ER3-256 - TechTools

ER3-256 - TechTools
EconoROM III
User’s Manual
Version 1.0
Covers Models
ER3-256, ER3-512, ER3-1M, ER3-4M and ER3-8M
Copyright © 2000 by TechTools, all rights reserved
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Table of Contents
Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 1
How To Reach TechTools................................................................................................... 1
Up and Running in 15 Minutes!.......................................................................................... 1
Install the Software ..................................................................................................................................... 2
Disable Any In-Circuit Programming Voltages .......................................................................................... 2
Plug the emulator into your target............................................................................................................... 3
Connect RESET .......................................................................................................................................... 4
Apply Power ............................................................................................................................................... 5
Connect the Download Cable...................................................................................................................... 7
Connect Daisy-chain Cables ....................................................................................................................... 7
Run self-test ................................................................................................................................................ 7
Load your program...................................................................................................................................... 8
Software .............................................................................................................................. 9
QuickLoader ............................................................................................................................................... 9
ER3LD, ER3LD32...................................................................................................................................... 9
ER3TEST, ER3TEST32 ........................................................................................................................... 10
Utilities...................................................................................................................................................... 10
Enhancements.................................................................................................................... 11
Faster Downloads - Turn Off Verify......................................................................................................... 11
Memory Retention .................................................................................................................................... 11
Increase 16bit Transfer Speed................................................................................................................... 11
Troubleshooting ................................................................................................................ 12
DLL not found or DRIVER not found ...................................................................................................... 12
Printer Port Not Found Message............................................................................................................... 13
No Emulator(s) Found .............................................................................................................................. 13
Fails Verify ............................................................................................................................................... 14
Verifies, but target does not run................................................................................................................ 15
Works but VERY slowly under NT/2000 ................................................................................................. 17
FAQs ................................................................................................................................. 18
Can I use EconoROM III on a 3V target?................................................................................................. 18
What is the lowest target voltage supported? ............................................................................................ 18
How accurate are EconoROM III’s voltage readings?.............................................................................. 18
Can EconoROM III emulate FLASH devices? ......................................................................................... 18
Do I _REALLY_ need to connect the reset line?...................................................................................... 19
Can EconoROM III emulate DIP/PLCC/TSOP… packages?................................................................... 19
Can I use a longer target cable? ................................................................................................................ 19
Can I use a longer Download cable?......................................................................................................... 19
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Introduction
Thank you for purchasing a TechTools product. We make every attempt to provide quality tools at
reasonable prices. If you have any questions, comments or suggestions, please feel free to contact us by
FAX, Voice, email or mail and express your opinions.
How To Reach TechTools
You can reach us at any of the following :
Voice:
FAX:
email:
web:
Mail:
(972) 272-9392
(972) 494-5814
[email protected]
http://www.tech-tools.com
TechTools
PO Box 462101
Garland, TX 75046-2101
Monday-Friday, 9:00-5:00 Central
Up and Running in 15 Minutes!
As engineers, we understand that you do not have time to troubleshoot your test equipment. You need to be
able to trust your test equipment. With that in mind, we thoroughly test each and every EconoROM III to
ensure that you receive a fully functional unit. In addition, we provide a self-test function to enable you to
verify proper emulator operation at any time.
The following sections are designed to get you up and running in less than 15 minutes. If your system is not
running by the time you complete these instructions, please contact our technical support staff. We have
many thousand emulators in use throughout the world. Many have been in service for nearly 10 years. We
are confident that we can resolve the problem through email or over the telephone.
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Copyright © 2000, TechTools
Install the Software
The EconoROM III software may come on floppy, CDROM or BOTH. If a floppy was included with your
emulator, it may be a complete install or a patch. Follow the instructions on the floppy.
If the floppy contains a PATCH, you will be instructed to install the software from the CDROM and THEN
apply the patch.
If the floppy contains a full install, the CDROM is not needed and any ER3 software it contains is outdated. We still include the CDROM because it contains a wealth of information.
If a floppy disk was NOT included, then the software on the CDROM was the most current at the time the
product was stocked. Follow the directions on the CDROM to install the software. If your system is
configured to auto-launch applications from the CDROM, our launchpad will appear after you insert the
CDROM into your drive. Simply select the ER3 software option from there.
In any event, it is always advisable to check our web pages for any updates. We always post the most
recent versions of our software for free download.
Disable Any In-Circuit Programming Voltages
EPROMs and some FLASH devices are usually programmed with “super voltages” (> 5V) and are designed
to handle such voltages on some pins; EconoROM III is not! If your target is capable of in-circuit
programming, disable or isolate the high voltage, not just the high voltage control signals. Even short surges
during power cycling could be damaging.
EconoROM III is a 3-5volt ONLY device. Any voltage
greater than 5 Volts or less than 0 Volts will damage it.
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Plug the emulator into your target
Turn the target power off. Plug the supplied target interface cable into the target’s EPROM socket. Be
careful to align the PIN 1 end of the cable (designated with a stripe) with the PIN 1 end of the target’s
socket (usually designated with a notch, a dot or a ‘1’).
EconoROM IIIs ship with both 28pin and 32pin DIP cables. Use the 28pin cable if you are emulating a
28pin DIP device; the 32pin cable if emulating a 32pin DIP device. If you are emulating PLCC type
devices, you will need to purchase a DIP to PLCC adapter. These are available from TechTools as well as
all popular adapter manufacturers.
PLUGGING THE CABLE IN BACKWARDS WILL
DAMAGE EconoROM III!
The number one cause of emulator failure is reverse voltage. The JEDEC standard pin-out for DIP
devices places power and ground on opposite corners of the device. If one plugs an EPROM or an
EPROM EMULATOR in backwards, it applies reverse voltage to the device or emulator, causing
permanent damage.
If your target uses DIP sockets or a TechTools’ PLCC adapter, it is fairly easy to ensure the cable is
plugged in properly. Simply check (twice) that the RED stripe on the cable is aligned with the PIN 1 end of
the socket.
If you are using any type of adapter between the DIP cable and your target, it can get a little more
confusing. An incorrect adapter or one that is installed incorrectly could apply reverse voltages to the
emulator.
If you have ANY doubts, check it out! The simplest way to check out adapters, is to insert the adapter into
the target but do NOT insert the DIP cable into the adapter. The DIP socket provided by the adapter should
have GROUND on one corner pin and POWER on the opposite corner. On 28 pin sockets, ground should
be on pin 14 and power on pin 28. On 32 pin sockets, ground should be on pin 16 and power on pin 32.
Once you have established that the adapter is wired correctly and installed correctly, then insert the DIP
cable into the adapter, aligning its RED stripe with the PIN 1 end of the DIP socket.
PLUGGING THE CABLE IN BACKWARDS WILL
DAMAGE EconoROM III!
The old carpenters’ rule applies here: ‘MEASURE twice – CUT once.’
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Connect RESET
The RESET line must be connected to guarantee proper target operation. The reset signal is automatically
asserted during each emulator access. This prevents the target from “running stupid” while we change its
code space. The reset signal is released at the completion of the transfer, allowing the target to restart with
the new code image. We also use the reset line to prevent the target from attempting to execute code before
the emulator recognizes that the target has sufficient voltage to run.
EconoROM III provides two reset outputs. RESET is an open emitter, ACTIVE HIGH output. /RESET is
an open collector ACTIVE LOW output. Both signals are pulled to the in-active state via very weak
resisters. Connect the appropriate output to your target’s RESET circuitry.
EconoROM III’s reset signal should be connected to the target’s reset circuitry at the most “upstream” point
available. This is usually an RC combination that senses the target’s power up or a manual reset switch.
Sometimes this circuitry is connected directly to the CPU reset input. In other targets, it will be connected
to the input to a reset chip, power management chip, a watchdog timer chip or a Schmitt trigger gate.
DO NOT CONNECT EconoROM III’s RESET
OUTPUT ACROSS A TOTEM-POLE OR BIPOLAR
GATE, OR DIRECTLY TO GROUND OR 5VOLTS.
THIS MAY RESULT IN DAMAGE TO
EconoROM III OR THE TARGET.
If your target has a reset button, determining where to connect the reset line is easy. Use a DVM, SCOPE
or logic probe to measure the voltage of both sides of the switch. They should be different (one HIGH and
one GROUND). Push and hold the button and take the two measurements again. Both should now be the
same (HIGH or GROUND). Notice that one side of the switch remained the same, the other side changed
states. Connect the reset lead to the side that CHANGED STATES. The level at this point indicates which
POLARITY (RESET or /RESET) we should use. Ground indicates active LOW; use /RESET. HIGH
indicates active high; use RESET.
The next easiest connection point is an RC reset network. If you find a resister and capacitor in series
between power and ground with the common point connected to the CPU or a monitor chip marked
something like reset or clear, you probably found it. Connect the reset line at the RC juncture. If the
resister is connect to ground and the capacitor is connected to power, use the RESET signal. If the resister
is connected to power and the capacitor is connected to ground, use the /RESET signal. In some targets, the
resistor or the capacitor may be missing but these instructions would still apply if you imagine the missing
component is internal to the processor or monitor chip. If you are not sure, ask ‘sparkie’ (a technical term
for the hardware engineer that designed the board).
Call our technical support if you are unsure about which output to use or where to connect to your target.
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Apply Power
The emulator can be powered from the target or via an optional external power supply. If your target
operates at 5Volts and can supply the extra emulator current (100ma typical/200ma max) to the memory
socket, then you can use target power. If your target operates at less than 5V or is incapable of supply the
extra emulator current, then you must use an external power supply. External power supplies are available
from TechTools or your local dealer. The external supply must provide a regulated 5VDC at 300ma or
greater.
The emulator status LED operates differently based on whether you are using target power or external
power.
Using Target Power
Turn on your target power supply. The emulator status LED should glow a STEADY GREEN. If not, refer
to the troubleshooting tips below to correct the problem before continuing.
LED does not turn on:
Immediately turn off target power and correct the
problem before reapplying power!
Your target does not have enough power to operate the emulator or power is not reaching the emulator.
- Verify all target cable connections
- Verify the target cable is plugged in correctly (pin 1 orientation)
- Verify that any adapters you might be using are the correct pin-outs.
- Once you are SURE the emulator is not being subjected to reverse voltage, verify the target
provides at least 4.5V to the memory socket WHILE THE EMULATOR IS PLUGGED IN.
Connect an external power supply to the emulator if necessary.
LED GLOWS RED:
Your target does not have enough power to operate the emulator or is supplying less than 4.5V.
- Verify all target cable connections
- Verify the target cable is plugged in correctly (pin 1 orientation)
- Verify that any adapters you might be using are the correct pin-outs.
- Verify the target provides at least 4.5V to the memory socket WHILE THE EMULATOR IS
PLUGGED IN. Connect an external power supply to the emulator if necessary.
LED Flashes GREEN:
You have enough power, but you failed to connect the reset line properly. When the emulator is first
powered up, it asserts RESET to keep the target from running until it has received a download. The
flashing GREEN LED indicates target activity.
- Verify the RESET line is connected
- Verify your selection of the RESET attachment point
- Verify your selection of RESET polarity.
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Using External Power
Connect the external power supply but leave the target turned off. The emulator status LED should glow a
STEADY RED, indicating the presence of emulator power but not target power. If not, disconnect the
emulator power and refer to the troubleshooting tips below to correct the problem before continuing.
-
Verify the external power supply is properly connected and plugged into a powered socket.
Verify the external power supply is providing a regulated 5VDC at 300ma or more.
Verify the external power supply is wired correctly (center is positive, ring is ground).
Disconnect the target cable and re-apply emulator power. If the LED now GLOWS RED, the
target wiring, adapters or cabling are incorrect.
Turn on target power. The emulator status LED should change from a steady RED GLOW to a steady
GREEN GLOW. If not, refer to the troubleshooting tips below before continuing.
LED Turns OFF:
Something is VERY wrong with the target wiring, cables or adapters.
Immediately turn off target power and then emulator
power. Correct the problem before reapplying power!
LED STAYS RED:
The emulator did not sense at least 3V from the target power pins.
- Verify all target cable connections
- Verify the target cable is plugged in correctly (pin 1 orientation)
- Verify that any adapters you might be using are the correct pin-outs.
LED Flashes GREEN:
The emulator detected the target’s power, but the reset line is not properly connected. When the emulator is
first powered up, it asserts RESET to keep the target from running until it has received a download. The
flashing GREEN LED indicates target activity.
- Verify the RESET line is connected
- Verify your selection of the RESET attachment point
- Verify your selection of RESET polarity.
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Connect the Download Cable
Select an unused PRINTER port on your PC. Remove any “dongles”, security keys, printer switch boxes
or extension cables from the port. Plug the supplied download cable directly into the selected printer port.
Plug the other end of the cable into EconoROM III’s “IN” port.
PLUGGING EconoROM III INTO A SERIAL PORT
or an ETHERNET CABLE COULD DAMAGE THE
EMULATOR!
Connect Daisy-chain Cables
Multiple units are daisy-chained by connecting the “OUT” connector from one unit to the “IN” connector of
the next unit. Additional units are added in the same manner. Use the supplied 12” daisy-chain cable to
interconnect the units.
When daisy-chained together, the emulators automatically determine their position in the chain, making it
unnecessary to configure their addresses. However, it is important that you understand how their addresses
are determined.
The LAST EMULATOR in the chain (the one without a cable plugged into its “OUT” connector) is
always emulator #1. The next emulator in the chain is #2 and so forth. The emulator closest to the PC
will always be the highest numbered emulator.
Run self-test
Running self-test immediately after installation gives you a solid baseline and helps you to find and correct
any errors early on. Self-test will verify proper installation of all drivers, proper operation of the parallel
port and all EconoROM III functions except the target interface buffers.
You will find 16 and 32bit console mode programs in directories below your install directory. The 16bit
self test is included in case you plan to use the 16bit loader on a DOS machine. The 32bit self-test should
be used if you are planning to use the Windows Quickloader or the 32bit console mode loader. We
recommend using the 32bit self-test if you are running under Windows 95 or above.
If you are using multiple EconoROM IIIs, we recommend that you test them collectively to ensure reliable
operation in the final configuration.
Type “ER3TEST32” to run a full speed test over printer port 0x378. You can change the printer port by
using a /P parameter. For example, if your emulator is connected to a printer port at 0x3bc, you would
enter “ER3TEST32 /P3BC”. The most common printer port addresses (in order of popularity) are 378,
278 and 3bc.
If any of these tests fail, refer to the troubleshooting section for assistance. If the troubleshooting section
does not resolve the problem, contact our technical support people for help.
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Load your program
Your system should be functional and ready to go to work at this point. You can use the command line
loader (ER3LD32.EXE) or the Windows GUI loader (Quickloader) to load and verify files.
Start with a file that is known to work in this target. The binary image of a functioning EPROM is the best
file to start with. Most EPROM programmers can read an EPROM and save its contents into a raw binary
file. If binary is not an option, have the programmer store the file in Intel HEX or Motorola ‘S’ format.
This establishes a solid base-line. You can always come back to this file to verify everything is functioning
(except perhaps your last code revision).
If you choose to use the ER3LD32 program, run it without parameters to see a simple help screen. You can
also refer to the section below on ER3LD/ER3LD32.
If you choose to use the Quickloader software, the setup should be pretty self-evident. Additionally, you can
refer to the on-line help under the HELP menu.
If your system is not running at this point, check the troubleshooting
section for suggestions. If that does not resolve the problem,
PLEASE CONTACT OUR TECHNICAL SUPPORT at
[email protected] or (972) 272-9392.
We are confident that we can solve the problem in a timely manner!
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Software
EconoROM III ships with several programs. The command line driven programs document their valid
parameters if you invoke them with a ‘?’ for a parameter. For example, to see the valid options for the
loader program, type “ER3LD32 ?”. All programs except the Quickloader are batchable command-line
style programs. The following are brief descriptions of the functions of each program.
QuickLoader
Quickloader (qloader.exe) is a 32bit Windows application. It operates under all 32bit versions of Windows
including NT and 2000. Quickloader operates in 2 modes; one-click and fully interactive. In one-click
mode, Quickloader performs automatic download and verify of one or more files via a single mouse click
on a sys-tray icon. In fully interactive mode, Quickloader provides a full GUI interface to allow you to
view and edit the files, control individual transfers and configure the project. Additionally, you can monitor
the voltages, reset status and target activity from the hardware monitor window.
Extensive on-line help is included with Quickloader. The Quickloader help file can be accessed from the
HELP menu or by double-clicking on the ‘QL3HELP.HLP’ file.
ER3LD, ER3LD32
ER3LD and ER3LD32 load binary and HEX files into one or more emulators. They can also perform a
VERIFY-ONLY if you suspect that the emulator contents have been corrupted.
ER3LD32 uses our ring-0 drivers to access the low-level printer port registers. It works under ALL 32 bit
versions of Windows (including NT and 2000).
ER3LD is a 16bit, DOS mode program. It operates under DOS and all versions of Windows EXCEPT NT
and 2000.
Run either program without parameters to see a help screen on the command line options. Notice that all
parameters are optional and have logical defaults. You only need to specify the parameters you would like
to change from their defaults.
EXAMPLE LOAD PARAMETERS:
ER3LD32 file.bin /i32
Loads FILE.BIN into emulator #1 at port 0x378.
Configure emulator to emulate a 32Kx8 (256Kbit) device
ER3LD32 file.bin /p3bc /i128
Loads FILE.BIN into emulator #1 at port 0x3bc.
Configure emulator to emulate a 128Kx8 (1 Mbit) device
ER3LD32 file.bin /e2 /i1024
Loads FILE.BIN into 2 emulators, starting with #1.
Configure emulators to emulate 1024x8 (8Mbit) devices
ER3LD32 file.bin /e4 /f2 /i8
Loads FILE.BIN into 4 emulators, starting at #2. (2,3,4,5)
Configure emulator to emulates 8Kx8 (64Kbit) devices
ER3LD32 file.hex /d0 /h /i512
Loads FILE.HEX into emulator #1. Source file is in HEX.
Configure emulator to emulate a 512Kx8 (4Mbit) device.
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During the load and/or verify, the STATUS LEDs of all involved emulators will flash RED as they are
accessed. At the completion of the transfer, target reset will be released. At this point, the STATUS LEDs
will indicate the target status (RED = no target power, GREEN = target power good, FLASHING GREEN
= target accessing the emulator).
The EconoROM III loader is very flexible, allowing any combination of emulators to be loaded in almost
any manner desired. The loader can load to individual units or automatically perform file splitting between
2 or more units. When the loader splits a file between multiple emulators, it will always place the FIRST
BYTE of the file into the LOWEST NUMBERED EMULATOR involved in the transfer. Successive
bytes are loaded into successive emulators. The following examples demonstrate this:
EXAMPLE 1
If you have two emulators daisy-chained together, and wish to split a file between them, you would specify:
“ER3LD filename /e2 /f1”. The /f1 is optional since the default is start with emulator #1. The /e2
parameter tells the loader that two emulators are involved in this transfer.
The loader will place the EVEN bytes (0,2,4..) of the file into emulator #1 (the LAST emulator in the
chain). The ODD bytes (1,3,5..) will be placed into emulator #2. Note that you control which emulator
holds the ODD bytes and which one holds the EVEN bytes by the order in which you daisy-chain the
emulators.
EXAMPLE 2
If you have four emulators daisy-chained together, a “/E4 ” parameter would cause the loader to perform a
32 bit split between all four emulators. Bytes 0,4,8.. would be placed in the lowest numbered emulator (#1
by default). Bytes 1,5,9.. would land in the next higher numbered emulator. Bytes 2,6,10.. would be end up
in the next emulator. Finally bytes 3,7,11… would be found in the highest numbered emulator involved in
the transfer Again the byte ordering is determined by the emulator daisy-chain order.
ER3TEST, ER3TEST32
These programs verify the reliability of the printer port and system wide communications with the
emulators. They also perform a very complete self-test of all attached emulators. These programs tests all
emulator functions except the actual target interface buffers and target interface cable/connection.
ER3TEST32 uses our ring-0 drivers to access the low-level printer port registers. It works under ALL 32
bit versions of Windows (including NT and 2000).
ER3TEST is a 16bit, DOS mode program. It operates under DOS and all versions of Windows EXCEPT
NT and 2000.
Utilities
The CDROM contains several command line utilities. The loaders provide all HEX conversions and file
manipulations needed so separate utilities are not really needed. They are provided to assist in manually
manipulating data files if desired. The utilities operate under DOS and ALL versions of Windows.
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Enhancements
Faster Downloads - Turn Off Verify
After you have used the emulator for a while and gained confidence that it is loading reliably, you can add a
/V0 parameter to tell the loader to skip the verify operation. This will reduce your load times by over 75%!
EconoROM III is optimized for the fastest possible downloads. Therefore, the data stream FROM the
HOST TO EconoROM III is much faster than the reverse direction.
If you ever wish to verify the CURRENT contents of EconoROM III’s memory against a file, simple do a
load with a “/V2” option (verify ONLY).
Memory Retention
EconoROM III uses SRAMs to store the code image. If you wish to cycle the target power to see the target
execute from power up, you will need to connect an external power supply to the emulator to maintain the
SRAM contents during the power outage. The emulator will retain its contents as long as EITHER target
power is applied OR external power is supplied to its power-in connector. The external power must be a
regulated 5VDC at 300ma or more.
Increase 16bit Transfer Speed
The 16bit loader (ER3LD.EXE) is capable of over-running some printer ports. To allow proper operation
with ALL printer ports, the 16bit loader includes a SPEED parameter. Once basic functionality is
established, you may choose to speed-up your 16bit downloads. The download speed defaults to its slowest
setting to insure compatibility with all printer ports. The self-test program does a reliability test at a
specified speed setting. Re-run the ER3TEST program with a faster speed setting (lower /Dx number). If
the reliability test shows that the system is reliable at this speed, you will be able to use this same parameter
on the program.
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Troubleshooting
The distribution software contains a test program called ER3TEST32.EXE. ER3TEST32 verifies the port
address, its reliable at the selected transfer speed and the emulator’s functionality as well as proper
installation of the ring-0 drivers. The first step in troubleshooting is to run this program and make special
note of any problems it reports.
Regardless of the symptom, verify the following:
1. There are no “dongles”, security keys, switch boxes or other devices between the EconoROM III
download cable and the printer port.
2. Try each available printer port configuration. Some ports work best in STANDARD, AT, NIBBLE or
COMPATIBLE mode. Others may provide more reliable high-speed operation when set to ECP, EPP,
PS2, Bi-directional or HIGH-SPEED mode.
3. The target is powered up or an external power supply is connected to the emulators
4. All download, daisy-chain and target interface cables are tight and fully inserted.
5. The selected printer port is not being serviced by a print spooler or some type of TSR.
6. If the PC is a laptop or a “GREEN” PC, verify that the printer port is not disabled, powered down or
configured for any type of power savings mode.
In all cases, try “booting” clean from a DOS diskette to see if the symptoms disappear. If the 16bit loader
and self-test programs work under this condition, chances are good that some other program is interfering
with our access to the printer port.
DLL not found or DRIVER not found
Drivers not properly installed
The 32bit software versions require our ring-0 drivers. These are automatically installed into the correct
directories and added to the windows registry when you use our SETUP.EXE program. You must run
SETUP.EXE install the files onto a computer. Just COPYING the files will not properly register them with
Windows.
Under NT and 2000, you must have ADMINISTRATIVE/Supervisor PRIVILEGES to properly install the
drivers and update the registry.
Failed to re-boot after installation
The drivers will not become active until after you re-boot. Sorry, as much as we hate the ‘reboot windows
for this to take affect’ syndrome, its just the way it works.
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Printer Port Not Found Message
Specified the wrong port address
The software could not find a printer port at the specified address. Try another address. The command line
programs use a /Pxxx parameter to select the port address. The Quickload uses pull-down selections. The
most common addresses are 378, 278 and 3BC. Also verify that the attached emulators are powered up.
Un-powered emulators could prevent the software from seeing the port itself.
Using the wrong software
Under NT and Windows 2000 Professional, you MUST use the 32bit software. These include
ER3LD32.EXE, ER3TEST32.EXE and Quickloader. These programs all use our ring-0 drivers to access
the printer port hardware. Win95, Win98 and ME users may user either the 16bit or 32bit versions of these
programs. Win3.1 and DOS users must use the 16bit versions (ER3LD.EXE and ER3TEST.EXE). We do
not provide a 16bit GUI application for DOS or Win3.1.
No Emulator(s) Found
Specified an existing but incorrect printer port.
This error message indicates that the specified port was found, but no emulators were found at that port.
The emulators might be plugged into a different port. Change the port selection to specify the correct port
or move the download cable to the specified port. The most common printer port addresses are 378, 278
and 3BC. If you are using the command-line loaders, use the /Pxxx parameter to specify the port.
Using wrong download cable or backshell
The EconoROM III download cable is compatible with the older FLexROM II product but is NOT
compatible with EconoROM II or earlier FlexROMs. Use the cable provided with EconoROM III.
Transfer speed set too high for this port (16bit loaders only).
The 16bit software is capable of over-running some printer ports. You may need to reduce the speed to
achieve reliable operation in these situations. The ER3TEST program verifies transfer reliability. Test the
desired transfer speed reliability with “ER3TEST /dx” (where x is 0,1,2,3 or 4). /d0 is the fastest setting.
If you are daisy-chaining several emulators, their combined load can slow down the printer port rise times,
resulting in a need to slow down the transfer speed to avoid over-running the port signals. Run the
ER3TEST program with the emulators daisy-chained together to properly reproduce the eventual working
environment.
One or more Emulators not powered up.
EconoROM III draws its operating power from the target’s EPROM socket or an optional external power
supply. The target must be powered up or the external power supply connected during all load or verify
operations. If multiple emulators are daisy-chained, they must ALL be powered up to talk to ANY of them.
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Target power is noisy or Voltage too low.
EconoROM III draws more current than the EPROM it is replacing. If the target is a very low power
system, or is already pushing its power supply limits, it may not have enough extra current to power the
emulator, causing power fluctuations or noise. This is a rare condition, but worth mentioning.
If the target voltage (at the memory socket) is less than 4.5V, then an external power supply MUST be
connected to the emulator.
If the emulator is being powered from the target, ensure that the memory socket the emulator is plugged into
has sufficient by-pass capacitance ( a good idea for EPROMs as well!).
Fails Verify
File too large
The file may be too large for the emulator, causing the data to wrap-around or to be truncated. For
example, an ER3-1M can hold up to 1Mbit of data (128Kbytes). Any file larger than 131,072 bytes would
overflow an ER3-1M (as well as a 1Mbit EPROM/FLASH). Look at the BINARY file size and verify that
it is less than or equal to the emulator’s maximum size.
If you are working with HEX files, note that the size of the HEX file is irrelevant. Look for ‘out-of-range’
messages during the HEX conversion.
Target Power noisy or Voltage too low.
Noise problems are very dynamic. It is possible that we could identify the emulators but be unable load and
verify properly. EconoROM III draws more current than the EPROM it is replacing. If the target is a very
low power system, or is already pushing its power supply limits, it may not have enough current to spare to
power the emulator, causing power fluctuations or noise. An external power supply would solve this.
Transfer speed set too high for this port (16bit loaders only).
The 16bit software is capable of over-running some printer ports. You may need to reduce the speed to
achieve reliable operation in these situations. The ER3TEST program verifies transfer reliability. Test the
desired transfer speed reliability with “ER3TEST /dx” (where x is 0,1,2,3 or 4). /d0 is the fastest setting.
If you are daisy-chaining several emulators, their combined load can slow down the printer port rise times,
resulting in a need to slow down the transfer speed to avoid over-running the port signals. Run the
ER3TEST program with the emulators daisy-chained together to properly reproduce the eventual working
environment.
A print spooler or TSR is interfering with our port accesses
Try “booting” clean from a DOS diskette to see if things stabilize. If this corrects the problem, suspect that
some other program (like a print spooler) is interfering with our access to the port.
Printer port set to an incompatible mode
If your printer port is configurable through BIOS settings, try each configuration. Some ports will perform
better in STANDARD, AT, NIBBLE or COMPATIBLE mode. Others will allow higher transfer speeds
when configured for ECP, EPP, PS2, HIGH-SPEED or similar settings. This is rarely a problem.
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Verifies, but target does not run
Target not being reset or not being released from reset
If the wrong reset output is being used or it is connected to the wrong spot on the target, it may not be
resetting the target during the download. We would get a good download, but the target was fetching
garbage during the transfer. Some processors will HALT, others will simply execute the random garbage
they received. In either event, the processor will not “know” to start over and execute the new code.
Try pushing your target’s reset button if it has one. If it starts to run, the reset line is connected to the
wrong place on the target.
Try removing the reset line. If the target starts running, you probably selected the wrong reset polarity.
If the emulator is running from an external power supply, try removing the reset line and cycling TARGET
power. If the target now comes up and runs, the reset signal connection was wrong. While you could do
this after each load, we highly recommend correcting the reset problem to make resets automatic and to
prevent the target from running garbage during the download. The reset line also ensures proper power-up
sequencing by preventing the target from fetching code before the emulator has had a chance to enable its
target-side buffers.
Emulator device size set wrong.
The device SIZE configuration affects how many target address lines are enabled. The file will download
and verify correctly as long as the file is less than or equal the SIZE setting and the maximum emulator size.
If the size is set larger than the device you are emulating, some extra address lines will be enabled. The
target may be driving these lines high or NOT AT ALL. This will either warp the addressing or cause
random address changes. Ensure you are configuring the SIZE to match the device you are emulating.
File too large
If the file size exceeds the configured device size, the target will not be able to access the entire file. If the
emulator is configured correctly and the file is larger than the device setting, your code has just outgrown its
space. If you are emulating the maximum size device the target is wired to accept, you will have to reduce
the code size. If the target has some unused space contiguous to the current EPROM space, you may be
able to modify the target board to accept a larger EPROM. This would typically involve adding another
address line to the socket and possibly modifying the EPROM chip select decodes. Of course you would
need to re-configure the emulator for the larger device as well (if it has room to spare).
Wrong PLCC or other adapters used.
Any adapter used between the target cable and the target socket itself has the potential of introducing errors.
In particular, PLCC footprints vary by EPROM size, model and manufacturer. In general, small EPROMs
(<1Mbit) generally have one pin out and larger EPROMs have a different pin out. Most FLASH chips are
pinned out like large EPROMs. However, SOME small FLASH are wired like SMALL EPROMs. In
general, large devices (>=1Mbit) use a 32 pin DIP to 32 pin PLCC adapter. Smaller devices usually need a
28 pin DIP to 32 pin PLCC adapter but MIGHT need the 32 pin version. Give us a call if you are not sure.
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Wrong file format specified
The files you wish to download might be in a HEX format or they might be a raw, binary image. The
loaders need to be ‘told’ whether they are in HEX or BINARY format. If you are not sure about the file’s
format, “TYPE” it to the screen. If you see random printable, non-printable and graphics characters, it is
BINARY. If you see well formatted HEX characters, it is a HEX file. Intel HEX files start each line with a
“:”. Motorola ‘S’ files start each line with an “S”. Tektronix HEX files start with a “%” or a “/”. All of our
loaders automatically recognizes and converts 8 variations of these HEX formats. However, even HEX
files are a FORM of binary so you must tell the loaders whether to blindly load them as binary or assume
they are in HEX format.
Remember, your Resume’ will load and verify, but most likely will not execute properly!
Incorrect HEX conversion
If your source file is in HEX, you may need to specify an offset to get a proper conversion. If an offset is
required, it is usually the starting address of the EPROM. You can use the Quickloader editor to see where
the conversion placed the binary data within the device space.
Failed to split the file between emulators
If you want the command line loader to spilt the file between multiple emulators, you need to specify a /Ex
parameter to tell the loader how many emulators to split the file between. In Quickloader, you must specify
the ‘number of emulators’.
File loaded into the wrong emulator(s)
If you have 2 or more emulators daisy-chained, you may have loaded the file into the wrong unit(s). Watch
the STATUS LEDs to see which units where actually selected for the transfer. The loaders default to
emulator #1. To select a different emulator, specify a /Fx parameter. This tells the load the FIRST
emulator involved in the transfer.
Incorrect Byte Order
If you are loading into multiple emulators with automatic splitting, remember that the loader will load the
FIRST byte in the file into the lowest numbered emulator involved in the transfer. If the emulators are
plugged into the wrong target sockets, you can move them to the correct sockets or you can change the
order in which the emulators are daisy-chained.
Target Power noisy or Voltage too low.
Noise problems are very dynamic. It is possible that we could load and verify OK, but as soon as we release
reset and let the target start running, system noise increases and trashes the system. Low system voltage
could behave in a similar manner. It is possible that we could load and verify with a target voltage that is
well under spec, but the target will not execute properly. EconoROM III draws more current than the
EPROM it is replacing. The target may be able to supply enough current during downloads, but may not be
able to hold the voltage up when it starts running, causing power fluctuations or noise.
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Emulator too slow
EconoROM IIIs are rated at 45ns. The emulator must be at least as fast as the access times required by the
target (smaller numbers are faster). If the target’s access requirements are not documented, you can get a
general idea of its requirements by looking at the EPROM’s rating. The EPROM’s speed is not an absolute
indicator because many EPROMs run faster than they are marked; particularly at full voltage and room
temperature. We have seen many systems that appear to run fine, even though their access times routinely
violate the EPROM’s rating. Fortunately, EconoROM III’s speed rating (45ns) is faster than most
ERPOMs used in embedded systems.
Bad Code
Remember, the one variable that is always changing in this set up is the code itself! If you keep a baseline
code image on hand that is known to work, you could always load that image into the emulator as a sort of
sanity check.
Works but VERY slowly under NT/2000
Using the wrong software
The 16bit software will sometimes work on these systems, but through a virtualization mechanism that is
VERY slow. Our 32bit software uses ring-0 drivers to access the hardware at about 2.5Mbit/sec. Use
Quickloader or ER3LD32.EXE.
If these tips did not solve the problem you
are experiencing, please contact our
technical support people at
[email protected]
http://www.tech-tools.com
Voice: (972) 272-9392
FAX: (972) 494-5815
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FAQs
Can I use EconoROM III on a 3V target?
YES, but you will need an external power supply. Connect 5VDC at 300ma or greater to the emulator’s
external power connector. External power supplies are available form TechTools.
What is the lowest target voltage supported?
EconoROM III was designed to support 3.0V to 5.0V targets. However, it CAN support lower voltage
targets within limits. Three things set the lower limit; Logic INPUT thresholds, Vout HIGH from the
emulator, and the target isolation threshold.
-
Logic INPUT Thresholds. EconoROM III will accept a Vin HIGH minimum of 1.5Volts. Your
target MUST produce at least 1.5V for logic HIGHs. Most logic down to about 2V can meet this
requirement.
Vout HIGH levels: Your target must tolerate logic HIGHs from the emulator data lines of
3.2Volts. This depends entirely on your target design.
Target Isolation Threshold: To allow safe target power cycling,, EconoROM III constantly
monitors the target’s voltage. When it detects that the target voltage has dropped below a fixed
threshold, it assumes the target is powering down so it turns off its output buffers to avoid leaking
current into the target. It also asserts reset and turns the STATUS LED RED. If the emulator did
NOT provide this safety feature, it could start reverse biasing devices on the target, potentially
causing damage. Even if the target were not damaged, the current leakage could prevent the target
from properly powering down. This could prevent the reset circuitry from operating. This cut-off
threshold is approximate 2.7 to 2.8V.
Bottom line: You CAN emulate lower voltage targets as long as you can tolerate 3.2V on your data bus,
your target provides logic highs of at least 1.5V and our low voltage cut-off circuit does not kick-in.
How accurate are EconoROM III’s voltage readings?
The readings are typically accurate to +- 150mv.
Can EconoROM III emulate FLASH devices?
YES and NO. The emulator does NOT support target writes. However, if your target doesn’t need to
WRITE to the emulator, then emulation is possible as long as the pin-outs match or are adapted. EPROM
and FLASH devices have very similar pin-outs but vary slightly to allow for the extra write/program line
required by the FLASH device. EconoROM III is compatible with the timing requirements of both
EPROM and FLASH devices.
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Do I _REALLY_ need to connect the reset line?
This seems to be the biggest hurdle for first-time users. While the reset line may not be essential in some
specific cases, it is ALWAYS a good idea and OFTEN a requirement for consistent, reliable operation.
There is a lot to be said for consistency during debug! It is well worth the minimal time necessary to figure
out how to connect the reset line. It serves several functions:
- It keeps the target from running garbage immediately after the emulator is powered-up. The reset
will be automatically released after the first code download.
- It keeps the target from running garbage DURING a download or verify.
- It ensures the target gets a clean reset and starts running the new code after a download.
- It ensures proper power-up synchronization when the emulator is being powered from external
power and the target power is cycled.
- It makes the entire download/verify/run operation fully automatic and consistent.
-
Can EconoROM III emulate DIP/PLCC/TSOP… packages?
Yes. TechTools stocks low cost PLCC adapters and all emulators ship with DIP cables. We find that DIP
and PLCC packages cover about 95% of our customers’ needs. For other packages, we refer you to the
standard adapter companies. They can provide adapters for all common EPROM, SRAM and FLASH
devices.
Can I use a longer target cable?
Maybe. We use ‘soft” drivers and 6” cables to minimize our impact on your target. This combination has
worked very successfully for us for nearly 10 years. Lengthening the cable increases the probability of both
cross-talk and line reflections.(depending on your target drivers’ rise-times). Longer cables also add
capacitance to the bus. If your target access times are considerably longer than ours (45ns), and/or your
drivers are fairly soft, you may be able to tolerate a considerable cable length increase. On the other hand,
if you need every last nanosecond of our access time and your bus has very fast rise-time drivers, you
should probably stick with our proven solution.
Can I use a longer Download cable?
Yes. You can use up to 25’ of download cable between the PC and the first emulator. However, we
recommend that you use the 12” daisy-chain cable provide to link multiple emulators together. This
provides a more ‘lumped load’ at the end of the line.
If you replace the flat cable, make sure the cable is wired 1-to-1. Most data cable is wired 1-to-1. Most
voice cable is wired reversed (1-to-8). If you extend the download cable by inserting a DB25M-DB25F
cable, make sure all 25 pins are connected.
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TechTools
PO Box 462101
Garland, TX 75046
(972) 272-9392 FAX: (972) 494-5814
[email protected] [email protected]
www.tech-tools.com
EconoROM III User’s Manual
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