EL - Scene7
SEBU8609-01
January 2013
Operation and
Maintenance
Manual
403F-15T, 404F-22 and 404F-22T
Industrial Engines
EL (Engine)
EN (Engine)
EP (Engine)
Important Safety Information
Most accidents that involve product operation, maintenance and repair are caused by failure to
observe basic safety rules or precautions. An accident can often be avoided by recognizing potentially
hazardous situations before an accident occurs. A person must be alert to potential hazards. This
person should also have the necessary training, skills and tools to perform these functions properly.
Improper operation, lubrication, maintenance or repair of this product can be dangerous and
could result in injury or death.
Do not operate or perform any lubrication, maintenance or repair on this product, until you have
read and understood the operation, lubrication, maintenance and repair information.
Safety precautions and warnings are provided in this manual and on the product. If these hazard
warnings are not heeded, bodily injury or death could occur to you or to other persons.
The hazards are identified by the “Safety Alert Symbol” and followed by a “Signal Word” such as
“DANGER”, “WARNING” or “CAUTION”. The Safety Alert “WARNING” label is shown below.
The meaning of this safety alert symbol is as follows:
Attention! Become Alert! Your Safety is Involved.
The message that appears under the warning explains the hazard and can be either written or
pictorially presented.
Operations that may cause product damage are identified by “NOTICE” labels on the product and in
this publication.
Perkins cannot anticipate every possible circumstance that might involve a potential hazard. The
warnings in this publication and on the product are, therefore, not all inclusive. If a tool, procedure,
work method or operating technique that is not specifically recommended by Perkins is used,
you must satisfy yourself that it is safe for you and for others. You should also ensure that the
product will not be damaged or be made unsafe by the operation, lubrication, maintenance or
repair procedures that you choose.
The information, specifications, and illustrations in this publication are on the basis of information that
was available at the time that the publication was written. The specifications, torques, pressures,
measurements, adjustments, illustrations, and other items can change at any time. These changes can
affect the service that is given to the product. Obtain the complete and most current information before
you start any job. Perkins dealers or Perkins distributors have the most current information available.
When replacement parts are required for this
product Perkins recommends using Perkins
replacement parts.
Failure to heed this warning can lead to premature failures, product damage, personal injury or
death.
SEBU8609
3
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
Refill Capacities....................... ....................... 57
Foreword.............................. ............................. 4
Maintenance Recommendations.......... .......... 70
Safety Section
Safety Messages....................... ....................... 5
General Hazard Information ............... .............. 5
Maintenance Interval Schedule ........... ........... 73
Warranty Section
Warranty Information ................... ................... 99
Burn Prevention........................ ........................ 9
Reference Information Section
Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention ... .. 10
Reference Materials .................. ................... 103
Crushing Prevention and Cutting Prevention . .11
Index Section
Mounting and Dismounting............... .............. 12
Index............................... .............................. 104
Before Starting Engine ................. .................. 12
Engine Starting ........................ ....................... 12
Engine Stopping ....................... ...................... 13
Electrical System ...................... ...................... 13
Engine Electronics..................... ..................... 14
Product Information Section
General Information.................... .................... 15
Product Identification Information.......... ......... 26
Operation Section
Lifting and Storage..................... ..................... 28
Features and Controls .................. .................. 30
Engine Diagnostics..................... .................... 43
Engine Starting ........................ ....................... 45
Engine Operation...................... ...................... 48
Cold Weather Operation................. ................ 52
Engine Stopping ....................... ...................... 56
Maintenance Section
4
SEBU8609
Foreword
Foreword
Literature Information
This manual contains safety, operation instructions,
lubrication and maintenance information. This manual
should be stored in or near the engine area in a
literature holder or literature storage area. Read,
study and keep it with the literature and engine
information.
English is the primary language for all Perkins
publications. The English used facilitates translation
and consistency.
Some photographs or illustrations in this manual
show details or attachments that may be different
from your engine. Guards and covers may have been
removed for illustrative purposes. Continuing
improvement and advancement of product design
may have caused changes to your engine which are
not included in this manual. Whenever a question
arises regarding your engine, or this manual, please
consult with your Perkins dealer or your Perkins
distributor for the latest available information.
Safety
This safety section lists basic safety precautions. In
addition, this section identifies hazardous, warning
situations. Read and understand the basic
precautions listed in the safety section before
operating or performing lubrication, maintenance and
repair on this product.
Operation
Operating techniques outlined in this manual are
basic. They assist with developing the skills and
techniques required to operate the engine more
efficiently and economically. Skill and techniques
develop as the operator gains knowledge of the
engine and its capabilities.
The operation section is a reference for operators.
Photographs and illustrations guide the operator
through procedures of inspecting, starting, operating
and stopping the engine. This section also includes a
discussion of electronic diagnostic information.
Maintenance
The maintenance section is a guide to engine care.
The illustrated, step-by-step instructions are grouped
by service hours and/or calendar time maintenance
intervals. Items in the maintenance schedule are
referenced to detailed instructions that follow.
Recommended service should be performed at the
appropriate intervals as indicated in the Maintenance
Interval Schedule. The actual operating environment
of the engine also governs the Maintenance Interval
Schedule. Therefore, under extremely severe, dusty,
wet or freezing cold operating conditions, more
frequent lubrication and maintenance than is
specified in the Maintenance Interval Schedule may
be necessary.
The maintenance schedule items are organized for a
preventive maintenance management program. If the
preventive maintenance program is followed, a
periodic tune-up is not required. The implementation
of a preventive maintenance management program
should minimize operating costs through cost
avoidances resulting from reductions in unscheduled
downtime and failures.
Maintenance Intervals
Perform maintenance on items at multiples of the
original requirement. We recommend that the
maintenance schedules be reproduced and displayed
near the engine as a convenient reminder. We also
recommend that a maintenance record be maintained
as part of the engine's permanent record.
Your authorized Perkins dealer or your Perkins
distributor can assist you in adjusting your
maintenance schedule to meet the needs of your
operating environment.
Overhaul
Major engine overhaul details are not covered in the
Operation and Maintenance Manual except for the
interval and the maintenance items in that interval.
Major repairs should only be carried out by Perkins
authorized personnel. Your Perkins dealer or your
Perkins distributor offers a variety of options
regarding overhaul programs. If you experience a
major engine failure, there are also numerous after
failure overhaul options available. Consult with your
Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor for
information regarding these options.
California Proposition 65 Warning
Diesel engine exhaust and some of its constituents
are known to the State of California to cause cancer,
birth defects, and other reproductive harm. Battery
posts, terminals and related accessories contain lead
and lead compounds. Wash hands after handling.
5
SEBU8609
Safety Section
Safety Messages
Safety Section
i05139549
Safety Messages
There may be several specific warning signs on your
engine. The exact location and a description of the
warning signs are reviewed in this section. Become
familiar with all warning signs.
Do not operate or work on this equipment unless
you have read and understand the instructions
and warnings in the Operation and Maintenance
Manuals. Failure to follow the instructions or heed
the warnings could result in serious injury or
death.
Ensure that all of the warning signs are legible. Clean
the warning signs or replace the warning signs if the
words cannot be read or if the illustrations are not
visible. Use a cloth, water, and soap to clean the
warning signs. Do not use solvents, gasoline, or other
harsh chemicals. Solvents, gasoline, or harsh
chemicals could loosen the adhesive that secures the
warning signs. The warning signs that are loosened
could drop off the engine.
Replace any warning sign that is damaged or
missing. If a warning sign is attached to a part of the
engine that is replaced, install a new warning sign on
the replacement part. Your Perkins dealer or your
distributor can provide new warning signs.
(1) Universal Warning
Illustration 2
g01154807
Typical example
The location of the universal warning label is located
on the right side of the valve mechanism cover.
i05139571
General Hazard Information
Illustration 1
(1) Universal Warning
g03256898
Illustration 3
g00104545
Attach a “Do Not Operate” warning tag or a similar
warning tag to the start switch or to the controls
before you service the equipment or before you repair
the equipment.
6
SEBU8609
Safety Section
General Hazard Information
• Tampering with the engine installation or tampering
with the OEM supplied wiring can be dangerous.
Personal injury, death and/or engine damage
could result.
• Vent the engine exhaust to the outside when the
engine is operated in an enclosed area.
• If the engine is not running, do not release the
secondary brake or the parking brake systems
unless the vehicle is blocked or unless the vehicle
is restrained.
• Wear a hard hat, protective glasses, and other
protective equipment, as required.
• When work is performed around an engine that is
operating, wear protective devices for ears in order
to help prevent damage to hearing.
• Do not wear loose clothing or jewelry that can snag
on controls or on other parts of the engine.
• Ensure that all protective guards and all covers are
secured in place on the engine.
• Never put maintenance fluids into glass
containers. Glass containers can break.
• Use all cleaning solutions with care.
• Report all necessary repairs.
Unless other instructions are provided, perform the
maintenance under the following conditions:
• The engine is stopped. Ensure that the engine
cannot be started.
• The protective locks or the controls are in the
applied position.
• Engage the secondary brakes or parking brakes.
• Block the vehicle or restrain the vehicle before
maintenance or repairs are performed.
• Disconnect the batteries when maintenance is
performed or when the electrical system is
serviced. Disconnect the battery ground leads.
Tape the leads in order to help prevent sparks.
• Do not attempt any repairs or any adjustments to
the engine while the engine is operating.
• Do not attempt any repairs that are not
understood. Use the proper tools. Replace any
equipment that is damaged or repair the
equipment.
• For initial start-up of a new engine or for starting an
engine that has been serviced, make provisions to
stop the engine if an overspeed occurs. The
stopping of the engine may be accomplished by
shutting off the fuel supply and/or the air supply to
the engine. Ensure that only the fuel supply line is
shut off. Ensure that the fuel return line is open.
• Start the engine from the operators station (cab).
Never short across the starting motor terminals or
the batteries. This action could bypass the engine
neutral start system and/or the electrical system
could be damaged.
Illustration 4
g00702020
Wear a hard hat, protective glasses, and other
protective equipment, as required.
Do not wear loose clothing or jewelry that can snag
on controls or on other parts of the engine.
Make sure that all protective guards and all covers
are secured in place on the engine.
7
SEBU8609
Safety Section
General Hazard Information
Keep the engine free from foreign material. Remove
debris, oil, tools, and other items from the deck, from
walkways, and from steps.
Never put maintenance fluids into glass containers.
Drain all liquids into a suitable container.
Obey all local regulations for the disposal of liquids.
Use all cleaning solutions with care.
Report all necessary repairs.
Do not allow unauthorized personnel on the
equipment.
Ensure that the power supply is disconnected before
you work on the bus bar or the glow plugs.
Perform maintenance on the engine with the
equipment in the servicing position. Refer to the OEM
information for the procedure for placing the
equipment in the servicing position.
Pressure Air and Water
Pressurized air and/or water can cause debris and/or
hot water to be blown out. This could result in
personal injury.
The direct application of pressurized air or
pressurized water to the body could result in personal
injury.
When pressurized air and/or water is used for
cleaning, wear protective clothing, protective shoes,
and eye protection. Eye protection includes goggles
or a protective face shield.
The maximum air pressure for cleaning purposes
must be below 205 kPa (30 psi). The maximum water
pressure for cleaning purposes must be below
275 kPa (40 psi).
Fluid Penetration
Pressure can be trapped in the hydraulic circuit long
after the engine has been stopped. The pressure can
cause hydraulic fluid or items such as pipe plugs to
escape rapidly if the pressure is not relieved correctly.
Do not remove any hydraulic components or parts
until pressure has been relieved or personal injury
may occur. Do not disassemble any hydraulic
components or parts until pressure has been relieved
or personal injury may occur. Refer to the OEM
information for any procedures that are required to
relieve the hydraulic pressure.
Illustration 5
g00687600
Always use a board or cardboard when you check for
a leak. Leaking fluid that is under pressure can
penetrate body tissue. Fluid penetration can cause
serious injury and possible death. A pin hole leak can
cause severe injury. If fluid is injected into your skin,
you must get treatment immediately. Seek treatment
from a doctor that is familiar with this type of injury.
Containing Fluid Spillage
Care must be taken in order to ensure that fluids are
contained during performance of inspection,
maintenance, testing, adjusting, and repair of the
engine. Make provision to collect the fluid with a
suitable container before any compartment is opened
or before any component is disassembled.
• Only use the tools that are suitable for collecting
fluids and equipment that is suitable for collecting
fluids.
• Only use the tools that are suitable for containing
fluids and equipment that is suitable for containing
fluids.
Obey all local regulations for the disposal of liquids.
8
SEBU8609
Safety Section
General Hazard Information
Inhalation
• Never use compressed air for cleaning.
• Avoid brushing materials that contain asbestos.
• Avoid grinding materials that contain asbestos.
• Use a wet method in order to clean up asbestos
materials.
• A vacuum cleaner that is equipped with a high
efficiency particulate air filter (HEPA) can also be
used.
• Use exhaust ventilation on permanent machining
jobs.
Illustration 6
g00702022
Exhaust
Use caution. Exhaust fumes can be hazardous to
health. If you operate the equipment in an enclosed
area, adequate ventilation is necessary.
Asbestos Information
Perkins equipment and replacement parts that are
shipped from Perkins are asbestos free. Perkins
recommends the use of only genuine Perkins
replacement parts. Use the following guidelines when
you handle any replacement parts that contain
asbestos or when you handle asbestos debris.
• Wear an approved respirator if there is no other
way to control the dust.
• Comply with applicable rules and regulations for
the work place. In the United States , use
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
(OSHA) requirements. These OSHA
requirements can be found in 29 CFR 1910.1001.
• Obey environmental regulations for the disposal of
asbestos.
• Stay away from areas that might have asbestos
particles in the air.
Dispose of Waste Properly
Use caution. Avoid inhaling dust that might be
generated when you handle components that contain
asbestos fibers. Inhaling this dust can be hazardous
to your health. The components that may contain
asbestos fibers are brake pads, brake bands, lining
material, clutch plates, and some gaskets. The
asbestos that is used in these components is usually
bound in a resin or sealed in some way. Normal
handling is not hazardous unless airborne dust that
contains asbestos is generated.
If dust that may contain asbestos is present, there are
several guidelines that should be followed:
Illustration 7
g00706404
Improperly disposing of waste can threaten the
environment. Potentially harmful fluids should be
disposed of according to local regulations.
Always use leakproof containers when you drain
fluids. Do not pour waste onto the ground, down a
drain, or into any source of water.
SEBU8609
9
Safety Section
Burn Prevention
i05200861
Burn Prevention
Do not touch any part of an operating engine system.
The engine, the exhaust, and the engine
aftertreatment system can reach temperatures as
high as 650 °C (1202 °F) under normal operating
conditions.
At idle engine speed and/or zero vehicle speed, an
operator can request a manual regeneration. Under
this condition, the exhaust gas temperature can reach
650 °C (1202 °F). Otherwise automatic regeneration
can produce exhaust gas temperatures as high as
650 °C (1202 °F).
Allow the engine system to cool before any
maintenance is performed. Relieve all pressure in the
following systems, hydraulic system, lubrication
system, fuel system, and the cooling system before
related items are disconnected.
Contact with high pressure fuel may cause fluid
penetration and burn hazards. High pressure fuel
spray may cause a fire hazard. Failure to follow
these inspection, maintenance and service instructions may cause personal injury or death.
After the engine has stopped, allow if active the
regeneration active lamp to be extinguished before
any service or repair is performed.
Induction System
Sulfuric Acid Burn Hazard may cause serious personal injury or death.
The exhaust gas cooler may contain a small
amount of sulfuric acid. The use of fuel with sulfur
levels greater than 15 ppm may increase the
amount of sulfuric acid formed. The sulfuric acid
may spill from the cooler during service of the engine. The sulfuric acid will burn the eyes, skin and
clothing on contact. Always wear the appropriate
personal protective equipment (PPE) that is noted
on a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for sulfuric
acid. Always follow the directions for first aid that
are noted on a material safety data sheet (MSDS)
for sulfuric acid.
Coolant
When the engine is at operating temperature, the
engine coolant is hot. The coolant is also under
pressure. The radiator and all lines to the heaters or
to the engine contain hot coolant.
Any contact with hot coolant or with steam can cause
severe burns. Allow cooling system components to
cool before the cooling system is drained.
Check that the coolant level after the engine has
stopped and the engine has been allowed to cool.
Ensure that the filler cap is cool before removing the
filler cap. The filler cap must be cool enough to touch
with a bare hand. Remove the filler cap slowly in
order to relieve pressure.
Cooling system conditioner contains alkali. Alkali can
cause personal injury. Do not allow alkali to contact
the skin, the eyes, or the mouth.
Oils
Hot oil and hot lubricating components can cause
personal injury. Do not allow hot oil to contact the
skin. Also, do not allow hot components to contact the
skin.
Batteries
Electrolyte is an acid. Electrolyte can cause personal
injury. Do not allow electrolyte to contact the skin or
the eyes. Always wear protective glasses for
servicing batteries. Wash hands after touching the
batteries and connectors. Use of gloves is
recommended.
10
SEBU8609
Safety Section
Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention
i04047444
Fire Prevention and Explosion
Prevention
Do not weld on lines or tanks that contain flammable
fluids. Do not flame cut lines or tanks that contain
flammable fluid. Clean any such lines or tanks
thoroughly with a nonflammable solvent prior to
welding or flame cutting.
Wiring must be kept in good condition. Ensure that all
electrical wires are correctly routed and securely
attached. Check all electrical wires daily. Repair any
wires that are loose or frayed before you operate the
engine. Clean all electrical connections and tighten all
electrical connections.
Eliminate all wiring that is unattached or unnecessary.
Do not use any wires or cables that are smaller than
the recommended gauge. Do not bypass any fuses
and/or circuit breakers.
Arcing or sparking could cause a fire. Secure
connections, recommended wiring, and correctly
maintained battery cables will help to prevent arcing
or sparking.
Illustration 8
g00704000
All fuels, most lubricants, and some coolant mixtures
are flammable.
Flammable fluids that are leaking or spilled onto hot
surfaces or onto electrical components can cause a
fire. Fire may cause personal injury and property
damage.
Ensure that the engine is stopped. Inspect all lines
and hoses for wear or for deterioration. The hoses
must be correctly routed. The lines and hoses must
have adequate support and secure clamps.
Oil filters and fuel filters must be correctly installed.
The filter housings must be tightened to the correct
torque. Refer to the Disassembly and Assembly
manual for more information.
After the emergency stop button has been operated,
ensure that you allow 15 minutes, before the engine
covers are removed.
Determine whether the engine will be operated in an
environment that allows combustible gases to be
drawn into the air inlet system. These gases could
cause the engine to overspeed. Personal injury,
property damage, or engine damage could result.
If the application involves the presence of
combustible gases, consult your Perkins dealer and/
or your Perkins distributor for additional information
about suitable protection devices.
Remove all flammable combustible materials or
conductive materials such as fuel, oil, and debris from
the engine. Do not allow any flammable combustible
materials or conductive materials to accumulate on
the engine.
Store fuels and lubricants in correctly marked
containers away from unauthorized persons. Store
oily rags and any flammable materials in protective
containers. Do not smoke in areas that are used for
storing flammable materials.
Do not expose the engine to any flame.
Exhaust shields (if equipped) protect hot exhaust
components from oil or fuel spray in case of a line, a
tube, or a seal failure. Exhaust shields must be
installed correctly.
Illustration 9
g00704059
Use caution when you are refueling an engine. Do not
smoke while you are refueling an engine. Do not
refuel an engine near open flames or sparks. Always
stop the engine before refueling.
SEBU8609
11
Safety Section
Crushing Prevention and Cutting Prevention
• High-pressure fuel line or lines are removed.
• End fittings are damaged or leaking.
• Outer coverings are chafed or cut.
• Wires are exposed.
• Outer coverings are ballooning.
• Flexible parts of the hoses are kinked.
• Outer covers have embedded armoring.
• End fittings are displaced.
Make sure that all clamps, guards, and heat shields
are installed correctly. During engine operation,
correct installation will help to prevent vibration,
rubbing against other parts, and excessive heat.
Regeneration
Illustration 10
g00704135
Gases from a battery can explode. Keep any open
flames or sparks away from the top of a battery. Do
not smoke in battery charging areas.
The exhaust gas temperature during regeneration will
be elevated. Follow proper fire prevention instructions
and use the disable switch function when appropriate.
i02143194
Never check the battery charge by placing a metal
object across the terminal posts. Use a voltmeter or a
hydrometer.
Crushing Prevention and
Cutting Prevention
Incorrect jumper cable connections can cause an
explosion that can result in injury. Refer to the
Operation Section of this manual for specific
instructions.
Support the component correctly when work beneath
the component is performed.
Do not charge a frozen battery. Charge a frozen
battery may cause an explosion.
The batteries must be kept clean. The covers (if
equipped) must be kept on the cells. Use the
recommended cables, connections, and battery box
covers when the engine is operated.
Fire Extinguisher
Make sure that a fire extinguisher is available. Be
familiar with the operation of the fire extinguisher.
Inspect the fire extinguisher and service the fire
extinguisher regularly. Obey the recommendations on
the instruction plate.
Lines, Tubes, and Hoses
Do not bend high-pressure lines. Do not strike highpressure lines. Do not install any lines that are
damaged.
Leaks can cause fires. Consult your Perkins dealer
or your Perkins distributor for replacement parts.
Replace the parts if any of the following conditions
are present:
Unless other maintenance instructions are provided,
never attempt adjustments while the engine is
running.
Stay clear of all rotating parts and of all moving parts.
Leave the guards in place until maintenance is
performed. After the maintenance is performed,
reinstall the guards.
Keep objects away from moving fan blades. The fan
blades will throw objects or cut objects.
When objects are struck, wear protective glasses in
order to avoid injury to the eyes.
Chips or other debris may fly off objects when objects
are struck. Before objects are struck, ensure that no
one will be injured by flying debris.
12
SEBU8609
Safety Section
Mounting and Dismounting
i04016709
Mounting and Dismounting
Do not climb on the engine or the engine
aftertreatment. The engine and aftertreatment have
not been designed with mounting or dismounting
locations.
Refer to the OEM for the location of foot and hand
holds for your specific application.
i02813489
Before Starting Engine
Before the initial start-up of an engine that is new,
serviced or repaired, make provision to shut the
engine off, in order to stop an overspeed. This may
be accomplished by shutting off the air and/or fuel
supply to the engine.
Overspeed shutdown should occur automatically for
engines that are controlled electronically. If automatic
shutdown does not occur, press the emergency stop
button in order to cut the fuel and/or air to the engine.
Inspect the engine for potential hazards.
Before starting the engine, ensure that no one is on,
underneath, or close to the engine. Ensure that the
area is free of personnel.
i02157354
Engine Starting
Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such as
ether. Such use could result in an explosion and
personal injury.
If a warning tag is attached to the engine start switch
or to the controls, DO NOT start the engine or move
the controls. Consult with the person that attached
the warning tag before the engine is started.
All protective guards and all protective covers must
be installed if the engine must be started in order to
perform service procedures. To help prevent an
accident that is caused by parts in rotation, work
around the parts carefully.
Start the engine from the operator's compartment or
from the engine start switch.
Always start the engine according to the procedure
that is described in the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Engine Starting” topic in the Operation
Section. Knowing the correct procedure will help to
prevent major damage to the engine components.
Knowing the procedure will also help to prevent
personal injury.
If equipped, ensure that the lighting system for the
engine is suitable for the conditions. Ensure that all
lights work correctly, if equipped.
To ensure that the jacket water heater (if equipped)
and/or the lube oil heater (if equipped) is working
correctly, check the water temperature gauge and the
oil temperature gauge during the heater operation.
All protective guards and all protective covers must
be installed if the engine must be started in order to
perform service procedures. To help prevent an
accident that is caused by parts in rotation, work
around the parts carefully.
Engine exhaust contains products of combustion
which can be harmful to your health. Always start the
engine and operate the engine in a well ventilated
area. If the engine is started in an enclosed area, vent
the engine exhaust to the outside.
Do not bypass the automatic shutoff circuits. Do not
disable the automatic shutoff circuits. The circuits are
provided in order to help prevent personal injury. The
circuits are also provided in order to help prevent
engine damage.
Note: The engine is equipped with an automatic
device for cold starting for normal conditions of
operation. If the engine will be operated in very cold
conditions, then an extra cold starting aid may be
required. Normally, the engine will be equipped with
the correct type of starting aid for your region of
operation.
See the Service Manual for repairs and for
adjustments.
The 400 Series engines are equipped with a glow
plug starting aid in each individual cylinder that heats
the intake air in order to improve starting.
SEBU8609
13
Safety Section
Engine Stopping
i02234873
Grounding Practices
Engine Stopping
Stop the engine according to the procedure in the
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Engine
Stopping (Operation Section)” in order to avoid
overheating of the engine and accelerated wear of
the engine components.
Use the Emergency Stop Button (if equipped) ONLY
in an emergency situation. Do not use the Emergency
Stop Button for normal engine stopping. After an
emergency stop, DO NOT start the engine until the
problem that caused the emergency stop has been
corrected.
Stop the engine if an overspeed condition occurs
during the initial start-up of a new engine or an engine
that has been overhauled.
To stop an electronically controlled engine, cut the
power to the engine and/or shutting off the air supply
to the engine.
i04047709
Illustration 11
g02324975
Typical example
Ground to battery
Electrical System
Never disconnect any charging unit circuit or battery
circuit cable from the battery when the charging unit is
operating. A spark can cause the combustible gases
that are produced by some batteries to ignite.
To help prevent sparks from igniting combustible
gases that are produced by some batteries, the
negative “−” cable should be connected last from the
external power source to the primary position for
grounding.
Check the electrical wires daily for wires that are
loose or frayed. Tighten all loose electrical
connections before the engine is started. Repair all
frayed electrical wires before the engine is started.
See the Operation and Maintenance Manual for
specific starting instructions.
Illustration 12
g02324976
Typical example
Alternate ground to battery
Correct grounding for the engine electrical system is
necessary for optimum engine performance and
reliability. Incorrect grounding will result in
uncontrolled electrical circuit paths and in unreliable
electrical circuit paths.
14
SEBU8609
Safety Section
Engine Electronics
Uncontrolled electrical circuit paths can result in
damage to the crankshaft bearing journal surfaces
and to aluminum components.
Engines that are installed without engine-to-frame
ground straps can be damaged by electrical
discharge.
To ensure that the engine and the engine electrical
systems function correctly, an engine-to-frame
ground strap with a direct path to the battery must be
used. This path may be provided by way of a direct
engine ground to the frame.
The connections for the grounds should be tight and
free of corrosion. The engine alternator must be
grounded to the negative “-” battery terminal with a
wire that is adequate to handle the full charging
current of the alternator.
The power supply connections and the ground
connections for the engine electronics should always
be from the isolator to the battery.
i05181812
Engine Electronics
Tampering with the electronic system installation
or the OEM wiring installation can be dangerous
and could result in personal injury or death and/or
engine damage.
This engine has a comprehensive, programmable
Engine Monitoring System. The Electronic Control
Module (ECM) has the ability to monitor the engine
operating conditions. If any of the engine parameters
extend outside an allowable range, the ECM will
initiate an immediate action.
The following actions are available for engine
monitoring control:
• Warning
• Derate
• Shutdown
The following monitored engine operating conditions
and components have the ability to limit engine speed
and/or the engine power:
• Oil Pressure Switch
• Coolant Temperature Sensor
• Engine Aftertreatment System
The Engine Monitoring package can vary for different
engine models and different engine applications.
However, the monitoring system and the engine
monitoring control will be similar for all engines.
Note: Many of the engine control systems and
display modules that are available for Perkins
Engines will work in unison with the Engine
Monitoring System. Together, the two controls will
provide the engine monitoring function for the specific
engine application. Refer to the Troubleshooting for
more information on the Engine Monitoring System.
SEBU8609
15
Product Information Section
Model View Illustrations
Product Information
Section
General Information
i05139695
Model View Illustrations
(Engines and Aftertreatment)
The following model views show typical features of
the engine. Due to individual applications, your
engine may appear different from the illustrations.
403F-15T
Illustration 13
Typical example
g03246538
16
SEBU8609
General Information
Model View Illustrations
404F-22
Illustration 14
Typical example
g03246558
SEBU8609
17
General Information
Model View Illustrations
404F-22T
Illustration 15
(1) Top oil filler
(2) Fan
(3) Side oil filler
g03246676
(4) Cylinder block drain plug
(5) Oil gauge (Dipstick)
(6) Rear oil drain plug
(7) Oil filter
(8) Electric fuel pump
(9) Secondary fuel filter
18
SEBU8609
General Information
Model View Illustrations
Illustration 16
(10) Air intake
(11) Turbocharger
(12) Aftertreatment system
(13) Flywheel
g03246563
(14) Flywheel housing
(15) Starting motor
(16) Solenoid for starting motor
(17) Front oil drain plug
(18) NOx reduction system cooler
(19) Coolant outlet
SEBU8609
19
General Information
Model View Illustrations
Illustration 17
(20) Engine crankcase breather
(21) Rear lifting eye bracket
(22) Air pump
g03249056
(23) Air pump drive belt
(24) Alternator
(25) Fan and alternator drive belt
(26) Coolant intake
(27) Water pump
(28) Front lifting eye
20
SEBU8609
General Information
Model View Illustrations
Aftertreatment System
Illustration 18
(29) Aftertreatment Regeneration Device
(ARD), also known as the (Burner)
g03249241
(30) Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC)
(31) Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF)
SEBU8609
21
General Information
Model View Illustrations
Off Engine Parts
Illustration 19
(32) Electronic Control Unit (ECM)
(33) In line fuel filter
g03271819
22
SEBU8609
General Information
Product Description
Engine with Low Mounted Air Pump
Illustration 20
g03321871
i05139813
Product Description
The 400F models are indirect injection engines. The
fuel injection pump is operated by a solenoid that is
controlled by a Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) signal
from the ECM.
The cylinder head assembly has one inlet valve and
one exhaust valve for each cylinder. Each cylinder
valve has a single valve spring.
The pistons have two compression rings and an oil
control ring. It is important to ensure the correct piston
height so that the piston does not contact the cylinder
head. The correct piston height also ensures efficient
combustion of fuel that is necessary in order to
conform to requirements for emissions.
The crankshaft for a three cylinder engine has four
main bearing journals. The crankshaft for a four
cylinder engine has five main bearing journals. End
play is controlled by the thrust washers that are
located on the rear main bearing.
The timing gears are stamped with timing marks in
order to ensure the correct assembly of the gears.
With the timing marks on the crankshaft gear
camshaft gear and the idler gear aligned No. 1 piston
will be at top center compression stroke.
The crankshaft gear turns the idler gear which then
turns the camshaft gear and the gear for the engine
oil pump.
The fuel injection pump is mounted in the cylinder
block. The fuel injection pump is operated by the
camshaft. The fuel pump is located on the right-hand
side of the cylinder block. The fuel pump is electrically
operated.
SEBU8609
23
General Information
Product Description
The fuel injection pump conforms to requirements for
emissions. If any adjustments to the fuel injection
pump timing and high idle are required, you must
refer to your Perkins distributor your Perkins dealer.
(Table 1, contd)
A gerotor oil pump is located in the center of the idler
gear. The engine oil pump sends lubricating oil to the
main oil gallery through a pressure relief valve and an
engine oil filter. The rocker arms receive pressurized
oil through an externally located oil line that runs from
the main oil gallery to the cylinder head.
Coolant from the bottom of the radiator passes
through the belt driven centrifugal water pump. The
coolant is cooled by the radiator and the temperature
is regulated by a water temperature regulator.
Engine efficiency, efficiency of emission controls, and
engine performance depend on adherence to correct
operation and maintenance recommendations.
Engine performance and efficiency also depend on
the use of recommended fuels, lubrication oils, and
coolants. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Maintenance Interval Schedule” for more
information on maintenance items.
Bore
84 mm (3.31 inch)
Stroke
90 mm (3.54 inch)
Displacement
1.496 L (91.291 in3)
Aspiration
T(1)
Compression Ratio
22.5:1
Firing Order
1-2-3
Rotation that is viewed from the
flywheel
Counterclockwise
Valve Lash Setting (Inlet)
0.20 mm (0.008 inch)
Valve Lash Setting (Exhaust)
0.20 mm (0.008 inch)
Injection
(1)
Indirect
Turbocharged
404F-22 Engine
Engine Specifications
Note: The front end of the engine is opposite the
flywheel end of the engine. The left and the right side
of the engine are determined from the flywheel end.
The No. 1 cylinder is the front cylinder.
403F-15T Engine
Illustration 22
g00296424
(A) Exhaust valves
(B) Inlet valves
Table 2
404F-22 Engine Specifications
Illustration 21
g00852304
(A) Exhaust valves
(B) Inlet valves
Table 1
403F-15T Engine Specifications
Maximum Operating Speed
(rpm)
2800 rpm
Cylinders and Arrangement
In-Line 3 cylinder
Maximum Operating Speed
(rpm)
3000 rpm
Cylinders and Arrangement
In-Line 4 cylinder
Bore
84.0 mm (3.31 inch)
Stroke
100.0 mm (3.94 inch)
Displacement
2.216 L (135.229 in3)
Aspiration
NA(1)
Compression Ratio
23.3:1
Firing Order
1-3-4-2
(continued)
(continued)
24
SEBU8609
General Information
Product Description
Electronic Engine Features
(Table 2, contd)
Rotation that is viewed from the
flywheel
Counterclockwise
Valve Lash Setting (Inlet)
0.20 mm (0.008 inch)
Valve Lash Setting (Exhaust)
0.20 mm (0.008 inch)
Injection
(1)
Indirect
The engine operating conditions are monitored. The
Electronic Control Module (ECM) controls the
response of the engine to these conditions and to the
demands of the operator. These conditions and
operator demands determine the precise control of
fuel injection by the ECM. The electronic engine
control system provides the following features:
Naturally Aspirated
• Engine monitoring
404F-22T Engine
• Engine speed governing
• System diagnostics
• Aftertreatment Regeneration
• NOx reduction system control on the 404F-22T
engine
For more information on electronic engine features,
refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Features and Controls” topic (Operation Section).
Engine Diagnostics
Illustration 23
g00296424
(A) Exhaust valves
(B) Inlet valves
Table 3
404F-22T Engine Specifications
Maximum Operating Speed
(rpm)
3000 rpm
Cylinders and Arrangement
In-Line 4 cylinder
Bore
84.0 mm (3.31 inch)
Stroke
100.0 mm (3.94 inch)
Displacement
2.216 L (135.229 in3)
Aspiration
T(1)
Compression Ratio
23.5:1
Firing Order
1-3-4-2
Rotation that is viewed from the
flywheel
Counterclockwise
Valve Lash Setting (Inlet)
0.20 mm (0.008 inch)
Valve Lash Setting (Exhaust)
0.20 mm (0.008 inch)
Injection
(1)
Turbocharged
Indirect
The engine has built-in diagnostics in order to ensure
that the engine systems are functioning correctly. The
operator will be alerted to the condition by a “Stop or
Warning” lamp. Under certain conditions, the engine
horsepower and the vehicle speed may be limited.
The electronic service tool may be used to display the
diagnostic codes.
There are four types of diagnostic codes: active code,
logged code, active event and logged event.
Most of the diagnostic codes are logged and stored in
the ECM. For additional information, refer to the
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Engine
Diagnostics” topic (Operation Section).
The ECM provides an electronic governor that
controls the injector output in order to maintain the
desired engine rpm.
Engine Service Life
Engine efficiency and maximum utilization of engine
performance depend on the adherence to proper
operation and maintenance recommendations. In
addition, use recommended fuels, coolants, and
lubricants. Use the Operation and Maintenance
Manual as a guide for required engine maintenance.
Expected engine life is generally predicted by the
average power that is demanded. The average power
that is demanded is based on fuel consumption of the
engine over a period of time. Reduced hours of
operation at full throttle and/or operating at reduced
throttle settings result in a lower average power
demand. Reduced hours of operation will increase
the length of operating time before an engine
overhaul is required.
SEBU8609
25
General Information
Product Description
Aftermarket Products and Perkins
Engines
Perkins does not warrant the quality or performance
of non-Perkins fluids and filters.
When auxiliary devices, accessories, or consumables
(filters, additives, catalysts,) which are made by other
manufacturers are used on Perkins products, the
Perkins warranty is not affected simply because of
such use.
However, failures that result from the installation
or use of other manufacturers devices,
accessories, or consumables are NOT Perkins
defects. Therefore, the defects are NOT covered
under the Perkins warranty.
Aftertreatment System
The aftertreatment system is approved for use by
Perkins . In order to be emission-compliant only the
approved Perkins aftertreatment system must be
used on a Perkins engine.
26
SEBU8609
Product Identification Information
Plate Locations and Film Locations
Product Identification
Information
An example of an engine number is
ER*****U000001V.
ER
i05140083
Plate Locations and Film
Locations
P
*****
Engine family
Type of engine
The list number of the engine
U
Country of manufacture
0
The first digit is a production code.
00001
V
Engine Serial Number
Year of Manufacture
Perkins dealers or Perkins distributors need all of
these numbers in order to determine the components
that were included with the engine. This information
permits accurate identification of replacement part
numbers.
i05140229
Emissions Certification Film
Illustration 24
g02335396
Typical example
(1) serial number plate
Perkins engines are identified by a serial number.
This number is shown on a serial number plate. The
serial number plate is mounted above the fuel
injection pump on the right-hand side of the engine
block.
Illustration 26
Typical example
Illustration 25
Typical example
g01094203
The emissions label, refer to illustration 26 is
installed on the front cover of the engine.
g02269574
SEBU8609
27
Product Identification Information
Reference Information
Identifying Numbers on Aftertreatment
Illustration 27
g02052934
Perkins will supply the fuel label with every engine,
refer to illustration 27 . The equipment manufacturer
must install the label to the equipment. The label must
be attached to the equipment near the inlet of the fuel
tank. This action will comply with the EPA regulations.
The equipment manufacturer may install another fuel
label . If another fuel label is used, the equipment
manufacturer must send a drawing or a photo of the
label to Perkins. This action will ensure compliance of
the label.
i05157330
Reference Information
Information for the following items may be needed to
order parts. Locate the information for your engine.
Record the information in the appropriate space.
Make a copy of this list for a record. Keep the
information for future reference.
Record for Reference
Engine Model
Engine Serial number
Engine rpm
In-Line fuel filter
Fuel Filter Element
Lubrication Oil Filter
Crankcase Breather Element
Total Lubrication System Capacity
Total Cooling System Capacity
Air Cleaner Element
Fan Belt
Belt for Air Pump
28
SEBU8609
Operation Section
Product Lifting
Operation Section
Lifting and Storage
i05140249
Product Lifting
Lifting eyes are designed and installed for specific
engine arrangements. Alterations to the lifting eyes
and/or the engine make the lifting eyes and the lifting
fixtures obsolete. If alterations are made, ensure that
correct lifting devices are provided. Consult your
Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor for
information regarding fixtures for correct engine
lifting.
Lifting Eyes with Top Mounted
Aftertreatment
Illustration 29
g03321882
(1) Front lifting eye
(2) Rear lifting eye
i04053009
Illustration 28
g03274116
Typical example
Product Storage
(Engine and Aftertreatment)
(1) Front lifting eye
(2) Rear lifting eyes
Note: The engine assembly has three lifting eyes,
refer to illustration 28 .
Use a hoist to remove heavy components. Use an
adjustable lifting beam to lift the engine. All
supporting members (chains and cables) should be
parallel to each other. The chains and cables should
be perpendicular to the top of the object that is being
lifted.
To remove the engine ONLY, use the lifting eyes that
are on the engine.
Perkins are not responsible for damage which may
occur when an engine is in storage after a period in
service.
Your Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor can
assist in preparing the engine for extended storage
periods.
Condition for Storage
The engine must be stored in a water proof building.
The building must be kept at a constant temperature.
Engines that are filled with Perkins ELC will have
coolant protection to an ambient temperature of
−36° C (−32.8° F). The engine must not be subjected
to extreme variations in temperature and humidity.
SEBU8609
29
Lifting and Storage
Product Storage
Storage Period
Aftertreatment
An engine can be stored for up to 6 months provided
all the recommendation are adhered to.
No special procedures are required. The exhaust
outlet of the aftertreatment should be capped. Before
storing, the engine and the aftertreatment must be
enclosed in a cover.
Storage Procedure
Keep a record of the procedure that has been
completed on the engine.
Note: Do not store an engine that has biodiesel in the
fuel system.
1. Ensure that the engine is clean and dry.
a. If the engine has been operated using
biodiesel, the system must be drained and
new filters installed. The fuel tank will require
flushing.
b. Fill the fuel system with an ultra low sulfur fuel.
For more information on acceptable fuels refer
to this Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Fluid recommendations”. Operate the engine
for 15 minutes in order to remove all biodiesel
from the system.
2. Drain any water from the primary filter water
separator. Ensure that the fuel tank is full.
3. The engine oil will not need to be drained in order
to store the engine. Provided the correct
specification of engine oil is used the engine can
be stored for up to 6 months. For the correct
specification of engine oil refer to this Operation
and Maintenance Manual, “Fluid
recommendations”.
4. Remove the drive belts from the engine.
Sealed Coolant System
Ensure that the cooling system is filled with Perkins
ELC, or an antifreeze that meets ASTM D6210
specification.
Open Cooling System
Ensure that all cooling drain plugs have been
opened. Allow the coolant to drain. Install the drain
plugs. Place a vapor phase inhibitor into the system.
The coolant system must be sealed once the vapor
phase inhibitor has been introduced. The effect of the
vapor phase inhibitor will be lost if the cooling system
is open to the atmosphere.
For maintenance procedures ref to this Operation and
Maintenance Manual.
Monthly Checks
The crankshaft must be rotated in order to change the
spring loading on the valve train. Rotate the
crankshaft more than 180 degrees. Visibly check for
damage or corrosion to the engine and
aftertreatment.
Ensure that the engine and aftertreatment are
covered completely before storage. Log the
procedure in the record for the engine.
30
SEBU8609
Features and Controls
Alarms and Shutoffs
Features and Controls
Coolant temperature – The coolant temperature
sensor indicates high jacket water coolant
temperature.
i05142391
Alarms and Shutoffs
Engine oil pressure – The engine oil pressure
sensor or switch, indicates when oil pressure drops
below rated system pressure, at a set engine speed.
• ECM
Electronic Control Module
Boost pressure (Intake manifold pressure – The
intake manifold pressure sensor checks the rated
pressure in the engine manifold.
• DOC
Diesel Oxidation Catalyst
• DPF
Diesel Particulate Filter
• ARD
Aftertreatment Regeneration Device
Intake manifold air temperature – The intake
manifold air temperature sensor indicates high intake
air temperature.
Shutoffs
Atmospheric pressure – The atmospheric pressure
sensor checks the air pressure in the location that the
engine is operating.
The shutoffs are electrically operated or mechanically
operated. The electrically operated shutoffs are
controlled by the ECM.
Aftertreatment Alarms
Shutoffs are set at critical levels for the following
items:
DOC inlet temperature – The inlet temperature
sensor checks the operating temperature.
• Operating temperature
DPF inlet temperature – The inlet temperature
sensor checks the operating temperature.
• Operating RPM
DPF outlet temperature – The outlet temperature
sensor checks the operating temperature.
• Overspeed
• Aftertreatment regeneration
Delta P sensor (Differential pressure) – The sensor
checks the differential pressure within the system.
The particular shutoff may need to be reset before the
engine will start.
ARD temperature – The sensor checks the
temperature within the burner in the ARD system
NOTICE
Always determine the cause of the engine shutdown.
Make necessary repairs before attempting to restart
the engine.
Be familiar with the following items:
• Types and locations of shutoff
• Conditions which cause each shutoff to function
• The resetting procedure that is required to restart
the engine
Testing
Turning the keyswitch to the ON position will check
the indicator lights on the control panel. All the
indicator lights will be illuminated for 2 seconds after
the keyswitch is operated. Replace suspect bulbs
immediately.
If any lamps stay illuminated or flashes, the fault must
be investigated immediately. The fault will create a
diagnostic code.
Refer to Troubleshooting, “Diagnostic Trouble Code”
for more information.
Alarms
i05140291
The alarms are electrically operated. The operations
of the alarms are controlled by the ECM.
The alarm is operated by a sensor or by a switch.
When the sensor or the switch is activated, a signal is
sent to the ECM. An event code is created by the
ECM. The ECM will send a signal in order to
illuminate the lamp. Some application may have a
display panel in order to alert the operator.
Your engine may be equipped with the following
sensors or switches:
Gauges and Indicators
Your engine may not have the same gauges or all of
the gauges that are described. For more information
about the gauge package, see the OEM information.
SEBU8609
31
Features and Controls
Gauges and Indicators
Gauges provide indications of engine performance.
Ensure that the gauges are in good working order.
Determine the normal operating range by observing
the gauges over a period of time.
Noticeable changes in gauge readings indicate
potential gauge or engine problems. Problems may
also be indicated by gauge readings that change
even if the readings are within specifications.
Determine and correct the cause of any significant
change in the readings. Consult your Perkins dealer
or your Perkins distributor for assistance.
NOTICE
If no oil pressure is indicated, STOP the engine. If
maximum coolant temperature is exceeded, STOP
the engine. Engine damage can result.
Engine Oil Pressure – The oil pressure
should be greatest after a cold engine is
started. The typical engine oil pressure
with SAE10W30 is 207 to 413 kPa (30 to 60 psi) at
rated rpm.
A lower oil pressure is normal at low idle. If the load is
stable and the gauge reading changes, perform the
following procedure:
Tachometer – This gauge indicates
engine speed (rpm). When the throttle
control lever is moved to the full throttle
position without load, the engine is running at
high idle. The engine is running at the full load
rpm when the throttle control lever is at the full
throttle position with maximum rated load.
NOTICE
To help prevent engine damage, never exceed the
high idle rpm. Overspeeding can result in serious
damage to the engine. The engine can be operated at
high idle without damage, but should never be allowed to exceed high idle rpm.
Ammeter – This gauge indicates the
amount of charge or discharge in the
battery charging circuit. Operation of the
indicator should be to the right side of “ 0”” (zero).
Fuel Level – This gauge indicates the
fuel level in the fuel tank. The fuel level
gauge operates when the “ START/
STOP”” switch is in the “ ON”” position.
Service Hour Meter – The gauge
indicates operating time of the engine.
1. Remove the load.
2. Reduce engine speed to low idle.
Indicators and Lamps
3. Check and maintain the oil level.
• Shutdown lamp
Jacket Water Coolant Temperature –
Typical temperature range is 71 to 96°C
(160 to 205°F). The maximum allowable
temperature with the pressurized cooling system
at 90 kPa (13 psi) is 125° C (257° F). Higher
temperatures may occur under certain
conditions. The water temperature reading may
vary according to load. The reading should never
exceed the boiling point for the pressurized
system that is being used.
• Warning lamp
If the engine is operating above the normal range and
steam becomes apparent, perform the following
procedure:
• Low-pressure oil lamp
For more information on indicator lamps refer to this
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Monitoring
System (Table for Indicators Lamps)”. All lamps will
be illuminated for 2 seconds in order to check that the
lamps are functioning when the keyswitch is turned to
the ON position. Any lamp that fails to illuminate
during the first 2 second must be replaced. If any of
the lamps stay illuminated, the reason must be
investigated immediately.
Aftertreatment Lamps
1. Reduce the load and the engine rpm.
There are three aftertreatment lamps.
2. Inspect the cooling system for leaks.
• Regeneration Active Lamp
3. Determine if the engine must be shut down
immediately or if the engine can be cooled by
reducing the load.
• Regeneration Disabled Lamp
• Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) Lamp
For information on the aftertreatment lamps and
warning lamps refer to this Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Diesel Particulate Filter
Regeneration”
32
SEBU8609
Features and Controls
Monitoring System
i05182480
Monitoring System
“ Warning””
The orange “Warning” lamp will turn “ON” and the
warning signal is activated continuously in order to
alert the operator that one or more of the engine
parameters is not within normal operating range.
“ Derate””
If the Shutdown mode has been selected and the
warning indicator activates, engine shutdown
may take as little as 20 seconds from the time the
warning indicator is activated. Depending on the
application, special precautions should be taken
to avoid personal injury. The engine can be restarted following shutdown for emergency maneuvers, if necessary.
NOTICE
The Engine Monitoring System is not a guarantee
against catastrophic failures. Programmed delays
and derate schedules are designed to minimize false
alarms and provide time for the operator to stop the
engine.
The following parameters are monitored:
• Coolant temperature
• Intake manifold air pressure
• Oil pressure
• Engine speed/timing
The orange “Warning” lamp will be “Flashing” . After
the warning, the engine power will be derated. The
warning lamp will begin to flash when the derating
occurs.
The engine will be derated if the engine exceeds
preset operational limits. The engine derate is
achieved by restricting the amount of fuel that is
available for each injection. The amount of this
reduction of fuel is dependent on the severity of the
fault that has caused the engine derate, typically up
to a limit of 50%. This reduction in fuel results in a
predetermined reduction in engine power.
“ Shutdown””
The orange warning will be “Flashing” . After the
warning, the engine power will be derated. The
engine will continue at the rpm of the set derate until a
shutdown of the engine occurs. After shutdown the
red stop lamp will illuminate. The engine can be
restarted after a shutdown for use in an emergency.
A shutdown of the engine after been triggered is
immediate. The engine can be restarted after a
shutdown for use in an emergency. However, the
cause of the initial shutdown may still exist.
• Atmospheric pressure (Barometric pressure) if
equipped
If there is a signal for high coolant temperature, there
will be a 2 second delay in order to verify the
condition.
• The amount of soot in the Diesel particulate filter
If there is a signal for low oil pressure, there will be a
2 second delay in order to verify the condition.
•
Battery voltage
Programmable Options and
Systems Operation
If the Warning/Derate/Shutdown mode has been
selected and the warning indicator activates,
bring the engine to a stop whenever possible. Depending on the application, special precautions
should be taken to avoid personal injury.
The engine can be programmed to the following
modes:
For information on the operation of the warning lamps
and the shutdown lamp, refer to this Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Monitoring System (Table for
Indicator Lamps)”. For each of the programmed
modes, refer to Troubleshooting Guide, “Indicator
Lamps” for more information on Indicator Lamps.
For more information or assistance for repairs,
consult your Perkins dealer or your Perkins
distributor.
SEBU8609
33
Features and Controls
Monitoring System
i05113371
Monitoring System
(Engine Warning Indicators)
Table 4
Table for Warning Indicators
Warning Indicator Shutdown
Indicator
Indicator State
Description of the
Indication
ON
Indicator Check
Keyswitch in the ON posi- Power ON, Indicator
tion all Indicators should il- check
luminate for 2 seconds.
Engine is not
operating.
ON
The aftertreatment Indicators will also
be checked during Indicator check.
Engine Status
Operator Action
If any of the Indicators will
not illuminate during the
Indicator check, the fault
must be investigated
immediately.
If any Indicator stay illuminated or flash, the fault
must be investigated
immediately.
OFF
OFF
-
No Fault
Engine operating
normally.
None
Level 1
ON (Solid)
OFF
Level 1
An active diagnostic code
is present.
The engine is operat- As soon as possible the
ing, but one or more
diagnostic code should be
diagnostic codes are investigated.
present.
Level 2
Flashing
OFF
Level 2
The ECM has detected an If enabled, the engine Stop the engine.
abnormal condition.
will be derated.
Investigate the fault.
Level 3
Flashing
ON
Level 3
Engine condition is
abnormal.
The engine will auto- Stop engine immediately.
matically shut down. Investigate the fault.
If shut down is not enabled, the engine can
operate until damage
is coursed.
i05182498
Overspeed
• 403F-15T
3000 RPM
• 404F-22
3000 RPM
• 404F-22T
3000 RPM
The overspeed is plus 700 RPM above the given
speed for engines shown.
i05142078
Sensors and Electrical
Components
(Engine and Aftertreatment)
• ARD
Aftertreatment Regeneration Devise
• DOC
Diesel Oxidation Catalyst
• DPF
Diesel Particulate Filter
• ECM
Electronic Control Module
• NRS
NOx Reduction System
34
SEBU8609
Features and Controls
Sensors and Electrical Components
Illustration 30
(1) Inlet air temperature sensor
(2) Oil pressure switch
(3) Secondary speed sensor
g03276099
(4) Fuel rack solenoid and position sensor
(5) Glow plugs
(6) Resistor for ARD glow plug
(7) Fuel pump/Priming pump
SEBU8609
35
Features and Controls
Sensors and Electrical Components
Illustration 31
(8) Air pump
(9) Coolant temperature sensor
(10) Alternator
g03276102
(11) Primary speed sensor
(12) Inlet manifold air pressure sensor
(13) NRS control valve
(14) Solenoid for starting motor
(15) Starting motor
36
SEBU8609
Features and Controls
Sensors and Electrical Components
Illustration 32
(16) ARD glow plug
(17) DPF pressure differential sensor
(18) ARD injectors
g03279116
(19) ARD temperature sensor
(20) DOC intake temperature sensor
(21) DPF intake temperature sensor
The ECM is remotely mounted. The position of ECM
will depend upon the application.
(22) DPF outlet temperature sensor
(23) ECM
SEBU8609
37
Features and Controls
Sensors and Electrical Components
Illustration 33
(1) Inlet air temperature
(2) Oil pressure switch
g03279862
(3) Secondary speed sensor
(4) Fuel rack solenoid and position sensor
38
SEBU8609
Features and Controls
Sensors and Electrical Components
Illustration 34
(5) Glow plugs
g03280057
(6) Resistor for ARD glow plug
(7) Fuel pump/Priming pump
SEBU8609
39
Features and Controls
Sensors and Electrical Components
Illustration 35
(8) Air pump
(9) Coolant temperature sensor
g03299376
(10) Alternator
(11) Primary speed sensor
40
SEBU8609
Features and Controls
Sensors and Electrical Components
Illustration 36
(12) Inlet manifold air pressure sensor
(13) NRS control valve
g03299456
(14) Solenoid for starting motor
(15) Starting motor
(16) ARD glow plug
SEBU8609
41
Features and Controls
Sensors and Electrical Components
Illustration 37
(17) DPF pressure differential sensor
(18) ARD injector 1
g03299640
(18 A) ARD injector 2
(19) ARD temperature sensor
(19 A) Alterative position for the ARD
temperature sensor
42
SEBU8609
Features and Controls
Sensors and Electrical Components
Illustration 38
(20) DOC intake temperature sensor
(21) DPF intake temperature sensor
g03299676
(22) DPF outlet temperature sensor
(23) ECM
SEBU8609
43
Engine Diagnostics
Self-Diagnostics
Engine Diagnostics
i05142509
i04053178
Self-Diagnostics
Perkins electronic engines have the capability to
perform a self-diagnostics test. When the system
detects an active problem, a diagnostic lamp is
activated. Diagnostic codes will be stored in
permanent memory in the Electronic Control Module
(ECM). The diagnostic codes can be retrieved by
using the electronic service tool. Refer to
Troubleshooting, “Electronic Service Tools” for further
information.
Some installations have electronic displays that
provide direct readouts of the engine diagnostic
codes. Refer to the manual that is provided by the
OEM for more information on retrieving engine
diagnostic codes. Alternatively refer to
Troubleshooting, “Indicator Lamps” for further
information.
Active codes represent problems that currently exist.
These problems should be investigated first.
Logged codes represent the following items:
• Intermittent problems
• Recorded events
• Performance history
The problems may have been repaired since the
logging of the code. These codes do not indicate that
a repair is needed. The codes are guides or signals
when a situation exists. Codes may be helpful to
troubleshoot problems.
When the problems have been corrected, the
corresponding logged fault codes should be cleared.
Fault Logging
The system provides the capability of Fault Logging.
When the Electronic Control Module (ECM)
generates an active diagnostic code, the code will be
logged in the memory of the ECM. The codes that
have been logged by the ECM can be identified by
the electronic service tool. The active codes that have
been logged will be cleared when the fault has been
rectified or the fault is no longer active.
i05182507
Engine Operation with Active
Diagnostic Codes
If a diagnostic lamp illuminates during normal engine
operation, the system has identified a situation that is
not within the specification. Use electronic service
tools to check the active diagnostic codes.
Note: The power will be limited until the problem is
corrected. If the oil pressure is within the normal
range, the engine may be operated at the rated
speed and load. However, maintenance should be
performed as soon as possible.
The active diagnostic code should be investigated.
The cause of the problem should be corrected as
soon as possible. If the cause of the active diagnostic
code is repaired and there is only one active
diagnostic code, the diagnostic lamp will turn off.
Operation of the engine and performance of the
engine can be limited as a result of the active
diagnostic code that is generated. Acceleration rates
may be significantly slower . Refer to the
Troubleshooting Guide for more information on the
relationship between these active diagnostic codes
and engine performance.
i04053182
Diagnostic Lamp
A diagnostic lamp is used to indicate the existence of
an active fault. Refer to Troubleshooting, “Indicator
Lamps” for more information. A fault diagnostic code
will remain active until the problem is repaired. The
diagnostic code may be retrieved by using the
electronic service tool. Refer to Troubleshooting,
“Electronic Service Tools” for more information.
i04053849
Engine Operation with
Intermittent Diagnostic Codes
If a diagnostic lamp illuminates during normal engine
operation and the diagnostic lamp shuts off, an
intermittent fault may have occurred. If a fault has
occurred, the fault will be logged into the memory of
the Electronic Control Module (ECM).
44
SEBU8609
Engine Diagnostics
Configuration Parameters
In most cases, stopping the engine will not be
necessary because of an intermittent code. However,
the operator should retrieve the logged fault codes
and the operator should reference the appropriate
information. in order to identify the nature of the
event. The operator should log any observation that
could have caused the lamp to light.
• Low power
• Limits of the engine speed
• Engine vibration or engine noise
This information can be useful to help troubleshoot
the situation. The information can also be used for
future reference. For more information on diagnostic
codes, refer to the Troubleshooting Guide for this
engine.
i05142533
Configuration Parameters
System configuration parameters affect the emissions
of the engine or the power of the engine. System
configuration parameters are programmed at the
factory. Normally, system configuration parameters
would never change through the life of the engine.
System configuration parameters must be
reprogrammed if an Electronic Control Module (ECM)
is replaced. System configuration parameters are not
reprogrammed if the ECM software is changed.
For more information, refer to Troubleshooting,
“System Configuration Parameters”.
45
SEBU8609
Engine Starting
Before Starting Engine
Engine Starting
i04053911
Before Starting Engine
Perform the required daily maintenance and other
periodic maintenance before the engine is started.
Inspect the engine compartment. This inspection can
help prevent major repairs at a later date. Refer to the
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Maintenance
Interval Schedule” for more information.
• Ensure that the engine has an adequate fuel
supply.
• Open the fuel supply valve (if equipped).
If the engine has not been started for several weeks,
fuel may have drained from the fuel system. Air may
have entered the filter housing. Also, when fuel filters
have been changed, some air pockets will be trapped
in the engine. In these instances, prime the fuel
system. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Fuel System - Prime” for more information
on priming the fuel system. Also, check that the fuel
specification is correct and that the fuel condition is
correct. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Fuel Recommendations”.
Engine exhaust contains products of combustion
which may be harmful to your health. Always start
and operate the engine in a well ventilated area
and, if in an enclosed area, vent the exhaust to the
outside.
• Do not start the engine or move any of the controls
if there is a “DO NOT OPERATE” warning tag or
similar warning tag attached to the start switch or
to the controls.
Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such as
ether. Such use could result in an explosion and
personal injury.
The ability to start the engine will be improved at
temperatures below −18 °C (0 °F) from the use of a
jacket water heater or extra battery capacity.
When Group 2 diesel fuel is used, the following items
provide a means of minimizing starting problems and
fuel problems in cold weather: Engine oil pan heaters,
jacket water heaters, fuel heaters and fuel line
insulation.
Use the procedure that follows for cold weather
starting.
Note: Do not adjust the engine speed control during
start-up. The electronic control module (ECM) will
control the engine speed during start-up.
1. Disengage any driven equipment.
Note: During key ON, the indicator lamps will be
illuminated for 2 seconds in order to check the lamp
operation. If any of the indicator lamps do not
illuminate check the bulb. If any indicator lamps stay
illuminated or flash, refer to Troubleshooting,
“Indicator Lamp Circuit - Test”.
2. Turn the keyswitch to the RUN position. Leave the
keyswitch in the RUN position until the warning
light for the glow plugs is extinguished.
3. When the warning light for the glow plugs is
extinguished, turn the keyswitch to the START
position in order to engage the electric starting
motor and crank the engine.
Note: The operating period of the warning light for the
glow plugs will change due to the ambient air
temperature.
• Reset all of the shutoffs or alarm components.
• Ensure that any driven equipment has been
disengaged. Minimize electrical loads or remove
any electrical loads.
i05144913
Cold Weather Starting
S/N: EL11–Up
S/N: EN11–Up
NOTICE
Do not engage the starting motor when flywheel is
turning. Do not start the engine under load.
If the engine fails to start within 30 seconds, release
the starter switch or button and wait two minutes to allow the starting motor to cool before attempting to
start the engine again.
4. Allow the keyswitch to return to the RUN position
after the engine starts.
5. Repeat step 2 through step 4 if the engine fails to
start.
46
SEBU8609
Engine Starting
Starting the Engine
Note: The engine should not be “raced” in order to
speed up the warm-up process.
6. Allow the engine to idle for 3 to 5 minutes, or allow
the engine to idle until the water temperature
indicator begins to rise. When idling after the
engine has started in cold weather, increase the
engine rpm from 1000 to 1200 rpm. This operation
will warm up the engine more quickly. Maintaining
an elevated low idle speed for extended periods
will be easier with the installation of a hand throttle.
Allow the white smoke to disperse before
proceeding with normal operation.
7. Operate the engine at low load until all systems
reach operating temperature. Check the gauges
during the warm-up period.
i05142649
Starting the Engine
Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such as
ether. Such use could result in an explosion and
personal injury.
Note: Do not adjust the engine speed control during
start-up. The electronic control module (ECM) will
control the engine speed during start-up.
Starting the Engine
1. Disengage any equipment that is driven by the
engine.
Note: During key ON, the indicator lamps will be
illuminated for 2 seconds in order to check the lamp
operation. If any of the indicator lamps do not
illuminate check the bulb. If any indicator lamps stay
illuminated or flash, refer to Troubleshooting,
“Indicator Lamp Circuit - Test”.
2. Turn the keyswitch to the RUN position. Leave the
keyswitch in the RUN position until the warning
light for the glow plugs is extinguished.
3. When the warning light for the glow plugs has been
extinguished turn the keyswitch to the START
position. The starter motor will then crank the
engine.
Note: The operating period of the warning light for the
glow plugs will change due to the ambient air
temperature.
NOTICE
Do not engage the starting motor when flywheel is
turning. Do not start the engine under load.
If the engine fails to start within 30 seconds, release
the starter switch or button and wait two minutes to allow the starting motor to cool before attempting to
start the engine again.
4. Allow the keyswitch to return to the RUN position
after the engine starts.
5. Repeat step 2 through step 4 if the engine fails to
start.
i03663103
Starting with Jump Start
Cables
Improper jump start cable connections can cause
an explosion resulting in personal injury.
Prevent sparks near the batteries. Sparks could
cause vapors to explode. Do not allow jump start
cable ends to contact each other or the engine.
Note: If it is possible, first diagnose the reason for the
starting failure. Refer to Troubleshooting, “Engine Will
Not Crank and Engine Cranks But Will Not Start” for
further information. Make any necessary repairs. If
the engine will not start only due to the condition of
the battery, either charge the battery, or start the
engine by using another battery with jump start
cables.
The condition of the battery can be rechecked after
the engine has been switched OFF.
NOTICE
Using a battery source with the same voltage as the
electric starting motor. Use ONLY equal voltage for
jump starting. The use of higher voltage will damage
the electrical system.
Do not reverse the battery cables. The alternator can
be damaged. Attach ground cable last and remove
first.
Turn all electrical accessories OFF before attaching
the jump start cables.
Ensure that the main power switch is in the OFF position before attaching the jump start cables to the engine being started.
47
SEBU8609
Engine Starting
After Starting Engine
1. Turn the start switch on the stalled engine to the
OFF position. Turn off all the engine's accessories.
2. Connect one positive end of the jump start cable to
the positive cable terminal of the discharged
battery. Connect the other positive end of the jump
start cable to the positive cable terminal of the
electrical source.
3. Connect one negative end of the jump start cable
to the negative cable terminal of the electrical
source. Connect the other negative end of the
jump start cable to the engine block or to the
chassis ground. This procedure helps to prevent
potential sparks from igniting the combustible
gases that are produced by some batteries.
Note: The engine ECM must be powered before the
starting motor is operated or damage can occur.
4. Start the engine in the normal operating procedure.
Refer to this Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Starting the Engine”.
5. Immediately after the engine is started, disconnect
the jump start cables in reverse order.
After jump starting, the alternator may not be able to
fully recharge batteries that are severely discharged.
The batteries must be replaced or charged to the
proper voltage with a battery charger after the engine
is stopped. Many batteries which are considered
unusable are still rechargeable. Refer to Operation
and Maintenance Manual, “Battery - Replace” and
Testing and Adjusting Manual, “Battery - Test”.
i01903609
After Starting Engine
Note: In temperatures from 0 to 60°C (32 to 140°F),
the warm-up time is approximately three minutes. In
temperatures below 0°C (32°F), additional warm-up
time may be required.
When the engine idles during warm-up, observe the
following conditions:
• Check for any fluid or for any air leaks at idle rpm
and at one-half full rpm (no load on the engine)
before operating the engine under load. This is not
possible in some applications.
• Operate the engine at low idle until all systems
achieve operating temperatures. Check all gauges
during the warm-up period.
Note: Gauge readings should be observed and the
data should be recorded frequently while the engine
is operating. Comparing the data over time will help to
determine normal readings for each gauge.
Comparing data over time will also help detect
abnormal operating developments. Significant
changes in the readings should be investigated.
48
SEBU8609
Engine Operation
Engine Operation
Engine Operation
i05182510
Engine Operation
Proper operation and maintenance are key factors in
obtaining the maximum life and economy of the
engine. If the directions in the Operation and
Maintenance Manual are followed, costs can be
minimized and engine service life can be maximized.
The time that is needed for the engine to reach
normal operating temperature can be less than the
time taken for a walk-around inspection of the engine.
The engine can be operated at the rated rpm after the
engine is started and after the engine reaches
operating temperature. The engine will reach normal
operating temperature sooner during a low engine
speed (rpm) and during a low-power demand. This
procedure is more effective than idling the engine at
no load. The engine should reach operating
temperature in a few minutes.
Avoid excess idling. Excessive idling causes carbon
buildup, engine slobber and soot loading of the
Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF). This excess idling is
harmful to the engine.
Gauge readings should be observed and the data
should be recorded frequently while the engine is
operating. Comparing the data over time will help to
determine normal readings for each gauge.
Comparing data over time will also help detect
abnormal operating developments. Significant
changes in the readings should be investigated.
Reduction of Particulate Emissions
The Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) and the
Aftertreatment Regeneration Device (ARD) work
together in order to reduce particulate emissions. The
DPF collects the soot and any ash that is produced
by the combustion in the engine. During regeneration,
the soot is converted into a gas which is released into
the atmosphere. The Ash remains in the DPF until the
ash is cleaned out of the DPF.
The temperature of the DPF must be above a
particular value in order for regeneration to occur. The
exhaust gas provides heat for the regeneration
process. There are two types of regeneration:
Passive Regeneration – The engine conditions are
sufficient for regeneration. The rate of regeneration is
much lower than active regeneration.
Active Regeneration – The engine duty cycle
conditions are not sufficient for passive regeneration
to occur.
The operator will receive information on the status of
the ARD from dash lamps and the driver will be able
to request a regeneration by using a switch. Refer to
this Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Monitoring
System” for more information.
Engine Operation and Active
Regeneration
Active regeneration can be performed at any engine
speed.
i05145051
Diesel Particulate Filter
Regeneration
Regeneration
Regeneration is the removal of soot from the Diesel
Particulate Filter (DPF). The Aftertreatment
Regeneration Device (ARD) is used to regenerate the
DPF. The DPF traps both soot and ash. The ash is
removed through a manual cleaning process. Refer
to Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Diesel
Particulate Filter - Clean” for more information on the
service of the DPF.
Types of Regeneration
Passive Regeneration – The engine conditions are
sufficient for regeneration. The rate of regeneration is
much lower than active regeneration.
Active Regeneration – The engine duty cycle
conditions are not sufficient for passive regeneration
to occur.
Regeneration Indicators
Five Indicators can be affected by the DPF
regeneration.
Note: Amber or yellow Warning Indicator can be use
as a diagnostic Indicator. For more information refer
to this Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Diagnostic Lamp”.
Regeneration Active – The Indicator is
illuminated during active regeneration.
The Indicator will stay on until the
aftertreatment has cooled.
DPF – This Indicator provides a general
indication of the soot load. The Indicator
is off when the soot load is normal.
Note: If the Indicator is illuminated, a regeneration will
be required.
SEBU8609
49
Engine Operation
Diesel Particulate Filter Regeneration
Regeneration Disable – This Indicator is
illuminated whenever the disable switch
is activated or the system has been
disabled by the engine ECM.
Amber or yellow Warning – This
Indicator, indicates that the soot load
has increased. Regeneration is required.
Also, the DPF Indicator will be illuminated. A
flashing indicator will cause an engine derate.
• Refer to OEM for the applications interlocks
required to be engaged before regeneration can
take place.
Forced regeneration – A forced regeneration is
initiated by pressing the regeneration switch.
Soot Level Monitoring and
Indicators
Red Stop – This Indicator, indicates that
the soot load is extremely high. The soot
load is at level 3. The DPF Indicator will
be illuminated and the amber warning indicator
will be flashing. The engine will be shut down.
Note: In operation an Indicator can have two states,
on solid and flashing. The sequence is to give a
visual indication of the importance of the warning.
Some application may also have an audible warning
installed.
Regeneration Switch
Ensure that the engine maintenance is carried out at
the correct intervals. A lack of maintenance can result
in illumination of the warning Indicators. For the
correct intervals of maintenance, refer to the
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Maintenance
Interval Schedule”.
The regeneration switch has three position force
regeneration, automatic regeneration, and disable
regeneration.
Note: Some OEMs may have other means of
activating a forced regeneration such as touch screen
interface.
Note: The MIDDLE position of the regeneration
switch is the default position for automatic mode of
regeneration.
Force Regeneration – Press in the top of
the switch for 2 seconds in order to
begin regeneration. An indicator light on
the switch will become active showing that the
regeneration is active. The regeneration active
Indicator will become active showing that the
regeneration is active.
Disable Regeneration – Press in the
bottom of the switch for 2 seconds in
order to disable regeneration. An
indicator light on the switch will become active.
The disable indicator will illuminate.
Note: To re-enable the regeneration, cycle the engine
start switch key or press and hold down the force
regeneration switch for 2 seconds.
Modes of Regeneration
• Automatic
• Forced Regeneration
Automatic regeneration is controlled by the engine
ECM.
Automatic – Automatic regeneration allows for the
DPF regeneration to start automatically with up to 80
percent load on the engine. In order for an automatic
regeneration to occur, the following conditions must
be met:
50
SEBU8609
Engine Operation
Fuel Conservation Practices
Table 5
Indicator Operation
Aftertreatment
Indicator
Aftertreatment Indicator State
Warning Indicator
Warning Indicator Description
State
Action Required
All indicators are checked at key on. Any indicator illuminate after 2 seconds must be investigated. Any indicator that has not illuminated must be
investigated.
OFF
OFF
OFF
OFF
Normal operation
None
During passive regeneration NO indicators will be illuminated.
Regeneration active
ON
OFF
OFF
The indicator shows that None
elevated emission temperatures are possible.
The indicator will stay illuminated during
regeneration.
Regeneration active
ON
OFF
OFF
Active regeneration occurring
DPF
ON
OFF
OFF
Level 1
DPF
ON
OFF
OFF
Indication of soot loading An active regeneration
required
Level 2
DPF
ON solid
Amber Indicator
Flashing
Soot loading has
increased
Perform a forced regeneration, or a service regeneration will be required.
The flashing warning indicator will indicate that the
engine has continued to
be operated
The STOP warning indicator will indicate that the
engine will be derated
and will be shut down.
After 30 seconds the engine will automatically
shut down. The engine
can be restarted but will
only run for 30 seconds
before shutting down
again.
A forced regeneration is
required.
Hold the forced regeneration switch for 10 seconds
before a regeneration begins. If Regeneration cannot occur, contact your
Perkins dealer or distributor
Level 3
DPF
ON solid
Amber Indicator
Flashing
Stop indicator
On solid
i04018232
Fuel Conservation Practices
The efficiency of the engine can affect the fuel
economy. Perkins design and technology in
manufacturing provides maximum fuel efficiency in all
applications. Follow the recommended procedures in
order to attain optimum performance for the life of the
engine.
• Avoid spilling fuel.
Fuel expands when the fuel is warmed up. The fuel
may overflow from the fuel tank. Inspect fuel lines for
leaks. Repair the fuel lines, as needed.
• Be aware of the properties of the different fuels.
Use only the recommended fuels. Refer to the
Operations and Maintenance Manual, “Fuel
Recommendations”for further information.
• Avoid unnecessary idling.
Shut off the engine rather than idle for long periods of
time.
SEBU8609
51
Engine Operation
Fuel Conservation Practices
• Observe the service indicator frequently. Keep the
air cleaner elements clean.
• Ensure that the turbocharger is operating correctly.
For more information refer to this Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Turbocharger - Inspect”
• Maintain a good electrical system.
One faulty battery cell will overwork the alternator.
This fault will consume excess power and excess
fuel.
• The belt should be in good condition. Refer to the
Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting, “V-Belt
Test” for further information.
• Ensure that all of the connections of the hoses are
tight. The connections should not leak.
• Ensure that the driven equipment is in good
working order.
• Cold engines consume excess fuel. Utilize heat
from the jacket water system and the exhaust
system, when possible. Keep cooling system
components clean and keep cooling system
components in good repair. Never operate the
engine without water temperature regulators. All of
these items will help maintain operating
temperatures.
52
SEBU8609
Cold Weather Operation
Cold Weather Operation
Cold Weather Operation
i04321989
Cold Weather Operation
Perkins Diesel Engines can operate effectively in
cold weather. During cold weather, the starting and
the operation of the diesel engine is dependent on the
following items:
• The type of fuel that is used
• The viscosity of the engine oil
• The operation of the glow plugs
Hints for Cold Weather Operation
• If the engine will start, operate the engine until a
minimum operating temperature of 80° C (176° F)
is achieved. Achieving operating temperature will
help prevent the intake valves and exhaust valves
from sticking.
• The cooling system and the lubrication system for
the engine do not lose heat immediately upon
shutdown. This means that an engine can be shut
down for a period and the engine can still have the
ability to start readily.
• Install the correct specification of engine lubricant
before the beginning of cold weather.
• Check all rubber parts (hoses, fan drive belts,)
weekly.
• Optional Cold starting aid
• Battery condition
• Check all electrical wiring and connections for any
fraying or damaged insulation.
This section will cover the following information:
• Keep all batteries fully charged and warm.
• Potential problems that are caused by coldweather operation
• Fill the fuel tank at the end of each shift.
• Suggest steps which can be taken in order to
minimize starting problems and operating
problems when the ambient air temperature is
between 0° to−40 °C (32° to 40 °F).
The operation and maintenance of an engine in
freezing temperatures is complex . This complexity is
because of the following conditions:
• Check the air cleaners and the air intake daily.
Check the air intake more often when you operate
in snow.
• Ensure that the glow plugs are in working order.
Refer to Troubleshooting, “Glow Plug Starting AidTest”.
• Weather conditions
• Engine applications
Recommendations from your Perkins dealer or your
Perkins distributor are based on past proven
practices. The information that is contained in this
section provides guidelines for cold-weather
operation.
Personal injury or property damage can result
from alcohol or starting fluids.
Alcohol or starting fluids are highly flammable
and toxic and if improperly stored could result in
injury or property damage.
Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such as
ether. Such use could result in an explosion and
personal injury.
• For jump starting with cables in cold weather, refer
to the Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Starting with Jump Start Cables.” for instructions.
SEBU8609
53
Cold Weather Operation
Cold Weather Operation
Viscosity of the Engine Lubrication
Oil
Correct engine oil viscosity is essential. Oil viscosity
affects the amount of torque that is needed to crank
the engine. Refer to this Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Fluid Recommendations” for the
recommended viscosity of oil.
Recommendations for the Coolant
Provide cooling system protection for the lowest
expected outside temperature. Refer to this
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Fluid
Recommendations” for the recommended coolant
mixture.
In cold weather, check the coolant often for the
correct glycol concentration in order to ensure
adequate freeze protection.
Engine Block Heaters
Engine block heaters (if equipped) heat the engine
jacket water that surrounds the combustion
chambers. This heat provides the following functions:
• Startability is improved.
• Warm up time is reduced.
An electric block heater can be activated once the
engine is stopped. A block heater can be 110 V dc or
240 V dc. The output can be 750/1000W. Consult
your Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor for
more information.
Idling the Engine
When idling after the engine is started in cold
weather, increase the engine rpm from 1000 to 1200
rpm. This idling will warm up the engine more quickly.
Maintaining an elevated low idle speed for extended
periods will be easier with the installation of a hand
throttle. The engine should not be “raced” in order to
speed up the warm-up process.
While the engine is idling, the application of a light
load (parasitic load) will assist in achieving the
minimum operating temperature. The minimum
operating temperature is 80° C (176° F).
Recommendations for Coolant
Warm Up
Warm up an engine that has cooled below normal
operating temperatures due to inactivity. This warm
-up should be performed before the engine is
returned to full operation. During operation in very
cold temperature conditions, damage to engine valve
mechanisms can result from engine operation for
short intervals. This damage can happen if the engine
is started and the engine is stopped many times
without being operated in order to warm up
completely.
When the engine is operated below normal operating
temperatures, fuel and oil are not completely burned
in the combustion chamber. This fuel and oil causes
soft carbon deposits to form on the valve stems.
Generally, the deposits do not cause problems and
the deposits are burned off during operation at normal
engine operating temperatures.
When starting and stopping an engine many times
without being operated in order to warm up
completely, the carbon deposits become thicker. This
starting and stopping can cause the following
problems:
• Free operation of the valves is prevented.
• Valves become stuck.
• Pushrods may become bent.
• Other damage to valve train components can
result.
For this reason, when the engine is started, the
engine must be operated until the coolant
temperature is 80° C (176° F) minimum. Carbon
deposits on the valve stems will be kept at a minimum
and the free operation of the valves and the valve
components will be maintained.
The engine must be thoroughly warmed in order to
keep other engine parts in better condition. The
service life of the engine will be generally extended.
Lubrication will be improved. There will be less acid
and less sludge in the oil. This condition will provide
longer service life for the engine bearings, the piston
rings, and other parts. However, limit unnecessary
idle time to 10 minutes in order to reduce wear and
unnecessary fuel consumption.
The Water Temperature Regulator and
Insulated Heater Lines
The engine is equipped with a water temperature
regulator. When the engine coolant is below the
correct operating temperature, jacket water circulates
through the engine cylinder block and into the engine
cylinder head. The coolant then returns to the cylinder
block via an internal passage that bypasses the valve
of the coolant temperature regulator. This ensures
that coolant flows around the engine under cold
operating conditions. The water temperature
regulator begins to open when the engine jacket
water has reached the correct minimum operating
temperature. As the jacket water coolant temperature
rises above the minimum operating temperature, the
water temperature regulator opens further allowing
more coolant through the radiator to dissipate excess
heat.
The progressive opening of the water temperature
regulator operates the progressive closing of the
bypass passage between the cylinder block and
head. This action ensures maximum coolant flow to
the radiator in order to achieve maximum heat
dissipation.
54
SEBU8609
Cold Weather Operation
Fuel and the Effect from Cold Weather
Note: Do not restrict the air flow. Restriction of the air
flow can damage the fuel system. Perkins
discourages the use of all air flow restriction devices
such as radiator shutters. Restriction of the air flow
can result in the following: high exhaust
temperatures, power loss, excessive fan usage and
reduction in fuel economy.
A cab heater is beneficial in very cold weather. The
feed from the engine and the return lines from the cab
should be insulated in order to reduce heat loss to the
outside air.
Group 2 fuels are considered acceptable for issues of
warranty. This group of fuels may reduce the life of
the engine, the engine's maximum power, and the
engine's fuel efficiency.
When Group 2 diesel fuels are used the following
components provide a means of minimizing problems
in cold weather:
• Glow plugs (if equipped)
• Engine coolant heaters, which may be an OEM
option
Recommendation for Crankcase Breather
Protection
• Fuel heaters, which may be an OEM option
Crankcase ventilation gases contain a large quantity
of water vapor. This water vapor can freeze in cold
ambient conditions and can plug or damage the
crankcase ventilation system. If the engine is
operated in temperatures below −25° C (−13° F),
measures must be taken to prevent freezing and
plugging of the breather system. Insulated hoses and
a heated canister assembly should be installed.
There are three major differences between Group 1
fuels and Group 2 fuels. Group 1 fuels have the
following different characteristics to Group 2 fuels.
Consult with your Perkins dealer or your Perkins
distributer for the recommended breather
components for operation from −25° to -40°C
(−13° to -72.°F).
i02322217
Fuel and the Effect from Cold
Weather
Note: Only use grades of fuel that are recommended
by Perkins . Refer to this Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Fluid Recommendations”.
The following fuels can be used in this series of
engine.
• Group 1
• Group 2
• Group 3
• Special Fuels
Perkins prefer only Group 1 and Group 2 fuels for
use in this series of engines.
Group 1 fuels are the preferred Group of Fuels for
general use by Perkins . Group 1 fuels maximize
engine life and engine performance. Group 1 fuels
are usually less available than Group 2 fuels.
Frequently, Group 1 fuels are not available in colder
climates during the winter.
Note: Group 2 fuels must have a maximum wear scar
of 650 micrometers (HFRR to ISO 12156-1).
• Fuel line insulation, which may be an OEM option
• A lower cloud point
• A lower pour point
• A higher energy per unit volume of fuel
Note: Group 3 fuels reduce the life of the engine. The
use of Group 3 fuels is not covered by the Perkins
warranty.
Group 3 fuels include Low Temperature Fuels and
Aviation Kerosene Fuels .
Special fuels include Biofuel .
The cloud point is a temperature that allows wax
crystals to form in the fuel. These crystals can cause
the fuel filters to plug.
The pour point is the temperature when diesel fuel will
thicken. The diesel fuel becomes more resistant to
flow through fuel lines, fuel filters,and fuel pumps.
Be aware of these facts when diesel fuel is
purchased. Consider the average ambient air
temperature for the engine's application. Engines that
are fueled in one climate may not operate well if the
engines are moved to another climate. Problems can
result due to changes in temperature.
Before troubleshooting for low power or for poor
performance in the winter, check the fuel for waxing.
Low temperature fuels may be available for engine
operation at temperatures below 0 °C (32 °F). These
fuels limit the formation of wax in the fuel at low
temperatures.
For more information on cold weather operation, refer
to the Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Cold
Weather Operation and Fuel Related Components in
Cold Weather”.
55
SEBU8609
Cold Weather Operation
Fuel Related Components in Cold Weather
i05200880
Fuel Related Components in
Cold Weather
Fuel Tanks
Condensation can form in partially filled fuel tanks.
Top off the fuel tanks after you operate the engine.
Fuel tanks should contain some provision for draining
water and sediment from the bottom of the tanks.
Some fuel tanks use supply pipes that allow water
and sediment to settle below the end of the fuel
supply pipe.
Some fuel tanks use supply lines that take fuel
directly from the bottom of the tank. If the engine is
equipped with this system, regular maintenance of
the fuel system filter is important.
Drain the water and sediment from any fuel storage
tank at the following intervals: weekly, oil changes
and refueling of the fuel tank. This procedure will help
prevent water and/or sediment from being pumped
from the fuel storage tank and into the engine fuel
tank.
Fuel Filters
The engine must have an in-line fuel filter installed
between the fuel tank and the electric operated fuel
lift pump. After you change the fuel filter, always
prime the fuel system in order to remove air bubbles
from the fuel system. Refer to the Operation and
Maintenance Manual in the Maintenance Section for
more information on priming the fuel system.
Fuel Heaters
Fuel heaters help to prevent fuel filters from plugging
in cold weather due to waxing.
For further information on fuel heaters, consult your
Perkins dealer or distributor.
56
SEBU8609
Engine Stopping
Stopping the Engine
Engine Stopping
i03756631
i02334873
Stopping the Engine
After Stopping Engine
Note: Before you check the engine oil, do not operate
the engine for at least 10 minutes in order to allow the
engine oil to return to the oil pan.
NOTICE
Stopping the engine immediately after it has been
working under load, can result in overheating and accelerated wear of the engine components.
• Check the crankcase oil level. Maintain the oil level
between the “MIN” mark and the “MAX” mark on
the engine oil level gauge.
Avoid accelerating the engine prior to shutting it
down.
• If necessary, perform minor adjustments. Repair
any leaks and tighten any loose bolts.
Avoiding hot engine shutdowns will maximize turbocharger shaft and bearing life.
• If the engine is equipped with a service hour meter,
note the reading. Perform the maintenance that is
in the Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Maintenance Interval Schedule”.
Note: Individual applications will have different
control systems. Ensure that the shutoff procedures
are understood. Use the following general guidelines
in order to stop the engine.
1. Remove the load from the engine. Reduce the
engine speed (rpm) to low idle. Allow the engine to
idle for five minutes in order to cool the engine.
2. Stop the engine after the cool down period
according to the shutoff system on the engine and
turn the ignition key switch to the OFF position. If
necessary, refer to the instructions that are
provided by the OEM.
i01903586
Emergency Stopping
NOTICE
Emergency shutoff controls are for EMERGENCY
use ONLY. DO NOT use emergency shutoff devices
or controls for normal stopping procedure.
The OEM may have equipped the application with an
emergency stop button. For more information about
the emergency stop button, refer to the OEM
information.
Ensure that any components for the external system
that support the engine operation are secured after
the engine is stopped.
• Fill the fuel tank in order to help prevent
accumulation of moisture in the fuel. Do not overfill
the fuel tank.
NOTICE
Only use antifreeze/coolant mixtures recommended
in the Refill Capacities and Recommendations topic
that is in this Operation and Maintenance Manual.
Failure to do so can cause engine damage.
• Allow the engine to cool. Check the coolant level.
• If freezing temperatures are expected, check the
coolant for correct antifreeze protection. The
cooling system must be protected against freezing
to the lowest expected outside temperature. Add
the correct coolant/water mixture, if necessary.
• Perform all required periodic maintenance on all
driven equipment. This maintenance is outlined in
the instructions from the OEM.
57
SEBU8609
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
i05145430
Refill Capacities
(Table 7, contd)
(1) More than one style of sump may be used on these engines.
Use these values to estimate the refill capacity. Use the engine
oil level gauge to fill the engine to the correct oil level. Record
the result in this table. These values are the approximate capacities for the Crankcase Oil Sump which includes the standard factory installed oil filters. Engines with auxiliary oil filters will
require additional oil. Refer to the OEM specifications for the capacity of the auxiliary oil filter.
(2) The Total Lubrication System includes the capacity for the
Crankcase Oil Sump plus the capacity of factory installed oil filters and other filters added to the lubrication system. Enter the
value for the capacity of the Total Lubrication System in this row.
Lubrication System
Cooling System
The refill capacities for the engine crankcase reflect
the approximate capacity of the crankcase or sump
plus standard oil filters. Auxiliary oil filter systems will
require additional oil. Refer to the OEM specifications
for the capacity of the auxiliary oil filter. Refer to the
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Maintenance
Section” for more information on Lubricant
Specifications.
To maintain the cooling system, the Total Cooling
System capacity must be known. The approximate
capacity is for the engine cooling system. External
System capacities will vary among applications. Refer
to the OEM specifications for the External System
capacity. This capacity information will be needed in
order to determine the amount of coolant that is
required for the Total Cooling System.
403F-15T Engine
403F-15T Engine
Table 6
Table 8
403F-15T Engine
Refill Capacities
Compartment or System
Crankcase Oil Sump(1)
403F-15T Engine
Refill Capacities
Minimum
Maximum
4.5 L
(4.8 qt)
6L
(6.3 qt)
(2)
Engine Only
Liters
Quarts
2.6
2.7
External System Per OEM(1)
Total Lubrication System(2)
(1)
Compartment or System
These values are the approximate capacities for the crankcase
oil sump which includes the standard factory installed oil filters.
Engines with auxiliary oil filters will require additional oil. Refer
to the OEM specifications for the capacity of the auxiliary oil
filter.
The Total Lubrication System includes the capacity for the
Crankcase Oil Sump plus the capacity of factory installed oil filters and other filters added to the lubrication system. Enter the
value for the capacity of the Total Lubrication System in this row.
Total Cooling System(2)
(1)
(2)
The External System includes a radiator or an expansion tank
with the following components: heat exchanger and piping. Refer to the OEM specifications. Enter the value for the capacity of
the External System in this row.
The Total Cooling System capacity includes the capacity of the
Engine plus the External System. Enter the value for the capacity of the Total Cooling System in this row.
404F-22 Engine
404F-22 and 404F-22T Engines
Table 9
Table 7
404F-22 Engine
Refill Capacities
404F-22 and 404F-22T Engines
Refill Capacities
Compartment or System
Minimum
Maximum
8.9 L
(9.4 qt)
10.6 L
(11.2 qt)
Compartment or System
Engine Only
Crankcase Oil Sump(1)
Liters
Quarts
3.61
3.8
External System Per OEM(1)
Total Cooling System(2)
Total Lubrication System(2)
(1)
(continued)
(2)
The External System includes a radiator or an expansion tank
with the following components: heat exchanger and piping. Refer to the OEM specifications. Enter the value for the capacity of
the External System in this row.
The Total Cooling System capacity includes the capacity for the
Engine plus the External System. Enter the value for the capacity of the Total Cooling System in this row.
58
SEBU8609
Refill Capacities
Fluid Recommendations
404F-22T Engine
Many engine failures are related to the cooling
system. The following problems are related to cooling
system failures: Overheating, leakage of the water
pump and plugged radiators or heat exchangers.
Table 10
404F-22T Engine
Refill Capacities
Compartment or System
Engine Only
Liters
Quarts
3.91
4.13
External System Per OEM(1)
Total Cooling System(2)
(1)
(2)
The External System includes a radiator or an expansion tank
with the following components: heat exchanger and piping. Refer to the OEM specifications. Enter the value for the capacity of
the External System in this row.
The Total Cooling System capacity includes the capacity for the
Engine plus the External System. Enter the value for the capacity of the Total Cooling System in this row.
i05191400
Fluid Recommendations
General Coolant Information
NOTICE
Never add coolant to an overheated engine. Engine
damage could result. Allow the engine to cool first.
NOTICE
If the engine is to be stored in, or shipped to an area
with below freezing temperatures, the cooling system
must be either protected to the lowest outside temperature or drained completely to prevent damage.
NOTICE
Frequently check the specific gravity of the coolant for
proper freeze protection or for anti-boil protection.
These failures can be avoided with correct cooling
system maintenance. Cooling system maintenance is
as important as maintenance of the fuel system and
the lubrication system. Quality of the coolant is as
important as the quality of the fuel and the lubricating
oil.
Coolant is normally composed of three elements:
Water, additives and glycol.
Water
Water is used in the cooling system in order to
transfer heat.
Distilled water or deionized water is
recommended for use in engine cooling systems.
DO NOT use the following types of water in cooling
systems: Hard water, softened water that has been
conditioned with salt and sea water.
If distilled water or deionized water is not available,
use water with the properties that are listed in Table
11 .
Table 11
Acceptable Water
Property
Maximum Limit
Chloride (Cl)
40 mg/L
Sulfate (SO4)
100 mg/L
Total Hardness
170 mg/L
Total Solids
340 mg/L
Acidity
pH of 5.5 to 9.0
For a water analysis, consult one of the following
sources:
• Local water utility company
Clean the cooling system for the following reasons:
• Agricultural agent
• Contamination of the cooling system
• Independent laboratory
• Overheating of the engine
• Foaming of the coolant
NOTICE
Never operate an engine without water temperature
regulators in the cooling system. Water temperature
regulators help to maintain the engine coolant at the
proper operating temperature. Cooling system problems can develop without water temperature
regulators.
Additives
Additives help to protect the metal surfaces of the
cooling system. A lack of coolant additives or
insufficient amounts of additives enable the following
conditions to occur:
SEBU8609
59
Refill Capacities
Fluid Recommendations
• Corrosion
• Scale
NOTICE
Do not use propylene glycol in concentrations that exceed 50 percent glycol because of the reduced heat
transfer capability of propylene glycol. Use ethylene
glycol in conditions that require additional protection
against boiling or freezing.
• Foaming of the coolant
Table 13
• Formation of mineral deposits
• Rust
Many additives are depleted during engine operation.
These additives must be replaced periodically.
Additives must be added at the correct concentration.
Over concentration of additives can cause the
inhibitors to drop out-of-solution. The deposits can
enable the following problems to occur:
• Formation of gel compounds
Propylene Glycol
Concentration
Freeze Protection
50 Percent
−29 °C (−20 °F)
To check the concentration of glycol in the coolant,
measure the specific gravity of the coolant.
• Reduction of heat transfer
Coolant Recommendations
• Leakage of the water pump seal
• ELC
Extended Life Coolant
• Plugging of radiators, coolers, and small passages
• SCA
Supplement Coolant Additive
Glycol
• ASTM
Materials
Glycol in the coolant helps to provide protection
against the following conditions:
The following two coolants are used in Perkins
diesel engines:
• Boiling
Preferred – Perkins ELC
• Freezing
• Cavitation of the water pump
For optimum performance, Perkins recommends a
1:1 mixture of a water/glycol solution.
Note: Use a mixture that will provide protection
against the lowest ambient temperature.
Note: 100 percent pure glycol will freeze at a
temperature of −23 °C (−9 °F).
Most conventional antifreezes use ethylene glycol.
Propylene glycol may also be used. In a 1:1 mixture
with water, ethylene and propylene glycol provide
similar protection against freezing and boiling. Refer
to Table 12 and refer to table 13 .
American Society for Testing and
Acceptable – A commercial heavy-duty antifreeze
that meets ASTM D6210 specifications
NOTICE
The 400F industrial engines must be operated
with a 1:1 mixture of water and glycol. This concentration allows the NOx reduction system to operate correctly at high ambient temperatures.
NOTICE
Do not use a commercial coolant/antifreeze that only
meets the ASTM D3306 specification. This type of
coolant/antifreeze is made for light automotive
applications.
Table 12
Ethylene Glycol
Concentration
Freeze Protection
50 Percent
−36 °C (−33 °F)
60 Percent
−51 °C (−60 °F)
Perkins recommends a 1:1 mixture of water and
glycol. This mixture of water and glycol will provide
optimum heavy-duty performance as an antifreeze.
This ratio may be increased to 1:2 water to glycol if
extra freezing protection is required.
A mixture of SCA inhibitor and water is acceptable
but will not give the same level of corrosion, boiling
and, freezing protection as ELC. Perkins
recommends a 6 percent to 8 percent concentration
of SCA in those cooling systems. Distilled water or
deionized water is preferred. Water which has the
recommended properties may be used
60
SEBU8609
Refill Capacities
Fluid Recommendations
Table 14
Coolant Service Life
Coolant Type
Service Life (1)
Perkins ELC
6,000 Service Hours or Three
Years
Commercial Heavy-Duty Antifreeze that meets ASTM
3000 Service Hours or Two Years
D6210
A Perkins approved SCA
inhibitor
(1)
In order to maintain the correct balance between the
antifreeze and the additives, you must maintain the
recommended concentration of ELC. Lowering the
proportion of antifreeze lowers the proportion of
additive. This action will lower the ability of the
coolant to protect the system from pitting, from
cavitation, from erosion, and from deposits.
NOTICE
Do not use a conventional coolant to top-off a cooling
system that is filled with Extended Life Coolant (ELC).
3000 Service Hours or Two Years
Use the interval that occurs first. The cooling system must also
be flushed out at this time.
ELC
Perkins provides ELC for use in the following
applications:
• Heavy-duty spark ignited gas engines
• Heavy-duty diesel engines
• Automotive applications
The anti-corrosion package for ELC is different from
the anti-corrosion package for other coolants. ELC is
an ethylene glycol base coolant. However, ELC
contains organic corrosion inhibitors and antifoam
agents with low amounts of nitrite. Perkins ELC has
been formulated with the correct amount of these
additives in order to provide superior corrosion
protection for all metals in engine cooling systems.
ELC is available in a premixed cooling solution with
distilled water. ELC is a 1:1 mixture. The Premixed
ELC provides freeze protection to −36 °C (−33 °F).
The Premixed ELC is recommended for the initial fill
of the cooling system. The Premixed ELC is also
recommended for topping off the cooling system.
Containers of several sizes are available. Consult
your Perkins distributor for the part numbers.
ELC Cooling System Maintenance
Correct additions to the Extended Life
Coolant
NOTICE
Use only Perkins products for pre-mixed or concentrated coolants.
Mixing Extended Life Coolant with other products reduces the Extended Life Coolant service life. Failure
to follow the recommendations can reduce cooling
system components life unless appropriate corrective
action is performed.
Do not use standard supplemental coolant additive
(SCA).
When using Perkins ELC, do not use standard SCA's
or SCA filters.
ELC Cooling System Cleaning
Note: If the cooling system is already using ELC,
cleaning agents are not required to be used at the
specified coolant change interval. Cleaning agents
are only required if the system has been
contaminated by the addition of some other type of
coolant or by cooling system damage.
Clean water is the only cleaning agent that is required
when ELC is drained from the cooling system.
Before the cooling system is filled, the heater control
(if equipped) must be set to the HOT position. Refer
to the OEM in order to set the heater control. After the
cooling system is drained and the cooling system is
refilled, operate the engine until the coolant level
reaches the normal operating temperature and until
the coolant level stabilizes. As needed, add the
coolant mixture in order to fill the system to the
specified level.
Changing to Perkins ELC
To change from heavy-duty antifreeze to the Perkins
ELC, perform the following steps:
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that all fluids are contained during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting and the repair of the
product. Be prepared to collect the fluid with suitable
containers before opening any compartment or disassembling any component containing fluids.
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
mandates.
1. Drain the coolant into a suitable container.
2. Dispose of the coolant according to local
regulations.
SEBU8609
61
Refill Capacities
Fluid Recommendations
3. Flush the system with clean water in order to
remove any debris.
4. Use Perkins cleaner to clean the system. Follow
the instruction on the label.
5. Drain the cleaner into a suitable container. Flush
the cooling system with clean water.
6. Fill the cooling system with clean water and
operate the engine until the engine is warmed to
49° to 66°C (120° to 150°F).
NOTICE
Incorrect or incomplete flushing of the cooling system
can result in damage to copper and other metal
components.
To avoid damage to the cooling system, make sure to
completely flush the cooling system with clear water.
Continue to flush the system until all the signs of the
cleaning agent are gone.
7. Drain the cooling system into a suitable container
and flush the cooling system with clean water.
Note: The cooling system cleaner must be thoroughly
flushed from the cooling system. Cooling system
cleaner that is left in the system will contaminate the
coolant. The cleaner may also corrode the cooling
system.
8. Repeat Steps 6 and repeat steps 7 until the system
is completely clean.
9. Fill the cooling system with the Perkins Premixed
ELC.
ELC Cooling System Contamination
NOTICE
Mixing ELC with other products reduces the effectiveness of the ELC and shortens the ELC service life.
Use only Perkins Products for premixed or concentrate coolants. Failure to follow these recommendations can result in shortened cooling system
component life.
ELC cooling systems can withstand contamination to
a maximum of 10 percent of conventional heavy-duty
antifreeze or SCA. If the contamination exceeds 10
percent of the total system capacity, perform ONE of
the following procedures:
• Drain the cooling system into a suitable container.
Dispose of the coolant according to local
regulations. Flush the system with clean water. Fill
the system with the Perkins ELC.
• Drain a portion of the cooling system into a
suitable container according to local regulations.
Then, fill the cooling system with premixed ELC.
This procedure should lower the contamination to
less than 10 percent.
• Maintain the system as a conventional Heavy-Duty
Coolant. Treat the system with an SCA. Change
the coolant at the interval that is recommended for
the conventional Heavy-Duty Coolant.
Commercial Heavy-Duty Antifreeze and
SCA
NOTICE
Commercial Heavy-Duty Coolant which contains
Amine as part of the corrosion protection system
must not be used.
NOTICE
Never operate an engine without water temperature
regulators in the cooling system. Water temperature
regulators help to maintain the engine coolant at the
correct operating temperature. Cooling system problems can develop without water temperature
regulators.
Check the antifreeze (glycol concentration) in order to
ensure adequate protection against boiling or
freezing. Perkins recommends the use of a
refractometer for checking the glycol concentration. A
hydrometer should not be used.
Perkins engine cooling systems should be tested at
500 hour intervals for the concentration of SCA.
Additions of SCA are based on the results of the test.
An SCA that is liquid may be needed at 500 hour
intervals.
Adding the SCA to Heavy-Duty Coolant at
the Initial Fill
Commercial heavy-duty antifreeze that meets ASTM
D4985 specifications MAY require an addition of SCA
at the initial fill. Read the label or the instructions that
are provided by the OEM of the product.
Use the equation that is in Table 15 to determine the
amount of Perkins SCA that is required when the
cooling system is initially filled.
62
SEBU8609
Refill Capacities
Fluid Recommendations
Table 15
Equation For Adding The SCA To The Heavy-Duty Coolant At
The Initial Fill
Cleaning the System of Heavy-Duty
Antifreeze
Perkins cooling system cleaners are designed to
clean the cooling system of harmful scale and
corrosion. Perkins cooling system cleaners dissolve
mineral scale, corrosion products, light oil
contamination, and sludge.
V × 0.045 = X
V is the total volume of the cooling system.
X is the amount of SCA that is required.
Table 16 is an example for using the equation that is
in Table 15 .
Table 16
Example Of The Equation For Adding The SCA To The HeavyDuty Coolant At The Initial Fill
Total Volume of the
Cooling System (V)
Multiplication
Factor
Amount of SCA
that is Required (X)
15 L (4 US gal)
× 0.045
0.7 L (24 oz)
Adding The SCA to The Heavy-Duty
Coolant For Maintenance
Heavy-duty antifreeze of all types REQUIRE periodic
additions of an SCA.
Test the antifreeze periodically for the concentration
of SCA. For the interval, refer to the Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Maintenance Interval
Schedule” (Maintenance Section). Test the
concentration of SCA.
Additions of SCA are based on the results of the test.
The size of the cooling system determines the
amount of SCA that is needed.
Use the equation that is in Table 17 to determine the
amount of Perkins SCA that is required, if
necessary:
Table 17
Equation For Adding The SCA To The Heavy-Duty Coolant For
Maintenance
V × 0.014 = X
V is the total volume of the cooling system.
X is the amount of SCA that is required.
Table 18 is an example for using the equation that is
in Table 17 .
Table 18
Example Of The Equation For Adding The SCA To The HeavyDuty Coolant For Maintenance
Total Volume of the
Cooling System (V)
Multiplication
Factor
Amount of SCA
that is Required (X)
15 L (4 US gal)
× 0.014
0.2 L (7 oz)
• Clean the cooling system after used coolant is
drained or before the cooling system is filled with
new coolant.
• Clean the cooling system whenever the coolant is
contaminated or whenever the coolant is foaming.
i04129134
Fluid Recommendations
General Lubricant Information
Because of government regulations regarding the
certification of exhaust emissions from the engine, the
lubricant recommendations must be followed.
• API
• SAE
American Petroleum Institute
Society Of Automotive Engineers Inc.
• ACEA
Association des Constructers
European Automobiles .
• ECF-3
Engine Crankcase Fluid
Licensing
The Engine Oil Licensing and Certification System
by the American Petroleum Institute (API) and the
Association des Constructers European
Automobilesand (ACRA) is recognized by Perkins .
For detailed information about this system, see the
latest edition of the API publication No. 1509. Engine
oils that bear the API symbol are authorized by API.
SEBU8609
63
Refill Capacities
Fluid Recommendations
The chemical limits were developed in order to
maintain the expected life of the engine
aftertreatment system. The performance of the
engine aftertreatment system can be adversely
affected if oil that is not specified in table 19 is used.
Illustration 39
g01987816
Typical API symbol
Terminology
Certain abbreviations follow the nomenclature of SAE
J754. Some classifications follow SAE J183
abbreviations, and some classifications follow the
EMA Recommended Guideline on Diesel Engine Oil.
In addition to Perkins definitions, there are other
definitions that will be of assistance in purchasing
lubricants. Recommended oil viscosities can be
found in this publication, “Fluid Recommendations/
Engine Oil” topic (Maintenance Section).
Engine Oil
Commercial Oils
NOTICE
Perkins require the use of the following specification of engine oil. Failure to use the appropriate
specification of engine oil will reduce the life of
your engine. Failure to use the appropriate specification of engine oil will also reduce the life of
your aftertreatment system.
Table 19
Classifications for the 400F Industrial Engines
Oil Specification
CJ-4
ACEA E9
ECF-3
API CJ-4 and ACEA E9 oil categories have the
following chemical limits:
• 0.1 percent maximum sulfated ash
• 0.12 percent maximum phosphorous
• 0. 4 percent maximum sulfur
The life of your Aftertreatment system is defined by
the accumulation of ash on the surface of the filter.
Ash is the inert part of the particulate matter. The
system is designed in order to collect this particulate
matter. There is a very small percentage of particulate
matter that is left behind as the soot is burnt. This
matter will eventually block the filter, causing loss of
performance and increased fuel consumption. Most
of the ash comes from the engine oil which is
gradually consumed during normal operation. This
ash is passes through the exhaust. To meet the
designed life of the product, the use of the
appropriate engine oil is essential. The oil
specification that is listed in table 19 has low ash
content.
Maintenance intervals for engines that use
biodiesel – The oil change interval can be adversely
affected by the use of biodiesel. Use oil analysis in
order to monitor the condition of the engine oil. Use
oil analysis also in order to determine the oil change
interval that is optimum.
Note: These engine oils are not approved by
Perkins and these engine oils must not be used:
CC, CD, CD-2, CF-4, CG-4, CH-4 and CI-4.
Lubricant Viscosity Recommendations
for Direct Injection (DI) Diesel Engines
The correct SAE viscosity grade of oil is determined
by the minimum ambient temperature during cold
engine start-up, and the maximum ambient
temperature during engine operation.
Refer to illustration40 (minimum temperature) in
order to determine the required oil viscosity for
starting a cold engine.
Refer to illustration 40 (maximum temperature) in
order to select the oil viscosity for engine operation at
the highest ambient temperature that is anticipated.
Generally, use the highest oil viscosity that is
available to meet the requirement for the temperature
at start-up.
64
SEBU8609
Refill Capacities
Fluid Recommendations
• See the appropriate “Lubricant Viscosities”. Refer
to the illustration 40 in order to find the correct oil
viscosity grade for your engine.
• At the specified interval, service the engine. Use
new oil and install a new oil filter.
• Perform maintenance at the intervals that are
specified in the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Maintenance Interval Schedule”.
Oil analysis
Some engines may be equipped with an oil sampling
valve. If oil analysis is required, the oil sampling valve
is used to obtain samples of the engine oil. The oil
analysis will complement the preventive maintenance
program.
Illustration 40
g02932046
Lubricant Viscosities
Supplemental heat is recommended for cold soaked
starts below the minimum ambient temperature.
Supplemental heat may be required for cold soaked
starts that are above the minimum temperature that is
stated, depending on the parasitic load and other
factors. Cold soaked starts occur when the engine
has not been operated for a period of time. This
interval will allow the oil to become more viscous due
to cooler ambient temperatures.
Aftermarket Oil Additives
Perkins does not recommend the use of aftermarket
additives in oil. It is not necessary to use aftermarket
additives in order to achieve the engines maximum
service life or rated performance. Fully formulated,
finished oils consist of base oils and of commercial
additive packages. These additive packages are
blended into the base oils at precise percentages in
order to help provide finished oils with performance
characteristics that meet industry standards.
There are no industry standard tests that evaluate the
performance or the compatibility of aftermarket
additives in finished oil. Aftermarket additives may not
be compatible with the finished oils additive package,
which could lower the performance of the finished oil.
The aftermarket additive could fail to mix with the
finished oil. This failure could produce sludge in the
crankcase. Perkins discourages the use of
aftermarket additives in finished oils.
To achieve the best performance from a Perkins
engine, conform to the following guidelines:
The oil analysis is a diagnostic tool that is used to
determine oil performance and component wear
rates. Contamination can be identified and measured
by using oil analysis. The oil analysis includes the
following tests:
• The Wear Rate Analysis monitors the wear of the
engines metals. The amount of wear metal and
type of wear metal that is in the oil is analyzed. The
increase in the rate of engine wear metal in the oil
is as important as the quantity of engine wear
metal in the oil.
• Tests are conducted in order to detect
contamination of the oil by water, glycol, or fuel.
• The Oil Condition Analysis determines the loss of
the oils lubricating properties. An infrared analysis
is used to compare the properties of new oil to the
properties of the used oil sample. This analysis
allows technicians to determine the amount of
deterioration of the oil during use. This analysis
also allows technicians to verify the performance
of the oil according to the specification during the
entire oil change interval.
SEBU8609
65
Refill Capacities
Fluid Recommendations
i04057529
Fluid Recommendations
Satisfactory engine performance is dependent on the
use of a good quality fuel. The use of a good quality
fuel will give the following results: long engine life and
acceptable exhaust emissions levels . The fuel must
meet the minimum requirements that are stated in the
table 20 .
• Glossary
• ISO International Standards Organization
• ASTMAmerican Society for Testing and Materials
• HFRRHigh Frequency Reciprocating Rig for
Lubricity testing of diesel fuels
• FAMEFatty Acid Methyl Esters
• CFRCo-ordinating Fuel Research
• ULSDUltra Low Sulfur Diesel
• RMERape Methyl Ester
• SMESoy Methyl Ester
• EPA Environmental Protection Agency of the
United States
• PPM Parts Per Million
• DPF Diesel Particulate Filter
General Information
NOTICE
Every attempt is made to provide accurate, up-to-date
information. By use of this document you agree that
Perkins Engines Company Limited is not responsible
for errors or omissions.
NOTICE
These recommendations are subject to change without notice. Contact your local Perkins distributor for
the most up-to-date recommendations.
The fuel information within this OMM is for use with
the following engine models: 403F-15T, 404F-22,
404F-22T, and 404F-22TA
Diesel Fuel Requirements
Perkins is not in a position to continuously evaluate
and monitor all worldwide distillate diesel fuel
specifications that are published by governments and
technological societies.
The Perkins table for Specification for Distillate
Diesel Fuel provides a known reliable baseline in
order to judge the expected performance of distillate
diesel fuels that are derived from conventional
sources.
NOTICE
The footnotes are of the key part Perkins Specification for Distillate Diesel Fuel Table. Read ALL of the
footnotes.
66
SEBU8609
Refill Capacities
Fluid Recommendations
Table 20
Perkins Specification for Distillate Diesel Fuel(1)
Property
UNITS
Requirements
ASTMTest
ISOTest
Aromatics
%Volume
35% maximum
D1319
ISO3837
Ash
%Weight
0.01% maximum
D482
ISO6245
Carbon Residue on 10%
Bottoms
%Weight
0.35% maximum
D524
ISO4262
Cetane Number (2)
-
40 minimum
D613/D6890
ISO5165
Cloud Point
°C
The cloud point must not ex- D2500
ceed the lowest expected
ambient temperature.
ISO3015
Copper Strip Corrosion
-
No. 3 maximum
D130
ISO2160
Density at 15 °C (59 °F)(3) Kg / M 3
801 minimum and 876
maximum
No equivalent test
ISO 3675ISO 12185
Distillation
°C
10% at 282 °C (539.6 °F)
maximum
90% at 360 °C (680 °F)
maximum
D86
ISO3405
Flash Point
°C
legal limit
D93
ISO2719
Thermal Stability
-
Minimum of 80% reflectance D6468
after aging for 180 minutes
at 150 °C (302 °F)
No equivalent test
Pour Point
°C
6 °C (42.8 °F) minimum be- D97
low ambient temperature
ISO3016
0.0015
ISO 20846ISO 20884
Sulfur (1)
Kinematic Viscosity
%mass
(4)
2
D5453/D26222
“MM” “/S (cSt)”
The viscosity of the fuel that D445
is delivered to the fuel injection pump. “1.4 minimum/
4.5 maximum”
ISO3405
Water and sediment
% weight
0.1% maximum
D1796
ISO3734
Water
% weight
0.1% maximum
D1744
No equivalent test
Sediment
% weight
0.05% maximum
D473
ISO3735
Gums and Resins (5)
mg/100mL
10 mg per 100 mL
maximum
D381
ISO6246
Lubricity corrected wear
scar diameter at 60 °C
(140 °F). (6)
mm
0.52 maximum
D6079
ISO12156-1
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
This specification includes the requirements for Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD). ULSD fuel will have ≤ 15 ppm (0.0015%) sulfur. Refer to
ASTM D5453, ASTM D2622, or ISO 20846, ISO 20884 test methods.
A fuel with a higher cetane number is recommended in order to operate at a higher altitude or in cold weather.
“Via standards tables, the equivalent API gravity for the minimum density of 801 kg / m3 (kilograms per cubic meter) is 45 and for the maximum
density of 876 kg / m3 is 30”.
The values of the fuel viscosity are the values as the fuel is delivered to the fuel injection pumps. Fuel should also meet the minimum viscosity
requirement and the fuel should meet the maximum viscosity requirements at 40 °C (104 °F) of either the ASTM D445 test method or the ISO
3104 test method. If a fuel with a low viscosity is used, cooling of the fuel may be required to maintain “1.4 cSt”or greater viscosity at the fuel injection pump. Fuels with a high viscosity might require fuel heaters in order to lower the viscosity to “1.4 cSt” at the fuel injection pump.
Follow the test conditions and procedures for gasoline (motor).
The lubricity of a fuel is a concern with ultra low sulfur fuel. To determine the lubricity of the fuel, use the ISO 12156-1 or ASTM D6079 High
Frequency Reciprocating Rig (HFRR) test. If the lubricity of a fuel does not meet the minimum requirements, consult your fuel supplier. Do not
treat the fuel without consulting the fuel supplier. Some additives are not compatible. These additives can cause problems in the fuel system.
SEBU8609
67
Refill Capacities
Fluid Recommendations
Engines that are manufactured by Perkins are
certified with the fuel that is prescribed by the United
States Environmental Protection Agency . Engines
that are manufactured by Perkins are certified with
the fuel that is prescribed by the European
Certification. Perkins does not certify diesel engines
on any other fuel.
Note: The owner and the operator of the engine has
the responsibility of using the fuel that is prescribed
by the EPA and other appropriate regulatory
agencies.
NOTICE
Operating with fuels that do not meet the Perkins recommendations can cause the following effects: Starting difficulty, poor combustion, deposits in the fuel
injectors, reduced service life of the fuel system, deposits in the combustion chamber and reduced service life of the engine.
The Perkins 400F diesel engines must be operated
using Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel. The sulphur content of
this fuel must be lower than 15 PPM. This fuel
complies with the emissions regulations that are
prescribed by the Environmental Protection Agency
of the United States
The fuels that are listed in the table 21 are
acceptable to use on all 400F engines.
Table 21
Acceptable Fuel Specification for the 400F Engines(1)
Fuel Specification
Comments
EN590
European Automotive Diesel Fuel (DERV)
ASDM D975 GRADE 1D S15
“North American Light Distillate Diesel fuel with less than 15 PPM sulfur
level”
ASTM D975 GRADE 2D S15
“North American Middle Distillate general purpose Diesel fuel with less
than 15 PPM sulfur level”
JIS K2204
“Japanese Diesel Fuel” Must meet the requirements that are stated in
the section “Lubricity”.
BS 2869 or equivalent
“EU Off Road Diesel fuel. Acceptable from 2011 MUST have less than
10 PPM sulfur level”
(1)
All the fuels must comply with the specification in the table for the Perkins Specification Distillate Diesel Fuel .
Diesel Fuel Characteristics
Cetane Number
Fuel that has a high cetane number will give a shorter
ignition delay. A high cetane number will produce a
better ignition quality. Cetane numbers are derived for
fuels against proportions of cetane and
heptamethylnonane in the standard CFR engine.
Refer to ISO 5165 for the test method.
Cetane numbers in excess of 45 are normally
expected from current diesel fuel. However, a cetane
number of 40 may be experienced in some territories.
The United States of America is one of the territories
that can have a low cetane value. A minimum cetane
value of 40 is required during average starting
conditions. A fuel with higher cetane number is
recommended for operations at high altitudes or in
cold-weather operations.
Fuel with a low cetane number can be the root cause
of problems during a cold start.
68
SEBU8609
Refill Capacities
Fluid Recommendations
Viscosity
Viscosity is the property of a liquid of offering
resistance to shear or flow. Viscosity decreases with
increasing temperature. This decrease in viscosity
follows a logarithmic relationship for normal fossil
fuel. The common reference is to kinematic viscosity.
kinematic viscosity is the quotient of the dynamic
viscosity that is divided by the density. The
determination of kinematic viscosity is normally by
readings from gravity flow viscometers at standard
temperatures. Refer to ISO 3104 for the test method.
The viscosity of the fuel is significant because fuel
serves as a lubricant for the fuel system components.
Fuel must have sufficient viscosity in order to
lubricate the fuel system in both extremely cold
temperatures and extremely hot temperatures . If the
kinematic viscosity of the fuel is lower than “1.4 cSt”
at the fuel injection pump, damage to the fuel injection
pump can occur. This damage can be excessive
scuffing and seizure. Low viscosity may lead to
difficult hot restarting, stalling, and loss of
performance. High viscosity may result in seizure of
the pump.
Perkins recommends kinematic viscosities of 1.4 and
4.5 mm2/sec that is delivered to the fuel injection
pump. If a fuel with a low viscosity is used, cooling of
the fuel may be required to maintain 1.4 cSt or
greater viscosity at the fuel injection pump. Fuels with
a high viscosity might require fuel heaters in order to
lower the viscosity to 4.5 cSt at the fuel injection
pump.
Density
Density is the mass of the fuel per unit volume at a
specific temperature. This parameter has a direct
influence on engine performance and a direct
influence on emissions. This influence determines
from a heat output given injected volume of fuel. This
parameter is quoted in the following kg/m at 15 °C
(59 °F).
Perkins recommends a value of density of 841 kg/m
in order to obtain the correct power output. Lighter
fuels are acceptable but these fuels will not produce
the rated power.
Sulfur
The level of sulfur is governed by emissions
legislations . Regional regulation, national
regulations, or international regulations can require a
fuel with a specific sulfur limit. The sulfur content of
the fuel and the fuel quality must comply with all
existing local regulations for emissions.
By using the test methods ASTM D5453, ASTM
D2622, or ISO 20846 ISO 20884, the content of sulfur
in ultra low sulfur (ULSD) fuel must be below 15 PPM
0.0015%. The lubricity of these fuels must not exceed
wear scar diameter of 0.52 mm (0.0205 inch). The
fuel lubricity test must be performed on an HFRR,
operated at 60 °C (140 °F). Refer to ISO 12156-1.
Lubricity
Lubricity is the capability of the fuel to prevent pump
wear. The fluids lubricity describes the ability of the
fluid to reduce the friction between surfaces that are
under load. This ability reduces the damage that is
caused by friction. Fuel injection systems rely on the
lubricating properties of the fuel. Until fuel sulfur limits
were mandated, the fuels lubricity was generally
believed to be a function of fuel viscosity.
The lubricity has particular significance to the current
low viscosity fuel , low sulfur fuel, and low aromatic
fossil fuel. These fuels are made in order to meet
stringent exhaust emissions. A test method for
measuring the lubricity of diesel fuels has been
developed and the test is based on the HFRR method
that is operated at 60°C (140°F). Refer to ISO 12156
part 1 and CEC document F06-A-96 for the test
method.
Lubricity wear scar diameter of 0.52 mm
(0.0205 inch) MUST NOT be exceeded. The fuel
lubricity test must be performed on an HFRR,
operated at 60 °C (140 °F). Refer to ISO 12156-1.
Distillation
Distillation is an indication of the mixture of different
hydrocarbons in the fuel. A high ratio of light weight
hydrocarbons can affect the characteristics of
combustion.
Recommendation for Biodiesel
Biodiesel is a fuel that can be defined as mono-alkyl
esters of fatty acids . Biodiesel is a fuel that can be
made from various feedstock. The most commonly
available biodiesel in Europe is Rape Methyl Ester
(REM) . This biodiesel is derived from rapeseed oil .
Soy Methyl Ester (SME) is the most common
biodiesel in the United States. This biodiesel is
derived from soybean oil . Soybean oil or rapeseed
oil are the primary feedstocks. These fuels are
together known as Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) .
SEBU8609
69
Refill Capacities
Fluid Recommendations
Raw pressed vegetable oils are NOT acceptable for
use as a fuel in any concentration in compression
engines . Without esterification, these oils solidify in
the crankcase and the fuel tank. These fuels may not
be compatible with many of the elastomers that are
used in engines that are manufactured today. In
original forms, these oils are not suitable for use as a
fuel in compression engines . Alternate base stocks
for biodiesel may include animal tallow , waste
cooking oils , or various other feedstocks. In order to
use any of the products that are listed as fuel, the oil
must be esterified .
Perkins recognizes the fact that additives may be
required in some special circumstances. Contact your
fuel supplier for those circumstances when fuel
additives are required. Your fuel supplier can
recommend the appropriate fuel additive and the
correct level of treatment.
Fuel made of 100 percent FAME is generally referred
to as B100 biodiesel or neat biodiesel.
Perkins Diesel Fuel System Cleaner
Biodiesel can be blended with distillate diesel fuel.
The blends can be used as fuel. The most commonly
available biodiesel blends are B7, which is 7 percent
biodiesel and 95 percent distillate diesel fuel.
Note: For the best results, your fuel supplier should
treat the fuel when additives are required. The treated
fuel must meet the requirements that are stated in
table 20 .
Perkins T400012 Fuel Cleaner is the only fuel
cleaner that is recommended by Perkins .
The U.S. distillate diesel fuel specification ASTM
D975-09a includes up to B5 (5 percent) biodiesel.
If biodiesel or biodiesel blends of fuel are to be used,
Perkins require the use of Perkins fuel cleaner. The
use of the fuel is in order to remove deposits within
the fuel system that is created with the use of
biodiesel. For more information on the use of
biodiesel and biodiesel blends refer to
“Recommendation for Biodiesel”.
European distillate diesel fuel specification EN590
includes up B7 (7 percent) biodiesel. Any diesel fuel
in Europe may contain up to B5 or in some regions up
to B7 biodiesel fuel.
Perkins fuel cleaner will remove deposits that can
form in the fuel system with the use of biodiesel and
biodiesel blends. These deposits can create a loss of
power and engine performance.
Note: Engines that are manufactured by Perkins are
certified by use of the prescribed Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA) and European Certification
fuels. Perkins does not certify engines on any other
fuel. The user of the engine has the responsibility of
using the correct fuel that is recommended by the
manufacturer and allowed by the EPA and other
appropriate regulatory agencies.
Once the fuel cleaner has been added to the fuel, the
deposits within the fuel system are removed after 30
hours of engine operation. For maximum results,
continue to use the fuel cleaner for up to 80 hours.
Perkins fuel cleaner can be used on an on-going
basis with no adverse impact on engine or fuel
system durability.
Note: The percentages given are volume-based.
Fuel for Cold Weather Operation
The European standard EN590 contains climate
dependant requirements and a range of options. The
options can be applied differently in each country.
There are five classes that are given to arctic climates
and severe winter climates . 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4.
Fuel that complies with EN590 CLASS 4 can be used
at temperatures as low as −44 °C (−47.2 °F). Refer
to EN590 for a detailed discretion of the physical
properties of the fuel.
The diesel fuel ASTM D975 1-D used in the United
States of America may be used in very cold
temperatures that are below −18 °C (−0.4 °F).
Aftermarket Fuel Additives
Supplemental diesel fuel additives are not generally
recommended . This recommendation is due to
potential damage to the fuel system or the engine.
Your fuel supplier or the fuel manufacturer will add the
appropriate supplemental diesel fuel additives.
Details instruction on the rate of which the fuel
cleaner must be use are on the container.
Note: Perkins fuel cleaner is compatible with
existing and U.S. EPA Tier 4 nonroad certified diesel
engine emission control catalysts and particulate
filters. Perkins fuel system cleaner contains less
than 15 ppm of sulfur and is acceptable for use with
ULSD fuel.
70
Maintenance Recommendations
System Pressure Release
SEBU8609
Maintenance
Recommendations
i04056177
System Pressure Release
Components for the driven equipment should also be
considered. When possible, remove the component
that requires welding. When welding on an engine
that is equipped with an ECM and removal of the
component is not possible, the following procedure
must be followed. This procedure minimizes the risk
to the electronic components.
1. Stop the engine. Remove the electrical power from
the ECM.
Coolant System
2. Ensure that the fuel supply to the engine is turned
off.
Pressurized system: Hot coolant can cause serious burn. To open cap, stop engine, wait until radiator is cool. Then loosen cap slowly to relieve
the pressure.
Ensure that the power supply is isolated before any
service or repair is performed.
To relieve the pressure from the coolant system, turn
off the engine. Allow the cooling system pressure cap
to cool. Remove the cooling system pressure cap
slowly in order to relieve pressure.
Engine Oil
To relieve pressure from the lubricating system, turn
off the engine.
i04055929
Welding on Engines with
Electronic Controls
Correct welding procedures are necessary in order to
avoid damage to the following components:
• Electronic Control Module (ECM) on the engine
• Associated components
• Electronic components for the driven equipment
• ECM
• Sensors
• Relays
To relieve the pressure from the fuel system, turn off
the engine.
• Sensors
4. Disconnect all electronic components from the
wiring harnesses. Include the following
components:
• Electronically controlled valves
Fuel System
• Clean Emissions Module (CEM)
3. Disconnect the negative battery cable from the
battery. If a battery disconnect switch is installed,
open the switch.
• Aftertreatment ID module
NOTICE
Do not use electrical components (ECM or ECM sensors) or electronic component grounding points for
grounding the welder.
SEBU8609
71
Maintenance Recommendations
Severe Service Application
i04150276
Severe Service Application
Severe service is the application of an engine that
exceeds the current published standards for that
engine. Perkins maintains standards for the
following engine parameters:
• Performance such as power range, speed range,
and fuel consumption
• Fuel quality
• Operational Altitude
• Maintenance intervals
• Oil selection and maintenance
• Coolant type and maintenance
• Environmental qualities
• Installation
• The temperature of the fluid in the engine
Illustration 41
g01075639
Use the example above. The current flow from the
welder to the ground clamp of the welder will not
damage any associated components.
(1) Engine
(2) Welding electrode
(3) Keyswitch in the OFF position
(4) Battery disconnect switch in the open position
(5) Disconnected battery cables
(6) Battery
(7) Electrical/Electronic component
(8) Minimum distance between the component that is being welded
and any electrical/electronic component
(9) The component that is being welded
(10) Current path of the welder
(11) Ground clamp for the welder
5. When possible, connect the ground clamp for the
welding equipment directly to the engine
component that will be welded. Place the clamp as
close as possible to the weld. Close positioning
reduces the risk of welding current damage to the
engine bearings, to the electrical components, and
to other components.
6. Protect the wiring harnesses from welding debris
and/or from welding spatter.
7. Use standard welding procedures to weld the
materials together.
Refer to the standards for the engine or consult your
Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor in order to
determine if the engine is operating within the defined
parameters.
Severe service operation can accelerate component
wear. Engines that operate under severe conditions
may need more frequent maintenance intervals in
order to ensure maximum reliability and retention of
full service life.
Due to individual applications, it is not possible to
identify all of the factors which can contribute to
severe service operation. Consult your Perkins
dealer or your Perkins distributor for the unique
maintenance that is necessary for the engine.
The operating environment, incorrect operating
procedures, and incorrect maintenance procedures
can be factors which contribute to a severe service
application.
Environmental Factors
Ambient temperatures – The engine may be
exposed to extended operation in cold environments
or hot environments. Valve components can be
damaged by carbon buildup if the engine is frequently
started and stopped in cold temperatures. Hot intake
air reduces engine performance.
Quality of the air – The engine may be exposed to
extended operation in an environment that is dirty or
dusty, unless the equipment is cleaned regularly.
Mud, dirt, and dust can encase components.
Maintenance can be difficult. The buildup can contain
corrosive chemicals.
72
Maintenance Recommendations
Severe Service Application
Buildup – Compounds, elements, corrosive
chemicals, and salt can damage some components.
Altitude – Problems can arise when the engine is
operated at altitudes that are higher than the intended
settings for that application. Necessary adjustments
should be made.
Incorrect Operating Procedures
• Extended operation at low idle
• Frequent hot shutdowns
• Operating at excessive loads
• Operating at excessive speeds
• Operating outside the intended application
Incorrect Maintenance Procedures
• Extending the maintenance intervals
• Failure to use recommended fuel, lubricants, and
coolant/antifreeze
SEBU8609
SEBU8609
73
Maintenance Recommendations
Maintenance Interval Schedule
i05146189
Maintenance Interval Schedule
“Belts - Inspect/Replace” .........................................77
“Crankcase Breather (Canister) - Replace”.............83
“Engine Valve Lash - Check” ...................................89
When Required
“Battery - Replace”...................................................75
“Battery or Battery Cable - Disconnect”...................76
“Engine - Clean”.......................................................85
“Fuel System - Prime”..............................................92
Daily
“Coolant Level - Check”...........................................80
“Engine Air Cleaner Service Indicator - Inspect” .....85
“Engine Air Precleaner - Check/Clean” ...................86
“Engine Oil Level - Check”.......................................86
“Walk-Around Inspection” ........................................97
Every 50 Service Hours or Weekly
“Fuel Tank Water and Sediment - Drain” .................93
Every 250 Service Hours or 6
Months
“Alternator and Fan Belts - Inspect/Adjust” .............74
“Belts - Inspect/Adjust/Replace” ..............................76
Every 500 Service Hours
“Engine Air Cleaner Element - Replace” .................85
“Turbocharger - Inspect” ..........................................96
Every 2000 Service Hours
“Alternator - Inspect” ................................................73
“Engine Mounts - Inspect” .......................................86
“Starting Motor - Inspect” .........................................96
Every 3000 Service Hours
“Coolant Temperature Regulator - Replace” ...........82
“Diesel Particulate Filter - Clean”.............................84
“Fuel Injector - Test/Change” ...................................91
“Glow Plugs (ARD Combustion) - Replace” ............93
“Radiator Pressure Cap - Clean/Replace”...............96
“Water Pump - Inspect”............................................98
Every 3000 Service Hours or 2
Years
“Coolant (Commercial Heavy-Duty) - Change” .......77
Every 12 000 Service Hours or 6
Years
“Coolant (ELC) - Change”........................................79
Commissioning
“Fan Clearance - Check” .........................................90
“Fan Clearance - Check” .........................................90
i02322311
“Fuel Filter (In-Line) - Replace”................................90
“Fuel System Secondary Filter - Replace” ..............92
Alternator - Inspect
Every 500 Service Hours or 1 Year
“Battery Electrolyte Level - Check” ..........................75
“Cooling System Supplemental Coolant Additive
(SCA) - Test/Add”.....................................................82
“Engine Oil and Filter - Change”..............................87
“Hoses and Clamps - Inspect/Replace”...................94
“Radiator - Clean” ....................................................95
Every 1000 Service Hours
“Alternator and Fan Belts - Replace” .......................75
Perkins recommends a scheduled inspection of the
alternator. Inspect the alternator for loose
connections and correct battery charging. Check the
ammeter (if equipped) during engine operation in
order to ensure correct battery performance and/or
correct performance of the electrical system. Make
repairs, as required.
74
SEBU8609
Maintenance Recommendations
Alternator and Fan Belts - Inspect/Adjust
Check the alternator and the battery charger for
correct operation. If the batteries are correctly
charged, the ammeter reading should be very near
zero. All batteries should be kept charged. The
batteries should be kept warm because temperature
affects the cranking power. If the battery is too cold,
the battery will not crank the engine. When the engine
is not run for long periods of time or if the engine is
run for short periods, the batteries may not fully
charge. A battery with a low charge will freeze more
easily than a battery with a full charge.
Install the gauge (1) at the center of the belt between
the alternator and the crankshaft pulley and check the
belt tension. The correct tension for a new belt is
400 N (90 lb) to 489 N (110 lb). The correct tension
for a used belt that has been in operation for 30
minutes or more at the rated speed is 267 N (60 lb) to
356 N (80 lb).
Adjustment
i05162309
Alternator and Fan Belts Inspect/Adjust
Inspection
To maximize the engine performance, inspect the belt
for wear and for cracking. Replace a belt that is worn
or damaged.
If a belt is too loose, vibration causes unnecessary
wear on the belt and pulleys. Loose belts may slip
enough to cause overheating.
To accurately check the belt tension, a suitable gauge
should be used.
Illustration 43
g03316634
1. Loosen bolts (1) and adjusting bolt (2). Loosen bolt
(4).
2. Move the alternator (3) in order to increase or
decrease the belt tension.
3. Tighten adjusting bolt (2). Tighten bolts (1) and
tighten bolt (4). Refer to the Specifications Manual
for the correct torque settings.
Illustration 42
Typical example
(1) Burroughs Gauge
g03316638
75
SEBU8609
Maintenance Recommendations
Alternator and Fan Belts - Replace
i05162326
Alternator and Fan Belts Replace
The battery cables or the batteries should not be
removed with the battery cover in place. The battery cover should be removed before any servicing is attempted.
Removing the battery cables or the batteries with
the cover in place may cause a battery explosion
resulting in personal injury.
1. Switch the engine to the OFF position. Remove all
electrical loads.
2. Turn off any battery chargers. Disconnect any
battery chargers.
3. The NEGATIVE “-” cable connects the NEGATIVE
“-” battery terminal to the NEGATIVE “-” terminal
on the starting motor. Disconnect the cable from
the NEGATIVE “-” battery terminal.
4. The POSITIVE “+” cable connects the POSITIVE
“+” battery terminal to the POSITIVE “+” terminal
on the starting motor. Disconnect the cable from
the POSITIVE “+” battery terminal.
Illustration 44
g03316634
(1) Securing bolt
(2) Adjusting bolt
(3) Alternator
(4) Lower securing bolt
Note: Always recycle a battery. Never discard a
battery. Dispose of used batteries to an appropriate
recycling facility.
5. Remove the used battery.
The air pump belt must be removed before the fan
belt can be removed.
6. Install the new battery.
Refer to the Disassembly and Assembly Manual for
the installation procedure and the removal procedure
for both belts.
Note: Before the cables are connected, ensure that
the engine start switch is OFF.
7. Connect the cable from the starting motor to the
POSITIVE “+” battery terminal.
i02322315
Battery - Replace
8. Connect the NEGATIVE “-” cable to the
NEGATIVE “-” battery terminal.
i02747977
Batteries give off combustible gases which can
explode. A spark can cause the combustible
gases to ignite. This can result in severe personal
injury or death.
Ensure proper ventilation for batteries that are in
an enclosure. Follow the proper procedures in order to help prevent electrical arcs and/or sparks
near batteries. Do not smoke when batteries are
serviced.
Battery Electrolyte Level Check
When the engine is not run for long periods of time or
when the engine is run for short periods, the batteries
may not fully recharge. Ensure a full charge in order
to help prevent the battery from freezing. If batteries
are correctly charged, the ammeter reading should be
very near zero, when the engine is in operation.
76
Maintenance Recommendations
Battery or Battery Cable - Disconnect
SEBU8609
All lead-acid batteries contain sulfuric acid which
can burn the skin and clothing. Always wear a
face shield and protective clothing when working
on or near batteries.
1. Remove the filler caps. Maintain the electrolyte
level to the “FULL” mark on the battery.
If the addition of water is necessary, use distilled
water. If distilled water is not available use clean
water that is low in minerals. Do not use artificially
softened water.
4. Clean all disconnected connection and battery
terminals.
5. Use a fine grade of sandpaper to clean the
terminals and the cable clamps. Clean the items
until the surfaces are bright or shiny. DO NOT
remove material excessively. Excessive removal of
material can cause the clamps to not fit correctly.
Coat the clamps and the terminals with a suitable
silicone lubricant or petroleum jelly.
6. Tape the cable connections in order to help prevent
accidental starting.
7. Proceed with necessary system repairs.
2. Check the condition of the electrolyte with a
suitable battery tester.
8. In order to connect the battery, connect the positive
connection before the negative connector.
3. Install the caps.
4. Keep the batteries clean.
i05162380
Clean the battery case with one of the following
cleaning solutions:
• Use a solution of 0.1 kg (0.2 lb) baking soda
and 1 L (1 qt) of clean water.
• Use a solution of ammonium hydroxide .
Inspection
Thoroughly rinse the battery case with clean water.
i02323088
Battery or Battery Cable Disconnect
The battery cables or the batteries should not be
removed with the battery cover in place. The battery cover should be removed before any servicing is attempted.
Removing the battery cables or the batteries with
the cover in place may cause a battery explosion
resulting in personal injury.
1. Turn the start switch to the OFF position. Turn the
ignition switch (if equipped) to the OFF position
and remove the key and all electrical loads.
2. Disconnect the negative battery terminal. Ensure
that the cable cannot contact the terminal. When
four 12 volt batteries are involved, two negative
connection must be disconnected.
3. Remove the positive connection.
Belts - Inspect/Adjust/Replace
(Air Pump Belt)
To maximize the engine performance, inspect the belt
for wear and for cracking. Replace a belt that is worn
or damaged.
If the belt is too loose, vibration causes unnecessary
wear on the belt and pulleys. A loose belt may slip
enough to cause overheating.
77
SEBU8609
Maintenance Recommendations
Belts - Inspect/Replace
Adjust
Replace Belt
The belt should only be replaced if the belt is worn or
damaged.
i05162435
Belts - Inspect/Replace
(Air Pump belt)
The air pump belt must be replaced at 1000 hours.
Refer to Disassembly and Assembly, “Belt (Air Pump)
- Remove and Install” for more information.
i05160093
Coolant (Commercial HeavyDuty) - Change
Illustration 45
g03316723
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be
prepared to collect the fluid with suitable containers
before opening any compartment or disassembling
any component containing fluids.
Dispose of all fluids according to Local regulations
and mandates.
NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.
Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened
component life.
Clean the cooling system and flush the cooling
system before the recommended maintenance
interval if the following conditions exist:
• The engine overheats frequently.
Illustration 46
g03316722
• Foaming is observed.
The correct tension for a new belt is 310 N (69 lb).
The correct tension for a used belt that has been in
operation for 30 minutes or more at the rated speed is
220 N (49 lb).
The belt tension should be checked at the center
point of the belt between the pulleys.
1. Loosen bolt (1) and loosen bolt (3).
2. Adjust bolt (2) in order to tension the belt.
3. Tighten bolt (1) and bolt (3) securely.
• The oil has entered the cooling system and the
coolant is contaminated.
• The fuel has entered the cooling system and the
coolant is contaminated.
Note: When the cooling system is cleaned, only
clean water is needed.
78
Maintenance Recommendations
Coolant (Commercial Heavy-Duty) - Change
SEBU8609
Note: Inspect the water pump and the water
temperature regulator after the cooling system has
been drained. This inspection is a good opportunity to
replace the water pump, the water temperature
regulator, and the hoses, if necessary.
For information regarding the disposal and the
recycling of used coolant, consult your Perkins
dealer or your Perkins distributor.
Drain
1. Flush the cooling system with clean water in order
to remove any debris.
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the
pressure.
1. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.
Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in order
to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap.
Flush
2. Close the drain cock or install the drain plug in the
engine. Close the drain cock or install the drain
plug on the radiator.
NOTICE
Do not fill the cooling system faster than 5 L
(1.3 US gal) per minute to avoid air locks.
Cooling system air locks may result in engine
damage.
3. Fill the cooling system with clean water. Install the
cooling system filler cap.
4. Start and run the engine at low idle until the
temperature reaches 49 to 66 °C (120 to 150 °F).
5. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.
Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in order
to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap. Open the drain cock or remove
the drain plug on the engine. Open the drain cock
or remove the drain plug on the radiator. Allow the
water to drain. Flush the cooling system with clean
water.
Fill
1. Close the drain cock or install the drain plug on the
engine. Close the drain cock or install the drain
plug on the radiator.
Illustration 47
g03305397
Typical example
2. Open the drain cock or remove the drain plug (1)
on the engine. Open the drain cock or remove the
drain plug on the radiator.
Allow the coolant to drain.
NOTICE
Dispose of used engine coolant or recycle. Various
methods have been proposed to reclaim used coolant
for reuse in engine cooling systems. The full distillation procedure is the only method acceptable by Perkins to reclaim the coolant.
NOTICE
Do not fill the cooling system faster than 5 L
(1.3 US gal) per minute to avoid air locks.
Cooling system air locks may result in engine
damage.
2. Fill the cooling system with Commercial HeavyDuty Coolant. Add Supplemental Coolant Additive
to the coolant. For the correct amount, refer to the
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Fluid
Recommendations” topic (Maintenance Section)
for more information on cooling system
specifications. Do not install the cooling system
filler cap.
SEBU8609
79
Maintenance Recommendations
Coolant (ELC) - Change
3. Start and run the engine at low idle. Increase the
engine rpm to high idle. Run the engine at high idle
for 1 minute in order to purge the air from the
cavities of the engine block. Stop the engine.
4. Check the coolant level. Maintain the coolant level
within 13 mm (0.5 inch) below the bottom of the
pipe for filling. Maintain the coolant level in the
expansion bottle (if equipped) at the correct level.
5. Clean the cooling system filler cap. Inspect the
gasket that is on the cooling system filler cap. If the
gasket that is on the cooling system filler cap is
damaged, discard the old cooling system filler cap
and install a new cooling system filler cap. If the
gasket that is on the cooling system filler cap is not
damaged, use a suitable pressurizing pump in
order to pressure test the cooling system filler cap.
The correct pressure for the cooling system filler
cap is stamped on the face of the cooling system
filler cap. If the cooling system filler cap does not
retain the correct pressure, install a new cooling
system filler cap.
6. Start the engine. Inspect the cooling system for
leaks and for correct operating temperature.
i05149269
Coolant (ELC) - Change
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be
prepared to collect the fluid with suitable containers
before opening any compartment or disassembling
any component containing fluids.
• The engine overheats frequently.
• Foaming is observed.
• The oil has entered the cooling system and the
coolant is contaminated.
• The fuel has entered the cooling system and the
coolant is contaminated.
Note: When the cooling system is cleaned, only
clean water is needed when the Extended Life
Coolant (ELC) is drained and replaced.
Note: Inspect the water pump and the water
temperature regulator after the cooling system has
been drained. This inspection is a good opportunity to
replace the water pump, the water temperature
regulator, and the hoses, if necessary.
Drain
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the
pressure.
1. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.
Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in order
to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap.
Dispose of all fluids according to Local regulations
and mandates.
NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.
Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened
component life.
Clean the cooling system and flush the cooling
system before the recommended maintenance
interval if the following conditions exist:
Illustration 48
Typical example
g03305397
80
Maintenance Recommendations
Coolant Level - Check
2. Open the drain cock or remove the drain plug (1)
on the engine. Open the drain cock or remove the
drain plug on the radiator.
Allow the coolant to drain.
NOTICE
Dispose of used engine coolant or recycle. Various
methods have been proposed to reclaim used coolant
for reuse in engine cooling systems. The full distillation procedure is the only method acceptable by Perkins to reclaim the coolant.
For information regarding the disposal and the
recycling of used coolant, consult your Perkins
dealer or your Perkins distributor.
Flush
1. Flush the cooling system with clean water in order
to remove any debris.
2. Close the drain cock or install the drain plug in the
engine. Close the drain cock or install the drain
plug on the radiator.
NOTICE
Do not fill the cooling system faster than 5 L
(1.3 US gal) per minute to avoid air locks.
Cooling system air locks may result in engine
damage.
3. Fill the cooling system with clean water. Install the
cooling system filler cap.
4. Start and run the engine at low idle until the
temperature reaches 49 to 66 °C (120 to 150 °F).
5. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.
Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in order
to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap. Open the drain cock or remove
the drain plug on the engine. Open the drain cock
or remove the drain plug on the radiator. Allow the
water to drain. Flush the cooling system with clean
water.
Fill
1. Close the drain cock or install the drain plug on the
engine. Close the drain cock or install the drain
plug on the radiator.
SEBU8609
NOTICE
Do not fill the cooling system faster than 5 L
(1.3 US gal) per minute to avoid air locks.
Cooling system air locks may result in engine
damage.
2. Fill the cooling system with ELC. Refer to the
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Fluid
Recommendations” topic (Maintenance Section)
for more information on cooling system
specifications. Do not install the cooling system
filler cap.
3. Start and operate the engine at low idle. Increase
the engine rpm to high idle. Operate the engine at
high idle for 1 minute in order to purge the air from
the cavities of the engine block. Stop the engine.
4. Check the coolant level. Maintain the coolant level
within 13 mm (0.5 inch) below the bottom of the
pipe for filling. Maintain the coolant level in the
expansion bottle (if equipped) at the correct level.
5. Clean the cooling system filler cap. Inspect the
gasket that is on the cooling system filler cap. If the
gasket that is on the cooling system filler cap is
damaged, discard the old cooling system filler cap
and install a new cooling system filler cap. If the
gasket that is on the cooling system filler cap is not
damaged, use a suitable pressurizing pump in
order to pressure test the cooling system filler cap.
The correct pressure for the cooling system filler
cap is stamped on the face of the cooling system
filler cap. If the cooling system filler cap does not
retain the correct pressure, install a new cooling
system filler cap.
6. Start the engine. Inspect the cooling system for
leaks and for correct operating temperature.
i05149389
Coolant Level - Check
Engines With a Coolant Recovery
Tank
Note: The cooling system may not have been
provided by Perkins . The procedure that follows is
for typical cooling systems. Refer to the OEM
information for the correct procedures.
Check the coolant level when the engine is stopped
and cool.
SEBU8609
81
Maintenance Recommendations
Coolant Level - Check
NOTICE
When any servicing or repair of the engine cooling
system is performed, the procedure must be performed with the engine on level ground. Level ground
will allow you to check accurately the coolant level.
This checking will also help in avoiding the risk of introducing an air lock into the coolant system.
1. Observe the coolant level in the coolant recovery
tank. Maintain the coolant level to “COLD FULL”
mark on the coolant recovery tank.
4. Clean the filler cap and the receptacle. Reinstall
the filler cap and inspect the cooling system for
leaks.
Note: The coolant will expand as the coolant heats
up during normal engine operation. The additional
volume will be forced into the coolant recovery tank
during engine operation. When the engine is stopped
and cool, the coolant will return to the engine.
Engines Without a Coolant
Recovery Tank
Check the coolant level when the engine is stopped
and cool.
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the
pressure.
2. Loosen filler cap slowly in order to relieve any
pressure. Remove the filler cap.
3. Pour the correct coolant mixture into the tank.
Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Refill Capacities and Recommendations” for
information on the correct mixture and type of
coolant. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Refill Capacities and Recommendations”
for the engine cooling system capacity. Do not fill
the coolant recovery tank above “COLD FULL”
mark.
Illustration 50
g00285520
Cooling system filler cap
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the
pressure.
1. Remove the cooling system filler cap slowly in
order to relieve pressure.
2. Maintain the coolant level at the maximum mark
that is correct for your application. If the engine is
equipped with a sight glass, maintain the coolant
level to the correct level in the sight glass.
Illustration 49
Filler cap
g02590196
3. Clean the cooling system filler cap and inspect the
gasket. If the gasket is damaged, discard the old
filler cap and install a new filler cap. If the gasket is
not damaged, use a suitable pressurizing pump in
order to pressure test the filler cap. The correct
pressure is stamped on the face of the filler cap. If
the filler cap does not retain the correct pressure,
install a new filler cap.
82
Maintenance Recommendations
Coolant Temperature Regulator - Replace
SEBU8609
4. Inspect the cooling system for leaks.
i03644948
i05160120
Coolant Temperature
Regulator - Replace
Replace the water temperature regulator before the
water temperature regulator fails. This is a
recommended preventive maintenance practice.
Replacing the water temperature regulator reduces
the chances for unscheduled downtime.
A water temperature regulator that fails in a partially
opened position can cause overheating or
overcooling of the engine.
A water temperature regulator that fails in the closed
position can cause excessive overheating. Excessive
overheating could result in cracking of the cylinder
head or piston seizure problems.
A water temperature regulator that fails in the open
position will cause the engine operating temperature
to be too low during partial load operation. Low
engine operating temperatures during partial loads
could cause an excessive carbon buildup inside the
cylinders. This excessive carbon buildup could result
in an accelerated wear of the piston rings and wear of
the cylinder liner.
NOTICE
Failure to replace your water temperature regulator
on a regularly scheduled basis could cause severe
engine damage.
Perkins engines incorporate a shunt design cooling
system and require operating the engine with a water
temperature regulator installed.
If the water temperature regulator is installed incorrectly, the engine may overheat, causing cylinder
head damage. Ensure that the new water temperature regulator is installed in the original position. Ensure that the water temperature regulator vent hole is
open.
Do not use liquid gasket material on the gasket or cylinder head surface.
Refer to the Disassembly and Assembly Manual,
“Water Temperature Regulator - Remove and Install”
for the replacement procedure of the water
temperature regulator, or consult your Perkins
dealer or your Perkins distributor.
Note: If only the water temperature regulators are
replaced, drain the coolant from the cooling system to
a level that is below the water temperature regulator
housing.
Cooling System Supplemental
Coolant Additive (SCA) - Test/
Add
Cooling system coolant additive contains alkali.
To help prevent personal injury, avoid contact
with the skin and the eyes. Do not drink cooling
system coolant additive.
Test for SCA Concentration
Heavy-Duty Coolant/Antifreeze and SCA
NOTICE
Do not exceed the recommended six percent supplemental coolant additive concentration.
Use a Coolant Conditioner Test Kit in order to check
the concentration of the SCA.
Add the SCA, If Necessary
NOTICE
Do not exceed the recommended amount of supplemental coolant additive concentration. Excessive supplemental coolant additive concentration can form
deposits on the higher temperature surfaces of the
cooling system, reducing the engine's heat transfer
characteristics. Reduced heat transfer could cause
cracking of the cylinder head and other high temperature components. Excessive supplemental coolant
additive concentration could also result in radiator
tube blockage, overheating, and/or accelerated water
pump seal wear. Never use both liquid supplemental
coolant additive and the spin-on element (if equipped)
at the same time. The use of those additives together
could result in supplemental coolant additive concentration exceeding the recommended maximum.
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the
pressure.
SEBU8609
83
Maintenance Recommendations
Crankcase Breather (Canister) - Replace
NOTICE
When any servicing or repair of the engine cooling
system is performed the procedure must be performed with the engine on level ground. This will allow
you to accurately check the coolant level. This will also help in avoiding the risk of introducing an air lock
into the coolant system.
1. Slowly loosen the cooling system filler cap in order
to relieve the pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap.
Note: Always discard drained fluids according to local
regulations.
2. If necessary, drain some coolant from the cooling
system into a suitable container in order to allow
space for the extra SCA.
• The filter element within the crankcase breather
must be serviced at the prescribed service interval.
• The correct filter element must be installed before
the engine is operated.
• The installation of the filter element is very
important.
• The quality of the filter element that is installed is
very important.
• The filter element protects the engine from
excessive quantities of oil from entering the
induction system. The filter element also protects
the engine aftertreatment system.
Note: Excessive quantities of oil that enter the
induction system of the engine can rapidly increase
the engine speed without control.
3. Add the correct amount of SCA. Refer to the
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Refill
Capacities and Recommendations” for more
information on SCA requirements.
4. Clean the cooling system filler cap and inspect the
gasket. If the gasket is damaged, discard the old
filler cap and install a new filler cap. If the gasket is
not damaged, use a suitable pressurizing pump in
order to pressure test the filler cap. The correct
pressure is stamped on the face of the filler cap. If
the filler cap does not retain the correct pressure,
install a new filler cap.
i05199993
Crankcase Breather (Canister)
- Replace
Illustration 51
g03331718
Typical example
Hot oil and hot components can cause personal
injury. Do not allow hot oil or hot components to
contact the skin.
NOTICE
Ensure that the engine is stopped before any servicing or repair is performed.
The crankcase breather is a very important
component in order to keep your engine emissions
compliant.
1. Ensure that dirt cannot enter the breather
assembly. Ensure that the outside body of the
breather assembly is clean and free from damage.
Place a container under the breather assembly.
2. Remove clip (3) and remove hose (4) from cap (2).
Remove cap (2) from the main body (1).
84
Maintenance Recommendations
Diesel Particulate Filter - Clean
SEBU8609
i05153374
Diesel Particulate Filter - Clean
Wear goggles, gloves, protective clothing, and a
National Institute for Occupational Safety and
Health (NIOSH) approved P95 or N95 half-face respirator when handling a used Diesel Particulate
Filter or Catalytic Converter Muffler. Failure to do
so could result in personal injury.
The muffler, catalytic converter/muffler, and diesel
particulate filter will become extremely hot during
engine operation. A hot muffler, catalytic converter/muffler and diesel particulate filter can cause
serious burns. Allow adequate cooling time before working on or near the muffler, catalytic converter/muffler and diesel particulate filter.
Illustration 52
g03331704
Typical example
3. Remove filter element (5) and remove O ring seal
(6) and discard.
Note: Ensure that all parts are clean and free from
dirt.
4. Install a new O ring seal (6) onto the cap (2) and
install a new filter element (5) into the cap (2).
5. Install cap assembly into the main body (1).
Tighten the cap assembly to 10 N·m (7 lb ft).
6. Install hose (4) and clip (3). Remove the container
and clean away any split fluid.
Illustration 53
g02335296
Typical example
Note: Improper cleaning or repair of the Diesel
Particulate Filter (DPF) can damage the DPF and the
engine aftertreatment system. Contact your Perkins
dealer for more information.
The DPF is enclosed within the assembly (1). For
information on removal of the DPF, refer to
Disassembly and Assembly, “DPF - Remove”.
SEBU8609
85
Maintenance Recommendations
Engine - Clean
• The DPF on the three cylinder engine is different
from the four cylinder engine.
• Only ultra low sulfur diesel fuel can be used in an
application that has an aftertreatment regeneration
device. The use of other fuel will damage your
engine system.
Aftertreatment
During the engine cleaning process, ensure that
water or cleaning fluids cannot enter the
aftertreatment system. If cleaning fluids enters the
aftertreatment system, damage could occur.
i05160996
• The engine must be operated on CJ-4
specification of engine oil.
i03991933
Engine - Clean
The air cleaner may be installed by the Original
Equipment Manufacture (OEM). Refer to the OEM for
instruction on how to remove the element within the
air cleaner.
Personal injury or death can result from high
voltage.
Moisture can
conductivity.
create
Engine Air Cleaner Element Replace
paths
of
electrical
Make sure that the electrical system is OFF. Lock
out the starting controls and tag the controls “ DO
NOT OPERATE”” .
NOTICE
Accumulated grease and oil on an engine is a fire
hazard. Keep the engine clean. Remove debris and
fluid spills whenever a significant quantity accumulates on the engine.
Periodic cleaning of the engine is recommended.
Steam cleaning the engine will remove accumulated
oil and grease. A clean engine provides the following
benefits:
i02335405
Engine Air Cleaner Service
Indicator - Inspect
Some engines may be equipped with a different
service indicator.
Some engines are equipped with a differential gauge
for inlet air pressure. The differential gauge for inlet
air pressure displays the difference in the pressure
that is measured before the air cleaner element and
the pressure that is measured after the air cleaner
element. As the air cleaner element becomes dirty,
the pressure differential rises. If your engine is
equipped with a different type of service indicator,
follow the OEM recommendations in order to service
the air cleaner service indicator.
The service indicator may be mounted on the air
cleaner element or in a remote location.
• Easy detection of fluid leaks
• Maximum heat transfer characteristics
• Ease of maintenance
Note: Caution must be used in order to prevent
electrical components from being damaged by
excessive water when the engine is cleaned.
Pressure washers and steam cleaners should not be
directed at any electrical connectors or the junction of
cables into the rear of the connectors. Avoid electrical
components such as the alternator, the starter, and
the ECM. Protect the fuel injection pump from fluids in
order to wash the engine.
Illustration 54
Typical service indicator
g00103777
86
Maintenance Recommendations
Engine Air Precleaner - Check/Clean
SEBU8609
Observe the service indicator. The air cleaner
element should be cleaned or the air cleaner element
should be replaced when one of the following
conditions occur:
Note: When the engine is operated in dusty
applications, more frequent cleaning is required.
i02323089
• The yellow diaphragm enters the red zone.
Engine Mounts - Inspect
• The red piston locks in the visible position.
Test the Service Indicator
Service indicators are important instruments.
• Check for ease of resetting. The service indicator
should reset in less than three pushes.
• Check the movement of the yellow core when the
engine is accelerated to the engine rated speed.
The yellow core should latch at the greatest
vacuum that is attained.
If the service indicator does not reset easily, or if the
yellow core does not latch at the greatest vacuum,
the service indicator should be replaced. If the new
service indicator will not reset, the hole for the service
indicator may be restricted.
The service indicator may need to be replaced
frequently in environments that are severely dusty.
Note: The engine mounts may not have been
supplied by Perkins . Refer to the OEM information
for further information on the engine mounts and the
correct bolt torque.
Inspect the engine mounts for deterioration and for
correct bolt torque. Engine vibration can be caused
by the following conditions:
• Incorrect mounting of the engine
• Deterioration of the engine mounts
• Loose engine mounts
Any engine mount that shows deterioration should be
replaced. Refer to the OEM information for the
recommended torques.
i05164949
i02927289
Engine Air Precleaner - Check/
Clean
Engine Oil Level - Check
Hot oil and hot components can cause personal
injury. Do not allow hot oil or hot components to
contact the skin.
Illustration 55
g01453058
Typical engine air precleaner
(1) Wing nut
(2) Cover
(3) Body
Remove wing nut (1) and cover (2). Check for an
accumulation of dirt and debris in body (3). Clean the
body, if necessary.
After cleaning the precleaner, install cover (2) and
wing nut (1).
SEBU8609
87
Maintenance Recommendations
Engine Oil and Filter - Change
i05153469
Engine Oil and Filter - Change
Hot oil and hot components can cause personal
injury. Do not allow hot oil or hot components to
contact the skin.
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be
prepared to collect the fluid with suitable containers
before opening any compartment or disassembling
any component containing fluids.
Illustration 56
g03317856
(Y) “ADD” mark. (X) “FULL” mark.
(A) Original oil level gauge
(B) Alternative oil level gauge
NOTICE
Perform this maintenance with the engine stopped.
Note: Oil gauge (A) or oil gauge (B) may be installed
in the engine.
1. Maintain the oil level between “ADD” mark (Y) and
“FULL” mark (X) on oil level gauge (1). Do not fill
the crankcase above “FULL” mark (X).
NOTICE
Operating your engine when the oil level is above the
“FULL” mark could cause your crankshaft to dip into
the oil. The air bubbles created from the crankshaft
dipping into the oil reduces the oil's lubricating characteristics and could result in the loss of power.
2. Remove the oil filler cap and add oil, if necessary.
Clean the oil filler cap. Install the oil filler cap.
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
mandates.
NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.
Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened
component life.
Do not drain the oil when the engine is cold. As the oil
cools, suspended waste particles settle on the bottom
of the oil pan. The waste particles are not removed
with the draining cold oil. Drain the crankcase with the
engine stopped. Drain the crankcase with the oil
warm. This draining method allows the waste
particles that are suspended in the oil to be drained
correctly.
Failure to follow this recommended procedure will
cause the waste particles to be recirculated through
the engine lubrication system with the new oil.
Drain the Engine Oil
After the engine has been run at the normal operating
temperature, stop the engine. Use one of the
following methods to drain the engine crankcase oil:
• If the engine is equipped with a drain valve, turn
the drain valve knob counterclockwise in order to
drain the oil. After the oil has drained, turn the
drain valve knob clockwise in order to close the
drain valve.
• If the engine is not equipped with a drain valve,
remove the oil drain plug in order to allow the oil to
drain. After the oil has drained, the oil drain plug
should be cleaned and installed.
88
Maintenance Recommendations
Engine Oil and Filter - Change
SEBU8609
Replace the Oil Filter
NOTICE
Perkins oil filters are built to Perkins specifications.
Use of an oil filter not recommended by Perkins
could result in severe engine damage to the engine
bearings, crankshaft, etc., as a result of the larger
waste particles from unfiltered oil entering the engine
lubricating system. Only use oil filters recommended
by Perkins .
1. Remove the oil filter with a suitable tool.
Note: The following actions can be carried out as part
of the preventive maintenance program.
2. Cut the oil filter open with a suitable tool. Break
apart the pleats and inspect the oil filter for metal
debris. An excessive amount of metal debris in the
oil filter may indicate early wear or a pending
failure.
Use a magnet to differentiate between the ferrous
metals and the nonferrous metals that are found in
the oil filter element. Ferrous metals may indicate
wear on the steel and cast iron parts of the engine.
Nonferrous metals may indicate wear on the
aluminum parts, brass parts, or bronze parts of the
engine. Parts that may be affected include the
following items: main bearings, rod bearings,
turbocharger bearings and cylinder heads.
Due to normal wear and friction, it is not
uncommon to find small amounts of debris in the
oil filter. Consult your Perkins dealer or your
Perkins distributor in order to arrange for a further
analysis if an excessive amount of debris is found
in the oil filter.
Illustration 57
g01334593
(1) Oil cooler
(2) Adapter
(3) Oil filter
Note: The oil cooler (1) and the adapter (2) are
installed on engines that have a turbocharger.
3. Clean the sealing surface of the cylinder block or
the oil cooler (1).
4. Apply clean engine oil to the new oil filter seal (3).
NOTICE
Do not fill the oil filters with oil before installing them.
This oil would not be filtered and could be contaminated. Contaminated oil can cause accelerated wear
to engine components.
5. Install the oil filter. Tighten the oil filter by hand. Do
not overtighten the oil filter.
Fill the Engine Crankcase
1. Remove the oil filler cap. Refer to the Operation
and Maintenance Manual for more information on
lubricant specifications. Fill the crankcase with the
correct amount of oil. Refer to the Operation and
Maintenance Manual for more information on refill
capacities.
NOTICE
If equipped with an auxiliary oil filter system or a remote oil filter system, follow the OEM or filter manufacturer's recommendations. Under filling or overfilling
the crankcase with oil can cause engine damage.
SEBU8609
89
Maintenance Recommendations
Engine Valve Lash - Check
NOTICE
To prevent crankshaft bearing damage, crank the engine with the fuel OFF. This will fill the oil filters before
starting the engine. Do not crank the engine for more
than 30 seconds.
2. Start the engine and run the engine at “LOW IDLE”
for 2 minutes. Perform this procedure in order to
ensure that the lubrication system has oil and that
the oil filters are filled. Inspect the oil filter for oil
leaks.
3. Stop the engine and allow the oil to drain back to
the sump for a minimum of 10 minutes.
NOTICE
Only qualified service personnel should perform this
maintenance. Refer to the Service Manual or your authorized Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor
for the complete valve lash adjustment procedure.
Operation of Perkins engines with incorrect valve
lash can reduce engine efficiency, and also reduce
engine component life.
Ensure that the engine can not be started while
this maintenance is being performed. To help prevent possible injury, do not use the starting motor
to turn the flywheel.
Hot engine components can cause burns. Allow
additional time for the engine to cool before measuring/adjusting valve lash clearance.
Ensure that the engine is stopped before measuring
the valve lash. The engine valve lash can be
inspected and adjusted when the temperature of the
engine is hot or cold.
Refer to Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting,
“Engine Valve Lash - Inspect/Adjust” for more
information.
Illustration 58
g03306420
(Y) “ADD” mark. (X) “FULL” mark.
(A) Original oil level gauge
(B) Alternative oil level gauge
4. Remove the oil level gauge in order to check the oil
level. Maintain the oil level between the “MIN” and
“MAX” marks on the oil level gauge.
i05153520
Engine Valve Lash - Check
This maintenance is recommended by Perkins as
part of a lubrication and preventive maintenance
schedule in order to help provide maximum engine
life. The maintenance for the valve lash is important in
order to keep the engine compliant.
90
Maintenance Recommendations
Fan Clearance - Check
SEBU8609
i05153591
Fan Clearance - Check
i05161054
Fuel Filter (In-Line) - Replace
Fuel leaked or spilled onto hot surfaces or electrical components can cause a fire. To help prevent
possible injury, turn the start switch off when
changing fuel filters or water separator elements.
Clean up fuel spills immediately.
Note: Refer to Systems Operation, Testing, and
Adjusting, “Cleanliness of Fuel System
Components” for detailed information on the
standards of cleanliness that must be observed
during ALL work on the fuel system.
NOTICE
Ensure that the engine is stopped before any servicing or repair is performed.
The location of the in-line fuel filter will depend on the
application that the engine has been installed.
Illustration 59
g03309719
Typical example
Ensure that the engine is stopped. Ensure that the
battery disconnect switch is in the OFF position.
Ensure that the cooling system is full.
The clearance between the cover (2) and the fan (1)
will require checking. The gap between the edge of
the cover and the tip of the fan blade (A) must be
checked in four equally spaced positions.
• (A) equals 5 mm (0.19685 inch) for the three
cylinder engine and the four cylinder naturally
aspirated engine.
• (A) equals 10 mm (0.39370 inch) for the
turbocharged engine.
Illustration 60
g03315616
Arrows show fuel flow
Note: The cover is not adjustable.
Note: The in-line fuel filter is an off engine part.
1. Turn the fuel supply valve (if equipped) to the OFF
position. Remove clamp (3) and remove clamp (6).
2. Remove inlet hose (4) and remove outlet hose (5)
from in-line filter (1).
SEBU8609
91
Maintenance Recommendations
Fuel Injector - Test/Change
3. If installed, remove clamp (2) and remove in-line
filter (1) from application.
• The engine will not start or the engine is difficult to
start.
4. Install new in-line filter (1) and install clamp (2).
• Not enough power
5. Install inlet hose (4) and install clamp (3). Install
outlet hose (5) and install clamp (6).
• The engine misfires or the engine runs erratically.
6. Turn the fuel supply valve (if equipped) to the ON
position. Prime the system, refer to this Operation
and Maintenance Manual, “Fuel System - Prime”.
• Black exhaust smoke
i02154268
Fuel Injector - Test/Change
• High fuel consumption
• The engine knocks or there is vibration in the
engine.
• Excessive engine temperature
For further information on the removal and the
installation of the fuel injectors, refer to the
Disassembly and Assembly manual.
For further information on the testing of fuel injectors,
refer to the Testing and Adjusting manual.
Fuel leaked or spilled onto hot surfaces or electrical components can cause a fire.
Make sure that you wear eye protection at all
times during testing. When fuel injection nozzles
are tested, test fluids travel through the orifices of
the nozzle tip with high pressure. Under this
amount of pressure, the test fluid can pierce the
skin and cause serious injury to the operator. Always keep the tip of the fuel injection nozzle
pointed away from the operator and into the fuel
collector and extension.
NOTICE
Do not allow dirt to enter the fuel system. Thoroughly
clean the area around a fuel system component that
will be disconnected. Fit a suitable cover over disconnected fuel system component.
Regular maintenance of the fuel injectors is
recommended by Perkins . The fuel injectors must be
removed and tested by an authorized agent. The fuel
injectors should not be cleaned as cleaning with
incorrect tools can damage the nozzle. The fuel
injectors should be renewed only if a fault with the
fuel injectors occurs. Some of the problems that may
indicate that new fuel injectors are needed are listed
below:
Identification of a suspect Fuel
Injector
Work carefully around an engine that is running.
Engine parts that are hot, or parts that are moving, can cause personal injury.
NOTICE
If your skin comes into contact with high pressure
fuel, obtain medical assistence immediately.
NOTICE
If a fuel injector is suspected of operating outside of
normal parameters it should be removed by a qualified technician. The suspect fuel injector should be
taken to an authorised agent for inspection.
Operate the engine at a fast idle speed in order to
identify the faulty fuel injector. Individually loosen and
tighten the union nut for the high pressure pipe to
each fuel injector. Do not loosen the union nut more
than half a turn. There will be little effect on the
engine speed when the union nut to the faulty fuel
injector is loosened.
Consult your authorized Perkins dealer or your
Perkins distributor for further assistance.
92
Maintenance Recommendations
Fuel System - Prime
SEBU8609
i04145953
Fuel System - Prime
Turn the keyswitch to the ON position for 2 minutes in
order to prime the fuel system. Turn keyswitch to OFF
position, then turn on again. The engine is primed
and ready to start.
i05164991
Fuel System Secondary Filter Replace
Fuel leaked or spilled onto hot surfaces or electrical components can cause a fire. To help prevent
possible injury, turn the start switch off when
changing fuel filters or water separator elements.
Clean up fuel spills immediately.
Illustration 61
g03317866
Typical example
2. Clean the outside of the fuel filter assembly (1).
NOTICE
Do not allow dirt to enter the fuel system. Thoroughly
clean the area around a fuel system component that
will be disconnected. Fit a suitable cover over disconnected fuel system component.
3. Remove setscrew (2).
4. Remove the canister (3). Ensure that any fluid is
drained into a suitable container.
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be
prepared to collect the fluid with suitable containers
before opening any compartment or disassembling
any component containing fluids.
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
mandates.
Fuel Filter with Canister
1. Close the fuel supply valve.
Illustration 62
g02710378
Typical example
5. Assemble the following items: seals (8), seal (7),
canister (3) and bowl (10). Place washer (5) and
seal (6) on setscrew (2).
SEBU8609
93
Maintenance Recommendations
Fuel Tank Water and Sediment - Drain
6. Fasten the assembly to the fuel filter base with
setscrew (2).
The fuel system will need to be primed after the new
filter is installed. Refer to this Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Fuel System - Prime”.
i02335436
Fuel Tank Water and Sediment
- Drain
Some fuel tanks use supply pipes that allow water
and sediment to settle below the end of the fuel
supply pipe. Some fuel tanks use supply lines that
take fuel directly from the bottom of the tank. If the
engine is equipped with this system, regular
maintenance of the fuel system filter is important.
Fuel Storage Tanks
Drain the water and the sediment from the fuel
storage tank at the following intervals:
• Weekly
• Service intervals
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be
prepared to collect the fluid with suitable containers
before opening any compartment or disassembling
any component containing fluids.
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
mandates.
Fuel Tank
Fuel quality is critical to the performance and to the
service life of the engine. Water in the fuel can cause
excessive wear to the fuel system.
Water can be introduced into the fuel tank when the
fuel tank is being filled.
Condensation occurs during the heating and cooling
of fuel. The condensation occurs as the fuel passes
through the fuel system and the fuel returns to the
fuel tank. This causes water to accumulate in fuel
tanks. Draining the fuel tank regularly and obtaining
fuel from reliable sources can help to eliminate water
in the fuel.
Drain the Water and the Sediment
Fuel tanks should contain some provision for draining
water and draining sediment from the bottom of the
fuel tanks.
Open the drain valve on the bottom of the fuel tank in
order to drain the water and the sediment. Close the
drain valve.
Check the fuel daily. Allow five minutes after the fuel
tank has been filled before draining water and
sediment from the fuel tank.
Fill the fuel tank after operating the engine in order to
drive out moist air. This will help prevent
condensation. Do not fill the tank to the top. The fuel
expands as the fuel gets warm. The tank may
overflow.
• Refill of the tank
This will help prevent water or sediment from being
pumped from the storage tank into the engine fuel
tank.
If a bulk storage tank has been refilled or moved
recently, allow adequate time for the sediment to
settle before filling the engine fuel tank. Internal
baffles in the bulk storage tank will also help trap
sediment. Filtering fuel that is pumped from the
storage tank helps to ensure the quality of the fuel.
When possible, water separators should be used.
i05154415
Glow Plugs (ARD Combustion)
- Replace
Ensure that all adjustments and repairs are
performed by authorized personnel that have the
correct training.
94
Maintenance Recommendations
Hoses and Clamps - Inspect/Replace
SEBU8609
• Cracking
• Softness
• Loose clamps
Replace hoses that are cracked or soft. Tighten any
loose clamps.
NOTICE
Do not bend or strike high pressure lines. Do not install bent or damaged lines, tubes or hoses. Repair
any loose or damaged fuel and oil lines, tubes and
hoses. Leaks can cause fires. Inspect all lines, tubes
and hoses carefully. Tighten all connections to the
recommended torque. Do not clip any other item to
the high pressure lines.
Check for the following conditions:
• End fittings that are damaged or leaking
Illustration 63
g03310158
• Outer covering that is chafed or cut
Typical example
• Exposed wire that is used for reinforcement
Remove the Glow Plug for the After
Regeneration Devise (ARD)
• Outer covering that is ballooning locally
1. Ensure that all components are clean and free from
dirt and grease. Remove protective cap (1).
• Armoring that is embedded in the outer covering
2. Remove nut (2) from glow plug (4) and remove
electrical connection (3).
A constant torque hose clamp can be used in place of
any standard hose clamp. Ensure that the constant
torque hose clamp is the same size as the standard
clamp.
3. Remove glow plug (4) from ARD (5).
Install New Glow Plug
1. Install new glow plug (4) into ARD (5) and tighten
glow plug to a torque of 17 N·m (150 lb in).
2. Install the electrical connection (3) and install nut
(2). Tighten nut (2) two a torque of 1.5 N·m
(13 lb in).
3. Install protective cap (1).
• Flexible part of the hose that is kinked or crushed
Due to extreme temperature changes, the hose will
harden. Hardening of the hoses will cause hose
clamps to loosen. This can result in leaks. A constant
torque hose clamp will help to prevent loose hose
clamps.
Each installation application can be different. The
differences depend on the following factors:
• Type of hose
• Type of fitting material
• Anticipated expansion and contraction of the hose
i02813964
Hoses and Clamps - Inspect/
Replace
• Anticipated expansion and contraction of the
fittings
Replace the Hoses and the Clamps
Refer to the OEM information for further information
on removing and replacing fuel hoses (if equipped).
Inspect all hoses for leaks that are caused by the
following conditions:
SEBU8609
95
Maintenance Recommendations
Radiator - Clean
The coolant system and the hoses for the coolant
system are not usually supplied by Perkins . The
following text describes a typical method of replacing
coolant hoses. Refer to the OEM information for
further information on the coolant system and the
hoses for the coolant system.
Note: Adjust the frequency of cleaning according to
the effects of the operating environment.
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the
pressure.
Personal injury can result from air pressure.
Inspect the radiator for these items: Damaged fins,
corrosion, dirt, grease, insects, leaves, oil and other
debris. Clean the radiator, if necessary.
Personal injury can result without following proper procedure. When using pressure air, wear a
protective face shield and protective clothing.
Maximum air pressure at the nozzle must be less
than 205 kPa (30 psi) for cleaning purposes.
1. Stop the engine. Allow the engine to cool.
2. Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in order
to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap.
Note: Drain the coolant into a suitable, clean
container. The coolant can be reused.
3. Drain the coolant from the cooling system to a level
that is below the hose that is being replaced.
4. Remove the hose clamps.
5. Disconnect the old hose.
6. Replace the old hose with a new hose.
7. Install the hose clamps with a torque wrench.
Note: For the correct coolant, see this Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Fluid Recommendations”.
8. Refill the cooling system. Refer to the OEM
information for further information on refilling the
cooling system.
9. Clean the cooling system filler cap. Inspect the
cooling system filler cap's seals. Replace the
cooling system filler cap if the seals are damaged.
Install the cooling system filler cap.
10. Start the engine. Inspect the cooling system for
leaks.
i02335774
Radiator - Clean
The radiator is not usually supplied by Perkins . The
following text describes a typical cleaning procedure
for the radiator. Refer to the OEM information for
further information on cleaning the radiator.
Pressurized air is the preferred method for removing
loose debris. Direct the air in the opposite direction to
the fan's air flow. Hold the nozzle approximately 6 mm
(0.25 inch) away from the radiator fins. Slowly move
the air nozzle in a direction that is parallel with the
radiator tube assembly. This will remove debris that is
between the tubes.
Pressurized water may also be used for cleaning. The
maximum water pressure for cleaning purposes must
be less than 275 kPa (40 psi). Use pressurized water
in order to soften mud. Clean the core from both
sides.
Use a degreaser and steam for removal of oil and
grease. Clean both sides of the core. Wash the core
with detergent and hot water. Thoroughly rinse the
core with clean water.
If the radiator is blocked internally, refer to the OEM
Manual for information regarding flushing the cooling
system.
After cleaning the radiator, start the engine. Allow the
engine to operate at low idle speed for three to five
minutes. Accelerate the engine to high idle. This will
help in the removal of debris and the drying of the
core. Slowly reduce the engine speed to low idle and
then stop the engine. Use a light bulb behind the core
in order to inspect the core for cleanliness. Repeat
the cleaning, if necessary.
Inspect the fins for damage. Bent fins may be opened
with a “comb”. Inspect these items for good condition:
Welds, mounting brackets, air lines, connections,
clamps and seals. Make repairs, if necessary.
96
Maintenance Recommendations
Radiator Pressure Cap - Clean/Replace
SEBU8609
i03639888
Radiator Pressure Cap - Clean/
Replace
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the
pressure.
NOTICE
When any servicing or repair of the engine cooling
system is performed the procedure must be performed with the engine on level ground. This will allow
you to accurately check the coolant level. This will also help in avoiding the risk of introducing an air lock
into the coolant system.
1. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.
Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in order
to relieve any pressure. Remove the radiator
pressure cap.
A regular visual inspection of the turbocharger is
recommended. Any fumes from the crankcase are
filtered through the air inlet system. Therefore, byproducts from oil and from combustion can collect in
the turbocharger compressor housing. Over time, this
buildup can contribute to loss of engine power,
increased black smoke and overall loss of engine
efficiency.
If the turbocharger fails during engine operation,
damage to the turbocharger compressor wheel and/
or to the engine may occur. Damage to the
turbocharger compressor wheel can cause additional
damage to the pistons, the valves, and the cylinder
head.
NOTICE
Turbocharger bearing failures can cause large quantities of oil to enter the air intake and exhaust systems.
Loss of engine lubricant can result in serious engine
damage.
Minor leakage of oil into a turbocharger under extended low idle operation should not cause problems
as long as a turbocharger bearing failure has not
occurred.
When a turbocharger bearing failure is accompanied
by a significant loss of engine performance, do not
continue engine operation until the turbocharger is
renewed.
2. Check coolant level. Refer to Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Cooling System Coolant
Level - Check”.
A visual inspection of the turbocharger can minimize
unscheduled downtime. A visual inspection of the
turbocharger can also reduce the chance for potential
damage to other engine parts.
3. Install new radiator pressure cap.
Removal and Installation
i02177969
Starting Motor - Inspect
Perkins recommends a scheduled inspection of the
starting motor. If the starting motor fails, the engine
may not start in an emergency situation.
Check the starting motor for correct operation. Check
the electrical connections and clean the electrical
connections. Refer to the Systems Operation, Testing
and Adjusting Manual, “Electric Starting System Test” for more information on the checking procedure
and for specifications or consult your Perkins dealer
or your Perkins distributor for assistance.
i05157183
Turbocharger - Inspect
(If Equipped)
For options regarding the removal, installation, and
replacement, consult your Perkins dealer or your
Perkins distributor. Refer to the Disassembly and
Assembly Manual, “Turbocharger - Remove and
Turbocharger - Install” for further information.
Inspecting
NOTICE
The compressor housing for the turbocharger must
not be removed from the turbocharger for cleaning.
The actuator linkage is connected to the compressor
housing. If the actuator linkage is moved or disturbed,
the engine may not comply with emissions legislation.
SEBU8609
97
Maintenance Recommendations
Walk-Around Inspection
1. Remove the pipe from the turbocharger exhaust
outlet and remove the air intake pipe to the
turbocharger. Visually inspect the piping for the
presence of oil. Clean the interior of the pipes in
order to prevent dirt from entering during
reassembly.
NOTICE
Accumulated grease and/or oil on an engine is a fire
hazard. Remove the accumulated grease and oil. Refer to this Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Engine - Clean” for more information.
2. Check for the presence of oil. If oil is leaking from
the back side of the compressor wheel, there is a
possibility of a failed turbocharger oil seal.
• Ensure that the cooling system hoses are correctly
clamped and that the cooling system hoses are
tight. Check for leaks. Check the condition of all
pipes.
The presence of oil may be the result of extended
engine operation at low idle. The presence of oil
may also be the result of a restriction of the line for
the intake air (clogged air filters), which causes the
turbocharger to slobber.
3. Inspect the bore of the housing of the turbine outlet
for corrosion.
4. Fasten the air intake pipe and the exhaust outlet
pipe to the turbocharger housing.
i02177973
Walk-Around Inspection
Inspect the Engine for Leaks and
for Loose Connections
A walk-around inspection should only take a few
minutes. When the time is taken to perform these
checks, costly repairs and accidents can be avoided.
For maximum engine service life, make a thorough
inspection of the engine compartment before starting
the engine. Look for items such as oil leaks or coolant
leaks, loose bolts, worn belts, loose connections and
trash buildup. Make repairs, as needed:
• The guards must be in the correct place. Repair
damaged guards or replace missing guards.
• Wipe all caps and plugs before the engine is
serviced in order to reduce the chance of system
contamination.
NOTICE
For any type of leak (coolant, lube, or fuel) clean up
the fluid. If leaking is observed, find the source and
correct the leak. If leaking is suspected, check the fluid levels more often than recommended until the leak
is found or fixed, or until the suspicion of a leak is
proved to be unwarranted.
• Inspect the water pump for coolant leaks.
Note: The water pump seal is lubricated by the
coolant in the cooling system. It is normal for a small
amount of leakage to occur as the engine cools down
and the parts contract.
Excessive coolant leakage may indicate the need to
replace the water pump seal. For the removal of the
water pump and the installation of water pump and/or
seal, refer to the Disassembly and Assembly Manual,
“Water Pump - Remove and Install” for more
information or consult your Perkins dealer or your
Perkins distributor.
• Inspect the lubrication system for leaks at the front
crankshaft seal, the rear crankshaft seal, the oil
pan, the oil filters and the rocker cover.
• Inspect the fuel system for leaks. Look for loose
fuel line clamps and/or tie-wraps.
• Inspect the piping for the air intake system and the
elbows for cracks and for loose clamps. Ensure
that hoses and tubes are not contacting other
hoses, tubes, wiring harnesses, etc.
• Inspect the alternator belts and any accessory
drive belts for cracks, breaks or other damage.
Belts for multiple groove pulleys must be replaced as
matched sets. If only one belt is replaced, the belt will
carry more load than the belts that are not replaced.
The older belts are stretched. The additional load on
the new belt could cause the belt to break.
98
Maintenance Recommendations
Water Pump - Inspect
SEBU8609
• Drain the water and the sediment from the fuel
tank on a daily basis in order to ensure that only
clean fuel enters the fuel system.
• Inspect the wiring and the wiring harnesses for
loose connections and for worn wires or frayed
wires.
• Inspect the ground strap for a good connection
and for good condition.
• Disconnect any battery chargers that are not
protected against the current drain of the starting
motor. Check the condition and the electrolyte
level of the batteries, unless the engine is
equipped with a maintenance free battery.
• Check the condition of the gauges. Replace any
gauges that are cracked. Replace any gauge that
can not be calibrated.
i01907756
Water Pump - Inspect
A failed water pump may cause severe engine
overheating problems that could result in the following
conditions:
• Cracks in the cylinder head
• A piston seizure
• Other potential damage to the engine
Note: The water pump seal is lubricated by the
coolant in the cooling system. It is normal for a small
amount of leakage to occur as the engine cools down
and parts contract.
Visually inspect the water pump for leaks. Renew the
water pump seal or the water pump if there is an
excessive leakage of coolant. Refer to the
Disassembly and Assembly Manual, “Water Pump Remove and Install” for the disassembly and
assembly procedure.
SEBU8609
99
Warranty Section
Federal Emission Control Warranty
Warranty Section
As a condition of reimbursement, replaced parts and
receipted invoices must be presented at a place of
business of a Perkins distributor or your Perkins
dealer or other establishment authorized by Perkins
Engine Company limited
Warranty Information
i04059789
Federal Emission Control
Warranty
This warranty covers the following emission-related
parts and components:
• Turbocharger System
• Inlet Manifold
• Fuel Injection System
Emissions Warranty
• Crankcase Ventilation System
The 400F diesel engines are an nonroad
compression ignition engine . Perkins Engine
Company limited warrants to the initial owner and to
the subsequent owner of the 400F diesel engines
that such an engine is:
• Electronic Engine Control System
1. Designed, built, and equipped so that the engine
conforms, at the time of sale, with all applicable
regulations adopted by the United States
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) .
• Aftertreatment Regeneration Device
2. Free from defects in materials and workmanship in
specific emission-related parts for the following
period:
• The warranty period is for 3000 hours or for 5
years, whichever occurs first, after the date of
delivery to the owner that operates the engine.
• Engine Aftertreatment System
• NOxReduction System
• Miscellaneous valves, switches, hoses, clamps,
connectors, tubing, and sealing devices that are
used in the above systems
Limitations and Responsibilities
The warranty is subject to the following conditions:
Perkins Engine Company limited
Responsibilities
If an emission-related part fails during any of the
warranty periods, the part will be repaired or replaced.
Any such part repaired or replaced under warranty is
warranted for the remainder of the warranty period.
During the emission warranty period, if a defect in
material or workmanship of an emission-related part
or component is found, Perkins Engine Company
limited will provide the following:
During the term of this warranty, Perkins Engine
Company limited will provide through a Perkins
distributor or your Perkins dealer or other
establishment authorized by it, repair or replacement
of any warranted part at no charge to the engine
owner.
• New, Remanufactured or repaired parts and/or
components, approved pursuant to EPA
Regulations, required to correct the defect.
In an emergency, repairs may be performed at any
service establishment, or by the owner, using any
replacement part. It is recommended that emissionrelated parts be replaced with genuine Perkins
Engine Company limited parts.
Perkins Engine Company limited will reimburse the
owner for their expenses, including diagnostic
charges for such an emergency repair. These
expenses shall not exceed the Perkins Engine
Company limited suggested retail price for all
warranted parts replaced, and labor charges based
on Perkins Engine Company limited recommended
time allowance for the warranty repair and the
geographically appropriate hourly labor rate.
• Reasonable and customary labor, during normal
working hours that is required to make the
warranty repair. Included is the labor in order to
remove an engine and install the engine, if
necessary.
Note: Items that are replaced under this warranty
become the property of Perkins Engine Company
limited .
Owner Responsibilities
During the emission warranty period, the owner is
responsible for the following items:
100
SEBU8609
Warranty Information
California Emission Control Warranty Statement
• The costs in order to investigate complaints which
are not caused by a defect in Perkins Engine
Company limited material or Perkins Engine
Company limited workmanship.
• Providing timely notice of a warrantable failure and
promptly making the product available for repair
Limitations
Perkins Engine Company limited is not responsible
for resultant damages to an emission-related part or
component resulting from the following items:
• Any application or any installation that Perkins
Engine Company limited deems improper.
• Attachments, accessory items, or parts not sold
nor approved by Perkins Engine Company limited
• Improper engine maintenance, repair, or abuse.
• Use of improper fuel, lubricants, or fluids.
• Owners unreasonable delay in making the product
available after being notified of a potential product
problem.
This warranty is in addition to Perkins Engine
Company limited standard warranty, applicable to the
engine product involved.
Remedies under this warranty are limited to the
provision of material and services as specified herein.
Perkins Engine Company limited is not responsible
for incidental or consequential damages, including
but not limited to downtime or loss-of-use of engine.
i04059870
California Emission Control
Warranty Statement
Emissions Warranty
The 400F engines are a nonroad compression
ignition engine .
The California Air Resources Board (CARB) and
Perkins Engines Company Limited are pleased to
explain the emission control system warranty on both
of these diesel engines.
In California, new motor vehicle engines must be
designed, built, and equipped in order to meet the
state's stringent anti-smog standards. Perkins
Engines Company Limited must warrant the
emission control system on your engine for the
duration of time listed below provided, there has not
been any abuse, neglect or improper maintenance of
your engine or your engine aftertreatment system.
Perkins Engines Company Limited warrants to the
initial owner and to the subsequent owner of the 400F
diesel engines that such an engine is:
1. Designed, built, and equipped so that the engine
conforms, at the time of sale, with all applicable
regulations adopted by the California Air
Resources Board (CARB) .
2. Free from defects in materials and workmanship in
specific emission-related parts for the following
period:
• The warranty period is for 3000 hours or for 5
years, whichever occurs first, after the date of
delivery to the owner that operates the engine .
If an emission-related part fails during any of the
warranty periods, the part will be repaired or
replaced. Any such part repaired or replaced under
warranty is warranted for the remainder of the
warranty period.
During the term of this warranty, Perkins Engines
Company Limited will provide through a Perkins
distributor or your Perkins dealer or other
establishment authorized by it, repair or
replacement of any warranted part at no charge to
the engine owner.
In an emergency, repairs may be performed at any
service establishment, or by the owner, using any
replacement part. It is recommended that
emission-related parts be replaced with genuine
Perkins Engines Company Limited parts.
Perkins Engines Company Limited will reimburse
the owner for their expenses, including diagnostic
charges for such an emergency repair. These
expenses shall not exceed the Perkins Engines
Company Limited suggested retail price for all
warranted parts replaced, and labor charges
based on Perkins Engines Company Limited
recommended time allowance for the warranty
repair and the geographically appropriate hourly
labor rate.
As a condition of reimbursement, replaced parts
and receipted invoices must be presented at a
place of business of a Perkins distributor or your
Perkins dealer or other establishment authorized
by Perkins Engines Company Limited.
This warranty covers the following emissionrelated parts and components:
• Turbocharger System
• Inlet Manifold
• Fuel Injection System
• Crankcase Ventilation System
• Electronic Engine Control System
SEBU8609
101
Warranty Information
Emissions Warranty Information
• Engine Aftertreatment System
• Any application or any installation that Perkins
Engines Company Limited deems improper.
• NOxReduction System
• Aftertreatment Regeneration Device
• Attachments, accessory items, or parts not sold
nor approved by Perkins Engines Company
Limited
• Miscellaneous valves, switches, hoses, clamps,
connectors, tubing, and sealing devices that are
used in the above systems
• Improper engine maintenance, repair, or abuse.
Limitations and Responsibilities
• Use of improper fuel, lubricants, or fluids.
The warranty is subject to the following conditions:
• Owners unreasonable delay in making the product
available after being notified of a potential product
problem.
Perkins Engines Company Limited
Responsibilities
This warranty is in addition to Perkins Engines
Company Limited standard warranty, applicable to
the engine product involved.
During the emission warranty period, if a defect in
material or workmanship of an emission-related part
or component is found, Perkins Engines Company
Limited will provide the following:
Remedies under this warranty are limited to the
provision of material and services as specified herein.
Perkins Engines Company Limited is not responsible
for incidental or consequential damages, including
but not limited to downtime or loss-of-use of engine.
• New, Remanufactured or repaired parts and/or
components, approved pursuant to (CARB)
Regulations, required to correct the defect.
• Reasonable and customary labor, during normal
working hours that is required to make the
warranty repair. This includes labor in order to
remove an engine and install the engine, if
necessary.
Note: Items that are replaced under this warranty
become the property of Perkins Engines Company
Limited .
Owner Responsibilities
During the emission warranty period, the owner is
responsible for the following items:
i05200893
Emissions Warranty
Information
The aftertreatment system can be expected to
function properly for the life-time of the engine
(emissions durability period) subject to prescribed
maintenance requirements being followed.
• EPA
Protection Agency
• CARB
United States Environmental
California Air Resources Board
• Providing timely notice of a warrantable failure and
promptly making the product available for repair
Note: The warranty of the engine applies to engines
that are operated within the areas of the world where
the following regulations apply: US EPA Tier 4
Interim, EU Stage IIIB or Japanese MLIT Step 4. If an
engine is operated in regions of the world where
these regulations do not apply the warranty will be
void. Contact your Perkins dealer or your Perkins
distributor for more information.
Limitations
Maintenance Recommendations
Perkins Engines Company Limited is not responsible
for resultant damages to an emission-related part or
component resulting from the following items:
Perkins Engines Company Limited engines are
certified by the EPA and the CARB in order to comply
with exhaust emission standards and gaseous
emission standards that are prescribed by the law at
the time of manufacture.
• The costs in order to investigate complaints which
are not caused by a defect in Perkins Engines
Company Limited material or Perkins Engines
Company Limited workmanship.
102
SEBU8609
Warranty Information
Emissions Warranty Information
Efficiency of the emission control and the engine
performance depends on adherence to proper
operation and maintenance recommendations and
use of recommended fuels and lubricating oils.
According to recommendations, major adjustments
and repairs should be made by your authorized
Perkins distributor or your authorized Perkins
dealer.
Various chemical fuel additives which claim to reduce
visible smoke are available commercially. Although
additives have been used to solve some isolated
smoke problems in the field, additives are not
recommended for general use. The engines should
be certified without smoke depressants according to
federal smoke regulations.
Take corrective steps immediately after worn parts
which may affect the emissions level are discovered
in order to ensure the proper operation of the
emission control systems. The use of genuine
Perkins components is recommended. If the owner
uses non-Perkins components, then the non-Perkins
components must not adversely affect the emissions
level of the engine.
For information on the use of Aftermarket Products
and Perkins Engines, refer to this Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Engine Description”.
Regular maintenance intervals with a special
emphasis on the following items are necessary in
order to keep exhaust emissions within acceptable
limits for the useful life of the engine. Refer to the
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Severe Service
Application - Check” topic (Maintenance Section). If
the engine is operating under severe conditions,
adjust the maintenance schedule accordingly. See
your authorized Perkins distributor/dealer in order to
help analyze your specific application, operating
environment, and maintenance schedule
adjustments.
The following information is an explanation of
maintenance items for emission-related components.
See the Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Maintenance Interval Schedule” (Maintenance
Section) for the specific interval for the following
items.
ENGINE AFTERTREATMENT SYSTEM – The
Engine Aftertreatment Systems are sensitive to the
type of fuel and lubricants that is used. Also, the
engine aftertreatment systems are sensitive to the
operating schedule. Low quality fuel, lubricants, or
fluids may cause increases in exhaust back pressure
or clogging resulting in loss of power. An authorized
Perkins distributor/dealer can determine if the engine
aftertreatment systems require a service.
NOx Reduction System (NRS) – The NRS is
monitored. An authorized Perkins distributor/dealer
can determine if the NRS needs service.
FUEL INJECTORS – Fuel injector tips are subject to
wear as a result of fuel contamination. This damage
can cause the following conditions: an increase in
fuel consumption, black smoke, misfire and rough
running engine. The fuel injector should be inspected,
tested, and replaced, if necessary. Fuel injectors can
be tested by an authorized Perkins distributor/dealer
.
TURBOCHARGER – Refer to this Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Turbocharger - Inspect” for
information on inspection of the turbocharger.
ELECTRONIC ENGINE CONTROL (ECM) – The
ECM is the control computer of the engine. The ECM
provides power to the electronics. The ECM monitors
data that is input from the sensors of the engine. The
ECM acts as a governor in order to control the speed
and the power of the engine.
Erratic behavior of the engine may indicate a need for
repair to the ECM. Your Perkins distributor/dealer is
equipped with the necessary tools, personnel, and
procedures in order to perform this service.
The owner is encouraged to keep adequate
maintenance records. However, the absence of such
records will not invalidate the warranty. Refer to the
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Maintenance
Log” (Reference Materials Section).
The owner may perform routine maintenance, repairs,
and other work that is outside of the warranty. The
work may be done at any repair facility. Such work
does not need to be performed at a designated
station that is determined by the warranty in order for
the warranty to remain in force.
SEBU8609
103
Reference Information Section
Engine Protection Plans
Reference Information
Section
www.perkins.com
NOTICE
Dependant upon engine type and application.
Reference Materials
i04224089
Engine Protection Plans
(Extended Service Contract)
Extended Service Contracts-purchased in minutes,
protected for years.
Extended Service Contracts (ESC) protect you from
the stress that unexpected repair work brings to your
life by covering the cost of getting your engine up and
running again. Unlike other extended warranties,
Perkins Platinum ESC protects you against all
component part failures.
Purchase peace of mind from only £0.03 / $0.05 /
euro 0.04 a day and let an ESC make your dreams a
reality.
Why buy an Extended Service Contract?
1. No surprises - total protection from unexpected
repair cost (parts, labor, and travel).
2. Enjoy longer lasting product support from Perkins
global network.
3. Genuine Perkins parts ensure continued engine
performance.
4. Highly trained technicians carry out all repairs.
5. Transferable coverage should you sell your
machine.
Flexible coverage provides the right level of
protection for your Perkins Engine. Coverage can be
extended to 2 years/ 1,000 hours right up to 10 year/
40,000
You can buy an ESC at any time during standard
warranty - even the last day!
Each Perkins Distributor has highly trained and
experienced Perkins Product Support Service
Technicians. The Support Service are equipped, and
available around the clock to get your engine running
again with the minimum of downtime. Buying an ESC
means that you get all this for free.
To purchase an Extended Service Contract, is quick
and simple! Contact your local Perkins Distributor
now and the distributor can provide you with a quote
in minutes. You can locate your nearest Perkins
Distributor by visiting:
104
SEBU8609
Index Section
Index
A
After Starting Engine........................................ 47
After Stopping Engine...................................... 56
Alarms and Shutoffs ........................................ 30
Alarms.......................................................... 30
Shutoffs........................................................ 30
Testing.......................................................... 30
Alternator - Inspect .......................................... 73
Alternator and Fan Belts - Inspect/Adjust ........ 74
Adjustment................................................... 74
Inspection..................................................... 74
Alternator and Fan Belts - Replace.................. 75
Coolant (ELC) - Change .................................. 79
Drain ............................................................ 79
Fill................................................................. 80
Flush ............................................................ 80
Coolant Level - Check ..................................... 80
Engines With a Coolant Recovery Tank....... 80
Engines Without a Coolant Recovery Tank . 81
Coolant Temperature Regulator - Replace ...... 82
Cooling System Supplemental Coolant
Additive (SCA) - Test/Add .............................. 82
Add the SCA, If Necessary .......................... 82
Test for SCA Concentration ......................... 82
Crankcase Breather (Canister) - Replace ....... 83
Crushing Prevention and Cutting Prevention ...11
B
Battery - Replace............................................. 75
Battery Electrolyte Level - Check .................... 75
Battery or Battery Cable - Disconnect ............. 76
Before Starting Engine ...............................12, 45
Belts - Inspect/Adjust/Replace (Air Pump
Belt)................................................................ 76
Adjust ........................................................... 77
Inspection..................................................... 76
Belts - Inspect/Replace (Air Pump belt)........... 77
Burn Prevention................................................. 9
Batteries......................................................... 9
Coolant........................................................... 9
Induction System ........................................... 9
Oils................................................................. 9
C
California Emission Control Warranty
Statement .................................................... 100
Emissions Warranty ................................... 100
Cold Weather Operation.................................. 52
Hints for Cold Weather Operation................ 52
Idling the Engine .......................................... 53
Recommendations for Coolant Warm Up .... 53
Recommendations for the Coolant .............. 53
Viscosity of the Engine Lubrication Oil......... 53
Cold Weather Starting ..................................... 45
Configuration Parameters................................ 44
Coolant (Commercial Heavy-Duty) - Change .. 77
Drain ............................................................ 78
Fill................................................................. 78
Flush ............................................................ 78
D
Diagnostic Lamp.............................................. 43
Diesel Particulate Filter - Clean ....................... 84
Diesel Particulate Filter Regeneration............. 48
Modes of Regeneration................................ 49
Regeneration ............................................... 48
Regeneration Indicators............................... 48
Regeneration Switch.................................... 49
Soot Level Monitoring and Indicators........... 49
E
Electrical System ............................................. 13
Grounding Practices .................................... 13
Emergency Stopping ....................................... 56
Emissions Certification Film ............................ 26
Emissions Warranty Information.................... 101
Maintenance Recommendations ............... 101
Engine - Clean ................................................. 85
Aftertreatment .............................................. 85
Engine Air Cleaner Element - Replace............ 85
Engine Air Cleaner Service Indicator Inspect ........................................................... 85
Test the Service Indicator............................. 86
Engine Air Precleaner - Check/Clean.............. 86
Engine Diagnostics.......................................... 43
Engine Electronics........................................... 14
Engine Mounts - Inspect.................................. 86
Engine Oil and Filter - Change ........................ 87
Drain the Engine Oil ..................................... 87
Fill the Engine Crankcase ............................ 88
Replace the Oil Filter.................................... 88
SEBU8609
105
Index Section
Engine Oil Level - Check ................................. 86
Engine Operation............................................. 48
Engine Operation and Active Regeneration
................................................................... 48
Reduction of Particulate Emissions ............. 48
Engine Operation with Active Diagnostic
Codes ............................................................ 43
Engine Operation with Intermittent
Diagnostic Codes........................................... 43
Engine Protection Plans (Extended Service
Contract) ...................................................... 103
Engine Starting ...........................................12, 45
Engine Stopping .........................................13, 56
Engine Valve Lash - Check.............................. 89
F
Fan Clearance - Check.................................... 90
Fault Logging................................................... 43
Features and Controls ..................................... 30
Federal Emission Control Warranty................. 99
Emissions Warranty ..................................... 99
Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention ...... 10
Fire Extinguisher...........................................11
Lines, Tubes, and Hoses ..............................11
Regeneration ................................................11
Fluid Recommendations.......................58, 62, 65
Diesel Fuel Characteristics ......................... 67
Diesel Fuel Requirements ........................... 65
ELC Cooling System Maintenance.............. 60
Engine Oil .................................................... 63
General Coolant Information........................ 58
General Information ..................................... 65
General Lubricant Information ..................... 62
Foreword............................................................ 4
California Proposition 65 Warning ................. 4
Literature Information..................................... 4
Maintenance .................................................. 4
Maintenance Intervals.................................... 4
Operation ....................................................... 4
Overhaul ........................................................ 4
Safety............................................................. 4
Fuel and the Effect from Cold Weather............ 54
Fuel Conservation Practices............................ 50
Fuel Filter (In-Line) - Replace .......................... 90
Fuel Injector - Test/Change.............................. 91
Identification of a suspect Fuel Injector........ 91
Fuel Related Components in Cold Weather .... 55
Fuel Filters ................................................... 55
Fuel Heaters ................................................ 55
Fuel Tanks.................................................... 55
Fuel System - Prime ........................................ 92
Fuel System Secondary Filter - Replace ......... 92
Fuel Filter with Canister ............................... 92
Fuel Tank Water and Sediment - Drain............ 93
Drain the Water and the Sediment............... 93
Fuel Storage Tanks ...................................... 93
Fuel Tank ..................................................... 93
G
Gauges and Indicators .................................... 30
Aftertreatment Lamps .................................. 31
Indicators and Lamps................................... 31
General Hazard Information .............................. 5
Containing Fluid Spillage ............................... 7
Dispose of Waste Properly............................. 8
Fluid Penetration............................................ 7
Inhalation ....................................................... 8
Pressure Air and Water.................................. 7
General Information......................................... 15
Glow Plugs (ARD Combustion) - Replace....... 93
Remove the Glow Plug for the After
Regeneration Devise (ARD) ...................... 94
H
Hoses and Clamps - Inspect/Replace ............. 94
Replace the Hoses and the Clamps ............ 94
I
Important Safety Information ............................. 2
L
Lifting and Storage........................................... 28
M
Maintenance Interval Schedule ....................... 73
Commissioning ............................................ 73
Daily ............................................................. 73
Every 1000 Service Hours ........................... 73
Every 12 000 Service Hours or 6 Years ....... 73
Every 2000 Service Hours ........................... 73
Every 250 Service Hours or 6 Months ......... 73
Every 3000 Service Hours ........................... 73
Every 3000 Service Hours or 2 Years .......... 73
Every 50 Service Hours or Weekly .............. 73
Every 500 Service Hours ............................. 73
106
SEBU8609
Index Section
Every 500 Service Hours or 1 Year.............. 73
When Required............................................ 73
Maintenance Recommendations..................... 70
Maintenance Section ....................................... 57
Model View Illustrations (Engines and
Aftertreatment)............................................... 15
403F-15T ..................................................... 15
404F-22........................................................ 16
404F-22T ..................................................... 17
Aftertreatment System ................................. 20
Engine with Low Mounted Air Pump ............ 22
Off Engine Parts........................................... 21
Monitoring System........................................... 32
Programmable Options and Systems
Operation ................................................... 32
Monitoring System (Engine Warning
Indicators)...................................................... 33
Mounting and Dismounting.............................. 12
O
Operation Section............................................ 28
Overspeed....................................................... 33
P
Plate Locations and Film Locations................. 26
Product Description ......................................... 22
Aftermarket Products and Perkins Engines
................................................................... 25
Electronic Engine Features.......................... 24
Engine Diagnostics ...................................... 24
Engine Service Life ...................................... 24
Engine Specifications .................................. 23
Product Identification Information.................... 26
Product Information Section ............................ 15
Product Lifting.................................................. 28
Lifting Eyes with Top Mounted Aftertreatment
................................................................... 28
Product Storage (Engine and
Aftertreatment)............................................... 28
Condition for Storage ................................... 28
R
Radiator - Clean............................................... 95
Radiator Pressure Cap - Clean/Replace ......... 96
Reference Information..................................... 27
Record for Reference................................... 27
Reference Information Section ...................... 103
Reference Materials ...................................... 103
Refill Capacities............................................... 57
Cooling System............................................ 57
Lubrication System ...................................... 57
S
Safety Messages ............................................... 5
(1) Universal Warning .................................... 5
Safety Section ................................................... 5
Self-Diagnostics............................................... 43
Sensors and Electrical Components
(Engine and Aftertreatment) .......................... 33
Severe Service Application.............................. 71
Environmental Factors................................. 71
Incorrect Maintenance Procedures.............. 72
Incorrect Operating Procedures................... 72
Starting Motor - Inspect ................................... 96
Starting the Engine .......................................... 46
Starting the Engine ...................................... 46
Starting with Jump Start Cables ...................... 46
Stopping the Engine ........................................ 56
System Pressure Release............................... 70
Coolant System............................................ 70
Engine Oil .................................................... 70
Fuel System ................................................. 70
T
Table of Contents............................................... 3
Turbocharger - Inspect (If Equipped)............... 96
Inspecting..................................................... 96
Removal and Installation.............................. 96
W
Walk-Around Inspection .................................. 97
Inspect the Engine for Leaks and for Loose
Connections ............................................... 97
Warranty Information ....................................... 99
Warranty Section ............................................. 99
Water Pump - Inspect ...................................... 98
Welding on Engines with Electronic Controls .. 70
Product and Dealer Information
Note: For
product identification plate locations, see the section “Product Identification
Information” in the Operation and Maintenance Manual.
Delivery Date:
Product Information
Model:
Product Identification Number:
Engine Serial Number:
Transmission
Serial Number:
Generator Serial Number:
Attachment Serial Numbers:
Attachment Information:
Customer Equipment Number:
Dealer Equipment
Number:
Dealer Information
Name:
Branch:
Address:
Dealer
Contact
Sales:
Parts:
Service:
Phone
Number
Hours
©2013Perkins Engines Company Limited
All Rights Reserved
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement