RC8650 User`s Manual
RC8650
RC Systems
voice synthesizer
now you’re talking!
DoubleTalk RC8650
Lead-free Pb-free RoHS Compliant
CMOS, 3.3 Volt / 5 Volt
Voice Synthesizer Chipset
GENERAL DESCRIPTION
The RC8650 is a versatile voice and sound synthesizer, integrating
a text-to-speech (TTS) processor, real time and prerecorded audio
playback, musical and sinusoidal tone generators, telephone dialer
and A/D converter, into an easy to use chipset. Using a standard serial or 8-bit bus interface, virtually any ASCII text can be streamed
to the RC8650 for automatic conversion into speech by the TTS
processor. The audio playback modes augment the TTS processor
for applications requiring very high voice quality and a relatively
small, fixed vocabulary, or applications requiring special sounds
or sound effects. The audio output is delivered in both analog and
digital PCM audio formats, which can be used to drive a speaker or
digital audio stream.
The RC8650’s integrated TTS processor incorporates RC Systems’
DoubleTalk™ TTS technology, which is based on a unique voice
concatenation technique using real human voice samples. The
DoubleTalk TTS processor also gives the user unprecedented realtime control of the speech signal, including pitch, volume, tone,
speed, expression, articulation, and so on.
mable dictionary allows the pronunciation of virtually any character
string to be redefined, or even trigger the playback of tones, prerecorded messages and sounds based on specific input patterns. All
of these features can be programmed and updated via a standard
serial port, even in the field after the RC8650 has been integrated
into the end-product.
Up to 3.5 MB of nonvolatile memory is included in the RC8650 for
the storage and on-demand playback of up to 15 minutes of prerecorded messages and sound effects. A programmable “greeting”
message can be stored that is automatically played whenever the
RC8650 is powered up, allowing a custom message to be played or
the RC8650’s default settings to be reconfigured. A user-program-
The RC8650 is comprised of two surface-mounted devices. Both
operate from either a + 3.3 V or + 5 V supply and consume very little
power. Most applications require only the addition of a lowpass
filter/audio power amplifier to implement a fully functional system.
FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM
AN0–AN3
4
AMPIN
AMPOUT



ADTRG
RXD
TXD
CTS#
BRS0–BRS2
3
BRD
PIO0–PIO7
RDY#
STS#
PRD#
PWR#





8
2

2
SEL1–SEL5
AO0–AO1
AS0–AS1
TS0–TS1
SUSP0#–
SUSP1#
DAIN
XOUT

STBY#
DoubleTalk RC8650 User’s Manual Rev 08
Revised 2/7/14
2
2
XIN
5
DAOUT
DACLK
DARTS#
1
© 1999 – 2014 RC Systems, Incorporated
RC8650
RC Systems
voice synthesizer
now you’re talking!
FEATURES
APPLICATIONS
•Integrated text-to-speech processor:
– High voice quality, unlimited vocabulary
– Converts any ASCII text into speech automatically
– Capable of very high reading rates – Add/modify messages by simply editing a text file
– On-the-fly control of speed, pitch, volume, etc.
•Robotics
•Talking OCR systems
•ATM machines
•Talking pagers and PDAs
•GPS navigation systems
•Vending and ticketing machines
•Remote diagnostic reporting
•Dial-up information systems
•Handheld barcode readers
•Electronic test and measurement
•Security systems
•Aids for the orally or visually disabled
•Meeting federal ADA requirements
•Playback of sound files:
– Real-time PCM and ADPCM
– Prerecorded on chip, up to 15 minutes
•Tone generation:
– Three voice musical
– Dual sinusoidal
– DTMF (Touch-Tone) dialer
•On-chip A/D converter:
– Four channels, 8-bit resolution
– One-shot, continuous, single sweep, and
continuous sweep modes of operation
– Software and hardware triggering
– Support for external op amp
RC8650 Product Summary
•Analog and digital audio outputs
•Stop, pause, and resume controls
Order
Number
•Standard serial (UART) and bus interfaces
•User programmable greeting and default settings
Recording
Capacity *
Operating
Voltage
2 min
5V
RC86L50F1I
2 min
3.3 V
RC86L50F3I
15 min
3.3 V
RC8650F1C
•Flexible user exception dictionary:
– Change the pronunciation of any input string based on
spelling and context
– Convert encrypted data into meaningful messages
– Trigger tone generation, recorded message playback,
voice parameter changes
* Based on 8 kHz sampling rate with ADPCM encoding
See Ordering Information for a complete list of package and temperature options.
•In-circuit, field programmable
•2 KB input buffer for virtually no-overhead operation
•Available in 3.3 V and 5 V versions
•Low power (typ @ 3.3 V):
– 4 mA active
– 700 µA idle
– 0.7 µA standby
2
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RC Systems
voice synthesizer
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TYPICAL APPLICATION CIRCUIT
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RC8650
RC Systems
voice synthesizer
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CONNECTION DIAGRAMS

RC46xxFP
48-Lead TSOP
12 mm x 20 mm
TOP VIEW
4
TOP VIEW

RC8650AFP
100-Lead QFP
14 mm x 20 mm
RC8650
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voice synthesizer
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PIN DESCRIPTIONS
Pin Name
Type
Name and Function
IC0 – IC32
INTPUT/
OUTPUT
CHIPSET INTERCONNECTS: Interconnections between the RC8650 and RC46xx chips. IC0 connects to IC0,
IC1 to IC1, etc. IC30 – IC32 must have a 47 kΩ – 100 kΩ pullup resistor to VCC. No other connections should
be made to these pins.
AO0
AO1
OUTPUT
ANALOG OUTPUT: Channels 0 and 1 digital to analog (D/A) converter outputs. The output voltage range is
0 V to AVREF and is normally biased at AVREF / 2. Output impedance is 10 kΩ typical. AO1 is reserved for
future use.
TS0
TS1
OUTPUT
TALK STATUS: Indicates whether a voice channel is active. These pins can be used to enable external devices
such as a transmitter, telephone, or audio amplifier. The pins’ polarity are programmable, and can be activated automatically or under program control. TS1 is reserved for future use.
SUSP0#
SUSP1#
INPUT
SUSPEND: Suspends audio output when Low, allowing playback to be paused. When High, playback
resumes at the point output was suspended. These pins affect only the corresponding AO pin; they do not
affect the digital audio DAOUT pin (use DARTS# to control DAOUT). SUSP1# is reserved for future use.
Connect these pins to a High level if not used.
AS0
AS1
OUTPUT
AUDIO SYNC: Outputs a clock signal in synchronization with the updating of analog outputs AO0 and AO1.
The pin changes state whenever the corresponding D/A converter is updated. AS1 is reserved for future use.
DAOUT
OUTPUT
DIGITAL AUDIO OUTPUT: Provides the same 8-bit digital audio stream that is fed to the internal D/A converters. This pin can be programmed to be a CMOS or open-drain output. The communication protocol is
progammable, and can operate in synchronous or asynchronous mode.
DACLK
INPUT
DIGITAL AUDIO CLOCK: This pin is used to clock data out of the DAOUT pin and data into the DAIN pin in
the synchronous digital audio output mode. DACLK can be programmed to transfer data on either the rising
edge or falling edge of the clock. Connect this pin to a High level if not used.
DAIN
INPUT
DIGITAL AUDIO CONTROL INPUT: This pin is used to control the operation of the DAOUT pin in a multi-channel system. Reserved for a future product; connect this pin to a High level.
DARTS#
INPUT
DIGITAL AUDIO REQUEST TO SEND: A Low on this pin enables transmission from the DAOUT pin; a High
suspends transmission. DARTS# may be used in both the synchronous and asynchronous transfer modes.
Connect this pin to a Low level if not used.
PIO0 –
PIO7
INPUT/
OUTPUT
PERIPHERAL INPUT/OUTPUT BUS: Eight-bit bidirectional peripheral bus. Data is input from a peripheral
when PRD# is active. Status information is output when STS# is active. PIO0 – PIO7 also connect to the
RC46xx chip. Text, data and commands can be sent to the RC8650 over this bus.
STS#
OUTPUT
STATUS: Controls the transfer of status information from the RC8650 to a peripheral. Status information is
driven on the PIO0 – PIO7 pins when STS# is Low. STS# is active only when there is new status information.
PRD#
OUTPUT
PERIPHERAL READ: Controls the transfer of data from a peripheral to the RC8650. Data is read from the
PIO0 – PIO7 pins when PRD# is Low.
PWR#
INPUT
PERIPHERAL WRITE: Controls the writing of peripheral data to the RC8650. Data on the PIO0 – PIO7 pins is
latched in the RC8650 on the rising edge of PWR#. Sufficient time must be given for the RC8650 to process
the data before writing additional data — RDY# or Status Register bit SR.4 should be used for this purpose.
Connect this pin to a High level if not used.
RDY#
OUTPUT
READY: RDY# High indicates that the RC8650 is busy processing the last byte that was written over the Peripheral I/O Bus. Wait for RDY# to be Low before attempting to write more data. RDY# goes High briefly after
each write operation over the PIO0 – PIO7 bus, acknowledging receipt of each byte. If the RC8650’s input buffer becomes full as a result of the last write operation, RDY# will remain High until room becomes available.
Note that RDY# can also be read from Status Register bit SR.4.
AN0 – AN3
INPUT
A/D CONVERTER INPUTS: Analog to digital converter input pins. Analog signals sampled on these pins can
be read through the serial interface. Leave any unused pins unconnected.
ADTRG
INPUT
A/D CONVERTER TRIGGER: Starts A/D conversion when hardware triggering is selected. Minimum Low pulse
width is 200 ns. Leave this pin unconnected if not used.
Table 1. Pin Descriptions
5
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Pin Name
AMPIN
Type
OUTPUT
Name and Function
A/D CONVERTER AMPLIFIER: Connecting an operational amplifier between these pins allows the input
voltage to all four A/D converter input pins to be amplified with one operational amplifier. Leave these pins
unconnected if not used.
AMPOUT
INPUT
RXD
INPUT
TXD
OUTPUT
TRANSMIT DATA: Asynchronous serial data output used to read information out of the RC8650.
CTS#
OUTPUT
CLEAR TO SEND: The CTS# pin is Low when the RC8650 is able to accept data. CTS# acknowledges each
byte received on the RXD pin by going High briefly. If the RC8650’s input buffer becomes full as a result of
the last byte received, CTS# will remain High until room becomes available.
BRD
INPUT
BAUD RATE DETECT: BRD is used by the RC8650 to sample the host’s serial data stream in order to determine its baud rate. BRD is normally connected to the RXD pin. The BRS0 – BRS2 pins affect the operation of
BRD. Connect this pin to a High level if not used.
BRS0 –
BRS2
INPUT
BAUD RATE SELECT: Programs the asynchronous serial port’s baud rate. Both the RXD and TXD pins are programmed to the baud rate set by these pins. Connecting BRS0 – BRS2 to a High level will allow the RC8650
to automatically detect the baud rate with the BRD pin. Connect these pins to a High level if not used.
STBY#
INPUT
STANDBY: A Low immediately terminates all activity and places the RC8650 in Standby mode. The RDY#
and CTS# pins are driven High, and the input buffer is cleared. During standby, the RC8650 draws the minimum possible current (0.7 µA typ @ 3.3 V), but it is not able to respond to any input pin except STBY# and
RESET#. Returning STBY# High causes the RC8650 to enter Idle mode (700 µA typ); the handshake lines
are re-asserted and the RC8650 will be able to accept input again. If the RC8650 entered standby due to a
Sleep Timer event, driving STBY# Low for tWSBL or longer then High will return the RC8650 to Idle mode.
RECEIVE DATA: Asynchronous serial data input used to send text, data and commands to the RC8650. Connect this pin to a High level if not used.
STBY# is also used to restore the RC8650 to its factory default settings. To prevent this from happening
unintentionally, make sure that STBY# is High no later than 0.5 sec after RESET# goes High. See Appendix A
for additional information.
Connect this pin to a High level if not used.
SEL1 –
SEL5
INPUT
SELECT: Programs the channel pair that the RC8650 is to respond to in a multi-channel system. These pins
are reserved for a future product; connect them to a Low level to ensure upward compatibility.
RESET#
INPUT
RESET: A Low immediately terminates all activity and sets all pins, internal voice parameters and register settings to their default states. During power-up, RESET# must be held Low a minimum of 1 ms after VCC has
stabilized in the proper voltage range. All pins will be valid within 2 ms after reset.
ACLR#
INPUT
ANALOG CLEAR: A Low initializes the RC8650’s D/A and A/D converters. Connect ACLR# to RESET#.
XIN
INPUT
CLOCK INPUT/OUTPUT: These pins connect to the internal clock generating circuit. All timing for the RC8650
and RC46xx chips are derived from this circuit. Connect a 7.3728 MHz crystal between XIN and XOUT. Alternatively, an external 7.3728 MHz square wave may be applied to XIN.
XOUT
OUTPUT
VCC
POWER: + 5 V ± 0.5 V, + 3.3 V ± 0.3 V power supply connection.
VSS
GROUND: Connect these pins to system ground.
AVCC
ANALOG POWER: Power supply input for the D/A and A/D converters. Connect this pin to VCC.
AVSS
ANALOG GROUND: Ground input for the D/A and A/D converters. Connect this pin to VSS.
AVREF
ANALOG REFERENCE VOLTAGE: Reference voltage for the D/A and A/D converters. Connect this pin to VCC.
Caution: any noise present on this pin will appear on the AO pins and affect A/D converter accuracy.
NC
NO CONNECT: NC pins must remain unconnected. Connection of NC pins may result in component failure or
incompatibility with future product enhancements.
Table 1. Pin Descriptions (Continued)
6
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ORDERING INFORMATION
The RC8650 is available in several voltage and temperature ranges and recording capacities. The ordering part number is formed by combining several fields, as indicated below. Refer to the “Valid Combinations” table, which lists the configurations that are planned to be supported
in volume. Other combinations may be available on a request basis.
All configurations include two surface-mount devices: the 100 pin RC8650AFP and 48 pin RC46xxFP. Only the RC46xxFP is affected by the
voltage and recording capacity option chosen, as can be seen in the “Chipset” column in the table below.
RC86 L 50 F 1C
TEMPERATURE RANGE
C
I
= Commercial (0 °C to + 70 °C)
= Industrial (–40 °C to + 85 °C)
RECORDING MEMORY CAPACITY
0
1
2
3
=
=
=
=
0 minutes (0 KB)
2 minutes (512 KB)
7 minutes (1,536 KB)
15 minutes (3,584 KB)
PACKAGE TYPE
F
= 100 pin 14 x 20 mm QFP & 48 pin 12 x 20 mm TSOP
OPERATING VOLTAGE
Blank = 5 V ± 0.5 V
L
= 3.3 V ± 0.3 V
VALID COMBINATIONS
Order Number
Old Order No.
Voltage
Package
Rec Capacity
Temp Range
Chipset
RC8650F1C
RC8650-1
5V
QFP + TSOP
2 min
0 °C to + 70 °C
RC8650AFP + RC4651FP
RC86L50F1I
RC86L50-1
3.3 V
QFP + TSOP
2 min
–40 °C to + 85 °C
RC8650AFP + RC46L51FP
RC86L50F3I
RC86L50-3
3.3 V
QFP + TSOP
15 min
–40 °C to + 85 °C
RC8650AFP + RC46L71FP
7
RC8650
RC Systems
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FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION
Versatile I/O
All data is sent to the RC8650 through its built in serial and/or
parallel ports. For maximum flexibility, including infield update
capability, use of the serial port is recommended whenever possible.
The RC8650 chipset includes a number of features that make it
ideally suited for any design requiring voice output. The RC8650’s
major features are described below.
The RC8650’s audio output is available in both analog and digital
formats. The analog output should be used in applications where
no further processing of the audio signal is required, such as driving a speaker or headphones (the output still needs to be filtered
and amplified, however). The digital output is for applications that
require further processing of the audio signal, such as digital mixing
or creating sound files for later playback.
Text-to-Speech Synthesizer
The RC8650 provides text-to-speech conversion with its integrated
DoubleTalk™ text-to-speech synthesizer. Any English text written
to the RC8650 is automatically converted into speech. Commands
can be embedded in the input stream to dynamically control the
voice, even at the phoneme level (phonemes are the basic sound
units of speech).
A greeting message can be stored in the RC8650 that is automatically spoken immediately after the RC8650 is reset. Most any of the
commands recognized by the RC8650 may be included as part of
the greeting message, which can be used to set up custom default
settings and/or play a prerecorded message or tone sequence. An
integrated nonvolatile memory area is also provided for storing a
custom pronunciation dictionary, allowing the pronunciation of any
character string to be redefined.
RECOMMENDED CONNECTIONS
Power/Ground
Power and ground connections are made to multiple pins of the
RC8650 and RC46xx chips. Every VCC pin must be connected to
power, and every VSS pin must be connected to ground. To minimize
noise, the analog and digital circuits in the RC8650 use separate
power busses. These busses are brought out to separate pins and
should be tied to the supply as close as possible.
Recorded Audio Playback
Up to 15 minutes of recorded messages and sound effects can be
stored in the RC8650 for on-demand playback. Recordings are
stored in on-chip nonvolatile memory, providing zero-power message storage. Additionally, the RC8650 can play eight-bit PCM and
ADPCM audio in real time, such as speech and/or sound effects
stored in an external memory or file system.
Make sure adequate decoupling is placed on the AVREF pin, as noise
present on this pin will also appear on the AO output pins and affect
A/D converter accuracy. In systems where the power supply is very
quiet, AVREF can be connected directly to VCC. Designs incorporating a switching power supply, or supplies carrying heavy loads,
may require filtering at the AVREF pin; a 150 Ω series VCC resistor
in combination with a 100 µF capacitor to ground should suffice.
Musical Tone Generator
Connect any unused input pins to an appropriate signal level (see
Table 1). Leave any unused output pins and all NC pins uncon­nected.
An integrated, three-voice musical tone generator is capable of generating up to three tones simultaneously over a four-octave range.
Simple tones to attention-getting sounds can be easily created.
Chip Interconnects
Pins IC0 through IC32 and PIO0 through PIO7 must be connected
between the RC8650 and RC46xx chips. IC30, IC31, and IC32 must
have 47 kΩ – 100 kΩ pullup resistors to VCC.
Touch-Tone Generator
The RC8650 includes an integrated DTMF (Touch-Tone) generator.
This is useful in telephony applications where standard DTMF tones
are used to signal a remote receiver, modem, or access the public
switched telephone network.
Clock Generator
The RC8650 has an internal oscillator and clock generator that can
be controlled by an external 7.3728 MHz crystal, ceramic resonator,
or external 7.3728 MHz clock source. If an external clock is used,
connect it to the XIN pin and leave XOUT unconnected. See Figure
1 for recommended clock connections.
Sinusoidal Tone Generator
A precision, dual sinusoidal tone generator can synthesize the tones
often used in signaling applications. The tone frequencies can be
independently set, allowing signals such as call-progress tones to
be generated.
RC8650
RC8650
Analog-to-Digital Converter
XIN
The four channel, 8-bit A/D converter can be used to monitor battery
cell voltages, temperature, and other analog quantities. The ADC
can be programmed on the fly to convert any single channel, or scan
up to four channels repetitively.
15
XIN
XOUT
7.3728 MHZ
18 PF
13
15
13
NC
EXTERNAL CLOCK
18 PF
VCC
VSS
Figure 1. Clock Connections
8
XOUT
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INTERFACING THE RC8650
The RC8650 contains both asynchronous serial and 8-bit bus
interfaces. All text, commands, tone generator and real-time audio
data, etc., are transmitted to the RC8650 via one of these ports.
For maximum flexibility, use of the serial port is recommended,
because not all RC8650 functions are supported through the bus
interface. In particular, index markers, firmware updates, certain
status information and A/D conversion are only supported through
the serial interface.
Serial Interface
The RC8650’s serial port is asynchronous and operates with 8 data
bits (LSB first), 1 or more stop bits, no parity, and any standard baud
rate between 300 and 115200 bps. Most modern microcontrollers
have at least one UART that can be used to connect to the RC8650.
CTS#
L
L
L
H
H
H
MICRO
30
29
28
300
H
L
H
L
H
L
600
1200
2400
4800
9600
19200
H
H
H
Auto-detect
TXD
Start bit
RXD
38
CTS#
LSB
PROGRAMMING PORT
L
L
H
H
L
L
H
10K *
35
* INSTALL FOR OPTIONAL
L
Note The measurement cycle ends when there have been no Highto-Low nor Low-to-High transitions on the BRD pin for 75 ms or
longer. Consequently, the RC8650 will ignore any data sent to it for
a period of 75 ms after the “lock-on” character has been received.
The CTS# pin is driven High during this time, and the acknowledgment character is not transmitted until the RC8650 is actually ready
to accept data. See Figure 3.
VCC
TXD
L
If the measured bit period is determined to be a valid baud rate,
the RC8650 will acknowledge lock acquisition by transmitting the
ASCII character “l” (6Ch) on the TXD pin. (Note that nothing will be
transmitted if the baud rate has been programmed for a fixed rate.)
The baud rate will remain locked unless changed with the baud rate
command, or the RC8650 is reset.
The serial port’s baud rate can be programmed using any of three
methods: pin strapping, auto-detect, and by command. Pin strapping sets the baud rate according to the logic levels present on the
BRS0–BRS2 pins, as shown in Table 2. Auto-detect enables the serial port to automatically detect the baud rate of the incoming data.
7
36
Baud Rate
The automatic baud rate detection mechanism is enabled when
the BRS0–BRS2 pins are all at a High logic level and the BRD pin
is connected to the RXD pin. The baud rate is determined by the
shortest High or Low period detected in the input stream. This period is assumed to be the bit rate of the incoming data; therefore, it
is important that there be at least one isolated “1” or “0” in the input
character. The CR character, 0Dh, is recommended for locking the
baud rate. The character is not otherwise processed by the RC8650;
it is discarded. In addition to the baud rates listed in Table 2, autodetect mode also supports 38400, 57600, and 115200 baud rates.
Baud rate selection
BRD
RXD
BRS0
The baud rate command allows the baud rate to be changed at any
time, effectively overriding the first two methods. Pin strapping cannot be used to program baud rates higher than 19200; to do this,
auto-detection or the baud rate command must be used.
The CTS# pin should be used to control the flow of serial data to
the RC8650. It is not necessary to check CTS# before transmitting
every byte, however. All data is routed through a high speed 16-byte
buffer within the RC8650 before being stored in the primary buffer.
CTS# may be checked every eight bytes with no risk of data loss.
BRS0
BRS1
BRS2
BRS1
Table 2. Baud Rate Options
A typical microcontroller interface circuit is shown in Figure 2.
The circuit includes an external programming port, which allows
the RC8650 to be programmed in-circuit. Data files and firmware
updates can be downloaded from a PC to the RC8650 through this
port. Note that an external RS-232 transceiver chip will generally be
required, in order to convert the PC’s RS-232 voltage levels to the
RC8650’s logic levels.
RC8650
BRS2
CTS
RXD
TXD
*
MSB
Baud rate validation (»75 ms)
6Ch
Figure 3. Baud Rate Detection Timing
Figure 2. Serial Interface
9
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Status messages
ing it with the next data byte. Not doing so could result in the loss of
data. Waiting for RDY to drop to 0 ensures that RDY will not falsely
show that the RC8650 is ready the next time the driver is called.
Real-time status information is provided via the TXD pin. Status are
transmitted as one-byte messages, shown in Table 3. Each message
correlates to a status flag in the Status Register, shown in Table 4.
The specific character used, and whether it will be transmitted, are
functions of the V86 and STM bits of the Protocol Options Register.
For information about how to obtain reading-progress status, see
the Index Marker command description.
V86 = 0
Event
“B”
Output has started
Output has stopped
“E”
Buffer almost empty
(<100 bytes remaining)
–
Buffer almost full
(<100 bytes available)
–
Standby mode
confirmation
“S”
Baud rate lock
confirmation
“L”
V86 = 1
“s”
“t”
“e”
“f”
“p”
“l”
If a system interrupt can occur while waiting for RDY to become 0,
or if RDY cannot otherwise be checked at least once every 8 µs, a
software timeout should be enforced to avoid hanging up in the wait
loop. The time RDY stays 0 is relatively short (8 µs min.) and can be
missed if interrupted. The timeout should be at least 15 µs, which is
the maximum time for RDY to drop to 0 after writing a byte of data. In
non time-critical applications, the output routine could simply delay
15 µs or longer before exiting, without checking for RDY = 0 at all.
Requires
STM = 1
Figure 4 illustrates the recommended method of writing data to the
RC8650’s bus interface. This method should be used for writing all
types of data, including text, commands, tone generator and realtime audio data.
Yes
Yes
Yes
START
Yes
No
READ STATUS
REGISTER
No
Table 3. Status Messages
RDY = 1
?
Bus/Printer Interface
The RC8650’s bus interface allows the RC8650 to be connected
to a microprocessor or microcontroller in the same manner as a
static RAM or I/O device, as shown in Figure 5. The microcontroller
controls all transactions with the RC8650 over the system data
bus using the RD and WR# signals. RD controls the reading of the
RC8650’s Status Register; WR# controls the transfer of data into the
RC8650. The Status Register bits and their definitions are shown
in Table 4.
NO
YES
WRITE BYTE
TO RC8650
READ STATUS
REGISTER
A registered bus transceiver is required for communication between
the RC8650 and microcontroller; two 74HC374s placed back to
back may be substituted for the 74HC652 shown in the figure. Prior
to each write operation to the RC8650, the host processor should
verify that the RC8650 is ready by testing the RDY status flag.
NO
RDY = 0
?
The RC8650 can also be interfaced to a PC’s printer port as shown
in Figure 5. A 74HC374 can be used in place of the 74HC652, since
bidirectional communication is not necessary. Handshaking is performed automatically via the BUSY pin.
YES
NO
15 µs
TIMEOUT
?
YES
WRITE COMPLETE
Because the RC8650 can take up to 15 µs to accept data written to it
(AC Characteristics, tYHWH parameter), software drivers should wait
for RDY to drop to 0 after a byte is written in order to avoid overwrit-
Figure 4. Recommended Method of Writing Data Via the Bus
Interface
10
RC8650
RC Systems
voice synthesizer
now you’re talking!
R
TS
R
RDY
AF
AE
STBY
R
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Status Register Bit
Description
SR.7 = RESERVED (R)
Reserved for future use. Mask when polling the Status Register.
SR.6 = TALK STATUS (TS)
1 = Talking
0 = Idle
This bit is “1” when the RC8650 is producing output, “0” when output has ceased. The TS bit
is not affected by the TS Pin Control command, which affects only the TS pins.
SR.5 = RESERVED (R)
Reserved for future use. Mask when polling the Status Register.
SR.4 = READY STATUS (RDY)
1 = Ready
0 = Busy
The RDY bit has the same meaning as the RDY# pin. The RC8650 sets RDY to “1” to indicate
that it is ready to receive data. RDY drops to “0” momentarily after each write operation over the
PIO bus, acknowledging receipt of each character.
SR.3 = ALMOST FULL (AF)
1 = Buffer almost full
0 = Buffer not almost full
This bit is “1” anytime there are less than 100 bytes available in the input buffer. AF is always
“0” in the real-time audio playback mode and when using the musical tone generator.
SR.2 = ALMOST EMPTY (AE)
1 = Buffer almost empty
0 = Buffer not almost empty
This bit is “1” anytime there are less than 100 bytes remaining in the input buffer. AE is always
“1” in the real-time audio playback mode and when using the musical tone generator.
SR.1 = STANDBY MODE (STBY)
1 = RC8650 is in Standby mode
0 = RC8650 not in Standby mode
This bit is “1” when the RC8650 has entered Standby mode. Standby mode is entered either by
setting the STBY# pin Low or by allowing the Sleep Timer to expire.
SR.0 = RESERVED (R)
Reserved for future use. Mask when polling the Status Register.
Table 4. Bus Interface Status Register


Figure 5. Bus/Printer Interface
11


RC8650
RC Systems
voice synthesizer
now you’re talking!


Figure 6. Method of Capturing Status Information for Driving External Circuitry
Analog Audio Output
tion. See Typical Application Circuit for a similar circuit without a
volume control.
The analog output pins AO0 and AO1 are unfiltered, high impedance
outputs from the RC8650’s internal D/A converters. When using
these outputs, the addition of an external low-pass filter is highly
recommended. When laying out the printed circuit board, avoid
running digital lines near the AO lines in order to minimize induced
noise in the audio path. If space permits, run a guard ground next
to the AO traces.
Digital Audio Output
The digital audio pin DAOUT delivers the RC8650’s audio signal as
a digital audio stream. The data format is 8-bit linear, offset binary,
where 80h = midscale. The DAOUT pin can be programmed for synchronous or asynchronous operation. The transfer format and clock
polarity are programmable in the synchronous mode.
The circuit shown in Figure 7 is a low-pass filter/power amplifier
capable of delivering 1.1 W to an 8 Ω load when operating from
a + 5 V power supply (power output will be less when operating
from + 3.3 V). The amplifier’s shutdown pin can be controlled by
the TS0 pin to minimize current drain when the RC8650 is inactive.
The resistor in series with the headphone jack provides balance
between relative speaker volume and headphone volume, as well as
improving headphone S/N ratio and providing short-circuit protec-
The normalized sampling rate for all text to speech modes and the
DTMF generator is 80 kbs (10 kbytes/sec). Because the sinusoidal
generator, prerecorded and real-time audio playback mode rates
are user programmable, their normalized rates will vary. See the Pin
Descriptions and Audio Control Register command description for
more information.

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Figure 7. Low Cost 3 kHz Low-Pass Filter/Power Amplifier
12
RC8650
RC Systems
voice synthesizer
now you’re talking!
ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATIONS
­

‚
‚
‚
‚


€




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Figure 8. Test Circuit
ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS*
Supply voltage, VCC and AVCC
3.3 V devices. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – 0.3 V to + 4.0 V
5 V devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – 0.3 V to + 6.5 V
* WARNING: Stresses greater than those listed under “Absolute
Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the device.
This is a stress rating only; operation of the device at any condition
above those indicated in the operational sections of these specifications is not implied. Exposure to absolute maximum rating conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability.
DC input voltage, VI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – 0.3 V to VCC + 0.3 V
Operating temperature, TA. . . . 0 °C to + 70 °C / – 40 °C to + 85 °C
Storage temperature, TS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – 55 °C to + 125 °C
13
RC8650
RC Systems
voice synthesizer
now you’re talking!
DC CHARACTERISTICS
TA = 0 °C to + 70 °C / –40 °C to + 85 °C, VCC = AVCC = AVREF = 3.3 V / 5 V, VSS = AVSS = 0 V, XIN = 7.3728 MHz
Symbol
3.3 V ± 0.3 V
Parameter
Min
VIL
Input voltage, Low
VIH
VIA
Input voltage, High
Analog input voltage (AN0-3)
VHYR
Input hysterisis, RESET#
VOL
Output voltage, Low
VOH
Output voltage, High
IIL
Input load current
RO
Analog output resistance
(AO0, AO1)
ICC
Supply current
Typ
5 V ± 0.5 V
Max
Min
Typ
Unit
Max
– 0.3
0.2VCC
– 0.3
0.2VCC
V
0.7VCC
– 0.3
VCC + 0.3
AVREF
0.7VCC
– 0.3
VCC + 0.3
AVREF
V
V
0.2
1.8
0.2
1.8
V
0.5
VCC – 0.5
0.5
V
IOL = 1 mA
V
IOH = – 1 mA
± 5
µA
VIN = VSS to VCC
10
20
kΩ
7.5
1.2
0.8
24
2.5
20
mA
mA
µA
40
mA
VCC – 0.5
± 4
4
Active
Idle
Standby
10
20
4
0.7
0.7
15
1.5
15
Program (Note 1)
4
Test Conditions
30
All outputs open;
all inputs = VCC
or VSS; AVCC and
AVREF currents
included
1 Applies during internal programming operations: greeting message, dictionary, sound library and microcode updates.
AC CHARACTERISTICS
TA = 0 °C to + 70 °C / –40 °C to + 85 °C, VCC = AVCC = AVREF = 3.3 V / 5 V, VSS = AVSS = 0 V
External Clock Input Timing
Symbol
3.3 V ± 0.3 V
Parameter
fC
External clock input frequency
tWCL
tWCH
tCR
External clock input Low pulse width
External clock input High pulse width
External clock rise time
tCF
External clock fall time
Unit
Min
Nom
Max
Min
Nom
Max
7.2991
7.3728
7.4465
7.2991
7.3728
7.4465
MHz
60
60
67.8
67.8
40
40
67.8
67.8
18
15
ns
ns
ns
18
15
ns
5 V ± 0.5 V
Figure 9. External Clock Waveform
14
RC8650
RC Systems
voice synthesizer
now you’re talking!
Bus Interface Timing
Symbol
3.3 V ± 0.3 V
Parameter
tWSL
STS# pulse width Low
tDVSL
STS# Low to data valid
tDHSH
Data hold from STS# going High
tWRL
Min
Max
215
5 V ± 0.5 V
Min
Max
250
155
Unit
ns
150
ns
5
5
ns
PRD# pulse width Low
215
250
ns
tDVRH
Data setup to PRD# going High
85
40
ns
tDHRH
Data hold from PRD# going High
0
0
ns
tWWL
PWR# pulse width Low
380
250
ns
tDVWH
tDHWH
tYHWH
Data setup to PWR# going High
Data hold from PWR# going High
RDY# High from PWR# going High (Note 1)
– 2
15
– 2
15
µs
µs
µs
tWYH
RDY# pulse width High (Note 1)
15
8
15
8
1 Applies to the RDY# pin and RDY status flag.



Figure 10. Bus Interface Waveforms
15
µs
RC8650
RC Systems
voice synthesizer
now you’re talking!
Analog Audio Timing
Figure 11. Analog Audio Waveforms
Digital Audio Timing
Symbol
3.3 V ± 0.3 V
Parameter
Min
tCYC
tWCL
tWCH
tDVC
tDHC
DACLK cycle time
DACLK pulse width Low
DACLK pulse width High
DAOUT output delay time
DAOUT hold time
300
150
150
fS
Nom. TTS, sinusoidal and DTMF generators internal sampling rate
10
Max
5 V ± 0.5 V
Min
200
100
100
160
0
80
0
10
10
Figure 12. Digital Audio Waveforms
16
Max
10
Unit
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
kHz
RC8650
RC Systems
voice synthesizer
now you’re talking!
Standby Timing
Symbol
3.3 V ± 0.3 V
Parameter
tWSBL
Min
Max
5 V ± 0.5 V
Min
Max
Unit
STBY# pulse width Low
To enter Standby mode
To exit Standby mode (Sleep Timer invoked; Note 1)
5
5
ms
380
250
ns
1 Monitor handshake lines to determine when Standby mode has terminated.
Figure 13. Standby Waveform
Reset Timing
Symbol
tWRS
tDRR
Parameter
Min
Max
Unit
RESET# pulse width Low
After power on / VCC stable
1
ms
During operation
3
µs
RESET# recovery delay
2
ms
Figure 14. Reset Waveform
17
Notes
Hold RESET# Low during power-up. STBY#
must be High no later than 0.5 sec after
­RESET# goes High.
RC8650 performs internal initialization; all outputs
will be floating. Do not attempt to send data to the
RC8650 during this period.
RC8650
RC Systems
voice synthesizer
now you’re talking!
OPERATING MODES
Commands can be freely intermixed with text that is to be spoken — allowing the voice to be dynamically controlled — or to
dynamically change operating modes, such as generating tones
or playing recorded messages, in the middle of a passage of text.
The RC8650 has four primary operating modes and two inactive
modes designed to achieve maximum functionality and flexibility.
The operating mode can be changed anytime, even on the fly, by
issuing the appropriate command to the RC8650.
All RC8650 commands are composed of the command character
(CTRL+A by default), a parameter n comprised of an ASCII number
string, and an ASCII character that uniquely identifies the command.
Some commands simply enable or disable a feature of the RC8650
and do not require a parameter. The command format is:
Note: The RC8650 will not begin speaking or execute commands
until it receives a CR (0Dh) or NUL (00h) character — this ensures
that a complete contextual analysis can be performed on the input
text. If it is not possible for the application to send a CR or NUL at
the end of each text message, use the Timeout Delay command.
<command character>[<number string>]<ASCII character>
The RC8650 does not make any distinction between uppercase and
lowercase characters. All data sent to the RC8650 is buffered in an
internal 2 KB input buffer, allowing additional text and commands to
be queued even while the RC8650 is producing output.
Commands are not case sensitive. If two or more commands are to
be used together, each must be prefaced with the command character. This is the only way the RC8650 knows to treat the subsequent
characters as commands, rather than text that is to be spoken. For
example, the following commands program pitch level 40 and volume level 7 (quotes and spaces shown for clarity purposes only):
Text-to-speech mode. By default, all text sent to the RC8650 is automatically translated into speech by the integrated DoubleTalk TTS
engine. TTS mode can be further subdivided into three translation
modes: Text, which reads text normally; Character, which reads
(spells) one character at a time; and Phoneme, which allows the TTS
engine’s phonemes to be directly accessed.
CTRL+A "40p" CTRL+A "7v"
The Command Character
The default RC8650 command character is CTRL+A (01h). The
command character itself can be spoken by the RC8650 by sending
it twice in a row: CTRL+A CTRL+A. This special command allows
the command character to be spoken without affecting the operation
of the RC8650, and without having to change to another command
character and then back again.
Real-Time Audio Playback mode. Data sent to the RC8650 is written directly to the RC8650’s audio buffer. This results in a high data
rate, but provides the capability of producing the highest quality
speech, as well as sound effects. PCM and ADPCM data types are
supported.
Prerecorded Audio Playback mode. This mode allows recorded
messages and sound effects that have been stored in the RC8650 to
be played back. PCM and ADPCM data types are supported.
Changing the command character
The command character can be changed to another control character (01-1Ah) by sending the current command character, followed by
the new character. To change the command character to CTRL+D, for
example, send CTRL+A CTRL+D. To change it back, send CTRL+D
CTRL+A. It’s recommended to change the command character if the
text to be read contains characters which may otherwise be interpreted as command characters (and hence commands). The command character can be unconditionally reset to CTRL+A by sending
CTRL+^ (1Eh) to the RC8650.
Tone Generator modes. These modes activate the RC8650’s musical
tone generator, sinusoidal generator, or DTMF generator. They can
be used to generate audible prompts, music, signaling tones, dial
a telephone, etc.
Idle mode. To help conserve power in battery-powered systems, the
RC8650 automatically enters a reduced-power state whenever it is
inactive. Data can still be read and written to the RC8650 while in
this mode. Current draw is typically 700 µA @ 3.3 V.
Command Parameters
Standby mode. This mode powers down the RC8650, where current
draw is typically only 0.7 µA. Standby mode can be invoked from
either the STBY# pin or with the Sleep command. Data cannot be
read from or written to the RC8650 in this mode.
Command parameters are composed of ASCII number strings. The
RC8650 supports two types of parameters: absolute and relative.
Absolute parameters explicitly specify the parameter’s new value,
such as 9S or 3B. Relative parameters specify a displacement from
a parameter’s current value, not the actual new value itself.
RC8650 COMMAND SYNTAX
Relative parameters specify positive or negative displacements from
a parameter’s current value. For example, the Volume command
+ 2V increases the volume level by two (V + 2→V). If the current
volume is 4, the volume will increase to 6 after the command has
executed. The command –2V will have a similar effect, except the
volume will be decreased by two. When operating on an RC8650
register (Punctuation Filter, Protocol Options, Audio Control and
ADC Control), relative parameters allow you to set (“+”) and clear
(“–”) individual register bits. For example, + 65G sets bits POR.0
and POR.6; – 16$ clears ADR.4.
The RC8650 commands provide a simple yet flexible means of
controlling the RC8650 under software control. They can be used
to vary voice attributes, such as volume or pitch, to suit the requirements of a particular application or listener’s preferences. Commands are also used to change operating modes.
18
RC8650
RC Systems
voice synthesizer
now you’re talking!
is omitted, the last set value will be used and the exception dictionary will be disabled. This feature is useful for returning from another
operating mode or disabling the exception dictionary (see Enable
Exception Dictionary command).
If the value of a parameter falls outside the command’s range, the
value will either wrap around or saturate, depending on the setting
of the SAT bit of the Protocol Options Register. For example, if parameters are programmed to wrap, the current volume is 7 and the
command + 4V is issued, the resultant volume will be (7 + 4) – 10 =
1, since the volume range is 0-9. If parameters are programmed to
saturate, the resultant volume would be 9 instead.
Character Mode/Delay (C/nC)
This command puts the RC8650 in the Character operating mode.
The optional delay parameter n is used to create a variable pause
between characters. Values between 0 (the default) and 15 provide
pauses from shortest to longest, respectively. Values between 16
and 31 provide the same range of pauses, but control characters will
not be spoken. If the delay parameter is omitted, the last set value
will be used and the exception dictionary will be disabled.
When writing application programs for the RC8650, it is recommended that relative parameters be used for temporarily changing
voice attributes (such as raising the pitch of a word), using absoluteparameter commands only once in the program’s initialization routine. This way, if the base value of an attribute needs to be changed,
it only needs to be changed in the initialization routine.
Phoneme Mode (D)
TTS SYNTHESIZER
This command disables the text-to-phonetics translator, allowing
the RC8650’s phonemes to be accessed directly. Table 5 lists the
phonemes that can be produced by the RC8650.
Using the TTS synthesizer couldn’t be simpler: simply write the text
to be read to the RC8650; the RC8650 does the rest. The RC8650
also includes a number of software commands that allow you to
modify the behavior of the TTS synthesizer, as described in this
section.
Phoneme
Symbol
Translation Accuracy
A
AA
AE
AH
AW
AX
AY
B
CH
D
DH
DX
E
EH
EI
ER
EW
EY
F
G
H
I
IH
IX
IY
J
K
KX
L
M
Because the RC8650 must handle the highly irregular spelling
system of English, as well as proper names, acronyms, technical
terms, and borrowed foreign words, there inevitably will be words
that it will mispronounce. If a word is mispronounced, there are
three techniques for correcting it:
1) Spell the word phonetically for the desired pronunciation.
2) Redefine the way the word should be pronounced by creating
an exception for it in the RC8650’s exception dictionary. This
method allows words to be corrected without having to modify
the original text, and it automatically corrects all instances of
the word.
3) Use the RC8650’s Phoneme mode.
The first technique is the easiest way to fine tune word pronunciations — by tricking the RC8650 into the desired pronunciation.
Among the more commonly mispronounced words are compound
words, proper names (Sean), and foreign loan words (chauffeur).
Compound words can usually be corrected by separating the two
words with a space. Proper names and foreign words may require a
bit more creativity, so that “Sean” becomes “Shon,” and “chauffeur”
becomes “show fur.” Heteronyms (words with identical spelling but
different meanings and pronunciations) can also be modified using
this technique. For example, if the word read is to be pronounced
“reed” instead of “red,” it can simply be respelled as “reed.”
Text Mode/Delay (T/nT)
This command places the RC8650 in the Text operating mode.
The optional delay parameter n is used to create a variable pause
between words. The shortest, and default delay of 0, is used for
normal speech. For users not accustomed to synthetic speech, the
synthesizer’s intelligibility may be improved by introducing a delay.
The longest delay that can be specified is 15. If the delay parameter
Example
Word
das (Spanish)
cot
cat
cut
cow
bottom
bite
bib
church
did
either
city
ser (Spanish)
bet
mesa (Spanish)
bird
acteur (French)
bake
fee
gag
he
libro (Spanish)
bit
rabbit
beet
age
cute
ski
long
me
Phoneme
Symbol
N
NG
NY
O
OW
OY
P
PX
R
RR
S
SH
T
TH
TX
U
UH
UW
V
W
WH
Y
YY
Z
ZH
space
' (apostrophe)
, (comma)
. (period)
Example
Word
new
rung
niño (Spanish)
no (Spanish)
boat
boy
pop
spot
ring
tres (Spanish)
sell
shell
tin
thin
stick
uno (Spanish)
book
boot
valve
we
when
mayo (Spanish)
you
zoo
vision
variable pause *
short pause
medium pause
long pause
* Normally used between words; duration determined by nT command.
Table 5. DoubleTalk Phoneme Symbols
19
RC8650
RC Systems
voice synthesizer
now you’re talking!
Speed (nS)
When concatenating two or more phonemes, each phoneme must
be delimited by a space. For example, the word “computer” would
be represented phonetically as
The synthesizer’s speech rate can be adjusted with this command,
from 0S (slowest) through 9S (fastest). The default rate is 1S (5S if
the V86 bit of the Protocol Options Register is set to 0).
k ax m p yy uw dx er
Phoneme attribute modifiers
Voice (nO)
The RC8650 supports seven phoneme attribute modifiers that can
be used in Phoneme mode and exception dictionaries. Table 6 lists
these tokens and their equivalent RC8650 commands.
Symbol
Function
The text-to-speech synthesizer has eight standard voices and a
number of individual voice parameter controls that can be used to
independently vary the voice characteristics. Voices are selected
with the commands 0O through 7O, shown in Table 7. Because the
Voice command alters numerous internal voice parameters (articulation, pitch, expression, tone, etc.), it should precede any individual
voice parameter control commands.
Equiv Cmd
nn
Set pitch to ‘nn’ (0-99)
nP
/
\
+
–
>
Increase pitch m steps *
Decrease pitch m steps *
Increase speed 1 step
Decrease speed 1 step
Increase volume 1 step
+ mP
– mP
+ 1S
– 1S
+ 1V
0
Perfect Paul (default)
1
2
Vader
Big Bob
<
Decrease volume 1 step
– 1V
3
Precise Pete
4
5
6
Ricochet Randy
Biff
Skip
7
Robo Robert
n
* Step size determined by nE command; m @ 2n
Table 6. Phoneme Attribute Modifiers
Voice Name
Applications of Phoneme mode
Table 7. Voice Presets
Phoneme mode is useful when the normal text-to-speech modes are
inappropriate for producing the desired voice effect. For example,
Phoneme mode should be used to change the stress or emphasis of
specific words in a phrase. This is because Phoneme mode allows
voice attributes to be modified on phoneme boundaries within each
word, whereas Text mode allows changes only at word boundaries.
This is illustrated in the following examples.
CTRL+A "d" CTRL+A "m" "//h aw
+<\\yy uw
s p \iy k
t uw
t
-\w ey .+/"
Articulation (nA)
This command adjusts the articulation level, from 0A through 9A.
Excessively low articulation values tend to make the voice sound
slurred; very high values, on the other hand, can make the voice
sound choppy. The default articulation is 5A.
-/d>/eh r
\m iy
dh ae
Expression (E/nE)
Expression, or intonation, is the variation of pitch within a sentence
or phrase. When expression is enabled (n > 0), the RC8650 attempts to mimic the pitch patterns of human speech. For example,
when a sentence ends with a period, the pitch drops at the end of the
sentence; a question mark will cause the pitch to rise.
Note that expression is disabled in this example, since the pitch
variations due to the internal intonation algorithms would otherwise
interfere with the pitch tokens. Compare this with the same phrase
produced in Text mode with expression enabled:
The optional parameter n determines the degree of intonation. 0E
provides no intonation (monotone), whereas 9E is very animated
sounding. 5E is the default setting. If the parameter is omitted, the
current (last set) value will be used. This is useful for re-enabling
intonation after a Monotone command.
CTRL+A "t" CTRL+A "e" "How dare you speak to
me that way!"
Phoneme mode is also useful in applications that provide their own
text-to-phoneme translation, such as the front end of a custom textto-speech system.
20
RC8650
RC Systems
voice synthesizer
now you’re talking!
Monotone (M)
Effect on number strings
This command disables all intonation (expression), causing the
RC8650 to speak with a monotonic voice. Intonation should be disabled whenever manual intonation is applied using the Pitch command or phoneme attribute modifiers. This command is equivalent
to the 0E command.
When the NM bit is 0, number strings will be read one digit at a time,
e.g., 0123 = “zero one two three.” Setting NM to 1 forces number
strings to be read as numbers (0123 = “one hundred twenty three”).
Additionally, when NM = 1 and FM = 10 or 11, currency strings will
be read as they are normally spoken. For example, $11.95 will be
read as “eleven dollars and ninety five cents.” Four-digit numbers
will be read as years when YM = 0; e.g., 1492 = “fourteen ninetytwo.” Setting LZS = 1 disables leading zero suppression; number
strings beginning with zero will always be read one digit at a time.
Formant Frequency (nF)
This command adjusts the synthesizer’s overall frequency response
(vocal tract formant frequencies), over the range 0F through 9F. By
varying the frequency, voice quality can be fine-tuned or voice type
changed. The default frequency is 5F.
The default filter setting is 6B (Some punctuation, Numbers mode,
Years mode, leading zero suppression enabled).
Pitch (nP)
This command varies the pitch over a wide range, which can be used
to change the average pitch during speech production, produce
manual intonation, or create sound effects (including singing). Pitch
values can range from 0P through 99P; the default is 50P.
R
R
R
YM
LZS
NM
FM
FM
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Punctuation Filter Register Bits
PFR.7 – 5 = RESERVED (R)
Write “0” to ensure future compatibility.
Tone (nX)
The synthesizer supports three tone settings, bass (0X), normal (1X)
and treble (2X). The best setting to use depends on the speaker being used and personal preference. Normal (1X) is the default setting.
PFR.4 = YEARS MODE (YM)
1 = Read four-digit numbers normally
0 = Read four-digit numbers as years
PFR.3 = LEADING ZERO SUPPRESSION (LZS)
1 = Do not suppress leading zeroes
0 = Suppress leading zeroes
Reverb (nR)
This command is used to add reverberation to the voice. 0R (the default) introduces no reverb; increasing values of n correspondingly
increase the reverb delay and effect. 9R is the maximum setting.
PFR.2 = NUMBERS MODE (NM)
1 = Read number strings as numbers
0 = Read number strings as digits
Punctuation Filter Register (nB)
PFR.1 – 0 = FILTER MODE (FM)
00 = All spoken
01 = Most spoken (all but CR, LF, Space)
10 = Some spoken ($%&#@=+*^|\<>)
11 = None spoken
Depending on the application, it may be desirable to limit the reading of certain punctuation characters. For example, if the RC8650
is used to proofread documents, the application may call for only
unusual punctuation to be read. On the other hand, an application
that orally echoes keyboard entries for a blind user may require that
all punctuation be spoken.
Table 8. Punctuation Filter Register
The Punctuation Filter Register determines which punctuation characters will be spoken and how number strings will be translated, as
shown in Table 8.
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A/D CONVERTER
The output of the ADC is governed by the following equation. The
result n is transmitted via the TXD pin as an 8-bit value.
The integrated analog-to-digital converter can be used to monitor
analog quantities, such as battery voltage or temperature. Figure
15 is a functional block diagram of the ADC input stage; Figure 16
illustrates the ADC in operation.
n = 256 x VIN / AVREF(0 ≤ n ≤ 255)
ADC Control Register (n$)
The ADC has the following features:
The ADC Control Register controls the operation of the ADC. Table
9 lists the functions of each register bit. The default register setting
is 128$.
– Four channels, 8-bit resolution (± 2 LSB precision)
– One-shot, continuous, single sweep, and continuous sweep
modes of operation
– Selectable software or hardware triggering
– Support for external amplification/signal conditioning of all
four ADC channels
Operation of the ADC is not mutually exclusive of other RC8650
functions. The ADC can operate concurrently with text-to-speech,
tone generation, recording memory playback, etc. To start a conversion, simply write to the register with INH = 0. The effective sampling
rate in continuous mode is one-tenth the serial port baud rate (e.g.,
115200 baud = 11520 samples per second).
INH
AMP
TRG
CONT
SWP
R
CH
CH
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
ADC Control Register Bit
Description
ADR.7 = INHIBIT (INH)
1 = Stop A/D conversions
0 = Start A/D conversions
This bit must be “0” in order for the ADC to begin sampling the input channel(s); setting
it to “1” while the ADC is operating will cause all conversions to stop. This bit allows the
other register bits to be programmed without actually starting the ADC. INH automatically changes to “1” at the end of a conversion in one-shot mode. Default: “1.”
ADR.6 = EXTERNAL AMPLIFIER (AMP)
1 = Amp connected
0 = Amp not connected
Set this bit to “1” to use an operational amplifier connected between the AMPIN and AMPOUT pins. Connecting an op amp and enabling this function allows the voltage input to
each ADC input pin to be amplified with one op amp. Default: “0.”
ADR.5 = TRIGGER SOURCE (TRG)
1 = Hardware trigger (ADTRG pin)
0 = Software trigger
Setting this bit to “1” enables hardware triggering of the ADC. The ADC will not begin
operating until ADR.7 is set to “0” and the ADTRG pin changes from a High to a Low
level. When TRG is “0” the ADC will begin operating as soon as ADR.7 is set to “0.”
Default: “0.”
ADR.4 = CONTINUOUS MODE (CONT)
1 = Continuous mode
0 = One-shot mode
Setting this bit to “1” causes the ADC to operate continuously. If a single channel is selected for measurement (ADR.3 = 0), that channel will be read repeatedly. If sweep mode
is selected (ADR.3 = 1), the active input channels will be continuously read in a cyclic
fashion. Clearing this bit while the ADC is operating will stop the ADC. Default: “0.”
ADR.3 = SWEEP MODE (SWP)
1 = Sweep mode
0 = Single-channel mode
This bit determines whether a single channel or multiple input channels will be read.
When Sweep mode is selected, ADR.1 and ADR.0 determine which input channels will
be scanned. Default: “0.”
ADR.2 = RESERVED (R)
Reserved for future use. Write “0” to ensure future compatibility.
ADR.1 – 0 = CHANNEL SELECT (CH)
These bits determine which input channel(s) will be read by the ADC. Default: “00.”
When ADR.3 = 0: When ADR.3 = 1:
00 = AN0 00 = undefined
01 = AN1 01 = AN0 – AN1 sweep
10 = AN2 10 = undefined
11 = AN3 11 = AN0 – AN3 sweep
NOTES:
1. The AMPOUT pin can be used as a fifth ADC input if an external op amp is not used. Set ADR.6 = 1 to select the AMPOUT pin for conversion.
Table 9. ADC Control Register
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RC8650
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Figure 15. ADC Input Block Diagram
Figure 16. ADC Transfer Timing
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RC8650
RC Systems
voice synthesizer
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AUDIO PLAYBACK
are half the size of PCM files, thereby reducing the required data
bandwidth and storage requirements. RC Systems’ RCStudio software can convert Windows wave and MP3 files to PCM and ADPCM
formats for use with the RC8650.
Libraries of sounds and recorded messages can be stored in the
RC8650’s integrated flash-based memory for on-demand playback.
New libraries can be downloaded at any time, even in the field,
through the RC8650’s serial interface. The number of sound files is
limited only by the amount of available on-chip memory.
The output sampling rate can be programmed to any rate between
4 and 11 kHz (32,000-88,000 bps) by choosing the appropriate
parameter value. The relationship between the command parameter
n and the sampling rate fs is
Additionally, the RC8650 can play back 8-bit audio in real time,
such as speech and/or sound effects stored in an external memory
or file system.
n = 155 – 617 / fs
fs = 617 / (155 – n)
Download Sound Library (223W)
where fs is measured in kHz. For example, to program an 8 kHz
sampling rate, choose n=78. The range of n is 0–99, hence fs can
range from 4 to 11 kHz.
This command is generally only found in sound libraries created
with RCStudio, a Windows-based application available from RC
Systems. It initiates the download of the sound library (a collection
of sound files) to the RC8650. RCStudio makes it easy to create,
manage, and download sound libraries composed of standard
Windows wave and MP3 files. See RCStudio’s help for additional
information regarding sound libraries.
The following procedure should be used to transfer a PCM or ADPCM file to the RC8650:
1) Program the desired volume level with the Volume (nV) command. A volume setting of 5 will cause the data to be played back
at its original volume level. This step is optional.
Play Sound File (n&)
2) Issue the Real-Time Audio Playback Mode command n# if PCM
data is being sent, or n% for ADPCM data. The RC8650 expects
the audio data to immediately follow the command; therefore, do
not terminate the command with a CR or NUL.
Each sound file (message or sound effect) in a sound library is
automatically assigned a unique file number, or index, beginning
with zero. The first file is file 0, the second is file 1, and so on. This
command plays files in any random order, using n to specify the
desired file.
3) If the RC8650’s serial port is being used to transfer the audio
data, and the port isn’t already running at 115200 baud, change
the host system’s baud rate to 115200 at this time.
The playback volume can be adjusted with the Volume (nV) command. A volume setting of 5 will cause sound files to be played back
at their original volume level.
4) Begin transferring the PCM file to the RC8650. The first four
bytes of a PCM/ADPCM file form a header containing file length
and encoding information, so transfer should begin with the fifth
byte in the file. Note that the transfer of samples from the audio
buffer to the DAC will not begin until at least 100 bytes have been
sent or the value 80h is sent, whichever occurs first.
Text and/or commands may be freely intermixed with the playback
command. For example,
CTRL+A "11*" "Hello" CTRL+A "–3v" CTRL+A "3&"
CTRL+A "+3v" CTRL+A "9&"
plays the Touch-Tone “#” key and says “hello” at the current volume
setting, followed by the fourth sound file at a reduced volume level,
and finally the tenth sound file at the original volume level.
5) After the file has been completely transferred to the RC8650,
send the value 80h (–128). This signals the RC8650 to terminate playback and return to the text-to-speech mode of
operation. Additional files may be transferred without leaving
playback mode by repeating step 4 for each file, sending the 80h
character only after all the files have been transferred.
Real-Time Audio Playback (n#/n%)
This mode allows audio samples to be written to the RC8650’s
digital-to-analog converter via the serial and parallel ports. All data
sent to the RC8650 is routed directly to the RC8650’s internal 2 KB
audio buffer; the RC8650 then transfers samples from the buffer to
the DAC at the rate programmed by n. Because the audio data is
buffered within the RC8650, the output sampling rate is independent
of the data rate into the RC8650, as long as the input rate is greater
than the programmed sampling rate.
The RC8650 supports PCM and ADPCM audio data formats. The
ADPCM format is a compressed format which yields data files that
24
Because up to 2 KB of data may be present in the audio buffer,
the RC8650 can continue producing sound for as long as 0.5
second (at 4 kHz sampling rate). Note that from the time the
80h is sent, the handshake lines will remain in their “not ready”
states until all of the audio data has been transferred from the
buffer to the DAC.
If the host’s serial port baud rate was changed in step 3, it should
now be changed back to its original rate.
RC8650
RC Systems
voice synthesizer
now you’re talking!
TONE GENERATORS
Initialize command format
The Initialize command consists of a byte of zero and three parameters. The parameters are defined as follows:
The RC8650 contains three tone generators: musical, sinusoidal,
and DTMF (Touch-Tone).
KA
KTL
KTH
MUSICAL TONE GENERATOR
Voice amplitude (1-255)
Tempo, low byte (0-255)
Tempo, high byte (0-255)
The musical tone generator is capable of producing three tones
(voices) simultaneously, and works well in applications which require neither precise frequencies nor a pure (low distortion) output.
The output is a pulse train rich in harmonic energy, which sounds
more interesting than pure sinusoids in music applications. RCStudio includes a music score editor and compiler which greatly
simplifies the music-creation process.
The range of the tempo KT (KTL and KTH) is 1-65,535 (1–FFFFh); the
larger the value, the slower the overall speed of play. The amplitude
and tempo affect all three voices, and stay in effect until another Initialize command is issued. If the command is issued between Voice
frames to change the volume or tempo on the fly, only the Voice
frames following the command will be affected.
Note: The musical tone generator output is available only from the
AO pins. Digital audio output from the DAOUT pin is not possible.
Voice Frame
Voice frames contain the duration and frequency (pitch) information
for each voice. All Voice frames are stored in a 2 KB buffer within
the RC8650, but are not played until the Play command is issued.
If the number of Voice frames exceeds 2 KB in length, the RC8650
will automatically begin playing the data.
The musical tone generator is activated with the J command (no
parameter). Once activated, all data output to the RC8650 is directed
to the musical tone generator.
Note: The RC8650 expects the tone generator data to immediately
follow the J command; therefore, do not terminate the command
with a CR or NUL.
Voice frame format
Voice frames are composed of three frequency time constant bytes
(K1-K3) and a duration byte (KD), which specifies how long the three
voices are to be played.
The musical tone generator is controlled with four, four-byte data
and command frames, called Initialize, Voice, Play, and Quit (Figure
17). With these, the volume, duration, and frequencies of the three
voices can be controlled.
The relationship between the time constant Ki and the output frequency fi is:
fi = 16,768 / Ki
Initialize Command
The Initialize command sets up the tone generator’s relative amplitude and tempo (speed). The host must issue this command to
initialize the tone generator before sending any Voice frames. The
Initialize command may, however, be issued anytime afterward to
change the volume or tempo on the fly.
Byte
0
1
2
3
0
KA
KTL
KTH
where fi is in Hertz and Ki = 4-255. Setting Ki to zero will silence
voice i during the frame.
KD may be programmed to any value between 1 and 255; the larger
it is made, the longer the voices will play during the frame.
KD
K1
Initialize command
0
0
1
K2
K3
Voice frame
1
0
0
0
Quit command
Play command
Figure 17. Musical Tone Generator Command Formats
25
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RC8650
RC Systems
voice synthesizer
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Choosing note durations and tempo
The task of finding Ki for a particular musical note is greatly simplified by using Table 10. The tone generator can cover a four-octave
range, from C two octaves below Middle C (Ki = 255), to D two
octaves above Middle C (Ki = 14). Ki values less than 14 are not
recommended.
Table 11 lists the recommended KD values for each of the standard
musical note durations. This convention permits shorter (1/64th
note) and intermediate note values to be played accurately. This is
important when, for example, a thirty-second note is to be played
staccato, or a note is dotted (multiplying its length by 1.5).
For example, the Voice frame
Using the suggested values, it turns out that most musical scores
sound best when played at a tempo of 255 or faster (i.e., KTH = 0).
Of course, the “right” tempo is the one that sounds the best.
DATA 24,64,0,0
plays Middle C using voice 1 (K1 = 64). Since K2 and K3 are zero,
voices 2 and 3 will be silent during the frame. The duration of the
note is a function of both the tempo KT and duration KD (24).
Note Duration
As another example,
DATA 48,64,51,43
plays a C-E-G chord, for a duration twice as long as the previous
example.
Note
C
C#
D
D#
E
F
F#
G
G#
A
A#
B
C
C#
D
D#
E
F
F#
G
G#
A
A#
B
C-Mid
C#
Ki
255 (FFh)
241 (F1h)
228 (E4h)
215 (D7h)
203 (CBh)
192 (C0h)
181 (B5h)
171 (ABh)
161 (A1h)
152 (98h)
144 (90h)
136 (88h)
128 (80h)
121 (79h)
114 (72h)
107 (6Bh)
101 (65h)
96 (60h)
90 (5Ah)
85 (55h)
81 (51h)
76 (4Ch)
72 (48h)
68 (44h)
64 (40h)
60 (3Ch)
Note
D
D#
E
F
F#
G
G#
A
A#
B
C
C#
D
D#
E
F
F#
G
G#
A
A#
B
C
C#
D
Ki
KD
Whole
192 (C0h)
Half
Quarter
Eighth
Sixteenth
96 (60h)
48 (30h)
24 (18h)
12 (0Ch)
Thirty-second
6 (06h)
Table 11. Musical Note Duration/KD Values
57 (39h)
54 (36h)
51 (33h)
48 (30h)
45 (2Dh)
43 (2Bh)
40 (28h)
38 (26h)
36 (24h)
34 (22h)
32 (20h)
30 (1Eh)
28 (1Ch)
27 (1Bh)
25 (19h)
24 (18h)
23 (17h)
21 (15h)
20 (14h)
19 (13h)
18 (12h)
17 (11h)
16 (10h)
15 (0Fh)
14 (0Eh)
Play Command
The Play command causes the voice data in the input buffer to begin
playing. Additional Initialize commands and Voice frames may be
sent to the RC8650 while the tone generator is operating. The TS0
pin and TS flag are asserted at this time, enabling the host to synchronize to the playing of the tone data. TS becomes inactive after
all of the data has been played.
Quit Command
The Quit command marks the end of the tone data in the input buffer.
The RC8650 will play the contents of the buffer up to the Quit command, then return to the text-to-speech mode that was in effect when
the tone generator was activated. Once the Quit command has been
issued, the RC8650 will not accept any more data until the entire
buffer has been played.
Example Tune
The Basic program shown in Figure 18 reads tone generator
data from a list of DATA statements and PRINTs each value to the
RC8650. The astute reader may have noticed some “non-standard”
note durations in the DATA statements (cf. Table 11), such as the first
two Voice frames in line 260. According to the original music, some
voices were not to be played as long as the others during the beat.
The F-C-F notes in the first frame are held for 46 counts, while the
low F and C in the second frame are held for two additional counts.
Adding the duration (first and fifth) bytes together, the low F and C
do indeed add up to 48 counts (46 + 2), which is the standard duration of a quarter note.
Table 10. Musical Note Pitch/Ki Values
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100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
190
200
210
220
230
240
250
260
270
280
290
300
310
320
330
OPEN "COM1:9600,N,8,1,BIN" FOR OUTPUT AS #1
PRINT #1,
' ensure serial port baud rate is locked
PRINT #1, CHR$(1);"J"; ' activate tone generator
READ B0,B1,B2,B3
' read a frame (4 bytes)
PRINT #1, CHR$(B0); CHR$(B1); CHR$(B2); CHR$(B3);
IF B0 + B1 + B2 + B3 > 0 THEN 130 ' loop until Quit
CLOSE #1
END
'
'
' Data Tables:
'
' Init (volume = 255, tempo = 86)
DATA 0,255,86,0
'
' Voice data
DATA 46,48,64,192, 2,0,64,192, 48,48,0,0, 48,40,0,0, 48,36,0,0
DATA 94,24,34,0, 2,24,0,0, 24,0,36,0, 24,0,40,0, 48,0,48,0
DATA 48,40,0,192, 46,36,0,0, 2,0,0,0, 48,36,0,0, 48,24,34,0
DATA 46,24,34,0, 2,0,34,0, 46,24,34,0, 2,24,0,0, 24,0,36,0
DATA 24,0,40,0, 48,0,48,0
'
' Play, Quit
DATA 0,0,1,1, 0,0,0,0
Figure 18. Example Musical Tone Generator Program
SINUSOIDAL TONE GENERATOR
The tone duration Td is calculated as follows:
The sinusoidal tone generator generates two sinusoidal waveforms
simultaneously. Applications range from creating simple tones to
telephone call-progress tones, such as a dial tone or busy signal.
The frequency range is 0 to 2746 Hz, with a resolution of 4 to 11 Hz.
Td = Kd x 256 / fs (sec)
where 0 ≤ Kd ≤ 255. Substituting the relationship fs = 617 / (155 – n)
into the above equation,
The sinusoidal tone generator is activated with the command nJ,
where n is an ASCII number between 0 and 99. Note the similarity to
the musical tone generator command, J, which uses no parameter.
The parameter n programs the internal sampling rate, much like the
Real-Time Audio Playback command does; in fact, the sampling
rate fs has the same relationship to n as the Real-Time Audio Playback command:
Td = Kd x (155 – n) / 2410 (sec)
Setting Kd = 1 yields the shortest duration; Kd = 0 (treated as 256)
the longest. Depending on the value of n, Td can range from 23 ms
to 16.5 sec.
The tone frequencies F1 and F2 are computed as follows:
Fi = Ki x fs / 1024 (Hz)
fs = 617 / (155 – n) (kHz)
where 0 ≤ Ki ≤ 255. Substituting the relationship fs = 617 / (155 - n)
into this equation,
Immediately following the nJ command are three parameter bytes:
nJ Kd K1 K2
Fi = Ki x 603 / (155 – n) (Hz)
where Kd determines the tone duration, and K1 and K2 set the output
frequencies of generators 1 and 2, respectively.
Depending on the value of n, Fi can range from 0 Hz to 2746 Hz.
If only one tone is to be generated, the other tone frequency may
be set to 0 (Ki = 0), or equal in frequency. Note, however, that due
to the additive nature of the tone generators, the output amplitude
from both generators running at the same frequency will be twice
The tone duration and frequencies are not only functions of these
parameters, but of n as well. The output amplitude is a function of
the Volume command (nV).
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that of just one generator running. Both K1 and K2 may be set to 0 to
generate silence. Longer tones can be created by sending multiple
commands, back-to-back.
Note that the frequency step size and frequency range are strictly
functions of n. In general, the larger n is, the larger the step size and
range will be. The parameter Ki can be thought of as a multiplier,
which when multiplied by the step size, yields the output frequency.
For example, setting n = 95 (corresponding to an internal sampling
rate of 10.28 kHz) results in a frequency step size of 603 / (155 – 95)
Hz, or 10 Hz. Thus, the output frequency range spans 0 Hz to 255 x
10 Hz, or 2550 Hz, in 10 Hz steps.
As an example, suppose your application needed to generate the
tone pair 440/350 Hz (a dial tone) for say, 2.5 seconds. We will
choose n = 95, because it yields a convenient step size of 10 Hz. The
tone duration parameter Kd is calculated as follows:
n
Button
0
0
.
.
9
10
.
.
9
*
11
#
12
13
14
15
A
B
C
D
16
pause
Table 12. DTMF Dialer Button Map
Kd = 2410 x Td / (155 – n)
substituting Td = 2.5 (sec) and n = 95,
RC8650 CONTROL
Kd = 2410 x 2.5 / (155 – 95) = 100
K1 (440 Hz) is computed as follows:
Volume (nV)
This is a global command that controls the RC8650’s output volume
level. 0V yields the lowest possible volume; maximum volume is
attained at 9V. The default volume is 5V. The Volume command can
be used to set a new listening level, create emphasis in speech, or
change the output level of the tone generators.
K1 = F1 x (155 – n) / 603
= 440 x (155 – 95) / 603 = 44
In like manner, K2 (350 Hz) is computed to be 35.
In order to embed the command in a text file, the computed values
must be converted into their ASCII equivalents: 100 = “d”, 44 = “,”
and 35 = “#”. The complete command becomes
Timeout Delay (nY)
The RC8650 defers translating the contents of its input buffer until
a CR or NUL is received. This ensures that text is spoken smoothly
from word to word and that the proper intonation is given to the
beginnings and endings of sentences. If text is sent to the RC8650
without a CR or NUL, it will remain untranslated in the input buffer
indefinitely.
CTRL+A "95jd,#"
which can be embedded within normal text for the synthesizer.
RCStudio includes a graphically-based tone generator which creates tone generator commands automatically, greatly simplifying
the command-creation process.
The RC8650 contains a programmable timer that is able to force the
RC8650 to translate its buffer contents after a preset time interval.
The timer is enabled only if the Timeout Delay parameter n is nonzero, the RC8650 is not active (not talking), and the input buffer contains no CR or NUL characters. Any characters sent to the RC8650
before timeout will automatically restart the timer.
DTMF TONE GENERATOR
The DTMF (Touch-Tone) tone generator generates the 16 standard
tone pairs commonly used in telephone systems. Each tone is 100
ms in duration, followed by a 100 ms inter-digit pause — more than
satisfying telephone signaling requirements (both durations can be
extended to 500 ms by setting the DDUR bit of the Protocol Options
Register). The DTMF generator is activated with the command n*,
where n is an ASCII number between 0 and 16. The mapping of the
command parameter n to the buttons on a standard telephone is
shown in Table 12.
The Timeout parameter n specifies the number of 200 millisecond
periods in the delay time, which can range from 200 milliseconds to
3 seconds. The default value is 0Y, which disables the timer.
The “pause” tone can be used to generate longer inter-digit delays
in phone number strings, or to create precise silent periods in the
RC8650’s output. The generator’s output level can be adjusted with
the Volume command (nV). DTMF commands may be intermixed
with text and other commands without restriction.
n
Delay
0
Indefinite (wait for CR/NUL)
1
2
.
.
200 milliseconds
400 milliseconds
.
.
15
3000 milliseconds (3 sec.)
Table 13. Timeout Delays
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Sleep Timer (nQ)
Download Exception Dictionary (247W)
The sleep timer is used to force the RC8650 into Standby mode after
a programmed time interval. For example, the RC8650 can power
down automatically if the user forgets to turn off the power at the end
of the day. An audible “reminder” tone can even be programmed to
sound every ten minutes to remind the user that the power was left
on, before shutdown occurs.
This command initializes the RC8650’s exception dictionary and
stores subsequent output from the host in the RC8650’s nonvolatile
dictionary memory. The maximum dictionary size is 16 KB.
Exception dictionaries must be compiled into the format required by
the RC8650 before they can be used. RCStudio, a Windows-based
application available from RC Systems, includes a dictionary editor
and compiler for performing this task. Dictionaries that have been
compiled with RCStudio include the download command in the file
header, simplifying the download process.
The sleep timer is stopped and reset whenever the RC8650 is active,
and begins running when the RC8650 enters Idle mode. In this way,
the RC8650 will not shut itself down during normal use, as long as
the programmed timer interval is longer than the maximum time the
RC8650 is inactive.
To download a dictionary, simply download the file to the RC8650.
After the first 12 bytes of the file have been transferred, the RC8650
will drive the handshake lines to their false (“not ready”) states.
This is done to prevent any more of the file from being transferred
while the RC8650 prepares the internal memory that will be used
to store the dictionary. At this time the RC8650 will transmit two
Erase_In_Prog messages (Table 20) followed by Erase_Ok via the
TXD pin, each approximately 0.25 sec apart.
The command parameter n determines when Standby mode will be
entered. You can place the RC8650 in Standby mode immediately,
program the sleep timer to any of 15 ten-minute intervals (10 to 150
minutes), or disable the sleep timer altogether (Table 14).
Note that the delay interval is simply n x 10 minutes for 0 < n < 16.
ORing 10h to these values (16 < n < 32) also enables the reminder
tone, which sounds at the end of each ten minute interval. Programming n = 0 disables the sleep timer, which is the default setting.
Setting n = 16 forces the RC8650 to enter Standby mode as soon
as all output has ceased.
After the Erase_Ok message has been transmitted, the handshake
lines will return to their true (“ready”) states, allowing the remainder
of the file to be transmitted. After the entire file has been transferred
the RC8650 will transmit the result code, normally No_Error.
Note: It is not necessary to monitor the status messages sent from
the RC8650, because the handshake lines ultimately control the
timing of the download. The status messages are provided for informational purposes only.
If the sleep timer is allowed to expire, the RC8650 will emit the ASCII
character “p” from the TXD pin and the STBY status flag will be set
to 1, just before entering Standby mode. This enables the host to
detect that the RC8650 has entered Standby mode.
Once the RC8650 has entered Standby mode, it can be re-awakened
only by a hardware reset or by driving the STBY# pin low for tWSBL
or longer, then High again. All of the RC8650 handshake signals
(BUSY, CTS#, and RDY#) are forced to their “not ready” states while
the RC8650 is in Standby.
n
Enable Exception Dictionary (U)
The exception dictionary is enabled with this command. If the
RC8650 is in Phoneme mode, or if an exception dictionary has not
been loaded, the command will have no effect. The exception dictionary can be disabled by issuing one of the mode commands D,
T, or C. The dictionary is disabled by default.
Delay
0
Sleep timer disabled
1
.
.
15
16
17
.
.
10 min
.
.
150 min
0 (immediate)
10 min w/reminder
.
.
31
150 min w/reminder
Download Greeting Message (255W)
Anytime the RC8650 is reset, an optional user-defined greeting
message is automatically played. The message may consist of any
text/command sequence up to 234 characters in length. Modal
commands can be included, such as tone generator and audio
playback commands (refer to Table 21 for a list of the commands
that can be used in greeting messages). For example,
CTRL+A "3s" CTRL+A "2o" “ready”
programs the RC8650 to use voice speed 3, Big Bob’s voice, and
say “ready” whenever the RC8650 is reset.
RC Systems’ RCStudio software can create and download greeting messages for you. To download a greeting message created
with RCStudio, simply download the file to the RC8650. All of the
RC8650 commands required to initiate and terminate the download
are embedded within the greeting file, greatly simplifying the downloading process.
Table 14. Sleep Timer
Caution: The exception dictionary is erased from memory whenever
a new greeting message is written to the RC8650.
29
RC8650
RC Systems
voice synthesizer
now you’re talking!
Baud Rate (nH)
If the TS0 pin is programmed Forced High or Forced Low, it will
remain in that state until changed otherwise. This feature can be
used to activate a transmitter, for example, before speech output
has begun. In the automatic mode, the TS0 pin is asserted as soon
as output begins; it will return to its false state when all output has
ceased. Note that because RC8650 commands work synchronously,
the TS0 pin will not change state until all text and commands, up to
the TS Pin Control command, have been spoken and/or executed.
The serial port’s baud rate can be programmed to the rates listed in
Table 15. If included as part of the greeting message, the command
will effectively override the baud rate set by the BRS pins.
n
Baud Rate
0
300
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
600
1200
2400
4800
9600
19200
Auto-detect
38400
57600
115200
11
Re-read BRS2 – BRS0 pins
n
TS Pin Mode/Polarity
0
Automatic/Active Low
1
2
Automatic/Active High
Forced Low
3
Forced High
Table 16. TS Pin Control
Protocol Options Register (nG)
This command controls various internal RC8650 operating parameters. See Table 17 for the definition of each register bit. The default
register setting is 128G.
Table 15. Programmable Baud Rates
Bit POR.7 (V86) programs the RC8650 to emulate RC Systems’
original V8600 voice synthesizer module. When this bit is set to
0, the TTS parameters and ranges are adjusted to match that of the
V8600. The serial port status messages (see Table 3) are also affected by the setting of this bit.
TS Pin Control (nK)
The TS0 pin provides talk status information that can be used to
activate a transmitter, take a telephone off hook, enable an audio
power amplifier, etc., at the desired time. The pin’s mode and polarity
can be configured as shown in Table 16. The programming of the
TS0 pin does not affect the Status Register TS flag in any way. The
default setting is 1K.
V86
SAT
DDUR
R
R
R
R
STM
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Protocol Options Register Bit
Description
POR.7 = V8600 COMPATIBILITY (V86)
1 = Compatibility disabled
0 = Compatibility enabled
Emulates RC Systems’ V8600 voice synthesizer module when set to “0.” Overall voice
speed range and serial port status responses are adjusted to that of the V8600. Default: “1”
(in the V8600A module, this bit defaults to “0”).
POR.6 = SATURATE (SAT)
1 = Parameters saturate
0 = Parameters wrap
Determines whether command parameters wrap or saturate when their range has been
exceeded. Default: “0.”
POR.5 = DTMF DURATION (DDUR)
1 = 500 ms
0 = 100 ms
Determines DTMF (Touch-Tone) generator burst duration. When set to “1,” tone bursts are
500 ms long; when “0,” 100 ms. Default: “0.”
POR.4 – 1 = RESERVED (R)
Reserved for future use. Write “0” to ensure future compatibility.
POR.0 = STATUS MESSAGES (STM)
1 = Enabled
0 = Disabled
Enables and disables the transmission of certain status messages from the TXD pin. Default: “0.”
Table 17. Protocol Options Register
30
RC8650
RC Systems
voice synthesizer
now you’re talking!
Audio Control Register (nN)
be transmitted to completion even if DARTS# goes High before the
sample has completed. Figure 19 illustrates the synchronous data
transfer mode; note how either DARTS# or DACLK can be used to
regulate the data flow.
The Audio Control Register determines whether the RC8650’s audio
will be delivered as an analog signal on the AO pins or as a serial
data stream on the DAOUT pin. See Table 18 for the definition of
each register bit. The default register setting is 0N (analog output).
In the synchronous mode, do not attempt to read the data at a rate
faster than 12 kbytes/sec (DACLK = 96 kHz). At clock rates above
this, the host should pause between reading each sample in order
to prevent the average transfer rate from exceeding 12 kbytes/sec.
In the digital audio modes, data is transferred from the DAOUT pin
in 8-bit linear, offset binary format (midscale = 80h). The DARTS#
pin can be used to regulate the flow of data — it must be Low for
transfers to begin. Once a transfer has begun, the current sample will
AM
TM
DPC
TF
TCP
BR
BR
BR
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Audio Control Register Bit
Description
ACR.7 = AUDIO MODE (AM)
1 = Digital
0 = Analog
Set this bit to “0” to direct the audio stream to the AO pin (analog). Set the bit to “1” to
direct output to the DAOUT pin (digital). Default: “0.”
ACR.6 = TRANSFER MODE (TM)
1 = Synchronous
0 = Asynchronous
In the asynchronous transfer mode the data rate and timing are controlled by the internal bit rate generator (ACR.2 – 0). Data is output on the DAOUT pin and formatted as 1
start bit, 8 data bits (LSB first), and 1 stop bit.
In the synchronous transfer mode the data rate and timing are controlled by the host
with the DACLK pin. Data is output from the DAOUT pin as 8-bit data frames.
Default: “0.”
ACR.5 = DAOUT PIN CONTROL (DPC)
1 = Open-drain
0 = CMOS
Set this bit to “1” to configure the DAOUT pin as an open-drain output, or to “0” for a
CMOS output. The open-drain configuration should be used when wire-or’ing two or
more DAOUT pins together. Default: “0.”
ACR.4 = TRANSFER FORMAT (TF)
1 = MSB first
0 = LSB first
Set this bit to “1” to have the 8-bit data frames transmitted most-significant bit first,
or to “0” for least-significant bit first. Valid only in the synchronous transfer mode.
Default: “0.”
ACR.3 = TRANSFER CLOCK POLARITY (TCP)
1 = Rising edge
0 = Falling edge
Set this bit to “1” to clock data out of the DAOUT pin on the rising edge of the DACLK
pin, or to “0” to clock data on the falling edge. Valid only in the synchronous transfer
mode. Default: “0.”
ACR.2 – 0 = BIT RATE (BR)
000 = 2400
001 = 4800
010 = 9600
011 = 14400
100 = 19200
101 = 28800
110 = 57600
111 = 115200
These bits determine the bit rate used in the asynchronous transfer mode. Valid only in
the asynchronous transfer mode. Default: “000.”
NOTES:
1. ACR.6 – ACR.0 are valid only when ACR.7 = 1.
2. ACR.4 – ACR.3 are valid only when ACR.7 and ACR.6 = 1.
3. ACR.2 – ACR.0 are valid only when ACR.7 =1 and ACR.6 = 0.
Table 18. Audio Control Register
31
RC8650
RC Systems
voice synthesizer
now you’re talking!

 Figure 19. Synchronous Digital Audio Transfer Timing
Stop (CTRL+X), Skip (CTRL+Y)
Index Marker (nI)
Note: The format of the Stop and Skip commands is unique in that
the command character (CTRL+A) is not used with them. To be most
effective, the states of the RC8650 handshaking signals should be
ignored, which allows the RC8650 to react immediately even if its
input buffer is full. These commands cannot be used during realtime audio playback nor with the musical tone generator.
When the RC8650 has spoken the text up to a marker, it transmits
the marker number to the host via the TXD pin. Note that this value
is a binary number between 0 and 99, not a literal ASCII number
string as was used in the command to place the marker. This allows
the marker to be transmitted as a one-byte value.
The Stop command (18h) causes the RC8650 to stop whatever it
is doing and flushes the input buffer of all text and commands. The
Skip command (19h) skips to the next sentence in the buffer.
Index markers are nonspeaking “bookmarks” that can be used to
keep track of where the RC8650 is reading within a passage of text.
The parameter n is any number between 0 and 99; thus, up to 100
unique markers may be active at any given time.
There is no limitation to how many index markers can be used in a
text string. The frequency depends on the resolution required by the
application. In Text mode, for example, one marker per sentence or
one marker per word would normally be used. In Phoneme mode,
markers can be placed before each phoneme to monitor phoneme
production, which is useful for synchronizing an animated mouth
with the voice. Markers may also be placed with tone generation and
recorded audio playback commands, if desired.
Reinitialize (@)
This command reinitializes the RC8650 by clearing the input buffer
and restoring the voice parameters and control registers to their default settings. The exception dictionary, prerecorded audio, greeting
message, baud rate, nor TS pin control setting are affected.
Zap Commands (Z)
This command prevents the RC8650 from honoring subsequent
commands, causing it to read commands as they are encountered
(useful in debugging). Any pending commands in the input buffer
will still be honored. The only way to restore command recognition
after the Zap command has been issued is to write CTRL+^ (1Eh) to
the RC8650 or perform a hardware reset.
Chipset Identification (6?)
This command returns RC8650 system information that is used
during factory testing. Eight bytes are transmitted via the TXD pin.
The only information that may be of relevance to an application is the
internal microcode revision number, which is conveyed in the last
two bytes in packed-BCD format. For example, 13h 01h is returned
if the version number is 1.13.
32
RC8650
RC Systems
voice synthesizer
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Interrogate (12?)
Programming Result Codes
This command retrieves the current operating settings of the
RC8650. Table 19 lists the parameters in the order they are transmitted from the TXD pin, the command(s) that control each parameter,
and each parameter’s range. The parameters are organized as a byte
array of one byte per parameter.
Certain RC8650 programming (sound library, dictionary and greeting message downloads) and sound file playback operations return
result codes via the TXD pin. These codes are summarized in Table
20.
Message
Parameter
Mode
Cmd
C/D/T
Range
0=Char; 1=Phon; 2=Text
PFR register
Formant freq
Pitch
Speed
nB
nF
nP
nS
0-15
0-9
0-99
0-9
Volume
nV
0-9
Tone
Expression
Dict loaded
Dict status
Input buffer capacity
nX
nE
L
C/T/U
–
0-2
0-9
0=not loaded; 1=loaded
0=disabled; 1=enabled
x256 bytes
Articulation
Reverb
TS pin control
POR register
ACR register
Rec memory capacity
Sleep delay
Timeout delay
Char mode delay
Text mode delay
Voice
nA
nR
nK
nG
nN
–
nQ
nY
nC
nT
nO
0-9
0-9
0-3
0-255
0-255
x64K bytes
0-31
0-15
0-31
0-15
0-7
ADR register
n$
0-255
Code
Meaning
No_Error
0
No error
Invld_Cmd_Err
Com_Err
TmOut_Err
Erase_In_Prog
(reserved)
Erase_Ok
Write_Err
Out_Mem_Err
CkSum_Err
(reserved)
(reserved)
(reserved)
(reserved)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
Invalid command error
Communications error
Comm. timeout error (> 10 sec)
Memory erase in progress
Reserved
Memory erased, no errors
Memory write error
Out of memory
Data checksum error
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Not_Found_Err
14
File not found in memory
Table 20. Programming Result Codes
Table 19. Interrogate Command
33
RC8650
RC Systems
voice synthesizer
now you’re talking!
COMMAND SUMMARY
Command
Function
Greet & Dict *
n Range
Default n
Articulation
•
0-9
5
nB
C/nC
D
E/nE
nF
nG
nH
nI
J
nJ
nK
M
nN
nO
nP
nQ
nR
nS
T/nT
U
nV
Punctuation Filter Register
Character mode
Phoneme mode
Expression
Formant frequency
Protocol Options Register
Baud rate
Index marker
Musical tone generator
Sinusoidal tone generator
TS pin control
Monotone
Audio Control Register
Voice
Pitch
Sleep timer
Reverb
Speed
Text mode/delay
Enable exception dictionary
Volume
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
0-15
0-31
–
0-9
0-9
0-255
0-11
0-99
–
0-99
0-3
–
0-255
0-7
0-99
0-31
0-9
0-9
0-15
–
0-9
6
0
–
5
5
128
BRS pins
–
–
–
1
–
0
0
50
0
0
1
0
–
5
223W
Download sound library
223
–
247W
Download exception dictionary
247
–
255
0-2
0-15
–
–
0-16
0-99
0-999
0-255
6
12
–
–
1
0
–
–
–
–
–
128
–
–
–
nA
255W
nX
nY
Z
@
n*
n#/n%
n&
n$
6?
12?
CTRL+X/Y
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Download greeting message
Tone
Timeout delay
Zap commands
Reinitialize
DTMF generator
Real-time PCM/ADPCM audio playback
Play sound file
ADC Control Register
Chipset ID
Interrogate
Stop/Skip
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
* These commands can be used in greeting messages and exception dictionaries.
Table 21. RC8650 Command Summary
34
RC8650
RC Systems
voice synthesizer
now you’re talking!
EXCEPTION DICTIONARIES
Symbol
Exception dictionaries make it possible to alter the way the RC8650
interprets character strings it receives. This is useful for correcting
mispronounced words, triggering the generation of tones and/or
the playback of prerecorded sounds, or even speaking in a foreign
language. In some cases, an exception dictionary may even negate
the need of a text pre-processor in applications that cannot provide
standard text strings. This section describes how to create exception
dictionaries for the RC8650.
The text-to-speech modes of the RC8650 utilize an English lexicon
and letter-to-sound rules to convert text it receives into speech. The
pronunciation rules determine which sounds, or phonemes, each
character will receive based on its relative position within each word.
The integrated DoubleTalk text-to-speech engine analyzes text by
applying these rules to each word or character, depending on the
operating mode in use. Exception dictionaries augment this process
by defining exceptions for (or even replacing) these built in rules.
#
A vowel: a, e, i, o, u, y
+
A front vowel: e, i, y
^
A consonant: b, c, d, f, g, h, j, k, l, m, n, p, q, r, s,
t, v, w, x, z
*
One or more consonants
:
Zero or more consonants
?
A voiced consonant: b, d, g, j, l, m, n, r, v, w, z
@
One of: d, j, l, n, r, s, t, z, ch, sh, th
!
Exception dictionaries can be created and edited with a word processor or text editor that stores documents as standard text (ASCII)
files. The dictionary must be compiled into the internal binary format
used by the RC8650 before it can be used, however. The RCStudio
software, available from RC Systems, includes a dictionary editor
and compiler.
Exception Syntax
Exceptions have the general form
Definition
One of: b, c, d, f, g, p, t
%
A suffix: able(s), ably, e(s), ed(ly), er(s), ely,
eless, ement(s), eness, ing(s), ingly (must also
be followed by a non-alphabetic character)
&
A sibilant: c, g, j, s, x, z, ch, sh
$
A nonalphabetic character (number, space, etc.)
~
One or more non-printing characters (spaces,
controls, line breaks, etc.)
\
A digit: 0-9
|
One or more digits (commas are ignored)
`
Wildcard (matches any character)
Table 22. Context Tokens
L(F)R=P
which means “the text fragment F, occurring with left context L and
right context R, gets the pronunciation P.” All three parts of the exception to the left of the equality sign must be satisfied before the
text fragment will receive the pronunciation given by the right side
of the exception.
of speech, tones, and sound effects can be triggered from any input
text pattern. If no pronunciation is given, no sound will be given to
the text fragment; the text fragment will be silent.
A dictionary file may also contain comments, but they must be on
lines by themselves (i.e., they cannot be on the same line as an exception). Comment lines must begin with a semicolon character (;),
so the compiler will know to skip over them.
The text fragment defines the input characters that are to be translated by the exception, and may consist of any combination of
letters, numbers, and symbols. Empty (null) text fragments can be
used to generate sound based on a particular input pattern, without
actually translating any of the input text. The text fragment (if any)
must always be contained within parentheses.
An example of an exception is
C(O)N=AA
Characters to the left of the text fragment specify the left context
(what must come before the text fragment in the input string), and
characters to the right define the right context. Both contexts are optional, so an exception may contain neither, either, or both contexts.
There are also 15 special symbols, or context tokens, that can be
used in an exception’s context definitions (Table 22).
which states that o after c and before n gets the pronunciation AA,
the o-sound in cot. For example, the o in conference, economy, and
icon would be pronounced according to this exception.
Another example is
$R(H)=
Note that although context tokens are, by definition, valid only for
the left and right context definitions, the wildcard token may also be
used within text fragments. Any other context token appearing within
a text fragment will be treated as a literal character.
which states that h after initial r is silent, as in the word rhyme (the
$ context token represents any non-alphabetic character, such as a
space between words; see Table 22).
The right side of an exception (P) specifies the pronunciation that
the text fragment is to receive, which may consist of any combination of phonemes (Table 5), phoneme attribute modifiers (Table 6),
and commands (Table 21). Using the tone generator and prerecorded audio playback commands, virtually limitless combinations
Punctuation, numbers, and most other characters can be redefined
with exceptions as well:
(5)=S I NG K O
(CHR$)=K EH R IX K T ER
35
(Spanish five)
(Basic function)
RC8650
RC Systems
voice synthesizer
now you’re talking!
The Translation Algorithm
This is an example of how not to organize a dictionary. The exception (RATING) will never be used because (RAT) will always match
first. According to these exceptions, the word rating would be pronounced “rat-ing.”
Algorithms within the DoubleTalk engine analyze input text a character at a time, from left to right. A list of pronunciation rules is
searched sequentially for each character until a rule is found that
matches the character in the correct position and context. The algorithm then passes over the input character(s) bracketed in the rule
(the text fragment) and assigns the pronunciation given by the right
side of the rule to them. This process continues until all of the input
text has been converted to phonetic sounds.
It can be beneficial to group exceptions by the first character of the
text fragments, that is, all of the A exceptions in one group, all the
B exceptions in a second group, and so on. This gives an overall
cleaner appearance, and can prove to be helpful if the need arises to
troubleshoot any problems in your dictionary.
In order to better understand how an exception dictionary works, it
is helpful to understand how the DoubleTalk text-to-speech engine
processes text.
Text Not Matched by the Dictionary
It is possible that some input text may not match anything in the
dictionary, depending on the nature of the dictionary. For example,
if a dictionary was written to handle unusual words, only those
words would be included in the dictionary. On the other hand, if a
dictionary defined the pronunciation for another language, it would
be comprehensive enough to handle all types of input. In any case,
if an exception is not found for a particular character, the English
pronunciation will be given to that character according to the built
in pronunciation rules.
The following example illustrates how the algorithm works by translating the word receive.
The algorithm begins with the letter r and searches the R pronunciation rules for a match. The first rule that matches is $(RE)^#=R
IX, because the r in receive is an initial r and is followed by an e, a
consonant (c), and a vowel (e). Consequently, the text fragment re
receives the pronunciation R IH, and the scan moves past re to the
next character: receive. (E is not the next scan character because it
occurred inside the parentheses with the r; the text fragment re as a
whole receives the pronunciation R IX)
Generally, the automatic switchover to the built in rules is desirable
if the dictionary is used to correct mispronounced words, since by
definition the dictionary is defining exceptions to the built in rules. If
the automatic switchover is not desired, however, there are two ways
to prevent it from occurring. One way is to end each group of exceptions with an unconditional exception that matches any context. For
example, to ensure that the letter “a” will always be matched, end
the A exception group with the exception (A)=pronunciation. This
technique works well to ensure matches for specific characters,
such as certain letters or numbers.
The first match among the C rules is (C)+=S, because c is followed
by an e, i, or y. C thus receives the pronunciation S, and processing
continues with the second e: receive.
(EI)=IY is the first rule to match the second e, so ei receives the
sound IY. Processing resumes at the character receive, which
matches the default V rule, (V)=V.
The final e matches the rule #:(E)$=, which applies when e is final
and follows zero or more consonants and a vowel. Consequently,
e receives no sound and processing continues with the following
word or punctuation, if any. Thus, the entire phoneme string for the
word receive is R IX S IY V.
If the exception dictionary is to replace the built in rules entirely, end
the dictionary with the following exception:
()=
This special exception causes unmatched characters to be ignored
(receive no sound), rather than receive the pronunciation defined
by the built in rules.
Rule Precedence
Since DoubleTalk uses its translation rules in a sequential manner,
the position of each exception relative to the others must be carefully
considered. For example, consider the following pair of exceptions:
Effect on Punctuation
Punctuation defined in the exception dictionary has priority over
the Punctuation Filter command. Any punctuation defined in the
dictionary will be used, regardless of the Punctuation Filter setting.
(O)+=OW
(O)=UW
The first exception states that o followed by e, i, or y is to be pronounced OW, the o-sound in boat. The second exception does not
place any restriction on what must come before or after o, so o in
any context will receive the UW pronunciation. If the exceptions were
reversed, the (O)+ exception would never be reached because the
(O) exception will always match o in any context. In general, tightlydefined exceptions (those containing many context restrictions)
should precede loosely-defined exceptions (those with little or no
context definitions).
Note If the dollar sign character ($) is defined within the text fragment of any exception, currency strings will not be read as dollars
and cents.
Character Mode Exceptions
Exceptions are defined independently for the Character and Text
modes of operation. The beginning of the Character mode exceptions is defined by inserting the letter C just before the first Character
mode exception. No exceptions prior to this marker will be used
when the RC8650 is in Character mode, nor will any exceptions past
the marker be used in Text mode. For example:
(RAT)=R AE T
(RATING)=R EY T IH NG
(R)=R
36
RC8650
RC Systems
voice synthesizer
now you’re talking!
.
.
()=
(Text mode exceptions)
C
.
.
.
()=
(Character mode exceptions marker)
String parsing & decryption
Sometimes the data that we would like to have read is not available
in a “ready-to-read” format. For example, the output of a GPS receiver may look something like this:
(optional; used if built in rules are not to be used
in no-match situations)
$GPGGA,123456,2015.2607,N,...
The first 14 characters of the string consists of a fixed header and
variable time data, which we would like to discard. The following
exception ensures that the header will not be read:
(Character mode exceptions)
(optional; used if built in rules are not to be used
in no-match situations)
($GPGGA,``````,)=
Note how wildcard tokens are used for handling the time data
(8th – 13th characters), since the content of this field is variable.
Applications
The 15th – 16th (20) and 17th – 18th (15) characters represent the
latitudinal coordinate in degrees and minutes, respectively. The
three exceptions shown below handle the latitudinal component of
the GPS string. Note in the first exception how a null text fragment
is used in the appropriate position to generate the word “degrees,”
without actually translating any of the input characters.
The following examples illustrate some ways in which the exception
dictionary can be used.
Correcting mispronounced words
Correcting mispronounced words is the most common application
for exception dictionaries.
,\\()\\.=D IX G R IY Z , ,
(.)=M IH N IH T S , ,
(,N,)=N OW R TH
L AE T IH T UW D
S(EAR)CH=ER
$(OK)$=OW K EY
The first exception corrects the pronunciation of all words containing search (search, searched, research, etc.). As this exception illustrates, it is only necessary to define the problem word in its root
form, and only the part of the word that is mispronounced (ear, in
this case). The second exception corrects the word ok, but because
of the left and right contexts, will not cause other words (joke, look,
etc.) to be incorrectly translated.
The four exceptions together will translate the example string as
“20 degrees, 15 minutes, north latitude.” (Additional exceptions for
handling the seconds component, and digits themselves, are not
shown for clarity).
Heteronyms
Heteronyms are words that have similar spellings but are pronounced differently, depending on the context, such as read (“reed”
and “red”) and wind (“the wind blew” and “wind the clock”). Exceptions can be used to fix up these ambiguities, by including nonprinting (Control) characters in the text fragment of the exception.
No cussing, please
The reading of specific characters or words can be suppressed by
writing exceptions in which an alternate pronunciation is given.
(????)=
(????)=\015i \0166j\0E\94\00
Suppose a line of text required the word “close” to be pronounced
as it is in “a close call,” instead of as in “close the window.” The
following exception changes the way the s will sound:
The first example simply says nothing when the defined word is
encountered. A short 1 kHz tone is played in place of the word in
the second example, and the application is notified by transmitting
05h on the TXD pin. Exceptions such as these may be duplicated
for any number of words.
(\04CLOSE)=K L OW S
Note the CTRL+D character (\04) in the text fragment. CTRL+D is
a non-printing character, but the translation algorithms treat it as
they would any printing character. Thus, the string “\04close” will
be pronounced with the s receiving the “s” sound. “Close” without
the CTRL+D will be unaffected — the s will still receive the “z”
sound. It does not matter where you place the Control character in
the word, as long as you use it the same way in your application’s
text. You may use any non-printing character (except LF and CR)
in this manner.
When zero isn’t really zero
When reading addresses or lists of numbers, the word “oh” is often
substituted for the digit 0. For example, we might say 1020 North
Eastlake as “one oh two oh North Eastlake.” The digit 0 can be redefined in this manner with the following exception:
(0)=OW
Non-English languages
Acronyms and abbreviations
Dictionaries can be created that enable the RC8650 to speak in languages other than English. It’s not as difficult as it may seem — in
most cases all that is required is a pronunciation guide and a bit of
patience. If you don’t have a pronunciation guide for the language
you’re interested in, check your local library. Most libraries have
dictionaries for other languages that include pronunciation guides,
Acronyms and abbreviations can be defined so the words they represent will be spoken.
$(KW)$=K IH L AH W AA T
$(DR)$=D AA K T ER
$(TV)$=T EH L AX V IH ZH IX N
37
RC8650
RC Systems
voice synthesizer
now you’re talking!
be generated by the four control bits. Message strings would then
be assigned to each of these ASCII characters. For example, the
character “0” (corresponding to all four control bits = 0) would say,
“please insert quarter,” with the following dictionary entry:
which make it easy to transcribe the pronunciation rules into exception form. A good example of an exception dictionary for the Spanish language is included with RCStudio.
Language translation
Exception dictionaries even allow text written in one language to be
read by the RC8650 in yet another language, as long as the vocabulary is limited. The following exceptions demonstrate how this can
be done with three example Spanish/English words.
(0)=P L IY Z
IH N S ER T
K W OW R T ER
The Timeout timer should also be activated (1Y, for example) in
order for the “message” to be executed. Otherwise, the RC8650 will
wait indefinitely for a CR/NUL character that will never come. The
timer command can be included in the greeting message so that it
will be automatically executed after reset.
(GRANDE)=L AA R J
(BIEN)=F AY N
(USTED)=YY UW
Tips
The sense of translation can also be reversed:
Make sure that your exceptions aren’t so broad in nature that they do
more harm than good. Exceptions intended to fix broad classes of
words, such as word endings, are particularly notorious for ruining
otherwise correctly pronounced words.
(LARGE)=G RR A N D EI
(FINE)=B I EI N
(YOU)=U S T EI DH
Take care in how your exceptions are organized. Remember, an
exception’s position relative to others is just as important as the
content of the exception itself.
Play recordings from text
The playback of any recording stored in recording memory can be
triggered by text strings defined in the dictionary. Say for example
the words “good” and “morning” have been recorded and are accessed by indexes 3 and 7, respectively. The following exceptions
will cause the RC8650 to play “good morning” from the recording
memory when the text “good morning” is received.
Additional information and examples are included with RCStudio
and RCStudio’s online help.
If things don’t work as expected
On rare occasions, an exception may not work as expected. This
can occur when the built in pronunciation rules get control before
the exception does. The following example illustrates how this can
happen.
(GOOD)=\013&
(MORNING)=\017&
Because the recordings can be created from virtually any source, it
is easy to change the content, gender, language, etc. If the application’s vocabulary is limited and pre-defined, a sort of “pseudo-TTS”
system can be created using this method, concatenating words as
required to make complete sentences.
Suppose an exception redefined the o in the word “process” to
have the long “oh” sound, the way it is pronounced in many parts
of Canada. Since the word is otherwise pronounced correctly, the
exception redefines only the “o:”
Message macros
PR(O)CESS=OW
Certain applications may not be able to send text strings to the
RC8650. An example of such an application is one that is only able
to output a four bit control word and strobe. Sixteen unique output
combinations are possible, but this is scarcely enough to represent
the entire ASCII character set.
But to our dismay, the RC8650 simply refuses to take on the new
Canadian accent.
It so happens that the RC8650 has a built in rule which looks something like this:
You can, however, assign an entire spoken phrase to a single ASCII
character with the exception dictionary. By driving four of the data
bus lines of the bus interface (see Figure 5) and hardwiring the remaining four to the appropriate logic levels, virtually any set of 16
ASCII characters can be generated, which in turn can be interpreted
by the exception dictionary.
$(PRO)=P R AA
This rule translates a group of three characters, instead of only one
as most of the built in rules do. Because the text fragment PRO is
translated as a group, the o is processed along with the initial “pr,”
and consequently the exception never gets a shot at the o.
For example, by connecting the four control bits to DB0 through
DB3, DB4 and DB5 to VCC, DB6 and DB7 to ground and the strobe
to WR#, ASCII codes 30h through 3Fh (corresponding to the digits
“0” through “9” and the six ASCII characters following them) can
If you suspect this may be happening with one of your exceptions,
include more of the left-hand side of the word in the text fragment
(in the example above, (PRO)CESS=P R OW would work).
38
RC8650
RC Systems
voice synthesizer
now you’re talking!
PACKAGE INFORMATION
100 Pin Plastic 14 x 20 mm QFP (measured in millimeters)
SEATING
PLANE
22.5
23.1
19.8
20.2
80
51
50
81
16.5
17.1
0.25
0.40
13.8
14.2
100
31
0.65
1
30
3.05
MAX
0.13
0.20
DETAIL A
0.00
0.20
0°
10°
SEE DETAIL A
0.40
0.80
RECOMMENDED PCB LAYOUT
0.65
14.6
0.40
1.8
20.5
39
RC8650
RC Systems
voice synthesizer
now you’re talking!
48 Pin Plastic 12 x 20 mm TSOP (measured in millimeters)
SEATING
PLANE
19.8
20.2
18.3
18.5
0.05
0.20
0.50
1
48
0.15
0.25
11.9
12.1
24
25
1.20
MAX
DETAIL A
0.12
0.18
SEE DETAIL A
0.40
0.60
0.80
RECOMMENDED PCB LAYOUT
0.50
0.30
1.5
18.1
40
RC8650
RC Systems
voice synthesizer
now you’re talking!
RC8650 EVALUATION KIT
NOTICE: THE RC8650 EVK HAS BEEN REPLACED WITH THE RC8660 EVK, WHICH CAN BE USED TO DEVELOP
BOTH RC8650 AND RC8660-BASED APPLICATONS. SEE THE RC8660 USER’S MANUAL FOR FURTHER DETAILS.
Evaluation Kit Contents
The RC8650 Evaluation Kit comes with everything required to
evaluate and develop applications for the RC8650 chipset using a
Windows-based PC. The included RCStudio™ software provides
an integrated development environment with the following features:
The following components are included in the Double­Talk RC8650
Evaluation Kit:
•Printed circuit board containing the RC8650F1C chipset
•AC power supply
•Speaker
•Serial cable
•RCStudio™ development software CD
•Read any text, either typed or from a file
•Easy access to the various RC8650 voice controls
•Manage collections of sound files and store them in the RC8650
•Exception dictionary editor/compiler, and much more...
The evaluation board can also be used in stand-alone environments
by simply printing the desired text and commands to it via the onboard RS-232 serial or parallel ports.
EVAL BOARD OUTLINE
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41
RC8650
RC Systems
voice synthesizer
now you’re talking!
CONNECTOR PIN ASSIGNMENTS & SCHEMATICS
Pin No.
Pin Name
Pin No.
Pin Name
Pin No.
Pin Name
Pin No.
Pin Name
1
AO0
9
AS0
1
NC
6
DSR
2
AO1
10
AS1
2
RXD
7
RTS
3
SP+0
11
SUSP0#
3
TXD
8
CTS
4
SP+1
12
SUSP1#
4
NC
9
NC
5
SP–0
13
DAOUT
5
GND
–
–
6
SP–1
14
DARTS#
7
TS0
15
DACLK
8
TS1
16
GND
Table 26. P101 Pin Assignments (RS-232 Serial Interface)
Table 23. P1 Pin Assignments (Audio Output & Control)
Pin No.
Pin Name
Pin No.
Pin Name
1
AN0
6
GND
2
GND
7
AN3
3
AN1
8
GND
4
GND
9
ADTRG
5
AN2
10
GND
JP2
JP1
Baud Rate
X
X
X
300
X
X
X
X
1200
2400
X
X
X
4800
9600
X
Pin No.
Pin Name
1
GND
3
TXD
2
CTS#
4
RXD
Table 27. P102 Pin Assignments (TTL Serial Interface)
600
X
Pin Name
Note: JP5-JP7 must be open in order to use the TTL interface
Table 24. P2 Pin Assignments (A/D Converter)
JP3
Pin No.
19200
Auto-detect (default)
Table 25. JP1-JP3 Jumper Assignments (Baud Rate)
Pin No.
Pin Name
Pin No.
Pin Name
1
STB#
14
GND
2
AFD#
15
DATA6
3
DATA0
16
GND
4
ERROR#
17
DATA7
5
DATA1
18
GND
6
INIT#
19
ACK#
7
DATA2
20
GND
8
SLCTIN#
21
BUSY
9
DATA3
22
GND
10
GND
23
PE
11
DATA4
24
GND
12
GND
25
SLCT
13
DATA5
26
RD#
Table 28. P103 Pin Assignments (Printer/Bus Interface)
42
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RC8650
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RC8650
voice synthesizer
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RC8650
voice synthesizer
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RC Systems
RC8650
voice synthesizer
RC8650
RC Systems
voice synthesizer
now you’re talking!
Appendix A: Restore Mode
The RC8650 has a special “Restore” mode1 which supports the
following functions:
Clearing the dictionary and greeting message
Use this procedure in the unlikely event that a dictionary or greeting
message you downloaded rendered the RC8650 inoperable.
•Restoration of the internal system software (firmware)
•Clearing the exception dictionary and greeting message
•Quick verification of the RC8650’s operation
1) While in Restore mode, set the STBY# pin Low and continue
holding it Low until two beeps are heard from the speaker or
headphones (approximately 3 seconds).
How to enter Restore mode
To enter Restore mode, perform the following steps. The procedure
is easiest to accomplish if pushbutton switches are connected to
the RESET# and STBY# pins, similar to that found on the RC8650
evaluation board and V-Pod.
2) Set STBY# High; you should hear the firmware version read
through the speaker or headphones. The dictionary and greeting
message are now cleared from memory.
1) Hold the RESET# and STBY# pins Low. If power is not yet applied and reset is generated automatically at power-up, only
STBY# needs to be held Low.
This procedure does not alter the RC8650 in any way; it simply allows you to determine if the RC8650 and audio amplifier circuitry
are working. If everything is functioning properly, you should hear
the RC8650 firmware version read from the speaker or headphones.
Verifying the RC8650’s operation
2) Set RESET# High (or simply apply power), while continuing
to hold the STBY# pin Low. After a minimum of 0.5 sec has
elapsed, set the STBY# pin High. One beep should be heard
from the speaker or headphones, indicating that the RC8650 is
in Restore mode.
1) While in Restore mode, set the STBY# pin Low momentarily,
then High again. Do not hold it Low too long (less than 3 seconds), or the dictionary and greeting message will be cleared
from memory.
Restoring the RC8650’s firmware
RC8650 firmware updates can be performed with RCLink, an application included with the RCStudio software. If an update failed
for one reason or another, the RC8650 may have been left in a
non-functional state. In such a case, use RCLink to download the
firmware while the RC8650 is in Restore mode. Make sure to set the
baud rate in RCLink to 9600, because the RC8650 only operates
at 9600 baud while in Restore mode, regardless of the state of the
BRS pins. Please contact RC Systems support to obtain the latest
firmware image file.
1 Prior to version 2.50 of the RC8650 firmware, Restore mode func-
tioned quite differently. To clear the dictionary and greeting message
with pre-v2.50 versions of the firmware, make sure that the RC8650
is in Idle mode, then drive the STBY# pin Low for less than 250 ms.
The dictionary and greeting message will be immediately cleared,
and the RC8650 will announce the firmware version. The firmware
version can also be read programmatically with the Chipset ID (6?)
command. The firmware restoration process is the same with all
versions of the firmware.
47
RC8650
RC Systems
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now you’re talking!
Appendix B: Revision History
REVISION 01 (MARCH 23, 2006)
REVISION 07 (AUGUST 9, 2013)
Updated to reflect industrial operating temperature range option.
Updated Table 21 (Command Summary).
Specifications
Sinusoidal Tone Generator (Firmware v2.59)
The sampling rate of the sinusoidal tone generator has been fixed to
10 kHz, matching that of the DTMF generator and TTS synthesizer.
Even though the output sampling rate no longer varies with the
command’s parameter n, the equations given for Td, Fi, Kd and Ki are
still valid and should continue to be used. The command parameter
n is still valid for computing these variables. Applications that use
the tone generator should continue to work as before without any
changes.
Added –40 °C to + 85 °C industrial operating temperature range.
Ordering Information
Revised part number system to include industrial temperature range
option.
RC8650 Commands
Changed “Rec memory capacity” in Table 19 (Interrogate command), from 16K blocks to 64K blocks.
REVISION 08 (FEBRUARY 7, 2014)
REVISION 02 (APRIL 18, 2007)
Updated Table 8 (Punctuation Filter Register). Removed RC8650F0C
and RC86L50F0C from product offerings. Please use RC8650F1C
or RC86L50F1I instead.
Updated for new RC8650 die.
Specifications
RC8650 Commands (Firmware v2.60)
Changed ICC supply current spec in DC Characteristics. Active current has been reduced by approximately 40%.
The way four-digit numbers are read can now be controlled with
the Punctuation Filter Register’s new YM bit. See Punctuation Filter
Register description for more information.
Ordering Information
Several part numbers previously available only in commercial grade
have been replaced with industrial grade parts.
REVISION 03 (JUNE 27, 2008)
Updated to reflect new Restore mode. Reorganized certain sections
and added Appendix A.
Specifications
Updated STBY# pin description in Table 1.
REVISION 04 (MARCH 18, 2009)
Updated Real-Time Audio Playback mode section.
REVISION 05 (MAY 22, 2009)
Rearranged several sections and updated TOC.
REVISION 06 (DECEMBER 19, 2011)
Removed RC86L50F2I from product offerings. Please use
RC86L50F3I instead.
48
Specifications written in this publication are believed to be accurate, but are not guaranteed to be entirely free of error. RC Systems reserves the right to make
changes in the devices or the device specifications described in this publication without notice. RC Systems advises its customers to obtain the latest version
of device specifications to verify, before placing orders, that the information being relied upon by the customer is current.
In the absence of written agreement to the contrary, RC Systems assumes no liability relating to the sale and/or use of RC Systems products including fitness
for a particular purpose, merchantability, for RC Systems applications assistance, customer’s product design, or infringement of patents or copyrights of third
parties by or arising from use of devices described herein. Nor does RC Systems warrant or represent that any license, either express or implied, is granted
under any patent right, copyright, or other intellectual property right of RC Systems covering or relating to any combination, machine, or process in which such
devices might be or are used. RC Systems products are not intended for use in medical, life saving, or life sustaining applications.
Applications described in this publication are for illustrative purposes only, and RC Systems makes no warranties or representations that the devices described
herein will be suitable for such applications.
1609 England Avenue, Everett, WA 98203
Phone: (425) 355-3800
www.rcsys.com
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