Cargo Driver`s Manual

Cargo Driver`s Manual
Foreword
Introduction
This manual provides information needed to operate
and understand the vehicle and its components. More
detailed information is contained in the Owner’s Warranty Information for North America booklet and in the
vehicle’s workshop and maintenance manuals.
Custom-built Cargo vehicles are equipped with various
chassis and cab components. Not all of the information
contained in this manual applies to every vehicle. For
details about components in your vehicle, refer to the
chassis specification pages included in all new vehicles
and to the vehicle specification decal, located inside the
vehicle.
For your reference, keep this manual in the vehicle at
all times.
IMPORTANT: Descriptions and specifications in this
manual were in effect at the time of printing. Freightliner
LLC reserves the right to discontinue models and to
change specifications or design at any time without notice and without incurring obligation. Descriptions and
specifications contained in this publication provide no
warranty, expressed or implied, and are subject to revisions and editions without notice.
Environmental Concerns and
Recommendations
Whenever you see instructions in this manual to discard
materials, you should first attempt to reclaim and recycle them. To preserve our environment, follow appropriate environmental rules and regulations when disposing of materials.
Event Data Recorder
This vehicle is equipped with one or more devices that
record specific vehicle data. The type and amount of
data recorded varies depending on how the vehicle is
equipped (such as the brand of engine, if an air bag is
installed, or if the vehicle features a collision avoidance
system, etc.).
Customer Assistance Center
Having trouble finding service? Call the Freightliner
Customer Assistance Center at 1-800-385-4357 or
1-800-FTL-HELP, or the Sterling Customer Assistance
Center at 1-800-785-4357 or 1-800-STL-HELP. Call
night or day, weekdays or weekends for dealer referral,
vehicle information, breakdown coordination, or Fleetpack assistance. Our people are knowledgeable, professional, and committed to following through to help
you keep your truck moving.
4/06P
Printed in U.S.A.
Foreword
Reporting Safety Defects
If you believe that your vehicle has a defect which
could cause a crash or could cause injury or
death, you should immediately inform the National
Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) in
addition to notifying Freightliner LLC.
If the NHTSA receives similar complaints, it may
open an investigation, and if it finds that a safety
defect exists in a group of vehicles, it may order a
recall and remedy campaign. However, NHTSA
cannot become involved in individual problems
between you, your dealer, or the vehicle
manufacturer.
Canadian customers who wish to report a safetyrelated defect to Transport Canada, Defect
Investigations and Recalls, may telephone the tollfree hotline 1-800-333-0510, or contact Transport
Canada by mail at: Transport Canada, ASFAD,
Place de Ville Tower C, 330 Sparks Street,
Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A 0N5.
For additional road safety information, please visit
the Road Safety website at: http://www.tc.gc.ca/
roadsafety/menu.htm
To contact NHTSA, you may call the Vehicle
Safety Hotline toll-free at 1-888-327-4236 (TTY:
1-800-424-9153); go to http://www.safercar.gov; or
write to: Administrator, NHTSA, 400 Seventh
Street, SW, Washington, DC 20590. You can also
obtain other information about motor vehicle safety
from http://www.safercar.gov.
© 1998-2006 Freightliner LLC. All rights reserved.
No part of this publication, in whole or part, may be translated, reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted
in any form by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of Freightliner LLC. For additional information, please contact Freightliner LLC, Service Systems and Documentation, P.O. Box 3849 Portland OR 97208–3849 U.S.A. or refer to http://www.Freightliner.com, http://www.
FreightlinerTrucks.com, or http://www.SterlingTrucks.com.
Contents
Chapter
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
Page
Introduction, Environmental Concerns and Recommendations, Event
Data Recorder, Customer Assistance Center, Reporting Safety Defects . . . . . . . . . . . . . Foreword
Vehicle Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1
Vehicle Access and Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1
Driver Controls and Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1
Engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1
Transmissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1
Clutches, Rear Axles, and Steering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1
Brakes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.1
Cab Appearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.1
Pretrip Inspection and Daily Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.1
In an Emergency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.1
Fifth Wheels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.1
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I.1
1
Vehicle Identification
Vehicle Specification Decal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) Labels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Canadian Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (CMVSS) Labels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tire and Rim Labels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
EPA Vehicle Noise Emission Control Label . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.3
Vehicle Identification
Vehicle Specification Decal
The vehicle specification decal (Fig. 1.1) identifies the
vehicle model, I.D. number, and major component models. It also lists the major assemblies and installations
shown on the chassis specification sheet. A copy of the
specification decal is inside the rear cover of the Owner’s Warranty Information for North America booklet. An
illustration of the decal is shown in Fig. 1.1.
Federal Motor Vehicle Safety
Standard (FMVSS) Labels
NOTE: Due to the variety of FMVSS certification
requirements, not all of the labels shown will apply
to your vehicle.
Tractors with or without fifth wheels purchased in the
U.S. are certified by means of a certification label
(Fig. 1.2) and the tire and rim labels. These labels are
attached to the left rear door post.
COMPONENT INFORMATION
MANUFACTURED BY
MODEL
VEHICLE ID NO.
1 2
USE VEHICLE ID NO.
WHEN ORDERING PARTS
DATE OF MFR
ENGINE MODEL
TRANS MODEL MAIN
FRONT AXLE MODEL
REAR AXLE MODEL
WHEELBASE
ENGINE NO.
TRANS NO.
FRT AXLE NO.
REAR AXLE NO.
REAR AXLE NO.
RATIO
PAINT MFR
PAINT NO.
FOR COMPLETE PAINT INFORMATION
SEE VEHICLE SPECIFICATION SHEET
f080077
Fig. 1.1, Vehicle Specification Decal, U.S.-Built Vehicle
Shown
NOTE: Labels shown in this chapter are examples
only.
1.1
f080053
11/21/96
PART NO. 24−00273−010
02/12/98
3
1. Date of manufacture by month and year.
2. Gross vehicle weight rating; developed by taking the
sum of all the vehicle’s gross axle ratings.
3. Gross axle weight ratings; developed by considering
each component in an axle system, including
suspension, axle, wheels, and tires. The lowest
component capacity is the value used for the
system.
Fig. 1.2, Certification Label, U.S.
Vehicle Identification
If purchased for service in the U.S., trucks built without
a cargo body have a certification label (Fig. 1.3) attached to the left rear door post. In addition, after
completion of the vehicle, a certification label similar to
that shown in Fig. 1.2 must be attached by the finalstage manufacturer. This label will be located on the left
rear door post and certifies that the vehicle conforms to
all applicable FMVSS regulations in effect on the date
of completion.
f080024
09/30/93
Fig. 1.4, Canadian National Safety Mark
09/28/98
1 2
f080023
3
GAWR
Fig. 1.3, Incomplete Vehicle Certification Label, U.S.
Canadian Motor Vehicle Safety
Standard (CMVSS) Labels
In Canada, tractors with fifth wheels are certified by
means of a "Statement of Compliance" label and the
Canadian National Safety Mark (Fig. 1.4), which are
attached to the left rear door post. In addition, tire and
rim labels (Fig. 1.5) are also attached to the left rear
door post.
If purchased for service in Canada, trucks built without
a cargo body and tractors built without a fifth wheel are
certified by a "Statement of Compliance" label, similar to
VEHICLE ID NO.
DATE OF MFR
GVWR
TIRES
RIMS
PSI COLD
FRONT AXLE
FIRST INTERMEDIATE AXLE
SECOND INTERMEDIATE AXLE
THIRD INTERMEDIATE AXLE
REAR AXLE
TIRES AND RIMS LISTED ARE NOT NECESSARILY THOSE INSTALLED ON THE VEHICLE.
24−00273−040
f080079
02/12/98
1. Date of manufacture by month and year.
2. Gross vehicle weight rating; developed by taking the
sum of all the vehicle’s gross axle ratings.
3. Gross axle weight ratings; developed by considering
each component in an axle system, including
suspension, axle, wheels, and tires. The lowest
component capacity is the value used for the
system.
Fig. 1.5, Tire and Rim Label
1.2
Vehicle Identification
Fig. 1.2. This label must be attached by the final-stage
manufacturer after completion of the vehicle. The label
is located on the left rear door post, and certifies that
the vehicle conforms to all applicable CMVSS regulations in effect on the date of completion.
Tire and Rim Labels
Tire and rim labels certify suitable tire and rim combinations that can be installed on the vehicle, for the given
gross axle weight rating. Tires and rims installed on the
vehicle at the time of manufacture may have a higher
load capacity than that certified by the tire and rim label. If the tires and rims currently on the vehicle have a
lower load capacity than that shown on the tire and rim
label, then the tires and rims determine the load limitations on each of the axles.
Refer to Fig. 1.5 for U.S. and Canadian tire and rim
labels.
EPA Vehicle Noise Emission
Control Label
A vehicle noise emission control label (Fig. 1.6) is attached to the right rear door post.
It is the owner’s responsibility to maintain the vehicle so
that it conforms to EPA regulations.
1.3
VEHICLE NOISE EMISSION CONTROL INFORMATION
DATE OF MANUFACTURE 01/96
FREIGHTLINER CORPORATION
THIS VEHICLE CONFORMS TO U.S. EPA REGULATIONS FOR NOISE EMISSION
APPLICABLE TO MEDIUM AND HEAVY TRUCKS.
THE FOLLOWING ACTS OR THE CAUSING THEREOF BY ANY PERSON ARE PROHIBITED BY
THE NOISE CONTROL ACT OF 1972:
A. THE REMOVAL OR RENDERING INOPERATIVE, OTHER THAN FOR PURPOSES OF
MAINTENANCE, REPAIR, OR REPLACEMENT, OF ANY NOISE CONTROL DEVICE OR
ELEMENT OF DESIGN (LISTED IN THE OWNER’S MANUAL) INCORPORATED INTO THIS
VEHICLE IN COMPLIANCE WITH THE NOISE CONTROL ACT.
B. THE USE THIS VEHICLE AFTER SUCH DEVICE OR ELEMENT OF DESIGN HAS
BEEN REMOVED OR RENDERED INOPERATIVE.
24−00273−020
09/28/98
f080078
Fig. 1.6, Vehicle Noise Emission Control Label
IMPORTANT: Certain incomplete vehicles may be
produced with incomplete noise control hardware.
Such vehicles will not have a vehicle noise emission control information label. For such vehicles, it
is the final-stage manufacturer’s responsibility to
complete the vehicle in conformity to U.S. EPA
regulations (40 CFR Part 205) and label it for
compliance.
2
Vehicle Access and Features
Cab Door Locks and Handles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1
Door Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1
Cab Entry and Exit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2
Seats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5
Seat Belts and Tether Belts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.7
Seat Belt Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.8
Fuse/Relay/Circuit Breaker Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.11
Cab Tilting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.12
Front Access Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.15
Back-of-Cab Grab Handle, Step, and Deck Plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.16
Vehicle Access and Features
Cab Door Locks and Handles
The same key that operates the ignition switch is used
to lock and unlock the cab doors from the outside.
IMPORTANT: Each key is numbered. Record the
number so that, if needed, a duplicate key can be
made.
To unlock a door from outside the cab, insert the key in
the lockset (Fig. 2.1), and turn the key counterclockwise
on the driver’s door and clockwise on the passenger’s
door. Pull out on the handle to open the door. To lock
the door, turn the key clockwise on the driver’s door
and counterclockwise on the passenger’s door. The lock
cannot be operated when the door is open.
To lock the door from inside the cab, close the door,
then push the lock button down. See Fig. 2.1.
To open the door from the inside, pull the door latch
handle toward you. This will unlatch the door whether or
not it was locked. To unlock the door without unlatching
it, push up on the bottom of the lock button.
Door Windows
To lower the driver’s side door window, turn its regulator
handle clockwise; to lower the passenger’s side window, turn its handle counterclockwise. See Fig. 2.2.
2.1
1
2
3
4
f601446
02/11/98
1. Door Latch Handle
2. Lock Button
3. Exterior Handle
4. Exterior Lock
Fig. 2.1, Door Handles and Locks
Vehicle Access and Features
Cab Entry and Exit
WARNING
Wet or dirty shoe soles greatly increase the chance
of slipping or falling. If your soles are wet or dirty,
be especially careful when entering or exiting the
vehicle.
Always maintain three-point contact with the cab
access system while entering and exiting the cab.
Three-point contact means both feet and one hand,
or both hands and one foot.
Driver’s Side Entry and Exit
When entering or exiting the driver’s side of the cab,
use the grab handles and access steps as follows. See
Fig. 2.3.
10/01/98
1.
Open the driver’s door, and place anything that you
are carrying in the cab.
2.
Place your left foot on the bottom step. Grasp the
instrument panel grab handle with your left hand
and the steering wheel with your right hand (Ref.
A).
3.
Place your right foot on the top step (Ref. B).
4.
Bring your left foot up to the cab floor (Ref. C).
f601445a
Fig. 2.2, Window Regulator Handle
2.2
Vehicle Access and Features
B
A
C
D
09/02/97
f060165
Fig. 2.3, Driver’s Side Steps and Grab Handle
5.
Place your right foot into the cab and seat yourself
(Ref. D).
6.
To exit the cab on the driver’s side, grasp the instrument panel grab handle with your left hand and
the steering wheel with your right hand.
IMPORTANT: Do not attempt to exit the cab while
carrying any items in your hand.
7.
2.3
Place your right foot on the top step.
8.
Bring your left foot to the bottom step.
9.
Bring your right foot down to the ground, then bring
your left foot down to the ground.
Passenger’s Side Entry and Exit
When entering or exiting the passenger’s side of the
cab, use the grab handles and access steps as follows,
refer to Fig. 2.4.
Vehicle Access and Features
A
C
B
09/02/97
D
f060166
Fig. 2.4, Passenger’s Side Steps and Grab Handles
1.
Open the passenger’s door, and place anything that
you are carrying in the cab.
5.
Place your right foot into the cab and seat yourself
(Ref. D).
2.
Place your left foot on the bottom step. Grasp the
instrument panel upper grab handle with your left
hand and the lower grab handle with your right
hand (Ref. A).
6.
To exit the cab on the driver’s side, grasp the upper
grab handle with your left hand and the lower grab
handle with your right hand.
3.
Place your right foot on the top step (Ref. B).
4.
Bring your left foot up to the cab floor (Ref. C).
IMPORTANT: Do not attempt to exit the cab while
carrying any items in your hand.
2.4
Vehicle Access and Features
7.
Place your right foot on the top step.
8.
Bring your left foot to the bottom step.
9.
Bring your right foot down to the ground, then bring
your left foot down to the ground.
Seats
IMPORTANT: When adjusting the seats, unless
otherwise noted, make all adjustments while
seated and before the engine is started.
WARNING
lower the seat, push the rocker switch down until the
seat reaches the desired height.
Fore and Aft Seat Adjustment
Move the lever to the left and slide the seat forward or
backward to the desired position.
Bottom Cushion Front Height
To adjust the height of the front of the bottom cushion,
lift the handle, and pull forward or push back to the desired setting.
Lumbar Support
Keep hands, tools, and other objects away from the
scissor points under the seats. Failure to do so
could cause personal injury.
Push the rocker switch on the side of the seat up to
inflate lumbar support. Push the rocker switch down to
deflate lumbar support.
National Cush-N-Aire II Seat
Back-of-Cushion Height
Back Cushion Tilt
To adjust the height at the back of the cushion, rotate
the lever to the desired setting.
To tilt the back cushion, turn the knob and lean forward
or backward. See Fig. 2.5.
Isolator, Optional
Height Adjustment
Also called a Chugger-Snubber, the isolator is locked
out by moving the handle down.
To raise the seat, push the rocker switch on the side of
the seat up until the seat reaches the desired height. To
2.5
Vehicle Access and Features
Non-Suspended Driver’s Seat
Fore-Aft Seat Adjustment
Move the control lever at the front of the seat to release
the locking mechanism, then exert slight body pressure
to move the seat forward or rearward, as desired. See
Fig. 2.6.
6
7
1
5
4
3
2
11/02/95
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
f910128
Back Cushion Tilt Knob
Lumbar Support Switch
Height Adjustment Switch
Fore-Aft Seat Adjustment Lever
Bottom Cushion Front Height Handle
Isolator Handle
Back-of-Cushion Height Adjustment Handle
09/09/97
f910246
Fig. 2.6, Non-Suspended Driver’s Seat Control Lever
Release the lever to lock the seat in place. Push the
seat back and forth to ensure that it is locked in place.
Fig. 2.5, National Cush-N-Aire II Seat
2.6
Vehicle Access and Features
Passenger’s Seat
The passenger’s seat is not adjustable. See Fig. 2.7.
Access to the storage compartment under the seat is
obtained by moving the release lever and tilting the
seatback forward.
amount of injury resulting from accidents or sudden
stops. For this reason, the manufacturer urges that the
driver and all passengers, regardless of age or physical
condition, use seat belts when riding in the vehicle.
Seat belt assemblies in the vehicle meet Federal Motor
Vehicle Safety Standard 209, "Type 1," and "Type 2"
requirements. They are recommended for all persons
weighing over 50 pounds (23 kg).
A child restraint system should also be provided for
each child weighing 50 pounds (23 kg) or less. It should
meet the requirements of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety
Standard 213, "Child Restraint Systems." When providing such a restraint system, carefully read and follow all
instructions pertaining to installation and usage for the
child. Make certain the child remains in the restraint
system at all times when the vehicle is in motion.
09/09/97
f910247
Fig. 2.7, Passenger’s Seat Release Lever (typical)
Seat Belts and Tether Belts
General Information
Seat belt assemblies are designed to secure persons in
the vehicle to help lessen the chance of injury or the
2.7
In addition to seat belt assemblies, tether belts are installed on suspension-type seats. Tether belts help secure the seat to the floor and are intended to restrain
the seat and seat belt in case of an accident or sudden
stop.
IMPORTANT: Seat belts have a finite life which
may be much shorter than the life of the vehicle.
Regular inspections and replacement as needed
are the only assurance of adequate seat belt security over the life of the vehicle.
Vehicle Access and Features
Seat Belt Operation
Three-Point Seat Belt with Komfort
Latch
WARNING
Wear three-point seat belts only as described below. In case of an accident or sudden stop, injuries
could result from misuse. Three-point seat belts are
designed to be worn by one person at a time.
1.
2.
3.
Before driving the vehicle, slowly pull the link end of
the three-point seat belt out of the retractor and pull
it across your lap (from outboard to inboard) far
enough to engage the buckle. If the retractor locks
too soon, allow the belt to retract slightly, then
slowly pull it out again.
Fasten the three-point seat belt by pushing the link
into the buckle until it latches. See Fig. 2.8. Give
the belt a tug at the buckle. If the buckle unlatches,
repeat this step. If the problem continues, replace
the three-point seat belt.
Position the shoulder strap diagonally across your
chest. If desired, engage the Komfort Latch as follows:
01/18/95
f910004a
Fig. 2.8, Fastening the Three-Point Seat Belt (typical)
Pull on the shoulder strap to lessen the pressure of
the strap on your shoulder and chest. Allow no
more than one inch (2.5 cm) of slack between your
chest and the shoulder harness. More slack can
significantly reduce the seat belt’s effectiveness in
an accident or a sudden stop. While holding the
belt slack, press the Komfort Latch lever up, clamping the belt’s webbing. See Fig. 2.9 and Fig. 2.10.
2.8
Vehicle Access and Features
A
01/06/95
01/06/95
A. 1 Inch (2.5 cm) Maximum
Fig. 2.9, Adjusting Shoulder Harness Clearance
4.
To unbuckle the three-point seat belt, push the button on the buckle. See Fig. 2.11. If the Komfort
Latch was used, release it by giving the shoulder
belt a quick tug. If you lean forward against the
shoulder belt, the Komfort Latch will automatically
release, and will need to be reset.
NOTE: The Komfort Latch does not have to be
released in an emergency situation. The Komfort
Latch will release by itself under rough road or
2.9
f910006a
f910048a
Fig. 2.10, Locking Komfort Latch
other abnormal conditions. Make sure the threepoint seat belt is completely retracted when it is
not in use.
Lap Belt
WARNING
Wear lap belts only as described below. In case of
an accident or sudden stop, injuries could result
Vehicle Access and Features
2
A
1
3
01/06/95
f910068a
A. Pull on loose end to shorten belt.
1. Buckle
3. Link
2. Belt Release Button
Fig. 2.12, Lap Belt Adjustment
01/18/95
twisted. Check the engagement by trying to pull the
link out of the buckle. If they come apart, repeat
this step. If the problem continues, replace the belt.
f910049a
Fig. 2.11, Releasing the Three-Point Seat Belt (typical)
from misuse. Lap belts are designed to be worn by
one person at a time.
1.
2.
Slowly pull the link end of the lap belt across your
lap. See Fig. 2.12. If it is necessary to lengthen the
belt, tip the link end downward and pull the link until
it connects with the buckle.
NOTE: The belt can be shortened after it is connected by pulling on the loose end until the belt is
snug, but comfortable.
3.
To release the belt, push the release button on the
buckle and pull the link from the buckle.
Fasten the lap belt by pushing the link into the
buckle until they latch. Make sure the belt is not
2.10
Vehicle Access and Features
Fuse/Relay/Circuit Breaker
Identification
NOTE: The fuse/relay/circuit breaker panel
(Fig. 2.13) is located under the glove box. Depending on vehicle options, fuse/relay/circuit
breaker locations may vary from those shown. Refer to Fig. 2.13 or Table 2.1 for the Fuse/Relay/
Circuit Breaker Identification information.
Pos.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
2.11
Fuse/Relay/Circuit Breaker Identification
Part
Description
Rating
Number
Daytime Running Lights
10A
Interior Lamps
10A
Turn Signal
25A
Customer Use (Battery)
—
—
Cigar Lighter
10A
Horn
10A
Trailer: Clearance Marker
20A
Lamps
Not Used
—
—
15A
Headlamps
CB*
Not Used
—
—
Warning Lamps
10A
Pos.
No.
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
A
B
Fuse/Relay/Circuit Breaker Identification
Part
Description
Rating
Number
Stop Lamps
25A
Backup Lamps
10A
Washer Pump
10A
Fuel Shutoff
15A
Two-Speed Axle
25A
Wheel/Wheel and Diff Lock
10A
Exhaust Brake
10A
Customer Use (Start/Run)
—
—
Air Dryer
10A
8.25A
Windshield Wipers
CB*
Blower Motor
10A
Radio
15A
Not Used
—
—
I/P Illumination Lamps
5A
Trailer: Tail/License Lamps
10A
Park and S/M Lamps
10A
Cab Roof Marker
10A
Not Used
—
—
Not Used
—
—
Fuel Shutoff
Relay
Exterior Lighting
Relay
Vehicle Access and Features
Fuse/Relay/Circuit Breaker Identification
Part
Description
Rating
Number
Brake Low Air Warning
Relay
C
Prove-out
D
Cab Latch Warning Prove-out
Relay
E
Windshield Wiper Timer
Relay
F
Not Used
—
—
G
Marker Lamps
Relay
H
Headlamp Dimmer — Radio
Relay
I
Two-Speed Axle
Relay
Trans Temp Warning ProveRelay
J
out
K
Not Used
—
—
L
Not Used
—
—
Customer Use Terminals
31 Accessory/Run Non-Fused
—
—
Trailer Park and Marker
—
—
32
Lamps
33 Accessory/Run Fused
—
—
34-39 Not Used
—
—
40 Accessory/Marker Lamps
—
—
41-45 Not Used
—
—
46 Trailer Lamps
—
—
47 Accessory/Run Non-Fused
—
—
Pos.
No.
Fuse/Relay/Circuit Breaker Identification
Pos.
Part
Description
Rating
No.
Number
48 Battery
—
—
* Special Cycling Circuit Breakers—Replace with authorized service parts
or equivalent.
Table 2.1, Fuse/Relay/Circuit Breaker Identification
Cab Tilting
WARNING
Never stand in front of the cab or under the cab
when the cab is being tilted. Doing so could result
in serious personal injury.
Easy access to the engine and transmission is provided
by tilting the cab. The cab can be tilted 40 degrees for
normal repair situations, or 50 degrees for removing
larger components. Torsion bars under the cab make it
easy to raise the cab by hand. A latching support arm
holds the cab in the tilted positions.
2.12
Vehicle Access and Features
WARNING
1
2
Do not allow loose clothing to get near moving engine parts. To do so could result in serious personal injury.
CAUTION
3
Ensure the shift lever will clear the floor opening
when the cab is tilted to prevent damage to the shift
lever.
4
f541760
09/09/97
1.
2.
3.
4.
Signal Flasher (located at upper left of fuse panel)
Warning Chime (located at right side of fuse panel)
Warning Buzzer (located at lower left of fuse panel)
Fuse/Relay/Circuit Breaker Panel
Fig. 2.13, Fuse/Relay/Circuit Breaker Identification
Do not raise the cab until all loose items inside the
cab are removed or fastened down and the doors
are closed. If the cab is equipped with exterior air
lines, be sure the air lines will be clear of the body
lock.
1.
Apply the parking brakes and chock the tires.
2.
The handle for the cab lock control is located on
the lower front face of the driver’s seat (Fig. 2.14).
Remove the handle from the housing.
3.
Insert the cab lock handle in the lock control located on the passenger’s side of the rear cab panel
(Fig. 2.15). Push the safety hook knob inward, then
rotate the handle counterclockwise and pull the
handle outward. The handle will still be engaged.
To Tilt the Cab
WARNING
Do not release the cab until the transmission has
been put into neutral, the ignition turned off, and
the parking brake set. Failure to observe these precautions could result in serious personal injury.
2.13
Vehicle Access and Features
1
09/09/97
Fig. 2.14, Cab Lock Handle
4.
1. Cab Lock Control
Lift the rear part of the cab and let it tip up to the
first position.
To avoid damage to the handle, do not put pressure
on the lock handle, or use the handle to lift the cab.
To tilt the cab to the second position, remove the
lower limiting rod triangular support bolt. Place the
support bolt in the opening in the arm connection
f310618
09/08/97
2. Safety Hook Knob
Fig. 2.15, Back of Cab
near the central pin (Fig. 2.16). The cab can now
be pushed forward to the second position.
CAUTION
5.
2
f910245
To Lower the Cab
1.
Make sure the lock indicator is retracted to permit
correct cab locking, then push the cab back to the
first tilting position.
2.14
Vehicle Access and Features
3.
Lift the rear part of the cab slightly, then pull downward to lower the cab completely. Remove the cab
lock handle and secure it in its original position.
4.
To check for proper locking of the cab, turn the ignition to the ON position. An indicator light on the instrument panel will light if the cab is not locked securely.
Front Access Panel
WARNING
2
1
09/08/97
f310619
1. First Position, 40 Degree Tilt
2. Second Position, 50 Degree Tilt
Fig. 2.16, Cab Tilt Arm
2.
Remove the bolt previously placed near the central
pin. Return the bolt to its original position in the
lower opening of the triangular support.
CAUTION
Be sure the shift lever is in neutral and the shift
knob will clear the floor opening when the cab is
being lowered to avoid damage to the shift lever.
2.15
The parking brake must be fully set before opening
the front access panel. Failure to do so could result
in serious personal injury.
If your vehicle has an automatic transmission,
place the gear shift lever in N (neutral), shut the
engine off, and set the parking brake. If your vehicle has a manual transmission, place the gear
shift lever in R (reverse), shut the engine off, and
set the parking brake.
To open the front access panel, use a coin to turn the
locks located at each end of the outside surface of the
panel one quarter turn counterclockwise.
After tilting the panel open, support the panel with the
rod.
Vehicle Access and Features
To close the front access panel, lift the panel slightly to
release the support rod. Secure the support rod, and
press the panel down until it locks.
Back-of-Cab Grab Handle,
Step, and Deck Plate
When climbing onto the frame rails or deck plate, use
the grab handle and step. Always maintain three-point
contact with the back-of-cab access system.
A grab handle is mounted on the cab. When an optional
deck plate is included, it is mounted across the top of
the frame rails.
2.16
3
Driver Controls and Instruments
Instrument and Control Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1
Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1
Warning and Indicator Lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.10
Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.12
Heater and Ventilation System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.17
Driver Controls and Instruments
Instrument and Control Panel
lease the key. When released, the key will move to the
ON position.
Figure 3.1 represents a typical dash equipped with all
of the standard and many of the optional instruments
and controls.
In the ON position, all electrical systems are operable.
Warning lights and buzzer for low air pressure and low
oil pressure operate until the engine is started and minimum pressures are built up.
Warning and indicator light modules, located on each
side of the speedometer, house all of the standard and
optional warning and indicator lights. Figure 3.2 identifies the warning and indicator lights.
Controls
Ignition Switch and Key
The ignition switch can be turned to four positions: OFF,
ACCESSORY, ON, and START. See Fig. 3.3. The ignition switch key also locks and unlocks the cab doors.
The key can be inserted and removed only from the
OFF position. The headlights (low beam only), brake
lights, fog lights, dome lights, clearance lights, turn signals, hazard warning lights, parking lights, and the cigar
lighter operate with the ignition switch off, regardless of
whether the key is inserted.
In the ACCESSORY position, the wipers, heated mirrors, backup lamps, radio, ether start system, and all
electric gauges operate.
Turn the key fully clockwise to the START position, only
when starting the engine. When the engine starts, re3.1
Panel Light Control
The panel lights (see Fig. 3.4) are turned on by the
headlight switch. The panel light control lever adjusts
the brightness of the instrument panel lights. Slide the
control lever up to brighten the lights, and down to dim
them. Move the control lever all the way down to turn
them off.
Headlight Switch and Daytime
Running Lights
In the up position all of the lights are off. See Fig. 3.5.
Turning the switch clockwise one position turns on the
marker/clearance lights, taillights, parking lights, license
plate light, and panel lights. Turning the switch clockwise another position turns on the headlights, marker/
clearance lights, taillights, parking lights, license plate
light, and panel lights.
Driver Controls and Instruments
1
12
2
26
3
4
5
25 24 23
6
7
8
22 21 20
1
19
9 10
11 1
18 17 16 15
1
14
13
12/18/97
1. Face Level Vent
2. Tachometer
3. Warning and Indicator Light
Module
4. Speedometer
5. Odometer
6. Warning and Indicator Light
Module
7. Dual Air Pressure Gauge
8. Not Used
12
f610041
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
Heater/Ventilation Mode Selector
Radio (optional)
Temperature Control
Interior Grab Handle
Glove Compartment
Radio Hot Post (optional)
Not Used
Ashtray
Cigar Lighter
Fan Speed
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
Left Switch Bank
Parking Brake Control
Voltmeter
Fuel Gauge
Oil Pressure Gauge
Headlamp Switch
Hand Throttle, Vernier Type
(optional)
26. Water Temperature Gauge
Fig. 3.1, Instrument and Control Panel Layout (typical)
To change the headlights from low to high beam, or
high to low beam, push the control lever away from the
instrument panel (Fig. 3.6). When the headlights are on
high beam, an indicator light on the instrument panel
3.2
Driver Controls and Instruments
A
B
1
9
2
10
3
11
4
12
5
13
6
14
7
15
OR
16
8
07/15/99
1
4
2
f080071a
NOTE: Not all vehicles with daytime running lights are
equipped with the in-dash indicator.
A.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Left Side Bank
Left-Turn Indicator
Low Oil Pressure
High Coolant Temp
Low Coolant Level
Wait To Start
Exhaust Brake
Check A/C
Do Not Shift or Trans
Temp
B.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
Right Side Bank
Right-Turn Indicator
High Beam
ABS
Brake
Parking Brake
Differential Lockout
Daytime Running
Lights
16. Cab Lock
Fig. 3.2, Warning and Indicator Lights
3.3
3
f541752
09/04/97
1. Accessory
2. On
3. Start
4. Off
Fig. 3.3, Ignition Switch
comes on. The ignition switch must be on for the high
beams to operate.
For vehicles equipped with daytime running lamps
(DRL), switching on the ignition and releasing the parking brakes automatically activates the headlight low
beams at reduced voltage. Some vehicles are equipped
Driver Controls and Instruments
1
2
f601426a
10/01/98
08/27/97
Fig. 3.4, Panel Light Control Lever
f601435
1. All Lights On (except headlights)
2. All Lights On (including headlights)
with a daytime running lights in-dash indicator, which
will illuminate when the daytime running lights are in
operation. The daytime running lights will operate until
the parking brakes are applied, then they will switch off.
Turning on the regular headlights will override the daytime running lights. The vehicle cannot be driven unless
either the headlights or daytime running lights are
activated.
ary position makes the dome light turn on whenever the
doors are opened.
Dome Light Switch
To operate the wipers at low speed, move the control
lever up one position. See Fig. 3.7. To operate the
wipers at high speed, move the control lever up two
Fig. 3.5, Headlight Switch
Windshield Wipers
The dome light switch is located on the dome light. In
addition to the ON and OFF positions, a third intermedi3.4
Driver Controls and Instruments
positions. To operate the wipers in delay mode, move
the control lever down one position.
1
1
5
2
3
4
f541756
1. Steering Column
2
2. Control Lever
f820210
Fig. 3.6, High/Low Beam Control
Windshield Washer
Depress the button on the wiper/washer control lever to
activate the windshield washer. See Fig. 3.7.
Interrupt Switch
A spring-loaded interrupt rocker switch operates the
marker lights. See Fig. 3.8. With the vehicle lights on,
depress and release the interrupt rocker switch to
briefly turn off the marker lights.
Cummins Electronic Engine
The Cummins electronic engine has a fuel control system controlled by a microprocessor-based computer.
3.5
1. High Speed
2. Low Speed
3. Off
4. Delay Mode
5. Washer Button
Fig. 3.7, Windshield Wiper and Washer Control
This computer controls specific engine and vehicle
speed modes of operation to maximize vehicle fuel
economy and performance.
A yellow engine check light and a red engine stop light
are located on the instrument panel. With the ignition
switch on, both lights come on for about two seconds;
then, if there is no problem with the electronic engine
system, the lights will go out. Whenever there is a problem within the electronic engine system, one of the
Driver Controls and Instruments
Cruise control and PTO governor are controlled with
two switches. An ON/OFF switch allows the driver to
select cruise control or to drive using the foot throttle. A
spring-loaded SET/RESUME switch allows the driver to
select the cruise speed or to resume the cruise speed
after slowing down.
The power takeoff mode of operation is also controlled
with the cruise control switches, when the vehicle is stationary. The engine speed can be set in the 800 to 1600
rpm range by placing the ON/OFF switch in the ON position, then pressing the SET/RESUME switch when the
desired rpm is reached. See Chapter 4 for detailed operating instructions.
f601424a
10/01/98
Fig. 3.8, Interrupt Switch
lights will come on and stay on as long as the problem
exists.
If the yellow engine check light comes on while driving,
some engine features will not work, but the vehicle can
still be driven. If the red engine stop light comes on
while driving, and if the engine will not accelerate, pull
off the road and shut down the engine. In either situation, have the problem repaired as soon as possible.
See Group 54 in the Cargo Workshop Manual for
troubleshooting procedures.
Parking Brake Control Valve Knob
A diamond-shaped knob in the control panel operates
the parking brake control valve. See Fig. 3.9. When the
knob is out, the truck’s spring parking brakes are applied. When the knob is in, the parking brakes are released. Before the parking brakes can be released, air
pressure in either brake system must be at least 65 psi
(447 kPa).
See Chapter 7 for instructions on the use of the parking brake valve.
3.6
Driver Controls and Instruments
Cigar Lighter
Push in the lighter to heat the element. See Fig. 3.10.
The lighter will stay in until the element is hot, then it
will pop out automatically. To open the ashtray, pull the
ashtray downward. To remove the ashtray, press down
on the tab and pull the tray out.
f421624
Fig. 3.9, Parking Brake Control Valve Knob
Air Suspension Dump Valve, Optional
The air suspension dump valve allows the air in the vehicle air suspension to be quickly exhausted, lowering
the rear of the vehicle. This makes it easier to connect
to or disconnect from a trailer. A control valve toggle
switch on the dashboard exhausts and fills the air suspension. To prevent accidental activation, a safety release button on the switch must be pushed before the
switch can toggle.
CAUTION
Never exhaust air from the suspension while driving. If the air is exhausted, the suspension will not
absorb road shocks and could be damaged.
09/08/97
f601449
Fig. 3.10, Cigar Lighter and Ashtray
Turn Signal Switch
The turn signal lever is mounted on the steering column. See Fig. 3.11. Pushing the lever counterclockwise
3.7
Driver Controls and Instruments
turns on the left-turn signal lights; pushing it clockwise
turns on the right-turn signal lights. When one of the
signal lights is on, an indicator light flashes on the
warning and indicator light panel. When the turn is completed, the signal will cancel and the lever will return to
the neutral position.
Air Horn, Optional
To sound the air-operated horn, pull the cable located
above the driver’s door.
Hazard Warning Light Switch
The hazard warning light switch (Fig. 3.12) is located in
the left switch bank on the instrument panel. Hazard
warning lights are operated by pushing the top of the
switch. When the hazard warning light switch is on, all
of the turn signal lights and both of the indicator lights
on the control panel will flash. To cancel the warning
lights, push the bottom of the switch.
2
1
Allison Automatic Transmission
Controls
f541755
1. Turn Signal Lever
2. Horn
Fig. 3.11, Turn Signal Lever
Electric Horn
To sound the electric horn, push the button on the turn
signal lever. See Fig. 3.11.
Allison automatic transmission MD series models are
controlled by an electronic control unit (ECU). The ECU
processes information from sensors, pressure switches,
and the shift selector (Fig. 3.13) to automatically control
the transmission according to programmed
specifications.
Vehicles with these transmissions have a red do-notshift light in the lens and bezel assembly. Also, there is
a service light in the indicator panel on the shift selector. With the ignition switch on, both lights come on for
a few seconds; then, if there is no problem with the
3.8
Driver Controls and Instruments
1
2
f601425a
10/01/98
Fig. 3.12, Hazard Warning Light Switch
transmission system, the lights will go out. Whenever
there is a problem with the transmission system, the
lights will come on and stay on as long as the problem
exists.
If "service" is displayed in the indicator panel, some features may not work, but the vehicle can still be driven. If
the do-not-shift light comes on while driving (accompanied by eight short beeps from the shift selector), operating limits will be placed on the transmission, such as
restricting upshifts and downshifts. However, the vehicle
can still be driven to reach service assistance. In either
situation, have the problem repaired as soon as pos3.9
f600368a
10/28/94
1. Indicator Panel
2. Mode ID
Fig. 3.13, Shift Selector
sible. Refer to the Allison Transmission Service Manual
for troubleshooting procedures.
See Chapter 5 for complete transmission operating
instructions.
Driver Controls and Instruments
Suspension Seat Adjustment Controls
All adjustment controls for a suspension seat are located on the seat base. Refer to Chapter 2 for complete instructions.
Vernier Throttle Control, Optional
• The blue high-beam indicator light (located above
the speedometer and tachometer) which comes
on when the headlights are on high beam.
• The red parking brake indicator light which comes
on whenever the parking brakes are activated
and the ignition is on.
The vernier throttle control can be used to adjust engine
speed when the vehicle is parked. A "quick adjust" setting of engine speed is made by depressing the button
on the control knob, then pushing in or pulling out the
knob. Engine speed adjustments can then be made in
smaller increments by turning the control knob in either
direction.
Standard Warning System
Warning and Indicator Lights
The brake system warning light and buzzer activate
whenever air pressure in the primary or secondary air
reservoir falls below 64 to 76 psi (441 to 524 kPa).
Warning and indicator light modules, located on each
side of the speedometer, house all of the standard and
optional warning and indicator lights. Figure 3.14 identifies the warning and indicator lights. All of the standard
and optional warning and indicator lights are located in
light banks on each side of the speedometer.
Standard indicator lights include:
• The green right- and left-turn signal lights, which
flash on and off whenever the outside turn signal
lights are flashing.
Standard Warning Lights
Standard red warning lights are for alternator nocharge, and the brake system. See Fig. 3.14. Whenever conditions cause the brake system warning light to
come on, a warning buzzer also alerts the driver.
Optional Warning and Indicator Lights
The water temperature warning light and buzzer activate whenever the engine coolant temperature exceeds
a preset point determined by the engine manufacturer.
Refer to Table 3.1 for this temperature.
The oil pressure warning light and buzzer activate
whenever the oil pressure falls below the minimum oil
pressure recommended by the engine manufacturer.
Refer to Table 3.2.
3.10
Driver Controls and Instruments
A
B
1
Maximum Water Temperature
Maximum Water
Engine Model
Temperature:
°F (°C)
Cummins ISB
210 (99)
9
2
10
3
11
4
12
5
13
6
14
7
15
OR
16
Table 3.1, Maximum Water Temperature
Engine Model
Cummins ISB
8
07/15/99
f080071a
NOTE: Not all vehicles with daytime running lights are
equipped with the in-dash indicator
A.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Left Side Bank
Left-Turn Indicator
Low Oil Pressure
High Coolant Temp
Low Coolant Level
Wait To Start
Exhaust Brake
Check A/C
Do Not Shift or Trans
Temp
B.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
Right Side Bank
Right-Turn Indicator
High Beam
ABS
Brake
Parking Brake
Differential Lockout
Daytime Running
Lights
16. Cab Lock
Fig. 3.14, Warning and Indicator Lights
3.11
Oil Pressure*
Oil Pressure at
Idle Speed:
psi (kPa)
10 (69) min.
Oil Pressure at
Rated Speed:
psi (kPa)
30 (207) min.
* Oil pressures are given with the engine at operating temperature. With
the engine cold, oil pressure may be higher.
Table 3.2, Oil Pressure
Other optional warning or indicator lights may include:
air intake warmer, oil level, automatic transmission oil
temperature, low water, do-not-shift, air cleaner restriction, check engine, engine shutdown.
When the ignition is turned on, oil- and brake-system
warnings (as equipped) activate until the engine starts
and minimum pressures are exceeded. If the low-oil
warning light or brake system warning light remains lit
after running the engine for fifteen seconds, shut down
Driver Controls and Instruments
the engine and determine the cause. Refer to the vehicle workshop manual for repair procedures.
IMPORTANT: If the warning system does not activate when the ignition is turned on, repair the system to provide warning protection for oil pressure,
coolant temperature, and the brake system.
shifting the transmission and keeping the engine in the
appropriate rpm range. For low idle and rated rpm, refer
to the engine identification plate.
Meritor WABCO® Antilock Braking
System (ABS), Air Brake Systems
The ABS warning light comes on after the engine is
started. The warning light goes out only if all of the ABS
components are working properly.
IMPORTANT: If the ABS warning light does not
work as described above, or comes on while driving, repair the ABS system immediately to ensure
full antilock braking capability. Refer to the vehicle
workshop manual for troubleshooting procedures.
Refer to the brake system operating instructions in
Chapter 7 for more instructions.
Instruments
Tachometer
A tachometer (see Fig. 3.15) indicates engine speed in
revolutions per minute (rpm), and serves as a guide for
10/01/98
f601443a
Fig. 3.15, Tachometer
The tachometer may include an engine hour meter. An
engine hour meter records continuous operating hours
of the engine. In cases where actual mileage does not
indicate overall usage, maintenance and lubrication intervals for the engine and engine-operated equipment
can be determined by operating hours.
3.12
Driver Controls and Instruments
Speedometer
Water Temperature Gauge
A speedometer (see Fig. 3.16) registers vehicle speed
in both miles per hour (mph) and kilometers per hour
(km/h). Standard speedometer gauges are equipped
with an odometer that records total distance traveled in
either kilometers or miles. The trip odometer registers
distance driven and can be reset to zero by depressing
the button.
During normal engine operation, the water temperature
gauge (see Fig. 3.17) should read 175 to 203°F (79 to
95°C). If the temperature remains below 160°F (71°C)
or exceeds the maximum temperature shown in
Table 3.1, inspect the cooling system to determine the
cause. Refer to the vehicle workshop manual for
troubleshooting and repair procedures.
10/01/98
f601442a
Fig. 3.16, Speedometer
3.13
10/01/98
f601436a
Fig. 3.17, Water Temperature Gauge
Driver Controls and Instruments
ther damage. Do not operate the engine until the
cause has been determined and corrected.
Engine Oil Pressure Gauge
The oil pressure gauge (see Fig. 3.18) should read as
shown in Table 3.2.
Voltmeter
The voltmeter (see Fig. 3.19) indicates the vehicle
charging system voltage when the engine is running
and the battery voltage when the engine is stopped. By
monitoring the voltmeter, the driver can be aware of potential charging system problems and have them fixed
before the batteries discharge enough to create starting
difficulties.
10/01/98
f601440a
Fig. 3.18, Engine Oil Pressure Gauge
CAUTION
A sudden decrease or absence of oil pressure may
indicate mechanical failure. Bring the vehicle to a
safe stop and investigate the cause to prevent fur-
10/01/98
f601439a
Fig. 3.19, Voltmeter
3.14
Driver Controls and Instruments
The voltmeter will normally show approximately 13.7 to
14.1 volts when the engine is running. The voltage of a
fully charged battery is 12.7 to 12.8 volts when the engine is stopped. A completely discharged battery will
produce only about 12.0 volts. The voltmeter will indicate lower voltage as the vehicle is being started or
when electrical devices in the vehicle are being used.
If the voltmeter shows an undercharged or overcharged
condition for an extended period, have the charging
system and batteries checked at a repair facility.
On a vehicle equipped with a battery isolator system,
the voltmeter measures the average voltage of all the
batteries when the engine is running. When the engine
is stopped, the voltmeter shows only the gel cell battery
voltage and does not indicate the voltage of the enginestarting batteries.
CAUTION
Gel cell batteries can be damaged if the battery
voltage is allowed to drop below 12.0 volts or if the
charging voltage is more than 14.1 volts. Start the
engine to recharge the gel cell before the battery
becomes fully discharged. If an external charger is
needed, disconnect the gel cell battery and use only
an external battery charger that has been approved
for gel cell batteries.
3.15
Primary and Secondary Air Pressure
Gauges
These air pressure gauges (see Fig. 3.20) register the
constant pressure in the primary and secondary air systems. Normal pressure, with the engine running, is 95
to 125 psi (655 to 862 kPa) in both systems. A low-airpressure warning light and buzzer, connected to both
the primary and secondary systems, activate when air
pressure in either system drops below a minimum pressure of 62 to 68 psi (427 to 469 kPa). When the engine
is started, the warning light and buzzer remain on until
air pressure in both systems exceeds minimum pressure. An air pressure gauge that registers pressure in
both the primary and secondary systems may be installed on some vehicles.
Fuel Gauge
The fuel gauge (see Fig. 3.21) indicates the amount of
fuel in the fuel tank(s).
Intake-Air Restriction Indicator
An intake-air restriction indicator measures the vacuum
on the engine side of the air cleaner at the air cleaner
outlet. If the yellow signal stays locked at or above the
values shown in Table 3.3, after the engine is shut
down, service the air cleaner, then reset the indicator by
pressing the reset button.
Driver Controls and Instruments
10/01/98
f601437a
Fig. 3.20, Air Pressure Gauge
NOTE: Avoid opening the air cleaner and disturbing the seals or filter element until the yellow signal stays locked at or above the value shown in
Table 3.3. When this occurs, the air cleaner needs
replacing; however, immediate engine shutdown is
not necessary.
10/01/98
f601438a
Fig. 3.21, Fuel Gauge
Intake-Air Restriction
Engine Model*
Service at or Above
Cummins
25 inH2O
* Turbocharged engines must be checked at full load and governed engine
speed.
Table 3.3, Intake-Air Restriction
3.16
Driver Controls and Instruments
Transmission Oil Temperature Gauge
1
2
With an Allison automatic transmission, the transmission
oil temperature gauge reading should not exceed 250°F
(121°C) during normal operation. A warning light will
activate to alert the driver.
3
CAUTION
A sudden increase in oil temperature that is not
caused by a load increase may indicate mechanical
failure. Bring the vehicle to a safe stop and investigate the cause to prevent further damage. Do not
operate the engine until the cause has been determined and corrected.
f830809
1. Temperature Control Lever
2. Defrost Position
3. Function Control Lever
Fig. 3.22, Climate Control Panel
Heater and Ventilation System
A dash-mounted climate control panel (Fig. 3.22) allows
you to control all of the heating, defrosting, and ventilating functions.
A temperature control lever is used to select the desired
temperature. Slide the lever to the left for cool air, or to
the right for warm air.
A function control lever controls the direction of warm or
cool air.
3.17
• The Floor/Panel position directs air through the
windshield, floor, side panel, and center panel
(unheated) vents.
• The Defrost position directs air through the windshield and side panel vents. The center panel
vents, if left open, will provide unheated air. Air
flow from the side panel vents, when directed toward the door windows, will help avoid window
fogging.
• The Panel position directs unheated air through
the center panel vents only.
Driver Controls and Instruments
A three-speed fan switch controls the flow of air to any
selected air vents.
The side panel vents allow heated forced air to be directed vertically and horizontally.
The center air panel vents, located on each side of the
heater control panel, allow unheated forced air to be
directed vertically and horizontally and can be opened
or closed independently by means of a built-in damper.
See Fig. 3.23.
The roof vent (see Fig. 3.24) can be adjusted to five
different positions but is not removable. To adjust, hold
the lateral bars and incline the ventilator forward, backward, or to either side. To open completely, push the
ventilator upward.
1
1
1
3
2
f601441
f601423
08/27/97
1. Center Air Panel Vents
2. Vertical and Volume Airflow Control
3. Horizontal Airflow Control
Fig. 3.23, Center Air Panel Vents
1. Roof Vent Adjustment Bars
Fig. 3.24, Roof Vent
The foot-level vents, located on each side of the front
cab wall under the instrument panel, are opened or
closed by moving the actuator lever on the vent. See
Fig. 3.25.
3.18
Driver Controls and Instruments
2
1
f830808
1. Foot-Level Vent
2. Open/Close Actuator Lever
Fig. 3.25, Foot-Level Vent
3.19
4
Engines
Engine Starting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cold Start Manifold Heater . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cold Weather Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Engine Break-In . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Engine Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Engine Shutdown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
High Altitude Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Engine Braking System, Optional . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1
4.3
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.8
4.9
4.9
Engines
Engine Starting
Cummins
NOTE: Before starting the engine, read Chapter 3
in this manual for detailed information on how to
read the instruments and operate the controls.
CAUTION
When starting a vehicle equipped with a manual
transmission and clutch lock out switch, the clutch
pedal must be fully depressed during the entire
start sequence. Failure to do so can cause the pinion to release and re-engage, which could cause
ring gear and starter pinion damage.
If a vehicle does not start on the first attempt, make
sure that the engine has completely stopped rotating before reapplying the starter switch. Failure to
do so can cause the pinion to release and reengage, which could cause ring gear and starter
pinion damage.
Moving a vehicle with the starter and/or using the
starter to bump the engine for maintenance procedures is strictly prohibited. Use of these methods to
bump the engine over or move the vehicle can
cause the pinion to release and re-engage, which
could cause ring gear and starter pinion damage.
4.1
IMPORTANT: Ring gear and starter pinion damage
caused by improper starting procedures is not
warrantable.
1.
Before engine start-up, perform the engine pretrip
inspection and daily maintenance checks in Chapter 9 of this manual.
2.
Set the parking brakes.
3.
Set the throttle to idle. Hold the clutch pedal (vehicles with manual transmissions).
CAUTION
Protect the turbocharger during the start-up by not
opening the throttle or accelerating the engine
above 1000 rpm until normal engine idle oil pressure registers on the gauge.
4.
For manual transmissions, make sure the transmission is in neutral. For automatic transmissions,
make sure the transmission shift control is in Neutral or Park.
If the outside temperature is 60°F (16°C) or higher:
keep your foot off the throttle pedal during the first
five seconds of cranking the engine; if the engine
does not start in that time, apply full throttle while
cranking.
Engines
If the outside temperature is below 60°F (16°C),
fully depress the throttle, after engaging the starter.
5.
Turn on the ignition switch.
CAUTION
Don’t crank the engine for more than 30 seconds at
a time during any of the following procedures. Wait
two minutes after each try to allow the starter to
cool. Failure to do so could cause starter damage.
WARNING
Never pour fuel or other flammable liquid into the
throttle body air inlet opening in an attempt to start
the vehicle. This could result in a flash fire causing
serious personal injury or property damage.
6.
When the engine is started, it takes a while to get
the lubricating oil film reestablished between the
shafts and bearings, and between the pistons and
liners. Bring the engine up to operating speed
gradually as it warms up and develops stable oil
pressure.
loss of oil pressure, and shut down the engine before damage can occur.
NOTE: Idle diesel engines about three to four minutes at 1000 rpm before operating a loaded vehicle.
Starting After Extended Shutdown or Oil
Change
Do the following steps after an oil change or after the
engine has been shut down for more than three days:
1.
Disconnect the electrical connector from the fuel
pump solenoid valve.
2.
Crank the engine until oil pressure shows on the
gauge.
3.
Connect the electrical connector to the fuel pump
solenoid valve.
4.
Start the engine. After one minute, shut down the
engine and check for leaks.
5.
Allow five minutes for the oil to settle, then check
the engine oil level and add oil if needed. Do not
overfill.
The oil pressure gauge indicates any drop in lubricating oil pressure or mechanical malfunction in the
lubricating oil system. The operator should note the
4.2
Engines
Cold Start Manifold Heater
WARNING
Do not use starting fluid on an engine equipped
with a manifold heater. Using starting fluid could
cause an explosion, possibly resulting in severe
personal injury and engine damage.
Turn the ignition switch to the ON position. If the temperature is below 32°F (0°C), the wait-to-start indicator
will come on while the manifold heater warms up. After
the indicator light goes out, start the engine. Run the
engine slightly above idle until oil pressure shows on
the gauge. If oil pressure doesn’t show on the gauge
within 30 seconds of starting, turn the key to the OFF
position and wait 1 minute; then repeat the starting procedure.
Cold Weather Operation
Cummins Engines
Satisfactory performance of a diesel engine operating in
low ambient temperatures requires modification of the
engine, surrounding equipment, operating practices,
and maintenance procedures. The lower the temperatures the greater the amount of modification required,
and yet, with the modifications applied, the engines
4.3
must still be capable of operation in warmer climates
without extensive changes.
The following information is provided to engine owners,
operators, and maintenance personnel on how the
modifications can be applied to get satisfactory performance from their diesel engines.
There are three basic objectives:
1.
Reasonable starting characteristics followed by
practical and dependable warm-up of the engine
and equipment.
2.
A unit or installation which is as independent as
possible from external influences.
3.
Modifications which maintain satisfactory operating
temperatures with a minimum increase in maintenance of the equipment and accessories.
If satisfactory engine temperature is not maintained,
higher maintenance cost will result, due to increased
engine wear.
Special provisions to overcome low temperatures are
definitely necessary, whereas a change to a warmer
climate normally requires only a minimum of revision.
Most of the accessories should be designed in such a
way that they can be disconnected so there is little effect on the engine when they are not in use.
Engines
The two most commonly used terms associated with
preparation of equipment for low temperature operation
are "winterization" and "arctic specifications."
est Freightliner dealer or Cummins engine dealer,
to obtain the special items required.
Winterization of the engine and/or components, so that
starting and operating are possible in the lowest temperature to be encountered, requires:
CAUTION
• Adequate lubrication with low-temperature lubricating oils.
• Protection from the cold air (insulation). The
metal temperature does not change, but the rate
of heat dissipation is affected.
• Fuel of the proper grade for the lowest temperature.
• Using a block heater to raise the engine block
and component temperatures to at least –25°F
(–32°C) for starting in lower temperatures.
• Electrical equipment capable of operating in the
lowest expected temperature. All switches, connections, and batteries in the electrical system
should be inspected, and kept in good condition
to prevent losses through poor contacts.
Arctic specifications refer to the design of material and specifications of components necessary
for satisfactory engine operation in extremely low
temperatures to –64°F (–53°C). Contact the near-
"Antileak" antifreezes are not recommended for use
in Cummins engines. Although these antifreezes are
chemically compatible with DCA water treatment,
the "antileak" agents may clog the coolant filters.
IMPORTANT: Fuel heaters used on vehicles with
Cummins engine systems could cause high fuel
temperatures that affect engine performance and
operation of the electronic engine controls. If a fuel
heater is used, make sure it has thermostatic controls. If the fuel heater has a timer, set the timer to
activate only for a limited period of time before the
engine starts. Make sure the fuel heater is used
only for starting the engine.
Engine Break-In
Cummins Engines
Cummins engines are run on a dynamometer before
being shipped from the factory. In most applications, the
engine can be put to work immediately, but, during the
initial 100 hours or 3000 miles (4000 km) of service the
4.4
Engines
operator has an opportunity to establish conditions for
the best service life by:
1.
Operating as much as possible at three-quarter
load.
2.
Avoiding operation at engine idle speeds or at
maximum horsepower levels longer than five minutes.
3.
Developing the habit of closely watching the engine
instruments during operation. Let up on the throttle
if the oil temperature reaches 250°F (121°C), or if
the coolant temperature exceeds 190°F (88°C).
4.
Checking the oil level frequently during the break-in
period.
Engine Operation
Operating vehicles with diesel engines in areas where
there are concentrated flammable vapors (such as diesel, gasoline, or propane fumes) can create a hazardous situation. These vapors can be drawn into the engine through the air intake, and cause engine
overspeed. Be especially cautious of low-lying or
closed-in areas, and always check for signs that flammable vapors may be present.
4.5
DANGER
Don’t operate the engine in an area where flammable vapors such as gasoline or diesel fumes are
present. Shut down the engine when in an area
where flammable liquids or gases are being
handled. Failure to observe these precautions could
result in serious injury or death.
Cummins Engines
Cummins diesel engines have been built to comply with
the requirements of the Federal (U.S.) Clean Air Act.
Once an engine is placed in service, the responsibility
for meeting both state and local regulations is with the
owner/operator. Good operating practices, regular maintenance, and correct adjustments are factors which will
help to stay within the regulations.
Proper maintenance of the engine, which is the responsibility of the owner/operator, is essential to keep the
emission levels low.
The driver should be familiar with the vehicle warning
system in order to bring the vehicle to a safe stop if the
engine malfunctions. If the driver doesn’t understand
how the warning system works, an engine shutdown
could occur, causing a safety hazard. See Chapter 3
for information on the control panel for these engines.
Engines
Follow the directions in the Cummins Operation and
Maintenance Manual and in this manual for trouble-free,
economical vehicle engine operation.
1.
Cummins diesel engines produce high horsepower
and peak torque characteristics at low rpm. Because of this, it is not necessary to keep the engine
"wound up" to deliver the required horsepower at
the wheels. These characteristics may also result in
less shifting, and make shifting at lower rpm (to
peak torque) more practical.
2.
Depending on the vehicle gearing, the posted
speed limit can sometimes allow operation in either
of the top two gears; however, for improved operating efficiency (fuel economy and engine life), operate in the top gear at reduced rpm, rather than in
the next lower gear at the maximum rpm.
3.
Cruise at partial throttle whenever road conditions
and speed requirements permit. This driving technique permits operating within the most economical
power range of the engine.
4.
When approaching a hill, open the throttle smoothly
to start the upgrade at full power, then shift down
as desired, to maintain the optimum vehicle speed.
The high torque of Cummins engines may permit
topping some grades without shifting.
5.
Cummins engines are designed to operate over a
wide speed range. More frequent shifting than nec-
essary does not allow proper utilization of this flexibility. The driver who stays in top gear and uses
the wider speed range will achieve the best fuel
economy.
6.
The Cummins diesel engine is effective as a brake
on downhill grades, but care must be used not to
overspeed the engine going downhill. The governor
has no control over engine speed when the engine
is being pushed by the loaded vehicle.
Never turn off the ignition switch while going downhill. With the engine still in gear, fuel pressure will
build up against the shutdown valve and may prevent it from opening when the ignition key is turned
on.
CAUTION
Engine overspeed (engine speed exceeds high idle,
no-load rpm) can damage the engine.
7.
Use a combination of brakes and gears to keep the
vehicle under control at all times, and to keep the
engine speed below the rated governed rpm.
Cruise Control
The cruise control is activated by the ON/OFF and SET/
RESUME switches. The minimum speed at which cruise
4.6
Engines
control can be used on Cummins engines is 30 mph
(48 km/h).
2.
WARNING
Do not activate the fifth wheel air slider control
valve when the vehicle is in motion. Doing so could
result in damage to the fifth wheel member, kingpin,
cab, or trailer, and ultimately, to the drivetrain. A
guard is positioned around the switch to prevent it
from being accidentally activated.
CAUTION
Do not attempt to shift gears without using the
clutch pedal when the cruise control is engaged.
Failure to follow this precaution will result in a temporarily uncontrolled increase in engine speed;
transmission damage and gear stripping could result.
1.
4.7
To cruise at a particular speed:
1.1
Flip the ON/OFF switch to ON.
1.2
Hold the throttle down until the speedometer
reaches the desired speed.
1.3
Momentarily move the SET/RESUME switch
to SET.
To disengage the cruise control:
2.1
Depress the foot brake, trailer brake, clutch
pedal, or
2.2
Flip the ON/OFF switch to OFF.
To resume a preselected cruise speed, momentarily
move the SET/RESUME switch to RESUME. Cruise will
return to the last speed selected.
Cruise speed can be adjusted up or down by holding
the SET/RESUME switch at SET (accelerate) or at RESUME (decelerate) until the desired speed is reached.
NOTE: The resume vehicle speed memory is not
maintained if the cruise control ON/OFF switch is
turned OFF, or if the ignition is shut off.
Power Takeoff (PTO) Governor
Cummins electronic engines may be equipped with a
PTO governor. The PTO mode is activated by the ON/
OFF and SET/RESUME switches.
1.
Engage the PTO as follows:
1.1
Flip the ON/OFF switch to ON.
1.2
Hold the throttle pedal down until the tachometer reaches the desired engine speed.
1.3
Momentarily move the SET/RESUME switch
to SET.
Engines
2.
To disengage the PTO:
2.1
Depress the foot brake pedal, trailer brake,
clutch pedal, or
2.2
Flip the ON/OFF switch to OFF.
To resume a previously selected engine speed, momentarily move the SET/RESUME switch to RESUME.
Adjust engine speed up or down by holding the SET/
RESUME switch at SET (accelerate) or at RESUME
(decelerate) until the desired speed is reached.
NOTE: The resume engine speed memory is not
maintained if the cruise control ON/OFF switch is
turned OFF, or if the ignition is shut off.
Engine Shutdown
Cummins Engines
1.
With the vehicle stopped, apply the parking brakes,
and place the transmission in neutral.
2.
It is important to idle an engine 3 to 4 minutes before shutting it down. This allows the lubricating oil
and the water to carry heat away from the combustion chambers, bearings, shafts, etc. This is especially important with turbocharged engines.
Bearings and seals in the turbocharger are subjected to the high heat of combustion exhaust
gases. While the engine is running, this heat is carried away by oil circulation, but if the engine is
stopped suddenly, the turbocharger temperature
may rise as much as 115°F (46°C).
The extreme heat may cause bearings to seize or
oil seals to leak.
3.
Do not idle the engine for excessively long periods.
Long periods of idling are not good for an engine
because the combustion chamber temperatures
drop so low the fuel may not burn completely. This
will cause carbon to clog the injector spray holes
and piston rings, and may result in stuck valves.
If the engine coolant temperature becomes too low,
raw fuel will wash the lubricating oil off the cylinder
walls and dilute the crankcase oil, causing all moving parts of the engine to suffer from poor lubrication.
CAUTION
Stop the engine at the first sign of malfunction. Almost all malfunctions give some warning to the operator before significant damage occurs. Many engines are saved because alert operators heed the
warning signs (sudden drop in oil pressure, unusual noises, etc.) and immediately shut down the
engine.
4.8
Engines
4.
If the engine is not being used, shut it down by
turning the ignition key off.
High Altitude Operation
Cummins
Engines lose horsepower when operated at high altitude because the air is too thin to burn as much fuel as
at sea level. This loss is about 3 percent for each 1000
feet (300 m) altitude above sea level for a naturally aspirated engine. Most turbocharged engines are rated for
higher altitudes than naturally aspirated engines. An
engine will have smoky exhaust at high altitudes unless
a lower gear is used. The engine will not demand full
fuel from the fuel system unless the engine is altitudecompensated by the use of a turbocharger. Shift gears
as needed to avoid excessive exhaust smoke.
Engine Braking System,
Optional
PacBrake Exhaust Brake
A PacBrake exhaust brake is available as optional
equipment. An exhaust brake is an auxiliary braking
system that attaches to the engine exhaust system. An
exhaust brake makes the engine act as a compressor.
The exhaust brake functions by partially closing off the
4.9
exhaust system from the engine exhaust manifolds, creating an increase in exhaust back pressure. During vehicle deceleration, the engine must turn against the
back pressure and this creates a braking effect on the
driving wheels.
WARNING
Using the engine brake as a primary braking system
when the service brakes are operable is dangerous.
This can cause long, unpredictable stopping distances, possibly resulting in personal injury or
property damage.
The exhaust brake is not felt as a normal braking force
as with the service brakes, but is more of a gradual decelerating effect, as if the service brakes were lightly
applied. The exhaust brake is used to aid the engine
and the service brakes in slowing the vehicle, reducing
service brake wear.
5
Transmissions
Fuller Straight-Shift Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1
Allison Automatic Transmissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2
Transmissions
Fuller Straight-Shift Models
R
General Information
2
10/19/2000
2
4
03/12/96
3
5
4
6
f260085
Fig. 5.2, Shift Pattern, FS-5306A, FS-6306A and FS8206A
N
1
3
N
Fuller FS-4205A/B, FS-5205A/B, and FS-6305A/B
transmissions have five forward speeds and one reverse speed. See Fig. 5.1 for the shift pattern.
R
1
Operation
5
1.
Always use 1st gear when starting to move the vehicle forward.
2.
Accelerate to engine governed speed. Disengage
the clutch and move the shift lever to 2nd gear. Engage the clutch and accelerate to engine governed
speed.
3.
Continue upshifting using the same sequence described in step 2 above. Follow the pattern on the
shift lever.
4.
When downshifting, shift progressively down
through each successive lower gear as follows:
f260080
Fig. 5.1, Shift Pattern, FS-4205A/B, FS-5205A/B, and
FS-6305A/B
Fuller FS-5306A, FS-6306A and FS-8206A transmissions have six forward speeds and one reverse speed.
See Fig. 5.2 for the shift pattern.
These transmissions are designed for use with onhighway, fuel economy engines, where a minimum of
shifting is desired and less gear reduction is acceptable.
When the engine speed drops to the same rpm to
which it fell immediately after upshifting to that
5.1
Transmissions
same gear, disengage the clutch and move the shift
lever to the next lower gear. Engage the clutch
smoothly.
Continue downshifting, as conditions require, using
the same sequence described above.
IMPORTANT: Do not rest your foot on the clutch
pedal while driving. This causes partial clutch disengagement, which could cause premature clutch
wear.
NOTE: With synchronized models, disengage the
clutch completely when shifting gears. Double
clutching is unnecessary. If the vehicle is moving
when shifting, depress the clutch pedal just far
enough to disengage the clutch.
mode. If needed, a "secondary" shift mode can be programmed to provide another shift configuration to optimize vehicle use under different operating conditions.
To activate a secondary shift mode, or other special
function programmed into the electronic control unit
(ECU), depress the MODE button. "Mode On" is displayed in the indicator panel just above the push buttons. A label just above the MODE button identifies the
special function.
NOTE: Each time a push button is depressed on
the shift selector, a short beep will be heard. This
indicates that the ECU has received input to
change operation.
Allison Automatic
Transmissions
The MD-series transmission system is designed to warn
the driver of transmission malfunctions. The driver of a
vehicle equipped with these transmissions should know
the extent of the warning system in order to safely operate the vehicle. See Chapter 3 for information on the
warning system.
General Information
Operation
MD-series (MD-CR and MD-WR) automatic transmissions have six forward speeds and one reverse speed.
See Fig. 5.3. These transmissions have electronic shift
controls that can be programmed to allow the use of
different numbers of geared speeds. For instance, the
transmission can be programmed to operate as a
4-speed, 5-speed, or 6-speed unit in the "primary" shift
CAUTION
The engine should never be operated for more than
30 seconds at full throttle with the transmission in
gear and the output stalled. Prolonged operation of
5.2
Transmissions
the "primary" shift mode. Under "Monitor," the gear
the transmission is in should be displayed.
WARNING
Never shift from neutral (N) to drive (D) or reverse
(R) at engine speeds above idle. The vehicle will
lurch forward or backward, which could cause property damage and personal injury.
1
2
2.
Use reverse (R) to back the vehicle. Completely
stop the vehicle before shifting from a forward gear
to reverse or from reverse to forward. There is only
one reverse gear.
3.
Select drive (D) for all normal driving conditions.
The vehicle will start out in 1st gear, and as speed
increases, the transmission will upshift through
each gear automatically. As the vehicle slows down,
the transmission will downshift to the correct gear
automatically.
f600369a
10/31/94
1. Indicator Panel
2. Mode ID
The pressure of your foot on the accelerator pedal
influences the automatic shifting. When the pedal is
fully depressed, the transmission will automatically
upshift near the governed speed of the engine. A
partially depressed position of the pedal will cause
the upshifts to occur at a lower engine speed.
Fig. 5.3, Shift Selector
this type will overheat the transmission fluid and
will result in severe damage to the transmission.
1.
5.3
Start the engine, then check the digital display on
the "push button shift selector." Under "Select" at
the top of the unit, the display should always show
4.
Occasionally the road, load, or traffic conditions
make it desirable to restrict the automatic shifting to
Transmissions
a lower range. The lower the gear range, the
greater the engine braking power.
Use the up or down arrow buttons on the shift selector to reach the desired gear. The "Select" indicator will display your choice, and the "Monitor" indicator will show the selected gear once it is
reached.
NOTE: In the lower gear ranges, the transmission
will not upshift above the highest gear selected
unless the engine governed speed is exceeded.
5.
Use neutral (N) and apply the parking brake when
the vehicle is parked with the engine running.
CAUTION
Do not allow the vehicle to coast in neutral. This
can result in severe transmission damage. Also, no
engine braking is available.
5.4
6
Clutches, Rear Axles, and Steering
Clutches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1
Rear Axles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3
Steering System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5
Clutches, Rear Axles, and Steering
Clutches
Clutch Operation
General Information
Starting the Vehicle in the Correct Gear
The major reason clutches wear out too soon is excessive heat. Clutches are designed to absorb and dissipate more heat than encountered in typical operation.
The temperatures developed in typical operation will not
break down the clutch friction surfaces. However, if a
clutch is slipped excessively, or required to do the job of
a fluid coupling, high temperatures develop quickly and
destroy the clutch. Temperatures generated between
the flywheel, driven discs, and pressure plates can be
high enough to cause the metal to flow and the friction
facing material to char and burn.
Slipping and excessive heat are practically nonexistent
when a clutch is fully engaged. But during the moment
of engagement, when the clutch is picking up the load,
it generates considerable heat. An incorrectly adjusted
or slipping clutch will rapidly generate sufficient heat to
destroy itself.
The most important items that a driver should be aware
of to ensure long service life of the clutch include: starting in the right gear, recognizing clutch malfunctions,
and knowing when to adjust a clutch.
To drive forward, always start in first gear. After the
clutch is fully engaged, the engine should be accelerated to the correct rpm for the upshift into the next
higher gear.
Gear Shifting Techniques
Many drivers upshift into the next gear, or even skipshift into a higher gear, before the vehicle has reached
the correct speed. This type of shifting is almost as bad
as starting off in a gear that is too high, since the engine rpm and vehicle speeds are too far apart, requiring
the clutch to absorb the speed difference by generating
heat. For transmission operating instructions, see
Chapter 5.
Vehicle Overload, or Overloading the Clutch
Clutches are designed for specific vehicle applications
and loads. These limitations should not be exceeded.
CAUTION
Overloading will not only result in damage to the
clutch, but also to the entire powertrain.
6.1
Clutches, Rear Axles, and Steering
Riding the Clutch Pedal
Engaging the Clutch While Coasting
Riding the clutch pedal is destructive to the clutch,
since partial clutch engagement permits slippage, generating excessive heat. Riding the clutch pedal will also
put a constant thrust load on the release bearing, which
can thin out the lubricant. Release bearing failures can
be attributed to this type of misuse.
Engaging the clutch while coasting can result in tremendous shock loads and possible damage to the clutch,
as well as to the entire drivetrain.
Holding the Vehicle on an Incline With a
Slipping Clutch
A slipping clutch accumulates heat faster than it can be
dissipated, resulting in early clutch failures. Never use
the clutch as a hill holder.
Coasting With the Clutch Released (Pedal
Depressed) and the Transmission in Gear
Coasting with the clutch released and the transmission
in gear can cause high driven disc rpm through multiplication of ratios from the final drive and transmission.
WARNING
Do not coast with the clutch released (pedal depressed) and the transmission in gear. High driven
disc rpm could cause the clutch facing to be thrown
off the disc. Flying debris could cause injury to persons in the cab.
Reporting Erratic Clutch Operation Promptly
Reporting erratic clutch operation as soon as possible
will give maintenance personnel a chance to inspect the
clutch components.
CAUTION
Operating the vehicle with incorrect clutch pedal
free-travel could result in clutch damage. See Group
25 of the Cargo Workshop Manual for free-pedal adjustment procedures and specifications.
Clutch Adjustments
Some clutches have an internal adjustment. See the
applicable section in Group 25 of the Cargo Workshop
Manual for clutch adjustment procedures and specifications.
CAUTION
Operating the vehicle with the clutch incorrectly adjusted could result in clutch or clutch brake failure.
6.2
Clutches, Rear Axles, and Steering
Fig. 6.1. After the vehicle is moving on the highway, the
axle can be shifted to high range.
Lubrication
The release bearing should be lubricated at frequent
intervals. See Group 25 of the Cargo Maintenance
Manual for intervals and procedures.
B
CAUTION
Failure to lubricate the release bearing as recommended could result in release bearing damage and
damage to the clutch.
Hydraulic Clutch Fluid Reservoir
Checking
Make sure that the clutch fluid reservoir is full. The reservoir is full when the fluid level is up to the "max"
mark. The fluid level must always be above the "min"
mark. Use only heavy-duty brake fluid, DOT 3, in the
hydraulic-clutch system.
Rear Axles
Meritor Two-Speed Rear Axle
The two-speed rear axle can be used to operate the
vehicle in low range when operating off-highway or
when starting out with a heavy load on-highway. See
6.3
A
10/31/94
f600370a
A. Push down for low speed range.
B. Pull up for high speed range.
Fig. 6.1, Range Selection Lever Operation
To shift the axle to the high range: keep the throttle
pedal down, then move the range selection lever to
high; release the throttle pedal until the axle shifts, then
accelerate.
To shift the axle to low range: keep the throttle pedal
down, then move the range selection lever to low; release and then depress the throttle pedal quickly to increase engine rpm. The axle will shift to low range.
NOTE: When parking the vehicle, put the axle in
the low range with the engine running. Engage the
clutch and transmission to be sure the axle has
Clutches, Rear Axles, and Steering
completed the shift into the low range. Some vehicle motion is needed to ensure engagement of
the axle.
Meritor Drive Axles with Main
Differential Lock
The Meritor main differential lock is a driver-controlled
traction device operated from the vehicle cab. See
Fig. 6.2. A rocker switch allows the driver to lock or unlock the differential. An indicator light in the switch
comes on when the differential lock is engaged.
The main differential lock provides maximum traction
under slippery conditions. When the differential lock is
engaged, the clutch collar completely locks the differential case, gearing, and axle shafts together, maximizing
traction of both wheels and protecting against spinout.
Under normal traction conditions, do not engage the
differential lock.
Operate the axle with differential action between both
wheels.
Meritor Main Differential Lock
Operation
To lock the main differential and obtain maximum traction under slippery conditions, depress the control
switch.
WARNING
Lock the main differential only when the vehicle is
standing still or moving less than 25 mph (40 km/h).
Never lock the main differential when the vehicle is
traveling down steep grades or when the wheels are
slipping. This could damage the differential or lead
to loss of vehicle control, causing personal injury
and property damage.
f601427a
10/02/98
Fig. 6.2, Differential Lock Switch
If the vehicle is moving, maintain a constant vehicle
speed while engaging the differential lock. Briefly let up
6.4
Clutches, Rear Axles, and Steering
on the accelerator to relieve torque on the gearing, allowing the differential to fully lock. The indicator light
comes on when the differential is fully locked. When the
differential is locked, the turning radius will increase because the vehicle understeers. See Fig. 6.3. Drive cautiously and do not exceed 25 mph (40 km/h).
When the differential lock disengages, the indicator light
will go off.
Steering System
General Information
When there is no load on the vehicle, and the front tires
are pointed straight ahead, the steering wheel spokes
should be at the 4 and 8 o’clock positions, or within 10
degrees of either side. See Fig. 6.4. See Group 46 of
the Cargo Workshop Manual for steering adjustment
procedures.
A
B
Power Steering System
f350079a
02/09/96
A. Turning Radius When Differential is Locked
(engaged)–Understeer Condition
B. Turning Radius When Differential is Unlocked
(disengaged)
Fig. 6.3, Turning Radius
To unlock the main differential, depress the bottom of
the control switch. Briefly let up on the accelerator to
relieve torque on the gearing, allowing the differential to
fully unlock.
6.5
The power steering system consists of a steering gear
(which includes a manual steering mechanism, a hydraulic control valve, and a hydraulic power cylinder),
hydraulic hoses, power steering pump, reservoir, and
other components. The power steering pump, driven by
the engine, provides the power assist for the steering
system. If the engine is not running, there is no power
assist.
If the power-assist feature does not work due to hydraulic fluid loss, steering pump damage, or some other
cause, bring the vehicle to a safe stop. Do not drive the
vehicle until the cause of the problem has been corrected.
Clutches, Rear Axles, and Steering
the hole. Also, avoid turning the tires when they are
against a curb, as this places a heavy load on steering
components and could damage them.
10°
10°
1
2
10°
10°
f460307a
05/24/94
1. 8 o’Clock
2. 4 o’Clock
Fig. 6.4, Steering Wheel Centered
WARNING
Driving the vehicle without the power-assist feature
of the steering system requires much greater effort,
especially in sharp turns or at low speeds, which
could result in an accident and possible injury.
Drivers should use the power available with a power
steering system carefully. If the front tires become
lodged in a deep chuckhole or rut, drive the vehicle out,
instead of using the steering system to lift the tires from
6.6
7
Brakes
Air Brake System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.1
Brakes
Air Brake System
General Information
A dual air brake system consists of two independent air
brake systems which use a single set of brake controls.
Each system has its own reservoir, plumbing, and brake
chambers. The primary system operates the service
brakes on the rear axle; the secondary system operates
the service brakes on the front axle. Service brake signals from both systems are sent to the trailer.
WARNING
Do not operate the vehicle with the front brakes
backed off or disconnected. Backing off or disconnecting the front brakes will not improve vehicle
handling and may lead to loss of vehicle control
resulting in property damage or personal injury.
Loss of air pressure in the primary system causes the
rear service brakes to become inoperative; front brakes
will continue to be operated by secondary system air
pressure. In addition, trailer brakes will be operated by
the secondary system.
Loss of secondary system air pressure causes the front
axle brakes to become inoperative; rear service brakes
and trailer brakes will be operated by the primary system.
7.1
Before driving your vehicle, allow time for the air compressor to build up a minimum of 95 psi (655 kPa) pressure in both the primary and secondary systems. Monitor the air pressure system by observing the dual
system air pressure gauge and the low-air-pressure
warning light and buzzer. The warning light and buzzer
shut off when air pressure in both systems reaches 64
to 76 psi (441 to 524 kPa).
The warning light and buzzer come on if air pressure
drops below 64 to 76 psi (441 to 524 kPa) in either system. If this happens, check the air system pressure
gauges to determine which system has low air pressure. Although the vehicle’s speed can be reduced using the foot brake control pedal, either the front or rear
service brakes will not be operating, causing a longer
stopping distance. Bring the vehicle to a safe stop, and
have the air system repaired before continuing.
WARNING
Do not drive the vehicle with the parking brakes
caged. If the vehicle is driven with the parking
brakes caged, there would be no means of stopping
the vehicle if a complete loss of air pressure occurred. This could result in serious personal injury
or vehicle damage. Before caging the spring parking brakes, make the connection to a towing vehicle
or chock the tires.
Brakes
NOTE: Before a vehicle with insufficient system air
pressure can be moved, the spring parking brakes
must be released by applying an external air
source at the gladhands, or by manually caging
(manually releasing) the parking brake springs.
After correcting the brake system problem, uncage the
spring parking brakes before resuming normal vehicle
operation.
f421624
Fig. 7.1, Parking Brake Valve Knob
Operation
Before driving the vehicle, secure all loose items in the
cab so that they will not fly forward during a full brake
application. Make sure all occupants are wearing seat
belts.
During normal brake stops, depress the foot brake control pedal until braking action slows down the vehicle.
Increase or decrease the pressure on the pedal so that
the vehicle comes to a smooth, safe stop. When the
forward speed of the vehicle has decreased almost to
the idling speed of the engine, push the clutch pedal in,
and shift the transmission into neutral. Apply the spring
parking brakes if the vehicle is to be parked.
The yellow diamond-shaped knob (Fig. 7.1) on the control panel actuates the parking brake valve. Pulling out
the knob applies the spring parking brakes.
CAUTION
Do not use the spring parking brakes if the service
brakes are hot, such as after descending a steep
grade. Also, do not use the spring parking brakes
during freezing temperatures if the service brakes
are wet. To do so could damage the brakes if hot, or
cause them to freeze during cold weather.
If the brakes are wet, drive the vehicle in low gear
and lightly apply the brakes to heat and dry them.
Allow hot brakes to cool before using the spring
parking brakes. Always chock the tires.
If the brakes are wet, drive the vehicle in low gear and
lightly apply the brakes to heat and dry them.
Allow hot brakes to cool before using the spring parking
brakes. Always chock the tires.
7.2
Brakes
CAUTION
Never apply the service and spring parking brakes
simultaneously. To do so transmits excessive input
force to the brake components, which could damage or cause eventual failure of brake actuating
components.
Meritor WABCO® Antilock Braking
System (ABS), Air Brake Systems
The Meritor WABCO® Antilock Braking System (ABS) is
an electronic wheel speed monitoring and control system that works with the air brake system. ABS passively
monitors vehicle wheel speed at all times, but controls
wheel speed during an emergency or reduced-traction
stop. In normal braking applications, the standard air
brake system is in effect.
IMPORTANT: For proper ABS system operation,
do not change tire sizes. The sizes of the tires installed during production are programmed into the
electronic control unit. Installing different sized
tires could result in a reduced braking force, leading to longer stopping distances.
ABS includes signal-generating tone wheels and sensors located in the wheel hubs of each sensed axle.
The sensors transmit vehicle wheel speed information
7.3
to an electronic control unit (located behind the passenger seat). The control unit’s main circuit interprets the
speed sensor signals and calculates wheel speed,
wheel retardation, and a vehicle reference speed. If the
calculations indicate wheel lockup, the main circuit signals the appropriate solenoid control valve to reduce
braking pressure. During emergency braking, the solenoid control valve alternately reduces, increases, or
maintains air pressure supply in the brake chamber to
prevent front and rear wheel lockup.
The electronic control unit also has a safety circuit that
constantly monitors the wheel sensors, solenoid control
valves, and the electrical circuitry. The ABS warning
light comes on after turning on the ignition switch. The
warning light goes out, if all ABS components are working properly.
If, during vehicle operation, the safety circuit senses a
failure in any part of the ABS system (a sensor, solenoid control valve, wiring connection, short circuit, etc.),
the ABS warning light comes on and the control circuit
where the failure occurred is switched to normal braking
action. The remaining control circuit will retain the ABS
effect. Even if the ABS system is partially or completely
inoperative, normal braking ability is maintained. An exception would be if a solenoid control valve (or combination solenoid control valve) is damaged and inoperative. As these components are an integral part of the air
brake system, normal braking may be impaired or inoperative.
Brakes
IMPORTANT: If any of the ABS warning lights do
not work as described above, or come on while
driving, repair the ABS system immediately to ensure full antilock braking capability.
During emergency or reduced-traction stops, fully depress the brake pedal until the vehicle comes to a safe
stop; do not pumpthe brake pedal. With the brake pedal
fully depressed, the ABS system will control all wheels
to provide steering control and a reduced braking distance.
Although the ABS system improves vehicle control during emergency braking situations, the driver still has the
responsibility to change driving styles depending on the
existing traffic and road conditions. For example, the
ABS system cannot prevent an accident if the driver is
speeding or following too closely on slippery road
surfaces.
cal problem with the foundation brake components or
the adjuster is improperly installed.
Visit a repair facility as soon as possible when brakes
equipped with automatic slack adjusters are determined
to be out of adjustment.
WARNING
Manually adjusting an automatic slack adjuster to
bring the pushrod stroke within legal limits is likely
masking a mechanical problem. Adjustment is not
repairing. In fact, continual adjustment of automatic
slack adjusters may result in premature wear of the
adjuster itself. Further, the improper adjustment of
some automatic slack adjusters may cause internal
damage to the adjuster, thereby preventing it from
properly functioning.
Automatic Slack Adjusters
Automatic slack adjusters are required on all vehicles
equipped with air brakes manufactured after October
20, 1994. Automatic slack adjusters should never be
manually adjusted except during routine maintenance of
the foundation brakes (e.g., replacing shoes), during
slack adjuster installation or in an emergency situation.
When the brake pushrod stroke exceeds the legal brake
adjustment limit on a vehicle, there is likely a mechani7.4
8
Cab Appearance
Cab Washing and Polishing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Care of Chromed Parts and Stainless-Steel Clad Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dashboard Care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Vinyl Upholstery Cleaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cloth Upholstery Cleaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.1
8.1
8.2
8.2
8.3
Cab Appearance
Cab Washing and Polishing
To protect the finish of your new vehicle, follow these
guidelines carefully:
• During the first 30 days, rinse your vehicle frequently with water. If the vehicle is dirty, use a
mild liquid soap. Do not use detergent.
• During the first 30 days, do not use anything
abrasive on your vehicle. Brushes, chemicals,
and cleaners may scratch the finish.
• During the first 120 days, do not wax your vehicle.
To extend the life of your vehicle’s finish, follow these
guidelines:
• Avoid washing your vehicle in the hot sun.
• Always use water. After the cab is completely
washed, dry it with a towel or chamois.
• Do not dust painted surfaces with a dry cloth, as
this will scratch the paint.
• Do not remove ice or snow from a painted surface with a scraper of any sort.
• To prevent damage to the finish, wax it regularly.
Before waxing, if the finish has become dull, remove oxidized paint using a cleaner specifically
designed for this purpose. Remove all road tar
8.1
and tree sap before waxing. Freightliner recommends that a quality brand of cleaner or cleanerpolish and polishing wax be used.
• Do not let diesel fuel or antifreeze stand on a
painted surface. If either should occur, rinse the
surface off with water.
• To prevent rust, have any nicks or other damage
on the finish touched up as soon as possible.
• Park your vehicle in a sheltered area whenever
possible.
Care of Chromed Parts and
Stainless-Steel Clad Parts
To prevent rust, keep chrome and stainless-steel clad
parts clean and protected at all times. This is especially
important during winter driving and in coastal areas
where there is exposure to salt air.
When cleaning chrome or stainless-steel clad parts, use
clean water and a soft cloth or sponge. A mild detergent
may also be used.
Sponge gently, then rinse. If necessary, use a nonabrasive chrome cleaner to remove stubborn rust or other
material. Do not use steel wool.
Cab Appearance
IMPORTANT: Use only nonabrasive chrome cleaners on stainless-steel clad parts. This prevents
scratching and marring of the polished surface.
large area and allow to soak for a few minutes, then rub
briskly with a cloth to remove the dirt. This can be repeated several times, as necessary.
To help protect the chrome after cleaning, apply a coat
of polishing wax to the surface. Never use wax on parts
that are exposed to high heat, such as exhaust pipes.
If dirt is deeply imbedded, use a soft bristle brush after
applying the soap.
Dashboard Care
Periodically wipe the dashboard with a water-dampened
cloth. A mild detergent can be used, but avoid using
strong detergents.
Vinyl Upholstery Cleaning
To prevent soiling, frequent vacuuming or light brushing
to remove dust and dirt is recommended. Harsh cleaning agents can cause permanent damage to vinyl upholstery. To preserve the upholstery and prevent damage, carefully review the following sections for
recommended cleaning procedures. Waxing or refinishing improves soil resistance and cleanability for all vinyls. Any hard wax, such as that used on automobiles,
may be used.
If dirt is extremely difficult to remove, wall-washing
preparations normally found around the home can be
used. Powdered cleaners, such as those used for sinks
and tiles, are abrasive and must be used with caution
as they can scratch the vinyl or give it a permanent dull
appearance.
Chewing Gum
Harden the gum with an ice cube wrapped in a plastic
bag, then scrape off with a dull knife. Any remaining
traces of gum can be removed with an all-purpose light
oil (peanut butter will also work) and wiped off.
Tars, Asphalts, and Creosote
Each of these items stains vinyl after prolonged contact.
They should be wiped off immediately and the area
carefully cleaned, using a cloth dampened with naphtha.
Ordinary Dirt
Wash the upholstery with warm water and mild soap,
such as saddle or oil soap. Apply soapy water to a
8.2
Cab Appearance
Paint, Shoe Heel Marks
Shoe Polish
Paint should be removed immediately. Do not use paint
remover or liquid-type brush cleaner on vinyl. An unprinted cloth, dampened with naphtha or turpentine may
be used. Use care to prevent contact with parts of the
upholstery that are not vinyl.
Most shoe polishes contain dyes which penetrate vinyl
and stain it permanently. Shoe polish should be wiped
off as quickly as possible using naphtha or lighter fluid.
If staining occurs, try the same procedure as that under
"Sulfide Stains."
Sulfide Stains
Ball Point Ink
Sulfide compounds, such as those found in eggs and
some canned goods, can stain after prolonged contact
with vinyl. These stains can be removed by placing a
clean, unprinted piece of cloth over the spotted area
and pouring a liberal amount of 6 percent hydrogen peroxide onto the cloth.
Ball point ink can sometimes be removed if rubbed immediately with a damp cloth, using water or rubbing alcohol. If this does not work, try the procedure used under "Sulfide Stains."
Allow the saturated cloth to remain on the spot for thirty
to sixty minutes. For stubborn spots, allow the
hydrogen-peroxide saturated cloth to remain on the
area overnight. Use caution to prevent the solution from
seeping into the seams, or it will weaken the cotton
thread.
If stains do not respond to any of the treatments described above, it is sometimes helpful to expose the
vinyl to direct sunlight for up to 30 hours. Mustard, ball
point ink, certain shoe polishes, and dyes often bleach
out in direct sunlight, leaving the vinyl undamaged.
Nail Polish and Nail Polish Remover
Cloth Upholstery Cleaning
Prolonged contact with these substances causes permanent damage to vinyl. Careful blotting immediately
after contact minimizes damage. Do not spread the liquid during removal.
To prevent soiling, frequent vacuuming or light brushing
to remove dust and dirt is recommended. Spot clean
with a mild solvent or upholstery shampoo, or the foam
from a mild detergent. When using a solvent or a drycleaning product, follow instructions carefully, and clean
8.3
Miscellaneous
Cab Appearance
only in a well-ventilated area. Avoid any product that
contains carbon tetrachloride or other toxic materials.
With either method, pretest a small area before proceeding. Use a professional upholstery cleaning service
when extensive cleaning is needed.
Grease and Oil-Based Stains
Mildew
Brush the dry fabric with a soft brush. Sponge with detergent, and blot. If the fabric is colorfast, dilute a teaspoon of bleach in one quart (one liter) of cool water.
Apply with a swab, directly on the mildew stain. Dab
repeatedly with clear, cool water, and blot dry.
Dampen a small absorbent cloth with dry-cleaning solvent or spot remover. Apply carefully to the spot from
the outer edge to the center. Pat and blot with a clean,
dry cloth. Repeat several times, as necessary, turning
cloths so that the stain does not redeposit on the fabric.
Sugar and Water-Based Stains
Apply water-based detergent or cleaner, working in circular motions. Pat and blot as dry as possible. Repeat,
if necessary, before drying thoroughly.
Chewing Gum or Wax
Harden the gum or wax with an ice cube wrapped in a
plastic bag, then scrape off with a dull knife. Excess
wax can be absorbed by placing a thick white blotter
over the wax and heating with a warm (not hot) iron.
Remove the remainder by using the same procedure
under "Grease and Oil-Based Stains."
8.4
9
Pretrip Inspection and Daily
Maintenance
Pretrip Inspection Checklist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.1
Pretrip Inspection and Daily Maintenance Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.3
Pretrip Inspection and Daily Maintenance
Pretrip Inspection Checklist
5.
Tilt the cab. Examine the steering gear components.
The following pretrip inspection checklist helps ensure
that the vehicle components are in good working condition before each trip.
6.
Check the coolant level in the surge tank sight
glass and check the radiator and air-to-air aftercooler cooling fins for clogging or damage. Check
the radiator for coolant leaks.
7.
Check the condition of the coolant hoses and
heater hoses.
8.
Check the condition of the drive belts.
9.
Inspect the engine for fuel, oil, and coolant leaks.
Pretrip inspections cannot be performed in a short period. In checklist form, the sequence below may seem
to be overly time-consuming. However, careful pretrip
inspections save time by eliminating stops later to adjust items overlooked or forgotten.
Each checklist step corresponds with detailed instructions found under "Pretrip Inspection and Daily Maintenance Procedures." If any system or component does
not pass this inspection, it must be corrected before
operating the vehicle. Refer to the Cargo Workshop
Manual for repair procedures, and to the Cargo Maintenance Manual for lubricant recommendations, specifications, and maintenance intervals and procedures.
10. Inspect the engine and chassis wiring.
11. Inspect the air intake system for leaks or damage.
Check the intake-air restriction indicator if it is
mounted on the air intake system.
12. Check the fluid level in the hydraulic clutch fluid
reservoir if equipped.
NOTE: Apply the parking brakes and chock the
tires.
13. Check the engine oil level.
1.
Drain the air brake system air reservoirs.
14. Check the oil level in the automatic transmission if
equipped.
2.
Inspect the batteries and battery cables.
3.
Check the fluid level in the windshield washer reservoir.
4.
Check the front hub lubricant level if equipped with
oil-lubricated wheel bearings.
9.1
15. Check the fuel water separator, if equipped, for
contaminants.
16. Lower the cab. Close the drain valves on the air
brake system air tanks.
Pretrip Inspection and Daily Maintenance
17. Inspect the fuel tank(s) and fuel line connections. If
so equipped, be sure the fuel tank shutoff valves
are open.
18. Check the fuel level in the fuel tank(s), and be sure
the fuel cap vent area is clean. If so equipped,
check the fuel/water separator for leaks. If needed,
prime the fuel tank system.
19. If so equipped, check the transmission oil cooler for
debris and for leaks.
20. If so equipped, inspect the fifth wheel and check it
for adequate lubrication.
21. If so equipped, inspect the 7-way trailer cable receptacle(s) for good connections.
22. Inspect the front and rear suspension components
including the springs, shocks, and suspension
brackets.
23. Clean the headlights, rearview mirrors, and the outside of the windshield and all window glass. Check
the condition of the windshield wiper arms and
blades.
24. Clean the inside of the windshield, the gauges on
the dash, and all window glass.
25. Check for excessive play at the steering wheel.
26. Adjust the driver’s seat, then align the rearview mirrors.
27. Check the seat belts for secure mounting and for
damage.
28. Check the cab interior for loose items and secure
or remove them.
29. Turn on the ignition and start the engine. Be sure
the air- and oil-pressure warning systems, if
equipped, are operating. Leave the engine running.
30. Make sure the electric horn and air horn, windshield
wipers and washer, heater and defroster are operating properly.
31. Check the operation of the backup alarm if so
equipped.
32. Turn on the lights. Check the operation of all gauge
lights and interior lights. Leave the lights on.
33. Make sure all of the lights are working, including
the brake lights, high- and low-beam headlights,
turn signals, clearance lights, and four-way flashers.
Check the condition of the reflectors. Turn the lights
off.
34. Check the outer surfaces of the cab for visible surface breaks and damage.
35. Inspect the air brake components including the
brake chamber pushrods, air reservoirs, and air
lines.
36. Make sure the brakes are adjusted on all axles.
9.2
Pretrip Inspection and Daily Maintenance
37. Check the tire inflation pressures and inspect each
tire for bulges, cracks, cuts, and penetrations.
38. Check for indications of loose wheel nuts or rim
nuts and examine each rim and wheel component.
After the water and oil condense, they collect near
the tank drain valves. Drain the resulting emulsion
as follows:
WARNING
39. Check the air brake system for proper operation.
40. Test the service brakes before leaving the lot.
41. Test the parking brakes on a 20 percent grade.
Pretrip Inspection and Daily
Maintenance Procedures
Whenever equipment requires adjustment, replacement,
repair, addition of lubricants, or a change of lubricants,
refer to the Cargo Workshop Manual for repair procedures and specifications, and to the Cargo Maintenance
Manual for lubricant recommendations, specifications,
and maintenance intervals and procedures.
1.
Drain the air brake system air reservoirs.
Air reservoirs serve as storage tanks for compressed air. They collect water condensed from the
air and small amounts of oil from the air compressor. Water and oil normally enter the reservoir in
the form of vapor because of the heat generated
during compression.
9.3
Failure to drain the air reservoirs as instructed
could cause sludge formation in the air brake system. Sludge could adversely affect braking, causing
loss of control, which could cause death, personal
injury, or property damage.
NOTE: If the air reservoirs are not equipped
with automatic drain valves, they must be
drained daily. If they are equipped with automatic drain valves, they must be drained in
this same manner at least once a week.
1.1
Open the wet tank valve (the drain cock or
pull-chain drain located on the forward end
of the supply air reservoir, which is connected directly to the air compressor). Block
the valve open.
WARNING
When draining the air reservoir, do not look into the
air jets or direct them toward anyone. Dirt or sludge
Pretrip Inspection and Daily Maintenance
particles may be in the airstream and could cause
injury.
2.
1.2
Exhaust the remaining air and moisture from
the system by opening the drain cocks on
the bottoms of the remaining air reservoirs.
Block the valves open.
1.3
Water and oil emulsion often form pockets
which will not drain while compressed air is
in the reservoirs. Because of these pockets,
leave the valves blocked open during the
first part of the pretrip inspection.
CAUTION
Take care to keep the vent plugs tight so that the
neutralizing solution does not enter any of the battery cells and damage the battery.
2.2
If the battery posts or cable terminals are
corroded, disconnect the terminals from the
posts. Clean them with a soda solution and
a wire brush. After cleaning, connect the terminals to the battery posts, then apply a thin
coat of petroleum jelly or dielectric grease to
the posts and terminals to help retard corrosion.
Inspect the batteries and battery cables as follows:
WARNING
Battery posts, terminals, and related accessories
contain lead and lead compounds, chemicals
known to the State of California to cause cancer
and reproductive harm. To prevent possible personal injury, always wash your hands after handling
battery parts and related accessories.
2.1
Be sure the battery holddown is secure. If it
is loose, tighten the hold-down bolts. If it is
broken, replace it.
Remove any corrosion from the hold-down
and the top of the battery. Use diluted ammonia or a soda solution to neutralize the
acid present, then rinse off the ammonia or
soda solution with clean water.
3.
Check the fluid level in the windshield washer reservoir. Add washer fluid as needed.
WARNING
Washer fluids may be flammable and poisonous. Do
not expose washer fluid to an open flame or any
9.4
Pretrip Inspection and Daily Maintenance
burning material, such as a cigarette. Always comply with the washer fluid manufacturer’s recommended safety precautions.
4.
Check the front hub lubricant level if equipped with
oil-lubricated wheel bearings.
Observe the level of the wheel bearing lubricant in
the hub cap at each end of the front axle and, if
needed, fill the hubs to the level indicated on the
hub cap. See Group 33 of the Cargo Maintenance
Manual for recommended lubricants.
IMPORTANT: Before removing the fill plug, always
clean the hub cap and plug.
5.
Tilt the cab. Examine the steering gear components.
Examine the steering gear mounting bolts, pitman
arm nut, and the drag link nuts for tightness. Be
sure the steering driveline and the U-joints are in
roadworthy condition, without cracks, breaks, looseness, or other damage. Tighten loose nuts and replace damaged parts as needed. See Group 46 of
the Cargo Workshop Manual for instructions.
CAUTION
Coolant must be filled to the full line of the surge
tank. Low coolant could result in engine overheating, which could cause engine damage.
9.5
6.
Check the coolant level in the surge tank, check the
condition of the radiator fins and the charge air
cooler (as equipped).
If the coolant is low, check the amount of antifreeze
protection. If the protection is adequate, add a
50/50 mixture of water and antifreeze. If additional
protection is needed, add antifreeze only. Fill to the
line on the surge tank.
Good airflow through the radiator core and air-to-air
aftercooler core is essential for proper engine cooling. The cores allow air passage, but form a particle
barrier which tends to collect insects and airborne
debris.
Inspect for clogged fins. Use compressed air or water directed from the fan side of the core to backflush any material restricting airflow.
On vehicles equipped with a charge air cooler, also
inspect and clean this component. If clogged, the
airflow through the radiator could be restricted.
Bent or damaged fins should also be straightened
to permit airflow across all areas of the cores.
Repair or replace the radiator if it is leaking. See
Group 20 of the Cargo Workshop Manual for instructions.
NOTE: When traveling through areas of high insect concentrations, it may be necessary to clean
Pretrip Inspection and Daily Maintenance
the exterior of the radiator or aftercooler core as
often as every 200 miles (320 km).
7.
Check the condition of the coolant hoses and
heater hoses.
Make sure the radiator inlet and outlet coolant
hoses and heater hoses are pliable and are not
cracking or ballooning. Replace hoses that show
signs of cracking, weakening, or ballooning. Replace all hoses, including heater hoses, at the
same time. Service-type knitted or braided yarnreinforced neoprene hose is acceptable.
Silicone hoses, having an extended service life, can
be substituted for the reinforced neoprene type.
See the Service Parts Catalog or contact your
dealer.
Tighten hose clamps as necessary, but do not overtighten as hose life can be adversely affected.
Be sure the hose support brackets are securely fastened. Make sure the hoses are not located near
sources of wear, abrasion, or high heat.
8.
Check the condition of the drive belts.
Check the drive belt for signs of glazing, wear
(frayed edges), damage (breaks or cracks), or oil
contamination. If a belt is glazed, worn, damaged,
or oil soaked, replace the belt following the instructions in Group 01 of the Cargo Workshop Manual.
NOTE: On Cummins engines, a belt tensioner automatically adjusts the fan and alternator belt to
the correct tension. If the belt slips, repair or replace the tensioner. For instructions, see the Cummins Shop Manual ISB Engines.
9.
Inspect the engine for fuel, oil, and coolant leaks.
Correct any leaks found.
10. Inspect the engine and chassis wiring.
Inspect the engine and chassis for loose wiring,
chafed insulation, and damaged or loose hold-down
clamps. Tighten loose wires or hold-down clamps.
Replace damaged wiring or clamps.
11. Check the air intake system for leaks or damage.
Check the intake-air restriction indicator to determine if the air cleaner filter element needs to be
changed. Replace the filter element if the yellow
signal stays locked at 25 inH 2O for Cummins engines. See Group 09 of the Cargo Workshop
Manual for filter element replacement instructions.
Check the engine air intake piping from the air
cleaner to the engine intake. Inspect the piping for
loose connections, cracks, torn or collapsed hoses,
punctures, and other damage. Tighten loose connections and replace damaged components. Make
sure the piping system is airtight so that all of the
intake air passes through the air cleaner.
9.6
Pretrip Inspection and Daily Maintenance
CAUTION
Failure to maintain a sealed air intake system could
allow the entry of dirt and contaminants into the
engine. This could adversely affect engine performance and result in engine damage.
NOTE: After replacing the filter element, reset the
restriction indicator by pressing the reset button.
12. Check the fluid level in the clutch fluid reservoir.
The reservoir is full when the fluid level is up to the
MAX mark. The fluid level must always be above
the MIN mark. Use only heavy-duty brake fluid,
DOT 3, in the hydraulic-clutch system.
13. Check the engine oil level (Fig. 9.1).
The oil level should show between the upper and
lower marks on the dipstick. Add enough oil to bring
the level up to the operating range. See the engine
manufacturer’s operation and maintenance manual
for recommended lubricants and capacities.
CAUTION
Operating the engine with the oil level below the
low mark or above the high mark could result in engine damage.
9.7
f010346
Fig. 9.1, Engine Oil Level Checking
14. Check the oil level in the automatic transmission (if
equipped).
NOTE: The fluid must be warm to ensure an accurate check. The fluid level rises as temperature increases.
With the vehicle on a level surface, check the oil
level in the transmission using one of the following
procedures:
Pretrip Inspection and Daily Maintenance
Hot Check
• Operate the transmission in a drive range
until normal operating temperature, 160 to
200°F (71 to 93°C), is reached.
• Park the vehicle. Shift to neutral (N) and apply the parking brake. Let the engine run at
idle.
• Wipe the dipstick clean and check the fluid
level. A safe operating level is any level
within the HOT RUN (upper) band on the
dipstick.
• If the fluid is not within this range, add or
drain fluid as needed to bring the level to the
top of the HOT RUN band. See Group 26 of
the Cargo Maintenance Manual for fluid types
and capacities.
COLD RUN band, add or drain fluid until it
reaches the middle of the COLD RUN band.
• Perform a hot check at the first opportunity after
normal operating temperature, 160 to 200°F (71
to 93°C), is reached.
15. Check the fuel water separator, if equipped, for
contaminants.
With the engine shut down, partially open the drain
valve under the collection bowl and drain water and
contaminants as needed.
16. Lower the cab. Close the drain valves on the air
brake system air tanks.
17. Inspect the fuel tank(s) and fuel line connection. If
equipped, be sure the fuel tank shutoff valves are
open.
• A cold check may be made when the sump temperature is 60 to 104°F (15 to 40°C).
Replace leaking fuel tanks. Repair or replace any
lines or connections that are leaking. For procedures, see Group 47of the Cargo Workshop
Manual.
• Run the engine for at least one minute to clear
the fluid system of air.
If equipped with fuel tank shutoff valves, be sure
the valves are fully open.
Cold Check
• With the engine running, wipe the dipstick clean
and check the fluid level. Any level within the
COLD RUN (lower) band is satisfactory for operating the vehicle. If the level is not within the
WARNING
Never operate the engine with the fuel tank shutoff
valves partly closed. This could damage the fuel
9.8
Pretrip Inspection and Daily Maintenance
pump, causing sudden loss of engine power, possibly resulting in serious personal injury due to reduced vehicle control.
18. Check the fuel level in the tank(s) and be sure the
fuel cap vent area is clean. Check the fuel/water
separator, if equipped, for leaks, and if needed,
prime the fuel tank system.
WARNING
Never fill fuel tanks to more than 95 percent of their
liquid capacity. This could make them more likely to
rupture from impact, possibly causing fire and resulting in serious personal injury or death by burning.
IMPORTANT: Use only low-sulfur diesel fuels.
Low-sulfur diesel fuels have a maximum 0.05
percent sulfur content compared to a 0.26 to
0.30 percent sulfur content. Failure to use lowsulfur diesel fuels may void the warranty on
emission components.
18.1
9.9
To keep condensation to a minimum, fill the
fuel tanks at the end of each day, but not to
more than 95 percent of liquid capacity. Select the proper grade of fuel as specified by
the engine manufacturer.
WARNING
Do not mix gasoline or alcohol with diesel fuel. This
mixture could cause an explosion. When filling fuel
tanks, do not smoke or use an open flame near the
fuel tanks. Combustion of diesel fuel oil or fuel vapors could result, possibly causing personal injury
or property damage.
18.2
Always strain or filter fuel before filling it into
the tanks. This will lengthen the life of the
engine fuel filter and reduce the chances of
dirt entering the engine.
18.3
Before installing the fuel cap, check the vent
line for debris. Clean the area around the
fuel tank cap with a rag, or if necessary,
clean the cap with solvent.
CAUTION
Don’t crank the engine for more than 30 seconds at
a time during any of the following procedures. Wait
two minutes after each try to allow the starter to
cool. Failure to do so could cause starter damage.
IMPORTANT: Before doing any of the following
procedures, make sure there is an adequate
amount of fuel in the tank(s). Do not fill the
Pretrip Inspection and Daily Maintenance
tank(s) to more than 95 percent of liquid capacity.
Remove the air hose and tighten the fuel
supply line.
18.4
Start the engine. Once the engine has
started, it may run rough. If this occurs, run
the engine at low idle until it runs smoothly.
On vehicles equipped with a single tank,
prime the fuel system, if needed. On vehicles with dual tanks, go to the next substep.
If the engine is equipped with a priming
pump, do the following:
Unlock and operate the engine priming
pump plunger until resistance is felt.
IMPORTANT: To prevent fuel loss or entry of
air into a fuel line, make sure that all fuel line
connections are tight.
Push the plunger in and tighten it by hand.
On vehicles equipped with dual tanks and
single suction and return lines (with crossover line), prime the fuel system if needed.
Start the engine. If it does not start, more
priming is needed. Once the engine has
started, it may run rough. If this occurs, run
the engine at low idle until it runs smoothly.
Use the same procedure provided in the
previous substep for vehicles equipped with
a single tank. Do the procedure on the tank
equipped with the supply line.
If the engine is not equipped with a priming
pump, do the following:
Remove the fuel tank cap.
Loosen the fuel supply line at the fuel transfer pump.
Partially cover the fuel tank opening with
your hand. Using an air hose, apply no more
than 5 psi (35 kPa) air pressure to the fuel
tank and look for a constant fuel flow at the
loosened fuel supply line.
18.5
19. If equipped, check the transmission oil cooler for
debris and for leaks.
Remove debris and repair leaks as needed.
20. If so equipped, inspect the fifth wheel and check it
for adequate lubrication.
WARNING
Check to be sure that the trailer is securely connected to the tractor. Failure to achieve complete
9.10
Pretrip Inspection and Daily Maintenance
fifth wheel lockup may allow disengagement of the
tractor from the trailer, possibly resulting in serious
personal injury or death.
20.1
If the vehicle is a truck-trailer combination,
be sure the trailer hitch is locked and the
safety cable or chains are connected. Be
sure air hoses and the light cable are connected.
WARNING
Check to be sure that the trailer hitch is securely
connected to the truck. Failure to lock the trailer
hitch and to connect safety cables or chains may
allow disengagement of the truck from the trailer,
possibly resulting in serious personal injury or
death.
20.2
If the vehicle is a tractor-trailer combination,
check that the fifth wheel lock mechanism is
locked to the trailer kingpin. Refer to Chapter 11 for instructions.
WARNING
Repair or replace any damaged fifth wheels, slides,
or mountings. The use of damaged fifth wheel parts
may cause the trailer to detach from the tractor,
9.11
possibly resulting in serious personal injury or
death.
NOTE: For adjustment and replacement instructions, refer to Group 31 of the Cargo
Workshop Manual.
20.3
With the trailer unhooked from the tractor,
inspect the fifth wheel (daily) for the following conditions:
• Loose nuts or broken bolts on the fifth
wheel assembly, slide mechanism,
and mounting brackets. Replace broken bolts, and tighten loose nuts.
• Cracks or wear on the fifth wheel assembly, slide mechanism, and mounting brackets. Replace each damaged
or worn component.
• Incorrect jaw locking action, and
cracks or wear on the jaw locking
mechanism. Replace the mechanism
if cracked or worn. Repair it if the jaw
locking action is incorrect.
• Gouges or wear on the fifth wheel
plate. Replace the plate if damaged or
worn.
Pretrip Inspection and Daily Maintenance
• Fatigue or cracking of welds, which
must be repaired according to the
manufacturer’s specifications.
WARNING
Keep the fifth wheel plate lubricated to prevent
binding between the tractor and trailer. A binding
fifth wheel could cause erratic steering and loss of
vehicle control, possibly resulting in serious personal injury or death.
20.4
Lubricate the fifth wheel top plate and other
grease points at least once a week and
more often in severe service.
Before connecting the fifth wheel to the
trailer kingpin, always be sure that the fifth
wheel plate is completely lubricated with
chassis grease.
20.5
Clean all foreign material from the fifth wheel
top plate. Lubricate the top plate surface,
pickup ramps, and mounting bracket pivot
pins using a waterproof or multipurpose
chassis lubricant. Lubricate the jam mechanism on all units except the Fontaine® 5000
series fifth wheel. (Fontaine recommends
that jaws and wedges remain dry to avoid
accumulation of abrasive matter.)
21. If so equipped, inspect the 7-way trailer cable receptacle(s) for good connections.
Clean and grease the 7-way socket and plug regularly, especially in regions where magnesium chloride or calcium chloride are used as road de-icers.
These chemicals are highly corrosive to brass and
copper, the base materials for the contact pins used
in the 7-way receptacles. Clean the socket and plug
with a plug brush and apply a moderate amount of
dielectric grease to both the socket and plug pins.
See Group 54 of the Cargo Maintenance Manual
for an approved dielectric grease.
22. Inspect the front and rear suspension components,
including the springs, shocks, and suspension
brackets.
Check for broken spring leaves, loose U-bolts,
cracks in the suspension brackets, and loose fasteners in the spring hangers and shackles. Inspect
the shock absorbers for loose fasteners and leaks.
Tighten all loose fasteners and replace any component that is worn, cracked, or otherwise damaged.
WARNING
Do not replace individual leaves of a damaged front
or rear suspension leaf spring assembly; replace
the complete spring assembly. Visible damage,
9.12
Pretrip Inspection and Daily Maintenance
such as cracks or breaks, to one leaf causes hidden
damage to other leaves. Replacement of only the
visibly damaged part(s) is no assurance that the
spring is safe. If cracks or breaks exist on front
spring assemblies in either of the two top leaves, a
loss of vehicle control could occur. Failure to replace a damaged spring assembly could cause an
accident resulting in serious personal injury or
property damage.
23. Clean the headlights, rearview mirrors, and the outside of the windshield and all window glass. Check
the condition of the windshield wiper arms and
blades.
Be sure the windshield wiper blades are tensioned
against the windshield. Inspect the wiper blades for
damage and deteriorated rubber. Replace the wiper
arms if the wiper blades are not tensioned against
the windshield. Replace damaged or deteriorated
wiper blades.
WARNING
Replace wiper arms and blades when necessary to
maintain good visibility. Poor visibility could interfere with the driver’s ability to control the vehicle,
possibly resulting in serious personal injury or
death.
9.13
24. Clean the inside of the windshield, the gauges on
the dash, and all window glass.
25. Check the steering wheel for excessive play.
With the front tires straight ahead, turn the steering
wheel until motion is observed at the front wheels.
Align a reference mark on a ruler, then slowly turn
the steering wheel in the opposite direction until
motion is again detected at the wheels. Measure
the lash (free play) at the rim of the steering wheel.
See Fig. 9.2.
Excessive lash exists if steering wheel movement
exceeds 4-3/4 inches (121 mm) with a 20-inch
(470-mm) steering wheel. If there is excessive lash,
check the steering system for wear or incorrect adjustment of the linkage and steering gear before
operating the vehicle.
26. Adjust the driver’s seat, then align the rearview mirrors.
27. Inspect the seat belts and tether belts if so
equipped. See Fig. 9.3.
WARNING
Inspect and maintain seat belts as instructed below.
Worn or damaged seat belts could fail during a sudden stop or crash, possibly resulting in serious injury or death.
Pretrip Inspection and Daily Maintenance
1
1
A
2
4
10/02/95
f460158b
3
A. Lash Area
Fig. 9.2, Measuring Lash at the Steering Wheel
27.1
Check the web for fraying, cuts, or extreme
wear, especially near the buckle latch plate
and the D-loop guide area.
27.2
Check the web for extreme dirt or dust and
for severe fading from exposure to sunlight.
27.3
Check the buckle and latch for operation
and for wear or damage.
5
6
NOTE: When any part of a seat belt system
needs replacement, the entire seat belt must
be replaced, both retractor and buckle side.
f910173
09/30/96
1. Worn Web
2. Web
3. Buckle
4. Komfort Latch
5. Retractor
6. Tether Belt
Fig. 9.3, Seat Belt Inspecting (typical seat)
27.4
Check the Komfort Latch for function and
cracks or other damage.
9.14
Pretrip Inspection and Daily Maintenance
27.5
Check the web retractor for function and
damage.
This could cause an accident leading to property
damage, serious personal injury, or death.
27.6
Check the mounting bolts for tightness and
tighten any that are loose.
30. Make sure that both the electric horn and the air
horn work. Then check the wiper and washer control. During cold weather, check the operation of the
heater and defroster controls.
28. Check the cab interior for loose items and secure
or remove them.
29. Start the engine and make sure the oil-pressure
and air-pressure warning systems are working.
When the engine is started, oil-pressure and airpressure warnings will come on until the oil pressure rises above a preset minimum and the air
pressure in both the primary and secondary air reservoir systems goes above 64 to 76 psi (441 to 524
kPa). If the air pressure in both systems is above
64 to 76 psi (441 to 524 kPa) when the engine is
started, test the low pressure warning system by
lowering the pressure to below this range or until
the warning system comes on.
If the warning systems do not come on when the
ignition is turned on, repair the systems.
These devices must be in good working order for
safe vehicle operation. If they are not working, repair them before trip departure.
31. Check the operation of the backup alarm if so
equipped.
32. Check the operation of all gauge lights and interior
lights.
Turn on the headlights, dash lights, and four-way
flashers and leave them on. Check the operation of
the dome light.
If any of the gauge bulbs, the switch panel label
bulb, the dome light bulb, or the right- and left-turn
indicator bulbs are not working, replace them.
33. Make sure all of the lights are working.
WARNING
Failure to repair the engine shutdown/warning system could result in the engine shutting down suddenly, without warning, during vehicle operation.
9.15
Be sure the brake lights, taillights, side marker
lights, headlights, signal lights, and clearance and
identification lights are working and are clean. Test
the high and low beams of the headlights.
Pretrip Inspection and Daily Maintenance
Replace light bulbs or sealed beam units that are
not working.
35.1
Check the clearance between the hoses,
exhaust manifold, and turbocharger, or other
hot spots. Excessive heat will cause the material in the hoses to deteriorate rapidly or
become brittle. Provide at least six inches
(150 mm) of clearance. More clearance is
recommended, especially if the hose is located above the heat source.
35.2
Check for kinks, dents, or swelling of the
hoses. If a hose is damaged, replace it with
the same size and type.
35.3
Do not route the hose on top of anything
likely to be stepped on or walked on.
35.4
Check for damage to hoses located near
moving parts, such as drivelines, trailer bodies, kingpins, suspensions, and axles. If the
moving parts are catching or pinching the
lines, correct as needed.
35.5
Check for hose damage caused by abrasion.
If a hose is abraded, replace it. Check for
the cause of abrasion, such as loose or
damaged hose clamps. Repair or replace
the clamps as needed.
Be sure all reflectors and lenses on the vehicle are
in good condition and are clean. Replace any broken reflectors or lenses. Turn the lights off.
34. Check the outer surfaces of the cab for visible surface breaks and damage.
35. Inspect the air brake components including the
brake chamber pushrods, air reservoirs, and air
lines.
Look for worn pins on brake chamber pushrods and
missing or damaged cotter pins on the brake chamber pushrod pins. Replace worn pins and install
new cotter pins if necessary.
Check for rusted connections, missing snap rings,
and damaged camshaft grease seals. Repair or
replace damaged or missing parts. Check the air
reservoir band fasteners. Make sure the outside
surfaces of the reservoirs are painted to prevent
corrosion damage. Inspect the reservoir surfaces
for damage, such as cracks and dents. Replace
corroded or damaged reservoirs with new ones. Do
not repair damaged reservoirs. Old or used reservoirs are not acceptable as replacements. If a reservoir requires replacement, see Group 42 of the
Cargo Workshop Manual for instructions.
Inspect the air lines, as follows:
9.16
Pretrip Inspection and Daily Maintenance
35.6
Observe the hose cover condition, especially
hoses exposed to water splash and ice. If
any hose is dried out or ragged (the wire or
liner is showing through the cover), replace
the hose.
35.7
Inspect the front air brake lines for leaks at
the fitting where they enter the air chamber.
35.9
Check the bend radii of all hoses. See
Fig. 9.4. The minimum bend radius of a
hose is that bend which the hose will withstand without experiencing damaging
stresses or kinking. For minimum bend radius values, see Group 42 of the Cargo
Workshop Manual.
When a rubber hose does not meet minimum bend radius requirements, the outside
may appear smooth even if the inner tube is
kinked. Reroute the hose or replace it with
one of adequate length if the bend radius is
not within minimum specifications.
With an assistant at the front wheels to inspect the brake lines, turn the wheels to full
lock in one direction and hold the service
brake pedal down. Inspect the front brake air
lines closely near where they enter the air
chambers.
Turn the wheels to full lock in the other direction, hold the service brake pedal down,
and repeat the inspection.
If there is a leak, the hose should be replaced. See Group 42 of the Cargo Workshop Manual for the hose replacement procedure.
35.8
Inspect air tubing, especially tubing made of
nylon. In cold weather, nylon tubing is sensitive to damage, such as nicks or cuts. Replace nicked or cut tubing, even if it is not
leaking.
11/03/94
A
NOTE: Center of the hose bend radius should be well
away from the fitting.
A. Bend Radius
Fig. 9.4, Bend Radius
9.17
f420329a
Pretrip Inspection and Daily Maintenance
35.10 Check straight hose installations (those
hoses that do not bend along their routings).
Pressure changes can cause a hose to
lengthen up to two percent, or shorten up to
four percent. A 100-inch (2540-mm) length of
hose, for example, can contract to 96 inches
(2440 mm). If the hose has no slack when it
is exhausted of air, replace it with one of
adequate length to avoid a possible blow-off
from the fitting during vehicle operation.
35.11 Check for kinked or twisted hoses. A sevenpercent twist in the hose can reduce its life
by up to 90 percent. Also, a twisted hose
under pressure tends to untwist. This could
cause it to loosen the fitting. Reconnect
hoses that are twisted.
36. Make sure the brakes are adjusted on all axles.
Adjust the brakes if necessary. See Group 42 of
the Cargo Maintenance Manual for checking and
adjusting procedures.
IMPORTANT: Brake checking and adjusting is necessary for all vehicles, including trucks equipped
with automatic slack adjusters.
WARNING
Do not operate the vehicle with underinflated or
overinflated tires. Incorrect inflation can stress the
tires and make the tires and rims more susceptible
to damage, possibly leading to rim or tire failure
and loss of vehicle control, resulting in serious personal injury or death.
37. Check the tire inflation pressures, and inspect each
tire for bulges, cracks, cuts, and penetrations.
IMPORTANT: The load and cold inflation pressure must not exceed the rim or wheel manufacturer’s recommendations, even though the
tire may be approved for a higher load or inflation. Some rims and wheels are stamped with
a maximum load and maximum cold inflation
rating. If they are not stamped, consult the rim
or wheel manufacturer for the correct tire inflation pressure for the vehicle load. If the load
exceeds the maximum rim or wheel capacity,
the load must be adjusted or reduced.
37.1
Check the inflation pressures of the tires before each trip using an accurate tire pressure gauge (Fig. 9.5). Tires should be
checked when cool. Be sure the valve stem
9.18
Pretrip Inspection and Daily Maintenance
caps are on every tire and that they are
screwed on finger-tight. Inflate the tires to
the applicable pressures, if needed.
Overinflation gives the treaded surface of
the tire a convex shape (Fig. 9.6). This
causes extreme tire wear in the middle part
of the tire since this section is primarily in
contact with the road.
Underinflation gives the tread surface a concave shape (Fig. 9.6). This causes excessive tire wear on the outer edges of the tire
since they are primarily in contact with the
road.
37.2
37.3
37.4
9.19
If a tire has been run flat or underinflated,
check the wheel for proper lockring and side
ring seating, and possible wheel, rim, or tire
damage before adding air.
Moisture inside a tire can result in body ply
separation or a sidewall rupture. During tire
inflation, compressed air reservoirs and lines
must be kept dry. Use well-maintained inline
moisture traps and service them regularly.
Inspect the tires for bulges, cracks, cuts, or
penetrations. A tire pressure check will assist
in uncovering hidden damage. A weekly
f400061
11/03/94
Fig. 9.5, Check Tire Pressure
pressure loss of 4 psi (28 kPa) or more in a
tire may indicate damage and the tire should
be inspected and repaired or replaced.
37.5
Tires should also be inspected for oil contamination. Fuel oil, gasoline, and other petroleum derivatives, if allowed to contact the
tires, will soften the rubber and destroy the
tire.
Pretrip Inspection and Daily Maintenance
and hubs and see Group 40 of the same manual
for wheel and tire servicing. Replace broken,
cracked, badly worn, bent, rusty, or sprung rings
and rims. Be sure that the rim base, lockring, and
side ring are matched according to size and type.
A
B
WARNING
C
11/03/94
f400062a
A. Tire correctly inflated.
B. Tire overinflated.
C. Tire underinflated.
Fig. 9.6, Tire Inflation
38. Check for indications of loose wheel nuts or rim
nuts and examine each wheel component.
Check the wheel nuts or rim nuts for indications of
looseness. Remove all dirt and foreign material
from the assembly. Dirt or rust streaks from the
stud holes, metal buildup around stud holes or outof-round or worn stud holes may be caused by
loose wheel nuts. See Group 40 of the Cargo
Maintenance Manual for torque specifications and
the correct tightening sequence.
Examine the wheel assembly components (including rims, rings, flanges, studs, and nuts) for cracks
or other damage.
See Group 33 and Group 35 of the Cargo Workshop Manual for service procedures on the studs
Have any worn or damaged wheel components replaced by a qualified person using the wheel manufacturer’s instructions and the wheel industry’s
standard safety precautions and equipment. Otherwise a vehicle or workshop accident could occur,
possibly resulting in serious personal injury or
death.
CAUTION
Insufficient wheel nut (rim nut) torque can cause
wheel shimmy, resulting in wheel damage, stud
breakage, and extreme tire tread wear. Excessive
wheel nut torque can break studs, damage threads,
and crack discs in the stud hole area. Use the recommended torque values and follow the proper
tightening sequence.
39. Check components of the air brake system for correct operation as follows:
9.20
Pretrip Inspection and Daily Maintenance
39.1
Release the parking brakes on the vehicle
by pushing in the parking brake control valve
knob. See Fig. 9.7. Check the air governor
cut-in and cut-out pressures. Run the engine
at fast idle. The air governor should cut out
the air compressor at approximately 125 psi
(862 kPa). With the engine idling, make a
series of foot valve applications. The air governor should cut in the air compressor at
approximately 95 psi (655 kPa). If the air
governor does not cut in and out as described above, it must be adjusted to these
specifications. If the air governor cannot be
adjusted or repaired, replace it before operating the vehicle.
f421624
Fig. 9.7, Parking Brake Valve Knob
39.2
9.21
Check the air pressure buildup time as follows:
Release the parking brakes on the vehicle
by pushing in the parking brake control valve
knob. With the air system fully charged to
125 psi (862 kPa), make one full brake application and note the air pressure reading
on the gauge. Continue to reduce the air
pressure by moderate brake applications to
a maximum of 90 psi (620 kPa), then run
the engine at governed rpm. If the time required to raise the air pressure to 125 psi
(862 kPa) (from the pressure noted after one
brake application) is more than 30 seconds,
eliminate any leaks, or replace the air compressor before operating the vehicle.
39.3
Check the air pressure reserve. With the air
system fully charged to 125 psi (862 kPa),
stop the engine and note the air pressure.
Then make one full brake application and
observe the pressure drop. If it drops more
than 25 psi (172 kPa), all areas of leakage
must be eliminated before operating the vehicle.
39.4
Check the air leakage in the system.
With the parking brakes applied, the transmission out of gear, and the tires chocked,
charge the air system until cutoff pressure of
125 psi (862 kPa) is reached.
Pretrip Inspection and Daily Maintenance
With the service brakes released, shut down
the engine, wait one minute and note the air
pressure gauge reading. Observe the air
pressure drop in psi (kPa) per minute.
Charge the air system until cutoff pressure
of 125 psi (862 kPa) is reached. With the
parking brakes released and the service
brake applied, shut down the engine, wait
one minute and note the air pressure gauge
reading. Observe the air pressure drop in psi
(kPa) per minute.
If leakage exceeds the limits shown in
Table 9.1, repair all areas of leakage before
driving the vehicle.
WARNING
Maximum Allowable Service Brakes Air Leakage
Air Leakage in psi
(kPa) Per Minute
Description
Released Applied
Truck or Tractor Only
2 (14)
3 (21)
Truck or Tractor w/Single Trailer
3 (21)
4 (28)
Truck or Tractor w/Two Trailers
5 (35)
6 (42)
Table 9.1, Maximum Allowable Service Brakes Air
Leakage
41. Test the parking brakes on a 20 percent grade.
Pull the parking brake control valve knob or apply
the hand brake with the vehicle on a 20 percent
grade. If the parking brakes do not hold the vehicle,
repair the parking brake system.
Before operating the vehicle, be sure the spring
parking brakes on the vehicle pass the above tests.
Otherwise an unexpected parking brake application
could occur, causing some loss of vehicle control
and possibly resulting in serious personal injury.
40. Test the service brakes before leaving the lot.
When starting to move the vehicle and before picking up speed, test the brakes with the foot valve
and parking brake valve to be sure they will bring
the vehicle to a safe stop.
9.22
10
In an Emergency
Hazard Warning Lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Towing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Emergency Starting With Jumper Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fire in the Cab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.1
10.1
10.3
10.4
In an Emergency
Hazard Warning Lights
Towing
The hazard warning light switch (Fig. 10.1) is located in
the left switch bank on the instrument panel. Hazard
warning lights are operated by pushing the bottom of
the switch. When the hazard warning light switch is on,
all of the turn signal lights and both of the indicator
lights on the control panel will flash. To cancel the warning lights, push the top of the switch.
WARNING
Do not tow an unbraked vehicle if the combined
weight of both vehicles is more than the sum of the
gross axle weight ratings (GAWR) of the towing vehicle. Otherwise brake capacity will be inadequate,
which could result in personal injury or death.
IMPORTANT: When it is necessary to tow the vehicle, make sure the instructions below are closely
followed to prevent damage to the vehicle.
Front Towing Hookup
1.
Disconnect the battery ground cable.
2.
If the vehicle is to be lifted and towed, remove the
drive axle shafts.
CAUTION
f601425a
10/01/98
Fig. 10.1, Hazard Warning Light Switch
Failure to remove the axle shafts when towing the
vehicle with the rear wheels on the ground could
result in damage to the transmission and other
parts.
3.
10.1
Cover the ends of the hubs with metal plates or
plywood cut to fit the axle opening, and drilled to fit
In an Emergency
the axle shaft studs. This prevents lubricant from
leaking out, and will keep contaminants from getting
into the axle lubricant and damaging the wheel
bearings.
4.
Remove the bumper extension and chrome
bumper, if installed.
5.
Attach the towing device. Due to the many variables that exist in towing, positioning the lifting and
towing device is the sole responsibility of the
towing-vehicle operator, who must be familiar with
standard towing industry safety measures.
6.
Lift the vehicle, and secure the safety towing
chains. If additional clearance is needed, remove
the front wheels.
7.
Connect the clearance lights, taillights, and signal
lights. Connect any special towing lights required by
local regulations.
8.
If equipped with air brakes, connect the towing vehicle’s air brake system to the vehicle being towed.
9.
Rear Towing Hookup
CAUTION
Using a rear towing hookup on a vehicle equipped
with a roof fairing could cause damage to the cab
structure.
IMPORTANT: Because of the possibility of excessive wind force which could cause damage to the
cab, do not use a rear towing hookup on any vehicle equipped with a roof fairing.
1.
Place the front tires straight forward, and secure
the steering wheel in this position.
2.
Disconnect the battery ground cable.
3.
Attach the towing device. Due to the many variables that exist in towing, positioning the lifting and
towing device is the sole responsibility of the
towing-vehicle operator, who must be familiar with
standard towing industry safety measures.
4.
Lift the vehicle, and secure the safety towing
chains. If additional clearance is needed, remove
the bumper extension, if equipped.
WARNING
Before releasing the parking brakes, make the connection to the towing vehicle or chock the tires on
the disabled vehicle. Failure to do so could result in
hazardous conditions because the vehicle could
suddenly roll and injury could occur.
Release the parking brakes.
10.2
In an Emergency
5.
Connect the clearance lights, taillights, and signal
lights. Also connect any special towing lights required by local regulations.
Emergency Starting With
Jumper Cables
When using jumper cables, follow the instructions
below.
lated, deep-cycle batteries with jumper cables.
Follow the manufacturer’s instructions when charging deep-cycle batteries.
NOTE: On vehicles equipped with an optional
jump-start post, attach the positive cable clamp to
that post instead of to the battery.
1.
Apply the parking brakes and turn off the lights and
all other electrical loads.
2.
Connect an end of one jumper cable to the positive
terminal of the booster battery, or jump-start post if
equipped, and connect the other end of the cable to
the positive terminal of the discharged battery, or
jump-start post if equipped. See Fig. 10.2.
WARNING
Batteries release explosive gas. Do not smoke when
working around batteries. Put out all flames and remove all sources of sparks or intense heat in the
vicinity of the battery. Do not allow the vehicles to
touch each other. Do not lean over the batteries
when making connections, and keep all other persons away from the batteries. Failure to follow
these precautions could lead to severe personal injury as a result of an explosion or acid burns.
CAUTION
Make sure both starting systems have the same
voltage outputs, and avoid making sparks. Otherwise the vehicle charging systems could be severely damaged. Also, do not attempt to charge iso10.3
WARNING
Do the next step exactly as instructed and do not
allow the clamps of one cable to touch the clamps
of the other cable. Otherwise, a spark could occur
near a battery, possibly resulting in severe personal
injury from explosion and acid burns.
3.
Connect one end of the second jumper cable to the
negative terminal of the booster battery, and connect the other end of the cable to a ground at least
12 inches (300 mm) away from the batteries of the
In an Emergency
two minutes between starting attempts to allow the
starter to cool.
C
A
B
+
−
+
G
E
−
+
−
1
F
A
2
10/18/94
A.
B.
C.
D.
1.
f540303a
To Ground
3rd
To Frame (ground)
4th
Booster Battery
E. To Starter
F. 2nd
G. 1st
2. Discharged Battery
Fig. 10.2, Jumper Connections
vehicle needing the start. The vehicle frame is usually a good ground. Do not connect the cable to or
near the discharged batteries.
4.
5.
When the engine starts, let it idle a few minutes.
WARNING
+
−
E
6.
D
Start the engine of the vehicle with the booster batteries, and let the engine run a few minutes to
charge the batteries of the other vehicle.
Attempt to start the engine of the vehicle with the
batteries receiving the charge. Do not operate the
starter longer than 30 seconds, and wait at least
Do the next step exactly as instructed and do not
allow the clamps of one cable to touch the clamps
of the other cable. Otherwise, a spark could occur
near a battery, possibly resulting in severe personal
injury from explosion and acid burns.
7.
Disconnect the grounded cable from the frame or
other nonbattery location. Then, disconnect the
other end of the cable.
8.
Disconnect the remaining cable from the newly
charged battery, or jump-start post if equipped, first.
Then, disconnect the other end.
Fire in the Cab
WARNING
Urethane foam is flammable! Do not allow any
flames, sparks, or other heat sources such as cigarettes or light bulbs to contact urethane foam. Urethane foam in contact with such heat sources could
cause a serious, rapid fire, which could result in
10.4
In an Emergency
death, severe burns, or gas poisoning, as well as
damage to the vehicle.
The incidence of fire in heavy- and medium-duty trucks
is rare, according to data from the National Highway
Traffic Safety Administration. Federal Motor Vehicle
Safety Standard #302 limits the flammability of specified
materials used inside the cab, but despite this, most
materials will burn. The cab of this vehicle contains urethane foam, which is of concern in this respect.
In Case of a Cab Fire
As quickly as possible, bring the vehicle to a safe stop,
apply the parking brake, turn off the ignition, and get out
of the vehicle.
10.5
11
Fifth Wheels
Holland Fifth Wheels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.1
Fontaine® Fifth Wheels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.6
Fifth Wheels
Holland Fifth Wheels
General Information
Holland fifth wheels (Fig. 11.1) are bracket-mounted to
the tractor frame in a position that best distributes the
trailer load over the tractor axles.
2
1
10/31/94
f310266a
1. Kingpin Lock Release Handle
2. Kingpin Lock Mechanism
Fig. 11.1, Holland Fifth Wheel
The Type "B" kingpin lock mechanism (Fig. 11.2) utilizes two spring-loaded lock halves. The final forward
motion of the kingpin into the open lock halves forces
the locks to close in a 360 degree grip around the
11.1
shoulder and neck of the kingpin, positioning sliding
yokes between the lock halves and tapered rib members of the fifth wheel understructure. The kingpin can
be released only by manually operating the kingpin lock
control handle. The adjustment nut will compensate for
wear on the lock or kingpin.
The Holland Lockguard (Fig. 11.3) is a device that prevents a false lockup, and is used with Type "B" kingpin
lock mechanisms. The Lockguard is a spring-tensioned,
smooth-surfaced tongue that the kingpin passes over
and depresses when entering the lock mechanism. The
Lockguard will prevent the locks from engaging before
the kingpin fully enters the locks. If the kingpin enters
the fifth wheel incorrectly and does not depress the
tongue, the locks are unable to close.
The Type "A" kingpin lock mechanism (Fig. 11.4) utilizes a single hinged lock and cam arm. The final forward motion of the kingpin into the open lock forces the
hinged lock to pivot on a pin and close around the kingpin. The lock is held in place by a spring loaded
plunger. The kingpin can be released only by manually
operating the release handle. The adjustment nut will
compensate for wear on the lock or kingpin.
Fifth Wheel Locking Operation
Locking the Fifth Wheel Mechanism
1.
Chock the front and rear of the trailer tires to prevent the trailer from moving.
Fifth Wheels
2
A
2
B
1
1
3
3
5
4
07/11/2000
f310841
A. Closed Position, Locked
1. Release Handle and Spring
2. Adjustment Nut
3. Lock Halves
4. Lock Pivot
B. Open Position, Unlocked
5. Sliding Yoke
Fig. 11.2, Type B Kingpin Lock Mechanism (bottom view)
2.
The kingpin lock mechanism must be fully open,
and the fifth wheel plate must be completely lubricated with chassis grease. For lubrication instructions, refer to Group 31 of the Cargo Maintenance
Manual.
WARNING
fifth wheel could cause erratic steering and loss of
vehicle control, possibly resulting in serious personal injury or death.
3.
Position the tractor so that the fifth wheel lock
opening is in line (both vertically and horizontally)
with the trailer kingpin. To prevent a false lockup,
the kingpin should be in a position to enter the
Keep the fifth wheel plate lubricated to prevent
binding between the tractor and trailer. A binding
11.2
Fifth Wheels
throat of the locking mechanism. See Fig. 11.3. Adjust the trailer landing gear to give enough alignment height so that the fifth wheel picks up the
trailer on the fifth wheel ramps.
could cause the trailer to disconnect, possibly resulting in serious personal injury or death.
7.
With the fifth wheel lock opening aligned with the
trailer kingpin, back the tractor slowly toward the
trailer, making sure that the kingpin correctly enters
the throat of the locking mechanism. When the
trailer is picked up by the fifth wheel, stop the tractor, then resume a slow backward motion until positive lockup occurs.
After lockup is completed, connect the tractor-totrailer air system lines and electrical cable to the
trailer. Take care to prevent dirt or foreign material
from entering the air lines.
8.
Charge the air brake system with air. Make sure
that the air connections do not leak.
9.
Retract the trailer landing gear and secure the
ratchet handle.
5.
Apply the tractor parking brakes.
10. Remove the chocks from the trailer tires.
6.
Make a visual check for proper kingpin lockup. Release the tractor parking brakes.
11. The load distribution on the front steering axle and
rear drive axle(s) will have a direct effect on the
steering control of the vehicle.
4.
Test for kingpin lockup by pulling on the trailer
against the chocks. Check for correct maximum
clearance between the lock halves. If more than
1/8-inch (3.2-mm) clearance exists between the
lock halves, the lock must be adjusted. Refer to
Group 31 of the Cargo Workshop Manual for adjustment procedures.
WARNING
Adjust the locks correctly to a maximum clearance
of 1/8 inch (3 mm). Incorrect adjustment of the lock
11.3
Determine the front and rear axle weights by weighing the vehicle on scales designed for this purpose.
The maximum axle weight ratings are shown on the
Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS)
label or Canadian Motor Vehicle Safety Standard
(CMVSS) label attached to the left rear door post of
the tractor. The desired load on the axle is no less
than 80 percent of the maximum axle weight rating,
but in no instances should the axle load exceed the
maximum axle weight rating given on the FMVSS
or CMVSS label.
Fifth Wheels
3
2
2
3
1
B
1
11/07/94
4
4
A
D
C
f310106a
A. Locks open.
B. Locks closed.
C. Kingpin correctly entering the lock. Note how the depressed tongue allows lock halves to close completely around the
neck and shoulder of the kingpin.
D. Kingpin incorrectly entering the lock. Note how the steel tongue prevents lock halves from closing, preventing false
lockup.
1. Fifth Wheel Plate
3. Kingpin
2. Trailer
4. Lockguard
Fig. 11.3, Lockguard Mechanism (rear view)
11.4
Fifth Wheels
1
2
2
1
3
3
4
4
A
B
07/26/96
f310532
A. Closed Position, Locked
1. Release Arm
2. Release Handle
B. Open Position, Unlocked
3. Lock Pin
4. Hinged Lock
Fig. 11.4, Type "A" Kingpin Lock Mechanism
WARNING
Do not overload any tractor axle by improperly
loading the trailer. This could cause erratic steering
11.5
and loss of vehicle control, possibly resulting in
serious personal injury or death.
Unlocking the Fifth Wheel Lock Mechanism
1.
Apply the tractor parking brakes.
Fifth Wheels
2.
Pull the trailer air supply valve to cut off the air supply to the trailer.
3.
Chock the front and rear of the trailer tires to prevent the trailer from moving.
WARNING
Do not use the trailer service brakes for parking;
they are not designed for this purpose. If air bleeds
out of the trailer air tank during parking, the vehicle
could roll causing serious personal injury or property damage.
4.
Lower the trailer landing gear until the weight is removed from the fifth wheel.
5.
Disconnect the tractor-to-trailer air system lines and
electrical cable. Plug the air lines to prevent dirt or
foreign material from entering the lines.
6.
Release the kingpin locking mechanism by pulling
the kingpin lock control handle (Fig. 11.1) to the
outward position.
7.
Slowly drive the tractor away from the trailer.
Fontaine® Fifth Wheels
General Information
On Fontaine fifth wheels, kingpin release is accomplished by activating a manual lock control handle located on the left side (roadside) of the fifth wheel. Kingpin lockup occurs when the kingpin is forced into the
jaws and the lock control handle moves to the locked
position.
The fifth wheel top plate is bracket-mounted to the tractor frame in a position that best distributes the trailer
load over the tractor axles.
Fifth Wheel Lock Mechanism for
Trailer Kingpin
The Fontaine fifth wheel lock mechanism for the trailer
kingpin consists of a spring-loaded jaw and a sliding
wedge. See Fig. 11.5. The jaw and wedge each have a
pin permanently attached. The pin on the jaw and the
pin on the wedge fit into elongated notches in the lock
control handle. The notches in the handle control the
limit of movement for both the jaw and wedge. The
notches are arranged so that the wedge is actuated first
during release of the kingpin.
During lockup, the jaw is moved first with the springloaded wedge being allowed to slip into place against
11.6
Fifth Wheels
the jaw. A timing bracket ensures that the wedge and
jaw are moved at the correct time.
2
Placing the lock control handle in the unlocked position
moves the wedge away from the jaw. This action unlocks the jaw so that it can be moved by the trailer kingpin. When the tractor is moved out from under the
trailer, the kingpin moves the jaw until the kingpin is out
of the mechanism. With the jaw in the unlocked position, the lock control handle will remain in the unlocked
position until manually moved by the operator.
1
3
During coupling (Fig. 11.5), the motion of the kingpin
entering the jaw will actuate the jaw and wedge. The
jaw will move behind the kingpin, followed by the
wedge. The purpose of the wedge is to reinforce the
jaw and take up slack around the pin. Any wear on the
jaw is immediately taken up by the wedge so there is
no slack in the connection.
Fifth Wheel Locking Operation
Locking the Fifth Wheel Lock Mechanism
1.
Chock the front and rear of the trailer tires to prevent the trailer from moving.
2.
The kingpin lock mechanism must be fully open,
the fifth wheel plate must be completely lubricated
with chassis grease. For lubrication instructions,
refer to Group 31 of the Cargo Maintenance
Manual.
11.7
A
B
C
01/04/95
f310184c
NOTE: Kingpin correctly entering the lock. Note how the
steel tongue allows lock halves to close completely
around the neck and shoulder of the kingpin.
A.
B.
1.
2.
Unlocked Position
Locking
Wedge
Jaw
C. Locked
3. Trailer Kingpin
Fig. 11.5, Fontaine Kingpin Lock Mechanism
Fifth Wheels
WARNING
2
Keep the fifth wheel plate lubricated to prevent
binding between the tractor and trailer. A binding
fifth wheel could cause erratic steering and loss of
vehicle control, possibly resulting in serious personal injury or death.
3.
4.
A
1
Position the tractor so that the fifth wheel lock
opening is in line (both vertically and horizontally)
with the trailer kingpin. The kingpin should be in a
position to enter the throat of the locking mechanism, as shown in Fig. 11.5. Adjust the trailer landing gear to give enough alignment height for positive kingpin lockup.
With the fifth wheel lock opening aligned with the
trailer kingpin, back the tractor slowly toward the
trailer, making sure that the kingpin enters the
throat of the locking mechanism. Continue the
backward motion until positive lockup occurs.
5.
Apply the tractor parking brakes.
6.
Make a visual and physical check for positive kingpin lockup. When lockup has occurred, the fifth
wheel control handle will have moved to the locked
position. Make sure that the safety latch is down
over the lock control handle. See Fig. 11.6. This will
hold the control handle in the locked position.
2
B
12/05/94
1
f310265a
NOTE: Make sure the safety latch is down when the
control handle is locked.
A. Unlocked
1. Lock Control Handle
B. Locked
2. Safety Latch
Fig. 11.6, Fontaine Fifth Wheel, Locking and Unlocking
7.
Release the tractor parking brakes. Test for kingpin
lockup by pulling on the trailer against the chocks.
11.8
Fifth Wheels
8.
After lockup is completed, connect the tractor-totrailer air system lines and the electrical cable to
the trailer. Take care to prevent dirt or foreign material from entering the air system lines.
9.
Charge the air brake system with air. Make sure
that the air connections do not leak.
13. The load distribution on the front steering axle and
rear drive axle(s) will have a direct effect on the
steering control of the vehicle.
Determine the front and rear axle weights by weighing the vehicle on scales designed for this purpose.
The maximum axle weight ratings are given on the
Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS)
label or Canadian Motor Vehicle Safety Standard
(CMVSS) label attached to the left rear door post of
the tractor. The desired load on the axle is no less
than 80 percent of the maximum axle weight rating,
but in no case should the axle load exceed the
maximum axle weight rating given on the FMVSS
or CMVSS label.
10. With the trailer wheels chocked and the brakes set,
check for clearance between the kingpin and the
fifth wheel jaws by moving the tractor forward and
backward against the locked kingpin. There should
be no slack between the tractor and the trailer. If
slack is present, uncouple the trailer.
For adjustment instructions, refer to the applicable
manufacturer’s service information.
WARNING
WARNING
Eliminate slack between the trailer and the tractor.
Incorrect fifth wheel adjustment could cause the
trailer to disconnect, possibly resulting in serious
personal injury or death.
Do not overload any tractor axle by improperly
loading the trailer. This could cause erratic steering
and loss of vehicle control, possibly resulting in
serious personal injury or death.
11. Retract the trailer landing gear, and secure the
ratchet handle.
Unlocking the Fifth Wheel Lock Mechanism
1.
Apply the tractor parking brakes.
12. Remove the chocks from the trailer tires.
2.
Pull the trailer air supply valve to cut off the air supply to the trailer.
11.9
Fifth Wheels
3.
Chock the front and rear of the trailer tires to prevent the trailer from moving.
WARNING
Do not use the trailer service brakes for parking;
they are not designed for this purpose. If air bleeds
out of the trailer air tank during parking, the vehicle
could roll causing serious personal injury or property damage.
4.
Lower the trailer landing gear until the weight is removed from the fifth wheel.
5.
Disconnect the tractor-to-trailer air system lines and
electrical cable. Plug the air lines to prevent dirt or
foreign material from entering the lines.
6.
Release the kingpin locking mechanism by lifting
the safety latch and pulling the lock control handle
to the unlocked position. See Fig. 11.6.
7.
Slowly drive the tractor away from the trailer.
11.10
Index
Subject
Page
A
Air Brake System . . . . . . . . . . . .
Automatic Slack Adjusters . . . . .
General Information . . . . . . . . .
Meritor WABCO® Antilock
Braking System (ABS), Air
Brake Systems . . . . . . . . . . .
Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Allison Automatic Transmissions . . . .
General Information . . . . . . . . .
Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.1
7.4
7.1
7.3
7.2
5.2
5.2
5.2
B
Back-of-Cab Grab Handle, Step,
and Deck Plate . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.16
C
Cab Door Locks and Handles . . . . . 2.1
Cab Entry and Exit . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2
Driver’s Side Entry and Exit . . . . 2.2
Passenger’s Side Entry and Exit . 2.3
Cab Tilting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.12
To Lower the Cab . . . . . . . . . 2.14
To Tilt the Cab . . . . . . . . . . . 2.13
Cab Washing and Polishing . . . . . . 8.1
Canadian Motor Vehicle Safety
Standard (CMVSS) Labels . . . . . . 1.2
I-1
Subject
Page
Care of Chromed Parts and
Stainless-Steel Clad Parts . . . . . .
Cloth Upholstery Cleaning . . . . . . .
Chewing Gum or Wax . . . . . . . .
Grease and Oil-Based Stains . . .
Mildew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sugar and Water-Based Stains . .
Clutches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Clutch Adjustments . . . . . . . . .
Clutch Operation . . . . . . . . . . .
General Information . . . . . . . . .
Hydraulic Clutch Fluid Reservoir
Checking . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lubrication . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cold Start Manifold Heater . . . . . . .
Cold Weather Operation . . . . . . . .
Cummins Engines . . . . . . . . . .
Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Air Horn, Optional . . . . . . . . . .
Air Suspension Dump Valve,
Optional . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Allison Automatic Transmission
Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cigar Lighter . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cummins Electronic Engine . . . .
Dome Light Switch . . . . . . . . . .
Electric Horn . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hazard Warning Light Switch . . .
8.1
8.3
8.4
8.4
8.4
8.4
6.1
6.2
6.1
6.1
6.3
6.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
3.1
3.8
3.7
3.8
3.7
3.5
3.4
3.8
3.8
Subject
Page
Headlight Switch and Daytime
Running Lights . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1
Ignition Switch and Key . . . . . . . 3.1
Interrupt Switch . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5
Panel Light Control . . . . . . . . . 3.1
Parking Brake Control Valve
Knob . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.6
Suspension Seat Adjustment
Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.10
Turn Signal Switch . . . . . . . . . . 3.7
Vernier Throttle Control,
Optional . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.10
Windshield Washer . . . . . . . . . 3.5
Windshield Wipers . . . . . . . . . . 3.4
D
Dashboard Care . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2
Door Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1
E
Emergency Starting With Jumper
Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.3
Engine Braking System, Optional . . . 4.9
PacBrake Exhaust Brake . . . . . . 4.9
Engine Break-In . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4
Cummins Engines . . . . . . . . . . 4.4
Engine Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5
Index
Subject
Page
Cummins Engines . . . . . . . . . .
Engine Shutdown . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cummins Engines . . . . . . . . . .
Engine Starting . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cummins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
EPA Vehicle Noise Emission
Control Label . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.5
4.8
4.8
4.1
4.1
Subject
Page
Heater and Ventilation System . . . . 3.17
High Altitude Operation . . . . . . . . . 4.9
Cummins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.9
Holland Fifth Wheels . . . . . . . . . . 11.1
Fifth Wheel Locking Operation . . 11.1
General Information . . . . . . . . 11.1
1.3
F
Federal Motor Vehicle Safety
Standard (FMVSS) Labels . . . . . . 1.1
Fire in the Cab . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.4
In Case of a Cab Fire . . . . . . . 10.5
Fontaine® Fifth Wheels . . . . . . . . 11.6
Fifth Wheel Lock Mechanism for
Trailer Kingpin . . . . . . . . . . 11.6
Fifth Wheel Locking Operation . . 11.7
General Information . . . . . . . . 11.6
Front Access Panel . . . . . . . . . . 2.15
Fuller Straight-Shift Models . . . . . . . 5.1
General Information . . . . . . . . . 5.1
Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1
Fuse/Relay/Circuit Breaker
Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.11
H
Hazard Warning Lights . . . . . . . . 10.1
I
Instrument and Control Panel . . . . . 3.1
Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.12
Engine Oil Pressure Gauge . . . . 3.14
Fuel Gauge . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.15
Intake-Air Restriction Indicator . . 3.15
Primary and Secondary Air
Pressure Gauges . . . . . . . . 3.15
Speedometer . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.13
Tachometer . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.12
Transmission Oil Temperature
Gauge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.17
Voltmeter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.14
Water Temperature Gauge . . . . 3.13
P
Pretrip Inspection and Daily
Maintenance Procedures . . . . . . . 9.3
Pretrip Inspection Checklist . . . . . . . 9.1
Subject
Page
R
Rear Axles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Meritor Drive Axles with Main
Differential Lock . . . . . . . . . .
Meritor Main Differential Lock
Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Meritor Two-Speed Rear Axle . . .
6.3
6.4
6.4
6.3
S
Seat Belt Operation . . . . . . . . . . .
Lap Belt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Three-Point Seat Belt with
Komfort Latch . . . . . . . . . . .
Seat Belts and Tether Belts . . . . . .
General Information . . . . . . . . .
Seats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
National Cush-N-Aire II Seat . . . .
Non-Suspended Driver’s Seat . . .
Passenger’s Seat . . . . . . . . . .
Steering System . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General Information . . . . . . . . .
Power Steering System . . . . . . .
2.8
2.9
2.8
2.7
2.7
2.5
2.5
2.6
2.7
6.5
6.5
6.5
T
Tire and Rim Labels . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3
Towing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.1
I-2
Index
Subject
Page
Front Towing Hookup . . . . . . . 10.1
Rear Towing Hookup . . . . . . . . 10.2
V
Vehicle Specification Decal . . . . . . .
Vinyl Upholstery Cleaning . . . . . . .
Ball Point Ink . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chewing Gum . . . . . . . . . . . .
Miscellaneous . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nail Polish and Nail Polish
Remover . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ordinary Dirt . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Paint, Shoe Heel Marks . . . . . . .
Shoe Polish . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sulfide Stains . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tars, Asphalts, and Creosote . . . .
1.1
8.2
8.3
8.2
8.3
8.3
8.2
8.3
8.3
8.3
8.2
W
Warning and Indicator Lights . . . . . 3.10
Meritor WABCO® Antilock
Braking System (ABS), Air
Brake Systems . . . . . . . . . . 3.12
Standard Warning System . . . . 3.10
I-3
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