UM10204 I2C-bus specification and user manual

UM10204 I2C-bus specification and user manual
UM10204
I2C-bus specification and user manual
Rev. 03 — 19 June 2007
User manual
Document information
Info
Content
Keywords
I2C, I2C-bus, Standard-mode, Fast-mode, Fast-mode Plus, Fm+, High Speed,
Hs, inter-IC, SDA, SCL
Abstract
Philips Semiconductors (now NXP Semiconductors) developed a simple
bidirectional 2-wire bus for efficient inter-IC control. This bus is called the
Inter-IC or I2C-bus. Only two bus lines are required: a serial data line (SDA)
and a serial clock line (SCL). Serial, 8-bit oriented, bidirectional data transfers
can be made at up to 100 kbit/s in the Standard-mode, up to 400 kbit/s in the
Fast-mode, up to 1 Mbit/s in the Fast-mode Plus (Fm+), or up to 3.4 Mbit/s in
the High-speed mode.
UM10204
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I2C-bus specification and user manual
Revision history
Rev
Date
Description
03
20070619
Many of today’s applications require longer buses and/or faster speeds. Fast-mode plus was
introduced to meet this need by increasing drive strength by as much as 10× and increasing
the data rate to 1 Mbit/s while maintaining downward compatibility to Fast-mode and
Standard-mode speeds and software commands.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Modifications:
Re-ordered sections and clarified several requirements
Added description of Fast-mode Plus (Fm+) specifications
Added description of the Device ID Field
Added Bus Clear procedures
Moved level shifting information to a separate application note (AN10441)
Clarified the process of sizing Rp
Added limits for tVD;DAT and tVD;ACK
2.1
2000
Version 2.1 of the I2C-bus specification
2.0
1998
The I2C-bus has become a de facto world standard that is now implemented in over
1000 different ICs and licensed to more than 50 companies. Many of today’s applications,
however, require higher bus speeds and lower supply voltages. This updated version of the
I2C-bus specification meets those requirements.
1.0
1992
Version 1.0 of the I2C-bus specification
Original
1982
first release
Contact information
For additional information, please visit: http://www.nxp.com
For sales office addresses, please send an email to: [email protected]
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1. Introduction
The I2C-bus is a de facto world standard that is now implemented in over 1000 different
ICs manufactured by more than 50 companies. Additionally, the versatile I2C-bus is used
in a variety of control architectures such as System Management Bus (SMBus), Power
Management Bus (PMBus), Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI), and
Advanced Telecom Computing Architecture (ATCA).
This document will assist device and system designers to understand how the I2C-bus
works and implement a working application. Various operating modes are described. It
contains a comprehensive introduction to the I2C-bus data transfer, handshaking and bus
arbitration schemes. Detailed sections cover the timing and electrical specifications for the
I2C-bus in each of its operating modes.
Designers of I2C-compatible chips should use this document as a reference and ensure
that new devices meet all limits specified in this document. Designers of systems that
include I2C devices should review this document and also refer to individual component
data sheets.
2. I2C-bus features
In consumer electronics, telecommunications and industrial electronics, there are often
many similarities between seemingly unrelated designs. For example, nearly every
system includes:
• Some intelligent control, usually a single-chip microcontroller
• General-purpose circuits like LCD and LED drivers, remote I/O ports, RAM,
EEPROM, real-time clocks or A/D and D/A converters
• Application-oriented circuits such as digital tuning and signal processing circuits for
radio and video systems, temperature sensors, and smart cards
To exploit these similarities to the benefit of both systems designers and equipment
manufacturers, as well as to maximize hardware efficiency and circuit simplicity, Philips
Semiconductors (now NXP Semiconductors) developed a simple bidirectional 2-wire bus
for efficient inter-IC control. This bus is called the Inter IC or I2C-bus. All I2C-bus
compatible devices incorporate an on-chip interface which allows them to communicate
directly with each other via the I2C-bus. This design concept solves the many interfacing
problems encountered when designing digital control circuits.
Here are some of the features of the I2C-bus:
• Only two bus lines are required; a serial data line (SDA) and a serial clock line (SCL).
• Each device connected to the bus is software addressable by a unique address and
simple master/slave relationships exist at all times; masters can operate as
master-transmitters or as master-receivers.
• It is a true multi-master bus including collision detection and arbitration to prevent data
corruption if two or more masters simultaneously initiate data transfer.
• Serial, 8-bit oriented, bidirectional data transfers can be made at up to 100 kbit/s in
the Standard-mode, up to 400 kbit/s in the Fast-mode, up to 1 Mbit/s in Fast-mode
Plus, or up to 3.4 Mbit/s in the High-speed mode.
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• On-chip filtering rejects spikes on the bus data line to preserve data integrity.
• The number of ICs that can be connected to the same bus is limited only by a
maximum bus capacitance. More capacitance may be allowed under some
conditions. Refer to Section 7.2.
Figure 1 shows an example of I2C-bus applications.
I2C
A/D or D/A
Converters
I2C
General Purpose
I/O Expanders
I2C
LED Controllers
I2C
DIP Switches
VCC4
I2C
Slave
VCC5
I2C
Repeaters/
Hubs/Extenders
VCC0
I2C Port
via HW or
Bit Banging
VCC2
PCA9541
I2C
Master Selector/
Demux
I2C
Multiplexers
and Switches
I2C
Serial EEPROMs
MCUs
VCC1
I2 C
Bus Controllers
LCD Drivers
(with I2C)
I2C
Real Time Clock/
Calendars
8
MCUs
I2C
Temperature
Sensors
VCC3
Bridges
(with I2C)
SPI
UART
USB
002aac858
Fig 1. Example of I2C-bus applications
2.1 Designer benefits
I2C-bus compatible ICs allow a system design to rapidly progress directly from a
functional block diagram to a prototype. Moreover, since they ‘clip’ directly onto the
I2C-bus without any additional external interfacing, they allow a prototype system to be
modified or upgraded simply by ‘clipping’ or ‘unclipping’ ICs to or from the bus.
Here are some of the features of I2C-bus compatible ICs that are particularly attractive to
designers:
• Functional blocks on the block diagram correspond with the actual ICs; designs
proceed rapidly from block diagram to final schematic.
• No need to design bus interfaces because the I2C-bus interface is already integrated
on-chip.
• Integrated addressing and data-transfer protocol allow systems to be completely
software-defined.
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• The same IC types can often be used in many different applications.
• Design-time reduces as designers quickly become familiar with the frequently used
functional blocks represented by I2C-bus compatible ICs.
• ICs can be added to or removed from a system without affecting any other circuits on
the bus.
• Fault diagnosis and debugging are simple; malfunctions can be immediately traced.
• Software development time can be reduced by assembling a library of reusable
software modules.
In addition to these advantages, the CMOS ICs in the I2C-bus compatible range offer
designers special features which are particularly attractive for portable equipment and
battery-backed systems.
They all have:
•
•
•
•
Extremely low current consumption
High noise immunity
Wide supply voltage range
Wide operating temperature range.
2.2 Manufacturer benefits
I2C-bus compatible ICs not only assist designers, they also give a wide range of benefits
to equipment manufacturers because:
• The simple 2-wire serial I2C-bus minimizes interconnections so ICs have fewer pins
and there are not so many PCB tracks; result—smaller and less expensive PCBs.
• The completely integrated I2C-bus protocol eliminates the need for address decoders
and other ‘glue logic’.
• The multi-master capability of the I2C-bus allows rapid testing and alignment of
end-user equipment via external connections to an assembly-line.
• The availability of I2C-bus compatible ICs in a variety of leadless packages reduces
space requirements even more.
These are just some of the benefits. In addition, I2C-bus compatible ICs increase system
design flexibility by allowing simple construction of equipment variants and easy
upgrading to keep designs up-to-date. In this way, an entire family of equipment can be
developed around a basic model. Upgrades for new equipment, or enhanced-feature
models (i.e., extended memory, remote control, etc.) can then be produced simply by
clipping the appropriate ICs onto the bus. If a larger ROM is needed, it is simply a matter
of selecting a microcontroller with a larger ROM from our comprehensive range. As new
ICs supersede older ones, it is easy to add new features to equipment or to increase its
performance by simply unclipping the outdated IC from the bus and clipping on its
successor.
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2.3 IC designer benefits
Designers of microcontrollers are frequently under pressure to conserve output pins. The
I2C protocol allows connection of a wide variety of peripherals without the need for
separate addressing or chip enable signals. Additionally, a microcontroller that includes an
I2C interface will be more successful in the marketplace due to the wide variety of existing
peripheral devices available.
3. The I2C-bus protocol
Two wires, serial data (SDA) and serial clock (SCL), carry information between the
devices connected to the bus. Each device is recognized by a unique address (whether
it is a microcontroller, LCD driver, memory or keyboard interface) and can operate as
either a transmitter or receiver, depending on the function of the device. An LCD driver
may be only a receiver, whereas a memory can both receive and transmit data. In addition
to transmitters and receivers, devices can also be considered as masters or slaves when
performing data transfers (see Table 1). A master is the device which initiates a data
transfer on the bus and generates the clock signals to permit that transfer. At that time,
any device addressed is considered a slave.
Table 1.
Definition of I2C-bus terminology
Term
Description
Transmitter
the device which sends data to the bus
Receiver
the device which receives data from the bus
Master
the device which initiates a transfer, generates clock signals and
terminates a transfer
Slave
the device addressed by a master
Multi-master
more than one master can attempt to control the bus at the same time
without corrupting the message
Arbitration
procedure to ensure that, if more than one master simultaneously tries to
control the bus, only one is allowed to do so and the winning message is
not corrupted
Synchronization
procedure to synchronize the clock signals of two or more devices
The I2C-bus is a multi-master bus. This means that more than one device capable of
controlling the bus can be connected to it. As masters are usually microcontrollers, let’s
consider the case of a data transfer between two microcontrollers connected to the
I2C-bus (see Figure 2).
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MICRO CONTROLLER
A
LCD
DRIVER
STATIC
RAM OR
EEPROM
SDA
SCL
GATE
ARRAY
ADC
MICRO CONTROLLER
B
mbc645
Fig 2. Example of an I2C-bus configuration using two microcontrollers
This highlights the master-slave and receiver-transmitter relationships to be found on the
I2C-bus. It should be noted that these relationships are not permanent, but only depend
on the direction of data transfer at that time. The transfer of data would proceed as
follows:
1. Suppose microcontroller A wants to send information to microcontroller B:
– microcontroller A (master), addresses microcontroller B (slave)
– microcontroller A (master-transmitter), sends data to microcontroller B
(slave-receiver)
– microcontroller A terminates the transfer.
2. If microcontroller A wants to receive information from microcontroller B:
– microcontroller A (master) addresses microcontroller B (slave)
– microcontroller A (master-receiver) receives data from microcontroller B
(slave-transmitter)
– microcontroller A terminates the transfer.
Even in this case, the master (microcontroller A) generates the timing and terminates the
transfer.
The possibility of connecting more than one microcontroller to the I2C-bus means that
more than one master could try to initiate a data transfer at the same time. To avoid the
chaos that might ensue from such an event, an arbitration procedure has been developed.
This procedure relies on the wired-AND connection of all I2C interfaces to the I2C-bus.
If two or more masters try to put information onto the bus, the first to produce a ‘one’ when
the other produces a ‘zero’ will lose the arbitration. The clock signals during arbitration are
a synchronized combination of the clocks generated by the masters using the wired-AND
connection to the SCL line (for more detailed information concerning arbitration see
Section 3.8).
Generation of clock signals on the I2C-bus is always the responsibility of master devices;
each master generates its own clock signals when transferring data on the bus. Bus clock
signals from a master can only be altered when they are stretched by a slow slave device
holding down the clock line or by another master when arbitration occurs.
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Table 2 summarizes the use of mandatory and optional portions of the I2C-bus
specification and which system configurations use them.
Table 2.
Applicability of I2C-bus protocol features
M = mandatory; O = optional; n/a = not applicable.
Feature
Configuration
Single master
Multi-master
Slave[1]
START condition
M
M
M
STOP condition
M
M
M
Acknowledge
M
M
M
Synchronization
n/a
M
n/a
Arbitration
n/a
M
n/a
Clock stretching
O[2]
O[2]
O
7-bit slave address
M
M
M
10-bit slave address
O
O
O
General Call address
O
O
O
Software Reset
O
O
O
START byte
n/a
O[3]
n/a
Device ID
n/a
n/a
O
[1]
Also refers to a master acting as a slave.
[2]
Clock stretching is a feature of some slaves. If no slaves in a system can stretch the clock (hold SCL LOW),
the master need not be designed to handle this procedure.
[3]
‘Bit banging’ (software emulation) multi-master systems should consider a START byte. See Section 3.15.
3.1 SDA and SCL signals
Both SDA and SCL are bidirectional lines, connected to a positive supply voltage via a
current-source or pull-up resistor (see Figure 3). When the bus is free, both lines are
HIGH. The output stages of devices connected to the bus must have an open-drain or
open-collector to perform the wired-AND function. Data on the I2C-bus can be transferred
at rates of up to 100 kbit/s in the Standard-mode, up to 400 kbit/s in the Fast-mode, up to
1 Mbit/s in Fast-mode Plus, or up to 3.4 Mbit/s in the High-speed mode. The number of
interfaces connected to the bus is limited by the bus capacitance.
For a single master application, the master’s SCL output can be a push-pull driver design
provided that there are no devices on the bus which would stretch the clock.
VDD1 =
5 V ± 10 %
CMOS
Rp
CMOS
VDD2
VDD3
NMOS
BIPOLAR
Rp
SDA
SCL
002aac860
VDD2, VDD3 are device dependent (e.g., 12 V).
Fig 3. Devices with a variety of supply voltages sharing the same bus
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3.2 SDA and SCL logic levels
Due to the variety of different technology devices (CMOS, NMOS, bipolar) that can be
connected to the I2C-bus, the levels of the logical ‘0’ (LOW) and ‘1’ (HIGH) are not fixed
and depend on the associated level of VDD. Input reference levels are set as 30 % and
70 % of VDD; VIL is 0.3VDD and VIH is 0.7VDD. See Figure 27, timing diagram. Some
legacy device input levels were fixed at VIL = 1.5 V and VIH = 3.0 V, but all new devices
require this 30 %/70 % specification. See Section 6 for electrical specifications.
3.3 Data validity
The data on the SDA line must be stable during the HIGH period of the clock. The HIGH
or LOW state of the data line can only change when the clock signal on the SCL line is
LOW (see Figure 4). One clock pulse is generated for each data bit transferred.
SDA
SCL
data line
stable;
data valid
change
of data
allowed
mba607
Fig 4. Bit transfer on the I2C-bus
3.4 START and STOP conditions
All transactions begin with a START (S) and can be terminated by a STOP (P) (see
Figure 5). A HIGH to LOW transition on the SDA line while SCL is HIGH defines a START
condition. A LOW to HIGH transition on the SDA line while SCL is HIGH defines a STOP
condition.
SDA
SDA
SCL
SCL
S
P
START condition
STOP condition
mba608
Fig 5. START and STOP conditions
START and STOP conditions are always generated by the master. The bus is considered
to be busy after the START condition. The bus is considered to be free again a certain
time after the STOP condition. This bus free situation is specified in Section 6.
The bus stays busy if a repeated START (Sr) is generated instead of a STOP condition. In
this respect, the START (S) and repeated START (Sr) conditions are functionally identical.
For the remainder of this document, therefore, the S symbol will be used as a generic term
to represent both the START and repeated START conditions, unless Sr is particularly
relevant.
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Detection of START and STOP conditions by devices connected to the bus is easy if they
incorporate the necessary interfacing hardware. However, microcontrollers with no such
interface have to sample the SDA line at least twice per clock period to sense the
transition.
3.5 Byte format
Every byte put on the SDA line must be 8 bits long. The number of bytes that can be
transmitted per transfer is unrestricted. Each byte has to be followed by an Acknowledge
bit. Data is transferred with the Most Significant Bit (MSB) first (see Figure 6). If a slave
cannot receive or transmit another complete byte of data until it has performed some other
function, for example servicing an internal interrupt, it can hold the clock line SCL LOW to
force the master into a wait state. Data transfer then continues when the slave is ready for
another byte of data and releases clock line SCL.
P
SDA
acknowledgement
signal from slave
MSB
SCL
S or Sr
1
2
7
8
9
acknowledgement
signal from receiver
1
ACK
START or
repeated START
condition
byte complete,
interrupt within slave
2
3 to 8
9
ACK
clock line held LOW
while interrupts are serviced
Sr
Sr or P
STOP or
repeated START
condition
002aac861
Fig 6. Data transfer on the I2C-bus
3.6 Acknowledge (ACK) and Not Acknowledge (NACK)
The acknowledge takes place after every byte. The acknowledge bit allows the receiver to
signal the transmitter that the byte was successfully received and another byte may be
sent. All clock pulses including the acknowledge 9th clock pulse are generated by the
master.
The Acknowledge signal is defined as follows: the transmitter releases the SDA line
during the acknowledge clock pulse so the receiver can pull the SDA line LOW and it
remains stable LOW during the HIGH period of this clock pulse (see Figure 4). Set-up and
hold times (specified in Section 6) must also be taken into account.
When SDA remains HIGH during this 9th clock pulse, this is defined as the Not
Acknowledge signal. The master can then generate either a STOP condition to abort the
transfer, or a repeated START condition to start a new transfer. There are five conditions
that lead to the generation of a NACK:
1. No receiver is present on the bus with the transmitted address so there is no device to
respond with an acknowledge.
2. The receiver is unable to receive or transmit because it’s performing some real-time
function and is not ready to start communication with the master.
3. During the transfer the receiver gets data or commands that it does not understand.
4. During the transfer, the receiver cannot receive any more data bytes.
5. A master-receiver needs to signal the end of the transfer to the slave transmitter.
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3.7 Clock synchronization
Two masters can begin transmitting on an idle bus at the same time and there needs to be
a method for deciding which will take control of the bus and complete its transmission.
This is done by clock synchronization and arbitration. In single master systems, clock
synchronization and arbitration are not needed.
Clock synchronization is performed using the wired-AND connection of I2C interfaces to
the SCL line. This means that a HIGH to LOW transition on the SCL line will cause the
masters concerned to start counting off their LOW period and, once a master clock has
gone LOW, it will hold the SCL line in that state until the clock HIGH state is reached (see
Figure 7). However, the LOW to HIGH transition of this clock may not change the state of
the SCL line if another clock is still within its LOW period. The SCL line will therefore be
held LOW by the master with the longest LOW period. Masters with shorter LOW periods
enter a HIGH wait-state during this time.
wait
state
start counting
HIGH period
CLK
1
CLK
2
counter
reset
SCL
mbc632
Fig 7. Clock synchronization during the arbitration procedure
When all masters concerned have counted off their LOW period, the clock line will be
released and go HIGH. There will then be no difference between the master clocks and
the state of the SCL line, and all the masters will start counting their HIGH periods. The
first master to complete its HIGH period will again pull the SCL line LOW.
In this way, a synchronized SCL clock is generated with its LOW period determined by the
master with the longest clock LOW period, and its HIGH period determined by the one
with the shortest clock HIGH period.
3.8 Arbitration
Arbitration, like synchronization, refers to a portion of the protocol required only if more
than one master will be used in the system. Slaves are not involved in the arbitration
procedure. A master may start a transfer only if the bus is free. Two masters may
generate a START condition within the minimum hold time (tHD;STA) of the START
condition which results in a valid START condition on the bus. Arbitration is then required
to determine which master will complete its transmission.
Arbitration proceeds bit by bit. During every bit, while SCL is HIGH, each master checks to
see if the SDA level matches what it has sent. This process may take many bits. Two
masters can actually complete an entire transaction without error, as long as the
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transmissions are identical. The first time a master tries to send a HIGH, but detects that
the SDA level is LOW, the master knows that it has lost the arbitration and will turn off its
SDA output driver. The other master goes on to complete its transaction.
No information is lost during the arbitration process. A master that loses the arbitration
can generate clock pulses until the end of the byte in which it loses the arbitration and
must restart its transaction when the bus is idle.
If a master also incorporates a slave function and it loses arbitration during the addressing
stage, it is possible that the winning master is trying to address it. The losing master must
therefore switch over immediately to its slave mode.
Figure 8 shows the arbitration procedure for two masters. Of course, more may be
involved depending on how many masters are connected to the bus. The moment there is
a difference between the internal data level of the master generating DATA1 and the
actual level on the SDA line, the DATA1 output is switched off. This will not affect the data
transfer initiated by the winning master.
master 1 loses arbitration
DATA 1 SDA
DATA
1
DATA
2
SDA
SCL
S
msc609
Fig 8. Arbitration procedure of two masters
Since control of the I2C-bus is decided solely on the address and data sent by competing
masters, there is no central master, nor any order of priority on the bus.
There is an undefined condition if the arbitration procedure is still in progress at the
moment when one master sends a repeated START or a STOP condition while the other
master is still sending data. In other words, the following combinations result in an
undefined condition:
• Master 1 sends a repeated START condition and master 2 sends a data bit.
• Master 1 sends a STOP condition and master 2 sends a data bit.
• Master 1 sends a repeated START condition and master 2 sends a STOP condition.
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3.9 Clock stretching
Clock stretching pauses a transaction by holding the SCL line LOW. The transaction
cannot continue until the line is released HIGH again. Clock stretching is optional and in
fact, most slave devices do not include an SCL driver so they are unable to stretch the
clock.
On the byte level, a device may be able to receive bytes of data at a fast rate, but needs
more time to store a received byte or prepare another byte to be transmitted. Slaves can
then hold the SCL line LOW after reception and acknowledgment of a byte to force the
master into a wait state until the slave is ready for the next byte transfer in a type of
handshake procedure (see Figure 7).
On the bit level, a device such as a microcontroller with or without limited hardware for the
I2C-bus, can slow down the bus clock by extending each clock LOW period. The speed of
any master is thereby adapted to the internal operating rate of this device.
In Hs-mode, this handshake feature can only be used on byte level (see Section 5.3.2).
3.10 The slave address and R/W bit
Data transfers follow the format shown in Figure 9. After the START condition (S), a slave
address is sent. This address is 7 bits long followed by an eighth bit which is a data
direction bit (R/W)—a ‘zero’ indicates a transmission (WRITE), a ‘one’ indicates a request
for data (READ) (refer to Figure 10). A data transfer is always terminated by a STOP
condition (P) generated by the master. However, if a master still wishes to communicate
on the bus, it can generate a repeated START condition (Sr) and address another slave
without first generating a STOP condition. Various combinations of read/write formats are
then possible within such a transfer.
SDA
SCL
1-7
8
9
1-7
8
9
1-7
8
9
P
S
START
condition
ADDRESS
R/W
ACK
DATA
ACK
DATA
ACK
STOP
condition
mbc604
Fig 9. A complete data transfer
MSB
LSB
R/W
slave address
mbc608
Fig 10. The first byte after the START procedure
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Possible data transfer formats are:
• Master-transmitter transmits to slave-receiver. The transfer direction is not changed
(see Figure 11). The slave receiver acknowledges each byte.
• Master reads slave immediately after first byte (see Figure 12). At the moment of the
first acknowledge, the master-transmitter becomes a master-receiver and the
slave-receiver becomes a slave-transmitter. This first acknowledge is still generated
by the slave. Subsequent acknowledges are generated by the master. The STOP
condition is generated by the master, which sends a not-acknowledge (A) just prior to
the STOP condition.
• Combined format (see Figure 13). During a change of direction within a transfer, the
START condition and the slave address are both repeated, but with the R/W bit
reversed. If a master-receiver sends a repeated START condition, it sends a
not-acknowledge (A) just prior to the repeated START condition.
Notes:
1. Combined formats can be used, for example, to control a serial memory. During the
first data byte, the internal memory location has to be written. After the START
condition and slave address is repeated, data can be transferred.
2. All decisions on auto-increment or decrement of previously accessed memory
locations, etc., are taken by the designer of the device.
3. Each byte is followed by an acknowledgment bit as indicated by the A or A blocks in
the sequence.
4. I2C-bus compatible devices must reset their bus logic on receipt of a START or
repeated START condition such that they all anticipate the sending of a slave
address, even if these START conditions are not positioned according to the proper
format.
5. A START condition immediately followed by a STOP condition (void message) is an
illegal format. Many devices however are designed to operate properly under this
condition.
6. Each device connected to the bus is addressable by a unique address. Normally a
simple master/slave relationship exists, but it is possible to have multiple identical
slaves that can receive and respond simultaneously, for example in a group
broadcast. This technique works best when using bus switching devices like the
PCA9546A where all four channels are on and identical devices are configured at the
same time, understanding that it is impossible to determine that each slave
acknowledges, and then turn on one channel at a time to read back each individual
device’s configuration to confirm the programming. Refer to individual component
data sheets.
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S
SLAVE ADDRESS
R/W
A
DATA
A
DATA
A/A
P
data transferred
(n bytes + acknowledge)
'0' (write)
from master to slave
A = acknowledge (SDA LOW)
from slave to master
A = not acknowledge (SDA HIGH)
S = START condition
P = STOP condition
mbc605
Fig 11. A master-transmitter addressing a slave receiver with a 7-bit address
(the transfer direction is not changed)
1
S
SLAVE ADDRESS
R/W
(read)
A
DATA
A
DATA
A
P
data transferred
(n bytes + acknowledge)
mbc606
Fig 12. A master reads a slave immediately after the first byte
S
SLAVE ADDRESS
R/W
A
read or write
DATA A/A Sr SLAVE ADDRESS
R/W
(n bytes
+ ack.)*
DATA A/A
P
(n bytes
+ ack.)*
read or write
* not shaded because
transfer direction of
data and acknowledge bits
depends on R/W bits.
A
Sr = repeated START condition
direction of transfer
may change at this
point.
mbc607
Fig 13. Combined format
3.11 10-bit addressing
10-bit addressing expands the number of possible addresses. Devices with 7-bit and
10-bit addresses can be connected to the same I2C-bus, and both 7-bit and 10-bit
addressing can be used in all bus speed modes. Currently, 10-bit addressing is not being
widely used.
The 10-bit slave address is formed from the first two bytes following a START condition
(S) or a repeated START condition (Sr).
The first seven bits of the first byte are the combination 1111 0XX of which the last two bits
(XX) are the two Most-Significant Bits (MSBs) of the 10-bit address; the eighth bit of the
first byte is the R/W bit that determines the direction of the message.
Although there are eight possible combinations of the reserved address bits 1111 XXX,
only the four combinations 1111 0XX are used for 10-bit addressing. The remaining four
combinations 1111 1XX are reserved for future I2C-bus enhancements.
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All combinations of read/write formats previously described for 7-bit addressing are
possible with 10-bit addressing. Two are detailed here:
• Master-transmitter transmits to slave-receiver with a 10-bit slave address.
The transfer direction is not changed (see Figure 14). When a 10-bit address follows
a START condition, each slave compares the first seven bits of the first byte of the
slave address (1111 0XX) with its own address and tests if the eighth bit (R/W
direction bit) is 0. It is possible that more than one device will find a match and
generate an acknowledge (A1). All slaves that found a match will compare the eight
bits of the second byte of the slave address (XXXX XXXX) with their own addresses,
but only one slave will find a match and generate an acknowledge (A2). The matching
slave will remain addressed by the master until it receives a STOP condition (P) or a
repeated START condition (Sr) followed by a different slave address.
• Master-receiver reads slave-transmitter with a 10-bit slave address.
The transfer direction is changed after the second R/W bit (Figure 15). Up to and
including acknowledge bit A2, the procedure is the same as that described for a
master-transmitter addressing a slave-receiver. After the repeated START condition
(Sr), a matching slave remembers that it was addressed before. This slave then
checks if the first seven bits of the first byte of the slave address following Sr are the
same as they were after the START condition (S), and tests if the eighth (R/W) bit is 1.
If there is a match, the slave considers that it has been addressed as a transmitter
and generates acknowledge A3. The slave-transmitter remains addressed until it
receives a STOP condition (P) or until it receives another repeated START condition
(Sr) followed by a different slave address. After a repeated START condition (Sr), all
the other slave devices will also compare the first seven bits of the first byte of the
slave address (1111 0XX) with their own addresses and test the eighth (R/W) bit.
However, none of them will be addressed because R/W = 1 (for 10-bit devices), or the
1111 0XX slave address (for 7-bit devices) does not match.
1 1 1 1 0 X X
S
0
SLAVE ADDRESS
SLAVE ADDRESS
R/W A1
A2 DATA
1st 7 BITS
2nd BYTE
A
DATA A/A P
mbc613
(write)
Fig 14. A master-transmitter addresses a slave-receiver with a 10-bit address
1 1 1 1 0 X X
0
1 1 1 1 0 X X
SLAVE ADDRESS
SLAVE ADDRESS
R/W A1
A2
S
1st 7 BITS
2nd BYTE
1
SLAVE ADDRESS
Sr
R/W A3 DATA A
1st 7 BITS
(write)
(read)
DATA A
P
mbc614
Fig 15. A master-receiver addresses a slave-transmitter with a 10-bit address
Slave devices with 10-bit addressing will react to a ‘general call’ in the same way as slave
devices with 7-bit addressing. Hardware masters can transmit their 10-bit address after a
‘general call’. In this case, the ‘general call’ address byte is followed by two successive
bytes containing the 10-bit address of the master-transmitter. The format is as shown in
Figure 15 where the first DATA byte contains the eight least-significant bits of the master
address.
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The START byte 0000 0001 (01h) can precede the 10-bit addressing in the same way as
for 7-bit addressing (see Section 3.15).
3.12 Reserved addresses
Two groups of eight addresses (0000 XXX and 1111 XXX) are reserved for the purposes
shown in Table 3.
Table 3.
Reserved addresses
Slave address
R/W bit
Description
0000 000
0
general call address[1]
0000 000
1
START byte[2]
0000 001
X
CBUS address[3]
0000 010
X
reserved for different bus format[4]
0000 011
X
reserved for future purposes
0000 1XX
X
Hs-mode master code
1111 1XX
X
reserved for future purposes
1111 0XX
X
10-bit slave addressing
[1]
The general call address is used for several functions including software reset.
[2]
No device is allowed to acknowledge at the reception of the START byte.
[3]
The CBUS address has been reserved to enable the inter-mixing of CBUS compatible and I2C-bus
compatible devices in the same system. I2C-bus compatible devices are not allowed to respond on
reception of this address.
[4]
The address reserved for a different bus format is included to enable I2C and other protocols to be mixed.
Only I2C-bus compatible devices that can work with such formats and protocols are allowed to respond to
this address.
Assignment of addresses within a local system is up to the system architect who must
take into account the devices being used on the bus and any future interaction with other
conventional I2C-buses. For example, a device with 7 user-assignable address pins
allows all 128 addresses to be assigned. A reserved address can be used for a slave
address if it is known that the reserved address is never going to be used for its intended
purpose.
The I2C-bus committee coordinates allocation of I2C addresses. Further information can
be obtained from the NXP web site www.nxp.com/i2c.
3.13 General call address
The general call address is for addressing every device connected to the I2C-bus at the
same time. However, if a device does not need any of the data supplied within the general
call structure, it can ignore this address by not issuing an acknowledgment. If a device
does require data from a general call address, it will acknowledge this address and
behave as a slave-receiver. The master does not actually know how many devices
acknowledged if one or more devices respond. The second and following bytes will be
acknowledged by every slave-receiver capable of handling this data. A slave who cannot
process one of these bytes must ignore it by not-acknowledging. Again, if one or more
slaves acknowledge, the not-acknowledge will not be seen by the master. The meaning of
the general call address is always specified in the second byte (see Figure 16).
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LSB
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
A X X X X X X X B A
first byte
(general call address)
second byte
mbc623
Fig 16. General call address format
There are two cases to consider:
• When the least significant bit B is a ‘zero’.
• When the least significant bit B is a ‘one’.
When bit B is a ‘zero’; the second byte has the following definition:
• 0000 0110 (06h): Reset and write programmable part of slave address by
hardware. On receiving this 2-byte sequence, all devices designed to respond to the
general call address will reset and take in the programmable part of their address.
Precautions have to be taken to ensure that a device is not pulling down the SDA or
SCL line after applying the supply voltage, since these low levels would block the bus.
• 0000 0100 (04h): Write programmable part of slave address by hardware.
Behaves as above, but the device will not reset.
• 0000 0000 (00h): This code is not allowed to be used as the second byte.
Sequences of programming procedure are published in the appropriate device data
sheets. The remaining codes have not been fixed and devices must ignore them.
When bit B is a ‘one’; the 2-byte sequence is a ‘hardware general call’. This means that
the sequence is transmitted by a hardware master device, such as a keyboard scanner,
which can be programmed to transmit a desired slave address. Since a hardware master
does not know in advance to which device the message has to be transferred, it can only
generate this hardware general call and its own address—identifying itself to the system
(see Figure 17).
S
00000000 A MASTER ADDRESS
1
A DATA A DATA A
P
(B)
general
call address
second
byte
(n bytes + ack.)
mbc624
Fig 17. Data transfer from a hardware master-transmitter
The seven bits remaining in the second byte contain the address of the hardware master.
This address is recognized by an intelligent device (e.g., a microcontroller) connected to
the bus which will then accept the information from the hardware master. If the hardware
master can also act as a slave, the slave address is identical to the master address.
In some systems, an alternative could be that the hardware master transmitter is set in the
slave-receiver mode after the system reset. In this way, a system configuring master can
tell the hardware master-transmitter (which is now in slave-receiver mode) to which
address data must be sent (see Figure 18). After this programming procedure, the
hardware master remains in the master-transmitter mode.
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S
SLAVE ADDR. H/W MASTER R/W A
DUMP ADDR. FOR H/W MASTER X A
write
P
002aac885
a. Configuring master sends dump address to hardware master
S
DUMP ADDR. FROM H/W MASTER R/W A DATA A DATA A/A
write
P
(n bytes + ack.)
002aac886
b. Hardware master dumps data to selected slave
Fig 18. Data transfer by a hardware-transmitter capable of dumping data directly to slave
devices
3.14 Software reset
Following a General Call, (0000 0000), sending 0000 0110 (06h) as the second byte
causes a software reset. This feature is optional and not all devices will respond to this
command. On receiving this 2-byte sequence, all devices designed to respond to the
general call address will reset and take in the programmable part of their address.
Precautions have to be taken to ensure that a device is not pulling down the SDA or SCL
line after applying the supply voltage, since these low levels would block the bus.
3.15 START byte
Microcontrollers can be connected to the I2C-bus in two ways. A microcontroller with an
on-chip hardware I2C-bus interface can be programmed to be only interrupted by requests
from the bus. When the device does not have such an interface, it must constantly monitor
the bus via software. Obviously, the more times the microcontroller monitors, or polls the
bus, the less time it can spend carrying out its intended function.
There is therefore a speed difference between fast hardware devices and a relatively slow
microcontroller which relies on software polling.
In this case, data transfer can be preceded by a start procedure which is much longer than
normal (see Figure 19). The start procedure consists of:
•
•
•
•
A START condition (S)
A START byte (0000 0001)
An acknowledge clock pulse (ACK)
A repeated START condition (Sr).
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dummy
acknowledge
(HIGH)
SDA
1
SCL
2
7
8
9
NACK
S
START byte 0000 0001
Sr
002aac997
Fig 19. START byte procedure
After the START condition S has been transmitted by a master which requires bus access,
the START byte (0000 0001) is transmitted. Another microcontroller can therefore sample
the SDA line at a low sampling rate until one of the seven zeros in the START byte is
detected. After detection of this LOW level on the SDA line, the microcontroller can switch
to a higher sampling rate to find the repeated START condition Sr which is then used for
synchronization.
A hardware receiver will reset on receipt of the repeated START condition Sr and will
therefore ignore the START byte.
An acknowledge-related clock pulse is generated after the START byte. This is present
only to conform with the byte handling format used on the bus. No device is allowed to
acknowledge the START byte.
3.16 Bus clear
In the unlikely event where the clock (SCL) is stuck LOW, the preferential procedure is to
reset the bus using the HW reset signal if your I2C devices have HW reset inputs. If the
I2C devices do not have HW reset inputs, cycle power to the devices to activate the
mandatory internal Power-On Reset (POR) circuit.
If the data line (SDA) is stuck LOW, the master should send 9 clock pulses. The device
that held the bus LOW should release it sometime within those 9 clocks. If not, then use
the HW reset or cycle power to clear the bus.
3.17 Device ID
The Device ID field (see Figure 20) is an optional 3 byte read-only (24 bits) word giving
the following information:
• 12 bits with the manufacturer name, unique per manufacturer (e.g., NXP)
• 9 bits with the part identification, assigned by manufacturer (e.g., PCA9698)
• 3 bits with the die revision, assigned by manufacturer (e.g., RevX)
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manufacturer
0
part identification
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
revision
0
002aab942
Fig 20. Device ID field
The Device ID is read-only, hard-wired in the device and can be accessed as follows:
1. START command
2. The master sends the Reserved Device ID I2C-bus address followed by the R/W bit
set to ‘0’ (write): ‘1111 1000’.
3. The master sends the I2C-bus slave address of the slave device it needs to identify.
The LSB is a ‘Don’t care’ value. Only one device must acknowledge this byte (the one
that has the I2C-bus slave address).
4. The master sends a Re-START command.
Remark: A STOP command followed by a START command will reset the slave state
machine and the Device ID Read cannot be performed. Also, a STOP command or a
Re-START command followed by an access to another slave device will reset the
slave state machine and the Device ID Read cannot be performed.
5. The master sends the Reserved Device ID I2C-bus address followed by the R/W bit
set to ‘1’ (read): ‘1111 1001’.
6. The Device ID Read can be done, starting with the 12 manufacturer bits (first byte +
4 MSBs of the second byte), followed by the 9 part identification bits (4 LSBs of the
second byte + 5 MSBs of the third byte), and then the 3 die revision bits (3 LSBs of
the third byte).
7. The master ends the reading sequence by NACKing the last byte, thus resetting the
slave device state machine and allowing the master to send the STOP command.
Remark: The reading of the Device ID can be stopped anytime by sending a NACK
command.
If the master continues to ACK the bytes after the third byte, the slave rolls back to the first
byte and keeps sending the Device ID sequence until a NACK has been detected.
Designers of new I2C devices who want to implement the device ID feature should contact
NXP at [email protected] to have a unique manufacturer ID assigned.
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4. Other uses of the I2C-bus communications protocol
The I2C-bus is used as the communications protocol for several system architectures.
These architectures have added command sets and application-specific extensions in
addition to the base I2C specification. In general, simple I2C-bus devices such as I/O
extenders could be used in any one of these architectures since the protocol and physical
interfaces are the same.
4.1 CBUS compatibility
CBUS receivers can be connected to the Standard-mode I2C-bus. However, a third bus
line called DLEN must then be connected and the acknowledge bit omitted. Normally, I2C
transmissions are sequences of 8-bit bytes; CBUS compatible devices have different
formats.
In a mixed bus structure, I2C-bus devices must not respond to the CBUS message. For
this reason, a special CBUS address (0000 001X) to which no I2C-bus compatible device
will respond has been reserved. After transmission of the CBUS address, the DLEN line
can be made active and a CBUS-format transmission sent. After the STOP condition, all
devices are again ready to accept data.
Master-transmitters can send CBUS formats after sending the CBUS address. The
transmission is ended by a STOP condition, recognized by all devices.
Remark: If the CBUS configuration is known, and expansion with CBUS compatible
devices is not foreseen, the designer is allowed to adapt the hold time to the specific
requirements of the device(s) used.
4.2 SMBus - System Management Bus
The SMBus uses I2C hardware and I2C hardware addressing, but adds second-level
software for building special systems. In particular its specifications include an Address
Resolution Protocol that can make dynamic address allocations.
Dynamic reconfiguration of the hardware and software allow bus devices to be
‘hot-plugged’ and used immediately, without restarting the system. The devices are
recognized automatically and assigned unique addresses. This advantage results in a
plug-and-play user interface. In both those protocols there is a very useful distinction
made between a System Host and all the other devices in the system that can have the
names and functions of masters or slaves.
SMBus is used today as a system management bus in most PCs. Developed by Intel and
others in 1995, it modified some I2C electrical and software characteristics for better
compatibility with the quickly decreasing power supply budget of portable equipment.
SMBus also has a ‘High Power’ version 2.0 that includes a 4 mA sink current that cannot
be driven by I2C chips unless the pull-up resistor is sized to I2C-bus levels.
4.2.1 I2C/SMBus compliancy
SMBus and I2C protocols are basically the same: A SMBus master will be able to control
I2C devices and vice-versa at the protocol level. The SMBus clock is defined from 10 kHz
to 100 kHz while I2C can be 0 Hz to 100 kHz, 0 Hz to 400 kHz, 0 Hz to 1 MHz and
0 Hz to 3.4 MHz, depending on the mode. This means that an I2C-bus running at less
than 10 kHz will not be SMBus compliant since the SMBus devices may time out.
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Logic levels are slightly different also: TTL for SMBus: LOW = 0.8 V and HIGH = 2.1 V,
versus the 30 %/70 % VDD CMOS level for I2C. This is not a problem if VDD > 3.0 V. If the
I2C device is below 3.0 V, then there could be a problem if the logic HIGH/LOW levels are
not properly recognized.
4.2.2 Time-out feature
SMBus has a time-out feature which resets devices if a communication takes too long.
This explains the minimum clock frequency of 10 kHz to prevent locking up the bus. I2C
can be a ‘DC’ bus, meaning that a slave device stretches the master clock when
performing some routine while the master is accessing it. This will notify to the master that
the slave is busy but does not want to lose the communication. The slave device will allow
continuation after its task is complete. There is no limit in the I2C-bus protocol as to how
long this delay can be, whereas for a SMBus system, it would be limited to 35 ms.
SMBus protocol just assumes that if something takes too long, then it means that there is
a problem on the bus and that all devices must reset in order to clear this mode. Slave
devices are not then allowed to hold the clock LOW too long.
4.2.3 Differences between SMBus 1.0 and SMBus 2.0
The SMBus specification defines two classes of electrical characteristics: low power and
high power. The first class, originally defined in the SMBus 1.0 and 1.1 specifications, was
designed primarily with Smart Batteries in mind, but could be used with other low-power
devices.
The 2.0 version introduces an alternative higher power set of electrical characteristics.
This class is appropriate for use when higher drive capability is required, for example with
SMBus devices on PCI add-in cards and for connecting such cards across the PCI
connector between each other and to SMBus devices on the system board.
Devices may be powered by the bus VDD or by another power source, VBus, (as with, for
example, Smart Batteries) and will inter-operate as long as they adhere to the SMBus
electrical specifications for their class.
NXP devices have a higher power set of electrical characteristics than SMBus 1.0. The
main difference is the current sink capability with VOL = 0.4 V.
• SMBus low power = 350 µA
• SMBus high power = 4 mA
• I2C-bus = 3 mA
SMBus ‘high power’ devices and I2C-bus devices will work together if the pull-up resistor
is sized for 3 mA.
For more information, refer to: www.nxp.com/redirect/smbus.org.
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4.3 PMBus - Power Management Bus
PMBus is a standard way to communicate between power converters and a system host
over the SMBus to provide more intelligent control of the power converters. The PMBus
specification defines a standard set of device commands so that devices from multiple
sources will function identically. PMBus devices will use the SMBus Version 1.1 plus
extensions for transport.
For more information, refer to: www.nxp.com/redirect/pmbus.org.
4.4 Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI)
Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI) defines a standardized, abstracted,
message-based interface for intelligent platform management hardware. IPMI also
defines standardized records for describing platform management devices and their
characteristics. IPMI increases reliability of systems by monitoring parameters such as
temperatures, voltages, fans and chassis intrusion.
IPMI provides general system management functions such as automatic alerting,
automatic system shutdown and re-start, remote re-start and power control. The
standardized interface to intelligent platform management hardware aids in prediction and
early monitoring of hardware failures as well as diagnosis of hardware problems.
This standardized bus and protocol for extending management control, monitoring, and
event delivery within the chassis:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
I2C based
Multi-master
Simple Request/Response Protocol
Uses IPMI Command sets
Supports non-IPMI devices
Physically I2C but write-only (master capable devices); hot swap not required
Enables the Baseboard Management Controller (BMC) to accept IPMI request
messages from other management controllers in the system
• Allows non-intelligent devices as well as management controllers on the bus
• BMC serves as a controller to give system software access to IPMB.
Hardware implementation is isolated from software implementation so that new sensors
and events can then be added without any software changes.
For more information, refer to: www.nxp.com/redirect/intel.com/design/servers/ipmi.
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4.5 Advanced Telecom Computing Architecture (ATCA)
Advanced Telecom Computing Architecture (ATCA) is a follow-on to Compact PCI (cPCI),
providing a standardized form-factor with larger card area, larger pitch and larger power
supply for use in advanced rack-mounted telecom hardware. It includes a fault-tolerant
scheme for thermal management that uses I2C-bus communications between boards.
Advanced Telecom Computing Architecture (ATCA) is being backed by more than
100 companies including many of the large players such as Intel, Lucent, and Motorola.
There are two general compliant approaches to an ATCA compliant fan control: the first is
an Intelligent FRU (Field Replaceable Unit) which means that the fan control would be
directly connected to the IPMB (Intelligent Platform Management Bus); the second is a
Managed or Non-intelligent FRU.
One requirement is the inclusion of hardware and software to manage the dual I2C-buses.
This requires an on-board isolated supply to power the circuitry, a buffered dual I2C-bus
with rise time accelerators, and 3-state capability. The I2C controller must be able to
support a multi-master I2C dual bus and handle the standard set of fan commands
outlined in the protocol. In addition, on-board temperature reporting, tray capability
reporting, fan turn-off capabilities, and non-volatile storage are required.
For more information, refer to: www.nxp.com/redirect/picmg.org/v2internal/newinitiative.
5. Bus speeds
Originally, the I2C-bus was limited to 100 kbit/s operation. Over time there have been
several additions to the specification so that there are now 4 operating speed categories.
All devices are downward-compatible—any device may be operated at a lower bus speed.
•
•
•
•
Standard-mode (Sm), with a bit rate up to 100 kbit/s
Fast-mode (Fm), with a bit rate up to 400 kbit/s
Fast-mode Plus (Fm+), with a bit rate up to 1 Mbit/s
High-speed mode (Hs-mode), with a bit rate up to 3.4 Mbit/s.
5.1 Fast-mode
Fast-mode devices can receive and transmit at up to 400 kbit/s. The minimum
requirement is that they can synchronize with a 400 kbit/s transfer; they can then prolong
the LOW period of the SCL signal to slow down the transfer. The protocol, format, logic
levels and maximum capacitive load for the SDA and SCL lines are the same as the
Standard-mode I2C-bus specification. Fast-mode devices are downward-compatible and
can communicate with Standard-mode devices in a 0 to 100 kbit/s I2C-bus system. As
Standard-mode devices, however, are not upward compatible; they should not be
incorporated in a Fast-mode I2C-bus system as they cannot follow the higher transfer rate
and unpredictable states would occur.
The Fast-mode I2C-bus specification has the following additional features compared with
the Standard-mode:
The maximum bit rate is increased to 400 kbit/s.
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I2C-bus specification and user manual
Timing of the serial data (SDA) and serial clock (SCL) signals has been adapted. There is
no need for compatibility with other bus systems such as CBUS because they cannot
operate at the increased bit rate.
The inputs of Fast-mode devices incorporate spike suppression and a Schmitt trigger at
the SDA and SCL inputs.
The output buffers of Fast-mode devices incorporate slope control of the falling edges of
the SDA and SCL signals.
If the power supply to a Fast-mode device is switched off, the SDA and SCL I/O pins must
be floating so that they do not obstruct the bus lines.
The external pull-up devices connected to the bus lines must be adapted to accommodate
the shorter maximum permissible rise time for the Fast-mode I2C-bus. For bus loads up to
200 pF, the pull-up device for each bus line can be a resistor; for bus loads between
200 pF and 400 pF, the pull-up device can be a current source (3 mA max.) or a switched
resistor circuit (see Section 7.2.4).
5.2 Fast-mode Plus
Fast-mode Plus (Fm+) devices offer an increase in I2C-bus transfer speeds and total bus
capacitance. Fm+ devices can transfer information at bit rates of up to 1 Mbit/s, yet they
remain fully downward compatible with Fast- or Standard-mode devices for bidirectional
communication in a mixed-speed bus system. The same serial bus protocol and data
format is maintained as with the Fast- or Standard-mode system. Fm+ devices also offer
increased drive current over Fast- or Standard-mode devices allowing them to drive
longer and/or more heavily loaded buses so that bus buffers do not need to be used.
The drivers in Fast-mode Plus parts are strong enough to satisfy the Fast-mode Plus
timing specification with the same 400 pF load as Standard-mode parts. They are also
tolerant of the1 µs rise time of Standard-mode parts in order to be backward compatible
with Standard-mode. In applications where only Fast-mode Plus parts are present, the
high drive strength and tolerance for slow rise and fall times allow the use of larger bus
capacitance as long as set-up, minimum LOW time and minimum HIGH time for
Fast-mode Plus are all satisfied and the fall time and rise time do not exceed the 300 ns tf
and 1 µs tr specifications of Standard-mode. Bus speed can be traded against load
capacitance to increase the maximum capacitance by about a factor of 10.
5.3 Hs-mode
High-speed mode (Hs-mode) devices offer a quantum leap in I2C-bus transfer speeds.
Hs-mode devices can transfer information at bit rates of up to 3.4 Mbit/s, yet they remain
fully downward compatible with Fast-mode Plus, Fast- or Standard-mode (F/S) devices for
bidirectional communication in a mixed-speed bus system. With the exception that
arbitration and clock synchronization is not performed during the Hs-mode transfer, the
same serial bus protocol and data format is maintained as with the F/S-mode system.
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5.3.1 High speed transfer
To achieve a bit transfer of up to 3.4 Mbit/s the following improvements have been made
to the regular I2C-bus specification:
• Hs-mode master devices have an open-drain output buffer for the SDAH signal and a
combination of an open-drain pull-down and current-source pull-up circuit on the
SCLH output. This current-source circuit shortens the rise time of the SCLH signal.
Only the current-source of one master is enabled at any one time, and only during
Hs-mode.
• No arbitration or clock synchronization is performed during Hs-mode transfer in
multi-master systems, which speeds-up bit handling capabilities. The arbitration
procedure always finishes after a preceding master code transmission in F/S-mode.
• Hs-mode master devices generate a serial clock signal with a HIGH to LOW ratio of
1 to 2. This relieves the timing requirements for set-up and hold times.
• As an option, Hs-mode master devices can have a built-in bridge. During Hs-mode
transfer, the high-speed data (SDAH) and high-speed serial clock (SCLH) lines of
Hs-mode devices are separated by this bridge from the SDA and SCL lines of
F/S-mode devices. This reduces the capacitive load of the SDAH and SCLH lines
resulting in faster rise and fall times.
• The only difference between Hs-mode slave devices and F/S-mode slave devices is
the speed at which they operate. Hs-mode slaves have open-drain output buffers on
the SCLH and SDAH outputs. Optional pull-down transistors on the SCLH pin can be
used to stretch the LOW level of the SCLH signal, although this is only allowed after
the acknowledge bit in Hs-mode transfers.
• The inputs of Hs-mode devices incorporate spike suppression and a Schmitt trigger at
the SDAH and SCLH inputs.
• The output buffers of Hs-mode devices incorporate slope control of the falling edges
of the SDAH and SCLH signals.
Figure 21 shows the physical I2C-bus configuration in a system with only Hs-mode
devices. Pins SDA and SCL on the master devices are only used in mixed-speed bus
systems and are not connected in an Hs-mode only system. In such cases, these pins can
be used for other functions.
Optional series resistors Rs protect the I/O stages of the I2C-bus devices from
high-voltage spikes on the bus lines and minimize ringing and interference.
Pull-up resistors Rp maintain the SDAH and SCLH lines at a HIGH level when the bus is
free and ensure the signals are pulled up from a LOW to a HIGH level within the required
rise time. For higher capacitive bus-line loads (>100 pF), the resistor Rp can be replaced
by external current source pull-ups to meet the rise time requirements. Unless proceeded
by an acknowledge bit, the rise time of the SCLH clock pulses in Hs-mode transfers is
shortened by the internal current-source pull-up circuit MCS of the active master.
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VDD
Rp
Rp
SDAH
SCLH
Rs
Rs
Rs
Rs
Rs
Rs
Rs
(1)
SDAH
(2)
SCLH
(2)
SDAH
SCLH
SDAH
SCLH
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
SDA
(1)
SCL
(1)
SDAH
SCLH
(2)
(2)
MCS
(4)
(4)
Rs
SDA
SCL
MCS
(3)
(3)
VDD
VSS
VSS
SLAVE
SLAVE
VSS
(1)
VDD
VSS
MASTER/SLAVE
MASTER/SLAVE
msc612
(1) SDA and SCL are not used here but may be used for other functions.
(2) To input filter.
(3) Only the active master can enable its current-source pull-up circuit.
(4) Dotted transistors are optional open-drain outputs which can stretch the serial clock signal SCLH.
Fig 21. I2C-bus configuration with Hs-mode devices only
5.3.2 Serial data format in Hs-mode
Serial data transfer format in Hs-mode meets the Standard-mode I2C-bus specification.
Hs-mode can only commence after the following conditions (all of which are in F/S-mode):
1. START condition (S)
2. 8-bit master code (0000 1XXX)
3. Not-acknowledge bit (A)
Figure 22 and Figure 23 show this in more detail. This master code has two main
functions:
• It allows arbitration and synchronization between competing masters at F/S-mode
speeds, resulting in one winning master.
• It indicates the beginning of an Hs-mode transfer.
Hs-mode master codes are reserved 8-bit codes, which are not used for slave addressing
or other purposes. Furthermore, as each master has its own unique master code, up to
eight Hs-mode masters can be present on the one I2C-bus system (although master code
0000 1000 should be reserved for test and diagnostic purposes). The master code for an
Hs-mode master device is software programmable and is chosen by the System
Designer.
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Arbitration and clock synchronization only take place during the transmission of the
master code and not-acknowledge bit (A), after which one winning master remains active.
The master code indicates to other devices that an Hs-mode transfer is to begin and the
connected devices must meet the Hs-mode specification. As no device is allowed to
acknowledge the master code, the master code is followed by a not-acknowledge (A).
After the not-acknowledge bit (A), and the SCLH line has been pulled-up to a HIGH level,
the active master switches to Hs-mode and enables (at time tH, see Figure 23) the
current-source pull-up circuit for the SCLH signal. As other devices can delay the serial
transfer before tH by stretching the LOW period of the SCLH signal, the active master will
enable its current-source pull-up circuit when all devices have released the SCLH line and
the SCLH signal has reached a HIGH level, thus speeding up the last part of the rise time
of the SCLH signal.
The active master then sends a repeated START condition (Sr) followed by a 7-bit slave
address (or 10-bit slave address, see Section 3.11) with a R/W bit address, and receives
an acknowledge bit (A) from the selected slave.
After a repeated START condition and after each acknowledge bit (A) or not-acknowledge
bit (A), the active master disables its current-source pull-up circuit. This enables other
devices to delay the serial transfer by stretching the LOW period of the SCLH signal. The
active master re-enables its current-source pull-up circuit again when all devices have
released and the SCLH signal reaches a HIGH level, and so speeds up the last part of the
SCLH signal’s rise time.
Data transfer continues in Hs-mode after the next repeated START (Sr), and only
switches back to F/S-mode after a STOP condition (P). To reduce the overhead of the
master code, it is possible that a master links a number of Hs-mode transfers, separated
by repeated START conditions (Sr).
Hs-mode (current-source for SCLH enabled)
F/S-mode
S
MASTER CODE
A
Sr
SLAVE ADD. R/W
A
DATA
F/S-mode
A/A P
(n bytes + ack.)
Hs-mode continues
Sr SLAVE ADD.
msc616
Fig 22. Data transfer format in Hs-mode
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A
8-bit Master code 00001xxx
S
t1
tH
SDAH
SCLH
1
2 to 5
6
7
8
9
Fs mode
R/W
7-bit SLA
Sr
n + (8-bit DATA
A
+
A/A)
Sr P
SDAH
SCLH
1
2 to 5
6
7
8
9
1
2 to 5
6
7
8
9
If P then
Fs mode
Hs-mode
If Sr (dotted lines)
then Hs mode
tH
tFS
= MCS current source pull-up
msc618
= Rp resistor pull-up
Fig 23. A complete Hs-mode transfer
5.3.3 Switching from F/S-mode to Hs-mode and back
After reset and initialization, Hs-mode devices must be in Fast-mode (which is in effect
F/S-mode, as Fast-mode is downward compatible with Standard-mode). Each Hs-mode
device can switch from Fast-mode to Hs-mode and back and is controlled by the serial
transfer on the I2C-bus.
Before time t1 in Figure 23, each connected device operates in Fast-mode. Between times
t1 and tH (this time interval can be stretched by any device) each connected device must
recognize the ‘S 00001XXX A’ sequence and has to switch its internal circuit from the
Fast-mode setting to the Hs-mode setting. Between times t1 and tH the connected master
and slave devices perform this switching by the following actions.
The active (winning) master:
1. Adapts its SDAH and SCLH input filters according to the spike suppression
requirement in Hs-mode.
2. Adapts the set-up and hold times according to the Hs-mode requirements.
3. Adapts the slope control of its SDAH and SCLH output stages according to the
Hs-mode requirement.
4. Switches to the Hs-mode bit-rate, which is required after time tH.
5. Enables the current source pull-up circuit of its SCLH output stage at time tH.
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The non-active, or losing masters:
1. Adapt their SDAH and SCLH input filters according to the spike suppression
requirement in Hs-mode.
2. Wait for a STOP condition to detect when the bus is free again.
All slaves:
1. Adapt their SDAH and SCLH input filters according to the spike suppression
requirement in Hs-mode.
2. Adapt the set-up and hold times according to the Hs-mode requirements. This
requirement may already be fulfilled by the adaptation of the input filters.
3. Adapt the slope control of their SDAH output stages, if necessary. For slave devices,
slope control is applicable for the SDAH output stage only and, depending on circuit
tolerances, both the Fast-mode and Hs-mode requirements may be fulfilled without
switching its internal circuit.
At time tFS in Figure 23, each connected device must recognize the STOP condition (P)
and switch its internal circuit from the Hs-mode setting back to the Fast-mode setting as
present before time t1. This must be completed within the minimum bus free time as
specified in Table 6 according to the Fast-mode specification.
5.3.4 Hs-mode devices at lower speed modes
Hs-mode devices are fully downwards compatible, and can be connected to an F/S-mode
I2C-bus system (see Figure 24). As no master code will be transmitted in such a
configuration, all Hs-mode master devices stay in F/S-mode and communicate at
F/S-mode speeds with their current-source disabled. The SDAH and SCLH pins are used
to connect to the F/S-mode bus system, allowing the SDA and SCL pins (if present) on the
Hs-mode master device to be used for other functions.
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VDD
Rp
Rp
SDA
SCL
Rs
Rs
Rs
Rs
Rs
Rs
Rs
SDAH
(2)
SCLH
SDAH
(2)
(2)
SCLH
SDAH
(2)
(4)
(2)
SCLH
SDA
Rs
Rs
SCL
(2)
SDA
(2)
SCL
(2)
SDA
(2)
SCL
(2)
(3)
(4)
Rs
(1)
(1)
(4)
VDD
VSS
VSS
Hs-mode
SLAVE
Hs-mode
SLAVE
VSS
VSS
Hs-mode
MASTER/SLAVE
F/S-mode
MASTER/SLAVE
VSS
F/S-mode
SLAVE
msc613
(1) Bridge not used. SDA and SCL may have an alternative function.
(2) To input filter.
(3) The current-source pull-up circuit stays disabled.
(4) Dotted transistors are optional open-drain outputs which can stretch the serial clock signal SCL.
Fig 24. Hs-mode devices at F/S-mode speed
5.3.5 Mixed speed modes on one serial bus system
If a system has a combination of Hs-mode, Fast-mode and/or Standard-mode devices,
it is possible, by using an interconnection bridge, to have different bit rates between
different devices (see Figure 25 and Figure 26).
One bridge is required to connect/disconnect an Hs-mode section to/from an F/S-mode
section at the appropriate time. This bridge includes a level shift function that allows
devices with different supply voltages to be connected. For example F/S-mode devices
with a VDD2 of 5 V can be connected to Hs-mode devices with a VDD1 of 3 V or less (i.e.,
where VDD2 ≥ VDD1), provided SDA and SCL pins are 5 V tolerant. This bridge is
incorporated in Hs-mode master devices and is completely controlled by the serial signals
SDAH, SCLH, SDA and SCL. Such a bridge can be implemented in any IC as an
autonomous circuit.
TR1, TR2 and TR3 are N-channel transistors. TR1 and TR2 have a transfer gate function,
and TR3 is an open-drain pull-down stage. If TR1 or TR2 are switched on they transfer a
LOW level in both directions, otherwise when both the drain and source rise to a HIGH
level there will be a high-impedance between the drain and source of each switched-on
transistor. In the latter case, the transistors will act as a level shifter as SDAH and SCLH
will be pulled-up to VDD1 and SDA and SCL will be pulled-up to VDD2.
During F/S-mode speed, a bridge on one of the Hs-mode masters connects the SDAH
and SCLH lines to the corresponding SDA and SCL lines thus permitting Hs-mode
devices to communicate with F/S-mode devices at slower speeds. Arbitration and
synchronization is possible during the total F/S-mode transfer between all connected
devices as described in Section 3.7. During Hs-mode transfer, however, the bridge opens
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to separate the two bus sections and allows Hs-mode devices to communicate with each
other at 3.4 Mbit/s. Arbitration between Hs-mode devices and F/S-mode devices is only
performed during the master code (0000 1XXX), and normally won by one Hs-mode
master as no slave address has four leading zeros. Other masters can win the arbitration
only if they send a reserved 8-bit code (0000 0XXX). In such cases, the bridge remains
closed and the transfer proceeds in F/S-mode. Table 4 gives the possible communication
speeds in such a system.
VDD2
VDD1
Rp
Rp
Rp
BRIDGE
SDAH
Rs
SDAH
TR1
SDA
SCLH
Rs
SCLH
TR2
SCL
(1)
(1)
Rs
Rs
Rs
Rs
Rs
SDAH
SCLH
SDAH
SCLH
SDAH
SCLH
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
Rs
SDA
VSS
SCL
(2)
(4)
(2)
VSS
Hs-mode
SLAVE
Hs-mode
SLAVE
(2)
Rs
SDA
(2)
Rs
SCL
(2)
MCS
(3)
VSS
(4)
(3)
VDD
VSS
Rs
SCL
SDA
(2)
MCS
(4)
Rs
TR3
Rp
VDD
VSS
Hs-mode
MASTER/SLAVE
VSS
Hs-mode
MASTER/SLAVE
VSS
F/S-mode
MASTER/SLAVE
F/S-mode
SLAVE
msc614
(1) Bridge not used. SDA and SCL may have an alternative function.
(2) To input filter.
(3) Only the active master can enable its current-source pull-up circuit.
(4) Dotted transistors are optional open-drain outputs which can stretch the serial clock signal SCL or SCLH.
Fig 25. Bus system with transfer at Hs-mode and F/S-mode speeds
Table 4.
Communication bit rates in a mixed-speed bus system
Transfer between
Serial bus system configuration
Hs + Fast +
Standard
Hs + Fast
Hs + Standard
Fast + Standard
Hs ↔ Hs
0 to 3.4 Mbit/s
0 to 3.4 Mbit/s
0 to 3.4 Mbit/s
-
Hs ↔ Fast
0 to 100 kbit/s
0 to 400 kbit/s
-
-
Hs ↔ Standard
0 to 100 kbit/s
-
0 to 100 kbit/s
-
Fast ↔ Standard
0 to 100 kbit/s
-
-
0 to 100 kbit/s
Fast ↔ Fast
0 to 100 kbit/s
0 to 400 kbit/s
-
0 to 100 kbit/s
-
0 to 100 kbit/s
0 to 100 kbit/s
Standard ↔ Standard 0 to 100 kbit/s
Remark: Table 4 assumes that the Hs devices are isolated from the Fm and Sm devices
when operating at 3.4 Mbit/s. The bus speed is always constrained to the maximum
communication rate of the slowest device attached to the bus.
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5.3.6 Standard, Fast-mode and Fast-mode Plus transfer in a mixed-speed bus
system
The bridge shown in Figure 25 interconnects corresponding serial bus lines, forming one
serial bus system. As no master code (0000 1XXX) is transmitted, the current-source
pull-up circuits stay disabled and all output stages are open-drain. All devices, including
Hs-mode devices, communicate with each other according the protocol, format and speed
of the F/S-mode I2C-bus specification.
5.3.7 Hs-mode transfer in a mixed-speed bus system
Figure 26 shows the timing diagram of a complete Hs-mode transfer, which is invoked by
a START condition, a master code, and a not-acknowledge A (at F/S-mode speed).
Although this timing diagram is split in two parts, it should be viewed as one timing
diagram were time point tH is a common point for both parts.
The master code is recognized by the bridge in the active or non-active master (see
Figure 25). The bridge performs the following actions:
1. Between t1 and tH (see Figure 26), transistor TR1 opens to separate the SDAH and
SDA lines, after which transistor TR3 closes to pull-down the SDA line to VSS.
2. When both SCLH and SCL become HIGH (tH in Figure 26), transistor TR2 opens to
separate the SCLH and SCL lines. TR2 must be opened before SCLH goes LOW
after Sr.
Hs-mode transfer starts after tH with a repeated START condition (Sr). During Hs-mode
transfer, the SCL line stays at a HIGH and the SDA line at a LOW steady-state level, and
so is prepared for the transfer of a STOP condition (P).
After each acknowledge (A) or not-acknowledge bit (A), the active master disables its
current-source pull-up circuit. This enables other devices to delay the serial transfer by
stretching the LOW period of the SCLH signal. The active master re-enables its
current-source pull-up circuit again when all devices are released and the SCLH signal
reaches a HIGH level, and so speeds up the last part of the SCLH signal’s rise time. In
irregular situations, F/S-mode devices can close the bridge (TR1 and TR2 closed, TR3
open) at any time by pulling down the SCL line for at least 1 µs, e.g., to recover from a bus
hang-up.
Hs-mode finishes with a STOP condition and brings the bus system back into the
F/S-mode. The active master disables its current-source MCS when the STOP condition
(P) at SDAH is detected (tFS in Figure 26). The bridge also recognizes this STOP
condition and takes the following actions:
1. Transistor TR2 closes after tFS to connect SCLH with SCL; both of which are HIGH at
this time. Transistor TR3 opens after tFS, which releases the SDA line and allows it to
be pulled HIGH by the pull-up resistor Rp. This is the STOP condition for the
F/S-mode devices. TR3 must open fast enough to ensure the bus free time between
the STOP condition and the earliest next START condition is according to the
Fast-mode specification (see tBUF in Table 6).
2. When SDA reaches a HIGH (t2 in Figure 26) transistor TR1 closes to connect SDAH
with SDA. (Note: interconnections are made when all lines are HIGH, thus preventing
spikes on the bus lines.) TR1 and TR2 must be closed within the minimum bus free
time according to the Fast-mode specification (see tBUF in Table 6).
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8-bit Master code 00001xxx
S
A
t1
tH
SDAH
SCLH
1
2 to 5
6
7
8
9
1
2 to 5
6
7
8
9
SDA
SCL
F/S mode
R/W
7-bit SLA
Sr
n × (8-bit DATA
A
+
A/A)
Sr P
SDAH
SCLH
1
2 to 5
6
7
8
9
1
2 to 5
6
7
8
9
P
SDA
t2
SCL
If P then
F/S mode
Hs-mode
If Sr (dotted lines)
then Hs-mode
tH
tFS
mcs611
= MCS current source pull-up
= Rp resistor pull-up
Fig 26. A complete Hs-mode transfer in a mixed-speed bus system
5.3.8 Timing requirements for the bridge in a mixed-speed bus system
It can be seen from Figure 26 that the actions of the bridge at t1, tH and tFS must be so fast
that it does not affect the SDAH and SCLH lines. Furthermore the bridge must meet the
related timing requirements of the Fast-mode specification for the SDA and SCL lines.
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6. Electrical specifications and timing for I/O stages and bus lines
6.1 Standard-, Fast-, and Fast-mode Plus devices
The I/O levels, I/O current, spike suppression, output slope control and pin capacitance
are given in Table 5. The I2C-bus timing characteristics, bus-line capacitance and noise
margin are given in Table 6. Figure 27 shows the timing definitions for the I2C-bus.
The minimum HIGH and LOW periods of the SCL clock specified in Table 6 determine the
maximum bit transfer rates of 100 kbit/s for Standard-mode devices, 400 kbit/s for
Fast-mode devices, and 1000 kbits/s for Fast-mode Plus. Devices must be able to follow
transfers at their own maximum bit rates, either by being able to transmit or receive at that
speed or by applying the clock synchronization procedure described in Section 3.7 which
will force the master into a wait state and stretch the LOW period of the SCL signal. Of
course, in the latter case the bit transfer rate is reduced.
Table 5.
Characteristics of the SDA and SCL I/O stages
n/a = not applicable.
Symbol
Parameter
Conditions
LOW-level input
voltage[1]
VIH
HIGH-level input
voltage[1]
Vhys
hysteresis of Schmitt trigger
inputs
VIL
Standard-mode
Fast-mode
Fast-mode Plus
Unit
Min
Max
Min
Max
Min
Max
−0.5
0.3VDD
−0.5
0.3VDD
−0.5
0.7VDD
[2]
0.7VDD
[2]
0.7VDD[1]
[2]
V
VDD > 2 V
n/a
n/a
0.05VDD
-
0.05VDD
-
V
VDD < 2 V
n/a
n/a
0.1VDD
-
0.1VDD
-
V
0.4
V
0.3VDD V
VOL1
LOW-level output voltage
VDD > 2 V
(open-drain or open-collector)
at 3 mA sink current
0
0.4
0
0.4
0
VOL3
LOW-level output voltage
VDD < 2 V
(open-drain or open-collector)
at 3 mA sink current
n/a
n/a
0
0.2VDD
0
IOL
LOW-level output current
3
n/a
3
n/a
20
n/a
mA
n/a
n/a
6
-
n/a
n/a
mA
-
250[4]
20 +
0.1Cb[3]
250[4]
-
120[7]
ns
n/a
n/a
0
50[6]
0
50[6]
ns
−10
+10
−10[5]
+10[5]
−10[5]
+10[5]
µA
-
10
-
10
-
10
pF
VOL = 0.4 V
VOL = 0.6
tof
output fall time from VIHmax to
VILmax
tSP
pulse width of spikes that
must be suppressed by the
input filter
Ii
input current each I/O pin
Ci
capacitance for each I/O pin[8]
[1]
V[9]
0.1VDD < VI
< 0.9VDDmax
0.2VDD V
Some legacy Standard-mode devices had fixed input levels of VIL = 1.5 V and VIH = 3.0 V. Refer to component data sheets.
[2]
Maximum VIH = VDD(max) + 0.5 V or 5.5 V, which ever is lower. See component data sheets.
[3]
Cb = capacitance of one bus line in pF.
[4]
The maximum tf for the SDA and SCL bus lines quoted in Table 6 (300 ns) is longer than the specified maximum tof for the output stages
(250 ns). This allows series protection resistors (Rs) to be connected between the SDA/SCL pins and the SDA/SCL bus lines as shown
in Figure 33 without exceeding the maximum specified tf.
[5]
I/O pins of Fast-mode and Fast-mode Plus devices must not obstruct the SDA and SCL lines if VDD is switched off.
[6]
Input filters on the SDA and SCL inputs suppress noise spikes of less than 50 ns.
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[7]
In Fast-mode Plus, fall time is specified the same for both output stage and bus timing. If series resistors are used, designers should
allow for this when considering bus timing.
[8]
Special purpose devices such as multiplexers and switches may exceed this capacitance due to the fact that they connect multiple
paths together.
[9]
In order to drive full bus load at 400 kHz, 6 mA IOL is required at 0.6 V VOL. Parts not meeting this specification can still function, but not
at 400 kHz and 400 pF.
Characteristics of the SDA and SCL bus lines for Standard, Fast, and Fast-mode Plus I2C-bus devices[1]
Table 6.
Symbol
Parameter
fSCL
SCL clock frequency
tHD;STA
hold time (repeated)
START condition
tLOW
Conditions
Standard-mode
Fast-mode
Fast-mode Plus Unit
Min
Max
Min
Max
Min
Max
0
100
0
400
0
1000
4.0
-
0.6
-
0.26
-
µs
LOW period of the SCL
clock
4.7
-
1.3
-
0.5
-
µs
tHIGH
HIGH period of the SCL
clock
4.0
-
0.6
-
0.26
-
µs
tSU;STA
set-up time for a repeated
START condition
4.7
-
0.6
-
0.26
-
µs
tHD;DAT
data hold time[2]
CBUS compatible
masters (see
Remark in
Section 4.1)
5.0
-
-
-
-
-
µs
I2C-bus devices
0[3]
-[4]
0[3]
-[4]
0
-
µs
After this period, the
first clock pulse is
generated.
kHz
tSU;DAT
data set-up time
250
-
100[5]
-
50
-
ns
tr
rise time of both SDA and
SCL signals
-
1000
20 +
0.1Cb[6]
300
-
120
ns
tf
fall time of both SDA and
SCL signals[3][6][7][8]
-
300
20 +
0.1Cb[6]
300
-
120[8]
ns
tSU;STO
set-up time for STOP
condition
4.0
-
0.6
-
0.26
-
µs
tBUF
bus free time between a
STOP and START
condition
4.7
-
1.3
-
0.5
-
µs
Cb
capacitive load for each
bus line[9]
-
400
-
400
-
550
pF
tVD;DAT
data valid time[10]
-
3.45[4]
-
0.9[4]
-
0.45[4]
µs
tVD;ACK
data valid acknowledge
time[11]
-
3.45[4]
-
0.9[4]
-
0.45[4]
µs
VnL
noise margin at the LOW
level
for each connected
device (including
hysteresis)
0.1VDD
-
0.1VDD
-
0.1VDD
-
V
VnH
noise margin at the HIGH
level
for each connected
device (including
hysteresis)
0.2VDD
-
0.2VDD
-
0.2VDD
-
V
[1]
All values referred to VIH(min) (0.3VDD) and VIL(max) (0.7VDD) levels (see Table 5).
[2]
tHD;DAT is the data hold time that is measured from the falling edge of SCL, applies to data in transmission and the acknowledge.
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[3]
A device must internally provide a hold time of at least 300 ns for the SDA signal (with respect to the VIH(min) of the SCL signal) to bridge
the undefined region of the falling edge of SCL.
[4]
The maximum tHD;DAT could be 3.45 µs and 0.9 µs for Standard-mode and Fast-mode, but must be less than the maximum of tVD;DAT or
tVD;ACK by a transition time. This maximum must only be met if the device does not stretch the LOW period (tLOW) of the SCL signal. If
the clock stretches the SCL, the data must be valid by the set-up time before it releases the clock.
[5]
A Fast-mode I2C-bus device can be used in a Standard-mode I2C-bus system, but the requirement tSU;DAT 250 ns must then be met.
This will automatically be the case if the device does not stretch the LOW period of the SCL signal. If such a device does stretch the
LOW period of the SCL signal, it must output the next data bit to the SDA line tr(max) + tSU;DAT = 1000 + 250 = 1250 ns (according to the
Standard-mode I2C-bus specification) before the SCL line is released. Also the acknowledge timing must meet this set-up time.
[6]
Cb = total capacitance of one bus line in pF. If mixed with Hs-mode devices, faster fall times according to Table 6 are allowed.
[7]
The maximum tf for the SDA and SCL bus lines is specified at 300 ns. The maximum fall time for the SDA output stage tf is specified at
250 ns. This allows series protection resistors to be connected in between the SDA and the SCL pins and the SDA/SCL bus lines
without exceeding the maximum specified tf.
[8]
In Fast-mode Plus, fall time is specified the same for both output stage and bus timing. If series resistors are used, designers should
allow for this when considering bus timing.
[9]
The maximum bus capacitance allowable may vary from this value depending on the actual operating voltage and frequency of the
application. Section 7.2 discusses techniques for coping with higher bus capacitances.
[10] tVD;DAT = time for data signal from SCL LOW to SDA output (HIGH or LOW, depending on which one is worse).
[11] tVD;ACK = time for Acknowledgement signal from SCL LOW to SDA output (HIGH or LOW, depending on which one is worse).
tf
SDA
tr
tSU;DAT
70 %
30 %
70 %
30 %
cont.
tHD;DAT
tf
tVD;DAT
tHIGH
tr
70 %
30 %
SCL
70 %
30 %
70 %
30 %
tHD;STA
70 %
30 %
cont.
tLOW
9th clock
1 / fSCL
S
1st clock cycle
tBUF
SDA
tSU;STA
tHD;STA
tVD;ACK
tSP
tSU;STO
70 %
30 %
SCL
Sr
P
9th clock
S
002aac938
VIL = 0.3VDD
VIH = 0.7VDD
Fig 27. Definition of timing for F/S-mode devices on the I2C-bus
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6.2 Hs-mode devices
The I/O levels, I/O current, spike suppression, output slope control and pin capacitance for
I2C-bus Hs-mode devices are given in Table 7. The noise margin for HIGH and LOW
levels on the bus lines are the same as specified for F/S-mode I2C-bus devices.
Figure 28 shows all timing parameters for the Hs-mode timing. The ‘normal’ START
condition S does not exist in Hs-mode. Timing parameters for Address bits, R/W bit,
Acknowledge bit and DATA bits are all the same. Only the rising edge of the first SCLH
clock signal after an acknowledge bit has a larger value because the external Rp has to
pull-up SCLH without the help of the internal current-source.
The Hs-mode timing parameters for the bus lines are specified in Table 8. The minimum
HIGH and LOW periods and the maximum rise and fall times of the SCLH clock signal
determine the highest bit rate.
With an internally generated SCLH signal with LOW and HIGH level periods of 200 ns and
100 ns respectively, an Hs-mode master fulfills the timing requirements for the external
SCLH clock pulses (taking the rise and fall times into account) for the maximum bit rate of
3.4 Mbit/s. So a basic frequency of 10 MHz, or a multiple of 10 MHz, can be used by an
Hs-mode master to generate the SCLH signal. There are no limits for maximum HIGH and
LOW periods of the SCLH clock, and there is no limit for a lowest bit rate.
Timing parameters are independent for capacitive load up to 100 pF for each bus line
allowing the maximum possible bit rate of 3.4 Mbit/s. At a higher capacitive load on the
bus lines, the bit rate decreases gradually. The timing parameters for a capacitive bus
load of 400 pF are specified in Table 8, allowing a maximum bit rate of 1.7 Mbit/s. For
capacitive bus loads between 100 pF and 400 pF, the timing parameters must be
interpolated linearly. Rise and fall times are in accordance with the maximum propagation
time of the transmission lines SDAH and SCLH to prevent reflections of the open ends.
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Table 7.
Characteristics of the SDAH, SCLH, SDA and SCL I/O stages for Hs-mode I2C-bus devices
Symbol
Parameter
Min
Max
VIL
LOW-level input voltage
−0.5
0.3VDD[1]
HIGH-level input voltage
0.7VDD[1]
VDD +
Vhys
hysteresis of Schmitt trigger inputs
0.1VDD[1]
-
V
VOL
LOW-level output voltage
VDD > 2 V
(open-drain) at 3 mA sink current at V < 2 V
DD
SDAH, SDA and SCLH
0
0.4
V
0
0.2VDD
V
RonL
transfer gate on resistance for
currents between SDA and SDAH,
or SCL and SCLH
-
50
Ω
RonH[2]
transfer gate on resistance between both signals (SDA and SDAH, or SCL
SDA and SDAH, or SCL and SCLH and SCLH) at VDD level
50
-
kΩ
ICS
pull-up current of the SCLH
current-source
SCLH output levels between 0.3VDD and
0.7VDD
3
12
mA
trCL
rise time of SCLH signal
output rise time (current-source enabled)
with an external pull-up current source of
3 mA
10
40
ns
20
80
ns
10
40
ns
20
80
ns
VIH
Conditions
Hs-mode
VOL level; IOL = 3 mA
capacitive load from 10 pF to 100 pF
capacitive load of 400
fall time of SCLH signal
tfCL
pF[3]
capacitive load of 400
fall time of SDAH signal
0.5[2]
V
V
output fall time (current-source enabled)
with an external pull-up current source of
3 mA
capacitive load from 10 pF to 100 pF
tfDA
Unit
pF[3]
capacitive load from 10 pF to 100 pF
10
80
ns
capacitive load of 400 pF[3]
20
160
ns
tSP
pulse width of spikes that must be
suppressed by the input filter
SDAH and SCLH
0
10
ns
Ii[4]
input current each I/O pin
input voltage between 0.1VDD and
0.9VDD
-
10
µA
Ci
capacitance for each I/O pin[5]
-
10
pF
[1]
Devices that use non-standard supply voltages which do not conform to the intended I2C-bus system levels must relate their input levels
to the VDD voltage to which the pull-up resistors Rp are connected.
[2]
Devices that offer the level shift function must tolerate a maximum input voltage of 5.5 V at SDA and SCL.
[3]
For capacitive bus loads between 100 pF and 400 pF, the rise and fall time values must be linearly interpolated.
[4]
SDAH and SCLH I/O stages of Hs-mode slave devices must have floating outputs if their supply voltage has been switched off. Due to
the current-source output circuit, which normally has a clipping diode to VDD, this requirement is not mandatory for the SCLH or the
SDAH I/O stage of Hs-mode master devices. This means that the supply voltage of Hs-mode master devices cannot be switched off
without affecting the SDAH and SCLH lines.
[5]
Special purpose devices such as multiplexers and switches may exceed this capacitance due to the fact that they connect multiple
paths together.
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Table 8.
Characteristics of the SDAH, SCLH, SDA and SCL bus lines for Hs-mode I2C-bus devices[1]
Symbol
Parameter
fSCLH
SCLH clock frequency
tSU;STA
Conditions
Cb = 100 pF (max)
Cb = 400 pF[2]
Unit
Min
Max
Min
Max
0
3.4
0
1.7
set-up time for a repeated
START condition
160
-
160
-
ns
tHD;STA
hold time (repeated) START
condition
160
-
160
-
ns
tLOW
LOW period of the SCL clock
160
-
320
-
ns
tHIGH
HIGH period of the SCL clock
60
-
120
-
ns
tSU;DAT
data set-up time
10
-
10
-
ns
tHD;DAT
data hold time
0[3]
70
0[3]
150
ns
trCL
rise time of SCLH signal
10
40
20
80
ns
trCL1
rise time of SCLH signal after a
repeated START condition and
after an acknowledge bit
10
80
20
160
ns
tfCL
fall time of SCLH signal
10
40
20
80
ns
trDA
rise time of SDAH signal
10
80
20
160
ns
tfDA
fall time of SDAH signal
10
80
20
160
ns
tSU;STO
set-up time for STOP condition
160
-
160
-
ns
capacitive load for each bus line SDAH and SCLH lines
-
100
-
400
pF
SDAH + SDA line and
SCLH + SCL line
-
400
-
400
pF
Cb
[2]
MHz
VnL
noise margin at the LOW level
for each connected device
(including hysteresis)
0.1VDD
-
0.1VDD
-
V
VnH
noise margin at the HIGH level
for each connected device
(including hysteresis)
0.2VDD
-
0.2VDD
-
V
[1]
All values referred to VIH(min) and VIL(max) levels (see Table 7).
[2]
For bus line loads Cb between 100 pF and 400 pF the timing parameters must be linearly interpolated.
[3]
A device must internally provide a data hold time to bridge the undefined part between VIH and VIL of the falling edge of the SCLH signal.
An input circuit with a threshold as low as possible for the falling edge of the SCLH signal minimizes this hold time.
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Sr
Sr
trDA
tfDA
P
SDAH
tHD;DAT
tSU;STO
tSU;STA
tHD;STA
tSU;DAT
SCLH
tfCL
trCL1
(1)
trCL1
trCL
tHIGH
tLOW
tLOW
(1)
tHIGH
mgk871
= MCS current source pull-up
= Rp resistor pull-up
(1) First rising edge of the SCLH signal after Sr and after each acknowledge bit.
Fig 28. Definition of timing for Hs-mode devices on the I2C-bus
7. Electrical connections of I2C-bus devices to the bus lines
7.1 Pull-up resistor sizing
The bus capacitance is the total capacitance of wire, connections and pins. This
capacitance limits the maximum value of Rp due to the specified rise time. Figure 29
shows Rp(max) as a function of bus capacitance.
Consider the VDD related input threshold of VIH = 0.7VDD and VIL = 0.3VDD for the
purposes of RC time constant calculation. Then V(t) = VDD (1 − e−t / RC), where t is the
time since the charging started and RC is the time constant.
V(t1) = 0.3 × VDD = VDD (1 − e−t1 / RC); then t1 = 0.3566749 × RC
V(t2) = 0.7 × VDD = VDD (1 − e−t2 / RC); then t2 = 1.2039729 × RC
T = t2 − t1 = 0.8473 × RC
Figure 29 and Equation 1 shows maximum Rp as a function of bus capacitance for
Standard-, Fast- and Fast-mode Plus. For each mode, the Rp(max) is a function of the rise
time minimum (tr) from Table 6 and the estimated bus capacitance (Cb):
tr
R p ( max ) = ---------------------------0.8473 × C b
(1)
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002aac883
20
Rp(max)
(kΩ)
16
(1)
002aac884
4
Rp(min)
(kΩ)
3
12
2
8
(2)
(1)
1
4
(3)
(2)
0
0
200
400
600
Cb (pF)
0
0
5
10
15
20
VDD (V)
(1) Standard-mode
(1) Fast-mode and Standard-mode
(2) Fast-mode
(2) Fast-mode Plus
(3) Fast-mode Plus
Fig 29. Rp(max) as a function of bus capacitance
Fig 30. Rp(min) as a function of VDD
The supply voltage limits the minimum value of resistor Rp due to the specified minimum
sink current of 3 mA for Standard-mode and Fast-mode, or 20 mA for Fast-mode Plus.
Rp(min) as a function of VDD is shown in Figure 30. The traces are calculated using
Equation 2:
V DD – V OL ( max )
R p ( min ) = -------------------------------------I OL
(2)
The designer now has the minimum and maximum value of Rp that is required to meet the
timing specification. Portable designs with sensitivity to supply current consumption can
use a value toward the higher end of the range in order to limit IDD.
7.2 Operating above the maximum allowable bus capacitance
Bus capacitance limit is specified to limit rise time reductions and allow operating at the
rated frequency. While the majority of designs can easily stay within this limit, some
applications may exceed it. There are several strategies available to system designers to
cope with excess bus capacitance.
• Reduced fSCL (Section 7.2.1): The bus may be operated at a lower speed (lower fSCL).
• Higher drive outputs (Section 7.2.2): Devices with higher drive current such as those
rated for Fast-mode Plus can be used (PCA96xx).
• Bus buffers (Section 7.2.3): There are a number of bus buffer devices available that
can divide the bus into segments so that each segment has a capacitance below the
allowable limit, such as the PCA9517 bus buffer or the PCA9546A switch.
• Switched pull-up circuit (Section 7.2.4): A switched pull-up circuit can be used to
accelerate rising edges by switching a low value pull-up alternately in and out when
needed.
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7.2.1 Reduced fSCL
To determine a lower allowable bus operating frequency, begin by finding the tLOW and
tHIGH of the most limiting device on the bus. Refer to individual component data sheets for
these values. Actual rise time (tr) will depend on the RC time constant. The most limiting
fall time (tf) will depend on the lowest output drive on the bus. Be sure to allow for any
devices that have a minimum tr or tf. Refer to Equation 3 for the resulting fmax.
1
f max = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------t LOW ( min ) + t HIGH ( min ) + t r ( actual ) + t f ( actual )
(3)
Remark: Very long buses will also have to account for time of flight of signals.
Actual results will be slower, as real parts do not tend to control tLOW and tHIGH to the
minimum from 30 % to 30 %, or 70 % to 70 %, respectively.
7.2.2 Higher drive outputs
If higher drive devices like the PCA96xx Fast-mode Plus or the P82B bus buffers are
used, the higher strength output drivers will sink more current which results in
considerably faster edge rates, or, looked at another way, allows a higher bus
capacitance. Refer to individual component data sheets for actual output drive capability.
Repeat the calculation above using the new values of Cb, Rp, tr and tf to determine
maximum frequency. Bear in mind that the maximum rating for fSCL as specified in Table 6
(100 kHz, 400 kHz and 1000 kHz) may become limiting.
7.2.3 Bus buffers, multiplexers and switches
Another approach to coping with excess bus capacitance is to divide the bus into smaller
segments using bus buffers, multiplexers or switches. Figure 31 shows an example of a
bus that uses a PCA9515 buffer to deal with high bus capacitance. Each segment is then
allowed to have the maximum capacitance so the total bus can have twice the maximum
capacitance. Keep in mind that adding a buffer always adds delays—a buffer delay plus
an additional transition time to each edge, which reduces the maximum operating
frequency and may also introduce special VIL and VOL considerations.
Refer to application notes AN255, I2C / SMBus Repeaters, Hubs and Expanders and
AN262, PCA954x Family of I2C / SMBus Multiplexers and Switches for more details on
this subject and the devices available from NXP Semiconductors.
VDD1
VDD2
SDA
400 pF
400 pF
BUFFER
SCL
slaves and masters
slaves and masters
002aac882
Note that some buffers allow VDD1 and VDD2 to be different levels.
Fig 31. Using a buffer to divide bus capacitance
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7.2.4 Switched pull-up circuit
The supply voltage (VDD) and the maximum output LOW level determine the minimum
value of pull-up resistor Rp (see Section 7.1). For example, with a supply voltage of
VDD = 5 V ± 10 % and VOL(max) = 0.4 V at 3 mA, Rp(min) = (5.5 − 0.4) / 0.003 = 1.7 kΩ. As
shown in Figure 30, this value of Rp limits the maximum bus capacitance to about 200 pF
to meet the maximum tr requirement of 300 ns. If the bus has a higher capacitance than
this, a switched pull-up circuit (as shown in Figure 32) can be used.
VDD
5V 10 %
nY
1/4 HCT4066
VCC
nE
P
N
nZ
1.3 kΩ
R p2
GND
1.7 kΩ
R p1
SDA or SCL
bus line
100 Ω
Rs
100 Ω
I/O
N
Rs
I/O
Cb
400 pF
max.
N
VSS
FAST - MODE I 2 C BUS DEVICES
mbc620
Fig 32. Switched pull-up circuit
The switched pull-up circuit in Figure 32 is for a supply voltage of VDD = 5 V ± 10 % and a
maximum capacitive load of 400 pF. Since it is controlled by the bus levels, it needs no
additional switching control signals. During the rising/falling edges, the bilateral switch in
the HCT4066 switches pull-up resistor Rp2 on/off at bus levels between 0.8 V and 2.0 V.
Combined resistors Rp1 and Rp2 can pull-up the bus line within the maximum specified
rise time (tr) of 300 ns.
Series resistors Rs are optional. They protect the I/O stages of the I2C-bus devices from
high-voltage spikes on the bus lines, and minimize crosstalk and undershoot of the bus
line signals. The maximum value of Rs is determined by the maximum permitted voltage
drop across this resistor when the bus line is switched to the LOW level in order to switch
off Rp2.
Additionally, some bus buffers contain integral rise time accelerators. Stand-alone rise
time accelerators are also available.
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7.3 Series protection resistors
As shown in Figure 33, series resistors (Rs) of, e.g., 300 Ω can be used for protection
against high-voltage spikes on the SDA and SCL lines (resulting from the flash-over of a
TV picture tube, for example). If series resistors are used, designers must add the
additional resistance into their calculations for Rp and allowable bus capacitance.
VDD
VDD
I2 C
DEVICE
I2 C
DEVICE
Rp
Rs
Rs
Rs
Rp
Rs
SDA
SCL
mbc627
Fig 33. Series resistors (Rs) for protection against high-voltage spikes
The required noise margin of 0.1VDD for the LOW level, limits the maximum value of Rs.
Rs(max) as a function of Rp is shown in Figure 34. Note that series resistors will affect the
output fall time.
mbc629
10
Rp
(kΩ)
VDD = 2.5 V
5V
8
6
15 V
4
10 V
2
0
0
400
800
1200
1600
maximum value Rs (Ω)
Fig 34. Maximum value of Rs as a function of the value of Rp with supply voltage as a
parameter
UM10204_3
User manual
© NXP B.V. 2007. All rights reserved.
Rev. 03 — 19 June 2007
46 of 50
UM10204
NXP Semiconductors
I2C-bus specification and user manual
7.4 Input leakage
The maximum HIGH level input current of each input/output connection has a specified
maximum value of 10 µA. Due to the required noise margin of 0.2VDD for the HIGH level,
this input current limits the maximum value of Rp. This limit depends on VDD. The total
HIGH-level input current is shown as a function of Rp(max) in Figure 35.
mbc630
20
maximum
value R p
(kΩ )
16
12
VDD = 15 V
8
10 V
4
5V
2.5 V
0
0
40
200
80
120
160
total high level input current (µA)
Fig 35. Total HIGH-level input current as a function of the maximum value of Rp with
supply voltage as a parameter
7.5 Wiring pattern of the bus lines
In general, the wiring must be so chosen that crosstalk and interference to/from the bus
lines is minimized. The bus lines are most susceptible to crosstalk and interference at the
HIGH level because of the relatively high impedance of the pull-up devices.
If the length of the bus lines on a PCB or ribbon cable exceeds 10 cm and includes the
VDD and VSS lines, the wiring pattern should be:
SDA _______________________
VDD ________________________
VSS ________________________
SCL _______________________
If only the VSS line is included, the wiring pattern should be:
SDA _______________________
VSS ________________________
SCL _______________________
These wiring patterns also result in identical capacitive loads for the SDA and SCL lines.
The VSS and VDD lines can be omitted if a PCB with a VSS and/or VDD layer is used.
UM10204_3
User manual
© NXP B.V. 2007. All rights reserved.
Rev. 03 — 19 June 2007
47 of 50
UM10204
NXP Semiconductors
I2C-bus specification and user manual
If the bus lines are twisted-pairs, each bus line must be twisted with a VSS return.
Alternatively, the SCL line can be twisted with a VSS return, and the SDA line twisted with
a VDD return. In the latter case, capacitors must be used to decouple the VDD line to the
VSS line at both ends of the twisted pairs.
If the bus lines are shielded (shield connected to VSS), interference will be minimized.
However, the shielded cable must have low capacitive coupling between the SDA and
SCL lines to minimize crosstalk.
8. Abbreviations
Table 9.
Abbreviations
Acronym
Description
A/D
Analog-to-Digital
ATCA
Advanced Telecom Computing Architecture
BMC
Baseboard Management Controller
CMOS
Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor
cPCI
compact Peripheral Component Interconnect
D/A
Digital-to-Analog
DIP
Dual In-line Package
EEPROM
Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory
HW
Hardware
I/O
Input/Output
I2C-bus
Inter-Integrated Circuit bus
IC
Integrated Circuit
IPMI
Intelligent Platform Management Interface
LCD
Liquid Crystal Display
LED
Light Emitting Diode
LSB
Least Significant Bit
MCU
Microcontroller
MSB
Most Significant Bit
NMOS
Negative-channel Metal Oxide Semiconductor
PCB
Printed-Circuit Board
PCI
Peripheral Component Interconnect
PMBus
Power Management Bus
RAM
Random Access Memory
ROM
Read-Only Memory
SMBus
System Management Bus
SPI
Serial Peripheral Interface
UART
Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter
USB
Universal Serial Bus
UM10204_3
User manual
© NXP B.V. 2007. All rights reserved.
Rev. 03 — 19 June 2007
48 of 50
UM10204
NXP Semiconductors
I2C-bus specification and user manual
9. Legal information
9.1
Definitions
Draft — The document is a draft version only. The content is still under
internal review and subject to formal approval, which may result in
modifications or additions. NXP Semiconductors does not give any
representations or warranties as to the accuracy or completeness of
information included herein and shall have no liability for the consequences of
use of such information.
9.2
Suitability for use — NXP Semiconductors products are not designed,
authorized or warranted to be suitable for use in medical, military, aircraft,
space or life support equipment, nor in applications where failure or
malfunction of a NXP Semiconductors product can reasonably be expected to
result in personal injury, death or severe property or environmental damage.
NXP Semiconductors accepts no liability for inclusion and/or use of NXP
Semiconductors products in such equipment or applications and therefore
such inclusion and/or use is at the customer’s own risk.
Applications — Applications that are described herein for any of these
products are for illustrative purposes only. NXP Semiconductors makes no
representation or warranty that such applications will be suitable for the
specified use without further testing or modification.
Disclaimers
General — Information in this document is believed to be accurate and
reliable. However, NXP Semiconductors does not give any representations or
warranties, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy or completeness of such
information and shall have no liability for the consequences of use of such
information.
Right to make changes — NXP Semiconductors reserves the right to make
changes to information published in this document, including without
limitation specifications and product descriptions, at any time and without
notice. This document supersedes and replaces all information supplied prior
to the publication hereof.
9.3
Trademarks
Notice: All referenced brands, product names, service names and trademarks
are the property of their respective owners.
I2C-bus — logo is a trademark of NXP B.V.
UM10204_3
User manual
© NXP B.V. 2007. All rights reserved.
Rev. 03 — 19 June 2007
49 of 50
UM10204
NXP Semiconductors
I2C-bus specification and user manual
10. Contents
1
2
2.1
2.2
2.3
3
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
3.10
3.11
3.12
3.13
3.14
3.15
3.16
3.17
4
4.1
4.2
4.2.1
4.2.2
4.2.3
4.3
4.4
4.5
5
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.3.1
5.3.2
5.3.3
5.3.4
5.3.5
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
I2C-bus features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Designer benefits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Manufacturer benefits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
IC designer benefits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
The I2C-bus protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
SDA and SCL signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
SDA and SCL logic levels. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Data validity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
START and STOP conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Byte format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Acknowledge (ACK) and Not Acknowledge
(NACK) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Clock synchronization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Arbitration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Clock stretching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
The slave address and R/W bit . . . . . . . . . . . 13
10-bit addressing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Reserved addresses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
General call address. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Software reset. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
START byte . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Bus clear. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Device ID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Other uses of the I2C-bus
communications protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
CBUS compatibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
SMBus - System Management Bus . . . . . . . . 22
I2C/SMBus compliancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Time-out feature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Differences between SMBus 1.0 and
SMBus 2.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
PMBus - Power Management Bus . . . . . . . . . 24
Intelligent Platform Management Interface
(IPMI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Advanced Telecom Computing Architecture
(ATCA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Bus speeds. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Fast-mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Fast-mode Plus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Hs-mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
High speed transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Serial data format in Hs-mode . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Switching from F/S-mode to Hs-mode
and back . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Hs-mode devices at lower speed modes . . . . 31
Mixed speed modes on one serial bus system 32
5.3.6
5.3.7
5.3.8
6
6.1
6.2
7
7.1
7.2
7.2.1
7.2.2
7.2.3
7.2.4
7.3
7.4
7.5
8
9
9.1
9.2
9.3
10
Standard, Fast-mode and Fast-mode Plus
transfer in a mixed-speed bus system . . . . . .
Hs-mode transfer in a mixed-speed
bus system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Timing requirements for the bridge in a
mixed-speed bus system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Electrical specifications and timing for I/O
stages and bus lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Standard-, Fast-, and Fast-mode Plus devices
Hs-mode devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Electrical connections of I2C-bus
devices to the bus lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pull-up resistor sizing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Operating above the maximum allowable
bus capacitance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reduced fSCL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Higher drive outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bus buffers, multiplexers and switches . . . . .
Switched pull-up circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Series protection resistors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Input leakage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wiring pattern of the bus lines . . . . . . . . . . . .
Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Legal information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Disclaimers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Trademarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Contents. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
34
34
35
36
36
39
42
42
43
44
44
44
45
46
47
47
48
49
49
49
49
50
Please be aware that important notices concerning this document and the product(s)
described herein, have been included in section ‘Legal information’.
© NXP B.V. 2007.
All rights reserved.
For more information, please visit: http://www.nxp.com
For sales office addresses, please send an email to: [email protected]
Date of release: 19 June 2007
Document identifier: UM10204_3
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