2506 series En - Vert Energy Group
SEBU8313
July 2006
Operation and
Maintenance
Manual
2506-15 Industrial Engine
MGA (Engine)
MGB (Engine)
MGD (Engine)
Important Safety Information
Most accidents that involve product operation, maintenance and repair are caused by failure to
observe basic safety rules or precautions. An accident can often be avoided by recognizing potentially
hazardous situations before an accident occurs. A person must be alert to potential hazards. This
person should also have the necessary training, skills and tools to perform these functions properly.
Improper operation, lubrication, maintenance or repair of this product can be dangerous and
could result in injury or death.
Do not operate or perform any lubrication, maintenance or repair on this product, until you have
read and understood the operation, lubrication, maintenance and repair information.
Safety precautions and warnings are provided in this manual and on the product. If these hazard
warnings are not heeded, bodily injury or death could occur to you or to other persons.
The hazards are identified by the “Safety Alert Symbol” and followed by a “Signal Word” such as
“DANGER”, “WARNING” or “CAUTION”. The Safety Alert “WARNING” label is shown below.
The meaning of this safety alert symbol is as follows:
Attention! Become Alert! Your Safety is Involved.
The message that appears under the warning explains the hazard and can be either written or
pictorially presented.
Operations that may cause product damage are identified by “NOTICE” labels on the product and in
this publication.
Perkins cannot anticipate every possible circumstance that might involve a potential hazard. The
warnings in this publication and on the product are, therefore, not all inclusive. If a tool, procedure,
work method or operating technique that is not specifically recommended by Perkins is used,
you must satisfy yourself that it is safe for you and for others. You should also ensure that the
product will not be damaged or be made unsafe by the operation, lubrication, maintenance or
repair procedures that you choose.
The information, specifications, and illustrations in this publication are on the basis of information that
was available at the time that the publication was written. The specifications, torques, pressures,
measurements, adjustments, illustrations, and other items can change at any time. These changes can
affect the service that is given to the product. Obtain the complete and most current information before
you start any job. Perkins dealers or Perkins distributors have the most current information available.
When replacement parts are required for this
product Perkins recommends using Perkins
replacement parts.
Failure to heed this warning can lead to premature failures, product damage, personal injury or
death.
SEBU8313
Table of Contents
3
Table of Contents
Warranty Section
Warranty Information ............................................ 75
Foreword ................................................................. 4
Safety Section
Safety Messages .................................................... 5
General Hazard Information ................................... 6
Burn Prevention ...................................................... 7
Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention .............. 8
Crushing Prevention and Cutting Prevention ........ 10
Mounting and Dismounting ................................... 10
Before Starting Engine ........................................... 11
Engine Starting ...................................................... 11
Engine Stopping .................................................... 11
Electrical System .................................................. 12
Engine Electronics ................................................ 13
Product Information Section
General Information .............................................. 14
Model Views ......................................................... 15
Product Identification Information ........................ 18
Operation Section
Lifting and Storage ................................................ 23
Gauges and Indicators .......................................... 24
Features and Controls .......................................... 25
Engine Diagnostics ............................................... 30
Engine Starting ..................................................... 32
Engine Operation .................................................. 34
Engine Stopping ................................................... 35
Cold Weather Operation ....................................... 36
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities .................................................... 39
Maintenance Interval Schedule ............................ 51
Index Section
Index ..................................................................... 76
4
Foreword
Foreword
Literature Information
This manual contains safety, operation instructions,
lubrication and maintenance information. This
manual should be stored in or near the engine area
in a literature holder or literature storage area. Read,
study and keep it with the literature and engine
information.
English is the primary language for all Perkins
publications. The English used facilitates translation
and consistency.
Some photographs or illustrations in this manual
show details or attachments that may be different
from your engine. Guards and covers may have
been removed for illustrative purposes. Continuing
improvement and advancement of product design
may have caused changes to your engine which are
not included in this manual. Whenever a question
arises regarding your engine, or this manual, please
consult with your Perkins dealer or your Perkins
distributor for the latest available information.
Safety
This safety section lists basic safety precautions.
In addition, this section identifies hazardous,
warning situations. Read and understand the basic
precautions listed in the safety section before
operating or performing lubrication, maintenance and
repair on this product.
Operation
Operating techniques outlined in this manual are
basic. They assist with developing the skills and
techniques required to operate the engine more
efficiently and economically. Skill and techniques
develop as the operator gains knowledge of the
engine and its capabilities.
The operation section is a reference for operators.
Photographs and illustrations guide the operator
through procedures of inspecting, starting, operating
and stopping the engine. This section also includes a
discussion of electronic diagnostic information.
Maintenance
The maintenance section is a guide to engine care.
The illustrated, step-by-step instructions are grouped
by service hours and/or calendar time maintenance
intervals. Items in the maintenance schedule are
referenced to detailed instructions that follow.
SEBU8313
Recommended service should be performed at the
appropriate intervals as indicated in the Maintenance
Interval Schedule. The actual operating environment
of the engine also governs the Maintenance Interval
Schedule. Therefore, under extremely severe,
dusty, wet or freezing cold operating conditions,
more frequent lubrication and maintenance than is
specified in the Maintenance Interval Schedule may
be necessary.
The maintenance schedule items are organized for
a preventive maintenance management program. If
the preventive maintenance program is followed, a
periodic tune-up is not required. The implementation
of a preventive maintenance management program
should minimize operating costs through cost
avoidances resulting from reductions in unscheduled
downtime and failures.
Maintenance Intervals
Perform maintenance on items at multiples of
the original requirement. We recommend that the
maintenance schedules be reproduced and displayed
near the engine as a convenient reminder. We also
recommend that a maintenance record be maintained
as part of the engine’s permanent record.
Your authorized Perkins dealer or your Perkins
distributor can assist you in adjusting your
maintenance schedule to meet the needs of your
operating environment.
Overhaul
Major engine overhaul details are not covered in
the Operation and Maintenance Manual except
for the interval and the maintenance items in that
interval. Major repairs should only be carried out by
Perkins authorized personnel. Your Perkins dealer
or your Perkins distributor offers a variety of options
regarding overhaul programs. If you experience
a major engine failure, there are also numerous
after failure overhaul options available. Consult with
your Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor for
information regarding these options.
California Proposition 65 Warning
Diesel engine exhaust and some of its constituents
are known to the State of California to cause cancer,
birth defects, and other reproductive harm. Battery
posts, terminals and related accessories contain lead
and lead compounds. Wash hands after handling.
SEBU8313
5
Safety Section
Safety Messages
Safety Section
i02581679
Safety Messages
There may be several specific warning signs on your
engine. The exact location and a description of the
warning signs are reviewed in this section. Please
become familiar with all warning signs.
Ensure that all of the warning signs are legible. Clean
the warning signs or replace the warning signs if
the words cannot be read or if the illustrations are
not visible. Use a cloth, water, and soap to clean
the warning signs. Do not use solvents, gasoline, or
other harsh chemicals. Solvents, gasoline, or harsh
chemicals could loosen the adhesive that secures the
warning signs. The warning signs that are loosened
could drop off of the engine.
Replace any warning sign that is damaged or
missing. If a warning sign is attached to a part of the
engine that is replaced, install a new warning sign on
the replacement part. Your Perkins dealer or your
distributor can provide new warning signs.
(1) Universal Warning
Do not operate or work on this equipment unless
you have read and understand the instructions
and warnings in the Operation and Maintenance
Manuals. Failure to follow the instructions or
heed the warnings could result in serious injury
or death.
Illustration 1
g01154807
Typical example
The Universal Warning label (1) is located on both
sides of the engine. Refer to illustration 2.
6
Safety Section
General Hazard Information
SEBU8313
g01294688
Illustration 2
Typical example
i02328435
General Hazard Information
Illustration 4
g00702020
Wear a hard hat, protective glasses, and other
protective equipment, as required.
Illustration 3
g00104545
Attach a “Do Not Operate” warning tag or a similar
warning tag to the start switch or to the controls
before you service the equipment or before you
repair the equipment.
Do not wear loose clothing or jewelry that can snag
on controls or on other parts of the engine.
Make sure that all protective guards and all covers
are secured in place on the engine.
Keep the engine free from foreign material. Remove
debris, oil, tools, and other items from the deck, from
walkways, and from steps.
SEBU8313
7
Safety Section
Burn Prevention
Never put maintenance fluids into glass containers.
Drain all liquids into a suitable container.
Obey all local regulations for the disposal of liquids.
Use all cleaning solutions with care.
Report all necessary repairs.
Do not allow unauthorized personnel on the
equipment.
Ensure that the power supply is disconnected before
you work on the bus bar or the glow plugs.
Perform maintenance on the engine with the
equipment in the servicing position. Refer to the
OEM information for the procedure for placing the
equipment in the servicing position.
Pressure Air and Water
Pressurized air and/or water can cause debris
and/or hot water to be blown out. This could result in
personal injury.
The direct application of pressurized air or
pressurized water to the body could result in personal
injury.
When pressurized air and/or water is used for
cleaning, wear protective clothing, protective shoes,
and eye protection. Eye protection includes goggles
or a protective face shield.
The maximum air pressure for cleaning purposes
must be below 205 kPa (30 psi). The maximum
water pressure for cleaning purposes must be below
275 kPa (40 psi).
Fluid Penetration
Pressure can be trapped in the hydraulic circuit long
after the engine has been stopped. The pressure can
cause hydraulic fluid or items such as pipe plugs to
escape rapidly if the pressure is not relieved correctly.
Do not remove any hydraulic components or parts
until pressure has been relieved or personal injury
may occur. Do not disassemble any hydraulic
components or parts until pressure has been relieved
or personal injury may occur. Refer to the OEM
information for any procedures that are required to
relieve the hydraulic pressure.
Illustration 5
g00687600
Always use a board or cardboard when you check
for a leak. Leaking fluid that is under pressure can
penetrate body tissue. Fluid penetration can cause
serious injury and possible death. A pin hole leak can
cause severe injury. If fluid is injected into your skin,
you must get treatment immediately. Seek treatment
from a doctor that is familiar with this type of injury.
Containing Fluid Spillage
Care must be taken in order to ensure that fluids
are contained during performance of inspection,
maintenance, testing, adjusting and repair of the
engine. Make provision to collect the fluid with a
suitable container before any compartment is opened
or before any component is disassembled.
• Only use the tools that are suitable for collecting
fluids and equipment that is suitable for collecting
fluids.
• Only use the tools that are suitable for containing
fluids and equipment that is suitable for containing
fluids.
Obey all local regulations for the disposal of liquids.
i02334785
Burn Prevention
Do not touch any part of an operating engine.
Allow the engine to cool before any maintenance is
performed on the engine.
8
Safety Section
Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention
SEBU8313
i02320721
Contact with high pressure fuel may cause fluid
penetration and burn hazards. High pressure fuel spray may cause a fire hazard. Failure to follow these inspection, maintenance and service instructions may cause personal injury or death.
Fire Prevention and Explosion
Prevention
After the engine has stopped, you must wait for 60
seconds in order to allow the fuel pressure to be
purged from the high pressure fuel lines before any
service or repair is performed on the engine fuel lines.
Allow the pressure to be purged in the air system, in
the hydraulic system, in the lubrication system, or in
the cooling system before any lines, fittings or related
items are disconnected.
Coolant
When the engine is at operating temperature, the
engine coolant is hot. The coolant is also under
pressure. The radiator and all lines to the heaters or
to the engine contain hot coolant.
Any contact with hot coolant or with steam can cause
severe burns. Allow cooling system components to
cool before the cooling system is drained.
Check the coolant level after the engine has stopped
and the engine has been allowed to cool.
Ensure that the filler cap is cool before removing the
filler cap. The filler cap must be cool enough to touch
with a bare hand. Remove the filler cap slowly in
order to relieve pressure.
Cooling system conditioner contains alkali. Alkali can
cause personal injury. Do not allow alkali to contact
the skin, the eyes, or the mouth.
Oils
Hot oil and hot lubricating components can cause
personal injury. Do not allow hot oil to contact the
skin. Also, do not allow hot components to contact
the skin.
Illustration 6
g00704000
All fuels, most lubricants, and some coolant mixtures
are flammable.
Flammable fluids that are leaking or spilled onto hot
surfaces or onto electrical components can cause
a fire. Fire may cause personal injury and property
damage.
After the emergency stop button is operated ensure
that you allow 15 minutes, before the engine covers
are removed.
Determine whether the engine will be operated in an
environment that allows combustible gases to be
drawn into the air inlet system. These gases could
cause the engine to overspeed. Personal injury,
property damage, or engine damage could result.
If the application involves the presence of combustible
gases, consult your Perkins dealer and/or your
Perkins distributor for additional information about
suitable protection devices.
Batteries
Remove all flammable combustible materials or
conductive materials such as fuel, oil, and debris from
the engine. Do not allow any flammable combustible
materials or conductive materials to accumulate on
the engine.
Electrolyte is an acid. Electrolyte can cause personal
injury. Do not allow electrolyte to contact the skin or
the eyes. Always wear protective glasses for servicing
batteries. Wash hands after touching the batteries
and connectors. Use of gloves is recommended.
Store fuels and lubricants in correctly marked
containers away from unauthorized persons. Store
oily rags and any flammable materials in protective
containers. Do not smoke in areas that are used for
storing flammable materials.
Do not expose the engine to any flame.
SEBU8313
9
Safety Section
Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention
Exhaust shields (if equipped) protect hot exhaust
components from oil or fuel spray in case of a line,
a tube, or a seal failure. Exhaust shields must be
installed correctly.
Do not weld on lines or tanks that contain flammable
fluids. Do not flame cut lines or tanks that contain
flammable fluid. Clean any such lines or tanks
thoroughly with a nonflammable solvent prior to
welding or flame cutting.
Wiring must be kept in good condition. All electrical
wires must be correctly routed and securely attached.
Check all electrical wires daily. Repair any wires
that are loose or frayed before you operate the
engine. Clean all electrical connections and tighten
all electrical connections.
Eliminate all wiring that is unattached or unnecessary.
Do not use any wires or cables that are smaller than
the recommended gauge. Do not bypass any fuses
and/or circuit breakers.
Illustration 7
Arcing or sparking could cause a fire. Secure
connections, recommended wiring, and correctly
maintained battery cables will help to prevent arcing
or sparking.
Use caution when you are refueling an engine. Do
not smoke while you are refueling an engine. Do not
refuel an engine near open flames or sparks. Always
stop the engine before refueling.
g00704059
Contact with high pressure fuel may cause fluid
penetration and burn hazards. High pressure fuel spray may cause a fire hazard. Failure to follow these inspection, maintenance and service instructions may cause personal injury or death.
After the engine has stopped, you must wait for 60
seconds in order to allow the fuel pressure to be
purged from the high pressure fuel lines before any
service or repair is performed on the engine fuel lines.
Ensure that the engine is stopped. Inspect all lines
and hoses for wear or for deterioration. The hoses
must be correctly routed. The lines and hoses must
have adequate support and secure clamps.
Oil filters and fuel filters must be correctly installed.
The filter housings must be tightened to the correct
torque. Refer to the Disassembly and Assembly
manual for more information.
Illustration 8
g00704135
Gases from a battery can explode. Keep any open
flames or sparks away from the top of a battery. Do
not smoke in battery charging areas.
Never check the battery charge by placing a metal
object across the terminal posts. Use a voltmeter or
a hydrometer.
10
Safety Section
Crushing Prevention and Cutting Prevention
Incorrect jumper cable connections can cause
an explosion that can result in injury. Refer to
the Operation Section of this manual for specific
instructions.
SEBU8313
i01359666
Crushing Prevention and
Cutting Prevention
Do not charge a frozen battery. This may cause an
explosion.
The batteries must be kept clean. The covers
(if equipped) must be kept on the cells. Use the
recommended cables, connections, and battery box
covers when the engine is operated.
Fire Extinguisher
Make sure that a fire extinguisher is available. Be
familiar with the operation of the fire extinguisher.
Inspect the fire extinguisher and service the fire
extinguisher regularly. Obey the recommendations
on the instruction plate.
Lines, Tubes and Hoses
Do not bend high pressure lines. Do not strike high
pressure lines. Do not install any lines that are
damaged.
Leaks can cause fires. Consult your Perkins dealer
or your Perkins distributor for replacement parts.
Support the component properly when work beneath
the component is performed.
Unless other maintenance instructions are provided,
never attempt adjustments while the engine is
running.
Stay clear of all rotating parts and of all moving
parts. Leave the guards in place until maintenance
is performed. After the maintenance is performed,
reinstall the guards.
Keep objects away from moving fan blades. The fan
blades will throw objects or cut objects.
When objects are struck, wear protective glasses in
order to avoid injury to the eyes.
Chips or other debris may fly off objects when objects
are struck. Before objects are struck, ensure that no
one will be injured by flying debris.
i01372247
Replace the parts if any of the following conditions
are present:
Mounting and Dismounting
• High pressure fuel line or lines are removed.
• End fittings are damaged or leaking.
• Outer coverings are chafed or cut.
• Wires are exposed.
• Outer coverings are ballooning.
Inspect the steps, the handholds, and the work area
before mounting the engine. Keep these items clean
and keep these items in good repair.
Mount the engine and dismount the engine only at
locations that have steps and/or handholds. Do not
climb on the engine, and do not jump off the engine.
• End fittings are displaced.
Face the engine in order to mount the engine or
dismount the engine. Maintain a three-point contact
with the steps and handholds. Use two feet and one
hand or use one foot and two hands. Do not use any
controls as handholds.
Make sure that all clamps, guards, and heat shields
are installed correctly. During engine operation, this
will help to prevent vibration, rubbing against other
parts, and excessive heat.
Do not stand on components which cannot support
your weight. Use an adequate ladder or use a work
platform. Secure the climbing equipment so that the
equipment will not move.
• Flexible part of the hoses are kinked.
• Outer covers have embedded armoring.
Do not carry tools or supplies when you mount the
engine or when you dismount the engine. Use a hand
line to raise and lower tools or supplies.
SEBU8313
11
Safety Section
Before Starting Engine
i02322199
Before Starting Engine
The initial start-up of an engine that is new, serviced
or repaired make provision to shut the engine
off, in order to stop an overspeed. This may be
accomplished by shutting off the air and/or fuel
supply to the engine.
Overspeed shutdown should occur automatically for
engines that are controlled electronically. If automatic
shutdown does not occur, press the emergency stop
button in order to cut the fuel and/or air to the engine.
Inspect the engine for potential hazards.
Before starting the engine, ensure that no one is on,
underneath, or close to the engine. Ensure that the
area is free of personnel.
If equipped, ensure that the lighting system for the
engine is suitable for the conditions. Ensure that all
lights work correctly, if equipped.
All protective guards and all protective covers must
be installed if the engine must be started in order
to perform service procedures. To help prevent an
accident that is caused by parts in rotation, work
around the parts carefully.
Do not bypass the automatic shutoff circuits. Do not
disable the automatic shutoff circuits. The circuits are
provided in order to help prevent personal injury. The
circuits are also provided in order to help prevent
engine damage.
All protective guards and all protective covers must
be installed if the engine must be started in order
to perform service procedures. To help prevent an
accident that is caused by parts in rotation, work
around the parts carefully.
Start the engine from the operator’s compartment or
from the engine start switch.
Always start the engine according to the procedure
that is described in the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Engine Starting” topic in the Operation
Section. Knowing the correct procedure will help to
prevent major damage to the engine components.
Knowing the procedure will also help to prevent
personal injury.
To ensure that the jacket water heater (if equipped)
is working correctly, check the water temperature
gauge and/or the oil temperature gauge during the
heater operation.
Engine exhaust contains products of combustion
which can be harmful to your health. Always start the
engine and operate the engine in a well ventilated
area. If the engine is started in an enclosed area,
vent the engine exhaust to the outside.
Note: The engine may be equipped with a device for
cold starting. If the engine will be operated in very
cold conditions, then an extra cold starting aid may
be required. Normally, the engine will be equipped
with the correct type of starting aid for your region
of operation.
i01462046
Engine Stopping
See the Service Manual for repairs and for
adjustments.
i02583384
Engine Starting
Stop the engine according to the procedure in
the Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Engine
Stopping (Operation Section)” in order to avoid
overheating of the engine and accelerated wear of
the engine components.
Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such as
ether. Such use could result in an explosion and
personal injury.
Use the Emergency Stop Button (if equipped) ONLY
in an emergency situation. Do not use the Emergency
Stop Button for normal engine stopping. After an
emergency stop, DO NOT start the engine until the
problem that caused the emergency stop has been
corrected.
If a warning tag is attached to the engine start switch
or to the controls DO NOT start the engine or move
the controls. Consult with the person that attached
the warning tag before the engine is started.
Stop the engine if an overspeed condition occurs
during the initial start-up of a new engine or an engine
that has been overhauled. This may be accomplished
by shutting off the fuel supply to the engine and/or
shutting off the air supply to the engine.
12
Safety Section
Electrical System
SEBU8313
To stop an electronically controlled engine, cut the
power to the engine.
Grounding Practices
i02469632
Electrical System
Never disconnect any charging unit circuit or battery
circuit cable from the battery when the charging unit
is operating. A spark can cause the combustible
gases that are produced by some batteries to ignite.
To help prevent sparks from igniting combustible
gases that are produced by some batteries, the
negative “−” jump start cable should be connected
last from the external power source to the negative
“−” terminal of the starting motor. If the starting motor
is not equipped with a negative “−” terminal, connect
the jump start cable to the engine block.
Check the electrical wires daily for wires that are
loose or frayed. Tighten all loose electrical wires
before the engine is started. Repair all frayed
electrical wires before the engine is started. Refer to
the “Engine Starting” section of this Operation and
Maintenance Manual for specific starting instructions.
Illustration 9
Typical example
Grounding Stud To Battery Ground
g00771448
SEBU8313
13
Safety Section
Engine Electronics
i02583382
Engine Electronics
Tampering with the electronic system installation
or the OEM wiring installation can be dangerous
and could result in personal injury or death and/or
engine damage.
This engine has a comprehensive, programmable
Engine Monitoring System. The Engine Control
Module (ECM) has the ability to monitor the engine
operating conditions. If any of the engine parameters
extend outside an allowable range, the ECM will
initiate an immediate action.
The following actions are available for engine
monitoring control: WARNING, ACTION ALERT, and
SHUTDOWN.
Illustration 10
g00771487
Typical example
Alternate Grounding Stud To Battery Ground
Many of the parameters that are monitored by the
ECM can be programmed for the engine monitoring
functions. The following parameters can be monitored
as a part of the Engine Monitoring System:
• Atmospheric Pressure
Proper grounding for the engine electrical system
is necessary for optimum engine performance
and reliability. Improper grounding will result in
uncontrolled electrical circuit paths and in unreliable
electrical circuit paths.
• Inlet Manifold Pressure
Uncontrolled electrical circuit paths can result in
damage to main bearings, to crankshaft bearing
journal surfaces, and to aluminum components.
• Crankshaft Position
Engines that are installed without engine-to-frame
ground straps can be damaged by electrical
discharge.
• Fuel Temperature
To ensure that the engine and the engine electrical
systems function properly, an engine-to-frame ground
strap with a direct path to the battery must be used.
This path may be provided by way of a starting motor
ground, a starting motor ground to the frame, or a
direct engine ground to the frame.
• System Voltage
All grounds should be tight and free of corrosion. The
engine alternator must be grounded to the negative
“-” battery terminal with a wire that is adequate to
handle the full charging current of the alternator.
• Coolant Temperature
• Engine Oil Pressure
• Camshaft Position
• Inlet Manifold Temperature
The Engine Monitoring package can vary for different
engine models and different engine applications.
However, the monitoring system and the engine
monitoring control will be similar for all engines.
14
Product Information Section
General Information
SEBU8313
Product Information
Section
General Information
i01889424
Welding on Engines with
Electronic Controls
NOTICE
Proper welding procedures are necessary in order
to avoid damage to the engine’s ECM, sensors, and
associated components. When possible, remove the
component from the unit and then weld the component. If removal of the component is not possible,
the following procedure must be followed when you
weld with a unit that is equipped with an Electronic
Engine. The following procedure is considered to be
the safest procedure to weld a component. This procedure should provide a minimum risk of damage to
electronic components.
NOTICE
Do not ground the welder to electrical components
such as the ECM or sensors. Improper grounding can
cause damage to the drive train bearings, hydraulic
components, electrical components, and other components.
Clamp the ground cable from the welder to the component that will be welded. Place the clamp as close
as possible to the weld. This will help reduce the possibility of damage.
1. Stop the engine. Turn the switched power to the
OFF position.
2. Disconnect the negative battery cable from the
battery. If a battery disconnect switch is provided,
open the switch.
3. Disconnect the J1/P1 connectors from the ECM.
Move the harness to a position that will not allow
the harness to accidentally move back and make
contact with any of the ECM pins.
Illustration 11
g00765012
Use the example above. The current flow from the welder to
the ground clamp of the welder will not cause damage to any
associated components.
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
Engine
Welding rod
Keyswitch in the OFF position
Battery disconnect switch in the open position
Disconnected battery cables
Battery
Electrical/Electronic component
Maximum distance between the component that is being
welded and any electrical/electronic component
(9) The component that is being welded
(10) Current path of the welder
(11) Ground clamp for the welder
4. Connect the welding ground cable directly to the
part that will be welded. Place the ground cable as
close as possible to the weld in order to reduce the
possibility of welding current damage to bearings,
hydraulic components, electrical components, and
ground straps.
Note: If electrical/electronic components are used
as a ground for the welder, or electrical/electronic
components are located between the welder ground
and the weld, current flow from the welder could
severely damage the component.
5. Protect the wiring harness from welding debris
and spatter.
6. Use standard welding practices to weld the
materials.
SEBU8313
15
Product Information Section
Model Views
Model Views
i02572859
Model View Illustrations
The following model views show the 2506 Engine
features. Due to individual applications, your engine
may appear different from the illustrations.
g01289036
Illustration 12
Typical example
Left side view
(1) Front timing gear housing
(2) Fuel priming pump
(3) Electronic Control Module (ECM)
(4) Flywheel housing
(5) Fuel filters
(6) Fuel transfer pump
(7) Vibration Damper
16
Product Information Section
Model Views
SEBU8313
g01289038
Illustration 13
Typical example
Right side view
(8) Exhaust manifold
(9) Turbocharger
(10) Temperature regulator housing
(11) Water pump
i02581540
Engine Description
Table 1
2506 Engine Specifications
Cylinders and Arrangement
In-line six cylinder
Bore
137.2 mm (5.4 inch)
Stroke
171.5 mm (6.8 inch)
Displacement
Firing Order
Rotation (flywheel end)
15.2 L (928 in3)
1-5-3-6-2-4
Counterclockwise
(12) Oil cooler
(13) Oil filter
The electronic engines that are covered by this
manual have the following characteristics: direct fuel
injection, electronic unit injection that is mechanically
actuated, turbocharged, and air-to-air aftercooled
(ATAAC).
The electronic engine control system provides the
following functions: electronic governing, automatic
air to fuel ratio control, injection timing control, and
system diagnostics.
An electronic governor controls the output of the unit
injectors in order to maintain the engine rpm that is
desired.
SEBU8313
Very high injection pressures are produced by
electronically controlled, mechanically actuated unit
injectors. The injectors combine the pumping and the
electronic fuel metering (duration and timing) during
injection. The unit injectors accurately control smoke
limiting, white smoke, and engine acceleration rates.
There is one unit injector per cylinder. Individual unit
injectors meter the fuel. The individual unit injectors
also pump the fuel. The metering and the pumping is
done under high pressure. High injection pressures
help to reduce fuel consumption and emissions.
The use of this type of unit injector provides total
electronic control of injection timing. The injection
timing varies with engine operating conditions. The
engine performance is optimized in the following
areas:
• Starting
• Emissions
• Noise
• Fuel consumption
The timing advance is achieved through precise
control of the injector firing. Engine speed is
controlled by adjusting the firing duration. The
information is provided to the Electronic Control
Module (ECM) by the crankshaft position sensor and
the camshaft position sensor. The information is for
detection of cylinder position and engine speed.
The engines have built-in diagnostics in order to
ensure that all of the components are functioning
and operating properly. In the event of a system
component deviation from the programmed limits,
the operator will be alerted to the condition by a
DIAGNOSTIC lamp that is mounted on the control
panel. An electronic service tool that is provided by
Perkins may be used to read the numerical code of
the diagnostic flash code. There are three types of
diagnostic codes: ACTIVE, LOGGED, and EVENT.
These codes are logged and stored in the ECM.
Refer to Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Engine
Diagnostics” for additional information.
The cooling system consists of the following items:
a centrifugal pump that is driven by a gear, water
temperature regulator, an oil cooler, and a radiator
that incorporates a shunt system.
The engine lubricating oil is supplied by a gear
type pump. The engine lubricating oil is cooled and
filtered. Bypass valves provide unrestricted flow
of lubrication oil to the engine parts when the oil
viscosity is high or if either the oil cooler or the oil
filter elements (paper cartridge) become plugged.
17
Product Information Section
Model Views
Engine efficiency, efficiency of emission controls, and
engine performance depend on adherence to proper
operation and maintenance recommendations. This
includes the use of recommended fuels, coolants
and lubrication oils.
Aftermarket Products and Perkins
Engines
When auxiliary devices, accessories, or consumables
(filters, additives, catalysts, etc) which are made by
other manufacturers are used on Perkins products,
the Perkins warranty is not affected simply because
of such use.
However, failures that result from the installation
or use of other manufacturers’ devices,
accessories, or consumables are NOT Perkins
defects. Therefore, the defects are NOT covered
under the Perkins warranty.
18
Product Information Section
Product Identification Information
SEBU8313
Product Identification
Information
i02578572
Plate Locations and Film
Locations
Illustration 14
g01291895
(1) Serial number plate
Perkins engines are identified by serial numbers.
These numbers are shown on the engine serial
number plate. Perkins distributors need these
numbers in order to determine the components that
were included with the engine. This permits accurate
identification of replacement part numbers.
Serial Number Plate (1)
The engine serial number plate is located on the
lower right side of the engine block.
Engine serial number _____________________________________
Designation _________________________________________________
Engine Rating ______________________________________________
SEBU8313
19
Product Information Section
Product Identification Information
i02563635
Reference Numbers
Information for the following items may be needed to
order parts. Locate the information for your engine.
Record the information in the appropriate space.
Make a copy of this list for a record. Keep the
information for future reference.
Record for Reference
Engine Model _______________________________________________
Engine Serial number _____________________________________
Engine rpm __________________________________________________
Primary Fuel Filter _________________________________________
Secondary Fuel Filter Element __________________________
Lubrication Oil Filter Element ___________________________
Total Lubrication System Capacity _____________________
Total Cooling System Capacity _________________________
Air Cleaner Element _______________________________________
Fan Drive Belt ______________________________________________
Alternator Belt ______________________________________________
20
Product Information Section
Product Identification Information
SEBU8313
i02576079
Emissions Certification Film
Label for compliant engines
Illustration 15
Typical example of a label that is installed on engines that comply with emissions
g01290846
SEBU8313
21
Product Information Section
Product Identification Information
Illustration 16
g01290859
Typical example of a label that is installed on engines that comply with emissions
i02566844
Customer Specified
Parameters
• Inlet Manifold Temperature Sensor
• Coolant Temperature Sensor
• Engine Oil Pressure Sensor
• Engine Crankshaft/Camshaft Sensors
To record programmed specifications, use the
following blanks.
• Inlet Manifold Pressure Sensor
Customer Passwords (If required).
• Fuel Temperature Sensor
• First Password ___________________________________________
• Second Password ______________________________________
Rating Selection (L-N) __________________________________
Equipment ID ______________________________________________
Programmable Monitoring System
(PMS)
The Programmable Monitoring System determines
the level of action that is taken by the ECM in
response to a condition that can damage the engine.
These conditions are identified by the ECM from the
signals that are produced from the following sensors.
22
Product Information Section
Product Identification Information
SEBU8313
Table 2
Event Code
E162
Parameter
State
Trip Point
Delay Time
High Boost Pressure
-1
Warn Operator (1)
On
300 kPa (43.5 psi)
30 seconds
-2
Action Alert (2)
Always On
None
5 seconds
E360
Low Engine Oil Pressure
-1
Warn Operator (1)
On
300 kPa (43.5 psi)
60 seconds
-2
Action Alert (2)
Always On
None
2 seconds
-3
Engine Shutdown (3)
Always On
None
2 seconds
E361
High Engine Coolant Temperature
-1
Warn Operator (1)
On
104 °C (2190 °F)
60 seconds
-2
Action Alert (2)
Always On
105 °C (221 °F)
10 seconds
-3
Engine Shutdown (3)
Always On
108 °C (226 °F)
10 seconds
E362
Engine Overspeed
-1
Warn Operator (1)
On
2000 RPM
1 second
-2
Action Alert (2)
Always On
2050 RPM
1 second
-3
Engine Shutdown (3)
Always On
2140 RPM
0 second
E363
High Fuel Supply Temperature
-1
Warn Operator (1)
On
60 °C (140 °F)
60 seconds
-2
Action Alert (2)
Always On
68 °C (154 °F)
60 seconds
E368
High Engine Intake Manifold Air Temperature
-1
Warn Operator (1)
On
75 °C (167 °F)
60 seconds
-2
Action Alert (2)
Always On
78 °C (172 °F)
10 seconds
Refer to Troubleshooting , “System Configuration
Parameters” for additional information for the
Programmable Monitoring System.
SEBU8313
23
Operation Section
Lifting and Storage
Operation Section
i02427139
Product Storage
Lifting and Storage
i02513632
Product Lifting
Refer to Perkins Engine Company limited, Stafford
for information on engine storage.
There is three different levels of engine storage.
Level “A, B and C”.
Level “A ”
Level “A” will give protection for six month for diesel
engines and protection for one year for gas engines.
This is for engines that are transported by a container
or a truck.
Level “B ”
This level is additional to level “A”. Level “B ” will
give protection under normal storage condition from
−15° to +55°C (5.0000° to 99.0000°F) and “90%”
relative humidity for one year.
Illustration 17
g00103219
NOTICE
Never bend the eyebolts and the brackets. Only load
the eyebolts and the brackets under tension. Remember that the capacity of an eyebolt is less as the angle
between the supporting members and the object becomes less than 90 degrees.
When it is necessary to remove a component at an
angle, only use a link bracket that is properly rated for
the weight.
Use a hoist to remove heavy components. Use
an adjustable lifting beam to lift the engine. All
supporting members (chains and cables) should be
parallel to each other. The chains and cables should
be perpendicular to the top of the object that is being
lifted.
Some removals require lifting the fixtures in order to
obtain proper balance and safety.
To remove the engine ONLY, use the lifting eyes that
are on the engine.
Lifting eyes are designed and installed for specific
engine arrangements. Alterations to the lifting eyes
and/or the engine make the lifting eyes and the lifting
fixtures obsolete. If alterations are made, ensure
that proper lifting devices are provided. Consult your
Perkins dealer for information regarding fixtures for
proper engine lifting.
Level “C ”
This level is additional to level “B”. Level “C” will give
protection for five year in tropical temperatures or
arctic climates. Level “C” also meets MOD NES 724
level “J” for europe, when engines are stored in a
unheated building or in the open under waterproof
covers.
24
Operation Section
Gauges and Indicators
SEBU8313
Gauges and Indicators
i02576034
Gauges and Indicators
Your engine may not have the same gauges or all of
the gauges that are described. For more information
about the gauge package, see the OEM information.
Gauges provide indications of engine performance.
Ensure that the gauges are in good working order.
Determine the normal operating range by observing
the gauges over a period of time.
Noticeable changes in gauge readings indicate
potential gauge or engine problems. Problems may
also be indicated by gauge readings that change
even if the readings are within specifications.
Determine and correct the cause of any significant
change in the readings. Consult your Perkins dealer
or your Perkins distributor for assistance.
NOTICE
If no oil pressure is indicated, STOP the engine. If
maximum coolant temperature is exceeded, STOP
the engine. Engine damage can result.
Engine Oil Pressure – The range for the
engine oil pressure is 420 kPa (61 psi).
Jacket Water Coolant Temperature –
Typical water temperature into the engine
is 88 °C (190 °F). Higher temperatures
may occur under certain conditions. The water
temperature reading may vary according to load. The
reading should never exceed 107 °C (224 °F).
1. A high water temperature switch is installed in the
cooling system.
Tachometer – This gauge indicates engine
speed (rpm).
Ammeter – This gauge indicates the
amount of charge or discharge in the
battery charging circuit. Operation of the
indicator should be to the right side of “0” (zero).
Service Hour Meter – The gauge indicates
operating hours of the engine.
SEBU8313
25
Operation Section
Features and Controls
Features and Controls
i02564764
Monitoring System
If the engine is in a Warning condition and the fault
deteriorates further to the shutdown limit then the
ECM logs the fault. The ECM then shuts down the
engine. If the engine shuts down on oil pressure,
coolant temperature or overspeed the respective
alarm output will be energized.
Warning Alarm
The engine has protection in three stages:
• Warning
The Warning alarm informs the user that the engine
is approaching a critical condition.
• Engine Temperatures
If the engine is in the Warning condition, then the
event will be logged in the memory of the ECM.
A fault code will be transmitted over the Perkins
Data link and the hard wired Warning output will be
energized. If the engine is in the Warning condition,
the fault code and output will remain while the
condition exists. The electronic service tool is used to
remove the fault code from the memory of the ECM.
The trip point for the Warning alarm will be set to a
factory default in production. The electronic service
tool may be used to alter the trip point for a Warning
within predefined limits.
• Engine Pressures
Action Alert
• Engine Speed
The Action Alert informs the OEM that the engine is
approaching a critical condition. The engine should
be stopped in a controlled manner or the load on the
engine is reduced. Further running of the engine may
result in an immediate shutdown.
• Action Alert
• Shutdown
The engine protection may be overridden by the
critical condition mode.
All alarms and shutdown faults are transmitted via
the Perkins Data Link. The Electronic Control Module
(ECM) monitors the following parameters:
If the parameters exceed a trip point for a period of
time that is longer than the delay period, the ECM
logs an event code and the indicator switches ON.
The following parameters are monitored for event
codes:
• Lubricating Oil Pressure
• Coolant Temperature
• Overspeed
• Inlet Manifold Air Temperature
• Inlet Manifold Pressure
• Fuel Temperature
The temperature protection is disabled for a period
of time when the engine is cranking in order to
compensate for heat soak solutions.
If a Warning Action Alert, or Shutdown output
for either the lubricating oil pressure, coolant
temperature or overspeed fault conditions, the ECM
switches on the dedicated alarm output.
If the engine is in the Action Alert condition, the event
will be logged in the memory of the ECM. A fault code
will be transmitted over the Perkins Data link and
the hard wired Action Alert will be energized. If the
engine is in the Action Alert condition the fault code
and output will remain while the condition exists. The
fault will remain in the memory of the ECM.
Shutdown
If the engine parameter reaches the Shutdown
condition, the following faults may occur: lubricating
oil pressure, coolant temperature or overspeed. The
event will be logged in the memory of the ECM.
The engine will be shut down. A fault code will
be transmitted over the Perkins Data link and the
hard wired Shutdown output will be energized. The
Shutdown condition will latch until the ECM is reset.
Critical Protection Override
If the engine is in an application that is critical for
safety, the protection system can be overridden in
order to ensure the continuation of the power supply
during engine fault conditions.
26
Operation Section
Features and Controls
Critical Protection Override will be set by a switch
input from the OEM. For example,this may be a
switch to battery + in order to disable a critical
override. Critical Protection Override input can be
enabled in the electronic service tool by use of a
factory password.
When the Critical Protection Override is activated, the
ECM will log the condition. The engine will continue
to run the engine in all fault conditions with the
exception of Overspeed shutdown and Emergency
shutdown. If the engine enters a fault condition the
ECM will log the event in memory. The ECM will
record the number of faults that are overridden.
When the Critical Protection Override is activated,
the ECM will energize the Warning, Action Alert and
the Shutdown outputs. as required.
It is not possible to clear logged shutdown events
from the logged events screen which occur when
the ECM is operating in Critical Protection Override
mode.
Note:
If the engine is operated with an active fault and
in Critical Protection Override mode, the engine
warranty will become invalid. When the engine is
operated in Critical Protection Override mode, the
oil pressure and the coolant temperature events will
be displayed in the “critical events” screen of the
electronic service tool.
Standard Warning Outputs
The ECM provides individual outputs in order to
drive warning lamps or relays to indicate each of the
following fault conditions:
• Diagnostic Fault
• Oil Pressure
• Coolant Temperature
• Overspeed
• Action Alert
• Warning
• Shutdown
If the ECM detects a warning for the coolant
temperature , the output on the coolant temperature
will be energized and the warning output will be
energized. If the ECM detects a warning for the low
oil pressure, the output on the oil pressure will be
energized and the warning output will be energized.
SEBU8313
If the Action Alert alarms are enabled and the ECM
detects a coolant temperature condition, the output
on the coolant Temperature will be energized and the
output on the Action Alert will be energized.
If the engine shuts down on low oil pressure the
output on the low oil pressure will be energized and
the output on the shutdown will be energized. If the
engine shuts down on coolant temperature or the
engine shuts down on overspeed the dedicated
output and the shutdown output will be energized.
Shutdown Reset
After an engine shutdown, the fault can be cleared by
operating the reset input of the shutdown or powering
down the controller.
Powering down the electronic control module can be
achieved by the operation of the keyswitch into sleep
mode. The electronic control module can be powered
down by isolating the power supply to the electronic
control module.
Note: It is not possible to reset the ECM by using the
Reset input until the engine has come to rest.
Altitude derate
At high altitudes or high ambient temperatures,
the engine will not be derated. The engine derate
information can be obtained from the Applications
Department at Perkins Engines Company Limited
Stafford. These limits for the derate must be observed
or severe engine damage may occur.
Note: There is no provision to manually derate the
engine. When the engine is operating at an high
altitude, the power output requires reducing by the
operator. There is not an adjustment to the engine.
Diagnostic
If there is a fault with the engine protection sensor on
the engine, the engine activates a diagnostic code.
The engine communicates the diagnostic code to the
operator via the Diagnostic output. The diagnostic
code provides an indication to the operator of a fault
with the engine protection system. Running of the
engine for a prolonged period in this condition may
result in engine failure. The output is generally used
to drive lamps or relays.
The following sensors are monitored in order to
determine if the sensors are out of the normal range,
an open circuit or a short circuit:
• Lubricating Oil Pressure
• Inlet Manifold Pressure
SEBU8313
27
Operation Section
Features and Controls
• Inlet Manifold Temperature
• Fuel Temperature
• Coolant Temperature
• Engine Speed
• Desired Speed Input
The Diagnostic output differs from the Warning and
Shutdown outputs. The outputs refer to the operation
of the engine. The Diagnostic output refers to the
condition of the electronic system and software
system.
A diagnostic fault may develop on the lubricating
oil pressure or coolant temperature sensors. For
example, if a Shutdown protection sensor has a fault,
this will result in an engine shutdown, unless the
system is in critical protection override. If a diagnostic
fault occurs with one of the engine speed sensors
while the engine is running. The engine continues to
run by using the other timing sensor for reference.
i02572884
Sensors and Electrical
Components
Sensor Locations
Illustration 18 shows the typical locations of the
sensors on the engine. Specific engines may appear
different from the illustration due to differences in
applications.
28
Operation Section
Features and Controls
SEBU8313
g01279775
Illustration 18
(1) Engine coolant temperature sensor
(2) Camshaft position sensor
(3) Inlet manifold pressure sensor
(4) Fuel temperature sensor
(5) Inlet manifold temperature sensor
(6) Electronic control module (ECM)
Failure of Sensors
All Sensors
A failure of any of the sensors may be caused by one
of the following malfunctions:
• Sensor output is open.
• Sensor output is shorted to “- battery” or “+ battery”.
• Measured reading of the sensor is out of the
specification.
Programmable Monitoring System
(PMS)
The Programmable Monitoring System determines
the level of action that is taken by the Engine Control
Module (ECM) in response to a condition that can
damage the engine. These conditions are identified
by the ECM from the signals that are produced from
the following sensors.
(7) Engine oil pressure sensor
(8) Atmospheric pressure sensor
(9) Crankshaft position sensor
Engine Coolant Temperature
Sensor 1
The coolant temperature sensor monitors engine
coolant temperature. The output of the ECM can
indicate a high coolant temperature through a relay
or a lamp. The coolant temperature sensor is used
by the ECM to determine initiation of the Cold Start
Condition.
Failure of the Coolant Temperature
Sensor
The ECM will detect a failure of the coolant
temperature sensor. The diagnostic lamp will
warn the operator about the status of the coolant
temperature sensor. A failure of the coolant
temperature sensor will cause a shutdown of the
engine. The faulty sensor should be replaced. Refer
to Disassembly and Assembly Manual, “Coolant
Temperature Sensor - Remove and Install”.
SEBU8313
Inlet Manifold Pressure Sensor 3
The inlet manifold pressure sensor measures boost
pressure in the inlet air manifold. A signal is sent
to the ECM. A failure of the inlet manifold pressure
sensor will limit the power of the engine.
Inlet Manifold Temperature Sensor
5
The inlet manifold temperature sensor measures the
inlet air temperature. A signal is sent to the ECM. The
inlet air temperature sensor is also used by the ECM
to determine initiation of the Cold Start Strategy.
Engine Oil Pressure Sensor 7
The engine oil pressure sensor is an absolute
pressure sensor that measures the engine oil
pressure in the main oil gallery. The engine oil
pressure sensor detects engine oil pressure for
diagnostic purposes. The engine oil pressure sensor
sends a signal to the ECM .
Low Oil Pressure Warning
The setpoint for the low pressure warning is
dependent upon the engine speed. The fault will be
active and logged only if the engine has been running
for more than 8 seconds.
Low Oil Pressure
The very low oil pressure setpoint is dependent upon
the engine speed. If very low oil pressure is detected,
the ECM will stop the engine immediately unless
Critical Events Override is active.
Failure of the Engine Oil Pressure Sensor
The ECM will detect failure of the engine oil pressure
sensor. The diagnostic lamp warns the user about the
status of the engine oil pressure sensor. The engine
oil pressure related strategies will be disabled in the
event of a failure of the engine oil pressure sensor.
A failure of the engine oil pressure sensor will cause
a shutdown of the engine. The faulty sensor should
be replaced. Refer to Disassembly and assembly
Manual, “Engine Oil Pressure Sensor - Remove and
Install”.
Crankshaft Position Sensor 9
If the ECM does not receive a signal from the
crankshaft position sensor , the “DIAGNOSTIC” lamp
will indicate a diagnostic fault code which will be
logged in the ECM memory.
29
Operation Section
Features and Controls
If the ECM does not receive a signal from the
crankshaft position sensor (9), the ECM will read
the signal from the camshaft position sensor (2).
The ECM continually checks in order to determine if
there is a signal from both sensors. If either sensor
fails, the faulty sensor should be replaced. Refer to
Disassembly and Assembly Manual, “Crankshaft
Position Sensor - Remove and Install” or refer to
Disassembly and Assembly Manual, “Camshaft
Position Sensor - Remove and Install”.
Intermittent failure of the sensors will cause erratic
engine control.
30
Operation Section
Engine Diagnostics
SEBU8313
Engine Diagnostics
i02566845
Fault Logging
i00863835
Self-Diagnostics
The electronic control module has some
self-diagnostic ability. When an electronic problem
with an input or an output is detected, a diagnostic
code is generated. This indicates the specific problem
with the circuitry.
Diagnostic codes are also generated when an
abnormal engine operating condition is detected. For
example, a diagnostic code will be generated if the
low oil pressure alarm is activated. In this case, the
diagnostic code indicates the symptom of a problem.
This type of diagnostic code is called an event. An
event is triggered by the detection of an abnormal
engine operating condition.
A diagnostic code which represents a problem that
currently exists is called an active code.
A diagnostic code that is stored in memory is called
a logged code. Always service active codes prior to
servicing logged codes. Logged codes may include
the following categories:
• Intermittent problems
The system provides the capability of Fault Logging.
When the Electronic Control Module (ECM)
generates an active diagnostic code, the code will
be logged in the memory of the ECM. The Perkins
electronic service tool can retrieve codes that have
been logged. The codes that have been logged can
be cleared with the Perkins electronic service tool.
The codes that have been logged in the memory
of the ECM will be automatically cleared from the
memory after 100 hours. The following faults can
not be cleared from the memory of the ECM without
using a factory password: overspeed, low engine oil
pressure, and high engine coolant temperature.
i01902951
Engine Operation with Active
Diagnostic Codes
If a diagnostic lamp illuminates during normal engine
operation, the system has identified a situation that is
not within the specification. Use the electronic service
tool to check the active diagnostic codes.
The active diagnostic code should be investigated.
The cause of the problem should be corrected as
soon as possible. If the cause of the active diagnostic
code is repaired and there is only one active
diagnostic code, the diagnostic lamp will turn off.
• Recorded events
• Performance history
Logged codes may not indicate that a repair is
needed. The problems may have been repaired since
the logging of the code. Logged codes may be helpful
to troubleshoot intermittent problems.
i02572812
Diagnostic Lamp
The “DIAGNOSTIC” lamp is used to indicate the
existence of an active fault.
A fault diagnostic code will remain active until the
problem is repaired.
Operation of the engine and performance of the
engine can be limited as a result of the active
diagnostic code that is generated. Acceleration rates
may be significantly slower and power outputs may be
automatically reduced. Refer to the Troubleshooting
Guide, “Troubleshooting with a Diagnostic Code” for
more information on the relationship between each
active diagnostic code and the possible effect on
engine performance.
SEBU8313
31
Operation Section
Engine Diagnostics
i02572847
Engine Operation with
Intermittent Diagnostic Codes
If a diagnostic lamp illuminates during normal engine
operation and the diagnostic lamp shuts OFF, an
intermittent fault may have occurred. If a fault has
occurred, the fault will be logged into the memory of
the Electronic Control Module (ECM).
In most cases, it is not necessary to stop the engine
because of an intermittent code. However, the
operator should retrieve the logged fault codes
and the operator should reference the appropriate
information in order to identify the nature of the event.
The operator should log any observation that could
have caused the lamp to light.
• Low power
• Limits of the engine speed
• Excessive smoke, etc
This information can be useful to help troubleshoot
the situation. The information can also be used for
future reference. For more information on diagnostic
codes, refer to the Troubleshooting guide for this
engine.
32
Operation Section
Engine Starting
SEBU8313
Engine Starting
i02583442
Starting the Engine
i02566884
Before Starting Engine
Before the engine is started, perform the required
daily maintenance and any other periodic
maintenance that is due. Refer to the Operation
and Maintenance Manual, “Maintenance Interval
Schedule” for more information.
• Open the fuel supply valve (if equipped).
NOTICE
All valves in the fuel return line must be open before
and during engine operation to help prevent high fuel
pressure. High fuel pressure may cause filter housing
failure or other damage.
If the engine has not been started for several weeks,
fuel may have drained from the fuel system. Air
may have entered the filter housing. Also, when fuel
filters have been changed, some air pockets will be
trapped in the engine. In these instances, prime the
fuel system. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Fuel System - Prime” for more information
on priming the fuel system.
Engine exhaust contains products of combustion
which may be harmful to your health. Always start
and operate the engine in a well ventilated area
and, if in an enclosed area, vent the exhaust to the
outside.
• Do not start the engine or move any of the controls
if there is a “DO NOT OPERATE” warning tag or
similar warning tag attached to the start switch or
to the controls.
• Reset all of the shutoffs or alarm components (if
equipped).
• Ensure that any equipment that is driven by the
engine has been disengaged from the engine.
Minimize electrical loads or remove any electrical
loads.
Note: Do not adjust the engine speed control during
start-up. The electronic control module (ECM) will
control the engine speed during start-up.
New engines
Prime the turbocharger. This can be achieved by
cranking the engine briefly with no fuel.
If necessary, stop a new engine if an overspeed
condition occurs. If necessary, press the Emergency
Stop button.
Starting the Engine
1. Move the ignition switch to the ON position. If a
system fault is indicated, investigate the cause. If
necessary, use the Perkins electronic service tool.
2. Push the start button or turn the keyswitch to the
START position in order to crank the engine.
3. If the engine fails to start within 30 seconds,
release the start button or the ignition switch. Wait
for 30 seconds in order to allow the starting motor
to cool before attempting to start the engine again.
Note: A system fault may be indicated after the
engine is started. If this occurs the ECM has detected
a problem with the system. If necessary, use the
Perkins Service Tool to investigate the problem.
Note: Oil pressure should rise within 15 seconds
after the engine starts. The engine electronic controls
monitor the engine oil pressure. The electronic
controls will stop the engine if the oil pressure is
below normal.
4. When possible, allow the engine to run at no load
for approximately three minutes. Run the engine
at no load until the water temperature gauge
has started to rise. Check all gauges during the
warm-up period.
SEBU8313
33
Operation Section
Engine Starting
Cold Weather Starting
4. Operate the engine at no load until all the coolant
temperature starts to rise. Check the gauges
during the warm-up period.
Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such as
ether. Such use could result in an explosion and
personal injury.
Note: The cold start strategy will be activated when
the coolant temperature is below 17 °C (63 °F). The
cold start strategy will continue until the coolant
temperature reaches 28 °C (82 °F), or until the
engine has been running for 14 minutes. A timer will
disable the cold start strategy after a maximum time
of 14 minutes.
i02581580
The engine will start at a temperature of −10 °C
(14 °F). The ability to start at temperatures below
10 °C (50 °F) will improve by the use of a cylinder
block coolant heater or a device which heats the
crankcase oil. This will help to reduce white smoke
and misfires when the engine is started in cold
weather.
If the engine has not been run for several weeks, fuel
may have drained. Air may have moved into the filter
housing. Also, when fuel filters have been changed,
some air will be left in the filter housing. Refer to
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Fuel System Prime” in order to remove air from the fuel system.
Use the procedure that follows for cold weather
starting.
NOTICE
Do not engage the starting motor when flywheel is
turning. Do not start the engine under load.
If the engine fails to start within 30 seconds, release
the starter switch or button and wait thirty seconds to
allow the starting motor to cool before attempting to
start the engine again.
1. If equipped, press the start button. If equipped,
turn the keyswitch to the START position in order
to engage the electric starting motor and crank
the engine.
2. Repeat step 1 three times if the engine fails to
start.
3. If the engine fails to start, investigate the problem.
Use the Perkins electronic service tool. A system
fault may be indicated after the engine is started. If
this occurs the ECM has detected a problem with
the system. Investigate the cause of the problem.
Use the Perkins electronic service tool.
Note: Oil pressure should rise within 15 seconds
after the engine starts. The electronic engine controls
monitor the oil pressure. The electronic controls will
stop the engine if the oil pressure is below normal.
Note: The oil pressures and fuel pressures should
be in the normal range on the instrument panel. Do
not apply a load to the engine until the oil pressure
gauge indicates at least normal pressure. Inspect the
engine for leaks and/or unusual noises.
Note: After the ECM has completed the cold mode,
cold mode cannot be enabled again until the ECM is
switched OFF.
Note: Do not attempt to restart the engine until the
engine has completely stopped.
i02428473
Starting with Jump Start
Cables
Do not use jump start cables in order to start the
engine. Charge the batteries or replace the batteries.
Refer to Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Battery - Replace”.
i02428529
After Starting Engine
For new installations and engines that are recently
rebuilt, carefully monitor the engine in order to detect
any unusual engine performance.
Check for leaks in the air and in the fluid systems.
34
Operation Section
Engine Operation
SEBU8313
Engine Operation
i02583385
Fuel Conservation Practices
i02578030
Engine Operation
Correct operation and maintenance are key factors
in obtaining the maximum life and economy of
the engine. If the directions in the Operation and
Maintenance Manual are followed, costs can be
minimized and engine service life can be maximized.
Gauge readings should be observed and the data
should be recorded frequently while the engine
is operating. Comparing the data over time will
help to determine normal readings for each gauge.
Comparing data over time will also help detect
abnormal operating developments. Significant
changes in the readings should be investigated.
The efficiency of the engine can affect the fuel
economy. Perkins design and technology in
manufacturing provides maximum fuel efficiency in
all applications. Follow the recommended procedures
in order to attain optimum performance for the life
of the engine.
• Avoid spilling fuel.
Fuel expands when the fuel is warmed up. The fuel
may overflow from the fuel tank. Inspect fuel lines for
leaks. Repair the fuel lines, as needed.
• Be aware of the properties of the different fuels.
Use only the recommended fuels.
• Avoid unnecessary operation at no load.
Shut off the engine instead of operating the engine
at no load for long periods of time.
• Observe the service indicator for the air cleaner
frequently, if equipped. Keep the air cleaner
elements clean.
• Maintain a good electrical system.
One bad battery cell will overwork the alternator. This
will consume excess power and excess fuel.
• Ensure that the belts are properly adjusted. The
belts should be in good condition.
• Ensure that all of the connections of the hoses are
tight. The connections should not leak.
• Ensure that the driven equipment is in good
working order.
• Cold engines consume excess fuel. Keep cooling
system components clean and keep cooling
system components in good repair. Never operate
the engine without water temperature regulators.
All of these items will help maintain operating
temperatures.
SEBU8313
35
Operation Section
Engine Stopping
Engine Stopping
i02583411
After Stopping Engine
i02572824
Manual Stop Procedure
Stopping the Engine
NOTICE
Stopping the engine immediately after it has been
working under load, can result in overheating and accelerated wear of the engine components.
Avoid accelerating the engine prior to shutting it down.
Avoiding hot engine shutdowns will maximize turbocharger shaft and bearing life.
Note: Individual applications will have different
control systems. Ensure that the shutoff procedures
are understood. Use the following general guidelines
in order to stop the engine.
1. Remove the load from the engine. Allow the
engine to run under no load conditions for five
minutes in order to cool the engine.
2. Stop the engine after the cool down period
according to the shutoff system on the engine and
turn the ignition keyswitch to the OFF position.
If necessary, refer to the instructions that are
provided by the OEM.
Emergency Stopping
NOTICE
Emergency shutoff controls are for EMERGENCY use
ONLY. DO NOT use emergency shutoff devices or
controls for normal stopping procedure.
The OEM may have equipped the application with
an emergency stop button. For more information
about the emergency stop button, refer to the OEM
information.
Ensure that any components for the external system
that support the engine operation are secured after
the engine is stopped.
Note: Before you check the engine oil, do not operate
the engine for at least 10 minutes in order to allow
the engine oil to return to the oil pan.
• Check the crankcase oil level. Maintain the oil level
between the “LOW” mark and the “HIGH” mark on
the oil level gauge.
Note: Only use oil that is recommended in
this Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Fluid
Recommendations”. Failure to use the recommended
oil may result in engine damage.
• If necessary, perform minor adjustments. Repair
any leaks and tighten any loose bolts.
• Note the service hour meter reading. Perform
the maintenance that is in the Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Maintenance Interval
Schedule”.
• Fill the fuel tank in order to help prevent
accumulation of moisture in the fuel. Do not overfill
the fuel tank.
• Allow the engine to cool. Check the coolant level.
Maintain the cooling system at 13 mm (0.5 inch)
from the bottom of the pipe for filling.
Note: Only use coolant that is recommended in
this Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Fluid
Recommendations”. Failure to use the recommended
oil may result in engine damage.
• If freezing temperatures are expected, check
the coolant for proper antifreeze protection. The
cooling system must be protected against freezing
to the lowest expected outside temperature. Add
the proper coolant/water mixture, if necessary.
• Perform all required periodic maintenance on all
driven equipment. This maintenance is outlined in
the instructions from the OEM.
36
Operation Section
Cold Weather Operation
SEBU8313
Cold Weather Operation
i02581613
Cold Weather Operation
Perkins Diesel Engines can operate effectively in
cold weather. During cold weather, the starting and
the operation of the diesel engine is dependent on
the following items:
• The type of fuel that is used
Personal injury or property damage can result
from alcohol or starting fluids.
Alcohol or starting fluids are highly flammable and
toxic and if improperly stored could result in injury
or property damage.
Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such as
ether. Such use could result in an explosion and
personal injury.
• The viscosity of the engine oil
• Optional Cold starting aid
• Battery condition
The operation and maintenance of an engine in
freezing temperatures is complex . This is because
of the following conditions:
• Weather conditions
• Engine applications
Viscosity of the Engine Lubrication
Oil
Correct engine oil viscosity is essential. Oil viscosity
affects the amount of torque that is needed
to crank the engine. Refer to Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Fluid Recommendations” for
the recommended viscosity of oil.
Recommendations for the Coolant
Recommendations from your Perkins distributor are
based on past proven practices. The information that
is contained in this section provides guidelines for
cold weather operation.
Provide cooling system protection for the lowest
expected outside temperature. Refer to this Operation
and Maintenance Manual, “Fluid Recommendations”
for the recommended coolant mixture.
Hints for Cold Weather Operation
In cold weather, check the coolant often for the
correct glycol concentration in order to ensure
adequate freeze protection.
• If the engine will start, operate the engine until a
minimum operating temperature of 81 °C (177.8 °F)
is achieved. Achieving operating temperature will
help prevent the intake valves and exhaust valves
from sticking.
• The cooling system and the lubrication system
for the engine do not lose heat immediately upon
shutdown. This means that an engine can be shut
down for a period of time and the engine can still
have the ability to start readily.
• Install the correct specification of engine lubricant
before the beginning of cold weather.
• Check all rubber parts (hoses, fan drive belts, etc)
weekly.
• Check all electrical wiring and connections for any
fraying or damaged insulation.
• Keep all batteries fully charged and warm.
• Check the air cleaners and the air intake daily.
Engine Block Heaters
Engine block heaters (if equipped) heat the
engine jacket water that surrounds the combustion
chambers. This provides the following functions:
• Startability is improved.
An electric block heater can be activated once
the engine is stopped. An effective block heater is
typically a 1250/1500 W unit. Consult your Perkins
distributor for more information.
SEBU8313
37
Operation Section
Cold Weather Operation
i02576035
Fuel and the Effect from Cold
Weather
Note: Only use grades of fuel that are recommended
by Perkins. Refer to this Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Fluid Recommendations”.
The following fuels can be used in this series of
engine.
• Group 1
• Group 2
• Group 3
• Special Fuels
Perkins prefer only Group 1 and Group 2 fuels for
use in this series of engines.
Group 1 fuels are the preferred Group of Fuels for
general use by Perkins. Group 1 fuels maximize
engine life and engine performance. Group 1 fuels
are usually less available than Group 2 fuels.
Frequently, Group 1 fuels are not available in colder
climates during the winter.
Note: Group 2 fuels must have a maximum wear
scar of 650 micrometers (HFRR to ISO 12156-1).
Group 2 fuels are considered acceptable for issues
of warranty. This group of fuels may reduce the life
of the engine, the engine’s maximum power, and the
engine’s fuel efficiency.
When Group 2 diesel fuels are used the following
components provide a means of minimizing problems
in cold weather:
• Glow plugs (if equipped)
• Engine coolant heaters, which may be an OEM
option
• Fuel heaters, which may be an OEM option
• Fuel line insulation, which may be an OEM option
There are three major differences between Group
1 fuels and Group 2 fuels. Group 1 fuels have the
following different characteristics to Group 2 fuels.
• A lower cloud point
• A lower pour point
• A lower energy per unit volume of fuel
Note: Group 3 fuels reduce the life of the engine. The
use of Group 3 fuels is not covered by the Perkins
warranty.
Group 3 fuels include Low Temperature Fuels and
Aviation Kerosene Fuels.
Special fuels include Biofuel.
The cloud point is a temperature that allows wax
crystals to form in the fuel. These crystals can cause
the fuel filters to plug.
The pour point is the temperature when diesel fuel
will thicken. The diesel fuel becomes more resistant
to flow through fuel lines, fuel filters,and fuel pumps.
Be aware of these facts when diesel fuel is
purchased. Consider the average ambient air
temperature for the engine’s application. Engines
that are fueled in one climate may not operate well if
the engines are moved to another climate. Problems
can result due to changes in temperature.
Before troubleshooting for low power or for poor
performance in the winter, check the fuel for waxing.
Low temperature fuels may be available for engine
operation at temperatures below 0 °C (32 °F). These
fuels limit the formation of wax in the fuel at low
temperatures.
For more information on cold weather operation, refer
to the Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Cold
Weather Operation and Fuel Related Components in
Cold Weather”.
38
Operation Section
Cold Weather Operation
SEBU8313
i02583420
Fuel Related Components in
Cold Weather
Fuel Tanks
Condensation can form in partially filled fuel tanks.
Top off the fuel tanks after you operate the engine.
Fuel tanks should contain some provision for draining
water and sediment from the bottom of the tanks.
Some fuel tanks use supply pipes that allow water
and sediment to settle below the end of the fuel
supply pipe.
Some fuel tanks use supply lines that take fuel
directly from the bottom of the tank. If the engine is
equipped with this system, regular maintenance of
the fuel system filter is important.
Drain the water and sediment from any fuel storage
tank at the following intervals: weekly, oil changes,
and refueling of the fuel tank. This will help prevent
water and/or sediment from being pumped from the
fuel storage tank and into the engine fuel tank.
Fuel Filters
A primary fuel filter is installed between the fuel
tank and the engine fuel inlet. After you change
the fuel filter, always prime the fuel system in order
to remove air bubbles from the fuel system. Refer
to the Operation and Maintenance Manual in the
Maintenance Section for more information on priming
the fuel system.
The micron rating and the location of a primary fuel
filter is important in cold weather operation. The
primary fuel filter and the fuel supply line are the most
common components that are affected by cold fuel.
SEBU8313
39
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
Maintenance Section
i02575700
Fluid Recommendations
Refill Capacities
i02574012
Refill Capacities
Because of government regulations regarding the
certification of exhaust emissions from the engine,
the lubricant recommendations must be followed.
Engine Manufacturers Association (EMA)
Oils
Lubrication System
The refill capacities for the engine crankcase
reflect the approximate capacity of the crankcase
or sump plus standard oil filters. Auxiliary oil filter
systems will require additional oil. Refer to the OEM
specifications for the capacity of the auxiliary oil filter.
Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Maintenance Section” for more information on
Lubricant Specifications.
Table 3
Engine
Refill Capacities
Compartment or System
Minimum
Maximum
45 L (10
Imp gal)
53 L (12
Imp gal)
Crankcase Oil Sump(1)
(1)
General Lubricant Information
The “Engine Manufacturers Association
Recommended Guideline on Diesel Engine Oil” is
recognized by Perkins. For detailed information
about this guideline, see the latest edition of EMA
publication, “EMA DHD -1”.
API Oils
The Engine Oil Licensing and Certification System by
the American Petroleum Institute (API) is recognized
by Perkins. For detailed information about this
system, see the latest edition of the “API publication
No. 1509”. Engine oils that bear the API symbol are
authorized by API.
These values are the approximate capacities for the crankcase
oil sump (aluminum) which includes the standard factory
installed oil filters. Engines with auxiliary oil filters will require
additional oil. Refer to the OEM specifications for the capacity
of the auxiliary oil filter.
Cooling System
Refer to the OEM specifications for the External
System capacity. This capacity information will
be needed in order to determine the amount of
antifreeze/coolant that is required for the Total
Cooling System.
Illustration 19
Table 4
Typical API symbol
Engine
Refill Capacities
Compartment or System
Liters
Engine Only
22 L
(5 Imp gal)
External System Per OEM(1)
36 L
(8 Imp gal)
(1)
g00546535
The External System includes a radiator or an expansion
tank with the following components: heat exchanger and
piping. Refer to the OEM specifications. Enter the value for the
capacity of the External System in this row.
Diesel engine oils CC, CD, CD-2, and CE have
not been API authorized classifications since 1
January 1996. Table 5 summarizes the status of the
classifications.
40
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
SEBU8313
Table 5
API Classifications
Current
Obsolete
CH-4, , CI-4
CE, CC, CD
(1)
CD-2
(1)
The oil CD-2 is for a two-cycle diesel engine. Perkins does not
sell engines that utilize CD-2 oil.
Terminology
Certain abbreviations follow the nomenclature of
“SAE J754”. Some classifications follow “SAE J183”
abbreviations, and some classifications follow the
“EMA Recommended Guideline on Diesel Engine
Oil”. In addition to Perkins definitions, there are other
definitions that will be of assistance in purchasing
lubricants. Recommended oil viscosities can be found
in this publication, “Fluid Recommendations/Engine
Oil” topic (Maintenance Section).
Engine Oil
Commercial Oils
The performance of commercial diesel engine
oils is based on American Petroleum Institute
(API) classifications. These API classifications are
developed in order to provide commercial lubricants
for a broad range of diesel engines that operate at
various conditions.
Only use commercial oils that meet the following
classifications:
• API CH-4 CI-4
In order to make the correct choice of a commercial
oil, refer to the following explanations:
EMA DHD-1 – The Engine Manufacturers
Association (EMA) has developed lubricant
recommendations as an alternative to the API oil
classification system. DHD-1 is a Recommended
Guideline that defines a level of oil performance for
these types of diesel engines: high speed, four stroke
cycle, heavy-duty, and light duty. DHD-1 oils may
be used in Perkins engines when the following oils
are recommended: API CH-4, API CG-4, and API
CF-4. DHD-1 oils are intended to provide superior
performance in comparison to API CG-4 and API
CF-4.
DHD-1 oils will meet the needs of high performance
Perkins diesel engines that are operating in many
applications. The tests and the test limits that are
used to define DHD-1 are similar to the new API
CH-4 classification. Therefore, these oils will also
meet the requirements for diesel engines that require
low emissions. DHD-1 oils are designed to control the
harmful effects of soot with improved wear resistance
and improved resistance to plugging of the oil filter.
These oils will also provide superior piston deposit
control for engines with either two-piece steel pistons
or aluminum pistons.
All DHD-1 oils must complete a full test program
with the base stock and with the viscosity grade of
the finished commercial oil. The use of “API Base
Oil Interchange Guidelines” are not appropriate for
DHD-1 oils. This feature reduces the variation in
performance that can occur when base stocks are
changed in commercial oil formulations.
DHD-1 oils are recommended for use in extended oil
change interval programs that optimize the life of the
oil. These oil change interval programs are based
on oil analysis. DHD-1 oils are recommended for
conditions that demand a premium oil. Your Perkins
dealer or your Perkins distributor has the specific
guidelines for optimizing oil change intervals.
API CH-4 – API CH-4 oils were developed in order to
meet the requirements of the new high performance
diesel engines. Also, the oil was designed to
meet the requirements of the low emissions diesel
engines. API CH-4 oils are also acceptable for use
in older diesel engines and in diesel engines that
use high sulfur diesel fuel. API CH-4 oils may be
used in Perkins engines that use API CG-4 and API
CF-4 oils. API CH-4 oils will generally exceed the
performance of API CG-4 oils in the following criteria:
deposits on pistons, control of oil consumption, wear
of piston rings, valve train wear, viscosity control,
and corrosion.
Three new engine tests were developed for the API
CH-4 oil. The first test specifically evaluates deposits
on pistons for engines with the two-piece steel piston.
This test (piston deposit) also measures the control
of oil consumption. A second test is conducted
with moderate oil soot. The second test measures
the following criteria: wear of piston rings, wear of
cylinder liners, and resistance to corrosion. A third
new test measures the following characteristics with
high levels of soot in the oil: wear of the valve train,
resistance of the oil in plugging the oil filter, and
control of sludge.
SEBU8313
41
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
In addition to the new tests, API CH-4 oils have
tougher limits for viscosity control in applications that
generate high soot. The oils also have improved
oxidation resistance. API CH-4 oils must pass an
additional test (piston deposit) for engines that use
aluminum pistons (single piece). Oil performance is
also established for engines that operate in areas
with high sulfur diesel fuel.
All of these improvements allow the API CH-4
oil to achieve optimum oil change intervals. API
CH-4 oils are recommended for use in extended oil
change intervals. API CH-4 oils are recommended
for conditions that demand a premium oil. Your
Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor has specific
guidelines for optimizing oil change intervals.
Some commercial oils that meet the API
classifications may require reduced oil change
intervals. To determine the oil change interval, closely
monitor the condition of the oil and perform a wear
metal analysis.
NOTICE
Failure to follow these oil recommendations can cause
shortened engine service life due to deposits and/or
excessive wear.
Total Base Number (TBN) and Fuel Sulfur
Levels for Direct Injection (DI) Diesel
Engines
The Total Base Number (TBN) for an oil depends on
the fuel sulfur level. For direct injection engines that
use distillate fuel, the minimum TBN of the new oil
must be 10 times the fuel sulfur level. The TBN is
defined by “ASTM D2896”. The minimum TBN of the
oil is 5 regardless of fuel sulfur level. Illustration 20
demonstrates the TBN.
Use the following guidelines for fuel sulfur levels that
exceed 1.5 percent:
• Choose an oil with the highest TBN that meets one
of these classifications: EMA DHD-1 and API CH-4.
• Reduce the oil change interval. Base the oil
change interval on the oil analysis. Ensure that the
oil analysis includes the condition of the oil and
a wear metal analysis.
Excessive piston deposits can be produced by an oil
with a high TBN. These deposits can lead to a loss
of control of the oil consumption and to the polishing
of the cylinder bore.
NOTICE
Operating Direct Injection (DI) diesel engines with fuel
sulphur levels over 0.5 percent will require shortened
oil change intervals in order to help maintain adequate
wear protection.
Table 6
Percentage of Sulfur in
the fuel
Oil change interval
Lower than 0.5
Normal
0.5 to 1.0
0.75 of normal
Greater than 1.0
0.50 of normal
Lubricant Viscosity Recommendations
for Direct Injection (DI) Diesel Engines
The correct SAE viscosity grade of oil is determined
by the minimum ambient temperature during
cold engine start-up, and the maximum ambient
temperature during engine operation.
Refer to Table 7 (minimum temperature) in order to
determine the required oil viscosity for starting a cold
engine.
Refer to Table 7 (maximum temperature) in order to
select the oil viscosity for engine operation at the
highest ambient temperature that is anticipated.
Generally, use the highest oil viscosity that is
available to meet the requirement for the temperature
at start-up.
Illustration 20
g00799818
(Y) TBN by “ASTM D2896”
(X) Percentage of fuel sulfur by weight
(1) TBN of new oil
(2) Change the oil when the TBN deteriorates to 50 percent of
the original TBN.
42
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
SEBU8313
Lubricants for Cold Weather
Table 7
Engine Oil Viscosity
Ambient Temperature
EMA LRG-1
API CH-4
Viscosity Grade
Minimum
Maximum
SAE 0W20
−40 °C (−40 °F)
10 °C (50 °F)
SAE 0W30
−40 °C (−40 °F)
30 °C (86 °F)
SAE 0W40
−40 °C (−40 °F)
40 °C (104 °F)
SAE 5W30
−30 °C (−22 °F)
30 °C (86 °F)
SAE 5W40
−30 °C (−22 °F)
40 °C (104 °F)
SAE 10W30
−20 °C (−4 °F)
40 °C (104 °F)
SAE 15W40
−10 °C (14 °F)
50 °C (122 °F)
Synthetic Base Stock Oils
Synthetic base oils are acceptable for use in
these engines if these oils meet the performance
requirements that are specified for the engine.
Synthetic base oils generally perform better than
conventional oils in the following two areas:
• Synthetic base oils have improved flow at low
temperatures especially in arctic conditions.
• Synthetic base oils have improved oxidation
When an engine is started and an engine is operated
in ambient temperatures below −20 °C (−4 °F), use
multigrade oils that are capable of flowing in low
temperatures.
These oils have lubricant viscosity grades of SAE
0W or SAE 5W.
When an engine is started and operated in ambient
temperatures below −30 °C (−22 °F), use a synthetic
base stock multigrade oil with an 0W viscosity grade
or with a 5W viscosity grade. Use an oil with a pour
point that is lower than −50 °C (−58 °F).
The number of acceptable lubricants is limited in
cold weather conditions. Perkins recommends the
following lubricants for use in cold weather conditions:
First Choice – Use oil with an EMA DHD-1
Recommended Guideline. Use a CH-4 oil that has
an API license. The oil should be either SAE 0W20,
SAE 0W30, SAE 0W40, SAE 5W30, or SAE 5W40
lubricant viscosity grade.
Second Choice – Use an oil that has a CH-4
additive package. Although the oil has not been
tested for the requirements of the API license, the oil
must be either SAE 0W20, SAE 0W30, SAE 0W40,
SAE 5W30, or SAE 5W40.
stability especially at high operating temperatures.
Some synthetic base oils have performance
characteristics that enhance the service life of the
oil. Perkins does not recommend the automatic
extending of the oil change intervals for any type of
oil.
Re-refined Base Stock Oils
Re-refined base stock oils are acceptable for
use in Perkins engines if these oils meet the
performance requirements that are specified by
Perkins. Re-refined base stock oils can be used
exclusively in finished oil or in a combination with
new base stock oils. The US military specifications
and the specifications of other heavy equipment
manufacturers also allow the use of re-refined base
stock oils that meet the same criteria.
The process that is used to make re-refined base
stock oil should adequately remove all wear metals
that are in the used oil and all the additives that
are in the used oil. The process that is used to
make re-refined base stock oil generally involves the
process of vacuum distillation and hydrotreating the
used oil. Filtering is adequate for the production of
high quality, re-refined base stock oil.
NOTICE
Shortened engine service life could result if second
choice oils are used.
Aftermarket Oil Additives
Perkins does not recommend the use of aftermarket
additives in oil. It is not necessary to use aftermarket
additives in order to achieve the engine’s maximum
service life or rated performance. Fully formulated,
finished oils consist of base oils and of commercial
additive packages. These additive packages are
blended into the base oils at precise percentages in
order to help provide finished oils with performance
characteristics that meet industry standards.
There are no industry standard tests that evaluate
the performance or the compatibility of aftermarket
additives in finished oil. Aftermarket additives may
not be compatible with the finished oil’s additive
package, which could lower the performance of the
finished oil. The aftermarket additive could fail to
mix with the finished oil. This could produce sludge
in the crankcase. Perkins discourages the use of
aftermarket additives in finished oils.
To achieve the best performance from a Perkins
engine, conform to the following guidelines:
SEBU8313
• Select the correct oil, or a commercial oil that meets
the “EMA Recommended Guideline on Diesel
Engine Oil” or the recommended API classification.
• See the appropriate “Lubricant Viscosities” table in
order to find the correct oil viscosity grade for your
engine.
43
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
• Viscosity___________ 2,0 to 4.5 cSt at 40 °C (104 °F)
• Density________________________ 0.835 to 0.855 Kg/liter
• Sulfur_______________________0.2% of mass, maximum
• Distillation___________________85% at 350 °C (662 °F)
• At the specified interval, service the engine. Use
• Lubricity______________________________460 micrometers
• Perform maintenance at the intervals that are
Cetane number
new oil and install a new oil filter.
specified in the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Maintenance Interval Schedule”.
Oil analysis
Some engines may be equipped with an oil sampling
valve. If oil analysis is required the oil sampling valve
is used to obtain samples of the engine oil. The oil
analysis will complement the preventive maintenance
program.
The oil analysis is a diagnostic tool that is used to
determine oil performance and component wear
rates. Contamination can be identified and measured
through the use of the oil analysis. The oil analysis
includes the following tests:
• The Wear Rate Analysis monitors the wear of the
engine’s metals. The amount of wear metal and
type of wear metal that is in the oil is analyzed. The
increase in the rate of engine wear metal in the
oil is as important as the quantity of engine wear
metal in the oil.
• Tests are conducted in order to detect
contamination of the oil by water, glycol or fuel.
• The Oil Condition Analysis determines the loss of
the oil’s lubricating properties. An infrared analysis
is used to compare the properties of new oil to the
properties of the used oil sample. This analysis
allows technicians to determine the amount of
deterioration of the oil during use. This analysis
also allows technicians to verify the performance
of the oil according to the specification during the
entire oil change interval.
Fuel Specifications
Fuel Recommendations
To get the correct power and performance from
the engine, use a fuel of the correct quality. The
recommended fuel specification for Perkins engines
is shown below:
• Cetane number___________________________45 minimum
maximum wear scar on “ISO 12156 - 1”
This indicates the properties of ignition of the fuel.
Fuel with a low cetane number can be the root
cause of problems during cold start. This will affect
combustion.
Viscosity
This is the resistance to flow of a fluid. If this
resistance is outside the limits, the engine and the
engine starting performance in particular can be
affected.
Sulfur
High sulfur content of the fuel is not normally found
in Europe, North America or Australasia. This can
cause engine wear. When only high sulfur fuels
are available, it will be necessary that high alkaline
lubricating oil is used in the engine or that the
lubricating oil change interval is reduced.
Distillation
This is an indication of the mixture of different
hydrocarbons in the fuel. A high ratio of light weight
hydrocarbons can affect the characteristics of
combustion.
Lubricity
This is the capability of the fuel to prevent pump wear.
Diesel engines have the ability to burn a wide variety
of fuels. These fuels are divided into four general
groups:
• Group 1 (preferred fuels)
• Group 2 (permissible fuels)
• Group 3 (aviation kerosene fuels)
• Other fuels
Group 1 (preferred fuels): Specification
“DERV to EN590”
44
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
Note: Only use Arctic fuels when the temperature is
below 0 °C (32 °F). Do not use Arctic fuels when the
ambient temperature is above 0 °C (32 °F). To ensure
that the time period between cranking the engine and
first fire is kept to a minimum, only use fuel of the
correct viscosity and at the correct temperature.
Gas oil to “BS2869 Class A2”
“ASTM D975 - 91 Class 2D” This can only be used if
the fuel has the correct specification of lubricity.
“JIS K2204 (1992) Grades 1,2,3 and Special Grade
3” This can only be used if the fuel has the correct
specification of lubricity.
Note: If low sulfur or low sulfur aromatic fuels are
used, then fuel additives can be used to increase
lubricity.
Group 2 (permissible fuels): Specification
These fuel specifications are considered acceptable
for issues of warranty. However,these fuels may
reduce the life of the engine, the engine’s maximum
power and the engine’s fuel efficiency.
“ASTM D975 - 91 Class 1D”
“JP7, Mil T38219”
“NATO F63”
NOTICE
These fuels should have a wear scar value of 650
micrometers maximum *HFRR to ISO 12156 - 1.*
Group 3 (aviation kerosene fuels): Specification
These fuels need additives to achieve lubricity of 650
micrometers wear scar and the reliability of the fuel
pump and fuel injectors will be reduced. The fuel
injection pump is not covered by a warranty, even
when the additives are included.
“JP5 MIL T5624 (Avcat FSII, NATO F44”
SEBU8313
Note: These fuels that lack lubricity may cause the
following problems:
• Low engine power
• Difficult starting in hot conditions or in cold
conditions
• White smoke
• Deterioration of emissions and misfire at certain
operating conditions
Biofuel: Specification
Biofuel: A 5% mix of RME to EN14214 in conventional
fuel is permitted.
NOTICE
Water emulsion fuels: These fuels are not permitted
Refer to the following fuel specifications for
North America.
The preferred fuels provide maximum engine service
life and performance. The preferred fuels are distillate
fuels. These fuels are commonly called diesel fuel
or gas oil.
The permissible fuels are crude oils or blended fuels.
Use of these fuels can result in higher maintenance
costs and in reduced engine service life.
Diesel fuels that meet the specifications in Table
8 will help to provide maximum engine service life
and performance. In North America, diesel fuel that
is identified as No. 2-D in “ASTM D975” generally
meets the specifications. Table 8 is for diesel fuels
that are distilled from crude oil. Diesel fuels from
other sources could exhibit detrimental properties
that are not defined or controlled by this specification.
Table 8
Perkins Specifications for Distillate Diesel Fuel
Specifications
Requirements
ASTM Test
“JP8 T83133 (Avtur FSII, NATO F34”
Aromatics
35% maximum
“D1319”
“Jet A”
Ash
0.02% maximum
(weight)
“D482”
“Jet A1, NATO F35, XF63”
Low temperature fuels
Special fuels for use in cold weather may be available
for engine operation at temperatures below 0 °C
(32 °F). These fuels limit the formation of wax in the
fuel oil at low temperatures. If wax forms in the fuel
oil, this could stop the flow of fuel oil through the filter.
(continued)
SEBU8313
45
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
(Table 8, contd)
(Table 8, contd)
Carbon Residue
on 10% Bottoms
0.35% maximum
(weight)
“D524”
Cetane Number
40 minimum (DI
engines)
“D613”
Cloud Point
The cloud
point must not
exceed the
lowest expected
ambient
temperature.
-
Copper Strip
Corrosion
Distillation
Flash Point
API Gravity
Pour Point
Sulfur
No. 3 maximum
10% at 282 °C
(540 °F)
maximum
90% at 360 °C
(680 °F)
maximum
legal limit
30 minimum
45 maximum
6 °C (10 °F)
minimum
below ambient
temperature
0.2% maximum
(1)
Kinematic
Viscosity (2)
2.0 cSt minimum
and 4.5 cSt
maximum at
40 °C (104 °F)
Gum and Resins
(3)
Lubricity
(1)
“D130”
(2)
“D86”
(3)
(4)
“D93”
“D287”
“D97”
“D3605”
or
“D1552”
(4)
10 mg per 100
mL maximum
“D381”
0.38 mm
(0.015 inch)
maximum at
25 °C (77 °F)
“D6079”
Perkins fuel systems and engine components can operate
on high sulfur fuels. Fuel sulfur levels affect exhaust
emissions. High sulfur fuels also increase the potential
for corrosion of internal components. Fuel sulfur levels
above 0.5 percent may significantly shorten the oil change
interval. For additional information, see this publication, “Fluid
Recommendations/Engine Oil” topic (Maintenance Section).
The values of the fuel viscosity are the values as the fuel
is delivered to the fuel injection pumps. If a fuel with a low
viscosity is used, cooling of the fuel may be required to
maintain a 1.4 cSt viscosity at the fuel injection pump. Fuels
with a high viscosity might require fuel heaters in order to bring
down the viscosity to a 20 cSt viscosity.
Follow the test conditions and procedures for gasoline (motor).
The lubricity of a fuel is a concern with low sulfur fuel. To
determine the lubricity of the fuel, use either the “ASTM D6078
Scuffing Load Wear Test (SBOCLE)” or the “ASTM D6079 High
Frequency Reciprocating Rig (HFRR)” test. If the lubricity of a
fuel does not meet the minimum requirements, consult your
fuel supplier. Do not treat the fuel without consulting the fuel
supplier. Some additives are not compatible. These additives
can cause problems in the fuel system.
NOTICE
Operating with fuels that do not meet the Perkins recommendations can cause the following effects: Starting difficulty, poor combustion, deposits in the fuel injectors, reduced service life of the fuel system, deposits in the combustion chamber, and reduced service life of the engine.
“D445”
Water and
Sediment
0.1% maximum
Water
0.1% maximum
“D1744”
Sediment
0.05% maximum
(weight)
“D473”
“D1796”
(continued)
NOTICE
Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO), Residual fuel, or Blended fuel
must NOT be used in Perkins diesel engines. Severe
component wear and component failures will result if
HFO type fuels are used in engines that are configured
to use distillate fuel.
In extreme cold ambient conditions, you may use the
distillate fuels that are specified in Table 9. However,
the fuel that is selected must meet the requirements
that are specified in Table 8. These fuels are intended
to be used in operating temperatures that are down
to −54 °C (−65 °F).
46
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
SEBU8313
Table 9
Distillate Fuels
(1)
(1)
Specification
Grade
“MIL-T-5624R”
JP-5
“ASTM D1655”
Jet-A-1
“MIL-T-83133D”
JP-8
The fuels that are listed in this Table may not meet the
requirements that are specified in the “Perkins Specifications
for Distillate Diesel Fuel” Table. Consult the supplier for the
recommended additives in order to maintain the correct fuel
lubricity.
These fuels are lighter than the No. 2 grades of fuel.
The cetane number of the fuels in Table 9 must be
at least 40. If the viscosity is below 1.4 cSt at 38 °C
(100 °F), use the fuel only in temperatures below
0 °C (32 °F). Do not use any fuels with a viscosity
of less than 1.2 cSt at 38 °C (100 °F). Fuel cooling
may be required in order to maintain the minimum
viscosity of 1.4 cSt at the fuel injection pump.
There are many other diesel fuel specifications that
are published by governments and by technological
societies. Usually, those specifications do not
review all the requirements that are addressed
in this specification. To ensure optimum engine
performance, a complete fuel analysis should be
obtained before engine operation. The fuel analysis
should include all of the properties that are listed in
Table 8.
Cooling System Specifications
General Coolant Information
NOTICE
Never add coolant to an overheated engine. Engine
damage could result. Allow the engine to cool first.
NOTICE
If the engine is to be stored in, or shipped to an area
with below freezing temperatures, the cooling system
must be either protected to the lowest outside temperature or drained completely to prevent damage.
NOTICE
Frequently check the specific gravity of the coolant for
proper freeze protection or for anti-boil protection.
NOTICE
Never operate an engine without water temperature
regulators in the cooling system. Water temperature
regulators help to maintain the engine coolant at the
proper operating temperature. Cooling system problems can develop without water temperature regulators.
Many engine failures are related to the cooling
system. The following problems are related to cooling
system failures: Overheating, leakage of the water
pump, and plugged radiators or heat exchangers.
These failures can be avoided with correct cooling
system maintenance. Cooling system maintenance is
as important as maintenance of the fuel system and
the lubrication system. Quality of the coolant is as
important as the quality of the fuel and the lubricating
oil.
Coolant is normally composed of three elements:
Water, additives, and glycol.
Water
Water is used in the cooling system in order to
transfer heat.
Distilled water or deionized water is
recommended for use in engine cooling systems.
DO NOT use the following types of water in cooling
systems: Hard water, softened water that has been
conditioned with salt, and sea water.
If distilled water or deionized water is not available,
use water with the properties that are listed in Table
10.
Table 10
Acceptable Water
Property
Maximum Limit
Chloride (Cl)
40 mg/L
Sulfate (SO4)
100 mg/L
Total Hardness
170 mg/L
Total Solids
340 mg/L
Acidity
pH of 5.5 to 9.0
Clean the cooling system for the following reasons:
For a water analysis, consult one of the following
sources:
• Contamination of the cooling system
• Local water utility company
• Overheating of the engine
• Agricultural agent
• Foaming of the coolant
• Independent laboratory
SEBU8313
Additives
Additives help to protect the metal surfaces of
the cooling system. A lack of coolant additives or
insufficient amounts of additives enable the following
conditions to occur:
• Corrosion
• Formation of mineral deposits
• Rust
• Scale
• Foaming of the coolant
Many additives are depleted during engine operation.
These additives must be replaced periodically.
Additives must be added at the correct concentration.
Overconcentration of additives can cause the
inhibitors to drop out-of-solution. The deposits can
enable the following problems to occur:
• Formation of gel compounds
• Reduction of heat transfer
• Leakage of the water pump seal
47
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
Table 11
Ethylene Glycol
Concentration
Freeze
Protection
Boil
Protection
50 Percent
−36 °C (−33 °F)
106 °C (223 °F)
60 Percent
−51 °C (−60 °F)
111 °C (232 °F)
NOTICE
Do not use propylene glycol in concentrations that exceed 50 percent glycol because of propylene glycol’s
reduced heat transfer capability. Use ethylene glycol
in conditions that require additional protection against
boiling or freezing.
Table 12
Propylene Glycol
Concentration
Freeze
Protection
Anti-Boil
Protection
50 Percent
−29 °C (−20 °F)
106 °C (223 °F)
To check the concentration of glycol in the coolant,
measure the specific gravity of the coolant.
Coolant Recommendations
• Plugging of radiators, coolers, and small passages
The following two coolants are used in Perkins diesel
engines:
Glycol
Preferred – Perkins Extended Life Coolant (ELC)
Glycol in the coolant helps to provide protection
against the following conditions:
Acceptable – A commercial heavy-duty antifreeze
that meets “ASTM D4985” specifications
• Boiling
NOTICE
Do not use a commercial coolant/antifreeze that only meets the ASTM D3306 specification. This type of
coolant/antifreeze is made for light automotive applications.
• Freezing
• Cavitation of the water pump
For optimum performance, Perkins recommends a
1:1 mixture of a water/glycol solution.
Note: Use a mixture that will provide protection
against the lowest ambient temperature.
Note: 100 percent pure glycol will freeze at a
temperature of −23 °C (−9 °F).
Most conventional antifreezes use ethylene glycol.
Propylene glycol may also be used. In a 1:1 mixture
with water, ethylene and propylene glycol provide
similar protection against freezing and boiling. See
Tables 11 and 12.
Perkins recommends a 1:1 mixture of water and
glycol. This mixture of water and glycol will provide
optimum heavy-duty performance as a antifreeze.
This ratio may be increased to 1:2 water to glycol if
extra freezing protection is required.
Note: A commercial heavy-duty antifreeze that
meets “ASTM D4985” specifications MAY require a
treatment with an SCA at the initial fill. Read the label
or the instructions that are provided by the OEM of
the product.
48
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
SEBU8313
In stationary engine applications and marine engine
applications that do not require anti-boil protection
or freeze protection, a mixture of SCA and water
is acceptable. Perkins recommends a six percent
to eight percent concentration of SCA in those
cooling systems. Distilled water or deionized water
is preferred. Water which has the recommended
properties may be used.
Engines that are operating in an ambient temperature
above 43 °C (109.4 °F) must use SCA and water.
Engines that operate in an ambient temperature
above 43 °C (109.4 °F) and below 0 °C (32 °F) due
to seasonal variations consult your Perkins dealer
or your Perkins distributor for the correct level of
protection.
Table 13
Coolant Service Life
Coolant Type
Service Life
Perkins ELC
6,000 Service Hours or
Three Years
Commercial Heavy-Duty
Antifreeze that meets
“ASTM D4985”
3000 Service Hours or
Two Years
Perkins POWERPART
SCA
3000 Service Hours or
Two Years
Commercial SCA and
Water
3000 Service Hours or
Two Years
Extended Life Coolant (ELC)
Perkins provides Extended Life Coolant (ELC) for
use in the following applications:
• Heavy-duty spark ignited gas engines
• Heavy-duty diesel engines
• Automotive applications
ELC Concentrate is also available. ELC Concentrate
can be used to lower the freezing point to −51 °C
(−60 °F) for arctic conditions.
Containers of several sizes are available. Consult
your Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor for the
part numbers.
ELC Cooling System Maintenance
Correct additions to the Extended Life
Coolant
NOTICE
Use only Perkins products for pre-mixed or concentrated coolants.
Mixing Extended Life Coolant with other products reduces the Extended Life Coolant service life. Failure to
follow the recommendations can reduce cooling system components life unless appropriate corrective action is performed.
In order to maintain the correct balance between
the antifreeze and the additives, you must maintain
the recommended concentration of Extended Life
Coolant (ELC). Lowering the proportion of antifreeze
lowers the proportion of additive. This will lower the
ability of the coolant to protect the system from pitting,
from cavitation, from erosion, and from deposits.
NOTICE
Do not use a conventional coolant to top-off a cooling
system that is filled with Extended Life Coolant (ELC).
Do not use standard supplemental coolant additive
(SCA).
When using Perkins ELC, do not use standard SCA’s
or SCA filters.
The anti-corrosion package for ELC is different from
the anti-corrosion package for other coolants. ELC
is an ethylene glycol base coolant. However, ELC
contains organic corrosion inhibitors and antifoam
agents with low amounts of nitrite. Perkins ELC
has been formulated with the correct amount of
these additives in order to provide superior corrosion
protection for all metals in engine cooling systems.
ELC Cooling System Cleaning
ELC is available in a 1:1 premixed cooling solution
with distilled water. The Premixed ELC provides
freeze protection to −36 °C (−33 °F). The Premixed
ELC is recommended for the initial fill of the cooling
system. The Premixed ELC is also recommended for
topping off the cooling system.
Clean water is the only cleaning agent that is required
when ELC is drained from the cooling system.
Note: If the cooling system is already using ELC,
cleaning agents are not required to be used at
the specified coolant change interval. Cleaning
agents are only required if the system has been
contaminated by the addition of some other type of
coolant or by cooling system damage.
SEBU8313
After the cooling system is drained and after the
cooling system is refilled, operate the engine while
the cooling system filler cap is removed. Operate
the engine until the coolant level reaches the normal
operating temperature and until the coolant level
stabilizes. As needed, add the coolant mixture in
order to fill the system to the specified level.
Changing to Perkins ELC
To change from heavy-duty antifreeze to the Perkins
ELC, perform the following steps:
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that all fluids are
contained during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting and the repair of the
product. Be prepared to collect the fluid with suitable
containers before opening any compartment or disassembling any component containing fluids.
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
mandates.
1. Drain the coolant into a suitable container.
2. Dispose of the coolant according to local
regulations.
3. Flush the system with clean water in order to
remove any debris.
4. Use Perkins cleaner to clean the system. Follow
the instruction on the label.
5. Drain the cleaner into a suitable container. Flush
the cooling system with clean water.
6. Fill the cooling system with clean water and
operate the engine until the engine is warmed to
49° to 66°C (120° to 150°F).
NOTICE
Incorrect or incomplete flushing of the cooling system
can result in damage to copper and other metal components.
To avoid damage to the cooling system, make sure to
completely flush the cooling system with clear water.
Continue to flush the system until all the signs of the
cleaning agent are gone.
7. Drain the cooling system into a suitable container
and flush the cooling system with clean water.
49
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
Note: The cooling system cleaner must be thoroughly
flushed from the cooling system. Cooling system
cleaner that is left in the system will contaminate the
coolant. The cleaner may also corrode the cooling
system.
8. Repeat Steps 6 and 7 until the system is
completely clean.
9. Fill the cooling system with the Perkins Premixed
ELC.
ELC Cooling System Contamination
NOTICE
Mixing ELC with other products reduces the effectiveness of the ELC and shortens the ELC service life.
Use only Perkins Products for premixed or concentrate coolants. Failure to follow these recommendations can result in shortened cooling system component life.
ELC cooling systems can withstand contamination to
a maximum of ten percent of conventional heavy-duty
antifreeze or SCA. If the contamination exceeds ten
percent of the total system capacity, perform ONE of
the following procedures:
• Drain the cooling system into a suitable container.
Dispose of the coolant according to local
regulations. Flush the system with clean water. Fill
the system with the Perkins ELC.
• Drain a portion of the cooling system into a suitable
container according to local regulations. Then, fill
the cooling system with premixed ELC. This should
lower the contamination to less than 10 percent.
• Maintain the system as a conventional Heavy-Duty
Coolant. Treat the system with an SCA. Change
the coolant at the interval that is recommended for
the conventional Heavy-Duty Coolant.
Commercial Heavy-Duty Antifreeze and
SCA
NOTICE
Commercial Heavy-Duty Coolant which contains
Amine as part of the corrision protection system must
not be used.
NOTICE
Never operate an engine without water temperature
regulators in the cooling system. Water temperature
regulators help to maintain the engine coolant at the
correct operating temperature. Cooling system problems can develop without water temperature regulators.
50
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
SEBU8313
Check the antifreeze (glycol concentration) in
order to ensure adequate protection against boiling
or freezing. Perkins recommends the use of a
refractometer for checking the glycol concentration.
Perkins engine cooling systems should be tested
at 500 hour intervals for the concentration of
Supplemental Coolant Additive (SCA).
Additions of SCA are based on the results of the test.
An SCA that is liquid may be needed at 500 hour
intervals.
Refer to Table 14 for part numbers and for quantities
of SCA.
Table 14
Adding The SCA to The Heavy-Duty
Coolant For Maintenance
Heavy-duty antifreeze of all types REQUIRE periodic
additions of an SCA.
Test the antifreeze periodically for the concentration
of SCA. For the interval, refer to the Operation
and Maintenance Manual, “Maintenance Interval
Schedule” (Maintenance Section). Test the
concentration of SCA.
Additions of SCA are based on the results of the
test. The size of the cooling system determines the
amount of SCA that is needed.
Use the equation that is in Table 17 to determine the
amount of Perkins SCA that is required, if necessary:
Perkins Liquid SCA
Part Number
Quantity
21825755
.
Adding the SCA to Heavy-Duty Coolant
at the Initial Fill
Commercial heavy-duty antifreeze that meets “ASTM
D4985” specifications MAY require an addition of
SCA at the initial fill. Read the label or the instructions
that are provided by the OEM of the product.
Use the equation that is in Table 15 to determine the
amount of Perkins SCA that is required when the
cooling system is initially filled.
Table 15
Equation For Adding The SCA To The Heavy-Duty
Coolant At The Initial Fill
V × 0.045 = X
V is the total volume of the cooling system.
X is the amount of SCA that is required.
Table 16 is an example for using the equation that
is in Table 15.
Table 16
Example Of The Equation For Adding The SCA To
The Heavy-Duty Coolant At The Initial Fill
Total Volume
of the Cooling
System (V)
Multiplication
Factor
Amount of SCA
that is Required
(X)
15 L (4 US gal)
× 0.045
0.7 L (24 oz)
Table 17
Equation For Adding The SCA To The Heavy-Duty
Coolant For Maintenance
V × 0.014 = X
V is the total volume of the cooling system.
X is the amount of SCA that is required.
Table 18 is an example for using the equation that
is in Table 17.
Table 18
Example Of The Equation For Adding The SCA To
The Heavy-Duty Coolant For Maintenance
Total Volume
of the Cooling
System (V)
Multiplication
Factor
Amount of SCA
that is Required
(X)
15 L (4 US gal)
× 0.014
0.2 L (7 oz)
Cleaning the System of Heavy-Duty
Antifreeze
Perkins cooling system cleaners are designed
to clean the cooling system of harmful scale
and corrosion. Perkins cooling system cleaners
dissolve mineral scale, corrosion products, light oil
contamination and sludge.
• Clean the cooling system after used coolant is
drained or before the cooling system is filled with
new coolant.
• Clean the cooling system whenever the coolant is
contaminated or whenever the coolant is foaming.
SEBU8313
51
Maintenance Section
Maintenance Interval Schedule
i02583998
Maintenance Interval Schedule
When Required
Battery - Replace ..................................................
Battery or Battery Cable - Disconnect ..................
Engine - Clean ......................................................
Engine Oil Sample - Obtain ..................................
Fuel System - Prime .............................................
Severe Service Application - Check .....................
52
53
59
62
66
71
56
58
61
62
67
73
Every 250 Service Hours or 1 Year
Battery Electrolyte Level - Check .......................... 53
Fuel Tank Water and Sediment - Drain ................. 69
Initial 500 Service Hours
Engine Valve Lash - Inspect/Adjust ...................... 65
Every 500 Service Hours
Belts - Inspect/Adjust/Replace .............................. 54
Every 500 Service Hours or 1 Year
Aftercooler Core - Clean/Test ...............................
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Single Element) Inspect/Replace ..................................................
Engine Crankcase Breather - Replace .................
Engine Mounts - Inspect .......................................
Engine Oil and Filter - Change .............................
Fuel System Primary Filter (Water Separator)
Element - Replace ..............................................
Fuel System Secondary Filter - Replace ..............
Hoses and Clamps - Inspect/Replace ..................
Radiator - Clean ....................................................
Every 3000 Service Hours or 2 Years
Cooling System Water Temperature Regulator Replace ...............................................................
Crankshaft Vibration Damper - Inspect .................
Engine Protective Devices - Check ......................
Engine Speed/Timing Sensors - Check/Clean/
Calibrate ..............................................................
Turbocharger - Inspect ..........................................
57
57
65
65
72
Every 5000 Service Hours
Starting Motor - Inspect ........................................ 72
Daily
Cooling System Coolant Level - Check ................
Driven Equipment - Check ....................................
Engine Air Cleaner Service Indicator - Inspect .....
Engine Oil Level - Check ......................................
Fuel System Primary Filter/Water Separator Drain ...................................................................
Walk-Around Inspection ........................................
Water Pump - Inspect ........................................... 74
52
59
61
62
63
67
68
70
71
Every 1000 Service Hours
Engine Valve Lash - Inspect/Adjust ...................... 65
Every 1000 Service Hours or 1 Year
Electronic Unit Injector - Inspect/Adjust ................ 58
Every 2000 Service Hours
Alternator - Inspect ............................................... 52
Every 6000 Service Hours or 3 Years
Cooling System Coolant (ELC) - Change ............. 55
52
Maintenance Section
Aftercooler Core - Clean/Test
SEBU8313
i02578388
Aftercooler Core - Clean/Test
(Air-To-Air Aftercooler)
Note: Adjust the frequency of cleaning according to
the effects of the operating environment.
Inspect the cooling air side of the aftercooler for these
items: damaged fins, corrosion, dirt, grease, insects,
leaves, oil, and other debris. Clean the cooling air
side of the aftercooler, if necessary.
For air-to-air aftercoolers, use the same methods that
are used for cleaning the outside of radiators.
Personal injury can result from air pressure.
Personal injury can result without following proper procedure. When using pressure air, wear a protective face shield and protective clothing.
Maximum air pressure at the nozzle must be less
than 205 kPa (30 psi) for cleaning purposes.
Pressurized air is the preferred method for removing
loose debris. Hold the nozzle approximately 6 mm
(0.25 inch) away from the fins. Slowly move the air
nozzle in a direction that is parallel with the tubes.
This will remove debris that is between the tubes.
Pressurized water may also be used for cleaning.
The maximum water pressure for cleaning purposes
must be less than 275 kPa (40 psi). Use pressurized
water in order to soften mud.
Use a degreaser and steam for removal of oil and
grease. Wash the core with detergent and hot water.
Thoroughly rinse the core with clean water.
After cleaning, start the engine. Run the engine for
two minutes. This will help in the removal of debris
and drying of the core. Stop the engine. Inspect
the core for cleanliness. Repeat the cleaning, if
necessary.
Inspect the fins for damage. Bent fins may be opened
with a “comb”.
Inspect these items for good condition: welds,
mounting brackets, air lines, connections, clamps,
and seals. Make repairs, if necessary.
i02322311
Alternator - Inspect
Perkins recommends a scheduled inspection of
the alternator. Inspect the alternator for loose
connections and correct battery charging. Check the
ammeter (if equipped) during engine operation in
order to ensure correct battery performance and/or
correct performance of the electrical system. Make
repairs, as required.
Check the alternator and the battery charger for
correct operation. If the batteries are correctly
charged, the ammeter reading should be very near
zero. All batteries should be kept charged. The
batteries should be kept warm because temperature
affects the cranking power. If the battery is too cold,
the battery will not crank the engine. When the
engine is not run for long periods of time or if the
engine is run for short periods, the batteries may not
fully charge. A battery with a low charge will freeze
more easily than a battery with a full charge.
i01878164
Battery - Replace
Batteries give off combustible gases which can
explode. A spark can cause the combustible gases to ignite. This can result in severe personal injury or death.
Ensure proper ventilation for batteries that are in
an enclosure. Follow the proper procedures in order to help prevent electrical arcs and/or sparks
near batteries. Do not smoke when batteries are
serviced.
The battery cables or the batteries should not be
removed with the battery cover in place. The battery cover should be removed before any servicing is attempted.
Removing the battery cables or the batteries with
the cover in place may cause a battery explosion
resulting in personal injury.
1. Switch the engine to the OFF position. Remove
all electrical loads.
SEBU8313
53
Maintenance Section
Battery Electrolyte Level - Check
2. Turn off any battery chargers. Disconnect any
battery chargers.
2. Check the condition of the electrolyte with a
suitable battery tester.
3. The NEGATIVE “-” cable connects the NEGATIVE
“-” battery terminal to the NEGATIVE “-” terminal
on the starter motor. Disconnect the cable from
the NEGATIVE “-” battery terminal.
3. Install the caps.
4. The POSITIVE “+” cable connects the POSITIVE
“+” battery terminal to the POSITIVE “+” terminal
on the starting motor. Disconnect the cable from
the POSITIVE “+” battery terminal.
Note: Always recycle a battery. Never discard a
battery. Return used batteries to an appropriate
recycling facility.
5. Remove the used battery.
6. Install the new battery.
Note: Before the cables are connected, ensure that
the engine start switch is OFF.
7. Connect the cable from the starting motor to the
POSITIVE “+” battery terminal.
8. Connect the cable from the NEGATIVE “-” terminal
on the starter motor to the NEGATIVE “-” battery
terminal.
4. Keep the batteries clean.
Clean the battery case with one of the following
cleaning solutions:
• A mixture of 0.1 kg (0.2 lb) of washing soda or
baking soda and 1 L (1 qt) of clean water
• A mixture of 0.1 L (0.11 qt) of ammonia and 1 L
(1 qt) of clean water
Thoroughly rinse the battery case with clean water.
Use a fine grade of sandpaper to clean the
terminals and the cable clamps. Clean the items
until the surfaces are bright or shiny. DO NOT
remove material excessively. Excessive removal
of material can cause the clamps to not fit properly.
Coat the clamps and the terminals with a suitable
petroleum jelly.
i01492654
Battery or Battery Cable Disconnect
i02563861
Battery Electrolyte Level Check
When the engine is not run for long periods of time or
when the engine is run for short periods, the batteries
may not fully recharge. Ensure a full charge in order
to help prevent the battery from freezing. If batteries
are correctly charged, the ammeter reading should
be very near zero, when the engine is in operation.
All lead-acid batteries contain sulfuric acid which
can burn the skin and clothing. Always wear a face
shield and protective clothing when working on or
near batteries.
1. Remove the filler caps. Maintain the electrolyte
level to the “FULL” mark on the battery.
If the addition of water is necessary, use distilled
water. If distilled water is not available use clean
water that is low in minerals. Do not use artificially
softened water.
The battery cables or the batteries should not be
removed with the battery cover in place. The battery cover should be removed before any servicing is attempted.
Removing the battery cables or the batteries with
the cover in place may cause a battery explosion
resulting in personal injury.
1. Turn the start switch to the OFF position. Turn the
ignition switch (if equipped) to the OFF position
and remove the key and all electrical loads.
2. Disconnect the negative battery terminal at the
battery that goes to the start switch. Ensure that
the cable cannot contact the terminal. When four
12 volt batteries are involved, the negative side of
two batteries must be disconnected.
3. Tape the leads in order to help prevent accidental
starting.
4. Proceed with necessary system repairs. Reverse
the steps in order to reconnect all of the cables.
54
Maintenance Section
Belts - Inspect/Adjust/Replace
SEBU8313
i02576025
Alternator Belt Adjustment
Belts - Inspect/Adjust/Replace
Inspection
Inspect the alternator belt and the fan drive belts for
wear and for cracking. Replace the belts if the belts
are not in good condition.
Check the belt tension according to the information
in Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting, “Belt
Tension Chart”.
Slippage of loose belts can reduce the efficiency
of the driven components. Vibration of loose belts
can cause unnecessary wear on the following
components:
• Belts
• Pulleys
• Bearings
If the belts are too tight, unnecessary stress is placed
on the components. This reduces the service life of
the components.
Replacement
For applications that require multiple drive belts,
replace the drive belts in matched sets. Replacing
one drive belt of a matched set will cause the new
drive belt to carry more load because the older drive
belts are stretched. The additional load on the new
drive belt could cause the new drive belt to fail.
Illustration 21
g01290792
1. Remove the belt guard.
2. Loosen alternator pivot bolt (2) .
3. Loosen the setscrew for the adjustment link which
is behind the fan pulley and the setscrew (1).
4. Move the assembly in order to increase or
decrease the belt tension. Refer to Systems
Operation, Testing and Adjusting, “Belt Tension
Chart”.
5. Tighten the setscrew for the adjustment link (1).
Tighten alternator pivot bolt (2).
Refer to Specifications, “Alternator Mounting” for
correct torque.
6. Reinstall the belt guard.
If new alternator belts are installed, check the
tension of the alternator belt again after 10
minutes of engine operation at the rated rpm.
SEBU8313
55
Maintenance Section
Cooling System Coolant (ELC) - Change
7. Remove the belt guard and check the belt tension.
When the correct belt tension is obtained, fit the
belt guard.
Adjustment of the Fan Drive Belt
1. Remove the belt guard.
2. Loosen the large locknut and turn the adjustment
screw (3) until the correct belt tension is obtained.
3. Tighten the large locknut (3) and recheck the belt
tension.
4. If the belt tension is correct, loosen the adjustment
screw (3) in order to release the tension.
5. Reinstall the belt guard.
If new alternator belts are installed, check the
tension of the alternator belt again after 10
minutes of engine operation at the rated rpm.
6. Remove the belt guard and check the belt tension.
When the correct belt tension is obtained, fit the
belt guard.
i02579635
Cooling System Coolant (ELC)
- Change
• The oil has entered the cooling system and the
coolant is contaminated.
• The fuel has entered the cooling system and the
coolant is contaminated.
Note: When the cooling system is cleaned, only
clean water is needed when the ELC is drained and
replaced.
Note: Inspect the water pump and the water
temperature regulator after the cooling system has
been drained. This is a good opportunity to replace
the water pump, the water temperature regulator and
the hoses, if necessary.
Drain
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pressure.
1. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.
Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in
order to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap.
2. Open the drain cock or remove the drain plug on
the radiator.
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained
during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to
collect the fluid with suitable containers before opening any compartment or disassembling any component containing fluids.
Dispose of all fluids according to Local regulations and
mandates.
NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.
Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened
component life.
Clean the cooling system and flush the cooling
system before the recommended maintenance
interval if the following conditions exist:
• The engine overheats frequently.
• Foaming of the coolant is observed.
Allow the coolant to drain.
NOTICE
Dispose of used engine coolant or recycle. Various
methods have been proposed to reclaim used coolant
for reuse in engine cooling systems. The full distillation
procedure is the only method acceptable by Perkins to
reclaim the coolant.
For information regarding the disposal and the
recycling of used coolant, consult your Perkins dealer
or your Perkins distributor.
Flush
1. Flush the cooling system with clean water in order
to remove any debris.
2. Close the drain cock or install the drain plug on
the radiator.
56
Maintenance Section
Cooling System Coolant Level - Check
SEBU8313
NOTICE
Do not fill the cooling system faster than 5 L
(1.3 US gal) per minute to avoid air locks.
Cooling system air locks may result in engine damage.
3. Fill the cooling system with clean water. Install the
cooling system filler cap.
4. Start and run the engine until the water
temperature regulator opens and the fluid levels
decreases in the header tank.
5. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.
Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in
order to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap. Open the drain cock or remove
the drain plug on the radiator. Allow the water to
drain. Flush the cooling system with clean water.
Fill
1. Close the drain cock or install the drain plug on
the radiator.
NOTICE
Do not fill the cooling system faster than 5 L
(1.3 US gal) per minute to avoid air locks.
Cooling system air locks may result in engine damage.
2. Fill the cooling system with Extended Life
Coolant (ELC). Refer to the Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Fluid Recommendations”
topic (Maintenance Section) for more information
on cooling system specifications. Do not install the
cooling system filler cap.
Illustration 22
g00103639
Filler cap
5. Clean the cooling system filler cap and inspect the
gasket. If the gasket is damaged, discard the old
filler cap and install a new filler cap. If the gasket
is not damaged, use a suitable pressurizing pump
in order to pressure test the filler cap. The correct
pressure is stamped on the face of the filler cap. If
the filler cap does not retain the correct pressure,
install a new filler cap.
6. Start the engine. Inspect the cooling system for
leaks and for correct operating temperature.
i01197583
Cooling System Coolant Level
- Check
Check the coolant level when the engine is stopped
and cool.
3. Start and run the engine for one minute in order
to purge the air from the cavities of the engine
block. Stop the engine.
4. Check the coolant level. Maintain the coolant
level within 13 mm (0.5 inch) below the bottom
of the pipe for filling. If necessary, repeat step 3.
Maintain the coolant level in the expansion bottle
(if equipped) at the correct level.
Illustration 23
Cooling system filler cap
g00285520
SEBU8313
57
Maintenance Section
Cooling System Water Temperature Regulator - Replace
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pressure.
1. Remove the cooling system filler cap slowly in
order to relieve pressure.
2. Maintain the coolant level within 13 mm (0.5 inch)
of the bottom of the filler pipe. If the engine is
equipped with a sight glass, maintain the coolant
level to the proper level in the sight glass.
A water temperature regulator that fails in the closed
position can cause excessive overheating. Excessive
overheating could result in cracking of the cylinder
head or piston seizure problems.
A water temperature regulator that fails in the open
position will cause the engine operating temperature
to be too low during partial load operation. Low
engine operating temperatures during partial loads
could cause an excessive carbon buildup inside the
cylinders. This excessive carbon buildup could result
in an accelerated wear of the piston rings and wear
of the cylinder liner.
Refer to Disassembly and Assembly, “Water
Temperature Regulator Housing - Remove and
Install” for the replacement procedure of the water
temperature regulator, or consult your Perkins
distributor.
Note: If only the water temperature regulators are
replaced, drain the coolant from the cooling system to
a level that is below the water temperature regulator
housing.
i02573905
Crankshaft Vibration Damper
- Inspect
Illustration 24
g00103639
Typical filler cap gaskets
3. Clean the cooling system filler cap and check the
condition of the filler cap gaskets. Replace the
cooling system filler cap if the filler cap gaskets are
damaged. Reinstall the cooling system filler cap.
Damage to the crankshaft vibration damper or failure
of the crankshaft vibration damper can increase
torsional vibrations. This can result in damage to
the crankshaft and to other engine components. A
damper that is damaged can cause excessive gear
train noise at variable points in the speed range.
The damper is mounted to the crankshaft which is
located behind the belt guard on the front of the
engine.
4. Inspect the cooling system for leaks.
i02573904
Cooling System Water
Temperature Regulator Replace
Replace the water temperature regulator before
the water temperature regulator fails. This is a
recommended preventive maintenance practice.
Replacing the water temperature regulator reduces
the chances for unscheduled downtime.
A water temperature regulator that fails in a
partially opened position can cause overheating or
overcooling of the engine.
Visconic Damper
The visconic damper has a weight that is located
inside a fluid filled case. The weight moves in the
case in order to limit torsional vibration.
Inspect the damper for evidence of fluid leaks. If
a fluid leak is found, determine the type of fluid.
The fluid in the damper is silicone. Silicone has the
following characteristics: transparent, viscous, and
smooth.
If the fluid leak is oil, inspect the crankshaft seals for
leaks. If a leak is observed, replace the crankshaft
seals.
58
Maintenance Section
Driven Equipment - Check
SEBU8313
Inspect the damper and repair or replace the damper
for any of the following reasons:
• The damper is dented, cracked, or leaking.
i02568145
Electronic Unit Injector Inspect/Adjust
• The paint on the damper is discolored from heat.
• The engine has had a failure because of a broken
1290-040
crankshaft.
• Analysis of the oil has revealed that the front main
bearing is badly worn.
• There is a large amount of gear train wear that is
not caused by a lack of oil.
• The temperature of the damper fluid is too high.
Refer to the Service Manual or consult your Perkins
distributor for information about damper replacement.
Be sure the engine cannot be started while this
maintenance is being performed. To prevent possible injury, do not use the starting motor to turn
the flywheel.
Hot engine components can cause burns. Allow
additional time for the engine to cool before measuring/adjusting the unit injectors.
i02151646
The electronic unit injectors use high voltage. Disconnect the unit injector enable circuit connector
in order to prevent personal injury. Do not come
in contact with the injector terminals while the engine is running.
Refer to the OEM specifications for more information
on the following maintenance recommendations for
the driven equipment:
The operation of Perkins engines with improper
adjustments of the electronic unit injector can reduce
engine efficiency. This reduced efficiency could result
in excessive fuel usage and/or shortened engine
component life.
Driven Equipment - Check
• Inspection
• Adjustment
• Lubrication
• Other maintenance recommendations
Perform any maintenance for the driven equipment
which is recommended by the OEM.
Only qualified service personnel should perform
this maintenance. Refer to the following topics
for your engine for the correct procedure: Refer
to the Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting,
“Electronic Unit Injector - Test” for the test procedure,
and Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting,
“Electronic Unit Injector - Adjust” for the correct
procedure for adjusting the injectors.
NOTICE
The camshafts must be correctly timed with the crankshaft before an adjustment of the lash for the fuel injector is made. The timing pins must be removed from
the camshafts before the crankshaft is turned or damage to the cylinder block will be the result.
SEBU8313
59
Maintenance Section
Engine - Clean
i02568158
Engine - Clean
Personal injury or death can result from high voltage.
Moisture can create paths of electrical conductivity.
Make sure that the electrical system is OFF. Lock
out the starting controls and tag the controls “DO
NOT OPERATE”.
NOTICE
Accumulated grease and oil on an engine is a fire hazard. Keep the engine clean. Remove debris and fluid
spills whenever a significant quantity accumulates on
the engine.
Periodic cleaning of the engine is recommended.
Steam cleaning the engine will remove accumulated
oil and grease. A clean engine provides the following
benefits:
NOTICE
Never run the engine without an air cleaner element
installed. Never run the engine with a damaged air
cleaner element. Do not use air cleaner elements with
damaged pleats, gaskets or seals. Dirt entering the
engine causes premature wear and damage to engine
components. Air cleaner elements help to prevent airborne debris from entering the air inlet.
NOTICE
Never service the air cleaner element with the engine
running since this will allow dirt to enter the engine.
Servicing the Air Cleaner Element
Note: The air filter system may not have been
provided by Perkins. The procedure that follows
is for a typical air filter system. Refer to the OEM
information for the correct procedure.
If the air cleaner element becomes plugged, the air
can split the material of the air cleaner element.
Unfiltered air will drastically accelerate internal
engine wear. Refer to the OEM information for the
correct air cleaner elements for your application.
• Check the precleaner (if equipped) and the dust
bowl (if equipped) daily for accumulation of dirt and
debris. Remove any dirt and debris, as needed.
• Easy detection of fluid leaks
• Maximum heat transfer characteristics
• Operating in dirty conditions may require more
frequent service of the air cleaner element.
• Ease of maintenance
Note: Caution must be used in order to prevent
electrical components from being damaged by
excessive water when you clean the engine. Avoid
electrical components such as the alternator, the
starter, and the Electronic Control Module (ECM).
i02570750
Engine Air Cleaner
Element (Single Element) Inspect/Replace
Refer to Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Engine
Air Cleaner Service Indicator-Inspect”.
• The air cleaner element should be replaced at least
one time per year. This replacement should be
performed regardless of the number of cleanings.
Replace the dirty air cleaner elements with clean air
cleaner elements. Before installation, the air cleaner
elements should be thoroughly checked for tears
and/or holes in the filter material. Inspect the gasket
or the seal of the air cleaner element for damage.
Maintain a supply of suitable air cleaner elements
for replacement purposes.
Cleaning the Air Cleaner Element
Refer to the OEM information in order to determine
the number of times that the air filter element can be
cleaned. When the air cleaner element is cleaned,
check for rips or tears in the filter material. The air
cleaner element should be replaced at least one time
per year. This replacement should be performed
regardless of the number of cleanings.
60
Maintenance Section
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Single Element) - Inspect/Replace
SEBU8313
NOTICE
Do not tap or strike the air cleaner element.
Do not wash the primary air cleaner element.
Use low pressure (207 kPa; 30 psi maximum) pressurised air or vacuum cleaning to clean the primary
air cleaner element.
Take extreme care in order to avoid damage to the air
cleaner elements.
Do not use air cleaner elements that have damaged
pleats, gaskets or seals.
Refer to the OEM information in order to determine
the number of times that the air cleaner element can
be cleaned. Do not clean the air filter element more
than three times. The air cleaner element must be
replaced at least one time per year.
Cleaning the air filter element will not extend the life
of the air filter element.
Visually inspect the air cleaner element before
cleaning. Inspect air cleaner elements for damage to
the pleats, the seals, the gaskets and the outer cover.
Discard any damaged air cleaner element.
Two methods may be used in order to clean the air
cleaner element:
• Pressurized air
• Vacuum cleaning
Pressurized Air
Illustration 25
g00281692
Note: When the air cleaner element is cleaned,
always begin with the clean side (inside) in order to
force dirt particles toward the dirty side (outside).
Aim the air hose so that air flows along the length of
the filter. Follow the direction of the paper pleats in
order to prevent damage to the pleats. Do not aim
the air directly at the face of the paper pleats.
Note: Refer to “Inspecting the Air Cleaner Element”.
Vacuum Cleaning
Vacuum cleaning is a good method for removing
accumulated dirt from the dirty side (outside) of an
air cleaner element. Vacuum cleaning is especially
useful for cleaning the air cleaner element that
will require daily cleaning because of a dry, dusty
environment.
Cleaning from the clean side (inside) with pressurized
air is recommended prior to vacuum cleaning the
dirty side (outside) of an air cleaner element.
Note: Refer to “Inspecting the Air Cleaner Element”.
Personal injury can result from air pressure.
Inspecting the Air Cleaner Element
Personal injury can result without following proper procedure. When using pressure air, wear a protective face shield and protective clothing.
Maximum air pressure at the nozzle must be less
than 205 kPa (30 psi) for cleaning purposes.
Pressurized air can be used to clean primary air
cleaner elements that have not been cleaned more
than three times. Use filtered, dry air with a maximum
pressure of 207 kPa (30 psi). Pressurized air will not
remove deposits of carbon and oil.
Illustration 26
g00281693
SEBU8313
61
Maintenance Section
Engine Air Cleaner Service Indicator - Inspect
Inspect the clean, dry air cleaner element. Use a 60
watt blue light in a dark room or in a similar facility.
Place the blue light in the air cleaner element. Rotate
the air cleaner element. Inspect the air cleaner
element for tears and/or holes. Inspect the air cleaner
element for light that may show through the filter
material. If it is necessary in order to confirm the
result, compare the air cleaner element to a new air
cleaner element that has the same part number.
Do not use a air cleaner element that has any tears
and/or holes in the filter material. Do not use an air
cleaner element with damaged pleats, gaskets or
seals. Discard damaged air cleaner elements.
Observe the service indicator. The air cleaner
element should be cleaned or the air cleaner element
should be replaced when the following condition
occurs:
• The red piston locks in the visible position.
i02583379
Engine Crankcase Breather Replace
i02568159
Engine Air Cleaner Service
Indicator - Inspect
(If Equipped)
Some engines may be equipped with a different
service indicator.
Some engines are equipped with a differential gauge
for inlet air pressure. The differential gauge for inlet
air pressure displays the difference in the pressure
that is measured before the air cleaner element and
the pressure that is measured after the air cleaner
element. As the air cleaner element becomes dirty,
the pressure differential rises. If your engine is
equipped with a different type of service indicator,
follow the OEM recommendations in order to service
the air cleaner service indicator.
The service indicator may be mounted on the air
cleaner housing or in a remote location.
Illustration 28
g01289451
Typical example
NOTICE
Ensure that the components of the breather assembly
are installed in the correct position. If installed incorrectly, engine damage can result.
Illustration 27
Typical service indicator
g00103777
1. Remove all dirt and oil from the outside of the
breather assembly. Unlatch the four clips (1) that
secure the top cover (2). Remove the top cover
(2). The breather element includes an O ring.
Remove the breather element by turning and
lifting the element. Discard the element. Clean the
inner surfaces of the breather body (3). Clean the
top cover (2) and inspect the O ring in the top
cover (2). If the O ring in the top cover is worn or
damaged, replace the O ring.
62
Maintenance Section
Engine Mounts - Inspect
SEBU8313
2. Lubricate the O ring in the new filter element
with clean engine lubricating oil. Carefully insert
the element into the breather body (3). Lubricate
the O ring in the top cover (2) with clean engine
lubricating oil. Carefully insert the top cover (2)
onto the breather body (3). Secure the top cover
(2) in position by fastening the four clips (1) into
the correct position.
i02323089
Engine Mounts - Inspect
Note: The engine mounts may not have been
supplied by Perkins. Refer to the OEM information
for further information on the engine mounts and the
correct bolt torque.
Inspect the engine mounts for deterioration and for
correct bolt torque. Engine vibration can be caused
by the following conditions:
• Incorrect mounting of the engine
Illustration 29
g01165836
(Y) “Low” mark. (X) “High” mark.
NOTICE
Perform this maintenance with the engine stopped.
Note: Ensure that the engine is either level or that
the engine is in the normal operating position in order
to obtain a true level indication.
Note: After the engine has been switched OFF, wait
for ten minutes in order to allow the engine oil to drain
to the oil pan before checking the oil level.
• Deterioration of the engine mounts
• Loose engine mounts
Any engine mount that shows deterioration should
be replaced. Refer to the OEM information for the
recommended torques.
1. Maintain the oil level between the “Low” mark (Y)
and the “High” mark (X) on the engine oil dipstick.
Do not fill the crankcase above the “High” mark
(X).
i02570749
NOTICE
Operating your engine when the oil level is above the
“High” mark could cause your crankshaft to dip into
the oil. The air bubbles created from the crankshaft
dipping into the oil reduces the oil’s lubricating characteristics and could result in the loss of power.
Hot oil and hot components can cause personal
injury. Do not allow hot oil or hot components to
contact the skin.
2. Remove the oil filler cap and add oil, if necessary.
Clean the oil filler cap. Install the oil filler cap.
Engine Oil Level - Check
i01907674
Engine Oil Sample - Obtain
7542-554-OC, SM
The condition of the engine lubricating oil may be
checked at regular intervals as part of a preventive
maintenance program. Perkins include an oil
sampling valve as an option. The oil sampling valve
(if equipped) is included in order to regularly sample
the engine lubricating oil. The oil sampling valve is
positioned on the oil filter head or the oil sampling
valve is positioned on the cylinder block.
SEBU8313
Perkins recommends using a sampling valve in order
to obtain oil samples. The quality and the consistency
of the samples are better when a sampling valve is
used. The location of the sampling valve allows oil
that is flowing under pressure to be obtained during
normal engine operation.
Obtain the Sample and the Analysis
Hot oil and hot components can cause personal
injury. Do not allow hot oil or hot components to
contact the skin.
In order to help obtain the most accurate analysis,
record the following information before an oil sample
is taken:
• The date of the sample
• Engine model
• Engine number
• Service hours on the engine
• The number of hours that have accumulated since
the last oil change
• The amount of oil that has been added since the
last oil change
Ensure that the container for the sample is clean and
dry. Also ensure that the container for the sample is
clearly labelled.
To ensure that the sample is representative of the
oil in the crankcase, obtain a warm, well mixed oil
sample.
To avoid contamination of the oil samples, the tools
and the supplies that are used for obtaining oil
samples must be clean.
The sample can be checked for the following: the
quality of the oil, the existence of any coolant in the
oil, the existence of any ferrous metal particles in
the oil, and the existence of any nonferrous metal
particles in the oil.
63
Maintenance Section
Engine Oil and Filter - Change
i02570777
Engine Oil and Filter - Change
Hot oil and hot components can cause personal
injury. Do not allow hot oil or hot components to
contact the skin.
Do not drain the oil when the engine is cold. As the oil
cools, suspended waste particles settle on the bottom
of the oil pan. The waste particles are not removed
with the draining cold oil. Drain the crankcase with
the engine stopped. Drain the crankcase with the
oil warm. This draining method allows the waste
particles that are suspended in the oil to be drained
properly.
Failure to follow this recommended procedure will
cause the waste particles to be recirculated through
the engine lubrication system with the new oil.
Drain the Engine Oil
After the engine has been run at the normal operating
temperature, stop the engine. Use one of the
following methods to drain the engine crankcase oil:
• If the engine is equipped with a drain valve, turn the
drain valve knob counterclockwise in order to drain
the oil. After the oil has drained, turn the drain valve
knob clockwise in order to close the drain valve.
• If the engine is not equipped with a drain valve,
remove the oil drain plug in order to allow the oil to
drain. Discard the washer. If the engine is equipped
with a shallow sump, remove the bottom oil drain
plugs from both ends of the oil pan.
After the oil has drained, the oil drain plug should be
cleaned. Install a new washer to the oil drain plug.
Reinstall the oil drain plug.
64
Maintenance Section
Engine Oil and Filter - Change
SEBU8313
Replace the Oil Filter
NOTICE
Do not fill the oil filters with oil before installing them.
This oil would not be filtered and could be contaminated. Contaminated oil can cause accelerated wear to
engine components.
6. Install a new oil filter to the oil filter housing (2).
Install a new O-ring to the oil filter housing (2).
7. Install the oil filter housing (2) to the oil filter base
(1). Tighten the oil filter housing (2) to a torque of
90 N·m (66 lb ft).
Fill the Engine Crankcase
1. Remove the oil filler cap. Refill the engine
crankcase with engine oil. Refer to the Operation
and Maintenance Manual, “Refill Capacities ”
and Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Fluid
recommendations” for more information.
Illustration 30
g01289998
Typical example
1. Remove the oil filter housing (2) from the oil filter
base (1). Remove the O-ring from the oil filter
housing (2). Discard the O-ring.
2. Remove the oil filter element from the oil filter
housing (2).
3. Cut the oil filter open with a suitable tool. Break
apart the pleats and inspect the oil filter for metal
debris. An excessive amount of metal debris in
the oil filter may indicate early wear or a pending
failure.
Use a magnet to differentiate between the ferrous
metals and the nonferrous metals that are found in
the oil filter element. Ferrous metals may indicate
wear on the steel and cast iron parts of the engine.
Nonferrous metals may indicate wear on the
aluminum parts, brass parts or bronze parts of
the engine. Parts that may be affected include
the following items: main bearings, rod bearings,
turbocharger bearings, and cylinder heads.
Due to normal wear and friction, it is not
uncommon to find small amounts of debris in the
oil filter. Consult your Perkins distributor in order
to arrange for a further analysis if an excessive
amount of debris is found in the oil filter.
4. Clean the sealing surface of the oil filter base (1).
Clean the oil filter housing (2). Clean the drain
plug (3).
5. Install a new O-ring to the drain plug (3). Install
the drain plug (3) to the oil filter housing (2).
NOTICE
If equipped with an auxiliary oil filter system or a remote oil filter system, follow the OEM or filter manufacturer’s recommendations. Under filling or overfilling
the crankcase with oil can cause engine damage.
NOTICE
To prevent crankshaft bearing damage, crank the engine with the fuel OFF. This will fill the oil filters before
starting the engine. Do not crank the engine for more
than 30 seconds.
2. Start the engine and run the engine for two
minutes. Perform this procedure in order to ensure
that the lubrication system has oil and that the oil
filters are filled. Inspect the oil filter for oil leaks.
3. Stop the engine and allow the oil to drain back to
the sump for a minimum of ten minutes.
4. Remove the oil level gauge in order to check the
oil level. Maintain the oil level between the “Low”
and “High” marks on the oil level gauge.
SEBU8313
65
Maintenance Section
Engine Protective Devices - Check
i02568161
Engine Protective Devices Check
i02568182
Engine Speed/Timing Sensors
- Check/Clean/Calibrate
Visual Inspection
Visually check the condition of all gauges, sensors
and wiring. Look for wiring and components that
are loose, broken, or damaged. Damaged wiring
or components should be repaired or replaced
immediately.
Calibration Check
NOTICE
During testing, abnormal operating conditions must be
simulated.
The tests must be performed correctly in order to prevent possible damage to the engine.
Alarms and shutoffs must function properly. Alarms
provide timely warning to the operator. Shutoffs help
to prevent damage to the engine. It is impossible
to determine if the engine protective devices are
in good working order during normal operation.
Malfunctions must be simulated in order to test the
engine protective devices. To prevent damage to the
engine, only authorized service personnel or your
Perkins distributor should perform the tests.
Consult your Perkins distributor or refer to the Service
Manual for more information.
Illustration 31
g01286455
Left side view
(1) Camshaft position sensor
(2) Crankshaft position sensor
1. Remove the speed/timing sensors from the front
housing. Check the condition of the plastic end
of the speed/timing sensors for wear and/or
contaminants.
2. Clean the metal shavings and other debris from
the face of the speed/timing sensors. Use the
procedure in the Service Manual in order to
calibrate the speed/timing sensors.
Refer to the Troubleshooting, “Calibration
Procedures” for more information on the speed/timing
sensors.
i02568163
Engine Valve Lash Inspect/Adjust
The initial valve lash adjustment on new engines,
rebuilt engines, or remanufactured engines is
recommended at the first scheduled oil change. The
adjustment is necessary due to the initial wear of
the valve train components and to the seating of the
valve train components.
66
Maintenance Section
Fuel System - Prime
SEBU8313
This maintenance is recommended by Perkins as
part of a lubrication and preventive maintenance
schedule in order to help provide maximum engine
life.
Note: This procedure is most common when the
engine has run out of fuel.
NOTICE
Only qualified service personel should perform this
maintenance. Refer to the Service Manual or your authorized Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor for
the complete valve lash adjustment procedure.
2. Fill the fuel tank(s) with clean diesel fuel.
1. Turn the ignition switch to the “OFF” position.
Operation of Perkins engines with incorrect valve lash
can reduce engine efficiency, and also reduce engine
component life.
Ensure that the engine can not be started while
this maintenance is being performed. To help prevent possible injury, do not use the starting motor
to turn the flywheel.
Hot engine components can cause burns. Allow
additional time for the engine to cool before measuring/adjusting valve lash clearance.
Ensure that the engine is stopped before measuring
the valve lash. To obtain an accurate measurement,
allow the valves to cool before this maintenance is
performed.
The following components should be inspected and
adjusted when the valves are inspected and adjusted.
Illustration 32
g01282239
Typical example
• Valve actuators
3. Loosen the union of the pipe for the fuel(1).
• Injectors
Refer to Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting,
“Engine Valve Lash - Inspect/Adjust” for more
information.
i02568747
Fuel System - Prime
NOTICE
Use a suitable container to catch any fuel that might
spill. Clean up any spilled fuel immediately.
NOTICE
Do not allow dirt to enter the fuel system. Thoroughly
clean the area around a fuel system component that
will be disconnected. Fit a suitable cover over disconnected fuel system component.
Note: Do not remove the union completely. Open the
union enough to allow the air that is trapped in the
cylinder head to be purged from the fuel system.
4. Unlock and operate the hand priming pump (2).
Use a suitable container to collect excess fuel.
5. Tighten the union of the pipe for the fuel (1).
6. Operate the hand priming pump until a strong
pressure is felt on the pump. Push the priming
pump plunger inward. Tighten the plunger by hand
and start the engine.
NOTICE
Do not crank the engine continuously for more than
30 seconds. Allow the starting motor to cool for 30
seconds before cranking the engine again.
SEBU8313
67
Maintenance Section
Fuel System Primary Filter/Water Separator - Drain
7. If the engine will not start, allow the starting motor
to cool for 30 seconds. Repeat steps 3 to 6 in
order to operate the engine.
8. Continue to eliminate air from the fuel system if
these events occur:
• The engine starts, but the engine does not run
evenly.
• The engine starts, but the engine continues to
misfire or smoke.
9. Run the engine with no load until the engine runs
smoothly.
i02570752
Fuel System Primary
Filter/Water Separator - Drain
Illustration 33
g01287852
Typical example
1. Place a suitable container below the primary fuel
filter assembly (1).
Fuel leaked or spilled onto hot surfaces or electrical components can cause a fire. To help prevent possible injury, turn the start switch off when
changing fuel filters or water separator elements.
Clean up fuel spills immediately.
NOTICE
The water separator is not a filter. The water separator separates water from the fuel. The engine should
never be allowed to run with the water separator more
than half full. Engine damage may result.
NOTICE
The water separator is under suction during normal
engine operation. Ensure that the drain valve is tightened securely to help prevent air from entering the fuel
system.
2. Open the drain (2). Allow the fluid to drain into the
container.
3. When clean fuel drains from the primary fuel filter
assembly (1) close the drain (2). Tighten the drain
(2) by hand pressure only. Dispose of the drained
fluid correctly.
i02570756
Fuel System Primary Filter
(Water Separator) Element Replace
Fuel leaked or spilled onto hot surfaces or electrical components can cause a fire. To help prevent possible injury, turn the start switch off when
changing fuel filters or water separator elements.
Clean up fuel spills immediately.
NOTICE
Do not allow dirt to enter the fuel system. Thoroughly
clean the area around a fuel system component that
will be disconnected. Fit a suitable cover over disconnected fuel system component.
68
Maintenance Section
Fuel System Secondary Filter - Replace
SEBU8313
11. Prime the fuel system. Refer to the Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Fuel System - Prime” for
more information.
i02570757
Fuel System Secondary Filter Replace
Fuel leaked or spilled onto hot surfaces or electrical components can cause a fire. To help prevent possible injury, turn the start switch off when
changing fuel filters or water separator elements.
Clean up fuel spills immediately.
Illustration 34
g01287852
1. Turn the fuel supply valve (if equipped) to the OFF
position.
2. Place a suitable container under the primary
fuel filter assembly (1). Clean the outside of the
primary fuel filter assembly (1).
3. Remove the drain plug (2). Allow the fluid to drain
into the container.
4. Remove the primary fuel filter assembly (1) from
the fuel filter base. Remove the O-ring. Discard
the O-ring. Remove the primary fuel filter element
from the primary fuel filter housing.
NOTICE
Do not allow dirt to enter the fuel system. Thoroughly
clean the area around a fuel system component that
will be disconnected. Fit a suitable cover over disconnected fuel system component.
Turn the valves for the fuel lines (if equipped) to the
OFF position before performing this maintenance.
Place a tray under the fuel filter in order to catch
any fuel that might spill. Clean up any spilled fuel
immediately.
1. Close the valves for the fuel lines (if equipped).
5. Clean the contact face of the fuel filter base with
clean engine oil.
6. Install a new primary fuel filter element to the
primary fuel filter housing. Install a new O-ring
seal to the primary fuel filter housing. Install the
primary fuel filter assembly (1) to the fuel filter
base. Tighten the primary fuel filter assembly (1)
to a torque of 80 N·m (59 lb ft).
7. Install a new O-ring to the drain plug (2).
8. Install the drain plug (2) to the primary fuel filter
assembly (1).
9. Remove the container and dispose of the fuel
safely.
10. Turn the fuel supply valve (if equipped) to the ON
position.
Illustration 35
g01287859
2. Clean the outside of the secondary fuel filter
assembly (1). Open the drain plug (2) and drain
the fuel into a suitable container.
SEBU8313
69
Maintenance Section
Fuel Tank Water and Sediment - Drain
3. Remove the O-ring from the drain plug (2).
Discard the O-ring.
Fuel Tank
4. Remove the secondary fuel filter assembly (1)
from the fuel filter base.
Fuel quality is critical to the performance and to the
service life of the engine. Water in the fuel can cause
excessive wear to the fuel system.
5. Remove the O-ring from the secondary fuel filter
assembly.
Water can be introduced into the fuel tank when the
fuel tank is being filled.
6. Remove the secondary fuel filter element from
the secondary fuel filter housing. Discard the
secondary fuel filter element.
Condensation occurs during the heating and cooling
of fuel. The condensation occurs as the fuel passes
through the fuel system and the fuel returns to the
fuel tank. This causes water to accumulate in fuel
tanks. Draining the fuel tank regularly and obtaining
fuel from reliable sources can help to eliminate water
in the fuel.
7. Clean the secondary fuel filter housing with clean
engine oil. Clean the contact face of the fuel filter
base with clean engine oil.
8. Install a new secondary fuel filter element to the
secondary fuel filter housing.
Drain the Water and the Sediment
9. Install a new O-ring to the secondary fuel filter
assembly (1).
Fuel tanks should contain some provision for draining
water and draining sediment from the bottom of the
fuel tanks.
10. Install the secondary fuel filter assembly (1) to the
fuel filter base. Tighten the secondary fuel filter
assembly (1) to a torque of 80 N·m (59 lb ft).
11. Install a new O-ring to the drain plug (2). Install
the drain plug (2) to the secondary fuel filter
assembly (1).
12. Turn the valves for the fuel lines (if equipped) to
the ON position.
13. If necessary, prime the fuel system. Refer to
the Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Fuel
System - Prime” for more information.
i02568194
Fuel Tank Water and Sediment
- Drain
Open the drain valve on the bottom of the fuel tank
in order to drain the water and the sediment. Close
the drain valve.
Check the fuel daily. Allow five minutes after the
fuel tank has been filled before draining water and
sediment from the fuel tank.
Fill the fuel tank after operating the engine in
order to drive out moist air. This will help prevent
condensation. Do not fill the tank to the top. The
fuel expands as the fuel gets warm. The tank may
overflow.
Some fuel tanks use supply pipes that allow water
and sediment to settle below the end of the fuel
supply pipe. Some fuel tanks use supply lines that
take fuel directly from the bottom of the tank. If
the engine is equipped with this system, regular
maintenance of the fuel system filter is important.
Fuel Storage Tanks
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained
during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting, and repair of the product. Be prepared
to collect the fluid with suitable containers before
opening any compartment or disassembling any component containing fluids.
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
mandates.
Drain the water and the sediment from the fuel
storage tank at the following intervals:
• Service intervals
• Refill of the tank
This will help prevent water or sediment from being
pumped from the storage tank into the engine fuel
tank.
70
Maintenance Section
Hoses and Clamps - Inspect/Replace
SEBU8313
If a bulk storage tank has been refilled or moved
recently, allow adequate time for the sediment to
settle before filling the engine fuel tank. Internal
baffles in the bulk storage tank will also help trap
sediment. Filtering fuel that is pumped from the
storage tank helps to ensure the quality of the fuel.
When possible, water separators should be used.
i02568190
Hoses and Clamps Inspect/Replace
Inspect all hoses for leaks that are caused by the
following conditions:
• Cracking
• Softness
• Loose clamps
Replace hoses that are cracked or soft. Tighten any
loose clamps.
NOTICE
Do not bend or strike high pressure lines. Do not install bent or damaged lines, tubes or hoses. Repair
any loose or damaged fuel and oil lines, tubes and
hoses. Leaks can cause fires. Inspect all lines, tubes
and hoses carefully. Tighten all connections to the recommended torque.
Each installation application can be different. The
differences depend on the following factors:
• Type of hose
• Type of fitting material
• Anticipated expansion and contraction of the hose
• Anticipated expansion and contraction of the
fittings
Replace the Hoses and the Clamps
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pressure.
1. Stop the engine. Allow the engine to cool.
2. Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in
order to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap.
Note: Drain the coolant into a suitable, clean
container. The coolant can be reused.
3. Drain the coolant from the cooling system to a
level that is below the hose that is being replaced.
Check for the following conditions:
4. Remove the hose clamps.
• End fittings that are damaged or leaking
5. Disconnect the old hose.
• Outer covering that is chafed or cut
6. Replace the old hose with a new hose.
• Exposed wire that is used for reinforcement
7. Install the hose clamps.
• Outer covering that is ballooning locally
8. Refill the cooling system.
• Flexible part of the hose that is kinked or crushed
9. Clean the cooling system filler cap. Inspect the
cooling system filler cap’s gaskets. Replace
the cooling system filler cap if the gaskets are
damaged. Install the cooling system filler cap.
• Armoring that is embedded in the outer covering
A constant torque hose clamp can be used in place
of any standard hose clamp. Ensure that the constant
torque hose clamp is the same size as the standard
clamp.
Due to extreme temperature changes, the hose will
heat set. Heat setting causes hose clamps to loosen.
This can result in leaks. A constant torque hose
clamp will help to prevent loose hose clamps.
10. Start the engine. Inspect the cooling system for
leaks.
SEBU8313
71
Maintenance Section
Radiator - Clean
i02578060
Radiator - Clean
The following text describes a typical cleaning
procedure for the radiator. Refer to the OEM
information for further information on cleaning the
radiator.
Note: Adjust the frequency of cleaning according to
the effects of the operating environment.
Inspect the radiator for these items: damaged fins,
corrosion, dirt, grease, insects, leaves, oil, and other
debris. Clean the radiator, if necessary.
i02578376
Severe Service Application Check
Severe service is the application of an engine that
exceeds the current published standards for that
engine. Perkins maintains standards for the following
engine parameters:
• Performance such as power range, speed range,
and fuel consumption
• Fuel quality
• Operational Altitude
Personal injury can result from air pressure.
Personal injury can result without following proper procedure. When using pressure air, wear a protective face shield and protective clothing.
Maximum air pressure at the nozzle must be less
than 205 kPa (30 psi) for cleaning purposes.
Pressurized air is the preferred method for removing
loose debris. Direct the air in the opposite direction
of the fan’s air flow. Hold the nozzle approximately
6 mm (0.25 inch) away from the fins. Slowly move the
air nozzle in a direction that is parallel with the tubes.
This will remove debris that is between the tubes.
Pressurized water may also be used for cleaning.
The maximum water pressure for cleaning purposes
must be less than 275 kPa (40 psi). Use pressurized
water in order to soften mud. Clean the core from
both sides.
Use a degreaser and steam for removal of oil and
grease. Clean both sides of the core. Wash the core
with detergent and hot water. Thoroughly rinse the
core with clean water.
If the radiator is blocked internally, refer to the OEM
for information regarding flushing the cooling system.
After cleaning the radiator, start the engine. This will
help in the removal of debris and the drying of the
core. Run the engine for two minutes and then stop
the engine. Inspect the core for cleanliness. Repeat
the cleaning, if necessary.
• Maintenance intervals
• Oil selection and maintenance
• Coolant type and maintenance
• Environmental qualities
• Installation
• The temperature of the fluid in the engine
Refer to the standards for the engine or consult your
Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor in order to
determine if the engine is operating within the defined
parameters.
Severe service operation can accelerate component
wear. Engines that operate under severe conditions
may need more frequent maintenance intervals in
order to ensure maximum reliability and retention of
full service life.
Due to individual applications, it is not possible
to identify all of the factors which can contribute
to severe service operation. Consult your Perkins
dealer or your Perkins distributor for the unique
maintenance that is necessary for the engine.
The operating environment, incorrect operating
procedures and incorrect maintenance procedures
can be factors which contribute to a severe service
application.
72
Maintenance Section
Starting Motor - Inspect
SEBU8313
Environmental Factors
i02568203
Ambient temperatures – The engine may be
exposed to extended operation in extremely
cold environments or hot environments. Valve
components can be damaged by carbon buildup if
the engine is frequently started and stopped in very
cold temperatures. Extremely hot intake air reduces
engine performance.
Quality of the air – The engine may be exposed
to extended operation in an environment that is
dirty or dusty, unless the equipment is cleaned
regularly. Mud, dirt and dust can encase components.
Maintenance can be very difficult. The buildup can
contain corrosive chemicals.
Buildup – Compounds, elements, corrosive
chemicals and salt can damage some components.
Altitude – Problems can arise when the engine is
operated at altitudes that are higher than the intended
settings for that application. Necessary adjustments
should be made.
Incorrect Operating Procedures
• Frequent hot shutdowns
Turbocharger - Inspect
Periodic inspection and cleaning is recommended
for the turbocharger compressor housing (inlet side).
Any fumes from the crankcase are filtered through
the air inlet system. Therefore, by-products from oil
and from combustion can collect in the turbocharger
compressor housing. Over time, this buildup can
contribute to loss of engine power, increased black
smoke and overall loss of engine efficiency.
If the turbocharger fails during engine operation,
damage to the turbocharger compressor wheel
and/or to the engine may occur. Damage to the
turbocharger compressor wheel can cause additional
damage to the pistons, the valves, and the cylinder
head.
NOTICE
Turbocharger bearing failures can cause large quantities of oil to enter the air inlet and exhaust systems.
Loss of engine lubricant can result in serious engine
damage.
Minor leakage of a turbocharger housing under extended low idle operation should not cause problems
as long as a turbocharger bearing failure has not occurred.
• Operating at excessive loads
• Operating outside the intended application
Incorrect Maintenance Procedures
• Extending the maintenance intervals
• Failure to use recommended fuel, lubricants and
coolant or antifreeze
i02568202
Starting Motor - Inspect
Perkins recommends a scheduled inspection of the
starting motor. If the starting motor fails, the engine
may not start in an emergency situation.
Check the starting motor for proper operation. Check
the electrical connections and clean the electrical
connections. Refer to the Service Manual for more
information on the checking procedure and for
specifications or consult your Perkins distributors for
assistance.
When a turbocharger bearing failure is accompanied
by a significant engine performance loss (exhaust
smoke or engine rpm up at no load), do not continue
engine operation until the turbocharger is repaired or
replaced.
An inspection of the turbocharger can minimize
unscheduled downtime. An inspection of the
turbocharger can also reduce the chance for potential
damage to other engine parts.
Note: Turbocharger components require precision
clearances. The turbocharger cartridge must
be balanced due to high rpm. Severe Service
Applications can accelerate component wear.
Severe Service Applications require more frequent
inspections of the cartridge.
Removal and Installation
For options regarding the removal, installation, repair
and replacement, consult your Perkins distributor.
Refer to the Service Manual for this engine for the
procedure and specifications.
SEBU8313
73
Maintenance Section
Walk-Around Inspection
Cleaning and Inspecting
1. Remove the exhaust outlet piping and remove
the air inlet piping from the turbocharger. Visually
inspect the piping for the presence of oil. Clean
the interior of the pipes in order to prevent dirt
from entering during reassembly.
2. Turn the compressor wheel and the turbine wheel
by hand. The assembly should turn freely. Inspect
the compressor wheel and the turbine wheel for
contact with the turbocharger housing. There
should not be any visible signs of contact between
the turbine wheel or compressor wheel and the
turbocharger housing. If there is any indication of
contact between the rotating turbine wheel or the
compressor wheel and the turbocharger housing,
the turbocharger must be reconditioned.
3. Check the compressor wheel for cleanliness.
If only the blade side of the wheel is dirty, dirt
and/or moisture is passing through the air filtering
system. If oil is found only on the back side of the
wheel, there is a possibility of a failed turbocharger
oil seal.
The presence of oil may be the result of extended
engine operation at low idle. The presence of oil
may also be the result of a restriction of the line
for the inlet air (plugged air filters), which causes
the turbocharger to slobber.
4. Use a dial indicator to check the end clearance
on the shaft. If the measured end play is greater
than the Service Manual specifications, the
turbocharger should be repaired or replaced.
An end play measurement that is less than the
minimum Service Manual specifications could
indicate carbon buildup on the turbine wheel. The
turbocharger should be disassembled for cleaning
and for inspection if the measured end play is less
than the minimum Service Manual specifications.
5. Inspect the bore of the turbine housing for
corrosion.
6. Clean the turbocharger housing with standard
shop solvents and a soft bristle brush.
7. Fasten the air inlet piping and the exhaust outlet
piping to the turbocharger housing.
i02568213
Walk-Around Inspection
Inspect the Engine for Leaks and
for Loose Connections
A walk-around inspection should only take a few
minutes. When the time is taken to perform these
checks, costly repairs and accidents can be avoided.
For maximum engine service life, make a thorough
inspection of the engine compartment before starting
the engine. Look for items such as oil leaks or coolant
leaks, loose bolts, worn belts, loose connections and
trash buildup. Make repairs, as needed:
• The guards must be in the proper place. Repair
damaged guards or replace missing guards.
• Wipe all caps and plugs before the engine is
serviced in order to reduce the chance of system
contamination.
NOTICE
For any type of leak (coolant, lube, or fuel) clean up the
fluid. If leaking is observed, find the source and correct
the leak. If leaking is suspected, check the fluid levels
more often than recommended until the leak is found
or fixed, or until the suspicion of a leak is proved to be
unwarranted.
NOTICE
Accumulated grease and/or oil on an engine or deck is
a fire hazard. Remove this debris with steam cleaning
or high pressure water.
• Ensure that the cooling lines are properly clamped
and that the cooling lines are tight. Check for leaks.
Check the condition of all pipes.
• Inspect the water pumps for coolant leaks.
Note: The water pump seal is lubricated by coolant
in the cooling system. It is normal for a small amount
of leakage to occur as the engine cools down and
the parts contract.
Excessive coolant leakage may indicate the need
to replace the water pump seal. For the removal of
water pumps and the installation of water pumps
and/or seals, refer to the Service Manual for the
engine or consult your Perkins distributor.
• Inspect the lubrication system for leaks at the front
crankshaft seal, the rear crankshaft seal, the oil
pan, the oil filters and the valve cover.
74
Maintenance Section
Water Pump - Inspect
SEBU8313
• Inspect the fuel system for leaks. Look for loose
fuel line clamps or for loose fuel line tie-wraps.
• Inspect the piping for the air inlet system and the
elbows for cracks and for loose clamps. Ensure
that hoses and tubes are not contacting other
hoses, tubes, wiring harnesses, etc.
• Inspect the alternator belt and the accessory drive
belts for cracks, breaks or other damage.
Belts for multiple groove pulleys must be replaced as
matched sets. If only one belt is replaced, the belt will
carry more load than the belts that are not replaced.
The older belts are stretched. The additional load on
the new belt could cause the belt to break.
• Drain the water and the sediment from fuel tanks
on a daily basis in order to ensure that only clean
fuel enters the fuel system.
• Inspect the wiring and the wiring harnesses for
loose connections and for worn wires or frayed
wires.
• Inspect the ground strap for a good connection and
for good condition.
• Inspect the ECM to the cylinder head ground strap
for a good connection and for good condition.
• Disconnect any battery chargers that are not
protected against the current drain of the starting
motor. Check the condition and the electrolyte level
of the batteries, unless the engine is equipped with
a maintenance free battery.
• Check the condition of the gauges. Replace any
gauges that are cracked. Replace any gauge that
can not be calibrated.
i02568235
Water Pump - Inspect
A failed water pump might cause severe engine
overheating problems that could result in the following
conditions:
• Cracks in the cylinder head
• A piston seizure
• Other potential damage to the engine
Visually inspect the water pump for leaks. If any
leaking is observed, replace the water pump seal
or the water pump assembly. Refer to the Service
Manual for the disassembly and assembly procedure.
Note: Refer to the Service Manual or consult your
Perkins distributor if any repair is needed or any
replacement is needed.
SEBU8313
75
Warranty Section
Warranty Information
Warranty Section
Warranty Information
i01903596
Emissions Warranty
Information
This engine may be certified to comply with exhaust
emission standards and gaseous emission standards
that are prescribed by the law at the time of
manufacture, and this engine may be covered by an
Emissions Warranty. Consult your authorized Perkins
dealer or your authorized Perkins distributor in order
to determine if your engine is emissions certified and
if your engine is subject to an Emissions Warranty.
76
Index Section
SEBU8313
Index
A
After Starting Engine .............................................
After Stopping Engine............................................
Aftercooler Core - Clean/Test (Air-To-Air
Aftercooler) ..........................................................
Alternator - Inspect ................................................
33
35
52
52
B
Battery - Replace................................................... 52
Battery Electrolyte Level - Check .......................... 53
Battery or Battery Cable - Disconnect ................... 53
Before Starting Engine ..................................... 11, 32
Belts - Inspect/Adjust/Replace............................... 54
Adjustment of the Fan Drive Belt ....................... 55
Alternator Belt Adjustment ................................. 54
Inspection........................................................... 54
Replacement...................................................... 54
Burn Prevention....................................................... 7
Batteries............................................................... 8
Coolant................................................................. 8
Oils....................................................................... 8
C
Cold Weather Operation........................................
Hints for Cold Weather Operation......................
Recommendations for the Coolant ....................
Viscosity of the Engine Lubrication Oil...............
Cold Weather Starting ...........................................
Cooling System Coolant (ELC) - Change..............
Drain ..................................................................
Fill ......................................................................
Flush ..................................................................
Cooling System Coolant Level - Check .................
Cooling System Water Temperature Regulator Replace................................................................
Crankshaft Vibration Damper - Inspect .................
Visconic Damper................................................
Crushing Prevention and Cutting Prevention ........
Customer Specified Parameters............................
Programmable Monitoring System (PMS) .........
36
36
36
36
33
55
55
56
55
56
57
57
57
10
21
21
D
Diagnostic Lamp.................................................... 30
Driven Equipment - Check..................................... 58
E
Electrical System ................................................... 12
Grounding Practices .......................................... 12
Electronic Unit Injector - Inspect/Adjust................. 58
Emissions Certification Film .................................. 20
Label for compliant engines ............................... 20
Emissions Warranty Information............................ 75
Engine - Clean....................................................... 59
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Single Element) Inspect/Replace ................................................... 59
Cleaning the Air Cleaner Element...................... 59
Servicing the Air Cleaner Element ..................... 59
Engine Air Cleaner Service Indicator - Inspect (If
Equipped) ............................................................ 61
Engine Crankcase Breather - Replace .................. 61
Engine Description ................................................ 16
Aftermarket Products and Perkins Engines ....... 17
Engine Diagnostics................................................ 30
Engine Electronics................................................. 13
Engine Mounts - Inspect........................................ 62
Engine Oil and Filter - Change .............................. 63
Drain the Engine Oil........................................... 63
Fill the Engine Crankcase .................................. 64
Replace the Oil Filter ......................................... 64
Engine Oil Level - Check ....................................... 62
Engine Oil Sample - Obtain ................................... 62
Obtain the Sample and the Analysis.................. 63
Engine Operation................................................... 34
Engine Operation with Active Diagnostic Codes ... 30
Engine Operation with Intermittent Diagnostic
Codes .................................................................. 31
Engine Protective Devices - Check ....................... 65
Calibration Check............................................... 65
Visual Inspection................................................ 65
Engine Speed/Timing Sensors - Check/Clean/
Calibrate .............................................................. 65
Engine Starting ................................................. 11, 32
Engine Stopping ............................................... 11, 35
Engine Valve Lash - Inspect/Adjust ....................... 65
F
Fault Logging......................................................... 30
Features and Controls ........................................... 25
Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention .............. 8
Fire Extinguisher ................................................ 10
Lines, Tubes and Hoses .................................... 10
Fluid Recommendations........................................ 39
Cooling System Specifications........................... 46
ELC Cooling System Maintenance .................... 48
Engine Oil .......................................................... 40
Fuel Specifications............................................. 43
General Lubricant Information ........................... 39
Foreword ................................................................. 4
California Proposition 65 Warning ....................... 4
Literature Information........................................... 4
Maintenance ........................................................ 4
Maintenance Intervals.......................................... 4
Operation ............................................................. 4
Overhaul .............................................................. 4
Safety................................................................... 4
SEBU8313
Fuel and the Effect from Cold Weather .................
Fuel Conservation Practices..................................
Fuel Related Components in Cold Weather ..........
Fuel Filters .........................................................
Fuel Tanks..........................................................
Fuel System - Prime ..............................................
Fuel System Primary Filter (Water Separator)
Element - Replace ...............................................
Fuel System Primary Filter/Water Separator Drain ....................................................................
Fuel System Secondary Filter - Replace ...............
Fuel Tank Water and Sediment - Drain .................
Drain the Water and the Sediment.....................
Fuel Storage Tanks ............................................
Fuel Tank ...........................................................
77
Index Section
37
34
38
38
38
66
67
67
68
69
69
69
69
G
Gauges and Indicators .......................................... 24
General Hazard Information .................................... 6
Containing Fluid Spillage ..................................... 7
Fluid Penetration.................................................. 7
Pressure Air and Water........................................ 7
General Information............................................... 14
H
Hoses and Clamps - Inspect/Replace ................... 70
Replace the Hoses and the Clamps .................. 70
I
Important Safety Information ................................... 2
L
Lifting and Storage ................................................ 23
M
Maintenance Interval Schedule .............................
Maintenance Section .............................................
Manual Stop Procedure.........................................
Emergency Stopping..........................................
Stopping the Engine...........................................
Model View Illustrations.........................................
Model Views ..........................................................
Monitoring System.................................................
Action Alert.........................................................
Altitude derate....................................................
Critical Protection Override ................................
Diagnostic ..........................................................
Shutdown ...........................................................
Shutdown Reset.................................................
Standard Warning Outputs ................................
Warning Alarm ...................................................
51
39
35
35
35
15
15
25
25
26
25
26
25
26
26
25
Mounting and Dismounting.................................... 10
O
Operation Section.................................................. 23
P
Plate Locations and Film Locations.......................
Serial Number Plate (1) .....................................
Product Identification Information ..........................
Product Information Section ..................................
Product Lifting........................................................
Product Storage.....................................................
Level “A ” ...........................................................
Level “B ” ...........................................................
Level “C ” ..........................................................
18
18
18
14
23
23
23
23
23
R
Radiator - Clean ....................................................
Reference Numbers ..............................................
Record for Reference.........................................
Refill Capacities.....................................................
Cooling System..................................................
Lubrication System ............................................
71
19
19
39
39
39
S
Safety Messages ..................................................... 5
(1) Universal Warning .......................................... 5
Safety Section ......................................................... 5
Self-Diagnostics..................................................... 30
Sensors and Electrical Components ..................... 27
Crankshaft Position Sensor 9 ............................ 29
Engine Coolant Temperature Sensor 1.............. 28
Engine Oil Pressure Sensor 7............................ 29
Failure of Sensors.............................................. 28
Inlet Manifold Pressure Sensor 3....................... 29
Inlet Manifold Temperature Sensor 5 ................. 29
Programmable Monitoring System (PMS) ......... 28
Sensor Locations ............................................... 27
Severe Service Application - Check ...................... 71
Environmental Factors ....................................... 72
Incorrect Maintenance Procedures .................... 72
Incorrect Operating Procedures......................... 72
Starting Motor - Inspect ......................................... 72
Starting the Engine ................................................ 32
New engines ...................................................... 32
Starting the Engine ............................................ 32
Starting with Jump Start Cables ............................ 33
T
Table of Contents..................................................... 3
78
Index Section
SEBU8313
Turbocharger - Inspect .......................................... 72
Cleaning and Inspecting .................................... 73
Removal and Installation.................................... 72
W
Walk-Around Inspection ........................................
Inspect the Engine for Leaks and for Loose
Connections .....................................................
Warranty Information .............................................
Warranty Section ...................................................
Water Pump - Inspect............................................
Welding on Engines with Electronic Controls ........
73
73
75
75
74
14
Product and Dealer Information
Note: For product identification plate locations, see the section “Product Identification Information” in the Operation
and Maintenance Manual.
Delivery Date:
Product Information
Model:
Product Identification Number:
Engine Serial Number:
Transmission Serial Number:
Generator Serial Number:
Attachment Serial Numbers:
Attachment Information:
Customer Equipment Number:
Dealer Equipment Number:
Dealer Information
Name:
Branch:
Address:
Dealer Contact
Sales:
Parts:
Service:
Phone Number
Hours
Copyright © 2006 Perkins Engines Company Limited
All Rights Reserved
Printed in U.K.
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement