020604 English Update.qxd
How to use this manual
LIMITED WARRANTY
FOR HEAVY DUTY TRUCKS, TRUCK TRAILERS,
BUSES, RV and MOTORHOME WHEELS
(Wheels with bead seat diameters measured in .5 inch
increments and Alcoa tube type wheels)
Alcoa warrants to the original purchaser, from Alcoa or its authorized distributor, that a
new Alcoa aluminum disc heavy duty truck, truck trailer, bus, 19.5-inch and 22.5-inch RV
or motorhome wheel is free from defects in material and workmanship. Alcoa agrees,
without charge, to repair or replace a wheel that fails in normal use and service because
of defects in material and workmanship. Truck, truck trailer, Dura-Flange® and the DuraBright® Surface Treatment wheels not used in transit service are warranted for 60 months
from the date of manufacture as shown on the wheel except the Dura-Flange® rim flange
treatment is warranted for a period of 24 months. Alcoa bus mount wheels (10-hole,
11.25 inch bolt circle, 8.670 inch hub bore with 1.22 inch diameter bolt holes) and other
wheels used in transit service are warranted for 120 months from date of manufacture,
except the Dura-Bright® Surface Treatment on bus and transit service wheels is warranted
for a period of 60 months from the date of manufacture and the Dura-Flange® rim flange
treatment is warranted for 24 months. Satin finish, polished and Dura-Bright® surface
treatment 19.5-inch and 22.5-inch RV and motorhome wheels are warranted for 120
months from the date of manufacture as shown on the wheel. Alcoa does not warrant and
will not repair or replace or make adjustment with respect to any wheel that has been
subjected to misuse or abuse including the following:
(a) Using a tire that is oversized according to standards recommended by the Tire and
Rim Association, Inc. or other recognized tire and rim agencies such as ETRTO
(Europe) or others;
(b) Loading the wheel beyond the applicable maximum wheel load as specified by Alcoa;
(c) Inflating beyond the applicable maximum as specified by Alcoa;
(d) Changing the original condition of the wheel by alteration or by subjecting it to any
processing such as welding or straightening.
(e) Accidents, abnormal or severe operating conditions including without limitation tire
fires, brake fires, severe brake system drags or seizures or running with a flat tire; or
(f) Failure to follow maintenance and other instructions and warnings set forth in the
Alcoa Heavy Duty Wheel Service Manual, Alcoa Technical Bulletins and other Alcoa
literature. Recommended maintenance includes, without limitation, using proper
torque, periodic cleaning, polishing, valve replacement, periodic inspection for
damage, loose lug nuts and rim flange wear inspections and procedures.
(g) Nicks, scratches and other surface blemishes resulting from improper maintenance,
cleaning, road debris, curbing, accident or operation are not warrantable.
(h) Damage due to cleaning with abrasives, abrasive brushes, steel wool, scouring pads,
or strong chemicals (acids or alkaline).
Dura-Bright® Surface Treated Wheels are warranted against:
(a) Filiform corrosion (worm or hair like lines, generally milky in appearance, underneath
surface protective treatment and emanating from damage to the surface treatment
such as nicks, scratches or damage from mounting hardware or wheel weights)
(b) Blistering due to loss of adhesion of the surface treatment,
(c) Lift off of the surface treatment due to physical damage (nicks, scratches, gouges)
If nicks, dings, scratches or other damage does occur to the Dura-Bright® treatment that
exposes the aluminum underneath, the metal exposed may naturally oxidize, but any
corrosion will be confined to the metal exposed and will not extend into or underneath the
Dura-Bright® treatment.
Normally, any washing materials or chemicals (including mild acid washes) that can
safely be used on a vehicle, its painted surfaces and components, can safely be used on
the Dura-Bright® surface treatment. The Dura-Bright® treatment prevents corrosion of
aluminum wheels and protects their shine. So long as the treatment remains in place (see
comments (g) and (h) above) and is maintained in accordance with the Alcoa DuraBright® Care and Maintenance manual, it is warranted against corrosion. If corrosion does
occur within the treatment warranty period, subject to the limitations stated above, Alcoa
will replace any wheel exhibiting such corrosion.
THERE IS NO WARRANTY THAT THE WHEEL SHALL BE MERCHANTABLE OR FIT FOR
ANY PARTICULAR PURPOSE, NOR IS THERE ANY OTHER WARRANTY, EXPRESS OR
IMPLIED, EXCEPT SUCH AS IS EXPRESSLY SET FORTH HEREIN.
ALCOA SHALL NOT BE LIABLE FOR ANY INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES
FOR ANY BREACH OF WARRANTY, ITS LIABILITY AND THE PURCHASER'S EXCLUSIVE
REMEDY BEING LIMITED TO REPAIR OR REPLACEMENT OF THE WHEEL AS STATED IN
THIS LIMITED WARRANTY.
Alcoa Wheel Service Manual. This limited warranty should be used in conjunction with
the Alcoa Wheel Service Manual and the Alcoa Dura-Bright® Wheel Finish Care and
Maintenance Manual. The Wheel Service Manual contains important safety information
and warnings, and failure to read and understand this information may result in serious
injury or death. The limited warranty is included with the Wheel Service Manual, but may
appear elsewhere. If you do not have copies of the Wheel Service Manual you may obtain
copies free of charge from Alcoa Wheel and Forged Products, 1600 Harvard Avenue,
Cleveland, Ohio 44105, (800) 242-9898 and on the web at www.alcoawheels.com.
This manual is written in a style called structured text.
Throughout the manual you will find numbers which look
like this (See 3-1, page 18). These numbers are cross
references to other sections of the manual. The numbers
(3-1) refer to section 3, subtopic 1. When you turn to page
18 you will find the section number and subtopic number
under the heading in each section as shown below:
Recommendations
for mounting
tubeless tires
3-1
The cross references will help you find related information
in the manual. For example in section 4-1 you will read
the following sentence...
"Make sure all wheel cap nuts are properly
torqued–check them often (see 4-9, page 29)."
By turning to section 4, subtopic 9, on page 29 you will
find information on proper torquing.
Note: The Alcoa Heavy Duty Wheel Service Manual
contains information for proper service and operation
of Alcoa heavy duty wheels. Alcoa heavy duty wheels
for heavy duty trucks, truck trailers and buses are Alcoa
tubeless wheels with bead seat diameters measured
in .5 inch increments and Alcoa tube type wheels.
Note: Dura-Bright® wheels produced after November
2002 have Alcoa wheel part numbers ending with “DB”
(earlier wheels have part numbers ending in a 4 or 7)
with bead seat diameters measured in 0.5-inch
increments. Not all Alcoa wheels are available with the
Dura-Bright® surface treatment.
WARNING Wheels that are not properly
installed or maintained may not work
properly.
Failure to follow proper wheel installation
WARNING or maintenance practices may result
in injury or death.
Follow the proper wheel installation and maintenance
practices as contained in this Alcoa Service Manual.
For additional copies of the manual, available free
of charge from Alcoa, or for the most recent updates,
contact Alcoa Wheel and Forged Products
at 1-800-242-9898 option 1 or on the web
at www.alcoawheels.com.
To obtain Alcoa rim flange wear gauge(s) at no charge
and information on free training on proper installation
and maintenance procedures, contact Alcoa Wheel
and Forged Products at (800) 242-9898 option 1 or
on the web at www.alcoawheels.com.
Table of Contents
▼ Section Number
Page Number ▼
1 Wheel Specifications............................................................................................2
2 Inspection..............................................................................................................5
2-1
2-2
2-3
2-4
2-5
2-6
2-7
2-8
2-9
2-10
2-11
Inspect thoroughly and frequently .........................................................................................5
Excessive heat damage .........................................................................................................6
Dimension checks..................................................................................................................7
Cracked or damaged wheel checks ......................................................................................8
Mounting area ........................................................................................................................9
Corrosion..............................................................................................................................10
Stud holes ............................................................................................................................11
Disc area ..............................................................................................................................11
Rim area ...............................................................................................................................12
Gutter area ...........................................................................................................................12
Rim flange wear ...................................................................................................................13
1
2
3
4
3 Alcoa 15° Drop Center Wheel for Tubeless Tires............................................18
3-1
3-2
3-3
3-4
3-5
Recommendations for mounting tubeless tires...................................................................18
Mounting tubeless tires........................................................................................................19
Rim width to tire matching...................................................................................................21
Recommendations for demounting tubeless tires...............................................................21
Demounting of tubeless tires ...............................................................................................22
4 Wheel Installation ...............................................................................................23
4-1
4-2
4-3
4-4
4-5
4-6
4-7
4-8
4-9
4-10
4-11
4-12
Recommendations for proper installation of wheels ...........................................................23
Wheel cap nuts ....................................................................................................................24
How to measure stud standout ...........................................................................................25
Stud located ball seats are spherical ..................................................................................25
Single wheel, stud located, ball seat mounting...................................................................26
Dualed wheels, stud located, ball seat mounting................................................................26
Dualed wheels, inner steel/outer aluminum stud located, ball seat mounting....................28
Cap nut thread engagement, stud located wheels, ball seat mounting .............................29
Tightening stud located, ball seat cap nuts ........................................................................29
Single, dualed and wide base wheels, hub piloted mounting, two-piece flange nuts........31
Tightening hub piloted mounting, two-piece flange nuts....................................................32
Incorrect assemblies ............................................................................................................34
5 Proper Torque, Wheel Identification, Valves and Surface Maintenance.......35
5-1
5-2
5-3
5-4
5-5
5-6
5-7
5-8
5-9
Avoid abuse .........................................................................................................................35
Keep wheel nuts tight ..........................................................................................................35
Lead balance weights (clip on) ............................................................................................36
Do not straighten wheels .....................................................................................................36
Owner/in-service identification ............................................................................................36
Valves ...................................................................................................................................36
Maintenance against corrosion (non Dura-Bright® surfaced treated wheels)......................37
Dura-Bright® surface treated wheels cleaning and maintenance ........................................37
Identification.........................................................................................................................38
6 Flat Base Wheel for Tube-type Tires ................................................................39
6-1
6-2
6-3
6-4
6-5
Tube-type wheel part interchangeability..............................................................................39
Mounting recommendations for tubed tires ........................................................................40
Mounting of tubed tires........................................................................................................41
Demounting recommendations for tubed tires....................................................................42
Demounting of tubed tires ...................................................................................................43
7 OSHA Regulations..............................................................................................44
7-1
OSHA Regulations ...............................................................................................................44
8 Glossary of Common Terms..............................................................................49
8-1
8-2
Glossary of Common Terms ................................................................................................49
Wheel measurement ............................................................................................................51
9 Conversion Tables ..............................................................................................52
9-1
9-2
Inch Fraction, Decimal and Millimeter Equivalents Chart (Up to 1 Inch).............................52
Conversion Factors..............................................................................................................53
5
6
7
8
9
1
1
Specifications
Alcoa aluminum disc wheel mounting dimensions are consistent with SAE Recommended Practice J694 Feburary 2001. Part numbers listed for all sizes are
satin finish. Polished finishes are indicated by changing the last digit of the part number listed to one of the following: For polished outside only, part number
should end in “1.” For polished inside only, part number should end in “2.” For polished both sides, part number should end in “3.” Valve hole is on the inside.
Dura-Bright® surface treatment wheels are identified by using the regular numerical part number and the addition of “DB” at the end. Finishes are indicated by
changing the last numerical digit of the part number to one of the following. For brushed both sides, the number is “0.” For buffed outside only, the number is
“1.” For buffed inside only, the number is “2.” For buffed both sides, the number is “3.” Currently, only the wheel item numbers marked with DB are available
with the Dura-Bright® surface treatment.
Dura-Flange® wheels are identified by using the regular numerical part number and the addition of "DF" at the end. Only the wheel item numbers marked with
DF are available with the Dura-Flange® option and are only available as satin finish (last part number ends in "0").
CLASSIC TUBELESS WHEELS (round hand holes) (ENGLISH UNITS)
Item
no.
Wheel
description
Maximum
wheel load1
in lbs.
Wheel
wt.
lbs.
Outset
inches3
Inset
inches
Maximum
inflation
PSI—cold
Valve
stem
Part
number2
Front
Outer
Cap Nuts
Rear Inner
Cap Nuts
AI/AI
Rear Inner
Cap Nuts
AI/Stl
Rear
Outer
Cap Nuts
Lug Nut
Covers
Hub Cover
System Kits
Front/Rear
2125
3/4" Stud 5995
L&R, 1-1/8” Stud
5996 L&R
5988 L&R
7896 L&R
5996 L&R
150
–
—
2125
3/4" Stud 5995
L&R, 1-1/8” Stud
5996 L&R
5988 L&R
7896 L&R
5996 L&R
150
–
DiscMate
Stabilizer
—
Six-hole, stud located mounting, ball seat — 8.750 in. bolt circle, 6.495 in. hub bore, 1.219 in. bolt hole dia.
1.
17.5x6.75-15°DC
5070
32
5.55
4.72
125
TR543C
663170
10-hole, stud located mounting, ball seat — 8.750 in. bolt circle, 6.495 in. hub bore, 1.219 in. bolt hole dia.
2.
17.5x6.75-15°DC
5070
31
5.55
4.72
125
TR543C
663070
10-hole, stud located mounting, ball seat — 11.25 in. bolt circle, 8.73 in. hub bore, 1.219 in. bolt hole dia.
DB
3.
22.5x7.50-15°DC
7200
53
6.28
5.32
120
TR545D
873100
3/4” - 016000,
1-1/8” - 017000
2225
3/4" Stud 5995
L&R, 1-1/8” Stud
5996 L&R
5988 L&R
7896 L&R
5996 L&R
150
Front - 076015
Rear - 077015
DB
4.
22.5x8.25-15°DC
7200
53
6.66
5.68
120
TR545D
883110
3/4” - 016000,
1-1/8” - 017000
2225
3/4" Stud 5995
L&R, 1-1/8” Stud
5996 L&R
5988 L&R
7896 L&R
5996 L&R
150
Front - 076015
Rear - 077015
DB
5.
22.5x9.00-15°DC
9000
60
6.94
5.94
130
TR543E
893000
3/4” - 016000,
1-1/8” - 017000
2127
3/4" Stud 5995
L&R, 1-1/8” Stud
5996 L&R
5988 L&R
7896 L&R
5996 L&R
150
Front - 076015
Rear - 077015
6.
22.5x12.25-15°DC
11,400
62
.56
Reversible
—
125
005435
823000
3/4” - 016000,
1-1/8” - 017000
–
3/4" Stud 5995
L&R, 1-1/8” Stud
5996 L&R
–
–
3/4" Stud 5995
L&R, 1-1/8” Stud
5996 L&R
150
Front - 076015
Rear - 077015
7.
22.5x12.25-15°DC
11,400
66
3.88
2.76
125
TR543E outset
TR545E inset
823050
3/4” - 016000,
1-1/8” - 017000
–
3/4" Stud 5995
L&R, 1-1/8” Stud
5996 L&R
–
–
3/4" Stud 5995
L&R, 1-1/8” Stud
5996 L&R
150
Front - 076015
Rear - 077015
8.
22.5x12.25-15°DC
11,000
70
5.84
4.68
120
TR545E
823060A
3/4” - 016000,
1-1/8” - 017000
–
3/4" Stud 5995
L&R, 1-1/8” Stud
5996 L&R
–
–
3/4" Stud 5995
L&R, 1-1/8” Stud
5996 L&R
150
Front - 076015
Rear - 077015
9.
22.5x13.00-15°DC
12,300
72
3.5
2.38
125
TR543E
833050
3/4” - 016000,
1-1/8” - 017000
–
3/4" Stud 5995
L&R, 1-1/8” Stud
5996 L&R
–
–
3/4" Stud 5995
L&R, 1-1/8” Stud
5996 L&R
150
Front - 076015
Rear - 077015
10.
22.5x13.00-15°DC
11,000
73
—*
5.3
120
TR545E
833060A
3/4” - 016000,
1-1/8” - 017000
–
3/4" Stud 5995
L&R, 1-1/8” Stud
5996 L&R
–
–
3/4" Stud 5995
L&R, 1-1/8” Stud
5996 L&R
150
Front - 076015
Rear - 077015
††11.
22.5x14.00-15°DC
12,800
71
2
0.87
125
TR543E
outset
TR545E inset
841100
3/4” - 016000,
1-1/8” - 017000
–
3/4" Stud 5995
L&R, 1-1/8” Stud
5996 L&R
–
–
3/4" Stud 5995
L&R, 1-1/8” Stud
5996 L&R
150
Front - 076015
Rear - 077015
7200
59
6.6
5.59
120
TR545D
983120
3/4” - 016000,
1-1/8” - 017000
–
3/4" Stud 5995
L&R, 1-1/8” Stud
5996 L&R
5988 L&R
7896 L&R
3/4" Stud 5995
L&R, 1-1/8” Stud
5996 L&R
150
Front - 076015
Rear - 077015
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
39946
–
–
–
190
–
–
39946
–
–
–
190
–
–
DB
**12. 24.5x8.25-15°DC
10-hole, stud located mounting, ball seat — 13.19 in. bolt circle, 10.65 in. hub bore, 1.360 in. bolt hole dia. (valve hole is on outside)
13.
22.5x13.00-15°DC
11,000
76
—*
6.12
120
TR543
833070A
–
Eight-hole, hub piloted mounting — 6.50 in. bolt circle, 4.770 in. hub bore, .68 in. bolt hole dia. (use two-piece flange nuts)
14.
17.5x6.75-15°DC
6050
30
–
0
130
TR542
661400
–
Eight-hole, hub piloted mounting — 6.50 in. bolt circle, 4.880 in. hub bore, .68 in. bolt hole dia. (use two-piece flange nuts)
15.
17.5x6.75-15°DC
6050
29.7
–
0
130
TR542
662400
–
Eight-hole, hub piloted mounting — 275mm bolt circle, 221.1mm hub bore, 26.75mm bolt hole dia. (use two-piece flange nuts)
16.
22.5x7.50-15°DC
7300
53
6.28
5.44
120
TR545D
873400
014000
2225
39874
–
–
39874
181
**17.
DB
22.5x8.25-15°DC
7300
50
6.66
5.82
120
TR545D
883420
014000
2227
39874
–
–
39874
181
12,800
71
2.0
0.87
125
TR543E outset
TR545E inset
841400
014000
–
39874
–
–
39874
181
or 076 085‡
–
7300
62
6.6
5.77
120
TR509
983400
014000
2245
39874
–
–
39874
181
–
††18. 22.5x14.00-15°DC
DB
19. 24.5x8.25-15°DC
–
Continued on next page
2
1
Specifications cont’d.
10-hole, hub piloted mounting — 285.75mm bolt circle, 220.1mm hub bore, 26.75mm bolt hole dia. (use two-piece flange nuts)
22.5x7.50-15°DC
7300
53
6.28
5.44
120
TR545D
873600
011000
2225
39874
–
–
39874
181
Front - 076018
or 076085‡
Rear - 077018
or 077085‡
**21. 22.5x8.25-15°DC
7300
47
6.66
5.81
120
TR545D
883620
011000
2227
39874
–
–
39874
181
Front - 076018
or 076085‡
Rear - 077018
or 077085‡
DB
DB
DF
20.
22.
22.5x8.25-15°DC
8000
55
6.66
5.69
120
TR543C
885600
011000
2225
39874
–
–
39874
181
Front - 076018
or 076085‡
Rear - 077018
or 077085‡
23.
22.5x9.00-15°DC
9000
60
6.94
6.04
130
TR543C
893600
011000
2127
39874
–
–
39874
181
Front - 076018
or 076085‡
Rear - 077018
or 077085‡
24.
22.5x9.00-15°DC
10,000
53
—
3.12
130
TR545E
893630
011000
–
39874
–
–
39874
181
Front - 076018
or 076085‡
Rear - 077018
or 077085‡
25.
22.5x10.50-15°DC
10,500
68
66.1
5.5
130
TR544
803600
011000
–
39874
–
–
–
181
26.
22.5x12.25-15°DC
11,400
63
.56
Reversible
—
125
TR543E
823600
011000
–
39874
–
–
39874
181
27. 22.5x12.25-15°DC
11,400
66
3.88
2.75
125
TR543E outset
TR545E inset
823650
011000
–
39874
–
–
39874
181
28. 22.5x12.25-15°DC
11,000
71
5.8
4.68
120
TR545E
823660A
011000
–-
39874
–
–
39874
181
29. 22.5x12.25-15°DC
10,000
74
6.24
5.12
120
TR545E
823670A
011000
–
39874
–
–
39874
181
30. 22.5x13.00-15°DC
12,300
73
3.5
2.38
125
TR543E outset
TR545E inset
833650
011000
–
39874
–
–
39874
181
Front - 076018
or 076085‡
Rear - 077018
or 077085‡
31. 22.5x13.00-15°DC
11,000
74
6.42
5.3
120
TR545E
833660A
011000
–
39874
–
–
39874
181
Front - 076018
or 076085‡
Rear - 077018
or 077085‡
††32. 22.5x14.00-15°DC
12,800
71
2.0
0.87
125
TR543E outset
TR545E inset
841600
011000
–
39874
–
–
39874
181
Front - 076018
or 076085‡
Rear - 077018
or 077085‡
††33. 22.5x14.00-15°DC
12,800
71
1.13
0
125
TR543E outset
TR545E inset
841610
011000
–
39874
–
–
39874
181
Front - 076018
or 076085‡
Rear - 077018
or 077085‡
7300
55
6.6
5.73
120
TR545D
983620
011000
2247
39874
–
–
39874
181
Front - 076018
or 076085‡
Rear - 077018
or 077085‡
8000
65
6.6
5.63
120
TR545D
985600
011000
2245
39874
–
–
39874
181
Front - 076018
or 076085‡
Rear - 077018
or 077085‡
DB
DF
§
DB
DB
DB
–
DB
DF
DB
DF
**34. 24.5x8.25-15°DC
§
35. 24.5x8.25-15°DC
Front - 076018
or 076085‡
Front - 076018
or 076085‡
Rear - 077018
or 077085‡
Front - 076018
or 076085‡
Rear - 077018
or 077085‡
Front - 076018
or 076085‡
Rear - 077018
or 077085‡
Front - 076018
or 076085‡
Rear - 077018
or 077085‡
10-hole, hub piloted bus mounting — 11.25 in. bolt circle, 8.670 in. hub bore, 1.219 in. bolt hole dia. (use two-piece flange nuts)
DB
36. 22.5x8.25-15°DC
7300
53
6.66
5.82
120
TR545D
883610
015000
2225
–
–
–
–
1821
–
DB
37. 24.5x8.25-15°DC
7300
62
6.6
5.77
120
TR545D
983610
015000
2245
–
–
–
–
1821
–
Continued on next page
3
1
1
1
Specifications cont’d.
CLASSIC TUBELESS WHEELS —
ENGLISH UNITS (METRIC UNITS)
Item
no.
Wheel
description
Maximum
Wheel
wheel load1
wt.
in lbs.
lbs.
(kilograms) (kilograms)
Outset
inches3
(mm)
Inset
inches
(mm)
Maximum
inflation
PSI—cold
(KPa)
Valve
stem
Part
number2
DiscMate
Stabilizer
Front
Outer
Cap Nuts
Rear Inner
Cap Nuts
AI/AI
Rear Inner
Cap Nuts
AI/Stl
Rear
Outer
Cap Nuts
Lug Nut
Covers
Hub Cover
System Kits
Front/Rear
Eight-hole, hub piloted mounting — 275mm bolt circle, 221.1mm hub bore, 24.75mm bolt hole dia. (use two-piece flange nuts)
5515
(2500)
29.5
(13.4)
5.55
(141)
4.72
(120)
142
(978)
TR543C
663470
014000
2126
39874
–
–
39874
181
–
39. 19.5x6.75RW-15°DC
5515
(2500)
37.0
(16.8)
5.55
(141)
4.72
(120)
142
(978)
TR543C
764480
014000
2126
39874
–
–
39874
181
–
40. 19.5x7.50RW-15°DC
6615
(3000)
37.7
(17.1)
6.10
(155)
5.28
(134)
142
(978)
TR543C
773400
014000
2126
39874
–
–
39874
181
–
2125
–
–
–
–
–
–
2126
39874
–
–
39874
181
Front - 076018
or 076085‡
Rear - 077018
or 077085‡
38. 17.5x6.75-15°DC
DB
10-hole, hub piloted mounting — 225mm bolt circle, 176.1mm hub bore, 26.5mm bolt hole dia. (use two-piece flange nuts)
41. 17.5x6.00-15°DC
5515
(2500)
28.0
(12.7)
5.24
(133)
4.49
(114)
142
(976)
TR543D
663200
10-hole, hub piloted mounting — 285.75mm bolt circle, 220.1mm hub bore, 26.75mm bolt hole dia. (use two-piece flange nuts)
42. 19.5x7.50RW-15°DC
6615
(3000)
37.7
(17.1)
6.10
(155)
5.28
(134)
142
(978)
TR543C
773600
011000
10-hole, hub piloted mounting — 335mm bolt circle, 281.2mm hub bore, 26.75mm bolt hole dia. (use two-piece flange nuts)
†43. 22.5x8.25-15°DC
7830
(3550)
55.1
(25.0)
6.60
(168)
5.70
(145)
138
(952)
60MS27
885530
013000
–
39874
–
–
39874
181
–
†44. 22.5x9.00-15°DC
8820
(4000)
58.0
(26.3)
6.93
(176)
6.02
(153)
142
(978)
60MS27
894530
013000
–
39874
–
–
39874
181
–
‡‡
11,000
(4988)
75.0
(34.0)
—
6.12
(155)
120
(827)
TR543
833570A
013000
–
39874
–
–
39874
181
–
‡‡
46. 22.5x13.00-15°DC
12,800
(5806)
76.0
(34.5)
—
6.12
(155)
120
(827)
TR543
833570B
013000
–
39874
–
–
39874
181
–
47. 24.5x8.25-15°DC
8500
(3855)
62.6
(28.4)
6.79
(172.5)
5.81
(147.5)
120
(827)
TR545D
983500
013000
–
39874
–
–
–
181
–
DB
DB
45. 22.5x13.00-15°DC
10-hole, hub piloted mounting — 335mm bolt circle, 281.2mm hub bore, 32.87mm bolt hole dia. (use two-piece sleeved cap nuts)
DB
DB
22.5x8.25-15°DC
(32mm bolt hole)
7830
(3550)
55.1
(25.0)
6.60
(168)
5.70
(145)
138
(952)
60MS27
885550
018000
–
430632
–
–
430732
–
–
22.5x9.00-15°DC
†49.
(32mm bolt hole)
8820
(4000)
57.1
(25.9)
6.93
(176)
6.02
(153)
142
(978)
60MS27
894550
018000
–
430632
–
–
430732
–
–
†48.
Read carefully all sections of this Service Manual regarding proper inspection, installation and maintenance. Mishandled tires and wheels can explode, causing serious or fatal injury to you and others. Do not exceed maximum wheel load. Customer must
compare OEM vehicle load rating to maximum wheel load rating. Do not overinflate. Refer to tire manufacturer’s recommendation for proper tire pressure. Before mounting the tire, perform a wheel fitment check to insure proper clearance from any
obstructions. Never use any flammable material on tires or rims, to seat beads or for any other purposes. Always use safety cages or other approved restraining devices during inflation. Avoid wheel separation — tighten nuts in the order and to the
torque value specified in this manual.
1
Capacity ratings as dual or single in highway service – bias-ply or radial. Load ratings in lbs. for items 38 through 49 rounded to nearest multiple of 5.
2
Some wheels may bear part numbers not shown in this manual. Before servicing these wheels contact your Alcoa Wheel Representative for proper load, inflation and part compatibility information.
3
Outset (Positive)/Inset (Negative)—The distance from the rim centerline to the mounting face of wheel. Inset (negative) places the rim centerline inboard of the wheel mounting face and outset (positive) places the rim centerline outboard of the wheel
mounting face (1/2 dual spacing = offset).
* These wheels must be installed only in the inset position because spherical ball seats are on only one side of the disc. **Indicates lighter weight Alcoa New Generation wheels.
† Indicates European New Generation Wheels. ‡Hub cover system kits P/N 076085 (front) and P/N 077085 (rear) contain screw-on Hug-a-lug® nut covers and require a minimum of four threads of the stud to extend above the tightened cap nut for use.
†† P/Ns 841100, 841400, 841600 and 841610 are recommended for use on drive axle and trailer axle positions.
‡‡ The minumum stud standout required for P/N 833570 is 2.375 inches (60.3mm) when using nut P/N39874. Taller nuts will require more stud standout.
§ P/Ns 885600 and 985600 are Alcoa Severe Service Wheels and are available with either the Dura-Flange® treatment option or the Dura-Bright® surface teatment option.
DB Wheels with the Dura-Bright® surface treatment option shine without polishing. Just wash with soap and water, do not polish or clean with abrasives. For more information call 800-242-9898 option 6 or visit www.dontpolish.com.
Specifications subject to change without notice. To request a copy of the current Alcoa Specifications Data brochure
for aluminum wheels for trucks, trailers and buses, call toll-free 800-242-9898, option 1. To view online, go to
www.alcoawheels.com. The Spec Data brochure contains current part number availability and complete specifications
such as wheel dimensions, load rating, wheel weight, outset and inset, inflation pressure and accessory part numbers.
Alcoa provides training, live or on video, on proper wheel installation and maintenance practices free of charge.
Contact Alcoa Wheel and Forged Products at 1-800-242-9898, option 4.
Note: Dura-Bright® wheels produced after November 2002 have Alcoa wheel part numbers ending with “DB”
(earlier wheels have part numbers ending in a 4 or 7) with bead seat diameters measured in 0.5-inch increments.
Not all Alcoa wheels are available with the Dura-Bright® surface treatment.
Note: The Dura-Bright® surface treatment and the Dura-Flange® options are not currently available together on the same
wheel. Dura-Bright® is available in all polishing finishes, Dura-Flange® is only available in satin finish.
4
2
Inspection
Inspect
thoroughly
and frequently
Safe operation requires thorough examination of wheels and attaching hardware,
at frequent intervals, both on and off the vehicle.
2-1
Like tires and other vehicle components that work hard, wheels will eventually wear out.
It isn't always possible to predict exactly when the useful life of a wheel will end. But
generally, older wheels and wheels operating in extreme conditions should be examined
more frequently for obvious signs that they should be removed from service.
2
Wheels that have been in service need to be inspected at regular intervals
to assure proper and safe performance.
As an aid to the owner in determining the period of time a wheel has been in service,
it is recommended the owner stamp an "in service" date onto the wheel at the time
of receipt. See 5-5, page 36 for recommended stamping locations.
Pay particular attention to front-end assemblies. Examine all exposed areas frequently.
Clean wheels and look for cracks or other damage. Also check the inner dualed wheel
when the outer wheel is removed.
During tire changes, thoroughly examine the entire wheel. Pay particular attention
to the rim contour and the surfaces of the rim. On tube-type wheels, carefully inspect
the gutter area normally concealed by the side rings.
Be sure that the best wheels are on the front of the vehicle.
Hidden damage
Do not exceed maximum wheel load. Customer must compare OEM vehicle load
rating to maximum wheel load rating.
Do not overinflate. Use the tire manufacturer’s recommended pressure, but under
no circumstances exceed cold tire pressures listed in Section 1 Specifications of
this manual. Before mounting the tire perform a wheel fitment check to insure
proper clearance from any obstructions.
Some forms of wheel damage can be hidden beneath the tire, so whenever a tire
is removed, thoroughly examine the complete wheel. Remove all grease and road dirt.
Use a wire brush or steel wool to remove rubber from the bead seats.
Check mounting holes for the enlargement and elongation which can occur if the cap nuts
are not kept tight (see 2-5, page 9). Dirt streaks radiating from stud holes may indicate
loose cap nuts (see 4-9, page 29).
5
Excessive
heat damage
2-2
2
WARNING Excessive heat from fire, brake malfunction, wheel bearing
failure or other sources may weaken the metal and cause the wheel/tire
assembly to separate explosively.
WARNING
Exploding wheel/tire assembly can cause death or serious injury.
Immediately and permanently remove from service any wheel
that has been exposed to excessive heat.
Inspect for exposure to excessive heat. A wheel that has been subjected to excessive
heat may appear charred or burned. A wheel that has been exposed to excessive heat
may appear to be in good condition if it has been cleaned. Even if a wheel does not
appear to be obviously burned, check the valve hole and labels for evidence of charring,
melting, blistering or burning.
A wheel may discolor from excessive heat. It can appear a dull grayish color and will not
polish to a bright finish as a typical wheel would.
Any wheel run with a flat tire longer than the time necessary to immediately pull off
the road should be checked for excessive heat damage.
A blistered, charred, blackened or cracked-looking logo decal on an Alcoa wheel may indicate
that the wheel has been exposed to excessive heat.
6
Dimension
checks
Open side circumference check
WARNING Wheels that have been subjected to high pressure tire
and rim separation, run flat, excessive heat or other physical damage
may no longer have sufficient dimension and contour to retain tire bead
while under pressure.
2-3
WARNING
Rims that lack proper dimension and contour can lead to explosive
separation of tire and rim, causing injury or death.
2
Follow dimension check procedures described in this section during each
wheel inspection.
The circumference of the bead seat on the open side of the wheel should be checked
with each tire change. The open side is the side opposite the disc face. In the case
of center flange wide base wheels, or wheels with insets less than 3 inches, both rim
flanges should be checked. Measure the circumference of the bead seat on the open
side (see illustration below) with a ball tape. Ball tapes used for measuring wheel
circumference can be purchased from the Tire and Rim Association, Inc., 175 Montrose
West Avenue, Copley, Ohio 44321.
If the circumference of the bead seat does not match the required dimension as indicated
by the ball tape, remove the wheel from service. Be sure to clearly mark the wheel as
out-of-service or otherwise render the wheel unusable.
Any wheel known to have been run with a flat tire or operated under abnormal conditions
should be checked before continued service. If a ball tape is unavailable, roll the unmounted
wheel without a tire several revolutions over a smooth, flat, level, clean surface. Any
deviation from rolling in a straight line is an indication of a potential lack of proper
dimension and contour. Remove the wheel from service until it can be properly checked
with a ball tape.
Continued on the next page
7
Dimension
checks
(continued)
Tire wear or ride problems
If you experience tire wear or ride problems it may be helpful to check radial run out.
Remove the wheel from the vehicle, deflate and remove the tire (see 3-5, page 22 for
recommendations and instructions for demounting tubeless tires and 6-5, page 43 for
recommendations and instructions for demounting tube-type tires).
Remount the wheel on the vehicle without the tire. Be sure to follow proper mounting
procedures to assure the wheel is well centered on the hub. Place a dial indicator as
illustrated below to trace the bead seats of the wheel. Rotate the wheel noting the amount
of variation shown on the dial indicator. Note: Alcoa aluminum wheels should be tested
for radial run out only at the bead seat surface. A total indicator reading of .045 inches
is acceptable.
2
Tire wear can also be caused by improperly seated tires. Inspect the tire for proper seating
on the wheel. The tire beads may not be seated properly. If so, remove the wheel from
the vehicle, deflate and break the bead seats (see 3-5, page 22 for recommendations
and instructions for demounting tubeless tires and 6-5, page 43 for recommendations
and instructions for demounting tube-type tires). Adequately lubricate the bead seats
and properly reseat the tire beads. Reinflate the wheel in a safety cage or other suitable
restraint (refer to OSHA rule 1910.177, paragraph b, see Section 7, page 44).
Cracked or
damaged
wheel checks
WARNING Cracked or damaged wheels may cause wheels to fail
or come off the vehicle while the vehicle is moving.
WARNING
Wheels that fail or come off the vehicle while it is moving can cause
serious injury or death.
Immediately remove cracked or damaged wheels from service.
2-4
Inspect wheels for cracks or damage according to the following sections of Chapter 2.
Remove wheels from service with known or suspected damage.
8
Mounting area
Stud hole cracks are usually caused by improper torquing (see 4-9, page 29 and 5-2,
page 35), excessive loading or insufficient mounting flange support by the hub
or brake drum. Remove wheel from service.
2-5
2
Shown below are stud hole cracks emanating from stud hole to stud hole. Causes are:
undersized diameter of wheel support surface (see specifications below), support surface
not flat, incorrect attachment parts (see 4-12, page 34) and insufficient torque (see 4-9,
page 29 and 5-2, page 35). Remove wheel from service.
Support surface should be flat to the diameter recommended on the chart on the
following page.
Inspect the hub/drum
contact area thoroughly
for cracks or other damage.
9
Mounting area
(continued)
2
Corrosion
2-6
Support surface diameters
Support surface (backup diameter) should be flat to the diameter recommended
on the chart below:
Number of Bolts
Bolt Circle
Mounting Type
Backup Diameter
Thread Size
10
11.25 inch
U.S. Stud pilot
13.2-13.5 in.
.750/1.125 in.
10
285.75mm
Hub pilot
13.2-13.4 in.
22mm
10
335mm
Hub pilot
15.0-15.2 in.
22mm
8
275mm
U.S. Stud pilot
13.2-13.5 in.
22mm
8
275mm
ISO Hub pilot
12.4-12.6 in.
20mm
Due to aluminum's natural resistance to corrosion, Alcoa aluminum disc wheels
do not need to be painted for most operating conditions. However, certain
environments can lead to corrosion. Some of these are: salt, chloride compounds
used for snow removal and highly alkaline materials. If the air used to fill
tubeless tires, or the tire itself, is not dry, the areas of the wheel under the tire
can corrode severely.
Bead seat and valve stem corrosion often are caused by entrapped moisture
which contains corrosive elements. Mild corrosion should be removed thoroughly
by wire brush and the rim protected with a coating of non-water-based lubricant
(see 3-1, page 18). Remove any severely corroded wheel from service.
!
CAUTION
10
CAUTION The use of liquid tire balancers or sealants in Alcoa wheels
may cause extremely rapid corrosion of the wheel rim surface.
Severely corroded wheels are unsuitable for service. Alcoa wheels corroded
by the use of liquid tire balancers or sealants will not be replaced under
the Alcoa limited warranty.
Stud holes
2-7
If wheels are run loose, both stud located wheels and hub piloted wheels can
be damaged. Look for wallowed out or elongated ball seats on stud located
wheels. On hub piloted wheels look for elongated stud holes. Over torquing
can lead to damaged ball seats on stud located wheels and can damage
the disc surface of hub piloted wheels. Remove damaged wheels from service.
2
Damaged hub piloted bolt hole.
Elongation from true round (dashed
circle) indicated by arrows.
Damaged ball seat contact area.
Pounding of nut on ball seat contact
area identified by arrows.
Disc area
2-8
Inspect both sides of disc area for hand hole cracks. If cracks are found,
remove the wheel from service.
11
Rim area
Check the entire rim area for nicks, gouges and cracks. Loss of air may be caused
by cracks in areas around the valve stem hole. Remove the wheel from service.
2-9
2
Gutter area
Projections on the side of the wheel gutter area on tube type wheels can cause
uneven seating of the side and lock ring and chipping of the gutter. Such projections
must be removed. Remove the wheel from service if damaged.
2-10
Cracking in bottom of gutter flange. Occasionally, circumferential cracks may
appear in the bottom of the gutter area. This area should be thoroughly cleaned
and carefully inspected after a tire is removed from the wheel. Also check the
side underneath gutter flange for circumferential cracks. Gutter flange cracks
can ultimately lead to the separation of the rim area from the disc. Immediately
remove from service a wheel that exhibits any cracks.
12
Rim flange
wear
2-11
2
Irregular wear on the surface of the rim flange is caused by abrasion from the
tire chafer and sidewall. Rim flange wear happens most often in applications
with heavy or shifting loads. If you are experiencing excessive rim flange wear
in your operation, consider using Alcoa Dura-Flange® aluminum wheels. These
wheels have been specially treated to significantly reduce rim flange wear.
Remove wheels from service when rim flange wear is excessive. Excessive
wear can be determined using an Alcoa approved wear gauge and procedures
detailed below. If rim flange wear becomes sharp and/or cuts the tire, contact
Alcoa for recommended maintenance procedures.
Alcoa Rim Flange Wear Gauge Instructions
Rim Acceptable
Rim Gauge
Alcoa P/N 000700
Rim Acceptable
Rim Gauge
Alcoa P/N 000700
Daylight in this
area indicates
acceptable rim.
Daylight in this
area indicates
acceptable rim.
Wheel rim
Wheel rim
Rim NOT Acceptable
Rim Gauge
Alcoa P/N 000700
Wheel rim
No daylight
in this area
indicates
excessive
wear
Remove from service immediately.
To obtain a gauge(s) at no charge and information on free training on proper
installation and maintenance procedures, contact Alcoa Wheel and Forged
Products at (800) 242-9898 option 1 or on the web at www.alcoawheels.com.
Determining Rim Flange Wear
STEP 1. Remove the wheel/tire assembly from the vehicle. Remove the valve core
to deflate the tire completely. Remove the tire from the wheel according to OSHA
regulations, TMC recommended practices for tire and rim safety procedures
and/or the Alcoa Wheel Service Manual.
Photo 1. Acceptable Rim Flange Wear Condition
13
Rim flange
wear
(continued)
STEP 2. After the wheel is separated from the tire, use a ball tape to verify the
circumference of the bead seat on the open side is acceptable (see 2-3, page 7).
Check the wheel flange with the Alcoa Rim Flange Wear Gauge to determine
if the wheels must be removed from service for excessive rim flange wear
(photo 1 on page 13).
See Rim Flange Wear Gauge Instructions illustrations above to make this
determination. If you do not have an Alcoa Rim Flange Wear Gauge, contact
Alcoa Wheel and Forged Products to obtain a gauge(s) at no charge.
2
STEP 3. If the wheel is deemed to be serviceable by the rim flange gauge,
examine the wheel flange edge for sharpness by using a rubber sharpness gauge.
These gauges are constructed by having a section of tire side wall or a suitable
piece of rubber attached to a block of wood (photo 2). By running the sharpness
indicator gauge along the wheel in the area of the wear, determine if the wear is
sharp enough to cut or damage the rubber on the sharpness indicator (photo 3).
If the rubber is cut, then follow the edge removal instructions below.
NOTICE: Examine the tire
for cuts in the bead area
and side wall. If no damage
occurred to these areas,
return the tire to service.
Cut tires should be removed
from service. The tire should
be inspected at this time
for any other damage and
be treated per normal tire
procedures recommended
by the tire manufacturer.
NOTICE: Check the wheel
at every tire change or
ONCE PER YEAR for rim
flange wear and any sharp
edges. If you follow this
practice, you will significantly
reduce the possibility of a rim
flange cutting into the tire.
14
Photo 2. A rubber sharpness gauge
constructed from a section of tire side wall
or a suitable piece of rubber attached to a
block of wood.
Photo 3. Run the sharpness indicator gauge
along the wheel in the area of the wear to
determine if the wear is sharp enough to cut
or damage the rubber on the sharpness
indicator.
If the flange cuts or appears close to being sharp enough to cut the rubber on
the sharpness indicator gauge, the edge can be removed per the edge removal
procedures below. If the rubber is not cut, then the wheel can be returned
to service without further work for rim flange wear.
!
CAUTION
CAUTION Do not run unprotected hands or fingers across worn rim flange
areas of used wheels.
Worn rim flange areas are sharp and can cut hands or fingers.
Cuts can lead to infection.
Always wear gloves when handling used wheels or when testing
for edge sharpness.
Rim flange
wear
(continued)
Edge Removal Procedures
There are many tools available to remove the sharp edge on the wheel caused
by rim flange wear. Here are some examples of commonly used tools:
File. A file can be used very effectively to remove the edge (photo 4).
2
Photo 4. Removing sharp edge by hand
with a metal file.
Photo 5. Air or electric power sander.
Air or Electric Powered Sander. This provides a very quick and effective method
of removing the edge. Operators should use all care to keep a uniform edge
when using these tools (photo 5).
.
Air or Electric Grinder. Another quick and effective method of removing the
sharp edge caused by rim flange wear. Be careful as grinding pads may “gum
up” from the aluminum that is removed (photo 6). Care must be used to avoid
gouging the wheel.
Photo 6. Air or electric grinder
Photo 7. Die grinder.
15
Rim flange
wear
(continued)
Die Grinder. Used with a sanding wheel, cutting stone or grinding tool, this is
a version of an electric grinder. This tool is very quick and effective as well, and
care must be taken to remove metal as uniformly as possible and not to gouge
the wheel (photo 7 on page 15).
!
2
CAUTION
CAUTION Removing sharp edges with hand or power tools produces
metal filings and sparks. Many power tools have edges that are
sharp or may become hot during use. Some power tools produce
excessive noise when used.
Metal filings can be sharp and, when projected by the action
of power tools, can cause serious skin or eye damage. Excessive
noise from power tools can harm hearing. Sharp edges can
produce cuts and hot surfaces can cause burns. Cuts and burns
can lead to infection.
Always wear appropriate safety gear such as protective eye wear,
gloves, protective clothing and hearing protection when using
hand or power tools (photo 8).
.
Photo 8. Always use proper safety gear.
Photo 9. Adequate repair for sharp edge
resulting from rim flange wear removes
just enough metal to smooth the edge.
STEP 4. The photographs show the process of removing the edge. With whatever
tool is selected, work the tool around the wheel’s circumference removing only
enough material to eliminate the sharp edge. This should only be a small amount
of metal. Perform this work on both flanges if the there is evidence of sharpness.
Regardless of the method which you choose, the objective is to remove the sharp
edge (photo 9). Remove just enough metal to smooth the edge. Take care
to make sure the edge removal is as uniform as possible. Avoid gouging the wheel.
16
Rim flange
wear
(continued)
STEP 5. After the edge is removed, run the sharpness indicator gauge along
the area of edge removal to check for any remaining sharpness. If the rubber
is still cut, perform the steps again to remove the sharp edge. Always remove
the minimum amount of material necessary to eliminate the sharp edge.
STEP 6. Check the rim flange height with the Alcoa Rim Flange Wear gauge
to make sure there is adequate height remaining to safely support the tire.
The photograph again shows how this gauge is used (photo 1). Be sure to move
the gauge all around the wheel’s circumference and make sure that no area
of the flange is below what the gauge indicates is acceptable. If the entire
wheel flange is within the limits of the rim flange wear gauge, the wheel may be
returned to service.
2
STEP 7. Always inspect the wheel for any other conditions that would warrant
removal from service. Consult the Alcoa Wheel Service Manual or the TMC
User’s Guide to Wheels and Rims.
WARNING Welding or brazing the rim flange or any area of an Alcoa aluminum wheel will
weaken the wheel. Weakened or damaged wheels can lead to an explosive separation
of tires and wheels or wheel failure on the vehicle.
WARNING Explosive separations of tires and wheels or wheel failure on the vehicle could cause
injuries or death.
Never attempt to weld or braze any surface of an Alcoa aluminum wheel.
WARNING Returning wheels to service with inadequate flange height as determined
by the Alcoa Rim Flange Wear Gauge can lead to an explosive separation of tires
and wheels.
WARNING Explosive separation can result in serious injury or death.
Wheels with flange height that falls below the Alcoa gauge have inadequate rim flange
height to support the tire on the rim. Permanently remove any wheel from service that has
inadequate rim flange height.
Always follow safe mounting procedures as recommended using OSHA approved tire inflation cages.
See the Alcoa Wheel Service Manual or OSHA safety wall charts and procedures.
17
3
Alcoa 15° Drop Center Wheel
for Tubeless Tires
Recommendations
for mounting
tubeless tires
3 3-1
NOTICE: For complete
information on tube type
wheels, contact Alcoa.
WARNING Damaged tires or wheels can lead to an explosive separation
of tires and wheels.
Explosive separation can result in serious injury or death.
WARNING Inspect tires and wheels for damage before removing from vehicle. If damage
is found, the tire must be completely deflated before loosening cap nuts.
Remove damaged tires or wheels from service.
WARNING Use of inner tubes in tubeless wheels will hide slow leaks. Slow leaks
may indicate cracked (see section 2-9, page 12) or damaged wheels which lead
to wheel failures.
WARNING
Wheel failures can cause accidents which may result in serious injury or death.
Never use an inner tube on an Alcoa tubeless wheel, and always remove cracked
or damaged wheels from service.
NOTICE: Alcoa aluminum
19.5”RW and non-symetrical
well wide base wheels
require special tire mounting
techniques, See Section 3-2.
1. Do not gouge or nick the wheel. Place aluminum wheels on clean wooden floor or
rubber mat when hand mounting tires. Additional care should be used when mounting
Alcoa Dura-Bright® surface treated wheels since minor nicks and scratches cannot be
polished out (see section 5-8, pages 37 & 38 for specific cautions, care and maintenance
procedures). DiscMate wheel spacers are recommended for use with Alcoa Dura-Bright®
surface treated wheels to protect the wheel contact surfaces from marring.
2. Always use a rubber, leather-faced or plastic mallet.
3. Inspect the wheel for damage. Do not use a damaged or severely corroded wheel.
(See Section 2, page 5).
4. Clean the wheel face with mild detergent and the tire bead seat areas with a wire brush.
Be sure the wheel is dry before applying tire lubricant.
5. Inspect the tire for damage. Be sure the inside of the tire is dry before it is mounted.
6. Use of a non-water-based lubricant is recommended as a rim surface protectant and
tire mounting lubricant. Coat the entire rim surface. (See 3-2, page 19).
7. Lubricate the rim and tire bead immediately before mounting the tire. Do not use any
lubricant which contains water. Water-based lubricants can promote corrosion attack on
the rim surface. The use of non-water-based lubricants is especially important when
mounting tubeless tires as the air in the tire is contained by the seal between the bead and
tire rim.
8. Never lubricate the rim or tire bead with a flammable solution. This can lead to an explosion
during airing of the tire or in subsequent operation of the vehicle (see Warning below).
9. If using a tire mounting/demounting machine on aluminum wheels, care should be
taken to prevent gouging the wheel.
10. Use only dry air for tire inflation. The use of moisture traps in the air compressor feed
line is recommended.
11. Do not overinflate. Use the tire manufacturer’s recommended pressure, but under no
circumstances exceed cold tire pressures listed in Section 1 Specifications of this
manual (see page 2).
12. When inflating a tire in an inflation cage or while mounted on a vehicle, always use a
clip-on air chuck or threaded straight chuck and a remote valve with pressure gauge.
Securely anchor the inflation cage and during inflation or handling of an inflated wheel and
tire assembly, stay out of the path of potential exploding parts or air blasts.
18
Recommendations
for mounting
tubeless tires
(continued)
WARNING Use of a volatile or flammable material, such as ether or
gasoline, as an aid to seating the tire beads on the wheel can lead to an
uncontrolled pressure build-up in the tire and may result in an explosion.
WARNING
Explosive separation of the tire and wheel can occur while seating beads
in this manner, while adding air to the tire on or off the vehicle, or later on
the road. Loss of vehicle control can result, which can cause serious injury
or death.
Use only approved mechanical or pneumatic bead seating devices.
WARNING A pressurized tire/wheel assembly can explode and separate
violently.
3
This violent separation can cause serious injury or death.
WARNING
Always contain the tire/wheel assembly in an inflation cage during inflation.
Mounting
tubeless tires
3-2
NOTICE: Not all tire
mounting/demounting
machines work alike. Be sure
to read the operating
or instruction manual for your
particular machine before
attempting to mount
or demount tires.
NOTICE: Do not exceed
maximum wheel load.
Customer must compare
OEM vehicle load rating
to maximum wheel load rating.
1
Position wheel on machine. Lubricate wheel
(entire air chamber surface) and tire bead using
approved lubricant. Tire beads should be
mounted over the rim flange closest to the
wheel well. Push bead over flange as far as
possible.
2
Insert curved end of tool between bead and
wheel flange with tool stop against flange. In
circular motion, use short successive bites to
work the bead over the flange. Push down on
tool as bead is worked over flange.
Refer to tire manufacturer’s
recommendation for proper
tire pressure. Before mounting
the tire perform a wheel
fitment check to insure proper
clearance from any
obstructions.
NOTICE: When match
mounting tires on Alcoa wheels
locate valve stem adjacent
to low point mark on the tire.
NOTICE: Alcoa aluminum 19.5”
RW and non-symmetrical
wide base wheels require tires
to be mounted and demounted
over the disc side of the
wheel only.
NOTICE: Refer to tire
manufacturer’s
recommendation for proper
tire pressure.
3
Lubricate the second tire bead. Start second
bead into the well, holding it in position with
the clamp to the rim flange. Lubricate bead
half way around. With curved end of tool
between tire bead and flange, and the stop
towards the wheel, push tool outward to work
tire over flange. Continue to pry bead over
flange using the tool until remaining bead is
over flange. Seat the tire bead using an air ring
or other mechanical bead seating aid.
4
Place tire/wheel assembly inside safety cage
or other suitable restraint (refer to OSHA rule
1910.177, paragraph b, see Section 7, page 44).
Refer to tire manufacturer’s recommendation
for proper tire pressure. Using a clip-on air
chuck or a self-locking straight chuck with remote
valve and pressure gauge, inflate the tire/wheel
assembly to proper pressure. If air escapes, roll
tire or use bead expander to force tire beads
against rim. Be sure to stay out of the path
of potential exploding parts or air blasts.
19
Mounting
tubeless tires
continued
NOTICE: Alcoa aluminum 19.5"RW and non-symetrical well wide base wheels require tires be
mounted and demounted over the disc side of the wheel only. For a free instruction wall chart,
contact: Alcoa Inquiry Fulfillment, Markinetics Inc., P.O. Box 809, Marietta, OH 45750.
WARNING Use of a volatile or flammable material, such as ether or gasoline,
as an aid to seating the tire beads on the wheel can lead to an uncontrolled
pressure build-up in the tire and may result in an explosion.
WARNING Explosive separation of the tire and wheel can occur while seating beads in this
manner, while adding air to the tire or later on the road. Loss of vehicle control
can result, which can cause serious injury or death.
Use only approved mechanical or pneumatic bead seating devices.
NOTICE: Not all tire
mounting/demounting
machines work alike. Be sure
to read the operating
or instruction manual for your
particular machine before
attempting to mount
or demount tires.
3
NOTICE: Do not exceed
maximum wheel load.
Customer must compare
OEM vehicle load rating
to maximum wheel load rating.
!
CAUTION
CAUTION The use of liquid tire balancers or sealants in Alcoa wheels may cause
extremely rapid corrosion of the wheel rim surface.
Severely corroded wheels are unsuitable for service. Alcoa wheels corroded by
the use of liquid tire balancers or sealants will not be replaced under the Alcoa
limited warranty.
Refer to tire manufacturer’s
recommendation for proper
tire pressure. Before mounting
the tire perform a wheel
fitment check to insure proper
clearance from any
obstructions.
NOTICE: When match
mounting tires on Alcoa wheels
locate valve stem adjacent
to low point mark on the tire.
NOTICE: Alcoa aluminum 19.5”
RW and non-symmetrical
wide base wheels require tires
to be mounted and demounted
over the disc side of the
wheel only.
NOTICE: Refer to tire
manufacturer’s
recommendation for proper
tire pressure.
Heavy duty truck tires have a “guide rib” molded into the sidewall next to the tire bead. When the tire is inflated this
ring should be evenly spaced from the wheel rim all the way around the wheel. Check the position of the ring before
removing the assembly from the inflation cage. If the ring and wheel are not concentric, deflate the assembly in the
cage and remount the tire.
20
Rim width to tire
matching
Rim to tire matching chart for medium and heavy trucks.
Tire Size
3-3
(for both radial
and bias tires)
8R
215/75R
9R
10R
245/75R
11R
17.5HC
17.5
17.5HC
17.5HC
17.5
17.5HC
8
225/70R
19.5
19.5
245/70R
19.5
265/70R
19.5
285/70R
305/70R
445/65R
19.5
19.5
19.5
Tire Size
Approved
Rim Widths
6.00HC
6.00, 6.75
6.75HC
6.75HC, 7.50HC
6.75, 7.50
8.25HC
5.25, 6.00, 6.75
6.00, 6.00RW, 6.75,
6.75RW
6.75, 6.75RW, 7.50,
7.50RW
7.50, 7.50RW,
8.25, 8.25RW
8.25, 8.25RW, 9.00
8.25, 8.25RW, 9.00
13.00, 14.00
(for both radial
and bias tires)
Approved
Rim Widths
8
9
10
245/75R
11
255/70R
265/75R
12
295/75R
305/85R
315/80R
15
385/65R
425/65R
16.5
18
445/50R
445/55R
445/65R
22.5
22.5
22.5
22.5
22.5
22.5
22.5
22.5
22.5
22.5
22.5
22.5
22.5
22.5
22.5
22.5
22.5
22.5
22.5
5.25, 6.00, 6.75
6.00, 6.75, 7.50
6.75, 7.50, 8.25
6.75, 7.50
7.50, 8.25
7.50, 8.25
7.50, 8.25
8.25, 9.00
8.25, 9.00
8.25, 9.00
9.00, 9.75
11.75, 12.25
11.75, 12.25
11.75, 12.25, 13.00
12.25, 13.00
13.00, 14.00
14.00
14.00
12.25, 13.00, 14.00
11
275/80R
285/75R
12
305/75R
24.5
24.5
24.5
24.5
24.5
7.50,
7.50,
8.25
8.25,
8.25,
8.25
8.25
9.00
9.00
There may be additional rim to tire matches not shown above. Contact the tire manufacturer or your Alcoa wheel
representative for additional information.
Recommendations
for demounting
tubeless tires
WARNING An aluminum wheel can be structurally weakened by uncontrolled
excessive heat.
WARNING
Tire/wheel assemblies using wheels that have been exposed to excessive
heat may experience a sudden and unpredictable tire/wheel separation
causing serious injury or death.
Immediately and permanently remove any wheel from service that has been
subjected to uncontrolled excessive heat (such as a tire fire, wheel bearing
failure or braking system drag/seize) or a high pressure tire/wheel separation.
3-4
WARNING Damaged tires or wheels can lead to an explosive separation
of tires and wheels.
Explosive separation can result in serious injury or death.
WARNING
Inspect tires and wheels for damage before removing from vehicle. If damage
is found, tire must be completely deflated before loosening cap nuts.
Remove damaged tires or wheels from service.
21
3
Recommendations
for demounting
tubeless tires
(continued)
1. When hand demounting tires from wheels, placing aluminum wheels on a clean
wooden floor, or rubber mat is recommended. Additional care should be used when
demounting Alcoa Dura-Bright® surface treated wheels since minor nicks and scratches
can not be polished out (see section 5-8, pages 37-38 for specific cautions, care and
maintenance procedures).
2. Always use a rubber, leather-faced or plastic mallet.
3. Keep tire tools smooth. Use them with care. Rim gouges or nicks may cause cracks.
4. If using a tire mounting/demounting machine on aluminum wheels, care should be
taken to prevent gouging the wheel.
3
Demounting of
tubeless tires
3-5
NOTICE: Not all tire
mounting/demounting
machines work alike.
Be sure to read the
operating or instruction
manual for your particular
machine before attempting
to mount or demount tires.
1
Remove the valve core from the valve stem to ensure
complete deflation. Place wheel on machine and
position tool so flat end can be driven between tire
bead and rim flange. Straighten tool to a vertical
position until bead is separated from wheel.
3
Insert curved end of tire tools between tire and wheel,
approximately 10 inches apart. Pull one tool toward
center of wheel, then pull second tool in the same
manner. To free bead, leave one tool in position, take
out and reinsert the other tool, curved end between
bead and flange, a short distance from the spanned
area. Pry bead free of rim, repeating process until
entire bead is free from wheel.
22
2
Repeat procedure at intervals until bead is totally
separated from wheel. Repeat procedure on other side
of tire. Tire is now ready for demounting. Lubricate the
tire bead.
4
Insert straight end of tire tool between beads and both
rim flanges, hooking stop on the tool over second
flange. Position inserted tool at 90° angle to tire
assembly at top of wheel and lubricate bead areas on
both sided of tool. Lean tire assembly toward tool and
rock or bounce to pry off the tire.
4
Recommendations
for proper
installation of
wheels
4-1
NOTICE: Do not exceed
maximum wheel load.
Customer must compare
OEM vehicle load rating to
maximum wheel load rating.
Refer to tire manufacturer’s
recommendation for proper
tire pressure. Before mounting
the tire perform a wheel
fitment check to insure
proper clearance from any
obstructions.
Wheel Installation
1. For the same reason the best tires are run on the front axle, the best wheels also should be used
on the front axle.
2. Make sure all wheel cap nuts are properly torqued — check them often (see section 4-9, page 29).
If the wheel is loose, the holes will pound out (deform). If some cap nuts are tight and others
are loose, the wheel may develop cracks or studs may break. Dirt streaks radiating from stud holes
can indicate loose nuts (see Section 2, pages 5-17).
3. Be sure the end of the wheel wrench is smooth or cover the wheel mounting surface with a
protective shield prior to tightening the cap nuts. The wrench end will mar the wheel around
the cap nuts if it is not smooth.
4. Keep all component contact surfaces smooth and clean. Dirt or projections on mounting surfaces
may lead to loose wheels. Remove all projections resulting from burrs, nicks, etc. Be sure that
loose dirt does not fall onto mounting surface during assembly.
5. Check for and replace bent, broken, cracked or damaged studs. When replacing broken studs,
always replace the studs on each side of the broken stud. If two or more studs are broken,
replace all the studs for that wheel position. Check with the stud manufacturer for regular
maintenance and stud replacement practices. All wheel fastener hardware should be grade 8 or metric
conversion 10.9. Follow the hardware manufacturer’s recommendations when replacing studs.
6. Do not introduce any foreign objects such as spacers or high hats into the contact surface areas
of the mounting system unless approved by Alcoa. Do not paint Alcoa forged aluminum wheels.
7. Additional care should be used when mounting Alcoa Dura-Bright® surface treated wheels since
minor nicks and scratches cannot be polished out (see section 5-8, page 37-38 for specific
cautions, care and maintenance procedures).
8. DiscMates are a protection gasket designed to be placed between the wheels and also
the brake drum/wheel contact surfaces (see sections 4-5, page 24; 4-6, page 25; 4-7, page 26
and 4-10, page 31). DiscMates are recommended to be replaced when the tire/wheel assemblies
are removed and reinstalled.
WARNING Wheels that are not properly installed or maintained may not
work properly.
WARNING Failure to follow proper wheel installation or maintenance practices may
result in injury or death.
Follow the proper wheel installation and maintenance practices as contained
in this Alcoa Wheel Service Manual. For training on proper installation and
maintenance, available free of charge from Alcoa, or for the most recent
updates, contact Alcoa Wheel and Forged Products at 1-800-242-9898
option 1 or on the web at www.alcoawheels.com.
23
4
Wheel cap nuts
4-2
WARNING Use of chrome-plated cap nuts which have chrome plating on
the surfaces which contact the wheel can cause reduced and inconsistent
wheel clamping.
This condition can cause wheels to loosen and disengage from the vehicle,
WARNING causing injury or death.
Never use cap nuts with chrome-plated contact surfaces. Use only
recommended hardware on Alcoa aluminum wheels.
There are many types of nuts and studs in use, and their design and specifications are
not standardized. The “R” and “L” on cap nut part numbers indicate right and left-hand
threads respectively. Alcoa recommends the following cap nuts for use with Alcoa
aluminum truck wheels:
Cap Nuts
2-piece 33mm hex head
flange nut. Mounts single and
dualed wheels to wheel
centering hubs. Right hand
threads used on both sides of
vehicle. Single wheels require 2”
(50.8 mm) stud standout.
Dualed wheels require 2-13/16
(71.44 mm) stud standout.
P/N 39874 (supersedes
P/Ns 39701 and 39691);
M22-1.5 RH threads.
4
2-piece 30mm hex head
flange nut. Mounts single and
dualed wheels to wheel centering
hubs. Right hand threads used
on both sides of vehicle.
P/N 39708; M20x1.5 RH threads.
2-piece 33mm hex head
flange nut. Mounts dualed
wheels with 32mm bolt holes
to wheel centering hubs. Right
hand threads used on both
sides of vehicle. P/N 4307.32;
M22x1.5 RH threads.
1-1/8" cap nut. Mounts
standard single wheels and
wide base wheels to 1-1/8"
studs. Also mounts outer dualed
wheel to 1-1/8" inner cap nut.
P/N 5996R, 5996L (replaces
P/N 5552R, 5552L).
3/4"x16 cap nut. Mounts Alcoa
wide base wheels to 3/4" studs.
Do not use on steel wheels.
P/N 5995R, 5995L (replaces
P/N 5554R, 5554L).
24
2 piece 1-1/16” hex head
flange nut. Mounts single and
dualed wheels to wheel centering
hubs. Right hand threads used
in both sides of vehicle.
P/N 39946; 5/8”x18 RH threads
2-piece 33mm hex head
flange nut. Mounts single
wheels to wheel centering hubs
with 32mm bolt holes. Right
hand threads used on both
sides of vehicle. P/N 4306.32;
M22x1.5 RH threads.
Inner cap nut, inner
thread 3/4"x16, outer
thread 1-1/8"x16. For
use with steel inner
dual wheel an
aluminum outer dual
wheel with 1.31"
(1-5/16) to 1.44" (1-7/16) stud standout. P/N 7896R,
7896L (Grade 8).
Inner cap nut, inner
thread 3/4"x16, outer
thread 1-1/8"x16. For
use with standard length
studs (1.31" [1-5/16] to
1.44" [1-7/16]) stud
stand-out) or longer
studs not to exceed
1.88" [1-7/8] stud standout. Full internal and external
threads. P/N 5978R, 5978L (Grade 8). For studs
without exposed shoulders. Do not use with steel
inner dualed wheel.
Inner cap nut for use
with standard length
studs (1.31" [1-5/16] to
1.44" [1-7/16]) stud
standout) or longer
studs not to exceed
1.88" (1-7/8) stud
standout. Full internal
and external threads, counter bore 5/16" deep at
open end. Prevents stud from bottoming out in cap
nut. P/N 5988R, 5988L (Grade 8). For use with
studs with exposed shoulders. Do not use with
steel inner dualed wheel.
How to measure
stud standout
Stud standout is measured from the axle end mounting surface to the end of the stud.
Hub
4-3
Exposed
shoulder
Drum
End of
stud
End of
stud
Drum
Stud Standout
Hub
Mounting
surface
Mounting
surface
Inboard mounted drum
Stud Standout
Outboard mounted drum
4
Stud located ball
seats are
spherical
4-4
The nut seat for the stud located ball seat mounting system is a
precision-machined spherical surface. Cap nuts must be properly
manufactured to assure correct seating. Never use one or two-piece
flange nuts on a wheel designed with ball seats (see 4-12, page 34).
Ball seat cap nuts may be obtained from your Alcoa Wheel Distributor.
25
Single wheel,
stud located, ball
seat mounting
Front wheels are mounted as singles and require 1.6" (1-39/64") minimum stud standout.
Most vehicles have 1-1/8-inch studs on the front hubs. Alcoa single cap nuts, Part Nos.
5996R and 5996L, or equivalents, should be used. Some front hubs have 3/4-inch studs.
On these hubs, use Alcoa single cap nuts, Part Nos. 5995R and 5995L or equivalents.
4-5
DiscMate wheel spacers are recommended for use with Alcoa Dura-Bright® surface
treated wheels to protect the wheel contact surfaces from marring. DiscMate wheel
spacers are placed between the contact surfaces of the Dura-Bright® wheel and the
brake drum as shown below.
NOTICE: Do not exceed
maximum wheel load.
Customer must compare
OEM vehicle load rating
to maximum wheel
load rating.
DiscMate (when used)
Alcoa Aluminum Wheel
Drum
Outer Cap Nut
P/N 5996R or L
(See 4-2, page 24)
1-1/8” Stud
Refer to tire manufacturer’s
recommendation for proper
tire pressure. Before
mounting the tire perform
a wheel fitment check
to insure proper clearance
from any obstructions.
4
Correct single mounting
with 1-1/8-inch stud
located, ball seat mount.
Hub
1.6 inch
minimum
DiscMate (when used)
Alcoa Aluminum Wheel
Drum
Outer Cap Nut
P/N 5995R or L
(See 4-2, page 24)
3/4” Stud
Hub
Correct single mounting
with 3/4-inch stud located,
ball seat mount.
1.6 inch
minimum
Dualed wheels,
stud located, ball
seat mounting
4-6
26
Rear wheels are most frequently mounted as duals. Each inner aluminum wheel is attached
by 10 inner cap nuts. Alcoa recommends use of inner cap nuts 5978R, 5978L, or 5988R,
5988L (see 4-2, page 24).
Cap nuts recommended by Alcoa are compatible with Alcoa wheels. Hardware of equal
dimensions and strength may be used.
Continued on next page.
Dualed wheels,
stud located, ball
seat mounting
(continued)
Most vehicles have standard length studs (1.31" [1-5/16"] to 1.44" [1-7/16"] stud standout).
Some vehicles use studs longer than standard (up to 1.88" [1-7/8"] standout).
When changing types of brake drums be sure to check for excessive stud standout
(greater than 1.88" [1-7/8"]). Excessive stud standout may cause the inner cap nut
to bottom out on the longer stud preventing proper seating of the wheel.
Each outer dual wheel is attached by 10 single cap nuts which thread on the inner cap
nuts. Use Alcoa outer cap nuts, Part Nos. 5996R, 5996L or equivalents. Match mounted
dual wheels should be put on the vehicles with the valve stems180° apart.
DiscMate wheel spacers are recommended for use with Alcoa Dura-Bright® surface
treated wheels to protect the wheel contact surfaces from marring. DiscMate wheel
spacers are placed between the contact surfaces of the Dura-Bright® wheel and the
brake drum and between the dual aluminum wheels as shown below.
DiscMate (when used)
Alcoa Aluminum Wheels
4
Drum
Outer Cap Nut
P/N 5996R or L
(See 4-2, page 24)
3/4” Stud
Hub
Inner Cap Nut
P/N 5978R or L
or P/N 5988R or L
(See 4-2, page 24)
NOTICE: Do not exceed
maximum wheel load.
Customer must compare
OEM vehicle load rating
to maximum wheel
load rating.
Refer to tire manufacturer’s
recommendation for proper
tire pressure. Before
mounting the tire perform
a wheel fitment check
to insure proper clearance
from any obstructions.
1.31” to 1.88”
Correct mounting for dual aluminum, stud located, ball seat mount, wheels.
WARNING Incorrect inner cap nuts used with dualed aluminum wheels
can bottom out on the unthreaded portion of the stud before the wheels
are properly seated.
Improperly seated wheels can run loose, cause stud breakage and disengage
WARNING from the vehicle which can cause serious injury or death. Loose running
wheels can lead to stud breakage.
Use only cap nut 5978R or L, 5988R or L, or their equivalent when mounting
dual aluminum wheels.
On occasion Alcoa aluminum truck wheels are operated dualed with a steel inner wheel.
In the event a steel inner wheel is used, extreme care must be exercised to properly seat
it to the hub or drum prior to mounting the outer aluminum wheel. Selection of an inner
cap nut capable of fixing the steel inner wheel and providing adequate external thread
length to secure the outer aluminum dualed wheel is critical to a safe assembly. Alcoa
recommends the use of inner cap nuts 7896R and L (Grade 8), or equivalent, for this purpose.
27
Dualed wheels,
steel inner/
aluminum outer
stud located ball
seat mounting
DiscMate wheel spacers are recommended for use with Alcoa Dura-Bright® surface
treated wheels to protect the wheel contact surfaces from marring. DiscMate wheel
spacers are placed between the contact surfaces of the Dura-Bright® wheel and the
brake drum and between the steel and aluminum wheels as shown below.
Inner Steel Wheel
DiscMate (when used)
Alcoa Aluminum Wheel
Drum
4-7
Outer Cap Nut
P/N 5996R or L
(See 4-2, page 24)
3/4” Stud
NOTICE: Do not exceed
maximum wheel load.
Customer must compare
OEM vehicle load rating
to maximum wheel
load rating.
4
Refer to tire manufacturer’s
recommendation for proper
tire pressure. Before
mounting the tire perform
a wheel fitment check
to insure proper clearance
from any obstructions.
Hub
Inner Cap Nut
P/N 7896R or L
(See 4-2, page 24)
1.31” to 1.44”
Correct dual mounting for steel inner/aluminum outer stud located ball seat mount.
WARNING Incorrect inner cap nuts used with steel wheels can bottom out
on the unthreaded portion of the stud before the wheels are properly seated.
Improperly seated wheels can run loose, cause stud breakage and disengage
from the vehicle which can cause serious injury or death. Loose running
WARNING wheels can lead to stud breakage.
Use only cap nut 7896R or L or its equivalent when mounting steel
inner duals.
WARNING Inadequate wheel support surface can lead to stud hole-to-stud
hole fracture resulting in separation of the outer disc and rim from the vehicle.
Separation of the wheel from the vehicle can cause injury or death.
WARNING Alcoa aluminum wheels with 11-1/4" diameter bolt circle require a support
surface at least 13-3/16" in diameter. Check the outer support surface
of the inner steel wheel for flatness and adequate diameter before installing
the outer wheel. When the wheels are serviced, check the mounting surfaces
of both wheels for stud hole to stud hole cracks. If cracks are found,
remove the wheel from service. For the support surface diameter required
by other bolt circle sizes, ask your Alcoa representative.
WARNING Use of two-piece flange nuts on ball seat wheels or ball seat
cap nuts on hub piloted wheels is dangerous.
Using the wrong cap nuts can cause loss of torque, broken studs and
WARNING cracked wheels, conditions which can lead to injury or death.
Use only hardware designed specifically for each wheel type. See 4-2, page
24 for proper hardware assemblies.
28
Cap nut thread
engagement,
stud located
wheels, ball seat
mounting
4-8
The actual length of thread engagement present in an assembled wheel can not always
be determined by visual inspection or measurement of a tightened assembly. The relationship
of the wheel cap nut seat to the end of the stud may vary. If there is any doubt that
enough thread engagement is present, the number of engaged threads may be counted.
Tighten all nuts in the regular manner, then loosen one to hand-tightness. The number
of turns to disengage a 1-1/8-inch nut should be at least five full turns. At least seven
full turns should be required to disengage a 3/4-inch nut. Ideally, when torqued to the
proper load, the stud should be flush with the face of the nut. The face of the nut may
be recessed in nuts that are taller for improved wrenching. With most of the nuts in
present use, a few unengaged threads at the outer end will cause no problem provided
at least 5-7 full turns are required to disengage the nut depending on thread size.
Cap nuts made to Alcoa specification usually give more than the necessary thread
engagement on a given stud.
Some states have laws which dictate full thread engagement or thread engagement past
the nut body. Make sure you know the laws for the states in which you operate and comply.
Tightening stud
located, ball seat
cap nuts
4
4-9
The number of turns to disengage a 1-1/8-inch nut should be at least five full turns.
At least seven full turns should be required to disengage a 3/4-inch nut.
WARNING Lubricants should not be applied to the cap nut seat or to the cap
nut-to-wheel contact surface.
Oiled seats can lead to over-torquing which can stretch studs causing failure
of studs. Failed studs can cause the wheel to disengage from the vehicle,
WARNING causing injury or death.
Lubricants must be completely removed from the cap nut seats and contact
surfaces if applied accidentally.
Cap nuts must be kept tight, and studs and nuts should be checked frequently. Nuts
should be retorqued if necessary. At tire changes, nuts and studs should be inspected
for cracks and stripped or damaged threads. After each wheel mounting, cap nut torque
should be checked with a torque wrench.
Impact wrenches, if used, should be carefully adjusted to apply torques within the limits
recommended. Torquing of cap nuts should be done in recommended sequences.
WARNING Undertorqued cap nuts allow wheels to run loose, pounding out
(deforming) the ball seats, fatiguing studs or losing nuts. Overtorquing can
stretch studs causing them to fail.
Both under and overtorquing can lead to wheels coming off, causing injury
WARNING or death.
Check all parts, including wheels, studs and cap nuts. Check mounting
faces of wheels, hubs and drums. Check for dirt, corrosion or damage.
Remove dirt and rust; replace damaged parts. Follow correct tightening
sequences and torque levels.
Continued on next page
29
Stud located, ball seat mounting system.
Tightening stud
located, ball seat
It is recommended that stud threads on stud located mounting systems be lubricated
cap nuts
with SAE 30W oil and torqued between 350 and 400 foot-pounds. If threads are not
(continued)
lubricated, torque to between 450 and 500 foot-pounds. Note: when dualing steel wheels
with Alcoa aluminum wheels, follow the steel wheel manufacturer’s recommendations
regarding the proper torque and use of thread lubricants to mount the wheel.
WARNING Application of lubricant to the ball seats can cause excessive
torque. Over torque can stretch studs causing them to fail.
Overtorquing can lead to wheel disengagement causing injury or death.
WARNING Do not allow oil to contact ball seats or mounting surfaces of the wheel, hub
or drum. Do not use aerosol cans for lubrication of stud threads.
OIL
4
On vehicles equipped to accept wheels manufactured for use with the stud located
ball seat mounting system, wheel studs on the right side of the vehicle have right-hand
threads and those on the left have left-hand threads. The "R" and "L" on the studs and
nuts indicate right and left-hand threads respectively (see 4-2, page 24).
After mounting a wheel over the studs, snug up the cap nuts in the order shown in the
illustrations that follow. After all the cap nuts have been snugged, tighten the cap nuts to
the recommended torques, following the same tightening sequence.
NOTICE: In service, stud
dimensions and condition
may change over time due
to environmental
conditions, multiple
re-installations, improper
torquing and other factors.
Consult with your hub
and stud manufacturer
for maintenance
and replacement
recommendations.
Five Stud
Six Stud
Eight Stud
Ten Stud
Continued on the next page
30
Tightening stud
located, ball
seat cap nuts
(continued)
After 50-100 miles of operation, torque should be rechecked. Loosen outer cap nuts on
every other stud to check the torque on inner cap nuts, then retorque outer cap nuts.
Repeat steps on remaining studs. Check torque frequently from then on. If nuts
require frequent tightening, studs break frequently, or wheel nut seats are pounding out,
hardware and mounting practices should be reviewed. Note: whenever the outer cap nut
is loosened ALWAYS retorque the inner cap nut before retorquing the outer cap nut.
Single, dualed
and wide base
wheels, hub
piloted mounting,
two-piece
flange nuts
Most U.S. manufacturers of highway trucks, tractors and trailers which incorporate
the hub piloted wheel mounting system require wheel studs and cap nuts with metric
threads. Most frequently these are M22x1.5.
4-10
NOTICE: Do not exceed
maximum wheel load.
Customer must compare
OEM vehicle load rating
to maximum wheel
load rating.
Generally the same diameter stud is used to mount either single or dualed wheels.
Studs on both sides of the vehicle are right-hand threads thereby eliminating the need
for flange nuts peculiar to either the right or left side of the vehicle. The same flange nut
is used to mount dualed or single wheels. Proper stud standout for single wheels is 2inch (50.8mm) minimum, dualed wheels require 2.81-inch (71.4mm) minimum and single
wide base wheels require 2.32-inch (59mm).
Some states have laws which dictate full thread engagement or thread engagement past
the nut body. Make sure you know the laws for the states in which you operate and comply.
DiscMate wheel spacers are recommended for use with Alcoa Dura-Bright® surface
treated wheels to protect the wheel contact surfaces from marring. DiscMate wheel
spacers are placed between the contact surfaces of the Dura-Bright® wheel and the
brake drum and between the dual wheels as shown below.
4
Note: Some stud located ball seat wheels have the same number of holes and bolt
circle diameter as hub piloted wheels. They should not be mixed.
DiscMate (when used)
DiscMate (when used)
Refer to tire manufacturer’s
recommendation for proper
tire pressure. Before
mounting the tire perform
a wheel fitment check
to insure proper clearance
from any obstructions.
M22x1.5
Drum
1.06” (27mm)
Drum
33mm hex head
2-piece flange nut
P/N 39874
M22x1.5
Stud
Stud
Hub
2” (50.8mm) minimum
stud standout single wheels
Hub
2.32” (59mm) minimum
stud standout wide base single wheels
DiscMates (when used)
Drum
2.81” (71.4mm) minimum
stud standout dual wheels
M22x1.5
Stud
33mm hex head
2-piece flange nut
P/N 39874
Hub
1.06” (27mm) minimum pilot length
for dualed aluminum wheels
Typical assembly of single and dual wheels of hub piloted type with 33mm hex head two-piece flange
nut, Part No. 39874. If hex nuts with greater overall height are used, more stud length is required.
Continued on the next page.
31
4
Single, dualed
and wide base
wheels, hub
piloted mounting,
two-piece
flange nuts
(continued)
Hubs designed for steel hub piloted wheels may not have enough pilot length to locate
dualed aluminum wheels. Pay close attention to pilot length, particularly when converting
from steel to aluminum duals. Measure the hub pilot to make sure the hub has a minimum
pilot length of 1.06-inch or 27mm for dualed wheels.
Tightening
hub piloted
mounting,
two-piece
flange nuts
Flange nuts must be kept tight, and studs and nuts should be checked frequently. At tire
changes, nuts and studs should be inspected to be sure they are in good condition.
If nuts require frequent tightening or studs break frequently, hardware and mounting
practices should be reviewed.
When mounting painted steel inner dual wheels with outer aluminum wheels, be cautious
of excessive paint build-up on the inner steel wheel. Excessive paint can reduce the
clamping force and allow the wheels to become loose.
Match mounted dual wheels should be put on the vehicle with the valve stems 180° apart.
Impact wrenches, if used, should be carefully adjusted to apply torques within the limits
recommended. Torquing of flange nuts should be done in recommended sequences.
4-11
WARNING Undertorqued flange nuts allow wheels to run loose and fatigue
studs or lose nuts. Overtorquing can stretch studs causing them to fail.
WARNING
Both under and overtorquing can lead to wheel disengagement causing
injury or death.
Check all parts including wheels, studs and flange nuts. Check mounting
faces of wheels, hubs and drums. Check for dirt, corrosion or damage.
Remove dirt and rust; replace damaged parts. Follow correct tightening
sequences and torque levels.
Two-piece flange nuts with a 33mm hex head design (see 4-2, page 24), used with hub
piloted wheels should be tightened to a torque of 450 to 500 foot-pounds. Two-piece
flange nuts with 1-1/2-inch hex head design and other designs have different torque
requirements. Inquire of the manufacturer for the proper torque values.
Wheel studs on both the right and left side hubs of vehicles utilizing the hub piloted
wheel system have right-hand threads.
Prior to mounting hub piloted wheels, generously coat the wheel pilot or hub pads with
a non-water-based lubricant to minimize corrosion product build-up between the wheel
and hub pilot. Excessive corrosion build-up between the wheel and hub pilots can make
wheel removal difficult. Do not lubricate the face of the wheel, hub or brake drum (see
illustration on the next page).
Continued on the next page.
32
Tightening
hub piloted
mounting,
two-piece
flange nuts
(continued)
Lubricate the hub pads or the wheel hub bore generously with a non-water-based
lubricant.
Lube
here
Lube
here
Lube
here
Lube
here
Do NOT lubricate
the face of the hub, wheel face
or brake drum
4
OIL
Lubricate here
Lubricate here
OIL
Before installing two-piece flange nuts, lightly lubricate the stud threads and the contact
surfaces between the cap nut and the washer as illustrated below with an SAE 30W oil.
This will minimize corrosion between the mating surfaces. Lubrication is not necessary
with new hardware.
Position one of the hub’s pilot pads at the twelve o’clock position. After positioning
wheels on the pilot pads, hand tighten all two-piece flange nuts, then tighten to the
recommended torque following the proper sequence shown below for your type wheel.
After 50-100 miles of operation, torque should be rechecked. Check torque frequently
from then on. If nuts require frequent tightening, studs break frequently, or wheel bolt
holes are pounding out, hardware and mounting practices should be reviewed.
NOTICE: In service, stud
dimensions and condition
may change over time due
to environmental
conditions, multiple
re-installations, improper
torquing and other factors.
Consult with your hub
and stud manufacturer
for maintenance
and replacement
recommendations.
Eight Stud
Ten Stud
33
Incorrect
assemblies
WARNING Use of two-piece flange nuts on ball seat wheels, ball seat cap nuts
on hub piloted wheels or single-piece flange nuts in place of 2-piece flange
nuts is dangerous.
Using the wrong wheel nuts can cause loss of torque, broken studs
WARNING and cracked wheels, conditions which can lead to injury or death.
4-12
Use only hardware designed specifically for each wheel type. See 4-2,
page 24 for proper hardware assemblies.
The following are examples of incorrect wheel assemblies.
Stud located, ball
seat aluminum wheel
Two-piece
flange nut
4
Insufficient contact area
Incorrect use of two-piece flange nut.
Do not use two-piece flange nuts with ball seat wheels.
Hub piloted, Alcoa
aluminum wheel
Ball seat cap nut
Insufficient contact area
Incorrect use of ball seat cap nut.
Do not use ball seat cap nuts with hub piloted wheels.
Little (if any) contact area
No positional location
Incorrect use of one-piece flange nut positioned on Alcoa ball seat wheel.
Do not use one-piece flange nut on ball seat wheels.
34
5
Proper Torque, Wheel Identification,
Valves and Surface Maintenance
Avoid abuse
Abuse can shorten the life of a wheel. Lack of care in changing a tire, heavy pounding
of the wheel rim, overloading, exposure to excessive heat or hitting curbs at high speed
or a sharp angle can damage wheels.
5-1
Do not overinflate. Use the tire manufacturer's recommended pressure, but under
no circumstances exceed cold tire pressures listed in Section 1 Specifications
of this manual. Before mounting the tire perform a wheel fitment check to insure
proper clearance from any obstructions.
Refer to tire manufacturer’s recommendation for proper tire pressure. Before
mounting the tire perform a wheel fitment check to insure proper clearance
from any obstructions.
Keep wheel nuts
tight
5-2
Wheel cap nuts must be kept tight (see 4-9, page 29). When checking the cap nuts on
dual disc wheels utilizing the stud located ball seat mounting system, loosen every
other outer cap nut and then check the torque of the inner cap nuts. Retorque the
loosened outer cap nuts. Repeat procedure with the rest of the nuts. Check all cap
nuts for proper torque after the first use or any removal. Inspect wheels and check
wheel nuts during service stops. (See Section 2, page 5). Dirt streaks from cap nuts
may indicate looseness.
5
Flange nuts must be kept tight, and studs and nuts should be checked frequently. At
tire changes nuts and studs should be inspected to be sure they are in good condition.
If nuts require frequent tightening or studs break frequently, hardware and mounting
practices should be reviewed.
For proper nut torque, refer to the chart below:
Mount
Type
Nut
Thread
Torque Level Ft-Lb
Lubricated*
Torque Level Ft-Lb
Dry*
Hub piloted using
two-piece flange nut
11/16” - 16
M20 x 1.5
M22 x 1.5
300-400
280-330
450-500
Stud piloted, double cap
nut standard type
(7/8” radius)
3/4” - 16
1-1/8” - 16
350-400
350-400
450-500
450-500
Stud piloted, double cap 15/16” - 12
nut heavy duty type
1-1/8” - 16
(1-3/16” radius)
1-5/16” - 12
650-800
750-900
750-900
750-900
*For nuts used on hub piloted wheels, apply two drops of oil to the point between the
nut and flange and two drops to the first two or three threads at the tip of each stud
(see 4-11, page 32).
For nuts used on stud piloted wheels, apply two drops of oil to the first two or three
threads at the tip of each stud only (see 4-9, page 29).
NOTE:
1. If using specialty fasteners (cap nuts), consult the manufacturer for recommended
torque values.
2. Tightening wheel nuts to their specified torque is extremely important.
Undertightening which results in loose wheels can damage wheels, studs and hubs,
and can result in wheel loss. Overtightening can damage studs, nuts and wheels and
results in loose wheels as well.
3. Regardless of the torque method used, all torque wrenches, air wrenches and any
other tools should be calibrated periodically to ensure the proper torque is applied.
35
Lead balance
weights (clip on)
Lead balance weights for Alcoa wheels are available from your Alcoa Wheel Distributor.
With radial tires it may be necessary to temporarily reduce the tire pressure when
installing clip-on weights to allow clearance of the weight clamp over the rim flange.
Use of coated balance weights is recommended to avoid staining and corrosion
of the aluminum wheel surface.
5-3
Excessive rim flange wear (see section 2-11, pages 13-17) could dictate the use of
“stick-on” or adhesive wheel weights if there is inadequate rim to properly hold a clip-on
style weight.
Improperly installed weights could “fly off” during use and damage the vehicle or cause
personal injury. Always follow the recommended procedures in this manual or the wheel
weight manufacturer. Adhesive weights should be applied only to a clean surface
on the brake side of the wheel rim. These weights should be installed only in a location
where they will not contact the brake components during vehicle operation.
Do not straighten
wheels
5-4
Do not heat wheels in an attempt to soften them for straightening to repair damage
from striking curbs or other causes. The special alloy used in these wheels is heat
treated, and uncontrolled heating will weaken the wheel.
Do not rework, weld, heat or braze Alcoa aluminum wheels for any reason. This does
not include normal wheel maintenance as described and approved by Alcoa.
WARNING An aluminum wheel can be structurally weakened by
uncontrolled excessive heat.
5
Tire/wheel assemblies using wheels that have been exposed to excessive
heat may experience a sudden and unpredictable tire/wheel separation
causing serious injury or death.
Immediately and permanently remove any wheel from service that has been
subjected to uncontrolled excessive heat (such as a tire fire, wheel bearing
failure or braking system drag/seize) or a high pressure tire/wheel separation.
Owner/in-service
identification
Some fleets wish to specially identify wheels as to OWNERSHIP and IN-SERVICE dates.
Alcoa recommends that fleets and owner-operators adopt the practice of permanently
stamping wheels with the date they are first placed into service.
1. Use "Lo-Stress" stamps or equivalent.
5-5
2. Location of stamped areas on outside disc should be in space outward from a line
between hand hole centers and a minimum of one inch from the periphery of any hand hole.
3. Location of stamped identification on inside of wheel should be as close to the factory
identification stamping as possible.
Note: Use of an impression stamp on Dura-Bright® surface treated wheels can affect
the appearance and performance of the Dura-Bright® surface treatment local to the stamp.
Valves
5-6
Alcoa drop center wheels for tubeless tires come from the factory with air valves
installed. If it becomes necessary to replace an air valve, install it using the following
torque values.
10-14 foot-pounds for Part Nos.
7-11 foot-pounds for Part Nos.
TR 509
TR 510
TR 511
TR 542 Series
TR 543 Series
TR 544 Series
TR 545 Series
60MS27N
Replacement valves may be obtained from your authorized Alcoa Wheel Distributor.
Always use silicone o-rings – not rubber – when reinstalling valve stems. Metal valve
stem caps are recommended instead of plastic.
When replacing valve stems, it is recommended to lubricate the threads and o-ring
with a non-waterbased lubricant.
36
Maintenance
against corrosion
(non-Dura-Bright®
surface treated
wheels)
5-7
Do not exceed maximum
wheel load. Customer must
compare OEM vehicle load
rating to maximum wheel
load rating.
Refer to tire manufacturer’s
recommendation for proper
tire pressure. Before
mounting the tire, perform
a wheel fitment check
to ensure proper clearance
from any obstructions.
Dura-Bright®
surface treated
wheels cleaning
and maintenance
5-8
Do not exceed maximum
wheel load. Customer must
compare OEM vehicle load
rating to maximum wheel
load rating.
Refer to tire manufacturer’s
recommendation for proper
tire pressure. Before
mounting the tire, perform
a wheel fitment check
to ensure proper clearance
from any obstructions.
The following information is for standard Alcoa forged aluminum wheels without
the Dura-Bright® surface treatment. See section 5-8, page 37 for specific instructions
on the care and clearing of Alcoa Dura-Bright® surface treated wheels.
1. Clean frequently with high pressure water from a hose. The use of a mild detergent
will speed the cleaning process. Use no harsh alkaline cleaners.
2. When tires are removed the entire wheel must be cleaned and inspected. (See Section
2, page 5). With a wire brush, remove any foreign products from the tire side of the rim.
Do not use a wire brush to remove dirt and corrosion products from the appearance
surface of the wheel. Generously coat the entire air chamber surface with an approved
surface protectant and lubricant each time the tire is removed (See 3-1, page 18).
3. To maintain the original appearance of your Alcoa wheels, the following procedures
are recommended:
a. After installing new wheels and prior to operating your vehicle, use a sponge, cloth
or soft fiber brush to wash exposed wheel surfaces with a mild detergent and warm
water solution.
b. Rinse thoroughly with clean water.
c. Wipe dry to avoid water spots.
d. Wax the cleaned surface with Alcoa Advanced Aluminum Care System Polish
or Simonize, Mothers, California Gold paste wax, No. 7 Car Wax or equivalent.
5
e. Clean your Alcoa truck wheels as frequently as required to maintain their appearance.
1. Clean frequently with high-pressure water from a hose. The use of a mild detergent
will speed the cleaning process. Do not clean with abrasives, abrasive brushes, steel
wool, scouring pads or strong chemicals, such as acids or lye-based products. Never
spray cold water on extremely hot wheels. Always allow time to cool before cleaning.
2. When tires are removed, the entire rim must be cleaned and inspected (see
section 2, page 5). With a brush, remove any foreign products from the tire side of the
rim (portion of the wheel that supports the tire). Do not use an abrasive brush to remove
dirt, corrosion or other foreign products from the Dura-Bright® wheel surfaces.
Generously coat the entire air chamber surface with an approved surface protectant
and lubricate each time the tire is removed (see 3-1, page 18 of the Alcoa Wheel
Service Manual, July 2002).
3. To maintain the original appearance of your Alcoa Dura-Bright® wheels, the following
procedures are recommended:
a. After installing new wheels and prior to operating your vehicle, use a sponge or cloth
to wash exposed wheels surfaces with a mild detergent and warm water. Do not use
abrasives, abrasive brushes, steel wool, scouring pads or strong chemicals (such as
acids or lye-based products). Standard off-the-shelf car wash and wheel detergents
are sufficient. Warm water and a mild detergent will speed the cleaning process.
b. Rinse thoroughly with clean water.
c. Wipe dry to avoid water spots.
37
Dura-Bright®
surface treated
wheels cleaning
and maintenance
(continued)
d. Clean your Alcoa Dura-Bright® wheels using the above procedures as frequently
as required to maintain their appearance. Typical road soils, grime and brake dust trap
moisture, which can cause corrosion over a period of time. These must be removed
regularly. To assist in the removal of excessive dust, dirt and road grime, the use of warm,
high-pressure water with a mild detergent is recommended. The surface of Alcoa
Dura-Bright® wheels will be damaged, discolored or removed if abrasives, abrasive
brushes, steel wool, scouring pads or strong chemicals (such as acids or lye-based
products) are used to clean the wheel. DO NOT USE the Alcoa Aluminum Care System
on Dura-Bright® wheels at any time during their service life.
4. Once in service, Dura-Bright® wheels can become nicked or scratched by road
debris and/or mechanical damage. If this occurs, continue to follow the normal washing
and cleaning instructions provided above. The surface of an Alcoa Dura-Bright® wheel
is designed to limit cracking and peeling if nicked or scratched while in service.
5. Even as durable as Dura-Bright® wheels are, the mounting area can become
scratched, marred or discolored when mounted against another wheel, hub or drum.
The use of a wheel mounting surface guard, such as Alcoa DiscMates™, is highly
recommended. The use of the Alcoa Hub Cover System on Alcoa Dura-Bright® wheels
will also assist in limiting such damage and help maintain the appearance of your
Alcoa Dura-Bright® wheels.
5
Identification
5-9
Alcoa wheel identification
Since 1977, all Alcoa aluminum disc wheels have been identified with a stamp that shows
the wheel load rating, maximum inflation pressure, date of manufacture, part number,
wheel description and DOT marking designation.
Prior to June 1996, all Alcoa heavy duty truck wheels had the Alcoa identification
symbol
on the outside of the disc neat the hand hole in line with the valve location.
This marking was phased out on heavy duty truck wheels manufactured after June 1996.
ALCOA ® FORGED
Wheel Load Rating
(Pounds)
Maximum
Inflation Pressure
FMVSS 120
Designation
MAX LOAD 7300 LB.
MAX PSI 120
T—DOT
MADE IN U.S.A.
082297
Date of Manufacture
Month/Day/Year
PART NO 883623
22.5X8.25 15° DC
Wheel Description
(prior to 2000, some wheels
may have only Month/Year)
All Dura-Bright® surface treated wheels are designated by the letters "DB" following the
part number such as 883620DB.
Note: Dura-Bright® wheels produced after November 2002 have Alcoa wheel part
numbers ending with “DB” (earlier wheels have part numbers ending in a 4 or 7) with
bead seat diameters measured in 0.5-inch increments. Not all Alcoa wheels are available
with the Dura-Bright® surface treatment.
38
6
Flat Base Wheel
for Tube-type Tires
Tube-type
wheel part
interchangeability
WARNING Mismatched rim/wheel components can lead to explosive
separation of wheel components.
WARNING
Explosive separation of wheel parts can cause serious injury
or death.
See chart below for matching components.
6-1
The following is the Alcoa Aluminum Wheel interchangeability information from the OSHA
Multipiece Rim Matching Chart. For a complete
matching chart, write to: U.S. Department
of Labor, Occupational Health and Safety
Administration, Publications Department,
Room N4101, Washington, DC 20210
Multipiece Rim Matching Chart
Read across the chart to find interchangeable
components for specific size and type of Alcoa
wheel. The information which is found in the
shaded areas of the OSHA Multipiece Rim
Matching Chart is represented in the table below.
39
6
Mounting
recommendations
for tubed tires
1. Inspect the wheel for damage. Do not use a bent, cracked, damaged or severely
corroded wheel. (See Section 2, page 5).
2. Inspect ring(s) for corrosion, bending or other damage and discard if any is apparent.
3. Thoroughly clean the wheel and rings. Clean the wheel face with a mild detergent.
Clean the tire bead seat areas and gutter flange with a wire brush.
6-2
4. Do not gouge or nick the wheel. Place wheels on a wooden floor or rubber mat.
Always use a rubber, leather-faced or plastic mallet.
5. Inspect and clean the tire, tube, and flap before mounting — replace if damaged,
badly worn or defective.
6. Insert lubricated tube and flap in tire.
7. Lubricate the tire beads and rim, then mount tire, tube and flap assembly onto rim.
Do not use any lubricant which contains water or a solvent which can injure rubber.
8. Select the proper rim components and assemble to rim (see 6-3, page 41). Discard
bent, damaged or corroded side and lock rings. Do not use any side or lock ring which
is not clearly identifiable.
WARNING Use of a Firestone 5° side and lock ring assembly with a wheel
machined for Firestone DT or Goodyear LW split side ring and vice versa
can lead to explosive separation of wheel and tire.
WARNING
An explosive separation of miss-matched wheel components can lead
to injury or death.
Alcoa Aluminum Disc Wheels are available to accept (1) Firestone 5° side
and lock rings or (2) Goodyear LW and Firestone DT split side rings. Select
the proper side and lock rings by referring to the Multipiece Rim/Wheel
Matching Chart on page of this manual.
6
Firestone R5
Goodyear LW or Firestone DT
Always use the proper side and lock ring assembly or split side rings required for each particular wheel.
9. Do not overinflate. Use the tire manufacturer's recommended pressure, but under
no circumstances exceed cold tire pressures listed in Section 1 Specifications
of this manual (see page 2).
10. When inflating a tire in an inflation cage or while mounted on a vehicle, always use
a clip-on air chuck and a remote valve with pressure gauge. During inflation or handling
an inflated wheel and tire assembly, stay out of the path of potential exploding parts
or air blasts.
40
Mounting of
tubed tires
When mounting Alcoa flat base wheels for tube-type tires you must use the proper side
ring or side and lock ring required for each wheel. The table below lists the Alcoa tube-type
wheels currently in production and the proper side ring or side and lock ring identification
recommended for each wheel. See the Multipiece Rim Matching Chart on page 39 for
information on older wheels with part numbers not shown here.
6-3
Alcoa Flat Base Wheels for Tube-type Tires That Use Goodyear LW or Firestone DT Split Side Rings Only
(2 Piece Assemblies)
Wheel Size
Alcoa Part Number
Identification Stamping
Side Ring Identification Stamping
22x8.00 LW
481010
R8022LW recommended or:
R22X7.5-8.0-9.0LB-LW
22X7.5-8.0DT-LB-LW (3)
22x7.50 LW
471010
R8022LW recommended or:
R22X7.5-8.0-9.0LB-LW
22X7.5-8.0DT-LB-LW (3)
Current Alcoa part numbers (i.e., 481010) end in 0-1-2 or 3, indicating a finish condition
which does not affect the compatibility of parts as shown in the table.
1
Lubricate tube, flap and wheel. Insert tube and flap
into tire. Place them on the wheel so that the valve
is aligned with the valve slot.
6
2
If the wheel requires a lock ring, start the leading edge
of the lock ring being sure that it is seating in the
machined groove. Then walk the lock ring onto the
wheel, as illustrated
Place side ring on wheel and tire and stand on the ring
to position it below the lock ring groove. If a split side
ring is required, start the leading edge and walk the side
ring onto the wheel
3
Seat the second end of the split side ring or lock ring
with a rubber, plastic or leather-facet mallet as shown.
Check carefully to see that the split side ring or side ring
and lock ring assembly is in the proper position. If not,
completely remove the components and start over.
4
Inflate to 10 psi. Check to see that all components
are properly in place. If not, deflate the tire by removing
the valve core and reposition components properly.
Place in a safety cage or other suitable restraining
device (refer to OSHA rule 1910.177, paragraph B,
see Section 7, page 44). Use clip-on chuck and stand
behind barrier during inflation. Do not lean on cage.
Inflate to recommended pressure. Deflate completely
to avoid localized over-stretching of the tube. Reinflate
to the tire manufacturer’s recommended pressure.
41
Demounting
recommendations
for tubed tires
6-4
WARNING An inflated tire contains air under pressure which can be
a dangerous explosive force.
Explosive separation of a tire and wheel can cause serious injury or death.
WARNING
Follow proper service procedures to avoid injury or death.
WARNING An aluminum wheel can be structurally weakened by
uncontrolled excessive heat.
Tire/wheel assemblies using wheels that have been exposed to excessive
heat may experience a sudden and unpredictable tire/wheel separation
causing serious injury or death.
Immediately and permanently remove any wheel from service that has been
subjected to uncontrolled excessive heat (such as a tire fire, wheel bearing
failure or braking system drag/seize) or a high pressure tire/wheel separation.
1. Before removing wheel from vehicle, remove the valve core from the valve stem
to ensure complete deflation of tire.
2. Do not gouge or nick the wheel. Place aluminum wheels on a clean wooden floor
or rubber mat.
3. Always use a rubber, leather-faced or plastic mallet.
4. Keep tire tools smooth. Use them with care. Rim gouges or nicks near the fixed
flange can cause cracks.
5. Remove steel side rings carefully. If bead is well-loosened, rings can be removed
without gouging the wheel.
6
6. Discard bent, damaged or corroded side and lock rings. Using bent, damaged
or corroded rings can shorten service life of wheel and introduce the danger of an
explosive separation.
42
Demounting of
tubed tires
6-5
NOTICE: Tire must be
completely deflated and
valve core removed before
demounting.
1
If manually breaking the tire beads from the wheel,
it is important to use the proper tools. Tire tools
may be inserted next to the tire side wall and the
side ring or locking ring. Tools must be smooth and
used with care if gouging the rim is to be avoided.
A stop, welded to the tool, is recommended.
2
Once the tool is inserted, pry down and out as
illustrated. Leaving one tool in position, work the
other around the tire until the bead is completely free.
6
3
Insert the tapered end of the tire tool into the
notch on the locking ring. Pry up carefully to
avoid bending the ring and gouging the wheel.
4
Using the same procedures as outlined in Step 1,
loosen the bead on the opposite side of the wheel.
Do not drive tools into rim area. Lift wheel from tire.
43
7
OSHA
Regulations
OSHA Regulations
Sec. 1910.177 Servicing multi-piece and single piece rim wheels.
(a) Scope
7-1
(1) This section applies to the servicing of multi-piece and single piece rim wheels used
on large vehicles such as trucks, tractors, trailers, buses and off-road machines. It does
not apply to the servicing of rim wheels used on automobiles, or on pickup trucks
and vans utilizing automobile tires or truck tires designated ``LT''.
(2) This section does not apply to employers and places of employment regulated
under the Construction Safety Standards, 29 CFR part 1926; the Agriculture
Standards, 29 CFR part 1928; the Shipyard Standards, 29 CFR part 1915; or the
Longshoring Standards, 29 CFR part 1918.
(3) All provisions of this section apply to the servicing of both single piece rim wheels
and multi-piece rim wheels unless designated otherwise.
(b) Definitions
Barrier means a fence, wall or other structure or object placed between a single piece
rim wheel and an employee during tire inflation, to contain the rim wheel components
in the event of the sudden release of the contained air of the single piece rim wheel.
Charts means the U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health
Administration publications entitled ``Demounting and Mounting Procedures for
Truck/Bus Tires'' and ``Multi-piece Rim Matching Chart,'' the National Highway Traffic
Safety Administration (NHTSA) publications entitled ``Demounting and Mounting
Procedures Truck/Bus Tires'' and ``Multi-piece Rim Matching Chart,'' or any other poster
which contains at least the same instructions, safety precautions and other information
contained in the charts that is applicable to the types of wheels being serviced.
7
Installing a rim wheel means the transfer and attachment of an assembled rim wheel
onto a vehicle axle hub. Removing means the opposite of installing.
Mounting a tire means the assembly or putting together of the wheel and tire components
to form a rim wheel, including inflation. Demounting means the opposite of mounting.
Multi-piece rim wheel means the assemblage of a multi-piece wheel with the tire tube
and other components.
Multi-piece wheel means a vehicle wheel consisting of two or more parts, one of which
is a side or locking ring designed to hold the tire on the wheel by interlocking components
when the tire is inflated.
Restraining device means an apparatus such as a cage, rack, assemblage of bars
and other components that will constrain all rim wheel components during an explosive
separation of a multi-piece rim wheel, or during the sudden release of the contained air
of a single piece rim wheel.
Rim manual means a publication containing instructions from the manufacturer or other
qualified organization for correct mounting, demounting, maintenance, and safety
precautions peculiar to the type of wheel being serviced.
Rim wheel means an assemblage of tire, tube and liner (where appropriate), and wheel
components.
Service or servicing means the mounting and demounting of rim wheels, and related
activities such as inflating, deflating, installing, removing, and handling.
Service area means that part of an employer's premises used for the servicing of rim
wheels, or any other place where an employee services rim wheels.
44
OSHA
Regulations
Single piece rim wheel means the assemblage of single piece rim wheel with the tire
and other components.
(continued)
Single piece wheel means a vehicle wheel consisting of one part, designed to hold the
tire on the wheel when the tire is inflated.
Trajectory means any potential path or route that a rim wheel component may travel
during an explosive separation, or the sudden release of the pressurized air, or an area
at which an airblast from a single piece rim wheel may be released. The trajectory may
deviate from paths which are perpendicular to the assembled position of the rim wheel
at the time of separation or explosion. (See appendix A for examples of trajectories.)
Wheel means that portion of a rim wheel which provides the method of attachment of
the assembly to the axle of a vehicle and also provides the means to contain the inflated portion of the assembly (i.e., the tire and/or tube).
(c) Employee Training
(1) The employer shall provide a program to train all employees who service rim wheels
in the hazards involved in servicing those rim wheels and the safety procedures
to be followed.
(i)
The employer shall assure that no employee services any rim wheel unless the
employee has been trained and instructed in correct procedures of servicing
the type of wheel being serviced, and in the safe operating procedures
described in paragraphs (f) and (g) of this section.
(ii)
Information to be used in the training program shall include, at a minimum, the
applicable data contained in the charts (rim manuals) and the contents of this
standard.
(iii) Where an employer knows or has reason to believe that any of his employees
is unable to read and understand the charts or rim manual, the employer shall
assure that the employee is instructed concerning the contents of the charts
and rim manual in a manner which the employee is able to understand.
(2) The employer shall assure that each employee demonstrates and maintains the
ability to service rim wheels safely, including performance of the following tasks:
(i)
Demounting of tires (including deflation);
(ii)
Inspection and identification of the rim wheel components;
7
(iii) Mounting of tires (including inflation with a restraining device or other
safeguard required by this section);
(iv) Use of the restraining device or barrier, and other equipment required
by this section;
(v) Handling of rim wheels;
(vi) Inflation of the tire when a single piece rim wheel is mounted on a vehicle;
(vii) An understanding of the necessity of standing outside the trajectory both
during inflation of the tire and during inspection of the rim wheel following
inflation; and
(viii) Installation and removal of rim wheels.
(3) The employer shall evaluate each employee's ability to perform these tasks
and to service rim wheels safely, and shall provide additional training as necessary
to assure that each employee maintains his or her proficiency.
(d) Tire servicing equipment.
(1) The employer shall furnish a restraining device for inflating tires on multi-piece
wheels.
(2) The employer shall provide a restraining device or barrier for inflating tires on single
piece wheels unless the rim wheel will be bolted onto a vehicle during inflation.
(3) Restraining devices and barriers shall comply with the following requirements:
45
OSHA
Regulations
(i)
(continued)
Each restraining device or barrier shall have the capacity to withstand the
maximum force that would be transferred to it during a rim wheel separation
occurring at 150 percent of the maximum tire specification pressure for the
type of rim wheel being serviced.
(ii) Restraining devices and barriers shall be capable of preventing the rim wheel
components from being thrown outside or beyond the device or barrier for any
rim wheel positioned within or behind the device;
(iii) Restraining devices and barriers shall be visually inspected prior to each day's
use and after any separation of the rim wheel components or sudden release
of contained air. Any restraining device or barrier exhibiting damage such as
the following defects shall be immediately removed from service:
(A) Cracks at welds;
(B) Cracked or broken components;
(C) Bent or sprung components caused by mishandling, abuse, tire explosion
or rim wheel separation;
(D) Pitting of components due to corrosion; or
(E) Other structural damage which would decrease its effectiveness.
(iv) Restraining devices or barriers removed from service shall not be returned
to service until they are repaired and reinspected. Restraining devices
or barriers requiring structural repair such as component replacement
or rewelding shall not be returned to service until they are certified by either
the manufacturer or a Registered Professional Engineer as meeting the strength
requirements of paragraph (d)(3)(i) of this section.
(4) The employer shall furnish and assure that an air line assembly consisting
of the following components be used for inflating tires:
(i)
A clip-on chuck;
(ii) An in-line valve with a pressure gauge or a presettable regulator; and
(iii) A sufficient length of hose between the clip-on chuck and the in-line valve
(if one is used) to allow the employee to stand outside the trajectory.
7
(5) Current charts or rim manuals containing instructions for the type of wheels being
serviced shall be available in the service area.
(6) The employer shall furnish and assure that only tools recommended in the rim
manual for the type of wheel being serviced are used to service rim wheels.
(e) Wheel component acceptability.
(1) Multi-piece wheel components shall not be interchanged except as provided
in the charts or in the applicable rim manual.
(2) Multi-piece wheel components and single piece wheels shall be inspected prior
to assembly. Any wheel or wheel component which is bent out of shape, pitted
from corrosion, broken, or cracked shall not be used and shall be marked or tagged
unserviceable and removed from the service area. Damaged or leaky valves shall
be replaced.
(3) Rim flanges, rim gutters, rings, bead seating surfaces and the bead areas of tires
shall be free of any dirt, surface rust, scale or loose or flaked rubber build-up prior
to mounting and inflation.
(4) The size (bead diameter and tire/wheel widths) and type of both the tire and the wheel
shall be checked for compatibility prior to assembly of the rim wheel.
(f) Safe operating procedure - multi-piece rim wheels.
The employer shall establish a safe operating procedure for servicing multi-piece rim
wheels and shall assure that employees are instructed in and follow that procedure.
The procedure shall include at least the following elements:
(1) Tires shall be completely deflated before demounting by removal of the valve core.
(2) Tires shall be completely deflated by removing the valve core before a rim wheel
is removed from the axle in either of the following situations:
46
OSHA
Regulations
(i)
(continued)
(ii) When there is obvious or suspected damage to the tire or wheel components.
When the tire has been driven underinflated at 80% or less of its recommended
pressure, or
(3) Rubber lubricant shall be applied to bead and rim mating surfaces during assembly
of the wheel and inflation of the tire, unless the tire or wheel manufacturer
recommends against it.
(4) If a tire on a vehicle is underinflated but has more than 80% of the recommended
pressure, the tire may be inflated while the rim wheel is on the vehicle provided
remote control inflation equipment is used, and no employees remain in the
trajectory during inflation.
(5) Tires shall be inflated outside a restraining device only to a pressure sufficient
to force the tire bead onto the rim ledge and create an airtight seal with the tire
and bead.
(6) Whenever a rim wheel is in a restraining device the employee shall not rest or lean
any part of his body or equipment on or against the restraining device.
(7) After tire inflation, the tire and wheel components shall be inspected while still
within the restraining device to make sure that they are properly seated and locked.
If further adjustment to the tire or wheel components is necessary, the tire shall be
deflated by removal of the valve core before the adjustment is made.
(8) No attempt shall be made to correct the seating of side and lock rings by hammering,
striking or forcing the components while the tire is pressurized.
(9) Cracked, broken, bent or otherwise damaged rim components shall not be
reworked, welded, brazed, or otherwise heated.
(10) Whenever multi-piece rim wheels are being handled, employees shall stay out
of the trajectory unless the employer can demonstrate that performance
of the servicing makes the employee's presence in the trajectory necessary.
(11) No heat shall be applied to a multi-piece wheel or wheel component.
7
(f) Safe operating procedure - single piece rim wheels.
The employer shall establish a safe operating procedure for servicing single piece rim
wheels and shall assure that employees are instructed in and follow that procedure.
The procedure shall include at least the following elements:
(1) Tires shall be completely deflated by removal of the valve core before demounting.
(2) Mounting and demounting of the tire shall be done only from the narrow ledge side
of the wheel. Care shall be taken to avoid damaging the tire beads while mounting
tires on wheels. Tires shall be mounted only on compatible wheels of matching
bead diameter and width.
(3) Nonflammable rubber lubricant shall be applied to bead and wheel mating surfaces
before assembly of the rim wheel, unless the tire or wheel manufacturer
recommends against the use of any rubber lubricant.
(4) If a tire changing machine is used, the tire shall be inflated only to the minimum
pressure necessary to force the tire bead onto the rim ledge while on the tire
changing machine.
(5) If a bead expander is used, it shall be removed before the valve core is installed
and as soon as the rim wheel becomes airtight (the tire bead slips onto the bead
seat).
(6) Tires may be inflated only when contained within a restraining device, positioned
behind a barrier or bolted on the vehicle with the lug nuts fully tightened.
(7) Tires shall not be inflated when any flat, solid surface is in the trajectory and within
one foot of the sidewall.
(8) Employees shall stay out of the trajectory when inflating a tire.
(9) Tires shall not be inflated to more than the inflation pressure stamped in the
sidewall unless a higher pressure is recommended by the manufacturer.
47
OSHA
Regulations
(10) Tires shall not be inflated above the maximum pressure recommended
by the manufacturer to seat the tire bead firmly against the rim flange.
(continued)
(11) No heat shall be applied to a single piece wheel.
(12) Cracked, broken, bent, or otherwise damaged wheels shall not be reworked,
welded, brazed, or otherwise heated.
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TC27OC91.036
Appendix B - Ordering Information for NHTSA Charts
OSHA has printed two charts entitled ``Demounting and Mounting Procedures
for Truck/Bus Tires'' and ``Multi-piece Rim Matching Chart,'' as part of a continuing
campaign to reduce accidents among employees who service large vehicle rim wheels.
Reprints of the charts are available through the Occupational Safety and Health
Administration (OSHA) Area and Regional Offices. The address and telephone number
of the nearest OSHA office can be obtained by looking in the local telephone directory
under U.S. Government, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health
Administration.
Single copies are available without charge.
Individuals, establishments and other organizations desiring single or multiple copies
of these charts may order them from the OSHA Publications Office, U.S. Department
of Labor, Room N-3101, Washington, DC 20210, Telephone (202) 219-4667.
[49 FR 4350, Feb. 3, 1984, as amended at 52 FR 36026, Sept. 25, 1987; 53 FR 34737,
Sept. 8, 1988; 61 FR 9239, Mar. 7, 1996]
7
48
8
Glossary of Common Terms
Glossary of
Common Terms
1/2 DUAL SPACING - One half the distance between the two center lines
of dualed wheels. The dimension is the same as the OUTSET dimension.
8-1
AIR CHAMBER - The space enclosed by a tire and wheel rim or inner tube.
2-PIECE FLANGE NUT - A two-piece washer and nut combination used to secure
hub piloted wheels.
BEAD SEAT - The area along the outer edges of the rim where the mounted tire
and rim are in contact.
BOLT CIRCLE - The circle defined by the centers of the bolt holes (stud holes)
of a wheel, dimensions stated in diameter inches or millimeters.
BOLT HOLE - Hole found in the disc of the wheel through which the bolt (stud) passes.
BORE - See "HUB BORE."
CENTER BORE - See "HUB BORE."
CONE LOCK CAP NUT - See "2-PIECE FLANGE NUT."
DC - Abbreviation for drop center.
DISC AREA - The vertical wheel face which supports the rim.
DISC WHEEL - A one-piece (forged) or two-piece (welded) assembly of a disc and a rim.
DROP CENTER - The well or center portion of the wheel rim.
FLAT BASE WHEEL - A multi-piece wheel with a removable side ring.
FOOT-POUNDS - The measure of the amount of torque applied to a cap nut or other
part. May be measured with a torque wrench.
8
GUTTER FLANGE - A groove which supports the removable portion of a multi-piece
wheel.
HUB BORE - The center hole of a disc wheel, dimensions stated in diameter inches
or millimeters.
HUB PILOTED MOUNTING - A wheel mounting system which uses the hub to center
the wheel and two-piece flange nuts to secure it.
in. - Abbreviation for inches.
INNER CAP NUT - Cap nut used to mount the inner wheel in a dualed stud located
wheel system.
INSET - The distance from the wheel mounting surface to the rim centerline when
the centerline is placed inboard of the mounting surface.
kg - Abbreviation for kilogram (weight measurement), equal to 1000 grams.
kPa - Abbreviation for kilo Pascals (pressure measurement).
49
Glossary of
Common Terms
LOCK RING - The third piece of a three rim assembly which positions and supports the
side ring to the rim base.
(continued)
MAXIMUM INFLATION - The highest amount of air pressure allowed, measured
at normal ambient temperatures.
mm - Abbreviation for millimeters.
MULTI-PIECE WHEEL - A wheel assembly in which the rim portion of the wheel
consists of two or more separate parts.
OFFSET - See "OUTSET."
OPEN SIDE - The side of the wheel opposite the disc face.
OSHA - Abbreviation for the U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Health
and Safety Administration.
OUTER CAP NUT - A cap nut used to secure the outer stud located wheel
in a dualed wheel pair and thread onto the inner cap nut.
OUTSET - The distance from the mounting surface of the wheel to the rim centerline
when the rim centerline is mounted outboard of the hub face. This dimension
is the same as the 1/2 DUAL SPACING dimension.
PILOT PAD - The raised surfaces on a hub used to center a hub piloted wheel.
PSI - Abbreviation for pounds per square inch.
REVERSIBLE - Term applied to a disc wheel which can be reversed on the hub
without changing the position of the tire centerline.
RIM CENTERLINE - A line to the radial axis of the wheel running through the mid point
between the rim flanges.
RIM FLANGE - That portion of the rim which extends above the rim surface
which retains the tire bead.
RIM - That portion of the wheel which supports the tire.
SIDE RING - A removable piece of a multi-piece wheel assembly which provides
lateral support for one tire bead.
SINGLE CAP NUT - A cap nut used to secure single wheels or outer dual wheels.
STUD - A threaded bolt extending from the hub surface to which the wheels
are secured by the cap nuts.
8
STUD LOCATED, BALL SEAT MOUNTING - A wheel mounting system which uses
the studs and spherical ball seat cap nuts to center and secure the wheel.
TIRE BEAD - That surface of the tire which contacts the angled surface
of the wheel rim.
TORQUE - The amount of force used to tighten cap nuts. Usually stated in foot-pounds
or kilograms and measured with a torque wrench.
WHEEL MOUNTING FACE - That portion of the wheel face which contacts the hub
or brake drum.
wt. - Abbreviation for weight.
50
Wheel
measurement
8-2
How to measure minimum dual spacing
Minimum dual spacing measurement is determined by the tire manufacturer and may be
obtained from the tire manufacturer's handbook. To determine if the Alcoa aluminum
dual wheel assembly has adequate minimum dual spacing for the selected tires, double
the wheel outset measurement of the Alcoa wheel used. If the doubled outset measurement
is equal to or greater than the tire manufacturer's recommendation, there will be
sufficient minimum dual spacing. Wheel inset and outset is given for each Alcoa wheel
on pages 2 and 3. Both inset and outset wheels are measured from the mounting
surface of the wheel to the center line of the rim. Maintaining proper tire inflation
and load ratings are essential to maintaining proper minimum dual spacing.
Dual Spacing
Vehicle
clearance
Tire Clearance
Tire section width
8
Bolt
circle dia.
Center
hole dia.
Wheel outset
(same as offset
or dual spacing)
Tire center line
Wheel
Inset
Backspace
Tire center line
51
9
Inch
Fraction,
Decimal and
Millimeter
Equivalents
Chart
(Up to 1
inch)
9-1
9
52
Conversion Tables
Conversion
Factors
Inches to Millimeters
Inches
x
25.4
=
Millimeters
0.03937
=
Inches
9-2
Millimeters to Inches
Millimeters x
PSI to kPa
PSI
x
6.8948
=
kPa
kPa
x
0.145
=
PSI
x
0.4536
=
kg
kPa to PSI
Pounds to Kilograms
Pounds
Kilograms to Pounds
kg
9
x
2.2050
=
Pounds
=
kgm
=
Ft-lbs
Foot-pounds to Kilogram Meters
Ft-lbs
x
0.13826
Kilogram Meters to Foot-pounds
kgm
x
7.23
53
Alcoa Wheel and Forged Products
1600 Harvard Avenue
Cleveland, Ohio 44105
(800) 242-9898
www.alcoawheels.com
Copyright © 2004
Alcoa Wheel and Forged Products
All Rights Reserved
Form E37-13584
Printed in USA 02/04/30M
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement