Diskeeper 10 User`s Manual

Diskeeper 10 User`s Manual
User’s Manual
Diskeeper® for Windows®
November 2005
This document describes the installation and operation of Diskeeper Corporation’s Diskeeper, The Number One
Automatic Defragmenter™ for Microsoft® Windows.
Revision/Update Information:
This is a new manual
Software Versions:
Diskeeper 10.0 Home Edition
Operating Systems:
Windows XP (Professional, Media Center, Tablet PC and Home editions)
Windows 2000 Professional
Windows Millennium Edition (Me)
Windows 98
Diskeeper Corporation, Burbank, California, USA
________________________
November 2005
__________
© 2002 – 2005 by Diskeeper Corporation. All Rights Reserved.
The Software described in this document is owned by Diskeeper Corporation and is protected by United States
copyright laws and international treaty provisions. Therefore, you must treat the Software like any other
copyrighted material (e.g. a book or musical recording) except that you may either (a) make one copy of the
Software solely for backup or archival purposes, or (b) transfer the Software to a single hard disk provided you
keep the original solely for backup or archival purposes. You may not copy the user documentation provided
with the Software, except for your own authorized use.
RESTRICTED RIGHTS LEGEND
The software and documentation are provided with RESTRICTED RIGHTS. Use, duplication, or disclosure by
the Government is subject to restrictions as set forth in subparagraph (c)(1)(ii) of the Rights in Technical Data
and Computer Software clause at DFARS 252.227-7013 or subparagraphs (c)(1) and (2) of the Commercial
Computer Software-Restricted Rights at 48 CFR 52.227-19 as applicable. Manufacturer is Diskeeper
Corporation, 7590 North Glenoaks Boulevard, Burbank, California 91504.
Diskeeper, the Diskeeper Corporation logo, I-FAAST, “I/O Smart”, “Set It and Forget It”, “Smart Scheduling”,
and “The Number One Automatic Defragmenter” are either registered trademarks or trademarks of Diskeeper
Corporation in the United States and other countries.
Microsoft, Windows, and Windows NT are either registered trademarks or trademarks owned by Microsoft
Corporation in the United States and/or other countries.
All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
Contents
iii
CONTENTS
PREFACE
WHAT THIS BOOK IS ABOUT
STRUCTURE OF THIS BOOK
INTRODUCTION
ABOUT FRAGMENTATION
WHAT’S NEW IN DISKEEPER 10
VII
VII
VII
VII
VIII
VIII
DISKEEPER INSTALLATION
1
BEFORE THE INSTALLATION
WINDOWS VERSIONS AND PLATFORMS SUPPORTED
FILE SYSTEMS SUPPORTED
DISKS SUPPORTED
RESOURCE REQUIREMENTS
ADDITIONAL SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS
INSTALLATION PROCEDURE—THE SHORT VERSION
INSTALLATION PROCEDURE—THE DETAILS
INSTALLATION OVERVIEW
INSTALLATION PROCEDURE
AFTER THE INSTALLATION
REGISTERING DISKEEPER
CHECK FOR PRODUCT UPDATE
ABOUT THE DISKEEPER SERVICE
THE WINDOWS APPLICATION EVENT LOG
EVENT LOGGING UNDER WINDOWS 98/ME
UNINSTALLING DISKEEPER
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
3
4
4
4
4
4
5
5
GETTING STARTED
7
INTRODUCTION
THE DISKEEPER CONSOLE
LET’S LOOK AT YOUR HARD DRIVE
LET’S SET IT AND FORGET IT
FOLLOWING UP
MAKING DISKEEPER OPERATION TRANSPARENT
ABOUT DISKEEPER JOBS
7
7
8
10
10
10
11
OVERVIEW OF DISKEEPER
13
DISKEEPER FEATURES
OTHER THINGS TO KNOW
EXCLUSION LIST
EVENT LOGGING
GETTING THE MOST FROM DISKEEPER
13
13
14
14
14
iv
Contents
DISKEEPER OPERATION
15
THE DISKEEPER INTERFACE
TOOLBAR BUTTONS
QUICK LAUNCH PANE
COMPUTER PANE
TABBED DASHBOARD
VOLUME MAP TAB
WHAT THE COLORS MEAN
JOB REPORT TAB
RECOMMENDATIONS SECTION
VOLUME HEALTH SECTION
ACCESS TIME SECTION
STATISTICS SECTION
JOB LOG TAB
HISTORICAL REPORT TAB
SAVING AND PRINTING DASHBOARD INFORMATION
MANUAL DEFRAGMENTATION MODE
SET IT AND FORGET IT MODE
SETTING A DEFRAGMENTATION SCHEDULE
SCHEDULING PRIMARY DEFRAGMENTATION JOBS
SCHEDULING BOOT-TIME DEFRAGMENTATION JOBS
PRIMARY JOB SCHEDULING OPTIONS
SMART SCHEDULING
SCREEN SAVER MODE
BOOT-TIME DEFRAGMENTATION OVERVIEW
BOOT-TIME DEFRAGMENTATION OPTIONS
PRIMARY DEFRAGMENTATION JOB PROPERTIES
TASK LIST OPTIONS
SETTING DISK PRIORITY
DISKEEPER CONFIGURATION PROPERTIES
UPDATES AND UPGRADES
FILE EXCLUSIONS
DISKEEPER INTERNAL EXCLUSION LIST
DATA COLLECTION
EVENT LOGGING
SPECIFYING WHAT GETS LOGGED
POWER MANAGEMENT
15
15
16
17
17
18
18
19
19
19
20
20
23
24
24
24
25
26
26
26
27
28
29
30
31
33
33
34
34
34
35
36
36
37
37
39
THEORY OF OPERATION
41
INTRODUCTION
DESIGN GOALS
41
41
TABLE OF DISKEEPER EDITIONS
45
Contents
v
ANSWERS TO FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS
47
SUPPORT SERVICES
53
GLOSSARY
55
INDEX
63
Preface
vii
Preface
What This Book is About
Welcome to the Diskeeper Home Edition User’s Manual. We realize software manuals tend to be one of the
least-favorite pieces of reading material around, so we intend to make this one as painless as possible. This
book will first help you get Diskeeper quickly installed and running. Next, it describes the various Diskeeper
features and how to use them. Finally, it defines disk fragmentation and how it affects your Windows systems.
Structure of This Book
ƒ
Chapter 1 describes how to install Diskeeper.
ƒ
Chapter 2 explains how to start using Diskeeper and how to see the amount of fragmentation on your disk
volumes.
ƒ
Chapter 3 gives a brief overview of Diskeeper.
ƒ
Chapter 4 explains the various features of Diskeeper in detail.
ƒ
Chapter 5 presents the theory of Diskeeper operation.
ƒ
Appendix A has tables showing the different Diskeeper editions, and the operating systems, features and
capacities they support.
ƒ
Appendix B provides answers to frequently asked questions.
ƒ
Appendix C explains how to contact Diskeeper Corporation for Support Services.
ƒ
The Glossary provides definitions of technical terms used in this manual.
Introduction
Throughout its history, Diskeeper has improved with each new version. Diskeeper Home Edition sets the
standard in simplified disk defragmentation with innovative new features and approaches to solving
fragmentation problems for home users.
From its trademark Set It and Forget It® scheduling to the comprehensive performance and reliability analysis,
Diskeeper Home Edition is designed to solve your disk fragmentation problems permanently, and keep you
informed about the condition of all your disks.
Diskeeper Home Edition is only one member of the comprehensive Diskeeper family of defragmentation
products. There are different Diskeeper editions for everyone, from home users to the world’s largest IT
departments.
The Diskeeper lineup also includes:
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
Diskeeper Professional Edition
Diskeeper Professional Premier Edition
Diskeeper Server Standard Edition
Diskeeper Server Enterprise Edition
Diskeeper Administrator Edition
See Appendix A for tables showing all the Diskeeper editions with the features and operating system versions
they support.
viii
Preface
About Fragmentation
As used in this manual, the term disk fragmentation means two things:
ƒ
ƒ
a condition in which pieces of individual files on a disk volume are not contiguous, but rather are broken
up and scattered around the disk; and
a condition in which the free space on a disk volume consists of little pieces of space here and there rather
than a few large free spaces.
The effects of excessive fragmentation are twofold as well:
ƒ
ƒ
file access takes longer because a file must be collected in pieces here and there, requiring several disk
accesses instead of just one; and
file creations take longer because space for the file must be allocated in little pieces here and there instead
of just one contiguous allocation.
The bottom line⎯fragmentation slows Windows system performance. The longer you wait to defragment your
disk volumes, the slower your computer runs.
With Diskeeper, all the volumes in a Windows operating system can be kept defragmented indefinitely.
Diskeeper cleans them up and keeps them that way. This includes volumes with compressed, encrypted and
sparse files on NTFS volumes.
Running either invisibly as a background job or as a manual defragmenter, Diskeeper carefully rearranges files
and free space on a disk volume so they consist of as few pieces as possible. Because Diskeeper runs online,
there is no need to lock users off a disk while it is being defragmented.
Diskeeper is the complete “Set It and Forget It” solution to the loss in system performance caused by disk
fragmentation!
What’s New in Diskeeper 10
Whether you’ve used Diskeeper before or not, you may already be familiar with some of its features, but
version 10 represents a milestone in the progression of Diskeeper development. New users will find Diskeeper
to be easy to use, yet comprehensive in its capabilities. Experienced Diskeeper users will recognize familiar
features, presented in a new, more streamlined way. This list gives a summary of what’s new in this version.
ƒ
I/O Smart™ Enhancements
I/O Smart has been enhanced to completely eliminate performance slows related to disk I/Os incurred by
defragmentation.
I/O Smart technology actively “listens” for I/O requests. During a Diskeeper defragmentation job, if
another application or process needs access to the hard drive, Diskeeper intelligently pauses
defragmentation until the other program I/O requests are fulfilled. Once that happens, Diskeeper gets the
go-ahead to resume defragmentation until another request comes along. Combined with its high-speed
engine, Diskeeper can easily defragment using the “spaces” between I/O requests, even on busy servers.
This feature is included in all Diskeeper Editions.
ƒ
Smart Scheduling® Enhancements
The improved Smart Scheduling is more proactive and adjusts more quickly to changes in volume
fragmentation levels.
Rather than your “best-guesses” as to the optimal frequency of defragmentation for a particular volume,
Diskeeper Smart Scheduling algorithms are tuned to dynamically adjust automatic defragmentation based
on a volume-level rate of fragmentation. This gives you proactive defragmentation—before fragmentation
builds up—preventing system performance issues, and subsequently providing faster defragmentation run
times.
This feature is included in all Diskeeper Editions.
Preface
ƒ
ix
New Historical Reports
Diskeeper now gives you an easy-to-access Historical Report of defragmentation results and cumulative
fragments eliminated. View fragmentation and defragmentation trends over days weeks or months.
This feature is included in all Diskeeper Editions.
ƒ
Redesigned User Interface
The Diskeeper console has been redesigned for both simplified “basic” use and intuitive “advanced”
product configuration.
The new console design is included in all Diskeeper Editions, but note that Diskeeper Home Edition does
not include advanced configuration options.
ƒ
Improved Reporting
The new Job Report contains comprehensive data on file fragmentation, drive health and file access times
for each of your disk volumes. The new Job Log reports on defragmentation activity for each day and
defragmentation job type. Also, all these reports can now be printed or saved directly from within
Diskeeper.
ƒ
Boot-Time Defragmentation
New in Diskeeper Home Edition this version, the Boot-Time Defragmentation feature defragments Master
File Tables (MFTs) and paging files—files that cannot be safely moved while your operating system is up
and running. The Boot-Time defragmentation operation defragments the paging file and/or MFT on your
volumes while your computer is booting. After running the Boot-Time operation once, regular online
defragmentation by Diskeeper can help prevent the MFT and paging file from becoming fragmented again.
Note that the Boot-Time defragmentation feature is only available on computers running Windows 2000 or
Windows XP.
ƒ
Product Update/Upgrade Improvements
Diskeeper and Diskeeper Administrator can be configured to automatically check and report on available
updates and upgrades. Diskeeper clients can now be configured to retain all previous settings and report
data when updated and upgraded.
ƒ
Now Supports Larger Volumes
This version of Diskeeper Home Edition now supports disk volumes up to 768 GB in size. Previous
versions of Diskeeper Home Edition supported a maximum volume size of 512 GB.
Installation
1
Chapter 1
Diskeeper Installation
This chapter provides information you need before, during, and after installing Diskeeper.
Before the Installation
Windows Versions and Platforms Supported
Diskeeper Home Edition runs on the Intel® x86 platform (including Pentium™ and compatible CPUs from
other manufacturers) running Windows XP (all editions except Windows XP for x64), Windows 2000
Professional, Windows Me, or Windows 98.
The Windows versions supported varies by Diskeeper edition. See Appendix A for a table showing the different
Diskeeper editions and the Windows versions they support.
File Systems Supported
Operating System
File Systems
Windows XP
Windows 2000
Windows Me
Windows 98
NTFS, FAT16 and FAT32
FAT16 and FAT32
Note that the 12-bit FAT file system is not supported. (The 12-bit FAT file system is used on FAT volumes
smaller than 16 megabytes in size, such as floppy disks). In addition, NTFS volumes formatted with a cluster
size larger than 4 kilobytes are not supported (except on Windows XP, which supports cluster sizes up to 64
KB).
Disks Supported
Diskeeper supports a wide range of SCSI, IDE, PATA and SATA disks, including:
ƒ
Primary Partitions
ƒ
Extended Partitions
ƒ
Logical Drives
ƒ
Volume Sets
ƒ
RAID Arrays
ƒ
Mirrored Disks
2
ƒ
Installation
Mounted Volumes (letterless drives)
Resource Requirements
The disk space requirements for Diskeeper depend on several factors. On Windows XP and Windows 2000
systems, Diskeeper will need about 11 MB. Allow about 10 MB of extra free space for temporary files during
the installation. If Internet Explorer is not present on your computer, some other needed files (hhupd.exe,
50comupd.exe, and wintdist.exe) may be added. Further, your system may require a new or updated version of
the Microsoft Management Console (MMC), which is less than 6 MB.
Additional Software Requirements
Diskeeper relies on the Microsoft Management Console (MMC). The MMC provides a single point of control
for system utilities such as Diskeeper. The MMC is used as a central location for a variety of Microsoft and
third party administrative tools.
Note: The MMC normally has to be installed separately, except on Windows 2000 and Windows XP systems,
where it is already built into the operating system. The Diskeeper setup process will automatically install the
MMC on your computer if needed.
Installation Procedure—The Short Version
The Diskeeper installation is typically fast and simple. Here are the basic steps:
Note: On Windows 2000 or Windows XP, make sure you are logged onto an account that is a member of the
Administrators group.
1.
Insert the Diskeeper CD-ROM into the appropriate drive on your computer. (If you are installing from a
downloaded file, double-click the file you downloaded.)
2.
Follow the screens displayed, answering the questions asked as prompted.
That’s it! It would still be a good idea to read After the Installation on page 4, but you’re done with the
installation.
Installation Procedure—The Details
Installation Overview
Diskeeper can be installed from a CD-ROM, or it may be downloaded from the Web. This procedure applies to
both methods. Before you start the installation, please note the following:
ƒ
On Windows 2000 and Windows XP machines, installing Diskeeper will not remove the built-in
defragmenter, but Diskeeper will automatically become the default defragmenter. (The built-in
defragmenter will be restored if you uninstall Diskeeper.)
ƒ
To install Diskeeper on Windows 2000 or Windows XP systems, you must be logged into an account that
is a member of the Administrators group.
ƒ
Diskeeper is installed by the SETUP.EXE program supplied on the Diskeeper CD-ROM. The SETUP.EXE
program:
ƒ
Confirms that you have Administrator privileges (on Windows 2000 and Windows XP systems).
ƒ
Determines which Windows version you are running.
Installation
3
ƒ
Checks for sufficient space on the disk for the installation.
ƒ
Detects and removes any previously installed Diskeeper software.
ƒ
Copies the Diskeeper files to the destination directories, updates the Windows registry, starts the Diskeeper
service, creates a link in the Windows Start menu for Diskeeper, and creates a desktop shortcut (if you
choose the option to do so).
Installation Procedure
This installation procedure assumes you are installing from CD-ROM. If the Diskeeper software was
downloaded from the Web, double-click the executable file in the directory into which it was downloaded and
go directly to step 3.
1.
Insert the Diskeeper CD-ROM into the appropriate drive on your computer.
2.
The Windows AutoPlay feature automatically displays a screen that allows you to install Diskeeper or
choose from an assortment of trialware versions of Diskeeper Corporation products.
If you have disabled the AutoPlay feature, simply double-click the Setup.exe file in the root-level folder on
the CD-ROM and follow the instructions displayed.
3.
Click Next when the welcome message appears.
4.
After you have read and accepted the license agreement, click Next to continue.
5.
As an option, you can change the destination location for the Diskeeper files. By default, Diskeeper is
installed here:
\Program Files\Diskeeper Corporation\Diskeeper
You can choose a different disk volume or directory for the installation as follows:
a) Click Change.
b) Make the desired changes to the destination and click OK to accept the new destination. If the
directory you specify does not exist, a new directory will be created.
c) Click Next.
6.
If Internet Explorer 4.01 or higher is not installed on your computer, another installation program is started
and a package of necessary components is installed on your computer. Microsoft Management Console
(MMC), which is the interface for Diskeeper, requires these components. These components are a small
subset of Internet Explorer⎯not the complete Internet Explorer product. Installing these components
(hhupd.exe, 50comupd.exe, and wintdist.exe) will not affect your current web browser. Note that you must
restart your computer after installing Diskeeper if these components are installed.
7.
If the MMC is not installed on your computer, the MMC Setup program is started automatically. After the
MMC files are installed, the Diskeeper Setup program resumes.
8.
Setup detects and removes any previously installed Diskeeper software. (Any previous Diskeeper settings
are not saved.)
9.
On a Windows 2000 or Windows XP system, after Setup is complete, you can immediately start Diskeeper
after clicking Finish. On Windows 98/Me systems, you may be required to restart your computer before
running Diskeeper.
10. To run Diskeeper, click the Windows Start button, select Programs, then Diskeeper Corporation and
Diskeeper.
4
Installation
After the Installation
Registering Diskeeper
After the Diskeeper installation is complete, you may be given the option to register your Diskeeper purchase
online. You can also register Diskeeper by mailing or faxing the registration card that comes with the CD.
Be sure to register your Diskeeper purchase to receive the free 90 days of technical support included with
Diskeeper.
Check for Product Update
The first time you run Diskeeper, it automatically checks to see if a more recent version of Diskeeper is
available. If so, you are given the option to download and install the newer version. When the download screen
is displayed, click Run this program from its current location to begin installing the update. Or, click Save
this program to disk to save the Diskeeper update installation package on your computer for later installation.
(To install an update stored on your computer in this manner, simply double-click the file you download and
follow the instructions displayed.)
You can check for Diskeeper updates any time you want. Use the Updates and Upgrades option in the
Diskeeper Configuration Properties to see if a newer version of Diskeeper is available.
About the Diskeeper Service
Diskeeper is primarily designed as a “Set It and Forget It” disk defragmenter. In order to accomplish this goal,
it creates a Windows service. The service allows Diskeeper to run in the background while other applications
are running. As long as your operating system is up and running, Diskeeper can defragment your disks, whether
you are logged on or not.
After installation, the Diskeeper service starts automatically each time your computer is restarted. The
Diskeeper service runs all the time, whether or not defragmentation is occurring. This service consumes
negligible system resources, and in most cases will never need to be disabled.
The Windows Application Event Log
When running under Windows 2000 and Windows XP, Diskeeper places messages in the Windows
Application Event Log. By default, this log is 512 kilobytes in size and is set to overwrite events older than 7
days old. Diskeeper can potentially fill the log file if these default settings are used, particularly if you choose
to log each file movement. To prevent this, perform these steps to change the size and overwriting
characteristics of the Application Event Log:
1.
Right-click the My Computer icon on your desktop and select Manage.
2.
When the Computer Management Console is displayed, select System Tools, and then Event Viewer.
3.
Expand the Event Viewer (by double-clicking it) and select Application.
4.
Next, click the Action menu and select Properties.
a) Set the Maximum log size to 2048 KB.
b) Enable the Overwrite events as needed option.
c) Click OK.
Diskeeper allows you to specify what information is written to the Application Event Log. For more
information, see page 37.
Installation
5
Event Logging under Windows 98/Me
When running on Windows 98/Me, Diskeeper provides the option of logging Diskeeper events into a text file.
When Diskeeper logs an event, the event and its message are appended to the Diskeeper log file. These events
are written as a text file, which can then be viewed with Notepad, or your choice of text editor programs.
The Diskeeper log file is named DkEventLog.txt and it is stored in the directory folder where Diskeeper is
installed. The file is limited to 1 MB in size. When it reaches this size, the log is purged completely and the
event log is started from scratch.
Uninstalling Diskeeper
To uninstall Diskeeper on Windows 2000 and Windows XP systems, you must be logged into an account that is
a member of the Administrators group.
Note that the controls may have slightly different names, depending on your version of Windows.
Follow these steps to completely remove and uninstall Diskeeper from your computer:
1.
From the Control Panel, double-click Add/Remove Programs. (On Windows 98/Me systems, click the
Install/Uninstall tab.)
2.
Highlight the Diskeeper entry.
3.
Click Remove or Add/Remove (Windows 98/Me). This removes the Diskeeper program files from your
computer. In most cases, the Diskeeper installation directory will not be removed.
4.
On Windows 2000 and Windows XP systems, the Windows Disk Defragmenter is restored to the state it
was in before Diskeeper was installed.
5.
Manually delete the Diskeeper installation directory if it exists.
Note: If the Microsoft Management Console (MMC) has been installed on your computer, it will not be
removed when Diskeeper is uninstalled.
Getting Started
7
Chapter 2
Getting Started
This chapter explains how to analyze the fragmentation on a disk volume, save the results, defragment the
volume, and do a “before and after” comparison.
Introduction
If you are new to Diskeeper, here are some helpful tips for getting the best results.
Diskeeper has an entirely new approach to defragmenting when compared to what you may be accustomed to.
Diskeeper was designed to allow you to automate background defragmentation without impacting the use of
other programs. This procedure will demonstrate how to set up and use Diskeeper as it is intended to be used—
for automatic system maintenance.
The Diskeeper Console
Before we go too far, here’s a look at the Diskeeper console. (Note this example is from Diskeeper Server
Enterprise Edition, and not all the options shown are available in Diskeeper Home Edition.):
Menu Bar
Toolbar
Quick
Launch Pane
Computer
Pane
Tabbed
Dashboard
Dashboard
Area
Status Bar
Menu Bar⎯The Diskeeper menus provide an alternative way to access the features available from the toolbar
and Quick Launch pane.
Toolbar⎯The Diskeeper toolbar gives quick access to commonly-used controls. Note that all the functions on
the toolbar are available from the Diskeeper menus, and many can also be activated from the menu displayed
when you right-click on a selected volume in the volume area. See page 15 for more information.
8
Getting Started
Quick Launch Pane⎯The Quick Launch pane is where you’ll find easy access to the commonly-used
Diskeeper features, as well as several shortcuts for performing common tasks. See page 16 for more
information.
Computer Pane⎯The Computer pane shows all the supported disk volumes detected on your computer, and
general information about each volume and any schedules that have been established. See page 17 for more
information.
Tabbed Controls⎯The tabs in the Dashboard area allow you to easily change between the Volume Map, the
Job Report, the Job Log, and the Historical Report. See page 17 for more information.
Dashboard Area⎯This is the main “Operations Center” for Diskeeper. Each tabbed pane shows a different
aspect of your disks’ condition. See page 17 for more information.
Status Bar⎯This section of the Diskeeper display shows the progress of any Diskeeper tasks currently
running. The status bar also shows other useful information, like the folder location and name of the file being
moved, as well as numbers showing the size of the file chunk being moved and the total size of the file.
in the Windows system status area (or system tray) provides a
System Tray Icon—The Diskeeper icon
convenient way to see when Diskeeper is defragmenting one or more volumes on your computer. When the
icon is displayed, you can right-click it to access these options:
ƒ
Open Diskeeper
ƒ
Stop running engines
ƒ
Delay scheduled defragmentation
Let’s Look At Your Hard Drive
The following brief steps will give you a quick and easy demonstration of Diskeeper on your own workstation
or server, and introduce recommended settings.
1.
In the Computer pane, locate and select one of your system's volumes.
2.
In the Quick Launch pane, expand the Analyze and Defragment Now task. Next, click Analyze to start the
analysis. Keep in mind the analysis may take a few seconds⎯the larger your volume, the longer this will
take.
Getting Started
9
3.
The Volume Map tab gives you an at-a-glance view of the condition of your volume. As the legend at the
bottom of the screen explains, the red areas show the extent of fragmentation on the volume. You can click
Save at the bottom of the screen to save a bitmap file of the Volume Map.
4.
After the analysis completes click the Job Report tab. The Job Report tab provides fragmentation statistics,
volume health information, file access times, lists of the most fragmented files on the volume, and
recommendations for achieving and maintaining optimal performance. Save this particular analysis by
clicking Save at the bottom of the Diskeeper console.
5.
Repeat steps 1 through 4 above for each volume on your system.
10
Getting Started
Let’s Set It and Forget It
Next, navigate to and click Set It and Forget It in the Quick Launch pane. Once open, select Primary
Defragmentation Job. The Primary Defragmentation Job Properties page is displayed. Notice how all the
volumes on your computer have a Smart Schedule enabled. Diskeeper Home Edition has automatically set a
“Smart Schedule” for each of the volumes on your computer. (You can disable this schedule on any volume by
selecting the volume, then clearing the Enable the Primary Defragmentation Job check box.
From this point forward Diskeeper will automatically maintain your volumes, working in the background with
no further intervention from you.
Following Up
To check on Diskeeper progress, open Diskeeper the next day (after Diskeeper has executed your
defragmentation schedule) and re-run the analysis. Repeat steps 1 through 5 above to record analysis data
(remember to save the results to a different file name than the “before” analysis results). By comparing the
“before” and “after” reports, you can see the benefit Diskeeper provides to your system’s performance and
reliability.
The Historical Report tab is another great way to see the benefits for automatic defragmentation. The Historical
Report shows graphs indicating the total number of fragments eliminated, the overall fragmentation level, and
the file performance improvement gained by using Diskeeper. This information is shown for your computer
overall, as well as on a per-volume basis. As you highlight each volume in the Computer pane, the information
displayed in the Historical Report changes to reflect the selected volume.
Each graph in the Historical Report shows “before and after” results. Over time, the Historical Report tab will
give you a good measure of the benefit Diskeeper provides.
Making Diskeeper Operation Transparent
After seeing the benefits of Diskeeper, you can set it up to run as unobtrusively as possible. Doing so ensures
your disk volumes are kept in top shape, and your computer's performance is not slowed down by the
defragmentation process itself.
Getting Started
11
Diskeeper is designed to be run automatically. Doing so ensures the least amount of system resource utilization,
in part because the Diskeeper console (required for manual operation) is not running, thus saving resources, and
also because I/O Smart is enabled and the CPU Priority is set to “Lowest”.
By Manual Defragmentation Jobs run at a higher CPU priority, and I/O Smart is not enabled, so Manual
Defragmentation Jobs can have more of a noticeable impact on your system when the job is running.
As another way of making Diskeeper “transparent”, it is also highly recommended that you use the exclusive
Smart Scheduling feature in Diskeeper. Smart Scheduling goes beyond the limitations of fixed schedules and
eliminates fragmented files based on the actual needs of your disks. It defragments your volumes as often as
needed no more and no less to achieve and maintain peak system speed. Since all systems (and volumes within
a system) fragment at different and ever-changing rates, this self-learning feature dynamically adjusts to
changing conditions on a “per-volume” level, eliminating the need for any additional work on your part to
maintain ideal file system performance and health.
About Diskeeper Jobs
As it relates to Diskeeper, the term “job” is a request to have a disk volume defragmented. This can be in the
form of an immediate request (a Manual Defragmentation Job) or a request to have the defragmentation
performed at a later time a Set It and Forget It job.
Diskeeper Home Edition provides two different types of Set It and Forget It jobs you can run:
•
Primary Defragmentation Jobs
•
Boot-Time Defragmentation Jobs
Along with the actual defragmentation operation, there are job “properties” you can apply to each job. These
properties differ depending on the job type, but they include things like the job schedule (for Primary
Defragmentation Jobs) and the I/O Smart disk priority option.
Overview of Diskeeper
13
Chapter 3
Overview of Diskeeper
This chapter provides important general information about Diskeeper.
Diskeeper Features
The following list summarizes the most important Diskeeper features:
Diskeeper Family of Products—The Diskeeper family of products offers specialized automatic
defragmentation of Windows operating systems ranging from Windows 98 through Windows Server 2003
Datacenter See the tables in Appendix A for the complete Diskeeper lineup.
Descriptive Console Interface—The Diskeeper console provides an intuitive and informative defragmentation
experience. Common commands are grouped together in the Quick Launch pane, and a group of tabbed panes
show you a wide variety of information. Diskeeper shows you the condition of your disks, and provides
suggestions for improving or maintaining your disks.
Performance and Volume Health Analysis—Diskeeper collects and displays data regarding the performance
and overall health of your volumes in the Job Report tab. This information allows you to be more proactive in
the management and maintenance of your computers.
Set It and Forget It Operation—Diskeeper is designed to operate without your intervention. Set a schedule
for the times you want Diskeeper to run, then sit back and let Diskeeper take care of your disk fragmentation.
Of course, you can also run Diskeeper manually. (But you probably have better things to do with your time
that’s what Set It and Forget It is for!)
Smart Scheduling—This feature allows Diskeeper to automatically determine the optimum defragmentation
schedule for each disk volume individually, and adjust that schedule as disk usage changes.
Exclusion Lists—Diskeeper exclusion lists allow you to specify files and directories that will not be allowed to
be processed by Diskeeper.
Event Logging— Diskeeper records information about its activity in two ways. First, general information
about previously-run defragmentation job is shown in the Job Log tab within the Diskeeper console. Additional
information can also be stored in a log file. A wide variety of information can be saved for future reference.
Boot-Time Defragmentation—Defragment files at boot-time that cannot be moved safely when Windows is
running.
Other Things to Know
ƒ
When running Diskeeper in the Set It and Forget It or Manual Defragmentation modes, you can run other
tasks while defragmentation is occurring.
ƒ
With the exception of boot-time operations, Diskeeper runs as a Windows Service and it optionally logs
useful defragmentation information into either the Windows Application Event Log (under Windows 2000
and Windows XP) or to a text file (under Windows 98/Me).
ƒ
Diskeeper can be uninstalled in the standard manner using the Add/Remove Programs applet in the
Windows Control Panel.
ƒ
Due to limits built into the Windows 2000 file systems, Diskeeper cannot defragment files on NTFS
volumes on Windows 2000 systems with a cluster size greater than 4KB (4096 bytes), except during Boot-
14
Overview of Diskeeper
Time Defragmentation. This limitation has been removed in Windows XP, where Diskeeper can
defragment NTFS volumes with cluster sizes of up to 64 kilobytes. Note the boot-time defragmentation
operations are not affected by this limit.
ƒ
You must be logged into an account that is a member of the Administrators group to run Diskeeper on
Windows 2000 or Windows XP.
ƒ
Diskeeper relies on the Microsoft Management Console (MMC), which is available for Windows 98. The
MMC is built into Windows 2000 and Windows XP. For more information about the MMC, see the
Glossary.
Exclusion List
In some cases, you may have files or directory folders you do not want to defragment. For example, you may
not want to defragment temporary files that will soon be deleted. Any files or directories can be excluded from
Diskeeper processing by adding them to the exclusion list.
For more information, see page 33.
Event Logging
Diskeeper allows you to record information about its activity in a log file. You can alternately enable or disable
the logging of various events to the Diskeeper Event Log. The logging method varies, depending on the version
of Windows you are using.
For more information, see page 37.
Getting the Most from Diskeeper
Diskeeper provides a variety of features, all of which are designed to help you get the best performance from
your computer. While there are no “hard and fast” rules governing the use of Diskeeper, here are some general
guidelines that will help you get the most from Diskeeper.
ƒ
When you first install Diskeeper, analyze all the disk volumes on your computer. This gives you good
information about the extent of fragmentation on your computer.
ƒ
After you have analyzed your volumes, establish defragmentation schedules for each of your volumes and
enable automatic defragmentation. You can even allow Diskeeper to determine the best schedule for each
of your volumes, based on the fragmentation level and file activity on each individual volume. For more
information on how to establish a Set It and Forget It schedule, see page26.
ƒ
If the analysis shows fragmentation of the Master File Tables (MFTs) or paging files of your volumes, and
you are running Diskeeper on Windows 2000 or Windows XP, you should next prepare for Boot-Time
defragmentation to defragment MFTs and paging files. Since these critical system files cannot be moved
while your operating system is up and running, the Boot-Time defragmentation operation defragments the
paging file and/or MFT on your volumes while your computer is booting. After running the Boot-Time
operation once, regular online defragmentation by Diskeeper can help prevent the MFT and paging file
from becoming fragmented again.
It is recommended you run the Boot-Time defragmentation operation on one disk volume at a time,
because it can be time consuming and the computer cannot be used for any other purpose while the boottime program is running.
For more information about Boot-Time defragmentation, see page 30.
Diskeeper Operation
15
Chapter 4
Diskeeper Operation
This chapter describes how to operate Diskeeper.
The Diskeeper Interface
As briefly explained in Chapter 2, the Diskeeper user interface (or console) is made up of several distinct
components. (Note this example is from Diskeeper Server Enterprise Edition, and not all the options shown are
available in Diskeeper Home Edition):
Toolbar
Quick
Launch Pane
Computer
Pane
Tabbed
Dashboard
Toolbar⎯The Diskeeper toolbar gives quick access to commonly-used controls. Note that all the functions on
the toolbar are available from the Diskeeper menus, and many can also be activated from the menu displayed
when you right-click on a selected volume in the volume area. See page 15.
Quick Launch Pane⎯The Quick Launch pane is where you’ll find easy access to the commonly-used
Diskeeper features, as well as several shortcuts for performing common tasks. See page 16.
Computer Pane⎯The Computer pane shows all the supported disk volumes detected on your computer, and
general information about each volume and any schedules that have been established. See page17.
Tabbed Dashboard⎯The tabs in the Dashboard area allow you to easily change between the Volume Map,
the Job Report, the Job Log, and the Historical Report. See page 17.
Toolbar Buttons
Diskeeper displays a toolbar of commonly-used controls near the top of the console.
Note that many of the functions on the toolbar are available from the Action menu, and are also shown as
options when you right-click on a volume in the Computer pane.
16
Diskeeper Operation
Manual Defragmentation Job Properties Button⎯Click this button in the Diskeeper toolbar or within
the Analyze and Defragment Now task in the Quick Launch pane to view and edit the properties applied to all
Manual Defragmentation jobs.
Analyze Button⎯Click this button in the Diskeeper toolbar, the Analyze option in the Quick Launch
pane, or the Analyze option on the Action menu to begin the analysis of the selected volume.
Defragment Button⎯Click this button in the Diskeeper toolbar, the Manually Defragment option in
the Quick Launch pane, or the Defragment option on the Action menu to start a Manual Defragmentation job
on the selected volume.
Pause Button⎯Click this button in the Diskeeper toolbar or the Pause option in the Action menu to
temporarily pause an analysis or defragmentation job on the selected volume. Note that the Pause button
changes to the Resume button shown below when a job is paused.
Resume Button⎯Click this button in the Diskeeper toolbar or the Resume option in the Action menu to
continue a paused Diskeeper analysis or defragmentation job.
Stop Button⎯Click this button in the Diskeeper toolbar or the Stop option in the Action menu to stop
an analysis or the defragmentation of the selected volume. Any file movement in progress will be safely ended
as Diskeeper stops.
Primary Defragmentation Job Properties Button⎯Click this button in the Diskeeper toolbar or
within the Set It and Forget It task in the Quick Launch pane to enable a Primary Defragmentation job on the
selected volumes and to view and edit the schedule and other properties applied to that job.
Diskeeper Configuration Properties Button⎯Click this button in the Diskeeper toolbar or within the
Configure Diskeeper task in the Quick Launch pane to view and edit properties that determine how Diskeeper
looks and behaves
Help Button⎯Click this button in the Diskeeper toolbar or within the Getting Started task in the Quick
Launch pane to access the Diskeeper help.
Quick Launch Pane
The Quick Launch pane offers these options:
Getting Started⎯Use these options to view Help topics intended to help you begin using Diskeeper.
ƒ
Quick Start Guide
ƒ
Diskeeper Overview
ƒ
Frequently Asked Questions
ƒ
Help
Diskeeper Operation
17
Analyze and Defragment Now⎯Use these options to start the manual analysis or defragmentation of a
volume, and to review or change the job properties for all Manual Defragmentation jobs.
ƒ
Manual Defragmentation Job Properties
ƒ
Analyze
ƒ
Manually Defragment Now
Set It and Forget It⎯Use these options to set up and start Set It and Forget It defragmentation jobs, and to
review or change the job properties for the respective jobs.
ƒ
Primary Defragmentation Job Properties
ƒ
Boot-Time Defragmentation Job Properties
Configure Diskeeper⎯Use these options to change Diskeeper behaviors, check for more recent versions of
Diskeeper, or see information about the Diskeeper version installed on your computer.
ƒ
Diskeeper Configuration Properties
ƒ
Updates and Upgrades
ƒ
About Diskeeper
Computer Pane
The Computer pane section of the Diskeeper console shows all the supported disks detected on your computer.
The Computer pane is a quick way to see:
•
Volume letter and name
•
Session status (shows what Diskeeper is doing or has done on the volume)
•
File system on the volume
•
Capacity of the volume
•
Percentage of volume size that is free space
•
Information about the type of schedule set for any Primary and Boot-Time Defragmentation jobs
The Computer Pane also includes buttons for starting, pausing and stopping manual analysis and
defragmentation jobs.
Tabbed Dashboard
The tabbed “pages” in the Diskeeper dashboard allow you to easily change between the Volume Map, the Job
Report, the Job Log, and the Historical Report.
18
Diskeeper Operation
Volume Map Tab
The horizontal bars in the Volume Map give a graphic representation of the fragmentation of your volume. The
Volume Map displays information for a single volume at a time. The disk highlighted in the Computer pane is
the disk shown in the Volume Map.
You can choose between views representing either the degree of fragmentation as it relates to file performance,
or the file structure on the volume. You can switch between these two views with the Volume Map view:
option shown at the top of the Volume Map tab.
The File Performance view shows the fragmentation on your volume with an emphasis on the performance
impact of that fragmentation. In this view, a file is shown as fragmented only if that fragmentation is affecting
the performance of your computer.
The File Structure view shows additional detail, including the paging file (if it exists) and other system files
like the MFT on NTFS volumes. It also shows all the fragmentation (even fragmented file that are not affecting
your system’s performance).
What the Colors Mean
The group of horizontal bars in the Volume Map gives a graphic representation of the fragmentation of your
volume. The colors of the display indicate the type and condition of the data on your volume. The colors
represent different aspects of your volume when you are viewing the two different Volume Map views
available.
When the File Performance view is displayed, the colors available are:
•
Dark blue areas show high-performing files and folders.
•
Red areas show low-performing files and folders.
•
Pink areas show low-performing system files.
•
White areas show free space on the volume.
•
Green/White striped areas (on Windows 2000 and Windows XP systems only) show space on the
volume reserved for expansion of the MFT. This space is reserved when a volume is formatted, and
cannot be used by applications, including Diskeeper. However, the operating system will write files to
this area when the volume becomes extremely full and no other free space is available. Windows
provides the capability for Diskeeper to move files out of this reserved area, but does not allow
Diskeeper to move files into it. These areas appear only on NTFS volumes.
When the File Structure view is displayed, the colors available are:
•
Dark blue areas show contiguous (non-fragmented) files.
•
Red areas show fragmented files.
•
Yellow areas show the paging file (for Windows 2000 and Windows XP) or the swap file (for
Windows 98/Me) if it exists on the volume.
•
Green areas show unmovable system files. On Windows 2000 and Windows XP systems, green areas
show the Master File Table (MFT), as well as several other unmovable files. These files cannot be
moved safely by Diskeeper (or any other defragmenter), except at boot-time. Keep in mind, however,
although these area are referred to as "system files", these are not the files that make up the operating
system (which Diskeeper can successfully defragment in the Manual or Set It and Forget It
defragmentation modes). Instead, they make up the NTFS file system. The green areas of the display
appear only on NTFS volumes.
•
White areas show free space on the volume.
Diskeeper Operation
19
•
Green/White striped areas (on Windows 2000 and Windows XP systems only) show space on the
volume reserved for expansion of the MFT. This space is reserved when a volume is formatted, and
cannot be used by applications, including Diskeeper. However, the operating system will write files to
this area when the volume becomes extremely full and no other free space is available. Windows
provides the capability for Diskeeper to move files out of this reserved area, but does not allow
Diskeeper to move files into it. These areas appear only on NTFS volumes.
•
Light blue areas show the directory folders on the volume (and their fragments).
You can also save the Volume Map (as a bitmap file) or print it by using the respective buttons on the Volume
Map tab.
Job Report Tab
The Job Report tab shows detailed information about a volume after it has been analyzed or defragmented. The
Job Report displays information for a single disk volume at a time. The volume highlighted in the Computer
pane is the volume reflected in the Job report tab.
You can also save the Job Report (as a text file) or print it by using the respective buttons on the Job Report tab.
The Job Report tab includes these sections:
Recommendations Section
This section of the Job Report contains recommendations for improving or maintaining the performance of the
volume.
Volume Health Section
This section of the Job Report tab includes an evaluation of the overall health of the volume, the reasons for
that rating, and recommendations for improving or maintaining the reliability of the volume.
Diskeeper Corporation has done extensive research into the causes of disk performance and reliability
problems. This research has shown these factors play a significant role in regards to disk performance and
reliability⎯the overall health of a disk volume:
ƒ
Overall fragmentation
ƒ
MFT fragmentation
ƒ
Paging file fragmentation
ƒ
Available free space
Diskeeper uses these factors to determine a volume health index each time it analyzes or defragments a volume.
Volume health is rated into three categories—Healthy, Warning and Critical.
This table shows the Warning and Critical levels used in determining the reliability index.
Reliability Factor
Warning Level
Critical Level
Overall Fragmentation
> 10% fragmentation
> 50% fragmentation
MFT Fragmentation
> 250 fragments
>2000 fragments
Paging File Fragmentation
> 250 fragments
>1500 fragments
Free Space
< 15% free space
< 5% free space
20
Diskeeper Operation
Access Time Section
This section of the Job Report tab displays a graph illustrating the performance characteristics of the volume,
based on current read times calculated by Diskeeper—both for all the files on the drive and for only the
fragmented files on the volume. It also shows the expected optimum read time for all the files and for only the
fragmented files. This gives you a detailed picture of your performance losses due to fragmentation, and the
expected improvement you will see after defragmentation.
Each time you analyze or defragment a disk, Diskeeper calculates the read time of the disk in two ways. First, it
shows the predicted time to read all the files on the disk. Secondly, it shows the time to read only the
fragmented files. Additionally, it determines the optimum (fastest) read time potential for the disk.
It should be noted that by default, the performance analysis is based on pre-determined disk performance values
measured as a part of disk performance research done by Diskeeper Corporation. To get a more accurate
performance measurement of your actual disks, Diskeeper must scan your drives to measure their performance.
Since this measurement can briefly slow down your computer, this scan operation is disabled by default, but
you can turn it on easily. The Enable volume performance data collection option is described in the
Diskeeper Configuration Properties section on page 36.
Statistics Section
This section of the Job Report tab shows useful information about your volume after either analysis or
defragmentation. Note that most of the information shown here can also be recorded in the Diskeeper Event
Log.
Volume Size
This section of the Job Report tab or event log entry shows the total amount of space on the disk volume. This
includes files and free space, as well as disk space used by the operating system (such as directory files and the
Master File Table) but not reported in “Used Space.”
Cluster Size
This section of the Job Report tab or event log entry shows the cluster size for the volume. A disk cluster
represents a number of disk sectors treated as a single unit. The entire disk is divided into clusters, each one a
minimum increment of storage.
Used Space
This section of the Job Report tab or event log entry shows the total amount of disk space (in kilobytes)
currently occupied by files. This does not include zero-length files, or certain files used by the operating
system, such as directory files and the Master File Table.
Free Space
This section of the Job Report tab or event log entry shows the total amount of free space on the disk volume.
Percent Free Space
This section of the Job Report tab or event log entry shows the percentage of space on the disk volume that is
free. This includes the free space in the area reserved for the Master File Table (MFT) on NTFS volumes.
Volume Fragmentation
This section of the Job Report tab or event log entry shows the overall percentage of fragmentation on the disk
volume.
The Volume fragmentation figure gives you an overall view of the fragmentation on your volume, by taking
both the file fragmentation level and the free space fragmentation level into account. These two values are
weighted depending on the ratio of free space to used space on the disk. The formula is:
Fragmented space on the volume * 100 / Total space on the volume
Diskeeper Operation
21
Where Fragmented space on the volume is the summed cluster count of all fragmented files times the bytes per
clusters.
Data Fragmentation
This section of the Job Report tab or event log entry shows the percentage of file fragmentation on the disk
volume.
Data fragmentation is calculated like this:
Volume Fragmentation * Total Space on the Volume / Used Space on the volume
Note: The calculations are for both Data fragmentation and Volume fragmentation are done based on the
uncompressed size of the files. If a volume has a large number of fragmented compressed files, these values
can exceed 100%. This is similar to looking at files in Windows Explorer—if a large number of files are
compressed, the total size of the data can exceed the volume size. This is why you can compare the volume size
in Disk Management to the total number of bytes on a volume, and they don’t “add up”.
Total Directories
This section of the Job Report tab or event log entry shows the total number of directories present on the disk
volume.
Fragmented Directories
This section of the Job Report tab or event log entry shows the number of fragmented directories on the disk
volume.
Excess Directory Fragments
This section of the Job Report tab or event log entry shows the total number of directory fragments on the disk
volume. Contiguous directories are not counted in this total, but each additional piece of any fragmented
directory is counted.
Total Files
This section of the Job Report tab or event log entry shows the total number of files on the disk volume. This
number does not include zero-length files or (in most cases) files less than one cluster in size on NTFS
volumes. Files less than one cluster in size may be included, depending on the file size and the cluster size.
Average File Size
This section of the Job Report tab or event log entry shows the average size of all the files on the disk volume.
This number does not include any zero-length files or paging files.
Total Fragmented Files
This section of the Job Report tab or event log entry shows the total number of fragmented files on the disk
volume.
Total Excess Fragments
This section of the Job Report tab or event log entry shows the total number of file fragments on the disk
volume. Contiguous files are not counted in this total, but each additional piece of any fragmented file is
counted.
Average Fragments per File
This section of the Job Report tab or event log entry shows the average number of fragments per file on the disk
volume. This is a good index of how fragmented the files on the volume are.
If the average fragment per file figure is 1.00, the files are contiguous. If the figure is 1.10, then 10% of the
files, on average, are in two pieces. 1.20 means 20%, 1.30 means 30%, etc. A figure of 2.00 means the files
average two fragments each. 1.00 is the best figure attainable, indicating that all files or nearly all files are
contiguous.
22
Diskeeper Operation
Files with Performance Loss
This section of the Job Report tab or event log entry shows the number of files for which fragmentation is
causing a loss in performance. For example, although it is fragmented, a large file in two pieces will not exhibit
any significant performance loss, so it would not be included in this figure.
Paging/Swap File Size
This section of the Job Report tab or event log entry shows the size of the paging file (or swap file on Windows
98/Me systems) on the disk volume. This section displays zero when no paging file is present.
Total Fragments
This section of the Job Report tab or event log entry shows the number of fragments the paging file is broken
into (if it exists on the disk volume).
Total MFT Size
This section of the Job Report tab or event log entry shows the size of the Master File Table (MFT).
Since the MFT is only used on NTFS volumes, this section is not displayed for FAT volumes in the text
analysis display, and shows as zeros in the event log.
MFT Records in Use
This section of the Job Report tab or event log entry shows the number of individual file records found in the
Master File Table (MFT). This figure will not necessarily correspond with the number of files presently on the
volume, since the file records remain in the MFT, even after a file is deleted.
Since the MFT is only used on NTFS volumes, this section is not displayed on FAT volumes.
Percent of MFT In Use
This section of the Job Report tab or event log entry shows the percentage of the Master File Table (MFT) in
use.
The MFT grows as the number of files on the volume increases, but is not reduced in size when files are deleted
from the volume.
Since the MFT is only used on NTFS volumes, this section is not displayed on FAT volumes.
Total MFT Fragments
This section of the Job Report tab or event log entry shows the number of fragments the Master File Table
(MFT) is broken into.
Since the MFT is only used on NTFS volumes, this section is not displayed on FAT volumes.
Most Fragmented Files
Click the View button in the Statistics section of the Job Report tab to see a list of the most fragmented files on
the volume. For each fragmented file listed, this listing shows:
Fragments
Shows the number of fragments associated with the most fragmented files on your disk volume.
File Size
Shows the size of the most fragmented files on your disk volume.
File Name
Shows the names of the most fragmented files on your volume.
If these files are ones that users access frequently, the impact to your system performance may be worse than
indicated by the Average Fragments per File figure.
Diskeeper Operation
23
In addition to the names of the most fragmented files, the Most Fragmented Files report also shows information
explaining reasons why certain files were not moved or defragmented. The following “tags” may be added to
specific filenames in the Most Fragmented Files listing:
Displayed After
File
System
[Cannot Open]
Defragmentation
Only
NTFS and
FAT
This file cannot be opened (and thus moved) by
Diskeeper. This is often the result of the access
controls (permissions) on the file being set to
prevent Diskeeper from accessing it. File
permissions must allow SYSTEM to have full
control of a file in order for Diskeeper to
defragment it.
[Excluded]
Defragmentation
Only
NTFS and
FAT
This file is listed on one of the Diskeeper
exclusion lists. This can be either the userspecified exclusion list or the internal exclusion
list.
[Excess
Allocation]
Analysis and
Defragmentation
NTFS
Only
[Partially
Defragmented]
Defragmentation
Only
NTFS and
FAT
Tag
Description
With the NTFS file system, a file can be allocated
more clusters than its data is actually using. On
Windows 2000, only the data portion of the
allocation can be defragmented. As a result, even
though a file is reported as fragmented, the data
portion of the file may in fact be contiguous. This
most commonly occurs with registry files and
(under Windows 2000) files that have been
decompressed. In some cases, files of this type can
be defragmented after a system restart
This file has been partially defragmented. Its
fragments have been reduced in number, but the
file is not yet contiguous.
Job Log Tab
The Job Log tab shows information about all the defragmentation jobs you have run on each volume. As you
highlight each volume in the Computer pane, the information displayed in the Job Log changes to reflect the
selected volume. The Job Log information includes:
ƒ
Job Type⎯This column shows the type of defragmentation job run (Primary or Manual defragmentation)
ƒ
Date⎯This column shows the date each job was run.
ƒ
Volume⎯This column shows volume label for the selected volume.
ƒ
Time Run⎯This column shows the number of times each particular job type has been run on the selected
volume.
ƒ
Fragments Eliminated⎯This column shows a cumulative total of the number of fragments eliminated for
each defragmentation job type.
The Job Log saves up to six months worth of data. New data afterwards will overwrite the oldest data in the Job
Log.
24
Diskeeper Operation
To delete entries from the Job Log, select one or more entries then click Delete. You can also save the Job Log
(as an HTML file) or print it by using the respective buttons on the Job Log tab.
Historical Report Tab
The Historical Report tab shows graphs indicating the total number of fragments eliminated, the overall
fragmentation level, and the file performance improvement gained by using Diskeeper. This information is
shown for your computer overall, as well as on a per-volume basis. As you highlight each volume in the
Computer pane, the information displayed in the Historical Report changes to reflect the selected volume.
Each graph in the Historical Report shows “before and after” results. Over time, the Historical Report tab will
give you a good measure of the benefit Diskeeper provides. Hover your pointer over each point of the graph to
see more detailed information about that point.
Use the controls at the bottom of the display to customize the scale and range of the graphs. You can also save
the report (as a bitmap file) or print it by using the respective buttons on the Historical Report tab.
Saving and Printing Dashboard Information
Click the Save or Print buttons at the bottom of any tab page to save or print the information shown on that
tab. When you save dashboard information, the file format varies depending on the tab:
Volume Map — saves as a bitmap (.bmp) file
Job Report — saves as a text (.txt) file
Job Log — saves as an HTML (.htm) file
Historical Report — saves as a bitmap (.bmp) file
When you click Save, a dialog box is displayed allowing you to specify the name of the report and the location
where you want to store it.
Similarly, when you click Print, a dialog box is displayed allowing you to specify the printer and any print
properties available.
Manual Defragmentation Mode
Diskeeper is designed to be operated in two ways —the Manual Defragmentation mode and Set It and Forget It
mode.
The Manual Defragmentation mode allows you to control Diskeeper operation directly. You have direct control
over which volumes are defragmented, when defragmentation is started and stopped, and other Manual
Defragmentation jobs properties.
There are several ways by which to start Diskeeper manually, but the most direct method is simply to highlight
the volume you want to defragment, then click the Defragment button below the Computer pane.
Alternatively, right-click a volume and select Defragment.
Tip: You can also use the Defragment button
to start defragmenting the selected
volume.
With most editions of Diskeeper, you can run more than one manual defragmentation job at the same time.
Note that different editions of Diskeeper support different numbers of simultaneous operations. See page 45 for
a table showing the different Diskeeper editions and the number of simultaneous operations each supports.
Diskeeper Operation
25
To stop a manual Diskeeper job, first highlight the volume you want to stop defragmenting, then either click the
Stop button on the Diskeeper toolbar or right-click the volume and select Stop.
If you exit from Diskeeper (or even log off your computer) while a manual defragmentation job is running, the
job will continue running until it is complete.
There are several options available to control how Manual Defragmentation Jobs run. These options are
available via the Manual Defragmentation Job Properties dialog. To view and edit the Manual Defragmentation
Job Properties, click the Manual Defragmentation Job Properties button in the toolbar, or click Analyze and
Defragment Now in the Quick Launch pane and select Manual Defragmentation Job Properties.
With Diskeeper Home Edition, manual defragmentation jobs are run at “Normal” priority, the mid-level
Windows priority. Because of this, the performance of tasks running on your computer other than the
defragmentation job can be affected. (Note that other editions of Diskeeper allow you to adjust the priority at
which manual and Set It and Forget It defragmentation jobs run.)
Set It and Forget It Mode
The Set It and Forget It mode allows Diskeeper to run automatically in the background, either after hours or
while users and other processes are active on the system, according to a predetermined schedule you set.
This schedule is what sets a Set It and Forget It defragmentation job apart from a Manual defragmentation job.
Diskeeper Corporation pioneered the concept of “Set It and Forget It” defragmentation many years ago, and it
remains one of the most useful features in Diskeeper.
Diskeeper Home Edition provides two types of Set It and Forget It jobs:
ƒ
Primary Defragmentation Jobs—Primary Defragmentation Jobs are the core component of Set It and
Forget It defragmentation. Establish primary jobs for any volumes you want defragmented on a regular
basis.
ƒ
Boot-Time Defragmentation Jobs (not available on Windows 98/Me)—Boot-Time Defragmentation Jobs
are useful for the occasional times when you need to defragment files that cannot be safely moved when
Windows is running. Boot-Time Defragmentation consists of directory consolidation, paging file
defragmentation, and Master File Table (MFT) defragmentation. See page 30 for more information.
To enable Set It and Forget It jobs, open the Set It and Forget It option in the Quick Launch pane, select a job
type, select one or more volumes, then specify the schedule and other job properties you want applied to the
selected volumes.
Tip: Diskeeper includes several preset schedule types for many typical scenarios, pre-configured and
ready to use. These schedules are available in the Schedule Type. See page 27 for more information.
You can use the Screen Saver mode to automatically start defragmenting the selected volume(s) any time the
screen saver starts on your computer. The defragmentation operation is paused whenever keyboard or mouse
activity is detected on the computer.
As a further enhancement to Set It and Forget It, Diskeeper includes the Smart Scheduling feature, which will
schedule defragmentation runs more often when the fragmentation level increases, and less often when it
decreases. Note that by default, Diskeeper Home Edition enables Smart Scheduling automatically on all your
volumes.
After a defragmentation schedule is created for a volume, Diskeeper will follow that schedule until you
explicitly stop it. The defragmentation job will run as scheduled, whether you are logged onto the computer or
not. To cancel (or clear) a scheduled Set It and Forget It job, select the Primary Defragmentation Job Properties
option from the toolbar or Set It and Forget It task list in the Quick Launch pane, and clear the Enable the
Primary Defragmentation Job to run on the selected volumes option.
26
Diskeeper Operation
To stop a Set It and Forget It Diskeeper job while it is running, right-click the volume you want to stop
defragmenting and select Stop. Or, select the volume and click the Stop button in the Diskeeper toolbar or
select the Stop option from the Action menu. This will stop the currently-running job, but will not disable the
schedule. A defragmentation job stopped in this way will resume at the next scheduled run time.
If you exit from Diskeeper (or even log off your computer) while a Set It and Forget It job is running, the job
will continue running until the current scheduled run is complete. It will then be re-scheduled to run at the next
specified run time.
With Diskeeper Home Edition, Set It and Forget It defragmentation jobs are run at the lowest Windows
priority. Because of this, Set It and Forget It jobs should have no impact on other tasks that are running at the
same time.
Setting a Defragmentation Schedule
Diskeeper is primarily intended as a “Set It and Forget It” solution to your fragmentation problems. When you
establish a defragmentation schedule, you specify the times of day Diskeeper will or will not run on the
volumes you select. In addition to Primary Defragmentation Job schedules, you can set a schedule for BootTime Defragmentation Jobs. (Note, however, that Boot-Time Defragmentation is not something you would
typically need to run on regular basis. See page 26 for more information about Boot-Time defragmentation.
Scheduling Primary Defragmentation Jobs
Follow these steps to enable and schedule a Primary Defragmentation Job on one or more volumes:
on the Diskeeper toolbar or select it from the Set
1.
Click Primary Defragmentation Job Properties
It and Forget It task list in the Quick Launch Pane.
2.
Select one or more volumes in the dialog displayed and select the Enable the Primary Defragmentation
Job to run on the selected volumes check box on the General properties page.
3.
Click Job Schedule in the task list to open the Job Schedule page and use the options provided to select a
schedule type and to specify how often you want the Primary Defragmentation Job to run, and starting and
ending times for the job. (Two particularly useful options are the Smart Scheduling and Screen Saver
scheduling modes. There are also several preset schedule types configured for many typical scenarios.) See
page 27 for more information about the scheduling options.
4.
As another option, you can click Disk Priorities in the task list to open the Disk Priorities page. The I/O
Smart disk priority settings you establish will apply to all Primary Defragmentation Jobs. See page 34 for
more information about the Disk Priority options.
5.
Click OK to save the schedule you have set and close the Primary Defragmentation Job Properties dialog
or click Apply to save the schedule without closing the dialog. Click Cancel to close the dialog without
saving the schedule.
Scheduling Boot-Time Defragmentation Jobs
Unlike other defragmentation jobs, Boot-Time Defragmentation Jobs are intended to only be run occasionally,
and in the case of many volumes it may not be necessary. It is important to understand how Boot-Time
Defragmentation Jobs differ from other Set It and Forget It jobs. See page 30 for an overview of Boot-Time
Defragmentation.
Follow these steps to enable and schedule a Boot-Time Defragmentation Job on one or more volumes.
Note: Boot-Time defragmentation may take a long time, especially on very large volumes that are severely
fragmented. Therefore, before running Boot-Time operations, you should schedule the Boot-Time operation to
occur at a time when the computer is not needed immediately. Diskeeper Corporation also recommends that
you run a Boot-Time Defragmentation Job on only one volume at a time.
Diskeeper Operation
27
1.
Click Boot-Time Defragmentation Job Properties
Set It and Forget It task list in the Quick Launch Pane.
2.
Select a volume in the dialog displayed.
3.
Specify whether you want the Boot-Time Defragmentation Job to run on the next manual reboot of the
computer, or specify the time and date you want it to run. Note that if you schedule the Boot-Time
Defragmentation Job to run at a later time, Diskeeper will automatically restart the computer at the
scheduled time.
4.
Next, select your choice of the Boot-Time Defragmentation options. See below for descriptions of the
options available.
5.
Click OK to save the schedule and other options you have set and close the Boot-Time Defragmentation
Job Properties dialog or click Apply to save the schedule without closing the dialog. Click Cancel to close
the dialog without saving the schedule.
on the Diskeeper toolbar or select it from the
Primary Job Scheduling Options
When setting a schedule for a Primary Defragmentation Job, you are given these options:
Enable the Primary Defragmentation Job to run on the selected volumes
Click this check box to alternately enable and disable the Primary Defragmentation Job on the volumes you
select in the Computer pane displayed in the Defragmentation Job Properties dialog.
Schedule Type
Use this section of the Job Schedule page to specify a custom schedule or to choose from several preset
schedules designed for many common scenarios. You can choose any of these schedule types:
Custom Schedule
Smart Scheduling (see the description
of Smart Scheduling later in this
chapter)
Screen Saver (see the description of
Screen Saver mode later in this chapter)
Smart Scheduling after hours
Every Night
Weekends Only
Frequency
Use this section of the Job Schedule page to specify how often Diskeeper should run on the selected disk
volumes. You can specify any of these run frequencies:
One Time
Continuously
Every 2 hours
Every 4 hours
Every 8 hours
Every 12 hours
28
Diskeeper Operation
Every 24 hours
Every 48 hours
Every 72 hours
Days
Use this section of the Job Schedule page to specify days the Diskeeper job will (or will not) be allowed to run
on the selected volumes. You can specify any of these time periods to control when Diskeeper is allowed to
run:
Everyday
Except Everyday
Weekends
Except Weekends
Weekdays
Except Weekdays
Mondays
Except Mondays
Tuesdays
Except Tuesdays
Wednesdays
Except Wednesdays
Thursdays
Except Thursdays
Fridays
Except Fridays
Saturdays
Except Saturdays
Sundays
Except Sundays
Start Time
Use this section of the Job Schedule page to specify the beginning of a time period the Diskeeper job will (or
will not) be allowed to run on the selected volumes. You can specify any of these time periods to specify the
beginning of a Diskeeper schedule period:
All Day
12:00 midnight through 11:00 P.M., in one hour increments
End Time
Use this section of the Job Schedule page to specify the end of a time period the Diskeeper job will (or will not)
be allowed to run on the selected volumes. You can specify any of these time periods to specify the end of a
time period Diskeeper will (or will not) be allowed to run:
12:00 midnight through 11:00 P.M., in one hour increments
Description
The bottom section of the Job Schedule page gives a description of the various scheduling options available.
The description changes as you select different options.
Smart Scheduling
With Smart Scheduling, you no longer have to decide how often to defragment your disks—Diskeeper will
automatically determine the optimum defragmentation schedule for each of your disk volumes and adjust it
accordingly.
The method used to determine how often Diskeeper should run is elegant in its simplicity. When Smart
Scheduling is enabled, Diskeeper keeps track of the number of files moved every time it runs on each disk
volume. When the number of fragmented files moved during a defragmentation run increases, Diskeeper is
Diskeeper Operation
29
automatically scheduled to run more often. When the number of files moved decreases, the time between
defragmentation runs is increased.
The Smart Scheduling option is available within the Schedule type: drop-down list in the Job Schedule page of
the Primary or Secondary Defragmentation Job Properties dialog
You can also set exclusion times when the Smart Scheduling option will be prevented from scheduling a
defragmentation run. When Smart Scheduling is selected, the Days drop-down option list will be limited to
these times:
Except Everyday
Except Weekends
Except Weekdays
Except Monday
Except Tuesday
Except Wednesday
Except Thursday
Except Friday
Except Saturday
Except Sunday
You can use the Start time: and End time: drop down lists to further define times when the scheduling of
automatic defragmentation runs will not be allowed. For example, a schedule set like this:
Type of Schedule
Which Days
Smart Scheduling
Except Weekdays
Start Time
End Time
1:00 am
3:00 am
will allow Diskeeper to automatically determine how often to run, but will also prevent it from running between
1:00 am and 3:00 am on weekdays (i.e., when your nightly backup is running).
Screen Saver Mode
When enabled, Screen Saver mode automatically starts defragmenting the selected volumes any time the screen
saver starts on your computer. The defragmentation operation is paused whenever keyboard or mouse activity
is detected on the computer. This option is available under the Schedule type: drop-down list in Job Schedule
page of the Primary or Secondary Defragmentation Job Properties dialog.
If you only have a single volume selected for Screen Saver mode, the defragmentation operation is re-started at
the logical “beginning” of the volume each time the screen saver re-starts after being interrupted (by keyboard
activity, for example).
When more than one volume is selected for Screen Saver mode, the volumes are handled in a round-robin
manner. If a defragmentation pass is stopped, the operation resumes on the next volume when the screen saver
starts again. For example, if you select volumes C and D to be schedule with Screen Saver mode, when your
screen saver starts, Diskeeper begins a defragmentation pass on volume C. If that pass is interrupted, and then
the screen saver starts again, Diskeeper will begin a pass on volume D.
If the screen saver has not been interrupted after Diskeeper completes the defragmentation pass on each of the
selected volumes, Diskeeper is automatically scheduled to re-start the defragmentation operation in one hour.
30
Diskeeper Operation
Because of the “start and stop” nature of the Screen Saver mode, it is not recommended on volumes that are
heavily fragmented, unless you expect the computer's screen saver to be on for several hours. In cases where
your screen saver activity is only for short periods of time, a thorough manual defragmentation or scheduled Set
It and Forget It defragmentation should be performed before running Diskeeper in Screen Saver mode.
Boot-Time Defragmentation Overview
Note: The Boot-Time defragmentation option is only available in Diskeeper when running on Windows 2000
and Windows XP.
Boot-Time defragmentation consists of three independent activities:
ƒ
Directory Defragmentation and Consolidation—moves directories to a single location. Windows 2000
and Windows XP write directories into random locations all over a volume. This, in effect, breaks up the
free space on the volume. By grouping all the directories into a single location on a volume, larger areas of
contiguous free space become available. Therefore, new files are more likely to be written to the volume in
a contiguous manner. This also helps make Diskeeper more effective when it is run in either the Set It and
Forget It or Manual defragmentation modes.
Note that on NTFS volumes on Windows 2000 and Windows XP systems, directories can be moved and
defragmented online, which makes directory consolidation on these volumes unnecessary. This is also why
directory consolidation is not necessary on Windows 98/Me systems.
In most cases, you should run Boot-Time directory consolidation shortly after the first time you use
Diskeeper defragmentation on a volume, or after any operation (such as installing a new application), that
creates multiple directories. By moving all the directories together, you create more contiguous free space
for file defragmentation.
ƒ
Master File Table (MFT) Defragmentation—defragments the Master File Table (MFT). The MFT is a
critical section of Windows NTFS disk volumes. The MFT is used by the NTFS file system to locate files
on a volume, so fragmentation of the MFT slows the retrieval of files on the disk⎯whether these files
themselves are fragmented or not. Defragmenting the MFT will improve the overall performance of the
volume.
Note that on Windows XP systems, most, but not all of the Master File Table can be defragmented by
Diskeeper online during normal Set It and Forget It or manual defragmentation operations. The boot-time
process is still required to fully defragment the MFT, but it usually does not need to occur as often as it
does on Windows 2000.
ƒ
Paging File Defragmentation—defragments the paging file. Fragmented paging files can slow Windows
performance. They can also hurt the effectiveness of Diskeeper, since the unmovable paging file fragments
break up the free space on the volume. By defragmenting your paging file, you can help maintain peak
Windows performance, and help Diskeeper run better at the same time. After a paging file has been
defragmented, it should remain contiguous unless its size is changed.
Boot-time defragmentation opens up larger areas of contiguous free space for new file creation and
modification.
Important: For best results with the Boot-Time defragmentation feature, Diskeeper Corporation strongly
recommends:
1.
Make sure you have sufficient contiguous free space. Delete unneeded files and perform one or more
manual defragmentation runs to defragment the volume as much as possible.
2.
Enable the Run the system “CHKDSK” utility before defragmentation option. This will help prevent
vital files from being moved to bad disk sectors.
Diskeeper Operation
3.
31
Boot-Time defragmentation can take a long time, especially on very large disk volumes that are severely
fragmented. Therefore, before running Boot-Time operations, you should:
ƒ
Schedule the Boot-Time operation on weekends or other time when the machine is not needed
immediately.
ƒ
Perform the Boot-Time operation on only one disk volume at a time.
Several points about Boot-Time defragmentation:
ƒ
Keep in mind that for maximum efficiency, the Boot-Time defragmentation operation concentrates only on
files that cannot be defragmented online. It is not intended to defragment all the files on your disk.
ƒ
Boot-Time defragmentation relies on having a contiguous free space into which to move the directories
and/or paging file on your volume. Therefore, it is beneficial to run Diskeeper in either the Set It and
Forget It or Manual Defragmentation mode before running Boot-Time defragmentation.
ƒ
Boot-Time defragmentation is a one-time operation. After it runs on a volume, it is not automatically set up
to run again. You must set it each time you want it to run on a volume. It is usually not necessary to run
Boot-Time defragmentation repeatedly on a volume.
ƒ
It is safe to restart your computer midway through the Boot-Time defragmentation operation. However, if
you do so, you should use the Error Checking option in Drive Properties | Tools on the volume that was
being processed when you restarted your computer, and enable both the fix and the scan options, or (if you
are running from the Windows Command Prompt) run CHKDSK, using the /F qualifier. This ensures the
files and free space on the volume are correctly allocated.
ƒ
After running the Boot-Time defragmentation, use the Set It and Forget It option to keep the volume
defragmented.
Boot-Time Defragmentation Options
The following controls are available in the Boot-Time Defragmentation Job Properties dialog:
Available Volumes
Use this section of the Boot-Time Defragmentation Properties dialog to specify the volume(s) upon which you
want to consolidate the directories and/or defragment the paging file and Master File Table (MFT). You can
select more than one volume at a time, but be aware that the volumes will be processed one at a time, and your
computer will be restarted automatically after each volume is processed. This will substantially increase the
time needed to complete the operation.
Always select at least one volume before choosing any of the other options in the Boot-Time Defragmentation
Properties dialog.
Schedule boot-time defragmentation
Use this section of the Boot-Time Defragmentation Properties dialog to specify when you want the boot-time
defragmentation operation to occur. You can choose from any one of these options:
ƒ
On next manual reboot—The boot-time operation will take place the next time the computer is rebooted
ƒ
At scheduled time—Use these controls to specify when you want the computer to be automatically
rebooted.
About one hour before a scheduled Boot-Time defragmentation is due, a message is broadcast at regular
intervals to all users logged on to the computer, informing them that a scheduled reboot is about to take
place and requesting them to log off. If at the scheduled time someone is still logged on and Perform boottime defragmentation even if this drive is being used by remote users is cleared, the computer will not
reboot, but will instead perform the Boot-Time defragmentation the next time the computer is rebooted
manually. If this option is set, however, the machine will reboot at the scheduled time, regardless of
whether or not any users are logged on.
32
ƒ
Diskeeper Operation
Don’t run boot-time defragmentation—Use this option to clear a previously-scheduled boot-time
operation. This option is useful for cases where you’ve scheduled a boot-time defragmentation, then
decided to postpone the operation.
Put all folders together on the volume
Check this box to defragment and consolidate the directories of the selected volumes, next time your computer
starts up.
Run the system “CHKDSK” utility before defragmentation
Use this control to specify whether the Windows CHKDSK disk error checking utility is run (using the /F
qualifier) before the boot-time operation. Running CHKDSK adds time to the Boot-Time defragmentation
operation, but it can correct disk errors that otherwise would hamper effective directory consolidation.
Note: Enabling the CHKDSK option will cause CHKDSK to run on each selected volume before the BootTime defragmentation process. The time increase can be considerable and Diskeeper Corporation therefore
recommends performing boot-time defragmentation on one volume at a time.
Also Note: After enabling the CHKDSK option, you will not be able to run either Set It and Forget It or manual
analysis or defragmentation on the disk until you reboot. For this reason, Diskeeper Corporation recommends
waiting to enable this option until just before you are ready to reboot your computer.
Defragment the paging file
Check this box to defragment the paging file of the selected volume the next time your computer starts up.
Defragment the Master File Table (MFT)
Check this box to defragment the MFT of the selected volume the next time your computer starts up.
Pause to view screen after defragmentation
When enabled, this option causes the Boot-Time operation to pause after completion. It remains in this paused
state until you manually restart your computer (by either pressing the Reset button or turning off the power
switch). If this option is not enabled, the Boot-Time defragmentation operation pauses a short 15 seconds (to
allow you to read any messages on the monitor screen), then automatically restarts your computer.
Produce a summary log file
Use this option to cause a text file to be written that summarizes the Boot-Time defragmentation operation.
When this option is enabled, a default volume letter, directory, and file name are shown in the dialog box
similar to this:
By default, the summary file is written to your floppy drive (A:). This dialog box can be edited to specify
another volume, directory path, and filename. However, the summary file cannot be written to the volume upon
which you are running Boot-Time defragmentation. Also note that the filename should not contain any spaces.
Note: Some computers read the floppy drive at boot-time. We therefore recommend not writing the summary
file to the A: drive, unless no other volumes are available.
Perform Boot-Time Defragmentation Job even if this drive is being used by
remote users
When this option is set, the computer will force a reboot at the scheduled date and time, if the At scheduled
time option has been selected, regardless of whether or not anyone is logged on to the machine. Users who are
logged on will be notified at regular intervals, starting one hour before the scheduled reboot, to give them an
opportunity to log off.
Diskeeper Operation
33
If this option is cleared, a scheduled reboot will not occur at the scheduled date and time if one or more users
are still logged on when the reboot due. In that case, the Boot-Time defragmentation run will occur the next
time the machine is rebooted manually.
OK
Click OK to schedule Boot-Time defragmentation of one or more selected volumes and close the Boot-Time
Defragmentation Properties dialog. Boot-Time defragmentation will be run as scheduled on any volumes that
are set.
Apply
Click Apply to schedule Boot-Time defragmentation of one or more selected volumes without closing the
Boot-Time Defragmentation Properties dialog. When a volume has been scheduled, it will be noted in the
Available Volumes box. Also, use the Apply button to change the characteristics of a previously set Boot-Time
defragmentation (such as enabling/disabling the Summary File option).
Boot-Time defragmentation will be run as scheduled on any volumes that are set.
Cancel
Click Cancel to close the Boot-Time defragmentation dialog box without making any changes.
Primary Defragmentation Job Properties
Primary Defragmentation Jobs are controlled via the Primary Defragmentation Job Properties dialog.
in the Diskeeper toolbar or the Set It and Forget It
Click Primary Defragmentation Job Properties
task group in the Quick Launch pane to display the Primary Job Properties dialog.
The Job Properties dialog consists of three sections, somewhat similar to the main Diskeeper console:
Computer Pane—The upper section of the Job Properties dialog shows a listing of the volumes on your
computer, the scheduling status, the date and time of the next scheduled defragmentation Primary job, the
schedule type and other retails about any schedules set.
Task List—The left side of the Job Properties dialog contains a list of optional tasks you can use to customize
the way Primary Defragmentation Jobs behave. See below for additional details about the options available.
Dashboard Area—The main “body” of the Job Properties dialog displays information and options available
for each different task you select from the Task List. The information shown in the dashboard area is intended
to help you understand the options available and answer most questions that may arise.
Of particular interest, the Job Schedule page of the Job Properties dialog contains a check box that alternately
enables and disables a Primary Defragmentation Job on the volumes selected in the Computer pane. When this
check box is enabled, a Primary Defragmentation Job will be run on the selected volumes, using the schedule,
defragmentation methods, and disk priorities specified within the other properties pages.
Task List Options
The Task List in the Job Properties dialog includes these options:
ƒ
Job Schedule — See page 27 for more information
ƒ
Disk Priorities — See page 34 for more information
ƒ
General — For each selected volume in the Computer pane of the Job Properties dialog, the General page
of the Job Properties dialog shows when the Primary Defragmentation Job last ran, the number of
fragments eliminated today, and the cumulative total of all fragments eliminated.
34
Diskeeper Operation
Setting Disk Priority
You can control the amount of disk input/output (I/O) resources used by Diskeeper for Manual and Primary
defragmentation jobs. For each of these job types, the Properties option allows you to control the disk priority.
To prioritize disk usage while defragmentation is running, Diskeeper Home Edition provides the I/O Smart
feature. This option “throttles” (suspends) the defragmentation process whenever disk I/O activity is detected
on a disk while it is being defragmented. This ensures the defragmentation process will be transparent to you,
no matter how active the disk.
To change the Disk Priority for Manual Defragmentation Jobs, click Manual Defragmentation Job
in the toolbar, then select Disk Priority. Note the disk priority properties you set for Manual
Properties
Defragmentation jobs will apply to all manual defragmentation jobs on all your volumes.
To change the priority for Primary defragmentation jobs, click Primary Defragmentation Job Properties
in the toolbar, select one or more volumes, then select Disk Priority.
Note that the Disk Priority properties you set for Primary or defragmentation jobs will apply to all jobs of that
type.
Diskeeper Configuration Properties
Click Diskeeper Configuration Properties
in the Diskeeper toolbar or the Configure Diskeeper task
group in the Quick Launch pane to display the Diskeeper Configuration Properties dialog.
The Diskeeper Configuration Properties dialog allows you to view and edit properties that determine how
Diskeeper looks and behaves. The different options in the task pane on the left side of the Diskeeper
Configuration Properties dialog give you quick access to these options:
ƒ
General—See version, copyright and customer support information about your copy of Diskeeper.
ƒ
Updates and Upgrades—Check for newer versions of Diskeeper. See below for more information.
ƒ
File Exclusions—Specify files and folders that you do not want Diskeeper to process. See page 35 for
more information.
ƒ
Data Collection—Specify the type of data Diskeeper collects for its performance and historical reports.
See page 36 for more information.
ƒ
Event Logging—Specify the information Diskeeper writes to the Event Log. See page 37 for more
information.
ƒ
Power Management—Specify how Diskeeper operates when your computer is running on battery power.
See page 39 for more information.
Updates and Upgrades
Click Diskeeper Configuration Properties
in the Diskeeper toolbar or the Configure Diskeeper task
group in the Quick Launch pane, then select the Updates and Upgrades option. The Updates and Upgrades
page offers these options:
ƒ
Check Now—Use this option to check immediately for a more recent version of Diskeeper.
Diskeeper Operation
35
If a newer version of Diskeeper is available, you are given the option of downloading it. When the
download screen is displayed, click Run this program from its current location to begin installing the
update.
Otherwise, click Save this program to disk to save the Diskeeper update installation package on your
computer for later installation. (To install an update stored on your computer in this manner, simply
double-click the file you download and follow the instructions displayed.)
ƒ
Check Automatically—Use this option to allow Diskeeper to automatically check for newer versions on a
periodic basis.
File Exclusions
Diskeeper exclusion lists allow you to specify files and directories that will not be allowed to be processed by
Diskeeper in the Set It and Forget It or Manual defragmentation modes. For example, you might not want to
defragment temporary files that will soon be deleted.
Keep in mind that fragmented files that are excluded from defragmentation can “skew” the analysis results
displayed in the Performance and Reliability panes.
Diskeeper uses two lists one that you specify, and second “internal” list that you cannot modify. The exclusion
list that you create is described below. Click here for more information about the Diskeeper Internal Exclusion
List.
in the Diskeeper toolbar or the Configure Diskeeper task
Click Diskeeper Configuration Properties
group in the Quick Launch pane, then select the File Exclusions option. Within this page, you can specify the
files, folders and volumes you want to be excluded from Diskeeper processing.
The following controls are available in the File Exclusions page:
Note: Wildcard file specifications such as * or ? are allowed.
Files
Use this section of the File Exclusions page to choose specific files (by name) to be excluded from
defragmentation. Highlight the file(s) to be excluded, and then click Add Files to add the file to the exclusion
list.
Path
Use this section of the File Exclusions page to choose specific directories to be excluded from defragmentation.
Select a directory by highlighting it, and then click Add Folder to add the directory to the exclusion list.
When a directory folder is added to the exclusion list, any subdirectories below the directory in the tree are also
excluded.
Volumes
Use this section of the File Exclusions page to choose the volume from which you want to exclude files or
directories from defragmentation.
Add Files Button
Click Add Files to add the selected file(s) to the Diskeeper exclusion list.
Add Folder Button
Click Add Folder to add the selected directory path to the Diskeeper exclusion list.
Exclusion List Box
This box shows the files, directories, and volumes that will be excluded from defragmentation.
36
Diskeeper Operation
Remove Button
Click Remove to remove specific files, directories, or volumes from the Diskeeper exclusion list. To remove
one or more items from the list, highlight the items in the Exclusion List Box and click Remove.
Save Button
Click Save to save the exclusion list and return to Diskeeper.
Cancel Button
Click Cancel to cancel any changes you have made to the Diskeeper exclusion list and return to the main
Diskeeper display.
Diskeeper Internal Exclusion List
There are certain files that should not be moved under any circumstances. These files may be system files or
files related to specific applications. Moving these specific files can cause system or application failure. As a
result, Diskeeper uses an “internal” exclusion list to ensure these files are always excluded from Diskeeper
processing. This list is fixed in memory and cannot be modified. These are the files that are currently in the
Diskeeper internal exclusion list:
ƒ
bootsect.dos
ƒ
hiberfil.sys
ƒ
memory.dmp
ƒ
safeboot.fs
ƒ
safeboot.csv
ƒ
safeboot.rsv
Note that these files are not displayed in the Diskeeper user-defined exclusion list. See Diskeeper won't move
some files no matter what I do. Is there a problem with Diskeeper? on page 47 for more information about the
Diskeeper internal exclusion list.
Data Collection
Diskeeper can provide useful information about file performance loss on your volumes, and also historical data
about the fragmentation levels on your volumes.
in the Diskeeper toolbar or the Configure Diskeeper task
Click Diskeeper Configuration Properties
group in the Quick Launch pane, then select the File Exclusions option. Within the File Exclusions page, you
are presented with these options:
Enable volume performance data collection
By default, Diskeeper uses pre-determined disk performance values when calculating your performance loss
due to fragmentation. To get a more accurate picture of the performance of your volumes, Diskeeper can
perform a performance data scan of all your hard drives.
Use the Enable volume performance data collection option to enable or disable the scanning of your volumes
to gather volume performance data.
Diskeeper uses the data gathered during the performance data scan to measure the performance of each of your
volumes. It uses this information to determine how much performance you are losing due to fragmentation, and
shows the results in the Job Report tab when you run an analysis or defragmentation.
Diskeeper Operation
37
Allowing this scan to take place improves the accuracy of the performance data displayed by Diskeeper after
the analysis or defragmentation of a disk. When this option is disabled, Diskeeper uses default disk
performance values when calculating your performance loss due to fragmentation.
This performance scan may take several minutes to complete and may temporarily slow down your computer,
but only while the scan is running.
Enable volume fragmentation data collection
In order to provide accurate information in the Historical Report tab, and the Job Log tab, Diskeeper must
analyze your volumes daily and save that data to a data file.
Use the Enable volume fragmentation data collection option to enable or disable the daily analysis of your
volumes to gather fragmentation data. Use the controls provided to specify the size of the data file, or the length
of time you want spanned by the collected data.
Event Logging
Diskeeper allows you to record information about its activity in a log file.
in the Diskeeper toolbar or the Configure Diskeeper task
Click Diskeeper Configuration Properties
group in the Quick Launch pane, then select the Event Logging option. Within this page, you can alternately
enable and disable the logging of various events to the Diskeeper Event Log. The logging method varies,
depending on the version of Windows you are using.
See below for information about specifying what gets logged.
Under Windows 2000 and Windows XP
A log of Diskeeper activity is stored in the Windows Application Event Log file.
When Diskeeper logs an event, the event and its message are appended to the Windows Application Event Log
file, along with the date, time, user, and other identifying information. These events can then be viewed with
the Windows Event Viewer by choosing the Application option in the Event Viewer Log menu.
The Event Viewer is found in the Windows Administrative Tools group.
Note: Left in it default configuration, the Windows Application Event log on Windows 2000 and Windows XP
can fill up quickly. See page 4 for information on how to set up the Application Event Log under these
operating systems to avoid this situation.
Under Windows 98/Me
A log of Diskeeper activity is stored in a text file.
When Diskeeper logs an event, the event and its message are appended to the Diskeeper log file. These events
are written as a text file, which can then be viewed with Notepad, or your choice of text editor programs.
The Diskeeper log file is named DkEventLog.txt and it is stored by default in the directory folder where
Diskeeper was installed. The file is limited to 1 MB in size. Once it reaches this size, the log file is overwritten
with new logging information.
Specifying What Gets Logged
Note: Left in it default configuration, the Windows Application Event log on Windows 2000 and Windows XP
can fill up quickly. See page 4 for information on how to set up the Application Event Log under these
operating systems to avoid this situation.
38
Diskeeper Operation
Also Note: Since Windows 98 and Windows Me do not have an Application Event Log, Diskeeper events are
written to a text file named DkEventLog.txt and it is stored by default in the directory folder where Diskeeper
was installed.
in the Diskeeper toolbar or the Configure Diskeeper task
Click Diskeeper Configuration Properties
group in the Quick Launch pane, then select the Event Logging option to access the Event Logging page.
The Event Logging page displays a list of events for which logging can be enabled or disabled. Use the check
boxes for the following options to alternately enable or disable each option:
Service start and stop
When this option is enabled, an entry is made to the Event Log each time the Diskeeper service starts or stops.
This option is enabled by default.
Defragmentation start and stop
When this option is enabled, an entry is made to the Event Log whenever a defragmentation run starts or stops.
The Event Log entry for this option also includes information about files that cannot be moved, either because
the files are on a Diskeeper exclusion list, or the files cannot be opened. Common causes preventing a file from
being opened include access controls or permissions on the file being set to prevent Diskeeper from accessing
it. File permissions must allow SYSTEM to have full control of a file in order for Diskeeper to defragment it.
Click here for more information about setting access permissions.
This option is enabled by default.
Defragmented files
When this option is enabled, an entry is made to the Event Log listing each file that is defragmented by
Diskeeper. Note that enabling this option can cause the Event Log to fill rather quickly, especially if Diskeeper
defragments a high number of fragmented files. (This will be particularly likely when Diskeeper is first run on a
volume, since Diskeeper will probably be defragmenting a large number of files.)
This option is not enabled by default.
Moved files
When this option is enabled, an entry is made to the Event Log each time a file is moved for reasons other than
to defragment the file. This would include cases where files are moved in order to create more contiguous free
space. This option also notes when files could not be moved, such as files that are on a Diskeeper exclusion list
or files that cannot be opened. Common causes preventing a file from being opened include access controls or
permissions on the file being set to prevent Diskeeper from accessing it. As mentioned previously, file
permissions must allow SYSTEM to have full control of a file in order for Diskeeper to defragment it. See page
50 for more information about setting access permissions.
Here again, enabling this option can cause the Event Log to fill quickly. This option is not enabled by default.
Disk information
On Windows 2000 and Windows XP: When this option is enabled, an entry is made to the Application Event
Log at the end of each defragmentation run showing general information about the volume that was
defragmented. This appears in the Windows Event Viewer as Diskeeper Event 15. This option is not enabled by
default.
On Windows 98/Me: When this option is enabled, an entry is made in the Diskeeper EventLog.txt file
containing information as described above. This option is not enabled by default.
For a description of information contained in the Description box, see page 20.
Diskeeper Operation
39
File information
On Windows 2000 and Windows XP: When this option is enabled, an entry is made to the Event Log at the
end of each defragmentation run showing information about the files on the volume that was defragmented.
This appears in the Windows Event Viewer as Diskeeper Event 16. This option is not enabled by default.
On Windows 98/Me: When this option is enabled, an entry is made in the Diskeeper EventLog.txt file
containing information described above. This option is not enabled by default.
For a description of information contained in the Description box, see page 20.
Paging File information
On Windows 2000 and Windows XP: When this option is enabled, an entry is made to the Event Log at the
end of each defragmentation run showing information about the paging file on the volume that was
defragmented (if it exists on the volume). This appears in the Windows Event Viewer as Diskeeper Event 17.
This option is not enabled by default.
On Windows 98/Me: When this option is enabled, an entry is made in the Diskeeper EventLog.txt file
containing information as described above. This option is not enabled by default.
For a description of information contained in the Description box, see page 20.
Directory information
On Windows 2000 and Windows XP: When this option is enabled, an entry is made to the Event Log at the
end of each defragmentation run showing information about the directories on the volume that was
defragmented. This appears in the Windows Event Viewer as Diskeeper Event 18. This option is not enabled by
default.
On Windows 98/Me: When this option is enabled, an entry is made in the Diskeeper EventLog.txt file
containing information as described above. This option is not enabled by default.
For a description of information contained in the Description box, see page 20.
MFT information
On Windows 2000 and Windows XP: When this option is enabled, an entry is made to the Event Log at the
end of each defragmentation run showing information about the Master File Table (MFT) on the volume that
was defragmented. (Keep in mind, since only NTFS volumes have an MFT, this information will only apply to
NTFS volumes.) The entry appears in the Windows Event Viewer as Diskeeper Event 19. This option is not
enabled by default.
This option does not exist on Windows 98/Me computers, as MFT files are unique to Windows NT® through
Windows Server 2003.
For a description of information contained in the Description box, see page 20.
Power Management
Click Diskeeper Configuration Properties
in the Diskeeper toolbar or the Configure Diskeeper task
group in the Quick Launch pane, then select the Power Management option to control the how Diskeeper
operates on computers running on battery power.
When this option is enabled and the computer is running on battery power, any scheduled defragmentation jobs
are postponed, and a message noting this is written to the Windows Application Event Log. If you start a
Manual Defragmentation Job when this option is enabled (and the computer is running on battery power), a
message is displayed asking if you want to continue, even though running Diskeeper on battery power may
reduce the available battery time.
When this option is enabled and the computer switches from normal power to battery power, any ongoing
scheduled analysis or defragmentation jobs are safely stopped and a message noting this is written to the
40
Diskeeper Operation
Windows Application Event Log. If you are running Diskeeper manually and the computer switches to battery
power when this option is enabled, a message is displayed informing you that Diskeeper has stopped running.
Theory of Operation
41
Chapter 5
Theory of Operation
This chapter describes the Diskeeper design goals and how those goals were met.
Introduction
As described in the introduction of this manual, the term disk fragmentation means two things:
ƒ
a condition in which pieces of individual files on a disk are not contiguous, but rather are broken up and
scattered around the disk volume; and
ƒ
a condition in which the free space on a disk volume consists of little pieces of space here and there rather
than a few large free spaces.
The effects of excessive fragmentation are twofold as well:
ƒ
file access takes longer because a file must be collected in pieces here and there, requiring several disk
accesses instead of just one; and
ƒ
file creation takes longer because space for the file must be allocated in little pieces here and there instead
of just one contiguous allocation.
Before the introduction of Diskeeper, there was no method for completely correcting the problems of file and
free space fragmentation on Windows NT computers or in a mixed Windows network.
Design Goals
In designing Diskeeper for Windows, the following goals were established:
ƒ
The product must be completely safe to use.
ƒ
It must improve Windows system performance. It is not designed to make the disk look “pretty”—it is
designed to improve disk performance and, as a result, overall system performance.
ƒ
It should process live disks without interfering with user access to files.
ƒ
It should run without operator intervention.
ƒ
It must defragment all possible files and consolidate free space into the smallest possible number of large
spaces.
Diskeeper defragments files and free space on a disk, allowing access to the files on the disk at any time while
Diskeeper is running.
Safety
Diskeeper is designed with safety as the highest priority.
To ensure the safe movement of files on Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows XP, and Windows Server
2003 systems, Diskeeper uses mechanisms built into the operating system that were developed and
implemented by Diskeeper Corporation (then known as Diskeeper Corporation), and fully incorporated into
Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows XP, and Windows Server 2003 by Microsoft. On Windows 98 and
Windows Me systems, Diskeeper uses similar mechanisms used by Microsoft and others.
By using these built-in mechanisms, Diskeeper maintains cache coherency, file security and permissions
information, and file content integrity no matter how fragmented the files on the disk are.
42
Theory of Operation
The foremost design goal for Diskeeper is to make sure that no data is ever lost. To accomplish this goal
Diskeeper uses the following criteria for accessing files:
ƒ
the contents of data files are never modified under any circumstances
ƒ
only one file is processed at a time, not the whole disk
ƒ
each processing pass is independent of the other passes
ƒ
no information is stored on any other device or in a “scratch space”
ƒ
Diskeeper accesses a file in such a way that no user access can conflict with Diskeeper during the critical
portion of the relocation process
ƒ
file relocation is aborted if any error is encountered, leaving the file in its original state
Diskeeper was designed to err on the side of caution. In other words, it only moves a file on the volume when it
is absolutely certain that no data will be lost, including file attributes. The only change to file attribute-type
information is the physical location of the file on the volume. None of the file dates are changed and no other
fields in the file record header are used to store Diskeeper information.
Diskeeper never defragments or moves files that are specifically stored at a specific physical location on the
volume.
If anything causes your computer to crash while Diskeeper is running, or if you abort the Diskeeper
defragmentation run in the middle of the file relocation process, no data is ever at risk.
Windows 98/Me Note: Stopping or pausing a Diskeeper job through its menus or toolbars is completely safe.
Note, however, that in the event of a system crash or other non-standard termination of the Diskeeper process
while it is running, it is possible for free space and file information to be stored incorrectly. Diskeeper
Corporation strongly recommends running the Windows Scandisk error checking utility immediately when
Diskeeper is stopped abnormally. Scandisk will correct any potential file errors.
Performance
When running in the “Set It and Forget It” mode, Diskeeper is designed to run in the background, without
adversely affecting performance of your Windows computer. Steps have been taken to assure that, by default,
Diskeeper overhead has the lowest possible impact on system performance. Diskeeper can be run at the lowest
possible Windows priority, using only otherwise unused CPU cycles. Diskeeper was designed in such a way to
ensure it will not interfere with other processes on your Windows computer.
However, for cases where you want to defragment disks more quickly, Diskeeper allows you to increase the
defragmentation priority. For more information, see page 34.
Process Live Disks
It is not acceptable to force users off the disk while performing routine defragmentation. To do so would be a
case of the cure being worse than the disease. Access to fragmented files is better than no access at all.
The best solution is to defragment online with users active on the same disk volume. Diskeeper was designed
with this in mind. During most of the time Diskeeper is processing a file, it shares the file with any other users
that may access the same file. The last step of processing the file, however, involves locking the file for a very
brief period, a matter of milliseconds. If another user requests a file that Diskeeper has locked, that request is
suspended for the brief period until Diskeeper releases the file. Then the request is serviced. There is never an
interruption of either process as a result of this delay.
This solution allows Diskeeper to defragment open files safely, regardless of whether they are open for read
operations or for write operations.
Note: Due to the Windows NT 4.0 design, directories, MFT and paging files cannot be moved safely on live
disks. (NTFS directories can be moved on Windows 2000, Windows XP and Windows Server 2003.)
Therefore, Diskeeper performs these operations at the only safe time, while the computer is starting up.
Theory of Operation
43
No Operator Intervention
In keeping with the design goals, after Diskeeper has been started in the “Set It and Forget It” mode, it runs
automatically in the background, without the need for operator intervention. It runs indefinitely, unless told
otherwise by you.
Diskeeper Editions
45
Appendix A
Table of Diskeeper Editions
The table below shows the different editions of Diskeeper available, as well as the features and capabilities of
each:
46
Diskeeper Editions
This table shows the different Diskeeper editions available and the Windows operating systems they support:
Answers to Frequently Asked Questions
47
Appendix B
Answers to Frequently Asked Questions
Does Diskeeper work with Windows XP Service Pack 2?
Yes. However, if you are installing or running Diskeeper on a computer running Windows XP Service Pack 2
(SP2), be sure to visit www.diskeeper.com/sp2 for the latest information about running Diskeeper with SP2.
Note that this information also applies to Windows Server 2003 SP1.
Why won’t my volume defragment completely?
This can be the result of several situations. If your volume is extremely full, there may not be sufficient free
space to defragment the files completely. In that case, we recommend temporarily moving some of the files off
the volume, particularly large files. This temporary measure often allows Diskeeper the “working room” it
needs to complete the defragmentation process. It also allows Diskeeper to defragment the free space on the
volume, increasing the possibility that the temporarily-moved files can be moved back to the volume in a
contiguous or less fragmented condition.
Another cause of incomplete defragmentation is a fragmented paging file. For more information, see Can
Diskeeper defragment paging files? on page 48.
A volume that, at some time, has been filled to capacity may have a severely fragmented Master File Table
(MFT). Volumes that have been converted from FAT to NTFS often also have a fragmented MFT. A White
Paper describing the causes and effects of MFT fragmentation is available from the Diskeeper Corporation
website at www.diskeeper.com/products/documentation/documentation.asp. Use the Boot-Time
defragmentation option to defragment a fragmented MFT. For more information, see page 30.
Another situation that can prevent complete defragmentation of a volume is the existence of a large number of
directories on the volume. For more information, see Can Diskeeper move directories? on page 48.
Yet another cause for incomplete defragmentation on Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows XP, and
Windows Server 2003 systems can be a security access situation. Both SYSTEM and ADMINISTRATOR must
have full control over a file (or the directory folder it is in) in order for Diskeeper to have access to move the
file. This is because the Diskeeper service runs under the Administrator account, and System access is
necessary to defragment files safely. This security feature is governed by the Windows NT, Windows 2000,
Windows XP, and Windows Server 2003 C2 security requirements. Included with Diskeeper is a batch file that
sets the access permissions on a disk volume to allow Diskeeper to run properly. See page 50 for information
about using this batch procedure.
Diskeeper won't move some files no matter what I do. Is there a problem with
Diskeeper?
Diskeeper has a built-in list of files that it will not move under any circumstances. This list is referred to as the
Diskeeper internal exclusion list.
The most common reason for a file existing on the Diskeeper internal exclusion list is safety. The file cannot or
should not be moved in order to maintain the integrity of your system.
For example, the file memory.dmp is on the Diskeeper internal exclusion list. This file is on the exclusion list
because the disk locations where this file is stored are loaded by the kernel when the system boots and stored in
memory. These disk locations are then used to write the dump file should it need writing. If Diskeeper were to
move this file, then the system failed, the dump file would be written over other files or in space considered to
be free space. This could result in a very corrupted disk.
48
Answers to Frequently Asked Questions
The same situation applies to hiberfil.sys. When your system goes into hibernation mode, the pre-fetched disk
locations are overwritten with the hibernation data. If Diskeeper moved hiberfil.sys out and moved other files
into those disk locations, then disk corruption would occur.
Why doesn't Diskeeper move all of the files into one place on the volume?
Our primary philosophy with Diskeeper is improving and maintaining the performance of your computer. The
disk drives are the primary bottleneck in your computer's performance. Diskeeper restores the disks to top
speed by eliminating fragmentation.
It is a common misconception that a defragmented disk should look very neat and tidy in the Drive Map pane,
with solid blue bars all the way across the screen (representing fragmentation-free files) and the rest white
space (representing consolidated space).
Clearly, the speed of the volume (meaning how fast you can access the data on it) is more important than the
prettiness of the display or the consolidation of all the free space into one place. Free space consolidation might
be important if the next file that you plan to create needs to be one gigantic contiguous file, but it has no effect
on performance. In fact, the operating system may or may not write the next file into a contiguous location
even if there is a large enough space.
Because of this, when using the “Quick” or “Recommended” defragmentation methods, Diskeeper uses
algorithms that achieve the highest speed from your volumes regardless of the arrangement of the free spaces
on the disk and on the screen—and it does so without wasting time on excessive consolidation of free space.
We simply go for the fastest possible file access times and then stop.
Even so, you might ask why we don't continue and rearrange the files further to get a neat display? Because it
takes computer power to do so. We long ago decided that it would be wrong for Diskeeper to consume more of
your computer's performance than it gives back. So Diskeeper defragments until the disk is in top shape
performance-wise and then stops.
Now this might not be important to you if you like to sit and watch the display as Diskeeper defragments your
drive, but it is a very big deal to large corporate data centers and people who depend on their computers for
their work. They need all the performance they can get and can't hold up production while the defragmenter
works to enhance the "look" of the disk but not improve its performance. This is why Diskeeper is designed to
run in the background at the lowest possible priority, giving way to any other program that needs to run. And it
is also why Diskeeper stops defragmenting when maximum performance has been achieved.
Can Diskeeper move directories?
Windows NT 4.0 does not allow directories to be moved, because of data integrity issues related to how
Windows NT maintains directory information. Since Diskeeper runs while other processes are active on the
system, it does not attempt to move directories online.
However, directories on Windows NT 4.0 volumes can be moved safely while your computer is being started—
a time when Windows has not yet taken complete control of the files and directories on your disk. For more
information on how to consolidate Windows NT 4.0 directories, see page 30.
On Windows 98/Me computers, and NTFS volumes on Windows 2000, Windows XP, and Windows Server
2003 systems, Diskeeper can safely move and defragment directories, which makes consolidation unnecessary.
Can Diskeeper defragment paging files?
Diskeeper does not defragment active paging files, since paging files must be open for exclusive use by
Windows at all times. However, Diskeeper can defragment paging files safely when your computer is being
started—a time when the operating system has not yet taken full control of the files and directories on your
disk. For more information about defragmenting paging files, see page 30.
Can Diskeeper defragment the Master File Table?
The Master File Table (MFT) is the area on an NTFS disk volume where Windows NT, Windows 2000,
Windows XP, and Windows Server 2003 keep the necessary information for retrieving files from the disk
volume. The MFT also contains information such as file creation, modification, and backup dates and times.
Because the MFT is held open for exclusive use by Windows, Diskeeper does not move any pieces of this
Answers to Frequently Asked Questions
49
critical system file while Windows is running, but can do so safely at boot-time. For more information, see page
30.
Why doesn’t Diskeeper completely consolidate the free space on my volume?
Several factors can prevent the free space on a volume from being defragmented:
ƒ
A fragmented paging file. For more information, see page 30.
ƒ
A large number of directories on the volume. For more information, see “Can Diskeeper move
directories?” on page 48.
On NTFS volumes, a portion of the free space on the volume is reserved by Windows for the Master File Table
(MFT). For more information, see Why don’t my files get moved to the beginning of the volume? on page 49.
It is important to know that having all of the free space in a single, contiguous piece provides very little (if any)
performance benefit. Free space fragmented into hundreds of pieces will impact disk performance, but free
space that’s in a few pieces should not have any effect on the performance of your disk.
Why don’t my files get moved to the beginning of the volume?
On NTFS volumes, Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows XP, and Windows Server 2003 reserve a portion
of the free space on a disk volume for the Master File Table (MFT). This free space is usually most noticeable
at the physical “beginning” of the volume (easily seen using Drive Map pane), but space is also reserved for use
by the MFT in other areas of the volume.
Since this space is reserved for exclusive use, Diskeeper will not move files into these areas of the volume, but
will move them out of these areas.
Why don't all of my NTFS volumes appear in the Diskeeper Volume List?
Both SYSTEM and ADMINISTRATOR must have full control over a file (or the directory folder it is in) in
order for Diskeeper to have access to move the file. This is because the Diskeeper service runs under the
Administrator account, and System access is necessary to defragment files safely. This is a security feature
governed by the Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows XP, and Windows Server 2003 C2 security
requirements.
If the root-level directory folder does not have SYSTEM and ADMINISTRATOR set for full control (as seen
in the Permissions section under the Security tab in the Properties dialog box) Diskeeper will not display the
disk volume in the Volume list under some circumstances.
How do I determine how often to run Diskeeper on my volume?
This depends on many factors, including the level of file activity, the sizes and types of files used, and the
amount of free space available on the volume. While there are no set rules on how often to defragment your
disk volumes, here are some guidelines.
ƒ
Of course, the first suggestion is to let the Diskeeper Smart Scheduling feature automatically and
dynamically determine the optimum run frequency for your particular disk volumes. Smart Scheduling
monitors the fragmentation levels of your volumes and adjusts the defragmentation schedule to best fit
your needs, even as those needs change. See Smart Scheduling on page 28.
ƒ
Disk volumes on busy file servers should be defragmented more often than those on single-user
workstations. You may need to run Diskeeper on a server volume as often as every two to four hours to
maintain optimum system performance, while on a workstation, you may only need to run Diskeeper once
a day or less. As a general rule, the busier the disk—the more often it will need to be defragmented.
ƒ
To determine how often to run Diskeeper on your disk volumes, you can use the logging function of
Diskeeper to monitor the number of files moved during each Diskeeper run. For information about how
files that are moved by Diskeeper are logged, see page 37. In general, if Diskeeper moves fewer than 50
files per run, you are running Diskeeper frequently enough to maintain the performance of your Windows
system at an optimum level. If the number of files moved during each run is greater, or is increasing,
50
Answers to Frequently Asked Questions
schedule Diskeeper to run more frequently. (Here again, you can automate this by letting the Diskeeper
Smart Scheduling feature control when to run Diskeeper.)
How do I set access permissions to allow Diskeeper to defragment my files?
In order for Diskeeper to have access to move files on NTFS volumes, both SYSTEM and ADMINISTRATOR
must have full control over a file (or the directory folder it is in). This version of Diskeeper includes a batch file
that sets the access permissions on a disk volume to allow Diskeeper to run properly. This batch file is called
setdkacls.bat, and it is located in the directory folder where Diskeeper is installed.
If you find you have made files inaccessible to Diskeeper, or that you have some files inaccessible to
Diskeeper, open a command-prompt window, change directory to the Diskeeper installation directory, and type:
setdkacls x:
where x: is the letter name of the disk volume on which you want to change access permissions.
The setdkacls.bat procedure automates the following sequence of commands:
cd /d x:
cd \
cacls *
/e /t /c /g Administrators:F System:F
For more information about the cacls command, type cacls /? at a command prompt.
This batch procedure will only work if the account you are logged onto has been granted access to the file(s)
you are wanting to defragment.
Why don’t my defragmentation jobs all start at the same time?
Most editions of Diskeeper allow you to defragment more than one disk volume at a time. However, when the
defragmentation of two or more disks is scheduled to begin at the same time, Diskeeper will start each job
separately, in one-minute intervals. For this reason, you will notice the start times for each Diskeeper job run in
the Application Event Log can vary by several minutes. This is no cause for alarm.
Why doesn’t the free space reported by the post-analysis (or postdefragmentation) summary pop-up screen match what the Diskeeper
Fragmentation pane shows?
Several post-analysis and post-defragmentation summary screens include information about the amount of free
space available on the volume for defragmentation. This figure is based on the space available to Diskeeper,
which may be less than the total free space on an NTFS volume. NTFS volumes reserve a percentage of the
total volume for the Master File Table (MFT), which Diskeeper cannot use for defragmenting files. Because of
this, the figure shown in the Diskeeper post-analysis and post-defragmentation summaries on NTFS volumes
will not match the total free space figure displayed in the Diskeeper Fragmentation pane (or other utilities like
Disk Properties in Windows Explorer).
Should I use Diskeeper on RAID arrays?
Yes—Diskeeper supports all levels of software- and hardware-based RAID arrays. RAID arrays are often used
to increase system performance. In a RAID array of four disk drives, for example, a file can be accessed up to
four times as fast as on a single drive. This is because the file is spread between the four drives, and all four
drives can be accessed at the same time, so the file can be retrieved much faster. However, like the files on a
single disk drive, these file parts can become fragmented on the individual drives, which reduces the speed
advantage of RAID. In fact, the effects of fragmentation can be more obvious in a RAID array than in a single
disk drive.
Diskeeper defragments RAID arrays just as it does single disk drives. Diskeeper improves the speed and
performance of a RAID environment by eliminating wasteful and unnecessary I/Os from being issued by the
file system. In our four-drive array example, it would defragment the pieces of the file on each separate drive as
though they were separate files, and as directed by the RAID controller.
Answers to Frequently Asked Questions
51
Why do I get an incorrect excess fragment count after defragmenting an NTFS
drive under Windows 2000?
Under Windows 2000, NTFS files that have been compressed, then decompressed, accumulate excess space
allocations that Diskeeper cannot move. (The defragmentation APIs can only move actual data, not unused
allocated space in the file.)
Microsoft states in knowledge base article Q228198 "Disk Defragmenter Analysis Shows More File Fragments
Than File Size Suggests" that the "excess allocation" is released when the file is closed. Experiments performed
in our labs show that this is not the case. The disk must be dismounted and remounted (or the system rebooted)
followed by an open and a close of the file for the excess allocation to be released.
Therefore, when this condition exists on an NTFS volume, Diskeeper moves the data portion of a file, and if the
file has an excess allocation, it can actually fragment the file—one piece being the data just moved, the other
piece being the excess allocation “left behind”. Diskeeper notes this properly in its statistics. However,
sometime after the file movement is completed and the file is closed, the excess allocation is released by
Windows 2000. Thus, a subsequent analysis shows the fragmentation figures reported at the end of the
defragmentation run to be wildly wrong.
This excess allocation phenomena was introduced in Windows 2000, but is not present in Windows XP or
Windows Server 2003.
Diskeeper engineers are working on a solution for this inconsistency. Until it is found, you can (1) avoid using
NTFS disk compression or (2) perform a subsequent disk analysis to get the correct information.
Does Diskeeper support Windows clustering?
Diskeeper is certified for Windows clustering. To run Diskeeper in a clustered environment, perform the
following steps:
1.
On the system that has control of the clustered disk(s), install Diskeeper and schedule it.
2.
Fail the clustered disks over to the other system, install Diskeeper and schedule it.
After you perform these steps, Diskeeper will run on the clustered system that remains in operation after the
other clustered system has experienced a system failure. Diskeeper will also run on the clustered disk/partition
in an active-active cluster, defragmenting the clustered disk/partition on the system that currently has control of
the disk/partition.
Note: the Diskeeper Boot-Time Defragmentation will not run on clustered partitions.
How can I run Diskeeper from an account that is not a member of the
Administrators group?
If the account you are using is not a member of the Administrators group, you will not be able to install or
operate Diskeeper. We recommend that you simply use the Set and Forget It feature to set a schedule to allow
Diskeeper to run in the background on all systems. Since the Set It and Forget It operation runs under the
SYSTEM process, there is no need for an administrator to be logged in when it is running.
Do I need to have the Diskeeper service running all the time?
Yes. DkService is the program that actually runs Diskeeper defragmentation jobs. It monitors the Diskeeper
schedule file and starts defragmentation jobs when they are needed. If the Diskeeper service is disabled or not
present, you will not be able to run Diskeeper at all.
That said, if you look at the DkService process using Task Manager, you will see that it uses only a few
seconds of CPU time each week. The fact that it is running all the time is not going to use up system resources,
or cause any problems.
52
Answers to Frequently Asked Questions
Since installing Diskeeper, the number of disk errors I get has increased. Why
is that?
Diskeeper tends to increase disk activity, and just by running, it can make weak points in the system break. In
this case, you have some disk error, most likely in the free space where the Windows disk error checking utility
(CHKDSK) cannot find it. This by no means indicates a problem with Diskeeper.
Run CHKDSK/R on your operating system volume at least, preferably on all volumes. That should correct any
errors. (CHKDSK/F may not correct this issue.)
If CHKDSK itself aborts when it reaches the bad block, it indicates a disk problem which CHKDSK can't
handle, and which will likely cause more trouble in the future. You should back up the volume and reformat
(or replace) it to prevent the possibility of data loss due to drive failure.
If you are running Windows 98/ME, run Scandisk Thorough instead of CHKDSK.
How can I find which version of Diskeeper I have installed?
Open Diskeeper, click the Action menu, then select About. This tells you which Diskeeper edition, version
and build is installed.
Support Services
53
Appendix C
Support Services
U.S., Asian and Latin American Support Services
Registered users are entitled to special upgrade pricing from Diskeeper Corporation. If you have not yet
registered your Diskeeper purchase, register your purchase online via our website at:
diskeeper.com/register
Technical support questions can be answered from the Technical Support section of our website at:
diskeeper.com/support
Diskeeper Corporation's address is:
Diskeeper Corporation
7590 North Glenoaks Boulevard
Burbank, California, USA 91504
54
Support Services
European Support Services
Registered users are entitled special upgrade pricing from Diskeeper Corporation. If you have not yet registered
your Diskeeper purchase, register your purchase online via our website at:
diskeepereurope.com/register.htm
Technical support questions can be answered from the Support section of our website at:
diskeepereurope.com
Diskeeper Corporation's address is:
Diskeeper Corporation
Kings House, Cantelupe Road
East Grinstead, West Sussex RH19 3BE
England
Glossary
55
Glossary
ATA: Advanced Technology Attachment. One of several standard types of interfaces used to connect a disk
drive and a computer. See also PATA and SATA.
access: To store data on, or retrieve data from, a disk drive or other peripheral device. See also file.
administrator: See system administrator.
applet: A small application program that is usually built into an operating system or a larger application
program. For example, the built-in writing and drawing programs that come with Windows are sometimes
called “applets.”
application: A computer program, which causes a computer system to perform some useful work for the user.
ATA: Advanced Technology Attachment. One of several standard types of interfaces used to connect a disk
drive and a computer. See also PATA and SATA.
AutoPlay: A feature of some Windows applications on CD-ROM that causes the program to start automatically
when the CD-ROM is placed in the drive.
background processing: The execution of certain operations during momentary lulls in the primary
(foreground) process. An example of a background process is printing while a word processor is waiting for
keystrokes.
binary: From Latin “bini,” meaning two by two and “ary,” meaning of, or pertaining to. Computers use the
binary number system, which is a way of counting in which only two digits (0 and 1) are used. Contrast with
the familiar decimal number system, in which we count with 10 digits (0 through 9).
bit: Short for binary digit. The smallest unit of information handled by a computer. Like a light switch, a bit is
either on or off, which corresponds to a numerical value of one or zero. Larger numbers are expressed by
groups of bits. See also byte.
boot: Refers to the initial start-up of a computer, such as when you turn on the computer’s power. From the
word “bootstrap,” indicating the computer “lifts itself by the bootstraps;” that is, it gets itself going.
boot-time: The time during which a computer boots; that is, the computer is starting up and the operating
system has not yet taken over control of the computer.
browser: A software program, such as Microsoft’s Internet Explorer, designed to locate and view Web pages
on the Internet. In addition to displaying text, modern browsers also can display pictures and play sounds.
byte: A group of eight bits, which can represent a number from zero through 255, a letter of the alphabet, or a
variety of other things.
cache: From the French word cacher, meaning “to hide.” A temporary storage facility designed to speed things
up by providing information to software that would otherwise have to be obtained from a slower medium.
Caches exist for Web browsers, disk drives and CPUs. See also cache memory.
cache coherency: A condition where the data contained in the cache memories in a computer with multiple
processors is kept consistent at all times.
cache memory: In computers, a cache is a small amount of very fast memory that is placed close to (or inside)
the CPU chip, in order to improve performance. The cache memory holds copies of recently accessed data.
Because computer programs often run the same instructions repeatedly, many times the CPU will find the data
it needs in the cache and therefore will run faster because it does not need to access the computer’s main
memory.
56
Glossary
CD-ROM: Compact Disk Read-Only Memory. A stiff plastic disk commonly used by software manufacturers
to distribute software to customers. As the name implies, the original contents of a CD-ROM cannot be
changed.
central processing unit (CPU): The part of the computer hardware that controls the computer’s overall
operation and performs computations. Most modern CPUs are built into a single integrated circuit or chip. See
also Pentium, x86.
chip: See integrated circuit.
CHKDSK: A program (supplied with Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows XP, and Windows Server
2003) that checks the integrity of a disk and corrects disk errors such as lost clusters. See also scandisk.
client: In a computer network, a computer that uses the services of another computer, called a server. For
example, a client can “ask” a server to provide it with needed data, or to print a file for the client. See also
server, workstation.
cluster: Smallest addressable unit of space on a disk. A one-byte file will actually use a cluster of disk space.
The minimum size of a cluster depends on the size of the disk volume. The FAT file system allows a maximum
of 65,536 clusters per volume, which means that the cluster size on a 64-megabyte disk volume is one kilobyte,
while a 128-megabyte volume uses two-kilobyte clusters. Thus, the FAT file system can be very wasteful of
disk space on large volumes. The NTFS file system does not suffer from this limitation.
COM: Acronym for Component Object Model, a specification developed by Microsoft for building software
components that can be made into programs or add functionality to existing programs running on Microsoft
Windows platforms.
component: A small modular program that performs a specific function and is designed to work interactively
with other components and applications. See also applet, COM.
contiguous: Adjacent; placed one after the other. A contiguous file is not fragmented; that is, it takes up a
single “chunk” of disk space. See also fragmentation, defragmentation.
control file: A file (Diskeep.ctl) used by Diskeeper to keep track of and control scheduled defragmentation of
disk volumes. See also Set It and Forget It.
controller: A specialized electronic circuit, which serves as an interface between a device, such as a disk drive,
and a computer. See also IDE, SCSI.
CPU: see central processing unit.
data: Information, as processed by a computer. Plural of the Latin word datum, meaning an item of
information.
database: A collection of related information about a subject, organized in a useful manner that provides a base
or foundation for procedures such as retrieving information, drawing conclusions, and making decisions.
datum: Singular of data.
defragmentation: The reduction or elimination of fragmentation, by making files and/or free disk space more
contiguous.
device: A machine, such as a printer or a disk drive.
digit: From Latin “digitus,” meaning finger. Any of the numbers 0 through 9 in the decimal number system,
called a digit because people originally used their fingers for counting. Computers use a binary number system
with only two digits (0 and 1).
directory: A file that contains a catalog of files and other directories stored on a disk, which allows you to
organize your files into groups, making them easier to find.
directory consolidation: A Diskeeper feature which, at boot-time, gathers (almost) all directory entries on a
disk volume into a single area on the disk, instead of scattered in many places. Directory consolidation makes
Glossary
57
defragmentation more effective than it would otherwise be. Directory consolidation requires sufficient
contiguous free disk space into which the directories can be moved.
disk drive: A device containing one or more disks, treated as a unit by a computer.
Diskeeper: A software product that increases system performance through disk defragmentation. It eliminates
resource-wasting file fragmentation safely, by consolidating fragmented files and free space.
diskette: See floppy disk.
domain: In Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows XP and Windows Server 2003, a group of workstations and
servers, defined by an administrator, that share a common directory database and allow a user to log onto any
resource in the domain with a single user ID and password. Each domain in a network has a unique name.
drive: See disk drive.
drive letter: In Windows and MS-DOS operating systems, the naming convention for disk drives, consisting of
a letter, followed by a colon. Drives A: and B: are normally reserved for floppy disk drives and C: typically
indicates the first hard drive. See also volume.
encrypted file: A file that has been scrambled and made unrecognizable by anyone who does not have the
proper “key” to decode it. The Windows 2000, Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 Encrypting File
System (EFS) allows users to encrypt files and folders on an NTFS volume to prevent access by unauthorized
individuals.
event logging: The process of recording audit information when certain events occur, such as services starting
and stopping, users logging on and off and accessing resources. When running Diskeeper on Windows NT,
Windows 2000, Windows XP, and Windows Server 2003 systems, logged events can be viewed with the Event
Viewer utility (in Administrative Tools.) When run on Windows 98/Me systems, Diskeeper logs events to a text
file that can be viewed with a variety of text editor programs such as Notepad.
Event Viewer: A utility available on Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows XP, and Windows Server 2003,
which permits the viewing of logged events. See also event logging.
extended partition: A type of partition that permits the limitation of four partitions per disk drive to be
overcome. A disk drive may be partitioned into a maximum of four primary partitions, or three primary
partitions plus an extended partition. One or more logical drives may be created within an extended partition.
FAT: See file allocation table.
FAT file system: The file system used by MS-DOS and adapted for Windows to store information on disks,
which makes use of a file allocation table. There are three types of FAT file system. The FAT12 (12-bit) is
used on FAT volumes smaller than 16 megabytes in size, such as floppy disks—it is not supported by
Diskeeper. FAT16 can be found on all versions of Windows from Windows 95 through Windows Server 2003.
Windows Server 2003, Windows 2000, Windows Me, Windows 98, and the later OSR 2 version of Windows
95 also support FAT32; Windows NT does not.
field: A subdivision of a record in a file. For example, a record in a customer file may contain a name field, an
address field and a phone number field.
file: A complete, named collection of data, such as a program, a set of data used by a program, or a usercreated document. See also record, field.
file allocation table (FAT): A table or list maintained by some operating systems, to keep track of how files
are stored on a disk.
file system: The method used by an operating system, of naming, accessing and organizing files and directories
on a disk. See also NTFS, FAT file system.
floppy disk: A removable storage medium, consisting of a small magnetic disk made of flexible plastic, housed
in a square protective envelope or cartridge. Originally, floppy disks really were “floppy,” because they were
enclosed in a paper envelope. Also called a diskette, which is a better name for the more recent design that uses
a stiff plastic cartridge. Contrast with hard disk.
58
Glossary
formatting: A method of preparing a disk surface for use by placing certain magnetic patterns on it, which are
used by the file system in storing and retrieving data.
fragmentation: The word fragmentation means “the state of being fragmented.” The word fragment means “a
detached, isolated or incomplete part.” It is derived from the Latin “fragmentum,” which in turn is derived from
“frangere,” meaning “break.” So, fragmentation means that something is broken into parts that are detached,
isolated or incomplete.
gigabyte: A measure of computer storage capacity equal to approximately a billion bytes. A gigabyte is two to
the 30th power, or 1,073,741,824 bytes.
graphical user interface (GUI): Pronounced “gooey.” A user interface, as used in the Windows operating
systems, which uses a mouse and graphic displays to interact with the user, with the purpose to make the
computer system easier to use than other operating systems, such as MS-DOS.
GUI: See graphical user interface.
hard disk: One or more rigid metal platters, coated with magnetic material. Contrast with floppy disk, or
diskette, which is made of plastic. Also used to refer to the physical unit that makes up a disk drive.
hardware: The physical parts of a computer system, including devices such as printers and disk drives.
Contrast with software.
I-FAAST™: A Diskeeper exclusive, Intelligent File Access Acceleration Sequencing Technology (I-FAAST)
improves file access and creation on NTFS volumes by up to 80% (average 10%-20%) above and beyond the
improvement provided by defragmentation alone. This is the first industry implementation of “Disk
Performance Calibration”, the modern evolution of the outdated and inconclusive disk optimization strategies
of the past.
I/O Smart: The Diskeeper I/O Smart feature intelligently monitors drive access during defragmentation to
ensure top system speed. When this option is selected, Diskeeper will temporarily suspend defragmentation
whenever other disk activity needs to occur (I/O throttling). This proprietary technology detects whether or not
the disk is busy with other I/O requests and pauses defragmentation to eliminate any potential interference with
user or system needs at the “disk” level.
IDE: Integrated Device Electronics. One of several types of interfaces between a disk drive and a computer,
where the controller is built into the disk drive, which eliminates the need for a separate controller card in the
computer. See also ATA and SCSI.
integrated circuit: Also called a chip. A collection of electronic parts with a specific purpose, built into a
single physical package. See also central processing unit.
Intel: Manufacturer of processor chips, known especially for the Pentium and x86 processors.
interface: The connection and interaction between hardware, software and/or the user. For example, a disk
controller provides a physical interface between a computer and a disk drive. The keyboard, mouse and display
are an interface between a computer and the user.
Internet: A global network that links millions of computers. One popular section of the Internet is the World
Wide Web, which allows computer users to view text and pictures with the aid of a browser, such as Internet
Explorer. E-mail (electronic mail) is another popular part of the Internet, which allows computer users to send
and receive written messages.
Internet Explorer: A software package developed by Microsoft for browsing the Internet, but increasingly
used with other applications.
job: A request to have the computer or its peripherals perform some activity. In relation to Diskeeper, it is a
request to have a disk defragmented.
log file: A file that keeps track of certain events as they occur. The Windows NT/2000/XP operating system
maintains several log files that can be viewed with the Event Viewer. On Windows 98/Me systems, Diskeeper
uses a specially created text file for the same purpose. See also Event Logging.
Glossary
59
logical drive: That portion of the space on a disk drive that is considered by the software to be a single unit. In
this context, logical means “conceptual.” because there is no direct relationship between the name and a
physical object. See also partition, volume.
long filenames: In the DOS operating system, filenames were limited to a maximum of eight characters,
followed by a period and up to three characters to indicate the type of file. This is also referred to as the 8.3 file
naming convention. The Windows 98/Me, Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows XP, and Windows Server
2003 operating systems allow filenames that are over 200 characters long. In addition, these filenames may
contain a mixture of upper- and lowercase characters and embedded spaces.
master file table (MFT): On an NTFS volume, the master file table is a file, which contains information about
all other files in that volume. This includes the name of each file, its physical location on the disk, and other
information.
media: A collective word for the physical material on which computer-based information is stored, such as a
CD-ROM or floppy disk. Media is the plural of medium, but like data is often used in the singular form.
medium: See media.
memory: The computer’s temporary working storage, where program instructions and data are kept,
permitting the CPU to process the instructions.
MFT: See master file table.
Microsoft: A computer software company, with its head office in the state of Washington; creators of the MSDOS and Windows operating systems.
MMC: Microsoft Management Console. MMC can be used to create, save and open administrative tools
(called snap-ins), such as Diskeeper. MMC provides a common user interface for system tools, as well as a
system for managing hardware, software and network components.
MS-DOS: Microsoft Disk Operating System. An operating system designed for a small computer with a single
user running one application program at a time.
multitasking: A feature of an operating system, where the computer can work on more than one task at a time.
See also background processing.
network: A group of computers that are connected together and capable of exchanging data with each other.
See also server, client.
NTFS: New Technology File System. A file system designed specifically for use with Windows NT, Windows
2000, Windows XP, and Windows Server 2003.
OEM: Acronym for original equipment manufacturer. The term is misleading, because an OEM typically buys
computers from another manufacturer, customizes them for a particular application, and then sells them under
the OEM’s own brand name.
operating system: A collection of programs, which perform system functions and control the running of
application programs and the allocation of resources.
OSR 2: Acronym for OEM Service Release 2, a version of Windows 95 released in late 1996, which features an
improved file system, called FAT32, while the original version of Windows 95 used FAT16.
page file or paging file: An area of a disk that is set aside to hold data intended to reside in the computer’s
memory. Portions of the paging file are copied to memory as needed. This mechanism requires a much smaller
amount of physical memory than would be required if the entire program were to be loaded into memory all at
once. See also swap file.
partition: A subdivision of the space on a disk drive that is treated as though it were a separate physical unit. A
computer with only one hard disk drive can have a single partition, often called drive C:, or it can have several
partitions, such as drive C:, drive D:, and drive E:. See also volume, drive letter, primary partition, extended
partition, logical drive.
60
Glossary
PATA: Parallel Advanced Technology Attachment. Originally called ATA, but retroactively renamed PATA
with the introduction of Serial Advanced Technology Attachment (SATA) interfaces. One of several methods
of interfacing disk drives and other devices to computers. See also ATA, IDE, SATA and SCSI.
Pentium: The name of a type of processor, introduced by Intel in 1993. It is the successor to the 80486 and
equivalent to the 80586 chip in the x86 series.
peripheral device: (Related to periphery, roughly meaning “on the outside.”) A device, such as a disk drive,
printer, keyboard or mouse, connected to and used by a computer.
permission: The ability of a user on a computer system to access or modify files, especially those that he or she
did not create. Permissions exist for security reasons, to prevent unauthorized access to sensitive information.
The system administrator assigns permissions, or “who has access to what.”
platform: The environment, in which a computer system operates, either based on the computer’s CPU or its
operating system. For example: the x86 platform, or the Windows Server 2003 platform.
platter: A disk drive consists of one or more platters, each of which can receive magnetic recordings on both
sides. The platter spins like a phonograph record on a turntable.
primary partition: In Windows and MS-DOS operating systems, the disk space on a disk drive may be divided
into a maximum of four primary partitions; or three primary partitions plus an extended partition, which in turn
can contain one or more logical drives.
priority: On a Windows system, several programs can appear to be running at once, even though the CPU can
only process one instruction at a time. With the help of the operating system, the CPU processes a few
instructions from one program, then a few instructions of the next program, and so on, over and over. Without
priority assignments, each program would be given about the same amount of time in each “time slot.” but by
assigning priorities, the more important programs can be given longer time intervals than the less important
ones, allowing them to complete faster.
process: A program, along with the system resources the program requires to run. A process represents a unit
of resource ownership and work to be done. The operating system creates processes to keep track of resources
and to ensure the proper scheduling of tasks.
processor: See central processing unit.
program: A set of instructions that tell a computer what to do. Synonym: software.
RAID: Redundant Array of Independent Disks. A method of combining several disk drives to make one large
volume. Typically used on a network file server to achieve faster access, greater protection against disk failure,
or both.
record: A collection of related data items, treated as a unit. For example, in a file containing information about
a company’s customers, one record would consist of the particulars (name, address, phone number, etc.) of one
customer. See also field.
registry: A database that contains information about current hardware settings, installed software, user
preferences and associations between file types, and applications that access those files.
resource: Any part of a computer system, such as a disk drive, printer, or memory, which can be used by a
program.
scandisk: A program (supplied with Windows 95, Windows 98 and Windows Me) that checks the integrity of
a disk and corrects disk errors such as lost clusters. See also CHKDSK.
SCSI: Small Computer System Interface. One of several methods of interfacing disk drives and other devices to
computers. See also ATA, IDE, PATA, and SATAI.
SATA: Serial Advanced Technology Attachment. A successor to ATA (which was later renamed PATA). One
of several methods of interfacing disk drives and other devices to computers. See also ATA, IDE, PATA and
SCSI.
Glossary
61
server: On a computer network, a computer that makes resources available to other computers (clients or
workstations.) For example, all the computers on a network can be set up to share a single high-speed printer,
which is connected to the server. Usually, the server is faster and more powerful than the client computers
connected to it.
service: A process that performs a specific system function and often provides an application programming
interface (API) for other processes to call. Diskeeper uses a Windows service, which allows Diskeeper to run in
the background while other applications are running.
Service Pack: A collection of software used to issue corrections and updates to software between major
releases. Usually refers to compilations of corrections and updates to a Windows operating system.
Set It and Forget It: A term that was created by Diskeeper Corporation, which is a registered trademark and
hallmark of the company. A “Set It and Forget It” product can operate transparently (unseen by the user) and in
the background (concurrent with other applications). After a schedule is set up for its operation, it thereafter
performs its functions at predetermined times, without further intervention or attention from the user or
administrator.
Smart Scheduling: A feature, introduced with Diskeeper 6.0, which has a built-in mechanism to determine
how frequently a disk volume needs to be defragmented. With Smart Scheduling, Diskeeper automatically
schedules defragmentation runs to occur more often when a disk volume becomes more fragmented, or less
often when it becomes less fragmented.
SMS: System Management Server. A software product from Microsoft, which permits the system administrator
on a Windows NT, Windows 2000 or Windows Server 2003 network to do such things as install and run new
software on different computers on the network, all from a single location.
snap-in: A program, such as Diskeeper, that can be used with the Microsoft Management Console (MMC). For
more information, see the MMC Help facility.
software: A generic term for computer programs, taken collectively. Contrast with hardware. Software can be
categorized into application software and system software.
sparse files: A method of storing large files—that contain mostly empty space and not much data—in a way
that uses much less disk space than would otherwise be used. Sparse file support allows an application to create
very large files without committing disk space for every byte.
swap file: A file on a disk drive that Windows 98/Me uses to hold temporary data that will not fit into memory.
When needed, the operating system moves data from the swap file to memory. See also paging file.
system: The collection of one or more computers and peripheral devices. Sometimes used as a synonym for
operating system, or the combination of hardware and software, as a logical unit.
system administrator: The person in charge of maintaining a multi-user computer system.
system file: In general, a file that is part of, or accessed by, the operating system. The Diskeeper Drive Map
display shows certain system files in green, particularly the master file table (MFT) and several other files that
cannot be moved safely by Diskeeper (or any other defragmenter). These are not the files that make up the
Windows operating system, but the files that make up the NTFS file system.
task: A program or portion thereof that is run as an independent entity.
terabyte: A measure of computer storage capacity equal to 2 to the 40th power or approximately a thousand
billion bytes (or a thousand gigabytes).
trialware: A free software package from Diskeeper Corporation, such as Diskeeper, that has the same
functionality as the official version of the software, but which works for a limited time period, after which it
expires. Trialware allows you to try the software before making a buying decision.
utility: A program that provides basic services or functions.
volume: A subdivision of the space on a disk drive that is treated as though it were a separate physical unit, or a
combination of physical disks treated as a single unit. A computer with only one hard disk drive can have a
62
Glossary
single volume, often called drive C:, or it can have several volumes, such as drive C:, drive D:, and drive E:.
See also drive letter, logical drive, partition.
volume set: In Windows, a single logical drive, which is composed of up to 32 areas of free space on one or
more disk drives. Volume sets can be used to combine small areas of free space on one or more disk drives into
a larger logical drive, or to create a single large logical drive out of two or more small disks.
Windows: A family of operating systems, first introduced by Microsoft in 1983, with a graphical user
interface and which ran on MS-DOS based computers. See also Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows NT,
Windows 2000, Windows XP and Windows Server 2003.
Windows 2000: Originally named Windows NT 5.0, Windows 2000 is a family of operating systems for
desktop computers and network servers, announced by Microsoft in 1998. Windows 2000 resembled Windows
NT 4.0 and Windows 98, but had many enhancements and new features. Windows 2000 is available in several
editions, ranging from Windows 2000 Professional to Windows 2000 Advanced Server.
Windows 95: A version of Windows released in 1995. New features in Windows 95 with regard to its
predecessor, Windows 3.1, included a new user interface and support for 32-bit applications. See also OSR 2.
Windows 98: Successor to the Windows 95 operating system, Windows 98 featured support for the FAT32 file
system, greater Internet integration, and support for the latest (at the time) hardware developments.
Windows Me: Short for Windows Millennium Edition, an operating system released by Microsoft in
September 2000. Successor to Windows 98 and designed for home use, Windows Me offers enhancements in
the areas of digital media, user interface, home networking, and the Internet.
Windows NT: An operating system released by Microsoft in 1993 (NT stands for New Technology.) It has a
similar graphical user interface to Windows, but it does not run over MS-DOS and was designed specifically
for computer network environments.
Windows Server 2003: An operating system released by Microsoft in 2003 as the follow-up version to
Windows 2000 Server. Like its predecessor, it has a similar graphical user interface to Windows, but it does not
run over MS-DOS and has been designed specifically for computer network environments. Windows Server
2003 is available in Standard, Web, Enterprise, and Datacenter editions.
Windows XP: An operating system released by Microsoft in 2001 as the follow-up version to Windows 2000.
Like its predecessor, it has a similar graphical user interface to other Windows versions, but it does not run
over MS-DOS and has been designed specifically for computer network environments. Windows XP is
available in several editions for different uses, such as Windows XP Professional for corporate use, or
Windows XP Home Edition for home users.
workgroup: In Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows XP, or Windows Server 2003, a workgroup consists of
one or more computers that do not participate in a domain and are therefore responsible for their own security
and administration.
workstation: A computer that has been set up for use by an individual typically connected to a network. The
term is also used to indicate a client computer, in contrast with a server.
x86: Symbol to represent a series of CPUs, manufactured by Intel and others, including model numbers 8086,
80286, 80386, 80486 and 80586 (Pentium). All of the CPUs in this series have certain characteristics in
common, which permits software to be written that will run on any of them.
Index
63
Index
A
About the Diskeeper Service.......................................... 4
Access permissions
setting ...................................................................... 50
Access Time Section.................................................... 20
Analyze button ............................................................. 16
AutoPlay ........................................................................ 3
Average File Size......................................................... 21
Average Fragments per File ......................................... 21
B
Background process ................................................. 4, 42
Before the Installation.................................................... 1
Boot-Time defragmentation ......................................... 14
Directory consolidation ........................................... 30
Master File Table defragmentation.......................... 30
overview .................................................................. 30
Paging File defragmentation.................................... 30
Paging File Defragmentation ................................... 48
Boot-Time Defragmentation
options ..................................................................... 31
scheduling................................................................ 26
C
cache coherency ........................................................... 41
CD-ROM ................................................................... 2, 3
Check for product update ............................................... 4
CHKDSK program....................................................... 31
Cluster Size .................................................................. 20
Computer pane ............................................................. 17
Console .......................................................................... 7
Consolidating free space .............................................. 49
scheduling primary jobs ........................................... 26
Design Goals ................................................................ 41
Disk priority ................................................................. 34
Disk space required ........................................................ 2
Diskeeper
configuration properties ........................................... 34
console ....................................................................... 7
design goals.............................................................. 41
directories not moved............................................... 48
features..................................................................... 13
getting started............................................................. 7
getting the most from ............................................... 14
how often to run ....................................................... 49
installation.................................................................. 1
interface ................................................................... 15
overview................................................................... 13
program group............................................................ 3
properties ................................................................. 34
service ........................................................................ 4
uninstalling................................................................. 5
updates and upgrades ............................................... 34
Diskeeper Configuration Properties button .................. 16
Disks supported .............................................................. 1
DkEventLog.txt .............................................................. 5
E
End time ....................................................................... 28
Event Log
setting up the .............................................................. 4
Event Logging .............................................................. 37
Excess Directory Fragments......................................... 21
Exclusion List............................................................... 14
internal ............................................................... 36, 47
setting....................................................................... 35
Extended partitions......................................................... 1
F
D
Dashboard, tabbed........................................................ 17
Data collection ............................................................. 36
Data Fragmentation...................................................... 21
Days ............................................................................. 28
Defragment button ....................................................... 16
Defragmentation
and the Master File Table ........................................ 48
files not moved to beginning of disk ....................... 49
free space consolidation........................................... 49
how often to run....................................................... 49
incomplete ............................................................... 47
jobs not starting at the same time............................. 50
scheduling................................................................ 26
File exclusions.............................................................. 35
File Systems Supported .................................................. 1
Files not moved to beginning of disk ........................... 49
Files with Performance Loss ........................................ 22
Fragmentation
definition of.......................................................viii, 41
effects of ...........................................................viii, 41
Fragmented Directories ................................................ 21
Free Size....................................................................... 20
Free Space
consolidation ............................................................ 49
mismatch in reporting .............................................. 50
Frequency ..................................................................... 27
64
Index
G
Getting Started ............................................................... 7
Getting the most from Diskeeper ................................. 14
Glossary ....................................................................... 55
H
Help button .................................................................. 16
Historical Report Tab................................................... 24
I
Installation
before the ................................................................... 1
details......................................................................... 2
overview .................................................................... 2
short version .............................................................. 2
Interface ......................................................................... 7
user .......................................................................... 15
J
Job Log Tab ................................................................. 23
Job Report Tab............................................................. 19
Performance ................................................................. 42
Platforms supported........................................................ 1
Power Management ...................................................... 39
Preface..........................................................................vii
Primary Defragmentation
scheduling ................................................................ 26
Primary Defragmentation job Properties button ........... 16
Primary partitions ........................................................... 1
Printing dashboard information .................................... 24
Priority
setting the................................................................. 34
Process Live Disks ....................................................... 42
Properties
Diskeeper configuration ........................................... 34
Primary Job .............................................................. 33
Q
Quick Launch pane....................................................... 16
R
RAID arrays ................................................................... 2
Recommendations Section ........................................... 19
Registering Diskeeper .................................................... 4
Registry .......................................................................... 3
Resource requirements ............................................... 2, 4
Resume button.............................................................. 16
L
Logging
Application Event Log................................... 4, 14, 50
on Windows 98/Me ................................................... 5
Logical drives ................................................................ 1
M
Manual defragmentation .............................................. 24
Manual Defragmentation Job Properties button........... 16
Master File Table (MFT) ............................................. 48
Master File Table Defragmentation ............................. 30
MFT Records in Use .................................................... 22
MMC.............................................................................. 3
Most Fragmented Files................................................. 22
N
NTFS............................................................... viii, 21, 47
P
Paging File Defragmentation ................................. 30, 48
Paging/Swap File Size ................................................. 22
Partitions
extended..................................................................... 1
primary ...................................................................... 1
Pause button ................................................................. 16
Pentium processor .......................................................... 1
Percent Free Space ....................................................... 20
Percent of MFT in Use................................................. 22
S
Safety............................................................................ 41
Saving dashboard information...................................... 24
Schedule
primary..................................................................... 27
setting a .................................................................... 26
Schedule type ............................................................... 27
Scheduling
Boot-Time defragmentation ..................................... 26
Screen Saver mode................................................... 29
Smart Scheduling ..................................................... 28
Scheduling options ....................................................... 27
Screen Saver mode ....................................................... 29
Service Pack ................................................................... 2
Service, Diskeeper.......................................................... 4
Set It and Forget It Defragmentation ............................ 25
Setting a schedule......................................................... 26
Setting up the Application Event Log ............................ 4
SETUP.EXE ................................................................... 2
Smart Scheduling ......................................................... 28
Start time ...................................................................... 28
Statistics Section........................................................... 20
Stop button ................................................................... 16
Support Services
Europe...................................................................... 54
U.S. .......................................................................... 53
T
Tabbed Dashboard........................................................ 17
Theory of Operation ..................................................... 41
Index
65
Total Directories .......................................................... 21
Total Excess Fragments ............................................... 21
Total Files .................................................................... 21
Total Fragmented Files ................................................ 21
Total Fragments ........................................................... 22
Total MFT Fragments .................................................. 22
Total MFT Size ............................................................ 22
Volume Fragmentation ................................................. 20
Volume Health Section................................................. 19
Volume Map Tab.......................................................... 18
Volume sets .................................................................... 1
Volume Size ................................................................. 20
U
Uninstalling Diskeeper................................................... 5
Updates
checking for ............................................................... 4
Updates and Upgrades ................................................. 34
Used Space................................................................... 20
User Interface............................................................... 15
Windows
disks supported........................................................... 1
file systems supported................................................ 1
registry ....................................................................... 3
resource requirements ................................................ 2
versions and platforms supported............................... 1
Windows 98/Me
Event Logging............................................................ 5
V
X
Versions supported......................................................... 1
X86 processor family ..................................................... 1
W
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement