Measurement Guide and Programming Examples

Measurement Guide and Programming Examples

Measurement Guide and Programming Examples

Agilent CSA Spectrum Analyzer

This manual provides documentation for the following instruments:

N1996A-503 (100 kHz to 3 GHz)

N1996A-506 (100 kHz to 6 GHz)

For firmware revision A.02.00 and above

Manufacturing Part Number: N1996-90028

Supersedes N1996-90018

Printed in USA

April 2011

© Copyright 2006 - 2011 Agilent Technologies

2

Notice

The material contained in this document is provided “as is,” and is subject to being changed, without notice, in future editions. Further, to the maximum extent permitted by applicable law, Agilent disclaims all warranties, either express or implied with regard to this manual and any information contained herein, including but not limited to the implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose. Agilent shall not be liable for errors or for incidental or consequential damages in connection with the furnishing, use, or performance of this document or any information contained herein. Should Agilent and the user have a separate written agreement with warranty terms covering the material in this document that conflict with these terms, the warranty terms in the separate agreement will control.”

Technology Licenses

The hardware and/or software described in this document are furnished under a license and may be used or copied only in accordance with the terms of such license.

Restricted Rights Legend

If software is for use in the performance of a U.S. Government prime contract or subcontract, Software is delivered and licensed as “Commercial computer software” as defined in DFAR 252.227-7014 (June 1995), or as a “commercial item” as defined in FAR 2.101(a) or as “Restricted computer software” as defined in FAR 52.227-19 (June 1987) or any equivalent agency regulation or contract clause. Use, duplication or disclosure of Software is subject to Agilent

Technologies’ standard commercial license terms, and non-DOD Departments and

Agencies of the U.S. Government will receive no greater than Restricted Rights as defined in FAR 52.227-19(c)(1-2) (June 1987). U.S. Government users will receive no greater than Limited Rights as defined in FAR 52.227-14 (June 1987) or

DFAR 252.227-7015 (b)(2) (November 1995), as applicable in any technical data.

Where to Find the Latest Information

Documentation is updated periodically. For the latest information about Agilent

Technologies CSA spectrum analyzers, including firmware upgrades and application information, please visit the following URL: http://www.agilent.com/find/csa

Microsoft

 is a U.S. registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation.

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4

Contents

1. Installation and Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

Initial Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

Safety Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

Power Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

Physically Securing Your Analyzer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

Turning on the Analyzer for the First Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

Firmware Revision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

Printer Setup and Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

Protecting Against Electrostatic Discharge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

Using the Soft Carrying Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

2. Options and Accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

Ordering Options and Accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

Option Descriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

Accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

3. Front and Rear Panel Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

Front Panel Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

Rear-Panel Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61

Key Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

4. Recommended Test Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

Test Equipment for Making Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

5. Spectrum Analyzer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

Making a Basic Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

Measuring Multiple Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

Measuring a Low-Level Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86

Making Distortion Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93

Using the Analyzer as a Fixed Tuned Receiver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101

Channel Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104

Occupied Bandwidth (OBW) Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107

Using the Spectrogram View (Requires Option 271) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111

Pulse Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115

Tune and Listen (Requires Option AFM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117

6. Channel Analyzer Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119

Making Adjacent Channel Power (ACP (I&M)) Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121

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Contents

7. Stimulus Response Measurements (Requires N8995A) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .125

Two Port Insertion Loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .127

One Port Insertion Loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .130

Return Loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .134

Distance to Fault . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .138

8. Demodulating AM/FM Signals (Requires Option N8996A-1FP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .145

Demodulating an AM Signal Using the CSA (Requires Option N8996A-1FP) . . . . . . . . .147

Demodulating an FM Signal Using the CSA (Requires Option N8996A-1FP) . . . . . . . . .153

9. Basic System Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .159

System Reference Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .162

Setting System References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .163

Setting System Time/Date . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .164

Printing a Screen To a File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .165

Saving Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .166

File Naming Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .167

Configuring for Network Connectivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .169

Setting the Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .171

Saving, Recalling, and Deleting Instrument States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .172

Viewing System Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .175

Using the Option Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .176

Testing System Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .178

10. Working with Batteries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .179

Installing Batteries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .181

Viewing Battery Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .182

Charging Batteries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .184

Recalibrating Batteries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .186

Battery Care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .187

Battery Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .190

11. Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .193

Resolving Closely Spaced Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .194

Trigger Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .196

AM and FM Demodulation Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .197

Stimulus Response Measurement Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .198

AM Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .200

FM Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .202

Modulation Distortion Measurement Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .204

Modulation SINAD Measurement Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .205

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Contents

12. Programming Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207

Finding Examples and More Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208

Programming Examples Information and Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209

Programming in C Using the VISA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210

13. Connector Care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219

Using, Inspecting, and Cleaning RF Connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221

14. In Case of Difficulty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225

Types of Spectrum Analyzer Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227

Before Calling Agilent Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228

Returning an Analyzer for Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231

15. Copyright Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235

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Contents

8

1

Installation and Setup

9

Figure 1-1

Installation and Setup

This chapter provides the following information that you may need when you first receive your spectrum analyzer:

“Introduction” on page 11

“Initial Inspection” on page 12

“Safety Information” on page 14

“Power Requirements” on page 27

“Physically Securing Your Analyzer” on page 31

“Turning on the Analyzer for the First Time” on page 32

“Firmware Revision” on page 34

“Printer Setup and Operation” on page 35

“Protecting Against Electrostatic Discharge” on page 36

“Using the Soft Carrying Case” on page 37

CSA 1.0

Figure 1-2 CSA 2.0

10 Chapter 1

Installation and Setup

Introduction

Introduction

The Agilent CSA spectrum analyzer is designed to enable engineers and technicians in a wide variety of industries to make precision RF measurements with speed, ease and confidence. Flexible measurement functionality and high performance are combined with an intuitive user interface to allow faster insight into engineering challenges. Innovative measurement science ensures fast, accurate, and repeatable results. Equipped with USB and LAN connectivity, the

Agilent CSA simplifies common tasks such as remote control, data transfer and firmware update.

Basic test functionality includes:

Spectrum Analyzer:

Channel Power

Occupied Bandwidth

Channel Analyzer:

Adjacent Channel Power (ACP (I&M))

AM/FM Tune & Listen (requires N1996A with Option AFM)

Stimulus/Response Mode (requires N8995A with either Option SR3 or SR6) includes the following measurements:

Two Port Insertion Loss

One Port Insertion Loss

Return Loss

Distance to Fault

Modulation Analyzer Mode (requires N8996A with Option 1FP) includes the following measurements:

Frequency Modulation

Amplitude Modulation

In this chapter, you will learn how to set up the N1996A.

After the Installation and Setup chapter, you will find chapters on each CSA measurement mode with each measurement in that mode, general information on batteries, caring for the CSA, and how to return the instrument for service.

Chapter 1 11

Installation and Setup

Initial Inspection

Initial Inspection

Inspect the shipping container and the cushioning material for signs of stress.

Retain the shipping materials for future use, as you may wish to ship the analyzer to another location or to Agilent Technologies for service. Verify that the contents of the shipping container are complete. The following table lists the items shipped with the analyzer.

Item

Accessories

AC/DC converter

Power Cable (See

Table 1-2 on page 29 )

Stimulus /Response Calibration kit Option

SRK (pn N1996A-SRK) includes:

Coax Accessories Case

Open/Short

Termination

Standard Documentation Set

Documentation CD-ROM

Description

External power supply 15 VDC 150 W

Connection for AC/DC converter power source.

This item is included ONLY when you have ordered Option SRK.

Coax Accessories Case, plastic and foam

(5000-0912)

Open/Short, 50 ohm, N-type male (85032-60011)

Termination, 50 ohm, N-type male (00909-60009)

Includes electronic (PDF) versions of the documents in the standard set (

“Manual Set on

CD-ROM” on page 45). In addition, this

Installation and Setup chapter is no the accessible in a standalone electronic (PDF) version and a text file of the complete firmware copyright information. You can view and print the information as needed. See the front of the

CD-ROM for installation information.

12 Chapter 1

Installation and Setup

Initial Inspection

If There Is a Problem

If the shipping materials are damaged or the contents of the container are incomplete:

Contact the nearest Agilent Technologies office to arrange for repair or

replacement (see “Calling Agilent Technologies” on page 229). You will not

need to wait for a claim settlement.

Keep the shipping materials for the carrier’s inspection.

If you must return an analyzer to Agilent Technologies, use the original (or comparable) shipping materials (see

“Returning an Analyzer for Service” on page 231).

Chapter 1 13

WARNING

CAUTION

NOTE

Installation and Setup

Safety Information

Safety Information

General

This product and related documentation must be reviewed for familiarization with safety markings and instructions before operation.

This product has been designed and tested in accordance with IEC 61010-1:2001

Second Edition, and has been supplied in a safe condition. The documentation contains information and warnings that must be followed by the user to ensure safe operation and to maintain the product in a safe condition.

Safety Earth Ground

An uninterruptible safety earth ground must be provided from the main power source to the product input wiring terminals, power cord, or supplied power cord set.

Chassis Ground Terminal

To prevent a potential shock hazard, always connect the rear-panel chassis ground terminal to earth ground when operating this analyzer from a dc power source.

Safety Information

The following safety conventions are used throughout this manual. Familiarize yourself with the symbols and their meaning before operating this instrument.

A Warning denotes a hazard. It calls attention to a procedure which, if not correctly performed or adhered to, could result in injury or loss of life. Do not proceed beyond a warning note until the indicated conditions are fully understood and met.

A Caution denotes a hazard. It calls attention to a procedure that, if not correctly performed or adhered to, could result in damage to or destruction of the instrument. Do not proceed beyond a caution sign until the indicated conditions are fully understood and met.

A Note calls out special information for the user’s attention. It provides operational information or additional instructions of which the user should be aware.

Safety Symbols and Product Markings

The following safety symbols and product markings are located on the analyzer or the external power supply. Familiarize yourself with the symbols and their

14 Chapter 1

Installation and Setup

Safety Information

meaning before operating this analyzer.

!

The instruction documentation symbol. The product is marked with this symbol when it is necessary for the user to refer to the instructions in the documentation.

Indicates hazardous voltages.

Indicates earth (ground) terminal

Indicates chassis ground terminal

ISM 1-A

This symbol is used to mark the on position of the power line switch.

This symbol is used to mark the standby position of the power line switch.

This symbol indicates that the input power required is AC.

The CE mark shows that the product complies with all relevant

European legal Directives (if accompanied by a year, it signifies when the design was proven).

The CSA mark (not to be confused with the Agilent CSA spectrum analyzer) is a registered trademark of the Canadian Standards

Association.

The C-Tick mark is a registered trademark of the Australian

Spectrum Management Agency.

This is a symbol of an Industrial Scientific and Medical Group 1

Class A product (CISPR 11, Clause 4).

This is a marking of an Industrial Scientific and Medical Group 1

Class A product, and to indicate product compliance with the

Canadian Interference-Causing Equipment Standard (ICES-001).

Separate collection symbol.

The Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) Directive

(2002/96/EC), adopted by EU Commission on 13 Feb. 2003, is introducing producer responsibility on all Electric and Electronic appliances from 13 Aug. 2005. Under EU law, all electric and electronic equipment (EEE) are required to be separated from normal waste for disposal.

Chapter 1 15

WARNING

WARNING

WARNING

WARNING

WARNING

WARNING

WARNING

WARNING

WARNING

Installation and Setup

Safety Information

Safety Considerations For This Analyzer

This is a Safety Class 1 Product (provided with a protective earth ground incorporated in the power cord). The mains plug shall be inserted only in a socket outlet provided with a protected earth contact. Any interruption of the protective conductor inside or outside of the product is likely to make the product dangerous. Intentional interruption is prohibited.

Failure to ground the analyzer properly when using the external power supply can result in personal injury. Before turning on the analyzer, you must connect its protective earth terminals to the protective conductor of the main power cable. Only insert the main power cable plug into a socket outlet that has a protective earth contact. DO NOT defeat the earth-grounding protection by using an extension cable, power cable, or autotransformer without a protective ground conductor.

If this analyzer is to be energized via an autotransformer (for voltage reduction), make sure the common terminal is connected to the earth terminal of the power source.

If this product is not used as specified, the protection provided by the equipment could be impaired. This product must be used only in a normal condition (in which all means for protection are intact).

Whenever it is likely that the protection has been impaired, the analyzer must be made inoperative and be secured against any unintended operation.

To prevent electrical shock, disconnect the Agilent Technologies spectrum analyzer from mains before cleaning. Use a dry cloth or one slightly dampened with water to clean the external case parts. Do not attempt to clean internally.

When operating from an AC power source, always use the three-prong ac power cord supplied with this product. Failure to ensure adequate earth grounding by not using this cord may cause personal injury and/or product damage.

This product is designed for use in Installation Category II and Pollution

Degree 3 per IEC 61010 and IEC 60664 respectively.

The front panel switch is a standby switch only; it is not a LINE switch (power disconnecting device).

Install the product so that the detachable power cord is readily identifiable

16 Chapter 1

WARNING

WARNING

WARNING

WARNING

CAUTION

CAUTION

CAUTION

CAUTION

Installation and Setup

Safety Information and easily reached by the operator. The detachable power cord is the product disconnecting device. It disconnects the mains circuits from the mains supply before other parts of the product. The front panel switch is only a standby switch and is not a LINE switch. Alternatively, an externally installed switch or circuit breaker (which is readily identifiable and is easily reached by the operator) may be used as a disconnecting device.

Danger of explosion if battery is incorrectly replaced. Replace only with the same or equivalent type recommended. Discard used batteries according to manufacturer’s instructions.

This instrument has a recharge circuit. Never install non-rechargeable cells or batteries of a different type.

No operator serviceable parts inside. Refer servicing to qualified personnel.

To prevent electrical shock do not remove covers.

Servicing instructions are for use by qualified personnel only. To avoid electrical shock, do not perform any servicing unless you are qualified to do so.

The opening of covers or removal of parts is likely to expose dangerous voltages. Disconnect the product from all voltage sources while it is being opened.

Adjustments described in the service manual are performed with power supplied to the analyzer while protective covers are removed. Energy available at many points may, if contacted, result in personal injury.

If you are charging the batteries internally—even while the analyzer is powered off—the analyzer may become warm. Take care to provide proper ventilation.

To avoid overheating, always disconnect the analyzer from the external power supply before storing the analyzer in the soft carrying case.

If you prefer to leave the analyzer connected to the external power supply while inside the soft carrying case, you can disconnect the external power supply from its power source to prevent overheating.

The external power supply has autoranging line voltage input. Be sure the supply voltage is within the specified range. (Refer to the specifications guide for your analyzer.)

When operating this product with the external power supply, always use the three-prong power cord supplied with this product. Failure to ensure adequate

Chapter 1 17

CAUTION

Installation and Setup

Safety Information

earth grounding by not using this cord can cause product damage.

VENTILATION REQUIREMENTS: When installing the product in a cabinet, the convection into and out of the product must not be restricted. The ambient temperature (outside the cabinet) must be less than the maximum operating temperature of the product by 4

C for every 100 watts dissipated in the cabinet. If the total power dissipated in the cabinet is greater than 800 watts, then forced convection must be used.

Lifting and Handling

When lifting and handling the Agilent N1996A Spectrum Analyzer use ergonomically correct procedures. If so equipped, lift and carry the analyzer by the bail handle.

18 Chapter 1

Battery Pack Product Safety Data Sheet

Installation and Setup

Safety Information

Product Safety Data Sheet

PRODUCT NAME: Inspired Energy Rechargeable Battery Pack

TRADE NAME: NF2040

CHEMICAL SYSTEM: Lithium Ion

Model: NF2040A22

Volts: 10.8

Approximate Weight: 340 g

SECTION I – MANUFACTURER INFORMATION

Inspired Energy, Inc.

12705 N US Hwy 441

Alachua, FL 32615

SECTION II – HAZARDOUS INGREDIENTS

Telephone: (888) 5-INSPIRE (888-546-7747)

Date Prepared: Jan 13th 2003

Important Note:

The battery should not be opened or burned. Exposure to the ingredients contained within or their combustion products could be harmful

Material Safety Data Sheet Attached:

Review cell manufacturer’s MSDS

SECTION III – OPERATING PARAMETERS

Maximum Charge Voltage:

Minimum Charge Voltage:

Maximum Charge Current:

Maximum Discharge Current:

Recommended Charging Method:

12.6 V

7.5 V

3.0 A

3.0 A

Use an SMBus charger of level 2 or higher to provide a 3.0 A current limited constant voltage of 12.6 V. The charging cycle shall terminate when the average current falls below 150mA.

The information contained within is provided for your information only. This battery is an article pursuant to 29 CFR

1910.1200 and, as such, is not subject to the OSHA Hazard Communication standard requirement for preparation of a material safety data sheet. The information and recommendations set forth herein are made in good faith and are believed to be accurate as of the date of preparation. However, INSPIRED ENERGY, INC. MAKES NO WARRANTY,

EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, WITH RESPECT TO THIS INFORMATION AND DISCLAIMS ALL LIABILITY FROM

RELIANCE ON IT.

Chapter 1 19

Installation and Setup

Safety Information

Battery Pack Declaration of Conformity

Declaration of Conformance

PRODUCT: Standard Battery for Inspired Energy

Inspired Energy Part Number: NF2040

SECTION I – MANUFACTURER INFORMATION

Inspired Energy, Inc.

25440 NW 8 th

Place, Newberry FL 32669, USA

Telephone: +1 386 462 3676

Date Prepared: December 21 st

2004

SECTION II – CONFORMANCE INFORMATION

The listed products have been tested in accordance with the UN document

ST/SG/AC.10/11/Rev.3: “Amendments to the Third Revised Edition of the Recommendations

on the Transport of Dangerous Goods, Manual of Tests & Criteria” and found to comply with the stated criteria

Test # Description

T1 Altitude Simulation

T2

T3

Thermal Cycling

Shock

T4 Vibration

T5

T6

Short Circuit

Impact (Cell-Level test)

T7

T8

Overcharge

Forced Discharge (Cell-level test)

Date Tested

June 21, 2004

July 23, 2004

September 30 2004

Test result

Pass

Pass

Pass

October Pass

November 09, 2004

July 2 nd

2003

Pass

Pass

November 15, 2004

July 2 nd

2003

Pass

Pass

Signed:

David W. Hellriegel

Product Test Laboratory manager

The information contained within is provided for your information only. The information and recommendations set forth herein are made in good faith and are believed to be accurate as of the date of preparation. However, INSPIRED ENERGY,

INC. MAKES NO WARRANTY, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, WITH RESPECT TO THIS INFORMATION AND DISCLAIMS ALL

LIABILITY FROM RELIANCE ON IT.

20 Chapter 1

Batteries: Safe Handling and Disposal

Installation and Setup

Safety Information

Chapter 1 21

Installation and Setup

Safety Information

22 Chapter 1

Installation and Setup

Safety Information

Chapter 1 23

Installation and Setup

Safety Information

24 Chapter 1

Installation and Setup

Safety Information

Chapter 1 25

Installation and Setup

Safety Information

26 Chapter 1

WARNING

NOTE

NOTE

NOTE

Table 1-1

Installation and Setup

Power Requirements

Power Requirements

Typically, the only physical installation of your Agilent spectrum analyzer is a connection to a power source.

Before operating or connecting this analyzer to an external power source,

please read and understand safety information in “Safety Information” on page 14 and the safety considerations and all safety warnings in

“Safety

Considerations For This Analyzer” on page 16.

Line voltage does not need to be selected.

This analyzer does not contain customer serviceable fuses.

If your test system requires a common ground, use the grounding lug provided on the back of the instrument.

For detailed analyzer specifications, see the Specifications guide.

In addition to operating the analyzer on AC power using the external AD/DC converter, you can operate it using internal batteries. For information on the installation and use of those batteries, refer to

Chapter 10, “Working with

Batteries,” on page 179.

AC Power Requirements

Description

Voltage

Voltage

Power Consumption, On

Power Consumption, Standby

Specifications

90 to 132 Vrms (47 to 440 Hz)

195 to 250 Vrms (47 to 66 Hz)

< 115 W

< 7 W

AC Power Cord

The analyzer is equipped with a three-wire power cord, in accordance with international safety standards. This cord connects to the external power supply adapter and grounds the external power supply when connected to an appropriate power line outlet. The cord appropriate to the original shipping location is included with the analyzer.

Chapter 1 27

Installation and Setup

Power Requirements

Various AC power cables are available that are unique to specific geographic areas. You can order additional AC power cables for use in different areas.

AC

Power Cords , on page 29 lists the available AC power cables, illustrates the plug

configurations, and identifies the geographic area in which each cable is appropriate.

28 Chapter 1

Table 1-2 AC Power Cords

Installation and Setup

Power Requirements

Chapter 1 29

NOTE

WARNING

Installation and Setup

Power Requirements

Clock Battery Information

The analyzer uses a Poly-carbonmonofluoride Lithium Coin battery to power the analyzer clock. The battery is located on the CPU board.

If the analyzer’s clock does not work, the problem is probably the battery. See

“Returning an Analyzer for Service” on page 231.

Danger of explosion if battery is incorrectly replaced. Replace only with the same or equivalent type recommended. Discard used batteries according to the manufacturer’s instructions.

30 Chapter 1

Installation and Setup

Physically Securing Your Analyzer

Physically Securing Your Analyzer

To prevent unauthorized removal of your analyzer, you can use a Kensington Slim

MicroSaver security cable to attach the analyzer to an immovable object. Your analyzer has a Kensington Security Slot located on the back of the analyzer. The

Kensington Security Slot is identified on the analyzer with this logo: . For more information, visit http://www.microsaver.com.

Basic Instructions for Using the Kensington Slim MicroSaver

Step 1.

Wrap the steel cable around an immovable object.

Step 2.

Insert the lock into the Kensington Security Slot.

Step 3.

Turn the key.

Chapter 1 31

Installation and Setup

Turning on the Analyzer for the First Time

WARNING

NOTE

NOTE

NOTE

Information

Screen

NOTE

CAUTION

Turning on the Analyzer for the First Time

Before operating or connecting this analyzer to an external power source, please read and understand safety information in

“Safety Information” on

page 14 and the safety considerations and all safety warnings in “Safety

Considerations For This Analyzer” on page 16.

o Plug in the power cord. If the analyzer is to be operated on the internal batteries, ensure that both batteries are installed. They are approximately 50% charged when you receive them and will provide full performance if you choose to operate the analyzer without charging them at this time. (View the charge level for each battery on the battery end display.) If the batteries are showing 1 bar or less, recharging is recommended at this time.

For maximum runtime, it is best to have approximately equal charge levels on both batteries. The instrument will shut down if either battery becomes fully discharged during operation.

Do not connect anything else to the analyzer yet.

o Press the power switch (located in the lower left-hand corner of the analyzer’s

front panel) to turn the analyzer on. See “Front Panel Overview” on page 50.

The instrument requires <2 minutes to power-on.

An information screen appears during the initialization process. The information screen contains the analyzer product number and a URL for accessing product

support information on the World Wide Web. See “Where to Find the Latest

Information” on page 3.

It is important for you to Record the firmware revision and serial number, and keep it for reference. If you should ever need to call Agilent Technologies for service or with any questions regarding your analyzer, it will be helpful to have this information readily available. You can also obtain the firmware revision and serial number by pressing

System

,

System Stats

,

Rev Info

. o Allow the spectrum analyzer to warm-up for 30 minutes before making a calibrated measurement. To meet its specifications, the analyzer must meet operating temperature conditions.

Ensure protection of the input mixer by limiting the input level to 50 Vdc, +33 dBm.

o If using non-DHCP LAN, set the IP address of the analyzer to an appropriate number for your network (one that the network recognizes, but that is not yet in

32 Chapter 1

NOTE

NOTE

Installation and Setup

Turning on the Analyzer for the First Time

use):

Press

System

,

Controls

,

IP Admin

and note the IP address. This is the IP address that will be used if IP Config is set to Static. To view the IP Address selected by DHCP, press

Mode

.

If the current address is not appropriate, press

IP Config

,

Static

,

IP Address

and use the keypad to change it. In addition, you may also need to change the

Net Mask

and

Gateway

settings.

Press

Save

.

Connect the LAN cable to the LAN connector (not the Timing LAN

connector) located on the rear panel of your analyzer (see “Rear-Panel

Features” on page 61).

Cycle the analyzer power. Refer to “Configuring for Network Connectivity” on page 169

It is necessary to cycle the power to the analyzer after plugging in the LAN for the analyzer to recognize the network.

If you are not using a LAN connection, you may want to set the IP Configuration to None to reduce the instrument power-on time.

Why Aren’t All the Personality Options Available?

Many measurement personality options are available for your use and are loaded in the instrument. To make an option available, you must also have a license key entered.

Using an External Reference

If you wish to use an external source as the reference frequency, you must connect an external reference source and set the reference frequency as follows:

1.

Connect an external source to the EXT REF IN connector on the rear panel

(see “Rear-Panel Features” on page 61). The signal level should be greater than

–15 dBm.

2.

Select the frequency of the external reference into the analyzer: a.

b.

c.

d.

Press

System

,

Freq/Time/Ref

Select the up and down arrow navigation keys to highlight the desired reference frequency.

Press

Select

to set the reference source and frequency that you have highlighted.

Press

Cancel

to abort your reference change and retain the previously

selected frequency reference. See “Setting System References” on page

163 for more information.

Chapter 1 33

TIP

Installation and Setup

Firmware Revision

Firmware Revision

To view the firmware revision of your analyzer, Press

System

,

System Stats

,

Rev

Info

. If you call Agilent Technologies regarding your analyzer, it is helpful to have this revision and the analyzer serial number available.

You can get automatic electronic notification of new firmware releases and other product updates/information by subscribing to the Agilent Technologies Test &

Measurement E-Mail Notification Service for the Agilent CSA spectrum analyzer at: http://www.agilent.com/find/notifyme

34 Chapter 1

Installation and Setup

Printer Setup and Operation

Printer Setup and Operation

The Agilent CSA spectrum analyzer does not print directly to a printer. You can print a screen image or measurement data by first saving the information to a USB memory device and then use a PC with an attached printer to print the file. You can save a screen image by pressing (Print) (for detail instructions, refer to

“Printing a Screen To a File” on page 165). Also, you can save a screen image or

measurement results by pressing

Save

and Save Now (for detail instructions, refer

to “Saving Data” on page 166).

Chapter 1 35

WARNING

Installation and Setup

Protecting Against Electrostatic Discharge

Protecting Against Electrostatic Discharge

Electrostatic discharge (ESD) can damage or destroy electronic components (the possibility of unseen damage caused by ESD is present whenever components are transported, stored, or used).

Test Equipment and ESD

To help reduce ESD damage that can occur while using test equipment:

Before connecting any coaxial cable to an analyzer connector for the first time each day, momentarily short the center and outer conductors of the cable together.

Personnel should be grounded with a 1 M

 resistor-isolated wrist-strap before touching the center pin of any connector and before removing any assembly from the analyzer.

Be sure that all instruments are properly earth-grounded to prevent build-up of static charge.

Do not use these first three techniques above when working on circuitry with a voltage potential greater than 500 volts.

Perform work on all components or assemblies at a static-safe workstation.

Keep static-generating materials at least one meter away from all components.

Store or transport components in static-shielding containers.

Always handle printed circuit board assemblies by the edges. This reduces the possibility of ESD damage to components and prevent contamination of exposed plating.

For information on ordering static-safe accessories, see

“Accessories” on page 45.

Additional Information about ESD

For more information about ESD and how to prevent ESD damage, contact the

Electrostatic Discharge Association (http://www.esda.org). The ESD standards developed by this agency are sanctioned by the American National Standards

Institute (ANSI).

36 Chapter 1

Installation and Setup

Using the Soft Carrying Case

Using the Soft Carrying Case

The N1996A soft carrying case is designed to hold the analyzer as well as its cables and accessories.

WARNING

Always disconnect the analyzer from the external power supply before storing the analyzer in the soft carrying case.

Chapter 1 37

Installation and Setup

Using the Soft Carrying Case

38 Chapter 1

2

Options and Accessories

This chapter lists options and accessories available for your analyzer.

39

Options and Accessories

Ordering Options and Accessories

Ordering Options and Accessories

Options and accessories help you configure the analyzer for your specific applications.

Options (see page 41

)

Unless specified otherwise, all options are available when you order a spectrum analyzer; some options are also available as kits that you can order and install after you receive the analyzer. Order kits through your local Agilent Sales and Service

Office.

At the time of analyzer purchase, options can be ordered using your product number and the number of the option you are ordering. For example, if you are ordering Option SRK for an Agilent N1996A, you would order N1996A-SRK.

If you are ordering an option after the purchase of your analyzer, you will need to add a K (for kit) to the product number and then specify which option you are ordering (for example, N1996AK-SRK.)

If you know the option you wish to order, refer to “Options” on page 41 which is in

ascending order by option number and type. Complete option descriptions can be found in the following section, listed in alphabetical order by option name under

“Option Descriptions” on page 43.

For the latest information on Agilent Spectrum Analyzer options and upgrade kits, visit the following URL: http://www.agilent.com/find/sa_upgrades

Accessories (see page 45

)

Order accessories through your local Agilent Sales and Service Office. For information on contacting Agilent Sales and Service, refer to

“Calling Agilent

Technologies” on page 229.

40 Chapter 2

Options and Accessories

Options

Options

Each option is described below in alpha/numeric order according to option number.

Option Number

0950-5023

0BW

1CM

1CP

271

503

506

ABA

AB2

AFM

BAT

BCG

Name Description

External AC/DC Power Supply External power supply 16 VDC 150 W

Service Documentation

The Service guide describes assembly-level troubleshooting procedures, provides a parts list, and documents post-repair procedures.

Rack Mount Kit

Rack Mount Kit with Handles

Includes rack mount flanges and hardware. Used to rack mount analyzers without front handles (available as P/N N1996-60028).

Includes the parts necessary to rack mount an analyzer with front handles attached (available as P/N N1996-60029). (Includes handles.)

Spectrogram

Provides a display with a history of the spectrum. You can use it to:

Locate intermittent signals.

Track signal levels over time.

Spectrum Analyzer Frequency Range: 100 kHz to 3 GHz

100 kHz to 3 GHz

1

100 kHz to 6 GHz

1

Spectrum Analyzer Frequency Range: 100 kHz to 6 GHz

Measurement Guide

Measurement Guide,

Simplified Chinese

Localization

AM/FM Tune & Listen

Battery Pack

External Battery Charger

An English language printed copy of the standard Measurement

Guide in addition to the standard documentation on the Manual Set on

CD-ROM shipped with the analyzer. For additional information on the contents of the Documentation CD-ROM, refer to

“Manual Set on

CD-ROM” on page 45.

Provides details on how to measure various signals, and how to use catalogs and files.

In addition, this manual covers unpacking and setting up the analyzer, analyzer features, and how to make a basic measurement. Includes information on options and accessories, and what to do if you have a problem.

A Simplified Chinese language version of the standard Measurement

Guide.

Provides the same information as Option ABA listed above.

Provides the audible detection of AM or FM signals at specific frequency.

Two batteries: 10.8 V 4.56 A-HR LI-ION (pn 1420-0891) (2 batteries are required for the operation of the instrument).

External charger/DC adapter, includes:

External power supply AC/DC adapter

Dual battery charger

Chapter 2 41

Options and Accessories

Options

Option Number Name Description

HTC

N8995A - SR3

N8995A - SR6

N8996A-1FP

0B0

P03

P06

Hard Transit Case

Stimulus/Response

Measurement Suite to 3 GHz

2

Stimulus/Response

Measurement Suite to 6 GHz

3

AM/FM Modulation Analysis

Manual Set on CD-ROM Only

3 GHz Preamplifier

6 GHz Preamplifier

The hard transit case will survive commercial transportation. This rugged case has two wheels and an extendible handle for easy transport. The case can also accommodate two battery packs and ac adapters. To order the option HTC which requires the soft carrying case (option SCC) for filling the space in the hard transit case.

Provides Stimulus/Response measurements:

Distance to Fault

Two Port Insertion Loss

One Port Insertion Loss

Return Loss

Provides Stimulus/Response measurements:

Distance to Fault

Two Port Insertion Loss

One Port Insertion Loss

Return Loss

Provides AM/FM demodulation measurements:

Amplitude Modulation

Frequency Modulation

The documentation CD-ROM contains the standard documentation set as well as Adobe Acrobat Reader with Search.

An internal preamplifier assembly. For use with Option 503 only.

Frequency Range: 100 kHz to 3 GHz

An internal preamplifier assembly. For use with Option 506 only.

Frequency Range: 100 kHz to 6 GHz

Provides your analyzer with a 3 year analyzer calibration contract.

R-50C-011-3

R-51B-001-3C

3 Year Inclusive Calibration

Contract

3-Year Warranty Service

Support

1

A total of 3 years of return-to-Agilent warranty service support. This adds a 2-year service contract to the base analyzer 1-year warranty

SCC

SRK

Soft Carrying Case

Stimulus/Response Calibration

Kit

An ergonomically designed case to hold the analyzer as well as its cables and accessories.

The kit includes:

Coax Accessories Case, plastic and foam (5000-0912)

Open/Short, 50 ohm, N-type male (85032-60011)

Termination, 50 ohm, N-type male (00909-60009)

1. Available only at time of purchase

2. The option replaces N1996A/TG3 + N8995A/1FP in CSA1.0.

3. The option replaces N1996A/TG6 + N8995A/1FP in CSA1.0.

42 Chapter 2

Options and Accessories

Option Descriptions

Option Descriptions

Each option is described below in alphabetical order according to option name.

Name

3 Year Inclusive Calibration

Contract

3-Year Warranty Service

Support

1

100 kHz to 3 GHz Spectrum

Analyzer

1

100 kHz to 6 GHz Spectrum

Analyzer

1

Option

Number

Description

Provides your analyzer with a 3 year analyzer calibration contract.

R-50C-011-3

R-51B-001-3C

A total of 3 years of return-to-Agilent warranty service support. This adds a 2-year service contract to the base analyzer 1-year warranty.

Spectrum Analyzer Frequency Range: 100 kHz to 3 GHz

503

Spectrum Analyzer Frequency Range: 100 kHz to 6 GHz

506

AM/FM Modulation Analysis

AM/FM Tune & Listen

Battery Pack

External AC/DC Power Supply

External Battery Charger

Hard Transit Case

Manual Set on CD-ROM Only

Measurement Guide

N8996A-1FP

AFM

BAT

0950-5023

BCG

HTC

0B0

ABA

Provides AM/FM demodulation measurements:

Amplitude Modulation

Frequency Modulation

Provides the audible detection of AM or FM signals at specific frequency.

Two batteries: 10.8 V 4.56 A-HR LI-ION (pn 1420-0891) (2 batteries are required for the operation of the instrument.)

External power supply 16 VDC 150 W

External charger/DC adapter, includes:

External power supply AC/DC adapter 24 VDC 2.7 A

Dual battery charger

The hard transit case will survive commercial transportation. This rugged case has two wheels and an extendible handle for easy transport. The case can also accommodate two battery packs and AC adapters. To order the option HTC which requires the soft carrying case (option SCC) for filling the space in the hard transit case.

The documentation CD-ROM contains the standard documentation set as well as Adobe Acrobat Reader with Search.

An English language printed copy of the standard Measurement Guide in addition to the standard documentation in the Manual Set on

CD-ROM shipped with the analyzer. For additional information on the

contents of the Documentation CD-ROM, refer to “Manual Set on

CD-ROM” on page 45.

Provides details on how to measure various signals, and how to use catalogs and files.

In addition, this manual covers unpacking and setting up the analyzer, analyzer features, and how to make a basic measurement. Includes information on options and accessories, and what to do if you have a problem.

Chapter 2 43

Options and Accessories

Option Descriptions

Name

Option

Number

Description

Measurement Guide,

Simplified Chinese

Localization

Preamplifier, 3 GHz

Preamplifier, 6 GHz

Rack Mount Kit

Rack Mount Kit with Handles

Service Documentation

Soft Carrying Case

Spectrogram

Stimulus/Response Calibration

Kit

Stimulus/Response

Measurement Suite to 3 GHz

2

Stimulus/Response

Measurement Suite to 6 GHz

3

AB2

P03

P06

1CM

1CP

0BW

SCC

271

SRK

N8995A - SR3

N8995A - SR6

A Simplified Chinese language version of the standard Measurement

Guide.

Provides the same information as Option ABA listed above.

An internal preamplifier assembly.

Frequency Range: 100 kHz to 3 GHz

An internal preamplifier assembly.

Frequency Range: 100 kHz to 6 GHz

Includes rack mount flanges and hardware. Used to rack mount analyzers without front handles (available as P/N 5063-9215 and

N1996-60021).

Includes the parts necessary to rack mount an analyzer with front handles attached (available as P/N 5063-9222 and N1996-60021).

(Includes handles.)

The Service guide describes assembly-level troubleshooting procedures, provides a parts list, and documents post-repair procedures.

An ergonomically designed case to hold the analyzer as well as its cables and accessories.

Provides a display with a history of the spectrum. You can use it to:

Locate intermittent signals.

Track signal levels over time.

The kit includes:

Coax Accessories Case, plastic and foam (5000-0912)

Open/Short, 50 ohm, N-type male (85032-60011)

Termination, 50 ohm, N-type male (00909-60009)

Provides Stimulus/Response measurements:

Distance to Fault

Two Port Insertion Loss

One Port Insertion Loss

Return Loss

Provides Stimulus/Response measurements:

Distance to Fault

Two Port Insertion Loss

One Port Insertion Loss

Return Loss

1. Available only at time of purchase

2. The option replaces N1996A/TG3 + N8995A/1FP in CSA1.0.

3. The option replaces N1996A/TG6 + N8995A/1FP in CSA1.0.

44 Chapter 2

NOTE

NOTE

Options and Accessories

Accessories

Accessories

A number of accessories are available from Agilent Technologies to help you configure your analyzer for your specific applications. They can be ordered through your local Agilent Sales and Service Office and are listed below.

Manual Set on CD-ROM

The documentation CD-ROM contains the standard documentation set in electronic (PDF) format as well as Adobe Acrobat Reader with Search.

The standard documentation set includes:

User’s/Programmer’s Guide: Describes analyzer features in detail, including front-panel key descriptions, basic spectrum analyzer programming information, and SCPI command descriptions.

Measurement Guide: Provides details on how to measure various signals, and how to use catalogs and files. In addition, this manual covers unpacking and setting up the analyzer, analyzer features, and how to make a basic measurement. Includes information on options and accessories, and what to do if you have a problem.

Specifications Guide: Documents specifications, safety, and regulatory information.

Instrument Messages and Functional Tests: Includes instrument messages (and suggestions for troubleshooting them), and manual functional tests.

Refer to the front of the CD-ROM, for installation information.

Service documentation is not included in the standard documentation set. See

“Options” on page 41 for information on ordering.

50 Ohm Load

The Agilent 909 series loads come in several models and options providing a variety of frequency ranges and VSWRs. Also, they are available in either 50 ohm or 75 Ohm. Some examples include the:

909A: DC to 18 GHz

909C: DC to 2 GHz

909D: DC to 26.5 GHz

50 Ohm/75 Ohm Minimum Loss Pad

The Agilent 11852B is a low VSWR minimum loss pad that allows you to make measurements on 75 Ohm devices using an analyzer with a 50 Ohm input. It is effective over a frequency range of dc to 2 GHz.

Chapter 2 45

Options and Accessories

Accessories

75 Ohm Matching Transformer

The Agilent 11694A allows you to make measurements in 75 Ohm systems using an analyzer with a 50 Ohm input. It is effective over a frequency range of 3 to

500 MHz.

AC Probe

The Agilent 85024A high frequency probe performs in-circuit measurements without adversely loading the circuit under test. The probe has an input capacitance of 0.7 pF shunted by 1 M

 of resistance and operates over a frequency range of 300 kHz to 3 GHz. High probe sensitivity and low distortion levels allow measurements to be made while taking advantage of the full dynamic range of the spectrum analyzer.

AC Probe (Low Frequency)

The Agilent 41800A low frequency probe has a low input capacitance and a frequency range of 5 Hz to 500 MHz.

Broadband Preamplifiers and Power Amplifiers

Preamplifiers and power amplifiers can be used with your spectrum analyzer to enhance measurements of very low-level signals.

The Agilent 8447D preamplifier provides a minimum of 25 dB gain from 100 kHz to 1.3 GHz.

The Agilent 87405A preamplifier provides a minimum of 22 dB gain from 10

MHz to 3 GHz. (Power is supplied by the probe power output of the analyzer.)

The Agilent 83006A preamplifier provides a minimum of 26 dB gain from 10

MHz to 26.5 GHz.

The Agilent 85905A CATV 75 ohm preamplifier provides a minimum of 18 dB gain from 45 MHz to 1 GHz. (Power is supplied by the probe power output of the analyzer.)

The 11909A low noise preamplifier provides a minimum of 32 dB gain from 9 kHz to 1 GHz and a typical noise figure of 1.8 dB.

RF and Transient Limiters

The Agilent 11867A and N9355/6 RF Limiters protect the analyzer input circuits from damage due to high power levels. The 11867A operates over a frequency range of dc to 1800 MHz and begins reflecting signal levels over 1 mW up to 10 W average power and 100 watts peak power. The N9355/6 microwave limiter (0.1 to

12.4 GHz, usable to 18 GHz) guards against input signals over 1 milliwatt up to 1 watt average power and 10 watts peak power.

The Agilent 11947A Transient Limiter protects the analyzer input circuits from damage due to signal transients. It specifically is needed for use with a line

46 Chapter 2

Options and Accessories

Accessories

impedance stabilization network (LISN). It operates over a frequency range of 9 kHz to 200 MHz, with 10 dB of insertion loss.

Power Splitters

The Agilent 11667A/B power splitters are two-resister type splitters that provide excellent output SWR, at 50

 impedance. The tracking between the two output arms, over a broad frequency range, allows wideband measurements to be made with a minimum of uncertainty.

11667A: DC to 18 GHz

11667B: DC to 26.5 GHz

System II Bottom Feet kit,

System II Feet kit (p/n 5000-0913) is used to make the instrument stackable.

Bottom feet are added to the analyzer. (See Installation Note: 5000-0914). The kit includes:

System II Bottom Feet

Tilt Stand

Key Lock

Static Safe Accessories

9300-1367

9300-0980

Wrist-strap, color black, stainless steel. Four adjustable links and a 7 mm post-type connection.

Wrist-strap cord 1.5 m (5 ft.)

Chapter 2 47

Options and Accessories

Accessories

48 Chapter 2

3

Front and Rear Panel Features

This chapter gives you an overview of the front and rear panels of your analyzer.

For details on analyzer keys and remote programming, refer to the User’s and

Programmer’s Reference. For connector specifications (including input/output levels), see the Specifications guide.

49

Front and Rear Panel Features

Front Panel Overview

Front Panel Overview

This section provides information on the analyzer’s front panel, including:

“Front-Panel Connectors and Keys”

, see below.

“Display Annotations: Spectrum Display” on page 53.

“Display Annotations: Spectrogram (Option 271)” on page 57.

Front-Panel Connectors and Keys

Item

# Name

1

Menu Keys

Description

2

Measurement

Keys

3

Analyzer Setup

Keys

4

Marker Keys

Menu labels identifying the current function of each menu key appear to the left of each key.

Key menus are dependent on the active menu. Also see

“Using Menu Keys” on page 69.

Select measurement mode.

Select and set up specific measurements and mode parameters within the current mode.

Set parameters used for making measurements. These settings will affect measurements in all modes.

Enable markers to obtain specific information about the displayed measurement

50 Chapter 3

Front and Rear Panel Features

Front Panel Overview

Item

# Name

5

Utility Keys

Description

6

PROBE PWR

7

Earphone Jack

8

USB Jacks

9

Battery

Indicators

10

RF INPUT 50

Access features used with all analyzer modes and affects the state of the entire spectrum analyzer. See your User’s Guide for more details.

System

functions affect the state of the entire analyzer. Various setup and adjustment routines are accessed with the

System

key.

The

Mode Preset

and

User Preset

keys reset the analyzer to a known state.

The

Save

and

Recall

keys enable you to save and to recall measurement results, traces, states, and screens.

The

Print

key saves the currently displayed screen to a file.

Supplies power for external high frequency probes and accessories.

Jacks for earphone.

Jacks for connecting USB devices. For example, an external memory device.

LEDs indicate the status of batteries 1 and 2.

11

Data Controls

12

Cancel (Esc)

13

Navigation

Keys

14

Return Key

15

Volume Control

Keys/

16

Help Key

17

Window Keys

(Not currently implemented.)

Input for an external signal. Make sure that the total power of all signals at the analyzer input does not exceed +33 dBm (2 watts).

Change the numeric value of an active function. Entries appear in the active function area of the display. Also see

“Entering Data” on page 69.

Pressing this key when operating remotely will put the analyzer in local mode.

Moves cursor between fields on the display.

Increments and decrements active function values.

Exits the current menu and returns to the previous menu.

Enables you to Mute or increase and decrease sound at the internal speaker or the earphones.

Used with AM/FM Tune and Listen, N1996A with Option AFM.

Press the

Help

key to access the embedded help information. Use the menu keys or navigation keys (item 13) to select the desired help topic. Two types of help are available:

1.

Task help that will guide you through making a measurement.

2.

Key function explanations that provide a short description of a key and the associated remote command.

You can exit help by pressing

Cancel (Esc)

.

Next Window

: On displays with multiple windows, changes the highlighted window that is currently active.

Zoom

: Zooms in on the highlighted window.

Multiple Windows

: On displays with multiple windows, switches the view to multiple window.

Chapter 3 51

Front and Rear Panel Features

Front Panel Overview

Item

# Name

18

Power

On/Standby

19

RF OUTPUT

50

Description

Turns the analyzer on. A green light indicates power on. A yellow light indicates standby mode.

NOTE

The front-panel switch is a standby switch, not a LINE switch

(disconnecting device); the analyzer continues to draw power even when the line switch is in standby. Use the detachable power cord to disconnect the analyzer from the mains supply.

NOTE

The internal frequency reference is not powered when in standby mode.

The output for the built-in signal source. This connector is present on all N1996A analyzers, but the output is enabled only on analyzers with either N8995A, N8995A-SR3 or

N8995A-SR6.

52 Chapter 3

Display Annotations: Spectrum Display

For firmware revisions < A.02.00

Front and Rear Panel Features

Front Panel Overview

Item Description

5

6

7

3

4

1

2

Amplitude scale

Reference level

Auto Range On indicator

Active function block

Internal preamp status

Marker

RF attenuation

AMPTD Y Scale, Scale Type

or

AMPTD Y Scale, Scale/Div

AMPTD Y Scale, Ref Level

AMPTD Y Scale, Auto Range

Refer to the description of the activated function.

AMPTD Y Scale

,

Internal Preamp

Marker

AMPTD Y Scale, Elec Atten

Chapter 3 53

Front and Rear Panel Features

Front Panel Overview

11

12

13

21

22

23

24

15

16

17

18

19

20

Item Description

8

9

10

14

25

26

Over Range: Indicates that the attenuation and preamp (if installed) settings are supplying too much power to the detector.

Distortion may result. Set

Auto Range

(On) to clear.

or

<8Smpl/Pt: Indicates that the current instrument settings have reduced the number of samples/display point to fewer than 8. The most accurate averaged amplitude measurement will be made when you have at least 8 samples in each display point.

Ext Gain

AMPTD Y Scale, Elec Atten

AMPTD Y Scale, Internal Preamp

AMPTD Y Scale, Auto Range

Trace/Detector

, More,

Detector

,

Average

Averaging

AMPTD Y Scale, Ext Gain

Trace/Detector, Trace Average

or

Meas Setup

,

Avg Mode, Avg

Number

: The numbers shown indicates current average number and the desired number of averages.

System, Time/Date/Location, Date/Time

Time and date display

Active marker

Trace and detector information

Marker

Trace/Detector

,

Clear Write (W) Trace Average (A) Max Hold (M)

Min Hold (m)

Trace/Detector

,

More, Detector, Peak (P) Sample(S) Negative Peak (p)

Average (A)

Active marker frequency and amplitude

If in zero span, active marker time and amplitude is displayed.

Key menu title

Key menu

Marker

Dependent on menu selection.

Menu key labels

Stop frequency or if in zero span, stop time

FREQ Channel, Stop Freq

Reference frequency source indicator

System, Freq/Time Reference

Battery 1 & 2 status indicator

AC power indicator

System, System Stats, Battery

Control/Sweep, Sweep Time

Indicates that the analyzer is currently powered by the external

AC/DC power converter

Sweep time

Span

Center frequency

Display status line

SPAN X Scale

FREQ Channel, Center Freq

Displays informational and error messages (see “Types of

Spectrum Analyzer Messages” on page 227).

Resolution Bandwidth

Start frequency or if in zero span, 0 sec

BW, Res BW

FREQ Channel, Start Freq

54 Chapter 3

For firmware revision A.02.00 or greater

Front and Rear Panel Features

Front Panel Overview

Item Description

6

7

4

5

1

2

3

Amplitude scale

Reference level

Auto Range On indicator

Active function block

Internal preamp status

Marker

RF attenuation

AMPTD Y Scale, Scale Type

or

AMPTD Y Scale, Scale/Div

AMPTD Y Scale, Ref Level

AMPTD Y Scale, Auto Range

Refer to the description of the activated function.

AMPTD Y Scale

,

Internal Preamp

Marker

AMPTD Y Scale, Elec Atten

Chapter 3 55

Front and Rear Panel Features

Front Panel Overview

11

12

13

21

22

23

24

15

16

17

18

19

20

Item Description

8

9

10

14

25

26

Over Range: Indicates that the attenuation and preamp (if installed) settings are supplying too much power to the detector.

Distortion may result. Set

Auto Range

(On) to clear.

or

<8Smpl/Pt: Indicates that the current instrument settings have reduced the number of samples/display point to fewer than 8. The most accurate averaged amplitude measurement will be made when you have at least 8 samples in each display point.

Ext Gain

Averaging

AMPTD Y Scale, Elec Atten

AMPTD Y Scale, Internal Preamp

AMPTD Y Scale, Auto Range

Trace/Detector

,

More, Detector

,

Average

Time and date display

Active marker

Trace and detector information

AMPTD Y Scale, Ext Gain

Trace/Detector, Trace Average

or

Meas Setup

,

Avg Mode, Avg

Number

: The numbers shown indicates current average number and the desired number of averages.

System, Time/Date/Location, Date/Time

Marker

Trace/Detector

,

Clear Write (W) Trace Average (A) Max Hold (M)

Min Hold (m)

Trace/Detector

,

More, Detector, Peak (P) Sample(S) Negative Peak (p)

Average (A)

Marker

Active marker frequency and amplitude

If in zero span, active marker time and amplitude is displayed.

Key menu title

Key menu

Span

Reference frequency source indicator

Battery 1 & 2 status indicator

AC power indicator

Dependent on menu selection.

Menu key labels

SPAN X Scale

System, Freq/Time Reference

System, System Stats, Battery

Control/Sweep, Sweep Time

Indicates that the analyzer is currently powered by the external

AC/DC power converter

Sweep time

VBW

Center frequency

Display status line

BW, Video BW

FREQ Channel, Center Freq

Displays informational and error messages (see “Types of

Spectrum Analyzer Messages” on page 227).

Resolution Bandwidth

Revision indicator

BW, Res BW

System, System Stats, Show System

56 Chapter 3

Front and Rear Panel Features

Front Panel Overview

Display Annotations: Spectrogram (Option 271)

For firmware revisions < A.02.00

Item Description

4

5

6

1

2

3

Amplitude scale

Reference level

Auto Range On indicator

Active function block

Internal preamp status

RF attenuation

AMPTD Y Scale, Scale Type

or

AMPTD Y Scale, Scale/Div

AMPTD Y Scale, Ref Level

AMPTD Y Scale, Auto Range

Data entry field for the active function.

AMPTD Y Scale

,

Internal Preamp

AMPTD Y Scale, Elec Atten

Chapter 3 57

Front and Rear Panel Features

Front Panel Overview

8

9

10

11

12

13

22

23

24

17

18

19

20

14

15

16

Item Description

7

21

25

Over Range: Indicates that the attenuation and preamp (if installed) settings are supplying too much power to the detector.

Distortion may result. Set

Auto Range

(On) to clear.

or

<8Smpl/Pt: Indicates that the current instrument settings have reduced the number of samples/display point to fewer than 8. The most accurate averaged amplitude measurement will be made when you have at least 8 samples in each display point.

Ext Gain

Color scale legend

Elapsed time clock

AMPTD Y Scale, Elec Atten

AMPTD Y Scale, Internal Preamp

AMPTD Y Scale, Auto Range

Trace/Detector

, More,

Detector

,

Average

AMPTD Y Scale, Ext Gain

Provides a reference for the color scale.

Provides an indicator of the data collection time interval of the displayed spectrogram.

System, Time/Date/Location, Date/Time

Time and date display

Active marker

Trace information

Active marker frequency and amplitude

Key menu title

Key menu

Marker

Trace/Detector

,

Clear Write (W) Trace Average (A) Max Hold (M)

Min Hold (m)

Trace/Detector

,

More, Detector, Peak (P) Sample (S) Negative Peak

(p) Average (A)

Marker

Dependent on menu selection.

Menu key labels

Stop frequency or if in zero span, stop time

FREQ Channel, Stop Freq

Reference frequency source indicator

System, Freq/Time Reference

Battery 1 & 2 status indicator

AC power indicator

Spectrum display

Start frequency or if in zero span, 0 sec

System, System Stats, Battery

AC/DC power converter

Indicates that the analyzer is currently powered by the external

View/Display, Spectrogram

Provides a Spectral display of the spectrum sampled to create the spectrogram.

FREQ Channel, Start Freq

Marker

Display status line

Metrics Panel

Marker

Displays informational and error messages (see “Types of

Spectrum Analyzer Messages” on page 227).

Displays measurement results data metrics.

58 Chapter 3

For firmware revision A.02.00 or greater

Front and Rear Panel Features

Front Panel Overview

Item Description

4

5

6

1

2

3

Amplitude scale

Reference level

Auto Range On indicator

Active function block

Internal preamp status

RF attenuation

AMPTD Y Scale, Scale Type

or

AMPTD Y Scale, Scale/Div

AMPTD Y Scale, Ref Level

AMPTD Y Scale, Auto Range

Data entry field for the active function.

AMPTD Y Scale

,

Internal Preamp

AMPTD Y Scale, Elec Atten

Chapter 3 59

Front and Rear Panel Features

Front Panel Overview

8

9

10

11

12

13

22

23

24

17

18

19

20

14

15

16

Item Description

7

21

25

26

Over Range: Indicates that the attenuation and preamp (if installed) settings are supplying too much power to the detector.

Distortion may result. Set

Auto Range

(On) to clear.

or

<8Smpl/Pt: Indicates that the current instrument settings have reduced the number of samples/display point to fewer than 8. The most accurate averaged amplitude measurement will be made when you have at least 8 samples in each display point.

Ext Gain

Color scale legend

Elapsed time clock

AMPTD Y Scale, Elec Atten

AMPTD Y Scale, Internal Preamp

AMPTD Y Scale, Auto Range

Trace/Detector

,

More, Detector

,

Average

(Log/RMS/V)

AMPTD Y Scale, Ext Gain

Provides a reference for the color scale.

Provides an indicator of the data collection time interval of the displayed spectrogram.

System, Time/Date/Location, Date/Time

Time and date display

Active marker

Trace information

Active marker frequency and amplitude

Key menu title

Key menu

Marker

Display status line

Marker

Trace/Detector

,

Clear Write (W) Average (A) Max Hold (M) Min

Hold (m)

Trace/Detector

,

More, Detector, Peak (P) Sample (S) Negative Peak

(p) Average (A)

Stop frequency or if in zero span, stop time

FREQ Channel, Stop Freq

Reference frequency source indicator

System, Freq/Time Reference

Battery 1 & 2 status indicator

AC power indicator

Spectrum display

Start frequency or if in zero span, 0 sec

System, System Stats, Battery

AC/DC power converter

Indicates that the analyzer is currently powered by the external

View/Display, Spectrogram

Provides a Spectral display of the spectrum sampled to create the spectrogram.

FREQ Channel, Start Freq

Metrics Panel

Revision indicator

Marker

Dependent on menu selection.

Menu key labels

Marker

Displays informational and error messages (see “Types of

Spectrum Analyzer Messages” on page 227).

Displays measurement results data metrics.

System, System Stats, Show System

60 Chapter 3

Rear-Panel Features

Front and Rear Panel Features

Rear-Panel Features

Item

# Name

1

Battery

Compartment

2

DC Power

3

USB, Type A

4

USB, Type B

5

Timing LAN

6

LAN

7

REF OUT

(10 MHz)

8

EXT REF IN

9

EXT TRIGGER

INPUT

10 Reserved for future use.

Description

Location of the two batteries that provide DC power to the analyzer.

The input for the dc power source. Refer to “Power Requirements” on page 27.

Allows connections of external devices such as an external memory device.

Allows connections of external devices such as a PC controller. (not implemented)

A TCP/IP Interface for connecting internal options to external devices. (not implemented)

A TCP/IP Interface.

For information on setting the IP address, refer to “Turning on the Analyzer for the First

Time” on page 32.

For information on using the analyzer remotely, refer to the User’s/Programmer’s Guide.

An output of the analyzer’s internal 10 MHz frequency reference signal used to lock the frequency reference of the analyzer to other test equipment.

Input for an external frequency reference signal. For additional information on using an external reference, refer to

“Using an External Reference” on page 33.

A TTL input that accepts the positive or negative edge (selectable) of an external voltage input that triggers the analyzer internal sweep source.

Chapter 3 61

Front and Rear Panel Features

Rear-Panel Features

Item

# Name

11

Kensington lock

Slot

12

Mounting tabs

13

Grounding lug

Description

Used in conjunction with Kensington Lock to secures analyzer to work space.

Mounting tabs for mounting the external power supply when analyzer is rack mounted.

Chassis ground connection.

62 Chapter 3

Front and Rear Panel Features

Key Overview

Key Overview

The keys labeled

FREQ Channel

,

System

, and

Marker

are all examples of front-panel keys. The front-panel keys are dark gray, light gray, green, beige, or white in color. Front-panel keys that are white perform an immediate action rather than bringing up a menu. The only green keys are the

Mode Preset

,

User Preset

, and

Help

keys. The Mode Preset and User Preset keys perform an analyzer reset and the Help key accesses the embedded help system. (A summary of all front panel keys and their related menu keys can be found in the User’s Guide for your analyzer). Pressing most of the dark gray, the light gray, or the beige front-panel keys accesses menus of functions that are displayed along the right side of the display. These are called menu keys.

Menu keys list functions other than those accessed directly by the front panel keys.

To activate a menu key function, press the key immediately to the right of the annotation on the screen. The menu keys that are displayed depend on which front-panel key is pressed and which menu level is enabled.

If a menu key function value can be changed, it is called an active function. The function label of the active function is highlighted after that key has been selected.

For example, press

AMPTD Y Scale

. This calls up the menu of related amplitude functions. Note the function labeled

Ref Level

(the default selected key in the

Amplitude menu) is highlighted.

Ref Level

also appears in the active function block (as well as the reference level value), indicating that it is the active amplitude function and can now be changed using any of the data entry controls.

A menu key with On and Off in its label can be used to turn the menu key function on or off. To turn the function on, press the menu key so that On is underlined. To turn the function off, press the menu key so that Off is underlined. In the manual, when On should be underlined, it will be indicated as

Function

(On).

A function with Auto and Man in the label can either be auto-coupled or have its value manually changed. The value of the function can be changed manually using the numeric keypad, knob, or step keys. To auto-couple a function, press the menu key so that Auto is underlined. In the manual, when

Auto

should be underlined, it will be indicated as

Function

(Auto).

In some key menus, one key label will always be highlighted to show which key has been selected. For example, when you press

Marker

, you will access a menu of keys in which some of the keys are grouped together by a yellow highlighted region of the menu. The

Normal

key, which is the

Marker

menu default key, will be highlighted. When you press another key within the yellow region, such as

Delta

, a yellow border around that key becomes visible to show it has been selected.

Chapter 3 63

Front and Rear Panel Features

Key Overview

In other key menus, one key label will always be highlighted to show which key has been selected but the menu is immediately exited when a selection is made.

For example, when you press the

Avg Type

key (on the

Meas Setup

menu), it will bring up its own menu of keys. The

Log-Pwr Avg

key, which is the Avg Type menu default key, will be highlighted. When you press the

Pwr Avg

key, the highlight will move to that key to show it has been selected and the screen will return to the

Meas Setup

menu.

The arrow keys located around the Select key to the left of the analyzer display can be used to navigate within tables or lists, for example the Chan Std table. These keys are used to move between rows. The cursor (inverse video highlight) indicates the active item.

64 Chapter 3

4

Recommended Test Equipment

65

Recommended Test Equipment

Test Equipment for Making Measurements

NOTE

Test Equipment for Making Measurements

Test Equipment

The table below summarizes the test equipment needed to perform all of the measurements shown in this guide. Alternate equipment model numbers are given in case the recommended equipment is not available.

If neither the recommended nor the alternative test equipment are available, substitute equipment that meets or exceeds the critical specifications listed.

To find descriptions of specific analyzer functions, refer to the Agilent

Technologies N1996A Spectrum Analyzer User’s/Programmer’s Reference Guide.

Item Critical Specifications

Adapters

Type-N (m) to BNC (f) (3)

Type N (m) to Type N (m)

Frequency: 10 MHz to 6 GHz

VSWR: 1.08:1

Type N (f) to 3.5 mm (f) (for use with 20 GHz or 26.5 GHz source)

Type N (f) to 2.4 mm (f) (for use with >26.5 GHz source)

Frequency: 10 MHz to 6 GHz

VSWR: 1.08:1

Frequency: 10 MHz to 6 GHz

VSWR:

1.08:1

Cables

BNC, 122-cm (48-in) (3)

Type N (m) to Type N (m),

<=36 inches long

Synthesized Sweeper

(if 8665B, ESG or PSG is not available)

Frequency: 10 MHz to 6 GHz

VSWR: 1.4:1

Cable, BNC (m) to BNC (m),

36 inches long

Signal Source (two are required)

Frequency: 10 MHz nominal

Synthesized Signal Generator

(if 8360-Series sweeper is not used)

Frequency Range: 10 MHz to 6 GHz

Power Level: -10 to +5 dBm

Frequency Range: 10 MHz to 6 GHz

Power Level: -10 to +5 dBm

Recommended

Agilent Model

1250-0780

1250-1472

1250-1745

11903B

10503A

11500B

10503

8665B, E8257D,

E8267D, or

E4438C Opt 506

83620A/B,

83630A/B,

83640A/B,

83650A/B

Alternate

Agilent

Model

66 Chapter 4

5

Spectrum Analyzer

67

Spectrum Analyzer

This Chapter provides information making the following measurements.

“Making a Basic Measurement” on page 69

“Measuring Multiple Signals” on page 75

“Measuring a Low-Level Signal” on page 86

“Making Distortion Measurements” on page 93

“Using the Analyzer as a Fixed Tuned Receiver” on page 101

“Channel Power” on page 104

“Occupied Bandwidth (OBW) Measurement” on page 107

“Making a Basic Occupied BW Measurement” on page 109

“Using the Spectrogram View (Requires Option 271)” on page 111

“Pulse Measurement” on page 115

“Tune and Listen (Requires Option AFM)” on page 117

68 Chapter 5

CAUTION

Spectrum Analyzer

Making a Basic Measurement

Making a Basic Measurement

This section provides information on basic analyzer operation. For more information on making measurements, see the appropriate measurement chapter.

This section is divided into the following sections:

“Entering Data” on page 69

“Using Menu Keys” on page 69

“Presetting the Spectrum Analyzer” on page 71

“Creating a User Preset and Power-Up State” on page 71

“Viewing a Signal” on page 72

Ensure that the total power of all signals at the analyzer input does not exceed +33 dBm (2 watts).

Basic Assumption

The material in this chapter is presented with the assumption that you understand the front and rear panel layout, and display annotations of your analyzer. If you do not, refer to the Measurement Guide

“Front and Rear Panel Features” on page 49.

Entering Data

When setting measurement parameters, there are several ways to enter or modify the value of the active function:

Knob

Arrow Keys

Numeric Keypad

Unit Menu Keys

Enter Key

Increments or decrements the current value.

Increments or decrements the current value.

Enters a specific value. Then press the desired terminator (either a unit menu key, or the

Enter

key).

Terminate a value that requires a unit-of-measurement.

Terminates an entry when either no unit of measure is needed, or you want to use the default unit.

Using Menu Keys

Menu Keys (which appear along the right side of the display) provide access to many analyzer functions. Here are examples of menu key types:

Toggle

Allows you to activate/deactivate states.

Toggles the selection (underlined choice) each time you press the key.

Chapter 5 69

Spectrum Analyzer

Making a Basic Measurement

Example:

Submenu

Displays a new menu of menu keys.

A submenu key allows you to view a new menu of menu keys related to the submenu key category.

Example:

Choice

Allows you to make a selection from a list of values.

A choice key displays the currently selected submenu choice, in this example, dBm. When the choice is made, the submenu automatically returns.

Example:

Adjust

Highlights the menu key and sets the active function.

Press this type of key and enter a value.

The default for menu keys with an automatic (

Auto

) or manual (

Man

) choice is automatic. After pressing the key, the selection changes to manual.

Examples:

70 Chapter 5

NOTE

NOTE

Spectrum Analyzer

Making a Basic Measurement

Presetting the Spectrum Analyzer

Preset provides a known starting point for making measurements. The analyzer has two types of preset:

Mode Preset

User Preset

This type of preset restores the currently selected mode to a known factory-defined state.

Restores the analyzer to a user-defined state. User

Preset uses the factory-defined state until you create a custom user preset file.

For details, see the User’s and Programmer’s Reference manual.

Creating a User Preset and Power-Up State

User Preset recalls the power-up state, applying the defaults you define using the

Save State button. When you save a state to be used as the User Preset power-up state, you must name the state “Powerup”. If you want to use the Agilent-defined defaults at power-up, press

Mode Preset

to restore the Agilent-defined defaults and save that state as a new Powerup state file.

If you constantly use settings which are not the factory defaults, use the following steps to create a user-defined preset:

If “Powerup” state already exists in the catalog list, you can set the state to your preferences and then select “Powerup” in the list. The catalog list can be viewed by selecting

Save

,

Catalog

.

1.

Set analyzer parameters as desired.

2.

Set filename to “Ask”. Press

Save

,

Name

,

Filename

(Ask).

3.

Save to the internal hard drive. Press

Save

,

Location

,

Internal

.

4.

Save Powerup state. Press

Type

,

State

,

Save Now

.

5.

Using the knob or arrow keys, select the letters from the alphabet window to create the word, “Powerup” and press

OK

. The message, “

State was saved successfully: C:Powerup

” is displayed. Press

OK

again to return to the

Save

key menu.

The parameters saved in this “Powerup” state file are now enabled as the user preset option and as the default power-up state.

This process is easier for firmware revision A.02.00 or greater. After configuring the desired parameter settings, press

User Preset

,

Save User Preset

.

Disabling User Preset

To restore the factory defined Power On settings, press

Mode Preset

and follow the steps listed above to save the resulting state as the new “Powerup” state file. This

Chapter 5 71

NOTE

Figure 5-1

Spectrum Analyzer

Making a Basic Measurement

will restore the factory-defined default settings as the power-on settings and as the user preset settings.

For firmware revision A.02.00 or greater, to disable User Preset, the process is easier, press

Mode Preset

, then press

User Preset

,

Save User Preset

.

Viewing a Signal

1.

Select the spectrum analyzer mode. Press

Mode

,

Spectrum Analyzer

.

2.

Preset the analyzer: Press

Mode Preset

.

3.

Connect the analyzer’s rear panel

REF OUT (10 MHz)

to the front-panel input.

Setting Center Frequency, Span, Attenuation, and Reference Level.

1.

Set the center frequency to 30 MHz: Press

FREQ Channel, Center Freq

, 30,

MHz

.

2.

Set the Span to 50 MHz: Press

SPAN X Scale

, 50,

MHz

.

3.

Adjust the attenuation to 20 dB: Press

AMPTD Y Scale

,

Elec Atten

, 20,

dB

.

4.

Adjust the reference level (if the peak of the 10 MHz signal component is not visible): Press

AMPTD Y Scale, Ref Level

, 10, dBm

. For more information on this, refer to

“Changing Reference Level” on page 73 .

The 10 MHz reference signal spectrum appears on the display, as shown in

Figure 5-1 .

10 MHz Internal Reference Signal and Associated Spectrum

72 Chapter 5

Spectrum Analyzer

Making a Basic Measurement

Figure 5-2

Reading Frequency & Amplitude

1.

Place a marker (labeled

1

) on the 10 MHz peak, as shown in

Figure 5-2 .

Press

Peak Search

. If necessary, use the menu keys to move the marker to the proper peak. In addition, you can go to the Marker menu (press Marker) and use the knob or arrow keys to move the marker.

Note that the frequency and amplitude of the marker appear in the upper-right corner of the screen.

2.

If you have moved the marker, return it to the peak of the 10 MHz signal.

A Marker on the 10 MHz Peak

Changing Reference Level

1.

Press

AMPTD Y Scale

, and note that reference level (

Ref Level

) is now the active function. Press

Marker



Mkr

 RL

.

Note that changing the reference level changes the amplitude value of the top graticule line.

Figure 5-3

shows the relationship between center frequency and reference level. The box represents the analyzer display. Changing the center frequency changes the horizontal placement of the signal on the display. Changing the reference level changes the vertical placement of the signal on the display.

Increasing the span increases the frequency range that appears horizontally across the display.

Chapter 5 73

Figure 5-3

Spectrum Analyzer

Making a Basic Measurement

Relationship Between Frequency and Amplitude

74 Chapter 5

CAUTION

Spectrum Analyzer

Measuring Multiple Signals

Measuring Multiple Signals

This section provides information on measuring multiple signals.

This section is divided into the following sections:

“Comparing Signals on the Same Screen Using Marker Delta” on page 76

“Comparing Signals not on the Same Screen Using Marker Delta” on page 78

“Resolving Signals of Equal Amplitude” on page 80

“Resolving Small Signals Hidden by Large Signals” on page 83

Ensure that the total power of all signals at the analyzer input does not exceed +33 dBm (2 watts).

Basic Assumption

The material in this chapter is presented with the assumption that you understand the front and rear panel layout, and display annotations of your analyzer. If you do not, refer to the Measurement Guide “Front and Rear Panel Features”.

Chapter 5 75

Figure 5-4

Spectrum Analyzer

Measuring Multiple Signals

Comparing Signals on the Same Screen Using Marker Delta

Using the analyzer, you can easily compare frequency and amplitude differences between signals, such as radio or television signal spectra. The analyzer delta marker function lets you compare two signals when both appear on the screen at one time.

In this procedure, harmonics of the 10 MHz reference signal available at the rear of the analyzer are used to measure frequency and amplitude differences between two signals on the same screen. Delta marker is used to demonstrate this comparison.

An Example of Comparing Signals on the Same Screen

Step 1.

Select the spectrum analyzer mode:

Press

Mode

,

Spectrum Analyzer.

Step 2.

Preset the analyzer:

Press

Mode Preset

.

Step 3.

Connect the rear panel REF OUT (

10 MHz)

to the front panel RF input.

Step 4.

Set the analyzer center frequency, span and reference level to view the fundamental and 2nd through fifth harmonics of the 10 MHz reference signal:

Press

FREQ Channel

,

Center Frequency

, 30,

MHz

.

Press

SPAN X Scale

,

Span

, 50,

MHz

.

Press

AMPTD Y Scale

,

Ref Level

, 10,

dBm

Press

AMPTD Y Scale

,

Elec Atten

, 20,

dB

or

Auto Range

(On).

Step 5.

Place a marker at the highest peak on the display (10 MHz):

Press

Peak Search

.

76 Chapter 5

Spectrum Analyzer

Measuring Multiple Signals

The

Next Peak

menu key is available to move the marker from peak to peak. The marker should be on the 3rd harmonic of the 10 MHz reference signal.

Step 6.

Anchor the first marker and activate the Delta marker:

Press

Marker, Delta

.

The label on the second marker reads

1

, indicating that it is the movable marker.

Step 7.

Move the second marker to another signal peak or by using the

Peak Search

key:

Press

Peak Search

,

Next Peak

.

The amplitude and frequency difference between the markers is shown in the upper right corner of the display.

Chapter 5 77

Figure 5-5

Spectrum Analyzer

Measuring Multiple Signals

Comparing Signals not on the Same Screen Using Marker Delta

Measure the frequency and amplitude difference between two signals that do not appear on the screen at one time. (This technique is useful for harmonic distortion tests when narrow span and narrow bandwidth are necessary to measure the low level harmonics.)

In this procedure, frequency and amplitude differences are measured between harmonics of the analyzer’s 10 MHz reference; one harmonic on screen and one harmonic off screen. Delta marker is used to demonstrate this comparison.

Comparing One Signal on Screen with One Signal Off Screen

Step 1.

Select the spectrum analyzer mode:

Press

Mode

,

Spectrum Analyzer.

Step 2.

Preset the analyzer:

Press

Mode Preset

.

Step 3.

Connect the rear panel

REF OUT (10 MHz)

to the front panel RF input.

Step 4.

Set the center frequency, span and reference level to view only the 30 MHz signal:

Press

FREQ Channel

,

Center Freq

, 30,

MHz

.

Press

SPAN X Scale

,

Span

, 5,

MHz

.

Step 5.

Place a marker on the 30 MHz peak:

Press

Peak Search

.

Step 6.

Set the center frequency step size equal to 10 MHz:

Press

FREQ Channel

,

CF Step

(Manual), 10,

MHz

.

Step 7.

Activate the marker delta function:

78 Chapter 5

Spectrum Analyzer

Measuring Multiple Signals

Figure 5-6

Press

Marker, Delta

.

Step 8.

Increase the center frequency by 10 MHz:

Press

FREQ Channel

,

Center Freq

,

,

Peak Search

.

The delta marker (

1) appears on the peak of the 40 MHz harmonic. The delta marker annotation displays the amplitude and frequency difference between the 30 and 40 MHz signal peaks. Refer to

Figure 5-6 .

Delta Marker with Reference Signal Off-Screen

Step 9.

Turn the markers off:

Press

Marker, Off

.

Chapter 5 79

Spectrum Analyzer

Measuring Multiple Signals

Figure 5-7

Resolving Signals of Equal Amplitude

In this procedure a decrease in resolution bandwidth is used to resolve two signals of equal amplitude with a frequency separation of 100 kHz. Notice that the final

RBW selection to resolve the signals is the same width as the signal separation.

Step 1.

Connect the output of signal generator #1 to port 2 of the directional coupler and connect the output of signal generator #2 to port 3 (the coupled port) of the

directional coupler as shown in Figure 5-7

.

Setup for Obtaining Two Signals

Step 2.

Set the signal sources as follows:

Set signal generator #1 to 300 MHz at –19 dBm. Set signal generator #2 to

300.1 MHz at –4 dBm (this higher power level overcomes the nominal 16 dB loss through the coupled arm of the directional coupler).

The amplitude of both signals should be approximately

20 dBm at the output of the bridge.

Step 3.

Setup the analyzer to view the signals:

Press

Mode Preset

.

Press

FREQ Channel

,

Center Freq

, 300,

MHz

.

Press

SPAN X Scale

,

Span

, 2,

MHz

.

Press

Meas Setup

,

Avg Mode

,

Exponential

.

Press

Avg Number

, 25,

Enter

.

Press

Trace/Detector

,

Trace Average

.

Press

BW

,

Res BW (Manual)

, 300,

kHz

.

A single signal peak is visible. See Figure 5-8 for an example.

80 Chapter 5

Figure 5-8 Unresolved Signals of Equal Amplitude

Spectrum Analyzer

Measuring Multiple Signals

Figure 5-9

Step 4.

Change the resolution bandwidth (RBW) to 75 kHz so that the RBW setting is less than or equal to the frequency separation of the two signals:

Press

BW,

Res BW (Manual)

, 75,

kHz

.

Notice that the peak of the signal has become flattened indicating that two signals may be present.

Resolving Signals of Equal Amplitude

As the resolution bandwidth is decreased, resolution of the individual signals is improved and the sweep time is increased. For fastest measurement times, use the widest possible resolution bandwidth. Under factory preset conditions, the resolution bandwidth is “coupled” (or linked) to the span.

Since the resolution bandwidth has been changed from the coupled value, a

#

mark appears next to

Res BW

in the lower-left corner of the screen, indicating that the resolution bandwidth is uncoupled. (For more information on resolution

Chapter 5 81

NOTE

Spectrum Analyzer

Measuring Multiple Signals

bandwidth, refer to the

Res BW

description in the Agilent CSA Spectrum

Analyzers User’s and Programmer’s Reference guide.)

To resolve two signals of equal amplitude, the resolution bandwidth must be less than the signal separation. For example, if the signal separation is 200 kHz and the analyzer only has resolution bandwidth settings in a 1-3-10 sequence, a 100 kHz

RBW is the best choice for the 200 kHz signal separation. But some analyzers, such as the Agilent CSA and PSA spectrum analyzers, can select a 180 kHz RBW.

82 Chapter 5

Spectrum Analyzer

Measuring Multiple Signals

Figure 5-10

Resolving Small Signals Hidden by Large Signals

This procedure uses narrow resolution bandwidths to resolve two input signals with a frequency separation of 50 kHz and an amplitude difference of 60 dB.

Step 1.

Connect two sources to the analyzer input as shown in Figure 5-7

. Connect the output of signal generator #1 to port 2 of the directional coupler and connect the output of signal generator #2 to port 3 (the coupled port) of the directional coupler.

Setup for Obtaining Two Signals

Step 2.

Set the signal sources as follows:

Set signal generator #1 to 300 MHz at –9 dBm. Set signal generator #2 to

300.450 MHz at –54 dBm. (These power levels plus the nominal 16 dB loss through the coupled arm and the nominal 1 dB loss through the main arm of the directional coupler results in a signal 60 dB below the first signal).

Step 3.

Set the analyzer as follows:

Press

Mode Preset

.

Press

FREQ Channel

,

Center Freq

, 300,

MHz

.

Press

SPAN X Scale

,

Span

, 5,

MHz

.

Press

BW

,

Res BW

, 100,

kHz

.

Step 4.

Set the 300 MHz signal peak to the reference level:

Press

Peak Search

,

Mkr

,

Mkr

R L

.

Note that the Agilent CSA 100 kHz filter shape factor of 8:1 has a bandwidth of

840 kHz at the 60 dB point. The half-bandwidth (420 kHz) is NOT narrower than the frequency separation of 450 kHz, so the input signals can not be resolved.

Step 5.

Activate averaging to smooth the noise:

Press

Meas Setup

,

Avg Mode

,

Exponential

.

Press

Avg Number

, 25,

Enter

.

Press

Trace/Detector

,

Trace Average

Chapter 5 83

Figure 5-11

Spectrum Analyzer

Measuring Multiple Signals

Signal Resolution with a 100 kHz RBW

Figure 5-12

Step 6.

Reduce the resolution bandwidth filter to view the smaller hidden signal. Place a delta marker on the smaller signal:

Press

BW

, 30,

kHz

.

Press

Peak Search

,

Marker

,

Delta

, 450,

kHz

.

Note that the Agilent CSA 30 kHz filter shape factor of 8.4 has a bandwidth of

252 kHz at the 60 dB point, however noise sidebands will make the 60 dB bandwidth appear wider. The half-bandwidth (including effects of noise sidebands) is narrower than 250 kHz, so the input signals can be resolved.

Signal Resolution with a 30 kHz RBW

NOTE

To determine the resolution capability for intermediate amplitude differences, assume the filter skirts between the 3 dB and 60 dB points are parabolic, like an ideal Gaussian filter. The resolution capability is approximately:

84 Chapter 5

2

12.04 dB

 where

f is the separation between the signals.

Spectrum Analyzer

Measuring Multiple Signals

Chapter 5 85

CAUTION

Spectrum Analyzer

Measuring a Low-Level Signal

Measuring a Low-Level Signal

This section provides information on measuring low-level signals and distinguishing them from spectrum noise.

This section is divided into the following sub-sections:

“Reducing Input Attenuation” on page 87

“Decreasing the Resolution Bandwidth” on page 89

“Trace Averaging” on page 91

Ensure that the total power of all signals at the analyzer input does not exceed +33 dBm (2 watts).

Basic Assumption

The material in this section is presented with the assumption that you understand the front and rear panel layout, and display annotations of your analyzer. If you do not, refer to the Measurement Guide “Front and Rear Panel Features”.

86 Chapter 5

Spectrum Analyzer

Measuring a Low-Level Signal

Reducing Input Attenuation

The ability to measure a low-level signal is limited by internally generated noise in the spectrum analyzer. The measurement setup can be changed in several ways to improve the analyzer sensitivity.

The input attenuator affects the level of a signal passing through the instrument. If a signal is very close to the noise floor, reducing input attenuation can bring the signal out of the noise.

CAUTION

Ensure that the total power of all input signals at the analyzer RF input does not exceed +33 dBm (2 watts).

Figure 5-13

Step 1.

Connect the RF Output of the signal generator to the analyzer RF Input as shown

in Figure 5-7 .

Setup for Obtaining One Signal

Step 2.

Set the frequency of the signal source to 295 MHz. Set the source amplitude to

80 dBm. Connect the source RF OUTPUT to the analyzer RF INPUT.

Step 3.

Select the spectrum analyzer mode:

Press

Mode

,

Spectrum Analyzer

.

Step 4.

Preset the analyzer:

Press

Mode Preset

.

Step 5.

Set the center frequency, span and reference level:

Press

FREQ Channel

,

Center Freq

, 295,

MHz

.

Press

SPAN X Scale

,

Span

, 1,

MHz

.

Press

AMPTD Y Scale

,

Ref Level

, 40,

dBm

.

Step 6.

Place the marker at the desired peak (in this example, 295 MHz)

Press

Peak Search

.

Step 7.

Activate averaging to smooth the noise:

Chapter 5 87

Spectrum Analyzer

Measuring a Low-Level Signal

Figure 5-14

Press

Meas Setup, Avg Number, 10, Enter

.

Press

Avg Mode, Exponential

.

Press

Trace/Detector, Trace Average

.

Step 8.

To see the signal more clearly, set the attenuation to 0 dB:

Press

AMPTD Y Scale

,

Elect Atten

, 0,

dB

.

Figure 5-14

shows 0 dB input attenuation.

Measuring a Low-Level Signal Using 0 dB Attenuation

Figure 5-15

Step 9.

Set the attenuation to 20 dB: (as shown in

Figure 5-15

)

Press

AMPTD Y Scale

,

Elec Atten

, 20, dB

.

Note that increasing the attenuation moves the noise floor closer to the signal level.

Measuring a Low-Level Signal

88 Chapter 5

Spectrum Analyzer

Measuring a Low-Level Signal

Figure 5-16

Decreasing the Resolution Bandwidth

Resolution bandwidth settings affect the level of internal noise without affecting the level of continuous wave (CW) signals. Decreasing the RBW by a decade reduces the noise floor by 10 dB.

Step 1.

Connect the RF Output of the signal generator to the analyzer RF Input as shown

in Figure 5-7 .

Setup for Obtaining One Signal

Step 2.

Set the frequency of the signal source to 295 MHz. Set the source amplitude to

80 dBm. Connect the source RF OUTPUT to the analyzer RF INPUT.

Step 3.

Select the spectrum analyzer mode:

Press

Mode

,

Spectrum Analyzer

.

Step 4.

Preset the analyzer:

Press

Mode Preset

.

Step 5.

Set the center frequency, span and reference level:

Press

FREQ Channel

,

Center Freq

, 295,

MHz

.

Press

SPAN X Scale

,

Span

, 1,

MHz

.

Press

AMPTD Y Scale

,

Ref Level

, 40,

dBm

.

Step 6.

Decrease the resolution bandwidth:

Press

BW

,

Res BW

(Manual),

The low-level signal appears more clearly because the noise level is reduced (see

Figure 5-17 ).

Chapter 5 89

Figure 5-17

Spectrum Analyzer

Measuring a Low-Level Signal

Decreasing Resolution Bandwidth

RBW Selections

All Agilent CSA RBWs are digital. Refer to the Agilent Technologies

Specifications Guide to determine the selectivity ratio for the particular RBW of interest. Choosing the next lower RBW for better sensitivity increases the sweep time. Using the knob or keypad, you can select individual RBW from the full range of values. This enables you to make the trade off between sweep time and sensitivity with finer resolution.

90 Chapter 5

Spectrum Analyzer

Measuring a Low-Level Signal

Figure 5-18

Trace Averaging

Averaging is a digital process in which each trace point is averaged with the previous average for the same trace point. Trace averaging can facilitate identifying and characterizing a CW or narrowband signal, such as a carrier or tone in the presence of noise or other broadband signals.

Selecting averaging, when the analyzer is auto coupled, changes the detection mode from peak to average, smoothing the displayed noise level.

Step 1.

Connect the RF Output of the signal generator to the analyzer RF Input as shown

in Figure 5-7 .

Setup for Obtaining One Signal

Step 2.

Set the frequency of the signal source to 295 MHz. Set the source amplitude to

80 dBm. Connect the source RF OUTPUT to the analyzer RF INPUT.

Step 3.

Select the spectrum analyzer mode:

Press

Mode

,

Spectrum Analyzer

.

Step 4.

Preset the analyzer:

Press

Mode Preset

.

Step 5.

Set the center frequency, span and reference level:

Press

FREQ Channel

,

Center Frequency

, 295,

MHz

.

Press

SPAN X Scale

,

Span

, 5,

MHz

.

Press

AMPTD Y Scale

,

Ref Level

, 40,

dBm

.

Step 6.

Turn trace averaging on:

Press

Meas Setup

,

Avg Number

,

100

,

Enter

.

Press

Trace/Detector

,

Trace Average

.

As the averaging routine smooths the trace, low level signals become more visible.

Avg: Exponential (100/100)

appears above the graticule.

Step 7.

With the average number as the active function, set the number of averages to 25:

Chapter 5 91

NOTE

Spectrum Analyzer

Measuring a Low-Level Signal

Press

Meas Setup

,

Avg Number

, 25,

Enter

.

Annotation above the graticule shows the type of averaging, the number of traces averaged, and the number of averages selected.

Changing most active functions restarts the averaging, as does toggling

Trace Type

back and forth from

Clear Write

to

Trace Average

. Once the set number of sweeps completes, the analyzer continues to provide a running average based on this set number, if the Avg Mode is set to Exponential.

If you want the measurement to stop after the set number of sweeps, use single sweep and the Repeat Average Mode:

Press the front panel key

Meas Setup

, then

Avg Mode

,

Repeat

, and press the front panel key

Control/Sweep

,

Restart

, and then press the front panel key

Single

.

92 Chapter 5

CAUTION

Spectrum Analyzer

Making Distortion Measurements

Making Distortion Measurements

This section provides information on measuring and identifying signal distortion.

This section is divided into the following sections:

“Identifying Distortion Products” on page 94

“Third-Order Intermodulation Distortion” on page 98

Ensure that the total power of all signals at the analyzer input does not exceed +33 dBm (2 watts).

Basic Assumption

The material in this section is presented with the assumption that you understand the front and rear panel layout, and display annotations of your analyzer. If you do not, refer to the Measurement Guide “Front and Rear Panel Features”.

Chapter 5 93

Spectrum Analyzer

Making Distortion Measurements

Identifying Distortion Products

This section provides information on measuring and identifying signal distortion.

This section is divided into the following sections:

“Distortion from the Analyzer” on page 94

“Identifying Analyzer Generated Distortion Example:” on page 94

Distortion from the Analyzer

High level input signals may cause analyzer distortion products that could mask the real distortion measured on the input signal. Using Trace 2 and the RF attenuator, you can determine which signals, if any, are internally generated distortion products.

Identifying Analyzer Generated Distortion Example:

Using a signal from a signal generator, determine whether the harmonic distortion products are generated by the analyzer.

Step 1.

Connect a signal generator to the analyzer INPUT.

Step 2.

Set the signal generator frequency to 200 MHz and the amplitude to 0 dBm.

Step 3.

On the analyzer, perform a mode preset by pressing

Mode Preset

.

Step 4.

Set the center frequency of the analyzer to 400 MHz by pressing

FREQ Channel

,

Center Freq

, 400,

MHz

.

Step 5.

Set the span to 500 MHz by pressing

SPAN X Scale

,

Span

, 500,

MHz

.

Step 6.

Set the attenuation to 10 dB by pressing

AMPTD Y Scale, Elec Atten,

10

dB

.

The signal produces harmonic distortion products in the analyzer input mixer as

shown in Figure 5-19

.

94 Chapter 5

Figure 5-19 Harmonic Distortion

Spectrum Analyzer

Making Distortion Measurements

Figure 5-20

Step 7.

Change the span to 50 MHz: press

SPAN X Scale

,

Span

, 50,

MHz

.

Step 8.

Ensure that the signal is at the center frequency. If necessary press

Peak Search

,

Marker

,

Mkr

CF

.

Step 9.

Change the attenuation to 0 dB: press

AMPTD Y Scale

,

Elec Atten

, 0, dB

. Your display should be similar to

Figure 5-20

.

Harmonic Distortion with 0 dB Attenuation

Step 10.

To determine whether the harmonic distortion products are generated by the analyzer, first save the screen data in trace 2 as follows:

Press

Trace/Detector

, Select

Trace (2)

, then

Clear Write

.

Allow the trace to update (two sweeps) and press

Trace/Detector

,

View/Blank

(View)

,

Marker

,

Delta

.

Chapter 5 95

Spectrum Analyzer

Making Distortion Measurements

Figure 5-21

The analyzer display shows the stored data in trace 2 and the measured data in trace 1.

Step 11.

Next, press

Trace/Detector

, Select

Trace (1)

, increase the RF attenuation by 10 dB: press

AMPTD Y Scale

,

Elec Atten

, 10,

dB

. See

Figure 5-21

.

Notice the

Mkr1

amplitude reading. This is the difference in the distortion product amplitude readings between 0 dB and 10 dB input attenuation settings. If the

Mkr1

amplitude absolute value is approximately

1 dB for an input attenuator change, then distortion is being generated, at least in part, by the analyzer. In this case more input attenuation is necessary.

RF Attenuation of 10 dB

Step 12.

Press

Peak Search

,

Marker

,

Delta

Change the attenuation to 15 dB by pressing

AMPTD Y Scale

,

Elec Atten

, 15, dB

.

If the

Mkr1

amplitude absolute value is approximately

1 dB, then more input attenuation is required; some of the measured distortion is internally generated. If there is no change in the signal level, the distortion is not generated internally. For example, the signal that is causing the distortion, in this case, shown in

Figure 5-22

, is not high enough in amplitude to cause internal distortion in the analyzer so any distortion that is displayed is present on the input signal.

96 Chapter 5

Figure 5-22 No Harmonic Distortion

Spectrum Analyzer

Making Distortion Measurements

Chapter 5 97

Spectrum Analyzer

Making Distortion Measurements

NOTE

Figure 5-23

Third-Order Intermodulation Distortion

Two-tone, third-order intermodulation distortion is a common test in communication systems. When two signals are present in a non-linear system, they can interact and create third-order intermodulation distortion products that are located close to the original signals. These distortion products are generated by system components such as amplifiers and mixers.

This procedure tests a device for third-order intermodulation using markers. Two sources are used.

Step 1.

Connect two signal generators, two low pass filters, and a directional coupler to the analyzer input as shown in

Figure 5-23

. Connect the output of signal generator #1 to port 2 of the directional coupler through one of the low pass filters and connect the output of signal generator #2 to port 3 (the coupled port) of the directional coupler through the remaining low pass filter.

This combination of signal generators, low pass filters, and directional coupler

(used as a combiner) results in a two-tone source with very low intermodulation distortion. Although the distortion from this setup may be better than the specified performance of the analyzer, it is useful for determining the TOI performance of the source/analyzer combination. After the performance of the source/analyzer combination has been verified, the device-under-test (DUT) (for example, an amplifier) would be inserted between the directional coupler output and the analyzer input.

The coupler should have a high degree of isolation between the two input ports so the sources do not intermodulate.

Third-Order Intermodulation Equipment Setup

Step 2.

Set the signal sources as follows:

Set signal generator #1 to 295 MHz at –5 dBm. Set signal generator #2 to

98 Chapter 5

Spectrum Analyzer

Making Distortion Measurements

296 MHz at 11 dBm (this higher power level overcomes the nominal 16 dB loss through the coupled arm of the directional coupler). This will result in a frequency separation of 1 MHz.

The amplitude of both signals should be approximately

5 dBm at the output of the bridge.

Step 3.

Set the analyzer center frequency and span:

Press

Mode Preset

.

Press

FREQ Channel

,

Center Freq

, 295.5,

MHz

.

Press

SPAN X Scale

,

Span

, 5,

MHz

.

Press

AMPTD Y Scale

,

Elec Atten

, 10,

dB

.

Step 4.

Reduce the RBW until the distortion products are visible:

Press

BW

,

Res BW

(Manual),

Step 5.

Move the signal to the reference level:

Press

Peak Search

,

Marker

,

Mkr

RL

.

Step 6.

Calculate the attenuator setting required for a –30 dBm mixer level based upon the current reference level setting: Atten = Ref Level – (–30 dBm)

Press

AMPTD Y Scale

,

Elec Atten

, enter the attenuation value for the calculation above and press

dB

.

Step 7.

Reduce the RBW until the distortion products are visible:

Press

BW

,

Res BW

(Manual),

Step 8.

Turn on averaging to increase the visibility of the distortion products:

Press

Avg Mode

,

Exponential

,

Avg Number

, 10,

Enter

.

Step 9.

Activate the second marker and place it on the peak of the distortion product

(beside the test signal) using the

Next Peak

key.

Press

Peak Search

,

Marker

,

Delta

,

Peak Search

,

Next Peak

(active marker should be on the other input signal),

Next Peak

(active marker should be on a distortion product).

Step 10.

Measure the other distortion product:

Press

Next Peak

. (see

Figure 5-24

)

Chapter 5 99

Figure 5-24

Spectrum Analyzer

Making Distortion Measurements

Measuring the Distortion Product

100 Chapter 5

Spectrum Analyzer

Using the Analyzer as a Fixed Tuned Receiver

CAUTION

Using the Analyzer as a Fixed Tuned Receiver

This section provides information on using the analyzer as an AM receiver to measure modulation parameters.

This section includes the following measurement:

“Measuring the Modulation Rate of an AM Signal” on page 101

Ensure that the total power of all signals at the analyzer input does not exceed +33 dBm (2 watts).

Basic Assumption

The material in this section is presented with the assumption that you understand the front and rear panel layout, and display annotations of your analyzer. If you do not, refer to the Measurement Guide “Front and Rear Panel Features”.

Figure 5-25

Measuring the Modulation Rate of an AM Signal

This section demonstrates how to determine parameters of an AM signal, such as modulation rate and modulation index (depth) by using frequency and time domain

measurements (refer to the concepts chapter in the Measurement Guide “AM and

FM Demodulation Concepts” on page 197 for more information).

To obtain an AM signal, you can either connect a source transmitting an AM signal, or connect an antenna to the analyzer input and tune to a commercial AM broadcast station. For this demonstration an RF source is used to emulate an AM signal.

Step 1.

Connect the RF Output of the signal generator to the analyzer RF Input as shown

in Figure 5-25 .

Setup for AM Demodulation Measurement

Step 2.

Set the Agilent ESG RF signal source frequency to 300 MHz and the amplitude to

10 dBm. Set the AM depth to 80%, the AM rate to 1 kHz and turn AM on.

Step 3.

Select the spectrum analyzer mode:

Chapter 5 101

Spectrum Analyzer

Using the Analyzer as a Fixed Tuned Receiver

NOTE

Press

Mode

,

Spectrum Analyzer

.

Step 4.

Preset the analyzer.

Press

Mode Preset

.

Step 5.

Set the center frequency, span, RBW and the sweep time.

Press

FREQ Channel

,

Center Freq

, 300,

MHz

.

Press

SPAN X Scale

,

Span

, 500,

kHz

.

Press

BW

,

Res BW

, 30,

kHz

.

Step 6.

Set the y-axis units to volts:

Press

AMPTD Y Scale

,

More

,

Y-Axis Units

,

Volts

.

Step 7.

Position the signal peak near the reference level:

Press

AMPTD Y Scale

,

Ref Level

, (rotate front-panel knob).

Step 8.

Change the y-scale type to linear:

Press

AMPTD Y Scale

,

Scale Type

(Lin).

Step 9.

Set the analyzer in zero span to make time-domain measurements:

Press

SPAN X Scale

,

Zero Span

.

Press

Control/Sweep

,

Sweep Time

, 5,

ms

.

Step 10.

Use the video trigger to stabilize the trace:

Press

Meas Setup

,

Trigger

,

Video

. Adjust the trigger level by using knob for a stable trace.

Since the modulation is a steady tone, you can use video trigger to trigger the analyzer sweep on the waveform and stabilize the trace, much like an oscilloscope.

See

Figure 5-26

.

If the trigger level is set too high or too low when video trigger mode is activated, the sweep stops. You need to adjust the trigger level up or down with the front-panel knob until the sweep begins again.

Step 11.

Measure the AM rate using delta markers:

Press

Peak Search

,

Marker

,

Delta

,

Peak Search

,

Next Pk

.

Use markers and delta markers to measure the AM rate. Place the marker on a peak and then use a delta marker to measure the time difference between adjacent peaks

(this is the AM rate of the signal)

102 Chapter 5

Spectrum Analyzer

Using the Analyzer as a Fixed Tuned Receiver

NOTE

Figure 5-26

Make sure the delta markers above are placed on adjacent peaks. See Figure 5-26 .

The frequency or the AM rate is 1 divided by the time between adjacent peaks:

AM Rate = 1/1.0 ms = 1 kHz

Measuring Time Parameters

You can also use the marker inverse time readout to calculate AM rate in Hz. Press

Marker

,

More 1 of 2

,

Marker Readout

,

Inverse Time

. Then put the markers properly on adjacent peaks.

Chapter 5 103

Spectrum Analyzer

Channel Power

Channel Power

Figure 5-27

Measuring Signals Using the Channel Power Measurement

You may want to measure the total power of a signal that occupies some bandwidth. The channel power measurement is used to measure the total (channel) power in a selected bandwidth. However, if you are not certain of the characteristics of the signal, or if there are discrete spectral components in the band of interest, you can use the channel power measurement. This example uses the analyzer to measure channel power of standard W-CDMA signal at 1 GHz. The

Agilent ESG is used for generating the W-CDMA signal.

Step 1.

Connect the RF Output of the signal generator to the analyzer RF Input as shown in

Figure 5-27

.

Setup for Channel Power Measurement

Step 2.

Select the spectrum analyzer mode:

Press

Mode

,

Spectrum Analyzer

.

Step 3.

Preset the analyzer:

Press

Mode Preset

.

Step 4.

Set the center frequency:

Press

FREQ Channel

,

Center Freq

,

1

,

GHz

.

Step 5.

Start the channel power measurement:

Press

Meas

,

Channel Power

.

Step 6.

Set the integration BW:

Press

Meas Setup, Integ BW, 5, MHz

.

Step 7.

Configure the display to show the combined spectrum view with bar graph (span highlighted in blue):

Press

View/Display

,

Bar Graph

(On).

104 Chapter 5

Spectrum Analyzer

Channel Power

Step 8.

To adjust the measurement settings, press

Meas Setup

, then:

1.

Averaging: To set the averaging

On

or

Off

, switch the

Avg Number

key between

On

and

Off

. When averaging is

On

, enter the number of results used in the averaging calculations. The default average setting is

Off

and the default number is 10 when averaging is

On

. If your input signal changes during the average period, wait until the averaging has completed or the next averaging period has started.

2.

Averaging Mode: To change the average mode, press the

Avg Mode

key and select

Exponential

or

Repeat

. The default average mode is

Repeat

.

3.

RRC Filter: Press

More 1 of 2, RRC Filter

to turn the Root Raised Cosine filter

On

or

Off

.

4.

Filter BW: Press

More 1 of 2, Filter BW

to set the Root Raised Cosine filter bandwidth.

5.

Filter Alpha: Press

More 1 of 2, Filter Alpha

to set the alpha value for the Root

Raised Cosine filter.

6.

Meas Preset: Press

More 1 of 2, Meas Preset

to set the default value.

7.

Limits: To set limit settings, press

Limits

:

Press

Upper Limit

to switch the upper limit between

On

and

Off

, the trace points within the Integ BW are checked to see if they are less than Total Pwr

Ref + Upper Limit. If all the points are less than this value, the upper limit test is passed. If any point is greater than the limit, the test is failed.

Press

Lower Limit

to switch the lower limit between

On

and

Off

, the trace points within the Integ BW are checked to see if they are greater than Total Pwr

Ref + Lower Limit. If all the points are greater than this value, the lower limit test is passed. If any point is less than the limit, the test is failed.

Press

Total Pwr Ref

to set the absolute power value for computing the limit.

When set to

Auto

, the total power reference is the measured channel power value. When set to

Man

, the result takes on the last measured value or you can enter the value manually.

Chapter 5 105

Figure 5-28

Spectrum Analyzer

Channel Power

Channel Power measurement

NOTE

When Upper Limit or Lower Limit is set to On, a status bar in the top left corner of the display will show whether the measurement result has passed or failed the limit test.

106 Chapter 5

NOTE

Spectrum Analyzer

Occupied Bandwidth (OBW) Measurement

Occupied Bandwidth (OBW) Measurement

Occupied Bandwidth integrates the power of the displayed spectrum and puts markers at the frequencies between which a selected percentage of the power is contained. The measurement defaults to 99% of the occupied bandwidth power.

The power-bandwidth routine first computes the combined power of all signal responses contained in the trace. For 99% occupied power bandwidth, markers are placed at the frequencies on either side of 99% of the power. This would leave 1% of the power evenly distributed outside the markers. The frequency difference between the two markers is the displayed occupied bandwidth. The difference between the marker frequencies is the 99% power bandwidth and is the value displayed.

The Occupied BW result corresponds to a span between the markers and is a multiple of the span between two points. So, for a 10 MHz span, the OBW will come in multiples of 25 kHz (10 MHz divided by 400 display points). Values will be 25 kHz, 50 kHz, 75 kHz, etc. For narrow signals (TDMA, PDC, etc.) you will need to zoom in on the signal to get a reasonably accurate Occupied BW result.

For a 100 kHz span, the OBW resolution will be 250 Hz (100 kHz divided by 400 display points).

The occupied bandwidth measurement can be made in single or continuous sweep mode. The center frequency and reference level may be set by you.

Zero-span is disabled in OBW measurement.

Chapter 5 107

Spectrum Analyzer

Occupied Bandwidth (OBW) Measurement

108 Chapter 5

Spectrum Analyzer

Occupied Bandwidth (OBW) Measurement

Making a Basic Occupied BW Measurement

NOTE

Figure 5-29

For accurate OBW measurements, it is recommended that you use the sample or average trace detectors. The default detector type is sample. In addition, you should use Exponential Average or Repeat Average with 100 or more averages.

The following example shows how to make an OBW measurement on a GSM signal broadcasting at 950 MHz.

Step 1.

Connect the RF Output of the signal generator to the analyzer RF Input as shown

in Figure 5-29 .

Setup for OBW Measurement

Step 2.

Set a GSM signal on the signal generator with a frequency of 950 MHz a nd the amplitude set to

10 dBm.

Step 3.

Select the spectrum analyzer mode:

Press

Mode

,

Spectrum Analyzer

.

Step 4.

Preset the analyzer:

Press

Mode Preset

.

Step 5.

Set the center frequency and span:

Press

FREQ Channel

,

Center Frequency

, 950,

MHz

.

Press

SPAN X Scale

,

Span

, 1,

MHz

Step 6.

Select Spectrum Analyzer Occupied BW measurement.

Press

Meas

,

Occupied BW

.

A marker pair will appear on the trace and the occupied bandwidth value and the integrated power in the OBW are displayed in the data window below the trace

graticule. See Figure 5-30

Chapter 5 109

Figure 5-30

Spectrum Analyzer

Occupied Bandwidth (OBW) Measurement

OBW Measurement Results

NOTE

NOTE

Step 7.

You can improve the repeatability of the measurements by setting the Average number to 100 or greater:

Press

Meas Setup

,

Avg Number

, 100,

Enter

,

Trace/Detector

,

Trace Average

.

Step 8.

You can change the percentage of power used for calculating the Occupied BW.

The default percentage is 99%.

Press

Meas Setup

,

Power

, 80,

%

.

If you are measuring a narrow signal such as TDMA or PDC, zoom in on the signal for a more accurate OBW results.

Press

SPAN X Scale

,

Span

, enter the frequency using the number keypad, and then press

Hz

,

kHz

,

MHz

, or

GHz

.

For an over the air measurement, connect an antenna and an external filter to the

RF input.

The external filter is necessary to eliminate out-of-band signals that would otherwise reduce the dynamic range of measurements in the band of interest. The effect of the out-of-band signals is to raise the noise floor, possibly hiding some or all of the signal of interest. However, the external filter is optional in this set up:

If you want to limit your search to a specific band of interest, you should use the filter.

If you want to search beyond a specific band, then you can leave the filter off.

110 Chapter 5

Spectrum Analyzer

Using the Spectrogram View (Requires Option 271)

Using the Spectrogram View (Requires Option 271)

This section provides information on making a measurement using the

Spectrogram View.

This section includes the following measurement:

“Spectrogram View Basics” on page 111

“A Spectrogram Measurement Using the OBW Measurement” on page 111

Spectrogram View Basics

The Spectrogram view is available in the Spectrum Analyzer mode only. You can use it with measurements turned off (basic spectrum analyzer) or with the available spectrum analyzer measurements listed in the measurement menu, such as the

Occupied BW measurement.

Troubleshooting a transmitter system is often aided by examining the time evolution of the power distribution.This view provides a history of the spectrum.

You can use it to:

• locate intermittent signals track signal levels over time.

You may set the following parameters for this view:

Update Interval: Allows you to set the update interval to 1 or more seconds.

Or, you may set it to automatically determine the capture interval that provides the maximum data collection speed.

A data sample is taken every n th

trace for display on the spectrogram.

Increasing the capture time allows data capturing over a longer period of time in the spectrogram. However, it is a sampling technique that allows intermittent events, which occur between samplings, to be lost. Therefore, if you are searching for intermittent signals, consider using Repeat Max Hold average type in conjunction with increasing the capture time.

Frame Skip: Allows you to set the number of frames you would like to skip when capturing data. You may set this value from skip 0 to 2,147,483,647 frames. Increasing the frame skip value causes the display to redraw the spectrum every n th

trace and a block of lines are shown at once instead of a single line at a time. Higher frame skip values are for use with fast measurements.

Palette: Allows you to set the display to full color or grayscale.

A Spectrogram Measurement Using the OBW Measurement

The following procedure is an example of a Spectrogram measurement using the

Chapter 5 111

Spectrum Analyzer

Using the Spectrogram View (Requires Option 271)

Spectrum Analyzer mode Occupied Bandwidth (OBW) measurement.

Figure 5-31

Performing a Spectrogram Measurement

Step 1.

Connect the RF Output of the signal generator to the analyzer RF Input as shown in

Figure 5-31

.

Setup for OBW Measurement

Step 2.

Set a GSM signal on the signal generator with a frequency of 950 MHz a nd the amplitude set to

10 dBm.

Step 3.

Select the spectrum analyzer mode:

Press

Mode

,

Spectrum Analyzer

.

Step 4.

Preset the analyzer:

Press

Mode Preset

.

Step 5.

Set the center frequency and span:

Press

FREQ Channel

,

Center Frequency

, 950,

MHz

.

Press

SPAN X Scale

,

Span

, 1,

MHz

Step 6.

Set the number of averages to 25 and turn on averaging.:

Press

Meas Setup

,

Avg Number

, 25,

Enter

.

Press

Trace/Detector

,

Trace Average

Step 7.

Select Spectrum Analyzer Occupied BW measurement.

Press

Meas

,

Occupied BW

.

A marker pair will appear on the trace and the occupied bandwidth value and the integrated power in the OBW are displayed in the data window below the trace graticule. See

Figure 5-32

112 Chapter 5

Figure 5-32

Spectrum Analyzer

Using the Spectrogram View (Requires Option 271)

OBW Measurement Results – Normal View

Step 8.

To switch to the Spectrogram view:

Press

Spectrogram

,

Spectrogram

(until ON is underlined), 100,

Enter

,

Trace/Detector

,

Trace Average

.

The OBW measurement results display will now be similar to Figure 5-33

Step 9.

If you need to restart the data capture:

Press

Reset Spectrogram

.

Step 10.

If desired set the capture interval:

Press

Update Interval

,

Enter the interval number using the number keypad.

Select

sec

or

Max Speed

.

Max Speed

displays every trace captured.

Step 11.

If you want to set the number of frames to skip:

Press

Frame Skip

Enter the interval number using the number keypad.

Select

frames

.

Step 12.

If you want to set the display color:

Press

Palette

Select

Full Color

or

Grayscale

.

The color/grayscale top and bottom mappings are determined by the Ref Level and

Scale/Div settings. To change the mapping, go to

AMPTD Y Scale

and change

Ref

Level

and

Scale/Div

.

Chapter 5 113

Figure 5-33

Spectrum Analyzer

Using the Spectrogram View (Requires Option 271)

OBW Measurement Results – Spectrogram View

NOTE

In the picture, the elapsed time clock shows the amount of time shown on the graph and stops when the graph is full.

You can also place the markers (the two vertical lines) as shown to see the amplitude change of the specific frequency you care.

114 Chapter 5

Spectrum Analyzer

Pulse Measurement

Figure 5-34

Pulse Measurement

In order to make better measurements of signals whose spectrum varies rapidly with time, such as pulsed signals, For firmware A.02.00 or greater, you can have sweep time control in non-zero spans. This example uses the analyzer to measure the pulsed signal at 100 MHz with period of 20 us and width of 4 us.

Step 1.

Setup the pulsed signal using the signal generator Agilent ESG and connect the RF

Output of the signal generator to the analyzer RF Input as shown in

Figure 5-34 .

Setup for Pulse Measurement

NOTE

Step 2.

Select the spectrum analyzer mode:

Press

Mode

,

Spectrum Analyzer

.

Step 3.

Preset the analyzer:

Press

Mode Preset

.

Step 4.

Set the center frequency:

Press

FREQ Channel

,

Center Freq

,

100

,

MHz

.

Step 5.

Set the spectrum analyzer to zero span:

Press

SPAN X Scale

,

Zero Span

.

Step 6.

Set the Resolution BW:

Press

BW

(Manual)

, 5, MHz

.

The larger the Resolution BW, the more power will pass through the Res

BW filter, so the less distortion of the pulse signal there will be. Similarly, more noise will pass through the filter, so the displayed average noise floor will be higher. The setting of Res BW is therefore an important factor in determining your measurement results.

Step 7.

Set the sweep time:

Chapter 5 115

Spectrum Analyzer

Pulse Measurement

NOTE

NOTE

Figure 5-35

Press

Control/Sweep, Sweep Time, 50, us

.

Step 8.

Set the vertical scale:

Press

AMPTD Y Scale

,

Autoscale

.

You can set Ref Level, Scale/Div to adjust the AMPTD Y Scale display. For more information on this front panel key, please see the User’s and Programmer’s

Reference Manual.

Step 9.

To adjust the trigger settings, press

Meas Setup

,

Trigger

and select the trigger mode

Free Run

,

Video

(unfiltered),

External

and

RF Burst

.

The primary difference between the trigger mode Video and RF Burst is trigger bandwidth. The RF Burst trigger has a bandwidth that is >50 MHz, while the

Video has <5 MHz. For measuring pulses using Video Trigger, you may also have to enable Auto Trigger (press

Trigger

,

More 1 of 2

,

Auto Trig

) with a time greater than the pulse period.

Pulse Measurement

NOTE

For more information of each soft key under Meas Setup menu, you can refer to spectrum analyzer section of User’s and Programmer’s Reference manual.

116 Chapter 5

Spectrum Analyzer

Tune and Listen (Requires Option AFM)

NOTE

Tune and Listen (Requires Option AFM)

AM/FM Tune and Listen demodulates at the frequency of interest to permit audible detection of AM or FM modulated signals. This example uses the analyzer to listen to a FM radio signal at 97.4 MHz.

Step 1.

Select the spectrum analyzer mode:

Press

Mode

,

Spectrum Analyzer

.

Step 2.

Set the center frequency:

Press

FREQ Channel

,

Center Freq

,

97.4

,

MHz

.

Step 3.

Set the span:

Press

SPAN X Scale

,

10

,

MHz

Step 4.

Set the demodulation type at marker place:

Press

Demod

,

Demod at Marker Type

,

FM

.

Step 5.

Set the demodulation at marker:

Press

Demod

,

Demod at Marker, On

.

Step 6.

Set the demodulation time:

Press

Demod

,

Demod Time

,

50

,

s

.

Set the demodulation time longer to listen to continuous voice material such as from a broadcast station. Set the demodulation time shorter (less than 5 seconds) to listen to two-way radio transmissions.

You can use the three keys below the screen in the front panel to mute, decrease the volume or increase the volume.

Chapter 5 117

Spectrum Analyzer

Tune and Listen (Requires Option AFM)

118 Chapter 5

6

Channel Analyzer Measurements

119

CAUTION

Channel Analyzer Measurements

This chapter provides information on measuring signal power.

This chapter includes the following measurement:

“Making Adjacent Channel Power (ACP (I&M)) Measurements” on page 121

Ensure that the total power of all signals at the analyzer input does not exceed +33 dBm (2 watts).

Basic Assumption

The material in this chapter is presented with the assumption that you understand the front and rear panel layout, and display annotations of your analyzer. If you do not, refer to the Measurement Guide “Front and Rear Panel Features”.

120 Chapter 6

Channel Analyzer Measurements

Making Adjacent Channel Power (ACP (I&M)) Measurements

CAUTION

CAUTION

NOTE

Making Adjacent Channel Power (ACP (I&M))

Measurements

Adjacent Channel Power (ACP (I&M)) is a measure of the power that leaks into adjacent transmit channels. The ACP measurements, as currently implemented, are suitable for quick checks in installation and maintenance (I&M) applications. They are not necessarily suitable for ACP measurements in manufacturing or R & D applications.

The adjacent channel power (ACP (I&M)) measurement is also referred to as the adjacent channel power ratio (ACPR) and adjacent channel leakage ratio (ACLR).

We use the term ACP to refer to this measurement.

ACP measures the total power (rms voltage) in the specified channel and up to three pairs of offset frequencies. The measurement result reports the ratios of the offset powers to the main channel power.

The measurement results can help you determine whether the power is set correctly and whether the transmitter filter is working properly. Once you have set the limits, you can easily see whether a test falls within those limits using the mask feature and the color-coded metrics. You can measure the adjacent channel power on one to three adjacent channels on each side of your center channel in the

CDMA, TDMA, UMTS (W-CDMA), GSM EDGE and GPRS, AMPS, NMT-450,

Tetra, and iDEN channel bands.

When measuring multiple adjacent channels, the combined channel power must not exceed +33 dBm at the RF Input.

The maximum power for the RF Input 50

is 33 dBm (2 W). When directly coupled to a transmitter, the analyzer can be damaged by excessive power applied to any of these ports.

To prevent damage in most situations when you directly couple the analyzer to a transmitter, connect a high power attenuator between the analyzer RF Input 50

 and the transmitter.

For complex modulation such as CDMA, W-CDMA, GSM, the frequency error measurement is not accurate.

The following example shows how to make an ACP measurement on a simulated

W-CDMA base station signal broadcasting at 1.955 GHz.

Step 1.

Connect the RF Output of the signal generator to the analyzer RF Input 50

 as shown in

Figure 6-1 .

Chapter 6 121

Figure 6-1

Channel Analyzer Measurements

Making Adjacent Channel Power (ACP (I&M)) Measurements

Setup for ACP Measurement

Figure 6-2

Step 2.

Using the signal generator to setup a W-CDMA signal transmitting at 1.955 GHz and

10 dBm.

Step 3.

Select the channel analyzer mode and the adjacent channel power measurement:

Press

Mode

,

Channel Analyzer

.

Step 4.

Preset the analyzer.

Press

Mode Preset

.

Step 5.

Set the center frequency to 1.955 GHz:

Press

FREQ Channel

,

Center Freq

, 1.955,

GHz

.

Step 6.

Set the analyzer radio mode to W-CDMA as a base station device:

Press

Meas Setup

,

Format/BW

,

Format Type

(List),

Format List

, select W-CDMA sing the up and down arrow buttons, press Select

.

ACP Measurement Results

122 Chapter 6

Channel Analyzer Measurements

Making Adjacent Channel Power (ACP (I&M)) Measurements

Figure 6-3

The frequency offsets, channel integration bandwidths, and span settings can all be modified when you select

Meas Setup

,

Format Type

(Cust).

Step 7.

Turn the limit test on:

Press

Meas Setup

,

Limits

,

Power Limits

,

Power Limits

(On).

ACP Results with Offset Limits

Step 8.

You may set different pass/fail limits for each offset:

Press

Meas Setup

,

Limits

,

Power Limits

,

Center Chan High Limit

,

10,

dBm

,

Center

Chan Low Limit

,

30,

dBm

,

Adj Chan 1 High Limit

,

45,

dB

, and

Adj Chan 2 High Limit

,

60,

dB

.

In Figure 6-4

notice that ACP 2 Low and ACP 2 High have both failed, however all other channels have passed.

Chapter 6 123

Figure 6-4

Channel Analyzer Measurements

Making Adjacent Channel Power (ACP (I&M)) Measurements

Setting Offset Limits

124 Chapter 6

7

Stimulus Response Measurements

(Requires N8995A)

125

CAUTION

Stimulus Response Measurements (Requires N8995A)

This chapter provides information on measuring signal loss in cables and devices and making cable fault measurements.

This chapter is divided into the following sections:

“Two Port Insertion Loss” on page 127

“One Port Insertion Loss” on page 130

“Return Loss” on page 134

“Distance to Fault” on page 138

Ensure that the total power of all signals at the analyzer input does not exceed +33 dBm (2 watts).

Basic Assumption

The material in this chapter is presented with the assumption that you understand the front and rear panel layout, and display annotations of your analyzer. If you do not, refer to the Measurement Guide “Front and Rear Panel Features”.

126 Chapter 7

Stimulus Response Measurements (Requires N8995A)

Two Port Insertion Loss

NOTE

Two Port Insertion Loss

This procedure measures the loss or gain of a filter, amplifier, cable, or other devices over a specified frequency range.

Insertion loss measurements are important in accurately quantifying the amount of loss or gain a signal will incur as it passes through a device. In S-parameter terms, insertion loss is referred to as an S

21

measurement. “S” stands for scattering.

Before you perform a two port insertion loss measurement, you must first normalize the measured values for insertion loss by compensating for the loss associated with the devices (adapters, cables) that connect the analyzer to the device or assembly being tested. Otherwise, your measurement will be inaccurate.

CAUTION

Note that in step 6 on page 127

, excessive signal input may damage the DUT. Do not exceed the maximum power that the device under test can tolerate.

NOTE

CAUTION

DO NOT make the connection at this time. You will be directed when to make the connections later in the procedure.

Step 1.

To measure the rejection of a low pass filter, connect the RF Output of the analyzer to the RF Input.

This example uses a 50 MHz low pass filter as the DUT.

Step 2.

Set the analyzer to the Two Port Insertion Loss measurement:

Press

Mode

,

Stimulus/Response

,

Meas

,

Two Port Insertion Loss

Step 3.

Preset the analyzer:

Press

Mode Preset

.

Step 4.

Set the start and stop frequencies:

Press

FREQ Channel

,

Start Freq

, 10,

MHz

.

Press

FREQ Channel

,

Stop Freq

, 250,

MHz

.

Step 5.

Turn averaging off:

Press

Meas Setup

,

Avg Mode, Off

.

Step 6.

Set the signal source output power of analyzer to –15 dBm:

Press

Source

,

Source Level

(Manual), –15,

dBm

.

Excessive signal input may damage the DUT. Do not exceed the maximum power that the device under test can tolerate.

Chapter 7 127

Stimulus Response Measurements (Requires N8995A)

Two Port Insertion Loss

NOTE

In this step, the Source Level is set to Manual. In Manual mode, the output level can be set to any value between –15 dBm and –30 dBm and the output level will vary typically <+/-1 dB from the value selected. If Source Level is set to Auto, the output power level will be set to the maximum available at any given frequency.

The output power may vary from 0 dBm to –15 dBm when set to Auto. The user cannot control the nominal output power when Source Level is set to Auto.

Figure 7-1

Step 7.

Connect the cable (but not the DUT) from the analyzer RF Output to the RF Input as shown in

Figure 7-1

.

Two Port Insertion Loss Normalization Test Setup

NOTE

Step 8.

Normalize the frequency response:

Press

FREQ Channel

,

Normalize

and follow the instructions on the Normalize

Wizard.

After normalization, the word “UnNormalized” on the top left of the screen will turn to “Normalized”.

The normalization is needed each time you change the frequency setting.

Step 9.

To measure the rejection of a low pass filter:

Connect the DUT between the RF Input and RF Output of the analyzer as shown in

Figure 7-2

.

Note that the units of the reference level are dB, indicating that this is a relative measurement.

128 Chapter 7

Figure 7-2

Stimulus Response Measurements (Requires N8995A)

Two Port Insertion Loss

Two Port Insertion Loss Measurement Test Setup

Step 10.

Place the reference marker at the specified cutoff frequency:

Press

Marker

,

Normal

, 50,

MHz

.

Step 11.

Place the second marker at 100 MHz:

Figure 7-3

Press

Delta

, 50,

MHz

.

In this example, the attenuation over this frequency range is 66.9 dB/octave (one octave above the cutoff frequency).

Step 12.

Use the front-panel knob to place the marker at the highest peak in the stop band to determine the minimum stop band attenuation. In this example, the peak occurs at

102.589 MHz. The attenuation is 63.2 dB.

Minimum Stop Band Attenuation

Chapter 7 129

NOTE

Stimulus Response Measurements (Requires N8995A)

One Port Insertion Loss

One Port Insertion Loss

The one port insertion loss measurement allows you to quantify signal loss in a cable or other device without connecting both ends of the cable or device to the analyzer. This measurement can be especially useful in measuring the loss of a feedline connected to the antenna on a tower. This method of measuring insertion loss is accurate for results up to 10 dB.

This measurement is less accurate than Two Port Insertion Loss. When it is practical to connect both ends of a device to the analyzer or for insertion loss measurements greater than 10 dB — for example when measuring a 40 dB attenuator — it is better to use Two Port Insertion Loss.

Test signals can cause interference. When testing cables attached to antennas, test signals are radiated. Verify that the signal used for the test cannot cause interference to another antenna.

Calibration - Minimizing your Workload

The One-Port Insertion Loss calibration is the same calibration as performed for the Return Loss and Distance to Fault (when it is performed with Frequency

Range set to manual) measurements. If you have already calibrated for any of these three measurements, the calibration will apply to the other two measurements and “Calibrated”, together with the frequency range over which the calibration was performed, will be displayed on top left of the screen, indicating the user calibration data is used.

If you have not previously performed a calibration, the word “Factory Calibration” appears at the top left of the measurement screen, indicating the factory calibration data is used.

It is important that you keep the calibration frequency range as close as possible to the actual sweep frequencies you intend using for the measurement or measurements. Calibrating over a large frequency range (for example, 1 GHz) when you only intend measuring over a much smaller range (a few MHz, for example) will induce inaccuracies in your results. Furthermore, even if the measurement frequency range is a subset of the calibration frequency range, the calibration data can be disregarded if the calibration frequency step (calibration frequency range / 255) is greater than the factory calibration frequency step (2.926

MHz). In such cases, the factory calibration data will be used.

If you plan to perform a combination of One-Port Insertion Loss measurement,

Return Loss measurement, and Distance to Fault measurements using a frequency range that you will set manually, you can perform one calibration for all three measurements as long as you calibrate over a frequency range that incorporates all three of your measurements, your cables do not change, and the calibration frequency step is not greater than that of the factory calibration. For this reason, if you are doing Distance to Fault measurements (using a frequency range that you

130 Chapter 7

NOTE

Stimulus Response Measurements (Requires N8995A)

One Port Insertion Loss

have set manually) as well as any type of Insertion Loss measurement, Agilent recommends that you select your cable type before performing calibrations. Press

Mode

,

Stimulus/Response

,

Meas

,

Distance to Fault

,

Meas Setup

,

Cable Type

to set the cable type.

The calibration remains valid until you do any one of the following:

• set the Distance to Fault frequency range to Auto. Note that the calibration will become valid again as soon as you switch from Auto back to Manual

Frequency Range power off the analyzer change the start frequency to a new value that lies below the start frequency of your previous calibration change the stop frequency to a new value that lies above the stop frequency of your previous calibration change the start or stop frequency when the calibration frequency step is greater than the factory calibration frequency step change any of the cables that you used for the calibration change any of the (optional) attenuators that might have been used for the calibration change the type of cable specified under the

Cable Type

menu key

Performing a One Port Insertion Loss Measurement

DO NOT make the connection at this time. You will be directed when to make the connections later in the procedure.

Step 1.

Connect the calibrating devices to the analyzer RF Output when prompted in the procedure, as shown in

Figure 7-4 , or as shown in the calibration wizard.

To calibrate your spectrum analyzer, you will need the following calibration kit:

Open/Short connector.

Calibrated 50 ohm Load connector.

This example uses a 10 feet cable as the DUT.

Chapter 7 131

Figure 7-4

Stimulus Response Measurements (Requires N8995A)

One Port Insertion Loss

One Port Insertion Loss Measurement

Step 2.

Set the analyzer to the One Port Insertion Loss measurement:

Press

Mode

,

Stimulus/Response

,

Meas

,

One Port Insertion Loss

Step 3.

Preset the analyzer:

Press

Mode Preset

,

Meas

,

One Port Insertion Loss

.

Step 4.

Set the start and stop frequencies:

Press

FREQ Channel

,

Start Freq

, 100,

MHz

.

Press

FREQ Channel

,

Stop Freq

, 500,

MHz

.

Step 5.

Turn averaging off:

Press

Meas Setup

,

Avg Mode

,

Off

.

Step 6.

Calibrate the measurement:

Press

FREQ Channel

,

Calibrate

and follow the instructions on the Calibration

Wizard. The analyzer will calibrate over the desired frequency range.

Step 7.

Connect the DUT to the analyzer, as described in step 1 . Note that the units of the

reference level are dB, indicating that this is relative measurement.

Step 8.

Change the amplitude scale to 1 dB per division:

Press

AMPTD Y Scale

,

Scale/Div

, 1,

dB

.

Step 9.

Place a marker on the results at the frequency of interest. In this example, the marker is placed at 299.216 MHz. As you can see the loss is 0.8 dB.

132 Chapter 7

Figure 7-5

Stimulus Response Measurements (Requires N8995A)

One Port Insertion Loss

One Port Insertion Loss Measurement Results, Normalized.

Chapter 7 133

NOTE

Stimulus Response Measurements (Requires N8995A)

Return Loss

Return Loss

Return loss is a measure of reflection characteristics. One way you can use the return loss measurement is to detect problems in an antenna feedline system or the antenna itself. A portion of the incident power will be reflected back to the source from each transmission line fault as well as the antenna. The ratio of the reflected voltages to the incident voltage is called the reflection coefficient. The reflection coefficient is a complex number, meaning it has both magnitude and phase information. In S-parameter terms, Return Loss is referred to as an S

11 measurement.

Test signals can cause interference. When testing cables attached to antennas, test signals are radiated. Verify that the signal used for the test cannot cause interference to another antenna.

Calibration - Minimizing your Workload

The Return Loss calibration is the same calibration as performed for the Distance

to Fault and One-Port Insertion Loss (when it is performed with Frequency Range set to manual) measurements. If you have already calibrated for any of these three measurements, the calibration will apply to the other two measurements and

“Calibrated”, together with the frequency range over which the calibration was performed, will be displayed on top left of the screen, indicating the user calibration data is used.

If you have not previously performed a calibration, the word “Factory Calibration” appears at the top left of the measurement screen, indicating the factory calibration data is used.

It is important that you keep the calibration frequency range as close as possible to the actual sweep frequencies you intend using for the measurement or measurements. Calibrating over a large frequency range (for example, 1 GHz) when you only intend measuring over a much smaller range (a few MHz, for example) will induce inaccuracies into your results. Furthermore, even if the measurement frequency range is a subset of the calibration frequency range, the calibration data can be disregarded if the calibration frequency step (calibration frequency range / 255) is greater than the factory calibration frequency step (2.926

MHz). In such cases, the factory calibration data will be used.

If you plan to perform a combination of One-Port Insertion Loss measurement,

Return Loss measurement, and Distance to Fault measurements using a frequency range that you will set manually, you can perform one calibration for all three measurements as long as you calibrate over a frequency range that incorporates all three of your measurements, your cables do not change, and the calibration frequency step is not greater than that of the factory calibration. For this reason, if you are doing Distance to Fault measurements (using a frequency range that you have set manually) as well as any type of Insertion Loss measurement, Agilent recommends that you select your cable type before performing calibrations. Press

134 Chapter 7

Stimulus Response Measurements (Requires N8995A)

Return Loss

Mode

,

Stimulus/Response

,

Meas

,

Distance to Fault

,

Meas Setup

,

Cable Type

to set the cable type.

The calibration remains valid until you do any one of the following:

• set the Distance to Fault frequency range to Auto. Note that the calibration will become valid again as soon as you switch from Auto back to Manual

Frequency Range power off the analyzer change the start frequency to a new value that lies below the start frequency of your previous calibration change the stop frequency to a new value that lies above the stop frequency of your previous calibration change the start or stop frequency when the calibration frequency step is greater than the factory calibration frequency step change any of the cables that you used for the calibration change any of the (optional) attenuators that might have been used for the calibration change the type of cable specified under the

Cable Type

menu key

Performing a Return Loss Measurement

Step 1.

Set the analyzer to the Stimulus/ Response Mode and the Return Loss measurement:

Press

Mode

,

Stimulus/Response, Meas, Return Loss

Step 2.

Preset the analyzer:

Press

Mode Preset, Meas, Return Loss

.

Step 3.

Set the start and stop frequencies:

This example uses a 50 MHz low pass filter as the DUT.

Press

FREQ Channel

,

Start Freq

, 10,

MHz

.

Press

FREQ Channel

,

Stop Freq

, 250,

MHz

.

Step 4.

Turn averaging off:

Press

Meas Setup

,

Avg Mode

,

Off

.

Step 5.

Calibrate the measurement:

Press

FREQ Channel

,

Calibrate

and follow the instructions on the Calibration

Wizard. The analyzer will calibrate over the desired frequency range.

To calibrate your spectrum analyzer, you will need the following calibration kit:

Chapter 7 135

Stimulus Response Measurements (Requires N8995A)

Return Loss

Figure 7-6

Open/short connector.

Calibrated 50 ohm Load connector.

Step 6.

Connect the test cable (if used) and calibration devices to the analyzer RF Output, as shown in

Figure 7-6

, or in the calibration wizard. (If the DUT is a two-port device, be sure to terminate the unused port in the characteristic impedance of the device.)

This example uses a 50 MHz low pass filter as the DUT.

Note that the units of the reference level are dB, indicating that this is a relative measurement.

Return Loss Measurement

Step 7.

Change the reference level.

Press

AMPTD Y Scale

,

Ref Level

, -5,

dB

.

Step 8.

Use the markers to measure the return loss and SWR at any point.

Press

Marker

,

Normal

. Use the knob to place the marker at a frequency of interest.

136 Chapter 7

Figure 7-7

Stimulus Response Measurements (Requires N8995A)

Return Loss

Return Loss Measurement Results, Calibrated.

Chapter 7 137

Stimulus Response Measurements (Requires N8995A)

Distance to Fault

Distance to Fault

A signal is transmitted from the RF Output connector of the analyzer to the cable-under-test. The signals reflected from faults in the cable are received by the analyzer.

In performing this measurement, the analyzer uses frequency domain reflectometry. The changing interference of the transmitted and reflected signals contains information about the distance to one or more faults. This information can be used to find the physical distance to the faults. The distance displayed on the analyzer is the physical distance to the probable faults, corrected for the cable loss and velocity factor of the cable.

Measured Distance - the Effects of Frequency and Points

It is not always obvious how frequency range affects measured distance and resolution, and it often appears to be counter-intuitive. If you are new to making

Distance to Fault measurements, this section will help clarify what is happening.

In the following equations

The Speed of Light (‘c’) is a constant value of 3 x 10

8

meters per second.

Your test cable’s transmission speed (relative to light) is V

Rel

The

Measured Distance

(in meters) of the DTF (Distance to Fault) measurement is determined by the following equation:

Measured Distance (in meters)

=

1

---

4

Number of Points

Frequency Span c

V

Rel

You can see from this equation that:

To

increase

the measured distance:

— you can

increase

the

number of points

, or

— you can

reduce

the

frequency span

.

To

reduce

the measured distance:

— you can

reduce

the

number of points

, or

— you can

increase

the

frequency span

.

138 Chapter 7

NOTE

NOTE

Stimulus Response Measurements (Requires N8995A)

Distance to Fault

Resolution - the Effects of Frequency and Points

It is not always obvious how frequency range affects measured distance and resolution, and it often appears to be counter-intuitive. If you are new to making

Distance to Fault measurements, this section will help clarify what is happening.

Resolution Distance

(in meters) of the DTF (Distance to Fault) measurement, that is, the shortest distance between two faults that can still be resolved by the analyzer, is determined by the following equation: lution Distance (in meters)

=

Measured Distance (in mete

----------------------------------------------------------------------------

1

2

Number of Points

Please be careful how you interpret this equation. Note that to increase the

resolution, you need to reduce the Resolution Distance; to reduce the resolution, you need to increase the Resolution Distance.

You can see from this equation that:

To

increase

the resolution, that is, to reduce the Resolution Distance:

— you can

increase

the

number of points

, or

— you can

reduce

the

measured distance

.

To

reduce

the resolution, that is, to increase the Resolution Distance:

— you can

reduce

the

number of points

, or

— you can

increase

the measured distance.

Although you can set your number of points to 256, 512, or 1024, you will only ever be able to save 256 data points when you save trace data. This is because only

256 points are ever used to display the trace, regardless of how many points you have used to actually make the measurement. You will not, however, be losing any resolution, or reducing the quality of your data. The results will still reflect the true number of data points that you specified.

Automatic and Manual Distance to Fault Measurements

The analyzer provides two ways of measuring distance to fault:

Automatic Frequency Range. You select the measurement distance and the analyzer automatically selects the

Start Frequency

and the

Stop Frequency

. The measurement distance is set using the

Start Distance

and the

Stop Distance

menu keys on the

Freq/Dist/Calibrate

menu. In this mode, the displayed and measured distances are the same. There are always 256 measurement points across the distance you set, so adjusting the distance settings allows you to

Chapter 7 139

NOTE

Stimulus Response Measurements (Requires N8995A)

Distance to Fault

• display the maximum resolution for the portion of the cable you are testing.

The disadvantage is that the start and stop frequencies are automatically set and may limit the analyzer's ability to sweep through filters or lightning protectors.

This mode is best used for checking a cable that has no frequency limiting devices.

Example 1:

If you set

Start Distance

to 0 m (0 ft) and the

Stop Distance

to 60 m

(197 ft), and you specify 256 Data Points (

Meas Setup

,

FFT Size

,

256

), the instrument automatically selects a

Start Freq

of 10 MHz and a

Stop Freq

of

220.88 MHz.

Example 2:

If you again set

Start Distance

to 0 m (0 ft) and the

Stop Distance

to

60 m (197 ft), but this time you specify 1024 Data Points (

Meas Setup

,

FFT

Size

,

1024

) to give you greater resolution, the instrument automatically selects a

Start Freq

of 10 MHz and a

Stop Freq

of 853.52 MHz.

Manual Frequency Range. When set to

Manual

, you must specify the

Start

Frequency

and the

Stop Frequency

, and the measured distance is computed from these frequencies. Generally, the typical start and stop frequencies you use will result in a measured distance that will be larger than the distance over which you want to look for faults.

The

Measured Distance

and the

Displayed Distance

can be different. The distance over which the instrument has made its measurements, and which has been derived from the frequencies you specified, is called the

Measured Distance

.

This is displayed at the top right corner of the measurement screen.

The

Displayed Distance

refers to that part of the entire

Measured Distance

that you choose to display on your measurement screen. You set the

Displayed

Distance

manually by pressing the

Start Distance

and the

Stop Distance

menu keys on the

Freq/Dist/Calibrate

menu.

To help isolate faults over the length of interest, you can set a displayed distance less than the measured distance. The displayed distance is set using the

Start Distance

and the

Stop Distance

menu keys on the

Freq/Dist/Calibrate

menu.

Keep in mind that there are 256, 512, or 1024 measurement points across the measured distance. The exact number of measurement points is set using the

FFT Size

key on the

Meas Setup

menu. Therefore, the measurement points across the chosen displayed distance will be a ratio of displayed distance to measured distance times the number of points you have specified. The higher the number of data points, the greater the measurement resolution.

In most cases, the default resolution using 256 data points will be adequate to locate the faults, but if more resolution is needed you can increase the span between the start and stop frequencies (which will decrease the measured distance) or use the other approach, automatic frequency range. If the measurement distance is not long enough for the cable you are testing, reduce the span between the start and stop frequencies (which will increase the measurement distance) or use automatic frequency range.

140 Chapter 7

NOTE

Stimulus Response Measurements (Requires N8995A)

Distance to Fault

When testing cables attached to antennas, test signals are radiated from the test antenna Verify that the signal used for the test, and therefore being radiated from the test antenna, cannot interfere with other radiated signals from other antennas.

Calibration - Minimizing your Workload

The Distance to Fault calibration is the same calibration as performed for the

Return Loss and One-Port Insertion Loss (when it is performed with Frequency

Range set to manual) measurements. If you have already calibrated for any of these three measurements, the calibration will apply to the other two measurements and “Calibrated”, together with the frequency range over which the calibration was performed, will be displayed on top left of the screen, indicating the user calibration data is used.

If you have not previously performed a calibration, the word “Factory Calibration” appears at the top left of the measurement screen, indicating the factory calibration data is used.

It is important that you keep the calibration frequency range as close as possible to the actual sweep frequencies you intend using for the measurement or measurements. Calibrating over a large frequency range (for example, 1 GHz) when you only intend measuring over a much smaller range (a few MHz, for example) will induce inaccuracies into your results. Furthermore, even if the measurement frequency range is a subset of the calibration frequency range, the calibration data can be disregarded if the calibration frequency step (calibration frequency range / 255) is greater than the factory calibration frequency step (2.926

MHz). In such cases, the factory calibration data will be used.

If you plan to perform a combination of One-Port Insertion Loss measurement,

Return Loss measurement, and Distance to Fault measurements using a frequency range that you will set manually, you can perform one calibration for all three measurements as long as you calibrate over a frequency range that incorporates all three of your measurements, your cables do not change, and the calibration frequency step is not greater than that of the factory calibration. For this reason, if you are doing Distance to Fault measurements (using a frequency range that you have set manually) as well as any type of Insertion Loss measurement, Agilent recommends that you select your cable type before performing calibrations. Press

Mode

,

Stimulus/Response

,

Meas

,

Distance To Fault

,

Meas Setup

,

Cable Type

to set the cable type.

The calibration remains valid until you do any one of the following:

• set the Distance to Fault frequency range to Auto. Note that the calibration will become valid again as soon as you switch from Auto back to Manual

Frequency Range power off the analyzer change the start frequency to a new value that lies below the start frequency of your previous calibration

Chapter 7 141

NOTE

Stimulus Response Measurements (Requires N8995A)

Distance to Fault

• change the stop frequency to a new value that lies above the stop frequency of your previous calibration change the start or stop frequency when the calibration frequency step is greater than the factory calibration frequency step change any of the cables that you used for the calibration change any of the (optional) attenuators that might have been used for the calibration change the type of cable specified under the

Cable Type

menu key

The distance to fault calibration for the auto frequency range is unique, however. It is not applicable to return loss or one port insertion loss, or even to the manual frequency range method for distance to fault.

For distance to fault measurements, separate calibrations need to be performed for each frequency range mode.

Performing a Distance to Fault Measurement

Step 1.

Set the analyzer to the Stimulus/Response mode.

Press

Mode

,

Stimulus/Response

.

Step 2.

Preset the analyzer and select the Distance to Fault measurement.

Press

Mode Preset

.

Press

Meas

,

Distance to Fault

.

Step 3.

Select the cable type:

Press

Meas Setup

,

Cable Type

.

If the cable being measured has an “RG” designation, such as RG-214, select:

Cable Type (RG)

. or select:

Cable Type (BTS)

. Press,

Select Cable

. You will then be given a list of cable types to select. Use the knob or the up/down arrow navigation keys to highlight the correct cable type and press

Select

. If the type of cable you are measuring is not listed, you need to select

Cust

(Custom Cable) as the cable type then setup

Cable Atten

(the attenuation per unit distance of the cable) and

Vel Factor

(the relative propagation velocity of the cable).

Step 4.

Set the frequency range to auto.

Press

FREQ Channel

,

Freq Range

(Auto).

The start and stop frequencies are then automatically set by the start and stop distances.

Step 5.

Set the distance units:

Press

FREQ Channel

,

Units

(Feet).

142 Chapter 7

Stimulus Response Measurements (Requires N8995A)

Distance to Fault

Figure 7-8

Each time you press this menu key, the selected option (Feet or Meters) changes.

The unit you choose here will be used as the unit of the start and stop distances.

Step 6.

Set the start and stop distances for the cable you are measuring. In this example, the cable is approximately 23 feet.

Press

FREQ Channel

,

Start Distance

, 0,

ft

[feet],

Stop Distance

, 30,

ft

[feet].

You can also use meters as the unit in this step, the number you enter will be calculated to feet and shown.

Step 7.

Calibrate the measurement:

Press

FREQ Channel

,

Calibrate

and follow the instructions on the Calibration

Wizard. The analyzer will calibrate over the desired frequency range.

To calibrate your spectrum analyzer, you will need the following calibration kit:

Open/short connector.

Calibrated 50 ohm Load connector.

Distant to Fault Measurement

Step 8.

Connect the calibration devices and test cable to the analyzer RF Output, as shown

in Figure 7-8 , or in the calibration wizard.

Chapter 7 143

Figure 7-9

Stimulus Response Measurements (Requires N8995A)

Distance to Fault

Distance to Fault Measurement, Calibrated

Step 9.

Connect the DUT to the analyzer RF Output, as shown in

Figure 7-8 .

Figure 7-10

This example uses an RG8A type cable as the DUT.

Step 10.

The triangles (up to 4) will indicate the worst faults. Below the graticule, the

Return Loss, Distance, and VSWR of each fault is indicated. (This cable has a fault indicated at 23 feet.)

Distance to Fault Measurement Results.

144 Chapter 7

8

Demodulating AM/FM Signals

(Requires Option N8996A-1FP)

145

Demodulating AM/FM Signals (Requires Option N8996A-1FP)

This Chapter provides information making the following measurements.

“Demodulating an AM Signal Using the CSA (Requires Option

N8996A-1FP)” on page 147 .

“Demodulating an FM Signal Using the CSA (Requires Option N8996A-1FP)” on page 153

.

146 Chapter 8

Demodulating AM/FM Signals (Requires Option N8996A-1FP)

Demodulating an AM Signal Using the CSA (Requires Option N8996A-1FP)

Demodulating an AM Signal Using the CSA (Requires

Option N8996A-1FP)

This section demonstrates how to demodulate an AM signal using the CSA built-in

AM demodulator with Option N8996A-1FP.

Using the CSA built in AM demodulator you can tune to an AM signal and view the results displayed in the time domain or the frequency domain (refer to the concepts chapter in the Measurement Guide

“AM Concepts” on page 200

,

“Modulation Distortion Measurement Concepts” on page 204 and

“Modulation

SINAD Measurement Concepts” on page 205

for more information).

CAUTION

Ensure that the total power of all signals at the analyzer input does not exceed +33 dBm (2 watts).

Figure 8-1

Step 1.

Connect an Agilent ESG RF signal source to the analyzer RF INPUT as shown in

Figure 8-1 . Set the ESG frequency to 300 MHz and the amplitude to -10 dBm. Set

the AM depth to 80%, the AM rate to 1 kHz and turn AM on.

Setup for AM Demodulation Measurement

Step 2.

Select the Modulation Analyzer mode and mode preset:

Press

Mode

,

Modulation Analyzer

, then press

Mode Preset

.

Step 3.

Select AM measurement:

Press

Meas

,

AM

.

Step 4.

Select the demodulation waveform view:

Press

View/Display

,

Demod Waveform

.

Demod Waveform is the default setting of View/Display.

Step 5.

Set the center frequency to the center of the AM signal (in this case 300 MHz):

Press

FREQ Channel

,

Center Freq

,

300

,

MHz

.

Chapter 8 147

NOTE

Demodulating AM/FM Signals (Requires Option N8996A-1FP)

Demodulating an AM Signal Using the CSA (Requires Option N8996A-1FP)

There is a function called Global CF in

Mode

,

Mode Setup

,

Use Global CF

(On or

Off). If you turn this On, the CF (center frequency) will use the same center frequency value as other modes which also have the Global CF switched On. This means when you want to switch between different modes, you can keep the same

CF.

For example, if you set

Use Global CF

to On in Modulation Analyzer mode, and also set

Use Global CF

to On in Spectrum Analyzer mode, all measurements made in either mode will use the same center frequency. Any change you make to center frequency in one measurement or mode will be applied across all measurements in either mode.

Step 6.

Set the IF bandwidth to Auto.

Press

Meas Setup

,

IFBW

(Auto).

For most measurements, you can use the Auto setting of IF bandwidth. If the AM depth is lower than 2%, you need to set the IF bandwidth manually. You should first calculate the minimum required bandwidth

IFBW

=

2 x Modulation Rate

Your IFBW must be greater than this minimum value. Use the IFBW menu key to select a suitable IFBW.

NOTE

The IFBW can be set to the following values: 5 MHz, 3 MHz, 1.25 MHz, 1 MHz,

500 kHz, 300 kHz, 250 kHz, 100 kHz, 50 kHz, 30 kHz, 10 kHz, 5 kHz, 3 kHz.

Step 7.

Set the horizontal scaling:

Press

SPAN X Scale

,

Scale/Div

, 500,

s

.

Step 8.

Set the vertical scaling:

Press

AMPTD Y Scale

,

Scale/Div

, 40,

%

.

Step 9.

Set your view to show the results in the best way for you. Press

View/Display

, and then select

Demod Waveform

,

Demod Spectrum

, or

Numerical Results

. Examples of these three views are shown below.

The Demod Waveform View of the measurement results is shown in Figure 8-2

.

148 Chapter 8

Figure 8-2

Demodulating AM/FM Signals (Requires Option N8996A-1FP)

Demodulating an AM Signal Using the CSA (Requires Option N8996A-1FP)

AM Demod Waveform (ESG AM Signal with 80% Modulation Index)

Figure 8-3

The Demod Spectrum View of the measurement results is shown in Figure 8-3 .

AM Demod Spectrum (ESG AM Signal with 80% Modulation Index)

The numeric results shown in the Demod Waveform view or the Demod Spectrum view are the current or the average measurement results in the Numerical Results view.

The Numerical Results view shown in

Figure 8-4 gives the detailed measurement

results for AM index, Carrier Power, Modulation Rate, Distortion and SINAD including the minimum value for AM Index and maximum value for all five parameters.

Chapter 8 149

Figure 8-4

Demodulating AM/FM Signals (Requires Option N8996A-1FP)

Demodulating an AM Signal Using the CSA (Requires Option N8996A-1FP)

AM Numerical Results (ESG AM Signal with 80% Modulation Index)

Step 10.

To adjust the measurement settings, press

Meas Setup

, then:

1.

Avg Number: To set the averaging

On

or

Off

, switch the

Avg Number

key between

On

and

Off

. When averaging is

On

, enter the number of results used in the averaging calculations. The default average setting is

Off

and the default number is 10 when averaging is

On

. If your input signal changes during the average period, wait until the averaging has completed or the next averaging period has started.

When the Avg Number is On, the column title “Current” in Numerical Results view will change to “Avg”.

2.

Avg Mode: To change the average mode, press the

Avg Mode

key and select

Exponential

or

Repeat

. The default average mode is

Repeat

.

3.

Demod: To change the demodulation settings, press the

Demod

menu key, then:

To change detector, press

AM Detector

to select a detector

Peak+

,

Peak-

,

Peak+-/2

, or

RMS

.

Peak+ is typically used when analyzing stationary signals like CW or sinusoids, but is not good for displaying noise, since it will not show the true randomness of the noise.

Peak+-/2 is the average of Peak+ and Peak-.

RMS is best for measuring the power of signals.

To change the length of time over which your measurement is performed, press

Meas Time

and use the numeric keypad to enter the measurement time.

150 Chapter 8

NOTE

Demodulating AM/FM Signals (Requires Option N8996A-1FP)

Demodulating an AM Signal Using the CSA (Requires Option N8996A-1FP)

If a pulsed signal is being measured, the Meas Time should be set less than or equal to the Search Length.

When the AM Detector is Peak+ or Peak-, you can access

Peak Hold

to switch between

On

and

Off

. If Peak Hold is On, the measurement result of the AM

Index is the maximum (when AM Detector is Peak+) or minimum (when AM

Detector is Peak-) value of these peaks over the whole measurement time. If peak hold is Off, the measurement result of the AM Index (Peak+ or Peak- mode) is the average of these peaks over the whole measurement time.

Toggle the

Meas Filter

key to switch measurement filter between

On

and

Off

. If

IFBW is greatly larger than the AM rate, a lot of noise will contaminate the normal signal. In order to decrease the interference of noise, you can select the

Meas Filter to filter out the noise and improve the accuracy of measurement.

4.

Burst Search: To change the settings of the burst search, press

Burst Search

, then:

Press

Sync

to select

None

or

RF Amptd

. If RF Amptd is chosen, a burst search begins.

Press

Burst Search Threshold

to enter the burst searching power threshold. The unit is dB because this threshold is defined as the logarithmic ratio of the power of idle data portion to the power of data portion.

Press

Search Length

to enter the searching time for the pulsed signal. The setting of search length should be:

Search Length

2 x length of idle data portion + length of data portion

5.

Trigger: To change the settings of trigger, press

Trigger

, then:

To select the trigger type, press

Free Run

,

External

or

RF Burst

.

If External is chosen, the Trigger Slope and Trigger Delay are available. If RF

Burst is chosen, the Trigger Level and Trigger Delay are available.

To set the trigger level, press

Trigger Level,

then enter the numeric data to set the absolute trigger level for the RF burst envelope.

Press

Trigger Slope

to control the trigger polarity.

Press

Trigger Delay

to set the wait time of the analyzer before the analyzer starts a sweep.

6.

Limits: To change the limit settings, press

More 1 of 2

, then press

Limits

:

Toggle

Limits

between

On

and

Off

to activate or deactivate the limits display.

When the setting is On, the green word “PASS” or the red word “FAIL” at the

Chapter 8 151

Figure 8-5

Demodulating AM/FM Signals (Requires Option N8996A-1FP)

Demodulating an AM Signal Using the CSA (Requires Option N8996A-1FP)

top left of the display indicates whether the measurement results have passed or failed the limits test. The mark “(P)” or “(F)” beside the measurement result means this value is passed or failed.

Press

Carrier Power Upper

to enter the maximum RF carrier power, the measured maximum value will be changed from green to red when it exceeds the limit set here.

Press

AM Index Upper

to enter the maximum AM index to warn you if the measured maximum value exceeds the limit specified here.

Press

AM Index Lower

to change the minimum AM index limit.

The measurement results are failed in the Figure 8-5 with the maximum AM

Index exceeds the limit.

AM Numerical Results with Limits On

152 Chapter 8

Demodulating AM/FM Signals (Requires Option N8996A-1FP)

Demodulating an FM Signal Using the CSA (Requires Option N8996A-1FP)

Demodulating an FM Signal Using the CSA (Requires

Option N8996A-1FP)

This section demonstrates how to demodulate an FM signal using the CSA built-in

FM demodulator with Option N8996A-1FP.

Using the CSA built in FM demodulator you can tune to an FM signal and view the results displayed in the time domain or the frequency domain (refer to the concepts chapter in the Measurement Guide

“FM Concepts” on page 202

,

“Modulation Distortion Measurement Concepts” on page 204 and

“Modulation

SINAD Measurement Concepts” on page 205

for more information).

CAUTION

Ensure that the total power of all signals at the analyzer input does not exceed +33 dBm (2 watts).

Figure 8-6

Step 1.

Use an Agilent ESG RF signal generator or an antenna to get an FM signal to analyze. In this example an ESG is used transmitting at 300 MHz with FM deviation of 10 kHz and FM rate of 1 kHz.

Step 2.

Connect the RF OUTPUT of the Agilent ESG RF signal generator to the analyzer

RF INPUT as shown in Figure 8-6

.

Setup for FM Demodulation Measurement

Step 3.

Select the Modulation Analyzer mode and mode preset:

Press

Mode

,

Modulation Analyzer

, then press

Mode Preset

.

Step 4.

Select FM measurement:

Press

Meas

,

FM

.

Step 5.

Select the demodulation waveform view:

Press

View/Display

,

Demod Waveform

.

Step 6.

Set the center frequency to the center of the FM signal (in this case 300 MHz):

Press

FREQ Channel

,

Center Freq

, 300,

MHz

.

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NOTE

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Demodulating an FM Signal Using the CSA (Requires Option N8996A-1FP)

There is a function called Global CF in

Mode

,

Mode Setup

,

Use Global CF

(On or

Off). If you turn this On, the CF (center frequency) will use the same center frequency value as other modes which also have the Global CF switched On. This means when you want to switch between different modes, you can keep the same

CF.

For example, if you set

Use Global CF

to On in Modulation Analyzer mode, and also set

Use Global CF

to On in Spectrum Analyzer mode, all measurements made in either mode will use the same center frequency. Any change you make to center frequency in one measurement or mode will be applied across all measurements in either mode.

Step 7.

Set the IF bandwidth to Auto.

Press

Meas Setup

,

IFBW

(Auto).

For measurements with

>1(is the ratio of frequency deviation to modulation rate), you can use the automatic setting of IF Bandwidth. For measurements with

<1, you need to set IF bandwidth manually, you should first calculate the minimum required bandwidth, Then with CSA IFBW selections, choose a suitable

IFBW

=

 

2 x Frequency Deviation

+

2 x Modulation Rate

 

IFBW:

NOTE

The IFBW can be set as the following values: 5 MHz, 3 MHz, 1.25 MHz, 1 MHz,

500 kHz, 300 kHz, 250 kHz, 100 kHz, 50 kHz, 30 kHz, 10 kHz, 5 kHz, 3 kHz.

Step 8.

Set the horizontal scaling:

Press

SPAN X Scale

,

Scale/Div

, 500,

s

.

Step 9.

Set the vertical scaling:

Press

AMPTD Y Scale

,

Scale/Div

, 5,

kHz

.

Step 10.

Set your view to show the results in the best way for you. Press

View/Display

, and then select

Demod Waveform

,

Demod Spectrum

, or

Numerical Results

. Examples of these three views are shown below.

The Demod Waveform View of the measurement results is shown in Figure 8-7

.

154 Chapter 8

Figure 8-7

Demodulating AM/FM Signals (Requires Option N8996A-1FP)

Demodulating an FM Signal Using the CSA (Requires Option N8996A-1FP)

FM Demod Waveform (ESG FM Signal with 10 kHz Deviation)

Figure 8-8

The Demod Spectrum View of the measurement results is shown in Figure 8-8 .

FM Demod Spectrum (ESG FM Signal with 10 kHz Deviation)

The numeric results shown in the Demod Waveform view or the Demod Spectrum view are the current or the average measurement results in the Numerical Results view.

The Numerical Results view shown in

Figure 8-9 gives the detailed measurement

results for Carrier Frequency Offset, Frequency Deviation, Carrier Power,

Modulation Rate, Distortion and SINAD including the minimum value for

Frequency Deviation and maximum value for all the six parameters.

Chapter 8 155

Figure 8-9

Demodulating AM/FM Signals (Requires Option N8996A-1FP)

Demodulating an FM Signal Using the CSA (Requires Option N8996A-1FP)

FM Numerical Results (ESG FM Signal with 10 kHz Deviation)

Step 11.

To adjust the measurement settings, press

Meas Setup

, then:

1.

Averaging: To set the averaging

On

or

Off

, switch the

Avg Number

key between

On

and

Off

. When averaging is

On

, enter the number of results used in the averaging calculations. The default average setting is

Off

and the default number is 10 when averaging is

On

. If your input signal changes during the average period, wait until the averaging has completed or the next averaging period has started.

When the Avg Number is On, the column title “Current” in numerical results view will change to “Avg”.

2.

Averaging Mode: To change the average mode, press the

Avg Mode

key and select

Exponential

or

Repeat

. The default average mode is

Repeat

.

3.

Demod Settings: To change the demodulation settings, press the

Demod

menu key, then:

To change the detector, press

FM Detector

to select a detector

Peak+

,

Peak-

,

Peak+-/2

, or

RMS

.

Peak+ is typically used when analyzing stationary signals like CW or sinusoids, but is not good for displaying noise, since it will not show the true randomness of the noise.

Peak+-/2 is the average of Peak+ and Peak-.

RMS is best for measuring the power of signals.

To change the length of time over which your measurement is performed, press

Meas Time

and use the numeric keypad to enter the measurement time.

156 Chapter 8

NOTE

Demodulating AM/FM Signals (Requires Option N8996A-1FP)

Demodulating an FM Signal Using the CSA (Requires Option N8996A-1FP)

If a pulsed signal is being measured, the Meas Time should be less than or equal to the Search Length.

When the FM Detector is Peak+ or Peak-, you can access

Peak Hold

to switch between

On

and

Off

. If Peak Hold is On, the measurement result of the frequency deviation is the maximum (when FM Detector is Peak+) or minimum (when FM Detector is Peak-) value of these peaks over the whole measurement time. If peak hold is Off, the measurement result of the frequency deviation (Peak+ or Peak- mode) is the average of these peaks over the whole measurement time.

Press

AutoCarrFreq

to switch between

On

and

Off

. When the setting is On, the analyzer will calculate the carrier frequency offset between the signal source and signal analyzer then correct this offset for the demodulated baseband signal. The frequency deviation can be measured more accurate using the setting On.

Press

Meas Filter

to switch between

On

and

Off

. Measurement Filter here is used to filter the FM demodulated signal. If IFBW is greatly larger than the modulation rate, a lot of noise will contaminate the normal signal. In order to decrease the interference of noise, you can select the Meas Filter On to filter out noise and improve the accuracy of measurement.

4.

Burst Search: To change the settings of the burst search, press

Burst Search

, then:

Press

Sync

to select

None

or

RF Amptd

. If RF Amptd is chosen, the burst searching begin.

Press

Burst Search Threshold

to enter the burst searching power threshold. The unit is dB because this threshold is defined as the logarithmic ratio of the power of idle data portion to the power of data portion.

Press

Search Length

to enter the searching time for the pulsed signal, the setting of search length should be:

Search Length

2 x length of idle data portion + length of data portion

5.

Trigger: To change the settings of trigger, press

Trigger

, then:

To select the trigger type, press

Free Run

,

External

or

RF Burst

.

If External is chosen, the Trigger Slope and Trigger Delay are available. If RF

Burst is chosen, the Trigger Level and Trigger Delay are available.

To set the trigger level, press

Trigger Level,

then enter the numeric data to set the absolute trigger level for the RF burst envelope.

Press

Trigger Slope

to control the trigger polarity.

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Demodulating AM/FM Signals (Requires Option N8996A-1FP)

Demodulating an FM Signal Using the CSA (Requires Option N8996A-1FP)

Figure 8-10

Press

Trigger Delay

to set the wait time of the analyzer before the analyzer starts a sweep.

6.

Limits: To change limit settings, press

More 1 of 2

, then press

Limits

:

Press

Limits

key between

On

and

Off

to activate or deactivate the limits display.

Press

Carrier Power Upper

to enter the maximum RF carrier power. The color of the measured maximum value will be changed from green to red when the value exceeds the limit set here.

Press

Freq Deviation Upper

to enter the maximum frequency deviation to warn you when the measured maximum value exceeds the limit specified here.

Press

Freq Deviation Lower

to change the minimum frequency deviation limit.

Press

Carrier Freq Offset Upper

to set the maximum carrier frequency offset limit.

The Figure 8-10 show the failure result with the maximum carrier power

exceeds the limit.

FM Numerical Results with Limits On

NOTE

When Limits is set to On, the word “PASS” or “FAIL” in the left top corner of the display indicates the measurement results is passed or failed. The mark “(P)” or

“(F)” beside the measurement result means this value has passed or failed the limit test.

158 Chapter 8

9

Basic System Operations

159

Basic System Operations

This chapter contains information on the following Basic System Operations:

“System Reference Introduction” on page 162

“Setting System References” on page 163

“Selecting a Frequency/Timing Reference” on page 163

“Setting System Time/Date” on page 164

“Setting Real Time Clock” on page 164

“Printing a Screen To a File” on page 165

“Printing Screens” on page 165

“Saving Data” on page 166

“Saving Data” on page 166

“File Naming Options” on page 167

“Setting Up Automatic File Naming” on page 167

“Setting Up User File Naming” on page 167

“Setting Up Asking For Filename” on page 168

“Configuring for Network Connectivity” on page 169

“IP Administration Using DHCP” on page 169

“IP Administration Without DHCP (Static IP Address)” on page 169

“Setting the Display” on page 171

“Setting the Screen Saver” on page 171

“Setting the Brightness” on page 171

“Saving, Recalling, and Deleting Instrument States” on page 172

“Saving the State” on page 172

“Saving the Power-Up State” on page 172

“Recalling the State” on page 172

“Returning the Power-Up State to Factory Defaults” on page 173

“Deleting States” on page 174

“Viewing System Statistics” on page 175

“Viewing System Release Versions” on page 175

“Viewing System Memory” on page 175

“Viewing Battery Statistics” on page 175

“Using the Option Manager” on page 176

160 Chapter 9

“Viewing Installed Options” on page 176

“Viewing Installed Options” on page 176

“Installing an Option” on page 176

“Viewing Installation Information” on page 177

“Testing System Functions” on page 178

“Testing Your Display” on page 178

“Testing Your Keyboard” on page 178

Basic System Operations

Chapter 9 161

Basic System Operations

System Reference Introduction

System Reference Introduction

The N1996A Agilent CSA spectrum analyzers provide a system utility that allows you to perform non-measurement activities and to configure the analyzer for:

General operations

System status updates

Data manipulation

Basic system functions testing

162 Chapter 9

NOTE

Basic System Operations

Setting System References

Setting System References

The Agilent CSA provides a utility to preconfigure the global settings for your analyzer.

Selecting a Frequency/Timing Reference

Perform this procedure to select a common frequency or timing reference to be used for all measurement tools (when applicable).

1.

Press

System

,

Freq/Time Reference

2.

Using the knob or the up/down arrow navigation keys to highlight the frequency/timing reference you want.

3.

Press

Select

.

A frequency/time reference indicator in the lower-right of the screen shows both the selected reference and its status.

Reference indicators include: Int Ref, Even Sec, Ext 1.0 MHz, Ext 2.048 MHz,

Ext 4.95 MHz, Ext 10 MHz, Ext 13 MHz, Ext 15 MHz, or Ext 19.66 MHz.

Status indicators include:

Green dot to indicate that the reference is locked

Yellow triangle to indicate that the reference is acquiring lock

Red X to indicate that the reference is not locked

Chapter 9 163

Basic System Operations

Setting System Time/Date

Setting System Time/Date

The Agilent CSA provide a utility to preconfigure the Time/Date settings for your analyzer.

Setting Real Time Clock

Perform this procedure to set the system time and date.

1.

Press

System

,

Time/Date/Location

,

Time/Date

.

2.

Press

Set Time

, using the numeric keys or the up/down arrow navigation keys to enter the time as format hh:mm:ss.

3.

Press

Set Date

, using the numeric keys or the up/down arrow navigation keys to enter the date as format mm/dd/yyyy.

4.

Press

Data Format

to choose the data display is

MDY

(month-day-year) or

DMY

(day-month-year).

5.

Press

Time/Date

between

On

and

Off

, when the setting is

On

, the real-time clock is shown on the right top of the display.

164 Chapter 9

Basic System Operations

Printing a Screen To a File

Printing a Screen To a File

The N1996A lets you save screen images to PNG files. You can save the image files to a USB mass storage device.

Printing Screens

1.

Display data on a measurement screen.

2.

Connect a USB mass storage device.

3.

Select how you want to name the data file you’re saving (see

“File Naming

Options” on page 167).

This step must only be performed prior to the first time you save a file, or if you want to change the method you use.

4.

Press ), there will be a status massage “Screen Image capture in progress” and “*” gives the progress of the saving process at the bottom of the display.

5.

Enter a name for the file (or it is done automatically, depending on the file naming method you selected) and press OK.

6.

When the screen capture is complete, press

Ok

.

Chapter 9 165

Basic System Operations

Saving Data

Saving Data

Saving Data

You may save and manage data on an external storage device or the internal analyzer drive. You can save the current screen image, the current analyzer state, current trace data, and measurement results. To save data:

1.

Display data on a measurement screen.

2.

Press

Save

,

Type

and select the type of data you want to save.

3.

If you have selected a data type of Trace, press

Source

, and select the trace for the data you want to save. Your choices are: Trace 1, Trace 2, Trace 3, Trace 4, or All.

4.

Select how you want to name the data file you are saving (see “File Naming

Options” on page 167).

This step must only be performed prior to the first time you save a file, or if you want to change the method you use.

5.

If you have previously saved a file of the same type or name, select how the new data will be saved. New data can be saved by action: overwriting an existing file, appending the new data to the existing file, prompting you to determine how each save will be handled, automatically increment the file name number, or timestamping the file to chronologically differentiate between files. (see

“File Naming Options” on page 167).

This step must only be performed prior to the first time you save a file, or if you want to change the method you use.

6.

Enter a name for the file (or it is done automatically, depending on the file naming method you selected).

7.

If you have set data type as State or Trace, select the location where you want to store the file by pressing

Save

,

Location

and press

Internal

or

USB

. For

Screen or Measurement type of data, the choice of location can only be USB.

This step must only be performed prior to the first time you save a file, or if you want to change the file storage location.

8.

If you have selected USB as the storage location: a.

Connect a USB mass storage device.

9.

Press

Save Now

.

10.

When the data save is complete, press

Ok

.

166 Chapter 9

Basic System Operations

File Naming Options

File Naming Options

You have three options for naming image files. You can:

Name each file automatically using this format:

For a screen image, the format is Screen_YYYYMMDD_HHMMSS.png. For measurement results, “Screen” is replaced by “Data”. For State, “Screen” is replaced by “State”. For Trace, “Screen” is replaced by “Trace”. In this example, the “.png” extension is only for Data Type set to Screen. Other Data

Type have other extensions.

Name each file individually, and enter the name you want. This is called User file naming.

Have the analyzer ask you how you want to name each file for each file you save.

Setting Up Automatic File Naming

You can choose to have the analyzer automatically assign a file name that includes the file type and a three-digit number that the analyzer chooses to be the lowest number in the current sequence that does not conflict with an existing file name.

The format of the file name will be DataType_YYYYMMDD_HHMMSS.xxx. the extension is different for different type of data.

1.

Press

Save, Name

.

2.

On

Filename

select Auto.

Each time you press this softkey, the selected option changes.

Setting Up User File Naming

You can choose to have the analyzer use the file name you assign.

1.

Press

Save

,

Name

.

2.

On

Filename

select User.

Each time you press this softkey, the selected option changes.

3.

Setup file naming.

a.

Press

User Filename

b.

If the filename does not exist, spell out the name using the knob or up and down arrow buttons to select a letter and the buttons on the left to change cursor position.

c.

For each character entered, press

Enter

or

Select

. d.

Press

Ok

.

Chapter 9 167

Basic System Operations

File Naming Options

4.

If you have previously saved a file of the same type or name, press

If File Exists

.

5.

Press action:

Overwrite

,

Append

,

Prompt

,

Auto Incr

, or

Timestamp

Overwrite—overwrites existing file data with new file data.

Append—appends the new data to the end of the existing file data. (Type =

Measurement Results only)

Prompt—prompts you to input a new file name.

Auto Incr—automatically adds the numeric characters to the filename or increments the existing numeric character to the next higher number.

Timestamp—attaches a timestamp to the filename to distinguish it from the existing file.

Setting Up Asking For Filename

You can choose to have the analyzer ask you to name the file you wish to save or print. For every file you save, you enter the filename you want.

1.

Press

Save

,

Name

.

2.

On

Filename

select Ask.

Each time you press this softkey, the selected option changes.

168 Chapter 9

Basic System Operations

Configuring for Network Connectivity

Configuring for Network Connectivity

The N1996A can operate as a device on any compatible network. Therefore, in order to be accessible on the network, certain information must be entered so the analyzer can communicate with other devices. Configuring the analyzer for network activity is performed by using the IP administrator located in the system utilities.

IP Administration Using DHCP

Perform this procedure to allow your analyzer to be integrated into an existing network that uses DHCP to dynamically assign IP addresses. This procedure requires that you have the Host Name (available from your network administrator).

1.

Press

System

,

Controls

,

IP Admin

,

Host Name

.

2.

Enter the name of the analyzer. This is assigned by the network administrator.

3.

Press

Ok

4.

Press

IP Config

,

DHCP

. An IP address and other network information will automatically be assigned if the Host Name is recognized by the network.

5.

Press

Save

,

Yes

. Saves the current configuration. DHCP will dynamically assign an IP address.

6.

Cycle the power of the analyzer to access the network and have valid network information assigned.

IP Administration Without DHCP (Static IP Address)

Perform this procedure to allow your analyzer to be integrated into an existing network that uses a technique other than DHCP as its IP address assignments. This procedure requires the following specific data from the network administrator:

Host name

IP address

Net mask

Gateway

1.

Press

System

,

Controls

,

IP Admin

,

Host Name

.

2.

Enter the name of the analyzer. This is assigned by the network administrator.

3.

Press

Ok

4.

Press

IP Config

,

Static

. Now you must specify relevant network information for the analyzer to be recognized. Contact your network administrator if you do not have this information.

5.

Press

IP Address

.

Chapter 9 169

NOTE

Basic System Operations

Configuring for Network Connectivity

6.

Enter the IP address using the knob or the up and down arrows, and menu keys on the left.

7.

Press

Ok

8.

Press

Net Mask

9.

Enter the Net Mask using the knob or the up and down arrows, and menu keys on the left.

10.

Press

Ok

11.

Press

Gateway

12.

Enter the Gateway using the knob or the up and down arrows, and menu keys on the left.

13.

Press

Save

,

Yes

. Saves the current configuration.

14.

Cycle the power of the analyzer to access the network and have valid network information assigned.

If you are not using a LAN connection, you may want to set the IP Configuration to None to reduce the instrument power-on time.

170 Chapter 9

Basic System Operations

Setting the Display

Setting the Display

You can activate the screen save function and the time delay before the screen saver activates. Also you can set the brightness of the screen.

Setting the Screen Saver

Active the screen saver function to save the power, you can set the time delay to different values before the screen saver activates depending on the power source, battery or external DC power supply.

1.

Press

System

,

Controls

,

Display Settings

.

2.

If the power source is battery, press

Screen Save (Battery)

, using the up/down arrow navigation keys or the knob to highlight the delay time before the screen saver activates, press

Select

.

3.

If the power source is eternal DC power supply, press

Screen Save (Ext DC)

, using the up/down arrow navigation keys or the knob to highlight the delay time before the screen saver activates, press

Select

.

The screen will turn to black after the time delay you set. Also a status massage at the bottom of the display “Back light turning off in 4 seconds...” will be shown when the residual time is 4 seconds. and after the screen saver activates, you can press any front panel key to turn on the back light.

Setting the Brightness

There are six brightness level to choose. 6 is the brightest level.

1.

Press

System

,

Controls

,

Adjust Brightness

.

2.

Select the desired brightness level.

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NOTE

Basic System Operations

Saving, Recalling, and Deleting Instrument States

Saving, Recalling, and Deleting Instrument States

You can save the current configuration and settings for recall at a later time. You can also save a customized power-up state, which the analyzer will use each subsequent time it is powered on. This enables you to configure common usage and power-on states to make measurements quickly.

Saving the State

1.

Configure all measurement settings you want to save. Make sure you are viewing the screen you want to recall later.

2.

Press

Save

,

Name

,

Filename

(Ask).

3.

Press

Return

(the front panel key located below the screen window),

Location

,

Internal

or

USB

.

4.

Press

Save

,

Type

,

State

,

Save Now

5.

Enter your preferred state name, for example, “Remote base station”.

6.

Press

OK.

The message, “

State was saved successfully:

C:<filename>

” is displayed. Press

OK

again to return to the

Save

key menu.

Saving the Power-Up State

1.

Configure all measurement settings you want to save. Make sure you are viewing the screen you want to recall later.

2.

Press

Save

,

Name

,

Filename

(Ask).

3.

Press

Return

(the front panel key located below the screen window),

Location

,

Internal

or

USB

.

4.

Press

Save

,

Type

,

State

,

Save Now

5.

Enter “Powerup” as the state name (the analyzer is case-sensitive, so be sure to capitalize the “P”). This is the name the analyzer uses to identify the power-up state. It is also the state loaded by User Preset.

6.

Press

Ok

This process is easier for firmware revision A.02.00 or greater. After configuring the measurement settings, press

User Preset

,

Save User Preset

.

Recalling the State

1.

Press

Recall

,

Type

,

State

2.

Select the location from which you want to recall the file by pressing

Location

and press

Internal

or

USB

.

172 Chapter 9

Basic System Operations

Saving, Recalling, and Deleting Instrument States

This step must only be performed prior to the first time you recall a file, or if you want to change the file recall location.

3.

If you have selected USB as the recall location, connect the USB mass storage device.

4.

If necessary, select how you want the state files sorted by pressing

Sort

and then press

By Date

,

By Name

,

By Extension

,

By Size

, or

Order

.

5.

Press

Recall Now

.

6.

Select from the file list the state file you want to recall using the knob or up and down arrow buttons.

All states, in addition to two supplied in the analyzer (listed below), are displayed:

Powerup - The default power-up state shipped with the analyzer, or the power-up state last saved with the analyzer.

Factory Defaults - The default power-up state shipped with the analyzer.

You can always revert to it by selecting it in this procedure.

7.

Press

Select

Returning the Power-Up State to Factory Defaults

1.

Press

Recall

,

Type

,

State

2.

Select the location from which you want to recall the file by pressing

Location

and press

Internal

.

This step must only be performed prior to the first time you recall a file, or if you want to change the file recall location.

3.

If necessary, select how you want the state files sorted by pressing

Sort

and then press

By Date

,

By Name

,

By Extension

,

By Size

, or

Order

.

4.

Press

Recall Now

. (Note that

Save

,

Name

,

Filename

(Auto) (User) (Ask) must be set to

Ask

.)

5.

Select from the file list the “Factory Defaults” state file using the knob or up and down arrow buttons.

6.

Press

Select

.

7.

When the recall is complete, press

Save

,

Type

,

State

,

Save Now

. (Note that

Save

,

Name

,

Filename

(Auto) (User) (Ask) must be set to

Ask

.)

8.

Enter as the state name, “Powerup” (the analyzer is case-sensitive, so be sure to capitalize the “P”). This is the name the analyzer uses to identify the power-up state.

9.

Press

OK

, and then

OK

again to get back to the

Save

Menu.

Chapter 9 173

NOTE

Basic System Operations

Saving, Recalling, and Deleting Instrument States

Deleting States

If you have saved a state you will no longer use, you can delete it.

1.

Press

Recall

,

Type

,

State

,

Location

(Internal),

Catalog

.

2.

Select from the file list the state file you want to delete using the knob or up and down arrow buttons or

All

to delete all saved states.

3.

Press

Delete

. You will then be asked, “

Are you sure you wish to delete the <filename> state?

” Press

Yes

.

Selecting

All

does not delete the Powerup or Factory Defaults states.

174 Chapter 9

Basic System Operations

Viewing System Statistics

Viewing System Statistics

Viewing System Release Versions

Perform this procedure to view the current version of software and firmware for enabled features.

1.

Press

System

,

System Stats

,

Rev Info

, and view version information for system firmware.

2.

Press

Page Up

or

Page Down

to scroll to next screen.

3.

Press

Return

to go back to the System Stats key menu.

Viewing System Memory

Perform this procedure to view current allocation and usage statistics of the memory available.

1.

Press

System

,

System Stats

,

Memory

, and view status of total, used, and available memory.

2.

Press

Return

to go back to the System Stats key menu.

Viewing Battery Statistics

Perform this procedure to view current status and battery usage.

1.

Press

System

,

System Stats

,

Battery

, and view the status of battery conditions.

For details, see “System Statistics—Battery Screen” on page 182.

2.

Press

Return

to go back to the System Stats key menu.

Viewing System Copyrights

Perform this procedure to view current copyrights statistics.

1.

Press

System

,

System Stats

,

Copyrights

, and view copyrights of Agilent

Technologies, Inc. and the copyrights for software components from other manufactures used in the analyzer.

2.

Press

Return

to the System Stats key menu.

Viewing System Identification

Perform this procedure to view current system identification.

1.

Press

System

,

System Stats

,

Show System

, and view a list of instrument identification information.

2.

Press

Return

to go back to the System Stats key menu.

Chapter 9 175

Basic System Operations

Using the Option Manager

Using the Option Manager

Viewing Installed Options

1.

Press

System

,

Option Manager

,

Installed Options

. This provides a list of all installed options as well as their associated license keys.

2.

Press

Page Up

or

Page Down

as necessary to scroll to next screen.

Viewing Installed Options

Perform this procedure to view a list of all options that you can install for the analyzer. Two lists are displayed: options you can install yourself and options that must be installed by Agilent.

1.

Press

System

,

Option Manager

,

Installable Options

. This provides a list of options that can be installed.

2.

Press

Page Up

or

Page Down

as necessary to scroll to next screen.

3.

Press

Return

to go back to the Option Manager key menu.

Installing an Option

1.

Press

System

,

Option Manager

,

Install an Option

.

2.

If available, press

From List

. This key will not be available if all options have already been licensed.

3.

Highlight the option to be installed from the list using knob or the up/down arrow navigation keys then press

Select

.

4.

If you already have the license key for the option selected, press

Install Option

and follow the on-screen instructions. Otherwise, you need to order a license key for this option upgrade by contacting your Agilent sales representative.

5.

If the option to be installed is not listed, there are two possible reasons:

The option to be installed requires a newer firmware revision than the revision that is currently installed. For example, Option AFM, AM/FM

Tune and Listen, requires firmware revision A.02.00 or later. You have two alternatives in such a case. Either upgrade the firmware to the firmware necessary to support the option and then license the option, or use the

Type

Option

feature (press

Cancel

,

Type Option

) to license the option now and upgrade the firmware later. Either way, the new option will be available when it is licensed and the minimum firmware revision is installed.

The option to be installed is no longer offered for sale with the current firmware revision. For example, N1996A Option TG3 and N1996A Option

TG6 have been replaced by N8995A Option SR3 and N8995A Option SR6, respectively, beginning with firmware revision A.02.00 or later. You can

176 Chapter 9

Basic System Operations

Using the Option Manager

still install the TG3 or TG6 option using the

Type Option

feature (press

Cancel

,

Type Option

) to license the option.

6.

If you want to cancel the installation process, press

Return

to go back to the

Option Manager key menu.

Viewing Installation Information

Perform this procedure to view current manufacturing information about your analyzer that must be provided to Agilent to install a user-installable option.

1.

Press

System

,

Option Manager

,

Install Info

.

2.

When you call your Agilent sales representative to order an option, you will need to provide the information you see on this screen:

Model number

Serial number

Host ID

3.

Press

Return

to go back to the Option Manager key menu.

Chapter 9 177

Basic System Operations

Testing System Functions

Testing System Functions

The N1996A provides two simple tests you can perform to test the basic system functionality: a display test and a keyboard test.

Testing Your Display

Perform this procedure to verify the correct operation of your display.

1.

Press

System

,

Service

,

Verification

,

Display Test

.

2.

Follow the on-screen instructions.

Testing Your Keyboard

Perform this procedure to verify the correct operation of your keyboard device.

1.

Press

System

,

Service

,

Verification

,

Keyboard Test

.

2.

Press the available buttons and view the results on the screen.

178 Chapter 9

10

Working with Batteries

179

Working with Batteries

This chapter contains the following topics on your Agilent CSA batteries:

“Installing Batteries” on page 181

“Viewing Battery Status” on page 182

“Charging Batteries” on page 184

“Recalibrating Batteries” on page 186

“Battery Care” on page 187

“Battery Specifications” on page 190

180 Chapter 10

Installing Batteries

Working with Batteries

Installing Batteries

WARNING

NOTE

1.

Open the battery door by turning the latch counterclockwise several times until loose. Then pull the battery door open.

2.

Insert two batteries. Both batteries must be installed for the instrument to operate properly.

3.

Close the battery door and turn the latch clockwise until tight to secure the battery door.

This instrument has a recharge circuit. Never install non-rechargeable cells or batteries of a different type.

When operating the analyzer on battery power, batteries of different capacities will share current in proportion to individual battery capacity. Therefore, when purchasing and installing batteries, ensure that both batteries have equivalent capacities. Even batteries that appear physically identical, can have different capacities. It is recommended that batteries be purchased and installed in pairs.

Chapter 10 181

NOTE

Working with Batteries

Viewing Battery Status

Viewing Battery Status

You can view information about battery status in four ways:

Two battery LEDs on the analyzer front panel (below the USB connectors, refer to

“Front-Panel Connectors and Keys” on page 50)

Icons in the lower right of the front panel screen

System Statistics—Battery screen, available from the System menu

LCD gauge built into each battery

Battery LEDs

LED

Green

Blinking green

Charging Status

When battery charging

Battery charging completes

The battery status LEDs will function only when the analyzer is in standby mode and connected to external power.

Front Panel Icons

Icon Status

Plug icon

2 solid batteries

1 solid battery

% displayed beneath battery

Connected to external power through AC adapter converter

2 batteries installed

1 battery installed

Amount of charge capacity remaining for battery

System Statistics—Battery Screen

To view the battery status, press

System

,

System Stats

,

Battery

. The Battery screen displays several kinds of information:

Temperature—the internal temperature of each battery as measured by a sensor embedded in each battery

Voltage—for each battery cell stack as measured by each battery’s sensor

182 Chapter 10

Working with Batteries

Viewing Battery Status

Run Time to Empty—while using external power, External DC Power is displayed; while using battery power, the predicted remaining battery run time is displayed in minutes at the present rate of discharge. The instrument mode you select affects the discharge rate, which determines the run time to empty.

Stimulus/Response uses the most power. The remaining modes use the least power.

Fuel Gauge Error—the present accuracy of each battery’s fuel gauge or remaining charge capacity. If the error exceeds 10%, you should recalibrate the battery using the optional stand alone battery charger.

Percent Charged—the predicted charge capacity of each battery in percent.

Battery Status—For Battery 1 and Battery 2, Present or Missing tells you whether a battery is installed.

Built-In Battery Gauge

Each Lithium Ion battery has a five-segment LCD gauge that displays its charge status. Each segment represents 20% of the charge capacity. The gauge is active unless the battery is in shutdown mode. You can view the gauge with the door open.

Chapter 10 183

CAUTION

NOTE

NOTE

NOTE

Working with Batteries

Charging Batteries

Charging Batteries

You can charge batteries internally or using the external battery charger (Option

BCG). The external charger provides much faster charging time.

Charge batteries internally or with the appropriate charger, an SMBus charger of level II or higher.

Never use a non-SMBus charger because the battery issues commands over the

SMBus to the charger to control the charge rate and voltage.

Never use a modified or damaged charger.

To ensure proper instrument function when operating the analyzer on battery power, both of the batteries must have equal charge levels.

For maximum runtime, it is best to have approximately equal charge levels on both batteries. The instrument will shut down if either battery becomes fully discharged during operation.

Internal Charging

You can use the N1996A to recharge the batteries while the analyzer is operating or shut down. For a fully depleted battery, charging time is approximately 4 hours if the analyzer is in standby, 8 hours if the analyzer is operating.

If two batteries are installed, the analyzer charges both batteries simultaneously.

To charge a battery internally, simply attach the external power supply and turn on external power.

Additional spurious responses may appear when operating the analyzer while charging a battery. These spurious responses are most noticeable when the battery is nearly depleted.

External Charging

The external battery charger (available as part of Option BCG) lets you charge two batteries simultaneously. If the batteries are fully depleted, it takes up to 4 hours to recharge them.

You have the option of charging batteries before they become fully depleted.

Doing this does not shorten battery life. But repeatedly charging a battery before it’s fully discharged will impair the accuracy of its internal charge-remaining indicator.

184 Chapter 10

Working with Batteries

Charging Batteries

External Battery Charger LED Charging Status

Green on

Green flashing

Blue flashing

Blue

Red flashing

Red on

Charging complete

Charging

Calibrating—the accuracy of the battery’s internal LCD charge gauge is being renewed. Refer to

“Recalibrating Batteries” on page 186.

Calibration is complete

Battery fuel gauge recalibration recommended

Error

Chapter 10 185

NOTE

Working with Batteries

Recalibrating Batteries

Recalibrating Batteries

Each battery contains a microchip that monitors battery usage and tracks how much capacity is available. This function can become less accurate because of temperature fluctuations, aging, self-discharge, repeated partial charging, and other factors. This inaccuracy is displayed on the System Statistics—Battery screen as

Fuel Gauge Error.

To ensure the accuracy of the battery’s internal capacity tracking system, occasionally you need to recalibrate the battery. Recalibrating is done by fully charging the battery, fully discharging it, recharging it again, and then verifying that the error has been corrected.

You can recalibrate a battery with the optional external charger. The charger makes the process simpler.

Determining if a Battery Needs Recalibration

To view the battery status, press

System

,

System Stats

,

Battery

.

After recalibrating, if the battery is not fully charged or still shows more than a

10% Fuel Gauge Error reading, repeat the recalibrating procedure. If the second recalibrating does not restore a full charge and an error reading of 10% or less, the battery needs replacement. This error will affect all of the displayed battery charge indicators.

Recalibrating with the External Battery Charger

1.

Insert a battery into the external battery charger. Only one of the two battery bays is capable of recalibrating the battery.

2.

If fuel gauge recalibration is recommended by the charger (LED flashing red), press the button on the front of the external battery charger to initiate a recalibration cycle.

The charger will charge the battery fully, discharge it completely, then recharge it fully again. The entire process can take up to 10 hours.

3.

Install the battery into the analyzer.

4.

On the System Statistics—Battery screen, verify that the battery is fully charged and recalibrated.

186 Chapter 10

WARNING

Working with Batteries

Battery Care

Battery Care

Lithium Ion and lithium polymer cells and battery packs may get hot, explode, or ignite and cause serious injury if exposed to abuse conditions. Be sure to follow these safety warnings:

Do not install the battery backward, so the polarity is reversed.

Do not connect the positive terminal and negative terminal of the battery to each other with any metal object (such as wire).

Do not carry or store the battery with necklaces, hairpins, or other metal objects.

Do not pierce the battery with nails, strike the battery with a hammer, step on the battery, or otherwise subject it to strong impacts or shocks.

Do not solder directly onto the battery.

Do not expose the battery to water or salt water, or allow the battery to get wet.

Do not disassemble or modify the battery. The battery contains safety and protection devices, which, if damaged, may cause the battery to generate heat, explode, or ignite.

Do not place the battery in or near fire, on stoves, or in other high temperature locations. Do not place the battery in direct sunlight, or use or store the battery inside cars in hot weather. Doing so may cause the battery to generate heat, explode, or ignite. Using the battery in this manner may also result in a loss of performance and a shortened life expectancy.

Danger of explosion if battery is incorrectly replaced. Replace only with the same or equivalent type recommended. Discard used batteries according to manufacturer’s instructions.

Do not throw batteries away but collect as small chemical waste

Chapter 10 187

WARNING

Working with Batteries

Battery Care

Do not discharge the battery using any device except the specified device.

When the battery is used in devices other than the specified device, it may damage the battery or reduce its life expectancy. If the device causes an abnormal current to flow, it may cause the battery to become hot, explode, or ignite and cause serious injury.

Maximizing Battery Life

The Lithium Ion battery used in the N1996A has a life span of approximately 300 charge cycles at room temperature, with normal charge and discharge rates. You can maximize the number of charge cycles with reasonable battery care:

Clean the battery contacts occasionally, using a pencil eraser or alcohol and a cotton swab. Make sure no residue from the eraser or cotton swab is left on the contact points.

Cycle each battery through a full charge and full discharge on a regular basis, preferably monthly. Even if you use external power most of the time, you will lengthen battery life by occasionally cycling through a full discharge/recharge cycle.

Do not leave a battery unused and fully charged for an extended period.

Batteries that sit idle eventually lose their ability to hold a charge.

Store batteries in a cool, dry location, away from metal objects and corrosive gases. To extend battery life during long-term battery storage, store the batteries with a 50% charge level. Storage limits are –20 °C to 60 °C 80% RH.

Extended exposure to high humidity or temperatures above 45 degrees Celsius

(113 degrees Fahrenheit) can impair battery performance and shorten battery life.

Allow a battery to warm to room temperature before charging it. Temperature shock can damage the battery chemistry and in some cases cause a short circuit.

Always charge batteries at temperatures between 0 and 45 degrees Celsius (32 to 113 degrees Fahrenheit).

Operate the analyzer on battery power between the temperatures of 0 and 50 degrees Celsius (32 to 122 degrees Fahrenheit). Using the batteries at lower or higher temperatures can damage the batteries and reduce operating life. Cold temperatures affect battery chemistry, reducing charge capacity, especially below 0 degrees Celsius (32 degrees Fahrenheit).

Batteries are shipped with a minimum of 20% charge capacity to provide at least a 6-month shelf life at room temperature, before the battery electronics go into shutdown mode. When a battery has discharged down to 7.1 volts, it goes into shutdown mode. When this occurs, the battery electronics self-disconnect, removing their electronic load from the cells. This provides approximately 1 year of room temperature storage before the cells self-discharge to the point beyond which they should not be recharged. Once a battery has reached shutdown mode the battery will undergo a self-test immediately upon being put

188 Chapter 10

NOTE

Working with Batteries

Battery Care

into charge. The charger will then attempt to pre-charge the battery at a very low initial charge rate. If the voltage does not recover, the battery pack has been allowed to discharge beyond the point of safe recovery. The charge cycle will be terminated, and the battery pack needs to be replaced.

If the battery does recover from a shutdown mode, the fuel gauge accuracy will be reduced. Complete a battery recalibration as soon as possible to calibrate the fuel gauge.

Initial Charge Cycle

New batteries must be rapid-charged (typically to 80%), then trickle-charged

(slowly charged to 100%) for 24 hours, before their first use and for the first two or three uses.

Because the batteries you receive for use with the N1996A are new, they have a minimal charge when you receive them. All batteries require a “break-in” period, so do not be alarmed if a battery doesn't hold a full charge right away. A new battery commonly will show a false full charge (voltage) as indicated on the analyzer or charger, and may not power up the analyzer upon first use. Before using a new battery, leave it charging for 24 hours.

Batteries are not standard on the N1996A, but they can be ordered with a new analyzer or later as an upgrade kit.

Lithium Ion Battery Disposal

When you notice a large decrease in charge capacity after proper recharging, it is probably time to replace the battery.

Li-Ion batteries need to be disposed of properly. Contact your local waste management facility for information regarding environmentally sound collection, recycling, and disposal of the batteries. Regulations vary for different countries.

Dispose of in accordance with local regulations.

Chapter 10 189

Working with Batteries

Battery Specifications

Battery Specifications

The N1996A Agilent CSA Series Spectrum Analyzer uses the Inspired Energy

NF2040HD24 Smart Battery, which produces 10.8 volts DC at approximately 6 A.

The NF2040HD24 is a Lithium Ion battery pack, which uses the System

Management Bus (SMBus) interface to communicate with the analyzer and charger. To charge the batteries, use only the Agilent approved SMBus charger of

Level II or higher or the N1996A.

The battery is designed for approximately 300 full charge/discharge cycles at room temperature and under normal rates of discharge.

The NF2040HD24 uses electronically programmable read-only memory

(EPROM) to store key data regarding the battery cells and charge capacity.

Protection Electronics

The NF2040HD24 SMBus battery uses several protection devices to prevent damage to the battery and analyzer. The battery is internally protected against excessive current draws and reduced loads (shorts), excessive voltage and temperatures.

During charging and discharging, the battery will monitor and report its voltage, current, and temperature. If any of these monitored conditions exceeded their safety limits, the battery will terminate any further charge or discharge until the error condition is corrected.

Analyzer Operation: Battery Current Drain in the Off Mode

When the analyzer is operating from battery power, it continues to draw current in the off mode. When in off mode, the analyzer draws <10 mA per hour, or approximately 38 days to discharge. Agilent recommends that if the analyzer is not going to be used for an extended period of time, remove the batteries from your analyzer. This will ensure you have sufficient battery capacity if you intend to operate the analyzer from battery power.

Battery and Charger Part Numbers

Option BAT

Description

NF2040HD24 Battery (quantity 2)

Part Number

1420-0891

Option BCG

Description

Dual Battery Charger

Part Number

0950-4776

190 Chapter 10

NOTE

NOTE

Working with Batteries

Battery Specifications

Replace only with NF2040HD24 or equivalent, Agilent-approved battery.

Additional batteries are also available directly from Inspired Energy, Inc. To purchase additional or replacement batteries, visit www.inspired-energy.com, or call toll free USA 1-888-5-INSPIRE (546-7747).

When operating the analyzer on battery power, batteries of different capacities will share current in proportion to individual battery capacity. Therefore, when purchasing and installing batteries, ensure that both batteries have equivalent capacities. Even batteries that appear physically identical, can have different capacities. It is recommended that batteries be purchased and installed in pairs.

Chapter 10 191

Working with Batteries

Battery Specifications

192 Chapter 10

11

Concepts

193

Concepts

Resolving Closely Spaced Signals

Resolving Closely Spaced Signals

Resolving Signals of Equal Amplitude

Two equal-amplitude input signals that are close in frequency can appear as a single signal trace on the analyzer display. Responding to a single-frequency signal, a swept-tuned analyzer traces out the shape of the selected internal IF

(intermediate frequency) filter (typically referred to as the resolution bandwidth or

RBW filter). As you change the filter bandwidth, you change the width of the displayed response. If a wide filter is used and two equal-amplitude input signals are close enough in frequency, then the two signals will appear as one signal. If a narrow enough filter is used, the two input signals can be discriminated and appear as separate peaks. Thus, signal resolution is determined by the IF filters inside the analyzer.

The bandwidth of the IF filter tells us how close together equal amplitude signals can be and still be distinguished from each other. The resolution bandwidth function selects an IF filter setting for a measurement. Typically, resolution bandwidth is defined as the 3 dB bandwidth of the filter. However, resolution bandwidth may also be defined as the 6 dB or impulse bandwidth of the filter.

Generally, to resolve two signals of equal amplitude, the resolution bandwidth must be less than or equal to the frequency separation of the two signals. If the bandwidth is equal to the separation and the video bandwidth is less than the resolution bandwidth, a dip of approximately 3 dB is seen between the peaks of the two equal signals, and it is clear that more than one signal is present.

When the Agilent CSA spectrum analyzer span is > 0 Hz, the sweep time is set automatically to keep the analyzer measurement calibrated. When the resolution bandwidth is < 1 kHz, there will be large increases in the sweep time as you decrease the RBW in a 1, 3, 10 sequence. Fortunately, the Agilent CSA allows you to also set the RBW to discrete values, thereby allowing you greater flexibility in trading off sweep time and resolution.

For the shortest measurement times, use the widest resolution bandwidth that still permits discrimination of all desired signals.

For example, in a 10 MHz span, the sweep time with a 300 Hz RBW is 1.23 s, and the sweep time with a 100 Hz RBW is 9.01 s. If the 300 Hz RBW does not provide sufficient resolution, and the sweep time with a 100 Hz RBW is too long, you could try the 200 Hz RBW. The sweep time with a 200 Hz RBW is 2.52 s, over 3 times faster than the sweep time with a 100 Hz RBW.

Resolving Small Signals Hidden by Large Signals

When dealing with the resolution of signals that are close together and not equal in amplitude, you must consider the shape of the IF filter of the analyzer, as well as its 3 dB bandwidth. (See

“Resolving Signals of Equal Amplitude” on page 194 for

more information.) The shape of a filter is defined by the selectivity, which is the

194 Chapter 11

Figure 11-1

Concepts

Resolving Closely Spaced Signals

ratio of the 60 dB bandwidth to the 3 dB bandwidth. If a small signal is too close to a larger signal, the smaller signal can be hidden by the skirt of the larger signal.

To view the smaller signal, select a resolution bandwidth such that k is less than a

(see Figure 11-1

). The separation between the two signals (a) must be greater than half the filter width of the larger signal (k), measured at the amplitude level of the smaller signal.

The digital filters in the Agilent CSA have filter widths about one-half to one-third as wide as typical analog RBW filters. This enables you to resolve close signals with a wider RBW (for a faster sweep time).

RBW Requirements for Resolving Small Signals

Chapter 11 195

Concepts

Trigger Concepts

Trigger Concepts

With firmware versions prior to A.02.00, the trigger functions are only available when the Agilent CSA is in zero span. With firmware version A.02.00 and later, the trigger functions are available in both zero span and non-zero span.

Selecting a Trigger

1. Video Triggering

Video triggering controls the sweep time based on the detected envelope signal to steady the signal on the display. Video triggering triggers the measurement at the point at which the rising signal crosses the trigger level horizontal green line on the display:

Press

Meas Setup

,

Trigger

,

Video

,

30

,

dBm

.

2. External Triggering

In the event that you have an external trigger available that can be used to synchronize with the signal of interest, connect the trigger signal to the rear of the Agilent CSA using the EXT TRIGGER IN connector. You can change the slope of the external trigger signal on which you want the analyzer to trigger using the Trigger Slope feature.

Press

Meas Setup

,

Trigger, External

.

3. RF Burst Triggering

RF burst triggering occurs in the IF circuitry chain, as opposed to after the video detection circuitry with video triggering. In the event video triggering is used, the detection filters are limited to the maximum width of the resolution bandwidth filters. The RF burst signal level can be set using the Trigger Level feature.

Press

Meas Setup

,

Trigger

,

RF Burst

.

Trigger Delay

Trigger delay can be used to move the sweep trigger point arbitrarily to allow closer examination of waveform patterns (Press

Trigger

,

Trigger Delay

, and enter a delay time).

196 Chapter 11

Concepts

AM and FM Demodulation Concepts

Figure 11-2

AM and FM Demodulation Concepts

Demodulating an AM Signal Using the Analyzer as a Fixed Tuned

Receiver (Time-Domain)

The zero span mode can be used to recover amplitude modulation on a carrier signal.

The following functions establish a clear display of the waveform:

• Triggering stabilizes the waveform trace by triggering on the modulation envelope. If the modulation of the signal is stable, video trigger synchronizes the sweep with the demodulated waveform.

• Linear display mode should be used in amplitude modulation (AM) measurements to avoid distortion caused by the logarithmic amplifier when demodulating signals.

• Sweep time to view the rate of the AM signal.

• RBW is selected according to the signal bandwidth.

Demodulating an FM Signal Using the Analyzer as a Fixed Tuned

Receiver (Time-Domain)

To recover the frequency modulated signal, a spectrum analyzer can be used as a manually tuned receiver (zero span). However, in contrast to AM, the signal is not

tuned into the passband center, but to one slope of the filter curve as Figure 11-2

.

Determining FM Parameters using FM to AM Conversion

Here the frequency variations of the FM signal are converted into amplitude variations (FM to AM conversion). The reason we want to measure the AM component is that the envelope detector responds only to AM variations. There are no changes in amplitude if the frequency changes of the FM signal are limited to the flat part of the RBW (IF filter). The resultant AM signal is then detected with the envelope detector and displayed in the time domain.

Chapter 11 197

NOTE

Concepts

Stimulus Response Measurement Concepts

Stimulus Response Measurement Concepts

Stimulus response measurements require the N8995A Stimulus Response

Measurement Suite and either option SR3 or SR6.

Stimulus Response Overview

Stimulus response measurements require a source to stimulate a device under test

(DUT), a receiver to analyze the frequency response characteristics of the DUT, and, for return loss measurements, a directional coupler or bridge. The Agilent

CSA signal source options include a built-in RF bridge. Characterization of a DUT can be made in terms of its transmission or reflection parameters. Examples of transmission measurements include flatness and rejection. Return loss is an example of a reflection measurement.

A spectrum analyzer combined with a signal source forms a stimulus response measurement system. With the signal source as the swept source and the analyzer as the receiver, operation is the same as a single channel scalar network analyzer.

The signal source output frequency must be made to precisely track the analyzer input frequency for good narrow band operation. A narrow band system has a wide dynamic measurement range. This wide dynamic range will be illustrated in the following example.

There are three basic steps in performing a stimulus response measurement, whether it is a transmission or a reflection measurement. The first step is to set up the analyzer, the second is to normalize, and the last step is to perform the measurement.

Normalization Concepts

To make a transmission measurement accurately, the frequency response of the test system must be known. Normalization is used to eliminate this error from the measurement. To measure the frequency response of the test system, connect the cable (but not the DUT) from the signal source output to the analyzer input.

Press

Mode, Stimulus/Response

,

Two Port Insertion Loss

. Set the desired start and stop frequencies. Press

Normalize

,

Continue

.

The frequency response of the test system is automatically stored and a normalization is performed. This means that the active displayed trace is now the ratio of the input data to the data stored in memory.

When normalization is on, trace math is performed on the active trace, with the result placed into the selected trace.

Reconnect the DUT to the analyzer. Note that the units of the reference level are dB, indicating that this is a relative measurement.

To make a reflection measurement accurately, it is necessary to perform an

198 Chapter 11

Concepts

Stimulus Response Measurement Concepts

open/short/load calibration. An open, short, and load are included in the Stimulus

Response Calibration Kit, Option SRK.

Press

Mode, Stimulus/Response, Return Loss.

Set the desired start and stop frequencies. Press

Calibrate

and follow the instructions.

After the calibration is complete, connect the DUT to the RF OUTPUT connector to make your return loss measurement. The marker readout returns the amplitude values in both return loss and VSWR.

Chapter 11 199

Concepts

AM Concepts

Figure 11-3

AM Concepts

AM waveform

Figure 11-4

In AM (Amplitude Modulation), the instantaneous amplitude of the modulated carrier signal changed in proportion to the instantaneous amplitude of the information signal.

Calculation AM index in time and frequency domain

Equation 11-1

The modulation index m represents the amount of the modulation or the degree to which the information signal modulates the carrier signal.The index for an AM signal can be calculated from the amplitudes of the carrier and either of the sidebands by the equation: m =

E max c

E c

--------------------- =

E

E max

E min

-------------------------- =

E max

+

E min

E

USB

+ c

E

LSB

-------------------------- =

E

2E

SB

----------

E c

For 100% modulation, the modulation index is 1.0, and the amplitude of each sideband will be one-half of the carrier amplitude expressed in voltage. On a decibel power scale, each sideband will thus be 6 dB less than the carrier, or one-fourth the power of the carrier. Since the carrier power does not change with amplitude modulation, the total power in the 100% modulated wave is 50% higher

200 Chapter 11

Equation 11-2

Concepts

AM Concepts

than in the unmodulated carrier. The relationship between m and the logarithmic display can be expressed as:

E

SB

E c

dB + 6dB = 20 log m

Chapter 11 201

Concepts

FM Concepts

Figure 11-5

FM Concepts

FM waveform

Equation 11-3

FM (Frequency Modulation) and PM (Phase modulation) belong to angle modulation. In FM, the instantaneous frequency deviation of the modulated carrier signal changed in proportion to the instantaneous amplitude of the modulating signal. And in PM, the instantaneous phase deviation of the modulated carrier with respect to the phase of the unmodulated carrier is directly proportional to the instantaneous amplitude of the modulating signal.

The modulation index for angle modulation,

, is expressed by this equation:

 = f p m p

Where

fp is the peak frequency deviation, fm is the frequency of the modulating signal, and

 p is the peak phase deviation.

This expression tells us that the angle modulation index is really a function of phase deviation, even in the FM case. Also, note that the definitions for frequency and phase modulation do not include the modulating frequency. In each case, the modulated property of the carrier, frequency or phase, deviates in proportion to the instantaneous amplitude of the modulating signal, regardless of the rate at which the amplitude changes. However, the frequency of the modulating signal is important in FM and is included in the expression for the modulating index because it is the ratio of peak frequency deviation to modulation frequency that equates to peak phase.

Unlike the modulation index for AM, there is no specific limit to the value of

, since there is no theoretical limit to the phase deviation; thus there is no equivalent of 100% AM. However, in real world systems there are practical limits.

202 Chapter 11

Figure 11-6

Concepts

FM Concepts

Unlike AM, which is a linear process, angle modulation is nonlinear. This means that a single sine wave modulating signal, instead of producing only two sidebands, yields an infinite number of sidebands spaced by the modulating frequency.

The Bessel function graph shows the amplitudes of the carrier and the sidebands as a function of modulation index,

. The spectral components, including the carrier, change their amplitudes as the modulation index varies.

Carrier and sideband amplitude for angle-modulated signals

In theory, for distortion-free detection of the modulating signal, all the sidebands must be transmitted. However, in practice, the sideband amplitudes become negligibly small beyond a certain frequency offset from the carrier, so the spectrum of a real-world FM signal is not infinite.

Chapter 11 203

Concepts

Modulation Distortion Measurement Concepts

Equation 11-4

Modulation Distortion Measurement Concepts

Purpose

This measurement is used to measure the amount of modulation distortion contained in the Modulated signal by determining the ratio of harmonic and noise power to fundamental power. This measurement verifies the modulation quality of the signal from the UUT.

Measurement Technique

Modulation Distortion is defined as:

%

ModulationDistortion

=

P

P

P total

100% where: P total

= the power of the total signal,

P signal

= the power of the wanted modulating signal, and

P total

- P signal

= total unwanted signal which includes harmonic distortion and noise.

First, the received signal is demodulated and filtered to remove DC. Then the filtered signal is transformed by an FFT into frequency domain. Next, total power in the total filter band is measured as P total

, the peak power of the modulated signal is computed as P signal

, the square root of the ratio of P total

- P signal

to P total

is calculated. The result is signal’s modulation distortion. It can be expressed as dB or %.

204 Chapter 11

Concepts

Modulation SINAD Measurement Concepts

Equation 11-5

Modulation SINAD Measurement Concepts

Purpose

Modulation SINAD (SIgnal to Noise And Distortion) measures the amount of

Modulation SINAD contained in the modulated signal by determining the ratio of fundamental power to harmonic and noise power. Modulation SINAD is reciprocal of modulation distortion provided by Modulation Distortion measurement. This is another way to quantify the quality of the modulation process

Measurement Technique

Modulation SINAD is defined as: dB

ModulationSINAD

=

20

 log

P

P total total

P signal where: P total

= the power of the total signal,

P signal

= the power of the wanted modulating signal, and

P total

- P signal

= the total unwanted signals which include harmonic distortion and noise.

First, the received signal is demodulated and filtered to remove DC, then the filtered signal is transformed by an FFT into frequency domain. Next, total power in the total filter band is measured as P total

, the peak power of the modulated signal is computed as P signal

, the square root of the ratio of P total

to P total

- P signal

is calculated. The result is signal’s Modulation SINAD. It can be expressed as dB or

%.

Chapter 11 205

Concepts

Modulation SINAD Measurement Concepts

206 Chapter 11

12

Programming Examples

207

Programming Examples

Finding Examples and More Information

Finding Examples and More Information

The latest version of programming examples are available from the following

URL:

http://www.agilent.com/find/saprogramming

Interchangeable Virtual Instruments COM (IVI-COM) drivers

: Develop system automation software easily and quickly. IVI-COM drivers take full advantage of application development environments such as Visual Studio using Visual Basic, C# or Visual C++ as well as Agilent's Test and

Measurement Toolkit. You can now develop application programs that are portable across computer platforms and I/O interfaces. With IVI-COM drivers you do not need to have in depth test instrument knowledge to develop sophisticated measurement software. IVI-COM drivers provide a compatible interface to all. COM environments. The IVI-COM software drivers can be found at the URL

http://www.agilent.com/find/ivi-com

208 Chapter 12

Programming Examples

Programming Examples Information and Requirements

Programming Examples Information and Requirements

• The programming examples were written for use on an IBM compatible PC.

• The programming examples use C, Visual Basic and VEE programming languages.

• The programming examples use the LAN interface.

• Most of the examples are written in C using the Agilent VISA library.

The VISA transition library must be installed. The Agilent I/O libraries contain the latest VISA library and is available at:

www.agilent.com/find/iolib

Chapter 12 209

Programming Examples

Programming in C Using the VISA

Programming in C Using the VISA

The C programming examples that are provided are written using the C programming language and the Agilent (VISA library). This section includes some basic information about programming in the C language. Note that some of this information may not be relevant to your particular application. (For example, if you are not using VXI instruments, the VXI references will not be relevant).

Refer to your C programming language documentation for more details. The following topics are included:

“Typical Example Program Contents” on page 211

“Linking to VISA Libraries” on page 212

“Compiling and Linking a VISA Program” on page 212

“Example Program” on page 214

“Including the VISA Declarations File” on page 214

“Opening a Session” on page 215

“Device Sessions” on page 215

“Addressing a Session” on page 216

“Closing a Session” on page 218

210 Chapter 12

Programming Examples

Programming in C Using the VISA

Typical Example Program Contents

The following is a summary of the VISA function calls used in the example programs.

visa.h

This file is included at the beginning of the file to provide the function prototypes and constants defined by VISA.

ViSession

The

ViSession

is a VISA data type. Each object that will establish a communication channel must be defined as

ViSession

.

viOpenDefaultRM

You must first open a session with the default resource manager with the viOpenDefaultRM

function. This function will initialize the default resource manager and return a pointer to that resource manager session.

viOpen

This function establishes a communication channel with the device specified. A session identifier that can be used with other

VISA functions is returned. This call must be made for each device you will be using.

viPrintf viScanf viClose

These are the VISA formatted I/O functions that are patterned after those used in the C programming language. For example, the viPrintf

call sends the IEEE 488.2

*RST

command to the instrument to put it in a known state. The viPrintf

call is used again to query for the device identification (

*IDN?

). The viScanf

call is then used to read the results.

This function must be used to close each session. When you close a device session, all data structures that had been allocated for the session will be de-allocated. When you close the default manager session, all sessions opened using the default manager session will be closed.

Chapter 12 211

Programming Examples

Programming in C Using the VISA

Linking to VISA Libraries

Your application must link to one of the VISA import libraries:

32-bit Version:

C:\VXIPNP\WIN95\LIB\MSC\VISA32.LIB

for Microsoft compilers

C:\VXIPNP\WIN95\LIB\BC\VISA32.LIB

for Borland compilers

16-bit Version:

C:\VXIPNP\WIN\LIB\MSC\VISA.LIB

for Microsoft compilers

C:\VXIPNP\WIN\LIB\BC\VISA.LIB

for Borland compilers

See the following section, “Compiling and Linking a VISA Program” for

information on how to use the VISA run-time libraries.

Compiling and Linking a VISA Program

32-bit Applications

The following is a summary of important compiler-specific considerations for several C/C++ compiler products when developing WIN32 applications.

For Microsoft Visual C++ version 2.0 compilers:

• Select

Project | Update All Dependencies

from the menu.

• Select

Project | Settings

from the menu. Click on the

C/C++

button.

Select

Code Generation

from the

Use Run-Time Libraries

list box. VISA requires these definitions for WIN32. Click on

OK

to close the dialog boxes.

• Select

Project | Settings

from the menu. Click on the

Link

button and add visa32.lib

to the

Object / Library Modules

list box.

Optionally, you may add the library directly to your project file. Click on

OK

to close the dialog boxes.

• You may wish to add the include file and library file search paths. They are set by doing the following:

1. Select

Tools | Options

from the menu.

2. Click on the

Directories

button to set the include file path.

3. Select

Include Files

from the

Show Directories For

list box.

4. Click on the

Add

button and type in the following:

C:\VXIPNP\WIN95\INCLUDE

5. Select

Library Files

from the

Show Directories For

list box.

6. Click on the

Add

button and type in the following:

C:\VXIPNP\WIN95\LIB\MSC

For Borland C++ version 4.0 compilers:

212 Chapter 12

Programming Examples

Programming in C Using the VISA

• You may wish to add the include file and library file search paths. They are set under the

Options | Project

menu selection. Double click on

Directories

from the

Topics

list box and add the following:

C:\VXIPNP\WIN95\INCLUDE

C:\VXIPNP\WIN95\LIB\BC

16-bit Applications

The following is a summary of important compiler-specific considerations for the

Windows compiler.

For Microsoft Visual C++ version 1.5:

• To set the memory model, do the following:

1. Select

Options | Project

.

2. Click on the

Compiler

button, then select

Memory Model

from the

Category

list.

3. Click on the

Model

list arrow to display the model options, and select

Large

.

4. Click on

OK

to close the

Compiler

dialog box.

• You may wish to add the include file and library file search paths. They are set under the

Options | Directories

menu selection:

C:\VXIPNP\WIN\INCLUDE

C:\VXIPNP\WIN\LIB\MSC

Otherwise, the library and include files should be explicitly specified in the project file.

Chapter 12 213

Programming Examples

Programming in C Using the VISA

Example Program

This example program queries a LAN device for an identification string and prints the results. Note that you must change the address.

/*idn.c - program filename */

#include "visa.h"

#include <stdio.h>

void main ()

{

/*Open session to LAN device at IP address 192.168.0.2

*/

ViOpenDefaultRM (&defaultRM);

ViOpen (defaultRM, "TCPIP0::192.168.0.2::inst0::INSTR",

VI_NULL,

VI_NULL, &vi);

/*Initialize device */

viPrintf (vi, "*RST\n");

/*Send an *IDN? string to the device */

printf (vi, "*IDN?\n");

/*Read results */

viScanf (vi, "%t", &buf);

/*Print results */

printf ("Instrument identification string: %s\n", buf);

/* Close sessions */

viClose (vi); viClose (defaultRM);

}

Including the VISA Declarations File

For C and C++ programs, you must include the visa.h

header file at the beginning of every file that contains VISA function calls:

#include “visa.h”

This header file contains the VISA function prototypes and the definitions for all

VISA constants and error codes. The visa.h

header file includes the visatype.h

header file.

The visatype.h

header file defines most of the VISA types. The VISA types are used throughout VISA to specify data types used in the functions. For example, the viOpenDefaultRM

function requires a pointer to a parameter of type

ViSession

. If you find

ViSession

in the visatype.h

header file, you will find that

ViSession

is eventually typed as an unsigned long.

214 Chapter 12

NOTE

Programming Examples

Programming in C Using the VISA

Opening a Session

A session is a channel of communication. Sessions must first be opened on the default resource manager, and then for each device you will be using. The following is a summary of sessions that can be opened:

• A resource manager session is used to initialize the VISA system. It is a parent session that knows about all the opened sessions. A resource manager session must be opened before any other session can be opened.

• A device session is used to communicate with a device on an interface. A device session must be opened for each device you will be using. When you use a device session you can communicate without worrying about the type of interface to which it is connected. This insulation makes applications more robust and portable across interfaces. Typically a device is an instrument, but could be a computer, a plotter, or a printer.

All devices that you will be using need to be connected and in working condition prior to the first VISA function call ( viOpenDefaultRM

). The system is configured only on the first viOpenDefaultRM

per process. Therefore, if viOpenDefaultRM

is called without devices connected and then called again when devices are connected, the devices will not be recognized. You must close

ALL resource manager sessions and re-open with all devices connected and in working condition.

Device Sessions

There are two parts to opening a communications session with a specific device.

First you must open a session to the default resource manager with the viOpenDefaultRM

function. The first call to this function initializes the default resource manager and returns a session to that resource manager session. You only need to open the default manager session once. However, subsequent calls to viOpenDefaultRM

returns a session to a unique session to the same default resource manager resource.

Next, you open a session with a specific device with the viOpen

function. This function uses the session returned from viOpenDefaultRM

and returns its own session to identify the device session. The following shows the function syntax: viOpenDefaultRM (sesn); viOpen (sesn, rsrcName, accessMode, timeout, vi);

Chapter 12 215

Programming Examples

Programming in C Using the VISA

The session returned from viOpenDefaultRM

must be used in the sesn parameter of the viOpen

function. The viOpen

function then uses that session and the device address specified in the rsrcName parameter to open a device session. The

vi parameter in viOpen

returns a session identifier that can be used with other

VISA functions.

Your program may have several sessions open at the same time by creating multiple session identifiers by calling the viOpen

function multiple times.

The following summarizes the parameters in the previous function calls:

sesn This is a session returned from the viOpenDefaultRM function that identifies the resource manager session.

rsrcName

accessMode

This is a unique symbolic name of the device (device address).

This parameter is not used for VISA. Use VI_NULL.

timeout

vi

This parameter is not used for VISA. Use VI_NULL.

This is a pointer to the session identifier for this particular device session. This pointer will be used to identify this device session when using other VISA functions.

The following is an example of opening sessions with a GPIB multimeter and a spectrum analyzer on LAN:

ViSession defaultRM, dmm, sa;

.

.

viOpenDefaultRM(&defaultRM); viOpen (defaultRM, "GPIB0::22::INSTR", VI_NULL,

VI_NULL, &dmm); viOpen (defaultRM, "TCPIP0::192.168.0.2::inst0::INSTR",

VI_NULL,

VI_NULL, &sa);

.

.

viClose (sa); viClose (dmm); viClose(defaultRM);

The above function first opens a session with the default resource manager. The session returned from the resource manager and a device address is then used to open a session with the GPIB device at address 22. That session will now be identified as dmm when using other VISA functions. The session returned from the resource manager is then used to open a session with the LAN device at IP

Address 192.168.0.2. That session will now be identified as sa when using other

VISA functions. See the following section for information on addressing particular devices.

Addressing a Session

As seen in the previous section, the rsrcName parameter in the viOpen

function is

216 Chapter 12

NOTE

Programming Examples

Programming in C Using the VISA

used to identify a specific device. This parameter is made up of the VISA interface name and the device address. The interface name is determined when you run the

VISA Configuration Utility. This name is usually the interface type followed by a number. The following table illustrates the format of the rsrcName for the different interface types:

Interface

VXI

GPIB-VXI

GPIB

TCPIP

Syntax

VXI [board]::VXI logical address[::INSTR]

GPIB-VXI [board]::VXI logical address[::INSTR]

GPIB [board]::primary address[::secondary address][::INSTR]

TCPIP [board]::host address[::LAN device name]::INSTR

The following describes the parameters used above:

board This optional parameter is used if you have more than one interface of the same type. The default value for board is 0.

VSI logical

address

primary

address

secondary

address

This is the logical address of the VXI instrument.

This is the primary address of the GPIB device.

This optional parameter is the secondary address of the GPIB device. If no secondary address is specified, none is assumed.

host

address The IP address (in dotted decimal notation) or the name of the host computer/gateway.

LAN device

name

INSTR

The assigned name for a LAN device. The default is inst().

This is an optional parameter that indicates that you are communicating with a resource that is of type INSTR, meaning instrument.

If you want to be compatible with future releases of VISA and VISA, you must include the INSTR parameter in the syntax.

The following are examples of valid symbolic names:

XI0::24::INSTR Device at VXI logical address 24 that is of VISA type INSTR.

VXI2::128 Device at VXI logical address 128, in the third VXI system

(VXI2).

GPIB-VXI0::24 A VXI device at logical address 24. This VXI device is connected via a GPIB-VXI command module.

Chapter 12 217

Programming Examples

Programming in C Using the VISA

GPIB0::7::0 A GPIB device at primary address 7 and secondary address 0 on the GPIB interface.

TCPIP::[email protected]::INSTR

A TCPIP device using VXI-11 located at the specified address.

This uses the default LAN Device Name of inst0.

The following is an example of opening a device session with the GPIB device at primary address23.

ViSession defaultRM, vi;

.

.

viOpenDefaultRM (&defaultRM); viOpen (defaultRM, "GPIB0::23::INSTR", VI_NULL,VI_NULL,&vi);

.

.

viClose(vi); viClose (defaultRM);

Closing a Session

The viClose

function must be used to close each session. You can close the specific device session, which will free all data structures that had been allocated for the session. If you close the default resource manager session, all sessions opened using that resource manager will be closed.

Since system resources are also used when searching for resources ( viFindRsrc

) or waiting for events ( viWaitOnEvent

), the viClose

function needs to be called to free up find lists and event contexts.

218 Chapter 12

13

Connector Care

219

Connector Care

This chapter contains the following topics on care of your Agilent CSA connectors:

“Using, Inspecting, and Cleaning RF Connectors” on page 221

“Repeatability” on page 221

“RF Cable and Connector Care” on page 221

“Proper Connector Torque” on page 222

“Connector Wear and Damage” on page 222

“Cleaning Procedure” on page 222

220 Chapter 13

CAUTION

Connector Care

Using, Inspecting, and Cleaning RF Connectors

Using, Inspecting, and Cleaning RF Connectors

Taking proper care of cables and connectors will protect the ability of your analyzer to make accurate measurements. Inaccurate measurements often result from improperly made connections or dirty or damaged connectors. Worn, out-of-tolerance, or dirty connectors degrade the accuracy and repeatability of measurements.

Repeatability

If you make two identical measurements with your analyzer, the differences should be so small that they do not affect the value of the measurement. Repeatability (the amount of similarity from one measurement to another of the same type) can be affected by:

Dirty or damaged connectors

Connections that have been made without using proper torque techniques (this applies primarily when connectors in the analyzer have been disconnected, then reconnected)

This analyzer contains devices that are static-sensitive. Always take proper electrostatic precautions before touching the center conductor of any connector, or the center conductor of any cable that is connected to the analyzer.

RF Cable and Connector Care

Connectors are the most critical link in a precision measurement. These devices are manufactured to extremely precise tolerances and must be used and maintained with care to protect the measurement accuracy and repeatability of your analyzer.

To Extend the Life of Your Cables or Connectors:

Avoid repeated bending of cables—a single sharp bend can ruin a cable instantly.

Avoid repeated connection and disconnection of cable connectors.

Inspect the connectors before connection; look for dirt, nicks, and other signs of damage or wear. A bad connector can ruin the good connector instantly.

Clean dirty connectors. Dirt and foreign matter can cause poor electrical connections and may damage the connector.

Minimize the number of times you bend cables.

Never bend a cable at a sharp angle.

Do not bend cables near the connectors.

If any of the cables will be flexed repeatedly, buy a back-up cable. This will

Chapter 13 221

CAUTION

Table 13-1

WARNING

Connector Care

Using, Inspecting, and Cleaning RF Connectors

allow immediate replacement and will minimize your analyzer’s down time.

Before Connecting the Cables to Any Device:

Check all connectors for wear or dirt.

When making the connection, torque the connector to the proper value.

Proper Connector Torque

Provides more accurate measurements

Keeps moisture out the connectors

Eliminates radio frequency interference (RFI) from affecting your measurements

The torque required depends on the type of connector. Refer to

Table 13-1

. Do not overtighten the connector.

Never exceed the recommended torque when attaching cables.

Proper Connector Torque

Connector

Type-N

3.5 mm

SMA

Torque cm-kg

52

9.2

5.7

Torque

N-cm

508

90

56

Torque in-lbs

45

8

5

Wrench part number

8710-1935

8710-1765

8710-1582

Connector Wear and Damage

Look for metal particles from the connector threads and other signs of wear (such as discoloration or roughness). Visible wear can affect measurement accuracy and repeatability. Discard or repair any device with a damaged connector. A bad connector can ruin a good connector on the first mating. A magnifying glass or jeweler’s loupe is useful during inspection.

Cleaning Procedure

1.

Blow particulate matter from connectors using an environmentally-safe aerosol such as Ultrajet. This product is recommended by the United States

Environmental Protection Agency and contains chlorodifluoromethane.

2.

Use an alcohol wipe to wipe connector surfaces. Wet a small swab with alcohol

(from the alcohol wipe) and clean the connector with the swab.

Use alcohol in a well ventilated area and allow adequate time for fumes to

222 Chapter 13

CAUTION

Connector Care

Using, Inspecting, and Cleaning RF Connectors disperse and moist alcohol to evaporate.

3.

Allow the alcohol to evaporate off the connector before making connections

Do not allow excessive alcohol to run into the connector. Excessive alcohol entering the connector collects in pockets in the connector’s internal parts. The liquid will cause random changes in the connector’s electrical performance. If excessive alcohol gets into a connector, lay it aside to allow the alcohol to evaporate. This may take up to three days. If you attach that connector to another device it can take much longer for trapped alcohol to evaporate.

Chapter 13 223

Connector Care

Using, Inspecting, and Cleaning RF Connectors

224 Chapter 13

14

In Case of Difficulty

This chapter includes information on how to check for a problem with your

Agilent Technologies spectrum analyzer, and how to return it for service.

If you experience a problem or would like additional information about your

225

WARNING

NOTE

In Case of Difficulty

• analyzer, Agilent Technologies’ worldwide organization is ready to provide the support you need. Before calling Agilent Technologies, however (or returning an analyzer for service), perform the quick checks listed in

“Check the Basics” on page 228. This check may eliminate the problem.

If a problem persists, you may choose to:

Repair the analyzer yourself. See

“Service Options” on page 229.

Return the analyzer to Agilent Technologies for repair. See “Returning an

Analyzer for Service” on page 231, for more information.

No operator serviceable parts inside. Refer servicing to qualified personnel.

To prevent electrical shock, do not remove covers.

If the analyzer is still under warranty or is covered by a maintenance contract, it will be repaired under the terms of the warranty or plan (the warranty is located in the Specifications Guide).

If the analyzer is no longer under warranty or is not covered by an Agilent

Technologies maintenance plan, Agilent Technologies will notify you of the cost of the repair after examining the analyzer.

226 Chapter 14

Table 14-1

In Case of Difficulty

Types of Spectrum Analyzer Messages

Types of Spectrum Analyzer Messages

The analyzer can generate various messages that appear on the display during operation.

For a complete list of spectrum analyzer messages, see the Instrument Messages and Functional Tests manual. The following table describes the three types of spectrum analyzer messages.

Types of Messages

Type of Message Location Notes

Informational messages typically provide verification that an action has occurred. In general, no user intervention is required.

Status messages indicate a condition that may result in erroneous data being displayed.

Multiple status messages may be displayed at the same time.

User Error messages appear when an attempt has been made to set a parameter incorrectly or an operation has failed (such as saving a file).

Bottom of the display in the status line.

Bottom of the display in the status line and/or in the SCPI Status

Register system.

Bottom of the display in the status line and in the SCPI Error

Queue.

Messages will remain until the message is cleared by pressing

Esc

or it is overwritten by another message.

Messages in the display status line will remain until the message is cleared by pressing

Esc

or it is overwritten by another message.

Messages in the display status line will remain until you clear the error or another message is displayed in the status line.

Pressing the

Esc

key will clear error messages from the display, but the messages will remain in the error queue.

Chapter 14 227

NOTE

TIP

In Case of Difficulty

Before Calling Agilent Technologies

Before Calling Agilent Technologies

Check the Basics

o Is there power at the receptacle? o Is the analyzer turned on? Check to see if the green LED above the power switch is on. Also, listen for internal fan noise to determine if the analyzer cooling fan is running. o If other equipment, cables, and connectors are being used with your spectrum analyzer, make sure they are connected properly and operating correctly. o Review the measurement procedures being performed when the problem first appeared. Are all of the settings correct? o If the analyzer is not functioning as expected, return the analyzer to a known state by pressing

Mode Preset

.

o Is the measurement being performed, and the results that are expected, within the specifications and capabilities of the analyzer? Refer to the Specifications guide for your analyzer.

The analyzer must be powered on with the LAN already connected in order to recognize the LAN port.

o Is the analyzer displaying an error message? If so, refer to the Instrument

Messages and Functional Tests guide.

o If the necessary equipment is available, perform the functional tests in the

Instrument Messages and Functional Tests guide for your analyzer.

You can get automatic electronic notification of new firmware releases and other product updates/information by subscribing to the Agilent Technologies Test &

Measurement E-Mail Notification Service for the Agilent CSA Series analyzers at: http://www.agilent.com/find/emailupdates

228 Chapter 14

In Case of Difficulty

Before Calling Agilent Technologies

Read the Warranty

The warranty for your analyzer is in the front of your Specifications Guide. Please read it and become familiar with its terms.

If your analyzer is covered by a separate maintenance agreement, please be familiar with its terms.

Service Options

Agilent Technologies offers several optional maintenance plans to service your analyzer after the warranty has expired. Call your Agilent Technologies office for full details.

If you want to service the analyzer yourself after the warranty expires, you can purchase the service documentation that provides all necessary test and maintenance information.

You can order the service documentation, Option 0BW (assembly level troubleshooting) through your Agilent Technologies office.

You can order calibration software N7813A. This provides performance verification and calibration software. In addition, you will need to purchase a license for each Agilent CSA with which you will use the software.

Calling Agilent Technologies

Agilent Technologies has offices around the world to provide you with complete support for your analyzer.

For help with product selection and configuration, technical and application assistance, consulting and integration services, rental and leasing options, refurbished equipment, product purchases, education and training, and obtaining servicing information (including order replacement parts repair, or calibration), contact the nearest Agilent Technologies office by going to http://www.agilent.com/find/assist

or refer to the numbers listed in Table 14-2 on page 230.

In any correspondence or telephone conversations, refer to your analyzer by its product number, full serial number, and firmware revision. To obtain the serial number, firmware revision, Host identification information, and IP address press

Mode

and view the information displayed on the screen. (A serial number label is also attached to the rear panel of the analyzer.)

Chapter 14 229

In Case of Difficulty

Before Calling Agilent Technologies

Table 14-2 Contacting Agilent Technologies

Online assistance: http://www.agilent.com/find/assist

Americas

(tel) 1 800 829 4444

(fax) 1 800 829 4433

Canada

(tel) 1 877 894 4414

(fax) 1 800 746 4866

Japan

(tel) 0120 421 345

(fax) 0120 421 678

New Zealand

(tel) 64 4 939 0636

(fax) 64 4 972 5364

Europe

(tel) 31 (0) 20 547 2111

(fax) 31 (0) 20 547 2190

Australia

(tel) 1 800 629 485

(fax) 1 800 142 134

Africa, Middle East

(tel) 32 (0) 2 404 9340

(fax) 32 (0) 2 404 9395

230 Chapter 14

NOTE

NOTE

In Case of Difficulty

Returning an Analyzer for Service

Returning an Analyzer for Service

Please notify Agilent Technologies before returning your system for service. Any special arrangements for the system can be discussed at this time. This will help

Agilent Technologies repair and return your system as quickly as possible.

For specific analyzer packing instructions, refer to “Preparing the Analyzer for

Shipping” on page 232.

Adjustment, Maintenance, or Repair of the Analyzer

Any adjustment, maintenance, or repair of the N1996A Series Analyzer must be performed by qualified personnel. Contact your customer engineer through your local Agilent Technologies Service Center. You may contact Agilent through the

Internet or by telephone. For contact information refer to “Calling Agilent

Technologies” on page 229.

Service Tag

When you are returning an analyzer to Agilent Technologies for service, fill out and attach one of the blue service tags provided at the end of this chapter. Please be as specific as possible about the nature of the problem. If you have recorded any error messages that appeared on the display, have completed a functional test, or have any other specific data on the performance of your analyzer, please include a copy of this information.

Write a complete description of the failure and attach it to the system. Include any specific performance details related to the problem. The following information should be returned with the system:

Type of service required

Date system was returned for repair

Description of the problem:

Whether problem is constant or intermittent

Whether system is temperature-sensitive

Whether system is vibration sensitive

System settings required to reproduce the problem

Error Code

Performance data

Company Name and return address

Name and phone number of technical contact person

Model number of returned system

Full serial number of returned system

List of any accessories returned with the system

Chapter 14 231

CAUTION

In Case of Difficulty

Returning an Analyzer for Service

Packaging

Cover electrical connectors to protect sensitive components from electrostatic damage.

Spectrum analyzer damage can result from using packaging materials other than the original materials.

Never use styrene pellets in any shape as packaging materials. They do not adequately cushion the equipment or prevent it from shifting in the carton. They cause equipment damage by generating static electricity and by lodging in the analyzer louvers, blocking airflow.

Original Packaging

When an analyzer is returned to Agilent Technologies for servicing, it must be

adequately packaged (see “Preparing the Analyzer for Shipping” on page 232) and

have a complete description of the failure symptoms attached.

Before shipping, pack the unit in the original factory packaging materials if they

are available. If the original materials were not retained, see “Other Packaging”

(below).

Other Packaging

You can repackage the analyzer with commercially available materials. If using alternative packing material, observe the following material requirements and

follow the shipping procedure given in “Preparing the Analyzer for Shipping” on page 232.

Use a strong shipping container. The carton must be both large enough and strong enough to accommodate the analyzer. A double-walled, corrugated cardboard carton with 159 kg (350 lb) bursting strength is adequate. Allow at least 3 to 4 inches on all sides of the analyzer for packing material.

Surround the equipment with three to four inches of packing material and prevent the equipment from moving in the carton. If packing foam is not available, the best alternative is S.D.-240 Air Cap™ from Sealed Air

Corporation (Hayward, California, 94545). Air Cap looks like a plastic sheet filled with 1-1/4 inch air bubbles. Use the pink-colored Air Cap to reduce static electricity. Wrapping the equipment several times in this material should both protect the equipment and prevent it from moving in the carton.

Preparing the Analyzer for Shipping

1.

Attach a completed service tag to the analyzer. Refer to

“Service Tag” on page

231.

2.

Pack the system in the original shipping containers. Original materials are available through Agilent Technologies office.

232 Chapter 14

In Case of Difficulty

Returning an Analyzer for Service

3.

Wrap the system in anti-static plastic to reduce the possibility of damage caused by electrostatic discharge.

4.

Seal the carton with strong nylon adhesive tape.

5.

Mark the shipping container “FRAGILE, HANDLE WITH CARE” to ensure careful handling

6.

Retain copies of all shipping papers.

Chapter 14 233

In Case of Difficulty

Returning an Analyzer for Service

234 Chapter 14

15

Copyright Information

235

Copyright Information

Where to Find Additional Copyright Information

Additional Copyright information is available on the Documentation CD-ROM and in the front matter of this manual.

Copyright 1999 The Apache Software Foundation. All rights reserved.

The Apache Software License, Version 1.1

Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:

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Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.

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).”

Alternately, this acknowledgment may appear in the software itself, if and wherever such third-party acknowledgments normally appear.

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THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED ``AS IS'' AND ANY EXPRESSED OR

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DAMAGE.

=====================================================

This software consists of voluntary contributions made by many individuals on behalf of the Apache Software Foundation and was originally based on software copyright

 1999, International Business Machines, Inc., http://www.ibm.com

.

For more information on the Apache Software Foundation, please see

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.

Copyright 1994-2004 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:

Redistribution of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.

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Neither the name of Sun Microsystems, Inc. or the names of contributors may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software without specific prior written permission.

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You acknowledge that this software is not designed, licensed or intended for use in the design, construction, operation or maintenance of any nuclear facility.

Copyright 1989, 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

GNU General Public License Version 2, June 1991.

Free Software Foundation, Inc. 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA

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Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.

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Activities other than copying, distribution and modification are not covered by this

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1. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's source code as you receive it, in any medium, provided that you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty; keep intact all the notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty; and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License along with the Program.

You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy, and you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee.

2. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion of it, thus forming a work based on the Program, and copy and distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1 above, provided that you also meet all of these conditions: a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices stating that you changed the files and the date of any change. b) You must cause any work that you distribute or publish, that in whole or in part contains or is derived from the Program or any part thereof, to be licensed as a whole at no charge to all third parties under the terms of this License. c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively when run, you must cause it, when started running for such interactive use in the most ordinary way, to print or display an announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a notice that there is no warranty (or else, saying that you provide a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under these conditions, and telling the user how to view a copy of this License. (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but does not normally print such an announcement, your work based on the Program is not required to print an announcement.)

These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. If identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program, and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in themselves, then this License, and its terms, do not apply to those sections when you distribute them as separate works. But when you distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based on the

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Copyright 1998-2004, CEE-J, Skelmir, LLC. All rights reserved.

248 Chapter 15

Index

Numerics

10 MHz REF OUTPUT

,

61

50 ohm load

,

45

50 ohm/75 ohm minimum loss pad

,

45

75 ohm matching transformer

,

46

A

AC probe

,

46

accessories

,

45

50 ohm load

,

45

50 ohm/75 ohm minimum loss pad

,

45

75 ohm matching transformer

,

46

AC probe

,

46

broadband preamplifiers

,

46

power splitters

,

47

RF limiters

,

46

transient limiters

,

46

active function address, IP

,

33

,

63

adjacent channel power

,

121

adjacent channel power measurement

,

121

adjustment, maintenance, or repair of test set

,

231

Agilent Technologies calling

,

229

sales offices

,

229

,

230

AM demodulation time-domain demodulation, manually calculating

,

197

AM signal demodulation

,

101

,

147

amplifiers

,

46

analyzer distortion products

,

94

annotations, display

,

53

,

57

arrow keys, using

,

69

attenuation input, reducing

,

87

setting manually

,

88

averaging description

,

91

types

,

91

B

batteries built-in battery gauge

,

183

caring for

,

187

charger part numbers

,

190

charging

,

184

disposal

,

189

front panel icons

,

182

installing

,

181

LEDs

,

182

maximizing battery life

,

188

part numbers

,

190

precautions

,

187

reconditioning/recalibrating

,

186

specifications

,

190

statistics

,

175

status

,

182

system statistics - battery screen

,

182

working with

,

179

battery clock

,

31

memory

,

31

bench top conversion kit

,

47

broadband preamplifiers

,

46

C

C language addressing sessions

,

216

closing sessions

,

218

compiling and linking

,

212

creating

,

210

example

,

214

opening session

,

215

sessions

,

215

using VISA library

,

210

using VISA transition library

,

212

,

214

cable and connector care

,

221

carrying case using

,

38

channel analyzer measurements

,

120

channel power measurement noise-like signals

,

104

charging batteries

,

184

cleaning supplies, connector

,

222

clock setting

,

164

clock, battery

,

31

comparing signals two signals

,

76

two signals not on the same screen

,

78

concepts

AM demodulation

,

197

FM demodulation

,

197

IF filter, defined

,

194

modulation distortion measurement

,

204

modulation SINAD measurement

,

205

resolving signals of equal amplitude

,

194

resolving small signals hidden by large signals

,

194

stimulus response

,

198

configuring for network connectivity

,

169

,

171

connectors

10 MHz ref output

,

61

care

,

221

cleaning

,

222

cleaning RF

,

221

front panel

,

50

inspecting for wear

,

222

inspecting RF

,

221

ordering cleaning supplies

,

222

reference input

,

61

RF OUT 50 ohm

,

52

torque specifications

,

222

USB type A

,

61

USB type B

,

61

copyrights

,

2

,

235

D

data entering from front panel

,

69

saving

,

166

DC probes use of

,

46

delta marker

,

76

demodulating

AM

,

101

AM overview

,

101

,

147

AM signal

,

147

FM

,

153

FM overview

,

153

DHCP

,

169

,

171

display testing

,

178

display annotations

,

53

,

57

display, information screen

,

33

distance to fault measurement

,

138

distortion measurements identifying TOI distortion

,

98

distortion products

,

94

documentation additional set

,

41

,

43

CD-ROM

,

13

CD-ROM only

,

42

,

43

,

45

localized manuals

,

41

,

44

service

,

41

,

44

standard set

,

13

E

electrostatic discharge (ESD) protecting against

,

37

Enter key, using

,

69

equipment

,

66

functional tests

,

66

ESD safety accessories

,

47

examples

ACP

,

121

AM demodulation

CSA

,

147

manual demodulation averaging, trace

,

91

,

101

distortion

249

Index

TOI

,

98

FM demodulation

ESA built-in FM demodulation

,

153

input attenuation, reducing

,

87

noise channel power, using

,

104

power measurements

OBW

,

107

,

109

resolution bandwidth, reducing

,

89

signals low-level, overview

,

87

off-screen, comparing

,

78

on-screen, comparing

,

76

resolving, equal amplitude

,

80

resolving, small signals hidden by large signals

,

83

signals, viewing

,

72

trace averaging

,

91

EXTERNAL REF INPUT

,

61

external reference

,

34

F

factory preset, description

,

71

feet system II feet kit

,

47

file naming asking for

,

168

automatic

,

167

options

,

167

user

,

167

finding hidden signals

,

194

FM demodulation time-domain demodulation, manually calculating

,

197

FM signal demodulation

,

153

frequency/timing reference

,

163

front panel connectors and keys

,

50

display annotations

,

53

,

57

entering data

,

69

functional tests equipment list

,

66

See also individual functional tests

functionality in the test set

,

12

H

harmonic distortion measuring low-level signals

,

78

I

identifying distortion products

,

94

information screen

,

33

input attenuation, reducing

,

87

insertion loss measurement one port

,

130

two port

,

127

installation information

,

177

installing a battery

,

181

instrument preset

,

51

intermodulation distortion, third order

,

98

introduction to the test set

IP address

,

33

,

12

IP administration using DHCP

,

169

,

171

IP administration without DHCP

,

169

,

171

K

key overview

,

63

keyboard testing

,

178

keypad, using

,

69

keys

,

50

knob, using

,

69

L

LAN, setting IP address

,

33

licenses

,

2

lifting and handling the test set

,

19

limiters

RF and transient

,

46

load, 50 ohm

,

45

low-level signals harmonics, measuring

,

78

input attenuation, reducing

,

87

resolution bandwidth, reducing

,

89

trace averaging

,

91

M

manuals ordering

,

41

,

43

,

44

standard set

,

13

marker frequency and amplitude, reading

,

73

moving to peak

,

73

to reference level

,

73

with knob or arrow key

,

73

marker annotation location

,

73

markers delta

,

76

measurement technique modulation distortion measurement concepts

,

204

modulation SINAD measurement concepts

,

205

measurements

ACP or adjacent channel power

,

121

distortion

TOI

,

98

noise channel power

,

104

TV fast time-domain sweeps

,

196

measuring distance to fault

,

138

measuring insertion loss one port

,

130

two port

,

127

measuring return loss

,

134

memory battery

,

31

menu keys

,

63

menu keys, auto and man mode

,

70

menu keys, basic types

,

69

missing options

,

34

modulation distortion measurement concepts

,

204

measurement technique

,

204

purpose

,

204

modulation SINAD measurement concepts

,

205

measurement technique

,

205

purpose

,

205

N

navigating tables

,

64

network configuring

,

169

connectivity

,

169

network connectivity

,

169

,

171

noise measurements channel power, using

,

104

normalization reference position

,

198

Normalize On Off key

,

198

numeric keypad, using

,

69

O

OBW measurement

,

107

,

109

occupied bandwidth measurement

,

107

,

109

occupied BW measurement

,

107

,

109

option manager

,

176

options

,

45

installing

,

176

option name listing

,

43

option number listing

,

41

ordering

,

40

viewing installable

,

176

viewing installed

,

176

options not in instrument memory

,

34

ordering options

,

40

overview, keys and key menus

,

63

overviews low-level signal

,

87

resolving signals

,

194

250

Index

P

packaging

,

232

personality options not in instrument

,

34

power amplifiers

,

46

power measurements

OBW

,

107

,

109

occupied bandwidth

,

107

,

109

power splitters

,

47

power suite channel power

,

104

preamplifiers

,

46

preset factory

,

71

types

,

71

user, creating

,

71

Print key

,

51

printer setup

,

36

printing screens

,

165

probes

AC and DC

,

46

product markings

,

15

programming example using C language

,

214

using C language

,

210

pulse measurement

,

115

purpose modulation distortion measurement concepts

,

204

modulation SINAD measurement concepts

,

205

R

RBW selections

,

90

real time clock setting

,

164

rear panel features

,

61

reconditioning/recalibrating batteries

,

186

reference level, setting release versions

,

175

,

73

resolution bandwidth adjusting

,

89

resolving signals

,

194

resolving signals small signals hidden by large signals

,

194

resolving two signals equal amplitude

,

80

,

194

resolving, equal amplitude

,

194

return loss measurement

,

134

returning the test set for service

,

225

,

231

RF cable and connector care

,

221

RF connectors

,

221

RF limiters

,

46

RF OUT 50 ohm

,

52

RPG, using

,

69

S

safety considerations

,

15

safety symbols saving data

,

15

,

166

saving displayed screen

,

51

saving screens

,

165

,

166

screen printing

,

165

screen annotation

,

53

,

57

screen, information

,

33

screens saving

,

165

service returning the test set

,

225

,

231

shipping the test set

,

232

service options

,

229

setting real time clock

,

164

shipping packaging

,

232

packaging original

,

232

packaging other

,

232

shipping the test set

,

232

signals low-level, overview

,

87

off-screen, comparing

,

78

on-screen, comparing

,

76

resolving, overview

,

194

separating, overview

,

194

signals, viewing

,

72

spectrogram measurement

,

111

spectrum analyzer occupied BW measurement

,

109

spectrogram measurement

,

111

spectrogram view

,

111

uses

,

107

splitters

,

47

state deleting

,

174

power-up

,

172

recalling

,

172

returning power-up to factory defaults

,

173

saving

,

172

static safety accessories

,

47

statistics system

,

175

viewing

,

175

stimulus response, concepts

,

198

sweep time and sensitivity trade off

,

90

system memory

,

175

release versions

,

175

statistics

,

175

system II feet

,

47

System key

,

51

system operations configuring for network connectivity

,

169

,

171

IP administration using DHCP

,

169

,

171

IP administration without DHCP

,

169

,

171

printing screens

,

165

saving data

,

166

saving screens

,

165

,

166

selecting a timing reference

,

163

setting real time clock

,

164

setting system references using the option manager

,

163

,

164

,

176

viewing battery statistics

,

175

viewing system memory

,

175

viewing system release versions

,

175

viewing system statistics

,

175

T

tab key

,

64

table navigation

,

64

test equipment

,

66

test set functionality

,

12

tests. See functional tests

third order intermodulation distortion example

,

98

timing/frequency reference

,

163

torque

,

222

tracking generator normalization

,

199

stimulus response

,

198

transient limiter

,

46

tune and listen

,

117

turning on the analyzer for the first time

,

33

U

unit menu keys, using

,

69

URL, sales and service

,

230

USB type A interface connector

,

61

,

61

USB type B interface connector user preset creating

,

51

,

71

description

,

71

disabling

,

71

using connectors

,

221

using the occupied BW measurement

,

107

V

viewing battery statistics

VISA library

,

212

,

214

,

175

251

Index

VTL, compiling and linking C language

,

212

W

warm-up time

,

33

warranty

,

229

working with batteries

,

179

252

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