
Assessment.
All dangerous goods being transported shall meet regulatory requirements for TDG
documentation and labelling.
All persons (e.g., shippers/drivers) handling dangerous goods for transportation
shall hold valid TDG certification and carry proof of certification at all times while
performing work.
Ensure all materials are stored in designated areas, and ensure layout and access
is convenient for unloading and loading trucks and that there is sufficient clearance
for safe movement of all necessary vehicles.
Storage requirements include:
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metal containers with lids shall be kept at convenient locations, to facilitate
effective waste disposal
overhead clearance shall be posted wherever necessary
overhead power lines shall be clearly identified
lumber shall be stored free of protruding nails and other associated hazards
except for large tanks, material shall not be stored on the ground; for all
other materials, store them on racks, skids, planks, or other safe and
appropriate material
stored material shall be stacked securely, to ensure prevention of tipping,
sliding, collapse or other hazards
pipe shall be adequately blocked/chocked when stored
shelving shall:
o be marked with weight limits
o be secured
o have determined inspection timeline requirements
all secured loads shall be assessed prior to the release of the securing
mechanism
carefully assess the load to ensure the load has not shifted during transport
Rail Locations
Workers shall:
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never get on, under, or between moving or unsecured railway equipment
not leave or place tools, vehicles or equipment on rail tracks
look both ways before crossing a track; listen and look for trains or other
railway equipment coming from either direction, at any time
never stop a vehicle on or near tracks at a railway crossing or other
locations along the tracks always adhere to Blue Flag signals and
requirements
ensure effective engine, stock and rail locking devices are used when
required
If the operator of a locomotive is unable to safely and effectively operate a railroad’s
locomotive while operating near or on an Enbridge Facility, they shall cease
operations. In such cases, the Enbridge Site Supervisor for the Enbridge Facility
shall contact the rail line owner.
Enbridge Facilities that include rail lines on site, or nearby, shall ensure that safety
measures and Hazard Assessments address the presence of rail lines and how the
rail lines may affect the scope of work and range of possible hazards at that Facility.
4.36
High-Pressure Water Jetting
All water based cleaning operations conducted at pressures 5,000 psi or more or
which develop more than 22 ft. lbs. of force shall be considered High Pressure
Water Jetting (HPWJ). Simple pressure washing shall be defined as water-based
cleaning operating at less than <5,000 psi and producing no more than 22 ft. lbs. of
force.
When working with HPWJ, the following should be taken into consideration:
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advise Workers of any chemical hazards related to their activities
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plan work activities to avoid multiple types of maintenance activities in one
area at a time; consider the likely or known sequence and steps of high
pressure washing activities, and plan the work accordingly
when cleaning piping systems, provide open access at least every 30 m
(100 ft.), and remove flanged elbows or spool sections of pipe
where possible, remove vessel components and clean them at a designated
wash pad location, away from other personnel
equipment specifications shall be available for review; Workers shall review
the equipment specifications before set-up and use
The system shall be depressurized when:
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not in use
unauthorized or inadequately protected Workers enter the work area
replacement or repairs are made to the equipment, including tightening or
loosening fittings
recommended practices are violated
A HPWJ crew shall be composed of at least two Qualified operators and each crew
member shall be in view of another crewmember at all times. The crew members
should rotate their duties during the job to minimize fatigue to the operator holding
the tools.
The equipment operator nearest the high-pressure nozzle shall always have a
means of immediately reducing pressure or interrupting the flow to the nozzle.
At least one control valve or switch shall control each high-pressure tool.
An operator shall operate only one high-pressure lance, mole or shotgun at one
time.
Sharp bends and turns can result in hose failure. High-pressure cleaning hose shall
be positioned and handled to minimize bends and turns. High-pressure hose
connections shall have whip checks and connections properly secured. When the
hose is pressurized, personnel shall not handle the hose within one foot of the
hose-to-hose connections.
High pressure water traveling at a high velocity can slice any solid material and has
the tendency to inject microorganism in the human body. Some of the debris
propelled by water-jets can injure eyes, skin, and body parts upon impact. There is
also a risk of developing musculoskeletal or repetitive strain injuries when working
with HPWJ equipment and tools.
Precautions to be used when performing HPWJ tasks include, but are not limited to:
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never point a pressure washer at yourself or others
never attempt to push or move objects with spray from the washer
always plug a properly grounded pressure washer into a properly grounded
receptacle
wear rubber-soled protective footwear that provide some insulation when
using the pressure washer
equipment in close proximity to the area where water blasting is being
performed shall be adequately shielded or protected from debris and the
water jet or spray
use signage and flagging when required
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5.0 Hazard Assessment, Elimination and Control
Standard
5.1
Hazard Assessment
Regional, Department, Project and Contractor Management is responsible for
ensuring:
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Workers are trained to assess potential and existing hazards specific to their
work activities including hazard identification, assessment and control
Hazard Assessments of work activities and Worksites are completed as
required
where reasonably practical, everyone involved in a work activity participates
in the respective Hazard Assessment for that work
Hazard Assessments are communicated to all Workers involved in the work
activity in every case and common safety hazards inherent to the Facility are
assessed and controlled
the effectiveness of the Hazard Assessment program and Hazard
Assessment training for Workers is sufficient
opportunities for improvement are identified and implemented, as part of
continuous improvement of the Hazard Assessment process
Hazard Assessments are documented and retained
People Leaders are responsible for:
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
verifying that the Hazard Assessment process is used in the workplace and
is in compliance with this Standard
ensuring appropriate use of the Hazard Assessment tools
ensuring, through periodic review, that all workers are adequately trained in
the Hazard Assessment process and tools given the scope of the work
assessing work-in-progress to ensure that the tools are adequate to identify
the hazards, and the controls implemented have reduced the risk associated
with the work to As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) levels
identifying opportunities for improvement of the process and communicating
them to Management
Workers are responsible for:
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understanding the Hazard Assessment process and specific responsibilities
as they apply to each worker
actively participating in the Hazard Assessment process and ensuring that
an appropriate level of assessment is completed before the start of all work
ensuring that all workers involved in the work participate in the Hazard
Assessment process
communicating the results to all workers in the area who are affected by the
work
Hazard Assessments shall be documented for all work activities other than office
related work (e.g. computer use, training, meetings), travel between work locations
and light housekeeping. These exceptions do not take away a worker’s
responsibility to assess hazards. Workers shall continue to practice cognitive
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Hazard Assessment techniques (e.g. stop, look, assess, and manage). The
appropriate Vice President shall approve any exemptions or variances.
Hazard Assessments shall include all workers involved with the work. The results of
the assessment shall be communicated to all other workers who may be affected by
the work. A toolbox meeting prior to the start of work will communicate the findings
of the Hazard Assessment and ensure all workers involved in the work are
adequately informed of the hazards, and they understand the controls developed to
minimize the potential for harm.
Tools for Identifying, Assessing and Controlling Hazards
Enbridge utilizes distinct tools to identify, assess and control hazards associated
with the design, construction, operation and maintenance of the pipeline system as
follows:
Process Hazard Analysis
A Process Hazard Analysis (PHA) is a type of risk assessment with the following
main goals:
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
Identification of risks associated with a facility design, operation, system or
installation
Evaluation and minimization of the level of risks through mitigation and
controls
Understanding of the residual risk level of facility design, operation, system
or installation with the goal of managing it effectively (training and/or
procedure development)
Various industry-recognized PHA Review methodologies may be used in
determining the risk associated with a given system or operation according to the
scope and objectives of the study. The methodologies acceptable to Enbridge for
conducting a PHA Review include What-If’s, Hazard and Operability Studies
(HAZOPS) and Layers of Protection Analysis (LOPAs).
Facility Hazard Assessments
All facilities and stations owned and/or operated by Enbridge are assessed for
hazards inherent to the facility and its operations under normal operating conditions.
The assessment includes taking into account:
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the nature of the hazard,
the level of exposure to the hazard,
the consequences of exposure, and
the controls in place to address the hazard
This shall be documented on the Facility Hazard Assessment. Post the hazard list
at the facility in conjunction with the Site Safety Plot Plans.
This list is reviewed by the operating group at each facility every 2 years or as
required based on facility /process changes, upgrades or additions and are updated
as necessary to ensure they remain current.
Use the Facility Hazard Assessment to assist with orientations and training,
completing Hazard Assessments, or communicating site hazards.
Work-Planning Templates
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Enbridge uses work planning templates to identify and plan complex multi-faceted
projects and other non-routine work where exposure to open systems, high voltage
electrical work or other high potential hazards exist. Safe Work Permits and FLHAs
are still required with the use of Work-Planning Templates.
These templates require pre-planning of work to ensure itemization of specific work
steps, identification of the hazards associated with each work step and placement of
controls to either eliminate or control hazards to ALARA. The tools are effective at
identifying engineering and administrative controls, which can be developed as a
part of the planning phase thereby reducing the reliance on personal protective
equipment (PPE) as the primary means of control at a worksite.
Task Safety Analysis
A Task Safety Analysis (TSA) is a systematic review of a task. Critical tasks are
Liquids Pipelines Operations tasks that have been identified as critical through the
task evaluation process. The results are tabulated in a “Task Evaluation List”.
Task Safety Analyses shall be completed, documented, and reviewed for critical
tasks.
Procedures may be developed from the results of the Task Safety Analysis.
Completed task safety analyses or the developed procedures shall be
communicated to all Workers who are, or will be, performing the associated task.
Workers shall review TSAs or the associated procedures for the tasks they perform
as conditions change.
Any errors or missing information in a TSA or procedure shall be communicated to
the Workers People Leader for review and update as required.
Field Level Hazard Assessment
The Field Level Hazard Assessment (FLHA) is a card completed by Workers just
prior to the start of work to identify and control the field-based hazards of the work
being performed, and site or environmental conditions that may adversely affect the
work (e.g. icy conditions, simultaneous operations, pedestrians).
This form is required for all work activities except for the following:
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office related work (e.g. attending meetings, working at a desk, phone
conferences)
travel between locations (e.g. travel to Worksites, walking or driving between
buildings)
light housekeeping
When an FLHA is required, it shall be completed prior to work commencing. The
existing FLHA may be reviewed and updated as work changes throughout the shift
providing the scope of work does not change.
All work that requires a SWP requires an FLHA for the scope of work covered by
the SWP. If scope of work changes to any permit required work, a new FLHA shall
be completed.
An FLHA may cover individual or group work provided the group is performing the
same task. All Workers performing the work shall participate in the FLHA
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completion. Any additional Workers joining the work activity shall review, attempt to
identify additional hazards and controls, and sign off on the active FLHA.
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Pre-Job Meetings/Tailgates
The following types of work shall have a specific pre-job meeting with Workers
involved in the task to discuss the specific hazards associated with the job:
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High Voltage Electrical work
Serious and Critical lifts
Confined Space Entry
Ground Disturbance
Work around overhead power lines
Open systems work
Pigging
Tie-ins
Specific one-off jobs that are hazardous
On a daily basis the Contractor will conduct a “tailgate” safety meeting to review the
daily work permit and health and safety issues associated with the day’s work, or in
some cases, prior to a specific high-risk task.
On a weekly basis, or one per work rotation, the Contractor will conduct a formal
safety meeting to review all health and safety issues and forward a copy of the
written minutes to the Enbridge Site Inspector for review.
5.3
Hazardous and Restricted Areas
A Safe Work Permit and Atmospheric Monitoring is required prior to Contractors
entering Hazardous Area or Restricted Areas.
A Hazardous Area is where there is significant potential for a flammable or toxic
atmosphere to be present or develop.
Workers shall observe Safe Work Permit requirements for work in hazardous areas
and near hazardous areas, including:
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investigating facilities for known or suspected anomalies
repairing facilities with leaks, defects or corrosion pits/clusters where the
calculated rupture pressure ratio is less than one
welding directly on mainline or station piping
welding on a pressurized split tee with longitudinal fillet-welded check
straps/backing straps
welding on a pressurized Morrison sleeve
For information regarding Hazardous Areas in relation to specified facilities at
typical stations and mainline locations, see Figures 1–10.
A Restricted Area is where there is limited potential for a flammable or toxic
atmosphere to develop. Workers shall observe Safe Work Permit requirements for
work in restricted areas.
For information regarding the proximity of Restricted Areas in relation to specified
facilities at typical stations and mainline locations, see Figures 1–10.
Hazardous Areas and Restricted Areas should be reflected on site safety plot plans
(posted at all station sites).
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Do not use site safety plot plans for use in determining electrical equipment
installation requirements. Use the area classification requirements in the
Engineering Design Standards for this purpose.
When changes to facilities affect site safety plot plans, the site supervisor shall:
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note and describe the additions and/or deletions in a memo and on the
existing site safety plot plan
forward the information to the regional office to be reviewed and sent to
Engineering Services; Engineering Services then issues a revised site safety
plot plan
NOTES: A wall that contains a door, window, air vent, etc., or has a pipe, conduit or cable passing
through it is defined as a pierced wall. In practice, this means the distance R3 will usually surround a
building.
Figure 1- Mainline Pump/Booster Pump Shelters/Rooms
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Figure 2- Sump Tank and Vents
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Figure 3- Tank Truck Facilities
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Figure 4- Metering Shelters/Rooms and Areas,
Manifold Areas, Booster Pumps and Tankage Areas
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NOTES- A wall that contains a door, window, air vent, etc., or has a pipe, conduit or cable passing
through it is defined as a pierced wall. In practice, this means the distance R3 will usually
surround a building.
Figure 5- Densitometer, Sampler and Instrument Shelters
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Figure 6- Below-Grade Access Culverts
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Figure 7- Typical Stations and Mainline Area Classification
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Figure 8- Outdoor Pumps
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Figure 9- Provers and Scraper Traps
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Figure 10- Valves and Instrumentation
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5.4
Open System
Open Systems include, but are not limited to, the following operations:
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Removing booster pumps, mainline pumps, pump crowns or pump elbows
Removing meters or meter bonnets
Removing strainers or strainer bonnets
Removing valves or valve bonnets
Removing storage tank seals, tank manways or tank mixers
Opening scraper trap or prover doors
Cutting pipe sections or separating flanges on piping larger than 2 in.
diameter
Opening/closing fittings used for venting during isolation and filling of pipe
sections, pumps, scraper traps, provers, etc.
Opening vacuum truck clean-outs
Tank gauging
Workers in the immediate vicinity of open systems shall:
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Wear full face air purifying respirators with combination acid gas/organic
vapor cartridges with a P100 filter or combination filter until H2S, LEL,
benzene and mercaptans (if applicable) levels can be verified through initial
air testing
When an alarm of a portable gas monitor is activated, stop their work, shut
down any operating equipment adjacent to the area if it is safe to do so, and
then leave the area immediately by proceeding upwind and re-evaluate the
health and safety risks before returning to the work area
If a hazard assessment verifies that no atmospheric hazards exist then a lesser
degree of RPE may be used when first opening the system. Hazard assessment
verification may be provided by, but not limited to, the following:
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Engineering control mechanism
Testing of a system by acceptable industry practices
Industrial hygiene data
Open system work shall use a Job Planning Template when required.
5.5
Site Planning
A Site Traffic Plan shall:
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be implemented when working around highways and public busy roadways
incorporate parking areas away from work activities
incorporate traffic flow
have Flagging and signage requirements that meet Applicable Legislation
Permanent facilities shall utilize the Facility Hazard Assessment to establish traffic
planning requirements.
Winter Site Planning shall:
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incorporate safe winter access as a primary consideration; consider need to
remove snow/maintain route, gradient risks (pitch and roll grades),
type/number vehicles accessing site
ensure all vehicle access is appropriately evaluated
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identifiable vehicle access through flagging and signage maintained to an
appropriately safe condition
ensure vehicle access is sanded as appropriate
consider vehicle access to the Worksite and avoid having locations where
equipment/vehicles could slip or lose control due to winter conditions and
potentially converge with work space or walkways; where this concern exists
the Contractor shall ensure mitigating measures are taken such as use of
spoils/berm for a physical barrier, clearing Workers to a safe location when
equipment is coming into location, or implementing other such safety
measures as required
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6.0 Safe Work Permit and Work Authorization
Standard
Safe Work Permits (SWP) and Work Authorizations (WA) should not be regarded as
a statement that all hazards and risks have been eliminated from the work area.
The issuing of such a document does not, by itself, make a job safe. That can be
achieved only by those preparing for the work and those carrying it out.
6.1
Responsibilities for Issuing Safe Work Permits and Work
Authorization
Regional and Project Management is responsible for ensuring:
 Safe Work Permit (SWP) and Work Authorization (WA) issuers are Qualified
to issue Safe Work Permits and Work Authorizations
 Safe Work Permit training is made available and completed by Workers who
will be issuing Work Authorizations or Safe Work Permits
 Work Authorization and SWP audit process is implemented in the workplace
 opportunities for improvement are identified and implemented for continuous
development of the Work Authorization and Safe Work Permit process
 Work Authorizations and Safe Work Permits are documented and retained
as required
 spot checks are completed and documented on the “SWP/Hazard
Assessment Review Checklist” for each of the following (as available):
o a minimum of one Work Authorization Form; and
o a minimum of one Safe Work Permit
People Leaders are responsible for:
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

verifying, through audit or direct observation, that the Work Authorization
and SWP process is used in the workplace and is in compliance with this
Standard
ensuring appropriate use of Work Authorization and Safe Work Permit
ensuring, through periodic review, that SWP issuers are adequately trained
in the Work Authorization and SWP process and tools given the scope of the
work
identifying opportunities for improvement of the process and communicating
them to Management
The Work Authorization Issuer is responsible for:
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successfully completing the SWP training
specifying the work to be carried out and the location of the work in
cooperation with the Enbridge Inspector
communicating any operational or Atmospheric Monitoring requirements as
well as any site specific hazards to the Enbridge Inspector
determining if the work being performed may impact operations
verifying the Enbridge Inspector understands the conditions of the Work
Authorization
suspending and revalidating Work Authorization as required
establishing the frequency of contact with the Enbridge Inspector
authorizing the Enbridge Inspector to issue Safe Work Permits for the work
indicated on the work authorization
communicating to the respective region active Work Authorizations
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The SWP Issuer shall be familiar with the worksite and the site specific hazards
covered by the SWP being issued. The Permit Issuer is responsible for:
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completing SWP training
specifying the work to be carried out and the location of the work in
cooperation with the SWP receiver
identifying and discussing site specific hazards with the SWP receiver
determining if the work being performed may impact operations
ensuring permit is correctly completed
conducting or having a Enbridge Representative perform initial Atmospheric
Monitoring (when required) and documenting the results on the SWP
verifying the SWP receiver understands the conditions of the SWP
suspending and revalidating work as required
conducting periodic general inspections of the job site to confirm adherence
to SWP
inform SWP receiver of changes that could impact their work (including if the
SWP issuer is transferring their responsibility to another Issuer)
A Worksite visit with the SWP Receiver to identify hazards of the work location may
be required based on job scope.
The SWP Receiver shall be familiar with the SWP process, the work area,
equipment, and understand the work to be carried out. The SWP receiver is
responsible for:
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reviewing and agreeing to the conditions of the SWP
communicating the SWP requirements to all Workers involved in the work
ensuring the SWP requirements are fulfilled by all workers during the work
keeping a copy of the SWP readily available at the work location
suspending work as required
having suspended work revalidated by SWP issuer before recommencing
work
ensuring FLHAs are completed and reviewed for the work and that workers
involved in the work participated in the FLHA
informing SWP issuer of a transfer of responsibility to determine if a new
SWP is required
returning the equipment, process or area to a safe condition before returning
the safe work permit and field level Hazard Assessments back to the SWP
issuer
ensuring SWP permits are completed and signed-off when returned to the
SWP issuer
The Enbridge Inspectors responsibilities include those expected of the SWP issuer
as well as being responsible for:
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
reviewing scope of work and location of work with Work Authorization Issuer
identifying to the Work Authorization Issuer the other Enbridge Inspectors
who will be issuing SWPs on a job
ensuring other Enbridge Inspectors authorized to issue SWPs on a job are
aware of and agree to the Work Authorization details
ensuring the Work Authorization agreement is adhered to for the duration of
the job
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issuing SWPs to the working group(s)
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Safe Work Permit Requirements
Work requiring SWP
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work where the shutdown and/or isolation of equipment and/or processes
are required to complete the work
work on electrical equipment and circuits with voltages >750V (CAN) or
600V (USA)
work upstream of the 480V main breaker
Hot Work in hazardous or restricted areas with the following exceptions
o driving vehicles through restricted areas
o breaking low voltage connections in restricted areas
o work that involves using low voltage equipment such as voltmeters,
laser alignment and hand-held vibration meters, analyzers or cellular
telephones (continually monitor the work area for combustible vapors
in this case)
work on or around an open system with the following exceptions
o flushing units
o gauging
o sampling
o opening depressurized lines less than or equal to 2 inches in
diameter
looking for and work on pipeline anomalies
work on leaks or leak sites
welding on mainline or station piping
work involving Contractors with the following exemptions:
o Driving vehicles through non-hazardous or non-restricted areas
o Delivery/service personnel (e.g. delivery and supply vendors,
equipment service personnel, telephone, computer, etc.)
o Long Term Operations Contractor Personnel
Contractor exemptions shall be approved by the person responsible for the location,
and work shall be monitored by an Enbridge Operations employee or designate.
A SWP is not required for work taking place solely in a Confined Space however, if
the Confined Space work is part of a broader scope of work (e.g. tank cleaning
operation), the Confined Space work shall be covered on a SWP. Confined Space
permit requirements as set out in section 8.3 of this manual shall also be met for all
Confined Space work.
Exemptions for Long Term Operations Contractor Personnel
Long term Operations Contractor Personnel may be given an exemption for a Safe
Work Permit for up to one year if all the following requirements are met:
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

approved by the Operations employee responsible for the Contractor and
Operations management or the person responsible for the work location(s)
they have been used on a frequent basis or have worked extended periods
of time with Enbridge
clearly demonstrate their knowledge and understanding of safe work
practices and technical procedures applicable to their line of work
given a thorough safety orientation
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they participate in Enbridge safety meetings as determined by the person
responsible for the site
they maintain daily communication with Enbridge Operations Representative
or designate
they are monitored by the Enbridge Operations Representative or designate
responsible for the location and work
The Enbridge Operations Representative responsible for a Contractor shall
document an exemption and provide copies to the Contractor, Operations
management, and employee(s) responsible for the location(s).
Documentation shall include:
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

a brief description of the services being provided (e.g., welding, electrical,
mechanical labor, inspection services, cathodic protection system
maintenance)
justification for the exemption
names of Contractor and Subcontractor Personnel
special requirements;
locations for which the exemption applies (e.g., station, ROW milepost
boundaries);
period of time for which the exemption applies; and
names of Enbridge employees who approved the exemption
Long term Operations Contractor Personnel provided an exemption shall comply
with the requirements for a SWP.
General Requirements
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






Enbridge Inspectors issuing SWPs shall receive a valid Work Authorization
prior to issuing any SWPs
Only the work stipulated on the SWP in the identified location is to be
performed
All workers shall be made aware of and adhere to the conditions of the SWP
The working group shall complete a FLHA prior to commencing work
SWP issuers cannot issue permits to themselves
SWP may be issued verbally, electronically, or in person
When required, initial Atmospheric Monitoring shall be conducted and
documented on the SWP before work can begin
Subsequent Atmospheric Monitoring is completed as indicated on the SWP
Initial Atmospheric Monitoring is an Enbridge responsibility and shall be completed
or witnessed by an Operations Representative, Enbridge Inspector or another
Enbridge representative. This initial testing shall be documented on the SWP.
Subsequent Atmospheric Monitoring can be performed by the person responsible
for the work and may be verified by Enbridge.
Duration


82
A SWP is only valid for the time stated on the permit to a maximum of 12
hours (exception mobile crews without Enbridge Inspector).
A SWP may be extended an additional 12 hours provided that:
o The Workers do not exceed the maximum allowable hours worked
o A review of the SWP indicates it is still valid
o All Workers understand the requirements of the SWP and meet
FLHA requirements
LP/MP Safety Manual
o
o
Version:1.4
Version Date: 06-01-2015
An extension is identified and authorized on the SWP as required
Transfer of responsibility is completed as required (note: a SWP can
only be transferred once)
Mobile Crews without Enbridge Inspector
o
o
o
o
Mobile Crews are Contractor crews required to perform a specific job
function over a specified span of ROW or at multiple Facilities without
direct oversight by an Enbridge Representative (e.g. pig trackers,
cathodic protection, surveyors, vegetation control)
Mobile crews may be issued a SWP at the originating location of the
work for the duration of the job provided that:
a frequency of contact is established and implemented (this
frequency of contact is the minimum requirement of how often the
SWP receiver shall contact the Issuer of the SWP. The SWP
receiver documents this communication under the “Frequency of
Contact with Issuer or Designate” section on the SWP; additional
documentation may be attached to the SWP should space not be
available)
a new FLHA is completed at the beginning of each day or shift and
updated as required
Transfer of Responsibility
Any changes to the responsible parties during the course of the work shall be
documented on the SWP as a transfer of responsibility. The SWP issuer, receiver
and all workers affected shall be made aware of any transfers of responsibilities.
The SWP issuer reserves the right to suspend the current SWP and require a new
SWP to be issued.
Document Copies

White/top copy: SWP receiver keeps or posts this copy at the work location
while the permit is valid SWP receiver returns this copy, FLHA and other
pertinent documentation to the SWP issuer when the SWP time period has
expired
If an incident occurs during the course of work, the white copy of the SWP along
with all other documentation shall be forwarded to the person responsible for
conducting the incident investigation and will be retained as identified in the
requirements for incident investigation documentation

Yellow copy: SWP issuer posts this copy at the worksite or similar site
locality to identify work activities occurring at the site. Discard after the white
copy is returned or give to the SWP receiver if requested.
In compliance with Enbridge’s Records Management Policy and Records Retention
Schedule, Enbridge Employees must retain all Safe Work Permits and any related
documents or records. Contractors shall have a records retention policy to ensure
that all documents or records used, prepared or produced by the Contractor in the
performance of the work are maintained by the Contractor for durations of time that
are not less than the limitation periods prescribed in the applicable statutes of
limitations or limitation of actions legislation in force in the jurisdictions the
Contractor operates.
83
84
LP/MP Safety Manual
6.3
Version:1.4
Version Date: 06-01-2015
Work Authorization Requirements
General Requirements



Required for all Enbridge Inspectors issuing SWPs
Receiving a Work Authorization authorizes an Enbridge Inspector to issue
Safe Work Permit(s) to the working group(s) for the scope of in the location
identified on the Work Authorization
If the job has multiple Enbridge Inspectors the names of the Enbridge
Inspectors authorized to issue SWPs shall be written on the Work
Authorization Form
The requirement for a Work Authorization is a regional determination by Operations
Management for new construction on Greenfield Worksites.
Duration
Work Authorizations may be issued to cover multiple shifts or days if the job
conditions and scope of work remain the same.
In this case, the general practice is:
1. A single Work Authorization Form is issued to the Enbridge Inspector for the
duration of the job.
The Work Authorization issuer and receiver shall agree upon a reasonable
frequency of contact. This frequency of contact is the minimum requirement of how
often the receiver of the Work Authorization shall contact the issuer of the Work
Authorization. The receiver of the Work Authorization documents this
communication under the “Frequency of Contact with Issuer or Designate” section
on the SWP. Additional documentation may be attached to the form should space
not be available.
2. The Enbridge Inspector issues a Safe Work Permit per shift or day per the
requirements.
Document Copies


6.4
White/top copy: Enbridge Inspector keeps or posts this copy at the work
location while the work authorization is valid. Inspector returns this copy to
the issuer when the Work Authorization is no longer valid.
If an incident occurs during the course of work, the white copy of the Work
Authorization along with all other pertinent documentation shall be forwarded
to the person responsible for the investigation and will be retained as
identified in the requirements for incident investigation documentation.
Yellow copy: Work Authorization issuer posts this copy at the worksite or
similar site locality to identify work activities occurring at the site. Discard
after the white copy is returned or give it to the Inspector if requested.
Suspension of Work Authorization and Safe Work Permits
The Work Authorization and/or Safe Work Permit become suspended and work
shall stop under any of the following conditions:


site emergencies
scope of work changes
85

requested to stop work
The time of suspension shall be documented on the Work Authorization or SWP, as
the case may be, by the receiver. Suspended permits shall be revalidated, at a
minimum, verbally by the issuer and documented on the Work Authorization or
SWP before work can resume.
Suspensions due to scope of work changes cannot be revalidated. A new Work
Authorization and/or SWP is required.
86
LP/MP Safety Manual
7.0
7.1
Version:1.4
Version Date: 06-01-2015
Personal Protective Equipment Standard
Personal Protective Equipment
Enbridge employees are provided, at no cost, all required basic PPE.
Enbridge management (including Regional, Departmental & Project) and Contractor
management are responsible for:





training employees on the proper use, care, maintenance and limitations of
PPE
determining when PPE is required, based on Hazard Assessments
ensuring that each type of PPE used by an employees is fitted properly
retraining employees when workplace changes and/or revised PPE make
previous training obsolete
ensuring Workers use only approved PPE
All Workers are responsible for using approved PPE and for maintaining PPE in
accordance with manufacturers’ specifications. Materials or supplies used for
cleaning PPE shall be provided at no cost to Workers.
The minimum PPE for all Enbridge Worksites in the field shall be:






safety glasses (prescription or not), with fitted side-shields and protective
lenses
safety boots with minimum 6-inch ankle support, i.e., minimum 15 cm (6 in.)
to the top of the boot from the heel
full-length pants and long sleeved shirts
approved hard hat
gloves that provide sufficient protection for the work being performed
additional PPE or protective apparel may be required, depending on the
specific site requirements, hazards or activities
At the discretion of the Site Supervisor, short sleeve t-shirts may be worn for job
tasks that have been determined by the Hazard Assessment to be low risk.
On Mainline Construction Worksites, Workers shall wear shirts with sleeves at least
15 cm (6 in.) long, unless the Hazard Assessment identifies that long-sleeved shirts
are required.
There may be times where it is necessary to remove PPE to mitigate a hazard (e.g.,
Rotating equipment, congested spaces etc.). In these cases PPE may be removed
as long as it is noted on the hazard assessment and any additional hazards created
by the removal of the PPE are identified and controlled.
The following table provides guidance for PPE selection for certain work activities.
When using the table, also review work practices, procedures, product SDS. In
addition, conduct a Hazard Assessment to ensure all potential and existing hazards
are identified and determine if additional PPE or higher levels of PPE are required.
Workers conducting a work activity which requires Atmospheric Monitoring shall use
the monitoring results to verify adequacy and appropriateness of Respiratory
Protective Equipment (RPE) to be used for the work.
87
Table 1 – PPE Selection Guidelines for Work Activities
PPE
(In addition to the minimum PPE required for all Enbridge Locations)
Work Activity
Eye, Face &
Hearing
Spill Response
Chemical
splash goggles
and/or full-face
shield may be
required when
handling
product or
contaminated
material.
Hand
Chemically
impervious
gloves if
handling
product.
Body
FR Garments
Chemically
impervious suit,
preferably made
from approved FR
material as
identified by SDS
or by
assessments of
potential and
existing hazards
Chemically
impervious boots.
Respiratory Protective Equipment
(These are the minimum requirements; a higher
level of RPE may be required based on
Atmospheric Monitoring)
First Responder: half-mask APR with Organic
Vapor/Acid Gas cartridge.
For ongoing work refer to 7.9 Respiratory Protective
Equipment, Table 1- Respiratory Protection for
Exposure Concentrations and Site Safety Plot Plan.
Confined
Space Entry
As per assessment of all potential and existing
hazards.
See Confined Space Entry Standard.
Tank Cleaning
Chemical
splash goggles
and/or full-face
shield may be
required when
handling
product.
See Confined Space Entry Standard.
Nitrogen Purge
Handling PCBs
88
Chemical
splash goggles
and/or full-face
shield when
exposed to
liquid spray.
Hearing
protection.
Chemical
splash goggles
or full-face
shield.
Chemically
impervious
gloves if
handling
product.
Chemically
impervious
insulated
gloves.
Chemically
impervious
gloves for
longer than
1 hour of
use or
change
nitrile
gloves
every 1
hour of
use.
FR Garments
Chemically
impervious suit,
preferably made
from approved FR
material as
identified by SDS
or by
assessments of
potential and
existing hazards
Chemically
impervious boots.
FR Garments
Neoprene or
nitrile apron.
FR Garments
Neoprene or
nitrile apron,
disposable
coveralls.
Chemically
impervious boots.
SCBA or SAR (with escape bottle) is required for an
oxygen deficient atmosphere and/or if work is in a
Confined Space or a poorly ventilated area.
If the oxygen concentration is within acceptable
levels, follow RPE requirements for Open System
work.
None for normal use.
Higher level of RPE may be required based on
Atmospheric Monitoring; or if there is potential for
the release of PCBs in a vapor or mist form.
LP/MP Safety Manual
Version:1.4
Version Date: 06-01-2015
PPE
(In addition to the minimum PPE required for all Enbridge Locations)
Work Activity
Eye, Face &
Hearing
Handling
Toluene or
other Solvents
Chemical
splash goggles.
Full-face shield
and when
handling large
quantities,
exposed to
liquid spray or
transferring
liquids.
Handling Acids
or Caustics
(including acid
batteries)
Chemical
splash goggles.
Full-face shield
when handling
large quantities,
exposed to
liquid spray or
transferring
liquids
Chemical
splash goggles.
Full-face shield
when exposed
to liquid spray
or transferring
liquids.
Handling
Natural Gas
Liquids
Entering Line
Heater
(crystalline
silica,
refractory
ceramic fibers)
Operating
Chainsaws or
Metal Blade
Weed
Trimmers
Hand Removal
of Asbestos
Containing
Hearing
protection as
per Hazard
Assessment.
As per
assessment of
all potential and
existing
hazards.
Full-face shield
or impactresistant
goggles (mesh
face shields are
recommended
when operating
chainsaws).
Hearing
protection.
Full-face shield
and/or
impact/chemical
Hand
Body
Respiratory Protective Equipment
(These are the minimum requirements; a higher
level of RPE may be required based on
Atmospheric Monitoring)
Chemically
impervious
gloves for
longer than
1 hour of
use or
change
nitrile
gloves
every 1
hour of
use.
Chemically
impervious
gloves.
FR Garments
Neoprene or
nitrile apron.
Review SDS for RPE requirements. Handle in a
fume hood when possible.
Neoprene or
nitrile apron as
required by SDS.
Handle in a fume hood when possible. If not
possible wear a half-mask APR with Organic
Vapor/Acid Gas cartridge with P100 filter.
Chemically
impervious
insulated
gloves.
FR Garments
Neoprene or
nitrile apron.
Level of RPE required based on Atmospheric
Monitoring.
Leather
gloves.
FR Garments
Disposable FR
coveralls, or
follow appropriate
hygiene practices.
Half-mask APR with P100 filter.
Leather
gloves
Kevlar leg chaps
or pants.
Footwear for
chainsaw
operation (CAN)
Rubber
coated
gloves
Disposable
hooded coveralls
with elastic fittings
Half- mask APR with P100 filter.
89
PPE
(In addition to the minimum PPE required for all Enbridge Locations)
Work Activity
Eye, Face &
Hearing
Material –
Including Coal
Tar Pipe
Coating
Chipping,
Hammering
Metal,
Sledge or Jack
Hammering; or
goggles.
Hand
Coal Tar –
Chemically
impervious
gloves for
longer than
1 hour of
use or
change
nitrile
gloves
every 1
hour of
used.
Body
Respiratory Protective Equipment
(These are the minimum requirements; a higher
level of RPE may be required based on
Atmospheric Monitoring)
or coveralls are
removed and
laundered after
each use.
Rubber boots or
disposable boots.
Elasticized shoe
covers
Nitrile apron
As per potential
and existing
hazards
Full-face shield
and/or impact
goggles.
Hearing
protection.
Leather or
Kevlar
gloves.
As per potential and existing hazards. Consider
type and quantity of particulates being generated.
Welding helmet
and safety
glasses under
helmet; or
full-face shield
or
full-face shield
and impactresistant
goggles.
Hearing
protection.
Leather
gauntlettype gloves
(with
seams on
the inside).
Leather shoulder
and sleeve
covers.
As per potential or existing hazards.
Applying
Herbicides and
Pesticides
Chemical
Splash goggles
and/or full-face
shield as
required.
Chemically
impervious
gloves.
Disposable
hooded coveralls.
Half-mask APR with OV cartridge with dust/mist
pre-filter.
Vacuum
Excavating
Full-face shield
or impact
goggles.
Hearing
protection.
Leather or
Kevlar
gloves.
As per potential
or existing
hazards.
As per potential or existing hazards.
Using
Compressed
Air; or
Operating
Electric and/or
Hand Saws; or
Concrete Work
Wire Brushing,
Buffing,
Cutting,
Grinding
(electric and
pneumatic,
including cutoff and
concrete saws)
90
LP/MP Safety Manual
Version:1.4
Version Date: 06-01-2015
PPE
(In addition to the minimum PPE required for all Enbridge Locations)
Work Activity
Eye, Face &
Hearing
Oxy-Acetylene
Welding or
Cutting,
Brazing or
Soldering
Arc Welding or
Gouging
Abrasive
Blasting
Non-silica dust,
metals,
recycled
glass/glassbased dust
Welder
-welder/ cutter
goggles (eyecup/monoframe); or
-shade 3 or
greater welding
safety glasses
c/w side-shields
and face shield
(a welding
helmet with a
flip-up lens can
substitute a
face shield);
and
-protective
barrier skin
cream
(optional).
Helper- same
as welder.
Hearing
protection.
Welder-welding
helmet, safety
glasses c/w
side-shields,
and protective
barrier skin
cream
(optional).
Helper
-as above; or
-full-face shield
and shade 3 or
greater welding
safety glasses
c/w sideshields; or
-full-face shield
and shaded 3
or greater
welder/cutter
goggles.
Hearing
protection.
Abrasive
Blasting helmet
or hood.
Hearing
protection.
Hand
Body
Leather
gauntlettype gloves
(with
seams on
the inside).
Leather shoulder
and sleeve
covers.
Leather
gauntlettype gloves
(with
seams on
the inside).
Leather shoulder
and sleeve
covers.
Leather or
Canvas
gauntlet
gloves.
Heavy duty blast
suit or leather
apron.
Respiratory Protective Equipment
(These are the minimum requirements; a higher
level of RPE may be required based on
Atmospheric Monitoring)
Consider material being welded.
Disposable P100 respirator or half-mask APR with
P100 filter may be required.
Consider material being welded and review welding
electrode SDS.
Disposable P100 respirator or half-mask APR with
P100 filter may be required.
Blaster and helpers/workers in immediate vicinity of
blasting: Type CE supplied air abrasive blasting
respirator, hood or helmet with apron, operated in
continuous flow mode.
Open
Helpers and workers in the blast area
Space
(within 30 m (100 ft.) downwind, 15 m
(50 ft.) upwind, 23 m (70 ft.) if no wind);
disposable P100 respirator or half-mask
APR with P100 filter.
Confined
Space
Helpers and workers in the blast area
same as Blaster.
91
PPE
(In addition to the minimum PPE required for all Enbridge Locations)
Work Activity
Eye, Face &
Hearing
Abrasive
Blasting
Lead from
lead-based
paint
Abrasive
blasting helmet
or hood.
Hand
Leather or
canvas
gauntlet
gloves.
Body
Heavy duty blast
suit or leather
apron.
Hearing
protection.
Abrasive
Blasting with
Self-Contained
System
(e.g., Blastrac)
As per assessment of all potential and existing
hazards.
High Pressure
Water Jetting
Full-face shield
Collecting
Spent Abrasive
Blasting Agent
Hearing
Protection
Heat and
water
resistant
glovesMinimum
Cut level 4
Abrasive
Blasting helmet
or hood.
Chemically
impervious
gloves.
Metatarsal
protection, knee
length with ribbed
steel shanks and
heavy tread soles
for nonslip
traction.
Additional PPE
may be required
based on
potential and
existing hazards.
Disposable
coveralls, or
follow appropriate
hygiene practices.
Respiratory Protective Equipment
(These are the minimum requirements; a higher
level of RPE may be required based on
Atmospheric Monitoring)
Blaster and helpers/workers in immediate vicinity of
blasting: Type CE supplied air abrasive blasting
respirator, hood or helmet with apron, and with
tight-fitting full-face mask operated in positive
pressure mode.
Open
Helpers and workers in the blast area
Space
(within 30 m (100 ft.) downwind, 15 m
(50 ft.) upwind, 23 m (70 ft.) if no wind);
disposable P100 respirator or halfmask APR with P100 filter.
Confined Helpers and workers in the blast area
Space
same as Blaster.
Half-mask APR with P100 dust filter.
As required by potential or existing hazards.
Open
Space
Very dusty
air
Moderately
dusty air
No visible
dust
Confined
Space
92
Very dusty
air
0 to 0.5 hrs after
abrasive blasting: Type
CE supplied-air
abrasive blasting
respirator, hood or
helmet, with apron
operated in continuous
flow mode.
> 0.5 hrs after
abrasive blasting:
disposable P100
respirator or halfmask APR with
P100 filter.
Disposable P100
respirator or halfmask APR with
P100 filter.
0 to 0.5 hrs after
abrasive blasting:
disposable P100
respirator or halfmask APR with
P100 filter.
More than 0.5 hrs after
abrasive blasting: none.
0 to 0.5 hrs after
abrasive blasting: Type
CE supplied-air
abrasive blasting, hood
or helmet, with apron
operated in continuous
flow mode
LP/MP Safety Manual
Version:1.4
Version Date: 06-01-2015
PPE
(In addition to the minimum PPE required for all Enbridge Locations)
Work Activity
Eye, Face &
Hearing
Hand
Body
Respiratory Protective Equipment
(These are the minimum requirements; a higher
level of RPE may be required based on
Atmospheric Monitoring)
> 0.5 hrs after
abrasive blasting:
disposable P100
respirator or halfmask APR with
P100 filter.
Moderately
dusty air
No visible
dust
Induced
Voltage
(piping, valves,
casing and
measuring
equipment)
HRC 0
Electrical
Work4
As per
assessment of
all potential and
existing
hazards.
Voltage
Rated
gloves with
leather
protectors.
FR Clothing2 with
a label stating a
minimum Arc
Rating (AR) of
8cal/cm2
Safety glasses
c/w sideshields.
Ear canal
inserts (i.e. ear
plugs).
Heavy duty
leather
gloves
unless Arc
Flash
Label
specifically
states
Voltage
Rated
gloves with
leather
protectors.3
Heavy duty
leather
gloves
unless Arc
Flash
Label
specifically
states
Voltage
Rated
gloves with
leather
protectors.3
FR Clothing2 with
a label stating a
minimum Arc
Rating (AR) of
8cal/cm2.
Heavy duty
leather
gloves
unless Arc
Flash
Label
specifically
FR Clothing2 with
a label stating a
minimum Arc
Rating (AR) of 8
cal/cm2.
HRC 1
Electrical
Work4
Safety glasses
c/w side-shields
or impact
resistant
goggles; and a
face shield with
a minimum Arc
Rating (AR) of 8
cal/cm2 with
wrap-around
guarding or a
flash suit hood.
Ear canal
inserts (i.e. ear
plugs).
HRC 2
Electrical
Work4
Safety glasses
c/w side-shields
or impact
resistant
goggles; and a
face shield with
a minimum Arc
Disposable P100
respirator or halfmask APR P100
filter.
0 to 2 hrs after
abrasive blasting:
disposable P100
respirator or halfmask APR with
P100 filter.
> 2 hrs after abrasive
blasting: none.
Leather footwear
meeting Foot
Protection
requirements.
See 7.5 Foot
Protection.
FR Clothing2 with
a label stating a
minimum Arc
Rating (AR) of 8
cal/cm2.
Leather footwear
meeting Foot
Protection
requirements.
See 7.5 Foot
Protection.
93
PPE
(In addition to the minimum PPE required for all Enbridge Locations)
Work Activity
Eye, Face &
Hearing
HRC 3
Electrical
Work4
HRC 4
Electrical
Work4
Hand
Body
Rating (AR) of 8
cal/cm2 with
wrap-around
guarding and
balaclava or
flash suit hood.
Ear canal
inserts (i.e. ear
plugs).
Safety glasses
c/w side-shields
or impact
resistant
goggles; and
arc rated flash
suit hood.
Ear canal
inserts (i.e. ear
plugs).
states
Voltage
Rated
gloves with
leather
protectors.3
Leather footwear
meeting Foot
Protection
requirements.
See 7.5 Foot
Protection.
Voltage
Rated
gloves.3
Arc flash suit2
with a minimum
Arc Rating (AR)
of 25 cal/cm2.
Safety glasses
c/w side-shields
or impact
resistant
goggles; and
arc rated flash
suit hood.
Ear canal
inserts (i.e. ear
plugs).
Voltage
Rated
gloves. 3
Respiratory Protective Equipment
(These are the minimum requirements; a higher
level of RPE may be required based on
Atmospheric Monitoring)
Leather footwear
meeting 6.5 Foot
Protection
requirements.
See 7.5 Foot
Protection.
Arc flash suit2
with a minimum
Arc
Rating (AR) of 40
cal/cm2.
Leather footwear
meeting Foot
Protection
requirements.
See 7.5 Foot
Protection.
Notes:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Safety glasses c/w side shields shall always be worn under a full-face shield and under nonimpact resistant chemical splash goggles.
Avoid wearing garments made from flammable synthetic material under FR Arc Rated
clothing as they can melt to the skin in an arc flash. This includes acetate, acrylic, nylon,
polyester, polyethylene, polypropylene and spandex, either alone or in blends.
Higher class Voltage Rated gloves with leather protectors provide increased arc flash
protection due to the increase in material thickness.
The Hazard Risk Category (HRC) has been revised and will no longer be the determining
factor in PPE selection for electrical work. The old Arc Hazard labels will be replaced with the
labels shown in Figure 1 of section 13.1, which references the PPE selection in Table 2 below
Voltage Rated Gloves:
o Class 00 up to 500V AC
o Class 0 up to 1000V AC
o Class 1 up to 7,500V AC
o Class 2 up to 17,000V AC
o Class 3 up to 26,500V AC
o Class 4 up to 36,000V AC
At a minimum, safety glasses complete with side-shields shall always be worn
under a full-face shield and under non-impact resistant chemical splash goggles.
Table 2- Guidance on Selection of Arc-Rated Clothing and Other PPE for Use When Incident
Energy Exposure Is Determined
94
LP/MP Safety Manual
Version:1.4
Version Date: 06-01-2015
Incident Energy Exposure ≤ 1.2 cal/cm2
Protective Clothing and PPE
Protective clothing, nonmelting (in accordance with
ASTM F1506) or untreated natural fiber
Shirt (long sleeve) and pants (long) or coverall
Other PPE
Incident Energy Exposure ≥ 1.2 to 12 cal/cm2
Other PPE
Incident Energy Exposure > 12 cal/cm2
Arc-rated clothing and equipment with an arc rating
equal to or greater than the determined incident energy
(See Note 3.)




Face shield for projectile protection (AN)
Safety glasses or safety goggles
Hearing protection
Heavy duty leather gloves or rubber insulating
gloves with leather protectors (AN)
Protective Clothing and PPE





Hard hat
Arc-rated hard hat liner (AN)
Safety glasses or safety goggles (SR)
Hearing protection
Heavy-duty leather gloves or rubber insulating
gloves with leather protectors (SR) (See Note
4.)

Leather footwear
Protective Clothing and PPE

Arc-rated long-sleeve shirt and arc-rated
pants or arc-rated coverall and/or arc flash
suit (SR)

Arc-rated arc flash suit hood

Arc-rated gloves

Arc-rated jacket, parka, or rainwear (AN)
Other PPE

Hard hat

Arc-rated hard hat liner (AN)

Safety glasses or safety goggles (SR)

Hearing protection

Arc-rated gloves or rubber insulating gloves
with leather protectors (SR) (See Note 4.)

Leather footwear
AN: As needed [in addition to the protective clothing and PPE required by NFPA 70E –2015, 130.5(C) (1)] for U.S.
facilities or CSA Z-462-2015 Clause 4.3.7.3. for Canadian facilities.
SR: Selection of one in group is required by NFPA 70E –2015, 130.5(C) (1) for U.S. facilities or CSA Z-462-2015
Clause 4.3.7.3.4 for Canadian facilities.
Notes: (1) Face shields with a wrap-around guarding to protect the face, chin, forehead, ears, and neck area are
required by NFPA 70E –2015, 130.7(C)(10)(c) for U.S. facilities or CSA Z-462-2015 Clause 4.3.7.3.10 for Canadian
facilities. For full head and neck protection, use a balaclava or an arc flash hood.
(2) All items not designated “AN” are required by NFPA 70E –2015, 130.7(C) for U.S. facilities or CSA Z-462-2015
Clause 4.3.7.3 for Canadian facilities.
(3) Arc ratings can be for a single layer, such as an arc-rated shirt and pants or a coverall, or for an arc flash suit or
a multi-layer system consisting of a combination of arc-rated shirt and pants, coverall, and arc flash suit.
7.2
Head Protection
Head protection shall be worn when specified by the Hazard Assessment. At a
minimum, Class E-approved industrial head protection (hard hats) shall be worn at
all times on Enbridge Worksites except when:




actively engaged in welding where overhead hazards have been eliminated
sheltered in a vehicle or equipment with an enclosed cab
the Worker is already wearing a helmet and the work does not subject the
Worker to potential contact with exposed energized electrical sources
getting in or out of helicopters, or when working near helicopters under full
throttle (unless the helicopter is involved in slinging operations)
95




working in, on, or near Open Water, as determined by an Incident
Commander when under the Incident Command System (ICS)
operating small utility vehicles equipped with seatbelts and roll-over
protection that meets legislative requirements
in control rooms, offices, lunch rooms or change rooms
when visiting landowners and overhead hazards are not present or have
been eliminated
If side impact is identified as a hazard to Workers then a side-impact-rated hard hat
shall be worn.
Baseball caps (or similar) are prohibited from being worn underneath a hardhat.
Cowboy style hardhats are prohibited on Enbridge property.
Prior to each use, hard hats or other head protection shall be visually inspected for
cracks, weaknesses, or damage to the shell or suspension system. A hard hat or
other head protection shall be replaced at the first indication of any of these
conditions.
Workers shall not cover cracks in the hard hat shell with paint or stickers, nor clean
a hard hat with solvents.
Note that exposing a hard hat to temperatures over 50°C (122°F) degrades the hard
hat shell over time. This significantly reduces its useful life and may cause the shell
to fail upon impact.
Enbridge Workers shall NOT:


apply products to the hard hat that may degrade or weaken the hard hat
shell or component materials (e.g., do not apply insect repellant)
place hard hats on or near heat sources (e.g., radiator), nor in locations
where heat from the sun may be intense (e.g., vehicle dashboard)
DOT- or Snell-approved helmets are required at all times while on or operating AllTerrain Vehicles (ATVs), Utility-Terrain Vehicles (UTV’s) and Snowmobiles.
The exceptions for UTV’s shall be where the UTV is equipped with seatbelts with
shoulder straps and an appropriately rated Roll-Over Protective Structure (ROPS)
and all occupants are wearing seatbelts with shoulder straps during the operation of
the vehicle.
To confirm if the UTV has an appropriately rated ROPS, consult the owner’s manual
or the manufacturer.
Workers who wear approved helmets while using a Snowmobile or off-road vehicle
may continue to wear the helmet when working at a Site provided that the work
activity does not subject the Worker to potential contact with exposed energized
electrical sources and the work is done for a short period of time (e.g., gauging
work).
Workers using bicycles at Enbridge Locations shall:


7.3
96
wear a cycling helmet approved by CSA, CPSC, Snell or ANSI; or
if travelling 20 km/hr. (12 mph) or less, may wear a Class E hard hat
including a fastened chin strap
Eye and Face Protection
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Workers shall wear approved safety glasses with side shields at all times while
working on any Enbridge Worksite, except when:


in a vehicle or equipment with an enclosed cab
in a control room, office, lunch room or change room
All safety glasses shall have side shield protection that is integrated or permanently
affixed to the frame.
Safety glasses shall not be worn under a full-face respirator and chemical splash
goggles as a seal cannot be made; therefore all full-face respirators and chemical
splash goggles shall be impact-rated.
To determine the safe use contact lenses when handling chemicals, refer the
chemicals SDS for specific precautions.
An arc flash suit should have a ventilation system to prevent fogging of the face
shield and overheating of the Worker.
An approved welding helmet with a flip-up lens can be used as an alternative to a
face shield.
If a worker is using safety glasses or prescription safety glasses and a face shield at
a work location where fogging of the eyewear or shield is a hazard, then the Worker
shall use an anti-fogging solution, as conditions may require.
Eye and face protection equipment may be both ANSI- or CSA-approved. Such
PPE is approved if it meets:


CAN/CSA Z94.3 requirements in Canada; and
ANSI/ISEA Z87.1 requirements in the USA.
Full-face respirators and chemical splash goggles shall meet the above-noted
minimum eye protection Standards. Prescription spectacle inserts are available for
full face respirator use to ensure facial seal for Workers who require prescription
eyewear.
The “pancake” style of helmets sometimes worn by welders shall be ANSI approved
when worn on Enbridge Locations. Shading and welding filters shall meet the
minimum Applicable Legislative requirements.
See Table 1 and 2 for minimum marking requirements.
Table 1 ANSI/ISEA Z87.1 Minimum Eye Protection Marking Requirements
Spectacle Lenses
Shall have:

Manufacturer’s
Mark or Logo

“+” if Impact Rated
Other Lenses
Shall have:

Manufacturer’s Mark or
Logo

“Z87”

“+” if Impact Rated
Frame/ Temple/ Headgear
Shall have:


Manufacturer’s Mark or Logo
“Z87” Plano or “Z87-2” Rx

“+” if Impact Rated
Table 2 CSA Z94.3 Minimum Eye Protection Marking Requirements
Lenses
Frame/ Temple/ Headgear
97
Shall have:

Manufacturer’s Mark or Logo
7.4
Shall have:


Manufacturer’s Mark or Logo
“CSA Z94.3”
Hand Protection
Hand protection shall be worn at all times on Enbridge field Worksites.. Hand
protection shall be appropriate to the task being performed and include
consideration of factors such as abrasion, dexterity, punctures and sharp edges,
chemicals, crushing, temperature (hot and cold), vibration and general duty.
Specific hand protection may be required when engaged in the following:








construction Worksite activities
working with fixed open-blade knives
walking in areas where there is a high potential for slips, trips or falls
performing Hot Work, welding, cutting, sandblasting, grinding and buffing
material handling
handling chemicals
working on energized systems
work in cold or freezing temperatures
For electrical work, test and check voltage rated rubber gloves as follows:




before each use, check for cracks and air leaks
discard arc-rated rubber gloves that fail an air-leak test
test for voltage at least twice a year (time between tests not to exceed 6
months)
testing shall be done at a specified voltage by an authorized testing
company
Voltage rated rubber gloves that have been tested for voltage shall be marked with
the date of the test and the test voltage.
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Voltage Rated Rubber Gloves
Class
Class 00
Class 0
Class 1
Class 2
Class 3
Class 4
7.5
Use
Use for circuits up to 500 volts AC
Use for circuits up to 1000 volts AC
Use for circuits up to 7,500 volts AC
Use for circuits up to 17,000 volts AC
Use for circuits up to 26,500 volts AC
Use for circuits up to 36,000 volts AC
Foot Protection
Protective footwear shall:



have a minimum 15 cm (6 in.) ankle support and protection, i.e., 15 cm (6
in.) to the top of the boot from the heel
be worn at all times when performing work that requires foot protection
(except when in control rooms, lunch rooms, offices, or change rooms)
provide sufficient protection against injury to the feet and ankles, as
appropriate for the work environment and assessed hazards
Appropriate protective footwear shall be required for any job where additional foot or
leg protection is necessary, depending on the work environment and assessed
hazards. Some examples of factors to consider include:




presence of water
presence of chemical hazards
electrical hazards, e.g., omega symbol or Electrical Hazard symbols
impact hazards (e.g., portable equipment impact); consider PPE such as
metatarsal or shin guards
Weather conditions may also lead to potential hazards. Consider the hazards that
may be present in each season. For instance, during winter conditions, consider
PPE such as:




slip-resistant rubber, Vibram™ Fire & Ice, thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU
compound), or Oarprene sole that maintains traction in cold weather
removable, easily fitted traction/grip aids (outdoor use only)
thermally insulated footwear, with a removable inner-boot system
work-boot insulators and/or liner
Where foot protection does not mitigate the primary hazard associated with the
work (such as when slope reading), then alternative footwear appropriate for the
hazards should be considered and may be used if approved by the Regional
Director.
Workers and Visitors may be exempt from the requirement for protective footwear
only if:


they are on a supervised or controlled tour of a Site or Facility; or
if they are visiting a Site or Facility for administrative reasons only, and while
there, are not exposed to hazards that would require the foot protection set
out in this section 7.5
99
Protective footwear shall have markings as required, as shown in Table 1, by
jurisdiction.
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Table 1 Protective Footwear Markings
Canada
USA
General hazards
CSA 1 (Green
Triangle)
ANSI Class 75
Electrical work or
entering substations
omega symbol ()
Electrical Hazard (EH)
Chainsaw work
white label with green
fir tree symbol
---
7.6
Hearing Conservation
Workers who are exposed to noise at 85 dBA or above shall wear hearing
protection.
Enbridge shall ensure appropriate hearing protection is provided and available to
Workers at each Worksite, and that the protection is properly used and maintained,
in accordance with manufacturers’ specifications.
Enbridge shall carry out hearing conservation measures for employees exposed to
noise at levels:


greater than or equal to (≥) 82 dBA of an 8 hr. TWA; or
greater than (>) 115 dBA at any time
Contractors shall have a hearing conservation program where required and are
responsible for providing their employees with the required testing and any required
hearing protection.
Enbridge is responsible for the following hearing conservation measures for
Enbridge Employees:




coordinating hearing conservation training as required
identifying potential noise hazards (e.g., new equipment, noise sources) or
changes that may affect noise exposure assessments
ensuring noise-hazardous areas and equipment are identified, including
areas where additional hearing protection is required
identifying and implementing engineering controls to reduce noise levels,
wherever practicable
Audiometric Testing
Enbridge shall be responsible for the following, for employees:



arranging audiometric testing with the testing agency, including initial,
ongoing and follow-up testing or evaluation when required
participating in reviewing abnormal test results, as necessary
providing Workers with forms and information needed for audiometric testing
(in the US the testing agency provides Workers with forms and information
needed)
101
All Workers are responsible for:



attending audiometric testing as required
following up with their personal physician if abnormal test results are
received from the Testing Agency
attending follow-up tests or other medical evaluation if required by the
testing agency, Enbridge Medical Director or the Worker’s personal
physician
All audiometric tests for Enbridge Employee’s shall be paid for by Enbridge and
Workers shall be granted time off during normal working hours to attend
appointments.
The Enbridge Corporate Health & Safety Department is responsible for:






conducting noise exposure assessments and re-assessments and
recommending hazard controls as required
assisting in selecting, fitting and using appropriate hearing protection
ensuring employee audiometric test result records are provided to the
testing agency for ongoing testing
liaising with Enbridge’s medical director, testing agency, regional safety
coordinator and Worker regarding test result records including safety
concerns and any follow-up testing or further evaluation required
maintaining summaries of audiometric test results for Enbridge Employees
in Canada (US Human Resources maintains summaries of US Workers’
audiometric test results)
reviewing abnormal test results where there is a safety concern (Canada)
Additional Hearing Protection Measures
Noise exposure assessments for Workers are recommended when:



there are indicators that noise levels from equipment or other sources are:
o greater than or equal to (≥) 82 dBA of an 8 hr. TWA; or
o greater than (>) 115 dBA at any time
there has been a change that may make the hearing protection inadequate
(e.g., equipment changes; changes to job tasks or Worker assignments,
such that use of hearing protection needs to be reviewed)
audiometric testing of a Worker shows there is a Standard Threshold Shift
(STS)
Areas and fixed equipment with noise levels greater than (>) 82 dBA shall be
identified and marked with posted signs.
Hearing protection shall be worn as follows:




102
in work areas where hearing protection signage is posted, when equipment
is operating
when operating any piece of equipment where the noise level is greater than
(>) 85 dBA
when exposed to noise levels greater than or equal to (≥) 105 dBA, Workers
shall wear both ear plugs and ear muffs
when working on electrical equipment with a Hazard/Risk Category (HRC) of
0, 1, 2, 3 or 4, Workers shall wear ear canal inserts (i.e., ear plugs)
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Enbridge provides approved hearing protection for employees at all Enbridge
Locations. For assistance in selecting appropriate hearing protection, contact the
Corporate Health & Safety Department.
All new Workers who may be exposed to noise hazards at greater than or equal to
(≥) 85 dBA shall receive a baseline audiometric test within 6 months of being hired.
Prior to establishing a baseline audiogram for a Worker, the Worker shall have gone
at least 14 hours without being exposed to workplace noise.
If a Standard Threshold Shift has occurred the Worker shall to be notified in writing
within 21 days of the determination.
In addition to baseline testing, Workers who continue to be exposed to workplace
noise shall receive ongoing audiometric testing according to the following table. If
regulatory requirements are more stringent, they shall be followed.
Frequency
Canada
USA
EPSI
APLI
5 years
1 year
2 years
2 years
Additional testing may be requested by the medical director (retained by Enbridge),
the testing agency or the employee’s physician.
Records shall be maintained according to Enbridge’s Record Management Policy
and Records Retention Schedule in the following locations:

Enbridge Worker Audiometric Testing Results
o Enbridge-contracted occupational health nurse [CAN]
o testing agency [USA]
Audiometric test results are confidential. Results are accessible only to Enbridge’s
Medical Director and the Worker tested, unless the Worker provides written consent
to disclose the results to a third party or if disclosure is required by law.
7.7
High-Visibility Safety Apparel
High-Visibility Safety Apparel (HVSA) shall be worn by Workers when required by a
Hazard Assessment, Worksite requirements and/or regulatory requirements.
HVSA serves to alert drivers and other vehicle/equipment operators of a Worker’s
presence, especially in low light or darkness.
High visibility headwear can also be worn to increase a Worker’s visibility in
situations where part or all of the Worker’s body could be obscured, e.g., due to
trees, traffic barriers, objects, vehicles or construction materials.
There are three classes of HVSA based on body coverage provided. Each class
covers the torso (waist to neck) and/or limbs according to the minimum body
coverage areas specified for each class.
Class 1 provides the lowest recognized coverage and visibility. Class 1 does not
provide adequate protection for use at Enbridge Locations.
Class 2 provides moderate body coverage and superior visibility and is the
minimum HVSA to be worn when HVSA is required. Class 2 HVSA shall be worn
when:
103







working as a designated Signaler/Spotter
working on or adjacent to roadways with traffic speeds under 80 km/hr. (50
mph)
working around Powered Mobile Equipment
working on active construction sites
operating ATV’s, UTV’s and Snowmobiles
working in low light or inclement weather conditions
determined by the Hazard Assessment
Class 3 provides the greatest body coverage and visibility, including visibility from a
distance and under low light conditions. Class 3 HVSA shall be worn:



when working on or adjacent to roadways with traffic speeds above 80
km/hr. (50 mph)
by traffic control personnel
as determined by the Hazard Assessment
Level FR HVSA shall be worn when required by the Hazard Assessment.
7.8
Flame Resistant Garments
Workers shall wear Flame Resistant (FR) Garments according to this Standard and
maintain them in accordance with the manufacturers’ specifications. FR Garments
are required to be worn as daily work wear when:




inside fenced or operating Facilities
working within 30 m (100 ft.) of an Open System
working within 30 m (100 ft.) of Ground Disturbance/Excavation that
contains an operating pipeline
any other work where there is the potential for flash fires or short duration
flame exposures identified on the Hazard Assessment
Exceptions include:


low-risk areas, including office buildings and areas on the ROW identified by
the Site Supervisor
controlled vehicle or escorted tours where risks are eliminated by a Enbridge
Representative
Additional FR Garment Requirements
FR Garments shall meet all of the requirements detailed in Enbridge’s Flame
Resistant Garment Requirements and Specifications document, found in the GDL
(under IMS-04 Tier Processes).
The outer layer of FR Garments provided by Enbridge for Enbridge employees shall
be a minimum Arc Thermal Protection Value (ATPV) of 8 Cal/cm2 (HRC 2).
FR Garments for electrical Workers shall meet the minimum ATPV of 8 Cal/cm2
(HRC 2) and increase the level of protection as required by Arc Flash hazards.
Contractors shall supply FR Garments that meet the minimum requirements in
NFPA 2112 for their employees.
FR Garments shall:


104
be worn with collars closed and sleeves and cuffs worn down and secured
be kept reasonably free from hydrocarbon products like grease and oil
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cleaned frequently enough to prevent build-up of contaminants that reduce
flame resistance
be worn as the outer garment and shall fully cover any non-FR garments
worn when FR Garments are required
not have insect repellents containing DEET applied or sprayed directly on
FR Garments as it will negatively impact the flame resistance of the
garments
be stored in accordance with manufacturer instructions
be inspected prior to use considering the following criteria:
o fabric damage
o damage to threads or seams including skipped, broken of missing
stitches
o damage to and functionality of all hardware such as zippers, buttons,
snaps, and other fasteners
o remove damaged FR Garments from service immediately
Workers should wear only clothing made with a natural fiber (e.g., cotton, wool) or
approved FR undergarments below FR outerwear.
If other safety hazards or concerns (e.g., exposure to asbestos, corrosive materials)
exceed the fire hazard, then non-flame-resistant outerwear may be worn over
approved FR clothing.
FR Garments are limited to protection against unplanned exposure to intense heat
transfer for three seconds or less. If the existing or potential hazards are for other
thermal energy types (e.g. steam) or longer heat transfer, additional PPE needs are
to be determined.
Laundering of FR Clothing
Follow the laundering instructions and temperature limits for FR Garments identified
on the garment care tag. When possible, send FR Garments to a professional
laundering service that is knowledgeable in the proper care of FR Garments,
especially if they garments are contaminated.
Dispose of contaminated FR Garments if no instructions for decontamination are
provided.
Do not use chlorine bleach, fabric softeners or a combination of hydrogen peroxide
with hard water when laundering FR Garments as it may compromise the flame
resistant properties in the fabric, weaken the fabric and result in color loss over
time. FR Garments shall also be kept free from exposure to oxidizing chemicals
(e.g., OxiClean).
Follow manufacturer’s recommendations on service life and dispose of retired FR
Garments in a manner that ensures the garments can no longer be used.
105
7.9
Respiratory Protective Program
For protection from airborne contaminants, Workers shall wear Respiratory
Protective Equipment (RPE), in accordance with this Standard. Airborne
contaminants and hazards can include, but are not limited to:






particulates (asbestos, silica)
O2 deficiency
fumes
gases or vapors
smoke
sprays
Workers may be required to wear any of the following, depending on the potential
hazard:



Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA)
Supplied-Air Respirator (SAR) or Supplied-Air Breathing Apparatus (SABA)
Air-purifying respirators (APR) (full-face, half-mask, or disposable)
Contractors shall have a written respiratory protection program that meets or
exceeds this Standard and all Applicable Legislation and provide their employees
with all required respiratory equipment.
All SCBA shall be of the positive pressure type.
Continuous monitoring of the work area shall occur to ensure atmospheric
conditions don’t change. If atmospheric conditions change, the Hazard Assessment
shall be updated and additional controls, including reassessing the level of RPE
being used.
Appropriate surveillance shall be maintained of work area conditions and degree of
Worker exposure or stress. When there is a change in work area conditions or
degree of Worker exposure or stress that may affect respirator effectiveness, the
Site Supervisor shall reevaluate the continued effectiveness of the respirator.
Disposable, single use non-tight fitting respirators are permitted for nuisance level
particulates only, provided that the potential contaminant has been evaluated by an
Industrial Hygienist and deemed inert/non-toxic.
Workers who may be required to wear RPE that depends on an effective seal shall
be clean-shaven where the face piece contacts the skin; this may require trimming
or removing goatees, full beards, narrow beards, extended side burns, Fu Manchu
moustaches, chin hair or wide moustaches (see figure 1).
Figure 1
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Workers required to wear tight fitting respirators shall:










be fit tested and trained on each brand, size and model of respirator they
may be required to wear (fit test certificates are required and the fit test
validity timeline shall be on the certificate)
select the proper equipment based on the potential and existing hazards,
taking into consideration gas/particle monitoring results, MSDS/SDS
requirements, physical conditions, and work to be conducted, including:
o review and understand the completed Hazard Assessment and;
o ensuring the respirator selected is appropriate for the chemical state
and physical form of the contaminant
be provided the appropriate RPE
perform a positive and negative pressure user seal check, prior to use
inspect and maintain RPE in accordance with manufacturers’ specifications,
including a visual inspection before and after each use
store respirators in clean plastic bags in a manner that prevents
contamination and damage to the equipment or labeling, as required
use only respirators approved by the National Institute for Occupational
Safety and Health (NIOSH) or the Canadian Standards Association (CSA)
select or change the RPE used, based on results of contaminant/hazard
monitoring and updated results; leave the respirator use area if vapor or gas
breakthrough is detected, or if there are changes in breathing resistance, or
leakage of the face piece
ensure that shared RPE is disinfected after each personal use
ensure personal and shared RPE is cleaned in accordance with
manufacturers’ specifications
Fit testing is to be provided to Contractor personnel by their respective employer.
107
In addition, Workers shall complete medical evaluations. A medical evaluation is
required:



every five years [CAN]
every 2 years [APLI]
annually [USA]
Medical evaluations will include a pulmonary function test or spirometry test. The
evaluations are reviewed by a licensed health care professional. The licensed
health care professional shall review and retain the medical evaluation and ensure
that:



a recommendation regarding the Workers ability to use a respirator is clearly
stated
any limitations on respirator use related to medical conditions or workplace
conditions in which the respirator will be used are clearly stated
the medical care provider has provided the Worker with a copy of the written
recommendation(s)
Additional medical evaluations will be completed before the noted time frame set
out above if:




an employee reports medical signs or symptoms that may affect their ability
to wear a respirator
a People Leader notifies the Corporate Health & Safety Department that an
employee may need to be re-evaluated
observations made during fit testing indicate the need for re-evaluation
there is a change in workplace conditions that may result in an increased
physiological burden placed on an employee
Contractor Personnel shall provide proof of medical evaluation upon request.
RPE Selection and Permitted Work for Known Exposure Concentrations
When opening petroleum systems where a known potential for exposure exists, all
Workers in the immediate work area shall wear the appropriate RPE, in accordance
with the completed Hazard Assessment until a safe atmosphere has been verified.
If the concentration of the contaminant is unknown or there is a potential for a
hazardous atmosphere (e.g., work around Open Systems), assume the atmosphere
is hazardous, perform exposure assessments and use RPE in accordance with
Table 1.
Planned work shall not take place in Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health
(IDLH) environments. If an IDLH environment exists, or has potential to exist, then
work shall stop until controls are in place to eliminate, control or minimize the
hazards to an acceptable level.
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Table 1-RPE for Exposure Concentrations
Respiratory
Hazard
Asbestos
Benzene
Carbon
monoxide
Hydrogen
Sulfide (H2S) 4
Lead
(0.05mg/m3)
<1 f/cc
half-mask APR with P100 filter
1 to 10 f/cc
full-face APR with P100 filter
10 to 100f/cc
full-face PAPR with P100 filter or SAR
<1000f/cc
positive demand or positive pressure
SCBA
0 to 0.5 ppm
none
0.6 to 5 ppm
half-mask APR with OV cartridge
6 to 25 ppm
full-face APR1 with OV cartridge or SAR
greater than (>) 25
ppm
SCBA or SAR
greater than (>) 500
ppm (IDLH)2
planned work is not permitted3
25 ppm to 500 ppm
SCBA or SAR
greater than (>) 500
ppm
planned work is not permitted3
0 to 10 ppm
none
11 to 99 ppm5
SCBA or Type C SAR with escape pak6
greater than (>)100
ppm (IDLH)2
Planned work is not permitted3
<0.5 mg/m3
half mask APR with P100 filter
0.05 to 5 mg/m
5 to 50 mg/m
Mercaptans
Respiratory Protection
Exposure
Concentration
3
3
full face APR with P100 filter
full face PAPR with P100 filter or SAR
50 to 100 mg/m3
Positive demand or positive pressure
SCBA
greater than or equal
to ( ≥) 100mg/m3
planned work is not permitted
0 to 0.5 ppm
none
0.6 to 5 ppm
half-mask APR with OV cartridge
6 to 25 ppm
full-face APR1 with OV cartridge or SAR
greater than (>) 25
ppm
SCBA or SAR
109
greater than (>) 500
ppm (IDLH)2
planned work is not
permitted
Natural gas
0 to 10% LEL
none
11 to 20% LEL
SCBA for cold work; hot work is not
permitted6
greater than (>) 20%
planned work is not permitted3
Oxygen
deficiency
less than (<) 19.5%
SCBA
Petroleum
vapors
less than (<) 3% LEL
none
greater than or equal
to (≥) 3% LEL to less
than (<) 10% LEL
half-mask APR with OV cartridge
greater than or equal
to (≥) 10% LEL to less
than (<) 20% LEL
SCBA (or equivalent) for cold work; hot
work is not permitted
greater than or equal
to (≥) 20% LEL
(IDLH)
planned work is not permitted3
<0.25mg/m3
half-mask APR with P100 filter
0.25 to 2.5mg/m3
full-face APR With P100 filter
2.5 to 25mg/m3
full-face PAPR with P100 filter or SAR
greater than or equal
to (≥) 25mg/m3 (IDLH)
planned work is not permitted
Silica
(Exposure
Limit .025)
1
2
3
4
5
6
If quantitative fit test performed.
Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH)
Emergency work is allowed if SCBA or SAR with escape pack is used and all ignition sources are
eliminated. Additional requirements for entering buildings can be found in section 4.18
If the concentration exceeds the maximum detection limit of the H 2S detector, planned work is not
permitted until the concentration has been verified.
Where possible, reset gas detectors monitoring H2S to alarm at 10 ppm (low level) and 100 ppm
(high level).
Natural gas is composed of 95% methane. Methane is a simple asphyxiate; therefore does not
have an allowable exposure limit. Methane displaces oxygen in the atmosphere; therefore, entry
into areas where oxygen levels are less than (<) 19.5% require SCBA.
To avoid working in IDLH environments, use the hierarchy of controls to mitigate
atmospheric hazards. If the hierarchy of controls does not mitigate atmospheric
hazards to an acceptable level, then Enbridge Employees shall use the IDLH work
procedure found in the GDL (under IMS-04 Tier 2 procedures).
Workers wearing SCBA or SAR with escape pack shall:
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be properly trained and fit tested prior to using the equipment
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leave the area containing the hazardous atmosphere when the alarm
sounds or when 20–25% of the operating time remains (SCBA)
not remove the face mask while in the area containing the hazardous
atmosphere
Monthly, Workers shall inspect and record information about SCBA and SAR
escape packs. The inspection and information shall include labeling each respirator
or storage bag with:




inspection date
name of Worker completing the inspection
findings, including remedial action required
serial number or other identification
SCBA and SAR escape pack inspection records shall be kept on-site for one year.
Workers wearing Air Purifying Respirators (APR) shall replace cartridges when:







used for escape from H2S concentrations greater than (>) 10 ppm
it is damaged
there is odor breakthrough
cartridge is past the expiration date
Organic Vapor (OV) Acid Gas (AG) cartridges have been used continuously
for 10 hrs. or 30 days, whichever comes first
usage exceeds manufacturers specifications
Hazard Assessment determines cartridges require replacement
Workers shall:



leave the area to change cartridges
leave the area if a break-through or resistance is detected when using a
respirator
replace filters when plugged, damaged or soiled or when breathing is difficult
If used in environments containing oil aerosols, the Worker shall replace an oilresistant filter after a total of 40-hrs use or 30 days, whichever comes first.
Workers shall maintain personal hygiene as required to mitigate eye and/or skin
irritation associated with respirator use.
Supplied Breathing Air and Systems Requirements
Workers using supplied air systems shall have a bottle watch to ensure constant
breathing air supply to Workers at all times when using supplied air. The exception
to this rule is when the Worker using supplied air is able to hear the alarm and view
the gauges on the air panel of the bottle.
Compressed breathing air and systems used to supply breathing air to RPE shall
meet the requirements of:


CSA Z180.1 Compressed breathing air and systems (CAN), and/or
ANSI/Compressed Gas Association Commodity Specification for Air, G-7.1
(USA) (OSHA 1910.134(i)(1)(ii))
111
Using supplied-air breathing equipment during cold weather can present difficulties
due to the moisture in the stored/supplied air, the moisture in the user’s exhaled
breath, and lack of visibility through the mask. Warm up the supplied-air equipment
prior to use, to ensure that no condensation forms by using cold equipment.
The compressed breathing air shall be sampled and analyzed as per industry
standards and Applicable Legislation. The air quality analysis results shall be readily
available. Compressed breathing air and systems shall be inspected and
maintained in accordance with manufacturers’ specifications, Applicable Legislation
and industry standards. Written records of analysis results, inspections and
maintenance shall be kept according to the record retention policy.
Carbon monoxide levels shall be continuously monitored with an in-line monitoring
system for compressed breathing air systems using oil-lubricated compressors.
This in-line monitoring system shall consist of:



audible or/and visible alarms at 5 ppm
detection limit of 1 ppm and a resolution of at least 1 ppm
an inspection, maintenance and calibration program in accordance with
manufacturers’ specifications
In-line carbon monoxide monitoring is not required for ambient air systems or
compressed breathing air systems comprised of compressed breathing air cylinders
which have been filled in accordance with the Applicable Legislation.
Oil-lubricated air compressors used as a component of a compressed breathing air
system shall:





have fail-safe switches that will activate audible and visual alarms, shut
down the compressor, and prevent automatic restart when either the
compressor’s oil pressure is low or temperature is high
have a high pressure shutdown switch
have check valves to prevent feedback of purified air
have an instruction manual and manufacturer’s recommended logbook
use oils for breathing air applications that are recommended by both the
compressor and oil manufacturers
The air intake for the compressed breathing air system shall be situated and
installed in accordance with manufacturer’s specifications and designed to minimize
the intake of contaminants. Atmospheric Monitoring of the work area may be
required to ensure atmospheric contaminants are not drawn into the compressed
breathing air system.
Breathing air couplings shall be incompatible with outlets for non-respirable worksite
air or other gas systems.
Steel and aluminum SCBA cylinders and emergency escape pak cylinders shall be
hydrostatically tested every 5 years by a Qualified service supplier. All other
cylinders (e.g., carbon and fiberglass) shall be hydrostatically tested every 3 years
by a Qualified service supplier. Each SCBA shall be functionally tested in
accordance with the manufacturer’s specifications.
Enbridge Employees may refer to the Filling Air Cylinders with Cascade System
procedure in the OMM Book 3 to fill SCBA’s and emergency escape packs.
Cylinders for hoseline breathing equipment shall be equipped with a pressurereducing regulator to control hoseline pressure below 1380 kPa (200 psi).
112
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Breathing Hoselines/Airlines shall:




7.10
be appropriately rated for the maximum pressure produced in systems
be protected from tangles, unnecessary wear and damage
have fully-functional quick connectors at all times
not exceed 76 m (250 ft.) in length
Additional PPE Requirements
Approved Personal Flotation Devices (PFD’s) shall be worn when working within 3
m (10 ft.) of Open Water and have the ability to right a person who may be
unconscious.
Additional PPE may be required for specific work. Refer to the work/task/job
procedure and conduct a Hazard Assessment.
Workers shall wear appropriate clothing for body protection when performing job
tasks as per the completed Hazard Assessment.
Appropriate chemical aprons (neoprene or nitrile) shall be worn when required by
the SDS or the Hazard Assessment.
While performing electrical work, keep sleeves down and do not wear metal articles
(e.g., rings, watches and key chains) unless the items are taped to make them nonconductive.
As determined by the Hazard Assessment, if there is a high potential for skin
absorption of hydrocarbon products then approved Tyvek/rainwear shall be worn to
prevent contamination. Protective creams may be considered for protection against
skin irritation, burns or dermatitis.
113
8.0
Confined Space Entry Standard
Confined Space Entry occurs when Workers enter into an enclosed or partially
enclosed area that meets all of the following criteria:



is not designed or intended for continuous Worker occupancy (e.g., tanks,
pipes),
has restricted means of entry and exit that may compromise the provision of
first aid, evacuation, rescue, or other emergency response (e.g., manholes,
electrical vaults, boreholes, pits, sump tanks, vertical and horizontal
culverts); and
is large enough so that a Worker’s entire body can enter the space
This applies to entry or work within Confined Spaces including, but not limited to:











8.1
vaults
culverts
tanks (open-top or closed, underground, above ground, or in trucks)
railway tank cars
pressure vessels
pits
some parts of machinery
ventilation systems
access openings (manholes)
pipes
towers (heaters)
Responsibilities
Enbridge and Contractor management are responsible for ensuring the compliance
with all Applicable Legislation and Enbridge requirements including, but not limited
to:









114
ensuring work is conducted in accordance with Confined Space Entry
Permits and Hazard Assessments, and any procedures established as a
result of this Standard
ensuring a Qualified Confined Space Entry Supervisor is assigned for each
confined space entry
ensuring all Workers involved in Confined Space work have completed
applicable Confined Space training
ensuring compliance with the signage requirements for Confined Spaces
maintaining a written inventory of existing and potential Confined Space
Worksites at the Enbridge Locations they manage (e.g., at assigned
Worksites; or for a Region)
reviewing and updating the inventory of confined spaces at least once every
3 years, to verify accuracy
ensuring confined space rescue plans are developed for typical Confined
Spaces at the Enbridge Locations they manage
ensuring all required documentation applicable to confined space entry is
developed, completed and maintained, in accordance with Enbridge
requirements and Applicable Legislation
ensuring all resources (e.g., personnel, equipment, PPE) required for each
Confined Space Entry are available
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In addition, Enbridge management and Contractor management shall ensure a
Hazard Assessment review is completed at least once every 3 years, in relation to
Confined Spaces at Enbridge Locations under their management.
A Hazard Assessment review shall also be required (within the three-year period) if
hazard conditions change or if new hazard information becomes known.
In all cases, the Hazard Assessment review shall evaluate the effectiveness of the
Hazard Assessment process regarding the Confined Space and the suitability of
established controls. The review of controls shall be based on relevant factors, such
as:




changes in workplace conditions or work activities
workplace inspection reports
injury statistics
Incident investigations
In addition, Enbridge shall inform Contractors who are required to enter Confined
Spaces about:



Worksite specific Confined Space Entry requirements
any specific identified hazards as well as experience with the space, such as
knowledge of hazardous conditions
precautions or procedures to be followed when in or near Confined Spaces
The Confined Space Entry Supervisor is responsible for:













ensuring all Confined Space Entry and regulatory requirements are met prior
to approving the Confined Space Entry Permit
ensuring all Workers are Qualified to perform their their assigned tasks and
roles
knowing the hazards that may be faced during entry work, including
information on the potential modes of exposure, plus the signs, symptoms
and consequences of different exposures
ensuring a Hazard Assessment is completed prior to entry and reviewing the
Hazard Assessment with the Workers
conducting and overseeing the work in accordance with the Pre-Job Entry
Meeting
ensuring Workers follow the requirements set out during the Pre-Job Entry
Meeting
ensuring adequate steps have been taken to eliminate and/or control all
present or potential hazards, including isolation of equipment using the
LOTO process
verifying hazard controls are implemented and effective
ensuring all required Atmospheric Monitoring and testing has been
completed as required and is properly documented
ensuring that all PPE/RPE and rescue equipment is inspected by a Qualified
Worker and is in good working order before use
ensuring that no Worker enters or remains in a Confined Space unless an
effective rescue can be carried out
ensuring that rescue services are available
ensuring a suitable means of communication among Workers is established,
in accordance with the Pre-Job Entry Meeting and Hazard Assessment
115




supporting the Confined Space Attendant in controlling access to the
confined space
verifying safe entry and exit points are available to Workers and rescue
Workers prior to their entry into the Confined Space
ensuring that acceptable conditions are maintained for the duration of the
entry work and that any requirements or status changes are communicated
to the next Confined Space Entry Supervisor
accounting for all personnel and equipment when the entry work is
terminated
In addition, the Confined Space Entry Supervisor shall ensure the Confined
Space Entry Permit is completed and reviewed with affected Workers.
Before approving the Confined Space Entry Permit and allowing entry to begin,
the Confined Space Entry Supervisor shall ensure:


all procedures specified by the Confined Space Entry Permit and the
Hazard Assessment are readily available to Workers
all equipment specified by the Confined Space Entry Permit and the
Hazard Assessment is readily available and in place
Each Worker entering a Confined Space is responsible for:












116
attending and completing training as required by this Standard
applying the training to their work, i.e., to perform their assigned tasks and
duties properly and in a safe manner
immediately notifying the Confined Space Entry Supervisor when they do
not feel Qualified to perform a task or assigned duty
conducting work as directed by the Confined Space Entry Supervisor, and in
accordance with Enbridge requirements, including this Standard, plus
Confined Space Entry Permits and Hazard Assessments
attending and participating in the Pre-Job entry meeting in accordance with
section 8.11
knowing the hazards that may be faced during entry and alerting the
Confined Space Entry Supervisor when a hazard has not been adequately
controlled
being able to recognize in co-workers the signs and symptoms of illnesses
or injuries due to hazardous exposures
maintaining communication with the Confined Space Attendant and
immediately notifying the attendant if an emergency or a hazardous,
prohibited or unacceptable condition requires evacuation of the Confined
Space
exiting the space as quickly as possible when any of the following occurs:
o the Confined Space Attendant gives the order to evacuate the
space
o an emergency
o a hazardous, prohibited or unacceptable condition is detected
o an evacuation alarm is activated
properly using equipment
wearing/using the required equipment (e.g., PPE, RPE, rescue equipment)
properly, in a safe manner and at all times
knowing the limitations of equipment used to control hazards related to
Confined Space Entry work
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signing in and signing out of the confined space with the Confined Space
Attendant
A Worker designated as a Confined Space Attendant shall first be Qualified in
accordance with the applicable training matrix.
The Confined Space Attendant is responsible for:














ensuring they have the necessary training and certifications to allow for their
designation by a Confined Space Entry Supervisor as the Attendant for an
entry
wearing appropriate clothing (e.g., vest) or other means of identification as
the Confined Space Attendant (in accordance with Applicable Legislation
and/or the particular requirements for that Worksite)
attending and participating in the Confined Space Pre-Job Entry Meeting in
accordance with section 8.11
reviewing the entry and rescue procedures, being aware of all Confined
Space Entry Permit and Hazard Assessment requirements and ensuring all
requirements are followed
being aware of the hazards faced by Workers during entry work, including
information on the signs and symptoms of different exposures, and the
possible behavioral or other effects of different exposures
ensuring they have an effective means of constant communication with the
Workers entering the Confined Space, the emergency rescue services and
the Confined Space Entry Supervisor at all times
ensuring initial and ongoing air testing occurs, as required, and recording the
test results on the Confined Space Entry Permit
ensuring entry points are kept clean and clear
controlling access to the Confined Space and prohibiting entry to
unauthorized Workers
tracking and recording, on the Confined Space Entry Permit, all personnel
entering and exiting a confined space, and controlling the number of
Workers within the space as required by the Confined Space Entry Permit
being aware of hazardous, prohibited or unacceptable conditions that
require evacuation of the space
being prepared to initiate evacuation from the space, as necessary, due to
actual or potential hazards (this could include hazards within the space and
also in the vicinity of the space that could affect the health and safety of
Workers)
ensuring the space has been completely evacuated in the event of an
emergency
requesting rescue and other emergency services when necessary, e.g., as
soon as it is determined that Workers in a Confined Space may need
assistance to evacuate; or, if a situation arises outside the Confined Space
that could endanger the Workers inside or near the Confined Space
Additional requirements include:

a Confined Space Attendant shall not enter a Confined Space for any
reason and shall never leave the entrance to a Confined Space, unless
relieved by another designated and Qualified Confined Space Attendant
117



if relieved of their Confined Space Attendant responsibility, the original
attendant may enter the space to perform rescue operations, if Qualified for
rescue work, and only in accordance with the rescue procedure for that
Confined Space
a Confined Space Attendant shall not perform other duties which might
interfere with their primary duty to monitor and protect the authorized
Workers working in the space, unless they are performing non-entry rescue
in accordance with the rescue procedure
prior to leaving the entrance of a Confined Space, the Confined Space
Attendant shall verify that no person is inside the Confined Space before it is
closed off, and shall ensure proper signage/barricades are in place to
prevent unauthorized entry into the Confined Space
The Confined Space Entry Permit approver is responsible for:



acknowledging the work
reviewing hazards and controls with the Permit Issuer
ensuring the Confined Space Entry Permit Issuer is aware of site-specific
information
The Confined Space Entry Permit Issuer is responsible for:






reviewing hazards and controls with the Permit Receiver
verifying compliance with the requirements on the Confined Space Entry
Permit
verifying that appropriate controls are in place
ensuring Atmospheric Monitoring is complete
classifying the space as per the initial Atmospheric Monitoring and identified
hazards
determining the need for a Confined Space Attendant
The Confined Space Entry Permit receiver is responsible for:




8.2
providing the Permit Issuer with adequate notice
providing a sufficient description of the scope of work
reviewing hazards and controls with Workers involved in the work
ensuring requirements on the permit are followed
Training and Qualification
Before entry or work within a Confined Space, the Confined Space Entry Supervisor
and all Workers with assigned duties related to the work shall be trained and
Qualified in their specific role of the Confined Space Entry, including:






hazard identification and assessment for Confined Spaces
required procedures, as set out in this Standard
selection and use of required PPE, including RPE
Atmospheric Monitoring and sampling
Confined Space Attendant requirements
correct use of fire extinguishers when Hot Work is involved
Workers who are assigned emergency rescue duties shall also be trained in the
following:


118
first aid and cardio-pulmonary resuscitation
Confined Space rescue and equipment training
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Confined Space Entry to Class 1, 2, or 3 spaces is prohibited by any person who
doesn’t have Confined Space training.
119
8.3
Confined Space Classes
All Confined Spaces shall be designated as Class 3 until results of initial
Atmospheric Monitoring are determined. Based on the results, a space may then be
newly designated as Class 1, 2, or 3. Initial Atmospheric Monitoring may require
Workers doing the testing to use SAR/SABA or SCBA, if the space cannot be
adequately tested from outside the space.
Class 1 (Low Atmospheric Hazard)
Class 1 Confined Spaces are those where airborne concentrations within the
following limits are verified by initial testing and are unlikely to change:







oxygen: 19.5 to 23.5% [USA] or 19.5 to 23% [CAN]
lower explosive limit (LEL): less than (<) 3%
hydrogen sulfide (H2S): less than or equal to (≤) 10 ppm
carbon monoxide (CO): Less than (<) 25ppm
benzene: 0 ppm to 0.5ppm
other toxic contaminants: less than or equal to (≤) Exposure Limits
RPE is not required
Class 2 (Moderate Atmospheric Hazard)
Class 2 Confined Spaces are those where airborne concentrations within the
following limits are verified by initial testing or have the potential to develop due to
atmospheric change, temperature change or type of work:







oxygen: 19.5 to 23.5% [USA] or 19.5 to 23% [CAN]
lower explosive limit (LEL): 3% to less than (<) 10 %
hydrogen sulfide (H2S): less than or equal to (≤) 10 ppm
carbon monoxide (CO): Less than (<) 25ppm
benzene: 0.6 ppm to 5 ppm
RPE: half-mask APR with appropriate cartridge; refer to PPE Standard
other toxic contaminants: greater than (>) Exposure Limits but less than (<)
10 times the Exposure Limit
Class 3 (Severe Atmospheric Hazard)
Class 3 Confined Spaces are those where airborne concentrations within the
following limits are verified by initial testing, or are likely to develop or when the
atmospheric concentrations cannot be verified:







oxygen: less than (<) 19.5 or greater than (>) 23.5% [USA] or 23% [CAN]
lower explosive limit (LEL): 10% to less than (<) 20%
hydrogen sulfide (H2S): greater than (>) 10 ppm
carbon monoxide (CO): Greater than or equal to (≥) 25ppm
benzene: 6 ppm to less than (<) 500 ppm
other toxic contaminants: greater than (>) 10 times the Exposure Limit
RPE: SAR/SABA or SCBA; refer to PPE Standard
A person shall not enter or work in or near a Confined Space if the LEL is greater
than (>) 20%.
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Non-Permit Confined Space
A Non-Permit Confined Space (also known as restricted spaces in some
jurisdictions) does not contain hazardous atmospheres or have the potential to
contain any hazardous condition that may cause death or serious physical harm.
A space may be classified as a Non-Permit Confined Space provided that all
hazards within the space are eliminated and verified without entry into the space
and remain eliminated for the duration of the entry Note: control of atmospheric
hazards through forced air ventilation is not considered elimination of the hazards.
The basis for determining that all hazards in the space have been eliminated is
documented on:


Parts 1, 4, 5 and 6 of the Confined Space Entry Permit; and
The Safe Work Permit
A rescue plan shall be established for each Non-Permit Confined Space. The plan
shall include requirements related to communications and working alone.
If a hazard arises or occurs within a Non-Permit Confined Space, each Worker in
the space shall exit the space. The space shall then be reassessed to determine if it
shall be re-designated as a Class 1, 2 or 3 Confined Space.
8.4
Work Practices
Hot Work is not permitted in Confined Spaces where:


the LEL is greater than (>) 10%
the oxygen content is greater than (>) 23% [CAN] or 23.5% [USA]
If these conditions are exceeded during Hot Work activities, the Hot Work shall stop
and remain stopped until the conditions are deemed safe for work to continue. This
determination shall be based on additional or subsequent air testing.
If it is not reasonably practicable to eliminate a hazardous (e.g., explosive or
flammable) atmosphere within the Confined Space through another means, the
Confined Space shall be inerted.
Inerted refers to removing oxygen from a Confined Space and replacing it with an
inert gas such as nitrogen, carbon dioxide or argon to remove the hazard of fire or
explosion.
Inerted Confined Spaces are classified as Class 3 due to the removal of oxygen
(oxygen deficient atmosphere). Class 3 Confined Spaces require the use of SCBA.
8.5
Confined Space Entry Permit
A Worker shall not enter a Confined Space without a valid Confined Space Entry
Permit. The permit shall be:


approved by the Regional Director/Manager (or designate) or the Project
Director (or designate) for work within Class 3 Confined Spaces or approved
by the Site Supervisor for all other work
signed by both the Permit Issuer and the Permit Receiver
121
The Confined Space Entry Permit is verification that a Hazard Assessment has
been completed. Do not issue any Confined Space Entry Permit until:


the scope of work has been:
o defined in sufficient detail to ensure all hazards are identified and
controlled
o reviewed with the Permit Issuer for accuracy
all potential hazards and controls have been identified
If the Permit Receiver or Permit Issuer changes while the work is in progress, the
new Permit Receiver or Permit Issuer shall read and sign the Confined Space Entry
Permit to acknowledge the conditions under which the permit was issued.
Changes to the original permit may be noted on copies of the original.
Confined Space Entry Permits are valid for a maximum of 12 hours or until the end
of the shift in which the permit was written. When a shift change occurs, a new
permit shall be written and reviewed before resuming work activities.
Any Site emergency shall force the stoppage of all work and thus shall require all
Confined Space Entry Permits to be re-written or re-authorized before work can
continue. A Confined Space Entry Permit may be extended past the 12-hour period
as long as:



the same Worker is involved in the work
the extension is identified and authorized on the Confined Space permit
a review of the Confined Space permit indicates it is still valid
Confined Space Entry Permits (and applicable records) shall be maintained as
follows:



Permit Receiver (white copy)
Permit Issuer (pink copy)
information board (yellow copy)
The white copy of the permit (applicable records) shall be readily available from the
Confined Space Attendant, at or near the entrance of the Confined Space. When
work is complete each day, the Permit Receiver shall return the white copy of the
permit (and applicable records) to the Permit Issuer. The Permit Issuer shall retain
the white copy of the permit (and applicable records) onsite.
8.6
Confined Space Hazard Assessment
The Confined Space Entry Supervisor shall ensure a Qualified Worker completes
an adequate assessment of the hazards related to each Confined Space before any
Worker enters the Confined Space.
The Qualified Worker is responsible for:



122
identifying and assessing existing and potential hazards:
o specific to the work activity and related job tasks
o that may exist due to the design, construction, location, use or
contents of the Confined Space
o that may develop while work is done inside the Confined Space
identifying controls for existing and/or potential hazards
ensuring the controls eliminate the hazard or reduce the risk or hazard to as
low as reasonably achievable (ALARA)
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specifying and performing the type and frequency of inspections and tests
necessary to determine the potential for Worker exposure to any of the
identified hazards
where reasonably practicable, involving all Workers associated with the work
in the Hazard Assessment
communicating the results of the Hazard Assessment to all Workers affected
documenting the Hazard Assessment on the Confined Space Entry Permit
as verification
dating and signing the Hazard Assessment
If two or more Confined Spaces are of similar construction and present the same
hazards, their assessments may be recorded in a single document, but each
Confined Space shall be clearly identified in the assessment.
8.7
Isolation Requirements
Each Worker entering a Confined Space shall be adequately protected against
isolation related hazards, as follows:
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release of hazardous substances into the Confined Space: protect Workers
by disconnecting, blanking, blinding or double block and bleed of piping
contact with electrical energy inside the Confined Space: protect Workers by
disconnecting, de-energizing, locking out and tagging the source of electrical
energy
contact with moving parts of equipment inside the Confined Space: protect
Workers by disconnecting the equipment from its power source, deenergizing the equipment, locking it out and tagging it
Isolate according to the requirements in Standard 18, Control of Hazardous Energy.
Other adequate means of Worker protection and hazard prevention are required if
the above controls are not possible in each of these situations.
As identified and required by the Hazard Assessment, Workers shall also be
adequately protected against drowning, engulfment, entrapment, suffocation, and
other hazards from free-flowing material.
8.8
Ventilation Requirements
If atmospheric hazards exist or are likely to exist in a Confined Space, the Confined
Space shall be purged or ventilated, or both, before any Worker enters the space.
Acceptable atmospheric levels shall be maintained at all times when one or more
Workers are present in a Confined Space,
Ventilation requirements shall be documented on the Hazard Assessment.
If testing indicates that the Confined Space’s atmosphere is explosive, or if
assessment determines that an explosive atmosphere is likely to develop, then
purging of the space with an inert gas shall be performed prior to ventilation.
Using air movers as a means of ventilation may create a hazardous, explosive
atmosphere, due to the addition of oxygen into the Confined Space.
If ventilation and/or purging are not practical to maintain acceptable atmospheric
levels in a Confined Space, the Workers involved shall wear RPE in accordance
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with Class 2 or Class 3 requirements, depending on the classification assigned to
the space.
If mechanical ventilation is required to maintain a safe atmosphere in a Confined
Space, the ventilation equipment shall be equipped with an alarm that will be
activated automatically if the equipment fails.
An adequate warning system of ventilation failure shall be in place, to ensure each
Worker receives each warning and is able to exit the Confined Space safely.
The mechanical ventilation equipment shall be audible or visible to every Worker in
the Confined Space, or monitored by a Worker who is in constant attendance at the
equipment and who is in communication with the Workers in the Confined Space.
Should the ventilation equipment fail to operate properly, this Worker shall
immediately direct Workers in the Confined Space to evacuate.
Air volume for Confined Spaces should meet the following criteria, if applicable:
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minimum volume of 1.9 m3/s of air passes through the active working zone
air in the Confined Space contains at least 19.5% oxygen by volume
the Confined Space has an air exchange rate of at least 8 times/hour
the concentration of each hazardous substance or contaminant(s) present in
the space’s atmosphere is below all Exposure Limits
Proper set-up of a ventilation system for a Confined Space is critical to ensure its
effectiveness and to minimize/control hazards and exposures. Consider the
following:
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Eliminate “short-circuiting” of airflow around the fans or blowers by using an
adaptor plate to bolt the fan to the flange of a man-way, or use any other
safely feasible measure.
Supply air needs to be ducted/hosed to deliver it to the work zone and
exhaust air needs to be able to capture any contaminants that may be
generated by work activities. The exhaust hood or duct should be placed
300 mm (1 ft.) from the source of the contaminant(s).
A combination of pushing air in and pulling air out of the Confined Space is
often the most effective. If a contaminant is heavier than air (e.g., crude oil
vapors), the ventilation strategy should be to push air in from the top and
channel exhaust air out from the bottom. However, if the contaminant is
lighter than air (e.g., methane), the contaminant has a tendency to rise to the
top of the space; thus, the ventilation strategy should be to push air in from
the bottom and pull air out from the top.
Ventilation should be continuous, where possible, if the source(s) of the
hazardous atmosphere still exists, or if operations in the Confined Space
generate contaminants or hazards that create a hazardous atmosphere.
When a Confined Space has only a single man-way or opening, or has
interior obstructions that decrease the effectiveness of dilution ventilation;
local exhaust ventilation with a capture hood/duct placed at the source of
contaminants is recommended.
Confined Spaces containing flammable gases or vapors may need to be
purged with an inert gas prior to ventilating with air. If inert gases (e.g.
nitrogen, argon, carbon dioxide) are used for inerting the Confined Space,
the space shall be well-ventilated after the inerting is completed. Then the
atmosphere shall be re-tested before any Worker enters the space.
Where flammable or combustible gases may be present, the ventilation
equipment used shall be designed for use in such environments. The
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equipment shall also be properly grounded and bonded to prevent static
electricity from potentially igniting a combustible source.
Ensure the make-up (fresh) air for the Confined Space is free of
contaminants. Note that make-up air could be contaminated by:
o exhaust air that carries contaminants from work that is carried out
within the Confined Space
o exhaust from nearby or adjacent fuel-operated equipment, such as
generators, air compressors, vacuum trucks, or other vehicles
o vapors or substances arising from nearby or adjacent operations and
processes, e.g., organic vapors from painting, silica from blasting
operations, or lead from paint removal work
Atmospheric Monitoring and Sampling
Refer to section 11.2 Portable Atmospheric Monitoring and Sampling and section
14.6 Respiratory Hazards for additional information on Confined Space Atmospheric
Monitoring and Sampling.
Atmospheric Monitoring for hazards shall:
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be conducted by a Qualified person using calibrated test instruments that
are appropriate for the atmosphere being tested and used in accordance
with manufacturers’ specifications
be completed in accordance with the requirements identified on the Hazard
Assessment
be performed in a manner that does not endanger the health or safety of the
Worker performing the test
be performed in the following order:
1. oxygen content (% O2)
2. flammable gases/vapors (% LEL)
3. toxic air contaminants (e.g., H2S)
4. other toxic contaminants associated with the work activity and
related job tasks (e.g., CO)
be performed before a Worker enters a Confined Space, and before a
Worker re-enters a Confined Space that has been unoccupied for any length
of time
be used to determine the Class (1, 2, 3 or Non-Permit) of the Confined
Space
Remote gas detector accessories (e.g., sample draw pumps) may be needed for
Atmospheric Monitoring at various locations or elevations.
Before entry into a Confined Space, conduct initial Atmospheric Monitoring through
openings from outside the Confined Space, where possible. Use a calibrated directreading and/or grab sample instrument.
If testing from outside the Confined Space is not possible, conduct initial
Atmospheric Monitoring from inside the Confined Space using PPE/RPE, in
accordance Standard 7 PPE in this manual. Confined Spaces are considered Class
3 until Atmospheric Monitoring is complete.
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Continuous Atmospheric Monitoring for the following is required anytime a Worker is
inside a Confined Space:
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oxygen (O2),
lower explosive limits (LEL)
hydrogen sulfide (H2S)
carbon monoxide (CO)
Periodic Atmospheric Monitoring and Atmospheric Sampling may be required for
other hazards or contaminants (e.g., benzene). These frequencies shall be
documented on the Confined Space Entry Permit.
If Atmospheric Monitoring indicates the Class of the Confined Space has changed
or new hazards are present:
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the work shall stop
all Workers shall evacuate the Confined Space, and
the Hazard Assessment shall be reviewed and updated as required
If the source of the changed or new hazard is unknown, an investigation shall be
required before re-entry into the Confined Space is permitted.
Initial Atmospheric Monitoring results shall be recorded on the Confined Space
Entry Permit, and then at adequate intervals, as identified and required by the
permit.
The record of Atmospheric Monitoring results shall include the following:
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tester signature
test date
test equipment used
test methods used
test results
Confined Space Procedure Requirements
Written safe work procedures shall be developed for each Confined Space or
similar Confined Space prior to entry into the Confined Space. In addition, a written
rescue plan shall also be developed (see 8.12).
For Enbridge Facilities, the Contractor’s Confined Space procedures shall be
reviewed by a qualified Enbridge Representative prior to Confined Space work.
Confined Space procedures shall be attached to the Confined Space Entry Permit
and reviewed with Workers affected during the Pre-Job Entry Meeting.
The Confined Space procedures shall establish a constant means of
communication (e.g., voice, visual, signal line) between the Confined Space
Attendant and:
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Workers entering the Confined Space
backup Workers or rescue personnel
the Confined Space Entry Supervisor
The means of communication shall be:
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suitable for the hazards identified during the Hazard Assessment
maintained as long as Workers are in the Confined Space
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The Confined Space entry procedures shall also require that a Confined Space
Attendant:
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is positioned at or near the entrance of Class 1, 2 and 3 Confined Spaces
is provided with the following:
o an emergency warning system or procedure as determined by the
Hazard Assessment
o a fire extinguisher for Hot Work
o required PPE, including high-visibility vest, RPE for the Class of
Confined Space, and Fall Protection equipment
is trained on the following topics:
o access/egress
o emergency/evacuation procedures
o use of fire extinguishers
o use of PPE and RPE
Pre-Job Entry Meeting
Before starting work, the Confined Space Entry Supervisor shall conduct a Pre-Job
Entry Meeting with all involved Workers to review the following:
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the Confined Space Entry Permit
the Hazard Assessment
established procedures (e.g., safe work, emergency/rescue)
air testing results and frequency of testing
method of recording testing results (e.g., Worker inside the space relays
results to the Confined Space Attendant)
communication systems to be used (e.g., constant communications/methods
isolation of energy sources and control of materials movement
required PPE and RPE
securing the Confined Space from unauthorized entry
emergency equipment and required inspection of the equipment
ventilation requirements
The Confined Space Entry Supervisor shall document and sign the Pre-Job Entry
Meeting section on the back of the Confined Space Entry Permit (Part 7). This
signature authorizes entry into the Confined Space. The Confined Space Entry
Supervisor shall also ensure all Workers involved sign under this section.
Involved or affected Workers include, but are not limited to, the following:
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Workers entering the Confined Space,
Confined Space Attendant
atmospheric testers
onsite designated rescue personnel
On-Site Evacuation and Rescue
A Worker shall not enter a Class 1, 2 or 3 Confined Space or a Non-Permit
Required Confined Space unless a detailed, written rescue plan is:
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developed and readily available
reviewed at the Pre-Job Entry Meeting prior to entry into the Confined Space
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ready for immediate implementation to ensure an effective evacuation and
rescue can be carried out in the event of an emergency
Rescue plans shall be retained with the Confined Space Entry Permit and should be
reviewed periodically and practiced regularly.
The written rescue plan specific to a Confined Space shall include, but is not limited
to, the following:
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Confined Space Attendant name(s)
rescue personnel/services to be used
location and dimensions of the Confined Space
location of entry and exit points and obstacles to removing an injured Worker
(note: the use of plans, drawings or sketches is helpful)
required training for Workers involved in rescue procedures, including
rescue training and related training such as first aid and CPR
rescue equipment and location of the equipment (note: for Class 2 and 3
Confined Spaces, the required rescue equipment shall be located at the
Confined Space entrance)
the means of constant communication used to notify involved Workers and
responders of an emergency situation
evacuation methods and signals, e.g., establishment of a meeting point; use
of horns or alarms
method of rescue that is to be used for that particular space, taking into
account the work tasks being performed in the Confined Space, and the
potential rescue scenarios
number of Workers (minimum and maximum) involved in the Confined
Space entry work
If possible, the rescue plan should include options for non-entry rescue, including
retrieval systems or methods that can be used whenever a Worker enters a
Confined Space. A non-entry retrieval option should be used unless the retrieval
equipment being used would increase the overall risk of entry or would not
contribute to the rescue of a Worker inside the Confined Space.
Rescue personnel shall be provided with all equipment necessary to perform an
effective rescue in accordance with the rescue plan for the Confined Space.
All rescue attempts shall be made by trained Workers with the proper equipment
(the majority of Confined Space fatalities are rescuers).
Non-Enbridge Rescue Services
If off-site, third-party rescue services are required or used (e.g., fire department),
the Confined Space Entry Supervisor (or a designated Enbridge Representative)
shall contact the rescue service and jointly develop a rescue plan prior to entry.
The Rescue Plan shall:
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ensure all parties understand the rescue capabilities and limitations of the
rescue service before any rescue service personnel enters the Confined
Space
ensure that the rescue service supervisory personnel are trained in Confined
Space entry and informed and aware of all hazards associated with entry to
the Worksite and specific Confined Spaces
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Top-Entry Confined Spaces
If entrance into a Confined Space is from the top, the following requirements shall
be met:
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each Worker entering the space shall use a full-body harness and, where
appropriate, be attached to a lifeline
if a lifeline is used, the lifeline shall be attended by another Worker who is
Qualified to carry out the established rescue procedures
where reasonably practicable, a mechanical lifting device shall be located at
the entry to the Confined Space and available for use during a rescue; the
device shall be placed at the entrance at all times when one or more
Workers are in the Confined Space
If the use of a full-body harness or lifeline could create an additional hazard, an
alternate method of rescue shall be developed and implemented.
8.14
Confined Space Signage
Confined Spaces that are permanent, or that are frequently accessed, shall be
identified by signage stating “Danger, Confined Space – Entry Permit Required” or a
sign using similar language.
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9.0
Injury Prevention Standard
Injury Prevention
Rebar, T-bar and other impalement hazards shall be capped or otherwise protected.
Blocks shall be used to prevent equipment from rolling and heavy parts from falling.
Check with fellow Workers before removing blocks.
Overhead ice buildup should be removed as soon as it starts to occur, to prevent
the formation of a large mass that could potentially injure Workers, or damage
equipment. The removal method shall be determined based on the hazards.
Traction and Slipping
Workers shall take all appropriate measures to prevent slipping hazards in all work
areas and walkways.
Such measures or controls may include the application of sand or other approved
materials that provide grip and traction.
In addition, all work areas and walkways shall be visually identifiable through
signage, flagging, or other methods appropriate for the work and weather
conditions.
At all times, work areas and walkways shall be maintained to minimize the risk of
slips or falls, including:
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covering of holes and openings
good housekeeping
removal or repair of uneven walking surfaces, e.g., repair of uneven floor
boards
removal of unnecessary objects or equipment
Work areas and walkways shall be kept clear of snow and ice. As appropriate, use
authorized traction control aids, such as sand, gravel or an approved snow melt.
When weather conditions (such as snow, fog or rain) may contribute to or increase
hazards (e.g., by obscuring a hazard), Workers shall identify the hazardous areas,
e.g., with flagging, marking or other appropriate means.
Where use of a traction control aid is not authorized or appropriate, Workers, in
consultation with the Site Supervisor, shall identify alternative means of reducing,
eliminating or controlling the hazard, such as traction aids or grated walking
surfaces.
Be aware of the potential for different hazards related to ice and/or snow. For
instance, ice build-up or slippery conditions may be present under snow cover.
Other hazards may also be present or hidden under ice or snow.
Workers shall not walk or stand on exposed pipes.
9.3
Line of Fire and Pinch Points
Line of fire is when a Worker may be at risk of injury from a hazard, such as:
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Hazards associated with working equipment or machinery
release of spray
falling objects
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Generally, Workers may be in the line of fire at any work location where equipment
or machinery is transmitting energy (e.g., in movement).
Pinch points also represent an injury risk. A pinch point Incident is when any part of
a Worker’s body gets caught between two other objects. For instance, a Worker’s
leg may get pinched against a wall between a forklift load and the wall.
Methods of guarding shall be provided to protect Workers from pinch point injuries.
Specific pinch point hazards shall be identified on the Hazard Assessment. Based
on the potential and existing pinch point hazards, additional specific PPE may be
required to protect Worker from line of fire and pinch points. More information on
machine guarding can be found in section 20.5.
Wrap points are the exposed, rotating components on machinery or equipment.
Wrap points present a potential hazard to Workers, as different items can be caught
up or entangled in a wrap point. Such items may include a Worker’s clothing, hair or
jewelry.
A combination of controls shall be used near wrap points, including guarding.
Workers shall not wear loose-fitting garments or jewelry. Workers with long hair
shall keep their hair tied back, to avoid entanglement.
Shear points are formed when two edges come close enough together to cut what
is between them. Cutting points are found where an edge is moved fast and
forcefully enough to cut material. Shear points and cut points shall be guarded in a
manner that encloses the points within the machinery or equipment, or shall
otherwise be guarded to prevent the operator from being exposed to the hazard.
In addition to effective (engineered) guarding and using the right PPE for the work,
administrative controls shall also be used, including Worker training and safe work
practices.
Evaluating pinch points and line of fire:
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Hand placement:
o Never place your hand, fingers or any other body part in the line of
fire. Always use push sticks, guards, shields, or other devices as
appropriate to avoid putting your fingers in pinch points.
Equipment or loads that swing:
o Don’t try to stop the swing unless you have the proper tool to do so.
Never use your hands.
Doorways:
o Consider hand placement when going through doors. Never handle
objects by the sides that will potentially hit the door or contact the
door-jamb.
Automated equipment:
o Be alert when working around automated equipment, including
remote or motor operated valves. Relays, delay timers, and remote
controllers can cause equipment to open, close or “startup” without
warning. Never put your hands in the hazard area
Moving heavy objects:
o Be aware that losing control of something heavy can cause injury to
hands. Don’t try to catch the object, let it drop, and be aware of foot
placement to avoid crushing injuries from dropped objects.
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Refer to section 20.5 Equipment and Machine Guarding for more information on
pinch point control requirements.
9.4
Industrial Hygiene
Enbridge’s industrial hygiene program protects Workers from work-related illnesses
and injuries. The program will anticipate, recognize, evaluate, and control the
industrial hygiene hazards that Workers may be exposed to in the workplace.
Worker exposure shall be assessed for all physical, chemical, and biological agents.
Exposures will be measured against Exposure Limits. An Exposure Limit is a
Workplace standard below which is believed that nearly all normal and healthy
Workers may be repeatedly exposed, day after day, for working lifetime without
adverse health effects.
Exposure mitigation and control protocols will be utilized anytime a measured
exposure is above an Action Level, where applicable. An Action Level is a threshold
value, equal to or below the Exposure Limit, which initiates an exposure mitigating
response action.
Worker exposure shall be determined, empirically or conceptually, prior to the start
of new projects or job tasks. Periodic exposure surveillance may also be required
for routine or continuous work practices.
9.5
Assessment and Prevention of Ergonomic Hazards
There are many different types of ergonomic hazards in the workplace.
For instance, in some cases, the risk of injury may be due to improper use of
manual lifting techniques, and/or awkward or unsafe body positioning for the work.
Other potential factors may include overexertion, overextension, repetitive motions,
repetitive strain, or working too long in the same position or at the same task.
To recognize and control ergonomic hazards, use methods such as:
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Ergonomic Assessment
Task Analysis
Hazard Assessment
Safe Work Permit
With effective use of Hazard Assessment methods, important factors and risk
factors can be evaluated, such as:
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work dimensions
spatial clearance
vertical and horizontal distances
force
frequency
postures
repetition and task duration
other physical stressors (e.g., vibration, temperature, illumination,
humidityWhere there is a known risk of Musculoskeletal Injury (MSI) or a
Repetitive Strain Injury (RSI) associated with a task or job function, a People
Leader shall ensure an ergonomic assessment is completed, in consultation
with the Corporate Health and Safety Department.
Musculoskeletal disorders include:
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tendon disorders – such as tendonitis, tenosynovitis, DeQuervain’s disease,
Ganglion and epicondylitis
nerve disorders – such as carpel tunnel syndrome and Cubita tunnel
syndrome
back disorders – such as back sprain, back strain, degenerative disc
diseases and herniated/ruptured/bulging discs
If a trend is identified by the Corporate Health & Safety Department where MSIs are
experienced by Workers involved in a given task or job function, then the Corporate
Health & Safety Department shall take steps to prevent or control the identified
factors or hazards.
In consultation with the Health & Safety Department as needed, People Leaders
shall also use methods such as safety observations and work practice inspections
to help identify ergonomic hazards, and possible solutions or controls.
Early Identification of Ergonomic Risk Factors
During the design phase for a Project or Facility, Enbridge management should
ensure ergonomic risk factors are identified and evaluated, and develop
recommendations to mitigate potential impacts.
Examples of factors that should be evaluated include processes, tools, equipment,
layouts, workstations and Facilities. For such factors, the relevant ergonomic design
guidelines should be consulted.
For instance, the ergonomic features of power tools should be evaluated before
purchase. Similarly, chairs and workstations (e.g., desks, equipment) should also be
evaluated prior to purchase, to ensure they meet applicable ergonomic Standards
or specifications.
Manual Lifting
Proper methods of manually lifting and handling materials protect Workers from
injury. When equipment is available and conditions make it practical, use
mechanical devices for lifting and carrying. Cranes, hoists, pickers, lift trucks, and
similar units are made for this purpose.
Before lifting a load, Workers shall assess the hazards and injury risks.
Hazard Assessment steps should consider factors and conditions, such as:
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frequency of lifting – e.g., does the work involve only a few lifts, several
hours of lifting, or more?
lifting motions and positions – e.g., is there a risk of strain or injury if lifting
above shoulder height and twisting while lifting?
grip and handling – e.g., are Workers provided with proper gloves or
equipment to handle each lift; are the materials slippery to handle?
safe footing – e.g., are controls in place to prevent slippery walking surfaces
in the work area?
stability of objects or loads – e.g., are loads or stacked items in a stable
position before and during the lifting work?
weight of the load – ensure individual Workers do not lift loads more than 50
lbs (23 kg)
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visibility factors – take measures to ensure each Worker’s vision is not
blocked by the load or object being lifted, or by other nearby Workers,
material or equipment
If a lifting task involves one or more risk factors or conditions, such as those listed
above, request assistance from one or more Workers, as appropriate, or use
mechanical lifting equipment.
If using mechanical equipment, request assistance from another Worker as
appropriate, e.g., to assist with sightlines, guide the load or other assistance to
ensure the lifting work is completed safely.
When lifting use the following controls:
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Plan the lift and test the load. Before lifting, think about the item being
moved and assess:
o can that be done alone
o is it too awkward for one person
o is the path clear
o what is the approximate weight before lifting
Ask for help. If the load is too heavy or awkward to lift, ask for assistance
Get a firm footing. Keep your feet apart for stability and point your toes out
Bend your knees. Do not bend at the waist. Keep the principles of leverage
in mind at all times
Tighten your stomach muscles. Use intra-abdominal pressure to support
your spine when you lift, offsetting the force of the load. Train your muscles
to work together.
Lift with your legs. Let your leg muscles do the work of lifting. Do not rely on
your weaker back muscles
Keep the load close. Do not hold the load away from your body. The closer it
is to your spine, the less force it exerts on your back
Keep your back upright. Whether lifting or putting down the load, do not add
the weight of your body to the load. Avoid twisting
A hierarchy of intervention methods is presented below in the order of priority. In
situations with multiple causal factors, a combination of control methods may be
warranted.
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1. Process Elimination – means elimination of non-value added processes,
job tasks, motion, transportation and uncomfortable layouts. Elimination may
be achieved by design/redesign, modifications or different approaches, e.g.,
lifting down sample cans from workstations and lifting them up to the trucks
may be eliminated by using a cart.
2. Substitution – means substituting a new work process or tool without
ergonomic hazards for a work process with identified ergonomic hazards.
Substitution serves to eliminate the hazard. For example, hand tools that
require awkward wrist positions such as extreme wrist flexion, extension or
deviation can be replaced with tools that allow a neutral wrist posture.
3. Engineering Controls – changes are made to the workstations, tools
and/or machinery that alter the physical composition of the human-machine
interface or process so that the ergonomic risk factors are eliminated or
reduced
4. Work Practice Controls – means procedures or practices are used to
reduce Worker exposure to Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorder risk
factors such as:
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o
o
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using proper posture and proper lifting techniques for bulky objects
selecting and using proper tools and workstations
allowing a conditioning or break-in period for new and returning
employees
o regularly monitoring and observing Worker practices, and correcting
practices to reduce risk
5. Administrative controls – means controls used to limit the duration,
frequency and severity of exposure to work-related musculoskeletal
hazards. Examples of administrative controls include, but are not limited to:
providing rest breaks, doing stretching exercises, providing opportunities for
job enrichment, limiting overtime work and instituting job rotation.
6. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) – PPE may be used as an interim
measure to control work-related musculoskeletal hazards, but must not be
used as a permanent control when other controls are feasible. Some factors
to consider include:
o ergonomic-related PPE such as wrist rests, back belts and back
braces have not demonstrated their effectiveness in preventing workrelated musculoskeletal disorders
o anti-vibration gloves have proven to be somewhat effective in
reducing vibration hazards
o PPE should not contribute to work-related musculoskeletal disorder
hazards and increase safety risks
o PPE used for the purpose of preventing or reducing ergonomic
hazards shall be approved by Health & Safety or
recommended/prescribed by a licensed health care professional
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10.0 First Aid and Bloodborne Pathogens Standard
10.1
Program Requirements
This Standard applies to any Worker who provides first aid or medical assistance
where there is a potential risk of infection, illness or injury, due to exposure to body
fluids, Blood, Bloodborne Pathogens and/or Other Potentially Infectious Material
(OPIM). Refer to these defined terms.
Depending on a Worker’s job, assigned duties, and/or level of first aid training, a
Worker may at times be in a position to provide first aid or medical assistance.
Note, in most instances, Workers who are specifically trained or Qualified to provide
first aid and/or emergency response will respond to Incidents or events where first
aid or medical assistance is required. (Also refer to 11.1, First Aid Equipment.).
Use engineering controls and work practice controls to eliminate or minimize
employee exposure to bloodborne pathogens in the workplace. Where the potential
for exposure remains after an incident, the following controls must be implemented,
including the use of PPE.
One of the main infection hazards for Workers is exposure to sharps (e.g., used
needles). To help prevent exposures to sharps and reduce the risk of sharps
injuries, Enbridge Locations shall have specific containers for safe disposal of
sharps.
The following precautions shall be taken when handling sharps:




a sharps container shall have a clearly defined maximum capacity (i.e., have
a fill line that indicates when the container is ¾ full) and shall be sturdy
enough to resist punctures under normal conditions of use and handling
a person shall not re-cap a used needle
each used needle shall be safely disposed of in a sharps container
sharps containers shall be emptied when they become ¾ full ,so that the
containers can be disposed of properly
Any Worker who is potentially exposed to Bloodborne Pathogens while on the job
shall immediately receive a confidential medical evaluation.
10.2
Controls
Enbridge shall provide hand washing facilities readily accessible to Workers who
may be potentially exposed while providing first aid or medical assistance; if
washing facilities are not provided, antiseptic cleansers shall be provided.
To prevent potential exposure to body fluids, Blood, Bloodborne Pathogens and
OPIM, Workers involved in providing first aid or medical assistance shall:




wear appropriate PPE, which includes eye and face protection, hand
protection and protective clothing (i.e., coats, gowns or jackets)
wear disposable latex gloves when hand contact with blood, body fluids or
OPIM is anticipated
discard gloves if they are cracked, peeling, torn or punctured, or when their
ability to function as a barrier is compromised
remove any PPE or other clothing that is penetrated by blood, body fluids or
OPIM; immediately, or as soon as reasonably practical
Workers shall not:
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reuse contaminated gloves, nor wash them or decontaminate them
eat, drink, smoke, apply cosmetics or lip balm, or handle personal contact
lenses where there is a potential of exposure to blood, body fluids or OPIM
Where a potential exposure to or contact with blood, body fluids or OPIM
has occurred, the Worker shall:
wash their hands with soap and water immediately, or as soon as
reasonably practical, or wash their hands immediately after removing
potentially contaminated gloves or any other potentially contaminated PPE
wash any area of the body as soon as possible after exposure or contact
flush mucous membranes with water, as soon as possible after exposure or
contact
Additional preventive measures shall include:



equipment or surfaces that may be contaminated by blood, body fluids or
OPIM shall be decontaminated, preferably by the Worker involved, if able to
perform this task (e.g., a Worker is cut, but able to apply their own bandage
and wash the affected surfaces)
if a Worker is unable to wash a contaminated surface or area, then another
trained Worker shall carry out the decontamination, using appropriate
disinfectant and PPE, in accordance with procedures
all contaminated or potentially contaminated material (including PPE) shall
be placed by the involved Worker(s) in a designated receptacle for
collection, prior to leaving the work area
All Enbridge Locations shall post warning signs and label storage or collection
containers, as required by procedures associated with this Standard. Warning signs
shall be fluorescent orange, with lettering and symbols of a contrasting color.
Storage or collection containers shall be identifiable, e.g., red bags or other suitable,
labeled containers.
Enbridge Employees should refer to the Bloodborne Pathogens Procedure in the
GDL, (under IMS-04 Tier 2 procedures) for additional responsibilities, instructions
for medical follow-up, vaccinations, paperwork, and records.
10.3
Standard Precautions
Standard Precautions are based on the premise that all blood and bodily fluids are
considered infectious and shall be treated as such. Workers shall:




wash their hands as soon as possible after any exposure to blood or bodily
fluids, including their own
cover cuts and scrapes effectively and completely with bandaging to prevent
the transmission of their own blood and bodily fluids, and to also prevent
their own exposure to blood or bodily fluids from other sources
apply fresh bandaging to their own cuts/scrapes as needed during a work
shift
discard single-use items once application is complete
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10.4
First Aid
The number of first aiders at an Enbridge Location and their level of training shall be
established according to local Applicable Legislation.
The requirements for medical staff and their level of qualification shall be
established according to Applicable Legislation.
If a Worker is injured or wounded (e.g., cut, scrape, open wound) during water
washing operations (e.g., when operating or working near a water lance), seek
medical attention. Such wounds have a high risk of infection.
Wounds caused by a water lance should be treated in the same way as other
wounds, except for the following steps:


after bleeding has stopped, pour bottled or clean running water over the
wound
if possible, leave unclean wounds open until they have been assessed by a
medical professional
A Medical Plan shall be established at Enbridge Locations where access to
emergency services is limited. The plan shall include:



138
directions to nearest hospital(s)
relevant evacuation information (such as air ambulance, nearby medical
transport, etc.)
medical staff (as required)
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11.0 Safety Equipment Standard
11.1
First Aid Equipment
First Aid Kit
All Enbridge Locations and vehicles shall be equipped with first aid kits.
Identification of each first aid kit shall include the words ‘FIRST AID’ or the first aid
symbol.
For Enbridge vehicles, first aid kits shall be


secured in an accessible location
inspected monthly and re-stocked as necessary
First aid kits shall be:


installed in conspicuous location that is accessible at all times to all Workers
inspected monthly and re-stocked as necessary
At Enbridge Locations where Workers are present, posted notices shall identify the
location of first aid kits. Notices shall be easily visible and posted at practical
locations where Workers and Visitors will see the notice, such as:



at building entrances
In and around the building or Site, e.g., in elevators, on notice boards, etc.
on each Site Safety Plot Plan and/or Emergency Evacuation Plan
At unattended Sites or locations where Workers are not regularly present, place the
first aid notices on the outside of the building, including a statement that first aid
supplies are available inside and clearly noting the storage location.
Where required by Applicable Legislation, a first aid manual and list of required first
aid supplies shall be included inside each first aid kit.
Eyewash Stations
Enbridge Locations shall have eyewash stations available in work environments
where workers may be exposed to chemical hazards.
Contractors are responsible to provide adequate quantities of eyewash, based on
the type and quantity of chemicals present on the Worksite, and in accordance with
the information or directions on the applicable SDSs, plus the Hazard Assessment
for that Location.
Enbridge requirements for Contractors and Enbridge Locations include:

Locate an eyewash station within 7.6 m (25 ft.) of harmful chemicals (e.g.,
strong acids or caustics) or where the Hazard Assessment determines an
eyewash station is required.
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All types of eyewash stations shall be clearly identified and readily
accessible. Do not block access; areas around the station shall be kept
clear.
Supply tepid (lukewarm) potable water for fixed plumbed systems.
Placement of portable systems should consider the availability of access to
potable water.
Inspect plumbed, self-contained and portable eyewash equipment monthly.
All models shall have approved nozzle caps (to prevent foreign matter
buildup) and be cleaned and mounted correctly.
For self-contained eyewash stations and unsealed portable eyewashes,
change the flushing fluids quarterly, or as specified by the manufacturer. If
using water, add a preservative to maintain freshness; there are commercial
additives that can help prevent freezing and micro-organism build-up.
At isolated or remote work areas, at least one portable eyewash (squeeze
bottle) shall be available anywhere there is a potential hazard from
chemicals.
Locate squeeze bottles close to the chemical hazard and protect each bottle
from the elements (e.g., prevent freezing).
During inspection, ensure the eyewash equipment is clean; placed in its a
designated location. Also ensure sufficient eyewash fluid is available. When
inspecting portable eyewashes, ensure the seal is not broken or past the
expiry date. If expired, replace immediately or at the earliest possible date.
Fixed eyewash stations may be plumbed into the potable water system or have a
reservoir. In addition:



fixed eyewash stations should be mounted so the discharge nozzles are
between 74-91cm (29-36 in.) off the ground
remote fixed eyewash stations that do not have a constant potable water
supply shall also have an emergency eyewash station capable of providing
approximately 15 minutes of continuous flushing
during each inspection of a fixed eyewash station, flush the line and verify
proper operation
Automated External Defibrillator
An Automated External Defibrillator (AED) is a machine that can monitor heart
rhythms. If required, it can deliver an electric shock to the heart in an attempt to
correct heart arrhythmia.
At permanent Enbridge office locations where emergency medical response times
are more than 4 minutes, an AED shall be kept with the First Aid Kit as part of the
standard first aid supplies.
Project, Regional or Departmental EH&S committees may consider placement of an
AED at additional Sites or locations, in cases where:



the Site or location has 6 or more employees; and/or
the emergency medical response time for that location is greater than 20
minutes; and/or
the project safety plan determines their need
Additional AED requirements include:
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if a project is legally required to have a first aid room, a AED shall be kept in
the room
each AED shall be mounted on a wall or stored in a cabinet with proper
signage and protective casing
only Workers trained in the use of an AED are authorized to use an AED
AEDs are not intrinsically safe and shall not be stored in Hazardous Areas
inspect AEDs in accordance with manufacturers' specifications
Before purchasing an AED model, please contact the Corporate Health & Safety to
confirm approved AED models for purchase.
Contractors and First Aid
Contractors shall provide first aid supplies (e.g., first aid kits, blankets, stretchers
and splints) to Contractor personnel and crews in accordance with Applicable
Legislation.
Where Mobile Treatment Centers (MTCs) are required, they shall be equipped with
supplies suitable to the scope of practice of the attendants and the medical control
guidelines.
Examples of required equipment include:


11.2
AEDs and anaphylaxis kits for use by EMTs
ALS equipment for use by Paramedics (where specifically required)
Portable Atmospheric Monitoring and Sampling
Personal monitors shall be worn by each individual when:







working in Confined Spaces
removing storage tank seals, tank man ways or tank mixers
entering tanks that have not been cleaned and freed of gas
work associated with Open Systems, such as scraper traps and provers
spill or leak containment, clean-up and repairs
required by Regional Operations as noted on the SWP
when required based by a Hazard Assessment
When a monitor is not required for each individual, the number of monitors shall be
determined by the project safety plan, the site specific plot plan, or based on a
Hazard Assessment.
Where personal monitors are not required (based on Atmospheric Monitoring and
the Hazard Assessment), crews working in Hazardous or Restricted Areas shall use
area monitors.
Contractors shall provide appropriate Atmospheric Monitoring and detection
equipment unless otherwise noted within the bid documents or at the Request for
Proposal (RFP), or at the pre-job meeting.
When necessary, specific atmospheric hazard measurement devices shall also be
provided by the Contractor, e.g., if mono-styrene, acetone, benzene or other
hazards are present. Enbridge shall inform the Contractor when there is the
potential for respiratory hazards or contaminants that may not be detectable by
standard 4-head monitors.
141
Workers shall:


be trained to operate and maintain the types of portable and/or personal gas
monitors used at the Location
follow manufacturers’ specifications regarding operation, servicing, bump
testing and calibration
The alarm set points of portable gas monitors shall be set in accordance with Table
1.
Table 1-Portable Gas Monitor Alarm Set Points
H2S
LEL
CO
O2
low alarm
10 ppm
10% LEL
25 ppm
19.5%
high alarm
20 ppm
20% LEL
190 ppm
23.5% (US)
23% (Can)
STEL alarm
15 ppm
N/A
190 ppm
N/A
TWA alarm
10 ppm
N/A
25 ppm
N/A
Personal gas monitors shall:





have 4-head functionality: O2, CO, LEL and H2S
be worn within 25 cm. (10 in.) of the breathing zone (area around mouth and
nose)
not be placed into shirts, coveralls or jacket pockets unless the pockets are
specially designed to hold portable gas monitors (i.e., mesh pocket)
provide a visual and audible alarm that is equipped with low and high alarm
points
be recharged in a safe area, away from the area being monitored; carry out
recharging as soon as possible after the low-battery indicator activates, to
ensure the monitor does not shut down
An area monitor consists of at least 1 individual wearing a monitor who remains in
the affected area at all times during the work activity. Area monitors shall:




142
be capable of monitoring the potential hazard
be equipped with a visual alarm (i.e., red indicator that lights when alarm
levels are reached) in addition to an audible alarm, where possible
be placed where the atmospheric hazard is likely, based on the substance
(e.g., placed at lower levels when monitoring for substances heavier than
air)
be used where there is potential for exposure to atmospheric hazards,
including, but not limited to:
o Confined Spaces
o Open Systems
o venting systems
o leak sites
o Hazardous Areas
o Restricted Areas
o when actively working within 30 m (100 ft.) of Ground Disturbance
work which is taking place within 3 m (10 ft.) of operating Facilities
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(e.g., gas or oil pipelines, above or below ground); in such cases,
there shall also be continuous gas monitoring, as determined by the
Hazard Assessment
Combustible gas monitors do not provide accurate readings in an oxygen-deficient
atmosphere.
Passive monitors assess the atmosphere without the use of a pump. Active
monitors have internal pumps that draw atmospheric samples from the immediate
area or from a distance (e.g., inside a pipe, sump, booster pit).
143
Sampling Equipment
Sampling equipment (including multi-head continuous gas monitors) shall:


be capable of sampling according to the potential hazard
be positioned within a few feet of the work area and not interfere with the
task, including:
o at the source of the gas or vapor
o low areas (for petroleum vapors and H2S)
o the most representative location for Workers at the site
o areas with the highest potential for exposure
When using grab sampling equipment such as detector tubes (e.g., Drager CMS)
and photo ionization detectors (e.g., UltraRae) Workers shall:



obtain multiple grab samples to obtain representative exposure information
always follow manufacturers’ guidelines for testing time limits and
specifications, but combine with Atmospheric Monitoring best practices
stop Atmospheric Monitoring and leave the work area (following applicable
safety procedures) when alarms are activated before specified length of time
for measurement (i.e., one minute)
For Atmospheric Monitoring of Open Systems, gathering systems and Sites of the
mainline systems Workers shall:



wear half-face air purifying respirators with combination acid gas/organic
vapor cartridges until H2S, LEL, benzene and mercaptans (if applicable)
levels can be verified through initial Atmospheric Monitoring
conduct Atmospheric Monitoring periodically to re-evaluate whether existing
practices and control measures are adequate for protecting Workers at
newly detected levels of chemical exposures; the frequency of Atmospheric
Monitoring shall be determined by the Hazard Assessment
document testing results on the SWP
During initial Atmospheric Monitoring, Workers shall:






document the initial Atmospheric monitoring results on the SWP, and if
required based on the Hazard Assessment, document continuous
Atmospheric Monitoring on the SWP at intervals determined by the Hazard
Assessment
prior to performing any work, conduct a minimum of one atmospheric test for
benzene with a grab sampling instrument or PID and one test for H2S and
LEL with a multi-head gas detector at a minimum of 300 mm (1 ft.) directly
perpendicular to the Open Systems
ensure measurements are taken at the downwind side regardless of the
atmospheric tester/operator position relative to the Open Systems
ensure Atmospheric Monitoring for mercaptans with grab sampling
equipment is conducted for coker naphtha products
ensure these requirements are evaluated as part of the pre-job Hazard
Assessment
refer to Confined Space Standard for initial Atmospheric Monitoring and
ongoing testing requirements in Confined Spaces section of this manual
A functional test is a brief exposure of the monitor to a concentration of gas(es) in
excess of the lowest alarm set-point for each sensor. This test verifies sensor and
alarm operation.
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Follow manufacturers’ specifications regarding operation, servicing, bump testing
and calibration.
If an instrument fails a bump test or a calibration check, the Workers shall perform a
full calibration on it before using it. If the instrument fails the full calibration, the
Worker shall remove it from service.
Functional bump testing shall:



be performed in accordance with the manufacturer’s specifications before
each day’s use
for the mainline systems, use pentane or pentane equivalent gases; when
pentane equivalent methane is used for calibration, then methane can be
used for bump testing
for the vector system, use pentane or pentane equivalent gases for
calibration, and methane for bump testing
o when calibrated with pentane, a calibration gas with 0.35% pentane
should be used to calibrate against 25% LEL. In this case, the default
LEL setting should be set at 25% prior to applying the pentane
calibration gas
o when calibrated with pentane equivalent methane, a calibration gas
with 1.25% methane should be used to calibrate against 50% LEL; in
this case, the default LEL setting of portable gas monitors for
calibration should be set at 50% prior to applying the pentane
calibration gas
Contractors shall maintain bump test and calibration logs at the Site and make the
logs available at the request of the Enbridge Representative.
Workers who calibrate Gas Detectors shall:
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
calibrate to the frequency indicated in the manufacturer’s specifications
bump test portable gas monitors and verify calibration before every Confined
Space Entry
attach a gas detector inspection tag to each gas monitor, including
calibration date and initials of the Worker who calibrated the monitors; no tag
is required if an auto-calibration station is used for personal multi-gas
monitors; however, the Worker shall follow Enbridge calibration
requirements and the manufacturer’s specifications for calibration
tag the calibration record for multi-gas monitors and grab sampling
equipment when shared with a group of Workers
record calibration results of manually calibrated portable gas monitors in the
Gas Monitoring Instrument Service Log and retain on site for 2 years; it is
not required to maintain a Gas Monitoring Instrument Service Log for
portable gas monitors capable of self-monitoring calibration cycles indicating
when calibration is required
All calibration and maintenance activities, including the Gas Monitoring Instrument
Service Log shall be documented and retained according to the document retention
policy.
Personal monitors shall not be used when:

they are past calibration date
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have not been bump tested
there is a faulty sensor
Considerations for cold weather operation:

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11.3
Most manufacturers of gas detectors place the design lower limit at -10 to
-20 °C; be sure to check the operating manual
LCD screens will dim at temperatures from -15 to -25°C. Keeping the
monitor inside your coat and attaching a pump will allow you to still read the
screen
The chemical reactions that occur in the gas detector begin to slow down at
temperatures below -20°C longer monitoring is required to get a good
reading
Use of a hand warmer in the gas detector carrying case will help speed the
reactions slightly, they will keep the LCD screen reading longer and they will
help speed up the chemical reactions
At temperatures -35 to -40°C, it is recommended to take a sample to the gas
detector in a warm well ventilated building
Standard Safety Equipment
Table 1 identifies the standard safety equipment recommended at Enbridge
Locations, plus any necessary PPE for a given location.
Wind socks are one type of standard equipment noted in Table 1.
Position wind socks in locations that are:



away from wind currents caused by tanks or buildings
high enough to avoid influence from equipment (however, if located too high,
an accurate indication of wind movement at ground level may not be
possible)
easily visible, day and night (e.g., illuminated locations)
Boats
Boats shall meet or exceed the safety and environmental requirements in the Small
Vessel Compliance Program (SVCP) and be equipped with safety equipment
according to the Canada Shipping Act, 201(CSA 2001) [CAN] or the Federal
Requirements and Safety Tips for Recreational Boats [USA].
Refer to Table 2 [CAN] or Table 3 [USA] to identify the standard safety equipment
required on boats.
In addition to the standard boat safety equipment, the following additional
equipment is recommended, depending on the size, location and use of the boat:
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VHF radio
anchor/spare anchor
heaving line
first aid kit
ring buoy
oars or paddles
tool kit
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Vehicles
Table 4 identifies the standard safety accessories recommended for Enbridgeowned and leased vehicles, plus additional PPE where required.
Whenever practicable, use a certified towing agency to recover a vehicle.
If a towing agency is not used, follow these requirements when recovering a
vehicle:



recovery straps shall be nylon, with sewn loops at each end and at least 6 m
(20 ft.) in length
use the vehicle recovery equipment in accordance with the manufacturer’s
specifications, e.g., do not exceed the pulling strength limits of the recovery
straps
do not use lifting slings, snatch straps, chains, or recovery straps
manufactured with chain and hook attachments
Contractor work vehicles shall have, at minimum, a first aid kit and fire extinguisher
in each vehicle, along with the required notices on the vehicle to indicate the
equipment is present.
Table 1- Summary of Safety Equipment at Enbridge Regional Locations
Equipment
AED
air mover
benzene monitor
bonding and grounding cable and connections
cascade system (for refilling air cylinders)
eye wash station
fire blanket in suitable case
fire extinguisher and equipment
first aid kit
flashlight1 (explosion-proof) and extra batteries
floodlight (portable, explosion-proof)
ground mat
grounding cable: electrical cubicles (CAN) (USA)
electrical dept (ENB [NW])
hoseline with egress bottle
hydrogen sulfide monitor (or monitor with a hydrogen
sulfide sensor)
lineman’s belt
life buoy and rope
locks and tags for lockout
NGL flare pistol and 4 min/10 max signal flare
cartridges
NGL personal protective equipment (required for
Lines 1 and 5 service)
portable gas monitor
rubber gloves (electrician) and leather gauntlets
Tank
Station
Delivery/
Injection
Location
Pump
Station
Location
with
PLM Crew
Location
with
Mechanical
Dept
Location
with
Electrical
Dept
1
2
1
—
--—
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
—
—
as required
as required
1
—
2
—
--—
as required
as required
1
1
1
as required
1
1
1
as required2
—
—
—
as required
1
—
1
—
—
—
—
—
—
as required
—
—
1
2
—
1
—
—
—
—
—
—
1
1
1 set
1 set
as required
as required
as required
1 set per
—
NGL facility
1 set per
3 sets
NGL facility
1 per Worker + additional as required by this manual’s Standards
1 pair
—
1 pair
as required
—
2 pairs
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Equipment
Tank
Station
Delivery/
Injection
Location
Pump
Station
Location
with
Mechanical
Dept
Location
with
Electrical
Dept
2
4 (CAN)
(USA)
1 (ENB
[NW])
—
—
1
(ENB [NW])
2
(ENB [NW])
4 3 (CAN)
(USA)
2 (ENB
[NW])
1
—
1
1
safety harness and lanyard
—
2
Scott Air-Pak
3
warning signs
Location
with
PLM Crew
as required
wind sock
1
2 (portable)
as required
NOTES
as required—determined by Site Supervisor
1.
2.
3.
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Flashlights shall carry the Underwriters Laboratories label “approved for use in explosive atmospheres.”
When working in areas without emergency lighting facilities, approved flashlights shall be available for
immediate use.
Crews may store Scott Air-Pak at their work location or unattended locations under their control provided
the equipment is readily available.
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Table 2- Boat Safety Equipment – CAN
Boat Size
Standard Equipment
< 6 m (19’ 18”)
> 6 m (19’8”) & < 9 m
(29’6”)
> 9 m (29’6”) & < 12 m
(39’4”)
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
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
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
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





life jacket or PFD that meet the requirements in section 7.10 for each person on board
buoyant heaving line at least 15 m long
reboarding device (if vertical climbing height to reboard boat from water is over 0.5 m (1’ 18”)
manual propelling device or 1 anchor and at least 15 m (49’ 3”) of cable, rope or chain
bailer or manual bilge pump
watertight flashlight or 3 flares of type A, B, or C
sound signaling device or appliance
navigation lights (if operated in fog, after sunset, restricted visibility)
5BC fire extinguisher
life jacket or PFD that meet the requirements in section 7.10 for each person on board
buoyant heaving line at least 15m long or 1 lifebuoy attached to a buoyant line at least 15 m (49’3”) long
reboarding device (if vertical climbing height to reboard boat from water is over 0.5 m (1’ 18”)
manual propelling device or 1 anchor and at least 15 m (49’ 3”) of cable, rope or chain
bailer or manual bilge pump
watertight flashlight or 6 flares of type A, B, or C
sound signaling device or appliance
navigation lights (if operated in fog, after sunset, restricted visibility)
5BC fire extinguisher
if equipped with a heating device or cooking appliance, 1 additional 5BC fire extinguisher
life jacket or PFD that meet the requirements in section 7.10 for each person on board
buoyant heaving line at least 15m long or 1 lifebuoy attached to a buoyant line at least 15 m (49’3”) long
reboarding device (if vertical climbing height to reboard boat from water is over 0.5 m (1’ 18”)
anchor and at least 30 m (98’ 5”) of cable, rope or chain
manual bilge pump or bilge-pumping arrangements
watertight flashlight
12 flares of type A, B, C or D not more than 6 of which are type D
sound signaling device or appliance
navigation lights
magnetic compass
10BC fire extinguisher
if equipped with a heating device or cooking appliance, 1 additional 10BC fire extinguisher
Table 3- Boat Safety Equipment – USA
Boat Size
16 ft
16 ft to 26 ft
Standard Equipment

USCG -approved life jacket per occupant

electric distress light or, if operating between sunset and sunrise, 3 combination (for both day/night use) red flares

Class BI fire extinguisher

sound signaling device audible for ½ mi / 4 to 6 sec

red and green navigational sidelights lights visible from at least 1 mi

an all-round white light, or a masthead light and a sternlight; all visible from at least 2 mi

USCG1-approved life jacket per occupant and 1 Type IV personal flotation device

orange distress flag or electric distress light, or 3 handheld or floating orange smoke signals and 1 electric
distress light, or 3 handheld, meteor or parachute type combination (for both day/night use) red flares

Class BI fire extinguisher

sound signaling device audible for ½ mi / 4 to 6 sec

red and green navigational sidelights lights visible from at least 1 mi

an all-round white light, or a masthead light and a sternlight; all visible from at least 2 mi
NOTES
1.
1
United States Coast Guard
In addition, vessels operating in the State of New York also shall be equipped with an anchor and line of sufficient
strength to provide the vessel with safe anchorage.
149
Table 4- Summary of Safety Accessories for Enbridge Regional Vehicles
Tank
Station
Vehicle
Delivery
Injection
Vehicle
area maps
—
—
booster
cable
—
—
1
1
1
1
chain, rope
and booster
to secure
loads
(ENB [NW])
—
—
—
1 set
—
—
Equipment
Regional
Office
Vehicle
PLM
Vehicle
Mechanic
Vehicle
Electrician
Vehicle
Office
Supervisor
Vehicle
(EPSI)
Field
Vehicle
(EPSI)
Emergency
Response
Vehicle
(EPSI)
Leased
Vehicle
1
1
1
1
—
—
—
—
as required
portable gas
monitor
as required
disposable
camera
as required
fire blanket in
suitable case
—
—
—
1
fire
extinguisher–
5 or 10 lb.
dry chemical
extinguisher
1
1
1
1
fire
extinguisher–
30 lb. dry
chemical
extinguisher
—
1
—
first aid kit
1
1
flags/red
cloth
—
flashing
amber light
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
1
1
—
1
—
—
1
(2 if ≥1
ton)
—
—
—
1
—
—
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
—
—
2
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
as
required
1
1
1
—
—
1
—
flashlight
as required
NGL flare
pistol and
4 min/10
max signal
flare
cartridges
—
—
as
required
1
1
1
—
—
1
—
shovel
—
—
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
as
required
snow brush
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1 if <1
ton
spare tire
1
1
1
as
required
if ≥1 ton
1
1
1
1
1
as
required
standard tool
kit
—
—
1
1
1
1
—
1
—
—
tire pressure
gauge
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
as
required
tire inflator
sealer
As required
tire jack
1
vehicle
recovery
strap
1
1
1
as required
150
1
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Tank
Station
Vehicle
Delivery
Injection
Vehicle
Regional
Office
Vehicle
PLM
Vehicle
Mechanic
Vehicle
warning
reflector /
road hazard
triangles
—
—
3
3
3
winter
survival kit
—
—
Equipment
as required
Electrician
Vehicle
Office
Supervisor
Vehicle
(EPSI)
Field
Vehicle
(EPSI)
Emergency
Response
Vehicle
(EPSI)
Leased
Vehicle
3
1
1
1
1
—
—
—
—
NOTES
as required—determined by Site Supervisor
151
12.0 Vehicles and Mobile Equipment Standard
12.1
General Requirements for Drivers
Workers who drive or operate vehicles shall comply with:



Enbridge’s Driver’s License and Driving Record Policy
Contractor personnel shall adhere to their own Driver’s Licensing and
Driving Record policies
and all Applicable Legislation
Prior to operating a vehicle, Workers shall:



be properly trained according to the applicable training matrix
be aware of their health and safety responsibilities with regards to driving
complete training in the use of required safety equipment (e.g., warning
devices, fire extinguishers, PPE, etc.)
Workers shall NOT operate any vehicle, NOR permit another person to operate any
vehicle, if the vehicle or its equipment is in a condition that is likely to cause danger
to a person or property.
In addition, Workers shall:











possess a valid driver’s license for each type of vehicle they operate, and
have the correct license in their possession when operating a vehicle
maintain a good driving record and submit driver’s abstracts when required
retain each vehicle’s current registration and insurance information in the
cab of each vehicle
comply with all other driving-related Enbridge policies and procedures (e.g.,
driver responsibilities, recordkeeping, conduct and discipline, drug and
alcohol, distracted driving, load security, log books and inspection
Standards)
immediately report all Motor Vehicle Incidents (MVI), driver’s license
violations and suspensions to their People Leader
obey all traffic signals and posted speed limits
drive slowly and with caution, as appropriate, e.g., when road or driving
conditions are poor or hazardous, and/or when Workers or other people are
present
drive defensively at all times
only operate properly equipped and maintained vehicles
properly use all of the safety mechanisms installed on vehicles, including
seat belts
ensure that all vehicle occupants are wearing their seat belts at all times
when the vehicle is in motion
Other driving-related requirements include:




152
never operate a vehicle with a person in the bed of the vehicle
where equipment is in operation, do not stop, park, or pass through the area
without the equipment operator(s) acknowledging your presence; follow the
directions of flag persons/traffic signals, when present
when parking on roadways, black top or gravel, park on the working/right
side if the roadway (if safe to do so)
when driving in adverse conditions – such as rain, snow or ice – allow plenty
of distance for stopping
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when driving in adverse conditions – such as rain, snow or ice – accelerate
at an even rate to avoid skidding and to safely enter the flow of traffic
before fueling, always shut off the vehicle
never smoke near a fueling area or fuel station
never overfill a fuel tank and never leave the fuel nozzle unattended
never use a cellular device while fueling
Towing operations shall only be performed by Qualified operators.
12.2
Distracted Driving and Use of Communication Devices
Workers shall avoid distracted driving at all times.
Drivers or operators shall NOT:


engage in actions that cause a loss of attention to the safe operation of the
vehicle
use any communication device while driving any type of vehicle, including
mobile phones (including texting/e-mailing), laptop computers, or 2-way
radios
Hands free operation (e.g., Bluetooth) shall not be permitted unless a vehicle is
legally and safely parked.
Before using a mobile phone or other communication/electronic device, a vehicle
operator shall be legally and safety parked.
Radios may only be used by operators when operating a vehicle or boat on a radio
controlled road/waterway without passengers. Crane operators may use radios
during a radio-controlled lift if identified on the Lift Plan/Hazard Assessment.
This requirement applies to the operation of all vehicles, including Powered Mobile
Equipment, Powered Mobile Elevating Work Platforms, ATV’s, UTV’s, snowmobiles
and watercraft.
Safe Use of GPS Equipment
When using a Global Positioning System (GPS) in a vehicle, Workers shall ensure:



12.3
the GPS unit is properly affixed to the vehicle prior to driving
the GPS is programmed prior to driving
safely park the vehicle prior to making programming changes to GPS units
Vehicle Safety and Signage
All Worksite Workforce vehicles over ¾ ton shall:



have backup alarms installed that:
o operate automatically when reverse is engaged
o are clearly audible above background noise
have headlights on when in operation
have all required safety accessories including, but not limited to:
o secured fire extinguisher
o first aid kit
o roadside emergency kit
o winter emergency kit where applicable
153
o
buggy whip, where required (e.g., Mainline Construction)
Enbridge Visitor rentals, short duration rentals and personal vehicles have separate
requirements. For additional information, Enbridge Employees should consult the
Enbridge Vehicle Rental Policy on eLink.
Safe Use of Trailers and Hitches
When using trailers and hitches, Workers shall:









test signal lights and brakes prior to departure
test and calibrate auxiliary brakes prior to departure; if equipped with
breakaway cable, check the cable length and ensure the coupling is fully
plugged in
use adequately sized tow chains that are securely fastened
cross the tow chains to prevent the hitch from contacting the ground if it
becomes disconnected
secure the coupling latch (e.g., pin, lock, bolt and nut) after coupling the
trailer to the towing vehicle
secure all loads
visually inspect trailers and hitches prior to each trip
have the trailer ball-mount assembly removed from the receiver when not in
use
ensure hitch and receiver are compatible and correctly sized
Trailers are required to have functional lighting when in use.
Visual Safety Checks
At least once each day that a vehicle is in use Workers shall conduct a vehicle
safety check of their assigned vehicle, including but not limited to:







tires/wheels/rims
lights/reflectors
steering
turn signals
horn
rear vision mirrors
windshield and wipers
Report any defects to your immediate people leader/supervisor. Defects that cause
that vehicle to be considered un-drivable (according to local Applicable Legislation)
shall be immediately corrected.
Vehicle Markings
All vehicles shall be marked as determined by Regional/Site Management.
The following standard decals shall be affixed when required:




first aid kit
boosting battery (see vehicle owner’s manual for boosting hybrid vehicles)
walk around your vehicle
fire extinguisher inside
Reflective stripes on Enbridge Operations vehicle roofs are optional; their use is at
the discretion of regional management. When used:
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place reflective stripes diagonally, from left front to right rear
roof striping shall be red in color
Enbridge owned vehicles and equipment licensed for highway use shall have
reflective stripes placed in the rear of the vehicle, with the exception of cars and
vehicles designated as non-emergency response by regional/site management.
Rear striping shall be red, alternating with white. Stripes shall be at least 5 cm (2 in.)
wide.
Reflective stripes on the rear of truck tractors shall comply with the regulations of
the Federal Motor Vehicle Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) [USA] or
Transport Canada [CAN].
Vehicle recovery straps (tow ropes), including the attachment hardware, shall be
labeled with their assigned strength and safety ratings. Tow ropes and hardware
shall be of adequate pulling strength to ensure the weight of the vehicle can be
safely towed. Chains shall not be used for towing.
12.4
Vehicle Operation
Workers operating vehicles shall:






perform a walk-around prior to moving any parked vehicle checking for:
o potential obstructions and approach distances
o fluids on/under the vehicle
o vehicle damage
o adequate tire inflation and any sharp objects or foreign material in
the tire treads
o clear visibility, including any damage or cracks to the windshield and
rear/side windows
back into a space when safe to do so
pull through a parking space when it is possible
secure and/or mount materials, tools and equipment against movement
when stowed in the same compartment as Workers, or erect barriers to
safely separate Workers from stowed items
secure truck bed and trailer bed loads against movement
when reversing without back-up alarm or Spotter, honk prior to reversing
When required and the worksite is secure, Workers shall have keys easily
accessible so that the vehicle may be moved if necessary, e.g., due to site
conditions or congestion, or in the event of an emergency.
Workers shall:




not allow any person on the bed of a truck during winching operations
not operate a vehicle that is loaded in excess of maximum capacity
only have vehicles required for the completion of work activities in the
immediate Worksite; all other vehicles shall be parked in approved areas
not back the vehicle up when the view is obstructed, unless
o there is a Spotter
o the reverse signal alarm is operational
o a circle check is performed
Securing Loads with Load Binders
155
When securing loads with load binders, Workers shall:












use the load binders properly, to avoid serious injury
never use cheater pipes (snipes)
never operate a load binder while standing on the load
use load binders with legible load ratings
hook load binders so they can be operated while standing on the ground
position the load binder so its handle can be pulled downward to tighten the
chain
position themselves out of the path of the moving handle and any loose
chain
release the handle with an open hand under the handle by pushing upward
(never close your hand around the handle)
if sufficient leverage cannot be obtained using the lever-type load binder by
itself, a ratchet type binder shall be used
visually inspect web binders before each use for webbing and ratchet
damage
visually inspect the chain binders before each use for:
o excessive wear
o twisted or distorted links
o excessive stretch
remove load binders from service and replace if damaged or weakened
Vehicle Operations near Wildlife
Workers driving in areas where wildlife may be present or active shall:



12.5
pay attention to wildlife crossing signs
continually scan the fields and areas adjacent to the roadways, especially
near dawn or dusk, at night, and during mating season
slow down when the first wildlife crossing sign is sighted, and/or when
wildlife is observed on or near the roadside (the presence of one animal may
indicate others are near, as some wildlife, such as deer, may be present in
groups)
Commercial Motor Vehicles- Canada
This subsection applies to all Canadian Regions operating commercial vehicles and
trailers that have a Registered Gross Weight of more than, or that weighs more than
4500 kg.
Contractors shall have their own Commercial Motor Vehicle program which meets
all applicable Canadian legislation.
Regions are responsible for:



designating a Commercial Motor Vehicle (CMV) representative
ensuring proper registration and liability insurance for each CMV
ensuring Workers possess the proper type of license to drive their assigned
vehicle
In addition, Regions shall conduct periodic internal reviews to ensure continued
compliance with Applicable Legislation and adherence to Enbridge Standards. Such
reviews shall include, but not be limited to:

156
driver files, hours of service, vehicle files, accident analysis, driver training
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other safety systems to ensure continued compliance with Applicable
Legislation
vehicle checks to ensure current and correct documentation is in each
vehicle, including insurance documents and any required inspection and
maintenance documents, such as Commercial Vehicle Inspection Program
(CVIP) or Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance (CVSA) inspections
157
The CMV representative shall ensure the following is maintained:



driver files
vehicle inspection, repair, lubrication and maintenance scheduling
vehicle information
A Federal Operating Status authorizes a carrier to operate CMVs throughout
Canada and applies to vehicles registered for a weight of more than 4500 kg.
Do not operate, or permit another person to operate, a CMV if the vehicle or its
equipment is in a condition that is likely to cause danger to person or property.
In addition to their normal driving responsibilities, all CMV drivers shall:



comply with federal, provincial, territorial and municipal laws
report to a vehicle inspection station when required
maintain all required documentation
If a defect is identified during vehicle operation, record it on the Trip Inspection form
and:


if the defect is major, report it immediately to the People Leader
if the defect is minor, report it in a timely manner to People Leader, e.g., at
end of work shift or at beginning of next work shift
No CMV or other assigned vehicle is permitted to be driven until major defects have
been repaired or corrected.
Regions may develop their own region specific plans to address:







identification of responsibilities
driving limitations/hours of service
record keeping and daily log completion, distribution and retention
driving cycles
designation of home terminal and principal place of business
inspection and maintenance
creation of region specific documents such as daily logs
Drivers Abstracts
For documentation, the use of Commercial Driver Abstracts is recommended.


CMV drivers shall obtain driver abstracts at least once every 12 months or
as requested
newly hired drivers shall provide an initial 30 day abstract at the time of
hiring; thereafter, a new abstract shall be obtained at least once every 12
months
Hours of Service
Federal hours of service regulations require three types of limitations to a driver’s
time. The limits are outlined below:


158
daily limits – a day is defined as a 24-hour period that begins at the hour
designated by the carrier and noted on the log for the duration of the driver’s
cycle
workshift limits – a workshift is the period that begins when a driver begins
work or is required by the motor carrier to be available for work (prior to
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
Version:1.4
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starting a workshift, the driver shall have at least 8 consecutive hours offduty)
cycle limits- see Table below
Drivers shall comply with all three types of driving time limits.
Daily Limits
Workshift Limits
Cycle Limits
13-hours driving time in a
day
13-hours driving time in a
workshift
Cycle 1
maximum 70 hours onduty in 7 consecutive
days (36 hours off
required between cycles)
14-hours on-duty in a day
14-hours on-duty in a
workshift
Cycle 2
maximum 120 hours onduty in 14 consecutive
days
Minimum 10-hours offduty in a day
Maximum 16-hours
elapsed time in a workshift
Due to the cumulative effect of being tired over several days and weeks, the hours
of service regulations include a maximum number of on-duty hours that drivers can
accumulate before they are required to take time off to reset. On-duty time includes
both driving time and other non-driving duties carried out during the working hours.
Cycle hours are calculated by adding the on-duty hours of the current day to the onduty hours of the previous 6 or 13 days. If a driver reaches the cycle limit, they shall
stop driving until they reset their cycle.


Cycle 1: 70 hours on-duty in 7 consecutive days (after which 36 consecutive
hours shall be taken off to reset)
Cycle 2: 120 hours on-duty in 14 consecutive days (providing that the driver
takes 24 consecutive hours off-duty time so as to never accumulate more
than 70 hours of on-duty time during the 14 day cycle period without taking
24 hours off)
Each crew shall choose whether each driver will follow cycle 1 or cycle 2.
A driver is in violation when driving in excess of the cumulative hours specified in a
cycle. If a driver reaches a cycle limit, the driver shall stop driving and take the
required time off.
All drivers shall meet the medical standards outlined in the National Safety Code
(NSC) of Motor Carriers.
Inspections and Maintenance
Inspect heavy duty vehicles with a gross vehicle weight or gross combination weight
rating greater than (>) 4500 kg in accordance with the NSC for Motor Carriers and
record on the Vehicle Inspection Form. Inspect, repair and maintain trailers in
accordance with the Commercial Vehicle Maintenance Standards.
Ensure that every Enbridge owned or leased vehicle, including trailers, meets the
maintenance requirements of local and provincial/territorial maintenance standards,
as well as any specified in Maximo Job Plans.
159
Drivers shall ensure that CMVs and trailers that require an annual or semi-annual
Commercial Vehicle Inspection Program (CVIP) inspection are inspected prior to
operation.
Each region or Contractor company shall have a system that records and tracks the
inspection, maintenance and repair history for each owned or leased vehicle. The
records shall be written or electronic (e.g., Maximo) and shall include:









identification of each vehicle including unit number
manufacturer serial number or VIN
make and year of vehicle
copy of Trip Inspection reports
CVIP documents
repair, lubrication and maintenance for each vehicle
odometer readings, with dates
any modifications or manufacturer defects/recalls (plus corrective action
taken regarding the notice)
nature of inspection or work performed on vehicle
Records for repair of defects shall be attached to the inspection form in which the
defect was first recorded. Include these records in the applicable unit file.
Trip Inspections
Trip Inspections are a continuous process designed to protect drivers and identify
any mechanical problems in the commercial fleet.
Written vehicle pre- and post-trip inspections are required for any vehicle with a
registered gross vehicle weight greater than (>) 4500 kg. Use the Trip Inspection
form for these inspections.
As part of each Region’s commercial driving procedures, all drivers shall be
instructed to conduct proper and effective Trip Inspections. At a minimum, Trip
Inspections shall include:









160
date and time of inspection
license plate number, commercial vehicle identification number or unit
number of commercial vehicle
record of odometer or hubometer reading of commercial vehicle at time of
inspection
name of carrier operating commercial vehicle
name of municipality or location on highway where commercial vehicle was
inspected
each defect in the operation of every item required to be inspected in
accordance with Section 10 of NSCMC: Standard 13, Part 2 or that no
defect was detected
name of person who inspected commercial vehicle and include a statement
signed by that person stating the commercial vehicle had been inspected in
accordance with applicable requirements under Section 10 of NSCMC:
Standard 13, Part 2
name and signature of driver or person making the report
all applicable items identified in Schedule 1 of NSC Standard 13: Trip
Inspections
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Report any defects identified on a trip inspection and take appropriate action
(including taking the vehicle out of service if a defect is detected or as required by
Applicable Legislation).
Repairs of major defects shall be documented and certified. After a major defect is
repaired, all documentation which noted the defect shall be amended to certify the
defect was repaired or corrected, or that no repair was necessary.
Records for repair of defects shall be attached to the inspection form in which the
defect was first recorded. Include these records in the applicable unit file.
No CMV can be operated or driven on a highway unless inspected and deemed fit
for duty.
CMV drivers shall submit completed Trip Inspection documents within 20 days of
completion.
Daily Logs
Driver shall maintain true and accurate daily logs for each calendar day. The logs
shall account for all of the driver’s on-duty and off-duty time for each day. The daily
log shall contain:








name of driver and, if the driver is a member of a team of drivers, names of
other drivers on the team
date and starting time for the driver’s day
commercial vehicle license plate or unit number
odometer reading of vehicle
name and address of home terminal or principal place of business of every
motor carrier by whom the driver was employed or otherwise engaged
during that day
if the motor carrier or driver was not required to keep a daily log immediately
before the beginning of the driver’s day, the driver’s number of hours of onduty and off-duty time that were accumulated each day, including the
duration and time of the driver’s last rest period, during the 14 days
immediately before the beginning of the driver’s day
the cycle that driver is following (cycle 1 or 2)
if applicable, a declaration in the ‘Remarks’ section of the daily log that
clearly indicates the driver is deferring off-duty time under section 6 of
NSCMC Standard 9 and whether the driver is operating under day 1 or day
2 of that provision
Drivers shall submit each daily log and supporting documents within 20 days of
completion.
As required, drivers shall keep proper documentation and records of bills of lading,
manifests, dangerous goods documents, time records, driver’s daily logs and weigh
slips.
All records pertaining to daily logs, vehicle inspection, maintenance and repair shall
be kept according to Applicable Legislation.
Drivers carrying cargo
Drivers carrying cargo shall:
161



ensure that all cargo transported inside and on a CMV is contained,
immobilized or secured according to all provincial, state and federal
standards. Training in this area is required for anyone driving a CMV
drivers shall not use any vehicle to transport material unless the vehicle is
constructed to carry the material and the vehicle is capable of being safely
operated when loaded
inspect the cargo and its securing devices within the first 80 km after
beginning a trip and re-inspect when there is a change of duty status, after
driving 3 hours, and after driving 240 km
Ship all dangerous goods in accordance with TDG and Applicable Legislation.
Ensure all Workers transporting dangerous goods are properly trained in the
transportation of dangerous goods.
12.6
Commercial Motor Vehicles- United States
This section applies to:


all U.S. regions that operate Commercial Motor Vehicles (CMVs) and trailers
licensed to Enbridge that have a registered gross vehicle weight rating,
gross combination weight, or gross combination weight rating of 10,000
pounds or more; and
Regions that operate vehicles of any size that transport hazardous materials
requiring the vehicle to be placarded.
Contractors shall have their own CMV program which meets all Applicable
Legislation.
Regions are responsible for:



designating a CMV representative
ensuring proper registration and liability insurance for each CMV
ensuring Workers possess the proper type of license to drive their assigned
vehicle
In addition, Regions, Projects, training coordinators and Human Resources (HR)
shall conduct periodic internal reviews to ensure continued compliance with
Applicable Legislation and adherence to Enbridge Standards. Such reviews shall
include, but not be limited to:




federally required training for drivers and supervisors
driver files, hours of service, vehicle files, accident analysis, driver training
other safety systems to ensure continued compliance with Applicable
Legislation
vehicle checks to ensure current and correct documentation is in each
vehicle, including the Safety Fitness Certificate, insurance documents, and
any required inspection and maintenance documents, such as Commercial
Vehicle Inspection Program (CVIP) or Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance
(CVSA) inspections
The CMV representative shall maintain:



162
vehicle inspection, repair, lubrication and maintenance scheduling
vehicle information
maintain hours of service records
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CMV drivers shall have a single, valid Commercial Driver’s License (CDL) to drive
Enbridge CMVs that have a gross combination weight or gross vehicle weight of
26,001 pounds or more, or a vehicle of any size used to transport hazardous
materials requiring a placard.
Enbridge Employees who are required to drive CMVs shall complete a Driver’s
Application for Employment form, which shall be kept in the Driver’s qualification
file. Driver files shall be kept by Human Resources.
Before operating a CMV on a public road, the driver shall:
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ensure the CMV is in safe operating condition
review the last Daily Vehicle Inspection Report (DVIR)
ensure they are properly licensed to operate the vehicle
If defects or deficiencies were noted by the previous driver on the DVIR, the current
driver shall sign the DVIR to acknowledge they have seen the previous service
record, or that the defects or deficiencies do not require immediate correction. (This
requirement for a signature does not apply to listed defects on a towed unit which is
no longer part of the vehicle combination.)
At the completion of the driver’s use of the vehicle the driver is to complete the
DVIR.
If a defect is identified during vehicle operation, record it on the Trip Inspection form
and:
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if the defect is major (i.e., anything affecting the safe operation of the
vehicle), report immediately to the direct supervisor
if the defect is minor (i.e. anything not directly affecting the safe operation of
the vehicle), report in a timely manner to supervisor, e.g., at end of work shift
or at beginning of next work shift
No CMV or other assigned vehicle is permitted to be driven until major defects have
been repaired or corrected.
CMV drivers shall prepare a daily written post-Trip Inspection report at the end of
each driving day. Every driver is responsible for preparing such a report for each
vehicle driven.
The report shall list any condition that the driver either found or had reported to
them that would affect safety of operation or cause a breakdown. If no defect or
deficiency is reported or found, the report shall state this. The driver shall sign the
report in all cases.
Each Region shall have a system of records that tracks the inspection, maintenance
and repair history for each of owned or leased CMV. The records shall be written or
electronic (such as Maximo).
Every CMV or segment of a combination vehicle requires periodic inspection by a
Qualified individual at least once every 12 months. This inspection shall meet the
Minimum Periodic Inspection Standards outlined by the Department of
Transportation. Documentation of the most recent periodic inspection shall be kept
on or in the vehicle and at the maintenance facility for a period of 14 months.
Drivers Carrying Cargo
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Drivers carrying cargo shall:
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ensure that all cargo transported inside and on a CMV is contained,
immobilized or secured according to all Applicable Legislation; training in
this area is required for anyone driving a CMV
drivers shall not use any vehicle to transport material unless the vehicle is
constructed to carry the material and the vehicle is capable of being safely
operated when loaded
inspect the cargo and its securing devices within the first 50 miles after
beginning a trip and re-inspect when there is a change of duty status, after
driving 3 hours, and after driving 150 miles
Hours of Service
Drivers shall abide by the following Hours of Service (HOS) rules.
11-hour rule
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drivers are allowed to drive for 11 hours following 10 consecutive hours off
duty
14-hour rule
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a driver is not permitted to drive after 14 hours of work duty (including driving
and other duties) after coming on duty following 10 consecutive hours off
duty
60-hour rule
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a driver is not permitted to drive after a total of 60 hours on duty in 7
consecutive days
70-hour rule
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a driver is not permitted to drive after a total of 70 hours on duty in 8
consecutive days
An off duty period of 34 or more consecutive hours may restart a driver’s 7 or 8
consecutive day period as long as the driver has not exceeded 60 or 70 hours on
duty.
If using CMVs exclusively in the transportation of oilfield equipment, including the
stringing and picking up of pipe used in pipelines, and servicing of the field
operation of the natural gas and oil industry, and period of 8 consecutive days may
end with the beginning of any off-duty period of 24 or more consecutive hours.
Other exceptions are found in the Applicable Legislation.
Written Records and Daily Logs
Every CMV driver shall prepare a written record of duty status (e.g., daily log
book/e-logbook, timesheet or other appropriate means of tracking), in duplicate, for
each 24-hour period, unless falling under the exemptions listed in Applicable
Legislation.
Every driver shall keep their activities current by showing each change in duty
status, recorded as:
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“Off duty” or “OFF”
“Driving” or “D”
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“On-duty not driving” or “ON”
Driver’s shall retain a copy of their written record of duty status for 8 days, and shall
submit the original copy within 13 days of completion. The time zone used on a
driver’s daily log shall be the time standard of that driver’s home terminal.
Operations CMV drivers shall submit the written record of duty status to their
regional CMV representative.
Time Records shall show the following:
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the time the driver reports for duty each day
the total number of hours the driver is on duty each day
the time the driver is released from duty each day
the total time for the preceding 7 days
payroll timesheets from HR
An employee shall not operate a CMV unless they are medically certified as
physically qualified. When on-duty the driver shall have in their possession a current
medical examiner’s certificate (original or copy) that states they are physically
qualified to drive a CMV.
If a driver incurs a Department of Transportation (DOT) violation while driving a
CMV, whether it has a monetary fine or not, the driver’s People Leader shall be
notified immediately and this information shall be forwarded to the CMV
representative within 24 hours.
12.7
Powered Mobile Elevating Work Platforms
Powered Mobile Elevating Work Platforms with articulating boom and extended
boom platforms shall be operated by trained, authorized and Qualified operators.
Operators shall be given oral and written instructions prior to the first use of such
platforms.
The training shall include:
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load limitations and securement
manufacturers’ requirements
hands-on demonstration of the controls
hazard mitigation knowledge
Operators shall document daily checks on each Powered Mobile Elevating Work
Platform before use.
Powered Mobile Elevating Work Platforms shall:
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have easily reachable upper (platform) and lower controls, with their
functions clearly marked and tested each day prior to use
lower controls that are capable of overriding the upper controls (lower
controls shall only be operated in an emergency, unless the Worker in the lift
has given permission)
only be used on a firm, level surface with the brakes set and outriggers
positioned on pads or a solid surface; use wheel chocks when on an incline
have the load rating posted (load rating shall not be exceeded)
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have platforms that meet manufacturers’ specifications and is designed and
certified by a certified professional engineer
have an anchor point specified by the manufacturer
Be inspected by a Qualified person as required by manufacturers
specifications and Applicable Legislation
Powered Mobile Elevating Work Platforms shall not:
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be used for anything other than lifting Workers, tools and materials to an
aerial Worksite
be used as a crane or hoist
have loads placed or carried outside the platform perimeter
When in an elevated working platform on mobile equipment, Workers shall:
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use a travel restraint system consisting of a full body harness and lanyard
connected to an anchor point specified by the manufacturer
have lanyards short enough to prevent the Worker from being ejected from
the work platform or aerial device but long enough to allow the Worker to
perform their work
tie off to the attachment point at all times when elevated, including when
entering, exiting or maneuvering
climb in or out through a doorway
not stand on rails or objects inside the platform
not tie off to an adjacent pole, structure, or equipment while working from the
platform
Powered Mobile Equipment
Powered Mobile Equipment shall:
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have seatbelts
be equipped with engineered ROPS
have manufacturer-installed horns that are functional
have audible, functional back-up alarms
have all required lighting and the lighting shall be functional
have fire suppression equipment suitable to the conditions and hazards
Powered Mobile Equipment operators shall complete training in the safe operation
of the equipment to which they are assigned, and shall have their competency
confirmed and documented by a People Leader.
Workers, other than the designated operator, shall not operate Powered Mobile
Equipment unless authorized by the People Leader in charge. The operator of the
equipment is responsible for the safe operation and movement of the vehicle.
Workers operating Powered Mobile Equipment shall:
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wear seatbelts when operating Powered Mobile Equipment
use standard horn signals for Powered Mobile Equipment
ensure lighting is functional and used as necessary
comply with all Site traffic control plans
wear HVSA (HSVA may be removed by the Worker when enclosed in the
cab of the equipment)
not use communication devices or allow other distractions during operation
not climb Powered Mobile Equipment while in motion
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not allow others to climb Powered Mobile Equipment while in motion
not allow other Workers to ride on Powered Mobile Equipment, except in the
seats provided (ensuring that all passengers wear seatbelts)
In addition, Workers working with or around Powered Mobile Equipment shall
ensure:
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mats are not stacked higher than the side boards on forwarders used to haul
mats
cable guards are used when working on tractors and other equipment with a
winch to protect from the danger of flying cables
keys are removed and equipment locked when daily work activities are
completed
3 points of contact are used whenever entering, exiting, or climbing
ladders/designated points of access on equipment
maintain adequate separation from all above and Below Grade Facilities
Prior to operating Powered Mobile Equipment, the operator shall:
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document a pre-use inspection
ensure all loose objects are secured
conduct a circle check of the equipment for:
o potential obstructions and approach distances
o fluids on, or under, the equipment
o equipment damage
be completely familiar with all of the following:
o controls, indicators and warning lights
o caution, warning and danger decals affixed to the equipment
o limits of the equipment
o equipment blind spots
In addition, the operator shall:
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be cautious when rotating the cab or when maneuvering through tight spots
be cautious when entering/exiting buildings
be cautious when reversing and use a Signaler/Spotter when vision is
obscured or when required by the Hazard Assessment
limit equipment use in congested work zones unless a clear work plan is
established and communicated to affected Workers
adhere to the manufacturer’ recommendations for the safe movement of
Powered Mobile Equipment
adhere to the capacity ratings during operation of Powered Mobile
Equipment
make the unit inoperative and ensure it is in a safe state prior to exiting the
equipment
Powered Mobile Equipment shall be inspected for the following:
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proper adjustment of operating mechanisms
excessive wear or deterioration of components and accessories (e.g.,
cranes, boom pins, sheave blocks)
damage that prohibits the safe operation of the equipment
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Inspect hydraulic hoses, fittings and tubing (particularly hoses that flex in normal
operation) for the following:
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leaks at threaded or clamped joints
leaks at the surface of flexible hose
blistering of hoses
abrasion or scrubbing on the outer surface of hoses, tubing and fittings
Hydraulic relief valve settings shall never exceed specified pressure.
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Tracked Equipment
All tracked equipment shall be equipped with cleats or grouser bars to ensure
maximum traction in frozen conditions. This also applies when mud or loose terrain
is a concern and slippage is a potential risk based on a Hazard Assessment.
Traction aids may be applied after equipment is walked onto a site, provided a prior
assessment of access has been completed to address any concerns. Traction aids
shall be in place prior to any excavation activity.
Ditching Machines
Follow these requirements related to ditching machines:
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12.9
do not undertake wiping, oiling, adjusting or repair while any part of the
machine is in motion
an Oiler or Serviceman may carry out oiling and greasing with only the
power unit left running, but only if done under the direction of an operator
who remains at the controls of the ditching machine
when adjustments or repairs are necessary, all power units shall be
shutdown before starting work on the adjustments or repairs
where the operator is required to carry out any of the above-mentioned
functions unassisted, all power units shall be shutdown before leaving the
controls
no ditching machine shall be operated unless the machine guards are
installed and properly maintained
the ditching machine operators shall keep their helpers in sight or know
where they are at all times
do not undertake manual cleaning of buckets when the digging wheel is in
operation
operators and helpers shall not climb on the ditching machine while it is in
motion
the operator shall not leave the controls of the machine unless the main
transmission and digging wheel are out of gear and the traveling brakes set
All Terrain and Off Road Vehicles
Workers operating All-Terrain Vehicles (ATV), Utility-Terrain Vehicles (UTV) and
Snowmobiles shall be trained and Qualified in their use and authorized to operate
the vehicle.
Operators shall:
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wear Snell/DOT approved helmets when the vehicle is not equipped with a
ROPS and seatbelts with shoulder restraints
wear appropriate PPE, e.g., protective goggles and/or other suitable devices
to prevent eye and face injuries from twigs, flying debris and weather
conditions
wear a high visibility outer vest at all times when the vehicle does not have
ROPS
wear seatbelts when the vehicles safety system is designed for seat belt use
All ATVs, UTVs and Snowmobiles shall:
 be inspected prior to use
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be registered and insured with such documents carried on the equipment
have license plates securely attached in a visible location, as required by
Applicable Legislation
receive permission prior to operation on private property
be operated at speeds appropriate for the terrain, visibility, conditions and
experience
be equipped with an aerial whip and flag, First Aid kit, 5 lb. ABC fire
extinguisher, plus portable communication equipment as required (e.g.
hand-held radio, cellular or satellite phone)
have an emergency kit depending on the conditions and use as required by
the Hazard Assessment
UTV’s and Snowmobiles may only carry passengers when there is a passenger
seat. Seat belts shall be worn by passengers when the vehicle safety system is
designed for their use.
12.10
Aircraft
The pilot is responsible for all aspects of the flight, including passenger safety.
Passengers (Enbridge Employees and Contractor personnel) are encouraged to
take responsibility for their own safety and seek clarification of safety information
where necessary.
Helicopters (including those involved in slinging operations) shall be operated with a
5% power reserve. Pilots may reduce the 5% power reserve only in ideal flight
conditions; if a lesser reserve is used, it shall guarantee adequate power for an
abort in the event of changing flight conditions. However, the pilot shall maintain
some power reserve.
Workers working around helicopters during slinging operations shall:
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keep the area free of loose articles
watch for hazards, such as obstacles or hanging trees that may fall when
dislodged by the helicopter rotors or by gusty wind conditions
stay alert and be aware of the positioning of loads
maintain visual contact with the load (and cargo hooks) until it clears the
location
keep a safe distance from the loads
remain clear of incoming loads (and cargo hooks) until they are placed on
the ground
determine an escape route that leads away from the load, and ensure it
remains clear of objects or potential blockages
always stand uphill from the load, as it may roll when released
maneuver the load only when absolutely necessary and only by pushing it
into position; do not reach for a load or cargo hook
For slinging (long-line) operations, follow these requirements:
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use only multi-stranded steel core long lines, cables or lanyards
use long lines and lanyards swaged with steel; do not use cable clamps
attach only properly-sized clevises to the helicopter hook (either the belly
hook or the extended hook) and keep all screw-type clevis pins tight and
lock-wired
use only the proper type of clevis pins (not bolts) and check clevises before
and after each lift
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complete record of inspection and log books
secure loads of loose articles in cargo nets
advise the pilot of the presence of any hazardous materials
do not conduct long line operations over populated areas
do not conduct long line operations within 100 m (110 yd.) of high-voltage
power lines
cease operations during electrical storms
ground all loads to prevent a buildup of static electricity (static prevention is
meant to prevent possible electrical injury to Spotters)
Before commencing slinging operations, designate one person as spotter and
ensure that radio frequencies are established.
The Spotter is the only person permitted to stand beneath the helicopter during
slinging operations, unless another person is required to help position the load.
The Spotter is the only person permitted to use hand signals.
The Spotter shall:
 use standard hand signals when the helicopter is operating directly
overhead and when it is impossible to use radio communication
 confirm that the pilot has visual contact of the Spotter by radio prior to using
hand signals
 ensure standard helicopter hand signals are practiced prior to the start of
operations; this ensures signals are agreed upon and understood by both
the pilot and spotter (See Figure 1)
 use large movements when using hand signals, especially when using long
lines this is necessary because the pilot may be as high as 45 m (150 ft.)
above the Spotter)
In addition to wearing basic PPE, the Spotter shall also wear the following PPE at
all times during slinging operations:
 head protection with chin strap
 protection from static (e.g., high-voltage gloves) during cold weather/low
humidity
 HVSA
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Figure 1- Helicopter Hand Signals
12.11
Signalers and Spotters
Signalers/Spotters shall be used when:
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parts of the work area could potentially be obscured
vehicle/equipment is backing up or moving, and the operator cannot see all
parts of the machine/vehicle and its path of travel
vehicle/equipment is backing up or moving in congested areas
vehicle/equipment make turns with restrictive side clearances
equipment or parts of equipment encroach on the safe limits of approach
(e.g. overhead power lines and communication lines)
movement of vehicle/equipment may result in the operator and/or other
Workers being exposed to additional hazards
excavating
conducting helicopter singling operations
The Signaler shall:
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stop vehicles/equipment from backing up when hazards are observed, and
inform operators and Workers of people entering the immediate work area
communicate with the operator, either verbally or through standard/material
lifting hand signals (see Figures 1 and 2)
ensure there are no hazards present that might endanger a Worker
alert Workers to any hazards that arise while material is being moved when
the view of the operator is obscured
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establish and maintain eye contact with the operator
remain clearly visible to the operator at all times
stand far enough behind, or in front of, the equipment to observe the
positioning/backing path and any obstructions, and to allow for sufficient
stopping distance in an emergency
stay clear of the vehicle’s blind spots or line of fire and avoid walking
backward
be clearly identified, distinguishable from other Workers, by wearing, at a
minimum, Class 2 HVSA
complete any prescribed training required by Applicable Legislation in the
jurisdiction where the signaler is performing signaling duties
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Standard signals shall:
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be used by the Signaler/Spotter when directing vehicles or equipment
be agreed upon and understood by both the operator and signaler/spotter
prior to moving vehicle/equipment
The operator shall take direction from only one Signaler. However, anyone can give
a STOP signal and the operator and/or Spotter shall comply.
Communication between the operator and spotter shall be maintained. If the ability
to transmit signals is interrupted at any time, the operator shall safely stop
operations requiring signals until communication is reestablished and a proper
signal is given and understood. If eye contact is not possible, a lift plan shall be
developed.
If electronic communication is required, then that equipment shall be tested on-site
before beginning operations to ensure that the signal is effective, clear and reliable.
Figure 1- Standard Hand Signals
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Figure 2 - Material Lifting Hand Signals
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13.0 Electrical Safety Standard
Under normal operating conditions, only Qualified Electrical Workers wearing proper
PPE and using proper equipment shall perform construction, testing, repair and
maintenance on electrical equipment with or without Hazard Risk Category (HRC)
labels.
Unless it is not practical, all circuits shall be set or placed in an energy-free, safe
work condition (LOTO procedures shall be used) before a Qualified Electrical
Worker performs construction, testing, repair, or maintenance.
Before any work proceeds in relation to energized conductors or circuits, the
hazards of the work shall be identified and controlled through the Hazard
Assessment process, including an Electrical Hazard Analysis if required. All
identified hazards and controls shall be notated in the Hazard Assessment and the
SWP, as appropriate.
When non-qualified Workers are assigned to work with Qualified Electrical Workers
they shall be instructed by Qualified Electrical Workers in safety precautions, work
procedures, and electrical hazards in the work area. Non-qualified Workers are not
permitted to work within the Limited Approach Boundary of exposed electrical
conductors or circuit parts, unless special precautions are followed, as identified in
this Standard.
Pipelines and Induced Voltage
Prior to any work on exposed pipelines, the pipeline shall be tested for induced
voltage by a Qualified Worker. Induced voltage cannot exceed 15V.
A Qualified Electrical Worker shall take specific measures identified in this manual
to bond and ground exposed pipelines to bleed off any charge in excess of 15V; the
Qualified Worker shall then monitor the charge level to ensure it remains below
15V.
Energized Substations
Before starting work on energized substations, Workers (e.g., a Qualified Electrical
Worker or a Supervisor) shall notify the appropriate utility companies.
For electrical work on equipment within energized substations, follow these
requirements:
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ensure Qualified Electrical Workers directly supervise non-qualified electrical
Workers and maintain line of sight
ensure no Worker works alone
ensure no person enters the barricaded area without the approval
ensure a Hazard Assessment is completed and a safe work plan developed
use Safety Watches as specified in the Hazard Assessment and SWP
erect self-standing, non-conductive barricades at the exterior of the
substation to adequately protect non-electrical Workers from the hazards
within the substation
attach markings (e.g., ribbon) to the barricades for increased visibility to all
Workers
do not use ribbons or other such materials as a means to support barricades
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ensure that if the substation fence is removed, a temporary fence of equal
height is installed
To maintain a safe clearance from the substation grounding system, all construction
equipment (such as work trailers and supplies) shall be stored a minimum of 3 m
(10 ft.) outside of the substation fence.
13.1
Limited Approach Boundaries
Enbridge Workers shall maintain the Limited Approach Boundaries outlined in Table
1. These boundaries apply to Workers as noted, including their work involving tools,
vehicles or equipment.
Also refer to the Limited Approach Boundaries for overhead power lines, and
related requirements provided at the end of this section.
A Qualified Spotter shall ensure the minimum safe distances (i.e., Limited Approach
Boundaries, sometimes referred to as safe limits of approach) are maintained by all
Workers and equipment in the area. As part of this duty, the Qualified Spotter shall
monitor movements of all Workers, tools and equipment when work is in progress
near energized lines.
Table 1- Limited Approach Boundaries
Voltage of Power Line or Conductor
Minimum Safe Limited Approach Boundary
Phase to Ground AC
Voltage
Phase to Phase AC
Voltage
Non-Qualified
Workers
Qualified Electrical
Workers
425–12,000
735–20,780
3.0 m (10 ft.)
0.9 m (3 ft.)
12,000–22,000
20,780–38,105
3.0 m (10 ft.)
1.2 m (4 ft.)
22,000–50,000
38,105–86,600
3.0 m (10 ft.)
1.5 m (5 ft.)
50,000–90,000
86,600–155,880
4.5 m (15 ft.)
1.8 m (6 ft.)
90,000–120,000
155,880–207,845
4.5 m (15 ft.)
2.1 m (7 ft.)
120,000–150,000
207,845–259,805
6.0 m (20 ft.)
2.7 m (9 ft.)
150,000–250,000
259,805–433,010
6.0 m (20 ft.)
3.3 m (11 ft.)
250,000–300,000
433,010–519,615
7.5 m (25 ft.)
3.9 m (13 ft.)
300,000–350,000
519,615–606,215
7.5 m (25 ft.)
4.5 m (15 ft.)
350,000–400,000
606,215–692,820
9.0 m (30 ft.)
5.4 m (18 ft.)
Electrical Hazard Analysis
Arc flash risk assessment and shock risk assessment shall be performed as per
CSA Z462 (Canada) and NFPA 70E (U.S.).
The HRC label shall identify the hazard/risk category and the minimum
requirements for PPE (see Figure 1 for a sample label).
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Figure 1 – Sample HRC Label
Non-qualified Workers shall not be permitted to approach within the Limited
Approach Boundary for energized conductors and circuit parts unless a Qualified
Electrical Worker advises them of the possible hazards and continuously escorts
them while inside the boundary.
Non-qualified Workers shall not be allowed within the restricted approach boundary.
Hazard/risk categories for various tasks include, but are not limited to:
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performing infrared thermography or other non-contact inspections
Circuit Breaker (CB) or fused operation with covers on
CB or fused operation with covers off
work on energized electrical conductors and circuit parts, including voltage
testing
removal/installation of CBs or fused switches
removal of bolted covers
opening of hinged covers
work on energized electrical conductors and circuit parts of utilization
equipment fed by a branch circuit of the panel board
reading a panel meter while operating a meter switch
insertion or removal of starter “buckets” from MCC
application of safety grounds, after voltage test
insertion/removal (racking) of CBs from cubicles, whether doors are open or
closed
Workers shall consult their People Leader if the HRC of a given task is unclear or
unknown, e.g., if equipment is not clearly labeled or other factors are unknown.
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Where a Qualified Electrical Worker cannot maintain a Limited Approach Boundary
and cannot de-energize lines and conductors, then an Electrical Hazard Analysis
shall be conducted and written work procedures developed. In such cases, a
Qualified Electrical Worker shall be designated as Safety Watch and, in accordance
with the procedures; the Qualified Electrical Workers doing the work shall use
appropriate PPE and insulated tools rated for the voltage.
To safely route Workers, equipment or objects under power lines or energized
conductors, the minimum distance may be reduced under the direction of a
Qualified Electrical Worker; however, the clearances for Workers, equipment or
objects shall remain constant.
Overhead Power Lines
Workers shall not place themselves or operate equipment within the Limited
Approach Boundary of overhead power lines. As shown in Table 1, the Limited
Approach Boundary is 3 m (10 ft.) for systems up to 50 kV, and an additional
100mm (4 in.) for every 10kV above 50kV.
For work within 6 m (20 ft.) of the Limited Approach Boundary of overhead power
lines (see Figure 1), follow these requirements:
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Site orientations, pre-job meetings, and daily tailgate meetings shall discuss
assessed hazards, SWPs and location(s) of the overhead power lines.
Workers shall be informed of the identified hazards and any control
measures or precautions, in accordance with the Hazard Assessment.
A Qualified Spotter shall be used when Workers and/or equipment are in
proximity to the Limited Approach Boundary.
Delivery truck operators shall be cautioned about any overhead power lines
present, and a Qualified Spotter shall assist with loading or unloading
operations (as appropriate, other vehicle operators shall be similarly
cautioned, e.g., high vehicles)
Warning decals shall be posted on cranes and similar equipment, regarding
the 3 m (10 ft.) minimum clearance.
Delivery or other vehicles that have emptied their material (e.g., dump
trucks) shall not be permitted to leave the work location until the boom, lift or
box is down and safely secured.
Vehicles with loads higher than 4.3 m (14 ft.) shall follow specific procedures
to maintain safe working clearances when in transit below overhead power
lines.
Warning cones/goal posts shall be used as visible indicators of the 3 m (10
ft.) Limited Approach Boundary. A safe work area shall be established
before work commences. (See Figure 2)
If overhead power line voltages are unknown, a Qualified Electrical Worker
shall determine the voltages and the Limited Approach Boundary, and shall
take appropriate action to make the work area safe
When isolating third party electricity crossings ensure that verification of isolation is
carried out by a Qualified Electrical Worker.
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Figure 1 – Signage and Signaler required when Danger zone encroaches on Limited Approach
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Figure 2- Typical Goal post setup
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13.2
High Voltage
When a Qualified Electrical Worker is not available, a non-electrical Worker (e.g.,
mechanical, PLM, Operations) may be allowed to rack in or out a 5 kV mainline unit,
or booster pump breakers or contacts, if:



the HRC label on the electrical equipment is clear, and the HRC is not
higher than 2
the current written operating procedure for racking the breaker in and out is
readily available on-site, and is reviewed by the non-electrical Worker
the non-electrical Worker:
o wears the proper PPE for the HRC level identified on an arc flash
label;
o has been trained to complete the specific electrical work and the
Worker’s training is documented; and
o there is a refresher training timeline identified for the Worker that is
recorded within the training tracking system
Use the Electrical Equipment Isolation/Clearance Form for:


high voltage work
work upstream of the 480 V main breaker
Completion of the Electrical Equipment Isolation/Clearance Form is not required for
activities such as racking out a breaker and/or disabling a vacuum contactor for
mechanical maintenance (e.g., seal changes).
Use an adequately-rated and tested hot stick for installing or removing safety
ground cables to high voltage equipment and conductors.
13.3
Low Voltage
A non-electrical Worker (e.g., mechanical, PLM, operations, cathodic protection and
other contract personnel) is authorized to perform certain tasks provided:




the HRC label on the equipment indicates the HRC is not higher than 2
the Worker wears the proper PPE for the HRC identified
the Worker has been trained to complete the specific electrical work and the
Worker’s training is documented; and
there is a refresher training timeline identified for the Worker that is recorded
within the training tracking system
The authorized low voltage tasks include:


turn on and off branch circuit breakers less than or equal to (≤) 600 V
reset circuit panel breakers once, if voltage is less than or equal to (≤) 240 V
o if a circuit panel breaker trips again after resetting once, the nonelectrical Worker shall contact a Qualified Electrical Worker
o if a circuit’s condition is suspect or has sustained damage, the nonelectrical Worker shall contact a Qualified Electrical Worker for
appropriate testing prior to resetting
Test all ground fault breakers and Ground Fault Interrupter (GFI) receptacles in
accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
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Exposed Electrical Equipment/Conductors
Workers working on or near exposed electrical conductors or circuits that are
energized, or can become energized shall:





not assume an electrical conductor is de-energized
not make body contact or reach blindly into un-insulated equipment or
conductors until:
o visibly isolated from the power supply and locked out
o voltage tested and confirmed to be absent of potential energy (i.e.,
de-energized)
o for high voltage equipment/conductors, potential energy sources are
safety grounded
use required PPE when testing for high voltage
when verifying the absence of potential, use a voltage detector or tester
designed to meet or exceed the system voltage to be tested
not perform electrical work, other than hot stick work, on energized highvoltage conductors
Safety grounds on distribution lines and equipment may be temporarily removed
during voltage tests.
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14.0 Hazardous Materials Standard
Contact the Environmental department to assist with any spill, leak or potential
contamination of hazardous materials. Refer to the Waste Management Plan for
information on proper disposal of Hazardous Material.
14.1
Characteristics of Products Transported by Pipeline
Enbridge’s pipeline system transports various non-refined, synthetic, semi-refined or
refined hydrocarbon liquids and natural gas liquids.
All products transported by pipeline shall be considered toxic and flammable volatile
hydrocarbon liquids. All of these liquids are under pressure when the system is
operating.
Vapors and gases released by these liquids:


may create breathing hazards, as well as fire and explosion hazards
are heavier than air, and will accumulate in buildings, Confined Spaces, and
low areas such as pits, Excavations, bermed areas and natural depressions
in the ground
The primary breathing hazards associated with the pipeline products being pumped
include petroleum vapors, benzene vapors and H2S gas
H2S at levels of 100 ppm (IDLH) or more may be present in crude oils and
condensates classified as sweet or sour.
Workers are at greatest risk of being exposed to these types of vapors and gases
when working around free or released product and Open Systems. The risk of
exposure also exists when working in Hazardous Areas and Restricted Areas.


Respiratory, fire and explosion hazards have the potential to exist around
spills and Open Systems until the area or system is free of liquid and
determined to be isolated and gas-free
Gas detection is required to verify a safe atmosphere. Appropriate RPE shall
be worn, as specified in job-specific procedures, and as required based on
the results of Atmospheric Monitoring.
Natural Gas Liquids (NGLs)
NGLs contain propane, butane and condensates such as heptane, hexane and
pentane.
NGLs are considered to be the most hazardous of the products transported by
pipeline.
When released into the atmosphere, NGLs may look like a steam cloud close to the
source. NGLs are extremely cold, with a boiling point of -42°C (-44°F).
NGL vapour may smell something like gasoline, and may have a narcotic and
intoxicating effect which could lead to unconsciousness.
Since NGLs are extremely flammable, all ignition sources shall be eliminated.
Diluent
Like most petroleum, diluent is flammable and contains volatile substances in
varying percentages. The lighter hydrocarbons included in diluent are typically
naphtha, benzene and pentane
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As with other pipeline liquids, keep ignition sources away from diluents.
In the event of a release, use RPE as required.
14.2
Storage and Transportation
Follow labeling regulations as required by pipeline regulatory agencies.
Labels are required to be displayed:


on the pipeline system, and
on breakout tanks
Employees shall receive orientation and training on the hazards associated with the
various products transported by pipeline or stored, including non-refined, synthetic,
semi-refined or refined hydrocarbon liquids and natural gas liquids.
Label permanent containers of hazardous materials with the following:





product name
hazardous ingredients
hazard warnings
manufacturer’s name
a reference to the applicable Safety Data Sheets (SDS)
Label temporary containers of hazardous materials with the following:



product name
hazard warnings
a reference to the applicable SDS
If a label is missing or illegible, it should be replaced with a Workplace Label.
Containers with Benzene
Containers with benzene content more than 0.1% by volume shall be labeled as
follows:

“Danger: contains benzene, cancer hazard”
Intact pipe or intact, sealed containers that contain benzene vapors or liquid do not
require this additional warning label.
Storage
Store containers of hazardous materials in a protected area as follows:




indoors (whenever possible)
away from equipment and vehicle routes
away from moisture and excessive heat
on an impervious surface with containment capabilities (e.g., dikes, curbs);
or if not available, on an impermeable containment structure (e.g., tray,
containment pallet, tote)
All containers shall be inspected regularly to ensure containment.
If hazardous materials are stored in drums at a site, a hazardous materials spill kit
shall be available at the site.
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Maximum Quantities (Storage)
The total maximum quantity of flammable liquids and combustible liquids stored
outside a storage cabinet shall not exceed:


In Canada- 600 L (158 gal), of which not more than 100 L (26 gal) may be
flammable liquids
In the USA- 500 L (120 gal), of which not more than 250 L (60 gal) may be
flammable liquids
The total maximum quantity of flammable liquids and combustible liquids inside a
storage cabinet shall not exceed 500 L (120 gal), of which not more than 250 L (60
gal) may be flammable liquids.
Do not locate more than three storage cabinets in a building, unless:


cabinets are placed in groups of three or less in one location
the distance between groups of cabinets is not less than 30 m (100 ft.)
Ventilation for Storage
Storage cabinets approved for fire protection are not required to be vented to the
outdoors; however, where a respiratory or other health hazard may exist from the
accumulation of hazardous vapors, positive mechanical ventilation is required.
Where ventilation systems are not used or required, closures for ventilation within
cabinet openings shall remain in place.
Additional Storage Requirements
Do not store containers of hazardous materials on ice or within 100 m [CAN] or 100
ft. [USA] of any body of water.
Store flammable or combustible materials in quantities greater than those required
for everyday use in a separate structure built of non-combustible material, and
located at a safe distance from gas compressor buildings, pump shelters and
densitometer/instrument/sample buildings.
If the flammable or combustible materials are normally used in the gas compressor
building, pump shelter or densitometer/instrument/sample building, then the
materials may be stored there.
Store all flammable liquids in the original container or in other approved portable
containers.
Do not store incompatible materials together.
Store containers of hazardous materials using one or more of the following
methods:



spill pallets
trays
impermeable tarps with wood under the outside edges to provide curbed
containment
Emergency spill cleanup equipment shall be readily accessible at permanent fuel
storage tanks.
When transferring hazardous materials to or from storage tanks and drums, ensure
spill control devices (e.g., spill pallets, absorbent pads, trays) are available, and use
them to prevent contamination of soil, surface runoff water and groundwater.
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Transporting Hazardous Materials
Transport hazardous materials in accordance with Hazardous Materials
Transportation (HAZMAT) regulations [USA], or with the Transportation of
Dangerous Goods (TDG) regulations [CAN].
Do not transport or store extra fuel for vehicles and equipment in vehicle trunks or in
passenger compartments.
Extra fuel for equipment shall be carried in approved containers that comply with
CSA B376 [CAN] or with NFPA 30 and HAZMAT Regulations [USA].
Enbridge vehicles transporting more than 200 L [CAN] or 119 gal [USA] of fuel or
liquid hazardous materials to unattended locations and/or ROW Worksites shall be
equipped with a spill kit containing:



a shovel
30 m2 (36 sq. yd.) of 6-ml polyethylene sheeting
25 kg (55 lb.) of absorbent
Any vehicle containing hazardous materials in amounts greater than or equal to 450
kg (1000 lb.) or 500 L (119 gal in the USA) shall have a placard affixed on each
exterior side, showing the type of material being transported. Tank trucks shall carry
placards at all times unless the truck has been completely purged and cleaned.
In the USA, manifests are not required when transporting materials of trade on a
single motor vehicle and not exceeding 440 lb., such as:




containers up to 1 lb. or 1 pt.-size of Packing Group I material
up to 66 lb. or 8 gal of Packing Group II, III or ORM-D
up to 400 gal of diluted (not over 2%) Class 9 material
cylinders (no larger than 220 lb. capacity) of 2.1 or 2.2 material
Obtain shipping documents [CAN]/manifests [USA] from the material supplier.
Shipping documents or manifests may be in any form as long as they include the
following:





name of material
hazardous class
identification number
total quantity
emergency contact (Chemtrec 1-800-424-9300)
If a contracted vacuum truck or tank truck is used, give the driver a copy of the
shipping documents [CAN] or manifests [USA] and SDS.
Trucks used to transport hazardous materials shall have a current copy of the
Emergency Response Guidebook in the cab of the vehicle.
All transported hazardous materials shall be properly labeled in accordance with
TDG or HAZMAT.
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14.3
Radiation and Radiography
When required, a Contractor who is licensed and properly qualified to perform
radiography and NDT testing will be contracted to provide these services.
In all instances where X-ray or gamma ray equipment is being used, the Contractor
shall ensure the use, storage, handling, transportation, and disposal of radioactive
substances is in compliance with all Applicable Legislation. All radiographic work
completed by the Contractor shall be performed under the direction of a federally
licensed Worker (radiographic technician) responsible for radiation safety.
Site Preparation/Work Control
Before radiography work begins, ensure:


distinctive warning signs are posted – DANGER! RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL
barricades or rope are placed to prevent access to the designated work area
(Radiation Area)
Workers (and their vehicles and equipment) not involved in the radiography
work shall remain outside of the designated Radiation Area until the
radiographic technician provides notification that testing is complete and it is
safe to enter.
Additional radiography requirements include:



where required by Applicable Legislation, radiographic inspection vehicles
shall have 360 degree rotating amber lights on the roof and be clearly
visible; the rotating lights shall be operating when X-ray/Gamma ray
equipment is in use
equipment or storage containers holding radioactive material shall be
labeled “DANGER! RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL” and locked when not in use;
a nameplate shall also be affixed to the equipment/container showing the
owner’s name, the maximum quantity, the type of radioactive material and a
symbol (trefoil) indicating ionizing radiation
in an emergency or Facility evacuation, the radiographic technician shall
ensure that the radioactive source is in a secure position, isolated and safe
before leaving the work area
Contractors performing this work are responsible for acquiring, transferring or
disposing of any and all radioactive material associated with this testing. When
legally required to have an Radiation Safety Officer (RSO) present, the Contractor
shall provide a Qualified individual.
Sealed Radioactive Sources
Acquisition of radioactive materials for installation on Enbridge operating assets
shall be made in accordance with the existing specific licenses and coordinated
through the Enbridge RSO. Any new source material and source holders shall be
added to the license through an amendment, and prior to purchase. All shipments
of such material shall be completed in accordance with the current license including
the issuance of transfer documents for shipping and the receipt of the material.
Radiation sources for installation or removal shall only be handled only by an
individual who is licensed and Qualified to handle the specific source and holder in
question.
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At the time of installation, a radiation survey shall be performed by the installer to
ensure that the source and holder are operating properly and radiation levels
around the source are within expected background levels.
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14.4
Asbestos Management Program
Determine if work in an area will disturb, or has the potential to disturb, confirmed or
presumed Asbestos-Containing Materials (ACM). Consult the General Asbestos
Removal Procedure found in the GDL (under IMS-04 Tier 2 procedures) for
information applicable to your jurisdiction prior to engaging in any work that involves
the removal or disturbance of ACM
Procedures for removing asbestos are largely similar, but with some slight
differences in each jurisdiction (e.g. country, province, state, or local municipality).
Contact Corporate Health & Safety personnel 30 days in advance of asbestos
remediation projects, and obtain clarification or verification of applicable procedures
or updates/changes to the procedures.
Completion of Asbestos Awareness training is required for all Workers who could
potentially be exposed to Asbestos Containing Material (ACM). In addition to this
general awareness training, Workers can access resources and written materials
from Health and Safety. Additional training may be required for Workers who
engage in specific work activities involving ACM.
Contractors shall evaluate the awareness training requirement based on work type.
All products with asbestos fibers and all containers of asbestos shall be labeled as
follows:

Danger: contains asbestos fibers. Avoid creating dust. Cancer and lung
disease hazard
Asbestos fibers inhaled into the lungs can lead to lung cancer, asbestosis or
mesothelioma.
If a Worker’s exposure to asbestos is verified as beyond the 8-hour TWA limit of 0.1
f/cc and/or the 30-min excursion limit of 1 f/cc and/or the 30-min excursion limit of 1
f/cc, then Medical Surveillance of that Worker shall be required.
Where Atmospheric Monitoring indicates that the TWA and/or excursion limit is
exceeded, a written program to reduce Worker exposure shall be implemented
regionally.
Determining the Presence of ACMs or PACMs
The following are common examples of ACMs that are known to contain asbestos
or presumed (PACM) to contain asbestos:










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insulation on abandoned waste heat boilers and piping
plain and perforated asbestos board panels on interior walls and ceilings,
e.g., in some Station buildings
insulation on standby generator exhaust piping
some floor tiles
gasket material on pumping units
flanges on piping
some pipe coating, e.g., coal tar wrap
underground concrete electrical duct banks at Terminal Sites
vermiculite insulation
electrical switchgear
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To determine the location of ACMs, review the Asbestos Inventory. Contact the
Corporate Health & Safety Department or an Enbridge Representative for the
Asbestos Inventory.
Bulk samples for laboratory asbestos analysis shall be taken by a Qualified Worker.
Samples shall be collected in accordance with the procedures outlined in the
appropriate Asbestos Procedure found in the GDL (under IMS-04 Tier 2
procedures).
14.5
GHS/WHMIS/HAZCOM
This section identifies the basic components of:



the Globally Harmonized System (GHS) of Classification and Labelling of
Chemicals;
the Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS); in force
in Canada; and
the Hazards Communication (HAZCOM) Standard; in force in the USA
These regulatory measures are largely similar, and are generally designed to
protect Workers from harmful workplace exposures to controlled or hazardous
products.
GHS, WHMIS and HAZCOM are systems that:


define and classify the hazards of chemical products; and
communicate health and safety information on labels and material safety
data sheets (called Safety Data Sheets, or SDSs, in GHS)
Under GHS, WHMIS and HAZCOM:



Workers shall not be exposed to a concentration of a harmful substance that
exceeds its Occupational Exposure Limits
Workers shall be informed of and understand the known hazards of
materials used in the workplace
Workers shall receive appropriate training in hazardous materials and
protective measures
People Leaders are responsible for the following:








determining the potential for Worker exposure to hazardous materials at
Enbridge Locations, including assessing how the each hazardous material is
used
establishing protective measures based on the assessment and SDS,
including:
engineering controls (e.g., mechanical ventilation)
substitution of the hazardous material with an alternative, less hazardous
material, where practicable
administrative controls (e.g., adjusting an employee’s work schedule)
effective use of PPE
ensuring new or transferred employees receive initial training in
GHS/HAZCOM/WHMIS as part of safety orientations
ensuring applicable SDS are readily available to Workers at each Enbridge
Location
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









ensuring Workers are familiar with the SDS for all hazardous materials used
at the Facility or Site, and that the applicable SDS is reviewed before a
product is used for the first time
ensuring Workers are provided with information about hazardous materials
to which they may be exposed before starting a non-routine task (e.g.,
applying fiberglass), including:
hazard analysis
actions to limit exposure
safe work practices
ensuring hazardous material containers are properly labeled
ensuring a current and complete inventory of all hazardous materials is
maintained for each Facility or Site
ensuring any missing SDSs for hazardous materials used at a Facility are
obtained from vendors and a copy of the SDS is sent to Health & Safety
ensuring Worker concerns are discussed, where Workers may be exposed
to hazardous materials during routine activities
obtaining and sharing appropriate hazard information with Contractors,
during Contractor orientations
SDSs contain detailed information about controlled products, including:













date of preparation of SDS
hazardous ingredients
exposure limits
known health hazards
physical hazards
release procedures
personal protection
first aid measures
routes of entry
physical and chemical characteristics
precautions for safe handling and use
appropriate control measures
emergency response information
Enbridge SDS can be accessed on all sites through the online system. Contact an
Enbridge Representative for an SDS when needed or required.
14.6
Respiratory Hazards
At Enbridge Locations where there is the potential for Workers to be exposed to the
respiratory hazards detailed in this section, the following shall occur:







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implement engineering controls and work practices to reduce employee
exposure to below the Exposure Limit
develop a Hazard Assessment and ensure a control plan is completed
have provisions for site-specific contingency/emergency plan
ensure personal exposure monitoring is performed where required
make detection and monitoring equipment available for personal and area
monitoring (refer to section 11.2)
before work begins, inform employees of any potential exposures at the Site
or Facility
communicate the results of exposure monitoring to all affected employees
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ensure initial and periodic Atmospheric Monitoring is completed where
required (refer to section 11.2)
beyond the basic PPE, also make available any additional PPE or RPE that
may be required for a given hazard (refer to section 7.9)
Prevention of H2S Exposures
Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) enters the body through inhalation. It is:




a toxic, colorless gas which has the odor of rotten eggs at low
concentrations
soluble in water
highly flammable
heavier than air
Health effects of exposure to H2S can include:


at low concentrations – headache, nausea, fatigue, dizziness, shortness of
breath, cough; skin, eye and throat irritation; and/or loss of sense of smell
at high concentrations – shock, convulsions, inability to breathe,
unconsciousness or death
H2S may be present in various work locations or circumstances, such as:



Open Systems
when present as a free or released product
in a sump or tank, especially when open to atmosphere (e.g., H2S may
release into the air when the contents in the sump or tank bottoms is stirred)
H2S has poor warning properties. Olfactory (sense of smell) fatigue can occur with
prolonged exposure to low concentrations (less than 100 ppm) or acutely at high
concentrations (greater than 100 ppm).
Prevention of Benzene Exposures
Benzene is a type of hydrocarbon that may be present in a variety of crude oil and
chemical products. Benzene is:





extremely toxic, with carcinogenic properties; it can enter the body through
inhalation, ingestion and skin absorption
a clear, colorless liquid with a pleasant, sweet odor; the odor, however, does
not provide adequate warning of its presence as a hazard
highly flammable, with a low flash point
as a vapor is heavier than air, and can form explosive mixtures
as a liquid is not soluble in water and will float (as it is lighter than water)
Health effects of exposure to benzene can include:


moderate to severe irritation to the skin, and eyes, and mucous membranes
aspiration
Short-term exposure to high concentrations of benzene may lead to gastrointestinal
and neurological toxicity.
Long-term exposures of benzene, even at low concentrations, may lead to blood
disorders such as anemia or leukemia and other cancers.
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The 8-hour Threshold Limit Value (TLV) for benzene is 0.5ppm, and the Short-Term
Exposure Limit (STEL) for benzene is 2.5ppm.
Benzene exposure may be found in the following locations and situations:








gasoline and petroleum pipelines
pipeline valve assemblies
tank repair, maintenance and cleaning operations
field maintenance operations
bulk terminals and service station operations
any Open System operations
lab operations
leak sites and free/released product
In addition to other appropriate controls or measures, follow these controls for
benzene:





continuous or periodic Atmospheric Monitoring and monitoring of benzene
shall be conducted tasks where a potential for benzene exposure occurs
signs shall be posted at entrances to any identified areas that contain
benzene
chemicals containing benzene shall be secondarily contained and have
proper signage when not part of the Enbridge operating system
food and drink should not be stored or consumed in areas where benzene
is, or may be present; always wash hands prior to eating, drinking or
smoking to reduce possible ingestion
designated areas for use and storage of benzene shall be established
Where exposure to benzene above the Exposure Limit is known or suspected,
appropriate work practices, engineering controls and PPE requirements shall be
implemented.
Prevention of Oxygen Deficiency
Normal air contains approximately 21% oxygen and 79% nitrogen. Oxygen deficient
atmospheres occur when the percentage of Oxygen drops below 19.5%.
Oxygen deficient atmospheres may occur in different circumstances or locations,
such as:



during purging operations
when the use of CO2 or Halon fire extinguishing systems displaces oxygen
(as part of putting out the fire)
in enclosed spaces, e.g., where the presence of petroleum vapors can lead
to an oxygen deficiency
In other cases, the presence of petroleum vapors is not the issue. For example, in a
sealed, cleaned tank, some oxygen is used up as the interior walls of the tank rust,
creating an oxygen deficient atmosphere.
Health effects of being exposed to an oxygen deficient atmosphere include:



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deep and rapid breathing
if the oxygen level goes as low as 16%, the effects progress to dizziness,
rapid heartbeat, headache and a possible inability to move
at 14% and lower, humans cannot survive
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Nuisance Dusts
Nuisance dusts are a common workplace air contaminant. Dusts can become a
respiratory hazard to Workers when sufficient amounts of inhalable or respirable
particulates are present in work space air.
Nuisance dusts can be generated by many commonly used work practices within
Enbridge. Work practices can include, but are not limited to:


abrasive blasting
cutting and grinding
TLVs for inhalable and respirable particulates are 3 milligram per cubic meter
(mg/m3) and 10 mg/m3, respectively.
Where Worker exposure to nuisance dusts above a TLV is known or suspected
specific work practices and control measure must be in place. This may include one
or more of the following practices:





dilution ventilation
general or local exhaust ventilation
RPE
skin protective equipment or clothing
dust suppression or wetting
Cadmium and Lead
Cadmium and lead are toxic metals commonly found in industrial paints and
coatings. Because of their anti-rust and anti-fouling properties, cadmium and lead
are often electroplated onto steel nuts, bolts, and rivets. Operations involving the
removal of cadmium and lead paints may pose a significant exposure hazard.
Prior to commencing operations that involve the disturbance of painted surfaces in
Enbridge facilities, determination of the presence or absence of lead and cadmium
shall be conducted. If the presence of cadmium or lead is detected in painted
materials, work practices and exposure control strategies outlined in the Cadmium
and Lead processes found in the GDL (under IMS-04 Tier 2 processes) shall be
strictly followed. Sampling of materials shall only be performed by a Qualified
Person in accordance with the process.
Welding Fumes
Jobs involving welding activities are known for generating high levels of welding
fumes (either general welding fumes or specific metal fumes), which may pose a
health hazard to the health of welders or other Workers in the vicinity of the job. A
combination of respiratory protection and ventilation is required to control hazards
associated with welding fumes.
If conditions allow, air sampling for welding fumes shall be implemented, the main
target of the sampling will be welding activities performed inside of Confined Spaces
to determine exposures to the following:
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total welding fumes
chromium
chromium VI
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nickel
manganese
Crystalline Silica
When Workers chip, cut, drill, or grind objects that contain crystalline silica (such as
concrete cutting) it can become a respiratory hazard.
Crystalline silica (refractory materials) is found in materials commonly used to
insulate crude oil heaters including:


insulating Firebrick and Insulating Castable, which break down through the
normal cycling of the heater and the turbulent flue gas, creating dusts that
are disturbed on entry
Kaowool Blanket Products, which may contain crystalline silica after being
exposed to temperatures above 982°C (1800°F) (Such temperatures are not
unusual during normal operation of the crude oil heaters)
Specific work practices and control measure must be in place when engaging in
work that involves exposure to crystalline silica. Review the Crystalline Silica
Process found in the GDL (under IMS-04 Tier 2 processes) prior to any work where
exposure to crystalline silica is known or suspected.
14.7
Nitrogen (Pipeline Purging)
Nitrogen is a colorless, odorless, relatively inert gas. Nitrogen is used to purge
product from the pipeline in preparation for certain work activities.
Once the pipeline is purged, excess nitrogen is vented (i.e., the pipeline is
depressurized) and residual nitrogen remains in the pipeline.
To reduce risks of exposure, consider the following factors and hazards:
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Increasing the nitrogen concentration in air lowers the oxygen concentration.
If the concentration of nitrogen is too high (and oxygen too low), a person
will become oxygen deprived and simple asphyxiation occurs.
Nitrogen is usually transported and stored in liquid form. Always use
nitrogen in a well-ventilated area.
The transition from liquid to gas can generate a lot of pressure quickly,
which causes cold temperatures. Liquid nitrogen is extremely cold and can
cause severe frostbite upon contact.
Cold nitrogen gas is heavier than air, so the risk of exposure to nitrogen is
greatest in low lying areas, e.g., Excavations, tank berms, vaults and
culverts.
Site Preparation / Work Controls
To reduce potential exposures to nitrogen, use controls such as:
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install a windsock, for monitoring wind direction
ensure SCBA (2 minimum) and fire extinguishers are readily available
always position liquid nitrogen trucks/tanks, injection equipment and blowdown tanks in well-ventilated areas (to prevent accumulation of excessive
concentrations of nitrogen)
install piping or hoses to vents and locate discharge ends downwind away
from work area; inform Workers to stay clear
ensure Workers wear hearing protection during nitrogen injection and
venting activities
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ensure Workers wear appropriate eye/face protection, RPE, insulated gloves
and body protection as needed, when handling or operating purging
equipment
Workers not directly involved in nitrogen purging activities shall stay upwind, out of
the work area and in designated safe zones.
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15.0 Ground Disturbance Standard
15.1
Damage Prevention
Ground Disturbance Planning
For Ground Disturbance planning, these requirements shall be followed:
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obtain a Ground Disturbance Permit for all Enbridge Ground Disturbance
activities (Ground Disturbance Permits are not valid beyond 7 days, as long
as the one-call locate remains valid)
the Excavator/Ground Disturber shall request a One-Call and obtain a locate
ticket prior to any Ground Disturbance activities
all approvals, applicable records, drawings and documentation, including
One-Call Tickets, shall remain on site and be accessible, as part of the
Ground Disturbance Package
the Excavation Area shall be marked with pink and white striped flagging
The Locate Boundary Area shall be marked with white markings, with the following
exceptions:
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other visible markings shall be used in snow conditions
ROW markers shall be used for Mainline Construction
Locate Phase
After the Locate Boundary Area is defined, an Initial Locate shall be completed.
When the Ground Disturbance is being conducted by a Contractor performing work
for Enbridge, a Verification Locate shall also be performed.
In the Locate Boundary Area all Below Grade Facilities shall be Surface Located
within the excavation perimeter and extending 30 m (100 ft.) from that perimeter.
The Locate Boundary Area may be lessened in the following situation:
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
when constrained by a defined ROW boundary
when constrained by surface features such as:
o improved roadway or railway
o tree line/shrub line
o fence (temporary or permanent)
o building
o cement or concrete parking area
o other steel, concrete, or similar above ground improvement
The lessened area shall be marked by multiple white markers identifying all of the
corners of the Locate Boundary Area.
Notwithstanding the above, when the Locate Boundary Area is constrained by
property boundaries all Below Grade Facilities shall be identified through other
means, such as historical records, One-Call services, or visual searches.
The Locate Boundary Area can include any additional temporary workspace and/or
access that may be necessary. Extra workspace or access may be used for such
purposes as:
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heavy equipment traffic as part of the excavation work, and/or
a storage area for spoil, equipment, and/or materials
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Initial Locate (One-Call response)
Below Grade Facilities shall be located and marked as follows:
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Facility owners or their authorized Contractor shall conduct Initial Locates
additional Locates beyond the Locate Boundary Area may be required to
verify alignment or location of Below Grade Facilities
within a Fenced Station/Terminal, locate markers shall be spaced no more
than 3 m (10 ft.) apart, directly over the centerline of the Below Grade
Facility
on the ROW there shall be a clear line of vision between markers used to
identify a particular facility location; the markers shall be placed directly over
the centerline of the Below Grade Facility at maximum intervals of 10 m (30
ft.) unless another reasonable interval is appropriate
reconfirming the Initial Locate/making a new One-Call is required in the
following situations:
o when markers become dislodged, removed, unrecognizable
o when Initial Locates expire as per the One-Call ticket
o when a new Contractor or Subcontractor is retained to conduct
Ground Disturbance work in the area as there shall be no
piggybacking on existing tickets
o if there is a change in the scope of work (i.e., change in the
Excavation Area)
o upon resumption of work at an open Excavation
If the Excavation Perimeter moves, the One-Call shall be resubmitted, unless the
Excavation Perimeter remains completely within Locate Boundary Area.
Before resuming activities previously initiated by others:
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review the location and identification of Facilities
reconfirm the Initial Locate
determine if a new One-Call is required
Non Enbridge Below Grade Facilities shall be marked by their respective Facility
owners.
When Below Grade Facilities are Located, compare all applicable records, drawings
and documentation, and conduct a visual check to confirm that all Locates
accurately reflect the location of all Below Grade Facilities in the Locate Boundary
Area.
Markings
Markings shall remain in place for the duration of the work activities. If any markers
are removed, or become dislodged or unrecognizable, then immediately notify the
Enbridge Site Inspector.
Markings shall:
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be highly visible to equipment operators despite local conditions (e.g., wind,
snow)
adhere to the American Public Works Association (APWA) uniform colour
code, unless otherwise documented.
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Temporary markers shall be removed upon completion of the work.
Verification Locate (Required for Contractor Ground Disturbances)
When required, the Verification Locate shall be performed over the entire Locate
Boundary Area and shall follow these requirements:
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Ensure the Verification Locate is performed by a locator (operator
qualifications may be required) other than the individual who performed the
Initial Locate.
Confirm the accuracy of all Initial Locates.
Identify unknown or undocumented facilities in the Locate Boundary Area,
resulting from the Initial Locate or Verification Locate.
Report any discrepancies to the Ground Disturbance Supervisor and to the
Facility owner.
Investigate and resolve any reported discrepancies.
Provide all appropriate records, drawings and documentation to the party
performing the Verification Locate. Further Verification Locates may be performed if
deemed necessary by the Excavator/Ground Disturber.
15.2
Positive Identification (Exposure) of Below Grade Facilities
These Positive Identification specifications are the minimum requirements.
Additional Positive Identification may be required based on the Hazard Assessment.
Prior to beginning Mechanical Excavation or any other potentially destructive below
grade activity, the location of Below Grade Facilities shall be Positively Identified by:
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Hand Expose, or
Vacuum Excavating.
Positive Identification shall be to a sufficient width to visually identify (Positively
Identify) the location, direction/alignment, depth, size and type of all Below Grade
Facilities.
All known Appurtenances and pipe weights shall be Positively Identified prior to
Mechanical Excavation.
Positive Identification shall be completed on all Below Grade Facilities within the
entire Excavation perimeter and 5 m (16 ft.) outside the Excavation perimeter.
Follow these steps when identifying Below Grade Facilities:
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before Positive Identification begins, Facility identification markings shall be
reviewed to determine if additional Positive Identification is required
use a minimum of three Positive Identification points to verify alignment, i.e.,
beginning, middle and end
if a located Below Grade Facility does not intersect the excavation but is
within the 5 m (16 ft.) area beyond the excavation area, determine location
with a minimum of 2 exposure points
Adjacent Below Grade Facilities within 5m (16 ft.) of the Excavation perimeter shall,
at a minimum, be exposed on the working side, with the following exceptions for
non-Station/Terminal sites:
o
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If Locate Boundary Area is less than 5 m (16 ft.), only Positively
Identify within the Locate Boundary Area.
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On the ROW and when allowed by Applicable Legislation (not in
AER regulated areas) and if multiple parallel pipelines exist; in such
cases only the most adjacent Enbridge-operated pipeline/s needs to
be Positively Identified providing all the pipelines on the ROW have
been located
The following diagrams are examples of positive identification.
Alternatively, when the Excavation work area is congested with Below Grade
Facilities, a perimeter slot trench may be completed. It shall be dug at a minimum of
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1 m (3 ft.) outside the Excavation perimeter to a depth of 0.6 m (2 ft.) deeper than
the planned Excavation.
When the perimeter slot trenching method is used, follow these requirements:
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If a Below Grade Facility passes through the perimeter slot trench, a sight
hole in the middle of the Excavation Area shall be performed to ensure
depth, alignment, and size.
If a Below Grade Facility does not exit the Excavation Area, it shall be
Positively Identified at sufficient intervals to establish its termination point.
If the entire Excavation Area is going to be Vacuum Excavated or Hand Exposed
then the Positive Identification of the Below Grade Facilities to 5 m (16 ft.) does not
need to occur. If the scope changes and Mechanical Excavation is required, then
Positive Identification shall be completed in accordance with all of the above-noted
requirements for Mechanical Excavations.
If backfilling of the exposure hole is required once the Below Grade Facility is
exposed, it shall be identified and marked with the required information (Facility
owner, depth, size and type of facility) and APWA uniform colour code. Ensure the
identification of Below Grade Facilities is clearly visible to all traffic and that Positive
Identification can be maintained.
When Below Grade Facilities are positively identified, ensure these requirements
are completed:
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
compare all records, drawings and documentation; and
conduct a visual check to confirm that the Positive Identification accurately
reflects the location of all Below Grade Facilities
Probing
Probing for Positive Identification is not permitted unless approved by regional
management (director or designate) based on ground conditions. Approval to probe
shall be documented on the Hazard Assessment.
When the use of probes is approved, probes shall have rounded or blunt tips to
prevent damage to Below Grade Facilities.
Probing is acceptable in the following situations:
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15.3
maintaining mechanical clearance (provided Positive Identification has been
performed and is maintained)
depth of cover
preliminary probe reports for crossings
other situations that do not involve Positive Identification
Mechanical Clearance
No Mechanical Excavation shall occur within 600 mm (2 ft.) of a foreign Below
Grade Facility.
No Mechanical Excavation shall occur within 600 mm (2 ft.) of an Enbridge Below
Grade Facility unless the following conditions are met:
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the Below Grade Facility is exposed on the top and sides at locations
sufficient to confirm alignment, and
The Enbridge Facility owner or Enbridge Site Inspector approves and
directly observes the excavating activities
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At no time shall mechanical excavating equipment be within 300 mm (1 ft.) of an
Enbridge Below Grade Facility. For clarity, the final 300 mm (1 ft.) of soil around a
facility shall be removed by Hand Exposure, water washing or other non-mechanical
means.
Mechanical Clearance will be adjusted when the crossing agreement or Applicable
Legislation is more stringent.
Before excavation begins, Site Supervisors shall review site conditions with the
Equipment Operator(s) and Spotter(s). The review shall address the following:
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15.4
location and identification of Below Grade Facilities and Appurtenances
type of Below Grade Facilities and Appurtenances
depth of Below Grade Facilities and Appurtenances
direction of Below Grade Facilities and Appurtenances
any other relevant factors
Roles and Responsibilities
Regional or Project Management shall ensure the following Ground Disturbance
roles (or equivalent roles) are assigned to the appropriate Worker, as applicable to
a project or work activity.
All Workers assigned to one or more of the Ground Disturbance roles noted in this
sub-section shall, at a minimum, have successfully completed a Ground
Disturbance course that meets Enbridge’s training requirements.
The Ground Disturbance Inspector/Enbridge Representative shall ensure:
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Crossing Agreements are obtained as required
activities involving mechanized equipment are adequately supervised
all Below Grade Facilities in the work area are Surface Located according to
the One-Call ticket request and in accordance with this Standard and other
applicable policies
any other necessary safety controls are implemented considering the unique
aspects of the work
that all applicable locate documentation matches a visual check of the
Worksite
the appropriate permits and Hazard Assessments are completed prior to
beginning work activities
Workers and Facilities are adequately protected in accordance with
Enbridge requirements, Hazard Assessment processes and this manual
work is stopped when there is a concern for safety, pipeline integrity, or
damage to equipment or Facilities
exposed pipes, conduits, and cables are not damaged, as confirmed by
visual inspection in the ditch/Excavation before backfilling
Crossing Agreements are reviewed and maintained on site as part of the
Ground Disturbance Package
that Below Grade Facilities are not damaged, as confirmed by visual
inspection before backfilling
any discrepancies for Below Grade Facility Locates are resolved
all Workers have the appropriate training and that records of such training
are maintained and accessible
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For Contractor Excavations, the Ground Disturbance Inspector/Enbridge
Representative shall:
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
be present at the side of the Excavation for any Mechanical Excavation or
activity with the potential for damage
ensure the appropriate parts of the Ground Disturbance Package are
reviewed with the Contractor
The Excavator/Ground Disturber shall:
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
obtain verification and review with the Ground Disturbance
Inspector/Enbridge Representative that all applicable Crossing Agreements
and/or Proximity Agreements have been obtained, as part of the line location
and verification process
ensure Excavation activities (including the Spotter and Operator) are
overseen by a Supervisor/Foreman/Competent Person
ensure a One-Call is placed and confirm the One-Call is valid
ensure that when there is a discrepancy between the documentation and the
line Locates that cannot be reconciled, that the discrepancy is resolved
(note: a perimeter slot trench is the preferred method of Positively Identifying
Below Grade Facilities when a discrepancy cannot be resolved)
ensure that smaller diameter (NPS 4 or less) non-metallic pipelines (for
example PVC, polyethylene, or other synthetic compounds) and all cables
(electrical, communication, etc.) are exposed across the full width of the
proposed trench or Excavation, by using Hand Expose or Vacuum
Excavation unless a hazard assessment indicates that exposing the length
of the utility creates an integrity hazard
The Ground Disturbance Supervisor/Foreman/Competent Person shall:
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ensure all required documents are kept on-site as part of the Ground
Disturbance Package
ensure required documents from the Ground Disturbance Package are
provided to the party performing the Locates
reconfirm the Locates if required
investigate and resolve or reconcile any Locate discrepancies
ensure a comparison of all applicable Locate documentation matches a
visual check of the Worksite
review the Excavation and the Hazard Assessment with the Ground
Disturbance Inspector/Enbridge Representative
ensure the appropriate permits and Hazard Assessments are completed
prior to beginning work activities
stop work and consult with the Ground Disturbance Inspector/Enbridge
Representative upon discovery of any non-Located facility, or if there is any
contact between equipment and any Below Grade Facility
Typically the role of Ground Disturbance Supervisor/Foreman/Competent Person
will be assigned to Contractor Personnel, unless the Contractor is working under the
direct supervision of Pipeline Maintenance.
The Equipment Operator shall:
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know the location of all Below Grade Facilities and Appurtenances
discuss and agree on hand signals with the designated Spotter
follow all signals given by the Spotter
be deemed Qualified by a Enbridge Representative for hotline work
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not excavate until a Spotter is present with the required signaling device
ensure Spotters understand their responsibilities
ensure One-Call notifications have been followed
review all documentation/drawings
maintain all required clearances
stop work if Positive Identification is lost
The Ground Disturbance Spotter shall:
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15.5
check the location of all Below Grade Facilities in the work area and assist
the operator in maintaining required clearances and depth of cuts
observe progress and use hand signals and/or verbal communication to alert
the Operator to potential dangers
stop the work if uncontrolled hazards arise (e.g., unidentified Below Grade
Facilities, contact between the excavation equipment and a facility)
be continually aware that not all Below Grade Facilities are marked with
warning tape (or with the correct color of warning tape) or provided with
proper barriers
possess a signaling device (e.g., an air horn is best) to alert the equipment
Operator to potential dangers
be clearly identified by wearing high visibility apparel that meets all
applicable requirements and is distinguishable from others on site
Pile Driving, Auguring, Boring, and Drilling
All Ground Disturbance requirements and practices set out in this Standard and any
associated procedures shall be met when performing these activities.
When pile driving in congested areas with high risk potential for damage to Below
Grade Facilities, a pilot hole shall be Vacuum Excavated to a minimum depth of 3 m
(10 ft.) and to a diameter equal to that of the pile.
All boring pathways shall be Positively Identified where the boring pathway
intersects the sheeting to maintain appropriate clearances.
When a boring device is used to install a Facility across one or more Below Grade
Facilities, the depth of the device shall be confirmed to ensure that a 1 m (3 ft.)
separation is maintained from all Below Grade Facilities. This includes the pilot hole
and the reamed path.
Minimum separations are outlined in the specific procedures for slip-boring,
horizontal/directional drilling, and drilling vertical and open vertical bores.
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16.0 Excavation Safety Standard
16.1
Mechanical Excavation
Workers shall halt the Excavation process if Positive Identification of the Below
Grade Facility or the facility markers has been lost at any time.
Workers shall identify the depth of Below Grade Facilities before excavating to
prevent heavy equipment or commercial vehicles from crossing without approval or
notification.
When excavating in the vicinity of an adjacent pipeline, hazard controls shall be
implemented to ensure that excavation activities do not undermine or add stress to
the adjacent pipeline. If signs of soil instability or stress occur during such work,
excavating operations shall be immediately suspended and the Ground Disturbance
Foreman/Supervisor shall be notified.
Excavation shall not resume until adequate measures to protect the adjacent
pipeline against movement/stress associated with the excavation are taken (e.g.,
sheet piling may be installed as protection) to the satisfaction of the Facility owner.
All Mechanical Excavation shall stop immediately if there is Contact or a Near Miss
with a Below Grade Facility. The excavating equipment shall be immediately shut
down and left in place, if safe to do so. Any Below Grade Facility contact or Near
Miss shall be reported immediately to the Ground Disturbance Inspector/Enbridge
Representative and shall be investigated as required.
Buckets without teeth shall be utilized, or the bucket teeth shall be protected by a
flat bar. Unless prohibited by a crossing agreement written approval is required from
Operations Management (or designate) for the use of buckets with teeth.
When the use of buckets with teeth has been approved, the Ground Disturbance
Inspector shall be on-site at all times during all activities where teeth are required. In
addition, the following requirements shall be met:
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
use of buckets with teeth shall be limited to the removal of rock, concrete,
asphalt, or frozen soil, no closer than 0.6 m (2 ft.) from any Below Grade
Facility
a Hazard Assessment shall be completed by the Contractor and approved
by the Enbridge Site Inspector/Enbridge Representative
before the task is carried out, a pre-job meeting shall be conducted with the
crew to review hazards and processes anticipated for the Ground
Disturbance activities or factors
all Below Grade Facilities shall be Surface Located and Positively Identified
when passing or swinging the bucket over Facilities, the Operator shall
maintain safe clearances, keeping the bucket curled and the teeth pointed
up
once the approved activities are complete, buckets without teeth shall then
be used for all other activities, or the bucket teeth shall be protected by a flat
bar
Dozers with ripper teeth shall not be allowed on an Enbridge ROW or near Below
Grade Facilities without written approval from Operations Management (or
designate). This approval does not apply to Greenfield work.
Manually-operated jack hammers or hoes equipped with jack hammers are
prohibited from working directly over a Below Grade Facility.
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Worker Protection
Prior to entering a Working Excavation, the Excavation Checklist shall be
completed.
When Working Excavations meet the criteria for a Confined Space Entry as outlined
in the Confined Space Standard, entry into the Working Excavation shall be treated
as entering a Confined Space.
Workers shall be prohibited from entering any unsafe Excavation. When a Working
Excavation is more than 1.2 m (4 ft.) deep, Workers shall be protected from caveins by sloping the sides of the Excavation and/or installing temporary protective
structures, such as shoring or trench boxes.
Ensure sufficient space is provided in Working Excavations to perform all required
tasks, including adequate clearance under and between Facilities and walls.
When installing components in a shoring system, each brace shall be installed in
descending order using a ladder and working downward from the surface. The
reverse order shall be used to remove components, unless conditions make it
unsafe for Workers to enter the excavation. In such cases, an alternate method of
removal that protects Workers from injury shall be used.
Shoring shall extend a minimum of 400 mm (18 in.) above the surface of the ground
or vertical trench walls when surrounding site conditions are sloping toward the
Excavation. When site conditions are flat, shoring only needs to extend to ground
level.
A professional engineer shall be consulted to review the stability of any structure or
foundation that may be affected by an excavation or trench. If required, a temporary
protective structure shall be designed, constructed, and installed to support the
structure or foundation in accordance with the specifications of a professional
engineer.
A professional engineer shall design any support system used in an Excavation
greater than 6 m (20 ft.) deep.
Trench Boxes shall be designed by a professional engineer. Before the trench box
is installed, a copy of the engineering certificate or a stamped engineering drawing,
including assembly instructions, shall be available. Trench boxes stacked in deep
Excavations shall be adequately secured to one another, in accordance with the
engineered design.
Trench Boxes shall have continuous sides and shall extend a minimum of 400 mm
(18 in.) above the vertical wall of the Excavation when surrounding site conditions
are sloping toward the excavation. When site conditions are flat, the Trench Box
only needs to extend to ground level.
A registered professional engineer shall design and approve hoisting hook-up and
drag points. Workers working in Trench Boxes shall:



remain inside the box as long as they are in the Working Excavation
leave if the Trench Box is to be moved
maintain a distance at the end of a Trench Box of at least 1.5 times the
height of an unprotected wall
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The space between the Trench Box and the Excavation wall shall be backfilled in
order to allow closer access to the top of the box and to limit soil movement in case
of a cave-in.
Sheet Piles
When sheet piling is required to be installed, a professional engineer shall design it.
A detailed procedure and Hazard Assessment must be submitted to the Enbridge
for review. The following requirements shall also be met:
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16.3
review existing facilities for potential impacts (i.e., vibration) during the
installation or removal process
a Safety Watch (e.g., Rigger) with audible device and warning signs must be
in place to keep unauthorized Workers out of the exclusion zone
rated safety chains shall be used at all times
Classification of Soil and Rock
For Working Excavations, using the Excavation Checklist, a Qualified Worker shall
classify each soil and rock deposit before and during excavation as one of the
following soil types:
a)
Type A – Hard and Compact, e.g., clay and cemented soils (equivalent to
Type 2 in Ontario and Saskatchewan)
b)
Type B – Likely to crack or crumble, e.g., angular gravel, silt loam, crushed
rock (equivalent to Type 3 in Ontario and Saskatchewan)
c)
Type C – Soft, sandy or loose soil, e.g., gravel, sand, submerged soil
(equivalent to Type 4 in Ontario and Saskatchewan)
d)
Stable Rock (equivalent to Type 1 soil in Ontario and Saskatchewan)
Each soil and rock deposit shall be classified by a Qualified Worker as Stable Rock,
Type A, Type B, or Type C.
Soil cannot be classified as Type A if it is fissured, previously disturbed, if it has
water seeping through it, or if it is subject to vibration.
Type B is previously disturbed soils except those which would otherwise be classed
as Type C.
The determination to change the soil classification will depend on site-specific soil
characteristics and Applicable Legislation.
A Qualified Worker shall classify soil types using the following methods:
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
a visual test to determine the following:
o qualitative information regarding the Excavation site in general
o soil properties next to the Excavation
o soil properties forming the sides of the opening Excavation
o soil properties taken as samples from excavated material
manual tests to determine quantitative as well as qualitative properties of
soil and to provide more information for classifying soil property
Manual tests include the following:
o
o
o
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plasticity test
dry strength
thumb penetration
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other strength tests (e.g., pocket penetrometer or hand-operated
shear vane)
For classification and testing, treat frozen soil conditions the same as unfrozen soil
conditions.
16.4
Sloping
The walls of the Excavation shall be sloped when the Excavation is greater than 1.2
m (4 ft.) deep and shoring or a Trench Box is not used.
One of the following options shall be used when designing slopes and benching
systems.
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
Class “C” soils shall not be benched and shall be sloped at an angle not
steeper than one and one-half horizontal to one vertical (34° measured from
the horizontal).
Have a Qualified Worker classify the soil using manual and visual tests, and
ensure a maximum slope as follows:
o Type A&B: 1:1 (45°)
o Type C: 1½:1 (34°)
Install shoring or use a trench box
Have a professional engineer design a support system for the excavation.
Benching is a type of sloping that is suitable for class A and B soils only. Benching
is done by sloping the sides of the trench back in a series of steps (or benches)
instead of at one steady angle. The angle of the benched soil shall not exceed 45
degrees from the horizontal.
16.5
Exits and Entrances
For Working Excavations, ensure:
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there are at least two entrances/exits
there is an exit on each side of the pipe if Workers are required to work on
either side of the pipe
entrances and exits are in locations such that no Worker has to travel more
than 8 m (25 ft.) laterally to the nearest means of egress
ladders used in Working Excavations in the Province of Manitoba are placed
no more than 3 m (10 ft.) from the Worker
soil ramp entrances and exits have a maximum slope of 1:3
egress ladders are placed inside the trench box
side rails of ladders extend 1 m (3 ft.) above the shoring, trench box, or
excavation
ladders are properly secured
Stairs may be constructed with slopes at an angle between 30 and 50 degrees to
the horizontal plane.
Trenches 1.2 m (4 ft.) or more in depth shall be provided a fixed means of egress.
16.6
Material Storage
All materials, tools, vehicles, and equipment shall be stored at least 1 m (3 ft.) from
the edge of a Working Excavation.
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Spoil piles shall be located a minimum of 1 m (3 ft.) from the edge of a Working
Excavation. The slope of spoil piles next to Working Excavations shall not be at an
angle greater than 45° from the horizontal. All loose materials shall be scraped from
the sides of an Excavation and from walking and working areas where Workers will
be present. Measures shall be taken to ensure that rocks and soil do not fall or roll
into the Excavation.
Where parallel excavation will occur within 3 m (10 ft.) of an adjacent operating
pipeline, storage of excess surplus spoil above the operating adjacent pipeline(s)
shall only be allowed based on the completion of hoop stress calculations.
Hazardous materials or impacted soil may be encountered when excavating in or
around known or suspected contaminated sites. Additional PPE and other
necessary controls shall be identified on the Hazard Assessment, and by referring
to the SDS as necessary.
For any activity where a Worker could come into contact with the product in the
pipe, specific training requirements and proper PPE shall be required.
Any impacted soil shall be stockpiled in a designated location, properly segregated
from clean soil until proper disposal can be arranged. Impacted material removed
by Vacuum Excavation shall be disposed of properly. All impacted material shall be
handled and disposed of with direction from the Enbridge Environmental
Department.
16.7
Fences and Barricades
Unattended Excavations, trenches, and boreholes shall be barricaded or fenced off
as appropriate, depending on conditions. The type of guarding and material shall be
determined according to the level of risk associated with the Excavation.
Suitable warning devices shall be provided to ensure advance warning of
Excavations, trenches, or boreholes that may present a hazard to traffic.
Along a ROW, unattended Excavations shall be guarded from unintentional entry by
using highly visible material. In addition, barbed wire shall be used where livestock
are present, unless the property owner requests alternative controls, such as buffalo
or electric fencing.
Where a long trench is left open (e.g. for a new pipeline), use other reasonable
methods to secure the excavation, including placing berms, stringing pipe along the
ROW, and stripping topsoil.
Where a portion of an Excavation greater than 1.2 m (4 ft.) deep is constructed with
vertical walls, use warning signs attached to barricades or ropes, or other
appropriate methods to prevent Workers from entering that portion of the
Excavation.
Barricades or fences shall be erected at a minimum of 1 m (3 ft.) from the
Excavation edge to maintain an adequate walkway around the Excavation, unless
space is limited.
Barricades and fences shall be minimum 1.1 m (42 inches) tall and fencing supports
shall be adequate to ensure the integrity of the fencing/barricade is not
compromised due to site, ground, weather or other conditions.
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Winter Conditions
Extreme care shall be taken at all times with frozen soils since higher Excavation
forces are required. In winter conditions:
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Be careful, especially at the 12 o’clock position where most Appurtenances
may be located and potentially encapsulated within the frozen layer at a
shallower depth than the pipe itself.
There is a risk of large frozen soils with encapsulated rock that may damage
the pipeline while being removed. Therefore, a mandatory 600 mm (2 ft.)
clearance for Mechanical Excavation is required when excavating through
frozen soils to the depth of frost.
Use of buckets with teeth may be appropriate while digging through frost, if
approved in accordance with Section 16.1 of this Standard.
The use of radiant ground-thawing equipment is recommended for thawing the
ground within Station/Terminal Sites prior to excavation.
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17.0 Fall Protection and Travel Restraint Standard
17.1
Personal Fall Arrest System
Workers shall wear a personal fall arrest system when:
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there is a potential to fall a vertical distance greater than 2 m (6 ft.)
approaching within 1.5 m (5 ft.) of an unprotected leading edge over 2 m
(6ft.) in height
it is impractical to provide adequate work platforms, scaffolds, staging and
guard rails
working on Swingstages and in work cages
working in a personnel basket (manbasket)
Enbridge Workers shall be trained in:



the effective use of the fall protection equipment they are using
identification and recognition of fall hazards
control measures for fall hazards, including elimination of hazards where
possible (such as use of safe, alternative methods, or alternate approaches
to the work)
Workers on a walking/working surface (horizontal and vertical surface) with an
unprotected side or edge which is 2 m (6 ft.) or more above a lower level shall be
protected from falling by the use of guardrail systems, safety net systems, or
personal fall arrest systems.
In addition to the work platform itself (i.e. floor, girder, beam, etc.) an independent
means of support shall be used, consisting of either:

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
a personal fall protection system consisting of a lifeline, rope-grabbing
device, lanyard and shock-absorber and full body harness
a retractable lanyard with a full body harness
a lanyard with 100% tie-off capabilities and a full body harness
Secure or tie back a thrust-out or parapet hook to a solid part of the structure to
prevent movement or dislodgement.
Anchor points shall be capable of withstanding at minimum of 5000 lb. shock load.
A fall prevention system shall be utilized whenever a person is on a wind girder
without handrails, to install, adjust, or remove anchorage points.
17.2
Fall Protection Plan
A written Fall Protection Plan shall be completed by a Qualified Worker whenever
Workers could potentially fall 2 m (6 ft.) or more where they are not protected by a
guardrail system. The plan shall contain the following:
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fall hazards at the Worksite
fall protection system(s) to be used
anchors to be used
clearance distances below the work area
procedures used to assemble, maintain, inspect, use and disassemble the
fall protection system
rescue procedures to be used if a Worker falls from a height and is
suspended in the air
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a determination that the walking/working surfaces at heights above 2 m (6
ft.) which Workers are to work or walk on have the strength and structural
integrity to support those activities
Rescue
When a Worker is suspended from a height while using a fall arrest system, it can
result in serious physical injury, or potentially death in less than 30 minutes.
To reduce the risks associated with short or long periods of suspension, follow
these practices:
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17.4
rescue any suspended Workers as quickly as possible
be aware that a suspended Worker is at risk of orthostatic intolerance and
suspension trauma
be aware of signs and symptoms of orthostatic intolerance
be aware that a suspended Worker who is unconscious or has a head injury
is particularly at risk of orthostatic intolerance
be aware of factors that can increase the risk of suspension trauma
ensure a medical professional is present when moving a Worker to a
horizontal position following suspension
use of rescue stirrups to allow suspended Workers to maintain blood flow
rope/cable tenders shall make certain the harness user is conscious at all
times
Fall Protection Equipment
Fall protection equipment shall meet the requirements of the CSA in Canada and
ANSI in the US. All components of a fall protection system shall be compatible with
one another and with the environment in which they are being used. Fall protection
equipment shall be inspected by the Worker prior to each use. Re-certify and
inspect fall protection equipment as specified by the manufacturer and Applicable
Legislation.
Keep fall protection equipment free of substances and conditions that would
contribute to deterioration. Fall protection equipment shall be destroyed if it is
defective or if it contacts heat, chemicals or other substances that could cause
damage. Fall protection equipment subjected to impact loading shall be immediately
removed from service and shall not be used until inspected and determined by a
Qualified Worker to be undamaged and suitable for reuse.
Personal fall arrest systems when stopping a fall shall:
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limit the maximum arresting force to 1,800 lbs. (8 kN) when using a full body
harness
not allow a Worker to free fall more than 2 m (6 ft.) or to contact a lower level
limit maximum deceleration distance to 1.07 m (3.5 ft.)
have sufficient strength to withstand twice the potential impact energy of a
Worker free falling a distance of 2 m (6 ft.), or the free fall distance permitted
by the system, whichever is less
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Harnesses used for fall protection shall:
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only full body harnesses will be utilized and they must be rated for the
employee’s weight; Workers who exceed 140 kg (310 lbs.) (including body
and tools) shall be required to wear a harness that is rated heavy duty and
designed for their weight
be selected for specific applications and consider:
o compliance
o potential arrest injury
o suspension trauma
have buckles that hold securely without slippage or other failure
Workers shall never be permitted to work alone in a harness when there is a fall
potential of 2 m (6 ft.) or more.
It may be advantageous in some circumstances to locate the lanyard or tie-off
attachment of the harness as near to the body’s center of gravity as possible to
reduce the whiplash and other trauma when a fall is arrested. This also facilitates
moving legs upward and head downward while suspended.
Lanyards used for fall protection shall:
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
be secured to an approved drop line, lifeline or fixed anchorage point
have shock absorbers used with wire rope lifelines to keep fall-arrest loads
below accepted limits
allow for 100 % tie off or a self-retracting lifeline
Lanyards should be secured whenever possible above the waist or overhead to
minimize actual fall distance.
Use a fall protection calculator to determine the length of lanyard required in a fall
arrest system.
Where practical, the use of a retractable lanyard in place of a basic lifeline lanyard
system is recommended.
Vertical and Horizontal Lifelines
Horizontal lifelines shall:


be designed, installed, and used under the supervision of a Qualified
person, as part of a complete fall arrest system, which maintains a safety
factor of at least two
have each Worker attached to a separate lifeline
Vertical lifelines shall be:
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provided for each Worker on Swingstages and work cages
securely anchored each to an independent support so that failure of the
equipment will not cause failure of the lifeline
inspected before use
protected from damage such as abrasion and chafing
made of 5/8-in. polypropylene rope or made of other fibers of equivalent
durability, impact strength and elasticity
long enough to reach the ground
Where lanyards are used for horizontal travel restraint, anchor all lanyards to
prevent lanyard-wearers from slipping over a roof edge.
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Approved waist-type safety belts, with safety lines, shall only be used only for
horizontal travel restraint as a positioning device (e.g., oil spill cleanup at water’s
edge). This type of safety belt shall not be used for fall arrest.
Approved safety lines (e.g., lifelines) and safety straps may be used for horizontal
travel restraint or fall protection.
Secure each safety line independently to an approved structure of adequate
strength.
Lanyards and lifelines shall be kept free of knots, as knots reduce the strength of
rope.
Where lines attach to structures (and elsewhere as necessary), use softeners to
protect against chafing or abrasion from contact with sharp edges.
Fall protection and travel restraint connecting hardware- such as carabineers,
connectors and snap hooks shall:
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

be self-closing and self-locking
require two deliberate consecutive actions to open
be marked with the manufacturer’s name and the breaking strength
Safety Nets
Where safety net protection is required based on a hazard assessment, work shall
not commence until the net is in place and has been tested in accordance with
applicable requirements. Prior to using safety nets contact the safety department for
review and assistance.
A professional engineer must certify any structure to which a personnel safety net is
attached. The certification must indicate that the structure is capable of withstanding
any load the net is likely to impose on it depending on the circumstances of the
work site.
Safety nets shall:
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be installed and maintained so that the maximum deflection under impact
load does not allow any part of the net to touch another surface
have safety hooks or shackles of drawn, rolled or forged steel with an
ultimate tensile strength of not less than 22.2 kilonewtons
have joints between net panels capable of developing the full strength of the
web,
extend not less than 2.4 m (7 ft.) beyond the work area,
extend not more than 6 m (18 ft.) below the work area
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18.0 Control of Hazardous Energy Standard
18.1
Isolation
Only authorized Enbridge Employees shall perform initial de-energizing, isolation
and energizing or lockout on Enbridge Operating Assets.
Contractors shall not de-energize, isolate or energize Enbridge Operating Assets.
All Lockout Procedures shall be documented and a copy kept as part of the project
documentation.
Workers should consider all electrical conductors to be energized unless the
conductor is:


visibly isolated from the power supply; and
tested to confirm it is de-energized, properly grounded and locked out
For electrical isolation of High Voltage or work upstream of the 480 V main breaker
use the Electrical Equipment Isolation Work-Clearance Form.
For all other isolation activities use the Equipment Isolation Procedure Form
Lock/Out Tag-Out (LOTO) is required before performing certain activities, including
but not limited to:
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
when a Worker is required to remove or bypass any guard or other safety
device;
when a Worker is required to place any part of their body into a “point of
operation”, “Line of Fire” or other danger zones that exist during a machines
operation cycle
the servicing and maintenance of equipment
Ensure that there is a continuity of LOTO protection. This includes transfer of LOTO
protection between outgoing and incoming shifts to control hazardous energy.
When energy sources remain isolated from a previous shift, the incoming shift
members shall verify that the machinery is effectively isolated and de-energized.
If the locked out machine/equipment will not be worked on for more than 48 hours,
replace all lockout locks with equipment locks. Before resuming work, replace
equipment locks with lockout locks and verify isolation. For long term tank cleanings
and tie in preparation, the isolation point becomes the lockbox. Lockout locks can
remain on the multiple isolation points in the field as the lockbox will take over the
function of the isolation point for the system.
Equipment locks will be utilized on the lockbox when work shall not continue for
more than 48 hours. In this circumstance, when returning to continue work, use
personal locks properly to ensure continued isolation.
18.2
Responsibilities
The Authorized Worker is responsible for the following:
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completing LOTO training and retraining requirements when required
complying with Enbridge LOTO requirements and Applicable Legislation
following LOTO procedures
stopping and/or correcting LOTO work if procedures are not being followed
acting as the Lockout Authority (LOA) when required
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isolating and locking/tagging out machines/equipment when it has been
requested and coordinated for Contractors to perform work
Contractor Personnel shall not act as the LOA.
The LOA is responsible for the following:
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implementing and ensuring LOTO requirements are being followed
implementing and following LOTO procedures
performing or assigning a Enbridge designate (who shall be an Authorized
Worker) to perform initial isolation of the work
implementing the use of a lockbox or connecting equipment (e.g., scissor
locks/hasps) when required
ensuring all Authorized Workers working on the system lock out and tag out
at the appropriate isolation point(s)
verifying the isolation (tested to ensure it is under zero energy)
ensuring an Equipment Isolation Procedure Form or Electrical Energy
Isolation Form is completed
coordinating and implementing complex group control (isolation over
distance) when required
assuming responsibility for managing changes (i.e., shift and/or personnel)
and informing Workers (i.e., review and sign-off on the Equipment Isolation
Procedure Form)
A LOA is required for every LOTO. For a one-employee LOTO, that employee
automatically becomes the LOA. For a group LOTO (more than one employee), one
Authorized Worker shall be designated as the LOA.
If the scope of work changes during isolation, the LOA shall immediately stop the
work and review the validity of the isolation. Once the isolation is confirmed safe,
the LOA may authorize work to resume.
Enbridge Regions shall conduct a written periodic inspection (at least annually) of
each Authorized Worker, reviewing their responsibilities under this Standard. The
periodic inspection of the energy control procedure is to ensure that the procedure
and the requirements of this Standard are being followed.
18.3
Locks
Lockout equipment shall:
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

be provided to the Authorized Worker as required
not be used for purposes other than LOTO
be capable of withstanding the environment in which it will be exposed for
the maximum period of time that exposure is expected
be substantial enough to prevent removal without the use of excessive force
or unusual techniques (i.e., bolt cutters, metal cutting tools)
Contractors shall provide their Authorized Workers with LOTO equipment that
meets the requirements of this Standard.
Tampering with any LOTO equipment is a serious offense and shall result in
disciplinary action up to and including termination.
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Type 1 – Lockout Locks
Lockout locks are personal/individual locks used for the protection of people.
Enbridge employees shall use red locks. Lockout locks:
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shall be individually keyed, with one key per lock; and
shall be kept in the control of the Worker who applies the lock or may set up
communal personal/individual locks that are issued when necessary to
Workers for use
Keys shall not be duplicated. Ensure locks are individually keyed with one key per
lock that shall be kept in the control of the Worker who applies the lock(s) and
removes their lock(s) when they leave the Worksite
Individual Workers performing maintenance on machines or equipment shall apply
and remove their own personal/individual locks on the required isolation point.
Lockout Locksets
Lockout locksets shall be red in color. These locksets are used for the protection of
people.
Lockout locksets:
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
shall be keyed alike, with one key for the entire set
shall be uniquely identified as being part of a set (e.g., each lock in a set of
10 lockout locks is engraved as LS#1)
are commonly used in group LOTO situations, or a LOTO with multiple
isolation points
Keys shall not be duplicated.
Additional information:
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more than one lockout lockset can be used during an isolation
the LOA (or designate) is responsible for applying lockout locksets
unused lockset locks shall be locked in the lockbox with the key, or
temporarily removed from service
a lockbox can be considered an isolation point during group lockout
a Worker installing a lockout lock shall be the only person authorized to
remove the lock and tag (except in cases where long-term isolation occurs,
and later removal of the lock by another person is authorized by Enbridge
Type 2 – Equipment Locks
Equipment locks are used for protection of equipment. The locks may be any color
other than red.
Equipment locks:
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are individually keyed or keyed alike for an equipment lockset
are uniquely identified when part of a lockset
may have multiple keys; the keys are issued to Workers in the
department/location where the equipment locks are being used
shall be used for:
o long-term equipment shutdown (>48 hours)
o out-of-service equipment
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isolations where a department is isolating the equipment but not
performing the work (e.g., electrician isolating electrical components
of a valve for PLM, Worker isolating equipment for a Contractor)
Performing maintenance on machines or equipment with just an equipment lock is
prohibited.
18.4
Tags
Tags may be used to indicate which department or individual has isolated an energy
source. A tag shall be attached to the shank of each lock used in a lockout by the
Authorized Worker placing the lock. Tags shall:
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be designated for LOTO
if written, be written so they are legible and understandable to others
be constructed and printed in a way that ensure they do not deteriorate or
become illegible
be substantial enough to prevent inadvertent or accidental removal
All Authorized Workers shall be issued at least one photo ID tag. The tag is
attached to a personal lock and shall, at a minimum, include the Worker’s:
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photo
name
department or job title
phone number
A generic personal tag can be used in place of a photo ID tag for Contractors or if
the Authorized Worker does not have a photo ID tag available and shall, at a
minimum, include the Worker’s:
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
name
department or job title
phone number
date of application
Group tags can be attached to the shank of the lockset locks on the isolation points
during a group lockout and shall, at a minimum, include:



LOA’s department
Department contact
Department contact phone number
Equipment locks shall have a durable tag or identifier appropriate for the
environment and shall include:



Worker name or department
date of application
reason for isolation
Any weathered or illegible tag shall be replaced.
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18.5
Additional Lockout/Tagout Equipment
A variety of other LOTO equipment may be necessary.
Hasps/Scissor Clamps
Hasps/scissor clamps:
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

are used to increase the number of locks that can be attached to one
isolation point
are commonly used when a Worker is isolating a piece of equipment that
another Worker or group may also need to isolate
are designed so they cannot be opened or removed until all locks are
removed
can be attached to each other (daisy chaining) to allow for additional locks at
the one isolation point
Cables/Bars/Chains
In some situations, several energy‐isolating devices may be locked near one
another and shall be secured at the same time.
One approach is to use a lock to secure each energy‐isolating device in its off or
safe position. Another acceptable practice is running a cable, bar or chain through
the lock points of the energy isolating devices (once they are in the appropriate
position), then securing the cable, bar or chain against removal with a lock.
The strength and diameter of the cables, bars or chains used, combined with their
routing or placement, shall:
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
prevent their removal without tools; and
keep the energy-isolating device in the appropriate position
There is no limit on the length of cable, bar or chain that is acceptable, or the
maximum number of energy‐isolating devices that may be secured at one time.
However, the locking practices used must provide a level of Worker protection that
is at least as good as if there was an individual securing device on each energy‐
isolating device.
Master Lockboxes
Lockboxes are used to simplify lockout procedures for group lockout. If an LOA
isolates a system on behalf of a group for a safety lock-out, the LOA shall place the
keys to the locks used to isolate the system inside a master lockbox and secure it
closed with their personal lock. This lockbox is referred to as the master lockbox as
it holds the master keys to the system. At this point, the master lockbox becomes
the single isolation point of the system.
Each Authorized Worker required to work on the system shall place a personal lock
on the lockbox. This ensures that the master keys cannot be removed from the
master lockbox until each Worker removes his or her personal lock.
Authorized Workers shall be aware of the location of the master lockbox at all times.
Lockboxes shall be:
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lockable, sealable and readily identifiable
used for one isolation at a time
used to store the lockset key and any unused lockset locks
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able to accept a lock or a multiple lockout device, securing the box from
unauthorized access
free from damage
The LOA’s personal LOTO is always the first on the lockbox and the last off of the
master lockbox. The LOA’s lock shall be placed at the securing point of the master
lockbox.
Satellite Lockboxes
Satellite lockboxes may be used in conjunction with a master lockbox. Instead of
having all authorized Workers LOTO at the master lockbox, Workers can LOTO at a
satellite lockbox.
A satellite lockbox shall be set up by a crew lead, e.g., the crew lead attaches a
personal lock to the master lockbox then places their key to that personal lock into a
secondary lockbox, known as a satellite lockbox.
The Authorized Workers on a crew shall LOTO at the satellite lockbox. A master
lockbox can have any number of satellite lockboxes linked to it.
The LOA’s personal LOTO is always the first on the lockbox and the last off of the
lockbox. The LOA’s lock shall be placed at the securing point of the lockbox.
It is recommended that lockboxes used to store keys for equipment lockouts be a
color other than red to prevent any confusion as to the purpose of the lockbox.
Lockboxes used to store keys for equipment lockouts should have documentation
stored with the lockbox, or nearby, to enable Qualified Workers to determine what
equipment is associated with the lockbox and why the equipment is locked out.
Equipment lockboxes should be secured with a tag indicating that the lockbox
contains a key(s) that is locking out a piece of equipment(s).
18.6
Isolation Points
Isolation may be single point isolation or multiple point isolation:
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
Single point isolation – Isolation of machine/equipment from its hazardous
energy source can be achieved through the lockout of a single, isolation
device.
Multiple point isolation – Isolation of machine/equipment from its hazardous
energy source requires the lockout of more than one isolation device. This
type of lockout is usually considered more complex.
Isolation devices used during LOTO shall be capable of being locked out; meaning
a lock can be affixed or it has a locking mechanism built into it.
If locks cannot be physically installed on the isolation device, tags alone may be
used. However, before a decision to use only tags is made, engineering changes
that allow for the use of locks shall first be considered or attempted.
Before tags are used, the Site Supervisor shall be notified.
Tags used for tagout shall be placed at the same location as the isolating device.
Tags shall have two parts, separated by a perforation:

one part remains at the isolation point
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
one part remains with the Authorized Worker who placed the tag (or, if group
tagout involved, remains in a lockbox)
Tags shall include the following information:
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

employee or crew name
employee or crew contact information
work performed
notation that this is a tagout
If a lockbox is not used, each Authorized Worker shall personally place and remove
their tag to the required point(s).
Isolating for Other Work Groups
If an Authorized Worker is isolating machines/equipment for an internal work group
but not performing the work themselves (e.g.,, electrician locking out for a
mechanic), they may use equipment locks at the isolation points. The working group
is responsible for applying lockout locks to the isolation points.
An Equipment Isolation Procedure Form is required for all lockouts that fall within
the scope of this Standard.
Procedures may be developed when the isolation procedure is consistent e.g.,
pigging. If a procedure has not been developed, the LOA is responsible for ensuring
one is developed prior to the start of work.
The Equipment Isolation Procedure Form shall be available to all Workers
performing the lockout during the isolation work.
18.7
Piping Isolation Methods
Double blocking and bleeding involves the use of a 3-valve system in which a pipe
has two closed valves and an open drain valve positioned between them so
material is prevented from flowing and is re-directed in case of a valve leak.
Double block and bleed methods are to be used whenever reasonably practicable.
When used, a double block and bleed shall be located directly upstream of the work
area. If a flow in the pipe can come from more than one direction, a double block
and bleed is required on each upstream side. The valves of a double block and
bleed system shall be secured to ensure an acceptable level of safety, and leak
tested to ensure that the valves are holding.
Blanking involves inserting a physical barrier through the cross-section of pipe so
material is prevented from flowing past that point. Blanks shall be of sufficient rating
to withstand the highest possible pressure that may result.
Blinding involves disconnecting a pipe and attaching a physical barrier to the end so
material is prevented from flowing out of the pipe. Blind flanges used for this
purpose shall be of sufficient rating to withstand the highest possible pressure that
may result.
In some circumstances, it may not be reasonably practicable to use the abovenoted piping isolation methods. If so, an alternative means of isolation shall be
implemented and shall adequately protect Workers.
Additional isolation methods of hazardous energy include, but are not limited to, the
following:
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rotating equipment isolation – pockets and cavities potentially containing
pressure after isolation shall be checked and relieved of pressure before
work starts
gravity and piping under stress isolation – (suspension or tension) use
stoppers, chains, ropes and/or cribbing to prevent unexpected movement of
any parts or components
nuclear source isolation – isolation and any work on nuclear source radiation
shall be in accordance with Enbridge procedures
General Isolation Steps
1. Shutdown Preparation
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Identify type, magnitude and control methods of hazardous energies present
Identify and locate all potential energy sources to be isolated:
o review the scope of work
o review drawings, if applicable
o visually inspect equipment components being worked on to verify
drawings
Determine required LOTO equipment
Obtain or develop safe shutdown procedures for machines/equipment to be
LOTO.
Prepare the Equipment Isolation Procedure Form
2. Notification
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Notify affected Workers that a lockout will be in effect and explain reason for
lockout
Notification ensures that Workers do not attempt to reactivate
machines/equipment during LOTO
If the work being completed involves the LOTO of equipment (i.e. valves,
piping, etc.) that affects the flow path that the Edmonton Control Centre is
responsible for controlling or operating, then a copy of the Equipment
Isolation Procedure Form shall be sent to the Edmonton Control Centre
Operator prior to the work starting.
3. Shutdown
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Shutdown operating equipment to be LOTO in accordance with the safe
shutdown procedure
Ensure additional hazards are not created during shutdown
4. Isolation
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Complete the Equipment Isolation Procedure Form
Isolate equipment from its energy source by operating switch, valve or other
energy-isolating device to appropriate position
Isolation may be single or multiple points
5. Application of LOTO

Lock and tag isolating device in a safe, secured position to prevent
accidental movement of device
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Each Authorized Worker performing work directly on the pipe or
machine/equipment being serviced/maintained shall personally attach a
LOTO device to required isolation points. The isolation point in a group
LOTO may be a lockbox
Workers cannot attach a personal LOTO device for another employee
Any affected Worker (including support personnel and visitors) has the right
to apply a lock, provided they have authorized Worker training.
Workers or groups performing work independently of main isolation but
impacting isolation points shall clear additional locks with LOA.
6. Stored Energy
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Relieve, disconnect, restrain and/or render safe potentially hazardous stored
or residual energy.
If re-accumulation of stored energy is possible, verification of energy
isolation shall be continued until servicing or maintenance work is completed
or until hazard no longer exists.
7. Isolation Verification
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The LOA (or designate) shall verify (test) that lockout is effective by
confirming that the system is under zero energy.
Before verification tests, Workers shall be located in a safe area away from
machines/equipment being tested.
For examples of verifications methods, see Table 1(confirming that locks are
physically placed in correct locations is not an accepted form of verification).
If zero energy is not feasible, regional management shall review and
approve work procedures.
Verification shall be performed before starting work and at shift change.
Authorized Workers shall be confident the isolation has been verified before
starting work and can request to see or perform a test at any time to confirm
the isolation.
8. Servicing / Maintenance

Proceed with servicing/maintenance on the machines/equipment that have
been LOTO.
Removing Isolation and Restoring Equipment
1. LOTO Release
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Inspect and clear work area of tools and equipment.
Notify affected Workers in startup area that equipment will be re-energized.
Each Authorized Worker shall remove their own LOTO device.
LOA shall ensure all Workers are in a safe location prior to removing their
locks.
LOA shall remove LOA locks applied to isolation points.
2. Re-energization
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Return isolating devices (e.g. switches, valves) to appropriate operating
position.
If safe, restore energy to machine/equipment.
If the work completed involved the LOTO of equipment (i.e., valves, piping,
etc.) that affected the flow path that the Edmonton Control Centre is
responsible for controlling or operating, contact the Edmonton Control
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Centre Operator prior to re-energizing the system to ensure the affected
valves are in the appropriate position and an open flow is maintained
18.9
Authorized Removal of Locks
The Lock Removal Authorization Form applies to both lockout and equipment locks
and shall be used if any of the following occurs:
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a safety or personal lock has been abandoned
a key has been lost by a Worker or work group
an emergency situation develops
removal of an equipment lock without an equipment isolation form or log
sheet documenting who installed the lock and why the equipment was
locked out
The lock cannot be removed until all abandoned lock removal procedure steps have
been performed.
Unauthorized removal of a personal, safety, or equipment lock by anyone other than
the Worker to whom it belongs, is prohibited.
18.10
Contractor
Enbridge’s Authorized Workers shall use Enbridge LOTO equipment to isolate all
required energy sources. The isolation of these sources shall occur before
Contractors perform any activities related to servicing and/or maintenance of
machines/equipment at an Enbridge Worksite.
Contractors shall develop and implement their own LOTO procedure and policy to
ensure Worker and equipment protection and to meet Enbridge requirements and
all Applicable Legislation. As a minimum, each Worker working on equipment that is
affected by a lockout shall install their own lock and tag at the isolation point (s)
prior to starting work. Contractors shall provide their own equipment (i.e., personal
locks) for their lockout portion.
Contractors performing LOTO can follow one of the following methods:
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A Enbridge Authorized Worker attaches lockout locks and tags to the
isolation points, place the keys in a lockbox and attaches an equipment lock
to the lockbox. The Contractor then attaches their LOTO equipment to the
lockbox.
A Enbridge Authorized Worker attaches a hasp/scissor clamp and
equipment lock and tag to each isolation point. The Contractor then attaches
their LOTO equipment to each isolation point and follows their LOTO
program (e.g., setting up a satellite lockbox for the rest of their crew)
Once the LOTO has been completed, an Enbridge Authorized Worker verifies that
the isolated equipment is at a zero energy state.
If Contractor personnel would like to verify isolation, they shall be afforded the
opportunity to do so.
Contractor personnel who leave the worksite shall remove all of their locks and tags
from the isolations point(s).
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For new construction isolation turnovers or tie-ins into pre-existing systems, all
affected parties shall communicate the status of the equipment being turned over.
Enbridge in conjunction with the Contractor shall develop and document specific
lockout procedures for complicated multiple lockouts and/or complex electrical
lockouts before work commences (e.g., major lockout for a meter manifold system
or high voltage lockout in a substation).
The Contractor will develop a specialized testing procedure that ensures positive
isolation of the testing equipment from all other work areas.
The commissioning Contractor shall have a checklist in place that identifies all
points to be energized or isolated.
18.11
Complex Group Control Process
In some cases, it may not be reasonably practicable to use an individual/personal
or group lockout process. To maintain Worker safety, normal group lockout
practices may need to be adapted or modified into what is referred to as a Complex
Group Control Process (CGCP). This process is implemented and coordinated by
the LOA.
One example of a reason to use a CGCP would be if the machinery, equipment
and/or pipeline occupies such a large area, or multiple areas, that it becomes
impractical for the LOA to personally secure all energy isolation devices. In such a
scenario, some of the devices in a complex group control may need to be isolated
and secured by another Worker (e.g., control room operator) due to the distance
between the work area and the isolation devices.
A copy of the Equipment Isolation Procedure Form shall be forwarded to the remote
site’s Authorized Worker prior to isolation and lockout. The LOA shall document and
verify secure and effective isolation through direct communication with the
Authorized Worker who completed the isolation with lockout locks at the remote
site.
Any of the following methods may be used to achieve control of the keys used in the
isolation at the remote site:
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if there is one Authorized Worker completing the isolation at the remote site,
they can maintain control of the key(s)
if there are more than one Authorized Workers at the remote site, a lockbox
or hasp/scissor clamp shall be used to control the isolation point keys
the keys to the locks can be brought to the location where work is being
performed, then placed and secured in a lockbox at the work area
The LOA can begin coordinating the return-to-operation process only when all
personal locks have been removed by the Workers at the work area and the remote
site.
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19.0 Material Handling Standard
19.1
Classification of Lifts
Critical Lifts
The Workers involved in a critical lift shall apply the required controls and any other
appropriate measures to ensure the safe and effective execution of the lift.
Lifts classified as Critical Lifts include:
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any single crane lift, when the load is greater than 75% of the
manufacturer’s rating chart
any tandem lift (multi-crane lift) involving two or more cranes lifting the same
load simultaneously, when the load may exceed more than 75% of the lifting
capacity of any one crane, as measured on the manufacturer’s rating chart
any lift where the load travels over or between overhead high voltage power
lines (this does not include cables in cable trays)
The minimum control measure required for all critical lifts is the completion of an
Engineering Lift Plan (ELP). The ELP shall include all details and lift calculations for
the lift, including scale drawings showing configurations and clearances.
A Qualified Lift Engineer shall visit the site of the lift to familiarize themselves with
all above and Below Grade Facilities. The ELP shall be signed and approved by a
Qualified Lift Engineer or Qualified Rigger/Rigging Specialist.
A Qualified Rigger/Rigging specialist is a person deemed to be appropriately
qualified in the preparation and development of lifting studies. The certification
documentation for a Qualified Rigger/Rigging specialist, either from an external
provider or internally provided by the rigging specialists employer, shall be made
available to a Enbridge Representative upon request. A certified Operator shall be
used in jurisdictions that don’t certify Riggers.
The ELP shall be reviewed and agreed to by all Workers involved in the lift (e.g.,
crane operators, Riggers/Rigging Specialists, and Site Supervisors) at a pre-lift
meeting.
Serious Lifts
The Workers involved in a serious lift shall apply the required controls and any other
appropriate measures to ensure the safe and effective execution of the lift.
Lifts classified as Serious Lifts include:
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any crane lift where Workers are being hoisted in a man-basket
any lift where failure of the lift could endanger existing Facilities of one-of-akind equipment or processes
any load where special lifting or rigging equipment configurations are used
any lift where the load or any part of the lifting equipment could come within
the safe limits of approach to high voltage equipment or a power line
any lifts over existing permanent structures
any blind lift
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For each serious lift, the minimum control measure required shall be completion of a
lift plan. The lift plan shall be reviewed and agreed to by all Workers involved in the
lift (e.g., Operators, Riggers/Rigging Specialists, and Site Supervisors) at a pre-lift
meeting.
At a minimum, the information recorded on the lift plan shall include weight, radius,
crane type, percentage of chart, rigging components and rating capacities. Those
involved in the review of the lift plan shall sign the document.
The placement of trench boxes, sleeves and sheet piles over operating assets does
not constitute a critical or serious lift.
Standard Lifts
A Standard Lift is any lift that is not classified as serious or critical.
A Standard Lift shall be documented on the Operator’s Log Entry or Lift Calculation
Sheet. This shall include records of weight, radius and percentage of chart for each
lift, or for a series of lifts from a single location.
For all lifts, the following factors shall be considered or determined, including any
related, appropriate control measures:
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percent of crane capacity
weight of the load
any change or transition of critical Workers, as identified in the lift plan
ground conditions
compaction
overhead lines, obstructions, etc.
underground equipment or hazards
trajectory of load if dropped (i.e., determine the potential drop zone)
electrical equipment in the area, e.g., nearby conductors
weather conditions
outrigger and track loading
matting
process operations; local process hazards
Workers near the lift area
multi-lift plans
Additional controls may be required, given the exact nature of the lift to be
performed.
19.2
Preparation, Operation and Responsibilities
A pre-lift meeting shall be held to:
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
identify the Qualified Rigger/Rigging Specialist and Signaler/Spotter
review the job specifics and hand signals prior to any lift operation
Only Authorized and Qualified Operators that are thoroughly familiar with the
equipment are permitted to operate lifting equipment, including cranes.
Intern or Apprentice Operators are permitted to operate equipment once hoisting
and rigging training has been completed, but only under the supervision of a
Qualified Operator.
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Upon request, a crane Operator or Rigger/Rigging Specialist shall provide
documentation of training records and certifications. Rigger/Rigging Specialist shall
have experience consistent with the requirements of the lift to be made.
A crane shall not be erected when ground conditions are not stable or safe enough
to allow for stable/firm placement or installation of the crane.
Prior to performing any lift, the Operator shall:
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review the Hazard Assessment and/or the ELP
determine the weight of the lift (including the load and rigging)
test the safety devices of lifting equipment, where applicable
ensure that the lifting device and all components are of sufficient size and
strength to support the weight of the load, and that they do not exceed the
manufacturer’s ratings under any circumstances
ensure tag lines are used when rotation or swinging of the load is
hazardous, or when the load needs guidance
under any operating conditions, ensure that the planned lift does not exceed
the manufacturer’s recommendations
perform daily equipment inspections to verify that the lifting device and all
components are in safe working condition; also maintain a written record or
log book of these inspections
ensure equipment (e.g., boom) stays within the safe limits of approach to
electrical lines and conductors, in accordance with the Hazard Assessment
process and/or Lift Plan
ensure procedures applicable to the operation of the equipment are readily
available in the cab at all times; including a permanently-attached load and
radius chart that can be easily read by the Operator from their operating
position
possess and keep available for inspection, an Operator’s license or
certificate
replace any obscured, damaged or missing warnings, operating instructions
or capacity instructions that are normally attached to the equipment
repair or replace any deficiencies or defective parts before using equipment
not allow Workers on the load when the load is in motion
A Qualified person shall:
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visually inspect all material lifting equipment (including tank davits) and
machinery prior to and during each use, to ensure it is in safe operating
condition
replace any obscured, damaged or missing warnings, operating instructions
or capacity instructions that are normally attached to the equipment
repair or replace any deficiencies or defective parts before using equipment
remove the equipment from service if there are deficiencies or defective
parts that cannot be repaired
Additional Pre-Lift Requirements
Follow these requirements when preparing for the lift.
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Use barricades and warning signs as necessary, to control traffic in the work
area.
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Fully extend outriggers and position them on a firm base, to provide
adequate support prior to any lift or booming operation.
All machine ratings are based on the machine being level in both directions,
with outriggers extended. If this is not possible, the Operator shall take this
into account when loading and handling and de-rate as necessary
Secure loads over 3.6 m (12 ft.) long at a minimum of 2 points (see Figure
1), depending on load distribution and load shape.
Remove or secure loose materials, parts, blocking and packing from the
load.
Remove obstructions from the area before lifting or moving a load.
Attach the load to the hook by slings or other approved lifting devices.
Set up to rig the hoist directly over the load. If the load is not positioned
correctly it may swing, causing the hook or frame to bind or damage the
hoist device.
Ensure the hoist is free to swivel on hooks. Ensure the Safe Working Load
(SWL) of the hoist does not exceed the SWL of the supporting structure.
Ensure the load chain or hoist cable is free from kinks and twists, and is not
wrapped around the load.
All lifting devices shall be properly assembled using the appropriate rigging
component as required for the intended lift (e.g., four-part line vs. a two-part
line).
The load, sling, lifting device and load block shall clear all obstructions.
Identify and mark the swing radius and review the lift zone and all potential
drop zones
Ensure a test lift is conducted to assess the center of gravity so that rigging
can be re-positioned as needed
During the lift, tag lines shall:
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be used in accordance with the manufacturer’s specifications for the rigging,
component parts and attachments
be knot-free
be of appropriate length to control the load
be appropriate for the pipe or material and the purpose of handling it
be used only to perform the function for which it was intended or designed
be inspected before each use and removed from service if defective
be used to stabilize the load, minimizing swing, which can impact the SWL
be used to protect Workers from putting hands on the load, and from
positioning themselves beneath or in close proximity to the load
During the lift, tag lines shall NOT:
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be used if they create an unsafe condition as determined by the Hazard
Assessment
be wrapped or secured in any form to a Worker
Always use two tag lines where rotation or uncontrolled motion of a load being
hoisted is anticipated.
During the lift, the Operator shall follow these requirements:
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Check the brake when lifting the load above ground level; if there is any
slippage, stop the operation. The brake shall be repaired or replaced before
the equipment is returned to service.
Do not move, carry or swing loads over the head of any Worker.
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Do not allow Workers to be under the load, or between the load and a
stationary object.
If possible, identify the hazardous area (drop zone) by marking the swing
radius in congested areas.
Avoid traveling with loads suspended, whenever possible. If travel is
necessary, carry the boom in line with the direction of travel and ensure tag
lines are used to control the load swing.
Keep loads as close to the ground as reasonably possible.
Remain at the controls while loads are suspended. If it is necessary to leave
the controls, the suspended load shall be secured, e.g., skidded or blocked
up. All locking and safety devices shall be set, as necessary, to safely
secure the machine.
Ensure the hoisting line is in a vertical position and over the center of the
load, in such a manner as to reduce danger to Workers from a swing or
uncontrolled movement of the load. Dynamic loading impacts the capacity of
the crane
Ensure tension is maintained on the rigging and that the rigging is not
unhooked until the load is fully secured.
Workers shall:
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stay clear of the load being lifted
not walk or pass under a suspended load
not come between the load and a stationary object
never hold any part of the load, rigging or lifting equipment while the load is
suspended and/or in motion
maintain a safe distance from the load until the tension on the rigging is
relaxed and the load is stable
Qualified Signalers/Spotters
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where a Signaler/Spotter is required, they shall be Qualified in crane and
hoisting hand signals (refer to section 12.11) and shall have completed any
specific training required by Applicable Legislation
in the event that the equipment Operator cannot see the load or the
Signaler, the Lift Plan shall determine the means of constant communication
that shall be used
the Signaler shall wear a gauntlet or other unique means to identify them as
the designated Signaler
Pipe Handling Operations
Workers shall be trained to safely handle and secure pipe and materials.
Follow these requirements:
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Ensure the appropriate lifting equipment is used, i.e., side booms, trackhoes equipped with vacuum devices and cranes.
Ensure pipe and fittings are handled using only approved rigging equipment
designed not to damage the load, i.e., Teflon or brass insert stringing pipe
hooks (sorting hooks) and nylon slings.
Whenever possible, place pipe or materials in a flat area or parallel with a
slope, rather than across a slope.
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Secure pipe or materials from movement by blocking, cradling, or a
combination of both, or use an approved alternative method (see Figure 2).
Ensure pipe blocks have sufficient strength to hold the weight of the load.
Secure pipe blocks to prevent loads from being removed or dislodged. Skids
are considered to be secured if the weight of the pipe or barrel prevents the
skid from being dislodged or removed (see Figure 2).
Ensure cross timbers are placed approximately 1 m (3 ft.) from the ends of
the pipe.
Stand clear when cutting steel bands or wire that secures a load of pipe to a
vehicle or rail car.
Keep hands clear of pipe-ends when pipe is being butted together.
Use tag lines.
Ensure pipe that is being stored (e.g., in populated areas, or at road crossings) is
equipped with end caps or secured to prevent unauthorized entry.
19.3
Cranes
Workers shall suspend crane operations when:
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
the wind velocity at the elevation of the crane exceeds the limit specified by
the manufacturer, or
the ambient temperature is below that specified by the manufacturer
Follow manufacturers’ specifications in regard to reduced ratings or capacities of
the crane under specified temperatures.
Crane Operators shall follow these requirements:
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Lower crane booms with the winch engaged, not by brake alone.
Maintain the safe limits of approach to any utility at all times.
When a crane or boom truck is traveling around the site, ensure booms and
knuckles are in a proper resting position, to avoid damage or hazards, such
as overhead power lines or cable trays.
Ensure an unloaded boom has the empty hook lashed or otherwise
restrained so that it cannot swing freely when in motion.
Ensure the boom attachment, when in motion, is not positioned at more than
30 degrees from the vertical position.
Avoid two-blocking, which may cause the load line to fail. Cranes shall be
equipped with an anti-two-block warning device.
On pipe layers and side booms, check the functioning of the boom cut-out
valve daily.
A power-controlled lowering system shall be provided and shall be capable of
handling rated loads and speeds as specified by the manufacturer of the crane.
When power-operated brakes that have no continuous mechanical linkage between
the actuating and braking means are used, an automatic means shall be provided to
set the brake to prevent the load from falling in event of loss of brake-actuating
power.
Loads carried on boom trucks shall:
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be adequately secured, including the battery on the side boom (to prevent
movement in the event of a roll-over)
not be secured by using the boom lines
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Side booms shall:
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not be loaded beyond manufacturer’s specified capacity
not have the counter weight supplemented by the use of equipment or other
devices
have a seat belt which shall be worn by the operator when the side boom is
in use
be equipped with ROPS certified by a professional engineer
have adjustment of brake tensions performed by a licensed heavy duty
mechanic, in accordance with the manufacturer’s specifications
19.4
Using Excavation Equipment for Lifting
When using excavating equipment (e.g., gradalls, backhoes) for material lifting,
follow these requirements:
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The Operator shall know the weight of the load being lifted. The load shall
not exceed the manufacturers’ specifications on the lifting capacity of the
equipment.
The Operator shall have the Lifting Capacity Chart for the specific piece of
excavating equipment and it shall be permanently affixed to the machine
and legible.
Excavating equipment used for lifts shall be equipped with a factory-supplied
lift point, e.g., a welded plate with an eye, or a bolted-on hook with a safety
latch.
Operator shall have a magnetic particle inspection report, dated within the
previous 12 months. The report shall certify the fit condition of the lifting
point and its method of attachment, e.g., welds, bolts.
The Operator shall visually inspect the lifting point before each lift.
Bolts used to attach hooks or other attachment points shall be rated higher
than the lifting capacity of the lifting equipment.
Slings shall be connected to the lifting point of the load with a clevis or
shackle.
Unattended loads shall be lowered to the ground or blocked in position.
The load being raised shall not exceed the lifting capacity of the lifting
components.
When exceeding 75% of the excavating equipment’s lifting capacity as determined
by the manufacturers’ specifications, additional controls shall be required, including
a formal lift plan.
Hydraulic systems on excavating equipment are subject to hydraulic drift and are
not designed to hold materials unless the materials are in motion. If materials are
held in place, uncontrolled descent of the lifting arm or lifting mechanism may result
from a failure in the hydraulic system, because it is unlikely to be equipped with
emergency lock safety check valves.
The placement of trench boxes, sleeves and sheet piles by excavating equipment
over operating assets does not constitute a critical or serious lift.
19.5
Inspection and Maintenance
All lifting equipment shall be installed, operated, inspected, maintained and repaired
according to the manufacturer’s specifications.
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To minimize breakdowns and prolong equipment life, a written inspection and
maintenance program for lifting equipment shall be in place to ensure that
equipment and components are in safe operating condition.
Contractors shall have written documentation that verifies that the maintenance
program is in place available to an Enbridge Representative upon request.
All load bearing components shall undergo non-destructive testing, under the
direction and control of a professional engineer and in accordance with the
manufacturer’s specifications.
Equipment shall be inspected before each use.
Follow these additional maintenance and inspection requirements:
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the Manufacturer’s specifications shall be followed when
assembling/disassembling equipment, under the direction of a Qualified
Worker
modifications or additions that may affect the capacity or safe operation of
the equipment shall be made only with the written approval of the
manufacturer or a registered professional engineer
log books are required for each lifting device
All written records including all certifications, maintenance records, and inspection
records for lifting equipment, e.g., cranes, hoists, side booms shall be retained and
made available to an Enbridge Representative for review upon request.
Follow these requirements for inspections:
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19.6
for equipment in normal service, inspect at least once per year, or as
specified by the manufacturer
for equipment in Heavy Service, inspect at least every 6 months, or as
specified by the manufacturer
for equipment that is idle for 6 months or more, inspect prior to use
for vacuum lifts, inspect 3 times daily, to ensure the integrity of the
equipment
all pipe vacuum lifts shall have inspection certification
hoists, cranes and lifting structures that are to include hooks in accordance
with the manufacturers’ specifications’ shall be inspected at least once
annually by a certified inspector
Requirements
Material lifting structures, hoists and rigging components shall be clearly marked
with the SWL.
Markings shall:
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
appear on the load block trolley and on both sides of the material lifting
structure
be legible
be clearly visible to the operator and everyone involved in operating the
equipment
The recommended colour for markings is black.
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Hoisting and Rigging
Jacks shall:



only be used for temporary support of loads
be supported by a firm foundation
not be used at an angle; as needed, use blocking and shims to build a level
support for the jack or to support heavy loads
If using jacks, lift loads from one end at a time not from side to side.
External hydraulic jack pumps shall be positioned a safe distance from the load
being lifted.
Discard or repair jacks (in accordance with manufacturers’ specifications) if visual
inspection reveals any of the following:







hydraulic fluid leaks
thread damage
scoring or other damage to the ram
excessively loose or frozen swivel heads
damaged end caps
cracks or other damage to the housing
loose bolts or rivets
When blocking and cribbing, Workers shall:



use hardwood timber
use solid layers of timber for heavy loads
as needed, use steel or hardwood mats under cribbing to spread the bearing
pressure evenly (e.g., if the ground has insufficient load bearing capabilities)
To ensure stability in cribbing, the height of cribbing should not exceed the length of
the cribbing material.
Before inspecting hoist chains, remove any load; then, clean the load and hand
chains.
Inspect chains link-by-link (see Figure 3) for:




nicks
gouges
twisted links
excessive wear or stretching
For worn load and hand chains, gauge them throughout their entire length. If found
to be beyond serviceable limits, replace links as specified by the manufacturer.
Hooks
Hooks shall not be overloaded. Applicable hooks shall be fitted with a safety latch
before being placed in service.
The hook’s safety latch shall:

be closed, and shall not support any part of the load (See Figure 4)
233



not be damaged or bent
operate with enough spring pressure to keep the latch tightly against the top
of the hook
spring back to the top when released
Hooks shall be inspected annually using one of the following non-destructive testing
methods:



x-ray
magnetic particle
dye penetration
It is not necessary to inspect hooks that have not been used since the last
inspection. Unused hooks shall be marked by covering the ends of the hook with
tape after inspection; the tape can be removed when the hook is used.
Replace hooks (including the nut) if the any of the following (see Figure 4)
conditions are observed:




cracking
excessive wear/deformities/twisting
15% or more throat opening
10% twist out of the normal hook plane
Approved pipe hooks (sorting hooks) with Teflon or brass inserts that are designed
without safety latches are exempt from the requirements outlined immediately
above (See Figure 5).
Slings and other devices shall be the correct size for the hook and shall be seated
in the saddle of the hook (see Figure 6).
Securely attach the hoist’s hook to the trolley.
Slings, Chains, Ropes, Cables
All manufactured slings shall:








use softeners where sharp corners contact the sling (see Figure 7)
be at a 45° angle or more (see Figure 8) when slings are used to lift a load
be flat (i.e., not twisted, kinked or knotted) while in use
be hitched in a way that provides control of the load
avoid shock loading
not be dragged on the floor or over abrasive surfaces
not be pulled from under a load when the load is resting on the sling
be stored out of the elements (sunlight, rain, snow, etc.) and in accordance
with manufacturers’ specifications
Follow these additional requirements:


Wire rope and synthetic web slings shall be cleaned before storing and
stored in a protected area, such as a storage rack (see Figure 9).
Wet rope slings shall be hung up to dry, or laid in a loose coil in a dry place
and away from ultraviolet rays. Do not allow wet rope slings to freeze.
Use of a synthetic web sling in a chemical environment meets manufacturers’
specifications for use. Synthetic web slings are lengthened by joining slings with a
shackle, or looping them through eyes instead of knotting two slings together
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A designated, Qualified Worker shall inspect slings before use. The Worker shall
also ensure slings and accessories:




have not been damaged in storage or shipment
are clearly labeled and/or tagged
are rated for hoisting, indicating the manufacturer’s ratings and the safe
working limits
are the correct type and have the proper capacity rating for the application
The designated Qualified Worker shall ensure defective slings and accessories
(e.g., worn, frayed, kinked, twisted, or showing signs of damage or excessive wear)
are removed from service, tagged, and repaired or discarded if they cannot be
repaired.
Inspection records shall be kept for each sling including:



sling identification information
dates of periodic inspections
comments regarding the condition of the sling at the time of the inspection
Wire ropes on electric hoists shall be inspected to confirm:



hoisting ropes are secured to the drum by at least 2 wraps when the hook is
in the lowest position
winch lines are free of knots
the number and spacing of clips conforms to manufacturers’ specifications
Follow the SWL for wire rope slings shown in Table 2. Figure 10 shows the methods
of attaching rope to the fittings.
Guards shall be used:


if hoisting ropes run close enough to other parts to make fouling or chafing
possible
when exposed moving parts and rotating equipment which might constitute a
hazard under normal operating conditions
Follow these requirements in relation to tank davits:






In normal service, tank davits shall be inspected (using the tank davit
checklist) at least once per year.
A tank davit that has had major alterations or modifications shall be
approved before its next use. Approval shall be provided by a professional
engineer who shall load-test and certify its capacity.
When used for rescue purposes, the tank davit shall use the Rollgliss to lift
or lower a Worker. A tank davit used for rescue shall be inspected according
to the manufacturer’s specifications.
Use manual hoisting equipment (e.g., snatch block) when lifting or lowering
equipment.
Do not, under any circumstances, substitute powered lifting equipment (e.g.,
electric or hydraulic winch) for a Rollgliss or snatch block.
The SWL of a tank davit is 180 kg (400 lb.). The davit arm shall have the
appropriate placard indicating the rating.
235
Yes
No
No
Yes
Do not make lift s
when loose equipment
is not secured.
Figure 1- Lifting Loads Over 3.6 m (12 ft.) in Length
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Figure 2- Handling and Securing Pipe Examples
237
Figure 3- Chain Defects
Figure 4- Hook Inspection
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Figure 5- Pipe Hooks (Sorting Hooks)
5 Tons
Swivel Hook
2
Tons
Seated
Sling
Tag Line
Figure 6- Safe Use of Hooks
239
Figure 7- Sling Softeners
Ring
Safe
Working Load
45
°o
rm
or
e
1TO
N
Hook Facing
Out wards
If "L" is great er t han
"S", sling angle will
be correct .
L
S
Figure 8- Sling Angles
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Figure 9- Sling Storage Rack
Figure 10- Attaching Rope to Fittings
241
Table 1- Safe Working Load for Wire Rope Slings
NOTES
1. Softeners should be used if slings are used to handle loads with sharp corners. The radius of the
bend should not be smaller than five times the diameter of the rope. If the radius is smaller, a choker
hitch rating should be used.
2. Table is based on a safety factor of 5, sling angles formed by one leg and a horizontal line through
the crane hook and uniform loading.
3. For 3-leg bridle slings, multiply safe load limits for 2-leg bridle slings by 1.5, and for 4-leg bridle
slings, multiply by 2.0.
4. For fiber core slings having Type 1 or Type C attachments, multiply the above values by 0.93; for fiber core
slings with Type B attachments, multiply the above values by 0.91.
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20.0 Tools and Equipment Standard
20.1
Tool and Equipment Operation
Tools and equipment shall:




be inspected prior to use, and be maintained in good operating condition
be removed from service and tagged ‘DO NOT OPERATE’ when required
(e.g., when defective)
have proper guarded moving parts
not be modified, and be used solely for their intended purpose
Open Bladed Knives
Open blade knives shall not be used unless a Hazard Assessment is completed to
determine that alternate tools cannot be used to complete the task for which the
open bladed knife is required. The Hazard Assessment shall review the scope of
work, the cutting tool to be used and specific PPE (e.g., cut-resistant gloves or
gauntlets).
When it is determined that an open bladed knife is the only tool that can be used to
complete a task the following criteria shall be met:




specific PPE shall be worn at all times when using an open bladed knives
material being cut is secure
approval is noted on any applicable SWP’s
a working space appropriate to the task allows the Worker to work with the
open bladed knife in a safe manner without endangering themselves or
others
Grinders and Buffers
Workers using hand-held grinders and buffers shall:





not use the side of a wheel unless it is designed for side-grinding
stand to the side when starting the grinder, out of the line of fire
adopt a stance to one side of a steel wire wheel, where possible
unplug the tool when changing wheels or guards
not use the tool to shape wood
Workers shall also check air grinders for maximum speed by dismantling the wheel
and using a speed counter. If the speed exceeds the maximum revolutions per
minute (rpm), reset the governor.
Prior to use, the grinder or buffer shall be inspected to ensure:






the wheel is free of cracks
the wheel does not vibrate excessively
the buffing wheel has no loose wires or excess wear
the disc is the correct size and type for the grinder, and is approved for more
revolutions per minute (rpm) than the grinder
all components are properly secured and in place
there is no dead man/locking switch (these are prohibited)
243
Fixed grinding wheels shall have tool rests that are a maximum of 3 mm (1/8 in.)
from the face of the stone and project 6 mm (1/4 in.) on either side of the
grindstone. The angular exposure of the grinding wheel periphery and sides for
safety guards shall not exceed 90 degrees or one-fourth of the periphery.
20.2
Electric Tools and Equipment
Workers using electric tools shall:










unplug the tool when attaching or removing bits, blades or other accessories
use approved electrical equipment to power the tools
immediately tag as defective and remove from service any electrical cords
and plugs with mechanical damage, e. g., exposed wiring; cords with frayed
or deteriorated insulation; bent or broken prong of a plug, etc.
immediately repair or replace any electrical cords or plugs tagged as
defective
ensure portable electric equipment is grounded or double insulated
ensure extension cords are approved three-wire type, with appropriate
conductor insulation and an overall jacket not susceptible to damage at low
temperatures
ensure cords are not permanently secured to any structure
ensure power cords are elevated where possible, to prevent tripping hazards
or being damaged by vehicles/equipment
ensure all tools and equipment are set to the “off” position prior to plugging
them in
use Ground Fault-Circuit Interrupter (GFCI) protection when using portable
tools outdoors or when water, moisture or wet conditions are encountered
Use approved ground-fault circuit interrupters for all 120-volt, single-phase, 15- and
20-ampere receptacle outlets which are not a part of the permanent wiring of the
building or structure. Receptacles on the ends of extension cords are not part of the
permanent wiring and shall be protected by GFCIs whether or not the extension
cord is plugged into permanent wiring.
If an extension cord is to be used, keep the cords connection out of any standing
water, and use a heavy duty extension cord with components rated for use in wet
locations. Only Qualified electricians may cut or splice power cords or extension
cords.
In addition to the above, Workers shall also follow these requirements:





Unattended temporary electrical equipment (such as lights, heaters, etc.)
that will be left on in a Hazardous Area or Restricted Area shall be approved
and installed for Class 1, Div. 2 area classifications.
Metal measuring tapes, aluminum ladders, or ropes having metal threads
woven into the fabric shall not be used near exposed, live electrical parts.
Portable generators used on the worksite shall be grounded, in accordance
with manufacturers’ specifications.
All voltage and current testers shall be rated for the circuits and equipment
to which they are connected.
Safety ground cables used in electrical cubicles and substations shall be
stored in a central location.
Safety ground cables shall be:

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fitted with 400-amp clamps on each end, and suitable for connecting to
switchgear or substation equipment, and to ground
fitted with approved crimped ferrules (installed on wire ends to attach to
clamps)
kept as short as possible
attached in a phase to phase to ground concept, where possible
Only Qualified Electrical Workers can:


20.3
inspect or repair defective portable electrical equipment
arrange temporary wiring for a power supply (e.g., where needed for
portable electrical tools, equipment, and lighting units)
Gas-Operated Equipment
Hazardous energy shall be controlled prior to performing maintenance of gasoperated equipment such as chainsaws and brush cutters.
Workers using chainsaws shall:



20.4
meet legislated training/certification requirements
ensure that all operators are provided with a personal first aid kit, spill kit, fire
extinguisher and an effective means of communication for summoning
assistance
wear required PPE, in accordance with the Hazard Assessment
Air-Operated Tools and Equipment
Workers using air-operated tools shall:


set the air supply properly for the tool being used
shut off the air supply and drain the air prior to disconnecting tools
Workers using impact wrenches shall:


ensure the directional lever is in the correct position prior to loosening or
tightening a bolt or nut
if a locking mechanism is required, use a one-piece neoprene retaining ring
when attaching a socket to a larger impact wrench
Steel locking pins with separate rubber O-rings may cause serious injury. If the Oring becomes dislodged, it causes the steel locking pin to protrude during operation.
Workers using compressed air equipment shall wear PPE and ensure the working
area is cleared of other Workers. In addition, compressed air equipment shall:




include safety nozzles, plus effective chip guarding
never be used for cleaning Workers or their clothing
not exceed 30 psi when cleaning equipment or floors
not be adjusted to allow the compressor to operate above the
manufacturer’s specified rating
Pneumatic hoses shall:

be appropriately rated for the maximum pressure produced in systems
245

have excess flow valves or chokes installed on all airlines at the compressor
or header, to prevent high-volume air release
All hoses exceeding ½-inch inside diameter shall have a safety device at the source
of supply or a branch line to reduce pressure in case of hose failure.
In addition, pneumatic hoses shall have temporary and quick connections secured,
using whip checks on the following connection points:





compressor to hose
hose to hose
have safety pins where the connection point is designed for their use
have safety clips or retainers used at the attachment point on pneumatic
impact percussion tools
be protected from tangles, unnecessary wear and damage
Contractors shall:


20.5
ensure all operators are evaluated and Qualified to operate all equipment
with brand/model specific attachments including quick connect couplers
ensure and document that the installation of the hydraulic quick coupler itself
is performed according to the manufacturer’s specifications
Equipment and Machine Guarding
No equipment or machine shall be operated unless the guards and protection (e.g.,
protective devices) are installed operating in accordance with their intended
purpose, and properly maintained. Provide a method of machine guarding to protect
Workers from hazards created by point of operation, ingoing nip points, rotating
parts, or other hazards.
Guards are important to protect Workers from direct contact with moving parts,
flying chips and sparks and rotating parts.
Guards and protection shall:










20.6
meet manufacturers’ specifications and Applicable Legislation
be in good working order and inspected regularly
not be modified or removed
be replaced if damaged
be the correct size
be secure, and tamper-proof
prevent falling objects
allow for safe maintenance and inspected
create no new hazards or interference
provide a method to protect Workers from hazards created by point of
operation, ingoing nip points and rotating parts
Compressed Gas Cylinders
Follow these requirements in relation to compressed gas cylinders:


246
connection points shall be free of debris before attaching cylinders, hoses,
valves, regulators or other fittings
cylinders shall be legibly marked, by stenciling, stamping or labeling with
either the chemical or trade name of the gas; the markings shall not be
easily removable
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cylinder valves shall be closed and have shipping caps in place when the
cylinder is not in use
when in use, the cylinder shall be secured with non-combustible materials or
means
when in use, cylinders shall have fixed hand wheels, unless they have keys,
handles or non-adjustable wrenches on valve stems
in multiple cylinder installations, there shall be only one key or handle for
each manifold
use only torch and regulator valves to control the flow of gas
close cylinder valves when work is completed, and when cylinders are to be
moved or are empty
cylinders shall not be exposed to extremely high temperatures (above 52°C
or 125°F)
when in use, flammable gas and nitrogen cylinders shall not be brought into
enclosures/hoardings, and shall be kept outside with a hose run into the
enclosure/hoarding
protective covers shall be on all compressed gas cylinders when not in use
Contact the supplier if any part of the cylinder or attachments is not working
properly. Do not force valves or tamper with safety features on compressed gas
cylinders.
When gas-welding, cutting equipment or torches are used, ensure that a flashback
device is installed (as per manufacturers’ specifications) and that a back-flow
prevention device is installed at the torch end.
Gauges, regulators and fittings shall:







be bled down upon completion of work
have the valve closed and all pressure released prior to being removed
be disconnected when the cylinder is not in use
have the regulator pressure-adjusting screw fully released prior to
attachment
not be used with oil or grease as a lubricant on oxygen regulators as it may
cause an explosion
be marked “USE NO OIL” when used for oxygen service
have broken gauge lenses replaced prior to use
When working with oxygen cylinders, follow these requirements:




Do not use or place oil or grease on or near an oxygen cylinder, when under
pressure.
Never lubricate oxygen fittings.
Ensure all wrenches used are oil/grease free.
Ensure the valve is fully open when in use, to prevent oxygen leakage
around the stem.
Compressed Gas Cylinder Storage
Storage practices for compressed gas cylinders shall be in accordance with
Applicable Legislation including fire and building codes and the following
requirements shall also be met:
247






vented room with air exchange
explosion proof lighting
properly rated fire walls separating the storage space from other nearby
spaces/areas
storage room shall have at least one exterior wall along an outside wall in a
space
storage room shall be located away from machinery
flammable gas shall be stored outdoors unless specific fire code
requirements and manufacturers specifications are met
When stored, cylinders shall be:





placed up-right (unless the cylinder contains a non-flammable gas which is
designed to be stored on their side)
away from sources of heat
secured with non-combustible materials or means (preferably chained)
located in a dry, well-protected, well ventilated location
placed at least 6 m (20 ft.) from highly combustible materials or separated by
a fire resistant barrier no shorter than 1.5 m (5 feet) with a 30 minute fire
rating
Other requirements include:



segregate flammable gasses and compressed oxygen, as per Applicable
Legislation, including but not limited to WHMIS standards
ensure “NO SMOKING” and other applicable signage is posted in the area
ensure outdoor storage areas are at least 1.5 m (5 ft.) from building
entrances, or as required by Applicable Legislation
Transport
During transport, compressed gas cylinders shall:






be secured
be secured upright, and as required by Applicable Legislation (e.g., for
flammable gases)
be transported in a well-ventilated vehicle
have shipping caps in place
be transported on hand trucks designed for the task
not be dragged, rolled or slid
Nitrogen cylinders may be transported horizontally if properly secured.
Compressed gas cylinders being hoisted shall:


be secured on a cradle, cage, sling board
not be hoisted or transported by means of magnets or choker slings
Compressed gas cylinders mounted on portable welding units shall:




248
have acetylene secured in the upright position
have oxygen and nitrogen secured in either vertical or horizontal position
have valves closed and protective caps in place when not in use
have mounting arrangements that hold the cylinder securely in the event of a
rollover or other traffic Incident
LP/MP Safety Manual
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Aerosol Cans
Aerosol cans are widely used to apply paints, lubricants, insect repellent, or other
contents. Some air horns are aerosol-activated.
When exposed to heat, aerosol containers can either violently rupture or produce
burning jets of flame; in either case there is a risk of injury or property damage.
The most effective method of preventing aerosol-related Incidents is proper storage.
Aerosols shall be stored under cover and protected from exposure to the weather
and direct sunlight and kept at least 3 m (10 ft.) from any source of heat or ignition.
Store aerosol cans at the correct temperature as recommended by the
manufacturer.
Where aerosols are kept in distribution centers, they shall be stored within strong
mesh enclosures (i.e., caged).
20.7
Propane Bottles and Accessories
When a propane bottle is in use, fully open the valve.
When not in use, fully close the valve.
Do not use the valve to regulate the flow of propane.
Store propane compressed gas cylinders as follows:







outdoors on concrete or other non-combustible platforms
in an area that provides protection from tampering
in an area free of vehicle or mobile equipment travel; if propane cylinders
are required to be temporarily stored in areas vehicle traffic is expected then
they shall be protected by barriers
away from a fire escape, stairs or building egress
at least 7.5 m (23 ft.) away from buildings, unless in an approved storage
cabinet; if using an approved storage cabinet, then store 1 m (3 ft.) away
from buildings and 3 m (9ft.) away from air intakes
at least 1 m (3 ft.) from other flammable compressed gas containers (e.g.,
acetylene)
at least 6m (20 ft.) from containers or dispensers for flammable and
combustible liquids (e.g., gasoline and diesel fuel), or cylinders of
compressed oxygen
Propane fuelled, hand-held torches shall be used for their intended purpose which
is to be hand-held and under constant supervision. These torches shall only be
used for pre-heating of piping and other specific intended purposes prior to welding.
They shall not be used for temporary heating and shall never be unattended.
20.8
Portable Heaters
All portable heaters shall:



be properly grounded or bonded as required
not be left unattended when in operation
not be placed on or near combustible surfaces
249



have combustible and flammable materials removed from the immediate
area
have a fire extinguisher when placed in Hazardous or Restricted Areas
used only in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions
When using a portable heater in a Hazardous Area or Restricted Area, initial and
continuous Atmospheric Monitoring shall be conducted by a Qualified Worker.
Portable fuel heaters shall be operated only where there is adequate ventilation.
Adequate ventilation is necessary to prevent exhaust emissions from being drawn
into the heater and into the space being heated. For enclosed or Confined Spaces
the heater and fuel shall be located outside of the space, away from openings.
Monitor for atmospheric hazards when heated air is being introduced to enclosed
spaces occupied by Workers.
Portable Catalytic Heaters
Portable catalytic heaters shall:
 require continuous monitoring when used in an explosive or hazardous
atmosphere
 be approved for use in an explosive or hazardous atmosphere; approval
shall be from an applicable, recognized authority, such as the Canadian Gas
Association (CAN) or American Gas Association (USA)
 have adequate ventilation to prevent a build-up of exhaust fumes and
prevent the fumes from being drawn through the heater and into the space
being heated
 have carbon monoxide monitors when required
 have only explosion-proof electrical fittings attached
 have a regulator between the propane bottle and the heater to reduce the
pressure of gas to the heater, to a level specified by the manufacturer
 have a thermostatic block valve installed on the propane line where it enters
the heater; this serves as an automatic, positive shutoff on the line when the
heater is not in use, preventing gas from escaping through the heater to the
atmosphere
 not be used in electrical enclosures where there are open relays, as the
vapors leave an insulating residue on open contacts that is difficult to
remove
 be used only in accordance with manufacturer’s instructions
No portable heating devices are permitted for use by Workers in Enbridge
administrative offices in Edmonton, Calgary, Duluth, Superior and Edina. Please
refer to Enbridge’s Portable Heating Device Policy. The policy can be found on
ELink under Policies & Procedures.
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Acronyms
ACGIH
American Conference of Governmental Hygienists
ACM
Asbestos Containing Material
AFFF
Aqueous Film-Forming Foam Concentrate
ALARA
As Low As Reasonably Achievable
ANSI
American National Standards Institute
API
American Petroleum Institute
APR
Air-Purifying Respirator
ATPV
Arc Thermal Protection Value
CCO
Control Center Operations
CDC
Center for Disease Control and Prevention, United States
CFR
Code of Federal Regulations
CMV
Commercial Motor Vehicle
CSA
Canadian Standards Association
DOT
Department of Transportation
ENB (NW)
Enbridge North West Region
FLHA
Field Level Hazard Assessment
GDL
Governance Documents Library
GDP
Ground Disturbance Package
GHS
Global Harmonization System
HAZCOM
Hazard Communication
HAZMAT
Hazardous Materials Transportation
HAZOPS
Hazard and Operability Studies
HEPA
High Efficiency Particulate Air
HPWJ
High-Pressure Water Jetting
HRC
Hazard Risk Category
HVSA
High Visibility Safety Apparel
HRSDC
Human Resources and Skills Development Canada
IDLH
Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Concentrations
ICS
Incident Command System
251
IMS
Integrated Management System
LEL
Lower Explosive Limit
LOA
Lockout Authority
LOPA
Layers of Protection Analysis
LOTO
Lockout/Tagout
LP
Liquids Pipeline
MOC
Management of Change
MP
Major Products
MSDS
Material Safety Data Sheet
MVI
Motor Vehicle Incident
NEB
National Energy Board
NFPA
National Fire Protection Association
NGL
Natural Gas Liquids
NIOSH
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health
OEL
Occupational Exposure Limit
OHSMS IMS-04
Occupational Health and Safety Management System –
Integrated Management System -04
OMM
Operating and Maintenance Manuals
OPIM
Other Potentially Infectious Material
OSHA
Occupational Health and Safety Administration
PAPR
Powered Air-Purifying Respirator
PACM
Presumed Asbestos Containing Material
PCB
Polychlorinated Biphenyls
PEL
Permissible Exposure Limit
PHA
Process Hazard Analysis
PPE
Personal Protective Equipment
RPE
Respiratory Protective Equipment
ROPS
Roll Over Protection Structures
ROW
Right-of-Way
RSO
Radiation Safety Officer
SAR
Supplied-Air Respirator
SCBA
Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus
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SDS
Safety Data Sheet
STEL
Short Term Exposure Limit
SWP
Safe Work Permit
SWL
Safe Working Load
TDG
Transportation of Dangerous Goods
TLV
Threshold Limit Value (ACGlH)
TSA
Task Safety Analysis
TWA
Time Weighted Average
WHMIS
Workplace Hazardous Material Information System
WMP
Waste Management Plan
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Defined Terms
Affected Worker(s)
Workers whose job requires them to operate or use
machine or equipment on which maintenance is
being performed under lockout/tagout, or requires
them to work in an area where maintenance is
being performed.
Air-Purifying Respirator
CSA Z94.4-11 and OSHA 1910.134 A respirator
with an air-purifying filter, cartridge, or canister that
removes specific air contaminants by passing
ambient air through the air-purifying element.
(APR)
Ambient Air System
An ambient air system is an air-moving device (i.e.
ambient air blowers/pumps in permanent and
moveable configurations but excludes
compressors) which draws air directly from the
outdoors and designed by its manufacturer not to
exceed an operating pressure of 103.4 kPa (15
psig).
Applicable Legislation
All federal, provincial, state and municipal laws,
regulations, codes, by-laws, ordinances or
otherwise that are applicable to the jurisdiction in
which the work is conducted including, but not
limited to the Canada Labour Code, OSHA, State
OSHA, Provincial and Territorial OH&S
Appurtenances
All attachments to piping (e.g., valves, plugs,
fittings, stopple fittings, welded fittings, flanges,
vents, branch piping, known abandoned Below
Grade Facilities, etc.)
Atmospheric Monitoring
Atmospheric Monitoring that continuously monitors
atmospheric content and results are typically
determined in real-time (e.g. use of a handheld
instrument).
Atmospheric Sampling
An atmospheric test that details atmospheric
content at a point in time and results are typically
determined by an analytical laboratory.
Aqueous Film-Forming Foam
Concentrate
A substance that is based on fluorinated foam
surfactants plus foam stabilizers and usually diluted
with water to a 3% or 6% foam solution. The foam
solution acts as a barrier that excludes air or
oxygen and develops an aqueous film on the fuel
surface capable of suppressing the evolution of fuel
vapors. The foam solution is suitable for combined
use with dry chemicals.
(AFFF)
Area Monitoring
The use of portable gas monitors and grab
sampling equipment for determining if a hazardous
atmosphere is present at the work site.
As Low As Reasonably
The point at which the cost and resources required
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to reduce risk any further is disproportionate to the
benefit gained.
Authorities Having
Jurisdiction
Any duly constituted Federal, State/Provincial,
Municipal, Board or other Public Authority having
jurisdiction over the matter.
Authorized Installer
When referring to radiation, an individual who has
received 8 hours of training specific to gauge
installation and who is listed on the nuclear
materials license.
Authorized User
When referring to radiation, an individual who has
received the initial nuclear densitometer radiation
safety training according to the nuclear materials
license.
Authorized Worker
Qualified and authorized personnel who perform
lockout/tagout of a machine/equipment in order to
perform maintenance on that machine/equipment.
Below Grade Facility
Refers to existing below grade operating facilities,
utilities, structures and supports; such as pipelines,
cables, conduits, casings, concrete piles, or
concrete foundations.
Below Grade Facility Contact
Any puncture, crack, scratch, gouge, flattening, or
dent of the surface of a Below Grade Facility OR
damage to the protective coating of the Below
Grade Facility.
Benching (Benching System)
A method of protecting Workers from cave-ins by
excavating the sides of an excavation to form one
or a series of horizontal levels or steps, usually with
vertical or near vertical surfaces between levels.
Blue Flag
Blue signals displayed in accordance with the Code
of Federal Regulations signify that workers are on,
under, or between rolling equipment and that
equipment shall not be moved or coupled into.
Blood
Includes human blood, human blood components,
and products made from human blood.
Bloodborne Pathogen
Pathogenic microorganism present in human blood
that can cause disease in humans. These
pathogens include, but are not limited to, Hepatitis
B Virus (HBV) and the Human Immunodeficiency
Virus (HIV), which causes the disease known as
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS).
These pathogens can be transmitted by injection
(needle stick/sharp tools) or contact with blood,
vomit or other body fluids; also through contact with
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mucus membrane, eyes or non-intact skin.
Bonding
The process of connecting two or more conductive
objects together by means of a conductor.
Borehole
A hole in the ground created by drilling, auguring,
boring, or other similar operation.
Breathing Zone
Volume surrounding a Worker’s nose and mouth
from which they breathe air over the course of a
work period. This zone can be pictured by
inscribing a sphere with a radius about 25 cm (10
in.) centered at the Worker’s nose.
Brown Field
Any construction site or activities inside or
adjacent, within 3 m (10 ft.), to existing Enbridge
facilities. If Hot Work is performed in a Hazardous
or Restricted Area, it is considered Brown Field,
e.g. construction work inside a facility or beside an
exposed operating pipeline that does not have an
identified boundary.
CO2 System
A type of fixed fire extinguishing system that
releases carbon dioxide from cylinders into an
enclosed space. Operation is triggered
automatically or manually.
Cave-In
The separation of a mass of soil or rock material
from the side of an excavation, or the loss of soil
from under a trench shield or support system, and
its sudden movement into the excavation, either by
falling or sliding, in sufficient quantity so that it
could entrap, bury, or otherwise injure and
immobilize a person.
Ceiling (C) Exposure Limit
An Exposure Limit which should not be exceeded
at any time.
Cold Work
Any work activity or process that is unlikely to ignite
flammable vapors (e.g., does not involve a spark,
an open flame or a hot surface).
Competency
The ability for an individual to demonstrate of both
the knowledge and practical skills and training to
consistently perform a given task to a predetermined standard.
Conductor
Cable, bus or any conductive piece of electrical
equipment.
Confined Space
An enclosed or partially enclosed area that meets
all of the following:


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is not designed or intended for continuous
Worker occupancy (e.g., tanks, pipes),
has restricted means of entry and exit that
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response (e.g., manholes, electrical vaults,
boreholes, pits, sump tanks, vertical and
horizontal culverts), and
is large enough so that a Worker’s entire
body can enter the space
Confined Space Entry
Occurs when any part of a Worker’s body enters
into a Confined Space.
Contractor
A legal entity with whom Enbridge may enter into
an agreement for the provision of labor, materials
and/or equipment by the Contractor in the delivery
of a specified scope. Note: This is not an Enbridge
Contractor.
Contractor Personnel
Employees of a Contractor or Subcontractor
working under the direct supervision of the
Contractor.
Control
A mechanism or process that minimizes the risk of
the hazard becoming actual so it protects people,
property or the environment from the identified
hazard.
Control Area
Is an area designated by the site Inspector or
crews doing the work that has been isolated
through the use of barriers, tape etc. to restrict
access in order to manage specific hazards as
identified in the Task Specific Hazard Assessment.
Critical Task
A task which has the potential to produce major
loss to people, property, process and/or the
environment when not performed properly. Liquids
Pipelines Operations tasks that have been rated as
greater or equal to 7 using the task evaluation
process are considered critical.
Cylinder
High pressure container used for compressed gas
storage.
De-energized
Disconnected or otherwise isolated from all energy
sources and not containing residual or stored
energy.
Destructive Below Grade
Activity
Any activity such as mechanical excavation,
drilling, boring, piling, deep tilling, and grading.
Employee
Individuals filling full or part-time positions that have
been established for an undefined period of
continuous employment. Individuals filling
temporary or casual full time or part time positions
that are established for a limited, predetermined
period of time, usually less than one year in length.
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Enbridge
A generic term used for Enbridge Liquids Pipelines,
Major Projects, and other legal entities under the
control of Liquids Pipelines.
Enbridge Contractor
A named individual who is not an Employee and
who provides specific services for a specified time
under a contract with Enbridge. The individual may
contract directly with Enbridge or may be covered
under any and all schedules in any and all
contracts with Enbridge Inc. This individual may
require internal network access and/or building
access. For a complete definition refer to the
Human Resources Employment Policies and
Procedures for Contractors located on elink.
Enbridge Employee
Enbridge Employee refers to both Employee’s and
Enbridge Contractor’s.
Enbridge Inc.
The parent Enbridge corporation and each of its
wholly-owned subsidiaries and affiliates.
Enbridge Locations
All Enbridge sites, workplaces, worksites, facilities,
terminals, stations and administrative and project
offices.
Enbridge Operating Asset
An Enbridge-owned asset that has been
commissioned.
Enbridge Operations
Representative
A generic term that refers to the Enbridge
Employee responsible for the location (e.g. site
supervisor, PLM coordinator/supervisor, technician,
terminal supervisor) or designate.
Enbridge Representative
Employee or third party hire representing Enbridge
for specific Contractor work or project.
Enbridge Site Inspector
An Enbridge employee or any third party hire
overseeing Enbridge projects on behalf of Enbridge
and who is responsible for the inspection of work.
May include trade specific inspectors.
Enbridge Workforce
See Workforce.
Enclosed Space
Enclosed or partly enclosed area that is not
designed nor intended for frequent and lengthy
occupancy, has unrestricted means of entry and
exit (e.g. pump shelters and densitometer,
instrument and sample buildings), and that may
aggravate ordinary job hazards.
Energized
Connected to an energy source or contains
residual or stored energy.
Energized Equipment
Conductors and conductive parts of electrical
equipment that are not locked out and verified
energy free. High-voltage equipment is considered
energized until grounded.
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Energy Isolation Device
Mechanical device that physically prevents the
transmission or release of energy.
Energy Source
Any origin of electrical, mechanical, hydraulic,
pneumatic, chemical, thermal or other force.
Ergonomics
Scientific study of people and the work they
perform with the goal of minimizing risk of
injury/illness through improved workstation design;
reducing non-value added motions and improving
Worker moral, productivity and product quality.
Excavation
Any man-made cut, cavity, trench or depression in
an earth surface, formed by earth removal.
Excavation Area
The area in which any type of excavation is
expected to occur. The perimeter of the Excavation
Area is to be demarcated with pink and white
striped flagging.
Excavator/Ground Disturber
Entity in charge of the Ground Disturbance
Exposure Limit
Workplace standard below which is believed that
nearly all normal and healthy Workers may be
repeatedly exposed, day after day, for working
lifetime without adverse health effects.
Extinguishing Agent
A substance (e.g., dry chemical powder, foam) that
interrupts the chemical chain reaction that
produces fire by removing heat, removing fuel
and/or removing or diluting oxygen (i.e., a
substance that can put out a fire).
Facility
Any above or below grade appurtenances (e.g.,
Pipelines, piping, valves, communication or
electrical equipment, conduits, power lines, guide
wires, poles, towers, casings, piles, foundations
etc) or the site on which such appurtenances are
located (e.g., Pump / Compressor stations, valve
sites, pipeline right of way), as the context may
require
Fall Protection
Protection devices used at elevations that would
allow a fall of a short distance (uses an anchorage
point).
Fatigue
Weariness or exhaustion due to extended periods
of physical and/or mental exertion or illness.
Field Level Hazard
Assessment
A tool used just prior to the start of work to identify,
assess and control the field-based hazards of the
work being performed, and site or environmental
conditions that may adversely affect the work (e.g.
icy conditions, simultaneous operations,
(FLHA)
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pedestrians).
Fixed (extinguishing) System
Self-contained fire suppression system that
includes piping, extinguishing agents (e.g. halon,
CO2, foam, water) and discharge components (e.g.
nozzles, sprinklers).
Flame Resistant Garments
Clothing made from material with flame resistance
properties, i.e. combustion of the clothing is
prevented, terminated or inhibited (slowed). Also
known as FR Garments
Foam System
Equipment and piping that distributes Fluoroprotein
(FP) foam to suppress tank fires. A semi-fixed
system uses a mobile foam unit that is moved to
the fire location and temporarily connected to fixed
piping laterals. With a fixed system, the foam unit is
housed in a building and permanently connected to
lateral piping.
Foam Trailer
A mobile proportioning unit that connects to a fire
hydrant.
Gas
A compressible, formless material that will
completely occupy an enclosure irrespective to its
quantity. It is a physical state that be changed to a
solid or liquid state only by increasing pressure or
reducing temperature, or both (e.g., H2S).
Green Field
Areas within the confines of project boundaries that
contain no above or below ground facilities.
Ground
A conductor that provides an electrical path for the
flow of current into the earth.
Ground Disturbance
Any work, operation or activity that results in
penetration of the earth (e.g., excavating, digging,
trenching, plowing, tunneling, auguring, boring,
drilling, backfilling, blasting, cultivation, topsoil
stripping/leveling, stumping, peat removal,
quarrying, fencing, clearing/grading, hydrovac) with
the following exceptions:


Ground Disturbance
Inspector/Competent Person
Ground Disturbance Package
survey staking line locating and marking
disturbance less than 30 cm (12 in.) in
depth provided the location and depth of
cover for all facilities is known.
Individual overseeing and/or supervising Ground
Disturbance activities.
(GDP)
All Ground Disturbance related documentation
including Ground Disturbance Permit, Excavation
Checklist, site plot plan, alignment sheets, asbuilts, route sheets, station piping and instrument
drawings (P&ID’s).
Group Lockout
Lockout involving 2 or more Workers.
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Halon System
Fixed extinguishing system that releases halon
from cylinders into an enclosed space. Operation is
triggered automatically or manually.
Hand Expose
To remove the soil surrounding a pipeline in a
manner that does not have the potential to damage
the pipeline or its coating.
Hand Exposing
See Hand Expose.
Hand Exposure
See Hand Expose.
Hazard
Source or situation with a potential for harm in
terms of injury, ill health, damage to property,
damage to workplace and environment, or any
other definitions as set out by regulations and
codes.
Hazard Assessment
Methodology used to identify, assess and control
hazards in order to eliminate or reduce risk to an
acceptable level. Includes FLHA, Process Hazard
Assessment (or Analysis), HAZOPS, Job Safety
Analysis, Facility Hazard Assessments, etc.
Hazard and Operability
Studies
An Enbridge accepted Process Hazard
Assessment (PHA) Review methodology.
(HAZOPS)
Hazard Risk Category (HRC)
Categories defined by NFPA 70E-2012 and CSA
Z462-12 to explain protection levels needed when
performing tasks on energized electrical
equipment. The values range from 1 to 4.
Hazardous Area
An area in which there is significant potential for a
flammable or toxic atmosphere to be present or
develop.
Hazardous Atmosphere
An atmosphere which exposes an individual to a
risk of injury, illness, disablement, or death due to
one or more of the following causes:
•
•
•
•
A flammable gas/vapor concentration in
excess of 10% of its lower explosive limit
(LEL)
An atmospheric oxygen concentration
below 19.5% or above 23%.
An atmospheric concentration of any
substance above the exposure limits
established by the governing regulatory
body or as indicated on the Material Safety
Data Sheet (MSDS/SDS)
Any atmosphere which is recognized as
Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health
(IDLH).
261
Hazardous Energy
Any electrical, mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic,
chemical, nuclear or kinetic energy source that if
released uncontrolled, could cause injury or loss.
Hazardous Material
A material, other than hazardous waste, that
because of its quantity, concentration and physical
or chemical characteristics, either individually or in
combination with other substances is or poses a
threat to the environment, humans or other living
organisms.
Hazardous Waste
A substance or material which is no longer used for
its original purpose and requires disposal, and by
reason of its properties is considered a potential or
existing hazard to human health or the environment
and therefore, requires special management. The
specific classification of a hazardous waste in
Canada varies by province/territory.
Heavy Service
Service that involves operation of lifting equipment
within the safe working load that exceeds normal
service.
Hierarchy of Controls
A system used to implement controls based on the
level of effectiveness to minimize or eliminate
exposure to hazards. Elimination of the hazard or
risk is the most effective form of control.
1.
Elimination
2.
Substitution
3.
Engineering
4.
Work Practice
5.
Administrative
6.
Personal Protective Equipment
High Efficiency Particulate Air
(HEPA) Filter
A filter that is at least 99.97% efficient in removing
mono-disperse particles of 0.3 micrometers in
diameter. Including filters used for personal
respiratory protection, vacuum cleaners, or
heating/ventilation/air-conditioning systems.
High Voltage
Over 750 volts [CAN] or 600 volts [USA].
Hot Work
Any process that can be a source of ignition when
flammable material is present or can be a fire
hazard regardless of the presence of flammable
material.
Hydrovac
See Vacuum Excavation
Immediately Dangerous to
Life or Health Concentrations
An atmospheric concentration of any toxic,
corrosive or asphyxiant substance that poses an
immediate threat to life or would cause irreversible
or delayed adverse health effects or would interfere
(IDLH)
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with an individual's ability to escape from a
dangerous/hazardous atmosphere.
Initial Locate
An initial locate is done to determine the location of
Below Grade Facilities by One-Call members
(owner/ operators) inside of the area defined by the
One-Call ticket, or the Locate Boundary Area as
prescribed by the Ground Disturbance Standard.
The Initial Locate satisfies local legislative
requirements (Local Regulations).
Incident
An unplanned activity or situation that resulted in or
had the potential to result in, an adverse or
undesirable environmental, health, safety, or
business consequence.
Isolated
Sources of energy have been disconnected or
controlled.
Isolation
Pre-defined system for securing one or more
isolation points.
Isolation Point
Location where the energy isolation device is
installed.
Layers of Protection Analysis
A Enbridge accepted Process Hazard Assessment
(PHA) Review methodology.
(LOPA)
Lifting Device
Supplementary device used to handle certain types
of loads (i.e., hook, sling, clevis). The weight of
lifting devices is considered part of the rated load.
Load
Total weight of an object plus the weight of the
rigging equipment.
Locate Boundary Area
Area in which all Below Grade Facilities shall be
Surface Located within the excavation perimeter
and extending 30 m (100 ft.) from that perimeter.
Constraints may be made on this perimeter and the
lessened area shall be marked by multiple white
markers identifying all of the corners of the Locate
Boundary Area.
Lock
Lockout device used to secure an isolation device
in the appropriate position to prevent accidental
energizing or startup of the machine/equipment.
Lockbox
Container that securely stores the lock keys and
unused locks of a lockset used for isolation to
ensure they are secure until the
machine/equipment is ready for de-isolation.
Lockout
Physical placement of a lock on an energy-isolating
device to ensure the equipment being controlled
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cannot be energized until the lock is removed.
Lockout Authority
(LOA)
Authorized Worker responsible for the
lockout/tagout who implements and coordinates the
overall lockout of hazardous energy sources for
machines/equipment to be maintained. (For group
lockout, one LOA shall be designated)
Lockout Device
Device that uses a positive means (i.e., key or
combination type lock) to hold an energy-isolating
device in the safe position in order to prevent the
energizing of a machine or equipment. (This
includes blank flanges and bolted slip flanges)
Long Term Operations
Contractor Personnel
Enbridge Contractors who are embedded in the
operations Workforce.
Low Voltage
30 to 750 volts (CAN) or 30 to 600 volts (US).
Lower Explosive Limit
The lowest concentration (percentage) of a gas or
a vapor in air capable of producing a flash of fire in
presence of an ignition source (arc, flame, heat). At
a concentration in air below the LEL there is not
enough fuel to continue an explosion.
Concentrations lower than the LEL are "too lean" to
explode but may still burn with great heat and light.
Exact values can be found on product’s MSDS
(SDS).
(LEL)
Management of Change
(MOC)
A systematic approach to ensuring proposed
changes are rigorously assessed for risk and
impact, and that change is effectively managed
prior to implementation to achieve targeted results
Master Lockbox
Primary lockbox where isolation point keys are
located when using satellite lockbox system.
Material Lifting Structure
Structure used to support a material lifting hoist and
its load (e.g., gantry).
Material Lifting Equipment
Apparatus used to lift, support or position material
or equipment.
Mechanical Excavation
Using mechanized equipment to excavate.
Modified Work
Any work related injury or illness that prevents a
Worker’s ability to perform their regularly assigned
duties, but are medically able to perform alternate,
modified or restricted work.
Near Miss
Any event, which under slightly different
circumstances, may have resulted in injury or ill
health of people, or damage or loss to property,
plant, materials or the environment.
Non-permit Required
Confined Space
A Confined Space that has been checked,
inspected and its atmosphere has been monitored
and is being continuously monitored to ensure it
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does not have (or does not have the potential to
have) any of the characteristics required to be
classified as a permit required Confined Space.
Normal Service
Involves operation of lifting equipment with
randomly distributed load within the rated load limit
or uniform load of less than (<) 65% or rated load
limit for no more than 25% of the time for a normal
work shift.
One-Call (First Call)
A One-Call is a notice given to a local One-Call
Centre/authority that an excavation will be taking
place. Legislation varies by location, but anyone
performing an excavation is typically legally
obligated to contact the One-Call Centre/authority
2-5 days prior to commencing excavation. The
One-Call Centre/authority notifies its members
(owner/operators) that their Below Grade Facilities
are in the vicinity of the excavation.
One-Call Member
A Facility Owner/ operator who subscribes to the
One-Call Centre/authority, and is notified when a
One-Call is placed if the excavation area is in the
vicinity of the members Below Grade Facilities.
Open Blade Knife
Cutting tool with an exposed blade, hand held or
otherwise, with or without a handle. It does not
include hand held saws, grinders or other power
tools that may be used for cutting purposes.
Open System
Any part of the pipeline system open to the
atmosphere that has been isolated.
Open Water
Water that is unprotected and exposed such as
rivers, lakes and ponds.
Overseeing
To watch over, observe and manage Enbridge
requirements of the Contractor.
Operations Employee
Generic term used to refer to all Operations
employees, including technicians.
Operations Management
Regional managers, team leaders, and their
designates.
Other Potentially Infectious
Material
Includes the following human fluids: semen, vaginal
secretions, cerebrospinal fluid, synovial fluid,
pleural fluid, pericardial fluid, amniotic fluid, saliva
in dental procedures, and any other body fluid that
is visibly contaminated with blood; all body fluids in
situations where it is difficult or impossible to
differentiate between body fluids; any unfixed
tissue or organ (other than intact skin) from a
human (living or dead); cell or tissue cultures
(OPIM)
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containing HIV; organ cultures, culture medium or
other solutions containing HIV or HBV; and blood,
organs, or other tissues from experimental animals
infected with HIV or HBV.
Partition
A portable safety screen complete with stand-alone
lightweight frame that is used to enclose Hot Work
activities (available in singular or multi-panel
arrangement of various widths and heights).
Permissible Exposure Limit
(PEL)
An occupational health standard instituted to
safeguard Workers against exposure to toxic
material in the workplace
Permit Required Confined
Space
A Confined Space that is hazardous or that may
become hazardous due to one or more of the
following:
•
People Leader
work activity would cause adverse health
effects (e.g., fiber glassing, abrasive
blasting, welding),
• contains or has the potential to contain a
hazardous atmosphere (e.g., H2S, LEL or
O2),
• contains a material that has the potential for
drowning or suffocating a Worker (e.g.,
liquid),
• has an internal configuration such that a
Worker could become trapped or
asphyxiated, and/or contains any other
safety or health hazard which is recognized
as immediately dangerous to life and health
(IDLH) (e.g., energy sources, visibility).
Anyone who has direct report(s).
Positive Identification
See Positively Identify.
Positively Identify
To visually locate (daylight) the location, depth and
size of Below Grade Facility by using either water
washing (hydrovac, as an example) or hand
digging. This includes elevation or alignment
changes that can alter the depth/direction of the
pipe (i.e. 90 and 45 degree elbows), fittings, plugs,
weldolets, flanges, branch piping, known
abandoned facilities, etc.
Powered Air-Purifying
Respirator
A type of respiratory protection that uses a blower
to pass contaminated air through an element that
removes the contaminants and supplies the purified
air to a respirator inlet covering.
(PAPR)
Powered Mobile Equipment
A self-propelled machine or combination of
machines, including a prime mover or a motor
vehicle, designed to manipulate or move material.
Process Hazard Analysis
A detailed examination of a process, equipment or
facility design that will assist in identifying hazards
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(PHA)
and required controls. PHA’s are used to evaluate
hazards in new designs as well as existing
facilities.
Qualified
Verification of proficiency of learner by observation
and participation on the job site and through an onthe-job assessment of competency by a supervisor
or internal assessor.
Qualified Electrical Worker
A Worker who has the knowledge, training and
experience to perform electrical work, including
Enbridge electricians, contract journeymen
electricians, and contractor electricians working
under the direct supervision of contract journeymen
electricians.
Qualified Safety
Representative
An employee or Enbridge Representative acting as
the designated safety resource in place of the
applicable Safety Coordinator for pre-job planning
and execution of pipeline repair jobs. Qualified
safety representatives shall complete the Enbridge
Inspector Qualification Training Program.
Radiation
Emission of atomic particles or electromagnetic
energy from the nucleus of an atom. This emission
is caused by the natural decay of radioisotopes
(nuclides) and/or x-rays produced by electrical
means from portable or fixed static equipment.
Radiation Safety Officer
Designated individual who has received specific
radiation safety training and who oversees the
operations of the radiation safety program.
(RSO)
Radiation Source
Apparatus or material emitting or capable of
emitting ionizing radiation.
Radiation Survey
Evaluation of the radiological conditions and
potential hazards incident to the production, use,
transfer, release, disposal or presence of
radioactive material or other radiation sources. The
evaluation includes a physical survey of the
location of radioactive material and measurements
or calculations of levels of radiation, or
concentrations or quantities or radioactive material
present.
Regulation
A rule, ordinance, law, legal standard or device by
which conduct or performance is controlled.
Remote Field Locations
Includes valve sites, remote maintenance bases,
rights-of-way, winter roads, highways and pipeline
access. Terminals, pump stations, injection sites
and operating and maintenance facilities are not
considered remote field locations.
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Residual Risk
Level of risk that remains after Risk mitigation
actions are implemented.
Restricted Area
Any area in which there is limited potential for a
flammable or toxic atmosphere to develop.
Risk
The combination of the likelihood and consequence
of an unexpected positive or negative deviation
from the expected outcome.
Roll Over Protection
Structures
Engineered protection structures on heavy
equipment and all-terrain vehicles meant to protect
the operator and passenger(s) in the event the
equipment rolls over.
(ROPS)
Root Cause
Include personal factors and job factors from which
substandard acts and conditions originate. These
factors are the reasons why the immediate/direct
causes exist and the identification of such factors
permits meaningful management control. Root
Causes are often also referred to as basic causes
or indirect causes.
Safe Work Permit
An agreement between the Permit Issuer and
Receiver that is used to authorize work for a
specific time and location and to ensure a safe area
of work for the working group.
(SWP)
Safe Working Load
(SWL)
Commonly understood to be the load which a given
lifting device or lifting arrangement can safely lift,
suspend or lower
Safety Data Sheet (SDS)
A Safety Data Sheet (SDS), previously called a
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS), is a document
that provides information on the properties of
hazardous chemicals and how they affect health
and safety in the workplace.
Safety Watch
A qualified Worker responsible for monitoring work
activities to ensure safe work practices are
followed, to identify hazards, to alert Workers of
hazardous conditions and to initiate emergency
response procedures.
Satellite Lockbox
Secondary lockbox used for complex group control
(i.e., isolation over distance), multiple work groups
and work with contractors.
Self-Contained Breathing
Apparatus
A respirator that has a portable supply of breathing
air and is independent of the ambient atmosphere.
The breathing air source is designed to be carried
by the user.
(SCBA)
Shall
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Shoring
Shoring is a temporary installation, which “shores”
up or supports trench or excavation walls to
prevent movement of soil, underground utilities,
roadways, and foundations.
Short Term Exposure Limit
(STEL)
A 15-minute Time Weighted Average (TWA)
exposure limit that should not be exceeded at any
time during a workday even if the overall 8-hour
TWA is within limits, and it should not occur more
than 4 times per day. There should be at least 1
hour between successive exposures.
Should
Used where an action is recommended.
Signaler/Spotter
A competent Worker that looks for, locates, guides,
signals, and reports hazards – as well as one who
will stop unsafe activities – in relation to movement
of vehicles and heavy equipment. This person shall
have the ability to clearly communicate to the
Workers under their care and site supervision as
required.
Site
See Worksite.
Site Safety Plot Plan
Site-specific drawing that shows hazardous and
restricted areas, primary evacuation site,
secondary evacuation site, helicopter landing areas
and the location of safety facilities and equipment
(e.g., evacuation alarms, wind socks, fire
extinguishers and first aid stations).
Site Supervisor
See Enbridge Operations Representative.
Sloping
A method of preventing cave-ins of excavation and
trench walls by cutting them back on an incline
away from the excavation or trench. The angle of
incline shall vary with differences in such factors as
the soil type, environmental conditions of exposure,
and application of soil overloads.
Softener
Material used to prevent loads from slipping and to
protect cable or rope from damage.
Spoil Pile
A pile of material that was removed from an
excavation, trench, or borehole.
Standard
Approved Enbridge practice.
Standard Precaution
Administrative controls based on the premise that
all blood and bodily fluids are considered infectious
and are treated as such (also known as universal
precautions).
Static Electricity
An accumulation of electric charge on an insulated
body.
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Stored Pressure Extinguisher
Extinguisher with both the extinguishing material
and expellant gas kept in a single container.
Station/Terminal Site
Fenced-in pump stations, valve stations, terminals,
etc.
Subcontractor
Any person, firm or corporation contracting with the
Contractor to perform part of the work, and shall
include partners and associates in a joint venture
so contracting with the Contractor.
Supplied-Air Respirator (SAR)
An atmosphere-supplying respirator for which the
source of breathing air is not designed to be carried
by the user.
Surface Located
All Below Grade Facilities have been located and
surface marked.
Supplier
A generic term referring to Contractor(s) and
Vendor(s) cumulatively.
Swingstage
Two-point adjustable suspension scaffold
Tagout
Placement of a perforated tag on an energyisolating device to indicate that the device and
machine/equipment being controlled shall not be
operated until the tag is removed.
Threshold Limit Value
Occupational exposure limit set by the American
Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists
(ACGIH) under which it is believed that nearly all
Workers may be repeatedly exposed, day after
day, over a working lifetime, without adverse health
effects.
(TLV)
Tight-fitting Respirator
A respirator that is designed to form a complete
seal with the face or neck.
Time Weighted Average
(TWA) Exposure Limit
The average exposure a contaminant for an
individual over a given working period determined
by sampling at given times during the period.
Unless otherwise mentioned, TWA is the
concentration of contaminants measured over an 8hour period.
Trench
An elongated excavated area of ground whose
depth exceeds its width at the bottom.
Trench Box
A self-contained steel structure placed in an
excavation that is designed to withstand soil
pressures and protect the Workers against caveins.
Unclassified/Non-classified
Area
An area where flammable or toxic atmosphere is
unlikely to develop or exist.
Vacuum Excavation
The use of pressurized water or air to loosen soil,
then the use of a vacuum to extract the loosened
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soil. This includes all activities performed by a
vacuum truck including but not limited to
“hydrovac,” “shot gunning,” “day lighting,”
“potholing,” “water washing.”
Vapor
Gaseous form of substances that are normally in
liquid or solid state; it can be changed to solid or
liquid by increasing pressure, decreasing
temperature, or both. Evaporation may create
vapors.
Vendor
A party with whom Enbridge may enter into an
agreement for the provision of engineered and/or
fabricated equipment.
Verification
Confirmation that the machine/equipment is in a
zero-energy state.
Verification Locate
An additional measure completed by a Contractor,
after the Initial Locate, that is designed to verify that
all Below Grade Facilities are surface located and
marked. Typically, the Verification Locate will
implement sweep or scan techniques to ensure
there are no discrepancies with the Initial Locate.
Visitor
Any Enbridge or non-Enbridge individual that is not
performing any assigned work activity on an
Enbridge worksite (i.e. facility, right-of-way, or
construction site). An example of a visitor is any
individual or group on a tour of a Enbridge worksite.
Waste Management Plan
A written document designed to assist Enbridge
personnel and contractors with the identification of
appropriate waste management practices for each
waste type generated by Enbridge operations.
What-If’s
An Enbridge accepted Process Hazard Analysis
(PHA) methodology.
Wipe Test
The procedure to be performed on the shielding of
a radiation source, a guard or protective cover of
the radioactive source, capable of detecting the
presence of 0.005 microcurie of radioactive
material.
Work Authorization Issuer
An Enbridge Operations Representative who shall
be familiar with the operational and/or site specific
hazards covered by the Work Authorization being
issued.
Work Planning Templates
Templates which assist in separating out higher
risk work activities ensuring that hazards and
controls associated with this work are identified and
engineering and administrative controls are
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developed and implemented before the start of
work.
Work Restraint
Protection devices used at elevations that will not
permit a Worker to travel beyond a certain point.
Workers
See Workforce.
Workforce
Terms used to refer to Employees and Enbridge
Contractors cumulatively. For the sake of this
manual, the term Workforce also includes
Contractor Personnel.
Working Excavation
An excavation that will be entered by Workers.
Workplace
See Worksite.
Worksite
Entire work area required for the work, including
station property, right-of-way, temporary working
space, and all right-of-way storage areas as
required by Enbridge.
Zero Energy (state)
Pertaining to the control of hazardous energy
(LOTO) Zero Energy is when all energy and
potential or stored energy is removed, or controlled
and verified.
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Appendix
Section 1.1 Variance Request Form
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Section 2.4 Contractor Boilerplate
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Section 5.1 FLHA
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Section 6.2 SWP
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Section 6.3 WA
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Section 8.5 Confined Space Entry Permit
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Section 15.4 Ground Disturbance Permit
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Section 16.1 Excavation Checklist
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Section 16.4 Sloping Diagrams
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