User Manual PCI-1750
User Manual
PCI-1750
32-ch Isolated Digital I/O Card
Copyright
The documentation and the software included with this product are copyrighted 2011
by Advantech Co., Ltd. All rights are reserved. Advantech Co., Ltd. reserves the right
to make improvements in the products described in this manual at any time without
notice. No part of this manual may be reproduced, copied, translated or transmitted
in any form or by any means without the prior written permission of Advantech Co.,
Ltd. Information provided in this manual is intended to be accurate and reliable. However, Advantech Co., Ltd. assumes no responsibility for its use, nor for any infringements of the rights of third parties, which may result from its use.
Acknowledgements
Intel and Pentium are trademarks of Intel Corporation.
Microsoft Windows and MS-DOS are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corp.
All other product names or trademarks are properties of their respective owners.
Product Warranty (2 years)
Advantech warrants to you, the original purchaser, that each of its products will be
free from defects in materials and workmanship for two years from the date of purchase.
This warranty does not apply to any products which have been repaired or altered by
persons other than repair personnel authorized by Advantech, or which have been
subject to misuse, abuse, accident or improper installation. Advantech assumes no
liability under the terms of this warranty as a consequence of such events.
Because of Advantech’s high quality-control standards and rigorous testing, most of
our customers never need to use our repair service. If an Advantech product is defective, it will be repaired or replaced at no charge during the warranty period. For outof-warranty repairs, you will be billed according to the cost of replacement materials,
service time and freight. Please consult your dealer for more details.
If you think you have a defective product, follow these steps:
1. Collect all the information about the problem encountered. (For example, CPU
speed, Advantech products used, other hardware and software used, etc.) Note
anything abnormal and list any onscreen messages you get when the problem
occurs.
2. Call your dealer and describe the problem. Please have your manual, product,
and any helpful information readily available.
3. If your product is diagnosed as defective, obtain an RMA (return merchandize
authorization) number from your dealer. This allows us to process your return
more quickly.
4. Carefully pack the defective product, a fully-completed Repair and Replacement
Order Card and a photocopy proof of purchase date (such as your sales receipt)
in a shippable container. A product returned without proof of the purchase date
is not eligible for warranty service.
5. Write the RMA number visibly on the outside of the package and ship it prepaid
to your dealer.
PCI-1750 User Manual
Printed in Taiwan
Edition 3
Part No. 2003175000
December 2011
ii
Declaration of Conformity
CE
This product has passed the CE test for environmental specifications when shielded
cables are used for external wiring. We recommend the use of shielded cables. This
kind of cable is available from Advantech. Please contact your local supplier for
ordering information.
Technical Support and Assistance
1.
2.
Visit the Advantech web site at www.advantech.com/support where you can find
the latest information about the product.
Contact your distributor, sales representative, or Advantech's customer service
center for technical support if you need additional assistance. Please have the
following information ready before you call:
– Product name and serial number
– Description of your peripheral attachments
– Description of your software (operating system, version, application software,
etc.)
– A complete description of the problem
– The exact wording of any error messages
Warnings, Cautions and Notes
Warning! Warnings indicate conditions, which if not observed, can cause personal
injury!
Caution! Cautions are included to help you avoid damaging hardware or losing
data. e.g.
There is a danger of a new battery exploding if it is incorrectly installed.
Do not attempt to recharge, force open, or heat the battery. Replace the
battery only with the same or equivalent type recommended by the manufacturer. Discard used batteries according to the manufacturer's
instructions.
Document Feedback
To assist us in making improvements to this manual, we would welcome comments
and constructive criticism. Please send all such - in writing to: [email protected]
iii
PCI-1750 User Manual
Safety Instructions
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
Read these safety instructions carefully.
Keep this User Manual for later reference.
Disconnect this equipment from any AC outlet before cleaning. Use a damp
cloth. Do not use liquid or spray detergents for cleaning.
For plug-in equipment, the power outlet socket must be located near the equipment and must be easily accessible.
Keep this equipment away from humidity.
Put this equipment on a reliable surface during installation. Dropping it or letting
it fall may cause damage.
The openings on the enclosure are for air convection. Protect the equipment
from overheating. DO NOT COVER THE OPENINGS.
Make sure the voltage of the power source is correct before connecting the
equipment to the power outlet.
Position the power cord so that people cannot step on it. Do not place anything
over the power cord.
All cautions and warnings on the equipment should be noted.
If the equipment is not used for a long time, disconnect it from the power source
to avoid damage by transient overvoltage.
Never pour any liquid into an opening. This may cause fire or electrical shock.
Never open the equipment. For safety reasons, the equipment should be
opened only by qualified service personnel.
If one of the following situations arises, get the equipment checked by service
personnel:
The power cord or plug is damaged.
Liquid has penetrated into the equipment.
The equipment has been exposed to moisture.
The equipment does not work well, or you cannot get it to work according to the
user's manual.
The equipment has been dropped and damaged.
The equipment has obvious signs of breakage.
DO NOT LEAVE THIS EQUIPMENT IN AN ENVIRONMENT WHERE THE
STORAGE TEMPERATURE MAY GO BELOW -20° C (-4° F) OR ABOVE 60° C
(140° F). THIS COULD DAMAGE THE EQUIPMENT. THE EQUIPMENT
SHOULD BE IN A CONTROLLED ENVIRONMENT.
CAUTION: DANGER OF EXPLOSION IF BATTERY IS INCORRECTLY
REPLACED. REPLACE ONLY WITH THE SAME OR EQUIVALENT TYPE
RECOMMENDED BY THE MANUFACTURER, DISCARD USED BATTERIES
ACCORDING TO THE MANUFACTURER'S INSTRUCTIONS.
The sound pressure level at the operator's position according to IEC 704-1:1982
is no more than 70 dB (A).
PCI-1750 User Manual
iv
Safety Precaution - Static Electricity
DISCLAIMER: This set of instructions is given according to IEC 704-1. Advantech
disclaims all responsibility for the accuracy of any statements contained
herein.Safety Precaution - Static Electricity
Follow these simple precautions to protect yourself from harm and the products from
damage.
 To avoid electrical shock, always disconnect the power from your PC chassis
before you work on it. Don't touch any components on the CPU card or other
cards while the PC is on.
 Disconnect power before making any configuration changes. The sudden rush
of power as you connect a jumper or install a card may damage sensitive electronic components.
v
PCI-1750 User Manual
PCI-1750 User Manual
vi
Contents
Chapter
Chapter
1
Overview...............................................1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
Introduction ............................................................................................... 2
Features .................................................................................................... 2
Applications............................................................................................... 2
Specifications ............................................................................................ 2
2
Installation...........................................5
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.5
2.6
Initial inspection......................................................................................... 6
Unpacking ................................................................................................. 6
Location of Connectors ............................................................................. 6
Figure 2.1 Board Connections ..................................................... 6
PCI-1750 Block Diagram........................................................................... 7
Figure 2.2 Block Diagram ............................................................ 7
Connector Pin Assignments ..................................................................... 8
Installation Instructions.............................................................................. 9
3
Operation............................................11
3.1
3.2
Operation ................................................................................................ 12
Isolated Digital I/O Ports ......................................................................... 12
3.2.1 Introduction ................................................................................. 12
3.2.2 Interrupt function of the DIO signals ........................................... 12
3.2.3 Power On Configuration.............................................................. 12
3.2.4 Isolated Inputs............................................................................. 13
Figure 3.1 Connecting external input source ............................. 13
3.2.5 Isolated Outputs.......................................................................... 14
Figure 3.2 Connecting an external output load.......................... 14
Timer and Counter .................................................................................. 15
3.3.1 Introduction ................................................................................. 15
Figure 3.3 Block diagram of timer/counter................................. 15
3.3.2 Timer/Counter Frequency and Interrupt...................................... 15
Interrupt Function .................................................................................... 16
3.4.1 Introduction ................................................................................. 16
3.4.2 IRQ Level .................................................................................... 16
3.4.3 Interrupt Control Register [Base + 32(Dec)] ............................... 16
Table 3.1: Interrupt control register bit map............................... 16
3.4.4 Interrupt Source Control.............................................................. 17
Figure 3.4 Interrupt source control............................................. 17
Table 3.2: Interrupt mode bit values .......................................... 17
3.4.5 Interrupt Triggering Edge Control ............................................... 17
Table 3.3: Triggering edge control bit values ............................ 17
3.4.6 Interrupt Flag Bit ......................................................................... 18
Table 3.4: Interrupt flag bit values ............................................. 18
2.4
Chapter
3.3
3.4
Appendix A
Function of 8254 Counter Chip ........19
A.1
The Intel 8254 ......................................................................................... 20
A.1.1 Counter read/write and control registers..................................... 20
Counter operating modes........................................................................ 22
A.2.1 MODE 0 – Stop on terminal count .............................................. 22
A.2.2 MODE 1 – Programmable one-shot............................................ 22
A.2
vii
PCI-1750 User Manual
A.3
A.2.3 MODE 2 – Rate generator .......................................................... 22
A.2.4 MODE 3 – Square wave generator............................................. 22
A.2.5 MODE 4 – software triggered strobe .......................................... 23
A.2.6 MODE 5 – Hardware triggered strobe ........................................ 23
Counter operations ................................................................................. 23
A.3.1 Read/write operation................................................................... 23
A.3.2 Counter read-back command ..................................................... 23
A.3.3 Counter latch operation .............................................................. 23
Appendix B
Register Format of PCI-1750............ 25
B.1
Register Format of PCI-1750 .................................................................. 26
PCI-1750 User Manual
viii
Chapter
1
Overview
1
1.1 Introduction
The PCI-1750 offers 16 isolated digital input channels, 16 isolated digital output
channels, one isolated counter and one timer with PCI bus interface. With isolation
protection of 2500 VD C the PCI-1750 is ideal for industrial applications where highvoltage protection is required.
The card's 16 bits are divided into two 8-bit I/O ports. This makes the PCI-1750 very
easy to program. This card also offers dual interrupt handling capability, providing the
user more flexibility in using the counter, timer, digital inputs or a combination to generate interrupts to the PC. A user can easily configure the interrupts through software.
The PCI-1750 uses a PCI controller to interface the card to the PCI bus. The controller fully implements the PCI bus specification Rev 2.1. All bus relative configurations,
such as base addresses and interrupt assignments, are automatically controlled by
software. No jumpers or DIP switches are required for user configuration.
1.2 Features


16 isolated digital input and 16 isolated digital output channels.
High voltage isolation on all channels (2500 VDC)



High sink current on isolated output channels (200 mA/Channel).
D-type 37-pin female connector.
Supports dry contact or 5 to 48 VDC isolated input.



Chapter 1 General Information 3
Dual interrupt handling capability
Timer / Counter interrupt capability generates watchdog timer interrupts
1.3 Applications





Digital I/O control.
Industrial ON/OFF control.
Industrial and lab automation.
Switch status sensing
BCD interfacing.
1.4 Specifications
16 Optically-Isolated Inputs:
 Input range: 5 to 48 VDC or dry contact.

Isolation voltage: 2,500 VDC

Throughput: 10 KHz
16 Optically-Isolated Outputs:
 Output range: Open collector 5 to 40 VDC


Sink Current: 200 mA Max.
Isolation voltage: 2,500 VDC

Throughput: 10 KHz
PCI-1750 User Manual
2
Chapter 1
One 16-bit Optically-Isolated Counter:
 Shares Pin with isolated input 15.
 Throughput: 1 MHz Max.
 Isolation voltage: 2,500 VDC
One 32-bit Timer.
 10 MHz internal clock source
3
PCI-1750 User Manual
Overview
Interrupt Source
 Isolated Input 0, 4, 8, 12, Counter and Timer.
Dimensions: 175 mm x 100 mm (6.9" x 3.9")
Connectors: One DB-37 female connector
One 2-pin terminal block for extended ground
Power consumption: 5 V @ 850 mA (Typical) 5 V @ 1.0 A (Max.)
Operating temperature: 0 ~ 70ºC (32ºF ~ 158ºF)
Storage temperature: -20 ~ 80ºC (-4ºF ~ 176ºF)
Humidity: 5% ~ 95% non-condensing
PCI-1750 User Manual
4
Chapter
2
Installation
2
2.1 Initial inspection
Before starting to install the PCI-1750, make sure there is no visible damage on the
card. We carefully inspected the card both mechanically and electrically before shipment. It should be free of marks and in perfect order on receipt.
As you unpack the PCI-1750, check it for signs of shipping damage (damaged box,
scratches, dents, etc.) If it is damaged or fails to meet specification, notify our service
department or your local sales representative immediately. Also, call the carrier
immediately and retain the shipping carton and packing materials for inspection by
the carrier. We will then make arrangements to repair or replace the unit.
2.2 Unpacking
The PCI-1750 contains components that are sensitive and vulnerable to static electricity. Discharge any static electricity on your body to ground by touching the back of
the system unit (grounded metal) before you touch the board.
Remove the PCI-1750 card from its protective packaging by grasping the rear panel.
Handle the card only by its edges to avoid static discharge which could damage its
integrated circuits. Keep the antistatic package. Whenever you remove the card from
the PC, please store the card in this package for its protection.
You should also avoid contact with materials that hold static electricity such as plastic, vinyl and styrofoam.
Check the product contents inside the packing. There should be one card, one CDROM, and this manual. Make sure nothing is missing.
2.3 Location of Connectors
Figure 2.1 shows the names and locations of connectors on the board.
The PCI-1750 is a plug and play device. The PCI BIOS assigns the system resources
automatically at system start-up. All functions can be set by software. No jumpers or
switches are used on this card.
Figure 2.1 Board Connections
PCI-1750 User Manual
6
Chapter 2
2.4 PCI-1750 Block Diagram
Installation
IDI 0~7
IDI 8~15
IDO 0~7
IDO 8~15
ISO DI 0
ISO DI 8
Interrupt
Control
Logic
Counter
Counter 2
ISO DI 15
Figure 2.2 Block Diagram
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PCI-1750 User Manual
2.5 Connector Pin Assignments
IDI 0
IDI 2
IDI 4
IDI 6
IDI 8
IDI 10
IDI 12
IDI 14
IGND
COM1
IDO 0
IDO 2
IDO 4
IDO 6
IDO 8
IDO 10
IDO 12
IDO 14
COM2
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
IDI 1
IDI 3
IDI 5
IDI 7
IDI 9
IDI 11
IDI 13
IDI 15/Counter 2
IGND
IGND
IDO 1
IDO 3
IDO 5
IDO 7
IDO 9
IDO 11
IDO 13
IDO 15
Description of pin use:
IDI 0 ~ IDI 15: Isolated digital input pins
IDO 0 ~ IDO 15: Isolated digital output pins
IGND: Isolated ground
COM1: Common pin for connecting inductive loads of isolated output
channels IDO 0 ~ IDO 7
COM2: Common pin for connecting inductive loads of isolated output
channels IDO 8 ~ IDO 15
Counter2: Input pin of isolated counter (shared with IDI 15)
Warning!
Be careful when wiring digital input lines. Never apply a negative voltage
to the isolated input pins, as this may damage the PCI-1750.
PCI-1750 User Manual
8
The PCI-1750 can be installed in any PCI slot in the computer.How ever,
refer to the computer user's manual to avoid any mistakes and
danger before you follow the installation procedure below:
1. Turn off your computer and any accessories connected to the computer.
Chapter 2
2.6 Installation Instructions
Warning!
2.
3.
4.
Disconnect the power cord and any other cables from the back of the computer
Remove the cover of the computer.
Select an empty 5 V PCI slot. Remove the screw that secures the expansion
slot cover to the system unit. Save the screw to secure the interface card retaining bracket.
5. Carefully grasp the upper edge of the PCI-1750. Align the hole in the retaining
bracket with the hole on the expansion slot and align the gold striped edge connector with the expansion slot socket.
6. Press the card into the socket gently but firmly. Make sure the card fits the slot
tightly.
7. Secure the PCI-1750 by screwing the mounting bracket to the back panel of
computer.
8. Attach any accessories (cable, wiring terminal, etc.) to the card.
9. Replace the cover of your computer. Connect the cables you removed in step 2.
10. Turn the computer power on.
9
PCI-1750 User Manual
Installation
TURN OFF your computer power supply whenever you install or remove
any card, or connect and disconnect cables.
PCI-1750 User Manual
10
Chapter
3
Operation
3
3.1 Operation
Maintaining signal connections is one of the most important factors in ensuring that
your application system is sending and receiving data correctly. A good signal connection can avoid unnecessary and costly damage to your PC and other hardware
devices. This chapter provides useful information about how to connect input and
output signals to the PCI-1750 via the I/O connector.
3.2 Isolated Digital I/O Ports
3.2.1 Introduction
The PCI-1750 has 16 isolated digital input channels designated IDI 0 ~ IDI 15, and 16
isolated digital output channels designated IDO 0 ~ IDO 15. Data can be read from or
written to the card's channels.
3.2.2 Interrupt function of the DIO signals
Two I/O channels (IDI 0 and IDI 8) can be used to generate hard ware interrupts. A
user can program the interrupt control register [Base + (32Dec)] to select the interrupt
sources. Refer to Section “Interrupt Function” for details about interrupt control.
3.2.3 Power On Configuration
The default configuration after power on, hardware reset or software reset is to set all
the isolated output channels to low so that users need not worry about damaging
external devices during system start up or reset.
PCI-1750 User Manual
12
Each of 16 isolated digital input channels accepts dry contacts or 5 ~ 48 VDC voltage
inputs. All sixteen input channels share 3 ground pins and one extended ground terminal block (CN5). Figure 3.1 shows how to connect an external input source to one
of the card's isolated input channels.
Warning!
Chapter 3
3.2.4 Isolated Inputs
Be careful when wiring digital input cables. Never apply a negative voltage to an isolated input pin, as this may damage the PCI-1750.
Figure 3.1 Connecting external input source
13
PCI-1750 User Manual
Operation
Note for wet contacts: A malfunction might occur in cases where the internal resistance of a voltage source under wet contacts is significant (>5 kW). It is advisable to
connect a parallel 5 kW, 0.5 W resistor to avoid a voltage rise inside the voltage
source.
3.2.5 Isolated Outputs
Each of 16 isolated digital output channels comes equipped with a Darlington transistor. Every eight output channels share common collectors and integral suppression
diodes for inductive loads. Channels 0 ~ 7 use COM1, and channels 8 ~ 15 use
COM2 as a common pin.
Note!
If the external voltage source (5~40 V) is connected to each isolated
output channel (IDO0 ~ IDO15) and its isolated digital output turns on
(200 mA max./ch), the card's current will sink from the external voltage
source. The current through IGND should not exceed 3.2 A. Use the
extended ground connector CN5 to shunt the current to the external
voltage source ground.
Figure 3.2 shows how to connect an external output load to the card's isolated outputs.
Figure 3.2 Connecting an external output load
PCI-1750 User Manual
14
3.3.1 Introduction
Figure 3.3 Block diagram of timer/counter
3.3.2 Timer/Counter Frequency and Interrupt
The input clock frequency of the counter/timers is 10 MHz. The output of both Timer 1
and Counter 2 can generate interrupts to the system (refer to Section 3.3). The maximum and minimum timer interrupt frequency is (10 MHz)/(2x2)=(2.5 MHz) and (10
MHz)/(65535*65535)=0.002328 Hz, respectively.
The gates of the counter/timers are internally pulled to +5 V, keeping the gate control
always enabled.
15
PCI-1750 User Manual
Operation
The PCL-1750 includes one 8254 compatible programmable timer/counter chip
which provides two 16-bit timers and one counter, designated as Timer 0, Timer 1
and Counter 2. Timer 0 and Timer 1 are cascaded to be a 32-bit timer, with its input
connected to a 10 MHz oscillator and its gate control pulled high (enabled). Counter 2
of the 8254 chip is a 16-bit high-speed (1 MHz) isolated event counter (it shares a pin
with isolated IDI 15). The block diagram of the timer/counter system of PCI-1750 is
shown in Figure 3.3. Timers 0 and 1 are usually set in mode 3 (square wave generator) to generate periodic watchdog interrupts. Counter 2 can be set in mode 0 (stop
on terminal count) for measuring frequency, or in mode 3 (square wave generator) to
generate periodic watchdog interrupts or to be used as an event counter. For more
details on the operating modes of the 8254 counter chip, please refer to Appendix A.
Chapter 3
3.3 Timer and Counter
3.4 Interrupt Function
3.4.1 Introduction
Four input channels (IDI 0, IDI 4, IDI 8 and IDI 12) and the output of Timer 1 and
Counter 2 are connected to the interrupt circuitry. The “Interrupt Control Register” of
the PCI-1750 controls how the combination of the six signals generates an interrupt.
Two interrupt request signals, designated “interrupt group 0" and “interrupt group 1",
can be generated at the same time, and then the software can service these two
request signals by ISR. IDI 0, IDI 4 and Timer 1 are connected to interrupt port 0, IDI
8, IDI 12 and Counter 2 are connected to interrupt port 1. The dual interrupt sources
provide the card with more capability and flexibility.
3.4.2 IRQ Level
The IRQ level is set automatically by the PCI plug and play BIOS and is saved in the
PCI controller. There is no need for users to set the IRQ level. Only one IRQ level is
used by this card, although it has two interrupt sources.
3.4.3 Interrupt Control Register [Base + 32(Dec)]
The “Interrupt Control Register” [Base + 32(Dec)] controls the interrupt signal source,
edge and flag. Table 3.1 shows the bit map of the interrupt control register. The register is a readable/writable register.When writing to it, it is used as a control register,
and when reading from it, it is use data status register.
Table 3.1: Interrupt control register bit map
Interrupt
Source #
Bit #
Interrupt Group 1
Interrupt Group 0
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
Abbreviation F1
E1
M11
M10
F0
E0
M01
M00
M00 and M01: “mode bits” of interrupt Group 0
M10 and M11: “mode bits” of interrupt Group 1
E0,E1: triggering edge control bits
F0, F1: flag bits
PCI-1750 User Manual
16
The “mode bits” written into the interrupt control register determine the allowable
sources of signals generating an interrupt. Bit 0 and bit 1 determine the interrupt
source for interrupt group 0, and bit 4 and bit 5 determine the interrupt source for
interrupt group 1, as indicated in Figure 3.4. Table 3.2 shows the relationship
between an interrupt source and the values in the mode bits.
Chapter 3
3.4.4 Interrupt Source Control
Operation
Figure 3.4 Interrupt source control
Table 3.2: Interrupt mode bit values
Interrupt Group 1
Interrupt Group 0
M11 M10
Description
M01
M00 Description
0
0
Disable interrupt
0
0
Disable Interrupt
0
1
Source = IDI 8
0
1
Source = IDI 0
1
0
Source = IDI 8 & IDI 12
1
0
Source = IDI 0 & IDI 4
1
1
Source= Counter 2
1
1
Source = Timer 1
3.4.5 Interrupt Triggering Edge Control
The interrupt can be triggered by a rising edge or a falling edge of the interrupt signal,
as determined by the value in the “triggering edge control” bit in the interrupt control
register, as shown in Table 3.3.
Table 3.3: Triggering edge control bit values
E0 or E1
Triggering edge of interrupt signal
1
Rising edge trigger
0
Falling edge trigger
17
PCI-1750 User Manual
3.4.6 Interrupt Flag Bit
The “interrupt flag” bit is a flag indicating the status of an interrupt. It is a readable
and writable bit. Read the bit value to find the status of the interrupt, write “1” to this
bit to clear the interrupt. This bit must be cleared in the ISR to service the next incoming interrupt.
Table 3.4: Interrupt flag bit values
F0 & F1
Read
Write
PCI-1750 User Manual
Interrupt status
1
Interrupt
0
No Interrupt
1
Clear Interrupt
0
Don’t Care
18
Appendix
A
Function of 8254
Counter Chip
A
A.1 The Intel 8254
The PCI-1750 uses one Intel 8254 compatible programmable interval timer/counter
chip. The popular 8254 offers three independent 16-bit down counters. Each counter
has a clock input, control gate and an output. You can program each counter for maximum count values from 2 to 65535.
The 8254 has a maximum input clock frequency of 10 MHz. The PCI-1750 provides
10 MHz input frequencies to the counter chip from an on-board crystal oscillator.
On the PCI-1750, the 8254 chip's Timer 0 and Timer 1 are cascaded to be a 32-bit
programmable timer.
A.1.1 Counter read/write and control registers
The 8254 programmable interval timer uses four registers at addresses BASE +
24(Dec), BASE + 25(Dec), BASE + 26(Dec) and BASE + 27(Dec) for read, write and
control of counter functions.
Register functions appear below:
Register
Function
BASE + 24(Dec)
Counter 0 read/write
BASE + 25(Dec)
Counter 1 read/write
BASE + 26(Dec)
Counter 2 read/write
BASE + 27(Dec)
Counter control word
Since the 8254 counter uses a 16-bit structure, each section of read/write data is split
into a least significant byte (LSB) and most significant byte (MSB). To avoid errors it
is important that you make read/write operations in pairs and keep track of the byte
order.
The data format for the control register appears below:
BASE+27(Dec) 8254 control, standard mode
Bit
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
Value
SC1
SC0
RW1
RW0
M2
M1
M0
BCD
A.1.1.1 Description
SC1 & SC0 Select counter
Counter
SC1
SC0
0
0
0
1
0
1
2
1
0
Read-back command
1
1
RW1 & RW0 Select Read/Write Operation
Operation
RW1
RW0
Counter Latch
0
0
Read/Write LSB
0
1
Read/Write MSB
1
0
Read/Write LSB first then MSB
1
1
PCI-1750 User Manual
20
M2 M1
M0
Mode
0
0
0
0 Programmable one shot
0
0
1
1 Programmable one shot
X
1
0
2 Rate generator
X
1
1
3 Square wave generator
1
0
0
4 Software triggered strobe
1
0
1
5 Hardware triggered strobe
BCD Select Binary or BCD Counting
BCD Type
0
Binary counting 16-bits
1
Binary coded decimal (BCD) counting
If you set the module for binary counting, the count can be any number from 0 up to
65535. If you set it for BCD (Binary Coded Decimal) counting, the count can be any
number from 0 to 9999.
If you set both SC1 and SC0 bits to 1, the counter control register is in read-back
command mode. The control register data format then becomes:
BASE + 27(Dec) 8254 control, read-back mode
Bit
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
Value
1
1
CNT
STA
C2
C1
C0
X
CNT = 0
Latch count of selected counter(s).
STA = 0
Latch status of selected counter(s).
C2, C1 & C0 Select counter for a read-back operation.
C2 = 1 select Counter 2
C1 = 1 select Counter 1
C0 = 1 select Counter 0
If you set both SC1 and SC0 to 1 and STA to 0, the register selected by C2 to C0
contains a byte which shows the status of the counter. The data format of the counter
read/write register then becomes:
BASE+24/25/26(Dec) Status read-back mode
Bit
D7
Value OUT
OUT
NC
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
NC
RW1
RW0
M2
M1
M0
BCD
Current state of counter output
Null count is 1 when the last count written to the counter register has been
loaded into the counting element
21
PCI-1750 User Manual
Appendix A Function of 8254 Counter Chip
M2, M1 & M0 Select Operating Mode
A.2 Counter operating modes
A.2.1 MODE 0 – Stop on terminal count
The output will be initially low after you set this mode of operation. After you load the
count into the selected count register, the output will remain low and the counter will
count. When the counter reaches the terminal count, its output will go high and
remain high until you reload it with the mode or a new count value. The counter continues to decrement after it reaches the terminal count. Rewriting a counter register
during counting has the following results:
1. Writing to the first byte stops the current counting.
2. Writing to the second byte starts the new count.
A.2.2 MODE 1 – Programmable one-shot
The output is initially high. The output will go low on the count following the rising
edge of the gate input. It will then go high on the terminal count. If you load a new
count value while the output is low, the new value will not affect the duration of the
one-shot pulse until the succeeding trigger. You can read the current count at any
time without affecting the one-shot pulse. The one-shot is retriggerable, thus the output will remain low for the full count after any rising edge at the gate input.
A.2.3 MODE 2 – Rate generator
The output will be low for one period of the input clock. The period from one output
pulse to the next equals the number of input counts in the counter register. If you
reload the counter register between output pulses, the present period will not be
affected, but the subsequent period will reflect the value.
The gate input, when low, will force the output high. When the gate input goes high,
the counter will start from the initial count. You can thus use the gate input to synchronize the counter.
With this mode the output will remain high until you load the count register. You can
also synchronize the output by software.
A.2.4 MODE 3 – Square wave generator
This mode is similar to Mode 2, except that the output will remain high until one half
of the count has been completed (for even numbers), and will go low for the other half
of the count. This is accomplished by decreasing the counter by two on the falling
edge of each clock pulse. When the counter reaches the terminal count, the state of
the output is changed, the counter is reloaded with the full count and the whole process is repeated.
If the count is odd and the output is high, the first clock pulse (after the count is
loaded) decrements the count by 1. Subsequent clock pulses decrement the count by
2. After time out, the output goes low and the full count is reloaded. The first clock
pulse (following the reload) decrements the counter by 3. Subsequent clock pulses
decrement the count by two until time out, then the whole process is repeated. In this
way, if the count is odd, the output will be high for (N+1)/2 counts and low for (N-1)/2
counts.
PCI-1750 User Manual
22
After the mode is set, the output will be high. When the count is loaded, the counter
will begin counting. On terminal count, the output will go low for one input clock
period then go high again. If you reload the count register during counting, the new
count will be loaded on the next CLK pulse. The count will be inhibited while the
GATE input is low.
A.2.6 MODE 5 – Hardware triggered strobe
The counter will start counting after the rising edge of the trigger input and will go low
for one clock period when the terminal count is reached. The counter is retriggerable.
A.3 Counter operations
A.3.1 Read/write operation
Before you write the initial count to each counter, you must first specify the read/write
operation type, operating mode and counter type in the control byte and write the
control byte to the control register [BASE + 27(Dec)].
Since the control byte register and all three counter read/write registers have separate addresses and each control byte specifies the counter it applies to (by SC1 and
SC0), no instructions on the operating sequence are required. Any programming
sequence following the 8254 convention is acceptable.
There are three types of counter operation: read/load LSB, read /load MSB and read
/load LSB followed by MSB. It is important that you make your read/write operations
in pairs and keep track of the byte order.
A.3.2 Counter read-back command
The 8254 counter read-back command lets you check the count value, programmed
mode and current states of the OUT pin and Null Count flag of the selected counter(s). You write this command to the control word register. Format is as shown at the
beginning of this section.
The read-back command can latch multiple counter output latches. Simply set the
CNT bit to 0 and select the desired counter(s). This single command is functionally
equivalent to multiple counter latch commands, one for each counter latched.
The read-back command can also latch status information for selected counter(s) by
setting STA bit = 0. The status must be latched to be read; the status of a counter is
accessed by a read from that counter. The counter status format appears at the
beginning of the chapter.
A.3.3 Counter latch operation
Users often want to read the value of a counter without disturbing the count in progress. You do this by latching the count value for the specific counter then reading the
value.
The 8254 supports the counter latch operation in two ways. The first way is to set bits
RW1 and RW0 to 0. This latches the count of the selected counter in a 16-bit hold
register. The second way is to perform a latch operation under the read-back command. Set bits SC1 and SC0 to 1 and CNT = 0. The second method has the advantage of operating several counters at the same time. A subsequent read operation on
the selected counter will retrieve the latched value.
23
PCI-1750 User Manual
Appendix A Function of 8254 Counter Chip
A.2.5 MODE 4 – software triggered strobe
PCI-1750 User Manual
24
Appendix
B
B
Register Format of
PCI-1750
B.1 Register Format of PCI-1750
Base
Address +
(Decimal)
Function
Read
Write
0
IDI 0 ~7
IDI 0 ~ 7
1
IDI 8 ~ 15
IDI 8 ~ 15
2~23
Reserved
Reserved
24
8254 Counter 0
8254 Counter 0
25
8254 Counter 1
8254 Counter 1
26
8254 Counter 2
8254 Counter 2
27
PCI-1750 User Manual
8254 Control Register
28
Reserved
Reserved
29
Reserved
Reserved
30
Reserved
Reserved
31
Reserved
Reserved
32
Interrupt Status
Register
Interrupt Status
Register
26
Appendix B Register Format of PCI-1750
PCI-1750 User Manual
27
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purposes only.
All product specifications are subject to change without notice.
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© Advantech Co., Ltd. 2011
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