Victron energy Phoenix Inverter 12/225; 12/500; 24/300; 24/650 Owner's manual

Victron energy Phoenix Inverter 12/225; 12/500; 24/300; 24/650 Owner's manual
victron energy
USER MANUAL
Phoenix 12/225
Phoenix 24/300
Phoenix 12/500
Phoenix 24/650
Copyrights © 1999, 2000 Victron Energy B.V.
All Rights Reserved
This publication or part thereoff, may not reproduced in any form by
any method, for any purpose.
VICTRON ENERGY B.V. MAKES NO WARRANTY, EITHER
EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED
TO ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY
OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, REGARDING
THESE VICTRON ENERGY PRODUCTS AND MAKES SUCH
VICTRON ENERGY PRODUCTS AVAILABLE SOLELY ON AN
“AS-IS” BASIS.
IN NO EVENT SHALL VICTRON ENERGY B.V. BE LIABLE
TO ANYONE FOR SPECIAL, COLLATERAL, INCIDENTAL,
OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES IN CONNECTION WITH
OR ARISING OUT OF PURCHASE OR USE OF THESE
VICTRON ENERGY PRODUCTS. THE SOLE AND
EXCLUSIVE LIABILITY TO VICTRON ENERGY B.V.,
REGARDLESS OF THE FORM OF ACTION, SHALL NOT
EXCEED THE PURCHASE PRICE OF THE VICTRON
ENERGY PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HERE IN.
For conditions of use and permission to use this manual for publication
in other than the Englisch, Dutch, French or German language, contact
Victron Energy B.V.
Victron Energy B.V. reserves the right to revise and improve its
products as it sees fit. This publication describes the state of this product
at the time of its publication and may not reflect the product at all times
in the future.
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INTRODUCTION
Victron Energy has established an international reputation as a leading
designer and manufacturer of energy systems. Our R&D department is
the driving force behind this reputation. It is continually seeking new
ways of incorporating the latest technology in our products. Each step
forward results in value-added technical and economical features.
Our proven philosophy has resulted in a full range of state-of-the-art
equipment for the supply of electrical power. All our equipment meets the
most stringent requirements.
Victron Energy energy systems provide you with high quality AC
supplies at places where there are no permanent sources of mains power.
An automatic stand-alone power system can be created with a
configuration comprising of a Victron Energy inverter, battery charger
and last but not least, batteries with sufficient capacity.
Our equipment is suitable for countless situations in the field, on ships or
other places where a mobile 230 or 115 VoltAC power supply is
indispensable.
Victron Energy has the ideal power source for all kinds of electrical
appliances used for household, technical and industrial purposes,
including instruments susceptible to interference. All of these applications
require a high quality power supply in order to function properly.
Victron Energy Phoenix sinewave inverter
This manual contains instructions for installing the Phoenix 12/225,
Ph 24/300, Ph 12/500 and Ph 24/650 sinewave inverters. It describes the
functionality and operation of the Phoenix inverter, including its
protective devices and other technical features.
Note: where the abbreviation ‘Ph’ is used please read ‘Phoenix’ instead.
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CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION.............................................................. 3
1. INSTALLATION ............................................................ 5
1.1 Location of the inverter
1.2 Battery requirements
1.3 Connection to the battery
1.3.1 General precautions when working with batteries
1.4 Connecting the load
1.5 Turning the inverter on
1.6 Using “economy” mode on the Ph 12/500 and Ph 24/650
5
6
7
7
9
10
11
2. TROUBLESHOOTING................................................ 12
2.1 The flash sequence table
2.2 Acoustic messages
2.3 Troubleshooting guidelines
12
13
13
3. TECHNICAL DATA..................................................... 17
3.1 Phoenix 12/225 and Phoenix 24/300
3.2 Phoenix 12/500 and Phoenix 24/650
3.3 Enclosure dimensions Ph 12/225 and Ph 24/300
3.4 Enclosure dimensions Ph 12/500 and Ph 24/650
17
18
20
21
4. BATTERY CAPACITY ................................................ 22
4.1 Calculation of the minimum required battery capacity
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1. INSTALLATION
1.1 Location of the inverter
FAN
y
x
1
2.
3
4
5
1
2
Ceiling mounting
(inverted).
Base mounting.
Vertical wall mounting,
fan at bottom.
FAN
3
4
5
Not recommended
OK
OK (beware of small objects falling
through the ventilation openings on
top).
Not recommended
Vertical wall mounting,
fan on top.
Horizontal wall mounting. OK
For best operating results, the inverter should be placed on a flat
surface. To ensure a trouble free operation of the inverter, it must be
used in locations that meet the following requirements:
a)
Avoid any contact with water. Do not expose the inverter to rain or
moisture.
b) Do not place the unit in direct sunlight. Ambient air temperature
should be between 0 °C and 40 °C (humidity < 95% non
condensing). Note that in extreme situations the inverter’s case
temperature can exceed 70 °C.
c) Do not obstruct the airflow around the inverter. Leave at least 10
centimetres clearance around the inverter. When the inverter is
running too hot, it will shut down. When the inverter has reached a
safe temperature level the unit will automatically restart again.
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1.2 Battery requirements
For correct operation, the battery voltage should be between
0.92xVnom and 1.25xVnom where Vnom is 12V or 24V depending on
the model, and must be able to supply sufficient current to your inverter.
The following table displays the recommended battery capacity per
inverter type :
Inverter type :
Iin at Pnom :
Ph 12/225
Ph 24/300
Ph 12/500
Ph 24/650
22 Adc
15 Adc
50 Adc
32 Adc
Recommended battery
capacity:
≥ 100 Ah
≥ 60 Ah
≥ 200 Ah
≥ 100 Ah
The inverter shuts down when the battery voltage is below 0.88xVnom
or above 1.3xVnom. In a low or high battery situation the inverter
generates one beep per second.
THE Ph 12/225 AND Ph 12/500 MUST BE
CONNECTED ONLY TO A 12V
BATTERY.
The inverter will not operate from a 6V battery.
The inverter will be damaged when the battery
voltage is higher than 16V.
CAUTION
6
THE Ph 24/300 AND Ph 24/650 MUST BE
CONNECTED ONLY TO A 24V
BATTERY.
The inverter will not operate from a 12V
battery. The inverter will be damaged when the
battery voltage is higher than 31V.
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1.3 Connection to the battery
The Ph 12/225 and Ph 24/300 are equipped with two 4 mm² wires with
a length of 1.5 meters. The Ph 12/500 and Ph 24/650 are equipped with
two 10 mm² wires with the same length. If it is unavoidable to extend
these wires, use a wire gauge of at least 1.5 times larger than the ones
supplied with the inverter. Maximum recommended battery wire length
is approx. 3 meters.
1.3.1 General precautions when working with batteries
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Working in vicinity of a lead acid battery is dangerous. Batteries
can generate explosive gases during operation. Never smoke or
allow a spark or flame in the vicinity of a battery. Provide sufficient
ventilation around the battery.
Wear eye and clothing protection. Avoid touching eyes while
working near batteries. Wash your hands when done.
If battery acid contacts skin or clothing, wash immediately with
soap and water. If acid enters eye, immediately flood eye with
running cold water for at least 15 minutes and get medical attention
immediately.
Be careful when using metal tools in vicinity of batteries. Dropping
a metal tool onto a battery might cause a short-circuit battery and,
possibly an explosion.
Remove personal metal items such as rings, bracelets, necklaces,
and watches when working with a battery. A battery can produce a
short-circuit current high enough to melt a ring or the like to metal,
causing severe burns.
CAUTION
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THE RED WIRE MUST BE CONNECTED
TO THE POSITIVE (+) TERMINAL AND
THE BLACK WIRE TO THE NEGATIVE
(-) TERMINAL OF THE BATTERY.
Reverse polarity connection of the battery
wires can damage the inverter!
Damage caused by reversed polarity is not
covered by the warranty. Make sure the power
switch is in the OFF ‘0’ position before
connecting the battery.
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WARNING
IF THE INVERTER IS CONNECTED TO
THE INCORRECT POLARITY, THE
FUSE WILL BLOW.
To replace the fuse in the Ph 12/225 or Ph
24/300, make sure you disconnect the battery
first. Replace the fuse only with the correct
type (Littelfuse, or equivalent, 40 A for 12V
version and 25 A for 24V version, automotive
type). After the fuse is replaced you can
reconnect the battery again, but this time with
the correct polarity applied (RED TO ‘+’
AND BLACK TO ‘-‘).
If the fuse blows again, even with the correct
polarity applied, the inverter is damaged and
must be returned for service.
THE Ph 12/500 AND Ph 24/650 MODELS
ARE EQUIPPED WITH AN INTERNAL
FUSE WHICH CAN BE REPLACED
ONLY BY SPECIALLY TRAINED
SERVICE PERSONNEL.
CAUTION
DO NOT USE THE Ph 12/225 AND Ph
24/300 INVERTERS WITH ELECTRICAL
SYSTEMS USING POSITIVE GROUND.
These inverters are designed for use with
negative ground electrical systems. The
inverter’s case is connected to the protective
earth conductor of the AC outlet and to the
negative wire of the DC input.
The Ph 12/500 and Ph 24/650 models have an
earthed case which is not directly connected to
any DC input wire
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1.4 Connecting the load
Before you connect your appliance(s) to the inverter, always check it’s
maximum power consumption. Do not connect appliances to the
inverter needing more than the nominal power rating of the inverter
continuously. Some appliances like motors or pumps, draw large inrush
currents in a start-up situation. In such circumstances, it is possible that
the start-up current exceeds the overcurrent trip level of the inverter. In
this case the output voltage will quickly decrease to limit the output
current of the inverter. If the overcurrent trip level is continuously
exceeded, the inverter will shut down and restart within 18 seconds. In
this case it is advisable to disconnect the appliance from the inverter,
since it requires too much power to be driven by this inverter. Note that
at higher ambient temperature levels, the overload capacity of the
inverter is reduced.
Besides indicating the type of error, the red LED on the Ph 12/500 and
Ph 24/650 inverters also functions as an overload indicator. When heavy
loads are switched on, this LED will shortly light due to the inrush
current of the load. If the ERROR/OVERLOAD LED stays on for 6
seconds, the inverter will shut down and switches to the overload error
mode (see chapter 3.1)
WARNING
WHEN CONNECTING MORE THAN
ONE APPLIANCE TO THE INVERTER,
IN COMBINATION WITH A
COMPUTER, NOTE THAT IF ONE OF
THE APPLIANCES DRAWS A HIGH
START CURRENT, IT CAN CAUSE
YOUR COMPUTER TO REBOOT DUE
TO A SUDDEN VOLTAGE DROP.
NEVER CONNECT THE INVERTER’S
OUTPUT TO THE AC DISTRIBUTION
GRID, SUCH AS YOUR HOUSEHOLD AC
WALL OUTLET. IT WILL DAMAGE
THE INVERTER.
CAUTION
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1.5 Turning the inverter on
When all the above requirements are checked and satisfied and all
connections are made, it’s time to turn on your Phoenix inverter by
pushing the power switch to the ‘ I ’ position. After a short beep,
indicating that all internal circuits are checked, the sinewave shaped
output voltage gently rises until 230V/50Hz ± 2% is reached.
When the inverter is not supplying power to an appliance for a longer
time, it’s recommended to turn off the inverter to save your batteries
since it still draws a small amount of current in a ‘no load’ condition.
With the Ph 12/500 and Ph 24/650 models you have the possibility to
use the build in “economy” mode as is detailed in the next chapter.
WARNING
WARNING
10
IF THE INVERTER SWITCHES TO AN
‘ERROR MODE’ (SEE CHAPTER 3.1)
DUE TO AN OVERLOAD OR SHORT
CIRCUIT, THE INVERTER WILL
AUTOMATICALLY RESTART AFTER
ABOUT 18 SECONDS.
In case of an over-temperature error, the
inverter will automatically restart after it has
reached an acceptable temperature. Just before
the inverter restarts, it will warn you with a
short beep.
NEVER TOUCH THE AC
CONNECTIONS WHEN THE INVERTER
IS STILL RUNNING IN AN ERROR
MODE!
THE BUILT IN LARGE ELECTROLYTIC
CAPACITORS CAN HOLD SIGNIFICANT
DC VOLTAGE WHEN THE BATTERIES
ARE DISCONNECTED.
To avoid sparks or short inverter operation, it is
advisable to switch on the inverter for 10
seconds after battery disconnection, before you
transport the inverter.
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1.6 Using “economy” mode on the Ph 12/500 and Ph 24/650
To reduce it’s own power consumption (with 80..90%) when no load is
powered at the output, the 500W and 650W inverters are equipped with
a sophisticated Load Detection System. This system detects whether or
not power is needed from the AC output. The amount of power that
needs to be detected in order to jump to economby mode, is adjustable
from 3 to 30W with the ‘load sense level’ potentiometer on the front
panel.
The Ph 12/500 and Ph 24/650 models can operate in two modes, the
continuous mode and the economy mode. When the ‘load sense level’
potmeter is fully turned counter clockwise, the inverter operates in the
continuous mode (blue AC-present LED is continuously on) even when
there is no load connected. In this mode there is always an output
voltage present, which causes the inverter to draw more power from the
batteries.
To set up the economy mode, turn the ‘load sense level’ potmeter
clockwise until the blue LED starts to flash. After about 5 seconds the
flashing stops and the inverter operates in the economy mode. This
means that once per second a narrow pulse of 230V is generated at the
output to check whether there’s a load applied. Every time this 230V
pulse is generated the blue LED is activated too, in order to indicate that
there’s a lethal AC voltage present at the output. When a load exceeding
the adjusted load sense level is connected, the inverter switches to the
continuous mode immediately, delivering power to the load. When the
load is disconnected (or switched off) the blue LED starts flashing for 5
seconds and the inverter switches back to the economy mode.
Note that some loads like TV/video equipment (with standby mode) and
alarm clocks need continuous power so that the standby mode can not
be used.
With some small non compensated loads it is possible that the inverter
switches from continuous mode to economy mode and vice versa all the
time. In this case you have to connect an additional load to the AC
output. The adjusted load sense level can slightly change with DC input
voltage and temperature.
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2. TROUBLESHOOTING
2.1 The flash sequence table
Your Phoenix inverter is equipped with a self-diagnosis system, to
inform you about the cause of inverter shut down. To make this visible
the error/power LED (Ph 12/225 and Ph 24/300 models) or red
error/overload LED (Ph 12/500 and Ph 24/650 models) on the front
panel of the inverter, can flash in four different sequences. The duration,
or time period, of this sequence is about 1 second. During this time
period the red LED can flash four times in a row at most. The number
of flashes in this time period indicates the cause of inverter shut down.
In the table below you can find out what kind of flashing sequence
belongs to which error.
Red LED conditions:
=LED flashing
=LED ON
=LED OFF
Time period
ERROR/ALARM TYPE
Battery voltage too low or too high
( One flash per second )
Overloaded or shorted output
( Two flashes per second )
Inverter temperature too high. Cooling
down ( Three flashes per second )
Reserved
( Four flashes per second )
Ph12/225, Ph24/300 models:
ON, inverter in normal operation
Ph12/500, Ph24/650 models:
Overload, output in ‘current limit’
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2.2 Acoustic messages
The inverter is equipped with an acoustic alarm.
There are three kinds of acoustic messages depending on the possible
cause of inverter shutdown. These messages are related to the red LED
flashing sequences mentioned previously.
Message 1: One beep per second. The battery voltage has reached too
low or too high a level.
Message 2: Two beeps per second. The inverter will shut down soon
due to an overloaded output. Note that with very heavy
overloads the alarm will not sound due to fast inverter shut
down.
Message 3: Three beeps per second. The inverter will shut down
when its temperature has risen another three degrees
Celsius.
2.3 Troubleshooting guidelines
PROBLEM : Inverter is not working (Power /AC Present LED
OFF)
Possible cause :
Remedy :
Power switch in OFF (0) position. Push the power switch to the ON
(I) position.
Poor contact between the
Clean battery terminals or inverter
inverter’s battery wires and the
wire contacts. Tighten battery
battery terminals.
terminal screws.
Blown inverter fuse.
Replace damaged fuse with the
correct type. Make sure you
disconnect the battery before
changing the fuse. The Ph 12/500
and Ph 24/650 has to be returned
for service.
Very poor battery condition.
Replace battery.
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PROBLEM : ‘Battery voltage too low or too high’ error keeps on
appearing
Possible cause :
Remedy :
Poor battery condition.
Poor connection or inadequate
wiring between battery and
inverter, resulting in too much
voltage drop.
Replace battery or charge it first.
When extending the battery wires
of the inverter make sure you use
the correct wire gauge (≥ 1.5 times
larger than the fixed battery wires).
It’s not advisable to extend the
battery wires to more than 3
meters.
Check your electrical system or
consult an electrical engineer to
check it for you.
General failure in your electrical
system (in case of no direct
battery connection).
PROBLEM : ‘Overloaded or shorted output’ error keeps on
appearing
Possible cause :
Remedy :
Inverter is overloaded.
Connected equipment features a
bad power factor (cosϕ at
sinusoidal currents).
Connected equipment causes a
short circuit at the inverter’s
output.
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Make sure that the total power
rating of the connected equipment
is lower than the nominal inverter
power rating.
Reduce the required power
consumption of the load. Please
note that, for example, a computer
load features a bad power factor,
which causes a reduction of the
maximum output power of the
inverter by approx. 20%.
Make sure that the connected
equipment is not broken or
malfunctioning. Check if the AC
power cord between the inverter
and the connected equipment is
OK. Any physical damage on the
power cord can produce a short
circuit. Be careful in these
situations!.
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On the Ph 12/500 and Ph 24/650
models the red LED stays on at
load start-up.
Try to power-up connected
equipment successively, and not
simultaneously. Or connect the
load first and then turn-on the
inverter. Otherwise stop using the
connected load, it’s not suitable to
drive it with this inverter.
PROBLEM : ‘Inverter temperature too high. Cooling down’ error
keeps on appearing
Possible cause :
Remedy :
Airflow around the inverter is
obstructed.
Make sure there is at least 10
centimetres of clearance around
the inverter. Remove any items
placed on or over the inverter.
Keep the inverter away from direct
sunlight or heat producing
equipment.
Too high ambient temperature.
Move the inverter to a cooler place
or provide additional cooling by an
external fan.
Note: Don’t turn-off the inverter when it’s operating in an ‘Inverter
temperature too high. Cooling down’ error. The inverter needs this
error time to cool down.
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Ph 12/500 and Ph 24/650 only :
PROBLEM : Inverter jumps between continuous mode and
economy mode all the time
Possible cause :
Remedy :
Too tightly adjusted economy
load sense level.
Turn the load sense level potmeter
a little clockwise. Please note that
the adjusted load sense level is
slightly dependent on input voltage
and temperature.
Connected load is not
Connect an additional load to the
compensated or the ratio between output.
inrush current and continuous
current is too large.
If none of the above remedies helps to solve the problem you encounter,
contact your local Victron Energy distributor for further help and/or
possible repair of your inverter. Do not open the inverter yourself, there
are dangerous high voltages present inside. Opening the inverter will
directly void your 12 months warranty period.
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3. TECHNICAL DATA
3.1 Phoenix 12/225 and Phoenix 24/300
TECHNICAL DATA
Output power1) :
Pnom
P30
Pstartup
Output voltage
Output frequency
Output waveform
Total harmonic distortion
Admissible cos ϕ of load
Input voltage :
Nominal
Range
Maximum efficiency
No load power consumption
at nominal input voltage
Operating temperature range
(ambient)
Protections against
Indications (by preprogrammed flashing
sequences of the power
LED)
DC input connection
AC output connection
Enclosure body size
(l x h x w)
Total weight
The inverter complies with
the following standards :
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Phoenix 12/225
Phoenix 24/300
@ Ta=25°C
225W
300W
250W
350W
500W
600W
230Vac ± 2% or 115vac ± 2%
50Hz ± 0.05% or 60Hz ± 0.05%
True sinewave
Maximum 5% 3)
0.6 – 1
12Vdc
10.52) - 15.5Vdc
90%
< 3.5W
24Vdc
212) – 31Vdc
91%
< 4.5W
0 - 40 °C
Short circuit, overload, high temperature and
high/low battery voltage
Power on, short circuit/overload, high
temperature and high/low battery voltage
Two wires, length 1.5 meters, ∅ 4mm²
IEC-320 AC outlet
177 x 90 x 150
3.1 kg
3.5 kg
EN50081-1 Generic Emissions Standard
EN50082-1 Generic Immunity Standard
EN60950 Safety Standard
EN60742 Transformer Standard
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3.2 Phoenix 12/500 and Phoenix 24/650
TECHNICAL DATA
Output power1) :
Pnom
P30
Pstartup
Output voltage
Output frequency
Output waveform
Total harmonic distortion
Admissible cos ϕ of load
Input voltage :
Nominal
Range
Maximum efficiency
No load power consumption at
nominal input voltage
No load power consumption at
nominal input voltage with
standby mode activated
Load sense level range
Operating temperature range
(ambient)
Protections against
Error indications (by preprogrammed flashing
sequences of the red LED)
Remaining indications
DC input connection
AC output connection
Enclosure body size
(l x h x w)
Total weight
The inverter complies with the
following standards :
Phoenix 12/500
Phoenix 24/650
@ Ta=25°C
500W
650W
525W
750W
900W
1500W
230Vac ± 2% or 115vac ± 2%
50Hz ± 0.05% or 60Hz ± 0.05%
True sinewave
Maximum 5% 3)
0.6 – 1
12Vdc
10.52) - 15.5Vdc
92%
< 4W
24Vdc
212) – 31Vdc
94%
< 4.6W
< 0.4W
< 0.7W
3 - 30W
0 - 40 °C
Short circuit, overload, high temperature and
high/low battery voltage
Short circuit/overload, high temperature and
high/low battery voltage
Overload (red LED)
AC Present (blue LED)
two wires, length 1.5 meters, ∅ 10mm²
SCHUKO type AC outlet
228 x 108 x 185
6.2 kg
6.5 kg
EN50081-1 Generic Emissions Standard
EN50082-1 Generic Immunity Standard
EN60950 Safety Standard
EN60742 Transformer Standard
Note : the given specifications are subject to change without notice
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1)
2)
3)
Measured with resistive load.
Undervoltage limit is dynamic. This limit decreases with increasing
load to compensate the voltage drop across cables and connections.
Measured with nominal load at Ta=25ºC and at nominal input and
outputvoltage.
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3.3 Enclosure dimensions Ph 12/225 and Ph 24/300
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3.4 Enclosure dimensions Ph 12/500 and Ph 24/650
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4. BATTERY CAPACITY
4.1 Calculation of the minimum required battery capacity
If the power ratings of the equipment to be powered by the Phoenix
inverter and the duration that the inverter is expected to power the
equipment are known, the minimum battery capacity can be calculated.
Make a list of all equipment to be powered by the Phoenix inverter and
sum up each single power consumption multiplied by the duration of time
in hours, during which power will be consumed (Watt-hours). Add the
internal loss of the Phoenix inverter.
The calculation on the internal loss is a two step process. First we
calculate the loss when the inverter is supplying power to a load. The
efficiency of the inverter in this state is 85%, adding roughly 15% to the
power consumption. When the inverter is not supplying power to a load,
power consumption is approximately 4,5 W.
Determine the number of Ah by dividing the power consumption by the
nominal battery voltage (for example 24 VDC). The result is the total
battery capacity-consumption in Ah's. Multiply this value with a safety
factor of 1,7 and the result is the recommended minimum battery
capacity.
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Stock number:
Dealer:
Victron Energy B.V.
The Netherlands
General phone:
Customer support desk:
General and Service fax:
Sales fax:
+31 - (0)36 - 535 97 00
+31 - (0)36 - 535 97 77
+31 - (0)36 - 531 16 66
+31 - (0)36 - 535 97 40
E-mail:
Internet site:
[email protected]
http://www.victronenergy.com
Article Number:
Doc. no.
Version
Date
ISM010031000
ISM010031000-englisch-REV04
04
21-08-2002
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