Block Parameters

Block Parameters

Vivado Design Suite

Reference Guide

Model-Based DSP Design

Using System Generator

UG958 (v2015.3) September 30, 2015

Revision History

The following table shows the revision history for this document.

Date

09/30/2015

06/24/2015

04/01/2015

Version

2015.3

2015.2

2015.1

Revision

Added four new blocks to the Xilinx blockset:

Digital FIR Filter

- The Digital FIR Filter block allows you to generate highly parameterizable, area-efficient, high-performance single channel FIR filters.

Product - The Product block implements a scalar or complex multiplier.

Requantize

- The Requantize block requantizes and scales its input signals.

Sine Wave

- The Sine Wave block generates a sine wave, using simulation time as the time source.

Updated information on the System Generator

token, adding a description of the

Settings button that appears when you select Hardware Co-Simulation JTAG as your compilation target. This button opens a dialog box that allows you to use burst data transfers to speed up JTAG hardware co-simulation.

Described the Optimization Parameter block parameter for the

Time Division

Multiplexer

block. This block parameter specifies whether the logic should be implemented in fabric (optimizing for resource usage) or in DSP48E1/DSP48E2 primitives (optimizing for speed).

Described the Operation block parameter for the

MultAdd

block. The setting of this block parameter determines whether the block will perform an addition or a subtraction after multiplication.

No technical updates. Re-release only.

Added a description of the Interface Name field in the

Gateway In and

Gateway Out

blocks.

Updated information on the System Generator

token.

• Added information on the Settings button that appears when you select Hardware

Co-Simulation Point-to-point Ethernet as your compilation target. This button opens a dialog box that allows you to use burst data transfers to speed up point-to-point Ethernet hardware co-simulation.

• Added a description of the Perform Timing Analysis and Launch Analyzer selections in the Clocking tab.

Added this section:

Selecting the Adapter for Point-to-Point Ethernet Hardware

Co-Simulation with M-Hwcosim

.

Added descriptions of the Port Information, Set property, and Get property operations, which have been added to the

Hwcosim

MATLAB class. Also, added information about changes to the Write data and Read data operations to support burst data transfers for Point-to-point Ethernet Hardware Co-simulation.

Described the following new System Generator utilities

xilinx.analyzer

xilinx.utilities.importBD

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Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

Organization of Blockset Libraries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

Common Options in Block Parameter Dialog Boxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

Block Reference Pages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

Absolute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

Accumulator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

Addressable Shift Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

AddSub . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

Assert . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

AXI FIFO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

BitBasher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

Black Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

CIC Compiler 4.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62

Clock Enable Probe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

Clock Probe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

CMult . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

Complex Multiplier 6.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

Concat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76

Constant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77

Convert . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81

Convolution Encoder 9.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84

CORDIC 6.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86

Counter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92

DDS Compiler 6.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95

Delay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104

Depuncture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109

Digital FIR Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111

Divide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115

Divider Generator 5.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117

Down Sample . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120

DSP48E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123

DSP48 Macro 3.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129

DSP48E1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134

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DSP48E2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140

Dual Port RAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147

Exponential. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151

Expression. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153

Fast Fourier Transform 9.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154

FDATool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162

FIFO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164

FIR Compiler 7.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167

Gateway In . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178

Gateway Out . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182

Indeterminate Probe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186

Interleaver/De-interleaver 8.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187

Inverter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199

LFSR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200

Logical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202

MCode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203

ModelSim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226

Mult . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232

MultAdd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234

Mux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236

Natural Logarithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238

Negate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239

Opmode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241

Parallel to Serial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247

Product . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248

Puncture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249

Reciprocal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251

Reciprocal SquareRoot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252

Reed-Solomon Decoder 9.0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254

Reed-Solomon Encoder 9.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261

Register. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267

Reinterpret . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268

Relational . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270

Requantize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271

Reset Generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273

ROM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274

Sample Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276

Scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277

Serial to Parallel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278

Shift. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279

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Sine Wave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280

Single Port RAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284

Single-Step Simulation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287

Slice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288

SquareRoot. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290

System Generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292

Threshold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298

Time Division Demultiplexer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299

Time Division Multiplexer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301

Toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302

Up Sample . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305

Vivado HLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307

Viterbi Decoder 9.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310

Chapter 2: Xilinx Reference Blockset

2 Channel Decimate by 2 MAC FIR Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319

2n+1-tap Linear Phase MAC FIR Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321

2n-tap Linear Phase MAC FIR Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322

2n-tap MAC FIR Filter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323

4-channel 8-tap Transpose FIR Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324

4n-tap MAC FIR Filter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325

5x5Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326

BPSK AWGN Channel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328

CIC Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330

Convolutional Encoder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332

CORDIC ATAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334

CORDIC DIVIDER. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336

CORDIC LOG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338

CORDIC SINCOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340

CORDIC SQRT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342

Dual Port Memory Interpolation MAC FIR Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344

Interpolation Filter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345

m-channel n-tap Transpose FIR Filter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346

Mealy State Machine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347

Moore State Machine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350

n-tap Dual Port Memory MAC FIR Filter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354

n-tap MAC FIR Filter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355

Registered Mealy State Machine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356

Registered Moore State Machine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359

Virtex Line Buffer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362

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Virtex2 Line Buffer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363

Virtex2 5 Line Buffer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364

White Gaussian Noise Generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365

Chapter 3: System Generator Utilities

xilinx.analyzer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368

xilinx.utilities.importBD. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379 xlAddTerms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379

xlConfigureSolver. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383

xlfda_denominator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384

xlfda_numerator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385

xlGenerateButton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386

xlgetparam and xlsetparam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387

xlgetparams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389

xlGetReOrderedCoeff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391

xlOpenWaveFormData . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393

xlSetUseHDL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394

xlTBUtils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395

Chapter 4: Programmatic Access

System Generator API for Programmatic Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399

PG API Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406

PG API Error/Warning Handling & Messages. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412

M-Code Access to Hardware Co-Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414

Appendix A: Additional Resources and Legal Notices

Xilinx Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426

Solution Centers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426

Training Resources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427

Please Read: Important Legal Notices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428

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Xilinx Blockset

Organization of Blockset

Libraries

Common Options in Block

Parameter Dialog Boxes

Block Reference Pages

Describes how the Xilinx blocks are organized into libraries.

Describes block parameters that are common to most blocks in the Xilinx blockset.

Alphabetical listing of the Xilinx blockset with detailed descriptions of each block.

Chapter 1

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

Organization of Blockset Libraries

The Xilinx Blockset contains building blocks for constructing DSP and other digital systems in FPGAs using Simulink. The blocks are grouped into libraries according to their function, and some blocks with broad applicability (e.g., the Gateway I/O blocks) are linked into multiple libraries. The following libraries are provided:

Library Description

AXI4 Blocks

Includes every block that supports the AXI4 Interface

Basic Element Blocks

Includes standard building blocks for digital logic

Communication

Blocks

Includes forward error correction and modulator blocks, commonly used in digital communications systems

Control Logic Blocks

Includes blocks for control circuitry and state machines

Data Type Blocks

Includes blocks that convert data types (includes gateways)

DSP Blocks

Includes Digital Signal Processing (DSP) blocks

Floating-Point Blocks

Includes blocks that support the Floating-Point data type as well as other data types. Only a single data type is supported at a time. For example, a floating-point input produces a floating-point output; a fixed-point input produces a fixed-point output.

Index Blocks

Math Blocks

Memory Blocks

Tool Blocks

Includes all System Generator blocks

Includes blocks that implement mathematical functions

Includes blocks that implement and access memories

Includes “Utility” blocks, e.g., code generation (System

Generator token), resource estimation, HDL co-simulation, etc

Each block has a background color that indicates the following:

Background

Color

Blue

Green

Yellow

White

Red Symbol

Meaning

Block Goes into the FPGA fabric and is free!

Block Goes into the FPGA fabric and is a Licensed Core. Go to the Xilinx web site to purchase the Core license.

Blocks on the boundary of your design like Gateway, Shared Memory

Read, Shared Memory Write, VDMA, etc

Utility or Tool

System Generator token (control panel)

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

AXI4 Blocks

Table 1-1:

AXI4 Blocks

AXI4 Block Description

AXI FIFO

CIC Compiler 4.0

CORDIC 6.0

The Xilinx AXI FIFO block implements a FIFO memory queue with an

AXI-compatible block interface.

The Xilinx CIC Compiler provides the ability to design and implement

AXI4-Stream-compliant Cascaded Integrator-Comb (CIC) filters for a variety of Xilinx FPGA devices.

The Xilinx CORDIC block implements a generalized coordinate rotational digital computer (CORDIC) algorithm and is AXI compliant.

Complex Multiplier 6.0 The Complex Multiplier block implements AXI4-Stream compliant, high-performance, optimized complex multipliers for devices based on user-specified options.

Convolution Encoder

9.0

The Xilinx Convolution Encoder block implements an encoder for convolution codes. Ordinarily used in tandem with a Viterbi decoder, this block performs forward error correction (FEC) in digital communication systems. This block adheres to the AMBA® AXI4-Stream standard.

DDS Compiler 6.0

The Xilinx DDS (Direct Digital Synthesizer) Compiler block implements high performance, optimized Phase Generation and Phase to Sinusoid circuits with AXI4-Stream compliant interfaces for supported devices.

Divider Generator 5.1

The Xilinx Divider Generator block creates a circuit for integer division based on Radix-2 non-restoring division, or High-Radix division with prescaling.

Fast Fourier Transform

9.0

The Xilinx Fast Fourier Transform block implements the Cooley-Tukey FFT algorithm, a computationally efficient method for calculating the

Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT). In addition, the block provides an

AXI4-Stream-compliant interface.

FIR Compiler 7.2

Interleaver/De-interle aver 8.0

Reed-Solomon

Decoder 9.0

Reed-Solomon

Encoder 9.0

Viterbi Decoder 9.1

This Xilinx FIR Compiler block provides users with a way to generate highly parameterizable, area-efficient, high-performance FIR filters with an AXI4-Stream-compliant interface.

The Xilinx Interleaver Deinterleaver block implements an interleaver or a deinterleaver using an AXI4-compliant block interface. An interleaver is a device that rearranges the order of a sequence of input symbols. The term symbol is used to describe a collection of bits. In some applications, a symbol is a single bit. In others, a symbol is a bus.

The Reed-Solomon (RS) codes are block-based error correcting codes with a wide range of applications in digital communications and storage.

The Reed-Solomon (RS) codes are block-based error correcting codes with a wide range of applications in digital communications and storage.

This block adheres to the AMBA® AXI4-Stream standard.

Data encoded with a convolution encoder can be decoded using the

Xilinx Viterbi decoder block. This block adheres to the AMBA®

AXI4-Stream standard.

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

Basic Element Blocks

Table 1-2:

Basic Element Blocks

Basic Element Block Description

Absolute

Addressable Shift

Register

Assert

BitBasher

Black Box

Clock Enable Probe

Concat

Constant

Convert

Counter

Delay

Down Sample

Expression

The Xilinx Absolute block outputs the absolute value of the input.

The Xilinx Addressable Shift Register block is a variable-length shift register in which any register in the delay chain can be addressed and driven onto the output data port.

The Xilinx Assert block is used to assert a rate and/or a type on a signal. This block has no cost in hardware and can be used to resolve rates and/or types in situations where designer intervention is required.

The Xilinx BitBasher block performs slicing, concatenation and augmentation of inputs attached to the block.

The System Generator Black Box block provides a way to incorporate hardware description language (HDL) models into System Generator.

The Xilinx Clock Enable (CE) Probe provides a mechanism for extracting derived clock enable signals from Xilinx signals in

System Generator models.

The Xilinx Concat block performs a concatenation of n bit vectors represented by unsigned integer numbers, for example, n unsigned numbers with binary points at position zero.

The Xilinx Constant block generates a constant that can be a fixed-point value, a Boolean value, or a DSP48 instruction.

This block is similar to the Simulink constant block, but can be used to directly drive the inputs on Xilinx blocks.

The Xilinx Convert block converts each input sample to a number of a desired arithmetic type. For example, a number can be converted to a signed (two's complement) or unsigned value.

The Xilinx Counter block implements a free-running or count-limited type of an up, down, or up/down counter. The counter output can be specified as a signed or unsigned fixed-point number.

The Xilinx Delay block implements a fixed delay of L cycles.

The Xilinx Down Sample block reduces the sample rate at the point where the block is placed in your design.

The Xilinx Expression block performs a bitwise logical expression.

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

Table 1-2:

Basic Element Blocks

Basic Element Block Description

Gateway In

Gateway Out

Inverter

LFSR

Logical

Mux

Parallel to Serial

Register

Reinterpret

Relational

Requantize

Serial to Parallel

The Xilinx Gateway In blocks are the inputs into the Xilinx portion of your Simulink design. These blocks convert

Simulink integer, double and fixed-point data types into the

System Generator fixed-point type. Each block defines a top-level input port or interface in the HDL design generated by System Generator.

Xilinx Gateway Out blocks are the outputs from the Xilinx portion of your Simulink design. This block converts the

System Generator fixed-point or floating-point data type into a Simulink integer, single, double or fixed-point data type.

The Xilinx Inverter block calculates the bitwise logical complement of a fixed-point number. The block is implemented as a synthesizable VHDL module.

The Xilinx LFSR block implements a Linear Feedback Shift

Register (LFSR). This block supports both the Galois and

Fibonacci structures using either the XOR or XNOR gate and allows a re-loadable input to change the current value of the register at any time. The LFSR output and re-loadable input can be configured as either serial or parallel ports

The Xilinx Logical block performs bitwise logical operations on fixed-point numbers. Operands are zero padded and sign extended as necessary to make binary point positions coincide; then the logical operation is performed and the result is delivered at the output port.

The Xilinx Mult block implements a multiplier. It computes the product of the data on its two input ports, producing the result on its output port.

The Parallel to Serial block takes an input word and splits it into N time-multiplexed output words where N is the ratio of number of input bits to output bits. The order of the output can be either least significant bit first or most significant bit first.

The Xilinx Register block models a D flip-flop-based register, having latency of one sample period.

The Xilinx Reinterpret block forces its output to a new type without any regard for retaining the numerical value represented by the input.

The Xilinx Relational block implements a comparator.

The Xilinx Requantize block requantizes and scales its input signals.

The Serial to Parallel block takes a series of inputs of any size and creates a single output of a specified multiple of that size. The input series can be ordered either with the most significant word first or the least significant word first.

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

Table 1-2:

Basic Element Blocks

Basic Element Block Description

Slice

System Generator

Threshold

Time Division

Demultiplexer

Time Division

Multiplexer

Up Sample

The Xilinx Slice block allows you to slice off a sequence of bits from your input data and create a new data value. This value is presented as the output from the block. The output data type is unsigned with its binary point at zero.

The System Generator token serves as a control panel for controlling system and simulation parameters, and it is also used to invoke the code generator for netlisting. Every

Simulink model containing any element from the Xilinx

Blockset must contain at least one System Generator token.

Once a System Generator token is added to a model, it is possible to specify how code generation and simulation should be handled.

The Xilinx Threshold block tests the sign of the input number.

If the input number is negative, the output of the block is -1; otherwise, the output is 1. The output is a signed fixed-point integer that is 2 bits long. The block has one input and one output.

The Xilinx Time Division Demultiplexer block accepts input serially and presents it to multiple outputs at a slower rate.

The Xilinx Time Division Multiplexer block multiplexes values presented at input ports into a single faster rate output stream.

The Xilinx Up Sample block increases the sample rate at the point where the block is placed in your design. The output sample period is l/n, where l is the input sample period and n is the sampling rate.

Communication Blocks

Table 1-3:

Communication Blocks - FEC

Communication Block Description

Convolution Encoder

9.0

Depuncture

The Xilinx Convolution Encoder block implements an encoder for convolution codes. Ordinarily used in tandem with a Viterbi decoder, this block performs forward error correction (FEC) in digital communication systems. This block adheres to the AMBA® AXI4-Stream standard.

The Xilinx Depuncture block allows you to insert an arbitrary symbol into your input data at the location specified by the depuncture code.

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

Table 1-3:

Communication Blocks - FEC

Communication Block Description

Interleaver/De-interle aver 8.0

Puncture

Reed-Solomon

Decoder 9.0

Reed-Solomon

Encoder 9.0

Viterbi Decoder 9.1

The Xilinx Interleaver Deinterleaver block implements an interleaver or a deinterleaver using an AXI4-compliant block interface. An interleaver is a device that rearranges the order of a sequence of input symbols. The term symbol is used to describe a collection of bits. In some applications, a symbol is a single bit. In others, a symbol is a bus.

The Xilinx Puncture block removes a set of user-specified bits from the input words of its data stream.

The Reed-Solomon (RS) codes are block-based error correcting codes with a wide range of applications in digital communications and storage. This block adheres to the AMBA® AXI4-Stream standard.

The Reed-Solomon (RS) codes are block-based error correcting codes with a wide range of applications in digital communications and storage. This block adheres to the AMBA® AXI4-Stream standard.

Data encoded with a convolution encoder can be decoded using the Xilinx Viterbi decoder block. This block adheres to the AMBA® AXI4-Stream standard.

Control Logic Blocks

Table 1-4:

Control Logic Blocks

Control Logic Block Description

AXI FIFO

Black Box

Constant

Counter

Dual Port RAM

Expression

The Xilinx AXI FIFO block implements a FIFO memory queue with an AXI-compatible block interface.

The System Generator Black Box block provides a way to incorporate hardware description language (HDL) models into

System Generator.

The Xilinx Constant block generates a constant that can be a fixed-point value, a Boolean value, or a DSP48 instruction. This block is similar to the Simulink constant block, but can be used to directly drive the inputs on Xilinx blocks.

The Xilinx Counter block implements a free-running or count-limited type of an up, down, or up/down counter. The counter output can be specified as a signed or unsigned fixed-point number.

The Xilinx Dual Port RAM block implements a random access memory (RAM). Dual ports enable simultaneous access to the memory space at different sample rates using multiple data widths.

The Xilinx Expression block performs a bitwise logical expression.

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

Table 1-4:

Control Logic Blocks

Control Logic Block Description

FIFO

Inverter

Logical

MCode

Mux

Register

Relational

ROM

Shift

Single Port RAM

Slice

Vivado HLS

The Xilinx FIFO block implements an FIFO memory queue.

The Xilinx Inverter block calculates the bitwise logical complement of a fixed-point number. The block is implemented as a synthesizable VHDL module.

The Xilinx Logical block performs bitwise logical operations on fixed-point numbers. Operands are zero padded and sign extended as necessary to make binary point positions coincide; then the logical operation is performed and the result is delivered at the output port.

The Xilinx MCode block is a container for executing a user-supplied MATLAB function within Simulink. A parameter on the block specifies the M-function name. The block executes the

M-code to calculate block outputs during a Simulink simulation.

The same code is translated in a straightforward way into equivalent behavioral VHDL/Verilog when hardware is generated.

The Xilinx Mux block implements a multiplexer. The block has one select input (type unsigned) and a user-configurable number of data bus inputs, ranging from 2 to 1024.

The Xilinx Register block models a D flip-flop-based register, having latency of one sample period.

The Xilinx Relational block implements a comparator.

The Xilinx ROM block is a single port read-only memory (ROM).

The Xilinx Shift block performs a left or right shift on the input signal. The result will have the same fixed-point container as that of the input.

The Xilinx Single Port RAM block implements a random access memory (RAM) with one data input and one data output port.

The Xilinx Slice block allows you to slice off a sequence of bits from your input data and create a new data value. This value is presented as the output from the block. The output data type is unsigned with its binary point at zero.

The Xilinx Vivado HLS block allows the functionality of a Vivado

HLS design to be included in a System Generator design. The

Vivado HLS design can include C, C++ and System C design sources.

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

Data Type Blocks

Table 1-5:

Data Type Blocks

Data Type Block

BitBasher

Concat

Convert

Gateway In

Gateway Out

Parallel to Serial

Reinterpret

Requantize

Scale

Serial to Parallel

Shift

Description

The Xilinx BitBasher block performs slicing, concatenation and augmentation of inputs attached to the block.

The Xilinx Concat block performs a concatenation of n bit vectors represented by unsigned integer numbers, for example, n unsigned numbers with binary points at position zero.

The Xilinx Convert block converts each input sample to a number of a desired arithmetic type. For example, a number can be converted to a signed (two's complement) or unsigned value.

The Xilinx Gateway In blocks are the inputs into the Xilinx portion of your Simulink design. These blocks convert Simulink integer, double and fixed-point data types into the System

Generator fixed-point type. Each block defines a top-level input port or interface in the HDL design generated by System

Generator.

Xilinx Gateway Out blocks are the outputs from the Xilinx portion of your Simulink design. This block converts the System

Generator fixed-point or floating-point data type into a Simulink integer, single, double or fixed-point data type.

The Parallel to Serial block takes an input word and splits it into

N time-multiplexed output words where N is the ratio of number of input bits to output bits. The order of the output can be either least significant bit first or most significant bit first.

The Xilinx Reinterpret block forces its output to a new type without any regard for retaining the numerical value represented by the input.

The Xilinx Requantize block requantizes and scales its input signals.

The Xilinx Scale block scales its input by a power of two. The power can be either positive or negative. The block has one input and one output. The scale operation has the effect of moving the binary point without changing the bits in the container

The Serial to Parallel block takes a series of inputs of any size and creates a single output of a specified multiple of that size. The input series can be ordered either with the most significant word first or the least significant word first.

The Xilinx Shift block performs a left or right shift on the input signal. The result will have the same fixed-point container as that of the input.

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

Table 1-5:

Data Type Blocks

Data Type Block

Slice

Threshold

Description

The Xilinx Slice block allows you to slice off a sequence of bits from your input data and create a new data value. This value is presented as the output from the block. The output data type is unsigned with its binary point at zero.

The Xilinx Threshold block tests the sign of the input number. If the input number is negative, the output of the block is -1; otherwise, the output is 1. The output is a signed fixed-point integer that is 2 bits long. The block has one input and one output.

DSP Blocks

Table 1-6:

DSP Blocks

DSP Block Description

CIC Compiler 4.0

Complex Multiplier 6.0

The Complex Multiplier block implements AXI4-Stream compliant, high-performance, optimized complex multipliers for devices based on user-specified options.

CORDIC 6.0

The Xilinx CIC Compiler provides the ability to design and implement AXI4-Stream-compliant Cascaded

Integrator-Comb (CIC) filters for a variety of Xilinx FPGA devices.

DDS Compiler 6.0

The Xilinx CORDIC block implements a generalized coordinate rotational digital computer (CORDIC) algorithm and is AXI compliant.

The Xilinx DDS (Direct Digital Synthesizer) Compiler block implements high performance, optimized Phase Generation and Phase to Sinusoid circuits with AXI4-Stream compliant interfaces for supported devices.

Digital FIR Filter

Divider Generator 5.1

DSP48 Macro 3.0

DSP48E

The Xilinx Digital FIR Filter block allows you to generate highly parameterizable, area-efficient, high-performance single channel FIR filters.

The Xilinx Divider Generator block creates a circuit for integer division based on Radix-2 non-restoring division, or

High-Radix division with prescaling.

The System Generator DSP48 macro block provides a device independent abstraction of the blocks DSP48, DSP48A, and

DSP48E. Using this block instead of using a technology-specific DSP slice helps makes the design more portable between Xilinx technologies.

The Xilinx DSP48E block is an efficient building block for DSP applications that use supported devices. The DSP48E combines an 18-bit by 25-bit signed multiplier with a 48-bit adder and programmable mux to select the adder's input.

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

Table 1-6:

DSP Blocks

DSP Block

DSP48E1

DSP48E2

Fast Fourier Transform

9.0

FDATool

FIR Compiler 7.2

LFSR

Opmode

Product

Sine Wave

Description

The Xilinx DSP48E1 block is an efficient building block for

DSP applications that use 7 series devices. Enhancements to the DSP48E1 slice provide improved flexibility and utilization, improved efficiency of applications, reduced overall power consumption, and increased maximum frequency. The high performance allows designers to implement multiple slower operations in a single DSP48E1 slice using time-multiplexing methods.

The Xilinx DSP48E2 block is an efficient building block for

DSP applications that use UltraScale devices. DSP applications use many binary multipliers and accumulators that are best implemented in dedicated DSP resources.

UltraScale devices have many dedicated low-power DSP slices, combining high speed with small size while retaining system design flexibility.

The Xilinx Fast Fourier Transform block implements the

Cooley-Tukey FFT algorithm, a computationally efficient method for calculating the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT).

In addition, the block provides an AXI4-Stream-compliant interface.

The Xilinx FDATool block provides an interface to the

FDATool software available as part of the MATLAB Signal

Processing Toolbox.

This Xilinx FIR Compiler block provides users with a way to generate highly parameterizable, area-efficient, high-performance FIR filters with an AXI4-Stream-compliant interface.

The Xilinx LFSR block implements a Linear Feedback Shift

Register (LFSR). This block supports both the Galois and

Fibonacci structures using either the XOR or XNOR gate and allows a re-loadable input to change the current value of the register at any time. The LFSR output and re-loadable input can be configured as either serial or parallel ports

The Xilinx Opmode block generates a constant that is a

DSP48A, DSP48, DS48E, or DSP48E1 instruction. The instruction is an 11-bit value for the DSP48, 8-bit forDSP48A,

15-bit value for the DSP48E and a 20-bit value for DSP48E1.

The instruction can consists of the opmode, carry-in, carry-in select, inmode and either the subtract or alumode bits

(depending upon the selection of DSP48 or DSP48E type).

The Xilinx Product block implements a scalar or complex multiplier. It computes the product of the data on its two input channels, producing the result on its output channel.

For complex multiplication the input and output have two components: real and imaginary.

The Xilinx Sine Wave block generates a sine wave, using simulation time as the time source.

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

Floating-Point Blocks

The blocks in this library support the Floating-Point data type as well as other data types. Only a single data type is supported at a time. For example, a floating-point input produces a floating-point output; a fixed-point input produces a fixed-point output.

Table 1-7:

Floating-Point Blocks

Floating-Point Block Description

AXI FIFO

Absolute

Accumulator

Addressable Shift

Register

AddSub

Assert

Black Box

CMult

Constant

Convert

Delay

Divide

Dual Port RAM

The Xilinx AXI FIFO block implements a FIFO memory queue with an AXI-compatible block interface.

The Xilinx Absolute block outputs the absolute value of the input.

The Xilinx Accumulator block implements an adder or subtractor-based scaling accumulator.

The Xilinx Addressable Shift Register block is a variable-length shift register in which any register in the delay chain can be addressed and driven onto the output data port.

The Xilinx AddSub block implements an adder/subtractor. The operation can be fixed (Addition or Subtraction) or changed dynamically under control of the sub mode signal.

The Xilinx Assert block is used to assert a rate and/or a type on a signal. This block has no cost in hardware and can be used to resolve rates and/or types in situations where designer intervention is required.

The System Generator Black Box block provides a way to incorporate hardware description language (HDL) models into

System Generator.

The Xilinx CMult block implements a gain operator, with output equal to the product of its input by a constant value. This value can be a MATLAB expression that evaluates to a constant.

The Xilinx Constant block generates a constant that can be a fixed-point value, a Boolean value, or a DSP48 instruction. This block is similar to the Simulink constant block, but can be used to directly drive the inputs on Xilinx blocks.

The Xilinx Convert block converts each input sample to a number of a desired arithmetic type. For example, a number can be converted to a signed (two's complement) or unsigned value.

The Xilinx Delay block implements a fixed delay of L cycles.

The Xilinx Divide block performs both fixed-point and floating-point division with the a input being the dividend and the b input the divisor. Both inputs must be of the same data type.

The Xilinx Dual Port RAM block implements a random access memory (RAM). Dual ports enable simultaneous access to the memory space at different sample rates using multiple data widths.

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

Table 1-7:

Floating-Point Blocks

Floating-Point Block Description

Exponential

Fast Fourier

Transform 9.0

FIFO

Gateway In

Gateway Out

Mult

MultAdd

Mux

Natural Logarithm

Negate

Reciprocal

Reciprocal

SquareRoot

Register

Reinterpret

Relational

This Xilinx Exponential block preforms the exponential operation on the input. Currently, only the floating-point data type is supported.

The Xilinx Fast Fourier Transform block implements the

Cooley-Tukey FFT algorithm, a computationally efficient method for calculating the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT). In addition, the block provides an AXI4-Stream-compliant interface.

The Xilinx FIFO block implements an FIFO memory queue.

The Xilinx Gateway In blocks are the inputs into the Xilinx portion of your Simulink design. These blocks convert Simulink integer, double and fixed-point data types into the System

Generator fixed-point type. Each block defines a top-level input port or interface in the HDL design generated by System

Generator.

Xilinx Gateway Out blocks are the outputs from the Xilinx portion of your Simulink design. This block converts the System

Generator fixed-point or floating-point data type into a Simulink integer, single, double or fixed-point data type.

The Xilinx Mult block implements a multiplier. It computes the product of the data on its two input ports, producing the result on its output port.

The Xilinx MultAdd block performs both fixed-point and floating-point multiply and addition with the a and b inputs used for the multiplication and the c input for addition or subtraction.

The Xilinx Mux block implements a multiplexer. The block has one select input (type unsigned) and a user-configurable number of data bus inputs, ranging from 2 to 1024.

The Xilinx Natural Logarithm block produces the natural logarithm of the input.

The Xilinx Negate block computes the arithmetic negation of its input.

The Xilinx Reciprocal block performs the reciprocal on the input.

Currently, only the floating-point data type is supported.

The Xilinx Reciprocal SquareRoot block performs the reciprocal squareroot on the input. Currently, only the floating-point data type is supported.

The Xilinx Register block models a D flip-flop-based register, having latency of one sample period.

The Xilinx Reinterpret block forces its output to a new type without any regard for retaining the numerical value represented by the input.

The Xilinx Relational block implements a comparator.

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

Table 1-7:

Floating-Point Blocks

Floating-Point Block Description

ROM

Single Port RAM

SquareRoot

The Xilinx ROM block is a single port read-only memory (ROM).

The Xilinx Single Port RAM block implements a random access memory (RAM) with one data input and one data output port.

The Xilinx SquareRoot block performs the square root on the input. Currently, only the floating-point data type is supported.

Index Blocks

Table 1-8:

Index Blocks

Index Block

Absolute

Accumulator

Addressable Shift

Register

AddSub

Assert

AXI FIFO

BitBasher

Black Box

CIC Compiler 4.0

Clock Enable Probe

Clock Probe

Description

The Xilinx Absolute block outputs the absolute value of the input.

The Xilinx Accumulator block implements an adder or subtractor-based scaling accumulator.

The Xilinx Addressable Shift Register block is a variable-length shift register in which any register in the delay chain can be addressed and driven onto the output data port.

The Xilinx AddSub block implements an adder/subtractor. The operation can be fixed (Addition or Subtraction) or changed dynamically under control of the sub mode signal.

The Xilinx Assert block is used to assert a rate and/or a type on a signal. This block has no cost in hardware and can be used to resolve rates and/or types in situations where designer intervention is required.

The Xilinx AXI FIFO block implements a FIFO memory queue with an AXI-compatible block interface.

The Xilinx BitBasher block performs slicing, concatenation and augmentation of inputs attached to the block.

The System Generator Black Box block provides a way to incorporate hardware description language (HDL) models into

System Generator.

The Xilinx CIC Compiler provides the ability to design and implement AXI4-Stream-compliant Cascaded Integrator-Comb

(CIC) filters for a variety of Xilinx FPGA devices.

The Xilinx Clock Enable (CE) Probe provides a mechanism for extracting derived clock enable signals from Xilinx signals in

System Generator models.

The Xilinx Clock Probe generates a double-precision representation of a clock signal with a period equal to the

Simulink system period.

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

Table 1-8:

Index Blocks

Index Block

CMult

Complex Multiplier

6.0

Concat

Constant

Convert

Convolution Encoder

9.0

CORDIC 6.0

Counter

DDS Compiler 6.0

Delay

Depuncture

Digital FIR Filter

Divide

Description

The Xilinx CMult block implements a gain operator, with output equal to the product of its input by a constant value. This value can be a MATLAB expression that evaluates to a constant.

The Complex Multiplier block implements AXI4-Stream compliant, high-performance, optimized complex multipliers for devices based on user-specified options.

The Xilinx Concat block performs a concatenation of n bit vectors represented by unsigned integer numbers, for example, n unsigned numbers with binary points at position zero.

The Xilinx Constant block generates a constant that can be a fixed-point value, a Boolean value, or a DSP48 instruction. This block is similar to the Simulink constant block, but can be used to directly drive the inputs on Xilinx blocks.

The Xilinx Convert block converts each input sample to a number of a desired arithmetic type. For example, a number can be converted to a signed (two's complement) or unsigned value.

The Xilinx Convolution Encoder block implements an encoder for convolution codes. Ordinarily used in tandem with a Viterbi decoder, this block performs forward error correction (FEC) in digital communication systems. This block adheres to the

AMBA® AXI4-Stream standard.

The Xilinx CORDIC block implements a generalized coordinate rotational digital computer (CORDIC) algorithm and is AXI compliant.

The Xilinx Counter block implements a free-running or count-limited type of an up, down, or up/down counter. The counter output can be specified as a signed or unsigned fixed-point number.

The Xilinx DDS (Direct Digital Synthesizer) Compiler block implements high performance, optimized Phase Generation and

Phase to Sinusoid circuits with AXI4-Stream compliant interfaces for supported devices.

The Xilinx Delay block implements a fixed delay of L cycles.

The Xilinx Depuncture block allows you to insert an arbitrary symbol into your input data at the location specified by the depuncture code.

The Xilinx Digital FIR Filter block allows you to generate highly parameterizable, area-efficient, high-performance single channel FIR filters.

The Xilinx Divide block performs both fixed-point and floating-point division with the a input being the dividend and the b input the divisor. Both inputs must be of the same data type.

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

Table 1-8:

Index Blocks

Index Block Description

Divider Generator 5.1 The Xilinx Divider Generator block creates a circuit for integer division based on Radix-2 non-restoring division, or High-Radix division with prescaling.

Down Sample The Xilinx Down Sample block reduces the sample rate at the point where the block is placed in your design.

DSP48 Macro 3.0

The System Generator DSP48 macro block provides a device independent abstraction of the blocks DSP48, DSP48A, and

DSP48E. Using this block instead of using a technology-specific

DSP slice helps makes the design more portable between Xilinx technologies.

DSP48E

DSP48E1

The Xilinx DSP48E block is an efficient building block for DSP applications that use supported devices. The DSP48E combines an 18-bit by 25-bit signed multiplier with a 48-bit adder and programmable mux to select the adder's input.

The Xilinx DSP48E1 block is an efficient building block for DSP applications that use 7 series devices. Enhancements to the

DSP48E1 slice provide improved flexibility and utilization, improved efficiency of applications, reduced overall power consumption, and increased maximum frequency. The high performance allows designers to implement multiple slower operations in a single DSP48E1 slice using time-multiplexing methods.

Dual Port RAM

Exponential

Expression

Fast Fourier

Transform 9.0

FDATool

FIFO

FIR Compiler 7.2

The Xilinx Dual Port RAM block implements a random access memory (RAM). Dual ports enable simultaneous access to the memory space at different sample rates using multiple data widths.

This Xilinx Exponential block preforms the exponential operation on the input. Currently, only the floating-point data type is supported.

The Xilinx Expression block performs a bitwise logical expression.

The Xilinx Fast Fourier Transform block implements the

Cooley-Tukey FFT algorithm, a computationally efficient method for calculating the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT). In addition, the block provides an AXI4-Stream-compliant interface.

The Xilinx FDATool block provides an interface to the FDATool software available as part of the MATLAB Signal Processing

Toolbox.

The Xilinx FIFO block implements an FIFO memory queue.

This Xilinx FIR Compiler block provides users with a way to generate highly parameterizable, area-efficient, high-performance FIR filters with an AXI4-Stream-compliant interface.

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

Table 1-8:

Index Blocks

Index Block Description

Gateway In

Gateway Out Xilinx Gateway Out blocks are the outputs from the Xilinx portion of your Simulink design. This block converts the System

Generator fixed-point or floating-point data type into a Simulink integer, single, double or fixed-point data type.

Indeterminate Probe The output of the Xilinx Indeterminate Probe indicates whether the input data is indeterminate (MATLAB value NaN). An indeterminate data value corresponds to a VHDL indeterminate logic data value of 'X'.

Interleaver/De-interl eaver 8.0

The Xilinx Interleaver Deinterleaver block implements an interleaver or a deinterleaver using an AXI4-compliant block interface. An interleaver is a device that rearranges the order of a sequence of input symbols. The term symbol is used to describe a collection of bits. In some applications, a symbol is a single bit. In others, a symbol is a bus.

Inverter

The Xilinx Gateway In blocks are the inputs into the Xilinx portion of your Simulink design. These blocks convert Simulink integer, double and fixed-point data types into the System

Generator fixed-point type. Each block defines a top-level input port or interface in the HDL design generated by System

Generator.

LFSR

Logical

MCode

ModelSim

The Xilinx Inverter block calculates the bitwise logical complement of a fixed-point number. The block is implemented as a synthesizable VHDL module.

The Xilinx LFSR block implements a Linear Feedback Shift

Register (LFSR). This block supports both the Galois and

Fibonacci structures using either the XOR or XNOR gate and allows a re-loadable input to change the current value of the register at any time. The LFSR output and re-loadable input can be configured as either serial or parallel ports

The Xilinx Logical block performs bitwise logical operations on fixed-point numbers. Operands are zero padded and sign extended as necessary to make binary point positions coincide; then the logical operation is performed and the result is delivered at the output port.

The Xilinx MCode block is a container for executing a user-supplied MATLAB function within Simulink. A parameter on the block specifies the M-function name. The block executes the

M-code to calculate block outputs during a Simulink simulation.

The same code is translated in a straightforward way into equivalent behavioral VHDL/Verilog when hardware is generated.

The System Generator Black Box block provides a way to incorporate existing HDL files into a model. When the model is simulated, co-simulation can be used to allow black boxes to participate. The ModelSim HDL co-simulation block configures and controls co-simulation for one or several black boxes.

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

Table 1-8:

Index Blocks

Index Block

Mult

MultAdd

Mux

Natural Logarithm

Negate

Opmode

Parallel to Serial

Product

Puncture

Reciprocal

Reciprocal

SquareRoot

Reed-Solomon

Decoder 9.0

Reed-Solomon

Decoder 9.0

Description

The Xilinx Mult block implements a multiplier. It computes the product of the data on its two input ports, producing the result on its output port.

The Xilinx MultAdd block performs both fixed-point and floating-point multiply and addition with the a and b inputs used for the multiplication and the c input for addition or subtraction.

The Xilinx Mux block implements a multiplexer. The block has one select input (type unsigned) and a user-configurable number of data bus inputs, ranging from 2 to 1024.

The Xilinx Natural Logarithm block produces the natural logarithm of the input.

The Xilinx Negate block computes the arithmetic negation of its input.

The Xilinx Opmode block generates a constant that is a DSP48A,

DSP48, DS48E, or DSP48E1 instruction. The instruction is an

11-bit value for the DSP48, 8-bit forDSP48A, 15-bit value for the

DSP48E and a 20-bit value for DSP48E1. The instruction can consists of the opmode, carry-in, carry-in select, inmode and either the subtract or alumode bits (depending upon the selection of DSP48 or DSP48E type).

The Parallel to Serial block takes an input word and splits it into

N time-multiplexed output words where N is the ratio of number of input bits to output bits. The order of the output can be either least significant bit first or most significant bit first.

The Xilinx Product block implements a scalar or complex multiplier. It computes the product of the data on its two input channels, producing the result on its output channel. For complex multiplication the input and output have two components: real and imaginary.

The Xilinx Puncture block removes a set of user-specified bits from the input words of its data stream.

The Xilinx Reciprocal block performs the reciprocal on the input.

Currently, only the floating-point data type is supported.

The Xilinx Reciprocal SquareRoot block performs the reciprocal squareroot on the input. Currently, only the floating-point data type is supported.

The Reed-Solomon (RS) codes are block-based error correcting codes with a wide range of applications in digital communications and storage.

The Reed-Solomon (RS) codes are block-based error correcting codes with a wide range of applications in digital communications and storage. This block adheres to the AMBA®

AXI4-Stream standard.

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

Table 1-8:

Index Blocks

Index Block

Register

Reinterpret

Relational

Requantize

ROM

Sample Time

Scale

Serial to Parallel

Shift

Single Port RAM

Single-Step

Simulation

Sine Wave

Slice

SquareRoot

System Generator

Description

The Xilinx Register block models a D flip-flop-based register, having latency of one sample period.

The Xilinx Reinterpret block forces its output to a new type without any regard for retaining the numerical value represented by the input.

The Xilinx Relational block implements a comparator.

The Xilinx Requantize block requantizes and scales its input signals.

The Xilinx ROM block is a single port read-only memory (ROM).

The Sample Time block reports the normalized sample period of its input. A signal's normalized sample period is not equivalent to its Simulink absolute sample period. In hardware, this block is implemented as a constant.

The Xilinx Scale block scales its input by a power of two. The power can be either positive or negative. The block has one input and one output. The scale operation has the effect of moving the binary point without changing the bits in the container

The Serial to Parallel block takes a series of inputs of any size and creates a single output of a specified multiple of that size. The input series can be ordered either with the most significant word first or the least significant word first.

The Xilinx Shift block performs a left or right shift on the input signal. The result will have the same fixed-point container as that of the input.

The Xilinx Single Port RAM block implements a random access memory (RAM) with one data input and one data output port.

The Xilinx Single-Step Simulation block pauses the simulation each clock cycle when in single-step mode.

The Xilinx Sine Wave block generates a sine wave, using simulation time as the time source.

The Xilinx Slice block allows you to slice off a sequence of bits from your input data and create a new data value. This value is presented as the output from the block. The output data type is unsigned with its binary point at zero.

The Xilinx SquareRoot block performs the square root on the input. Currently, only the floating-point data type is supported.

The System Generator token serves as a control panel for controlling system and simulation parameters, and it is also used to invoke the code generator for netlisting. Every Simulink model containing any element from the Xilinx Blockset must contain at least one System Generator token. Once a System

Generator token is added to a model, it is possible to specify how code generation and simulation should be handled.

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

Table 1-8:

Index Blocks

Index Block Description

Threshold The Xilinx Threshold block tests the sign of the input number. If the input number is negative, the output of the block is -1; otherwise, the output is 1. The output is a signed fixed-point integer that is 2 bits long. The block has one input and one output.

Time Division

Demultiplexer

Time Division

Multiplexer

Toolbar

The Xilinx Time Division Demultiplexer block accepts input serially and presents it to multiple outputs at a slower rate.

The Xilinx Time Division Multiplexer block multiplexes values presented at input ports into a single faster rate output stream.

Up Sample

The Xilinx Toolbar block provides quick access to several useful utilities in System Generator. The Toolbar simplifies the use of the zoom feature in Simulink and adds new auto layout and route capabilities to Simulink models.

The Xilinx Up Sample block increases the sample rate at the point where the block is placed in your design. The output sample period is l/n, where l is the input sample period and n is the sampling rate.

Vivado HLS The Xilinx Vivado HLS block allows the functionality of a Vivado

HLS design to be included in a System Generator design. The

Vivado HLS design can include C, C++ and System C design sources.

Viterbi Decoder 9.1

Data encoded with a convolution encoder can be decoded using the Xilinx Viterbi decoder block. This block adheres to the

AMBA® AXI4-Stream standard.

Math Blocks

Table 1-9:

Math Blocks

Math Block

Absolute

Accumulator

AddSub

CMult

Complex Multiplier

6.0

Description

The Xilinx Absolute block outputs the absolute value of the input.

The Xilinx Accumulator block implements an adder or subtractor-based scaling accumulator.

The Xilinx AddSub block implements an adder/subtractor. The operation can be fixed (Addition or Subtraction) or changed dynamically under control of the sub mode signal.

The Xilinx CMult block implements a gain operator, with output equal to the product of its input by a constant value. This value can be a MATLAB expression that evaluates to a constant.

The Complex Multiplier block implements AXI4-Stream compliant, high-performance, optimized complex multipliers for devices based on user-specified options.

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

Table 1-9:

Math Blocks

Math Block Description

Constant

Convert

CORDIC 6.0

Counter

The Xilinx Constant block generates a constant that can be a fixed-point value, a Boolean value, or a DSP48 instruction. This block is similar to the Simulink constant block, but can be used to directly drive the inputs on Xilinx blocks.

The Xilinx Convert block converts each input sample to a number of a desired arithmetic type. For example, a number can be converted to a signed (two's complement) or unsigned value.

The Xilinx CORDIC block implements a generalized coordinate rotational digital computer (CORDIC) algorithm and is AXI compliant.

The Xilinx Counter block implements a free-running or count-limited type of an up, down, or up/down counter. The counter output can be specified as a signed or unsigned fixed-point number.

Divide

Divider Generator 5.1 The Xilinx Divider Generator block creates a circuit for integer division based on Radix-2 non-restoring division, or High-Radix division with prescaling.

Exponential This Xilinx Exponential block preforms the exponential operation on the input. Currently, only the floating-point data type is supported.

Expression

The Xilinx Divide block performs both fixed-point and floating-point division with the a input being the dividend and the b input the divisor. Both inputs must be of the same data type.

Inverter

The Xilinx Expression block performs a bitwise logical expression.

The Xilinx Inverter block calculates the bitwise logical complement of a fixed-point number. The block is implemented as a synthesizable VHDL module.

Logical

MCode

Mult

The Xilinx Logical block performs bitwise logical operations on fixed-point numbers. Operands are zero padded and sign extended as necessary to make binary point positions coincide; then the logical operation is performed and the result is delivered at the output port.

The Xilinx MCode block is a container for executing a user-supplied MATLAB function within Simulink. A parameter on the block specifies the M-function name. The block executes the

M-code to calculate block outputs during a Simulink simulation.

The same code is translated in a straightforward way into equivalent behavioral VHDL/Verilog when hardware is generated.

The Xilinx Mult block implements a multiplier. It computes the product of the data on its two input ports, producing the result on its output port.

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

Table 1-9:

Math Blocks

Math Block

MultAdd

Natural Logarithm

Negate

Product

Reciprocal

Reciprocal

SquareRoot

Reinterpret

Relational

Requantize

Scale

Shift

SquareRoot

Threshold

Description

The Xilinx MultAdd block performs both fixed-point and floating-point multiply and addition with the a and b inputs used for the multiplication and the c input for addition or subtraction.

The Xilinx Natural Logarithm block produces the natural logarithm of the input.

The Xilinx Negate block computes the arithmetic negation of its input.

The Xilinx Product block implements a scalar or complex multiplier. It computes the product of the data on its two input channels, producing the result on its output channel. For complex multiplication the input and output have two components: real and imaginary.

The Xilinx Reciprocal block performs the reciprocal on the input.

Currently, only the floating-point data type is supported.

The Xilinx Reciprocal SquareRoot block performs the reciprocal squareroot on the input. Currently, only the floating-point data type is supported.

The Xilinx Reinterpret block forces its output to a new type without any regard for retaining the numerical value represented by the input.

The Xilinx Relational block implements a comparator.

The Xilinx Requantize block requantizes and scales its input signals.

The Xilinx Scale block scales its input by a power of two. The power can be either positive or negative. The block has one input and one output. The scale operation has the effect of moving the binary point without changing the bits in the container

The Xilinx Shift block performs a left or right shift on the input signal. The result will have the same fixed-point container as that of the input.

The Xilinx SquareRoot block performs the square root on the input. Currently, only the floating-point data type is supported.

The Xilinx Threshold block tests the sign of the input number. If the input number is negative, the output of the block is -1; otherwise, the output is 1. The output is a signed fixed-point integer that is 2 bits long. The block has one input and one output.

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

Memory Blocks

Table 1-10:

Memory Blocks

Memory Block

Addressable Shift

Register

AXI FIFO

Delay

Dual Port RAM

FIFO

LFSR

ROM

Register

Single Port RAM

Description

The Xilinx Addressable Shift Register block is a variable-length shift register in which any register in the delay chain can be addressed and driven onto the output data port.

The Xilinx AXI FIFO block implements a FIFO memory queue with an AXI-compatible block interface.

The Xilinx Delay block implements a fixed delay of L cycles.

The Xilinx Dual Port RAM block implements a random access memory (RAM). Dual ports enable simultaneous access to the memory space at different sample rates using multiple data widths.

The Xilinx FIFO block implements an FIFO memory queue.

The Xilinx LFSR block implements a Linear Feedback Shift

Register (LFSR). This block supports both the Galois and

Fibonacci structures using either the XOR or XNOR gate and allows a re-loadable input to change the current value of the register at any time. The LFSR output and re-loadable input can be configured as either serial or parallel ports

The Xilinx ROM block is a single port read-only memory (ROM).

The Xilinx Register block models a D flip-flop-based register, having latency of one sample period.

The Xilinx Single Port RAM block implements a random access memory (RAM) with one data input and one data output port.

Tool Blocks

Table 1-11:

Tool Blocks

Tool Block Description

Clock Probe

FDATool

The Xilinx Clock Probe generates a double-precision representation of a clock signal with a period equal to the

Simulink system period.

The Xilinx FDATool block provides an interface to the FDATool software available as part of the MATLAB Signal Processing

Toolbox.

Indeterminate Probe The output of the Xilinx Indeterminate Probe indicates whether the input data is indeterminate (MATLAB value NaN). An indeterminate data value corresponds to a VHDL indeterminate logic data value of 'X'.

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

Table 1-11:

Tool Blocks

Tool Block

ModelSim

Sample Time

Single-Step

Simulation

System Generator

Toolbar

Description

The System Generator Black Box block provides a way to incorporate existing HDL files into a model. When the model is simulated, co-simulation can be used to allow black boxes to participate. The ModelSim HDL co-simulation block configures and controls co-simulation for one or several black boxes.

The Sample Time block reports the normalized sample period of its input. A signal's normalized sample period is not equivalent to its Simulink absolute sample period. In hardware, this block is implemented as a constant.

The Xilinx Single-Step Simulation block pauses the simulation each clock cycle when in single-step mode.

The System Generator token serves as a control panel for controlling system and simulation parameters, and it is also used to invoke the code generator for netlisting. Every Simulink model containing any element from the Xilinx Blockset must contain at least one System Generator token. Once a System

Generator token is added to a model, it is possible to specify how code generation and simulation should be handled.

The Xilinx Toolbar block provides quick access to several useful utilities in System Generator. The Toolbar simplifies the use of the zoom feature in Simulink and adds new auto layout and route capabilities to Simulink models.

Simulink Blocks Supported by System Generator

In general, Simulink blocks can be included in a Xilinx design for simulation purposes, but will not be mapped to Xilinx hardware. However, the following Simulink blocks are fully supported by System Generator and are mapped to Xilinx hardware:

Table 1-12:

Simulink Blocks Supported by System Generator

Simulink Block

Demux

From

Goto

Mux

Description

The Demux block extracts the components of an input signal and outputs the components as separate signals.

The From block accepts a signal from a corresponding Goto block, then passes it as output.

The Goto block passes its input to its corresponding From blocks.

The Mux block combines its inputs into a single vector output.

Refer to the corresponding Simulink documentation for a complete description of the block.

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

Common Options in Block Parameter Dialog Boxes

Each Xilinx block has several controls and configurable parameters, seen in its block parameters dialog box. This dialog box can be accessed by double-clicking on the block.

Many of these parameters are specific to the block. Block-specific parameters are described in the documentation for the block.

The remaining controls and parameters are common to most blocks. These common controls and parameters are described below.

Each dialog box contains four buttons: OK, Cancel, Help, and Apply. Apply applies configuration changes to the block, leaving the box open on the screen. Help displays

HTML help for the block. Cancel closes the box without saving changes. OK applies changes and closes the box.

Precision

The fundamental computational mode in the Xilinx blockset is arbitrary precision fixed- point arithmetic. Most blocks give you the option of choosing the precision, for example, the number of bits and binary point position.

By default, the output of Xilinx blocks is full precision; that is, sufficient precision to represent the result without error. Most blocks have a User-Defined precision option that fixes the number of total and fractional bits

Arithmetic Type

In the Type field of the block parameters dialog box, you can choose unsigned or signed

(two's complement) as the data type of the output signal.

Number of Bits

Fixed-point numbers are stored in data types characterized by their word size as specified by number of bits, binary point, and arithmetic type parameters. The maximum number of bits supported is 4096.

Binary Point

The binary point is the means by which fixed-point numbers are scaled. The binary point parameter indicates the number of bits to the right of the binary point (for example, the size of the fraction) for the output port. The binary point position must be between zero and the specified number of bits.

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

Overflow and Quantization

When user-defined precision is selected, errors can result from overflow or quantization.

Overflow errors occur when a value lies outside the representable range. Quantization errors occur when the number of fractional bits is insufficient to represent the fractional portion of a value.

The Xilinx fixed-point data type supports several options for user-defined precision. For overflow the options are to Saturate to the largest positive/smallest negative value, to

Wrap (for example, to discard bits to the left of the most significant representable bit), or to Flag as error (an overflow as a Simulink error) during simulation. Flag as error is a simulation only feature. The hardware generated is the same as when Wrap is selected.

For quantization, the options are to Round to the nearest representable value (or to the value furthest from zero if there are two equidistant nearest representable values), or to

Truncate (for example, to discard bits to the right of the least significant representable bit).

The following is an image showing the Quantization and Overflow options.

Round(unbiased: +/- inf) also known as "Symmetric Round (towards +/- inf)" or

"Symmetric Round (away from zero)". This is similar to the Matlab round() function. This method rounds the value to the nearest desired bit away from zero and when there is a value at the midpoint between two possible rounded values, the one with the larger magnitude is selected. For example, to round 01.0110 to a Fix_4_2, this yields 01.10, since

01.0110 is exactly between 01.01 and 01.10 and the latter is further from zero.

Round (unbiased: even values) also known as "Convergent Round (toward even)" or

"Unbiased Rounding". Symmetric rounding is biased because it rounds all ambiguous midpoints away from zero which means the average magnitude of the rounded results is larger than the average magnitude of the raw results. Convergent rounding removes this by alternating between a symmetric round toward zero and symmetric round away from zero.

That is, midpoints are rounded toward the nearest even number. For example, to round

01.0110 to a Fix_4_2, this yields 01.10, since 01.0110 is exactly between 01.01 and 01.10 and the latter is even. To round 01.1010 to a Fix_4_2, this yields 01.10, since 01.1010 is exactly between 01.10 and 01.11 and the former is even.

It is important to realize that whatever option is selected, the generated HDL model and

Simulink model behave identically.

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

Latency

Many elements in the Xilinx blockset have a latency option. This defines the number of sample periods by which the block's output is delayed. One sample period might correspond to multiple clock cycles in the corresponding FPGA implementation (for example, when the hardware is over-clocked with respect to the Simulink model). System

Generator does not perform extensive pipelining; additional latency is usually implemented as a shift register on the output of the block.

Provide Synchronous Reset Port

Selecting the Provide Synchronous Reset Port option activates an optional reset (rst) pin on the block.

When the reset signal is asserted the block goes back to its initial state. Reset signal has precedence over the optional enable signal available on the block. The reset signal has to run at a multiple of the block's sample rate. The signal driving the reset port must be

Boolean.

Provide Enable Port

Selecting the Provide Enable Port option activates an optional enable (en) pin on the block. When the enable signal is not asserted the block holds its current state until the enable signal is asserted again or the reset signal is asserted. Reset signal has precedence over the enable signal. The enable signal has to run at a multiple of the block 's sample rate.

The signal driving the enable port must be Boolean.

Sample Period

Data streams are processed at a specific sample rate as they flow through Simulink.

Typically, each block detects the input sample rate and produces the correct sample rate on its output. Xilinx blocks Up Sample and Down Sample provide a means to increase or decrease sample rates.

Specify Explicit Sample Period

If you select Specify explicit sample period rather than the default, you can set the sample period required for all the block outputs. This is useful when implementing features such as feedback loops in your design. In a feedback loop, it is not possible for System Generator to determine a default sample rate, because the loop makes an input sample rate depend on a yet-to-be-determined output sample rate. System Generator under these circumstances requires you to supply a hint to establish sample periods throughout a loop.

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

Use Behavioral HDL (otherwise use core)

When this checkbox is checked, the behavioral HDL generated by the M-code simulation is used instead of the structural HDL from the cores.

The M-code simulation creates the C simulation and this C simulation creates behavioral

HDL. When this option is selected, it is this behavioral HDL that is used for further synthesis.

When this option is not selected, the structural HDL generated from the cores and HDL templates (corresponding to each of the blocks in the model) is used instead for synthesis.

Cores are generated for each block in a design once and cached for future netlisting. This capability ensures the fastest possible netlist generation while guaranteeing that the cores are available for downstream synthesis and place and route tools.

Use XtremeDSP Slice

This field specifies that if possible, use the XtremeDSP slice (DSP48 type element) in the target device. Otherwise, CLB logic are used for the multipliers.

Display shortened port names

AXI4-Stream signal names have been shortened (by default) to improve readability on the block. Name shortening is purely cosmetic and when netlisting occurs, the full AXI4-Stream name is used. For example, a shortened master signal on an AXI4-Stream interface might be data_tvalid

. When Display shortened port names is unchecked, the name becomes m_axis_data_tvalid

.

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

Block Reference Pages

Following is an alphabetic listing of the blocks in the Xilinx blockset, with descriptions of each of the blocks.

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

Absolute

This block is listed in the following Xilinx Blockset libraries: Math, Floating-Point, Basic

Elements and Index.

The Xilinx Absolute block outputs the absolute value of the input.

Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your Simulink model.

Basic tab

Precision:

This parameter allows you to specify the output precision for fixed-point arithmetic.

Floating point arithmetic output will always be Full precision.

Full: The block uses sufficient precision to represent the result without error.

User Defined: If you don’t need full precision, this option allows you to specify a reduced number of total bits and/or fractional bits.

Fixed-point Output Type

Arithmetic type:

°

Signed (2’s comp): The output is a Signed (2’s complement) number.

Unsigned: The output is an Unsigned number.

°

Fixed-point Precision

°

Number of bits: specifies the bit location of the binary point of the output number, where bit zero is the least significant bit.

Binary point: position of the binary point. in the fixed-point output

°

Quantization

Refer to the section Overflow and Quantization

.

Overflow

Refer to the section Overflow and Quantization

.

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Other parameters used by this block are explained in the topic

Common Options in Block Parameter Dialog Boxes

.

LogiCORE™ Documentation

LogiCORE IP Floating-Point Operator v7.0

Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

Accumulator

This block is listed in the following Xilinx Blockset libraries: Math and Index and

Floating-Point.

The Xilinx Accumulator block implements an adder or subtractor-based scaling accumulator.

The block’s current input is accumulated with a scaled current stored value. The scale factor is a block parameter.

Block Interface

The block has an input b and an output q. The output must have the same width as the input data. The output will have the same arithmetic type and binary point position as the input. The output q is calculated as follows:

A subtractor-based accumulator replaces addition of the current input b(n) with subtraction.

Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your

Simulink model.

Basic tab

Parameters specific to the Basic tab are as follows:

Operation: This determines whether the block is adder- or subtractor-based.

Fixed-Point Output Precision

- Number of bits: specifies the bit location of the binary point of the output number, where bit zero is the least significant bit.

Overflow

Refer to the section Overflow and Quantization

.

Feedback scaling: specifies the feedback scale factor to be one of the following:

1, 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, 1/16, 1/32, 1/64, 1/128, or 1/256.

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

Reinitialize with input 'b' on reset: when selected, the output of the accumulator is reset to the data on input port b. When not selected, the output of the accumulator is reset to zero. This option is available only when the block has a reset port. Using this option has clock speed implications if the accumulator is in a multirate system. In this case the accumulator is forced to run at the system rate since the clock enable (CE) signal driving the accumulator runs at the system rate and the reset to input operation is a function of the CE signal.

Internal Precision tab

Parameters specific to the Internal Precision tab are as follows:

Floating Point Precision

Input MSB Max: The Most Significant Bit of the largest number that can be accepted.

Output MSB Max: The MSB of the largest result. It can be up to 54 bits greater than the Input MSB

Output LSB Min: The Least Significant Bit of the smallest number that can be accepted. It is also the LSB of the accumulated result.

Implementation tab

Parameters specific to the Implementation tab are as follows:

Use behavioral HDL (otherwise use core): The block is implemented using behavioral

HDL. This gives the downstream logic synthesis tool maximum freedom to optimize for performance or area.

Implement using: Core logic can be implemented in Fabric or in a DSP48, if a DSP48 is available in the target device. The default is Fabric.

Other parameters used by this block are explained in the topic

Common Options in Block Parameter Dialog Boxes

.

The Accumulator block always has a latency of 1.

LogiCORE™ Documentation

LogiCORE IP Accumulator v12.0

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

Addressable Shift Register

This block is listed in the following Xilinx Blockset libraries: Basic Elements, Floating-Point,

Memory and Index.

The Xilinx Addressable Shift Register block is a variable-length shift register in which any register in the delay chain can be addressed and driven onto the output data port.

The block operation is most easily thought of as a chain of registers, where each register output drives an input to a multiplexer, as shown below. The multiplexer select line is driven by the address port (addr). The output data port is shown below as q.

The Addressable Shift Register has a maximum depth of 1024 and a minimum depth of 2.

The address input port, therefore, can be between 1 and 10 bits (inclusive). The data input port width must be between 1 and 255 bits (inclusive) when this block is implemented with the Xilinx LogiCORE™ (for example, when Use behavioral HDL (otherwise use core) is unchecked).

In hardware, the address port is asynchronous relative to the output port. In the block

S-function, the address port is therefore given priority over the input data port, for example, on each successive cycle, the addressed data value is read from the register and driven to the output before the shift operation occurs. This order is needed in the Simulink software model to guarantee one clock cycle of latency between the data port and the first register of the delay chain. (If the shift operation were to come first, followed by the read, then there would be no delay, and the hardware would be incorrect.)

Block Interface

The block interface (inputs and outputs as seen on the Addressable Shift Register icon) are as follows:

Input Signals: d addr en data input address enable signal (optional)

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

Output Signals: q data output

Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your

Simulink model.

Basic tab

Parameters specific to this block are as follows:

Infer maximum latency (depth) using address port width: you can choose to allow the block to automatically determine the depth or maximum latency of the shift-register-based on the bit-width of the address port.

Maximum latency (depth): in the case that the maximum latency is not inferred

(previous option), the maximum latency can be set explicitly.

Initial value vector: specifies the initial register values. When the vector is longer than the shift register depth, the vector's trailing elements are discarded. When the shift register is deeper than the vector length, the shift register's trailing registers are initialized to zero.

Other parameters used by this block are explained in the topic

Common Options in Block Parameter Dialog Boxes

.

Implementation tab

Parameters specific to this block are as follows:

Optimization: you can choose to optimize for Resource (minimum area) or for Speed

(maximum performance).

LogiCORE™ Documentation

LogiCORE IP RAM-based Shift Register v12.0

LogiCORE IP Floating-Point Operator v7.0

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

AddSub

This block is listed in the following Xilinx Blockset libraries: Math, Floating-Point and Index.

The Xilinx AddSub block implements an adder/subtractor. The operation can be fixed

(Addition or Subtraction) or changed dynamically under control of the sub mode signal.

Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your

Simulink model.

Basic tab

Parameters specific to the Basic tab are as follows:

Operation: Specifies the block operation to be Addition, Subtraction, or Addition/

Subtraction. When Addition/Subtraction is selected, the block operation is determined by the sub input port, which must be driven by a Boolean signal. When the sub input is

1, the block performs subtraction. Otherwise, it performs addition.

Provide carry-in port: When selected, allows access to the carry-in port, cin. The carry-in port is available only when User defined precision is selected and the binary point of the inputs is set to zero.

Provide carry-out port: When selected, allows access to the carry-out port, cout. The carry-out port is available only when User defined precision is selected, the inputs and output are unsigned, and the number of output integer bits equals x, where x = max

(integer bits a, integer bits b).

Output tab

Precision:

This parameter allows you to specify the output precision for fixed-point arithmetic.

Floating point arithmetic output will always be Full precision.

Full: The block uses sufficient precision to represent the result without error.

User Defined: If you don’t need full precision, this option allows you to specify a reduced number of total bits and/or fractional bits.

User-Defined Precision

Fixed-point Precision

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

°

°

°

Signed (2’s comp): The output is a Signed (2’s complement) number.

Unsigned: The output is an Unsigned number.

Number of bits: specifies the bit location of the binary point of the output number, where bit zero is the least significant bit.

Binary point: position of the binary point. in the fixed-point output

°

Quantization

Refer to the section Overflow and Quantization

.

Overflow

Refer to the section Overflow and Quantization

.

Implementation tab

Parameters specific to the Implementation tab are as follows:

Use behavioral HDL (otherwise use core): The block is implemented using behavioral

HDL. This gives the downstream logic synthesis tool maximum freedom to optimize for performance or area.

Note:

For Floating-point operations, the block always uses the Floating-point Operator core.

Core Parameters

Pipeline for maximum performance: The XILINX LogiCORE can be internally pipelined to optimize for speed instead of area. Selecting this option puts all user defined latency into the core until the maximum allowable latency is reached. If this option is not selected and latency is greater than zero, a single output register is put in the core and additional latency is added on the output of the core.

The Pipeline for maximum performance option adds the pipeline registers throughout the block, so that the latency is distributed, instead of adding it only at the end. This helps to meet tight timing constraints in the design.

Implement using: Core logic can be implemented in Fabric or in a DSP48, if a DSP48 is available in the target device. The default is Fabric.

Other parameters used by this block are explained in the topic

Common Options in Block Parameter Dialog Boxes

.

LogiCORE™ Documentation

LogiCORE IP Adder/Subtractor v12.0

LogiCORE IP Floating-Point Operator v7.0

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

Assert

This block is listed in the following Xilinx Blockset libraries: Floating-Point and Index.

The Xilinx Assert block is used to assert a rate and/or a type on a signal. This block has no cost in hardware and can be used to resolve rates and/or types in situations where designer intervention is required.

Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your

Simulink model.

Parameters specific to this block are as follows:

Assert Type

Assert type: specifies whether or not the block will assert that the type at its input is the same as the type specified. If the types are not the same, an error message is reported.

Specify type: specifies whether or not the type to assert is provided from a signal connected to an input port named type or whether it is specified Explicitly from parameters in the Assert block dialog box.

Output Type

• Specifies the data type of the output. Can be Boolean, Fixed-point, or Floating-point.

Arithmetic Type: If the Output Type is specified as Fixed-point, you can select Signed

(2’s comp) or Unsigned as the Arithmetic Type.

Fixed-point Precision

°

Number of bits: specifies the bit location of the binary point of the output number, where bit zero is the least significant bit.

Binary point: position of the binary point in the fixed-point output.

°

Floating-point Precision

- Single: Specifies single precision (32 bits)

- Double: Specifies double precision (64 bits)

- Custom: Activates the field below so you can specify the Exponent width and the Fraction width.

Exponent width: Specify the exponent width.

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

Fraction width: Specify the fraction width.

Rate

Assert rate: specifies whether or not the block will assert that the rate at its input is the same as the rate specified. If the rates are not the same, an error message is reported.

Specify rate: specifies whether or not the initial rate to assert is provided from a signal connected to an input port named rate or whether it is specified Explicitly from the

Sample rate parameter in the Assert block dialog box.

Provide output port: specifies whether or not the block will feature an output port.

The type and/or rate of the signal presented on the output port is the type and/or rate specified for assertion.

Other parameters used by this block are explained in the topic

Common Options in Block Parameter Dialog Boxes

.

The Output type parameter in this block uses the same description as the Arithmetic Type described in the topic

Common Options in Block Parameter Dialog Boxes .

The Assert block does not use a Xilinx LogiCORE™ and does not use resources when implemented in hardware.

Using the Assert block to Resolve Rates and Types

In cases where the simulation engine cannot resolve rates or types, the Assert block can be used to force a particular type or rate. In general this might be necessary when using components that use feedback and act as a signal source. For example, the circuit below requires an Assert block to force the rate and type of an SRL16. In this case, you can use an

Assert block to 'seed' the rate which is then propagated back to the SRL16 input through the SRL16 and back to the Assert block. The design below fails with the following message when the Assert block is not used.

“The data types could not be established for the feedback paths through this block. You might need to add Assert blocks to instruct the system how to resolve types.

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

To resolve this error, an Assert block is introduced in the feedback path as shown below:

In the example, the Assert block is required to resolve the type, but the rate could have been determined by assigning a rate to the constant clock. The decision whether to use

Constant blocks or Assert blocks to force rates is arbitrary and can be determined on a case by case basis.

System Generator 8.1 and later now resolves rates and types deterministically, however in some cases, the use of Assert blocks might be necessary for some System Generator components, even if they are resolvable. These blocks might include Black Box components and certain IP blocks.

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

AXI FIFO

This block is listed in the following Xilinx Blockset libraries: Control Logic, Floating-Point,

Memory, and Index.

The Xilinx AXI FIFO block implements a FIFO memory queue with an

AXI-compatible block interface.

Block Interface

Write Channel

tready: Indicates that the slave can accept a transfer in the current cycle.

tvalid: Indicates that the master is driving a valid transfer. A transfer takes place when both tvalid and tready are asserted.

tdata: The primary input data channel

Read Channel

tdata: The primary output for the data.

tready: Indicates that the slave can accept a transfer in the current cycle.

Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your

Simulink model.

Basic tab

Parameters specific to the Basic tab are:

Performance Options:

FIFO depth: specifies the number of words that can be stored. Range 16-4M.

Actual FIFO depth: A report field that indicates the actual FIFO depth. The actual depth of the FIFO depends on its implementation and the features that influence its implementation.

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

Optional Ports:

TDATA: The primary payload that is used to provide the data that is passing across the interface. The width of the data payload is an

• integer number of bytes.

TDEST: Provides routing information for the data stream.

TSTRB: The byte qualifier that indicates whether the content of the associated byte of

TDATA is processed as a data byte or a position byte. For a 64-bit DATA, bit 0 corresponds to the least significant byte on DATA, and bit 7 corresponds to the most significant byte. For example:

°

STROBE[0] = 1b, DATA[7:0] is valid

°

STROBE[7] = 0b, DATA[63:56] is not valid

TREADY: Indicates that the slave can accept a transfer in the current cycle.

TID: The data stream identifier that indicates different streams of data.

TUSER: The user-defined sideband information that can be transmitted alongside the data stream.

TKEEP: The byte qualifier that indicates whether the content of the associated byte of

TDATA is processed as part of the data stream. Associated bytes that have the TKEEP byte qualifier de-asserted are null bytes and can be removed from the data stream. For a 64-bit DATA, bit 0 corresponds to the least significant byte on DATA, and bit 7 corresponds to the most significant byte. For example:

°

KEEP[0] = 1b, DATA[7:0] is a NULL byte

°

KEEP [7] = 0b, DATA[63:56] is not a NULL byte

TLAST: Indicates the boundary of a packet.

arestn: Adds arestn (global reset) port to the block.

Data Threshold Parameters

Provide FIFO occupancy DATA counts: Adds data_count port to the block. This port indicates the number of words written into the FIFO. The count is guaranteed to never underreport the number of words in the FIFO, to ensure the user never overflows the

FIFO. The exception to this behavior is when a write operation occurs at the rising edge of write clock; that write operation will only be reflected on WR_DATA_COUNT at the next rising clock edge. D = log2(FIFO depth)+1

Implementation tab

FIFO Options

FIFO implementation type: specifies how the FIFO is implemented in the FPGA; possible choices are Common Clock Block RAM and Common Clock Distributed RAM.

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Other parameters used by this block are explained in the topic

Common Options in Block Parameter Dialog Boxes

.

LogiCORE™ Documentation

LogiCORE IP FIFO Generator 12.0

LogiCORE IP Floating-Point Operator v7.0

Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

BitBasher

This block is listed in the following Xilinx Blockset libraries: Basic Elements, Data Types and

Index.

The Xilinx BitBasher block performs slicing, concatenation and augmentation of inputs attached to the block.

The operation to be performed is described using Verilog syntax which is detailed in this document. The block can have up to four output ports. The number of output ports is equal to the number of expressions. The block does not cost anything in hardware.

Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your

Simulink model.

Basic tab

Parameters specific to the Basic tab are as follows:

BitBasher Expression: Bitwise manipulation expression based on Verilog Syntax.

Multiple expressions (limited to a maximum of 4) can be specified using new line as a separator between expressions.

Output Type tab

Output: This refers to the port on which the data type is specified

Output type: Arithmetic type to be forced onto the corresponding output

Binary Point: Binary point location to be forced onto the corresponding output

Other parameters used by this block are explained in the topic

Common Options in Block Parameter Dialog Boxes

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Supported Verilog Constructs

The BitBasher block only supports a subset of Verilog expression constructs that perform bitwise manipulations including slice, concatenation and repeat operators. All specified expressions must adhere to the following template expression: output_var = {bitbasher_expr}

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bitbasher_expr: A slice, concat or repeat expression based on Verilog syntax or simply an input port identifier.

output_var: The output port identifier. An output port with the name output_var will appear on the block and will hold the result of the wire expression bitbasher_expr

Concat

output_var = {bitbasher_expr1, bitbasher_expr2, bitbasher_expr3}

The concat syntax is supported as shown above. Each of bitbasher_exprN could either be an expression or simply an input port identifier.

The following are some examples of this construct: a1 = {b,c,d,e,f,g} a2 = {e} a3 = {b,{f,c,d},e}

Slice

output_var = {port_identifier[bound1:bound2]}…(1) output_var = {port_identifier[bitN]}…(2)

port_identifier: The input port from which the bits are extracted.

bound1, bound2: Non-negative integers that lie between 0 and (bit-width of port_identifier – 1)

bitN: Non-negative integers that lie between 0 and (bit-width of port_identifier – 1)

As shown above, there are two schemes to extract bits from the input ports. If a range of consecutive bits need to be extracted, then the expression of the following form should be used. output_var = {port_identifier[bound1:bound2]}…(1)

If only one bit is to be extracted, then the alternative form should be used. output_var = {port_identifier[bitN]}…(2)

The following are some examples of this construct: a1 = {b[7:3]} a1

holds bits 7 through 3 of input b in the same order in which they appear in bit b (for example, if b is 110110110 then a1 is 10110). a2 = {b[3:7]}

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset a2

holds bits 7 through 3 of input b in the reverse order in which they appear in bit b

(for example, if b is 110100110 then a2 is 00101). a3 = {b[5]} a3

holds bit 5 of input b. a4 = {b[7:5],c[3:9],{d,e}}

The above expression makes use of a combination of slice and concat constructs.Bits 7 through 5 of input b, bits 3 through 9 of input c and all the bits of d and e are concatenated.

Repeat

output_var = {N{bitbasher_expr}}

N: A positive integer that represents the repeat factor in the expression

The following are some examples of this construct: a1 = {4{b[7:3]}}

The above expression is equivalent to a1 = {b[7:3], b[7:3], b[7:3], b[7:3]} a2 = {b[7:3],2{c,d}}

The above expression is equivalent to a2 = {b[7:3],c,d,c,d}

Constants

Binary Constant: N'bbin_const

Octal Constant: N'ooctal_const

Decimal Constant: N'doctal_const

Hexadecimal Constant: N'hoctal_const

N: A positive integer that represents the number of bits that are used to represent the constant

bin_const: A legal binary number string made up of 0 and 1

octal_const: A legal octal number string made up of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7

decimal_const: A legal decimal number string made up of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9

hexadecimal_const: A legal binary number string made up of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, a, b, c, d, e and f

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A constant can only be used to augment expressions already derived from input ports. In other words, a BitBasher block cannot be used to simply source constant like the

Constant

block.

The following examples make use of this construct: a1 = {4'b1100, e} if e were 110110110 then a1 would be 1100110110110. a1 = {4'hb, e} if e were 110110110 then a1 would be 1101110110110. a1 = {4'o10, e} if e were 110110110 then a1 would be 1000110110110.

Limitations

• Does not support masked parameterization on the bitbasher expressions.

• An expression cannot contain only constants, that is, each expression must include at least one input port.

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

Black Box

This block is listed in the following Xilinx Blockset libraries: Basic Elements, Control Logic,

Floating-Point and Index.

The System Generator Black Box block provides a way to incorporate hardware description language (HDL) models into System Generator.

The block is used to specify both the simulation behavior in Simulink and the implementation files to be used during code generation with System

Generator. A black box's ports produce and consume the same sorts of signals as other System Generator blocks. When a black box is translated into hardware, the associated HDL entity is automatically incorporated and wired to other blocks in the resulting design.

The black box can be used to incorporate either VHDL or Verilog into a Simulink model.

Black box HDL can be co-simulated with Simulink using the System Generator interface to the Vivado simulator.

In addition to incorporating HDL into a System Generator model, the black box can be used to define the implementation associated with an external simulation model.

Requirements on HDL for Black Boxes

Every HDL component associated with a black box must adhere to the following System

Generator requirements and conventions:

• The entity name must not collide with any entity name that is reserved by System

Generator (e.g., xlfir, xlregister).

• Bi-directional ports are supported in HDL black boxes; however they will not be displayed in the System Generator as ports, they will only appear in the generated HDL after netlisting.

• For a Verilog Black Box, the module and port names must be lower case and follow standard Verilog naming conventions.

• For a VHDL Black Box, the supported port data types are std_logic and std_logic_vector.

• Top level ports should be ordered most significant bit down to least significant bit, as in std_logic_vector(7 downto 0), and not std_logic_vector(0 to 7).

• Clock and clock enable ports must be named according to the conventions described below.

• Any port that is a clock or clock enable must be of type std_logic. (For Verilog black boxes, such ports must be non-vector inputs, e.g., input clk.)

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• Clock and clock enable ports on a black box are not treated like other ports. When a black box is translated into hardware, System Generator drives the clock and clock enable ports with signals whose rates can be specified according to the block's configuration and the sample rates that drive it in Simulink.

• Falling-edge triggered output data cannot be used.

To understand how clocks work for black boxes, it helps to understand how System

Generator handles Timing and Clocking. In general. To produce multiple rates in hardware,

System Generator uses a single clock along with multiple clock enables, one enable for each rate. The enables activate different portions of hardware at the appropriate times. Each clock enable rate is related to a corresponding sample period in Simulink. Every System

Generator block that requires a clock has at least one clock and clock enable port in its HDL counterpart. Blocks having multiple rates have additional clock and clock enable ports.

Clocks for black boxes work like those for other System Generator blocks. The black box

HDL must have a separate clock and clock enable port for each associated sample rate in

Simulink. Clock and clock enable ports in black box HDL should be expressed as follows:

• Clock and clock enables must appear as pairs (for example, for every clock, there is a corresponding clock enable, and vice-versa). Although a black box can have more than one clock port, a single clock source is used to drive each clock port. Only the clock enable rates differ.

• Each clock name (respectively, clock enable name) must contain the substring clk (resp., ce).

• The name of a clock enable must be the same as that for the corresponding clock, but with ce substituted for clk. For example, if the clock is named src_clk_1, then the clock enable must be named src_ce_1.

Clock and clock enable ports are not visible on the black box block icon. A work around is required to make the top-level HDL clock enable port visible in System Generator; the work around is to add a separate enable port to the top-level HDL and AND this signal with the actual clock enable signal.

The Black Box Configuration Wizard

The Configuration Wizard is a tool that makes it easy to associate a Verilog or VHDL component to a black box. The wizard is invoked whenever a black box is added to a model.

To use the wizard, copy the file that defines the HDL component for a black box into the

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset directory that contains the model. When a new black box is added to a model, the

Configuration Wizard opens automatically. An example is shown in the figure below.

From this wizard choose the HDL file that should be associated to the black box, then press the Open button. The wizard generates a configuration M-function (described below) for the black box, and associates the function with the block. The configuration M-function produced by the wizard can usually be used without change, but occasionally the function must be tailored by hand. Whether the configuration M-function needs to be modified depends on how complex the HDL is.

The Black Box Configuration M-Function

A black box must describe its interface (e.g., ports and generics) and its implementation to

System Generator. It does this through the definition of a MATLAB M-function (or p-function) called the block's configuration. The name of this function must be specified in the block parameter dialog box under the Block Configuration parameter.

The configuration M-function does the following:

• It specifies the top-level entity name of the HDL component that should be associated with the black box;

• It selects the language (for example, VHDL or Verilog);

• It describes ports, including type, direction, bit width, binary point position, name, and sample rate. Ports can be static or dynamic. Static ports do not change; dynamic ports

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset change in response to changes in the design. For example, a dynamic port might vary its width and type to suit the signal that drives it.

• It defines any necessary port type and data rate checking;

• It defines any generics required by the black box HDL;

• It specifies the black box HDL and other files (e.g., EDIF) that are associated with the block;

• It defines the clocks and clock enables for the block (see the following topic on clock conventions).

• It declares whether the HDL has any combinational feed-through paths.

System Generator provides an object-based interface for configuring black boxes consisting of two types of objects: SysgenBlockDescriptors, used to define entity characteristics, and

SysgenPortDescriptors, used to define port characteristics. This interface is used to provide

System Generator information in the configuration M-function for black box about the block's interface, simulation model, and implementation.

If the HDL for a black box has at least one combinational path (for example, a direct feed-through from an input to an output port), the block must be tagged as combinational in its configuration M-function using the tagAsCombinational method. A black box can be a mixture (for example, some paths can be combinational while others are not). It is

essential that a block containing a combinational path be tagged as such. Doing so allows System Generator to identify such blocks to the Simulink simulator. If this is not done, simulation results are incorrect.

The configuration M-function for a black box is invoked several times when a model is compiled. The function typically includes code that depends on the block's input ports. For example, sometimes it is necessary to set the data type and/or rate of an output port based on the attributes on an input port. It is sometimes also necessary to check the type and rate on an input port. At certain times when the function is invoked, Simulink might not yet know enough for such code to be executed.

To avoid the problems that arise when information is not yet known (in particular, exceptions), BlockDescriptor members inputTypesKnown and inputRatesKnown can be used.

These are used to determine if Simulink is able, at the moment, to provide information about the input port types and rates respectively. The following code illustrates this point. if (this_block.inputTypesKnown)

% set dynamic output port types

% set generics that depend on input port types

% check types of input ports end

If all input rates are known, this code sets types for dynamic output ports, sets generics that depend on input port types, and verifies input port types are appropriate. Avoid the mistake of including code in these conditional blocks (e.g., a variable definition) that is needed by code outside of the conditional block.

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

Note that the code shown above uses an object named this_block. Every black box configuration M-function automatically makes this_block available through an input argument. In MATLAB, this_block is the object that represents the black box, and is used inside the configuration M-function to test and configure the black box. Every this_block object is an instance of the SysgenBlockDescriptor MATLAB class. The methods that can be applied to this_block are specified in Appendix A. A good way to generate example configuration M-function is to run the Configuration Wizard (described below) on simple

VHDL entities.

Sample Periods

The output ports, clocks, and clock enables on a black box must be assigned sample periods in the configuration M-function. If these periods are dynamic, or the black box needs to check rates, then the function must obtain the input port sample periods. Sample periods in the black box are expressed as integer multiples of the system rate as specified by the

Simulink System Period field on the System Generator token. For example, if the Simulink

System Period is 1/8, and a black box input port runs at the system rate (for example, at 1/8), then the configuration M-function sees 1 reported as the port's rate. Likewise, if the

Simulink System Period is specified as pi, and an output port should run four times as fast as the system rate (for example, at 4*pi), then the configuration M-function should set the rate on the output port to 4. The appropriate rate for constant ports is Inf.

As an example of how to set the output rate on each output port, consider the following code segment: block.outport(1).setRate(theInputRate); block.outport(2).setRate(theInputRate*5); block.outport(3).setRate(theInputRate*5);

The first line sets the first output port to the same rate as the input port. The next two lines set the output rate to 5 times the rate of the input.

Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your

Simulink model.

Basic tab

Parameters specific to the Basic tab are as follows:

Block Configuration M-Function: Specifies the name of the configuration M-function that is associated to the black box. Ordinarily the file containing the function is stored in the directory containing the model, but it can be stored anywhere on the MATLAB path. Note that MATLAB limits all function names (including those for configuration

M-functions) to 63 characters. Do not include the file extension (".m" or ".p") in the edit box.

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Simulation Mode: Tells the mode (Inactive, Vivado Simulator, or External co-simulator) to use for simulation. When the mode is Inactive, the black box ignores all input data and writes zeroes to its output ports. Usually for this mode the black box should be coupled, using a Configurable Subsystem.

System Generator uses Configurable Subsystems to allow two paths to be identified – one for producing simulation results, and the other for producing hardware. This approach gives the best simulation speed, but requires that a simulation model be constructed. When the mode is Vivado Simulator or External co-simulator, simulation results for the black box are produced using co-simulation on the HDL associated with the black box. When the mode is External co-simulator, it is necessary to add a ModelSim HDL co-simulation block to the design, and to specify the name of the ModelSim block in the field labeled HDL

Co-Simulator To Use. An example is shown below:

System Generator supports the ModelSim simulator from Mentor Graphics®, Inc. for HDL co-simulation. For co-simulation of Verilog black boxes, a mixed mode license is required.

This is necessary because the portion of the design that System Generator writes is VHDL.

Note:

When you use the ModelSim simulator, the DefaulRadix used is Binary.

Usually the co-simulator block for a black box is stored in the same Subsystem that contains the black box, but it is possible to store the block elsewhere. The path to a co-simulation block can be absolute, or can be relative to the Subsystem containing the black box (e.g.,

"../ModelSim"). When simulating, each co-simulator block uses one license. To avoid running out of licenses, several black boxes can share the same co-simulation block. System

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

Generator automatically generates and uses the additional VHDL needed to allow multiple blocks to be combined into a single ModelSim simulation.

Data Type Translation for HDL Co-Simulation

During co-simulation, ports in System Generator drive ports in the HDL simulator, and vice-versa. Types of signals in the tools are not identical, and must be translated. The rules used for translation are the following.

• A signal in System Generator can be Boolean, unsigned or signed fixed point.

Fixed-point signals can have indeterminate values, but Boolean signals cannot. If the signal's value is indeterminate in System Generator, then all bits of the HDL signal become 'X', otherwise the bits become 0's and 1's that represent the signal's value.

• To bring HDL signals back into System Generator, standard logic types are translated into Booleans and fixed-point values as instructed by the black box configuration

M-function. When there is a width mismatch, an error is reported. Indeterminate signals of all varieties (weak high, weak low, etc.) are translated to System Generator indeterminates. Any signal that is partially indeterminate in HDL simulation (e.g., a bit vector in which only the topmost bit is indeterminate) becomes entirely indeterminate in System Generator.

• HDL to System Generator translations can be tailored by adding a custom simulation-only top-level wrapper to the VHDL component. Such a wrapper might, for example, translate every weak low signal to 0 or every indeterminate signal to 0 or 1 before it is returned to System Generator.

Example

The following is an example VHDL entity that can be associated to a System Generator black box.

library IEEE; use IEEE.std_logic_1164.all; use IEEE.numeric_std.all; entity word_parity_block is generic (width : integer := 8); port (din : in std_logic_vector(width-1 downto 0); parity : out std_logic); end word_parity_block; architecture behavior of word_parity_block is begin

WORD_PARITY_Process : process (din) variable partial_parity : std_logic := '0'; begin partial_parity := '0';

XOR_BIT_LOOP: for N in din'range loop partial_parity := partial_parity xor din(N); end loop; -- N parity <= partial_parity after 1 ns ; end process WORD_PARITY_Process; end behavior;

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The following is an example configuration M-function. It makes the VHDL shown above available inside a System Generator black box. function word_parity_block_config(this_block) this_block.setTopLevelLanguage('VHDL'); this_block.setEntityName('word_parity_block'); this_block.tagAsCombinational; this_block.addSimulinkInport('din'); this_block.addSimulinkOutport('parity'); parity = this_block.port('parity'); parity.setWidth(1); parity.useHDLVector(false);

% ----------------------------- if (this_block.inputTypesKnown) this_block.addGeneric('width', this_block.port('din').width); end % if(inputTypesKnown)

% -----------------------------

% ----------------------------- if (this_block.inputRatesKnown) din = this_block.port('din'); parity.setRate(din.rate); end % if(inputRatesKnown)

% ----------------------------- this_block.addFile('word_parity_block.vhd'); return;

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

CIC Compiler 4.0

This block is listed in the following Xilinx Blockset libraries: AXI4, DSP and Index.

The Xilinx CIC Compiler provides the ability to design and implement

AXI4-Stream-compliant Cascaded Integrator-Comb (CIC) filters for a variety of Xilinx FPGA devices.

CIC filters, also known as Hogenauer filters, are multi-rate filters often used for implementing large sample rate changes in digital systems. They are typically employed in applications that have a large excess sample rate. That is, the system sample rate is much larger than the bandwidth occupied by the processed signal as in digital down converters (DDCs) and digital up converters (DUCs).

Implementations of CIC filters have structures that use only adders, subtractors, and delay elements. These structures make CIC filters appealing for their hardware-efficient implementations of multi-rate filtering.

Sample Rates and the CIC Compiler Block

The CIC Compiler block must always run at the system rate because the CIC Compiler block has a programmable rate change option and Simulink cannot inherently support it. You should use the "ready" output signal to indicate to downstream blocks when a new sample is available at the output of the CIC Compiler block.

The CIC will downsample the data, but the sample rate will remain at the clock rate. If you look at the output of the CIC Compiler block, you will see each output data repeated R times for a rate change of R while the data_tvalid signal pulses once every R cycles. The downstream blocks can be clocked at lower-than-system rates without any problems as long as the clock is never slower than the rate change R.

There are several different ways this can be handled. You can leave the entire design running at the system rate then use registers with enables, or enables on other blocks to capture data at the correct time. Or alternatively, you can use a downsample block corresponding to the lowest rate change R, then again use enable signals to handle the cases when there are larger rate changes.

If there are not many required rate changes, you can use MUX blocks and use a different downsample block for each different rate change. This might be the case if the downstream blocks are different depending on the rate change, basically creating different paths for each rate. Using enables as described above will probably be the most efficient method.

If you are not using the CIC Compiler block in a programmable mode, you can place an up/down sample block after the CIC Compiler to correctly pass on the sample rate to downstream blocks that will inherit the rate and build the proper CE circuitry to automatically enable those downstream blocks at the new rate.

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Block Parameters Dialog Box

Filter Specification tab

Parameters specific to the Filter Specification tab are:

Filter Specification

Filter Type: The CIC core supports both interpolation and decimation architectures.

When the filter type is selected as decimator the input sample stream is down-sampled by the factor R. When an interpolator is selected the input sample is up-sampled by R.

Number of Stages: Number of integrator and comb stages. If N stages are specified, there are N integrators and N comb stages in the filter. The valid range for this parameter is 3 to 6.

Differential Delay: Number of unit delays employed in each comb filter in the comb section of either a decimator or interpolator. The valid range of this parameter is 1 or 2.

Number of Channels: Number of channels to support in implementation. The valid range of this parameter is 1 to 16.

Sample Rate Change Specification

Sample Rate Changes: Option to select between Fixed or Programmable.

Fixed or Initial Rate(ir): Specifies initial or fixed sample rate change value for the CIC.

The valid range for this parameter is 4 to 8192.

Minimum Rate: The minimum rate change value for programmable rate change. The valid range for this parameter is 4 to fixed rate (ir).

Maximum Rate: The maximum rate change value for programmable rate change. The valid range for this parameter is fixed rate (ir) to 8192.

Hardware Oversampling Specification

Select format: Choose Maximum_Possible, Sample_Period, or

Hardware_Oversampling_Rate. Selects which method is used to specify the hardware oversampling rate. This value directly affects the level of parallelism of the block implementation and resources used. When “Maximum Possible” is selected, the block uses the maximum oversampling given the sample period of the signal connected to the Data field of the s_axis_data_tdata port. When you select “Hardware Oversampling Rate”, you can specify the oversampling rate. When “Sample Period” is selected, the block clock is connected to the system clock and the value specified for the Sample Period parameter sets the input sample rate the block supports. The Sample Period parameter also determines the hardware oversampling rate of the block. When “Sample Period” is selected, the block is forced to use the s_axis_data_tvalid control port.

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Sample period: Integer number of clock cycles between input samples. When the multiple channels have been specified, this value should be the integer number of clock cycles between the time division multiplexed input sample data stream.

Hardware Oversampling Rate: Enter the hardware oversampling rate if you select

Hardware_Oversampling_Rate as the format.

Implementation tab

Numerical Precision

Quantization: Can be specified as Full_Precision or Truncation.

Note:

Truncation occurs at the output stage only.

Output Data Width: Can be specified up to 48 bits for the Truncation option above.

Optional

Use Xtreme DSP slice: This field specifies that if possible, use the XtremeDSP slice

(DSP48 type element) in the target device.

Use Streaming Interface: Specifies whether or not to use a streaming interface for multiple channel implementations.

Control Options

ACLKEN Specifies if the block has a clock enable port (the equivalent of selecting the

Has ACLKEN option in the CORE Generator GUI).

ARESERTn Specifies that the block has a reset port. Active low synchronous clear. A minimum ARESETn pulse of two cycles is required.

Has TREADY Specifies if the block has a TREADY port for the Data Output Channel (the equivalent of selecting the Has_DOUT_TREADY option in the CORE Generator GUI)

Other parameters used by this block are explained in the topic

Common Options in Block Parameter Dialog Boxes

.

LogiCORE™ Documentation

LogiCORE IP CIC Compiler 4.0

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Clock Enable Probe

This block is listed in the following Xilinx Blockset libraries: Basic Elements and Index.

The Xilinx Clock Enable (CE) Probe provides a mechanism for extracting derived clock enable signals from Xilinx signals in System Generator models.

The probe accepts any Xilinx signal type as input, and produces a Bool output signal. The Bool output can be used at any point in the design where Bools are acceptable. The probe output is a cyclical pulse that mimics the behavior of an ideal clock enable signal used in the hardware implementation of a multirate circuit. The frequency of the pulse is derived from the input signal's sample period. The enable pulse is asserted at the end of the input signal's sample period for the duration of one Simulink system period.

For signals with a sample period equal to the Simulink system period, the block's output is always one.

Shown below is an example model with an attached analysis scope that demonstrates the usage and behavior of the Clock Enable Probe. The Simulink system sample period for the model is specified in the System Generator token as 1.0 seconds. In addition to the Simulink system period, the model has three other sample periods defined by the Down Sample blocks. Clock Enable Probes are placed after each Down Sample block and extract the derived clock enable signal. The probe outputs are run to output gateways and then to the scope for analysis. Also included in the model is CLK probe that produces a Double representation of the hardware system clock. The scope output shows the output from the four Clock Enable probes in addition to the CLK probe output.

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Options

Use clock enable signal without Multi-Cycle path constraints: Used to disable multi-cycle path constraints on the generated signal from the Clock Enable Probe block. This is typically applied when the signal bring generated is used as separate timing signal that is not clock-enable related.

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Clock Probe

This block is listed in the following Xilinx Blockset libraries: Tools and Index.

The Xilinx Clock Probe generates a double-precision representation of a clock signal with a period equal to the Simulink system period.

The output clock signal has a 50/50 duty cycle with the clock asserted at the start of the Simulink sample period. The Clock Probe's double output is useful only for analysis, and cannot be translated into hardware.

There are no parameters for this block.

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

CMult

This block is listed in the following Xilinx Blockset libraries: Math, Floating-Point and Index.

The Xilinx CMult block implements a gain operator, with output equal to the product of its input by a constant value. This value can be a MATLAB expression that evaluates to a constant.

Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your

Simulink model.

Basic tab

Parameters specific to the Basic Tab are as follows:

Constant

Fixed-point: Use fixed-point data type

Floating-point: Use floating-point data type

Value: can be a constant or an expression. If the constant cannot be expressed exactly in the specified fixed-point type, its value is rounded and saturated as needed. A positive value is implemented as an unsigned number, a negative value as signed.

Fixed-point Precision

°

Number of bits: specifies the bit location of the binary point of the constant, where bit zero is the least significant bit.

Binary point: position of the binary point.

°

Floating-point Precision

- Single: Specifies single precision (32 bits)

- Double: Specifies double precision (64 bits)

- Custom: Activates the field below so you can specify the Exponent width and the Fraction width.

Exponent width: Specify the exponent width

Fraction width: Specify the fraction width

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Output tab

Precision:

This parameter allows you to specify the output precision for fixed-point arithmetic.

Floating point arithmetic output will always be Full precision.

Full: The block uses sufficient precision to represent the result without error.

User Defined: If you don’t need full precision, this option allows you to specify a reduced number of total bits and/or fractional bits.

User-Defined Precision

Floating-point Precision

°

°

°

Signed (2’s comp): The output is a Signed (2’s complement) number.

Unsigned: The output is an Unsigned number.

Number of bits: specifies the bit location of the binary point of the output number, where bit zero is the least significant bit.

Binary point: position of the binary point. in the fixed-point output

°

Quantization

Refer to the section Overflow and Quantization

.

Overflow

Refer to the section Overflow and Quantization

.

Implementation tab

Parameters specific to the Implementation tab are:

Use behavioral HDL description (otherwise use core): when selected, System

Generator uses behavioral HDL, otherwise it uses the Xilinx LogiCORE™ Multiplier.

When this option is not selected (false) System Generator internally uses the behavioral

HDL model for simulation if any of the following conditions are true: a. The constant value is 0 (or is truncated to 0).

b. The constant value is less than 0 and its bit width is 1.

c. The bit width of the constant or the input is less than 1 or is greater than 64.

d. The bit width of the input data is 1 and its data type is xlFix.

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

Core Parameters

Implement using: specifies whether to use distributed RAM or block RAM.

Test for optimum pipelining: checks if the Latency provided is at least equal to the optimum pipeline length supported for the given configuration of the block. Latency values that pass this test imply that the core produced is optimized for speed.

Other parameters used by this block are explained in the topic

Common Options in Block Parameter Dialog Boxes

.

LogiCORE™ Documentation

LogiCORE IP Multiplier v12.0

LogiCORE IP Floating-Point Operator v7.0

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

Complex Multiplier 6.0

This block is listed in the following Xilinx Blockset libraries: AXI4, DSP, Index and Math.

The Complex Multiplier block implements AXI4-Stream compliant, high-performance, optimized complex multipliers for devices based on user-specified options.

The two multiplicand inputs and optional rounding bit are input on independent AXI4-Stream channels as slave interfaces and the resulting product output using an AXI4-Stream master interface.

Within each channel, operands and the results are represented in signed two’s complement format. The operand widths and the result width are parameterizable.

Block Parameters Dialog Box

Page 1 tab

Parameters specific to the Basic tab are:

Channel A Options:

Has TLAST: Adds a tlast input port to the A channel of the block.

Has TUSER: Adds a tuser input port to the A channel of the block.

Channel B Options:

Has TLAST: Adds a tlast input port to the B channel of the block.

Has TUSER: Adds a tuser input port to the B channel of the block.

Multiplier Construction Options

Use_Mults: Use embedded multipliers/XtremeDSP slices

Use_LUTs: Use LUTs in the fabric to construct multipliers.

Optimization Goal

Only available if Use_Mults is selected.

Resources: Uses the 3-real-multiplier structure. However, a 4-real-multiplier structure is used when the 3- l- multiplier structure uses more multiplier resources.

Performance: Always uses the 4-real multiplier structure to allow the best frequency performance to be achieved.

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Flow Control Options

Blocking: Selects “Blocking” mode. In this mode, the lack of data on one input channel does block the execution of an operation if data is received on another input channel.

NonBlocking: Selects “Non-Blocking” mode. In this mode, the lack of data on one input channel does not block the execution of an operation if data is received on another input channel.

Page 2 tab

Output Product Range

Select the output bit width. The values are automatically set to provide the full-precision product when the A and B operand widths are set. The output is sign-extended if required.

The natural output width for complex multiplication is (APortWidth + BPortWidth + 1).

When the Output Width is set to be less than this, the most significant bits of the result are those output; -the remaining bits will either be truncated or rounded according to Output

Rounding option selected. That is to say, the output MSB is now fixed at (APortWidth +

BPortWidth). For details please refer to the document LogiCORE IP Complex Multiplier v6.0

Product Guide.

Output Rounding

If rounding is required, the Output LSB must be greater than zero.

Truncate: Truncate the output.

• Random_Rounding: When this option is selected, a ctrl_tvalid and ctrl_tdata input port is added to the block. Bit 0 if ctrl_tdata input determines the particular type if rounding for the operation. For details, refer to the Rounding section of the document LogiCORE

IP Complex Multiplier v6.0

Product Guide.

Channel CTRL Options

The following options are activated when Random Rounding is selected.

Has TLAST: Adds a ctrl_tlast input port to the block.

Has TUSER: Adds a ctrl_user input port to the block.

TUSER Width: Specifies the bit width of the ctrl_tuser input port.

Output TLAST Behavior

Determines the behavior of the dout_tlast output port.

Null: Output is null.

Pass_A_TLAST: Pass the value of the a_tlast input port to the dout_tlast output port.

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

Pass B_TLAST: Pass the value of the b_tlast input port to the dout_tlast output port.

Pass CTRL_TLAST: Pass the value of the ctrl_tlast input port to the dout_tlast output port.

OR_all_TLASTS: Pass the logical OR of all the present TLAST input ports.

AND_all_TLASTS: Pass the logical AND of all the present TLAST input ports.

Core Latency

• Latency Configuration

°

Automatic: Block latency is automatically determined by System Generator by pipelining the underlying LogiCORE for maximum performance.

°

Manual: You can adjust the block latency specifying the minimum block latency.

Minimum Latency: Entry field for manually specifying the minimum block latency.

Control Signals

ACLKEN: Enables the clock enable (aclken) pin on the core. All registers in the core are enabled by this control signal.

ARESETn: Active-low synchronous clear input that always takes priority over ACLKEN. A minimum ARESETn active pulse of two cycles is required, since the signal is internally registered for performance. A pulse of one cycle resets the core, but the response to the pulse is not in the cycle immediately following.

Advanced tab

Block Icon Display

Display shortened port names: On by default. When unchecked, dout_tvalid, for example, becomes m_axis_dout_tvalid.

How to Migrate from a non-AXI4 Complex Multiplier to an AXI4 Complex

Multiplier

Design Description

This example shows how to migrate from the non-axi Complex Multiplier block to AXI4

Complex Multiplier block using the same or similar block parameters. Some of the parameters between non-AXI4 and AXI4 versions might not be identical exactly due to some changes in certain features and block interfaces.

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

The following model is used to illustrate the design migration. For more detail, refer to the datasheet for this IP core

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

Data Path and Control Signals:

One noticeable difference between the non-AXI and AXI4 version is the

AXI4 version provides both the input and output tvalid tvalid

signal. The

control signals as shown by the figure above. For the steaming application, these control signals might not be necessary.

However, for some burst data flows, they can be used to gate the valid input and output data without having to use additional decoding circuits.

For this particular example, the following control signals are utilized: a_tvalid

: is driven by the Master “d_valid” from the “DDS Compiler 5.0” block b_tvalid

: is driven by the Master “d_valid” from the “DDS Compiler 5.0 1” block dout_tvalid

: can be used to drive other input Slave tvalid signals

Note:

The a_tvalid and b_tvalid are operated independently from each other.

LogiCORE™ Documentation

LogiCORE IP Complex Multiplier v6.0

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

Concat

This block is listed in the following Xilinx Blockset libraries: Basic Elements, Data Types, and

Index.

The Xilinx Concat block performs a concatenation of n bit vectors represented by unsigned integer numbers, for example, n unsigned numbers with binary points at position zero.

The Xilinx

Reinterpret

block provides capabilities that can extend the functionality of the Concat block.

Block Interface

The block has n input ports, where n is some value between 2 and 1024, inclusively, and one output port. The first and last input ports are labeled hi and low, respectively. Input ports between these two ports are not labeled. The input to the hi port will occupy the most significant bits of the output and the input to the lo port will occupy the least significant bits of the output.

Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your

Simulink model.

Parameters specific to this block are as follows:

Number of Inputs: specifies number of inputs, between 2 and 1024, inclusively, to concatenate together.

Other parameters used by this block are explained in the topic

Common Options in Block Parameter Dialog Boxes

.

The Concat block does not use a Xilinx LogiCORE™.

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

Constant

This block is listed in the following Xilinx Blockset libraries: Basic Elements, Control Logic,

Math, Floating-Point and Index.

The Xilinx Constant block generates a constant that can be a fixed-point value, a

Boolean value, or a DSP48 instruction. This block is similar to the Simulink constant block, but can be used to directly drive the inputs on Xilinx blocks.

DSP48 Instruction Mode

The constant block, when set to create a DSP48 instruction, is useful for generating DSP48 control sequences. The the figure below shows an example. The example implements a

35x35-bit multiplier using a sequence of four instructions in a DSP48 block. The constant blocks supply the desired instructions to a multiplexer that selects each instruction in the desired sequence.

Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your

Simulink model.

Basic tab

Parameters specific to the Basic tab are as follows:

Constant Value

Specifies the value of the constant. When changed, the new value appears on the block icon. If the constant data type is specified as fixed-point and cannot be expressed exactly in the specified fixed-point type, its value is rounded and saturated as needed.

A positive value is implemented as an unsigned number, a negative value as signed.

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Output Precision

Specifies the data type of the output. Can be Boolean, Fixed-point, or Floating-point.

Arithmetic Type: If the Output Type is specified as Fixed-point, you can select Signed

(2’s comp), Unsigned or DSP48 instruction as the Arithmetic Type.

Fixed-point Precision

°

Number of bits: specifies the bit location of the binary point of the output number, where bit zero is the least significant bit.

Binary point: position of the binary point. in the fixed-point output

°

Floating-point Precision

- Single: Specifies single precision (32 bits)

- Double: Specifies double precision (64 bits)

- Custom: Activates the field below so you can specify the Exponent width and the Fraction width.

Exponent width: Specify the exponent width

Fraction width: Specify the fraction width

Sample Period

Sampled Constant: allows a sample period to be associated with the constant output and inherited by blocks that the constant block drives. (This is useful mainly because the blocks eventually target hardware and the Simulink sample periods are used to establish hardware clock periods.)

DSP48 tab

DS48 Instruction

When DSP48 Instruction is selected for type, the DSP48 tab is activated. A detailed description of the DSP48 can be found in the DSP48 block description.

DSP48 operation: displays the selected DSP48 instruction.

Operation select: allows the selection of a DSP48 instruction. Selecting custom reveals mask parameters that allow the formation of an instruction in the form z_mux

+/-(yx_mux + carry).

Custom Instruction

Z Mux: specifies the 'Z' source to the DSP48's adder to be one of {'0', 'C', 'PCIN', 'P','C',

'PCIN>>17',' P>>17'}.

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

Operand: specifies whether the DSP48's adder is to perform addition or subtraction.

YX Muxes: specifies the 'YX' source to the DSP48's adder to be one of {'0','P', 'A:B',

'A*B', 'C', 'P+C', 'A:B+C'}. 'A:B' implies that A[17:0] is concatenated with B[17:0] to produce a 36-bit value to be used as an input to the DSP48 adder.

Carry input: specifies the 'carry' source to the DSP48's adder to be one of {'0', '1', 'CIN',

'~SIGN(P or PCIN)', '~SIGN(A:B or A*B)' ,. '~SIGND(A:B or A*B)'}. '~SIGN (P or PCIN)' implies that the carry source is either P or PCIN depending on the Z Mux setting.

'~SIGN(A*B or A:B)' implies that the carry source is either A*B or A:B depending on the

YX Mux setting. The option '~SIGND (A*B or A:B)' selects a delayed version of

'~SIGN(A*B or A:B)'.

Other parameters used by this block are explained in the topic

Common Options in Block Parameter Dialog Boxes

.

Appendix: DSP48 Control Instruction Format

Instruction

Field Name

YX Mux

Z Mux

Operand

Location Mnemonic

op[3:0] 0

P

A:B

A*B

C

P+C

A:B+C op[6:4] op[7]

0

PCIN

P

C

PCIN>>17

P>>17

+

-

Description

0

DSP48 output register

Concat inputs A and B (A is MSB)

Multiplication of inputs A and B

DSP48 input C

DSP48 input C plus P

Concat inputs A and B plus C register

0

DSP48 cascaded input from

PCOUT

DSP48 output register

DSP48 C input

Cascaded input downshifted by

17

DSP48 output register downshifted by 17

Add

Subtract

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

Instruction

Field Name

Carry In

Location Mnemonic

op[8]

Description

0 or 1

CIN

'~SIGN(P or PCIN)

'~SIGN(A:B or A*B)

Set carry in to 0 or 1

Select cin as source

Symmetric round P or PCIN

Symmetric round A:B or A*B

'~SIGND(A:B or A*B) Delayed symmetric round of A:B or A*B

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

Convert

This block is listed in the following Xilinx Blockset libraries: Basic Elements, Data Types, Math,

Floating-Point and Index.

The Xilinx Convert block converts each input sample to a number of a desired arithmetic type. For example, a number can be converted to a signed (two's complement) or unsigned value.

Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your

Simulink model.

Basic tab

Parameters specific to the Basic Tab are as follows:

Output Precision

Specifies the output data type. Can be Boolean, Fixed-point, or Floating-point.

Arithmetic Type: If the Output Type is specified as Fixed-point, you can select Signed

(2’s comp) or Unsigned as the Arithmetic Type.

Fixed-point Precision

°

°

Number of bits: specifies the bit location of the binary point, where bit zero is the least significant bit.

Binary point: specifies the bit location of the binary point, where bit zero is the least significant bit.

Floating-point Precision

- Single: Specifies single precision (32 bits)

- Double: Specifies double precision (64 bits)

- Custom: Activates the field below so you can specify the Exponent width and the Fraction width.

Exponent width: Specify the exponent width

Fraction width: Specify the fraction width

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Quantization

Quantization errors occur when the number of fractional bits is insufficient to represent the fractional portion of a value. The options are to Truncate (for example, to discard bits to the right of the least significant representable bit), or to Round(unbiased: +/- inf) or Round

(unbiased: even values).

Round(unbiased: +/- inf) also known as "Symmetric Round (towards +/- inf)" or

"Symmetric Round (away from zero)". This is similar to the Matlab round() function. This method rounds the value to the nearest desired bit away from zero and when there is a value at the midpoint between two possible rounded values, the one with the larger magnitude is selected. For example, to round 01.0110 to a Fix_4_2, this yields 01.10, since

01.0110 is exactly between 01.01 and 01.10 and the latter is further from zero.

Round (unbiased: even values) also known as "Convergent Round (toward even)" or

"Unbiased Rounding". Symmetric rounding is biased because it rounds all ambiguous midpoints away from zero which means the average magnitude of the rounded results is larger than the average magnitude of the raw results. Convergent rounding removes this by alternating between a symmetric round toward zero and symmetric round away from zero.

That is, midpoints are rounded toward the nearest even number. For example, to round

01.0110 to a Fix_4_2, this yields 01.10, since 01.0110 is exactly between 01.01 and 01.10 and the latter is even. To round 01.1010 to a Fix_4_2, this yields 01.10, since 01.1010 is exactly between 01.10 and 01.11 and the former is even.

Overflow

Overflow errors occur when a value lies outside the representable range. For overflow the options are to Saturate to the largest positive/smallest negative value, to Wrap (for example, to discard bits to the left of the most significant representable bit), or to Flag as

error (an overflow as a Simulink error) during simulation. Flag as error is a simulation only feature. The hardware generated is the same as when Wrap is selected.

Optional Ports

Provide enable port: Activates an optional enable (en) pin on the block. When the enable signal is not asserted the block holds its current state until the enable signal is asserted again or the reset signal is asserted.

Implementation tab

Parameters specific to the Implementation tab are as follows:

Pipeline for maximum performance: The XILINX LogiCORE can be internally pipelined to optimize for speed instead of area. Selecting this option puts all user defined latency into the core until the maximum allowable latency is reached. If this option is not selected and latency is greater than zero, a single output register is put in the core and additional latency is added on the output of the core.

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

The Pipeline for maximum performance option adds the pipeline registers throughout the block, so that the latency is distributed, instead of adding it only at the end. This helps to meet tight timing constraints in the design.

Other parameters used by this block are explained in the topic

Common Options in Block Parameter Dialog Boxes

.

LogiCORE™ Documentation

LogiCORE IP Floating-Point Operator v7.0

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

Convolution Encoder 9.0

This block is listed in the following Xilinx Blockset libraries: AXI4, Communication and Index.

The Xilinx Convolution Encoder block implements an encoder for convolution codes. Ordinarily used in tandem with a Viterbi decoder, this block performs forward error correction (FEC) in digital communication systems. This block adheres to the AMBA®

AXI4-Stream standard.

Values are encoded using a linear feed forward shift register which computes modulo-two sums over a sliding window of input data, as shown in the figure below. The length of the shift register is specified by the constraint length. The convolution codes specify which bits in the data window contribute to the modulo-two sum. Resetting the block will set the shift register to zero. The encoder rate is the ratio of input to output bit length; thus, for example a rate 1/2 encoder outputs two bits for each input bit. Similarly, a rate 1/ 3 encoder outputs three bits for each input bit.

Block Parameters Dialog Box

The following figure shows the block parameters dialog box.

page_0 tab

Parameters specific to the page_0 tab are:

Data Rates and Puncturing

Punctured: Determines whether the block is punctured

Dual Output: Specifies a dual-channel punctured block

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Input Rate: Punctured: Only the input rate can be modified. Its value can range from 2 to 12, resulting in a rate n/m encoder where n is the input rate and n<m<2n

Output Rate: Not Punctured: Only the output rate can be modified. Its value can be integer values from 2 to 7, resulting in a rate 1/2 or rate 1/7 encoder, respectively

Puncture Code0 and Code1: The two puncture pattern codes are used to remove bits from the encoded data prior to output. The length of each puncture code must be equal to the puncture input rate, and the total number of bits set to 1 in the two codes must equal the puncture output rate (m) for the codes to be valid. A 0 in any position indicates that the output bit from the encoder is not transmitted. See the associated

LogiCORE data sheet for an example.

Optional Pins

Tready: Adds a tready pin to the block. Indicates that the slave can accept a transfer in the current cycle.

Aclken: Adds a aclken pin to the block. This signal carries the clock enable and must be of type Bool.

Aresetn: Adds a aresetn pin to the block. This signal resets the block and must be of type Bool. The signal must be asserted for at least 2 clock cycles, however, it does not have to be asserted before the decoder can start decoding. If this pin is not selected,

System Generator ties this pin to inactive (high) on the core.

page_1 tab

Parameters specific to the page_1 tab are:

Radix

Convolution code radix: Select Binary, Octal, or Decimal.

Convolution

Constraint length: Constraint Length: Equals n+1, where n is the length of the constraint register in the encoder.

Convolution code: Array of binary convolution codes. Output rate is derived from the array length. Between 2 and 7 (inclusive) codes can be entered.

Other parameters used by this block are explained in the topic

Common Options in Block Parameter Dialog Boxes

.

LogiCORE™ Documentation

LogiCORE IP Convolution Encoder 9.0

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

CORDIC 6.0

This block is listed in the following Xilinx Blockset libraries: DSP and Index and Math.

The Xilinx CORDIC block implements a generalized coordinate rotational digital computer (CORDIC) algorithm and is AXI compliant.

The CORDIC core implements the following equation types:

•Rotate

•Translate

•Sin_and_Cos

• Sinh_and_Cosh

• Arc_Tan

• Arc_Tanh

• Square_Root

Two architectural configurations are available for the CORDIC core:

• A fully parallel configuration with single-cycle data throughput at the expense of silicon area

• A word serial implementation with multiple-cycle throughput but occupying a small silicon area

A coarse rotation is performed to rotate the input sample from the full circle into the first quadrant. (The coarse rotation stage is required as the CORDIC algorithm is only valid over the first quadrant). An inverse coarse rotation stage rotates the output sample into the correct quadrant.

The CORDIC algorithm introduces a scale factor to the amplitude of the result, and the

CORDIC core provides the option of automatically compensating for the CORDIC scale factor.

Changes from CORDIC 4.0 to CORDIC 6.0

AXI compliant

• The CORDIC 6.0 block is AXI compliant.

Ports Renamed

en to aclken

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rst to aresetn

rdy maps to dout_tready. cartesian_tready and phase_tready are automatically added when their respective channels are added.

x_in to cartesian_tdata_real

y_in to cartesian_tdata_imag

phase_in to phase_tdata_phase

x_out to dout_tdata_real

y_out to dout_tdata_imag

phase_out to dout_tdata_phase

Port Changes

• The data output ports are not optional in CORDIC 6.0. The data output ports are selected based on the Function selected.

• There are separate tuser, tlast and tready ports for the Cartesian and Phase input channels.

• The dout_tlast output port can be configured to provide tlast from the Cartesian input channel, from the Phase input channel, or the AND and or the OR of all tlasts.

Optimization

• When you select Blocking mode for the AXI behavior, you can then select whether the core is configured for minimum Resources or maximum Performance.

Displaying Port Names on the Block Icon

• You can select Display shortened port names to trim the length of the AXI port names on the block icon.

Block Parameters Dialog Box

Page 1 tab

Functional selection:

Rotate: When selected, the input vector, (real, imag), is rotated by the input angle using the CORDIC algorithm. This generates the scaled output vector, Zi * (real’, imag’).

Translate: When selected, the input vector (real, imag) is rotated using the CORDIC algorithm until the imag component is zero. This generates the scaled output magnitude, Zi * Mag(real, imag), and the output phase, Atan(imag/real).

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Sin_and_Cos: When selected, the unit vector is rotated, using the CORDIC algorithm, by input angle. This generates the output vector (Cos( ), Sin( )).

Sinh_and_Cosh: When selected, the CORDIC algorithm is used to move the vector (1,0) through hyperbolic angle p along the hyperbolic curve. The hyperbolic angle represents the log of the area under the vector (real, imag) and is unrelated to a trigonometric angle. This generates the output vector (Cosh(p), Sinh(p)).

Arc_Tan: When selected, the input vector (real, imag) is rotated (using the CORDIC algorithm) until the imag component is zero. This generates the output angle,

Atan(imag/real).

Arc_Tanh: When selected, the CORDIC algorithm is used to move the input vector (real, imag) along the hyperbolic curve until the imag component reaches zero. This generates the hyperbolic “angle,” Atanh(imag/real). The hyperbolic angle represents the log of the area under the vector (real, imag) and is unrelated to a trigonometric angle.

Square_Root: When selected a simplified CORDIC algorithm is used to calculate the positive square root of the input.

Architectural configuration

Word_Serial: Select for a hardware result with a small area.

Parallel: Select for a hardware result with high throughput

Pipelining mode

No_Pipelining: The CORDIC core is implemented without pipelining.

Optimal: The CORDIC core is implemented with as many stages of pipelining as possible without using any additional LUTs.

Maximum: The CORDIC core is implemented with a pipeline after every shift-add sub stage.

Data format

SignedFraction: Default setting. The real and imag inputs and outputs are expressed as fixed-point 2’s complement numbers with an integer width of 2-bits

UnsignedFraction: Available only for Square Root functional configuration. The real and imag inputs and outputs are expressed as unsigned fixed-point numbers with an integer with of 1-bit.

UnsignedInteger: Available only for Square Root functional configuration. The real and imag inputs and outputs are expressed as unsigned integers.

Phase format

Radians: The phase is expressed as a fixed-point 2’s complement number with an integer width of 3-bits, in radian units.

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Scaled_Radians: The phase is expressed as fixed-point 2’s complement number with an integer width of 3-bits, with pi-radian units. One scaled-radian equals Pi * 1 radians.

Input/Output Options

Input width: Controls the width of the input ports cartesian_tdata_real,

cartesian_tdata_imag, and phase_tdata_phase. The Input width range 8 to 48 bits.

Output width: Controls the width of the output ports dout_tdata_real,

dout_tdata_imag, and dout_tdata_phase. The Output width range 8 to 48 bits.

Round mode

Truncate: The real, imag, and phase outputs are truncated.

Round_Pos_Inf: The real, imag, and phase outputs are rounded (1/2 rounded up).

Round_Pos_Neg_Inf: The real, imag, and phase outputs are rounded (1/2 rounded up,

-1/2 rounded down).

Nearest_Even: The real, imag, and phase outputs are rounded toward the nearest even number (1/2 rounded down and 3/2 is rounded up).

Page 2 tab

Advanced Configuration Parameters

Iterations: Controls the number of internal add-sub iterations to perform. When set to zero, the number of iterations performed is determined automatically based on the required accuracy of the output.

Precision: Configures the internal precision of the add-sub iterations. When set to zero, internal precision is determined automatically based on the required accuracy of the output and the number of internal iterations.

Compensation scaling: Controls the compensation scaling module used to compensate for CORDIC magnitude scaling. CORDIC magnitude scaling affects the

Vector Rotation and Vector Translation functional configurations, and does not affect the SinCos, SinhCosh, ArcTan, ArcTanh and Square Root functional configurations. For the latter configurations, compensation scaling is set to No Scale Compensation.

Coarse rotation: Controls the instantiation of the coarse rotation module. Instantiation of the coarse rotation module is the default for the following functional configurations:

Vector rotation, Vector translation, Sin and Cos, and Arc Tan. If Coarse Rotation is turned off for these functions then the input/output range is limited to the first quadrant (-Pi/4 to + Pi/4).

Coarse rotation is not required for the Sinh and Cosh, Arctanh, and Square Root configurations. The standard CORDIC algorithm operates over the first quadrant.

Coarse Rotation extends the CORDIC operational range to the full circle by rotating the

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset input sample into the first quadrant and inverse rotating the output sample back into the appropriate quadrant.

Optional ports

Standard

aclken: When this signal is not asserted, the block holds its current state until the signal is asserted again or the aresetn signal is asserted. The aresetn signal has precedence over this clock enable signal. This signal has to run at a multiple of the block 's sample rate. The signal driving this port must be Boolean.

aresetn: When this signal is asserted, the block goes back to its initial state. This reset signal has precedence over the optional aclken signal available on the block. The reset signal has to run at a multiple of the block's sample rate. The signal driving this port must be Boolean.

tready: Adds dout_tready port if Blocking mode is activated.

Cartesian

tlast: Adds a tlast input port to the Cartesian input channel.

tuser: Adds a tuser input port to the Cartesian input channel.

tuser width: Specifies the bit width of the Cartesian tuser input port.

Phase

tlast: Adds a tlast input port to the Phase input channel.

tuser: Adds a tuser input port to the Phase input channel.

tuser width: Specifies the bit width of the Phase tuser input port.

Tlast behavior

Null: Data output port.

Pass_Cartesian_TLAST: Data output port.

Pass_Phase_TLAST: Data output port.

OR_all_TLASTS: Pass the logical OR of all the present TLAST input ports.

AND_all_TLASTS: Pass the logical AND of all the present TLAST input ports

Flow control

AXI behavior

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NonBlocking: Selects “Non-Blocking” mode. In this mode, the lack of data on one input channel does not block the execution of an operation if data is received on another input channel.

Blocking: Selects “Blocking” mode. In this mode, the lack of data on one input channel does block the execution of an operation if data is received on another input channel.

Optimization

When NonBlocking mode is selected, the following optimization options are activated:

Resources: core is configured for minimum resources.

Performance: core is configured for maximum performance.

Implementation tab

Block Icon Display

Display shortened port names: this option is ON by default. When unselected, the full AXI name of each port is displayed on the block icon.

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Counter

This block is listed in the following Xilinx Blockset libraries: Basic Elements, Control Logic,

Math, and Index.

The Xilinx Counter block implements a free-running or count-limited type of an up, down, or up/down counter. The counter output can be specified as a signed or unsigned fixed-point number.

Free-running counters are the least expensive in FPGA hardware. The free-running up, down, or up/down counter can also be configured to load the output of the counter with a value on the input din port by selecting the Provide Load Pin option in the block's parameters.

The output for a free-running up counter is calculated as follows:

Here N denotes the number of bits in the counter. The free-running down counter calculations replace addition with subtraction.

For the free-running up/down counter, the counter performs addition when input up port is

1or subtraction when the input up port is 0.

A count-limited counter is implemented by combining a free-running counter with a comparator. Count limited counters are limited to only 64 bits of output precision. Count limited types of a counter can be configured to step between the initial and ending values, provided the step value evenly divides the difference between the initial and ending values.

The output for a count limited up counter is calculated as follows:

The count-limited down counter calculation replaces addition with subtraction. For the count limited up/down counter, the counter performs addition when input up port is 1 or subtraction when input up port is 0.

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The output for a free-running up counter with load capability is calculated as follows:

Here N denotes the number of bits in the counter. The down counter calculations replace addition by subtraction.

Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your

Simulink model.

Basic tab

Parameters specific to the Basic tab are as follows:

Counter type: specifies the counter to be a count-limited or free-running counter.

Number of bits: specifies the number of bits in the block output.

Binary point: specifies the location of the binary point in the block output.

Output type: specifies the block output to be either Signed or Unsigned.

Initial value: specifies the initial value to be the output of the counter.

Count to value: specifies the ending value, the number at which the count limited counter resets. A value of Inf denotes the largest representable output in the specified precision. This cannot be the same as the initial value.

Step: specifies the increment or decrement value.

Count direction: specifies the direction of the count (up or down) or provides an optional input port up (when up/down is selected) for specifying the direction of the counter.

Provide load Port: when checked, the block operates as a free-running load counter with explicit load and din port. The load capability is available only for the free-running counter.

Implementation tab

Parameters specific to the Implementation tab are as follows:

Implementation Details

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Use behavioral HDL (otherwise use core): The block is implemented using behavioral

HDL. This gives the downstream logic synthesis tool maximum freedom to optimize for performance or area.Core Parameters

Implement using: Core logic can be implemented in Fabric or in a DSP48, if a DSP48 is available in the target device. The default is Fabric.

Other parameters used by this block are explained in the topic

Common Options in Block Parameter Dialog Boxes

.

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

DDS Compiler 6.0

This block is listed in the following Xilinx Blockset libraries: AXI4, DSP and Index.

The Xilinx DDS (Direct Digital Synthesizer) Compiler block implements high performance, optimized Phase Generation and Phase to Sinusoid circuits with AXI4-Stream compliant interfaces for supported devices.

The core sources sinusoidal waveforms for use in many applications. A

DDS consists of a Phase Generator and a SIN/COS Lookup Table (phase to sinusoid conversion). These parts are available individually or combined using this core.

Architecture Overview

To understand the DDS Compiler, it is necessary to know how the block is implemented in

FPGA hardware. The following is a block diagram of the DDS Compiler core. The core consist of two main parts, a Phase Generator part and a SIN/COS LUT part. These parts can be used independently or together with an optional dither generator to create a DDS capability. A time-division multi-channel capability is supported with independently configurable phase increment and offset parameters

Phase Generator

The Phase Generator consists of an accumulator followed by an optional adder to provide addition of phase offset. When the core is customized the phase increment and offset can be independently configured to be either fixed, programmable (using the CONFIG channel) or dynamic (using the input PHASE channel).

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When set to fixed the DDS output frequency is set when the core is customized and cannot be adjusted once the core is embedded in a design.

When set to programmable, the CONFIG channel TDATA field will have a subfield for the input in question (PINC or POFF) or both if both have been selected to be programmable.

If neither PINC nor POFF is set to programmable, there is no CONFIG channel.

When set to streaming, the input PHASE channel TDATA port (s_axis_phase_tdata) will have a subfield for the input in question (PINC or POFF) or both if both have been selected to be streaming. If neither PINC nor POFF is set to streaming, and the DDS is configured to have a Phase Generator then there is no input PHASE channel. Note that when the DDS is configured to be a SIN/COS Lookup only, the PHASE_IN field is input using the input PHASE channel TDATA port.

SIN/COS LUT

When configured as a SIN/COS Lookup only, the Phase Generator is not implemented, and the PHASE_IN signal is input using the input PHASE channel, and transformed into the SINE and COSINE outputs using a look-up table.

Efficient memory usage is achieved by exploiting the symmetry of sinusoid waveforms. The core can be configured for SINE only output, COSINE only output or both (quadrature) output. Each output can be configured independently to be negated. Precision can be increased using optional Taylor Series Correction. This exploits XtremeDSP slices on FPGA families that support them to achieve high SFDR with high speed operation.

AXI Ports that are Unique to this Block

Depending on the Configuration Options and Phase Increment/Offset Programmability options selected, different subfield-ports for the PHASE channel or the CONFIG channel (or both channels) are available on the block, as described in the table below.

Configuration Option

Phase_Generator_only

Phase_Generator_and_SI

N_COS_LUT

SIN_COS_LUT_only

Phase Increment Programmability Phase Offset Programmability

Option

Selected

Available Port

Option

Selected

Available Port

Programmable s_axis_config_tdata_pinc Programmable s_axis_config_tdata_poff

Streaming s_axis_phase_tdata_pinc Streaming s_axis_phase_tdata_poff

Fixed NA Fixed

None

NA

NA

In this configuration, input port s_axis_phase_tdata_phase_in are available

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Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your

Simulink model.

Basic tab

Parameters specific to the Basic tab are as follows:

Configuration Options: This parameter allows for two parts of the DDS to be instantiated separately or instantiated together. Select one of the following:

• Phase_Generator_and_SIN_COS_LUT

• Phase_Generator_only

• SIN_COS_LUT_only

System Requirements

System Clock (Mhz): Specifies the frequency at which the block is clocked for the purposes of making architectural decisions and calculating phase increment from the specified output frequency. This is a fixed ratio off the System Clock.

Number of Channels: The channels are time-multiplexed in the DDS which affects the effective clock per channel. The DDS can support 1 to 16 time-multiplexed channels.

Mode of Operation:

°

°

Standard The output frequency of the DDS waveform is a function of the system clock frequency, the phase widthin the phase accumulator and the phase increment value.

Rasterized. The DDS does not truncate the accumulated phase. Rasterized operation is intended for configurations where the desired frequency is a rational fraction of the system clock (output frequency = system frequency * N/M, where 0

< N < M). Values of M from 9 to 16384 are supported.

Note:

Refer to the document

LogiCORE IP DDS Compiler v6.0 Product Guide for a detailed explanation of these modes.

Parameter Selection: Choose System_Parameters or Hardware_Parameters

System Parameters

Spurious Free Dynamic Range (dB): The targeted purity of the tone produced by the

DDS. This sets the output width as well as internal bus widths and various implementation decisions.

Frequency Resolution (Hz): This sets the precision of the PINC and POFF values. Very precise values will require larger accumulators. Less precise values will cost less in hardware resource.

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Noise Shaping: Choose one - None, Phase_Dithering, Taylor_Series_Corrected, or Auto.

If the Configuration Options selection is SIN_COS_LUT_only, then None and

Taylor_Series_Corrected are the only valid options for Noise Shaping. If

Phase_Generator_Only is selected, then None is the only valid choice for Noise Shaping.

Hardware Parameters

Phase Width: Equivalent to frequency resolution, this sets the width of the internal phase calculations.

Output Width: Broadly equivalent to SFDR, this sets the output precision and the minimum Phase Width allowable. However, the output accuracy is also affected by the choice of Noise Shaping.

Output Selection

Sine_and_Cosine: Place both a Sine and Cosine output port on the block.

Sine: Place only a Sine output port on the block.

Cosine: Place only a Cosine output port on the block.

Polarity

°

Negative Sine: negates the sine output.

Negative Cosine: negates the cosine output.

°

Amplitude Mode

Full_Range: Selects the maximum possible amplitude.

Unit_Circle: Selects an exact power-of-two amplitude, which is about one half the

Full_Range amplitude.

Implementation tab

Implementation Options

Memory Type: Choose between Auto, Distributed_ROM, or Block_ROM.

Optimization Goal: Choose between Auto, Area, or Speed.

DSP48 Use: Choose between Minimal and Maximal. When set to Maximal,

XtremeDSP slices are used to achieve to maximum performance.

Latency Options

Auto: The DDS is fully pipelined for optimal performance.

Configurable: Allows you to specify less pipeline stages in the Latency pulldown menu below. This generally results in less resources consumed.

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Control Signals

Has phase out: When checked the DDS will have the phase_output port. This is an output of the Phase_Generator half of the DDS, so it precedes the sine and cosine outputs by the latency of the sine/cosine lookup table.

ACLKEN: Enables the clock enable (aclken) pin on the core. All registers in the core are enabled by this control signal.

ARESETn: Active-low synchronous clear input that always takes priority over ACLKEN. A minimum ARESETn active pulse of two cycles is required, since the signal is internally registered for performance. A pulse of one cycle resets the core, but the response to the pulse is not in the cycle immediately following.

Explicit Sample Period

Use explicit period: When checked, the DDS Compiler block uses the explicit sample period that is specified in the dialog entry box below.

AXI Channel Options tab

AXI Channel Options

TLAST

Enabled when there is more than one DDS channel (as opposed to AXI channel), as TLAST is used to denote the transfer of the last time-division multiplied channel of the DDS.

Options are:

Not_Required: In this mode, no TLAST appears on the input PHASE channel nor on the output channels.

Vector_Framing: In this mode, TLAST on the input PHASE channel and output channels denotes the last.

Packet_Framing: In this mode, TLAST is conveyed from the input PHASE channel to the output channels with the same latency as TDATA. The DDS does not use or interpret the

TLAST signal in this mode.This mode is intended as a service to ease system design for cases where signals must accompany the datastream, but which have no application in the DDS.

Config_Triggered: This is an enhanced variant of the Vector Framing option. In this option, the TLAST on the input PHASE channel can trigger the adoption of new configuration data from the CONFIG channel when there is new configuration data available. This allows the re-configuration to be synchronized with the cycle of time-division-multiplexed DDS channels.

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TREADY

Output TREADY: When selected, the output channels will have a TREADY and hence support the full AXI handshake protocol with inherent back-pressure. If there is an input PHASE channel, its TREADY is also determined by this control, so that the datapath from input PHASE channel to output channels as a whole supports backpressure or not.

TUSER Options

Select one of the following options for the Input, DATA Output, and PHASE Output.

Not_Required: Neither of the above uses is required; the channel in question will not have a TUSER field.

Chan_ID_Field: In this mode, the TUSER field identifies the time-division-multiplexed channel for the transfer.

User_Field: In this mode, the block ignores the content of the TUSER field, but passes the content untouched from the input PHASE channel to the output channels.

User and Chan_ID_Field: In this mode, the TUSER field will have both a user field and a chan_id field, with the chan_id field in the least significant bits. The minimal number of bits required to describe the channel will determine the width of the chan_id field, e.g.

7 channels will require 3 bits.

User Field Width: This field determines the width of the bit field which is conveyed from input to output untouched by the DDS.

Config Channel Options

• Synchronization Mode

°

On_Vector: In this mode, the re-configuration data is applied when the channel starts a new cycle of time-division-multiplexed channels.

°

On_Packet: In this mode, available when TLAST is set to packet framing, the TLAST channel will trigger the re-configuration. This mode is targeted at the case where it is to be associated with the packets implied by the input TLAST indicator.

Output Frequency tab

Phase Increment Programmability: specifies the phase increment to be Fixed,

Programmable or Streaming. The choice of Programmable adds channel, data, and we input ports to the block.

The following fields are activated when Phase_Generator_and_SIN_COS_LUT is selected as the Configuration Options field on the Basic tab, the Parameter Selection on the Basic tab is set to Hardware Parameters and Phase Increment Programmability field on the

Phase Offset Angles tab is set to Fixed or Programmable.

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°

°

Output frequencies (Mhz): for each channel, an independent frequency can be entered into an array. This field is activated when Parameter Selection on the Basic tab is set to System Parameters and Phase Increment Programmability is Fixed or

Programmable.

Phase Angle Increment Values: This field is activated when

Phase_Generator_and_SIN_COS_LUT is selected as the Configuration Options field on the Basic tab, the Parameter Selection on the Basic tab is set to Hardware

Parameters and Phase Increment Programmability field on the Phase Offset Angles tab is set to Fixed or Programmable. Values must be entered in binary. The range is 0 to the weight of the accumulator, for example, 2

Phase_Width

-1.

Phase Offset Angles tab

Phase Offset Programmability: specifies the phase offset to be None, Fixed,

Programmable or Streaming. The choice of Fixed or Programmable adds the channel, data, and we input ports to the block.

°

Phase Offset Angles (x2pi radians): for each channel, an independent offset can be entered into an array. The entered values are multiplied by 2π radians. This field is activated when Parameter Selection on the Basic tab is set to System Parameters and Phase Increment Programmability is Fixed or Programmable.

°

Phase Angle Offset Values: for each channel, an independent offset can be entered into an array. The entered values are multiplied by 2π radians. This field is activated when Parameter Selection on the Basic tab is set to Hardware Parameters and

Phase Increment Programmability is Fixed or Programmable.

Advanced tab

Block Icon Display

Display shortened port names: this option is ON by default. When unselected, the full

AXI name of each port is displayed on the block.

Other parameters used by this block are explained in the topic

Common Options in Block Parameter Dialog Boxes

.

How to Migrate from DDS Compiler 4.0 to DDS Compiler 5.0

Design Description

This example shows how to migrate from the non-axi DDS Compiler block to AXI4 DDS

Compiler block using the same or similar block parameters. Some of the parameters between non-AXI and AXI4 versions might not be identical exactly due to some changes in

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset certain features and block interfaces. The following model is used to illustrate the design migration between these block. For more detail, refer to the datasheet of this IP core.

Data Path and Control Signals:

Both versions have similar data paths and control signals. The “rdy” output signal is replaced by the “data_tvalid” output signal. As shown by the simulation, these two control

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset signals have the same active high when outputs are valid. However, the propagation delay might not be the same and a delay block might be required depending on your specific design applications.

data_tvalid (Master)

: can be used to drive other input Slave tvalid signal. data_tready (Slave)

: are not used and being connected to a constant of one.

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Delay

This block is listed in the following Xilinx Blockset libraries: Basic Elements, Floating-Point,

Memory, and Index.

The Xilinx Delay block implements a fixed delay of L cycles.

The delay value is displayed on the block in the form z

-L

, which is the

Z-transform of the block’s transfer function. Any data provided to the input of the block will appear at the output after L cycles. The rate and type of the data of the output is inherited from the input. This block is used mainly for matching pipeline delays in other portions of the circuit. The delay block differs from the register block in that the register allows a latency of only 1 cycle and contains an initial value parameter. The delay block supports a specified latency but no initial value other than zeros.The figure below shows the Delay block behavior when L=4 and Period=1s.

For delays that need to be adjusted during run-time, you should use the Addressable Shift

Register block. Delays that are not an integer number of clock cycles are not supported and such delays should not be used in synchronous design (with a few rare exceptions).

Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your

Simulink model.

Basic tab

Parameters specific to the Basic tab are as follows:

Provide synchronous reset port: this option activates an optional reset (rst) pin on the block. When the reset signal is asserted the block goes back to its initial state. Reset

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset signal has precedence over the optional enable signal available on the block. The reset signal has to run at a multiple of the block's sample rate. The signal driving the reset port must be Boolean.

Provide enable port: this option activates an optional enable (en) pin on the block.

When the enable signal is not asserted the block holds its current state until the enable signal is asserted again or the reset signal is asserted. Reset signal has precedence over the enable signal. The enable signal has to run at a multiple of the block 's sample rate.

The signal driving the enable port must be Boolean.

Latency: Latency is the number of cycles of delay. The latency can be zero, provided that the Provide enable port checkbox is not checked. The latency must be a non-negative integer. If the latency is zero, the delay block collapses to a wire during logic synthesis. If the latency is set to L=1, the block will generally be synthesized as a flip-flop (or multiple flip-flops if the data width is greater than 1).

Implementation tab

Parameters specific to the Implementation tab are as follows:

Implement using behavioral HDL: uses behavioral HDL as the implementation. This allows the downstream logic synthesis tool to choose the best implementation.

Other parameters used by this block are explained in the topic

Common Options in Block Parameter Dialog Boxes

.

Logic Synthesis using Behavioral HDL

This setting is recommended if you are using Synplify Pro as the downstream logic synthesis tool. The logic synthesis tool will implement the delay as it desires, performing optimizations such as moving parts of the delay line back or forward into blockRAMs,

DSP48s, or embedded IOB flip-flops; employing the dedicated SRL cascade outputs for long delay lines based on the architecture selected; and using flip-flops to terminate either or both ends of the delay line based on path delays. Using this setting also allows the logic synthesis tool, if sophisticated enough, to perform retiming by moving portions of the delay line back into combinational logic clouds.

Logic Synthesis using Structural HDL

If you do not check the box Implement using behavioral HDL, then structural HDL is used.

This is the default setting and results in a known, but less-flexible, implementation which is often better for use with Vivado synthesis. In general, this setting produces structural HDL comprising an SRL (Shift-Register LUT) delay of (L-1) cycles followed by a flip-flop, with the

SRL and the flip-flop getting packed into the same slice. For a latency greater than L=17, multiple SRL/flip-flop sets are cascaded, albeit without using the dedicated cascade routes.

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For example, the following is the synthesis result for a 1-bit wide delay block with a latency of L=32:

The first SRL provides a delay of 16 cycles and the associated flip-flop adds another cycle of delay. The second SRL provides a delay of 14 cycles; this is evident because the address is set to {A3,A2,A1,A0}=1101 (binary) = 13, and the latency through an SRL is the value of the address plus one. The last flip-flop adds a cycle of delay, making the grand total

L=16+1+14+1=32 cycles.

The SRL is an efficient way of implementing delays in the Xilinx architecture. An SRL and its associated flip-flop that comprise a single logic cell can implement seventeen cycles of delay whereas a delay line consisting only of flip-flops can implement only one cycle of delay per logic cell.

The SRL has a setup time that is longer than that of a flip-flop. Therefore, for very fast designs with a combinational path preceding the delay block, it can be advantageous, when using the structural HDL setting, to precede the delay block with an additional delay block with a latency of L=1. This ensures that the critical path is not burdened with the long setup time of the SRL. An example is shown below.

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The synthesis results of both designs are shown below, with the faster design highlighted in red:

Note that an equivalent to the faster design results from setting the latency of Inverter2 to

1 and eliminating Delay3. This, however, is not equivalent to setting the latency of Inverter2 to 4 and eliminating the delay blocks; this would yield a synthesis equivalent to the upper

(slower) design.

Implementing Long Delays

For very long delays, of, say, greater than 128 cycles, especially when coupled with larger bus widths, it might be better to use a block-RAM-based delay block. The delay block is implemented using SRLs, which are part of the general fabric in the Xilinx. Very long delays should be implemented in the embedded block RAMs to save fabric. Such a delay exploits the dual-port nature of the blockRAM and can be implemented with a fixed or run-time-variable delay. Such a block is basically a block RAM with some associated address counters. The model below shows a novel way of implementing a long delay using LFSRs

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(linear feedback shift registers) for the address counters in order to make the design faster, but conventional counters can be used as well. The difference in value between the counters (minus the RAM latency) is the latency L of the delay line.

Re-settable Delays and Initial Values

If a delay line absolutely must be re-settable to zero, this can be done by using a string of

L register blocks to implement the delay or by creating a circuit that forces the output to be zero while the delay line is “flushed”.

The delay block doesn’t support initial values, but the Addressable Shift Register block does. This block, when used with a fixed address, is generally equivalent to the delay block and will synthesize to an SRL-based delay line. The initial values pertain to initialization only and not to a reset. If using the addressable shift register in “structural HDL mode” (e.g., the

Use behavioral HDL checkbox is not selected) then the delay line will not be terminated with a flip-flop, making it significantly slower. This can be remedied by using behavioral mode or by putting a Register or Delay block after the addressable shift register.

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Depuncture

This block is listed in the following Xilinx Blockset libraries: Communication and Index.

The Xilinx Depuncture block allows you to insert an arbitrary symbol into your input data at the location specified by the depuncture code.

The Xilinx depuncture block accepts data of type UFixN_0 where N equals the length of insert string x (the number of ones in the depuncture code) and produces output data of type UFixK_0 where K equals the length of insert string multiplied by the length of the depuncture code.

The Xilinx Depuncture block can be used to decode a range of punctured convolution codes. The following diagram illustrates an application of this block to implement soft decision Viterbi decoding of punctured convolution codes.

The previous diagram shows a matched filter block connected to a add_erasure Subsystem which attaches a 0 to the input data to mark it as a non-erasure signal. The output from the add_erasure subsytem is then passed to a serial to parallel block. The serial to parallel block concatenates two continuous soft inputs and presents it as a 8-bit word to the depuncture block. The depuncture block inserts the symbol '0001' after the 4-bits from the MSB for code 0 ( [1 0 1] ) and 8-bits from the MSB for code 1 ( [1 1 0] ) to form a 12-bit word. The output of the depuncture block is serialized as 4-bit words using the parallel to serial block.

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The extract_erasure Subsystem takes the input 4-bit word and extracts 3-bits from the MSB to form a soft decision input data word and 1-bit from the LSB to form the erasure signal for the Viterbi decoder.

Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your

Simulink model.

Parameters specific to the Xilinx Depuncturer block are:

Depuncture code: specifies the depuncture pattern for inserting the string to the input.

Symbol to insert: specifies the binary word to be inserted in the depuncture code.

Other parameters used by this block are explained in the topic

Common Options in Block Parameter Dialog Boxes

.

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Digital FIR Filter

This block is listed in the following Xilinx Blockset libraries: DSP and Index.

The Xilinx Digital FIR Filter block allows you to generate highly parameterizable, area-efficient, high-performance single channel FIR filters.

The Digital FIR filter block supports single channel, simple rate, integer decimation and interpolation and fractional decimation and interpolation filter types.

To specify the coefficient vector for the FIR Filter generated by this block, you can either enter the coefficient vector directly into the Digital FIR Filter block parameters dialog box, or open an interface to the

FDATool block and specify the coefficient vector in that

interface.

The Digital FIR Filter block is ideal for generating simple, single channel FIR filters. If your

FIR filter implementation will use more complicated filter features such as multiple channels or multiple path core configuration, an AXI4-Stream-compliant interface, or functions such as reloading co-efficient, channel pattern support, or other HDL-based GUI parameters, use the Xilinx

FIR Compiler 7.2

block in your design instead of the Digital FIR Filter block.

In the Vivado design flow, the Digital FIR filter block is inferred as "LogiCORE IP FIR

Compiler v7.2" for code generation. Refer to the document LogiCORE IP FIR Compiler v7.2

for details on this LogicCore IP.

Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your

Simulink model.

Parameters specific to the Xilinx Digital FIR Filter block are:

Coefficient Vector

Use FDA Tool as Coefficient Source: If selected,the Coefficient Vector will be determined by the settings in the Filter Design and Analysis Tool (FDA Tool). To use the

FDA Tool as your coefficient source, you must click the FDATool button and configure the Block Parameters dialog box that appears, to describe your FIR filter.

Note:

Because the FDA Tool functionality is integrated into the Digital FIR Filter block itself, you do not have to enter a separate FDATool block into your design to use the FDA Tool as your coefficient source.

The FDA Tool is a user interface for designing and analyzing filters quickly. FDATool enables you to design digital FIR filters by setting filter specifications, by importing

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset filters from your MATLAB® workspace, or by adding, moving or deleting poles and zeroes. FDA Tool also provides tools for analyzing filters, such as magnitude and phase response and pole-zero plots (see

FDATool ).

• Edit Box: The edit box is enabled for you to specify the Coefficient Vector when the Use

FDA Tool as Coefficient Source option is disabled. The edit box specifies the vector coefficients of the filter's transfer function. Filter coefficients must be specified as a single MATLAB row vector. Filter structure must be Direct Form, and the input must be a scalar.

The number of taps is inferred from the length of the MATLAB row vector. If multiple coefficient sets are specified, then each set is appended to the previous set in the vector.

FDATool: This button is enabled if the Use FDA Tool as Coefficient Source option is enabled. Click this button to open a Block Parameters dialog box for the FDA Tool, and enter your filter specifications in this dialog box. To understand how to use this dialog box to describe your FIR filter, see

FDATool .

Coefficient Precision

Optimal Values: If selected, the Coefficient Width and Coefficient Fractional Bits will be set automatically to their optimum values. The values are calculated using the dynamic range of filter response between pass band and stop band signals. These values ensure the minimum hardware will be used for the required filter response when the design is implemented in the Xilinx FPGA or SoC.

Coefficient Width: Specifies the number of bits used to represent the coefficients.

Coefficient Fractional Bits: Specifies the binary point location in the coefficients datapath options.

Interpolation Rate: Specifies the interpolation rate of the filter. Any value greater than

1 is applicable to all Interpolation filter types and Decimation filter types for Fractional

Rate Change implementations. The value provided in this field defines the upsampling factor, or P for Fixed Fractional Rate (P/Q) resampling filter implementations.

Decimation Rate: Specifies the decimation rate of the filter. Any value greater than 1 is applicable to the all Decimation and Interpolation filter types for Fractional Rate

Change implementations. The value provided in this field defines the downsampling factor, or Q for Fixed Fractional Rate (P/Q) resampling filter implementations.

Example

A simple filter design is shown below which uses the Digital FIR Filter block to implement a single rate low pass filter. Because Use FDA Tool as Coefficient source is enabled in the block parameters dialog box for the Digital FIR Filter block, the FDA Tool (invoked by

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset clicking the FDA Tool button) is used to generate the filter coefficient for the following specification:

Fs (sample frequency) = 400 MHz

Fpass = 11 Mhz

Fstop = 13 Mhz

Apass = 1 dB

Astop = 120 dB

For Coefficient precision, the Optimal values selection is enabled for the filter

Coefficient Width parameter. Therefore, an optimized filter coefficient width will be computed automatically, for minimum hardware usage and better filter response.

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LogiCORE™ Documentation

LogiCORE IP FIR Compiler v7.2

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Divide

This block is listed in the following Xilinx Blockset libraries: Floating-Point, Math and Index.

The Xilinx Divide block performs both fixed-point and floating-point division with the a input being the dividend and the b input the divisor. Both inputs must be of the same data type.

Basic tab

Parameters specific to the Basic tab are as follows:

AXI Interface

Flow Control:

Blocking: Selects “Blocking” mode. In this mode, the lack of data on one input channel does block the execution of an operation if data is received on another input channel.

NonBlocking: Selects “Non-Blocking” mode. In this mode, the lack of data on one input channel does not block the execution of an operation if data is received on another input channel.

Fixed-point Options

Algorithm Type:

Radix2: This is non-restoring integer division using integer operands and allows a remainder to be generated. This option is recommended for operand widths less than

16 bits. This option supports both unsigned (two's complement) and signed divisor and dividend inputs.

High_Radix: This option is recommended for operand widths greater than 16 bits, though the implementation requires the use of DSP48 (or variant) primitives. This option only supports signed (two's complement) divisor and dividend inputs.

Output Fractional width: For Fixed-point division, this entry determines the number of bits in the fractional part of the output.Optional ports

Dividend Channel Ports

Has TLAST: Adds a TLAST port to the Input channel.

Has TUSER: Adds a TUSER port to the Input channel.

Divisor Channel Ports

Has TLAST: Adds a TLAST port to the Input channel.

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Has TUSER: Adds a TUSER port to the Input channel.

Control Options

Provide enable port: Adds an enable port to the block interface.

Has Result TREADY: Adds a TREADY port to the Result channel.

Output TLAST behavior: Determines the behavior of the result_tlast output port.

°

Null: Output is null.

°

Pass_A_TLAST: Pass the value of the a_tlast input port to the dout_tlast output port.

°

Pass B_TLAST: Pass the value of the b_tlast input port to the dout_tlast output port.

°

Pass CTRL_TLAST: Pass the value of the ctrl_tlast input port to the dout_tlast output port.

°

OR_all_TLASTS: Pass the logical OR of all the present TLAST input ports.

°

AND_all_TLASTS: Pass the logical AND of all the present TLAST input ports.

Exception Signals

UNDERFLOW: Adds an output port that serves as an underflow flag.

OVERFLOW: Adds an output port that serves as an overflow flag.

INVALID_OP: Adds an output port that serves as an invalid operation flag.

DIVIDE_BY_ZERO: Adds an output port that serves as a divide-by-zero flag.

Other parameters used by this block are explained in the topic

Common Options in Block Parameter Dialog Boxes

.

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LogiCORE IP Floating-Point Operator v7.0

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Divider Generator 5.1

This block is listed in the following Xilinx Blockset libraries: AXI4, DSP, Math, and Index.

The Xilinx Divider Generator block creates a circuit for integer division based on Radix-2 non-restoring division, or High-Radix division with prescaling.

Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your Simulink model.

Basic tab

Parameters specific to the Basic tab are:

Common Options

Algorithm Type:

°

°

Radix-2 non-restoring integer division using integer operands, allows a remainder to be generated. This is recommended for operand widths less than around 16 bits.

This option supports both unsigned and signed (2’s complement) divisor and dividend inputs.

High_Radix division with prescaling. This is recommended for operand widths greater than 16 bits, though the implementation requires the use of DSP48 (or variant) primitives. This option only supports signed (2’s complement) divisor and dividend inputs.

Output channel

Remainder type:

°

Remainder: Only supported for Radix 2.

°

Fractional: Determines the number of bits in the fractional port output.

Fractional width: If Fractional Remainder type is selected, this entry determines the number of bits in the fractional port output.

Radix2 Options

Radix2 throughput: Determines the interval in clocks between new data being input

(and output). Choices are 1, 2, 4, and 8.

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High Radix Options

Detect divide by zero: Determines if the core shall have a division-by-zero indication output port.

AXI Interface

AXI behavior:

NonBlocking: Preforms an action only when a control packet and a data packet are presented to the block at the same time.

Blocking: Preforms an action when a data packet is presented to the block. The block uses the previous control information.

AXI implementation emphasis:

°

Resources: Automatic (fully pipelined) or Manual (determined by following field).

Performance: Implementation decisions target the highest speed.

°

Latency Options

°

°

Latency configuration: Automatic (fully pipelined) or Manual (determined by following field).

Latency: This field determines the exact latency from input to output in terms of clock enabled clock cycles.

Optional Ports tab

Parameters specific to the Optional Ports tab are:

Optional Ports

Divided Channel Ports

°

Has TUSER: Adds a tuser input port to the dividend channel.

Has TLAST: Adds a tlast output port to the dividend channel.

°

Divisor Channel Ports

°

Has TUSER: Adds a tuser input port to the divsor channel.

Has TLAST: Adds a tlast output port to the divsor channel.

°

ACLKEN: Specifies that the block has a clock enable port (the equivalent of selecting the

Has ACLKEN option in the CORE Generator GUI).

ARESETn: Specifies that the block has a reset port. Active low synchronous clear. A minimum ARESETn pulse of two cycles is required.

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m_axis_dout_tready: Specifies that the block has a dout_tready output port.

Input TLAST combination for output: Determines the behavior of the dout_tlast output port.

°

°

°

°

Null: Output is null.

Pass_Dividend_TLAST: Pass the value of the dividend_tlast input port to the dout_tlast output port.

Pass Divisor_TLAST: Pass the value of the divisor_tlast input port to the dout_tlast output port.

OR_all_TLASTS: Pass the logical OR of all the present TLAST input ports.

AND_all_TLASTS: Pass the logical AND of all the present TLAST input ports.

°

Other parameters used by this block are explained in the topic

Common Options in Block Parameter Dialog Boxes

.

LogiCORE™ Documentation

LogiCORE IP Divider Generator 5.1

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Down Sample

This block is listed in the following Xilinx Blockset libraries: Basic Elements and Index.

The Xilinx Down Sample block reduces the sample rate at the point where the block is placed in your design.

The input signal is sampled at even intervals, at either the beginning (first value) or end (last value) of a frame. The sampled value is presented on the output port and held until the next sample is taken.

A Down Sample frame consists of l input samples, where l is sampling rate. An example frame for a Down Sample block configured with a sampling rate of 4 is shown below.

The Down Sample block is realized in hardware using one of three possible implementations that vary in terms of implementation efficiency. The block receives two clock enable signals in hardware, Src_CE and Dest_CE. Src_CE is the faster clock enable signal and corresponds to the input data stream rate. Dest_CE is the slower clock enable, corresponding to the output stream rate, for example, down sampled data. These enable signals control the register sampling in hardware.

Zero Latency Down Sample

The zero latency Down Sample block must be configured to sample the first value of the frame. The first sample in the input frame passes through the mux to the output port. A register samples this value during the first sample duration and the mux switches to the register output at the start of the second sample of the frame. The result is that the first sample in a frame is present on the output port for the entire frame duration. This is the least efficient hardware implementation as the mux introduces a combinational path from

Din to Dout. A single bit register adjusts the timing of the destination clock enable, so that

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset it is asserted at the start of the sample period, instead of the end. The hardware implementation is shown below:

Down Sample with Latency

If the Down Sample block is configured with latency greater than zero, a more efficient implementation is used. One of two implementations is selected depending on whether the

Down Sample block is set to sample the first or last value in a frame.

Sample First Value in Frame

In this case, two registers are required to correctly sample the input stream. The first register is enabled by the adjusted clock enable signal so that it samples the input at the start of the input frame. The second register samples the contents of the first register at the end of the sample period to ensure output data is aligned correctly.

Sample Last Value in Frame

The most efficient implementation is used when the Down Sample block is configured to sample the last value of the frame. In this case, a register samples the data input data at the end of the frame. The sampled value is presented for the duration of the next frame.

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Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your

Simulink model.

Basic tab

Parameters specific to the Basic tab are:

Sampling Rate (number of input samples per output sample): must be an integer greater or equal to 2. This is the ratio of the output sample period to the input, and is essentially a sample rate divider. For example, a ratio of 2 indicates a 2:1 division of the input sample rate. If a non-integer ratio is desired, the Up Sample block can be used in combination with the Down Sample block.

Sample: The Down Sample block can sample either the first or last value of a frame.

This parameter will determine which of these two values is sampled.

Other parameters used by this block are explained in the topic

Common Options in Block Parameter Dialog Boxes

.

Xilinx LogiCORE

The Down Sample block does not use a Xilinx LogiCORE™.

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DSP48E

This block is listed in the following Xilinx Blockset libraries: Index, DSP.

The Xilinx DSP48E block is an efficient building block for DSP applications that use supported devices. The DSP48E combines an 18-bit by 25-bit signed multiplier with a 48-bit adder and programmable mux to select the adder's input.

Operations can be selected dynamically. Optional input and multiplier pipeline registers can be selected as well as registers for the alumode, carryin and opmode

ports. The DSP48E block can also target devices that do not contain the DSP48E hardware primitive if the Use synthesizable model option is selected on the implementation tab.

Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your

Simulink model.

Basic tab

Parameters specific to the Basic tab are:

A or ACIN input: specifies if the A input should be taken directly from the a port or from the cascaded acin port. The acin port can only be connected to another DSP48 block.

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B or BCIN input: specifies if the B input should be taken directly from the b port or from the cascaded bcin port. The bcin port can only be connected to another DSP48 block.

Pattern Detection

Reset p register on pattern detection: if selected and the pattern is detected, reset the p register on the next cycle

Pattern Input:

°

°

Pattern Input from c port: when selected, the pattern used in pattern detection is read from the c port.

Using Pattern Attribute (48bit hex value): value is used in pattern detection logic which is best described as an equality check on the output of the adder/subtractor/logic unit

Pattern attribute: a 48-bit value that is used in the pattern detector.

°

Mask Input:

°

°

°

Mask input from c port: when selected, the mask used in pattern detection is read from the c port.

Using Mask Attribute (48 bit hex value): 48-bit value used to mask out certain bits during pattern detection.

Mask attribute: a 48-bit value and used to mask out certain bits during a pattern detection. A value of 0 passes the bit, and a value of 1 masks out the bit.48-bit value and used to mask out certain bits during a pattern detection. A value of 0 passes the bit, and a value of 1 masks out the bit.

Select rounding mask: Selects special masks that can be used for symmetric or convergent rounding in the pattern detector. The choices are Select mask, Mode1, and

Mode2.

Optional Ports tab

Parameters specific to the Optional Ports tab are:

Consolidate control port: when selected, combines the opmode, alumode, carry_in and carry_in_sel

ports into one 15-bit port. Bits 0 to 6 are the opmode, bits 7 to 10 are the alumode

port, bit 11 is the carry_in port, and bits 12 to 14 are the carry_in_sel port.

This option should be used when the opmode block is used to generate a DSP48E instruction.

Provide c port: when selected, the c port is made available. Otherwise, the c port is tied to

'0'.

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Provide global reset port: when selected, the port rst is made available. This port is connected to all available reset ports based on the pipeline selections.

Provide global enable port: when selected, the optional en port is made available. This port is connected to all available enable ports based on the pipeline selections.

Provide pcin port: when selected, the pcin port is exposed. The pcin port must be connected to the pcout port of another DSP48 block.

Provide carry cascade in port: when selected, the carry cascade in port is exposed. This port can only be connected to a carry cascade out port on another DSP48E block.

Provide multiplier sign cascade in port: when selected, the multiplier sign cascade in port

(multsigncascin) is exposed. This port can only be connected to a multiplier sign cascade out port of another DSP48E block.

Provide carryout port: when selected, the carryout output port is made available. When the mode of operation for the adder/subtractor is set to one 48-bit adder, the carryout port is 1-bit wide. When the mode of operation is set to two 24 bit adders, the carryout port is 2 bits wide. The MSB corresponds to the second adder's carryout and the LSB corresponds to the first adder's carryout. When the mode of operation is set to four 12 bit adders, the carryout port is 4 bits wide with the bits corresponding to the addition of the

48 bit input split into 4 12-bit sections.

Provide pattern detect port: when selected, the pattern detection output port is provided.

When the pattern, either from the mask or the c register, is matched the pattern detection port is set to '1'.

Provide pattern bar detect port: when selected, the pattern bar detection

(patternbdetect) output port is provided. When the inverse of the pattern, either from the mask or the c register, is matched the pattern bar detection port is set to '1'.

Provide overflow port: when selected, the overflow output port is provided. This port indicates when the operation in the DSP48E has overflowed beyond the bit P[N] where N is between 1 and 46. N is determined by the number of 1s in the mask whether set by the GUI mask field or the c port input.

Provide underflow port: when selected, the underflow output port is provided. This port indicates when the operation in the DSP48E has underflowed. Underflow occurs when the number goes below –P[N] where N is determined by the number of 1s in the mask whether set by the GUI mask field or the c port input.

Provide ACOUT port: when selected, the acout output port is made available. The acout port must be connected to the acin port of another DSP48E block.

Provide BCOUT port: when selected, the bcout output port is made available. The bcout port must be connected to the bcin port of another DSP48E block.

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Provide PCOUT port: when selected, the pcout output port is made available. The pcout port must be connected to the pcin port of another DSP48 block.

Provide multiplier sign cascade out port: when selected, the multiplier sign cascade out port (multsigncascout) is made available. This port can only be connected to the multiplier sign cascade in port of another DSP48E block and is used to support 96-bit accumulators/adders and subtracters which are built from two DSP48Es.

Provide carry cascade out port: when selected, the carry cascade out port

(carrycascout) is made available. This port can only be connected to the carry cascade in port of another DSP48E block.

Pipelining tab

Parameters specific to the Pipelining tab are:

Length of a/acin pipeline: specifies the length of the pipeline on input register A. A pipeline of length 0 removes the register on the input.

Length of b/bCIN pipeline: specifies the length of the pipeline for the b input whether it is read from b or bcin.

Length of acout pipeline: specifies the length of the pipeline between the a/acin input and the acout output port. A pipeline of length 0 removes the register from the acout

pipeline length. Must be less than or equal to the length of the a/acin pipeline.

Length of bcout pipeline: specifies the length of the pipeline between the b/bcin input and the bcout output port. A pipeline of length 0 removes the register from the bcout pipeline length. Must be less than or equal to the length of the b/bcin pipeline.

Pipeline c: indicates whether the input from the c port should be registered.

Pipeline p: indicates whether the outputs p and pcout should be registered.

Pipeline multiplier: indicates whether the internal multiplier should register its output.

Pipeline opmode: indicates whether the opmode port should be registered.

Pipeline alumode: indicates whether the alumode port should be registered.

Pipeline carry in: indicates whether the carry in port should be registered.

Pipeline carry in select: indicates whether the carry in select port should be registered

Reset/Enable Ports

Parameters specific to the Reset/Enable tab are:

Reset port for a/acin: when selected, a port rst_a is made available. This resets the pipeline register for port a when set to '1'.

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Reset port for b/bcin: when selected, a port rst_b is made available. This resets the pipeline register for port b when set to '1'.

Reset port for c: when selected, a port rst_c is made available. This resets the pipeline register for port c when set to '1'.

Reset port for multiplier: when selected, a port rst_m is made available. This resets the pipeline register for the internal multiplier when set to '1'.

Reset port for P: when selected, a port rst_p is made available. This resets the output register when set to '1'.

Reset port for carry in: when selected, a port rst_carryin is made available. This resets the pipeline register for carry in when set to '1'.

Reset port for alumode: when selected, a port rst_alumode is made available. This resets the pipeline register for the alumode port when set to '1'.

Reset port for controls (opmode and carry_in_sel): when selected, a port rst_ctrl is made available. This resets the pipeline register for the opmode register (if available) and the carry_in_sel register (if available) when set to '1'.

Enable port for first a/acin register: when selected, an enable port ce_a1 for the first a pipeline register is made available.

Enable port for second a/acin register: when selected, an enable port ce_a2 for the second a pipeline register is made available.

Enable port for first b/bcin register: when selected, an enable port ce_b1 for the first b pipeline register is made available.

Enable port for second b/bcin register: when selected, an enable port ce_b2 for the second b pipeline register is made available.

Enable port for c: when selected, an enable port ce_c for the port C register is made available.

Enable port for multiplier: when selected, an enable port ce_m for the multiplier register is made available.

Enable port for p: when selected, an enable port ce_p for the port P output register is made available.

Enable port for carry in: when selected, an enable port ce_carry_in for the carry in register is made available.

Enable port for alumode: when selected, an enable port ce_alumode for the alumode register is made available.

Enable port for multiplier carry in: when selected, an enable port mult_carry_in for the multiplier register is made available.

Enable port for controls (opmode and carry_in_sel): when selected, the enable port ce_ctrl is made available. The port ce_ctrl controls the opmode and carry in select registers.

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Implementation

Parameters specific to the Implementation tab are:

Use synthesizable model: when selected, the DSP48E is implemented from an RTL description which might not map directly to the DSP48E hardware. This is useful if a design using the DSP48E block is targeted at device families that do not contain

DSP48E hardware primitives.

Mode of operation for the adder/subtractor: this mode can be used to implement small add-subtract functions at high speed and lower power with less logic utilization.

The adder and subtracter in the adder/subtracted/logic unit can also be split into two

24-bit fields or four12-bit fields. This is achieved by setting the mode of operation to

"Two 24-bit adders" or "Four 12-bit adders".

Use adder only: when selected, the block is optimized in hardware for maximum performance without using the multiplier. If an instruction using the multiplier is encountered in simulation, an error is reported.

Other parameters used by this block are explained in the topic

Common Options in Block Parameter Dialog Boxes

.

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DSP48 Macro 3.0

This block is listed in the following Xilinx Blockset libraries: Index, DSP.

The System Generator DSP48 macro block provides a device independent abstraction of the blocks DSP48, DSP48A, and DSP48E. Using this block instead of using a technology-specific DSP slice helps makes the design more portable between Xilinx technologies.

The DSP48 Macro provides a simplified interface to the XtremeDSP slice by the abstraction of all opmode, subtract, alumode and inmode controls to a single SEL port. Further, all CE and RST controls are grouped to a single CE and SCLR port respectively. This abstraction enhances portability of HDL between device families.

You can specify 1 to 64 instructions which are translated into the various control signals for the XtremeDSP slice of the target device. The instructions are stored in a ROM from which the appropriate instruction is selected using the SEL port.

Block Parameters

Instructions tab

The Instruction tab is used to define the operations that the LogiCORE is to implement.

Each instruction can be entered on a new line, or in a comma delimited list, and are enumerated from the top down. You can specify a maximum of 64 instructions.

Refer to the topic Instructions Page (page 18) of the LogiCORE IP DSP48 Macro 3.0 Product

Guide for details on all the parameters on this tab.

Pipeline Options tab

The Pipeline Options tab is used to define the pipeline depth of the various input paths.

Pipeline Options

Specifies the pipeline method to be used; Automatic, By Tier and Expert.

Custom Pipeline options

Used to specify the pipeline depth of the various input paths.

Tier 1 to 6

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When By Tier is selected for Pipeline Options these parameters are used to enable/disable the registers across all the input paths for a given pipeline stage. The following restrictions are enforced:

°

When P has been specified in an expression tier 6 will forced as asynchronous feedback is not supported.

Individual registers

When you select Expert for the Pipeline Options, these parameters are used to enable/disable individual register stages. The following restrictions are enforced.

°

The P register is forced when P is specified in an expression. Asynchronous feedback is not supported.

Refer to the topic Detailed Pipeline Implementation (page 15) of the LogiCORE IP DSP48

Macro v3.0 Product Guide for details on all the parameters on this tab.

Implementation tab

The Implementation tab is used to define implementation options.

Output Port Properties

Precision: Specifies the precision of the P output port.

°

Full: The bit width of the output port P is set to the full XtremeDSP Slide width of 48 bits.

°

User_Defined: The output width of P can be set to any value up to 48 bits. When set to less than 48 bits, the output is truncated (LSBs removed).

Width: Specifies the User Defined output width of the P output port

Binary Point: Specifies the placement of the binary point of the P output port

Special ports

Use ACOUT: Use the optional cascade A output port.

Use BCOUT: Use the optional cascade B output port.

Use CARRYCASCOUT: Use the optional cascade carryout output port.

Use PCOUT: Use the optional cascade P output port.

Control ports

Refer to the topic Implementation Page (page 19) of the document LogiCORE IP DSP48

Macro v3.0 Product Guide for details on all the parameters on this tab.

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Migrating a DSP48 Macro Block Design to DSP48 Macro 2.1

The following text describes how to migrate an existing DSP Macro block design to DSP

Macro 2.1.

One fundamental difference of the new DSP48 Macro 2.1 block compared to the previous version is that internal input multiplexer circuits are removed from the core in order to streamline and minimize the size of logic for this IP. This has some implications when migrating from an existing design with DSP48 Macro to the new DSP48 Macro 2.1. You can no longer specify multiple input operands (for example, A1, A2, B1, B2, etc…). Because of this, you must add a simple MUX circuit when designing with the new DSP48 Macro 2.1 if there is more than one unique input operand as shown in the following example.

DSP48 Macro-Based Signed 35x35 Multiplier

The following DSP48 Macro consists of multiple 18-bit input operands such as alo, ahi for input to port A and blo, bhi for input to port B. The input operands and Opcode instructions are specified as shown below. Notice that the multiple input operands are handled internally by the DSP48 Macro block.

DSP48 Macro 2.1-Based Signed 35x35 Multiplier

The same model shown above can be migrated to the new DSP48 Macro 2.1 block. The following simple steps and design guidelines are required when updating the design.

1. Make sure that input and output pipeline register selections between the old and the new block are the same. You can do this by examining and comparing the Pipeline

Options settings.

2. If there is more than one unique input operand required, you must provide MUX circuits as shown in the figure below.

3. Ensure that the new design provides the same functionality correctness and quality of results compared to the old version. This can be accomplished by performing a quick

Simulink simulation and implementing the design.

4. When configuring and specifying a pre-adder mode using the DSP48 Macro 2.1 block in

System Generator, certain design parameters such as data width input operands are device dependent. Refer to the document LogiCORE IP DSP48 Macro v3.0 Product Guide for details on all the parameters on this LogicCore IP.

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1

2

sel

0

3

4 inputs and 2 outputs MUX circuit can be decoded as the following:

A inputs

alo alo ahi ahi

B inputs

blo bhi blo bhi

Opcode

A*B

A*B+P>>17

A*B+P

A*B+P>>17

You can find the above complete model at the following pathname:

<sysgen_path>/examples/dsp48/mult35x35/dsp48macro_mult35x35.mdl

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LogiCORE™ Documentation

LogiCORE IP DSP48 Macro 3.0

Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

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DSP48E1

This block is listed in the following Xilinx Blockset libraries: Index, DSP.

The Xilinx DSP48E1 block is an efficient building block for DSP applications that use

7 series devices. Enhancements to the DSP48E1 slice provide improved flexibility and utilization, improved efficiency of applications, reduced overall power consumption, and increased maximum frequency. The high performance allows designers to implement multiple slower operations in a single DSP48E1 slice using time-multiplexing methods.

The DSP48E1 slice supports many independent functions. These functions include multiply, multiply accumulate (MACC), multiply add, three-input add, barrel shift, wide-bus multiplexing, magnitude comparator, bit-wise logic functions, pattern detect, and wide counter. The architecture also supports cascading multiple DSP48E1 slices to form wide math functions, DSP filters, and complex arithmetic without the use of general FPGA logic.

Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your

Simulink model.

Basic tab

Parameters specific to the Basic tab are:

Input configuration

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A or ACIN input: specifies if the A input should be taken directly from the a port or from the cascaded acin port. The acin port can only be connected to another DSP48 block.

B or BCIN input: specifies if the B input should be taken directly from the b port or from the cascaded bcin port. The bcin port can only be connected to another DSP48 block.

DSP48E1 data-path configuration

SIMD Mode of Adder/Subtractor/Accumulator: this mode can be used to implement small add-subtract functions at high speed and lower power with less logic utilization.

The adder and subtracter in the adder/subtracted/logic unit can also be split into Two

24-bit Units or Four 12-bit Units.

Do not use multiplier: when selected, the block is optimized in hardware for maximum performance without using the multiplier. If an instruction using the multiplier is encountered in simulation, an error is reported.

Use dynamic multiplier mode: When selected, it instructs the block to use the dynamic multiplier mode. This indicates that the block is switching between A*B and

A:B operations on the fly and therefore needs to get the worst-case timing of the two paths.

Use preadder: Use the 25-bit D data input to the pre-adder or alternative input to the multiplier. The pre-adder implements D + A as determined by the INMODE3 signal.

Pattern Detection

Reset p register on pattern detection: if selected and the pattern is detected, reset the p register on the next cycle

Pattern Input:

°

°

°

°

°

Pattern Input from c port: when selected, the pattern used in pattern detection is read from the c port.

Using Pattern Attribute (48bit hex value): value is used in pattern detection logic which is best described as an equality check on the output of the adder/subtractor/logic unit

Pattern attribute: a 48-bit value that is used in the pattern detector.

°

Mask Input:

Mask input from c port: when selected, the mask used in pattern detection is read from the c port.

Using Mask Attribute (48 bit hex value): 48-bit value used to mask out certain bits during pattern detection.

Mode1: Selects rounding_mode 1.

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°

Mode2:Selects rounding_mode 2.

Optional Ports tab

Parameters specific to the Optional Ports tab are:

Consolidate control port: when selected, combines the opmode, alumode, carry_in, carry_in_sel

, and inmode ports into one 20-bit port. Bits 0 to 6 are the opmode, bits 7 to 10 are the alumode port, bit 11 is the carry_in port, bits 12 to 14 are the carry_in_sel

port, and bits 15-19 are the inmode bits. This option should be used when the opmode block is used to generate a DSP48E instruction.

Provide c port: when selected, the c port is made available. Otherwise, the c port is tied to

'0'.

Provide global reset port: when selected, the port rst is made available. This port is connected to all available reset ports based on the pipeline selections.

Provide global enable port: when selected, the optional en port is made available. This port is connected to all available enable ports based on the pipeline selections.

Provide pcin port: when selected, the pcin port is exposed. The pcin port must be connected to the pcout port of another DSP48 block.

Provide carry cascade in port: when selected, the carry cascade in port is exposed. This port can only be connected to a carry cascade out port on another DSP48E block.

Provide multiplier sign cascade in port: when selected, the multiplier sign cascade in port

(multsigncascin) is exposed. This port can only be connected to a multiplier sign cascade out port of another DSP48E block.

Provide carryout port: when selected, the carryout output port is made available. When the mode of operation for the adder/subtractor is set to one 48-bit adder, the carryout port is 1-bit wide. When the mode of operation is set to two 24 bit adders, the carryout port is 2 bits wide. The MSB corresponds to the second adder's carryout and the LSB corresponds to the first adder's carryout. When the mode of operation is set to four 12 bit adders, the carryout port is 4 bits wide with the bits corresponding to the addition of the

48 bit input split into 4 12-bit sections.

Provide pattern detect port: when selected, the pattern detection output port is provided.

When the pattern, either from the mask or the c register, is matched the pattern detection port is set to '1'.

Provide pattern bar detect port: when selected, the pattern bar detection

(patternbdetect) output port is provided. When the inverse of the pattern, either from the mask or the c register, is matched the pattern bar detection port is set to '1'.

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Provide overflow port: when selected, the overflow output port is provided. This port indicates when the operation in the DSP48E has overflowed beyond the bit P[N] where N is between 1 and 46. N is determined by the number of 1s in the mask whether set by the GUI mask field or the c port input.

Provide underflow port: when selected, the underflow output port is provided. This port indicates when the operation in the DSP48E has underflowed. Underflow occurs when the number goes below –P[N] where N is determined by the number of 1s in the mask whether set by the GUI mask field or the c port input.

Provide ACOUT port: when selected, the acout output port is made available. The acout port must be connected to the acin port of another DSP48E block.

Provide BCOUT port: when selected, the bcout output port is made available. The bcout port must be connected to the bcin port of another DSP48E block.

Provide PCOUT port: when selected, the pcout output port is made available. The pcout port must be connected to the pcin port of another DSP48 block.

Provide multiplier sign cascade out port: when selected, the multiplier sign cascade out port (multsigncascout) is made available. This port can only be connected to the multiplier sign cascade in port of another DSP48E block and is used to support 96-bit accumulators/adders and subtracters which are built from two DSP48Es.

Provide carry cascade out port: when selected, the carry cascade out port

(carrycascout) is made available. This port can only be connected to the carry cascade in port of another DSP48E block.

Pipelining tab

Parameters specific to the Pipelining tab are:

Length of a/acin pipeline: specifies the length of the pipeline on input register A. A pipeline of length 0 removes the register on the input.

Length of b/bCIN pipeline: specifies the length of the pipeline for the b input whether it is read from b or bcin.

Length of acout pipeline: specifies the length of the pipeline between the a/acin input and the acout output port. A pipeline of length 0 removes the register from the acout

pipeline length. Must be less than or equal to the length of the a/acin pipeline.

Length of bcout pipeline: specifies the length of the pipeline between the b/bcin input and the bcout output port. A pipeline of length 0 removes the register from the bcout pipeline length. Must be less than or equal to the length of the b/bcin pipeline.

Pipeline c: indicates whether the input from the c port should be registered.

Pipeline p: indicates whether the outputs p and pcout should be registered.

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Pipeline multiplier: indicates whether the internal multiplier should register its output.

Pipeline opmode: indicates whether the opmode port should be registered.

Pipeline alumode: indicates whether the alumode port should be registered.

Pipeline carry in: indicates whether the carry in port should be registered.

Pipeline carry in select: indicates whether the carry in select port should be registered

Pipeline preadder input register d: indicates to add a pipeline register to the d input.

Pipeline preadder output register ad: indicates to add a pipeline register to the ad output.

Pipeline INMODE register: indicates to add a pipeline register to the INMODE input.

Reset/Enable Ports

Parameters specific to the Reset/Enable tab are:

Provide Reset Ports

Reset port for a/acin: when selected, a port rst_a is made available. This resets the pipeline register for port a when set to '1'.

Reset port for b/bcin: when selected, a port rst_b is made available. This resets the pipeline register for port b when set to '1'.

Reset port for c: when selected, a port rst_c is made available. This resets the pipeline register for port c when set to '1'.

Reset port for multiplier: when selected, a port rst_m is made available. This resets the pipeline register for the internal multiplier when set to '1'.

Reset port for P: when selected, a port rst_p is made available. This resets the output register when set to '1'.

Reset port for carry in: when selected, a port rst_carryin is made available. This resets the pipeline register for carry in when set to '1'.

Reset port for alumode: when selected, a port rst_alumode is made available. This resets the pipeline register for the alumode port when set to '1'.

Reset port for controls (opmode and carry_in_sel): when selected, a port rst_ctrl is made available. This resets the pipeline register for the opmode register (if available) and the carry_in_sel register (if available) when set to '1'.

Reset port for d and ad:

Reset port for INMODE:

Provide Enable Ports

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Enable port for first a/acin register: when selected, an enable port ce_a1 for the first a pipeline register is made available.

Enable port for second a/acin register: when selected, an enable port ce_a2 for the second a pipeline register is made available.

Enable port for first b/bcin register: when selected, an enable port ce_b1 for the first b pipeline register is made available.

Enable port for second b/bcin register: when selected, an enable port ce_b2 for the second b pipeline register is made available.

Enable port for c: when selected, an enable port ce_c for the port C register is made available.

Enable port for multiplier: when selected, an enable port ce_m for the multiplier register is made available.

Enable port for p: when selected, an enable port ce_p for the port P output register is made available.

Enable port for carry in: when selected, an enable port ce_carry_in for the carry in register is made available.

Enable port for alumode: when selected, an enable port ce_alumode for the alumode register is made available.

Enable port for multiplier carry in: when selected, an enable port mult_carry_in for the multiplier register is made available.

Enable port for controls (opmode and carry_in_sel): when selected, the enable port ce_ctrl is made available. The port ce_ctrl controls the opmode and carry in select registers.

Enable port for d: when selected, an enable port is added input register d.

Enable port for ad: when selected, an enable port is add for the preadder output register ad.

Enable port for INMODE: when selected, an enable port is added for the INMODE register.

Implementation

Parameters specific to the Implementation tab are:

Use synthesizable model: when selected, the DSP48E is implemented from an RTL description which might not map directly to the DSP48E hardware. This is useful if a design using the DSP48E block is targeted at device families that do not contain

DSP48E hardware primitives.

Other parameters used by this block are explained in the topic

Common Options in Block Parameter Dialog Boxes

.

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DSP48E2

This block is listed in the following Xilinx Blockset libraries: Index, DSP.

The Xilinx DSP48E2 block is an efficient building block for DSP applications that use

UltraScale devices. DSP applications use many binary multipliers and accumulators that are best implemented in dedicated DSP resources. UltraScale devices have many dedicated low-power DSP slices, combining high speed with small size while retaining system design flexibility.

.

The DSP48E2 slice is effectively a superset of the DSP48E1 slice with these differences:

• Wider functionality

• More flexibility in the pre-adder

• Added fourth operand to ALU with WMUX

• Wide XOR of the X, Y, and Z multiplexers

• Additional unique features

Refer to the document titled UltraScale Architecture DSP Slice User Guide (UG579) for a detailed description of the DSP48E2 features.

Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your

Simulink model.

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Basic tab

Parameters specific to the Basic tab are:

Input configuration

A or ACIN input: specifies if the A input should be taken directly from the a port or from the cascaded acin port. The acin port can only be connected to another DSP48 block.

B or BCIN input: specifies if the B input should be taken directly from the b port or from the cascaded bcin port. The bcin port can only be connected to another DSP48 block.

DSP48E2 data-path configuration

SIMD Mode of Adder/Subtractor/Accumulator: this mode can be used to implement small add-subtract functions at high speed and lower power with less logic utilization.

The adder and subtracter in the adder/subtracted/logic unit can also be split into Two

24-bit Units or Four 12-bit Units.

Do not use multiplier: when selected, the block is optimized in hardware for maximum performance without using the multiplier. If an instruction using the multiplier is encountered in simulation, an error is reported.

Use dynamic multiplier mode: When selected, it instructs the block to use the dynamic multiplier mode. This indicates that the block is switching between A*B and

A:B operations on the fly and therefore needs to get the worst-case timing of the two paths.

Preadder Configuration

Use the 25-bit D data input to the pre-adder or alternative input to the multiplier. The pre-adder implements D + A as determined by the INMODE3 signal.

PREADDINSEL Select preadder input: Selects the input to be added with D in the preadder.

AMULTSEL Select A multiplexer output: Selects the input to the 27-bit A input of the multiplier. In the 7 series primitive DSP48E1 the attribute is called USE_DPORT, but has been renamed due to new pre-adder flexibility enhancements (default AMULTSEL = A is equivalent to USE_DPORT=FALSE).

BMULTSEL Select B multiplexer output: Selects the input to the 18-bit B input of the multiplier.

Enable D Port: Automatically enabled when AD is selected above

Pattern Detection

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Reset p register on pattern detection: if selected and the pattern is detected, reset the p register on the next cycle

AUTO RESET PRIORITY: When enabled by selecting the option above, select RESET

(the default) or CEP (clock enabled for the P (output) resister).

°

°

°

Pattern Input:

Pattern Input from c port: when selected, the pattern used in pattern detection is read from the c port.

Using Pattern Attribute (48bit hex value): value is used in pattern detection logic which is best described as an equality check on the output of the adder/subtractor/logic unit

Using Pattern Attribute (48bit hex value): Enter a 48-bit value that is used in the pattern detector.

°

°

°

°

Mask Input:

Mask input from c port: when selected, the mask used in pattern detection is read from the c port.

Using Mask Attribute (48 bit hex value): Enter a 48-bit value used to mask out certain bits during pattern detection.

MODE1: Selects rounding_mode 1 (C-bar left shifted by 1).

MODE2:Selects rounding_mode 2 (C-bar left shifted by 2).

Wide Xor tab

Parameters specific to the Wide Xor tab are:

Use Wide XOR: This is a new feature in the DSP48E2 slice giving the ability to perform a 96-bit wide XOR function.

XORSIMD Select Wide XOR SIMD: The XORSIMD attribute is used to select the width of the XOR function. Select either XOR12 (the default), XOR24, XOR48, or XOR96.

Optional Ports tab

Parameters specific to the Optional Ports tab are:

Input Ports

Consolidate control port: when selected, combines the opmode, alumode, carry_in, carry_in_sel

, and inmode ports into one 20-bit port. Bits 0 to 6 are the opmode, bits 7 to 10 are the alumode port, bit 11 is the carry_in port, bits 12 to 14 are the carry_in_sel

port, and bits 15-19 are the inmode bits. This option should be used when the opmode block is used to generate a DSP48E instruction.

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Provide c port: when selected, the c port is made available. Otherwise, the c port is tied to

'0'.

Provide global reset port: when selected, the port rst is made available. This port is connected to all available reset ports based on the pipeline selections.

Provide global enable port: when selected, the optional en port is made available. This port is connected to all available enable ports based on the pipeline selections.

Cascadable Ports

Provide pcin port: when selected, the pcin port is exposed. The pcin port must be connected to the pcout port of another DSP48 block.

Provide carry cascade in port: when selected, the carry cascade in port is exposed. This port can only be connected to a carry cascade out port on another DSP48E block.

Provide multiplier sign cascade in port: when selected, the multiplier sign cascade in port

(multsigncascin) is exposed. This port can only be connected to a multiplier sign cascade out port of another DSP48E block.

Output Ports

Provide carryout port: when selected, the carryout output port is made available. When the mode of operation for the adder/subtractor is set to one 48-bit adder, the carryout port is 1-bit wide. When the mode of operation is set to two 24 bit adders, the carryout port is 2 bits wide. The MSB corresponds to the second adder's carryout and the LSB corresponds to the first adder's carryout. When the mode of operation is set to four 12 bit adders, the carryout port is 4 bits wide with the bits corresponding to the addition of the

48 bit input split into 4 12-bit sections.

Provide pattern detect port: when selected, the pattern detection output port is provided.

When the pattern, either from the mask or the c register, is matched the pattern detection port is set to '1'.

Provide pattern bar detect port: when selected, the pattern bar detection

(patternbdetect) output port is provided. When the inverse of the pattern, either from the mask or the c register, is matched the pattern bar detection port is set to '1'.

Provide overflow port: when selected, the overflow output port is provided. This port indicates when the operation in the DSP48E has overflowed beyond the bit P[N] where N is between 1 and 46. N is determined by the number of 1s in the mask whether set by the GUI mask field or the c port input.

Provide underflow port: when selected, the underflow output port is provided. This port indicates when the operation in the DSP48E has underflowed. Underflow occurs when the number goes below –P[N] where N is determined by the number of 1s in the mask whether set by the GUI mask field or the c port input.

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Cascadable Ports

Provide acout port: when selected, the acout output port is made available. The acout port must be connected to the acin port of another DSP48E block.

Provide bcout port: when selected, the bcout output port is made available. The bcout port must be connected to the bcin port of another DSP48E block.

Provide pcout port: when selected, the pcout output port is made available. The pcout port must be connected to the pcin port of another DSP48 block.

Provide multiplier sign cascade out port: when selected, the multiplier sign cascade out port (multsigncascout) is made available. This port can only be connected to the multiplier sign cascade in port of another DSP48E block and is used to support 96-bit accumulators/adders and subtracters which are built from two DSP48Es.

Provide carry cascade out port: when selected, the carry cascade out port

(carrycascout) is made available. This port can only be connected to the carry cascade in port of another DSP48E block.

Pipelining tab

Parameters specific to the Pipelining tab are:

Length of a/acin pipeline: specifies the length of the pipeline on input register A. A pipeline of length 0 removes the register on the input.

Length of b/bcin pipeline: specifies the length of the pipeline for the b input whether it is read from b or bcin.

Length of acout pipeline: specifies the length of the pipeline between the a/acin input and the acout output port. A pipeline of length 0 removes the register from the acout

pipeline length. Must be less than or equal to the length of the a/acin pipeline.

Length of bcout pipeline: specifies the length of the pipeline between the b/bcin input and the bcout output port. A pipeline of length 0 removes the register from the bcout pipeline length. Must be less than or equal to the length of the b/bcin pipeline.

Pipeline c: indicates whether the input from the c port should be registered.

Pipeline p: indicates whether the outputs p and pcout should be registered.

Pipeline multiplier: indicates whether the internal multiplier should register its output.

Pipeline opmode: indicates whether the opmode port should be registered.

Pipeline alumode: indicates whether the alumode port should be registered.

Pipeline carry in: indicates whether the carry in port should be registered.

Pipeline carry in select: indicates whether the carry in select port should be registered

Pipeline preadder input register d: indicates to add a pipeline register to the d input.

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Pipeline preadder output register ad: indicates to add a pipeline register to the ad output.

Pipeline INMODE register: indicates to add a pipeline register to the INMODE input.

Reset/Enable Ports

Parameters specific to the Reset/Enable tab are:

Provide Reset Ports

Reset port for a/acin: when selected, a port rst_a is made available. This resets the pipeline register for port a when set to '1'.

Reset port for b/bcin: when selected, a port rst_b is made available. This resets the pipeline register for port b when set to '1'.

Reset port for c: when selected, a port rst_c is made available. This resets the pipeline register for port c when set to '1'.

Reset port for multiplier: when selected, a port rst_m is made available. This resets the pipeline register for the internal multiplier when set to '1'.

Reset port for P: when selected, a port rst_p is made available. This resets the output register when set to '1'.

Reset port for carry in: when selected, a port rst_carryin is made available. This resets the pipeline register for carry in when set to '1'.

Reset port for alumode: when selected, a port rst_alumode is made available. This resets the pipeline register for the alumode port when set to '1'.

Reset port for controls (opmode and carry_in_sel): when selected, a port rst_ctrl is made available. This resets the pipeline register for the opmode register (if available) and the carry_in_sel register (if available) when set to '1'.

Reset port for d and ad:

Reset port for INMODE:

Provide Enable Ports

Enable port for first a/acin register: when selected, an enable port ce_a1 for the first a pipeline register is made available.

Enable port for second a/acin register: when selected, an enable port ce_a2 for the second a pipeline register is made available.

Enable port for first b/bcin register: when selected, an enable port ce_b1 for the first b pipeline register is made available.

Enable port for second b/bcin register: when selected, an enable port ce_b2 for the second b pipeline register is made available.

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Enable port for c: when selected, an enable port ce_c for the port C register is made available.

Enable port for multiplier: when selected, an enable port ce_m for the multiplier register is made available.

Enable port for p: when selected, an enable port ce_p for the port P output register is made available.

Enable port for carry in: when selected, an enable port ce_carry_in for the carry in register is made available.

Enable port for alumode: when selected, an enable port ce_alumode for the alumode register is made available.

Enable port for multiplier carry in: when selected, an enable port mult_carry_in for the multiplier register is made available.

Enable port for controls (opmode and carry_in_sel): when selected, the enable port ce_ctrl is made available. The port ce_ctrl controls the opmode and carry in select registers.

Enable port for d: when selected, an enable port is added input register d.

Enable port for ad: when selected, an enable port is add for the preadder output register ad.

Enable port for INMODE: when selected, an enable port is added for the INMODE register.

Inversion Options

When a checkbox is selected on this tab, the specified signal is inverted.

Implementation

Parameters specific to the Implementation tab are:

Use synthesizable model: when selected, the DSP48E is implemented from an RTL description which might not map directly to the DSP48E hardware. This is useful if a design using the DSP48E block is targeted at device families that do not contain

DSP48E hardware primitives.

Other parameters used by this block are explained in the topic

Common Options in Block Parameter Dialog Boxes

.

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Dual Port RAM

This block is listed in the following Xilinx Blockset libraries: Control Logic, Memory,

Floating-Point and Index.

The Xilinx Dual Port RAM block implements a random access memory (RAM).

Dual ports enable simultaneous access to the memory space at different sample rates using multiple data widths.

Block Interface

The block has two independent sets of ports for simultaneous reading and writing. Independent address, data, and write enable ports allow shared access to a single memory space. By default, each port set has one output port and three input ports for address, input data, and write enable.

Optionally, you can also add a port enable and synchronous reset signal to each input port set.

Form Factors

The Dual Port RAM block also supports various Form Factors (FF). Form factor is defined as:

FF = W

B

/ W

A

where W

B

is data width of Port B and W

A

is Data Width of Port A.

The Depth of port B (D

B

) is inferred from the specified form factor as follows:

D

B

= D

A

/ FF.

The data input ports on Port A and B can have different arithmetic type and binary point position for a form factor of 1. For form factors greater than 1, the data input ports on Port

A and Port B should have an unsigned arithmetic type with binary point at 0. The output ports, labeled A and B, have the same types as the corresponding input data ports.

The location in the memory block can be accessed for reading or writing by providing the valid address on each individual address port. A valid address is an unsigned integer from

0 to d-1, where d denotes the RAM depth (number of words in the RAM) for the particular port. An attempt to read past the end of the memory is caught as an error in simulation. The initial RAM contents can be specified through a block parameter. Each write enable port must be a boolean value. When the WE port is 1, the value on the data input is written to the location indicated by the address line.

Write Mode

The output during a write operation depends on the write mode. When the WE is 0, the output port has the value at the location specified by the address line. During a write operation (WE asserted), the data presented on the input data port is stored in memory at

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset the location selected by the port's address input. During a write cycle, you can configure the behavior of each data out port A and B to one of the following choices:

Read after write

Read before write

No read on write

The write modes can be described with the help of the figure below. In the figure, the memory has been set to an initial value of 5 and the address bit is specified as 4. When using No read on write mode, the output is unaffected by the address line and the output is the same as the last output when the WE was 0. For the other two modes, the output is obtained from the location specified by the address line, and hence is the value of the location being written to. This means that the output can be the old value which corresponds to Read after write.

Collision Behavior

The result of simultaneous access to both ports is described below:

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Read-Read Collisions

If both ports read simultaneously from the same memory cell, the read operation is successful.

Write-Write Collisions

If both ports try to write simultaneously to the same memory cell, both outputs are marked as invalid (nan).

Write-Read Collisions

This collision occurs when one port writes and the other reads from the same memory cell.

While the memory contents are not corrupted, the validity of the output data on the read port depends on the Write Mode of the write port.

• If the write port is in Read before write mode, the other port can reliably read the old memory contents.

• If the write port is in Read after write or No read on write, data on the output of the read port is invalid (nan).

You can set the Write Mode of each port using the Advanced tab of the block parameters dialog box.

Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your

Simulink model.

Basic tab

Parameters specific to the Basic tab are:

Depth: specifies the number of words in the memory for Port A, which must be a positive integer. The Port B depth is inferred from the form factor specified by the input data widths.

Initial value vector: specifies the initial memory contents. The size and precision of the elements of the initial value vector are based on the data format specified for Port

A. When the vector is longer than the RAM, the vector's trailing elements are discarded.

When the RAM is longer than the vector, the RAM's trailing words are set to zero. The initial value vector is saturated and rounded according to the precision specified on the data port A of RAM.

Memory Type: option to select between block and distributed RAM. The distributed dual port RAM is always set to use port A in Read Before Write mode and port B in read-only mode.

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Initial value for port A output Register: specifies the initial value for port A output register. The initial value is saturated and rounded according to the precision specified on the data port A of RAM.

Initial value for port B output register: specifies the initial value for port B output register. The initial value is saturated and rounded according to the precision specified on the data port B of RAM.

Provide synchronous reset port for port A output register: when selected, allows access to the reset port available on the port A output register of the Block RAM. The reset port is available only when the latency of the Block RAM is set to 1.

Provide synchronous reset port for port B output register: when selected, allows access to the reset port available on the port B output register of the Block RAM. The reset port is available only when the latency of the Block RAM is set to 1.

Provide enable port for port A: when selected, allows access to the enable port for port A. The enable port is available only when the latency of the block is greater than or equal to 1.

Provide enable port for port B: when selected, allows access to the enable port for port B. The enable port is available only when the latency of the block is greater than or equal to 1.

Advanced tab

Parameters specific to the Advanced tab are:

Port A:

• Read after write

• Read before write

• No read on write

Port B:

• Read after write

• Read before write

• No read on write

Other parameters used by this block are explained in the topic

Common Options in Block Parameter Dialog Boxes

.

LogiCORE™ Documentation

LogiCORE IP Block Memory Generator v8.2

LogiCORE IP Distributed Memory Generator v8.0

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Exponential

This block is listed in the following Xilinx Blockset libraries: Floating-Point, Math, and Index.

This Xilinx Exponential block preforms the exponential operation on the input.

Currently, only the floating-point data type is supported.

Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your

Simulink model.

Basic tab

Parameters specific to the Basic tab are as follows:

AXI Interface

Flow Control:

Blocking: Selects “Blocking” mode. In this mode, the lack of data on one input channel does block the execution of an operation if data is received on another input channel.

NonBlocking: Selects “Non-Blocking” mode. In this mode, the lack of data on one input channel does not block the execution of an operation if data is received on another input channel.

Optimize Goal:

When NonBlocking mode is selected, the following optimization options are activated:

Resources: block is configured for minimum resources.

Performance: block is configured for maximum performance.

Block Memory Usage

BMG Usage:

No Usage: Do not use Block Memory.

Full Usage: make full use of Block Memory.

Latency Specification

Latency: This defines the number of sample periods by which the block's output is delayed.

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Optional Ports tab

Parameters specific to the Optional Ports tab are:

Input Channel Ports

Has TLAST: Adds a tlast port to the input channel.

Has TUSER: Adds a tuser port to the input channel.

Control Options

Provide enable port: Add an enable port to the block interface.

Has Result TREADY: Add a TREADY port to the result channel.

Exception Signals

UNDERFLOW: Add an output port that serves as an underflow flag.

OVERFLOW: Add an output port that serves as an overflow flag.

Other parameters used by this block are explained in the topic

Common Options in Block Parameter Dialog Boxes

LogiCORE™ Documentation

LogiCORE IP Floating-Point Operator v7.0

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Expression

This block is listed in the following Xilinx Blockset libraries: Basic Elements, Control Logic,

Math, and Index.

The Xilinx Expression block performs a bitwise logical expression.

The expression is specified with operators described in the table below. The number of input ports is inferred from the expression. The input port labels are identified from the expression, and the block is subsequently labeled accordingly. For example, the expression: ~((a1 | a2) & (b1 ^ b2)) results in the following block with 4 input ports labeled 'a1', 'a2', 'b1', and 'b2'.

The expression is parsed and an equivalent statement is written in VHDL (or Verilog). Shown below, in decreasing order of precedence, are the operators that can be used in the

Expression block.

Operator

Precedence

NOT

AND

OR

XOR

Symbol

()

~

&

|

^

Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your

Simulink model.

Basic tab

Parameters specific to the Basic tab are as follows:

Expression: Bitwise logical expression.

Align Binary Point: specifies that the block must align binary points automatically. If not selected, all inputs must have the same binary point position.

Other parameters used by this block are explained in the topic

Common Options in Block Parameter Dialog Boxes

.

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Fast Fourier Transform 9.0

This block is listed in the following Xilinx Blockset libraries: AXI4, DSP, Floating-Point and

Index.

The Xilinx Fast Fourier Transform block implements the

Cooley-Tukey FFT algorithm, a computationally efficient method for calculating the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT). In addition, the block provides an AXI4-Stream-compliant interface.

The FFT computes an N-point forward DFT or inverse DFT (IDFT) where, N = 2 m

, m = 3– 16. For fixed-point inputs, the input data is a vector of N complex values represented as dual b complement numbers, that is, b x

bits for each of the real and imaginary components of the data sample, where b x

8 to 34 bit, inclusive. Similarly, the phase factors b w bits wide.

x

-bit two’s

is in the range

can be 8 to 34

For single-precision floating-point inputs, the input data is a vector of N complex values represented as dual 32-bit floating-point numbers with the phase factors represented as 24- or 25-bit fixed-point numbers.

Theory of Operation

The FFT is a computationally efficient algorithm for computing a Discrete Fourier Transform

(DFT) of sample sizes that are a positive integer power of 2. The DFT of a sequence is defined as: where N is the transform length and j is the square root of -1. The inverse DFT (IDFT) is:

AXI Ports that are Unique to this Block

This Sysgen Generator block exposes the AXI CONFIG channel as a group of separate ports based on sub-field names. The sub-field ports are described as follows:

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Configuration Channel Input Signals: config_tdata_scale_sch

A sub-field port that represents the Scaling Schedule field in the Configuration

Channel vector. Refer to the document

LogiCORE IP Fast Fourier Transform v9.0

for an explanation of the bits in this field.

config_tdata_fwd_inv

A sub-field port that represents the Forward Inverse field in the Configuration

Channel vector. Refer to the document

LogiCORE IP Fast Fourier Transform v9.0

for an explanation of the bits in this field.

config_tdata_nfft config_tdata_cp_len

A sub-field port that represents the Transform Size (NFFT) field in the

Configuration Channel vector. Refer to the document

LogiCORE IP Fast

Fourier Transform v9.0

for an explanation of the bits in this field.

A sub-field port that represents the Cyclic Prefix Length (CP_LEN) field in the

Configuration Channel vector. Refer to the document

LogiCORE IP Fast

Fourier Transform v9.0

for an explanation of the bits in this field.

This System Generator block exposes the AXI DATA channel as separate ports based on the real and imaginary sub-field names. The sub-field ports are described as follows:

DATA Channel Input Signals: data_tdata_xn_im data_tdata_xn_re

Represents the imaginary component of the Data Channel. The signal driving xn_im can be a signed data type of width S with binary point at S-1, where S is a value between 8 and 34, inclusive. eg: Fix_8_7, Fix_34_33.

Note:

Both xn_re and xn_im signals must have the same data type.

Refer to the document

LogiCORE IP Fast Fourier Transform v9.0

for an explanation of the bits in this field.

Represents the real component of the Data Channel. The signal driving xn_re can be a signed data type of width S with binary point at S-1, where S is a value between 8 and 34, inclusive. eg: Fix_8_7, Fix_34_33.

Note:

Both xn_re and xn_im signals must have the same data type.

Refer to the document

LogiCORE IP Fast Fourier Transform v9.0

explanation of the bits in this field.

for an

Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your

Simulink model.

Basic tab

Parameters specific to the Basic tab are as follows:

Transform Length

Transform_length: one of N = 2

(3..16)

= 8 - 65536.

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Implementation Options

Target Clock Frequency(MHz): Enter the target clock frequency.

Target Data Throughput(MSPS): Enter the target throughput.

Implementation Options: choose between automatically_select, pipelined,_streaming_io; radix_4_burst_io; radix_2_burst_io; or radix_2_lite_burst_io.

Transform Length Options

Run Time Configurable Transform Length: The transform length can be set through the nfft port if this option is selected. Valid settings and the corresponding transform sizes are provided in the section titled Transform Size in the associated document LogiCORE IP Fast

Fourier Transform v9.0

for an explanation of the bits in this field.

Advanced tab

Parameters specific to the Advanced tab are as follows:

Precision Options

Phase Factor Width: choose a value between 8 and 34, inclusive to be used as bit widths for phase factors.

Scaling Options

Select between Unscaled, Scaled, and Block Floating Point output data types.

Rounding Modes

Truncation to be applied at the output of each rank

Convergent Rounding to be applied at the output of each rank.

Control Signals

ACLKEN: Enables the clock enable (aclken) pin on the core. All registers in the core are enabled by this control signal.

ARESETn: Active-low synchronous clear input that always takes priority over ACLKEN. A minimum ARESETn active pulse of two cycles is required, since the signal is internally registered for performance. A pulse of one cycle resets the core, but the response to the pulse is not in the cycle immediately following.

Output Ordering

Cyclic Prefix Insertion: Cyclic prefix insertion takes a section of the output of the FFT and prefixes it to the beginning of the transform. The resultant output data consists of the cyclic prefix (a copy of the end of the output data) followed by the complete output

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When cyclic prefix insertion is used, the length of the cyclic prefix can be set frame-by-frame without interrupting frame processing. The cyclic prefix length can be any number of samples from zero to one less than the point size. The cyclic prefix length is set by the CP_LEN field in the Configuration channel. For example, when N = 1024, the cyclic prefix length can be from 0 to 1023 samples, and a CP_LEN value of 0010010110 produces a cyclic prefix consisting of the last 150 samples of the output data.

• Output ordering - choose between Bit/Digit Reversed Order or Natural Order output.

Throttle Schemes

Select the trade off between performance and data timing requirements.

Real Time: This mode typically gives a smaller and faster design, but has strict constraints on when data must be provided and consumed

Non Real Time: This mode has no such constraints, but the design might be larger and slower.

Optional Output Fields

XK_INDEX: The XK_INDEX field (if present in the Data Output channel) gives the sample number of the XK_RE/XK_IM data being presented at the same time. In the case of natural order outputs, XK_INDEX increments from 0 to (point size) -1. When bit reversed outputs are used, XK_INDEX covers the same range of numbers, but in a bit (or digit) reversed manner

OVFLO: The Overflow (OVFLO) field in the Data Output and Status channels is only available when the Scaled arithmetic is used. OVFLO is driven High during unloading if any point in the data frame overflowed.

For a multichannel core, there is a separate OVFLO field for each channel. When an overflow occurs in the core, the data is wrapped rather than saturated, resulting in the transformed data becoming unusable for most applications

Block Icon Display

Display shortened port names: On by default. When unchecked, data_tvalid, for example, becomes m_axis_data_tvalid.

Implementation tab

Parameters specific to the Implementation tab are as follows:

Memory Options

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Data: option to choose between Block RAM and Distributed RAM. This option is available only for sample points 8 through 1024. This option is not available for

Pipelined Streaming I/O implementation.

Phase Factors: choose between Block RAM and Distributed RAM. This option is available only for sample points 8 till 1024. This option is not available for Pipelined

Streaming I/O implementation.

Number Of Stages Using Block RAM: store data and phase factor in Block RAM and partially in Distributed RAM. This option is available only for the Pipelined Streaming

I/O implementation.

Reorder Buffer: choose between Block RAM and Distributed RAM up to 1024 points transform size.

Hybrid Memories: click check box to Optimize Block RAM Count Using Hybrid

Memories

Optimize Options

Complex Multipliers: choose one of the following

°

Use CLB logic

°

Use 3-multiplier structure (resource optimization)

°

Use 4-multiplier structure (performance optimization)

Butterfly Arithmetic: choose one of the following:

°

Use CLB logic

°

Use XTremeDSP Slices

Other parameters used by this block are explained in the topic

Common Options in Block Parameter Dialog Boxes

.

Block Timing

To better understand the FFT blocks control behavior and timing, please consult the core data sheet.

How to Migrate from Fast Fourier Transform 7.1 to Fast Fourier Transform 9.0

Design description

This example shows how to migrate from the non-AXI4 FFT block to an AXI4 FFT block using the same or similar block parameters. Some of the parameters between non-AXI4 and AXI4 versions might not be identical exactly due to some changes in certain features and block interfaces. The following model is used to illustrate the design migration between these blocks. For more detail, refer to the datasheet of this IP core.

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The Input Source Subsystem generates tdata_imag, tdata_real, and dout_valid signals for the Inverse FFT block. The outputs of these signals are then been reconstructed to the original shapes by the Forward FFT.

Notice that there are some differences in latency between the AXI4 and non-AXI4 versions and this is probably due to some internal differences in implementation. However, both the amplitude and frequency are correct.

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Data path and control signals:

Data paths and control signals between the AXI and non-AXI versions are very similar and there are no significant differences, some of which is described as follows: config_tdata_fwd_inv

: this signal replaces the fwd_inv signal, which is used to configure the FFT as Inverse or Forward config_tvalid

: is used to signal that it is able to transfer the configuration data data_tlast

and data_tready: these two input control signals are not used and pulled to proper logic.

data_tvalid

: is used to gate both the input and output signals between Master and Slave blocks

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LogiCORE IP Floating-Point Operator v7.0

Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

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FDATool

This block is listed in the following Xilinx Blockset libraries: DSP, Tools, and Index

The Xilinx FDATool block provides an interface to the FDATool software available as part of the MATLAB Signal Processing Toolbox.

The block does not function properly and should not be used if the Signal

Processing Toolbox is not installed. This block provides a means of defining an

FDATool object and storing it as part of a System Generator model. FDATool provides a powerful means for defining digital filters with a graphical user interface.

Example of Use

Copy an FDATool block into a Subsystem where you would like to define a filter.

Double-clicking the block icon opens up an FDATool session and graphical user interface.

The filter is stored in an data structure internal to the FDATool interface block, and the coefficients can be extracted using MATLAB helper functions provided as part of System

Generator. The function call xlfda_numerator('FDATool') returns the numerator of the transfer function (e.g., the impulse response of a finite impulse response filter) of the

FDATool block named 'FDATool'. Similarly, the helper function xlfda_denominator('FDATool')

retrieves the denominator for a non-FIR filter.

A typical use of the FDATool block is as a companion to an FIR filter block, where the

Coefficients field of the filter block is set to xlfda_numerator('FDATool'). An example is shown in the following diagram:

Note that xlfda_numerator() can equally well be used to initialize a memory block or a 'coefficient' variable for a masked Subsystem containing an FIR filter.

This block does not use any hardware resources

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FDA Tool Interface

Double-clicking the icon in your Simulink model opens up an FDATool session and its graphical user interface. Upon closing the FDATool session, the underlying FDATool object is stored in the UserData parameter of the Xilinx FDATool block. Use the xlfda_numerator()

helper function and get_param() to extract information from the object as desired.

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FIFO

This block is listed in the following Xilinx Blockset libraries: Control Logic, Floating-Point,

Memory, and Index.

The Xilinx FIFO block implements an FIFO memory queue.

Values presented at the module's data-input port are written to the next available empty memory location when the write-enable input is one. By asserting the read-enable input port, data can be read out of the FIFO using the data output port ( dout

) in the order in which they were written. The FIFO can be implemented using block RAM, distributed RAM, SRL or built-in FIFO.

The full

output port is asserted to one when no unused locations remain in the module's internal memory. The percent_full

output port indicates the percentage of the FIFO that is full, represented with user-specified precision. When the empty

output port is asserted the FIFO is empty.

Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your

Simulink model.

Basic tab

Parameters specific to the Basic tab are:

FIFO Implementation:

Memory Type: This block implements FIFOs built from block RAM, distributed RAM, shift registers, or the 7 series built-in FIFOs. Memory primitives are arranged in an optimal configuration based on the selected width and depth of the FIFO. The following table provides best-use recommendations for specific design requirements.

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Performance Options:

Standard FIFO: FIFO will operate in Standard Mode.

First Word Fall Through: FIFO will operate in First-Word Fall-Through (FWFT) mode.

The First-Word Fall-Through feature provides the ability to look-ahead to the next word available from the FIFO without issuing a read operation. When data is available in the

FIFO, the first word falls through the FIFO and appears automatically on the output.

FWFT is useful in applications that require low-latency access to data and to applications that require throttling based on the contents of the data that are read.

FWFT support is included in FIFOs created with block RAM, distributed RAM, or built-in

FIFOs in 7 series devices.

Implementation Options:

• Use Embedded Registers (when possible):

In 7 series FPGA block RAM and FIFO macros, embedded output registers are available to increase performance and add a pipeline register to the macros. This feature can be leveraged to add one additional cycle of latency to the FIFO core (DOUT bus and VALID outputs) or implement the output registers for FWFT FIFOs. The embedded registers available in 7 series FPGAs can be reset (DOUT) to a default or user programmed value for common clock built-in FIFOs. See the topic Embedded Registers in block RAM and

FIFO Macros in the LogiCORE IP FIFO Generator 12.0

.

Depth: specifies the number of words that can be stored. Range 16-64K.

Bits of precision to use for %full signal: specifies the bit width of the %full port. The binary point for this unsigned output is always at the top of the word. Thus, if for example precision is set to one, the output can take two values: 0.0 and 0.5, the latter indicating the

FIFO is at least 50% full.

Optional Ports:

Provide reset port: Add a reset port to the block.

°

Reset Latency: Creates a latency on the reset by adding registers. The default is 1.

Note:

For Ultrascale devices, after the reset gets asserted, the FIFO will remain disable for the next 20 cycles. During this 20 cycle period, all read and write operations are ignored.

Provide enable port: Add enable port to the block.

Provide data count port: Add data count port to the block. Provides the number of words in the FIFO.

Provide percent full port: Add a percent full output port to the block. Indicates the percentage of the FIFO that is full using the user-specified precision. This optional port is turned on by default for backward compatibility reasons.

Provide almost empty port: Add almost empty (ae) port to the block.

Provide almost full port: Add almost efull (af) port to the block.

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Other parameters used by this block are explained in the topic

Common Options in Block Parameter Dialog Boxes

.

LogiCORE™ Documentation

LogiCORE IP FIFO Generator 12.0

LogiCORE IP Floating-Point Operator v7.0

Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

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FIR Compiler 7.2

This block is listed in the following Xilinx Blockset libraries: AXI4, DSP and Index

This Xilinx FIR Compiler block provides users with a way to generate highly parameterizable, area-efficient, high-performance FIR filters with an AXI4-Stream-compliant interface.

AXI Ports that are Unique to this Block

This block exposes the AXI CONFIG channel as a group of separate ports based on sub-field names. The sub-field ports are described as follows:

Configuration Channel Input Signals: config_tdata_fsel

A sub-field port that represents the fsel field in the Configuration Channel vector. fsel is used to select the active filter set. This port is exposed when the number of coefficient sets is greater than one. Refer to the

FIR Compiler V7.2

Product Guide

starting on page 5 for an explanation of the bits in this field.

Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your

Simulink model.

Filter Specification tab

Parameters specific to the Filter Specification tab are as follows:

Filter Coefficients

Coefficient Vector: Specifies the coefficient vector as a single MATLAB row vector. The number of taps is inferred from the length of the MATLAB row vector. If multiple coefficient sets are specified, then each set is appended to the previous set in the vector. It is possible to enter these coefficients using the

FDATool

block as well.

Number of Coefficients Sets: The number of sets of filter coefficients to be implemented. The value specified must divide without remainder into the number of coefficients.

Use Reloadable Coefficients: Check to add the coefficient reload ports to the block.

The set of data loaded into the reload channel will not take action until triggered by a re-configuration synchronization event. Refer to the FIR Compiler V7.2 Product Guide

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset for a more detailed explanation of the RELOAD Channel interface timing. This block supports the xlGetReloadOrder function. See the System Generator Utility function xlGetReloadOrder for details.

Filter Specification

Filter Type:

°

Single_Rate: The data rate of the input and the output are the same.

°

Interpolation: The data rate of the output is faster than the input by a factor specified by the Interpolation Rate value.

°

Decimation: The data rate of the output is slower than the input by a factor specified in the Decimation Rate Value.

°

°

Hilbert: Filter uses the Hilbert Transform.

Interpolated: An interpolated FIR filter has a similar architecture to a conventional

FIR filter, but with the unit delay operator replaced by k-1 units of delay. k is referred to as the zero-packing factor. The interpolated FIR should not be confused with an interpolation filter. Interpolated filters are single-rate systems employed to produce efficient realizations of narrow-band filters and, with some minor enhancements, wide-band filters can be accommodated. The data rate of the input and the output are the same.

Rate Change Type: This field is applicable to Interpolation and Decimation filter types.

Used to specify an Integer or Fixed_Fractional rate change.

Interpolation Rate Value: This field is applicable to all Interpolation filter types and

Decimation filter types for Fractional Rate Change implementations. The value provided in this field defines the up-sampling factor, or P for Fixed Fractional Rate

(P/Q) resampling filter implementations.

Decimation Rate Value: This field is applicable to the all Decimation and Interpolation filter types for Fractional Rate Change implementations. The value provided in this field defines the down-sampling factor, or Q for Fixed Fractional Rate (P/Q) resampling filter implementations.

Zero pack factor: Allows you to specify the number of 0’s inserted between the coefficient specified by the coefficient vector. A zero packing factor of k inserts k-1 0s between the supplied coefficient values. This parameter is only active when the Filter type is set to Interpolated.

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Channel Specification tab

Parameters specific to the Channel Specification tab are as follows:

Interleaved Channel Specification

Channel Sequence: Select Basic or Advanced. See the LogiCORE IP FIR Compiler v7.2

Product Guide for an explanation of the advanced channel specification feature.

Number of Channels: The number of data channels to be processed by the FIR

Compiler block. The multiple channel data is passed to the core in a time-multiplexed manner. A maximum of 64 channels is supported.

Sequence ID List: A comma delimited list that specifies which channel sequences are implemented.

Parallel Channel Specification

Number of Paths: Specifies the number of parallel data paths the filter is to process.

As shown below, when more than one path is specified, the data_tdata input port is divided into sub-ports that represent each parallel path:

Hardware Oversampling Specification

Select format:

°

Maximum_Possible: Specifies that oversampling be automatically determined based on the din sample rate.

°

°

Input_Sample_Period/Output_Sample_Period: Activates the Sample period dialog box below. Enter the Sample Period specification. Selecting this option exposes the s_axis_data_tvalid port (called ND port on earlier versions of the core). With this port exposed, no input handshake abstraction and no rate-propagation takes place.

Hardware Oversampling Rate: Activates the Hardware Oversampling Rate dialog box. Enter the Hardware Oversampling Rate specification below.

Hardware Oversampling Rate: The hardware oversampling rate determines the degree of parallelism. A rate of one produces a fully parallel filter. A rate of n (resp., n+1) for an n-bit input signal produces a fully serial implementation for a non-symmetric (resp., symmetric) impulse response. Intermediate values produce implementations with intermediate levels of parallelism.

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Implementation tab

Parameters specific to the Implementation tab are as follows:

Coefficient Options

Coefficient Type: Specify Signed or Unsigned.

Quantization: Specifies the quantization method to be used for quantizing the coefficients. This can be set to one of the following:

°

Integer_Coefficients

°

Quantize_Only

°

Maximize_Dynamic_Range

°

Normalize_to_Centre_Coefficient

Coefficient Width: Specifies the number of bits used to represent the coefficients.

Best Precision Fractional Bits: When selected, the coefficient fractional width is automatically set to maximize the precision of the specified filter coefficients.

Coefficient Fractional Bits: Specifies the binary point location in the coefficients datapath options

Coefficients Structure: Specifies the coefficient structure. Depending on the coefficient structure, optimizations are made in the core to reduce the amount of hardware required to implement a particular filter configuration. The selected structure can be any of the following:

°

°

°

°

°

°

Inferred

Non-Symmetric

Symmetric

Negative_Symmetric

Half_Band

Hilbert

The vector of coefficients specified must match the structure specified unless Inferred from coefficients is selected in which case the structure is determined automatically from these coefficients.

Datapath Options

Output Rounding Mode: Choose one of the following:

°

Full_Precision

°

Truncate_LSBs

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°

Non_Symmetric_Rounding_Down

°

Non_Symmetric_Rounding_Up

°

Symmetric_Rounding_to_Zero

°

Symmetric_Rounding_to_Infinity

°

Convergent_Rounding_to_Even

°

Convergent_Rounding_to_Odd

Output Width: Specify the output width. Edit box activated only if the Rounding mode is set to a value other than Full_Precision.

Detailed Implementation tab

Parameters specific to the Detailed Implementation tab are as follows:

• Filter Architecture

The following two filter architectures are supported.

°

Systolic_Multiply_Accumulate

°

Transpose_Multiply_Accumulate

Optimization Options: Specifies if the core is required to operate at maximum possible speed (“Speed” option) or minimum area (“Area” option). The “Area” option is the recommended default and will normally achieve the best speed and area for the design, however in certain configurations, the “Speed” setting might be required to improve performance at the expense of overall resource usage (this setting normally adds pipeline registers in critical paths)

Goal:

°

°

- Area

- Speed

- Custom

List: A comma delimited list that specifies which optimizations are implemented by the block. The optimizations are:

Data_Path_Fanout: Adds additional pipeline registers on the data memory outputs to minimize fan-out. Useful when implementing large data width filters requiring multiple DSP slices per multiply-add unit.

Pre-Adder_Pipeline: Pipelines the pre-adder when implemented using fabric resources. This may occur when a large coefficient width is specified.

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°

°

°

°

°

°

Coefficient_Fanout: Adds additional pipeline registers on the coefficient memory outputs to minimize fan-out. Useful for Parallel channels or large coefficient width filters requiring multiple DSP slices per multiply-add unit.

Control_Path_Fanout: Adds additional pipeline registers to control logic when

Parallel channels have been specified.

Control_Column_Fanout: Adds additional pipeline registers to control logic when multiple DSP columns are required to implement the filter.

Control_Broadcast_Fanout: Adds additional pipeline registers to control logic for fully parallel (one clock cycle per channel per input sample) symmetric filter implementations.

Control_LUT_Pipeline: Pipelines the Look-up tables required to implement the control logic for Advanced Channel sequences.

No_BRAM_Read_First_Mode: Specifies that Block RAM READ-FIRST mode should not be used.

°

Increased speed: Multiple DSP slice columns are required for non-symmetric filter implementations.

°

Other: Miscellaneous optimizations.

Note:

All optimizations maybe specified but are only implemented when relevant to the core configuration.

Memory Options

The memory type for MAC implementations can either be user-selected or chosen automatically to suit the best implementation options. Note that a choice of “Distributed” might result in a shift register implementation where appropriate to the filter structure.

Forcing the RAM selection to be either Block or Distributed should be used with caution, as inappropriate use can lead to inefficient resource usage - the default Automatic mode is recommended for most applications.

Data Buffer Type: Specifies the type of memory used to store data samples.

Coefficient Buffer Type: Specifies the type of memory used to store the coefficients.

Input Buffer Type: Specifies the type of memory to be used to implement the data input buffer, where present.

Output Buffer type: Specifies the type of memory to be used to implement the data output buffer, where present.

Preference for other storage: Specifies the type of memory to be used to implement general storage in the datapath.

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DSP Slice Column Options

Multi-Column Support: For device families with DSP slices, implementations of large high speed filters might require chaining of DSP slice elements across multiple columns. Where applicable (the feature is only enabled for multi-column devices), you can select the method of folding the filter structure across the multiple-columns, which can be Automatic (based on the selected device for the project) or Custom (you select the length of the first and subsequent columns).

Column Configuration: Specifies the individual column lengths in a comma delimited list. (See the data sheet for a more detailed explanation.)

Inter-Column Pipe Length: Pipeline stages are required to connect between the columns, with the level of pipelining required being depending on the required system clock rate, the chosen device and other system-level parameters. The choice of this parameter is always left for you to specify.

Interface tab

Data Channel Options

TLAST: TLAST can either be Not_Required, in which case the block will not have the port, or Vector_Framing, where TLAST is expected to denote the last sample of an interleaved cycle of data channels, or Packet_Framing, where the block does not interpret TLAST, but passes the signal to the output DATA channel TLAST with the same latency as the datapath.

Output TREADY: This field enables the data_tready port. With this port enabled, the block will support back-pressure. Without the port, back-pressure is not supported, but resources are saved and performance is likely to be higher.

Input FIFO: Selects a FIFO interface for the S_AXIS_DATA channel. When the FIFO has been selected, data can be transferred in a continuous burst up to the size of the FIFO

(default 16) or, if greater, the number of interleaved data channels. The FIFO requires additional FPGA logic resources.

TUSER: Select one of the following options for the Input and the Output.

°

Not_Required: Neither of the uses is required; the channel in question will not have a TUSER field.

°

°

°

User_Field: In this mode, the block ignores the content of the TUSER field, but passes the content untouched from the input channel to the output channels.

Chan_ID_Field: In this mode, the TUSER field identifies the time-division-multiplexed channel for the transfer.

User and Chan_ID_Field: In this mode, the TUSER field will have both a user field and a chan_id field, with the chan_id field in the least significant bits. The minimal number of bits required to describe the channel will determine the width of the chan_id field, e.g. 7 channels will require 3 bits.

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Configuration Channel Options

Synchronization Mode:

°

°

On_Vector: Configuration packets, when available, are consumed and their contents applied when the first sample of an interleaved data channel sequence is processed by the block. When the block is configured to process a single data channel configuration packets are consumed every processing cycle of the block.

On_Packet: Further qualifies the consumption of configuration packets. Packets will only be consumed once the block has received a transaction on the s_axis_data channel where s_axis_data_tlast has been asserted.

Configuration Method:

°

Single: A single coefficient set is used to process all interleaved data channels.

By_Channel: A unique coefficient set is specified for each interleaved data channel.

°

Reload Channel Options

°

Reload Slots: Specifies the number of coefficient sets that can be loaded in advance. Reloaded coefficients are only applied to the block once the configuration packet has been consumed. (Range 1 to 256).

Control Options

ACLKEN: Active-high clock enable. Available for MAC-based FIR implementations.

ARESETn (active low): Active-low synchronous clear input that always takes priority over ACLKEN. A minimum ARESETn active pulse of two cycles is required, since the signal is internally registered for performance. A pulse of one cycle resets the control and datapath of the core, but the response to the pulse is not in the cycle immediately following.

Advanced tab

Block Icon Display

Display shortened port names: On by default. When unchecked, data_tvalid, for example, becomes m_axis_data_tvalid.

Other parameters used by this block are explained in the topic

Common Options in Block Parameter Dialog Boxes

.

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How to Migrate from a non-AXI4 FIR Compiler to an AXI4 FIR Compiler

Design description

This example shows how to migrate from the non-AXI4 FIR Compiler block to AXI4 FIR

Compiler block using the same or similar block parameters. Some of the parameters between non-AXI4 and AXI4 versions might not be identical exactly due to some changes in certain features and block interfaces. The following model is used to illustrate the design migration between these block. For more detail, refer to the datasheet of this IP core.

Both FIR Compiler blocks are configured as a reloadable coefficient FIR filter. The first set of the coefficients was specified and loaded by the core and the second set was loaded from an external source.

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The figure below shows output simulation from the non-AXI, reloadable FIR Compiler block.

Data Path and Control Signals:

As shown in the figure below, the sequence of events to reload new filter coefficients are quite different between the non-AXI and AXI4 versions as are briefly described next. Care must be taken to ensure that the following loading sequences are taken place.

1. data_tdata: AXI FIR output data based on the initial set of coefficients specified by the core ([1,2,3,2,1])

2. reload_tdata and reload_tvalid: Next is to load a new set of coefficients ([7 8 9 8 7]) into the reload_tdata input port. The reload_tvalid control signal must be high during this reload period. In this case, it must be high for 5 clock cycles.

3. reload_tlast: this signal must be high on the last coefficient data to indicate that the last data has been loaded

4. config_tvalid: finally, the reload data is now available for transfer. This control signal does not have to strobe high immediately after the reload_tlast assertion

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The figure below shows output simulation from the AXI4, reloadable FIR Compiler block.

LogiCORE™ Documentation

LogiCORE IP FIR Compiler v7.2

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Gateway In

This block is listed in the following Xilinx Blockset libraries: Basic Elements, Data Types,

Floating-Point and Index.

The Xilinx Gateway In blocks are the inputs into the Xilinx portion of your Simulink design. These blocks convert Simulink integer, double and fixed-point data types into the System Generator fixed-point type. Each block defines a top-level input port or interface in the HDL design generated by System Generator.

Conversion of Simulink Data to System Generator Data

A number of different Simulink data types are supported on the input of Gateway In. The data types supported include int8, uint8, int16, uint16, in32, uint32, single, double and

Simulink fixed point data type(if Simulink fixed point data type license is available). In all causes the input data is converted to a double internal to gateway and then converted to target data type as specified on the Gateway In block (Fixed Point, Floating Point or

Boolean). When converting to Fixed point from the internal double representation, the

Quantization and Overflow is further handled as specified in the Block GUI. . For overflow, the options are to saturate to the largest positive/smallest negative value, to wrap (for example, to discard bits to the left of the most significant representable bit), or to flag an overflow as a Simulink error during simulation. For quantization, the options are to round to the nearest representable value (or to the value furthest from zero if there are two equidistant nearest representable values), or to truncate (for example, to discard bits to the right of the least significant representable bit).It is important to realize that conversion, overflow and quantization do not take place in hardware –they take place only in the simulation model of the block.

Gateway Blocks

As listed below, the Xilinx Gateway In block is used to provide a number of functions:

• Converting data from Simulink integer, double and fixed-point and type to the System

Generator fixed-point type during simulation in Simulink.

• Defining top-level input ports or interface in the HDL design generated by System

Generator.

• Defining testbench stimuli when the Create Testbench box is checked in the System

Generator token. In this case, during HDL code generation, the inputs to the block that occur during Simulink simulation are logged as a logic vector in a data file. During HDL simulation, an entity that is inserted in the top level testbench checks this vector and the corresponding vectors produced by Gateway Out blocks against expected results.

• Naming the corresponding port in the top level HDL entity.

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Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your

Simulink model.

Basic Tab

Parameters specific to the Basic Tab are as follows:

Output Type

Specifies the output data type. Can be Boolean, Fixed-point, or Floating-point.

Arithmetic Type: If the Output Type is specified as Fixed-point, you can select Signed

(2’s comp) or Unsigned as the Arithmetic Type.

Fixed-point Precision

°

°

Number of bits: specifies the bit location of the binary point, where bit zero is the least significant bit.

Binary point: specifies the bit location of the binary point, where bit zero is the least significant bit.

Floating-point Precision

- Single: Specifies single precision (32 bits)

- Double: Specifies double precision (64 bits)

- Custom: Activates the field below so you can specify the Exponent width and the Fraction width.

Exponent width: Specify the exponent width

Fraction width: Specify the fraction width

Quantization

Quantization errors occur when the number of fractional bits is insufficient to represent the fractional portion of a value. The options are to Truncate (for example, to discard bits to the right of the least significant representable bit), or to Round(unbiased: +/- inf) or Round

(unbiased: even values).

Round(unbiased: +/- inf) also known as "Symmetric Round (towards +/- inf)" or

"Symmetric Round (away from zero)". This is similar to the Matlab round() function. This method rounds the value to the nearest desired bit away from zero and when there is a value at the midpoint between two possible rounded values, the one with the larger magnitude is selected. For example, to round 01.0110 to a Fix_4_2, this yields 01.10, since

01.0110 is exactly between 01.01 and 01.10 and the latter is further from zero.

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Overflow

Overflow errors occur when a value lies outside the representable range. For overflow the options are to Saturate to the largest positive/smallest negative value, to Wrap (for example, to discard bits to the left of the most significant representable bit), or to Flag as

error (an overflow as a Simulink error) during simulation. Flag as error is a simulation only feature. The hardware generated is the same as when Wrap is selected.

Implementation Tab

Parameters specific to the Implementation Tab are as follows:

Interface Options

Interface:

°

°

°

None: Implies that during HDL Netlist generation, this Gateway In will be translated as an Input Port at the top level.

AXI4-Stream: Implies that during HDL Netlist generation, this Gateway In will be translated as an AXI Stream Interface at the top level.

AXI4-Lite: Implies that during HDL Netlist generation, an AXI4-Lite interface will be created and this Gateway In will be mapped to one of the registers within the

AXI4-Lite interface.

Auto assign address: If the Gateway In is configured to be an AXI4-Lite interface, this option allows an address offset to be automatically assigned to the register within the

AXI4-Lite interface that the Gateway In is mapped to

Address offset: If Auto assign address offset is not checked, then this entry box allows you to explicitly specify an address offset to use. Must be a multiple of 4.

Interface Name: If the Gateway In is configured to be an AX4-Lite interface, assigns a unique name to this interface. This name can be used to differentiate between multiple

AXI4-Lite interfaces in the design. When using the IP Catalog flow, you can expect to see an interface in the IP that System Generator creates with the name

<design_name>_<interface_name>_ s_axi.

IMPORTANT:

The Interface Name must be composed of alphanumeric characters (lowercase alphabetic) or an underscore (_) only, and must begin with a lowercase alphabetic character. axi4_lite1 is acceptable, 1Axi4-Lite is not.

Description: Additional designer comments about this Gateway In that is captured in the interface documentation.

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Constraints

IOB Timing Constraint: In hardware, a Gateway In is realized as a set of input/output buffers (IOBs). There are three ways to constrain the timing on IOBs. They are None,

Data Rate, and Data Rate, Set 'FAST' Attribute.

If None is selected, no timing constraints for the IOBs are put in the user constraint file produced by System Generator. This means the paths from the IOBs to synchronous elements are not constrained.

If Data Rate is selected, the IOBs are constrained at the data rate at which the IOBs operate. The rate is determined by System Clock Period provided on the System

Generator token and the sample rate of the Gateway relative to the other sample periods in the design.

If Data Rate, Set 'FAST' Attribute is selected, the constraints described above are produced. In addition, a FAST slew rate attribute is generated for each IOB. This reduces delay but increases noise and power consumption.

Specify IOB Location Constraints: Checking this option allows IOB location constraints to be specified.

IOB Pad Locations, e.g. {'MSB', ..., 'LSB'}: IOB pin locations can be specified as a cell array of strings in this edit box. The locations are package-specific.

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Gateway Out

This block is listed in the following Xilinx Blockset libraries: Basic Elements, Data Types,

Floating-Point and Index.

Xilinx Gateway Out blocks are the outputs from the Xilinx portion of your Simulink design. This block converts the System Generator fixed-point or floating-point data type into a Simulink integer, single, double or fixed-point data type.

According to its configuration, the Gateway Out block can either define an output port for the top level of the HDL design generated by System Generator, or be used simply as a test point that is trimmed from the hardware representation

Gateway Blocks

As listed below, the Xilinx Gateway Out block is used to provide the following functions:

• Convert data from a System Generator fixed-point or floating-point data type into a

Simulink integer, single, double or fixed-point data type.

• Define I/O ports for the top level of the HDL design generated by System Generator. A

Gateway Out block defines a top-level output port.

• Define testbench result vectors when the System Generator Create Testbench box is checked. In this case, during HDL code generation, the outputs from the block that occur during Simulink simulation are logged as logic vectors in a data file. For each top level port, an HDL component is inserted in the top-level testbench that checks this vector against expected results during HDL simulation.

• Name the corresponding output port on the top-level HDL entity.

Block Parameters

Basic Tab

Parameters specific to the Basic Tab are as follows:

Propagate data type to output: This option is useful when you instantiate a System

Generator design as a sub-system into a Simulink design. Instead of using a Simulink double as the output data type by default, the System Generator data type is propagated to an appropriate Simulink data type according to the following table:

System Generator Data Type

XFloat_8_24

XFloat_11_53 single double

Simulink Data Type

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System Generator Data Type

Custom floating-point precision data type exponent width and fraction width less than those for single precision

Custom floating-point precision data type with exponent width or fraction width greater than that for single precision

XFix_<width>_<binpt>

UFix_<width>_<binpt>

XFix_<width>_0 where width is 8, 16 or 32

UFix_<width>_0 where width is 8, 16 or 32 single double

Simulink Data Type

sfix<width>_EN<binpt> ufix<width>_EN<binpt> int<width> where width is 8, 16 or

32 uint<width> where width is 8, 16 or 32 sfix<width> XFix_<width>_0 where width is other than 8, 16 or

32

UFix_<width>_0 where width is other than 8, 16 or

32 ufix<width>

Translate into Output Port: Having this box unchecked prevents the gateway from becoming an actual output port when translated into hardware. This checkbox is on by default, enabling the output port. When this option is not selected, the Gateway Out block is used only during debugging, where its purpose is to communicate with

Simulink Sink blocks for probing portions of the design. In this case, the Gateway Out block will turn gray in color, indicating that the gateway will not be translated into an output port.

Implementation Tab

Parameters specific to the Implementation Tab are as follows:

Interface Options

°

°

°

None: Implies that during HDL Netlist generation, this Gateway Out will be translated as an Output Port at the top level.

AXI4-Stream: Implies that during HDL Netlist generation, this Gateway Out will be translated as an AXI Stream Interface at the top level.

AXI4-Lite: Implies that during HDL Netlist Generation, an AXI4-Lite interface will be created and the Gateway Out will be mapped to one of the registers within the

AXI4-Lite interface.

Auto assign address offset: If a Gateway Out is configured to be an AXI-Lite interface, this option allows an address offset to be automatically assigned to the register within the AXI4-Lite interface that the Gateway Out is mapped to

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Address offset: If Auto assign address offset is not checked, then this entry box allows you to explicitly specify a address offset to use. Must be a multiple of 4.

Interface Name: If the Gateway Out is configured to be an AX4-Lite interface, assigns a unique name to this interface. This name can be used to differentiate between multiple

AXI4-Lite interfaces in the design. When using the IP Catalog flow, you can expect to see an interface in the IP that System Generator creates with the name

<design_name>_<interface_name>_ s_axi.

IMPORTANT:

The Interface Name must be composed of alphanumeric characters (lowercase alphabetic) or an underscore (_) only, and must begin with a lowercase alphabetic character. axi4_lite1 is acceptable, 1Axi4-Lite is not.

Description: Additional designer comments about this Gateway Out that is captured in the interface documentation

Constraints

IOB Timing Constraint: In hardware, a Gateway Out is realized as a set of input/output buffers (IOBs). There are three ways to constrain the timing on IOBs. They are None,

Data Rate, and Data Rate, Set 'FAST' Attribute.

If None is selected, no timing constraints for the IOBs are put in the user constraint file produced by System Generator. This means the paths from the IOBs to synchronous elements are not constrained.

If Data Rate is selected, the IOBs are constrained at the data rate at which the IOBs operate. The rate is determined by System Clock Period provided on the System

Generator token and the sample rate of the Gateway relative to the other sample periods in the design. For example, the following OFFSET = OUT constraints are generated for a

Gateway Out named 'Dout' that is running at the system period of 10 ns:

# Offset out constraints

NET "Dout(0)" OFFSET = OUT : 10.0 : AFTER "clk";

NET "Dout(1)" OFFSET = OUT : 10.0 : AFTER "clk";

NET "Dout(2)" OFFSET = OUT : 10.0 : AFTER "clk";

If Data Rate, Set 'FAST' Attribute is selected, the OFFSET = OUT constraints described above are produced. In addition, a FAST slew rate attribute is generated for each IOB.

This reduces delay but increases noise and power consumption. For the previous example, the following additional attributes are added to the constraints file

NET "Dout(0)" FAST;

NET "Dout(1)" FAST;

NET "Dout(2)" FAST;

Specify IOB Location Constraints: Checking this option allows IOB location constraints to be specified.

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IOB Pad Locations, e.g. {'MSB', ..., 'LSB'}: IOB pin locations can be specified as a cell array of strings in this edit box. The locations are package-specific.

Other parameters used by this block are explained in the topic

Common Options in Block Parameter Dialog Boxes

.

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Indeterminate Probe

This block is listed in the following Xilinx Blockset libraries: Tools and Index.

The output of the Xilinx Indeterminate Probe indicates whether the input data is indeterminate (MATLAB value NaN). An indeterminate data value corresponds to a

VHDL indeterminate logic data value of 'X'.

The probe accepts any Xilinx signal as input and produces a double signal as output.

Indeterminate data on the probe input will result in an assertion of the output signal indicated by a value one. Otherwise, the probe output is zero.

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Interleaver/De-interleaver 8.0

This block is listed in the following Xilinx Blockset libraries: AXI, Communication and Index.

The Xilinx Interleaver Deinterleaver block implements an interleaver or a deinterleaver using an AXI4-compliant block interface. An interleaver is a device that rearranges the order of a sequence of input symbols. The term symbol is used to describe a collection of bits. In some applications, a symbol is a single bit. In others, a symbol is a bus.

The classic use of interleaving is to randomize the location of errors introduced in signal transmission. Interleaving spreads a burst of errors out so that error correction circuits have a better chance of correcting the data.

If a particular interleaver is used at the transmit end of a channel, the inverse of that interleaver must be used at the receive end to recover the original data. The inverse interleaver is referred to as a de-interleaver.

Two types of interleaver/de-interleavers can be generated with this LogiCORE: Forney

Convolutional and Rectangular Block. Although they both perform the general interleaving function of rearranging symbols, the way in which the symbols are rearranged and their methods of operation are entirely different. For very large interleavers, it might be preferable to store the data symbols in external memory. The core provides an option to store data symbols in internal FPGA RAM or in external RAM.

Forney Convolutional Operation

In the figure below, shows the operation of a Forney Convolutional Interleaver. The core operates as a series of delay line shift registers. Input symbols are presented to the input commutator arm on DIN. Output symbols are extracted from the output commutator arm on DOUT. DIN and DOUT are fields in the AXI Data Input and Data Output channels, respectively. Output symbols are extracted from the output commutator arm on DOUT. Both commutator arms start at branch 0 and advance to the next branch after the next rising

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset clock edge. After the last branch (B-1) has been reached, the commutator arms both rotate back to branch 0 and the process is repeated.

In the figure above, the branches increase in length by a uniform amount, L. The core allows interleavers to be specified in this way, or the branch lengths can be passed in using a file, allowing each branch to be any length.

Although branch 0 appears to be a zero-delay connection, there will still be a delay of a number of clock cycles between DIN and DOUT because of the fundamental latency of the core. For clarity, this is not illustrated in the figure.

The only difference between an interleaver and a de-interleaver is that branch 0 is the longest in the deinterleaver and the branch length is decremented by L rather than incremented. Branch (B-1) has length 0. This is illustrated in the figure below:

If a file is used to specify the branch lengths, as shown below, it is arbitrary whether the resulting core is called an interleaver or de-interleaver. All that matters is that one must be the inverse of the other. If a file is used, each branch length is individually controllable. This

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset is illustrated in the figure below. For the file syntax, please consult the LogiCORE product specification.

The reset pin (aresetn) sets the commutator arms to branch 0, but does not clear the branches of data.

Configuration Swapping

It is possible for the core to store a number of pre-defined configurations. Each configuration can have a different number of branches and branch length constant. It is even possible for each configuration to have every individual branch length defined by file.

The configuration can be changed at any time by sending a new CONFIG_SEL value on the

AXI Control Channel. This value takes effect when the next block starts. The core assumes all configurations are either for an interleaver or de-interleaver, depending on what was selected in the GUI. It is possible to switch between interleaving and de-interleaving by defining the individual branch lengths for every branch of each configuration. The details for each configuration are specified in a COE file.

For details, please consult the Configuration Swapping section of the LogiCORE IP

Interleaver/De-interleaver v7.1 Product Guide .

Rectangular Block Operation

The Rectangular Block Interleaver works by writing the input data symbols into a rectangular memory array in a certain order and then reading them out in a different, mixed-up order. The input symbols must be grouped into blocks. Unlike the Convolutional

Interleaver, where symbols can be continuously input, the Rectangular Block Interleaver inputs one block of symbols and then outputs that same block with the symbols rearranged.

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No new inputs can be accepted while the interleaved symbols from the previous block are being output.

The rectangular memory array is composed of a number of rows and columns as shown in the following figure.

Row\Colum n

0

1

.

.

(R-2)

(R-1)

0 1 ...

(C-2) (C-1)

The Rectangular Block Interleaver operates as follows:

1. All the input symbols in an entire block are written row-wise, left to right, starting with the top row.

2. Inter-row permutations are performed if required.

3. Inter-column permutations are performed if required.

4. The entire block is read column-wise, top to bottom, starting with the left column.

The Rectangular Block De-interleaver operates in the reverse way:

1. All the input symbols in an entire block are written column-wise, top to bottom, starting with the left column.

2. Inter-row permutations are performed if required.

3. Inter-column permutations are performed if required.

4. The entire block is read row-wise, left to right, starting with the top row.

Refer to the LogiCORE IP Interleaver/De-interleaver v7.1 Product Guide for examples and more detailed information on the Rectangular Block Interleaver.

AXI Interface

The AXI SID v7.1 has the following interfaces:

• A non AXI-channel interface for ACLK, ACLKEN and ARESETn

• A non AXI-channel interface for external memory (if enabled)

• A non AXI-channel interface for miscellaneous events

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° event_tlast_unexpected

° event_tlast_missing (available only in Rectangular mode)

° event_halted (optional, available when Master channel TREADY is enabled)

° event_col_valid (optional)

° event_col_sel_valid (optional)

° event_row_valid (optional)

° event_row_sel_valid (optional)

° event_block_size_valid (optional)

• An AXI slave channel to receive configuration information (s_axis_ctrl) consisting of:

° s_axis_ctrl_tvalid

°

° s_axis_ctrl_tready s_axis_ctrl_tdata

The control channel is only enabled when the core is configured in such a way to require it.

• An AXI slave channel to receive the data to be interleaved (s_axis_data) consisting of:

°

° s_axis_data_tvalid (This is the equivalent of ND pin of SID v6.0 block; No longer optional)

° s_axis_data_tready

° s_axis_data_tdata

° s_axis_data_tlast

• An AXI master channel to send the data that has been interleaved (m_axis_data) consisting of: m_axis_data_tvalid

°

° m_axis_data_tready m_axis_data_tdata

°

° m_axis_data_tuser m_axis_data_tlast

AXI Ports that are Unique to this Block

This System Generator block exposes the AXI Control and Data channels as a group of separate ports based on the following sub-field names.

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Note:

Refer to the document

LogiCORE IP Interleaver/De-interleaver v8.0

for an explanation of the bits in the specified sub-field name.

Control Channel Input Signals:

s_axis_ctrl_tdata_config_sel

A sub-field port that represents the CONFIG_SEL field in the Control Channel vector.

Available when in Forney mode and Number of configurations is greater than one.

s_axis_ctrl_tdata_row

A sub-field port that represents the ROW field in the Control Channel vector. Available when in Rectangular mode and Row type is Variable.

s_axis_ctrl_tdata_row_sel

A sub-field port that represents the ROW_SEL field in the Control Channel vector. Available when in Rectangular mode and Row type is Selectable.

s_axis_ctrl_tdata_col

A sub-field port that represents the COL field in the Control Channel vector. Available when in Rectangular mode and Column type is Variable.

s_axis_ctrl_tdata_col_sel

A sub-field port that represents the COL_SEL field in the Control Channel vector. Available when in Rectangular mode and Column type is Selectable.

s_axis_ctrl_tdata_block_size

A sub-field port that represents the COL field in the Control Channel vector. Available when in Rectangular mode and Block Size type is Variable.

DATA Channel Input Signals:

s_axis_data_tdata_din

Represents the DIN field of the Input Data Channel.

DATA Channel Output Signals:

m_axis_data_tdata_dout

Represents the DOUT field of the Output Data Channel.

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TUSER Channel Output Signals:

m_axis_data_tuser_fdo

Represents the FDO field of the Output TUSER Channel. Available when in Forney mode and

Optional FDO pin has been selected on the GUI.

m_axis_data_tuser_rdy

Represents the RDY field of the Output TUSER Channel. Available when in Forney mode and

Optional RDY pin has been selected on the GUI.

m_axis_data_tuser_block_start

Represents the BLOCK_START field of the Output TUSER Channel. Available when in

Rectangular mode and Optional BLOCK_START pin has been selected on the GUI.

m_axis_data_tuser_block_end

Represents the BLOCK_END field of the Output TUSER Channel. Available when in

Rectangular mode and Optional BLOCK_END pin has been selected on the GUI.

Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your

Simulink model.

Basic Parameters Tab

Parameters specific to the Basic Parameters tab are as follows:

Memory Style: Select Distributed if all the Block Memories are required elsewhere in the design; select Block to use Block Memory where ever possible; select Automatic and let Sysgen use the most appropriate style of memory for each case, based on the required memory depth.

Symbol Width: this is the number of bits in the symbols to be processed.

Type: Select Forney Convolutional or Rectangular Block.

Mode: Select Interleaver or Deinterleaver

Symbol memory: Specifies whether or not the data symbols are stored in Internal

FPGA RAM or in External RAM.

Forney Parameters Tab

Parameters specific to the Forney Parameters tab are as follows:

Dimensions

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Number of branches: 1 to 256 (inclusive)

Architecture

ROM-based: Look-up table ROMs are used to compute some of the internal results in the block

Logic-based: Logic circuits are used to compute some of the internal results in the block

Which option is best depends on the other core parameters. You should try both options to determine the best results. This parameter has no effect on the block behavior.

Configurations

Number of configurations: If greater than 1, the block is generated with CONFIG_SEL and NEW_CONFIG inputs. The parameters for each configuration are defined in a COE file. The number of parameters defined must exactly match the number of configurations specified.

Length of Branches

• Branch length descriptions for Forney SID.

°

constant_difference_between_consecutive_branches: specified by the Value parameter

°

°

use_coe_file_to_define_branch_lengths: location of file is specified by the COE

File parameter

coe_file_defines_individual_branch_lengths_for_every_branch_in_each_configurat

ion: location of file is specified by the COE File parameter

°

coe_file_defines_branch_length_constant_for_each_configuration: location of file is specified by the COE File parameter

• Value: 1 to MAX (inclusive). MAX depends on the number of branches and size of block input. Branch length must be an array of either length one or number of branches. If the array size is one, the value is used as a constant difference between consecutive branches. Otherwise, each branch has a unique length.

COE File: The branch lengths are specified from a file

Rectangular Parameters #1 Tab

Parameters specific to the Rectangular Parameters #1 tab are as follows:

Number of Rows

Value: This parameter is relevant only when the Constant row type is selected. The number of rows is fixed at this value.

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Row Port Width: This parameter is relevant only when the Variable row type is selected. It sets the width of the ROW input bus. The smallest possible value should be used to keep the underlying LogiCORE as small as possible.

Minimum Number of Rows: This parameter is relevant only when the Variable row type is selected. In this case, the core has to potentially cope with a wide range of possible values for the number of rows. If the smallest value that will actually occur is known, then the amount of logic in the LogiCORE can sometimes be reduced.The largest possible value should be used for this parameter to keep the core as small as possible.

Number of Values: This parameter is relevant only when the Selectable row type is selected. This parameter defines how many valid selection values have been defined in the COE file. You should only add the number of select values you need.

Row Type

Constant: The number of rows is always equal to the Row Constant Value parameter.

Variable: The number of rows is sampled from the ROW input at the start of each new block. Row permutations are not supported for the variable row type.

Selectable: ROW_SEL is sampled at the start of each new block. This value is then used to select from one of the possible values for the number of rows provided in the COE file.

Number of Columns

Value: This parameter is relevant only when the Constant column type is selected. The number of columns is fixed at this value.

COL Port Width: This parameter is relevant only when the Variable column type is selected. It sets the width of the COL input bus. The smallest possible value should be used to keep the underlying LogiCORE as small as possible.

Minimum Number of Columns: This parameter is relevant only when the Variable column type is selected. In this case, the core has to potentially cope with a wide range of possible values for the number of columns. If the smallest value that will actually occur is known, then the amount of logic in the LogiCORE can sometimes be reduced.The largest possible value should be used for this parameter to keep the core as small as possible.

Number of Values: This parameter is relevant only when the Selectable column type is selected. This parameter defines how many valid selection values have been defined in the COE file. You should only add the number of select values you need.

Column Type

Constant: The number of columns is always equal to the Column Constant Value parameter.

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Variable: The number of columns is sampled from the COL input at the start of each new block. Column permutations are not supported for the variable column type.

Selectable: COL_SEL is sampled at the start of each new block. This value is then used to select from one of the possible values for the number of columns provided in the

COE

file.

Rectangular Parameters #2 Tab

Parameters specific to the Rectangular Parameters #2 tab are as follows:

Permutations Configuration

Row permutations:

°

°

None: This tells System Generator that row permutations are not to be performed

Use COE file: This tells System Generator that a row permute vector exists in the

COE

file, and that row permutations are to be performed. Remember this is possible only for un-pruned interleaver/deinterleavers.

Column permutations:

°

°

None: This tells System Generator that column permutations are not to be performed

Use COE file: This tells System Generator that a column permute vector exists in the

COE

file, and that column permutations are to be performed. Remember this is possible only for un-pruned interleaver/deinterleavers.

COE File: Specify the pathname to the COE file.

Block Size

Value: This parameter is relevant only when the Constant block size type is selected.

The block size is fixed at this value.

BLOCK_SIZE Port Width: This parameter is relevant only if the Variable block size type is selected. It sets the width of the BLOCK_SIZE input bus. The smallest possible value should be used to keep the core as small as possible.

Block Size Type

- Constant: The block size never changes. The block can be pruned (block size < row * col). The block size must be chosen so that the last symbol is on the last row. An un-pruned interleaver will use a smaller quantity of FPGA resources than a pruned one, so pruning should be used only if necessary.

- Rows*Columns: If the number of rows and columns is constant, selecting this option has the same effect as setting the block size type to constant and entering a value of rows * columns for the block size.

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If the number of rows or columns is not constant, selecting this option means the core will calculate the block size automatically whenever a new row or column value is sampled. Pruning is impossible with this block size type.

- Variable: Block size is sampled from the BLOCK_SIZE input at the beginning of every block. The value sampled on BLOCK_SIZE must be such that the last symbol falls on the last row, as previously described.

If the block size is already available external to the core, selecting this option is usually more efficient than selecting “rows * columns” for the block size type.

Row and column permutations are not supported for the Variable block size type.

Port Parameters #1 tab

Parameters specific to the Port Parameters tab are as follows:

Control Signals

ACLKEN: When ACLKEN is de-asserted (Low), all the synchronous inputs are ignored and the block remains in its current state.

ARESETn (Active Low).: Active-low synchronous clear input that always takes priority over ACLKEN.

Status Signals

COL_VALID: This optional output is available when a variable number of columns is selected. If an illegal value is sampled on the s_axis_ctrl_tdata_col input, event_col_valid will go Low a predefined number of clock cycles later.

COL_SEL_VALID: This optional output (event_col_sel_valid) is available when a selectable number of columns is chosen. The event pins are event_col_valid, event_col_sel_valid, event_row_valid, event_row_sel_valid, event_block_size_valid (in the same order as in the options on the GUI).

ROW_VALID: This optional output is available when a selectable number of rows is chosen.

ROW_SEL_VALID: This optional output is available when a selectable number of rows is chosen.

BLOCK_SIZE_VALID: This optional output is available when the block size is not constant, that is, if the block size type is either Variable or equal to Rows * Columns.

Port Parameters #2 tab

Parameters specific to the Port Parameters #2 tab are as follows:

Data Output Channel Options

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TREADY: TREADY for the Data Input Channel. Used by the Symbol

Interleaver/De-interleaver to signal that it is ready to accept data.

FDO: Adds a data_tuser_fdo (First Data Out) output port.

RDY: Adds a data_tuser_rdy output port.

BLOCK_START: Adds a data_tuser_block_start output port.

BLOCK_END: Adds a data_tuser_block_end output port.

Pipelining

Pipelining: Pipelines the underlying LogiCORE for Minimum, Medium, or Maximum performance

Other parameters used by this block are explained in the topic

Common Options in Block Parameter Dialog Boxes

.

LogiCORE™ Documentation

LogiCORE IP Interleaver/De-interleaver v8.0

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Inverter

This block is listed in the following Xilinx Blockset libraries: Basic Elements, Control Logic,

Math, and Index.

The Xilinx Inverter block calculates the bitwise logical complement of a fixed-point number. The block is implemented as a synthesizable VHDL module.

Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your

Simulink model.

Other parameters used by this block are explained in the topic

Common Options in Block Parameter Dialog Boxes

.

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LFSR

This block is listed in the following Xilinx Blockset libraries: Basic Elements, DSP, Memory, and

Index.

The Xilinx LFSR block implements a Linear Feedback Shift Register (LFSR). This block supports both the Galois and Fibonacci structures using either the XOR or XNOR gate and allows a re-loadable input to change the current value of the register at any time. The LFSR output and re-loadable input can be configured as either serial or parallel ports

Block Interface

Port Name

din load rst en dout

Port Description

Data input for re-loadable seed

Load signal for din

Reset signal

Enable signal

Data output of LFSR

Port Type

Optional serial or parallel input

Optional boolean input

Optional boolean input

Optional boolean input

Required serial or parallel output

As shown in the table above, there can be between 0 and 4 block input ports and exactly one output port. If the configuration selected requires 0 inputs, the LFSR is set up to start at a specified initial seed value and will step through a repeatable sequence of states determined by the LFSR structure type, gate type and initial seed.

The optional din and load ports provide the ability to change the current value of the LFSR at runtime. After the load completes, the LFSR behaves as with the 0 input case and start up a new sequence based upon the newly loaded seed and the statically configured LFSR options for structure and gate type.

The optional rst port will reload the statically specified initial seed of the LFSR and continue on as before after the rst signal goes low. And when the optional en port goes low, the LFSR will remain at its current value with no change until the en port goes high again.

Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your

Simulink model.

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Basic tab

Parameters specific to the Basic tab are as follows:

Type: Fibonacci or Galois. This field specifies the structure of the feedback. Fibonacci has one XOR (or XNOR) gate at the beginning of the register chain that XORs (or

XNORs) the taps together with the result going into the first register. Galois has one

XOR(or XNOR) gate for each tap and gates the last register in the chains output with the input to the register at that tap.

Gate type: XOR or XNOR. This field specifies the gate used by the feedback signals.

Number of bits in LFSR: This field specifies the number of registers in the LFSR chain.

As a result, this number specifies the size of the input and output when selected to be parallel.

Feedback polynomial: This field specifies the tap points of the feedback chain and the value must be entered in hex with single quotes. The lsb of this polynomial always must be set to 1 and the msb is an implied 1 and is not specified in the hex input. Please see the Xilinx application note titled Efficient Shift Registers, LFSR Counters, and Long

Pseudo- Random Sequence Generators for more information on how to specify this equation and for optimal settings for the maximum repeating sequence.

Initial value: This field specifies the initial seed value where the LFSR begins its repeating sequence. The initial value might not be all zeroes when choosing the XOR gate type and might not be all ones when choosing XNOR, as those values will stall the

LFSR.

Advanced tab

Parameters specific to the Advanced tab are as follows:

Parallel output: This field specifies whether all of the bits in the LFSR chain are connected to the output or just the last register in the chain (serial or parallel).

Use reloadable seed values: This field specifies whether or not an input is needed to reload a dynamic LFSR seed value at runtime.

Parallel input: This field specifies whether the reloadable input seed is shifted in one bit at a time or if it happens in parallel.

Other parameters used by this block are explained in the topic

Common Options in Block Parameter Dialog Boxes

.

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Logical

This block is listed in the following Xilinx Blockset libraries: Basic Elements, Control Logic,

Math, and Index.

The Xilinx Logical block performs bitwise logical operations on fixed-point numbers.

Operands are zero padded and sign extended as necessary to make binary point positions coincide; then the logical operation is performed and the result is delivered at the output port.

In hardware this block is implemented as synthesizable VHDL. If you build a tree of logical gates, this synthesizable implementation is best as it facilitates logic collapsing in synthesis and mapping.

Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your

Simulink model.

Basic tab

Parameters specific to the Basic tab are as follows:

Logical function: specifies one of the following bitwise logical operators: AND, NAND,

OR, NOR, XOR, XNOR.

Number of inputs: specifies the number of inputs (1 - 1024).

Logical Reduction Operation: When the number of inputs is specified as 1, a unary logical reduction operation performs a bit-wise operation on the single operand to produce a single bit result. The first step of the operation applies the logical operator between the least significant bit of the operand and the next most significant bit. The second and subsequent steps apply the operator between the one-bit result of the prior step and the next bit of the operand using the same logical operator. The logical reduction operator implements the same functionality as that of the logical reduction operation in HDLs. The output of the logical reduction operation is always Boolean.

Output Type tab

Parameters specific to the Output Type tab are as follows:

Align binary point: specifies that the block must align binary points automatically. If not selected, all inputs must have the same binary point position.

Other parameters used by this block are explained in the topic

Common Options in Block Parameter Dialog Boxes

.

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MCode

This block is listed in the following Xilinx Blockset libraries: Control Logic, Math, and Index.

The Xilinx MCode block is a container for executing a user-supplied MATLAB function within Simulink. A parameter on the block specifies the M-function name. The block executes the M-code to calculate block outputs during a Simulink simulation. The same code is translated in a straightforward way into equivalent behavioral

VHDL/Verilog when hardware is generated.

The block's Simulink interface is derived from the MATLAB function signature, and from block mask parameters. There is one input port for each parameter to the function, and one output port for each value the function returns. Port names and ordering correspond to the names and ordering of parameters and return values.

The MCode block supports a limited subset of the MATLAB language that is useful for implementing arithmetic functions, finite state machines and control logic.

The MCode block has the following three primary coding guidelines that must be followed:

• All block inputs and outputs must be of Xilinx fixed-point type.

• The block must have at least one output port.

• The code for the block must exist on the MATLAB path or in the same directory as the directory as the model that uses the block.

The example described below consists of a function xlmax which returns the maximum of its inputs. The second illustrates how to do simple arithmetic. The third shows how to build a finite state machine.

Configuring an MCode Block

The MATLAB Function parameter of an MCode block specifies the name of the block's M- code function. This function must exist in one of the three locations at the time this parameter is set. The three possible locations are:

• The directory where the model file is located.

• A subdirectory of the model directory named private.

• A directory in the MATLAB path.

The block icon displays the name of the M-function. To illustrate these ideas, consider the file xlmax.m containing function xlmax: function z = xlmax(x, y) if x > y z = x;

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset else z = y; end

An MCode block based on the function xlmax will have input ports x and y and output port z.

The following figure shows how to set up an MCode block to use function xlmax.

Once the model is compiled, the xlmax MCode block will appear like the block illustrated below.

MATLAB Language Support

The MCode block supports the following MATLAB language constructs:

• Assignment statements

• Simple and compound if/else/elseif end statements

• switch statements

• Arithmetic expressions involving only addition and subtraction

• Addition

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• Subtraction

• Multiplication

• Division by a power of two

• Relational operators:

<

<=

>

>=

==

~=

Less than

Less than or equal to

Greater than

Greater than or equal to

Equal to

Not equal to

• Logical operators:

|

&

~

And

Or

Not

The MCode block supports the following MATLAB functions.

• Type conversion. The only supported data type is xfix, the Xilinx fixed-point type. The xfix()

type conversion function is used to convert to this type. The conversion is done implicitly for integers but must be done explicitly for floating point constants. All values must be scalar; arrays are not supported.

• Functions that return xfix properties: xl_nbits() xl_binpt() xl_arith()

Returns number of bits

Returns binary point position

Returns arithmetic type

• Bit-wise logical functions: xl_and() xl_or() xl_xor() xl_not()

Bit-wise and

Bit-wise or

Bit-wise xor

Bit-wise not

• Shift functions: xl_lsh() and xl_rsh()

• Slice function: xl_slice()

• Concatenate function: xl_concat()

• Reinterpret function: xl_force()

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• Internal state variables: xl_state()

• MATLAB Functions: disp() error() isnan()

NaN() num2str() ones(1,N) pi() zeros(1,N)

Displays variable values

Displays message and abort function

Tests whether a number is NaN

Returns Not-a-Number

Converts a number to string

Returns 1-by-N vector of ones

Returns pi

Returns 1-by-N vector of zeros

Data Types

There are three kinds of xfix data types: unsigned fixed-point (xlUnsigned), signed fixed-point(xlSigned), and boolean (xlBoolean). Arithmetic operations on these data types produce signed and unsigned fixed-point values. Relational operators produce a boolean result. Relational operands can be any xfix type, provided the mixture of types makes sense. Boolean variables can be compared to boolean variables, but not to fixed-point numbers; boolean variables are incompatible with arithmetic operators. Logical operators can only be applied to boolean variables. Every operation is performed in full precision, for example, with the minimum precision needed to guarantee that no information is lost.

Literal Constants

Integer, floating-point, and boolean literals are supported. Integer literals are automatically converted to xfix values of appropriate width having a binary point position at zero.

Floating-point literals must be converted to the xfix type explicitly with the xfix() conversion function. The predefined MATLAB values true and false are automatically converted to boolean literals.

Assignment

The left-hand side of an assignment can only contain one variable. A variable can be assigned more than once.

Control Flow

The conditional expression of an if statement must evaluate to a boolean. Switch statements can contain a case clause and an otherwise clause. The types of a switch selector and its cases must be compatible; thus, the selector can be boolean provided its

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset cases are. All cases in a switch must be constant; equivalently, no case can depend on an input value.

When the same variable is assigned in several branches of a control statement, the types being assigned must be compatible. For example, if (u > v) x = a; else x = b; end is acceptable only if a and b are both boolean or both arithmetic.

Constant Expressions

An expression is constant provided its value does not depend on the value of any input argument. Thus, for example, the variable c defined by a = 1; b = a + 2; c = xfix({xlSigned, 10, 2}, b + 3.345); can be used in any context that demands a constant.

xfix() Conversion

The xfix() conversion function converts a double to an xfix, or changes one xfix into another having different characteristics. A call on the conversion function looks like the following x = xfix(type_spec, value)

Here x is the variable that receives the xfix. type_spec is a cell array that specifies the type of xfix to create, and value is the value being operated on. The value can be floating point or xfix type. The type_spec cell array is defined using curly braces in the usual

MATLAB method. For example, xfix({xlSigned, 20, 16, xlRound, xlWrap}, 3.1415926) returns an xfix approximation to pi. The approximation is signed, occupies 20 bits (16 fractional), quantizes by rounding, and wraps on overflow.

The type_spec consists of 1, 3, or 5 elements. Some elements can be omitted. When elements are omitted, default element settings are used. The elements specify the following properties (in the order presented): data type, width, binary point position, quantization mode

, and overflow mode. The data type can be xlBoolean, xlUnsigned

, or xlSigned. When the type is xlBoolean, additional elements are not needed (and must not be supplied). For other types, width and binary point position

must be supplied. The quantization and overflow modes are optional, but

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset when one is specified, the other must be as well. Three values are possible for quantization: xlTruncate

, xlRound, and xlRoundBanker. The default is xlTruncate. Similarly, three values are possible for overflow: xlWrap, xlSaturate, and xlThrowOverflow. For xlThrowOverflow

, if an overflow occurs during simulation, an exception occurs.

All values in a type_spec must be known at compilation time; equivalently, no type_spec value can depend on an input to the function.

The following is a more elaborate example of an xfix() conversion: width = 10, binpt = 4; z = xfix({xlUnsigned, width, binpt}, x + y);

This assignment to x is the result of converting x + y to an unsigned fixed-point number that is 10 bits wide with 4 fractional bits using xlTruncate for quantization and xlWrap for overflow.

If several xfix() calls need the same type_spec value, you can assign the type_spec to a variable, then use the variable for xfix() calls. For example, the following is allowed: proto = {xlSigned, 10, 4}; x = xfix(proto, a); y = xfix(proto, b);

xfix Properties: xl_arith, xl_nbits, and xl_binpt

Each xfix number has three properties: the arithmetic type, the bit width, and the binary point position. The MCode blocks provide three functions to get these properties of a fixed- point number. The results of these functions are constants and are evaluated when

Simulink compiles the model.

Function a = xl_arith(x) returns the arithmetic type of the input number x. The return value is either 1, 2, or 3 for xlUnsigned, xlSigned, or xlBoolean respectively.

Function n = xl_nbits(x) returns the width of the input number x.

Function b = xl_binpt(x) returns the binary point position of the input number x.

Bit-wise Operators: xl_or, xl_and, xl_xor, and xl_not

The MCode block provides four built-in functions for bit-wise logical operations: xl_or, xl_and

, xl_xor, and xl_not.

Function xl_or, xl_and, and xl_xor perform bit-wise logical or, and, and xor operations respectively. Each function is in the form of x = xl_op(a, b, …).

Each function takes at least two fixed-point numbers and returns a fixed-point number. All the input arguments are aligned at the binary point position.

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Function xl_not performs a bit-wise logical not operation. It is in the form of x = xl_not(a)

. It only takes one xfix number as its input argument and returns a fixed- point number.

The following are some examples of these function calls:

X = xl_and(a, b);

Y = xl_or(a, b, c);

Z = xl_xor(a, b, c, d);

N = xl_not(x);

Shift Operators: xl_rsh, and xl_lsh

Functions xl_lsh and xl_rsh allow you to shift a sequence of bits of a fixed-point number. The function is in the form: x = xl_lsh(a, n)

and x = xl_rsh(a, n) where a is a xfix value and n is the number of bits to shift.

Left or right shift the fixed-point number by n number of bits. The right shift (xl_rsh) moves the fixed-point number toward the least significant bit. The left shift (xl_lsh) function moves the fixed-point number toward the most significant bit. Both shift functions are a full precision shift. No bits are discarded and the precision of the output is adjusted as needed to accommodate the shifted position of the binary point.

Here are some examples:

% left shift a 5 bits a = xfix({xlSigned, 20, 16, xlRound, xlWrap}, 3.1415926) b = xl_rsh(a, 5);

The output b is of type xlSigned with 21 bits and the binary point located at bit 21.

Slice Function: xl_slice

Function xl_slice allows you to access a sequence of bits of a fixed-point number. The function is in the form: x = xl_slice(a, from_bit, to_bit).

Each bit of a fixed-point number is consecutively indexed from zero for the LSB up to the

MSB. For example, given an 8-bit wide number with binary point position at zero, the LSB is indexed as 0 and the MSB is indexed as 7. The block will throw an error if the from_bit or to_bit

arguments are out of the bit index range of the input number. The result of the function call is an unsigned fixed-point number with zero binary point position.

Here are some examples:

% slice 7 bits from bit 10 to bit 4 b = xl_slice(a, 10, 4);

% to get MSB c = xl_slice(a, xl_nbits(a)-1, xl_nbits(a)-1);

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Concatenate Function: xl_concat

Function x = xl_concat(hi, mid, ..., low) concatenates two or more fixed-point numbers to form a single fixed-point number. The first input argument occupies the most significant bits, and the last input argument occupies the least significant bits. The output is an unsigned fixed-point number with binary point position at zero.

Reinterpret Function: xl_force

Function x = xl_force(a, arith, binpt) forces the output to a new type with arith as its new arithmetic type and binpt as its new binary point position. The arith argument can be one of xlUnsigned, xlSigned, or xlBoolean. The binpt argument must be from 0 to the bit width inclusively. Otherwise, the block will throw an error.

State Variables: xl_state

An MCode block can have internal state variables that hold their values from one simulation step to the next. A state variable is declared with the MATLAB keyword persistent

and must be initially assigned with an xl_state function call.

The following code models a 4-bit accumulator: function q = accum(din, rst) init = 0; persistent s, s = xl_state(init, {xlSigned, 4, 0}); q = s; if rst s = init; else s = s + din; end

The state variable s is declared as persistent

, and the first assignment to s is the result of the xl_state invocation. The xl_state function takes two arguments. The first is the initial value and must be a constant. The second is the precision of the state variable. It can be a type cell array as described in the xfix function call. It can also be an xfix number.

In the above code, if s = xl_state(init, din), then state variable s will use din as the precision. The xl_state function must be assigned to a persistent

variable.

The xl_state function behaves in the following way:

1. In the first cycle of simulation, the xl_state function initializes the state variable with the specified precision.

2. In the following cycles of simulation, the xl_state function retrieves the state value left from the last clock cycle and assigns the value to the corresponding variable with the specified precision.

v = xl_state(init, precision)

returns the value of a state variable. The first input argument init is the initial value, the second argument precision is the precision for

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset this state variable. The argument precision can be a cell arrary in the form of {type, nbits, binpt}

or {type, nbits, binpt, quantization,overflow}. The precision

argument can also be an xfix number.

v = xl_state(init, precision, maxlen)

returns a vector object. The vector is initialized with init and will have maxlen for the maximum length it can be. The vector is initialized with init. For example, v = xl_state(zeros(1, 8), prec, 8) creates a vector of 8 zeros, v = xl_state([], prec, 8) creates an empty vector with 8 as maximum length, v = xl_state(0, prec, 8) creates a vector of one zero as content and with 8 as the maximum length.

Conceptually, a vector state variable is a double ended queue. It has two ends, the front which is the element at address 0 and the back which is the element at length – 1.

Methods available for vector are: val = v(idx); v(idx) = val; f = v.front; v.push_front(val); v.pop_front; b = v.back; v.push_back(val); v.pop_back; v.push_front_pop_back(val); full = v.full; empty = v.empty; len = v.length;

Returns the value of element at address idx.

Assigns the element at address idx with val.

Returns the value of the front end. An error is thrown if the vector is empty.

Pushes val to the front and then increases the vector length by 1. An error is thrown if the vector is full.

Pops one element from the front and decreases the vector length by 1. An error is thrown if the vector is empty.

Returns the value of the back end. An error is thrown if the vector is empty.

Pushes val to the back and the increases the vector length by 1. An error is thrown if the vector is full.

Pops one element from the back and decreases the vector length by 1. An error is thrown if the vector is empty.

Pushes val to the front and pops one element out from the back. It's a shift operation. The length of the vector is unchanged. The vector cannot be empty to perform this operation.

Returns false

.

true

if the vector is full, otherwise,

Returns true

if the vector is empty, otherwise, false

.

Returns the number of elements in the vector.

A method of a vector that queries a state variable is called a query method. It has a return value. The following methods are query method: v(idx), v.front, v.back, v.full, v.empty

, v.length, v.maxlen. A method of a vector that changes a state variable is

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset called an update method. An update method does not return any value. The following methods are update methods: v(idx) = val, v.push_front(val), v.pop_front, v.push_back(val)

, v.pop_back, and v.push_front_pop_back(val). All query methods of a vector must be invoked before any update method is invocation during any simulation cycle. An error is thrown during model compilation if this rule is broken.

The MCode block can map a vector state variable into a vector of registers, a delay line, an addressable shift register, a single port ROM, or a single port RAM based on the usage of the state variable. The xl_state function can also be used to convert a MATLAB 1-D array into a zero-indexed constant array. If the MCode block cannot map a vector state variable into an FPGA device, an error message is issued during model netlist time. The following are examples of using vector state variables.

Delay Line

The state variable in the following function is mapped into a delay line.

function q = delay(d, lat) persistent r, r = xl_state(zeros(1, lat), d, lat); q = r.back; r.push_front_pop_back(d);

Line of Registers

The state variable in the following function is mapped into a line of registers.

function s = sum4(d) persistent r, r = xl_state(zeros(1, 4), d);

S = r(0) + r(1) + r(2) + r(3); r.push_front_pop_back(d);

Vector of Constants

The state variable in the following function is mapped into a vector of constants.

function s = myadd(a, b, c, d, nbits, binpt) p = {xlSigned, nbits, binpt, xlRound, xlSaturate}; persistent coef, coef = xl_state([3, 7, 3.5, 6.7], p); s = a*coef(0) + b*coef(1) + c*coef(2) + c*coef(3);

Addressable Shift Register

The state variable in the following function is mapped into an addressable shift register. function q = addrsr(d, addr, en, depth) persistent r, r = xl_state(zeros(1, depth), d); q = r(addr); if en r.push_front_pop_back(d); end

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Single Port ROM

The state variable in the following function is mapped into a single port ROM.

function q = addrsr(contents, addr, arith, nbits, binpt) proto = {arith, nbits, binpt}; persistent mem, mem = xl_state(contents, proto); q = mem(addr);

Single Port RAM

The state variable in the following function is mapped to a single port RAM in fabric

(Distributed RAM).

function dout = ram(addr, we, din, depth, nbits, binpt) proto = {xlSigned, nbits, binpt}; persistent mem, mem = xl_state(zeros(1, depth), proto); dout = mem(addr); if we mem(addr) = din; end

The state variable in the following function is mapped to BlockRAM as a single port RAM.

function dout = ram(addr, we, din, depth, nbits, binpt,ram_enable) proto = {xlSigned, nbits, binpt}; persistent mem, mem = xl_state(zeros(1, depth), proto); persistent dout_temp, dout_temp = xl_state(0,proto); dout = dout_temp; dout_temp = mem(addr); if we mem(addr) = din; end

MATLAB Functions

disp()

Displays the expression value. In order to see the printing on the MATLAB console, the option Enable printing with disp must be checked on the Advanced tab of the MCode block parameters dialog box. The argument can be a string, an xfix number, or an MCode state variable. If the argument is an xfix number, it will print the type, binary value, and double precision value. For example, if variable x is assigned with xfix({xlSigned, 10,

7}, 2.75)

, the disp(x) will print the following line: type: Fix_10_7, binary: 010.1100000, double: 2.75

If the argument is a vector state variable, disp() will print out the type, maximum length, current length, and the binary and double values of all the elements. For each simulation step, when Enable printing with disp is on and when a disp() function is invoked, a title line is printed for the corresponding block. The title line includes the block name, Simulink simulation time, and FPGA clock number.

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The following MCode function shows several examples of using the disp() function.

function x = testdisp(a, b) persistent dly, dly = xl_state(zeros(1, 8), a); persistent rom, rom = xl_state([3, 2, 1, 0], a); disp('Hello World!'); disp(['num2str(dly) is ', num2str(dly)]); disp('disp(dly) is '); disp(dly); disp('disp(rom) is '); disp(rom); a2 = dly.back; dly.push_front_pop_back(a); x = a + b; disp(['a = ', num2str(a), ', ', ...

'b = ', num2str(b), ', ', ...

'x = ', num2str(x)]); disp(num2str(true)); disp('disp(10) is'); disp(10); disp('disp(-10) is'); disp(-10); disp('disp(a) is '); disp(a); disp('disp(a == b)'); disp(a==b);

The following lines are the result for the first simulation step.

xlmcode_testdisp/MCode (Simulink time: 0.000000, FPGA clock: 0)

Hello World!

num2str(dly) is [0.000000, 0.000000, 0.000000, 0.000000, 0.000000, 0.000000,

0.000000, 0.000000] disp(dly) is type: Fix_11_7, maxlen: 8, length: 8,

0: binary 0000.0000000, double 0.000000,

1: binary 0000.0000000, double 0.000000,

2: binary 0000.0000000, double 0.000000,

3: binary 0000.0000000, double 0.000000,

4: binary 0000.0000000, double 0.000000,

5: binary 0000.0000000, double 0.000000,

6: binary 0000.0000000, double 0.000000,

7: binary 0000.0000000, double 0.000000, disp(rom) is type: Fix_11_7, maxlen: 4, length: 4,

0: binary 0011.0000000, double 3.0,

1: binary 0010.0000000, double 2.0,

2: binary 0001.0000000, double 1.0,

3: binary 0000.0000000, double 0.0, a = 0.000000, b = 0.000000, x = 0.000000

1 disp(10) is type: UFix_4_0, binary: 1010, double: 10.0

disp(-10) is

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disp(a) is type: Fix_11_7, binary: 0000.0000000, double: 0.000000

disp(a == b) type: Bool, binary: 1, double: 1

error()

Displays message and abort function. See Matlab help on this function for more detailed information. Message formatting is not supported by the MCode block. For example: if latency <=0 error('latency must be a positive'); end

isnan()

Returns true for Not-a-Number. isnan(X) returns true when X is Not-a-Number. X must be a scalar value of double or Xilinx fixed-point number. This function is not supported for vectors or matrices. For example: if isnan(incr) & incr == 1 cnt = cnt + 1; end

NaN()

The NaN() function generates an IEEE arithmetic representation for Not-a-Number. A NaN is obtained as a result of mathematically undefined operations like 0.0/0.0 and inf-inf.

NaN(1,N) generates a 1-by-N vector of NaN values. Here are examples of using NaN.

if x < 0 z = NaN; else z = x + y; end

num2Str()

Converts a number to a string. num2str(X) converts the X into a string. X can be a scalar value of double, a Xilinx fixed-point number, or a vector state variable. The default number of digits is based on the magnitude of the elements of X. Here's an example of num2str: if opcode <=0 | opcode >= 10 error(['opcode is out of range: ', num2str(opcode)]); end

ones()

The ones() function generates a specified number of one values. ones(1,N) generates a

1-by-N vector of ones. ones(M,N) where M must be 1. It's usually used with xl_state() function call. For example, the following line creates a 1-by-4 vector state variable initialized to [1, 1, 1, 1].

persitent m, m = xl_state(ones(1, 4), proto)

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zeros()

The zeros() function generates a specified number of zero values. zeros(1,N) generates a 1-by-N vector of zeros. zero(M,N) where M must be 1. It's usually used with xl_state()

function call. For example, the following line creates a 1-by-4 vector state variable initialized to [0, 0, 0, 0].

persitent m, m = xl_state(zeros(1, 4), proto)

FOR Loop

FOR

statement is fully unrolled. The following function sums n samples.

function q = sum(din, n) persistent regs, regs = xl_state(zeros(1, 4), din); q = reg(0); for i = 1:n-1 q = q + reg(i); end regs.push_front_pop_back(din);

The following function does a bit reverse.

function q = bitreverse(d) q = xl_slice(d, 0, 0); for i = 1:xl_nbits(d)-1 q = xl_concat(q, xl_slice(d, i, i)); end

Variable Availability

MATLAB code is sequential (for example, statements are executed in order). The MCode block requires that every possible execution path assigns a value to a variable before it is used (except as a left-hand side of an assignment). When this is the case, we say the variable is available for use. The MCode block will throw an error if its M-code function accesses unavailable variables.

Consider the following M-code: function [x, y, z] = test1(a, b) x = a; if a>b x = a + b; y = a; end switch a case 0 z = a + b; case 1 z = a - b; end

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Here a, b, and x are available, but y and z are not. Variable y is not available because the

if statement has no else, and variable z is not available because the switch statement has no otherwise part.

DEBUG MCode

There are two ways to debug your MCode. One is to insert disp() functions in your code and enable printing; the other is to use the MATLAB debugger. For usage of the disp() function, please reference the topic

disp() .

If you want to use the MATLAB debugger, you need to check the Enable MATLAB

debugging option on the Advanced tab of the MCode block parameters dialog box. Then you can open your MATLAB function with the MATLAB editor, set break points, and debug your M-function. Just be aware that every time you modify your script, you need to execute a clear functions command in the MATLAB console.

To start debugging your M-function, you need to first check the Enable MATLAB

debugging checkbox on the Advanced tab of the MCode block parameters dialog, then click the OK or Apply button.

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Now you can edit the M-file with the MATLAB editor and set break points as needed.

During the Simulink simulation, the MATLAB debugger will stop at the break points you set when the break points are reached.

When debugging, you can also examine the values of the variables by typing the variable names in the MATLAB console.

There is one special case to consider when the function for an MCode block is executed from the MATLAB debugger. A switch/case expression inside an MCode block must be type xfix, however, executing a switch/case expression from the MATLAB console requires that the expression be a double or char. To facilitate execution in the MATLAB console, a call to double() must be added. For example, consider the follwing:

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset switch i case 0 x = 1 case 1 x = 2 end where i is type xfix. To run from the console this code must changed to switch double(i) case 0 x = 1 case 1 x = 2 end

The double() function call only has an effect when the M code is run from the console.

The MCode block ignores the double() call.

Passing Parameters

It is possible to use the same M-function in different MCode blocks, passing different parameters to the M-function so that each block can behave differently. This is achieved by binding input arguments to some values. To bind the input arguments, select the Interface tab on the block GUI. After you bind those arguments to some values, these M-function arguments will not be shown as input ports of the MCode block.

Consider for example, the following M-function: function dout = xl_sconvert(din, nbits, binpt) proto = {xlSigned, nbits, binpt}; dout = xfix(proto, din);

The following figures shows how the bindings are set for the din input of two separate xl_sconvert

blocks.

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The following figure shows the block diagram after the model is compiled.

The parameters can only be of type double or they can be logical numbers.

Optional Input Ports

The parameter passing mechanism allows the MCode block to have optional input ports.

Consider for example, the following M-function: function s = xl_m_addsub(a, b, sub) if sub s = a - b; else s = a + b; end

If sub is set to be false, the MCode block that uses this M-function will have two input ports a and b and will perform full precision addition. If it is set to an empty cell array {}, the block will have three input ports a, b, and sub and will perform full precision addition or subtraction based on the value of input port sub.

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The following figure shows the block diagram of two blocks using the same xl_m_addsub function, one having two input ports and one having three input ports.

Constructing a State Machine

There are two ways to build a state machine using an MCode block. One way is to specify a stateless transition function using a MATLAB function and pair an MCode block with one or more state register blocks. Usually the MCode block drives a register with the value representing the next state, and the register feeds back the current state into the MCode block. For this to work, the precision of the state output from the MCode block must be static, that is, independent of any inputs to the block. Occasionally you might find you need to use xfix() conversions to force static precision. The following code illustrates this: function nextstate = fsm1(currentstate, din)

% some other code nextstate = currentstate; switch currentstate case 0, if din==1, nextstate = 1; end end

% a xfix call should be used at the end nextstate = xfix({xlUnsigned, 2, 0}, nextstate);

Another way is to use state variables. The above function can be re-written as follows: function currentstate = fsm1(din) persistent state, state=xl_state(0,{xlUnsigned,2,0}); currentstate = state; switch double(state) case 0, if din==1; state = 1; end end

Reset and Enable Signals for State Variables

The MCode block can automatically infer register reset and enable signals for state variables when conditional assignments to the variables contain two or fewer branches.

For example, the following M-code infers an enable signal for conditional assignment of persistent

state variable r1: function myFn = aFn(en, a) persistent r1, r1 = xl_state(0, {xlUnsigned, 2, 0});

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset myFn = r1; if en r1 = r1 + a else r1 = r1 end

There are two branches in the conditional assignment to persistent state variable r1. A register is used to perform the conditional assignment. The input of the register is connected to r1 + a, the output of the register is r1. The register's enable signal is inferred; the enable signal is connected to en, when en is asserted. Persistent state variable r1

is assigned to r1 + a when en evaluates to false, the enable signal on the register is de-asserted resulting in the assignment of r1 to r1.

The following M-code will also infer an enable signal on the register used to perform the conditional assignment: function myFn = aFn(en, a) persistent r1, r1 = xl_state(0, {xlUnsigned, 2, 0}); myFn = r1; if en r1 = r1 + a end

An enable is inferred instead of a reset because the conditional assignment of persistent state variable r1 is to a non-constant value, r1 + a.

If there were three branches in the conditional assignment of persistent state variable r1, the enable signal would not be inferred. The following M-code illustrates the case where there are three branches in the conditional assignment of persistent state variable r1 and the enable signal is not inferred: function myFn = aFn(en, en2, a, b) persistent r1, r1 = xl_state(0, {xlUnsigned, 2, 0}); if en r1 = r1 + a elseif en2 r1 = r1 + b else r1 = r1 v

The reset signal can be inferred if a persistent state variable is conditionally assigned to a constant; the reset is synchronous. Consider the following M-code example which infers a reset signal for the assignment of persistent state variable r1 to init, a constant, when rst

evaluates to true and r1 + 1 otherwise: function myFn = aFn(rst) persistent r1, r1 = xl_state(0, {xlUnsigned, 4, 0}); myFn = r1; init = 7; if (rst) r1 = init else

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset r1 = r1 + 1 end

The M-code example above which infers reset can also be written as: function myFn = aFn(rst) persistent r1, r1 = xl_state(0, {xlUnsigned,4,0}); init = 1; myFn = r1; r1 = r1 +1 if (rst) r1 = init end

In both code examples above, the reset signal of the register containing persistent state variable r1 is assigned to rst. When rst evaluates to true, the register's reset input is asserted and the persistent state variable is assigned to constant init. When rst evaluates to false, the register's reset input is de-asserted and persistent state variable r1 is assigned to r1 + 1. Again, if the conditional assignment of a persistent state variable contains three or more branches, a reset signal is not inferred on the persistent state variable's register.

It is possible to infer reset and enable signals on the register of a single persistent state variable. The following M-code example illustrates simultaneous inference of reset and enable signals for the persistent state variable r1: function myFn = aFn(rst,en) persistent r1, r1 = xl_state(0, {xlUnsigned, 4, 0}); myFn = r1; init = 0; if rst r1 = init else if en r1 = r1 + 1 end end

The reset input for the register of persistent state variable r1 is connected to rst; when rst

evaluates to true, the register's reset input is asserted and r1 is assigned to init. The enable input of the register is connected to en; when en evaluates to true, the register's enable input is asserted and r1 is assigned to r1 + 1. It is important to note that an inferred reset signal takes precedence over an inferred enable signal regardless of the order of the conditional assignment statements. Consider the second code example above; if both rst

and en evaluate to true, persistent state variable r1 would be assigned to init.

Inference of reset and enable signals also works for conditional assignment of persistent state variables using switch statements, provided the switch statements contain two or less branches.

The MCode block performs dead code elimination and constant propagation compiler optimizations when generating code for the FPGA. This can result in the inference of reset

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset and/or enable signals in conditional assignment of persistent state variables, when one of the branches is never executed. For this to occur, the conditional must contain two branches that are executed after dead code is eliminated and constant propagation is performed.

Inferring Registers

Registers are inferred in hardware by using persistent variables, however, the right coding style must be used. Consider the two code segments in the following function: function [out1, out2] = persistent_test02(in1, in2) persistent ff1, ff1 = xl_state(0, {xlUnsigned, 2, 0}); persistent ff2, ff2 = xl_state(0, {xlUnsigned, 2, 0});

%code segment 1 out1 = ff1; %these two statements infer a register for ff1 ff1 = in1;

%code segment 2 ff2 = in2; %these two statements do NOT infer a register for ff2 out2 = ff2; end

In code segment 1, the value of persistent variable ff1 is assigned to out1. Since ff1 is persistent , it is assumed that its current value was assigned in the previous cycle. In the next statement, the value of in1 is assigned to ff1 so it can be saved for the next cycle. This infers a register for ff1.

In code segment 2, the value of in2 is first assigned to persistent variable ff2, then assigned to out2. These two statements can be completed in one cycle, so a register is not inferred.

If you need to insert delay into combinational logic, refer to the next topic.

Pipelining Combinational Logic

The generated FPGA bitstream for an MCode block might contain many levels of combinational logic and hence a large critical path delay. To allow a downstream logic synthesis tool to automatically pipeline the combinational logic, you can add delay blocks before the MCode block inputs or after the MCode block outputs. These delay blocks should have the parameter Implement using behavioral HDL set, which instructs the code generator to implement delay with synthesizable HDL. You can then instruct the downstream logic synthesis tool to implement register re-timing or register balancing. As an alternative approach, you can use the vector state variables to model delays.

Shift Operations with Multiplication and Division

The MCode block can detect when a number is multiplied or divided by constants that are powers of two. If detected, the MCode block will perform a shift operation. For example, multiplying by 4 is equivalent to left shifting 2 bits and dividing by 8 is equivalent to right shifting 3 bits. A shift is implemented by adjusting the binary point, expanding the xfix container as needed. For example, a Fix_8_4 number multiplied by 4 will result in a

Fix_8_2

number, and a Fix_8_4 number multiplied by 64 will result in a Fix_10_0 number.

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Using the xl_state Function with Rounding Mode

The xl_state function call creates an xfix container for the state variable. The container's precision is specified by the second argument passed to the xl_state function call. If precision uses xlRound for its rounding mode, hardware resources is added to accomplish the rounding. If rounding the initial value is all that is required, an xfix call to round a constant does not require additional hardware resources. The rounded value can then be passed to the xl_state function. For example: init = xfix({xlSigned,8,5,xlRound,xlWrap}, 3.14159); persistent s, s = xl_state(init, {xlSigned, 8, 5});

Block Parameters Dialog Box

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the block icon in a

Simulink model.

As described earlier in this topic, the MATLAB function parameter on an MCode block tells the name of the block's function, and the Interface tab specifies a list of constant inputs and their values.

Other parameters used by this block are explained in the topic

Common Options in Block Parameter Dialog Boxes

.

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ModelSim

This block is listed in the following Xilinx Blockset libraries: Tools and Index.

The System Generator

Black Box

block provides a way to incorporate existing HDL files into a model. When the model is simulated, co-simulation can be used to allow black boxes to participate. The ModelSim HDL co-simulation block configures and controls co-simulation for one or several black boxes.

During a simulation, each ModelSim block spawns one copy of ModelSim, and therefore uses one ModelSim license. If licenses are scarce, several black boxes can share the same block.

In detail, the ModelSim block does the following:

• Constructs the additional VHDL and Verilog needed to allow black box HDL to be simulated inside ModelSim.

• Spawns a ModelSim session when a Simulink simulation starts.

• Mediates the communication between Simulink and ModelSim.

• Reports if errors are detected when black box HDL is compiled.

• Terminates ModelSim, if appropriate, when the simulation is complete.

Note:

The ModelSim block only supports symbolic radix in the ModelSim tool. In symbolic radix,

ModelSim displays the actual values of an enumerated type and also converts an object's value to an appropriate representation for other radix forms. Please refer to the ModelSim documentation for more information on symbolic radix.

Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your

Simulink model.

Basic Tab

Parameters specific to the Basic tab are as follows:

Run co-simulation in directory: ModelSim is started in the directory named by this field.

The directory is created if necessary. All black box files are copied into this directory, as are the auxiliary files System Generator produces for co-simulation. Existing files are overwritten silently. The directory can be specified as an absolute or relative path. Relative paths are interpreted with respect to the directory in which the Simulink .mdl file resides.

Open waveform viewer: When this checkbox is selected, the ModelSim waveform window opens automatically, displaying a standard set of signals. The signals include all inputs and outputs of all black boxes and all clock and clock enable signals supplied by System

Generator. The signal display can be customized with an auxiliary tcl script. To specify the script, select Add Custom Scripts and enter the script name (e.g., myscript.do) in the Script to Run After vsim field.

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Leave ModelSim open at end of simulation: When this checkbox is selected, the

ModelSim session is left open after the Simulink simulation has finished.

Skip compilation (use previous results): When this checkbox is selected, the ModelSim compilation phase is skipped in its entirety for all black boxes that are using the ModelSim block for HDL co-simulation. To select this option is to assert that: (1) underneath the directory in which ModelSim will run, there exists a ModelSim work directory, and (2) that the work directory contains up-to-date ModelSim compilation results for all black box HDL.

Selecting this option can greatly reduce the time required to start-up the simulation, however, if it is selected when inappropriate, the simulation can fail to run or run but produce false results.

Advanced tab

Parameters specific to the Advanced tab are as follows:

Include Verilog unisim library: Selecting this checkbox ensures that ModelSim includes the Verilog UniSim library during simulation. Note: the Verilog unisim library must be mapped to UNISIMS_VER in ModelSim. In addition, selecting this checkbox ensures the

"glbl.v" module is compiled and invoked during simulation.

Add custom scripts: The term “script” refers to a Tcl macro file (DO file) executed by

ModelSim. Selecting this checkbox activates the fields Script to Run Before Starting

Compilation, Script to Run in Place of "vsim", and Script to Run after "vsim". The DO file scripts named in these fields are not run unless this checkbox is selected.

Script to run before starting compilation: Enter the name of a Tcl macro file (DO file) that is to be executed by ModelSim before compiling black box HDL files.

Note:

For information on how to write a ModelSim macro file (DO file) refer to the Chapter in the

ModelSim User’s Manual titled Tcl and macros (DO files).

Script to run in place of "vsim": ModelSim uses Tcl (tool command language) as the scripting language for controlling and extending the tool. Enter the name of a ModelSim Tcl macro file (DO file) that is to be executed by the ModelSim do command at the point when

System Generator would ordinarily instruct ModelSim to begin a simulation. To start the simulation after the macro file starts executing, you must place a vsim command inside the macro file.

Normally, if this parameter is left blank, or Add custom scripts is not selected, then System

Generator instructs ModelSim to execute the default command vsim $toplevel -title

{System Generator Co-Simulation (from block $blockname} Here $toplevel is the name of the top level entity for simulation (e.g., work.my_model_mti_block) and $blockname is the name of the ModelSim block in the Simulink model associated with the current co-simulation. To avoid problems, certain characters in the block name (e.g., newlines) are sanitized.

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If this parameter is not blank and Add custom scripts is selected, then System Generator instead instructs ModelSim to execute do $* $toplevel $blockname. Here $toplevel and

$blockname are as above and $* represents the literal text entered in the field. If, for example the literal text is 'foo.do', then ModelSim executes foo.do. This macro file can then reference $toplevel and $blockname as $1 and $2, respectively. Thus, the command vsim

$1 inside of the macro file foo.do runs vsim on topLevel.

Script to run after "vsim": Enter the name of a Tcl macro file (DO file) that is to be executed by ModelSim after all the HDL for black boxes has been successfully compiled, and after the ModelSim simulation has completed successfully. If the Open Waveform

Viewer checkbox has been selected, System Generator issues all commands it ordinarily uses to open and customize the waveform viewer before running this script. This allows you to customize the waveform viewer as desired (either by adding signals to the default viewer or by creating a fully custom viewer). The black box tutorial includes an example that customizes the waveform viewer.

It is often convenient to use relative paths in a custom script. Relative paths are interpreted with respect to the directory that contains the model's MDL file. A relative path in the Run co-simulation in directory field is also interpreted with respect to the directory that contains the model's MDL file. Thus, for example, if Run co-Simulation in directory specifies

./modelsim as the directory in which ModelSim should run, the relative path ../foo.do in a script definition field refers to a file named foo.do in the directory that contains the .mdl.

Fine Points

The time scale in ModelSim matches that in Simulink, for example, one second of Simulink simulation time corresponds to one second of ModelSim simulation time. This makes it easy to compare times at which events occur in the two settings. The typically large Simulink time scale is also useful because it allows System Generator to schedule events without running into problems related to the timing characteristics of the HDL model. Users needn't worry too much about the details System Generator event scheduling in co-simulation models.

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The following example is offered to illustrate the broader points.

Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

When the above model is run, the following waveforms are displayed by ModelSim:

At the time scale presented here (the above shows a time interval of six seconds), the rising clock edge at three seconds and the corresponding transmission of data through each of the two black boxes appear simultaneous, much as they do in the Simulink simulation.

Looking at the model, however, it is clear that the output of the first black box feeds the second black box. Both of the black boxes in this model have combinational feed-throughs, for example, changes on inputs translate into immediate changes on outputs. Zooming in

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset toward the three second event reveals how System Generator has resolved the dependencies. Note the displayed time interval has shrunk to ~20 ms.

The above figure reveals that System Generator has shifted the rising clock edge so it occurs before the input value is collected from Simulink and presented to the first of the black boxes. It then allows the value to propagate through the first black box and presents the result to the second at a slightly later time. Zooming in still further shows that the HDL model for the first black box includes a propagation delay which System Generator has

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset effectively abstracted away through the use of large time scales. The actual delay through the first black box (exactly1 ns) can be seen in the figure below.

In propagating data through black box components, System Generator allocates 1/ 1000 of the system clock period down to 1us, then shrinks the allocation to 1/100 of the system clock period down to 5ns, and below that threshold resorts to delta-delay stepping, for example, issuing "run 0 ns" commands to ModelSim. If the HDL includes timing information

(e.g,. transport delays) and the Simulink System Period is set too low, then the simulation results are incorrect. The above model begins to fail when the Simulink system period setting is reduced below 5e-7, which is the point at which System Generator resorts to delta-delay stepping of the black boxes for data propagation.

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Mult

This block is listed in the following Xilinx Blockset libraries: Math, Floating-Point and Index.

The Xilinx Mult block implements a multiplier. It computes the product of the data on its two input ports, producing the result on its output port.

Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your

Simulink model.

Basic tab

Parameters specific to the Basic tab are as follows:

Precision:

This parameter allows you to specify the output precision for fixed-point arithmetic.

Floating point output always has Full precision.

Full: The block uses sufficient precision to represent the result without error.

User Defined: If you don’t need full precision, this option allows you to specify a reduced number of total bits and/or fractional bits.

User-Defined Precision

Fixed-point Precision

°

°

°

Signed (2’s comp): The output is a Signed (2’s complement) number.

Unsigned: The output is an Unsigned number.

Number of bits: specifies the bit location of the binary point of the output number, where bit zero is the least significant bit.

Binary point: position of the binary point. in the fixed-point output

°

Quantization

Refer to the section Overflow and Quantization

.

Overflow

Refer to the section Overflow and Quantization

.

Optional Port

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• Provide enable port

Latency: This defines the number of sample periods by which the block's output is delayed.

Saturation and Rounding of User Data Types in a Multiplier

When saturation or rounding is selected on the user data type of a multiplier, latency is also distributed so as to pipeline the saturation/rounding logic first and then additional registers are added to the core. For example, if a latency of three is selected and rounding/saturation is selected, then the first register is placed after the rounding or saturation logic and two registers are placed to pipeline the core. Registers are added to the core until optimum pipelining is reached and then further registers are placed after the rounding/saturation logic. However, if the data type you select does not require additional saturation/rounding logic, then all the registers are used to pipeline the core.

Implementation tab

Parameters specific to the Implementation tab are as follows:

Use behavioral HDL (otherwise use core): The block is implemented using behavioral

HDL. This gives the downstream logic synthesis tool maximum freedom to optimize for performance or area.

Note:

For Floating-point operations, the block always uses the Floating-point Operator core.

Core Parameters

Optimize for Speed|Area: directs the block to be optimized for either Speed or Area

Use embedded multipliers: This field specifies that if possible, use the XtremeDSP slice (DSP48 type embedded multiplier) in the target device.

Test for optimum pipelining: Checks if the Latency provided is at least equal to the optimum pipeline length. Latency values that pass this test imply that the core produced is optimized for speed.

Other parameters used by this block are explained in the topic

Common Options in Block Parameter Dialog Boxes

.

LogiCORE™ Documentation

LogiCORE IP Multiplier v12.0

LogiCORE IP Floating-Point Operator v7.0

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MultAdd

This block is listed in the following Xilinx Blockset libraries: Floating-Point, Math and Index.

The Xilinx MultAdd block performs both fixed-point and floating-point multiply and addition with the a and b inputs used for the multiplication and the c input for addition or subtraction.

If the MultAdd inputs are floating point, then inputs a,b, and

c must be of the same data type. If the inputs are fixed point, then the port c binary point must be aligned to the sum of the port a and port b binary points.

Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your

Simulink model.

Basic tab

Parameters specific to the Basic tab are as follows:

Operation

Addition: Specifies that an addition will be performed after multiplication.

Subtraction: Specifies that a subtraction will be performed after multiplication.

Addition or subtraction: Adds a subtract port to the block, which controls whether the operation following multiplication is addition or subtraction (subtract High = subtraction, subtract Low = addition).

Optional Ports

Provide enable port: Adds an active-High enable port to the block interface.

Latency

Latency: This defines the number of sample periods by which the block's output is delayed.

The latency values you can set depend on whether you are performing fixed point or floating point arithmetic:

• For fixed point arithmetic, you can only specify a latency of 0 (for no latency) or -1 (for maximum/optimal latency). If you have added an enable port to the block interface, you can only specify a latency of -1 for fixed point arithmetic.

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• For floating point arithmetic, you can only specify a latency of 0 (for no latency) or a positive integer. If you have added an enable port to the block interface, you can only specify a positive integer for floating point arithmetic.

See the LogiCORE IP Multiply-Adder v3.0 Product Guide for details on latency in the block.

Output tab

Parameters specific to the Output tab are as follows:

Precision: This parameter allows you to specify the output precision for fixed-point arithmetic. Floating point arithmetic output will always be Full precision.

Full: The block uses sufficient precision to represent the result without error.

User Defined: If you don’t need full precision, this option allows you to specify a reduced number of total bits and/or fractional bits.

Fixed-point Output Type

Arithmetic type:

°

Signed (2’s comp): The output is a Signed (2’s complement) number.

Unsigned: The output is an Unsigned number.

°

Other parameters used by this block are explained in the topic

Common Options in Block Parameter Dialog Boxes

.

LogiCORE™ Documentation

LogiCORE IP Multiply-Adder v3.0

LogiCORE IP Floating-Point Operator v7.0

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Mux

This block is listed in the following Xilinx Blockset libraries: Basic Elements, Control Logic,

Floating-Point and Index.

The Xilinx Mux block implements a multiplexer. The block has one select input

(type unsigned) and a user-configurable number of data bus inputs, ranging from 2 to 1024.

Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your Simulink model.

Basic tab

Number of inputs: specify a number between 2 and 32.

Optional Ports

Other parameters used by this block are explained in the topic

Common Options in Block Parameter Dialog Boxes

.

Output

Precision:

This parameter allows you to specify the output precision for fixed-point arithmetic.

Floating point arithmetic output will always be Full precision.

Full: The block uses sufficient precision to represent the result without error.

User Defined: If you don’t need full precision, this option allows you to specify a reduced number of total bits and/or fractional bits.

User-Defined Precision

Fixed-point Precision

°

°

°

°

Signed (2’s comp): The output is a Signed (2’s complement) number.

Unsigned: The output is an Unsigned number.

Number of bits: specifies the bit location of the binary point of the output number where bit zero is the least significant bit.

Binary point: position of the binary point. in the fixed-point output

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Quantization

Refer to the section Overflow and Quantization

.

Overflow

Refer to the section Overflow and Quantization

.

Parameters used by this block are explained in the topic Common Options in Block

Parameter Dialog Boxes .

LogiCORE™ Documentation

LogiCORE IP Floating-Point Operator v7.0

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

Natural Logarithm

This block is listed in the following Xilinx Blockset libraries: AXI, Floating-Point, Index, and

Math.

The Xilinx Natural Logarithm block produces the natural logarithm of the input.

Block Parameters Dialog Box

Basic tab

Parameters specific to the Basic tab are:

Flow Control Options

Blocking: In this mode, the block waits for data on the input, as indicated by TREADY, which allows back-pressure.

NonBlocking: In this mode, the block operates every cycle in which the input is valid, no back-pressure.

Optional ports tab

Parameters specific to the Basic tab are:

Input Channel Ports:

Has TLAST: Adds a tlast input port to the block.

Has TUSER: Adds a tuser input port to the block.

Control Options:

Provide enable port: Adds an enable port to the block interface.

Has Result TREADY: Adds a TREADY port to the output channel.

Exception Signals:

INVALID_OP: Adds an output port that serves as an invalid operation flag.

DIVIDE_BY_ZERO: Adds an output port that serves as a divide-by-zero flag.

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

Negate

This block is listed in the following Xilinx Blockset libraries: Floating-Point, Math and Index.

The Xilinx Negate block computes the arithmetic negation of its input.

Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your

Simulink model.

Basic tab

Parameters specific to the Basic tab are as follows:

Precision:

This parameter allows you to specify the output precision for fixed-point arithmetic.

Floating point output always has Full precision.

Full: The block uses sufficient precision to represent the result without error.

User Defined: If you don’t need full precision, this option allows you to specify a reduced number of total bits and/or fractional bits.

Fixed-Point Output Type

Arithmetic Type

°

Signed (2’s comp): The output is a Signed (2’s complement) number.

Unsigned: The output is an Unsigned number.

°

Fixed-point Precision

°

Number of bits: Specifies the bit location of the binary point of the output number, where bit zero is the least significant bit.

Binary point: Position of the binary point. in the fixed-point output

°

Quantization

Refer to the section Overflow and Quantization

.

Overflow

Refer to the section Overflow and Quantization

.

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

Optional Port

• Provide enable port

Latency: This defines the number of sample periods by which the block's output is delayed.

Parameters used by this block are explained in the topic Common Options in Block

Parameter Dialog Boxes .

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

Opmode

This block is listed in the following Xilinx Blockset libraries: DSP and Index.

The Xilinx Opmode block generates a constant that is a DSP48A, DSP48, DS48E, or

DSP48E1 instruction. The instruction is an 11-bit value for the DSP48, 8-bit forDSP48A, 15-bit value for the DSP48E and a 20-bit value for DSP48E1. The instruction can consists of the opmode, carry-in, carry-in select, inmode and either the subtract or alumode bits (depending upon the selection of DSP48 or DSP48E type).

The Opmode block is useful for generating DSP48A, DSP48, DS48E, or DSP48E1 control sequences. The figure below shows an example. The example implements a 35x35-bit multiplier using a sequence of four instructions in a DSP48 block. The opmode blocks supply the desired instructions to a multiplexer that selects each instruction in the desired sequence.

Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your

Simulink model.

Opmode tab

Parameters specific to the Opmode tab are as follows:

Instruction

Device: specifies whether to generate an instruction for the DSP48A, DSP48, DSP48E, or DSP48E1 device.

DSP48 Instruction

Operation: displays the instruction that is generated by the block (instruction is also displayed on the block).

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Operation select: selects the instruction.

Preadder output: Allows you to select the equation for the DSP48E1 Preadder.

B register configuration: Allows you to select the B register configuration for the

DSP48E1. Select either B1 or B2.

Custom Instruction

Note:

The Custom Instruction field is activated when you select “Custom” in the Operation select field.

Instruction: allows you to select the instruction for the DSP48A, DSP48, DS48E, or

DSP48E1.

Z Mux: specifies the 'Z' source to the add/sub/logic unit to be one of {'0', 'C', 'PCIN',

'P','C', 'PCIN>>17',' P>>17'}.

Operand: specifies whether the DSP48's adder is to perform addition or subtraction. In the DSP48E, the operand selection is made in the instruction pulldown.

XY Muxes: specifies the 'XY' source to the DSP48's adder to be one of {'0','P', 'A:B',

'A*B', 'C', 'P+C', 'A:B+C' }. 'A:B' implies that A is concatenated with B to produce a value to be used as an input to the add/sub/logic unit.

Carry Input: specifies the 'carry' source to the DSP48's add/sub/logic unit to be one of

{'0', '1', 'CIN', '~SIGN(P or PCIN)', '~SIGN(A:B or A*B)' ,. '~SIGND(A:B or A*B)'}. '~SIGN (P or PCIN)' implies that the carry source is either P or PCIN depending on the Z Mux setting. '~SIGN(A*B or A:B)' implies that the carry source is either A*B or A:B depending on the YX Mux setting. The option '~SIGND (A*B or A:B)' selects a delayed version of

'~SIGN(A*B or A:B)'.

• Other parameters used by this block are explained in the topic

Common Options in Block Parameter Dialog Boxes

.

Xilinx LogiCORE

The Opmode block does not use a Xilinx LogiCORE™.

DSP48E Control Instruction Format

DSP48E Instruction

Operation select

C + A*B

PCIN + A*B

P + A*B

A* B

Notes

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

Operation select

C + A:B

C - A:B

C

Custom

Notes

Use equation described in the Custom Instruction Field.

DSP48E Custom Instruction

Instruction

Field Name

XY muxes

Z mux

Alumode

Carry input

Location Mnemonic

op[3:0] 0

P

A:B

A*B

C

P+C

A:B+C op[6:4] 0

PCIN

P

C

PCIN>>17

P>>17 op[10:7] X+Z

Z-X

] op[14:12 0 or 1

CIN

Notes

0

DSP48 output register

Concat inputs A and B (A is MSB)

Multiplication of inputs A and B

DSP48 input C

DSP48 input C plus P

Concat inputs A and B plus C register

0

DSP48 cascaded input from

PCOUT

DSP48 output register

DSP48 C input

Cascaded input downshifted by

17

DSP48 output register downshifted by 17

Add

Subtract

Set carry in to 0 or 1

Select cin as source. This adds a

CIN port to the Opmode block whose value is inserted into the mnemonic at bit location 11.

Round PCIN toward infinity

Round PCIN toward zero

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Instruction

Field Name

Location Mnemonic

Round P toward infinity

Round P toward zero

Larger add/sub/acc

(parallel operation)

Larger add/sub/acc

(sequential operation)

Round A*B

Notes

DSP48E1 Control Instruction Format

DSP48E1 Instruction

Operation select

C + A*B

PCIN + A*B

P + A*B

A* B

C + A:B

C - A:B

C

Custom

Notes

Use equation described in the Custom Instruction Field.

Preadder output

Zero

A2

A1

D + A2

D + A1

D

-A2

-A1

Notes

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

Preadder output

D - A2

D - A1

Notes

B register configuration

B1

B2

Notes

DSP48E1 Custom Instruction

Instruction

Field Name

Instruction

Z mux

Location

op[6:4]

Mnemonic

X + Z

X +NOT(Z)

NOT(X+Z)

Z - X

X XOR Z

X XNOR Z

X AND Z

X OR Z

X AND NOT(Z)

X OR NOT (Z)

X NAND Z

0

PCIN

Operand:

(Alumode)

XY muxes

P

C

PCIN>>17

P>>17 op[10:7] X+Z

Z-X op[3:0] 0

Notes

0

DSP48 cascaded input from

PCOUT

DSP48 output register

DSP48 C input

Cascaded input downshifted by

17

DSP48 output register downshifted by 17

Add

Subtract

0

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

Instruction

Field Name

Carry input

Location Mnemonic

P

A:B

A*B

C

P+C

A:B+C op[14:12] 0 or 1

CIN

Round PCIN toward infinity

Round PCIN toward zero

Round P toward infinity

Round P toward zero

Larger add/sub/acc

(parallel operation)

Larger add/sub/acc

(sequential operation)

Round A*B

Notes

DSP48 output register

Concat inputs A and B (A is MSB)

Multiplication of inputs A and B

DSP48 input C

DSP48 input C plus P

Concat inputs A and B plus C register

Set carry in to 0 or 1

Select cin as source. This adds a

CIN port to the Opmode block whose value is inserted into the mnemonic at bit location 11.

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

Parallel to Serial

This block is listed in the following Xilinx Blockset libraries: Basic Elements, Data Types, and

Index.

The Parallel to Serial block takes an input word and splits it into N time-multiplexed output words where N is the ratio of number of input bits to output bits. The order of the output can be either least significant bit first or most significant bit first.

The following waveform illustrates the block's behavior:

This example illustrates the case where the input width is 4, output word size is 1, and the block is configured to output the most significant word first.

Block Interface

The Parallel to Serial block has one input and one output port. The input port can be any size. The output port size is indicated on the block parameters dialog box.

Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your

Simulink model.

Basic tab

Parameters specific to the Basic tab are as follows:

Output order: Most significant word first or least significant word first.

Type: signed or unsigned.

Number of bits: Output width. Must divide Number of Input Bits evenly.

Binary Point: Binary point location.

The minimum latency of this block is 0.

Other parameters used by this block are explained in the topic

Common Options in Block Parameter Dialog Boxes

.

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

Product

This block is listed in the following Xilinx Blockset libraries: DSP, Math, and Index.

The Xilinx Product block implements a scalar or complex multiplier.

It computes the product of the data on its two input channels, producing the result on its output channel. For complex multiplication the input and output have two components: real and imaginary.

The Product block is ideal for generating a simple scalar or complex multiplier. If your implementation will use more complicated features such as AXI4 ports or a user-specified precision, use the Xilinx

Complex Multiplier 6.0

block (if you are

configuring a complex multiplier) or Xilinx

Mult

block (if you are configuring a scalar multiplier) in your design instead of the Product block.

In the Vivado design flow, the Product block is inferred as "LogicCore IP Complex

Multiplier" (if you have configured the Product block for complex multiplication) or

“LogiCore IP Multiplier” (if you have configured the Product block for scalar multiplication) for code generation. Refer to the LogiCORE IP Complex Multiplier v6.0 Product Guide or the

LogiCORE IP Multiplier v12.0 Product Guide for details about these LogiCore IP.

Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your

Simulink model.

Parameters specific to the block are as follows:

Complex Multiplication: Specifies mode of operation: scalar multiplier (Complex

Multiplication deselected) or complex multiplier (Complex Multiplication selected)

Optimize for: Specifies whether your design will be optimized for Performance or for

Resources when it is implemented in the Xilinx FPGA or AP SoC device.

Based on the settings for Complex Multiplication and Optimize for, and rate and type propagation (from the input data width), the latency value of the block will be derived automatically for a fully pipelined circuit. This latency value will be displayed on the block in the Simulink model.

LogiCORE™ Documentation

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

Puncture

This block is listed in the following Xilinx Blockset libraries: Communication and Index.

The Xilinx Puncture block removes a set of user-specified bits from the input words of its data stream.

Based on the puncture code parameter, a binary vector that specifies which bits to remove, it converts input data of type UFixN_0 (where N is equal to the length of the puncture code) into output data of type UFixK_0 (where K is equal to the number of ones in the puncture code). The output rate is identical to the input rate.

This block is commonly used in conjunction with a convolution encoder to implement punctured convolution codes as shown in the figure below.

The system shown implements a rate ½ convolution encoder whose outputs are punctured to produce four output bits for each three input bits. The top puncture block removes the center bit for code 0 ( [1 0 1] ) and bottom puncture block removes the least significant bit for code 1 ( [1 1 0 ] ), producing a 2-bit punctured output. These data streams are serialized into 1-bit in-phase and quadrature data streams for baseband shaping.

Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your

Simulink model.

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

Parameters specific to the block are as follows:

Puncture Code: the puncture pattern represented as a bit vector, where a zero in position i indicates bit i is to be removed.

Other parameters used by this block are explained in the topic

Common Options in Block Parameter Dialog Boxes

.

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

Reciprocal

This block is listed in the following Xilinx Blockset libraries: Floating-Point, Math and Index.

The Xilinx Reciprocal block performs the reciprocal on the input. Currently, only the floating-point data type is supported.

Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your

Simulink model.

Basic tab

Parameters specific to the Basic tab are as follows:

Flow Control:

Blocking: Selects “Blocking” mode. In this mode, the lack of data on one input channel does block the execution of an operation if data is received on another input channel.

NonBlocking: Selects “Non-Blocking” mode. In this mode, the lack of data on one input channel does not block the execution of an operation if data is received on another input channel.

Optional ports

Input Channel Ports

Has TLAST: Adds a TLAST port to the Input channel.

Has TUSER: Adds a TUSER port to the Input channel.

Provide enable port: Adds an enable port to the block interface.

Has Result TREADY: Adds a TREADY port to the Result channel.

Exception Signals

UNDERFLOW: Adds an output port that serves as an underflow flag.

DIVIDE_BY_ZERO: Adds an output port that serves as a divide-by-zero flag.

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

Reciprocal SquareRoot

This block is listed in the following Xilinx Blockset libraries: Floating-Point, Math and Index.

The Xilinx Reciprocal SquareRoot block performs the reciprocal squareroot on the input. Currently, only the floating-point data type is supported.

Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your

Simulink model.

Basic tab

Parameters specific to the Basic tab are as follows:

Flow Control:

Blocking: Selects “Blocking” mode. In this mode, the lack of data on one input channel does block the execution of an operation if data is received on another input channel.

NonBlocking: Selects “Non-Blocking” mode. In this mode, the lack of data on one input channel does not block the execution of an operation if data is received on another input channel.

Optional ports

Input Channel Ports

Has TLAST: Adds a TLAST port to the Input channel.

Has TUSER: Adds a TUSER port to the Input channel.

Provide enable port: Adds an enable port to the block interface.

Has Result TREADY: Adds a TREADY port to the Result channel.

Exception Signals

INVALID_OP: Adds an output port that serves as an invalid operation flag.

DIVIDE_BY_ZERO: Adds an output port that serves as a divide-by-zero flag.

Other parameters used by this block are explained in the topic

Common Options in Block Parameter Dialog Boxes

.

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

Reed-Solomon Decoder 9.0

This block is listed in the following Xilinx Blockset libraries: AXI4, Communication and Index.

The Reed-Solomon (RS) codes are block-based error correcting codes with a wide range of applications in digital communications and storage.

They are used to correct errors in many systems such as digital storage devices, wireless/ mobile communications, and digital video broadcasting.

The Reed-Solomon decoder processes blocks generated by a Reed-Solomon encoder, attempting to correct errors and recover information symbols. The number and type of errors that can be corrected depend on the characteristics of the code.

Reed-Solomon codes are Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH) codes, which in turn are linear block codes. An (n,k) linear block code is a k-dimensional sub-space of an

n-dimensional vector space over a finite field. Elements of the field are called symbols. For a Reed-Solomon code, n ordinarily is 2 s

-1

, where s is the width in bits of each symbol.

When the code is shortened, n is smaller. The decoder handles both full length and shortened codes. It is also able to handle erasures, that is, symbols that are known with high probability to contain errors.

When the decoder processes a block, there are three possibilities:

1. The information symbols are recovered. This is the case provided 2p+r <= n-k, where p

is the number of errors and r is the number of erasures.

2. The decoder reports it is unable to recover the information symbols.

3. The decoder fails to recover the information symbols but does not report an error.

The probability of each possibility depends on the code and the nature of the communications channel. Simulink provides excellent tools for modeling channels and estimating these probabilities.

Block Interface Channels and Pins

This Xilinx Reed-Solomon Decoder block is AXI4 compliant. The following describes the standard AXI channels and pins on the interface:

input Channel

input_tvalid: TVALID for the input channel.

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input_tdata_erase: indicates the symbol currently presented on data_in should be treated as an erasure. The signal driving this pin must be Bool.

input_tdata_data_in: presents blocks of n symbols to be decoded. This signal must have type UFIX_s_0, where s is the width in bits of each symbol.

• input_tlast: Marks the last symbol of the input block. Only used to generate event outputs. Can be tied low or high if event outputs are not used.

• input_tready: TREADY for the input channel.

• input_tuser_mark_in: marker bits for tagging data on data_in. Added to the channel when you select Marker Bits from the Optional Pins tab.

output Channel

• output_tready: TREADY for the output channel.

• output_tvalid: TVALID for the output channel.

• output_tdata_data_out: produces the information and parity symbols resulting from decoding. The type of data_out is the same as that for data_in.

• output_tlast: Goes high when the last symbol of the last block is on tdata_data_out. output_tlast

produces a signal of type UFIX_1_0.

• output_tuser_mark_out: mark_in tagging bits delayed by the latency of the LogiCORE.

Added to the channel when you select Marker Bits on the Optional Pins tab.

• output_tdata_info: Added to the channel when you select Info on the Optional Pins tab.

The signal marks the last information symbol of a block on tdata_data_out.

• output_tdata_data_del: Added to the channel when you select Original Delayed Data on the Optional Pins tab. The signal marks the last information symbol of a block on tdata_data_out

.

stat Channel

• stat_tready: TREADY for the stat channel.

• stat_tvalid: TVALID for the stat channel. You should tie this signal high if the downstream slave is always able to accept data or if the stat channel is not used.

• stat_tdata_err_cnt: presents a value at the time data_out presents the last symbol of the block. The value is the number of errors that were corrected. err_cnt must have type UFIX_b_0 where b is the number of bits needed to represent n-k.

• stat_tdata_err_found: presents a value at the time output_tdata_data_out presents the last symbol of the block. The value 1 if the decoder detected any errors or erasures during decoding. err_found must have type UFIX_1_0.

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• stat_tdata_fail: presents a value at the time output_tdata_data_out presents the last symbol of the block. The value is 1 if the decoder was unable to recover the information symbols, and 0 otherwise. This signal must be of type UFIX_1_0.

• stat_tdata_erase_cnt: only available when erasure decoding is enabled. Presents a value at the time dout presents the last symbol of the block. The value is the number of erasures that were corrected This signal must be of type UFIX_b_0 where b is the number of bits needed to represent n. Added to the channel when you select Erase from the Optional Pins tab.

• stat_tdata_bit_err_1_to_0: number of bits received as 1 but corrected to 0. Added to the channel when you select Error Statistics from the Optional Pins tab. The element width is the number of binary bits required to represent ((n-k) * Symbol_Width).

• stat_tdata_bit_err_0_to_1: number of bits received as 0 but corrected to 1. Added to the channel when you select Error Statistics from the Optional Pins tab. The element width is the number of binary bits required to represent ((n-k) * Symbol_Width).

• stat_tlast: added when Number of Channels parameter is greater than 1. Indicates that status information for the last channel is present on output_tdata.

event Channel

• event_s_input_tlast_missing: this output flag indicates that the input_tlast was not asserted when expected. You should leave this pin unconnected if it is not required.

• event_s_input_tlast_unexpected: this output flag indicates that the input_tlast was asserted when not expected. You should leave this pin unconnected if it is not required.

• event_s_ctrl_tdata_invalid: this output flag indicates that values provided on ctrl_tdata were illegal. The block must be reset if this is asserted.You should leave this pin unconnected if it is not required.

ctrl Channel

Note:

This channel is only present when variable block length, number of check symbols or puncture is selected as a block parameter

• ctrl_tready: TREADY for the ctrl channel.

• ctrl_tvalid: TVALID for the ctrl channel.

• ctrl_tdata: this input contains the block length, the number of check symbols and puncture select, if applicable.

Other Optional Pins

aresetn: resets the decoder. This pin is added to the block when you specify

Synchronous Reset on the Optional Pins tab. The signal driving rst must be Bool.

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Note:

aresetn

must be asserted high for at least 1 sample period before the decoder can start decoding code symbols.

aclken: carries the clock enable signal for the decoder. The signal driving aclken must be Bool. Added to the block when you select the optional pin Clock Enable.

Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your

Simulink model.

Attributes 1 tab

Parameters specific to the Basic tab are as follows:

Code Block Specification

Code specification: specifies the type of RS Decoder desired. The choices are:

°

°

Custom: allows you to set all the block parameters.

DVB: implements DVB (Digital Video Broadcasting) standard (204, 188) shortened

RS code.

°

°

°

°

ATSC: implements ATSC (Advanced Television Systems Committee) standard (207,

187) shortened RS code.

G.709: implements G.709 Optical Transport Network standard.

CCSDS: implements CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems) standard (255, 223) full length RS code.

IESS-308 (All): implements IESS-308 (INTELSAT Earth Station Standard) specification (all) shortened RS code.

°

IESS-308 (126): implements IESS-308 (INTELSAT Earth Station Standard) specification (126, 112) shortened RS code.

°

IESS-308 (194): implements IESS-308 specification (194, 178) shortened RS code.

°

IESS-308 (208): implements IESS-308 specification (208, 192) shortened RS code.

°

IESS-308 (219): implements IESS-308 specification (219, 201) shortened RS code.

°

IESS-308 (225): implements IESS-308 specification (225, 205) shortened RS code.

°

IEEE-802.16d: implements IEEE-802.16d specification (255, 239) full length RS code.

Symbol width: tells the width in bits for symbols in the code. The encoder support widths from 3 to 12.

Field polynomial: specifies the polynomial from which the symbol field is derived. It must be specified as a decimal number. This polynomial must be primitive. A value of

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset zero indicates the default polynomial should be used. Default polynomials are listed in the table below.

9

10

11

12

5

6

3

4

7

8

Symbol Width

Default

Polynomials

x

3

+ x + 1 x

4

+ x + 1

Array Representation

11

19 x

5

+ x2 + 1 x

9

+ x

4

+ 1

37 x

6

+ x + 1 67 x

7

+ x

3

+ 1 137 x

8

+ x

4

+ x

3

+ x

2

+ 1 285

529 x

10

+ x

3

+ 1 1033 x

11

+ x

2

+ 1 2053 x

12

+ x

6

+ x

4

+ x + 1 4179

Scaling Factor (h): (represented in the previous formula as h) specifies the scaling factor for the code. Ordinarily, h is 1, but can be as large as 2

S

- 1 where s is the symbol width. The value must be chosen so that α prime to 2

S

- 1. h

is primitive. That is, h must be relatively

Generator Start: specifies the first root r of the generator polynomial. The generator polynomial g(x), is given by: where α is a primitive element of the symbol field, and the scaling factor is described below.

Variable Block Length: when checked, the block is given a ctrl input channel.

Symbols Per Block(n): tells the number of symbols in the blocks the encoder produces. Acceptable numbers range from 3 to 2 width.

S

-1, where s denotes the symbol

Data Symbols(k): tells the number of information symbols each block contains.

Acceptable values range from max(n - 256, 1) to n - 2.

Variable Check Symbol Options

Variable Number of Check Symbols (r):

• Define Supported R_IN Values

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°

°

If only a subset of the possible values that could be sampled on R_IN is actually required, then it is possible to reduce the size of the core slightly. For example, for the

Intelsat standard, the R_IN input is 5 bits wide but only requires r values of 14, 16, 18, and 20. The core size can be slightly reduced by defining only these four values to be supported. If any other value is sampled on R_IN, the core will not decode the data correctly.

Number of Supported R_IN Values: Specify the number of supported R_IN values.

Supported R_IN Definition File: This is a COE file that defines the R values to be supported. It has the following format: radix=10; legal_r_vector=14,16,18,20; The number of elements in the legal_r_vector must equal the specified Number of

Supported R_IN Values.

Attributes 2 tab

Implementation

State Machine

°

Self Recovering: when checked, the block synchronously resets itself if it enters an illegal state.

Memory Style: Select between Distributed, Block and Automatic memory choices.

Number Of Channels: specifies the number of separate time division multiplexed channels to be processed by the encoder. The encoder supports up to 128 channels.

Output check symbols: If selected, then the entire n symbols of each block are output on the output channel. If not selected, then only the k information symbols are output.

Puncture Options

Number of Puncture Patterns: Specifies how many puncture patterns the LogiCORE needs to handle. It is set to 0 if puncturing is not required

Puncture Definition File: Specifies the pathname of the puncture definition file that is used to define the puncture patterns.

Note:

A relative pathname can be specified for a COE file in the current working directory. For example, the syntax is [cwd ‘/ieee802_16d_puncturing.coe’].

Optional pins tab

Clock Enable: Adds a aclken pin to the block. This signal carries the clock enable and must be of type Bool.

Info: Adds the output_tdata_info pin. Marks the last information symbol of a block on tdata_data_out

.

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Synchronous Reset: Adds a aresetn pin to the block. This signal resets the block and must be of type Bool. The signal must be asserted for at least 2 clock cycles, however, it does not have to be asserted before the decoder can start decoding.

Original Delayed Data: when checked, the block is given a tdata_data_del output.

Indicates that a DAT_DEL field is in the output_tdata output.

Erase: when checked, the block is given an input_tdata_erase input pin.

Error Statistics: adds the following three error statistics outputs:

°

bit_err_0_to_1: number of bits received as 1 but corrected to 0.

°

bit_err_1_to_0: number of bits received as 0 but corrected to 1.

Marker Bits: Adds the following pins to the block:

°

input_tuser_mark_in: carries marker bits for tagging data on input_tdata_ data_in

.

°

output_tuser_mark_out: mark_in tagging bits delayed by the latency of the

LogiCORE.

Number of Marker Bits: specifies the number of marker bits.

Other parameters used by this block are explained in the topic

Common Options in Block Parameter Dialog Boxes

.

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Reed-Solomon Encoder 9.0

This block is listed in the following Xilinx Blockset libraries: AXI4, Communications and Index.

The Reed-Solomon (RS) codes are block-based error correcting codes with a wide range of applications in digital communications and storage. This block adheres to the AMBA® AXI4-Stream standard.

They are used to correct errors in many systems such as digital storage devices, wireless or mobile communications, and digital video broadcasting.

The Reed-Solomon encoder augments data blocks with redundant symbols so that errors introduced during transmission can be corrected. Errors can occur for a number of reasons (noise or interference, scratches on a CD, etc.). The Reed-Solomon decoder attempts to correct errors and recover the original data. The number and type of errors that can be corrected depends on the characteristics of the code.

A typical system is shown below:

Reed-Solomon codes are Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH) codes, which in turn are linear block codes. An (n, k) linear block code is a k-dimensional sub space of an

n-dimensional vector space over a finite field. Elements of the field are called symbols. For a Reed-Solomon code, n ordinarily is 2

S

-1, where s is the width in bits of each symbol.

When the code is shortened, n is smaller. The encoder handles both full length and shortened codes.

The encoder is systematic. This means it constructs code blocks of length n from information blocks of length k by adjoining n-k parity symbols.

A Reed-Solomon code is characterized by its field and generator polynomials. The field polynomial is used to construct the symbol field, and the generator polynomial is used to

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset calculate parity symbols. The encoder allows both polynomials to be configured. The generator polynomial has the form: where α is a primitive element of the finite field having n + 1 elements.

Block Interface Channels and Pins

The Xilinx Reed-Solomon Decoder 8.0 block is AXI4 compliant. The following describes the standard AXI channels and pins on the interface:

input Channel

input_tvalid: TVALID for the input channel.

input_tdata_data_in: presents blocks of n symbols to be decoded. This signal must have type UFIX_s_0, where s is the width in bits of each symbol.

• input_tlast: Marks the last symbol of the input block. Only used to generate event outputs. Can be tied low or high if event outputs are not used.

• input_tready: TREADY for the input channel.

• input_tuser_user: marker bits for tagging data on input_tdata_data_in. Added to the channel when you select Marker Bits from the Detailed Implementation tab.

output Channel

• output_tready: TREADY for the output channel. Added to the channel when you select

Output TREADY from the Optional Pins tab.

• output_tvalid: TVALID for the output channel.

• output_tdata_data_out: produces the information and parity symbols resulting from decoding. The type of data_out is the same as that for data_in.

• output_tlast: Goes high when the last symbol of the last block is on tdata_data_out. output_tlast

produces a signal of type UFIX_1_0.

• output_tuser_tuser: This pin is available when user selects "Marker Bits" from the

Detailed Implementation tab.

event Channel

• event_s_input_tlast_missing: this output flag indicates that the input_tlast was not asserted when expected. You should leave this pin unconnected if it is not required.

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• event_s_input_tlast_unexpected: this output flag indicates that the input_tlast was asserted when not expected. You should leave this pin unconnected if it is not required.

• event_s_ctrl_tdata_invalid: this output flag indicates that values provided on ctrl_tdata were illegal. This pin is available when "Variable Block Length" or "Variable Number of

Check Symbols" are selected on the GUI.

ctrl Channel

Note:

This channel is only present when variable block length or number of check symbols is selected as a block parameter

• ctrl_tvalid: TVALID for the ctrl channel.

• ctrl_tdata_n_in: This signal is only present if “Variable Block Length” is selected in the

GUI. This allows the block length to be changed every block. The ctrl_tdata_n_in signal must have type UFIX_s_0, where s is the width in bits of each symbol. Unless there is an

R_IN field, the number of check symbols is fixed, so varying n automatically varies k.

• ctrl_tdata_n_r: This field is only present if “Variable Number of Check Symbols” is selected in the GUI. It allows the number of check symbols to be changed every block.

The new block's length, r_block, is set to ctrl_tdata_r_in sampled. The ctrl_tdata_r_in signal must have type UFIX_p_0, where p is the number of bits required to represent the parity bits (n-k) in the default code word, n being the "Symbols Per Block" and k being

"Data Symbols". Selecting this input significantly increases the size of the core.

Other Optional Pins

aresetn: resets the encoder. This pin is added to the block when you specify ARESETn on the Detailed Implementation tab. The signal driving ARESETn must be Bool.

Note:

aresetn

must be asserted low for at least 2 clock periods and at least 1 sample period before the decoder can start decoding code symbols.

aclken: carries the clock enable signal for the encoder. The signal driving aclken must be Bool. Added to the block when you select the optional pin ACLKEN.

Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your

Simulink model.

Attributes

Parameters specific to the Basic tab are as follows:

Code Block Specification

Code specification: specifies the encoder type desired. The choices are:

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°

°

°

°

°

°

°

°

Custom: allows you to set all the block parameters.

DVB: implements DVB (Digital Video Broadcasting) standard (204, 188) shortened

RS code.

ATSC: implements ATSC (Advanced Television Systems Committee) standard (207,

187) shortened RS code.

G_709: implements G.709 Optical Transport Network standard.

ETSI_BRAN: implements the ETSI Project standard for Broadband Radio Access

Networks (BRAN).

CCSDS: implements CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems) standard (255, 223) full length RS code.

ITU_J_83_Annex_B: implements International Telecommunication Union(ITU)-J.83

Annex B specification (128, 122) extended RS code.

IESS-308 (All): implements IESS-308 (INTELSAT Earth Station Standard) specification (all) shortened RS code.

°

IESS-308 (126): implements IESS-308 (INTELSAT Earth Station Standard) specification (126, 112) shortened RS code.

°

IESS-308 (194): implements IESS-308 specification (194, 178) shortened RS code.

°

IESS-308 (208): implements IESS-308 specification (208, 192) shortened RS code.

°

IESS-308 (219): implements IESS-308 specification (219, 201) shortened RS code.

°

IESS-308 (225): implements IESS-308 specification (225, 205) shortened RS code.

Variable Number of Check Symbols (r): false, true. When checked, the ctrl_tdata_r_in and ctrl_tdata_n_in pins become available on the block.

Variable Block Length: false, true. When checked, the ctrl_tdata_n_in pin becomes available on the block.

Symbol width: tells the width in bits for symbols in the code. The encoder support widths from 3 to 12.

Field polynomial: specifies the polynomial from which the symbol field is derived. It must be specified as a decimal number. This polynomial must be primitive. A value of zero indicates the default polynomial should be used. Default polynomials are listed in the table below.

5

6

3

4

Symbol Width

Default

Polynomials

x

3

+ x + 1 x

4

+ x + 1 x

5

+ x2 + 1 x

6

+ x + 1

Array Representation

11

19

37

67

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7

8

9

10

11

12

Symbol Width

Default

Polynomials

Array Representation

x

7

+ x

3

+ 1 137 x

8

+ x

4

+ x

3

+ x

2

+ 1 285 x

9

+ x

4

+ 1 529 x

10

+ x

3

+ 1 1033 x

11

+ x

2

+ 1 2053 x

12

+ x

6

+ x

4

+ x + 1 4179

Scaling Factor (h): (represented in the previous formula as h) specifies the scaling factor for the code. Ordinarily, h is 1, but can be as large as 2 width. The value must be chosen so that α prime to 2

S

- 1. h

S

- 1 where s is the symbol

is primitive. That is, h must be relatively

Generator Start: specifies the first root r of the generator polynomial. The generator polynomial g(x), is given by: where α is a primitive element of the symbol field, and the scaling factor is described below.

Symbols Per Block(n): tells the number of symbols in the blocks the encoder produces. Acceptable numbers range from 3 to 2 width.

S

-1, where s denotes the symbol

Data Symbols(k): tells the number of information symbols each block contains.

Acceptable values range from max(n - 256, 1) to n - 2.

Detailed Implementation tab

Implementation

Check Symbol Generator Optimization

°

°

°

This option is available when "Variable Number of Check Symbols" option is selected on the GUI.

Fixed Architecture: The check symbol generator is implemented using a highly efficient fixed architecture.

Area: The check symbol generator implementation is optimized for area and speed efficiency. The range of input, ctrl_tdata_n_in, is reduced.

Flexibility: The check symbol generator implementation is optimized to maximize the range of input of ctrl_tdata_n_in.

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Memory Style: Select between Distributed, Block and Automatic memory choices.

This option is available only for CCSDS codes.

Number Of Channels: specifies the number of separate time division multiplexed channels to be processed by the encoder. The encoder supports up to 128 channels.

Optional Pins

ACLKEN: Adds a aclken pin to the block. This signal carries the clock enable and must be of type Bool.

Output TREADY: When selected, the output channels will have a TREADY and hence support the full AXI handshake protocol with inherent back-pressure.

ARESETn: Adds a aresetn pin to the block. This signal resets the block and must be of type Bool. aresetn

must be asserted low for at least 2 clock periods and at least 1 sample period before the decoder can start decoding code symbols.

Info bit: Adds the output_tdata_info pin. Marks the last information symbol of a block on tdata_data_out.

Marker Bits: Adds the following pins to the block:

°

input_tuser_user: carries marker bits for tagging data on input_tdata_ data_in

.

°

output_tuser_user: mark_in tagging bits delayed by the latency of the LogiCORE.

Number of Marker Bits: specifies the number of marker bits.

Other parameters used by this block are explained in the topic

Common Options in Block Parameter Dialog Boxes

.

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Register

This block is listed in the following Xilinx Blockset libraries: Basic Elements, Control Logic,

Memory, Floating-Point and Index.

The Xilinx Register block models a D flip-flop-based register, having latency of one sample period.

Block Interface

The block has one input port for the data and an optional input reset port. The initial output value is specified by you in the block parameters dialog box (below). Data presented at the input will appear at the output after one sample period. Upon reset, the register assumes the initial value specified in the parameters dialog box.

The Register block differs from the Xilinx Delay block by providing an optional reset port and a user specifiable initial value.

Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your

Simulink model.

Basic tab

Parameters specific to the Basic tab are as follows:

Initial value: specifies the initial value in the register.

Optional Ports

Other parameters used by this block are explained in the topic

Common Options in Block Parameter Dialog Boxes

.

Xilinx LogiCORE

The Register block is implemented as a synthesizable VHDL module. It does not use a Xilinx

LogiCORE™.

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Reinterpret

This block is listed in the following Xilinx Blockset libraries: Basic Elements, Floating-Point,

Math, and Index.

The Xilinx Reinterpret block forces its output to a new type without any regard for retaining the numerical value represented by the input.

The binary representation is passed through unchanged, so in hardware this block consumes no resources. The number of bits in the output will always be the same as the number of bits in the input.

The block allows for unsigned data to be reinterpreted as signed data, or, conversely, for signed data to be reinterpreted as unsigned. It also allows for the reinterpretation of the data's scaling, through the repositioning of the binary point within the data. The Xilinx Scale block provides an analogous capability.

An example of this block's use is as follows: if the input type is 6 bits wide and signed, with

2 fractional bits and the output type is forced to be unsigned with 0 fractional bits, then an input of -2.0 (1110.00 in binary, two's complement) would be translated into an output of 56

(111000 in binary).

This block can be particularly useful in applications that combine it with the Xilinx Slice block or the Xilinx Concat block. To illustrate the block's use, consider the following scenario:

Given two signals, one carrying signed data and the other carrying two unsigned bits (a

UFix_2_0

), we want to design a system that concatenates the two bits from the second signal onto the tail (least significant bits) of the signed signal.

We can do so using two Reinterpret blocks and one Concat block. The first Reinterpret block is used to force the signed input signal to be treated as an unsigned value with its binary point at zero. The result is then fed through the Concat block along with the other signal's UFix_2_0. The Concat operation is then followed by a second Reinterpret that forces the output of the Concat block back into a signed interpretation with the binary point appropriately repositioned.

Though three blocks are required in this construction, the hardware implementation is realized as simply a bus concatenation, which has no cost in hardware.

Block Parameters

Parameters specific to the block are:

Force Arithmetic Type: When checked, the Output Arithmetic Type parameter can be set and the output type is forced to the arithmetic type chosen according to the setting

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset of the Output Arithmetic Type parameter. When unchecked, the arithmetic type of the output is unchanged from the arithmetic type of the input.

Output Arithmetic Type: The arithmetic type (unsigned or signed, 2's complement,

Floating-point) to which the output is to be forced.

Force Binary Point: When checked, the Output Binary Point parameter can be set and the binary point position of the output is forced to the position supplied in the Output

Binary Point parameter. When unchecked, the arithmetic type of the output is unchanged from the arithmetic type of the input.

Output Binary Point: The position to which the output's binary point is to be forced.

The supplied value must be an integer between zero and the number of bits in the input (inclusive).

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Relational

This block is listed in the following Xilinx Blockset libraries: Basic Elements, Control Logic,

Floating-Point, Math, and Index.

The Xilinx Relational block implements a comparator.

The supported comparisons are the following:

•equal-to (a = b)

• not-equal-to (a != b)

• less-than (a < b)

• greater-than (a > b)

• less-than-or-equal-to (a <= b)

• greater-than-or-equal-to (a >= b)

• The output of the block is a Bool.

Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your

Simulink model.

The only parameter specific to the Relational block is:

Comparison: specifies the comparison operation computed by the block.

Other parameters used by this block are explained in the topic

Common Options in Block Parameter Dialog Boxes

.

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Requantize

This block is listed in the following Xilinx Blockset libraries: Basic Elements, Data Types, Math, and Index.

The Xilinx Requantize block requantizes and scales its input signals.

The Xilinx Requantize block requantizes each input sample to a number of a desired fixed point precision output. For example, a fixed point signed (two's complement) or unsigned number can be requantized to an output with lesser or greater number of bits and realign its binary point precision.

This block also scales its input by a power of two. The power can be either positive or negative. The scale operation has the effect of moving the binary point without changing the bits in the container.

The Requantize block is used to requantize and scale its input signals. If you are only performing one of these operations, but not both, you can use a different block in the Xilinx blockset to perform that operation.

• To requantize your input without scaling, use the

Convert block in the Xilinx blockset.

• To scale your input without requantizing, use the Scale

block in the Xilinx blockset.

Quantization

Quantization errors occur when the number of fractional bits is insufficient to represent the fractional portion of a value. This block uses symmetric round during quantization for any insufficient input data.

Round (unbiased: +/- inf) is also known as "Symmetric Round (towards +/- inf)" or

"Symmetric Round (away from zero)". This is similar to the Matlab round() function. This method rounds the value to the nearest desired bit away from zero. When there is a value at the midpoint between two possible rounded values, the one with the larger magnitude is selected. For example, to round 01.0110 to a Fix_4_2, this yields 01.10, since 01.0110 is halfway between 01.01 and 01.10, and 01.10 is further from zero.

Overflow

Overflow errors occur when a value lies outside the representable range. In case of data overflow this block saturates the data to the largest positive/smallest negative value.

Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your

Simulink model.

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Parameters specific to the block are as follows:

Scale factor s (scale output by 2^s): The scale factor can be a positive or negative integer. The output of the block is i*2^k, where i is the input value and k is the scale factor. The effect of scaling is to move the binary point, which in hardware has no cost

(a shift, on the other hand, might add logic).

Fixed-point Precision

Number of bits: Specifies the total number of bits, including the binary point bit width.

Binary point: Specifies the bit location of the binary point. Bit zero is the Least

Significant Bit.

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Reset Generator

This block is listed in the following Xilinx Blockset libraries: Basic Elements and Index.

The Reset Generator block captures the user's reset signal that is running at the system sample rate, and produces one or more downsampled reset signal(s) running at the rates specified on the block.

The downsampled reset signals are synchronized in the same way as they are during startup. The RDY output signal indicates when the downsampled resets are no longer asserted after the input reset is detected.

Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box shown below can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your Simulink model.

You specify the design sample rates in MATLAB vector format as shown above. Any number of outputs can be specified.

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ROM

This block is listed in the following Xilinx Blockset libraries: Control Logic, Memory,

Floating-Point and Index.

The Xilinx ROM block is a single port read-only memory (ROM).

Values are stored by word and all words have the same arithmetic type, width, and binary point position. Each word is associated with exactly one address. An address can be any unsigned fixed-point integer from 0 to d-1, where d denotes the ROM depth (number of words). The memory contents are specified through a block parameter. The block has one input port for the memory address and one output port for data out. The address port must be an unsigned fixed- point integer. The block has two possible Xilinx LogiCORE™ implementations, using either distributed or block memory.

Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your

Simulink model.

Basic tab

Parameters specific to the Basic tab are as follows:

Depth: specifies the number of words stored; must be a positive integer.

Initial value vector: specifies the initial value. When the vector is longer than the ROM depth, the vector's trailing elements are discarded. When the ROM is deeper than the vector length, the ROM's trailing words are set to zero. The initial value vector is saturated or rounded according to the data precision specified for the ROM.

Memory Type: specifies block implementation to be distributed RAM or Block RAM.

• Provide reset port for output register: when selected, allows access to the reset port available on the output register of the Block ROM. The reset port is available only when the latency of the Block ROM is set to 1.

Initial value for output register: specifies the initial value for output register. The initial value is saturated and rounded according to the data precision specified for the

ROM.

Output

• Specifies the data type of the output. Can be Boolean, Fixed-point, or Floating-point.

Arithmetic Type: If the Output Type is specified as Fixed-point, you can select Signed

(2’s comp) or Unsigned as the Arithmetic Type.

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Fixed-point Precision

°

Number of bits: specifies the bit location of the binary point of the output number, where bit zero is the least significant bit.

Binary point: position of the binary point. in the fixed-point output

°

Floating-point Precision

- Single: Specifies single precision (32 bits)

- Double: Specifies double precision (64 bits)

- Custom: Activates the field below so you can specify the Exponent width and the Fraction width.

Exponent width: Specify the exponent width

°

Fraction width: Specify the fraction width

Other parameters used by this block are explained in the topic

Common Options in Block Parameter Dialog Boxes

.

LogiCORE™ Documentation

LogiCORE IP Block Memory Generator v8.2

LogiCORE IP Distributed Memory Generator v8.0

For the block memory, the address width must be equal to ceil(log2(d)) where d denotes the memory depth. The maximum width of data words in the block memory depends on the depth specified; the maximum depth is depends on the device family targeted. The tables below provide the maximum data word width for a given block memory depth.

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Sample Time

This block is listed in the following Xilinx Blockset libraries: Tools and Index.

The Sample Time block reports the normalized sample period of its input. A signal's normalized sample period is not equivalent to its Simulink absolute sample period. In hardware, this block is implemented as a constant.

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Scale

This block is listed in the following Xilinx Blockset libraries: Data Types, Math, and Index.

The Xilinx Scale block scales its input by a power of two. The power can be either positive or negative. The block has one input and one output. The scale operation has the effect of moving the binary point without changing the bits in the container

Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your

Simulink model.

The only parameter that is specific to the Scale block is Scale factor s. It can be a positive or negative integer. The output of the block is i*2^k, where i is the input value and k is the scale factor. The effect of scaling is to move the binary point, which in hardware has no cost

(a shift, on the other hand, might add logic).

Other parameters used by this block are explained in the topic

Common Options in Block Parameter Dialog Boxes

.

Xilinx LogiCore

The Scale block does not use a Xilinx LogiCORE™.

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Serial to Parallel

This block is listed in the following Xilinx Blockset libraries: Basic Elements, Data Types, and

Index.

The Serial to Parallel block takes a series of inputs of any size and creates a single output of a specified multiple of that size. The input series can be ordered either with the most significant word first or the least significant word first.

The following waveform illustrates the block's behavior:

This example illustrates the case where the input width is 1, output width is 4, word size is

1 bit, and the block is configured for most significant word first.

Block Interface

The Serial to Parallel block has one input and one output port. The input port can be any size. The output port size is indicated on the block parameters dialog box.

Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your

Simulink model.

Basic tab

Parameters specific to the Basic tab are as follows:

Input order: Least or most significant word first.

Arithmetic type: Signed or unsigned output.

Number of bits: Output width which must be a multiple of the number of input bits.

Binary point: Output binary point location

Other parameters used by this block are explained in the topic

Common Options in Block Parameter Dialog Boxes

.

An error is reported when the number of output bits cannot be divided evenly by the number of input bits. The minimum latency for this block is zero.

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

Shift

This block is listed in the following Xilinx Blockset libraries: Control Logic, Data Types, Math and Index.

The Xilinx Shift block performs a left or right shift on the input signal. The result will have the same fixed-point container as that of the input.

Block Parameters

Parameters specific to the Shift block are:

Shift direction: specifies a direction, Left or Right. The Right shift moves the input toward the least significant bit within its container, with appropriate sign extension. Bits shifted out of the container are discarded. The Left shift moves the input toward the most significant bit within its container with zero padding of the least significant bits.

Bits shifted out of the container are discarded.

Number of bits: specifies how many bits are shifted. If the number is negative, direction selected with Shift direction is reversed.

Other parameters used by this block are explained in the topic

Common Options in Block Parameter Dialog Boxes

.

Xilinx LogiCORE

The Shift block does not use a Xilinx LogiCORE™.

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Sine Wave

This block is listed in the following Xilinx Blockset libraries: DSP and Index.

The Xilinx Sine Wave block generates a sine wave, using simulation time as the time source.

The Xilinx Sine Wave block outputs a sinusoidal waveform. Outputs from the block can be a sine wave, a cosine wave, or both. When implemented in a

Xilinx FPGA or SoC, the Sine Wave block optimizes the block parameters for your target device.

The output of the Sine Wave block is determined by this equation:

y = sin (2

Π

(k+o)/p)

where

p = number of time samples per sine wave period

k = repeating integer value that ranges from 0 to p-1

o = offset (phase shift) of the signal

In this block, Xilinx System Generator sets k equal to 0 at the first time step and computes the block output, using the formula above. At the next time step, Simulink increments k and re-computes the output of the block. When k reaches p, Simulink resets k to 0 before computing the block output. This process continues until the end of the simulation.

The output characteristic of the Sine Wave block is determined by:

Samples per period = 2Π / (Frequency * Sample Time)

Number of offset samples = Phase Offset * Samples per period / 2Π

The Sine Wave block is ideal for generating simple sine and cosine waves. If your sine wave implementation will use more complicated features such as a phase generator, multiple channel support, or AXI4 ports, use the Xilinx

DDS Compiler 6.0

block in your design instead of the Sine Wave block.

In the Vivado design flow, the Sine Wave block is inferred as "LogicCore IP DDS Compiler v6.0" for code generation.

Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your

Simulink model.

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

Parameters specific to the block are as follows:

System Parameters

Select the input format: Specifies whether the frequency and phase offset inputs are entered as a Frequency (Hz) or an angular velocity (Radians) value.

Frequency: Specifies the frequency, either in Hertz or radians. The default is 10 MHz.

Phase Offset: Specifies the phase shift, either in Hertz or radians. The default is 0.

Output Selection

Sine_and_Cosine: Places both a sine and cosine output port on the block.

Sine: Places only a sine output port on the block.

Cosine: Places only a cosine output port on the block.

Spurious Free Dynamic Range (SFDR): Specifies the precision of the output produced by the Sine Wave block. This sets the output width as well as internal bus widths, and controls various implementation decisions.

Explicit Sample Period: If checked, the Sine Wave block uses the explicit sample time specified in the Sample Period box below. If not checked, the System Generator base period will be used as block sample time.

Sample Period: If Explicit Sample Period is selected, specifies the sample time for the block.

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Example

A simple use case of generating sinusoidal signal using Sine Wave block is shown below.

To generate a 20 KHz sine wave with Π/2 phase offset in a system running at sample period of (1/1e6) or 1 MHz, use the following specification on the Sine Wave block.

These settings generate this sine wave:

Wavelength of sine wave = Simulink Sample Period / Frequency => 1MHz/20KHz = 0.5 * 10

-4

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The spectrum view of the sine wave is:

Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

Also:

Number of Samples per period = (2Π/(1/1e6 * 20e3))

= 50 (Total number of samples in a single cycle)

Number of offset samples = (Π/2) * (50/2Π) = 50/4

LogiCORE™ Documentation

LogiCORE IP DDS Compiler v6.0 Product Guide

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Single Port RAM

This block is listed in the following Xilinx Blockset libraries: Control Logic, Floating-Point,

Memory, and Index.

The Xilinx Single Port RAM block implements a random access memory (RAM) with one data input and one data output port.

Block Interface

The block has one output port and three input ports for address, input data, and write enable (WE). Values in a Single Port RAM are stored by word, and all words have the same arithmetic type, width, and binary point position.

A single-port RAM can be implemented using either block memory or distributed memory resources in the FPGA. Each data word is associated with exactly one address that must be an unsigned integer in the range 0 to d-1, where d denotes the RAM depth (number of words in the RAM). An attempt to read past the end of the memory is caught as an error in the simulation, though if a block memory implementation is chosen, it can be possible to read beyond the specified address range in hardware (with unpredictable results). The initial RAM contents can be specified through the block parameters.

The write enable signal must be Bool, and when its value is 1, the data input is written to the memory location indicated by the address input. The output during a write operation depends on the choice of memory implementation.

The behavior of the output port depends on the write mode selected (see below). When the

WE is 0, the output port has the value at the location specified by the address line.

Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your

Simulink model.

Parameters specific to this block are:

Depth: the number of words in the memory; must be a positive integer.

Initial value vector: the initial contents of the memory. When the vector length exceeds the memory depth, values with index higher than depth are ignored. When the depth exceeds the vector length, memory locations with addresses higher than the vector length are initialized to zero. Initialization values are saturated and rounded (if necessary) according to the precision specified on the data port.

Write Mode: specifies memory behavior when WE is asserted. Supported modes are:

Read before write, Read after write, and No read On write. Read before write indicates

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset the output value reflects the state of the memory before the write operation. Read after write indicates the output value reflects the state of the memory after the write operation. No read on write indicates that the output value remains unchanged irrespective of change of address or state of the memory. There are device specific restrictions on the applicability of these modes. Also refer to the write modes and hardware notes topic below for more information.

Memory Type: option to select between block and distributed RAM.

Provide reset port for output register: exposes a reset port controlling the output register of the Block RAM. Note: this port does not reset the memory contents to the initialization value. The reset port is available only when the latency of the Block RAM is set to 1.

Initial value for output register: the initial value for output register. The initial value is saturated and rounded as necessary according to the precision specified on the data port of the Block RAM.

Other parameters used by this block are explained in the Common Parameters topic at the beginning of this chapter.

Write Modes

During a write operation (WE asserted), the data presented to the data input is stored in memory at the location selected by the address input. You can configure the behavior of the data out port A upon a write operation to one of the following modes:

• Read after write

• Read before write

• No read On write

These modes can be described with the help of the figure shown below. In the figure the memory has been set to an initial value of 5 and the address bit is specified as 4. When using No read on write mode, the output is unaffected by the address line and the output is the same as the last output when the WE was 0. For the other two modes, the output is obtained from the location specified by the address line, and hence is the value of the

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset location being written to. This means that the output can be either the old value (Read

before write mode), or the new value (Read after write mode).

Hardware Notes

The distributed memory LogiCORE™ supports only the Read before write mode. The Xilinx

Single Port RAM block also allows distributed memory with write mode option set to Read after write when specified latency is greater than 0. The Read after write mode for the distributed memory is achieved by using extra hardware resources (a MUX at the distributed memory output to latch data during a write operation).

LogiCORE™ Documentation

LogiCORE IP Block Memory Generator v8.2

LogiCORE IP Distributed Memory Generator v8.0

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

Single-Step Simulation

This block is listed in the following Xilinx Blockset libraries: Tools and Index.

The Xilinx Single-Step Simulation block pauses the simulation each clock cycle when in single-step mode.

Double-clicking on the icon switches the block from single-step to continuous mode. When the simulation is paused, it can be restarted by selecting the Start button on the model toolbar .

Block Parameters

There are no parameters for this block.

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

Slice

This block is listed in the following Xilinx Blockset libraries: Basic Elements, Control Logic,

Data Types, and Index

The Xilinx Slice block allows you to slice off a sequence of bits from your input data and create a new data value. This value is presented as the output from the block. The output data type is unsigned with its binary point at zero.

The block provides several mechanisms by which the sequence of bits can be specified. If the input type is known at the time of parameterization, the various mechanisms do not offer any gain in functionality. If, however, a Slice block is used in a design where the input data width or binary point position are subject to change, the variety of mechanisms becomes useful. The block can be configured, for example, always to extract only the top bit of the input, or only the integral bits, or only the first three fractional bits. The following diagram illustrates how to extract all but the top 16 and bottom 8 bits of the input.

Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your

Simulink model.

Parameters specific to the block are as follows:

Width of slice (Number of bits): specifies the number of bits to extract.

• Boolean output: Tells whether single bit slices should be type Boolean.

Specify range as: (Two bit locations | Upper bit location + width |Lower bit location + width). Allows you to specify either the bit locations of both end-points of the slice or one end-point along with number of bits to be taken in the slice.

Offset of top bit: specifies the offset for the ending bit position from the LSB, MSB or binary point.

Offset of bottom bit: specifies the offset for the ending bit position from the LSB, MSB or binary point.

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Relative to: specifies the bit slice position relative to the Most Significant Bit (MSB),

Least Significant Bit (LSB), or Binary point of the top or the bottom of the slice.

Other parameters used by this block are explained in the topic

Common Options in Block Parameter Dialog Boxes

.

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SquareRoot

This block is listed in the following Xilinx Blockset libraries: Floating-Point, Math and Index.

The Xilinx SquareRoot block performs the square root on the input. Currently, only the floating-point data type is supported.

Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your

Simulink model.

Basic tab

Parameters specific to the Basic tab are as follows:

Flow Control:

Blocking: Selects “Blocking” mode. In this mode, the lack of data on one input channel does block the execution of an operation if data is received on another input channel.

NonBlocking: Selects “Non-Blocking” mode. In this mode, the lack of data on one input channel does not block the execution of an operation if data is received on another input channel.

Optional ports

Input Channel Ports

Has TLAST: Adds a TLAST port to the Input channel.

Has TUSER: Adds a TUSER port to the Input channel.

Provide enable port: Adds an enable port to the block interface.

Has Result TREADY: Adds a TREADY port to the Result channel.

Exception Signals

INVALID_OP: Adds an output port that serves as an invalid operation flag.

Other parameters used by this block are explained in the topic

Common Options in Block Parameter Dialog Boxes

.

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LogiCORE™ Documentation

LogiCORE IP Floating-Point Operator v7.0

Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

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System Generator

This token is listed in the following Xilinx Blockset libraries: Basic Elements, Tools, and Index.

The System Generator token serves as a control panel for controlling system and simulation parameters, and it is also used to invoke the code generator for netlisting.

Every Simulink model containing any element from the Xilinx Blockset must contain at least one System Generator token. Once a System Generator token is added to a model, it is possible to specify how code generation and simulation should be handled.

Token Parameters

The parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your Simulink model.

Compilation tab

Parameters specific to the Compilation tab are as follows:

Compilation: Specifies the type of compilation result that should be produced when the code generator is invoked. The default compilation type is IP Catalog. Refer to the chapter System Generator Compilation Types in the Vivado Design Suite User Guide:

Model-Based DSP Design using System Generator ( UG897 ) for a complete explanation of the available compilation types.

The Settings button is activated when one of these compilation types is selected:

°

°

°

IP Catalog compilation: The Settings button brings up a dialog box that allows you to add a description of the IP that will be placed in the IP catalog.

Hardware Co-Simulation JTAG compilation: The Settings button brings up a dialog box that allows you to use burst data transfers to speed up JTAG hardware co-simulation. For a description of burst data transfers, see Burst Data Transfers for

Point-to-Point Ethernet Hardware Co-Simulation in the Vivado Design Suite User

Guide: Model-Based DSP Design using System Generator (

UG897

).

Hardware Co-Simulation Point-to-point Ethernet compilation: The Settings button brings up a dialog box that allows you to use burst data transfers to speed up point-to-point Ethernet hardware co-simulation. For a description of burst data transfers, see Burst Data Transfers for Point-to-Point Ethernet Hardware

Co-Simulation in the Vivado Design Suite User Guide: Model-Based DSP Design using

System Generator (

UG897

).

Part: Defines the FPGA part to be used.

Hardware Description Language: Specifies the HDL language to be used for compilation of the design. The possibilities are VHDL and Verilog.

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VHDL library: Specifies the name of VHDL work library for code generation. The default name is xil_defaultlib.

Target directory: Defines where System Generator should write compilation results.

Because System Generator and the FPGA physical design tools typically create many files, it is best to create a separate target directory, for example, a directory other than the directory containing your Simulink model files.

Synthesis strategy: Choose a Synthesis strategy from the pre-defined strategies in the drop-down list.

Implementation strategy: Choose an Implementation strategy from the pre-defined strategies in the drop-down list.

Create testbench: This instructs System Generator to create an HDL testbench.

Simulating the testbench in an HDL simulator compares Simulink simulation results with ones obtained from the compiled version of the design. To construct test vectors,

System Generator simulates the design in Simulink, and saves the values seen at gateways. The top HDL file for the testbench is named <name>_testbench.vhd/.v, where <name> is a name derived from the portion of the design being tested.

Note:

Testbench generation is not supported for designs that have gateways (Gateway In or

Gateway Out) configured as an AXI4-Lite Interface

Create interface document: When this box is checked and the Generate button is activated for netlisting, System Generator creates an HTM document that describes the design being netlisted. This document is placed in a “documentation” subfolder under the netlist folder.

Adding Designer Comments to the Generated Document If you want to add personalized comments to the auto-generated document, follow this procedure: a. As shown below, double click on the Simulink canvas at the top-level and add a comment that starts with Designer Comments:

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset b. Double click on the System Generator token, click the Create interface document box at the bottom of the Compilation tab, then click Generate. c. When netlisting is complete, navigate to the documentation subfolder underneath the netlist folder and double click on the HTM document. As shown below, d. Designer Comments section is created in the document and your personalized comments are included.

e. Model Upgrade: Generates a Status Report that helps you identify and upgrade blocks that are not the latest available.

Clocking tab

Parameters specific to the Clocking tab are as follows:

Enable multiple clocks: Must be enabled in the top-level system Generator token of a multiple clock design. This indicates to the Code Generation engine that the clock information for the various Subsystems must be obtained from the System Generator tokens contained in those Subsystems. If not enabled, then the design will be treated as a single clock design where all the clock information is inherited from the top-level

System Generator token. For details, see Multiple Independent Clocks Hardware Design in the Vivado Design Suite User Guide: Model-Based DSP Design using System Generator

(

UG897

).

FPGA clock period(ns): Defines the period in nanoseconds of the system clock. The value need not be an integer. The period is passed to the Xilinx implementation tools through a constraints file, where it is used as the global PERIOD constraint. Multicycle paths are constrained to integer multiples of this value.

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Clock pin location: Defines the pin location for the hardware clock. This information is passed to the Xilinx implementation tools through a constraints file. This option should not be specified if the System Generator design is to be included as part of a larger

HDL design.

Provide clock enable clear pin: This instructs System Generator to provide a ce_clr port on the top-level clock wrapper. The ce_clr signal is used to reset the clock enable generation logic. Capability to reset clock enable generation logic allows designs to have dynamic control for specifying the beginning of data path sampling.

Simulink system period (sec): Defines the Simulink System Period, in units of seconds.

The Simulink system period is the greatest common divisor of the sample periods that appear in the model. These sample periods are set explicitly in the block dialog boxes, inherited according to Simulink propagation rules, or implied by a hardware oversampling rate in blocks with this option. In the latter case, the implied sample time is in fact faster than the observable simulation sample time for the block in Simulink. In hardware, a block having an oversampling rate greater than one processes its inputs at a faster rate than the data. For example, a sequential multiplier block with an over-sampling rate of eight implies a (Simulink) sample period that is one eighth of the multiplier block’s actual sample time in Simulink. This parameter can be modified only in a master block.

Perform timing analysis: Specifies whether timing analysis will or will not be performed on the System Generator design when it is compiled. If None is selected, no timing analysis will be performed. If Post Synthesis is selected, timing analysis will be performed after the design has been synthesized in the Vivado toolset. If Post

Implementation is selected, timing analysis will be performed after the design is implemented in the Vivado toolset. Refer to Performing Timing Analysis in the Vivado

Design Suite User Guide: Model-Based DSP Design using System Generator ( UG897 ) for details.

Launch Analyzer: Launches the Timing Analyzer table, displaying data from the last timing analysis run on your Simulink model. This will only work if you already ran timing analysis on the Simulink model and haven't changed the Simulink model since the last run. Refer to Accessing Existing Timing Analysis Results in the Vivado Design

Suite User Guide: Model-Based DSP Design using System Generator ( UG897 ) for details.

General tab

Parameters specific to the General tab are as follows:

Block icon display: Specifies the type of information to be displayed on each block icon in the model after compilation is complete. The various display options are described below:

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°

Default: Displays the default block icon information on each block in the model. A blocks’s default icon is derived from the xbsIndex library.

°

Normalized Sample Periods: Displays the normalized sample periods for all the input and output ports on each block. For example, if the Simulink System Period is set to 4 and the sample period propagated to a block port is 4 then the normalized period that is displayed for the block port is 1 and if the period propagated to the block port is 8 then the sample period displayed would be 2 for example, a larger number indicates a slower rate.

°

°

Sample frequencies (Mhz): Displays sample frequencies for each block.

Pipeline stages: Displays the latency information from the input ports of each block. The displayed pipeline stage might not be accurate for certain high-level blocks such as the FFT, RS Encoder/ Decoder, Viterbi Decoder, etc. In this case the displayed pipeline information can be used to determine whether a block has a combinational path from the input to the output. For example, the Up Sample block

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset in the figure below shows that it has a combinational path from the input to the output port.

°

°

°

HDL port names: Displays the HDL port name of each port on each block in the model.

Input data types: Displays the data type of each input port on each block in the model.

Output data types: Displays the data type of each output port on each block in the model.

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Threshold

This block is listed in the following Xilinx Blockset libraries: Basic Elements, Data Types, Math and Index.

The Xilinx Threshold block tests the sign of the input number. If the input number is negative, the output of the block is -1; otherwise, the output is 1. The output is a signed fixed-point integer that is 2 bits long. The block has one input and one output.

Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your

Simulink model.

Parameters used by this block are explained in the topic Common Options in Block

Parameter Dialog Boxes .

The block parameters do not control the output data type because the output is always a signed fixed-point integer that is 2 bits long.

Xilinx LogiCORE

The Threshold block does not use a Xilinx LogiCORE™.

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Time Division Demultiplexer

This block is listed in the following Xilinx Blockset libraries: Basic Elements and Index.

The Xilinx Time Division Demultiplexer block accepts input serially and presents it to multiple outputs at a slower rate.

Block Interface

The block has one data input port and a user-configurable number of data outputs, ranging from 1 to 32. The data output ports have the same arithmetic type and precision as the input data port. The time division demultiplexer block also has optional input-valid port (vin) and output-valid port (vout). Both the valid ports are of type Bool. The block has two possible implementations, single or multiple channel.

Single Channel Implementation

For single channel implementation, the time division demultiplexer block has one data input and output port. Optional data valid input and output ports are also allowed. The length of the frame sampling pattern establishes the length of the input data frame. The position of 1 indicates the input value to be downsampled and the number of 1's correspond to the downsampling factor. The behavior of the demultiplexer block in single channel mode can best be illustrated with the help of the figure below. Based on the frame sampling pattern entered, the first and second input values of every input data frame are sampled and presented to the output at the rate of 2.

For single channel implementation, the number of values to be sampled from a data frame should evenly divide the size of the input frame. Every input data frame value can also be qualified by using the optional valid port.

Multiple Channel Implementation

For multiple channel implementation, the time division demultiplexer block has one data input port and multiple output ports equal to the number of 1's in the frame sampling pattern. Optional data valid input and output ports are also allowed. The length of the

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset frame sampling pattern establishes the length of the input data frame. The position of 1 indicates the input value to be downsampled and presented to the corresponding output data channel. The behavior of the demultiplexer block in multiple channel mode can best be illustrated with the help of the figure below. Based on the frame sampling pattern entered, the first and second input values of every input data frame are sampled and presented to the corresponding output channel at the rate of 4.

For multiple channel implementation, the down sampling factor is always equal to the size of the input frame. Every input data frame value can also be qualified by using the optional valid port.

Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your

Simulink model.

Parameters specific to this block are:

• Frame sampling pattern: specifies the size of the serial input data frame. The frame sampling pattern must be a MATLAB vector containing only 1's and 0's.

• Implementation: specifies the demultiplexer behavior to be either in single or multiple channel mode. The behaviors of these modes are explained above.

• Provide valid Port: when selected, the demultiplexer has optional input and output valid ports (vin / vout). The vin port allows to qualify every input data value as part of the serial input data frame. The vout port marks the state of the output ports as valid or not.

Parameters used by this block are explained in the topic Common Options in Block

Parameter Dialog Boxes .

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Time Division Multiplexer

This block is listed in the following Xilinx Blockset libraries: Basic Elements and Index.

The Xilinx Time Division Multiplexer block multiplexes values presented at input ports into a single faster rate output stream.

Block Interface

The block has two to 32 input ports and one output port. All input ports must have the same arithmetic type, precision, and rate. The output port has the same arithmetic type and precision as the inputs. The output rate is nr, where n is the number of input ports and r is their common rate. The block also has optional ports vin and vout that specify when input and output respectively are valid. Both valid ports are of type Bool.

Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your

Simulink model.

Parameters specific to the block are as follows:

Number of inputs: specifies the number of inputs (2 to 32).

Provide valid port: when selected, the multiplexer is augmented with input and output valid ports named vin and vout respectively. When the vin port indicates that input values are invalid, the vout port indicates the corresponding output frame is invalid

Optimization Parameter: The Time Division Multiplexer block logic can be implemented in fabric (optimizing for resource usage) or in DSP48E1/DSP48E2 primitives (optimizing for speed). The default is Resource.

°

Resource: Use combinatorial fabric (general interconnect) to implement the Time

Division Multiplexer in the Xilinx device.

°

Speed: Use DSP48 primitives to implement the Time Division Multiplexer in the Xilinx device.

Parameters used by this block are explained in the topic Common Options in Block

Parameter Dialog Boxes .

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Toolbar

This block is listed in the following Xilinx Blockset libraries: Tools and Index.

The Xilinx Toolbar block provides quick access to several useful utilities in System

Generator. The Toolbar simplifies the use of the zoom feature in Simulink and adds new auto layout and route capabilities to Simulink models.

The Toolbar also houses several productivity improvement tools described below.

Block Interface

Double clicking on the Xilinx Toolbar block launches the GUI shown below.

The Toolbar can also be launched from the command line using xlITBUtiles, a collection of functions used by the Toolbar. xlTBUtils('Toolbar');

Only one Toolbar GUI can be opened at a time, that is, the Toolbar GUI is a singleton.

Regardless of where a Toolbar block is placed, the Toolbar will always perform actions on the current Simulink model in focus. In other words, if the Toolbar is invoked from model A, it can still be used on model B so long as model B is in focus.

Toolbar Buttons

Toolbar

Buttons

Descriptions

Undo: Cancels the most recent change applied to the model layout by the Toolbar and reverts the layout state to the one prior to this change.

Can undo up to three changes.

Reroute: Reroutes lines to enhance model readability.

If lines are selected, only those lines are rerouted. Otherwise all lines in the model are rerouted.

Auto Layout: Relocates blocks and reroutes lines to enhance model readability.

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Toolbar

Buttons

Descriptions

Add Terms: Calls on the xlAddTerms function to add sources and sinks to the current model in focus. System Generator blocks are sourced with a System Generator constant block, while Simulink blocks are sourced with a Simulink constant block. Terminators are used as sinks.

Help: Opens this document.

Zoom: Allows you to get either a closer view of a portion of the

Simulink model or a wider view of the model depending on the position of the slider or the value of the zoom factor. You can either position the slider or edit the Zoom Factor. The Zoom Factor is limited to be between 5 and 1000.

Toolbar Menus

Toolbar Buttons

Tools

Create Plugins

Descriptions

Inspect Selected

Toolbar Properties

Launches the System Generator Board Description

Builder tool.

Opens up the Simulink Inspector with the properties of the blocks that are currently selected. This is useful when trying to set the size of several blocks, or the horizontal position of blocks drawn on a model.

Launches the Properties Dialog Box shown in the figure below. Allows you to set parameters for the Auto Layout and Reroute tool. X and Y pitch indicate distances (in pixels) between blocks placed next to each other in the

X and Y directions respectively.

The toolbar uses the Simulink autorouter when Use

simulink autorouter is checked. Otherwise, a direct line is drawn from source to destination.

Help Opens this document.

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References

1) E.R.Gansner, E.Koutsofios, S.C.North, KVo, "A Technique for Drawing Directed Graphs", http://www.graphviz.org/Documentation/TSE93.pdf

2) The Reroute and Auto Layout buttons invoke an open source package called Graphviz.

More information on this package is also available at http://www.graphviz.org/

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

Up Sample

This block is listed in the following Xilinx Blockset libraries: Basic Elements and Index.

The Xilinx Up Sample block increases the sample rate at the point where the block is placed in your design. The output sample period is l/n, where l is the input sample period and n is the sampling rate.

The input signal is up sampled so that within an input sample frame, an input sample is either presented at the output n times if samples are copied, or presented once with (n-1) zeroes interspersed if zero padding is used.

In hardware, the Up Sample block has two possible implementations. If the Copy Samples option is selected on the block parameters dialog box, the Din port is connected directly to

Dout and no hardware is expended. Alternatively, if zero padding is selected, a mux is used to switch between the input sample and inserted zeros. The corresponding circuit for the zero padding Up Sample block is shown below.

Block Interface

The Up Sample block receives two clock enable signals, Src_CE and Dest_CE. Src_CE is the clock enable signal corresponding to the input data stream rate. Dest_CE is the faster clock enable, corresponding to the output data stream rate. Notice that the circuit uses a single flip-flop in addition to the mux. The flip-flop is used to adjust the timing of Src_CE, so that the mux switches to the data input sample at the start of the input sample period, and switches to the constant zero after the first input sample. It is important to notice that the circuit has a combinational path from Din to Dout. As a result, an Up Sample block configured to zero pad should be followed by a register whenever possible.

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Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your

Simulink model.

Basic tab

Parameters specific to the Basic tab are as follows:

Sampling rate (number of output samples per input sample): must be an integer with a value of 2 or greater. This is the ratio of the output sample period to the input, and is essentially a sample rate multiplier. For example, a ratio of 2 indicates a doubling of the input sample rate. If a non-integer ratio is desired, the Up Sample block can be used in combination with the Down Sample block.

Copy samples (otherwise zeros are inserted): allows you to choose what to do with the additional samples produced by the increased clock rate. By selecting Copy

Samples, the same sample is duplicated (copied) during the extra sample times. If this checkbox is not selected, the additional samples are zero.

Optional Ports

°

Provide enable port. When checked, this option adds an en(enable) input port, if the Latency is specified as a positive integer greater than zero.

Latency: This defines the number of sample periods by which the block's output is delayed. One sample period can correspond to multiple clock cycles in the corresponding FPGA implementation (for example, when the hardware is over-clocked with respect to the Simulink model). The user defined sample latency is handled in the

Upsample block by placing shift registers that are clock enabled at the input sample rate, on the input of the block. The behavior of an Upsample block with non-zero latency is similar to putting a delay block, with equivalent latency, at the input of an

Upsample block with zero latency.

Parameters used by this block are explained in the topic Common Options in Block

Parameter Dialog Boxes .

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Vivado HLS

This block is listed in the following Xilinx Blockset libraries: Control and Index.

The Xilinx Vivado HLS block allows the functionality of a Vivado HLS design to be included in a System Generator design. The Vivado HLS design can include C, C++ and System C design sources.

There are two steps to the method of including a Vivado HLS design into System

Generator. The first step is to use the Vivado HLS RTL Packaging feature to package the design files into a Solution directory. (Refer to Vivado HLS documentation for more information regarding RTL Packaging.) The second step is to place the Vivado HLS block in your System

Generator design and specify the Vivado HDL Solution directory as the target.

Block Parameters Dialog Box

Solution: The path to the Solution space directory containing RTL packaged for System

Generator. This path is usually the path to a directory contained in a Vivado HLS project.

The path must be included in single quotes and must evaluate to a string

Browse: A standard directory browse button

Refresh: Updates the block ports to the latest package contained in the solution space

Edit: Opens the Vivado HLS project associated with Solution space

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Use C simulation model if available: Use the C simulation model if it available in the

Vivado HLS package. As shown below, the simulation model is being used is shown on the Vivado HLS block. In this case, an RTL-model is being because a C simulation model is not available.

Display signal types: Signal types to be used to drive input ports and emanating from output ports are displayed on the block icon when checked.

Output Sample Times: Select either the Simulink system period or the GCD of the

inputs period.

Data Type Translation

C/C++ Data Type

float double bool

(unsigned) char

(unsigned) short

(unsigned) int

(unsigned) long

(unsigned) long long ap_(u)fix<N,M> ap_(u)int<N>

Data Type Translation

System Generator for DSP Data Type

XFloat_32_23

XFloat_64_52

UFix_1_0

(U)Fix_8_0

(U)Fix_16_0

(U)Fix_32_0

(U)FIX_<PlatformDependent>_0

(U)Fix_64_0

(U)Fix_<N>_<N-M>

(U)Fix_N_0

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Design Example

A design that implements a Median Filter using the Vivado HLS block is located in the

System Generator examples directory sub-folder titled hls_filter.

Known Issues

• It is not possible to include a purely combinational design from Vivado HLS. The design must synthesize into an RTL design that contains a Clock and a Clock Enable input.

• The top-level module cannot contain C/C++ templates.

• Composite ports will be represented as UFix_<N>_0 only where N is the width of the port.

• The current C simulation model only supports fixed latency and interval designs. The latency and interval numbers are obtained from the synthesis engine.

• The current C simulation model supports the default block-level communication protocol (ap_hs).

• The current C simulation model does not support the ‘ap_memory’ and ‘ap_bus’ interfaces.

• VHLS does not support combinational designs due to performance considerations. In the current implementation, System Generator updates each HLS input port multiple times every clock cycle. So it is very costly to evaluate the DUT whenever inputs changes.

• The output values match RTL simulation results only when corresponding control signals indicate data are valid. So testbench and downstream blocks should read/observe data based on the communication protocol and control signals.

• Since VHLS has to use the GCC shipped in the Vivado Design Suite to compile dll on

Win-64 platform, users cannot use arbitrary bitwidth integer in C designs on win-64 systems.

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Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

Viterbi Decoder 9.1

This block is listed in the following Xilinx Blockset libraries: AXI4, Communications and Index.

Data encoded with a convolution encoder can be decoded using the

Xilinx Viterbi decoder block. This block adheres to the AMBA®

AXI4-Stream standard.

There are two steps to the decode process. The first weighs the cost of incoming data against all possible data input combinations; either a Hamming or Euclidean metric can be used to determine the cost. The second step traces back through the trellis and determines the optimal path. The length of the trace through the trellis can be controlled by the traceback length parameter.

The decoder achieves minimal error rates when using optimal convolution codes; the table below shows various optimal codes. For correct operation, convolution codes used for encoding must match with that for decoding.

Constraint length

7

8

9

3

4

5

6

Optimal convolution codes for 1/2 rate

(octal)

[7 5]

[17 13]

[37 33]

57 65]

[117 127]

[357 233]

[755 633]

Optimal convolution codes for 1/3 rate (octal)

[7 7 5]

[17 13 15]

[37 33 25]

[57 65 71]

[117 127 155]

[357 233 251]

[755 633 447]

Block Interface

The Xilinx Viterbi Decoder 8.0 block is AXI4 compliant. The following describes the standard

AXI channels and pins on the interface:

S_AXIS_DATA Channel

s_axis_data_tvalid: TVALID for S_AXIS_DATA channel. Input pin, always available. This port indicates the values presents on the input data ports are valid.

s_axis_data_tready: TREADY for S_AXIS_DATA. Output pin, always available. This port indicates that the core is ready to accept data.

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s_axis_data_tdata: Input TDATA. Different input data ports are available depending on the Viterbi Type selected on Page1 tab of block-GUI.

When Trellis Mode is selected, 5 input data pins become available – these are

s_axis_data_tdata_tcm00, s_axis_data_tdata_tcm01, s_axis_data_tdata_tcm10,

s_axis_data_tdata_tcm11 and s_axis_data_tdata_sector.

The width of the Trellis mode inputs (s_axis_data_tdata_tcm**) can range from 4 to 6 corresponding to a data width (Soft_Width value on Page2 tab) of 3 to 5. s_axis_data_tdata_sector is always 4-bit wide. The decoder always functions as a rate 1/2 decoder when Trellis mode is selected.

For any other Viterbi Type (Standard/Multi-Channel/Dual Decoder), the Decoder supports rates from 1/2 to 1/7. Therefore, the block can have 2 to 7 input data ports labeled s_axis_data_tdata_data_in0 … s_axis_data_tdata_data_in6. Hard Coding requires each tdata_data_in<n> port to be 1 bit wide. Soft Coding allows these widths to be between 3 to

5 bits (inclusive).

s_axis_data_tuser: TUSER for S_AXIS_DATA. These ports are only present if External

Puncturing is selected or it is a Dual Decoder or Block Valid signal is used with the core.

s_axis_data_tuser_erase port becomes available, when External Puncturing is selected

(on Page2 tab). This input bus is used to indicate the presence of a null-symbol on the corresponding data_in buses. For e.g. tuser_erase(0) corresponds to data_in0, tuser_erase(1) corresponds to data_in1 etc. If an erase bit is high, the data on the corresponding data_in bus is treated as a null-symbol internally to the decoder. The width of the erase bus is equal to the output rate of the decoder with a maximum value of 7.

s_axis_data_tuser_sel port becomes available when Dual Decoder is selected. This is used to select the correct set of convolution codes for the decoding of the input data symbols in the dual decoder case. When SEL is low, the input data is decoded using the first set of convolution codes. When it is high, the second set of convolution codes is applied.

s_axis_data_tuser_block_in port becomes available when Block Valid option is selected on Page 5 tab.

M_AXIS_DATA Channel

m_axis_data_tvalid: TVALID for M_AXIS_DATA channel. Output pin, always available. It indicates whether the output data is valid or not.

m_axis_data_tready: TREADY for M_AXIS_DATA channel. Do not enable or tie high if downstream slave is always able to accept data. It becomes available when TREADY option is selected on Page 5 tab.

m_axis_data_tdata: decoded TDATA for output data channel.

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m_axis_data_tdata_data port represents the decoded output data and it is always 1 bit wide.

m_axis_data_tdata_sector port becomes available for Trellis Mode decoder. This port is always 4-bit wide. The output SECTOR is a delayed version of the input SECTOR bus.

Both buses have a fixed width of 4 bits. The delay equals the delay through the Trellis

Mode decoder.

m_axis_data_tuser: TUSER for M_AXIS_DATA channel. These ports are only present if the block is a Dual Decoder or it has normalization signal present or it has Block Valid option checked.

m_axis_data_tuser_sel port becomes available when the block is configured as a Dual

Decoder. This signal is a delayed version of the input s_axis_data_tuser_sel signal. The delay equals to the delay through the Dual Decoder.

m_axis_data_tuser_norm port becomes available when NORM option is checked on

Page 5 tab. This port indicates when normalization has occurred within the core. It gives an immediate indication of the rate of errors in the channel.

m_axis_data_tuser_block_out port becomes available when Block Valid option is checked on Page 5 tab. This signal is a delayed version of the input s_axis_data_tuser_block_in signal. The BLOCK_OUT signal shows the decoded data corresponding to the original BLOCK_IN set of data points. The delay equals the delay through the decoder.

S_AXIS_DSTAT Channel

Note:

These ports become available when Use BER Symbol Count is selected on Page 5 tab.

s_axis_dstat_tvalid: TVALID for S_AXIS_DSTAT channel.

s_axis_dstat_tready: TREADY for S_AXIS_DSTAT channel. Indicates that the core is ready to accept data. Always high, except after a reset if there is not a TREADY on the output.

s_axis_dstat_tdata_ber_range: TDATA for S_AXIS_DSTAT channel. This is the number of symbols over which errors are counted in the BER block.

M_AXIS_DSTAT Channel

Note:

These ports become available when Use BER Symbol Count is selected on Page 5 tab.

m_axis_dstat_tvalid: TVALID for M_AXIS_DSTAT channel.

m_axis_dstat_tready: TREADY for M_AXIS_DSTAT channel. Do not enable or tie high if downstream slave is always able to accept data. It becomes available when TREADY option is selected on Page 5 tab.

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m_axis_dstat_tdata_ber: TDATA for M_AXIS_DSTAT channel. The Bit Error Rate (BER) bus output (fixed width 16) gives a measurement of the channel bit error rate by counting the difference between the re-encoded DATA_OUT and the delayed DATA_IN to the decoder.

Other Optional Pins

aresetn: The synchronous reset (aresetn) input can be used to re-initialize the core at any time, regardless of the state of aclken signal. aresetn needs to be asserted low for at least two clock cycles to initialize the circuit. This pin becomes available if ARESETN option is selected on the Page 5 tab. It must be of type Bool. If this pin is not selected,

System Generator ties this pin to inactive (high) on the core.

aclken: Carries the clock enable signal for the decoder. The signal driving aclken must be Bool. This pin becomes available if ACLKEN option is selected on Page 5 tab.

Block Parameters

Page1 tab

Parameters specific to the Page1 tab are:

Viterbi Type

Number of Channels: Used with the Muli-Channel selection, the number of channels to be decoded can be any value between 2 and 32.

Standard: This type is the basic Viterbi Decoder.

Multi-Channel: This type allows many interlaced channels of data to be decoded using a single Viterbi Decoder.

Trellis Mode: This type is a trellis mode decoder using the TCM and SECTOR_IN inputs.

Dual Decoder: When selected, the block behaves as a dual decoder with two sets of convolutional codes. This makes the sel input port available.

Decoder Options

Use Reduced Latency: The latency of the block depends on the traceback length and the constraint length. If this reduced latency option is selected, then the latency of the block is approximately halved and the latency is only 2 times the traceback length.

Constraint length: Equals n+1, where n is the length of the constraint register in the encoder.

Traceback length: Length of the traceback through the Viterbi trellis. Optimal length is

5 to 7 times the constraint length.

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Page2 tab

Architecture

Parallel: Large but fast Viterbi Decoder

Serial: Small but processes the input data in a serial fashion. The number of clock cycles needed to process each set of input symbols depends on the output rate and the soft width of the data.

Best State

Use Best State: Gives improved BER performance for highly punctured data.

Best State Width: Indicates how many of the least significant bits to ignore when saving the cost used to determine the best state.

Puncturing

None: Input data has not been punctured.

External (Erased Symbols): When selected an erase port is added to the block. The presence of null-symbols (that is, symbols which have been deleted prior to transmission across the channel) is indicated using the erasure input erase.

Coding

Soft Width: The input width of soft-coded data can be anything in the range 3 to 5.

Larger widths require more logic. If the block is implemented in serial mode, larger soft widths also increase the serial processing time.

Soft Coding: Uses the Euclidean metric to cost the incoming data against the branches of the Viterbi trellis.

Hard Coding: Uses the Hamming difference between the input data bits and the branches of the Viterbi trellis. Hard coding is only available for the standard parallel block.

Data Format

Signed Magnitude:

Offset Binary (available for soft coding only):

See Table 1 in the associated LogiCORE Product Specification for the Signed Magnitude and Offset-Binary data format for Soft Width 3.

Page3 tab

Convolution 0

Output Rate 0: Output Rate 0 can be any value from 2 to 7.

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Convolution Code 0 Radix: The convolutional codes can be input and viewed in binary, octal, or decimal.

Convolution Code Array (0-6): First array of convolution codes. Output rate is derived from the array length. Between 2 and 7 (inclusive) codes can be entered. When dual decoding is used, a value of 0 (low) on the sel port corresponds to this array.

Page4 tab

The options on this tab are activated when you select Dual Decoder as the Viterbi Type on the Page1 tab.

Convolution 1

Output Rate 1: Output Rate 1 can be any value from 2 to 7. This is the second output rate used if the decoder is dual. The incoming data is decoded at this rate when the SEL input is high. Output Rate 1 is not used for the non-dual decoder.

Convolution Code 1 Radix: The convolutional codes can be input and viewed in binary, octal, or decimal.

Page5 tab

BER Options

Use BER Symbol Count: This bit-error-rate (BER) option monitors the error rate on the transmission channel.

Optional Pins

NORM: Indicates when normalization has taken place internal to the Add Compare

Select module

Block Valid: Check this box if BLOCK_IN and BLOCK_OUT signals are required. These signals track the movement of a block of data through the decoder. BLOCK_OUT corresponds to BLOCK_IN delayed by the decoder latency.

TREADY: Selecting this option makes m_axis_data_tready and m_axis_dstat_tready pins available on the block.

ACLKEN: carries the clock enable signal for the block The signal driving aclken must be

Bool

.

ARESETN: Adds a aresetn pin to the block. This signal resets the block and must be of type Bool. aresetn must be asserted low for at least 2 clock periods and at least 1 sample period before the decoder can start decoding code symbols.

Common Parameters used by this block, such as Display shortened port names, are explained in the topic

Common Options in Block Parameter Dialog Boxes .

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LogiCORE™ Documentation

LogiCORE IP Viterbi Decoder v9.1

Chapter 1: Xilinx Blockset

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Chapter 2

Xilinx Reference Blockset

The following reference libraries are provided:

Communication

Communication Reference Designs

BPSK AWGN Channel

Convolutional Encoder

White Gaussian Noise Generator

Control Logic

Control Logic Reference Designs

Mealy State Machine

Moore State Machine

Registered Mealy State Machine

Registered Moore State Machine

DSP

DSP Reference Designs

2 Channel Decimate by 2 MAC FIR Filter

2n+1-tap Linear Phase MAC FIR Filter

2n-tap Linear Phase MAC FIR Filter

2n-tap MAC FIR Filter

4-channel 8-tap Transpose FIR Filter

4n-tap MAC FIR Filter

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DSP Reference Designs

CIC Filter

Dual Port Memory Interpolation MAC FIR Filter

Interpolation Filter

m-channel n-tap Transpose FIR Filter

n-tap Dual Port Memory MAC FIR Filter

n-tap MAC FIR Filter

Imaging

Imaging Reference Designs

5x5Filter

Virtex Line Buffer

Virtex2 5 Line Buffer

Virtex2 Line Buffer

Math

Math Reference Designs

CORDIC ATAN

CORDIC DIVIDER

CORDIC LOG

CORDIC SINCOS

CORDIC SQRT

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Chapter 2: Xilinx Reference Blockset

2 Channel Decimate by 2 MAC FIR Filter

The Xilinx n-tap 2 Channel Decimate by 2 MAC FIR Filter reference block implements a multiply-accumulate-based FIR filter. One dedicated multiplier and one Dual Port Block RAM are used in the n-tap filter. The same MAC engine is used to process both channels that are time division multiplexed (TDM) together. Completely different coefficient sets can be specified for each channel as long as they have the same number of coefficients. The filter also provides a fixed decimation by 2 using a polyphase filter technique. The filter configuration helps illustrate techniques for storing multiple coefficient sets and data samples in filter design. The Virtex FPGA family (and Virtex family derivatives) provide dedicated circuitry for building fast, compact adders, multipliers, and flexible memory architectures. The filter design takes advantage of these silicon features by implementing a design that is compact and resource efficient.

Implementation details are provided in the filter design Subsystems. To read the annotations, place the block in a model, then right-click on the block and select Explore from the popup menu. Double click on one of the sub-blocks to open the sub-block model and read the annotations.

Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your

Simulink model.

Parameters specific to this reference block are as follows:

Data Input Bit Width: Width of input sample.

Data Input Binary Point: Binary point location of input.

Coefficient Vector (Ch.1): Specify coefficients for Channel 1 of the filter. Number of taps is inferred from size of coefficient vector.

Coefficient Vector (Ch.2): Specify coefficients for Channel 2 of the filter. Number of taps is inferred from size of coefficient vector.

Note:

Coefficient Vectors must be the same size. Pad coefficients if necessary to make them the same size.

Number of Bits per Coefficient: Bit width of each coefficient.

Binary Point per Coefficient: Binary point location for each coefficient.

Note:

Coefficient Vectors must be the same size. Pad coefficients if necessary to make them the same size.

Sample Period: Sample period of input

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Reference

J. Hwang and J. Ballagh. Building Custom FIR Filters Using System Generator. 12th

International Field-Programmable Logic and Applications Conference (FPL). Montpellier,

France, September 2002. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 2438

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2n+1-tap Linear Phase MAC FIR Filter

The Xilinx 2n+1-tap Linear Phase MAC FIR Filter reference block implements a multiply-accumulate-based FIR filter. The 2n+1-tap Linear Phase MAC FIR filter exploits coefficient symmetry for an odd number of coefficients to increase filter throughput. These filter designs exploit silicon features found in Virtex family FPGAs such as dedicated circuitry for building fast, compact adders, multipliers, and flexible memory architectures.

Implementation details are provided in the filter design Subsystems. To read the annotations, place the block in a model, then right-click on the block and select Explore from the popup menu. Double click on one of the sub-blocks to open the sub-block model and read the annotations.

Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your

Simulink model.

Parameters specific to this reference block are as follows:

Coefficients: Specify coefficients for the filter. Number of taps is inferred from size of coefficient vector.

Number of Bits per Coefficient: Bit width of each coefficient.

Binary Point for Coefficient: Binary point location for each coefficient.

Number of Bits per Input Sample: Width of input sample.

Binary Point for Input Samples: Binary point location of input.

Input Sample Period: Sample period of input.

Reference

J. Hwang and J. Ballagh. Building Custom FIR Filters Using System Generator. 12th

International Field-Programmable Logic and Applications Conference (FPL). Montpellier,

France, September 2002. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 2438.

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Chapter 2: Xilinx Reference Blockset

2n-tap Linear Phase MAC FIR Filter

The Xilinx 2n-tap linear phase MAC FIR filter reference block implements a multiply-accumulate-based FIR filter. The block exploits coefficient symmetry for an even number of coefficients to increase filter throughput. These filter designs exploit silicon features found in Virtex family FPGAs such as dedicated architectures. circuitry for building fast, compact adders, multipliers, and flexible memory

Implementation details are provided in the filter design Subsystems. To read the annotations, place the block in a model, then right-click on the block and select Explore from the popup menu. Double click on one of the sub-blocks to open the sub-block model and read the annotations.

Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your

Simulink model.

Parameters specific to this reference block are as follows:

Coefficients: Specify coefficients for the filter. Number of taps is inferred from size of coefficient vector.

Number of Bits per Coefficient: Bit width of each coefficient.

Binary Point for Coefficient: Binary point location for each coefficient.

Number of Bits per Input Sample: Width of input sample.

Binary Point for Input Samples: Binary point location of input.

Input Sample Period: Sample period of input.

Reference

J. Hwang and J. Ballagh. Building Custom FIR Filters Using System Generator. 12th

International Field-Programmable Logic and Applications Conference (FPL). Montpellier,

France, September 2002. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 2438.

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2n-tap MAC FIR Filter

The Xilinx 2n-tap MAC FIR Filter reference block implements a multiply-accumulate-based FIR filter. The three filter configurations help illustrate the tradeoffs between filter throughput and device resource consumption. The Virtex FPGA family (and Virtex family derivatives) provide dedicated circuitry for building fast, compact adders, multipliers, and flexible memory architectures. Each filter design takes advantage of these silicon features by implementing a design that is compact and resource efficient.

Implementation details are provided in the filter design Subsystems. To read the annotations, place the block in a model, then right-click on the block and select Explore from the popup menu. Double click on one of the sub-blocks to open the sub-block model and read the annotations.

Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your

Simulink model.

Parameters specific to this reference block are as follows:

Coefficients: Specify coefficients for the filter. Number of taps is inferred from size of coefficient vector.

Number of Bits per Coefficient: Bit width of each coefficient.

Binary Point for Coefficient: Binary point location for each coefficient.

Number of Bits per Input Sample: Width of input sample.

Binary Point for Input Samples: Binary point location of input.

Input Sample Period: Sample period of input.

Reference

J. Hwang and J. Ballagh. Building Custom FIR Filters Using System Generator. 12th

International Field-Programmable Logic and Applications Conference (FPL). Montpellier,

France, September 2002. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 2438.

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Chapter 2: Xilinx Reference Blockset

4-channel 8-tap Transpose FIR Filter

The Xilinx 4-channel 8-tap Transpose FIR Filter reference block implements a 4-channel 8-tap transpose FIR filter. The transpose structure is well suited for data path processing in Xilinx FPGAs, and is easily extended to produce larger filters (space accommodating). The filter takes advantage of silicon features found in the Virtex family

FPGAs such as dedicated circuitry for building fast, compact adders, multipliers, and flexible memory architectures.

Implementation details are provided in the filter design Subsystems. To read the annotations, place the block in a model, then right-click on the block and select Explore from the popup menu. Double click on one of the sub-blocks to open the sub-block model and read the annotations.

Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your

Simulink model.

Parameters specific to this reference block are as follows:

Coefficients: Specify coefficients for the filter. Number of taps is inferred from size of coefficient vector.

Number of Bits per Coefficient: Bit width of each coefficient.

Binary Point for Coefficient: Binary point location for each coefficient.

Number of Bits per Input Sample: Width of input sample.

Binary Point for Input Samples: Binary point location of input.

Input Sample Period: Sample period of input.

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Chapter 2: Xilinx Reference Blockset

4n-tap MAC FIR Filter

The Xilinx 4n-tap MAC FIR Filter reference block implements a multiply-accumulate-based FIR filter. The three filter configurations help illustrate the tradeoffs between filter throughput and device resource consumption. The Virtex FPGA family (and Virtex family derivatives) provide dedicated circuitry for building fast, compact adders, multipliers, and flexible memory architectures. Each filter design takes advantage of these silicon features by implementing a design that is compact and resource efficient.

Implementation details are provided in the filter design Subsystems. To read the annotations, place the block in a model, then right-click on the block and select Explore from the popup menu. Double click on one of the sub-blocks to open the sub-block model and read the annotations.

Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your

Simulink model.

Parameters specific to this reference block are as follows:

Coefficients: Specify coefficients for the filter. Number of taps is inferred from size of coefficient vector.

Number of Bits per Coefficient: Bit width of each coefficient.

Binary Point for Coefficient: Binary point location for each coefficient.

Number of Bits per Input Sample: Width of input sample.

Binary Point for Input Samples: Binary point location of input.

Input Sample Period: Sample period of input.

Reference

J. Hwang and J. Ballagh. Building Custom FIR Filters Using System Generator. 12th

International Field-Programmable Logic and Applications Conference (FPL). Montpellier,

France, September 2002. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 2438.

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Chapter 2: Xilinx Reference Blockset

5x5Filter

The Xilinx 5x5 Filter reference block is implemented using 5 n-tap MAC FIR

Filters. The filters can be found in the DSP library of the Xilinx Reference

Blockset.

Nine different 2-D filters have been provided to filter grayscale images. The filter can be selected by changing the mask parameter on the 5x5 Filter block. The 2-D filter coefficients are stored in a block RAM, and the model makes no specific optimizations for these coefficients. You can substitute your own coefficients and scale factor by modifying the mask of the 5x5 filter block, under the Initialization tab.

The coefficients used are shown below for the 9 filters. The output of the filter is multiplied by the scale factor named <filter name>Div.

edge = [ 0 0 0 0 0; ...

0 -1 -1 -1 0; ...

0 -1 -1 -1 0; ...

0 0 0 0 0]; edgeDiv = 1; sobelX = [ 0 0 0 0 0; ...

0 -1 0 1 0; ...

0 -2 0 2 0; ...

0 -1 0 1 0; ...

0 0 0 0 0]; sobelXDiv = 1; sobelY = [ 0 0 0 0 0; ...

0 1 2 1 0; ...

0 0 0 0 0; ...

0 -1 -2 -1 0; ...

0 0 0 0 0]; sobelYDiv = 1; sobelXY = [ 0 0 0 0 0; ...

0 0 -1 -1 0; ...

0 1 0 -1 0; ...

0 1 1 0 0; ...

0 0 0 0 0]; sobelXYDiv = 1; blur = [ 1 1 1 1 1; ...

1 0 0 0 1; ...

1 0 0 0 1; ...

1 0 0 0 1; ...

1 1 1 1 1]; blurDiv = 1/16;

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Chapter 2: Xilinx Reference Blockset smooth = [ 1 1 1 1 1; ...

1 5 5 5 1; ...

1 5 44 5 1; ...

1 5 5 5 1; ...

1 1 1 1 1]; smoothDiv = 1/100; sharpen = [ 0 0 0 0 0; ...

0 -2 -2 -2 0; ...

0 -2 32 -2 0; ...

0 -2 -2 -2 0; ...

0 0 0 0 0]; sharpenDiv = 1/16; gaussian = [1 1 2 1 1; ...

1 2 4 2 1; ...

2 4 8 4 2; ...

1 2 4 2 1; ...

1 1 2 1 1]; gaussianDiv = 1/52; identity = [ 0 0 0 0 0; ...

0 0 0 0 0; ...

0 0 1 0 0; ...

0 0 0 0 0; ...

0 0 0 0 0]; identityDiv = 1;

The underlying 5-tap MAC FIR filters are clocked 5 times faster than the input rate.

Therefore the throughput of the design is 213 MHz / 5 = 42.6 million pixels/ second. For a

64x64 image, this is 42.6x10^6/(64x64) = 10,400 frames/sec. For a 256x256 image the throughput would be 650 frames /sec, and for a 512x512 image it would be 162 frames/sec.

Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your

Simulink model.

Parameters specific to this reference block are as follows:

5x5 Mask: The coefficients for an Edge, Sobel X, Sobel Y, Sobel X-Y, Blur, Smooth,

Sharpen, Gaussian, or Identity filter can be selected.

Sample Period: The sample period at which the input signal runs at is required

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Chapter 2: Xilinx Reference Blockset

BPSK AWGN Channel

The Xilinx BPSK AWGN Channel reference block adds scaled white Gaussian noise to an input signal. The noise is created by the

White Gaussian Noise

Generator reference block.

The noise is scaled based on the SNR to achieve the desired noise variance, as shown below. The SNR is defined as (Eb/No) in dB for uncoded BPSK with unit symbol energy (Es = 1). The SNR input is UFix8_4 and the valid range is from

0.0 to 15.9375 in steps of 0.0625dB.

To use the AWGN in a system with coding and/or to use the core with different modulation formats, it is necessary to adjust the SNR value to accommodate the difference in spectral efficiency. If we have BPSK modulation with rate 1/2 coding and keep Es = 1 and No constant, then Eb = 2 and Eb/No = SNR + 3 dB. If we have uncoded QPSK modulation with

I = +/-1 and Q = +/-1 and add independent noise sequences, then each channel looks like an independent BPSK channel and the Eb/No = SNR. If we then add rate 1/2 coding to the

QPSK case, we have Eb/No = SNR + 3 dB.

The overall latency of the AWGN Channel is 15 clock cycles. Channel output is a 17 bit signed number with 11 bits after the binary point. The input port snr can be any type. The reset port must be Boolean and the input port din must be of unsigned 1-bit type with binary point position at zero.

Block Parameters

The block parameter is the decimal starting seed value.

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Reference

[1] A. Ghazel, E. Boutillon, J. L. Danger, G. Gulak and H. Laamari, Design and Performance

Analysis of a High Speed AWGN Communication Channel Emulator, IEEE PACRIM

Conference, Victoria, B. C., Aug. 2001.

[2] Xilinx Data Sheet: Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) Core v1.0, Xilinx, Inc. October

2002

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Chapter 2: Xilinx Reference Blockset

CIC Filter

Cascaded integrator-comb (CIC) filters are multirate filters used for realizing large sample rate changes in digital systems. Both decimation and interpolation structures are supported. CIC filters contain no multipliers; they consist only of adders, subtractors and registers. They are typically employed in applications that have a large excess sample rate; that is, the system sample rate is much larger than the bandwidth occupied by the signal. CIC filters are frequently used in digital down-converters and digital up-converters.

Implementation details are provided in the filter design Subsystems. To read the annotations, place the block in a model, then right-click on the block and select Explore from the popup menu. Double click on one of the sub-blocks to open the sub-block model and read the annotations.

Block Interface

The CIC Block has a single data input port and a data output port:

• xn: data input port, can be between 1 and 128 bits (inclusive).

• yn: data output port

The two basic building blocks of a CIC filter are the integrator and the comb. A single integrator is a single-pole IIR filter with a transfer function of:

H(z) = (1 - z

-1

)

-1

The integrator's unity feedback coefficient is y[n] = y[n-1] + x[n].

A single comb filter is an odd-symmetric FIR filter described by: y[n] = x[n] - x[n - RM]

M is the differential delay selected in the block dialog box, and R is the selected integer rate change factor. The transfer function for a single comb stage is

H(z) = 1 -z

-RM

As seen in the two figures below, the CIC filter cascades N integrator sections together with

N comb sections. To keep the integrator and comb structures independent of rate change, a rate change block (for example, an up-sampler or down-sampler) is inserted between the sections. In the interpolator, the up-sampler causes a rate increase by a factor of R by inserting R-1 zero-valued samples between consecutive samples of the comb section

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Chapter 2: Xilinx Reference Blockset output. In the decimator, the down-sampler reduces the sample rate by a factor of R by taking subsamples of the output from the last integrator stage.

Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your

Simulink model.

Parameters specific to this reference block are as follows:

Input Bit Width: Width of input sample.

Input Binary Point: Binary point location of input.

Filter Type: Interpolator or Decimator

Sample Rate Change: 8 to 16384 (inclusive)

Number of Stages: 1 to 32 (inclusive)

Differential Delay: 1 to 4 (inclusive)

Pipeline Differentiators: On or Off

Reference

E. B. Hogenauer. An economical class of digital filters for decimation and interpolation. IEEE

Transactions on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, ASSP- 29(2):155{162, 1981

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Chapter 2: Xilinx Reference Blockset

Convolutional Encoder

The Xilinx Convolutional Encoder Model block implements an encoder for convolutional codes. Ordinarily used in tandem with a Viterbi decoder, this block performs forward error correction (FEC) in digital communication systems.

Values are encoded using a linear feed forward shift register which computes modulo-two sums over a sliding window of input data, as shown in the figure below. The length of the shift register is specified by the constraint length. The convolution codes specify which bits in the data window contribute to the modulo-two sum. Resetting the block will set the shift register to zero. The encoder rate is the ratio of input to output bit length; thus, for example a rate 1/2 encoder outputs two bits for each input bit. Similarly, a rate 1/ 3 encoder outputs three bits for each input bit.

Implementation

The block is implemented using a form of parameterizable mux-based collapsing. In this method constants drive logic blocks. Here the constant is the convolution code which is used to determine which register in the linear feed forward shift register is to be used in

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Chapter 2: Xilinx Reference Blockset computing the output. All logic driven by a constant is optimized away by the down stream logic synthesis tool.

Block Interface

The block currently has three input ports and three output ports. The din port must have type UFix1_0. It accepts the values to be encoded. The vin port indicates that the values presented on din are valid. Only valid values are encoded. The rst port will reset the convolution encoder when high. To add an enable port, you can open the Subsystem and change the constant "Enable" to an input port. The output ports dout1 and dout2 output the encoded data. The port dout1 corresponds to the first code in the array, dout2 to the second, and so on. To add additional output ports, open the Subsystem and follow the directions in the model. The output port vout indicates the validity of output values.

Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your

Simulink model.

Parameters specific to this reference block are as follows:

Constraint Length: Equals n+1, where n is the length of the constraint register in the encoder

Convolutional code array (octal): Array of octal convolution codes. Output rate is derived from the array length. Between 2 and 7 (inclusive) codes can be entered

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Chapter 2: Xilinx Reference Blockset

CORDIC ATAN

The Xilinx CORDIC ATAN reference block implements a rectangular-to-polar coordinate conversion using a fully parallel CORDIC (COordinate Rotation

DIgital Computer) algorithm in Circular Vectoring mode.

That is, given a complex-input <x,y>, it computes a new vector <m,a>, where magnitude m = K x sqrt (x

2

+ y

2

), and the angle a = arctan(y/x). As is common, the magnitude scale factor K = 1.646760... is not compensated in the processor, for example, the magnitude output should be scaled by this factor. The CORDIC processor is implemented using building blocks from the Xilinx blockset.

The CORDIC ATAN algorithm is implemented in the following 3 steps:

1. Coarse Angle Rotation. The algorithm converges only for angles between -pi/2 and pi/2, so if x < zero, the input vector is reflected to the 1st or 3rd quadrant by making the x-coordinate non-negative.

2. Fine Angle Rotation. For rectangular-to-polar conversion, the resulting vector is rotated through progressively smaller angles, such that y goes to zero. In the i-th stage, the angular rotation is by either +/- atan(1/2 less than or greater than zero. i

), depending on whether or not its input y is

3. Angle Correction. If there was a reflection applied in Step 1, this step applies the appropriate angle correction by subtracting it from +/- pi.

Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your

Simulink model.

Parameters specific to this reference block are as follows:

Number of Processing Elements: specifies the number of iterative stages used for fine angle rotation.

X,Y Data Width: specifies the width of the inputs x and y. The inputs x, and y should be signed data type having the same data width.

X,Y Binary Point Position: specifies the binary point position for inputs x and y. The inputs x and y should be signed data type with the same binary point position.

Latency for each Processing element: This parameter sets the pipeline latency after each circular rotation stage.

The latency of the CORDIC arc tangent block is calculated based on the formula specified as follows: Latency = 3 + sum (latency of Processing Elements)

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Reference

1) J. E. Volder, The CORDIC Trigonometric Computing Technique, IRE Trans. On Electronic

Computers, Vol. EC-8, 1959, pp. 330-334.

2) J. S. Walther, A Unified Algorithm for Elementary Functions, Spring Joint Computer

Conference (1971) pp. 379-385.

3) Yu Hen Hu, CORDIC-Based VLSI Architectures for Digital Signal Processing, IEEE Signal

Processing Magazine, pp. 17-34, July 1992.

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CORDIC DIVIDER

The Xilinx CORDIC DIVIDER reference block implements a divider circuit using a fully parallel CORDIC (COordinate Rotation DIgital Computer) algorithm in

Linear Vectoring mode.

That is, given a input <x,y>, it computes the output y/x. The CORDIC processor is implemented using building blocks from the Xilinx blockset.

The CORDIC divider algorithm is implemented in the following 4 steps:

1. Co-ordinate Rotation. The CORDIC algorithm converges only for positive values of x.

The input vector is always mapped to the 1st quadrant by making the x and y coordinate non-negative. The divider circuit has been designed to converge for all values of X and

Y, except for the most negative value.

2. Normalization. The CORDIC algorithm converges only for y less than or equal to 2x. The inputs x and y are shifted to the left until they have a 1 in the most significant bit (MSB).

The relative shift of y over x is recorded and passed on to the co-ordinate correction stage.

3. Linear Rotations. For ratio calculation, the resulting vector is rotated through progressively smaller angles, such that y goes to zero. In the final stage, the rotation yields y/x.

4. Co-ordinate Correction. Based on the co-ordinate axis and a relative shift applied to y over x, this step assigns the appropriate sign to the resulting ratio and multiplies it with

2^(relative shift of y over x).

Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your

Simulink model.

Parameters specific to this reference block are as follows:

Number of Processing Elements specifies the number of iterative stages used for linear rotation.

X,Y Data Width: specifies the width of the inputs x and y. The inputs x and y should be signed data type with the same data width.

X,Y Binary Point Position: specifies the binary point position for inputs x and y. The inputs x and y should be signed data type with the same binary point position.

Latency for each Processing element: This parameter sets the pipeline latency after each iterative linear rotation stage.

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The latency of the CORDIC divider block is calculated based on the formula specified as follows: Latency = 4 + data width + sum (latency of Processing Elements)

Reference

1. J. E. Volder, The CORDIC Trigonometric Computing Technique, IRE Trans. On Electronic

Computers, Vol. EC-8, 1959, pp. 330-334.

2. J. S. Walther, A Unified Algorithm for Elementary Functions, Spring Joint Computer

Conference (1971) pp. 379-385.

3. Yu Hen Hu, CORDIC-Based VLSI Architectures for Digital Signal Processing, IEEE Signal

Processing Magazine, pp. 17-34, July 1992.

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CORDIC LOG

The Xilinx CORDIC LOG reference block implements a natural logarithm circuit using a fully parallel CORDIC (COordinate Rotation DIgital Computer) algorithm in Hyperbolic Vectoring mode.

That is, given a input x, it computes the output log (x) and also provides a flag for adding complex pi value to the output if a complex output is desired. The

CORDIC processor is implemented using building blocks from the Xilinx blockset.

The natural logarithm is calculated indirectly by the CORDIC algorithm by applying the identities listed below.

log (w) = 2 x tanh

-1

[(w-1) / (w+1)] log ( w x 2

E

) = log (w) + E x log (2)

The CORDIC LOG algorithm is implemented in the following 4 steps:

1. Co-ordinate Rotation: The CORDIC algorithm converges only for positive values of x. If x < zero, the input data is converted to a non-negative number. If x = 0, a zero detect flag is passed along to the last stage which can be exposed at the output stage. The log circuit has been designed to converge for all values of x, except for the most negative value.

2. Normalization: The CORDIC algorithm converges only for x, between the values 0.5

(inclusive) and 1. During normalization, the input X is shifted to the left till it has a 1 in the most significant bit. The log output is derived using the identity log(w) = 2 x tanh-1{

(w-l) / (w+1) }. Based on this identity, the input w gets mapped to, x = w + 1 and y = w

- 1.

3. Linear Rotations: For tanh-1{(w-l) / (w+1)} calculation, the resulting vector is rotated through progressively smaller angles, such that y goes to zero.

4. Co-ordinate Correction: If the input was negative a CMPLX_PI flag is provided at the output for adding PI if a complex output is desired. If a left shift was applied to X, this step adjusts the output by using the equation log (w x 2E) = log (w) + E x log (2).

Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your

Simulink model.

Parameters specific to this reference block are as follows:

Number of Processing Elements (integer value starting from 1): specifies the number of iterative stages used for hyperbolic rotation.

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Input Data Width: specifies the width of input x. The inputs x should be signed data type having the same data width.

Input Binary Point Position: specifies the binary point position for input x. The input x should be signed data type with the same binary point position.

Latency for each Processing Element [1001]: This parameter sets the pipeline latency after each circular rotation stage.

The latency of the CORDIC LOG block is calculated based on the formula specified as follows: Latency = 2+ Data Width+sum (latency of Processing Elements).

Reference

1. J. E. Volder, The CORDIC Trigonometric Computing Technique, IRE Trans. On Electronic

Computers, Vol. EC-8, 1959, pp. 330-334.

2. J. S. Walther, A Unified Algorithm for Elementary Functions, Spring Joint Computer

Conference (1971) pp. 379-385.

3. Yu Hen Hu, CORDIC-Based VLSI Architectures for Digital Signal Processing, IEEE Signal

Processing Magazine, pp. 17-34, July 1992.

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CORDIC SINCOS

The Xilinx CORDIC SINCOS reference block implements Sine and Cosine generator circuit using a fully parallel CORDIC (COordinate Rotation DIgital

Computer) algorithm in Circular Rotation mode.

That is, given input angle z, it computes the output cosine (z) and sine (z). The

CORDIC processor is implemented using building blocks from the Xilinx blockset. The CORDIC sine cosine algorithm is implemented in the following 3 steps:

1. Coarse Angle Rotation. The algorithm converges only for angles between -pi/2 and pi/2. If z > pi/2, the input angle is reflected to the 1st quadrant by subtracting pi/2 from the input angle. When z < -pi/2, the input angle is reflected back to the 3rd quadrant by adding pi/2 to the input angle. The sine cosine circuit has been designed to converge for all values of z, except for the most negative value.

2. Fine Angle Rotation. By setting x equal to 1/1.646760 and y equal to 0, the rotational mode CORDIC processor yields cosine and sine of the input angle z.

3. Co-ordinate Correction. If there was a reflection applied in Step 1, this step applies the appropriate correction.

For z > pi/2: using z = t + pi/2, then sin (z ) = sin(t).cos(pi/2) + cos(t).sin(pi/2) = cos(t) cos (z ) = cos(t).cos(pi/2) - sin(t).sin(pi/2) = -sin(t)

For z < pi/2: using z = t - pi/2, then sin (z ) = sin(t).cos(-pi/2) + cos(t).sin(-pi/2) = -cos(t) cos (z ) = cos(t).cos(-pi/2) - sin(t).sin(-pi/2) = sin(t)

Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your

Simulink model.

Parameters specific to this reference block are as follows:

Number of Processing Elements: specifies the number of iterative stages used for linear rotation.

Input Data Width: specifies the width of the input z. The input z should be signed data type with the same data width as specified.

Input Binary Point Position: specifies the binary point position for input z. The input z should be signed data type with the same binary point position. The binary point should be chosen to provide enough bits for representing pi/2.

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Latency for each Processing element: This parameter sets the pipeline latency after each iterative circular rotation stage. The latency of the CORDIC SINCOS block is calculated based on the formula specified as follows: Latency = 3 + sum (latency of

Processing Elements)

Reference

1) J. E. Volder, The CORDIC Trigonometric Computing Technique, IRE Trans. On Electronic

Computers, Vol. EC-8, 1959, pp. 330-334. 2) J. S. Walther, A Unified Algorithm for Elementary

Functions, Spring Joint Computer Conference (1971) pp. 379-385. 3) Yu Hen Hu,

CORDIC-Based VLSI Architectures for Digital Signal Processing, IEEE Signal Processing

Magazine, pp. 17-34, July 1992.

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CORDIC SQRT

The Xilinx CORDIC SQRT reference block implements a square root circuit using a fully parallel CORDIC (COordinate Rotation DIgital Computer) algorithm in Hyperbolic Vectoring mode.

That is, given input x, it computes the output sqrt (x). The CORDIC processor is implemented using building blocks from the Xilinx blockset.

The square root is calculated indirectly by the CORDIC algorithm by applying the identity listed as follows. sqrt (w) = sqrt { (w + 0.25)

2

- (w - 0.25)

2

}

The CORDIC square root algorithm is implemented in the following 4 steps:

1. Co-ordinate Rotation: The CORDIC algorithm converges only for positive values of x. If x < zero, the input data is converted to a non-negative number. If x = 0, a zero detect flag is passed to the co-ordinate correction stage. The square root circuit has been designed to converge for all values of x, except for the most negative value.

2. Normalization: The CORDIC algorithm converges only for x between 0.25 (inclusive) and 1. During normalization, the input x is shifted to the left till it has a 1 in the most significant non-signed bit. If the left shift results in an odd number of shift values, a right shift is performed resulting in an even number of left shifts. The shift value is divided by 2 and passed on to the co-ordinate correction stage. The square root is derived using the identity sqrt (w) = sqrt {(w + 0.25)

2

- (w - 0.25)

2

}. Based on this identity the input x gets mapped to, X = x + 0.25 and Y = x - 0.25.

3. Hyperbolic Rotations: For sqrt (X

2

- Y

2

) calculation, the resulting vector is rotated through progressively smaller angles, such that Ygoes to zero.

4. Co-ordinate Correction: If the input was negative and a left shift was applied to x, this step assigns the appropriate sign to the output and multiplies it with 2

-shift

. If the input was zero, the zero detect flag is used to set the output to 0.

Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your

Simulink model.

Parameters specific to this reference block are as follows:

Number of Processing Elements (integer value starting from 1): specifies the number of iterative stages used for linear rotation.

Input Data Width: specifies the width of the inputs x. The input x should be signed data type with the same data width as specified.

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Input Binary Point Position: specifies the binary point position for input x. The input x should be signed data type with the specified binary point position.

Latency for each Processing Element [1001]: This parameter sets the pipeline latency after each iterative hyperbolic rotation stage.

The latency of the CORDIC square root block is calculated based on the formula specified below:

Latency = 7 + (data width – binary point)

+ mod { (data width – binary point) , 2 }

+ sum (latency of Processing Elements)

Reference

• 1) J. E. Volder, The CORDIC Trigonometric Computing Technique, IRE Trans. On Electronic

Computers, Vol. EC-8, 1959, pp. 330-334.

• 2) J. S. Walther, A Unified Algorithm for Elementary Functions, Spring Joint Computer

Conference (1971) pp. 379-385.

• 3) Yu Hen Hu, CORDIC-Based VLSI Architectures for Digital Signal Processing, IEEE Signal

Processing Magazine, pp. 17-34, July 1992.

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Dual Port Memory Interpolation MAC FIR Filter

The Xilinx Dual Port Memory Interpolation MAC FIR filter reference block implements a multiply-accumulate-based FIR filter to perform a user-selectable interpolation. One dedicated multiplier and one Dual Port Block RAM are used in the n-tap filter. The filter configuration helps illustrate a cyclic RAM buffer technique for storing coefficients and data samples in a single block ram. The filter allows users to select the interpolation factor they require. The Virtex FPGA family (and Virtex family derivatives) provide dedicated circuitry for building fast, compact adders, multipliers, and flexible memory architectures. The filter design takes advantage of these silicon features by implementing a design that is compact and resource-efficient.

Implementation details are provided in the filter design Subsystems. To read the annotations, place the block in a model, then right-click on the block and select Explore from the popup menu. Double click on one of the sub-blocks to open the sub-block model and read the annotations.

Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your

Simulink model.

Parameters specific to this reference block are as follows:

Data Input Bit Width: Width of input sample.

Data Input Binary Point: Binary point location of input.

Coefficients: Specify coefficients for the filter. Number of taps is inferred from size of coefficient vector.

Number of Bits per Coefficient: Bit width of each coefficient.

Binary Point Per Coefficient: Binary point location for each coefficient.

Interpolation Ratio: Select the Interpolation Ratio of the filter (2 to 10, inclusive).

Sample Period: Sample period of input.

Reference

J. Hwang and J. Ballagh. Building Custom FIR Filters Using System Generator. 12th

International Field-Programmable Logic and Applications Conference (FPL). Montpellier,

France, September 2002. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 2438.

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Interpolation Filter

The Xilinx n-tap Interpolation Filter reference block implements a multiply-accumulate-based FIR filter to perform a user selected interpolation.

One dedicated multiplier and one Dual Port Block RAM are used in the n-tap filter. The filter configuration helps illustrate a cyclic RAM buffer technique for storing coefficients and data samples in a single block ram. The filter allows users to select the interpolation factor they require. The Virtex FPGA family (and Virtex family derivatives) provide dedicated circuitry for building fast, compact adders, multipliers, and flexible memory architectures. The filter design takes advantage of these silicon features by implementing a design that is compact and resource efficient.

Implementation details are provided in the filter design Subsystems. To read the annotations, place the block in a model, then right-click on the block and select Explore from the popup menu. Double click on one of the sub-blocks to open the sub-block model and read the annotations.

Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your

Simulink model.

Parameters specific to this reference block are as follows:

Input Data Bit Width: Width of input sample.

Input Data Binary Point: Binary point location of input.

Coefficients: Specify coefficients for the filter. Number of taps is inferred from size of coefficient vector.

Number of Bits per Coefficient: Bit width of each coefficient.

Binary Point per Coefficient: Binary point location for each coefficient.

Interpolation Factor: Select the Interpolation Ratio of the filter. Range from 2 to 10.

Sample Period: Sample period of input.

Reference

J. Hwang and J. Ballagh. Building Custom FIR Filters Using System Generator. 12th

International Field-Programmable Logic and Applications Conference (FPL). Montpellier,

France, September 2002. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 2438

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m-channel n-tap Transpose FIR Filter

The Xilinx m-channel n-tap Transpose FIR Filter uses a fully parallel architecture with Time Division Multiplexing. The Virtex FPGA family (and

Virtex family derivatives) provide dedicated shift register circuitry called the

SRL16E, which are exploited in the architecture to achieve optimal implementation of the multichannel architecture. The Time Division

Multiplexer and Time Division Demux can be selected to be implemented or not. Embedded Multipliers are used for the multipliers.

As the number of coefficients changes so to does the structure underneath as it is a dynamically built model.

Implementation details are provided in the filter design Subsystems. To read the annotations, place the block in a model, then right-click on the block and select Explore from the popup menu. Double click on one of the sub-blocks to open the sub-block model and read the annotations.

Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your

Simulink model.

Parameters specific to this reference block are as follows:

Input Bit Width: Width of input sample.

Input Binary Point: Binary point location of input.

Coefficients: Specify coefficients for the filter. Number of taps is inferred from size of coefficient vector.

Coefficients Bit Width: Bit width of each coefficient.

Coefficients Binary Point: Binary point location for each coefficient.

Number of Channels: Specify the number of channels desired. There is no limit to the number of channels supported.

Time Division Multiplexer Front End: The TDM front-end circuit can be implemented or not (if the incoming data is already TDM)

Time Division DeMultiplexer Back End: The TDD back-end circuit can be implemented or not (if you desire a TDM output). This is useful if the filter feeds another multichannel structure.

Input Sample Period: Sample period of input.

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Mealy State Machine

A “Mealy machine” is a finite state machine whose output is a function of state transition, for example, a function of the machine’s current state and current input. A Mealy machine can be described with the following block diagram:

There are many ways to implement such state machines in System Generator (e.g., using the

MCode block to implement the transition function, and registers to implement state variables). This reference block provides a method for implementing a Mealy machine using block and distributed memory. The implementation is very fast and efficient. For example, a state machine with 8 states, 1 input, and 2 outputs that are registered can be realized with a single block RAM that runs at more than 150 MHz in a Xilinx Virtex device.

The transition function and output mapping are each represented as an N x M matrix, where

N is the number of states, and M is the size of the input alphabet (e.g., M = 2 for a binary input). It is convenient to number rows and columns from 0 to N – 1 and 0 to M – 1 respectively. Each state is represented as an unsigned integer from 0 to N - 1, and each alphabet character is represented as an unsigned integer from 0 to M - 1. The row index of each matrix represents the current state, and the column index represents the input character

For the purpose of discussion, let F be the N x M transition function matrix, and O be the N

x M output function matrix. Then F(i,j) is the next state when the current state is i and the current input character is j, and O(i,j) is the corresponding output of the Mealy machine.

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Example

Consider the problem of designing a Mealy machine to recognize the pattern '1011' in a serial stream of bits. The state transition diagram and equivalent transition table are shown below.

The table lists the next state and output that result from the current state and input. For example, if the current state is 3 and the input is 1, the next state is 1 and the output is 1, indicating the detection of the desired sequence.

The Mealy State Machine block is configured with next state and output matrices obtained from the next state/output table discussed above. These matrices are constructed as shown below:

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Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your

Simulink model.

The next state logic, state register, and output logic are implemented using high speed dedicated block RAM. The output logic is implemented using a distributed RAM configured as a lookup table, and therefore has zero latency.

The number of bits used to implement a Mealy state machine is given by the equations:

depth = (2

k

)(2

i

) = 2

k+i

width = k+o

N = depth*width = (k+o)(2

k+i

)

where

N = total number of block RAM bits s = number of states k = ceil(log2(s)) i = number of input bits o = number of output bits

The following table gives examples of block RAM sizes necessary for various state machines:

Number of States

Number of Input

Bits

8

16

2

4

32

52

100

6

5

5

1

4

1

4

Number of

Output Bits

7

4

10

2

3

11

5

Block RAM Bits

Needed

704

32

5120

4096

4096

2176

24576

The block RAM width and depth limitations are described in the online help for the Single

Port RAM block.

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Moore State Machine

A "Moore machine" is a finite state machine whose output is only a function of the machine's current state. A Moore state machine can be described with the following block diagram:

There are many ways to implement such state machines in System Generator (e.g., using the

MCode block to implement the transition function, and registers to implement state variables). This reference block provides a method for implementing a Moore machine using block and distributed memory. The implementation is very fast and efficient. For example, a state machine with 8 states, 1 input, and 2 outputs that are registered can be realized with a single block RAM that runs at more than 150 MHz in a Xilinx Virtex device.

The transition function and output mapping are each represented as an N x M matrix, where

N is the number of states, and M represents the number of possible input values (e.g., M =

2 for a one bit input). It is convenient to number rows and columns from 0 to N – 1 and 0 to M – 1 respectively. Each state is represented as an unsigned integer from 0 to N - 1, and each alphabet character is represented as an unsigned integer from 0 to M - 1. The row index of each matrix represents the current state, and the column index represents the input character.

For the purpose of discussion, let F be the N x M transition function matrix, and O be the N

x M output function matrix. Then F(i,j) is the next state when the current state is i and the current input character is j, and O(i,j) is the corresponding output of the Moore machine.

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Example

Consider the problem of designing a Moore machine to recognize the pattern '1011' in a serial stream of bits. The state transition diagram and equivalent transition table are shown below:

The table lists the next state and output that result from the current state and input. For example, if the current state is 4, the output is 1 indicating the detection of the desired sequence, and if the input is 1 the next state is state 1.

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The Registered Moore State Machine block is configured with next state matrix and output array obtained from the next state/output table discussed above. They are constructed as follows:

The rows of the matrices correspond to the current state. The next state matrix has one column for each input value. The output array has only one column since the input value does not affect the output of the state machine.

Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your

Simulink model.

The next state logic and state register in this block are implemented with high speed dedicated block RAM. The output logic is implemented using a distributed RAM configured as a lookup table, and therefore has zero latency.

The number of bits used to implement a Moore state machine is given by the equations: ds = (2 k

)(2 i

) = 2 k+i w s

= k

N s

= d s

*w s

= (k)(2 k+i

) where

N s

= total number of next state logic block RAM bits s = number of states k = ceil(log2(s)) i = number of input bits d s

= depth of state logic block RAM w s

= width of state logic block RAM

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The following table gives examples of block RAM sizes necessary for various state machines:

Number of States

Number of Input

Bits

8

16

2

4

32

52

100

6

5

5

1

4

1

4

Block RAM Bits

Needed

64

8

1536

2048

2560

768

14336

The block RAM width and depth limitations are described in the core datasheet for the

Single Port Block Memory.

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n-tap Dual Port Memory MAC FIR Filter

The Xilinx n-tap Dual Port Block RAM MAC FIR Filter reference block implements a multiply-accumulate-based FIR filter. One dedicated multiplier and one dual port block RAM are used in the filter. The filter configuration illustrates a technique for storing coefficients and data samples in filter design.

The Virtex FPGA family (and Virtex family derivatives) provide dedicated circuitry for building fast, compact adders, multipliers, and flexible memory architectures. The filter design takes advantage of these silicon features by implementing a design that is compact and resource efficient.

Implementation details are provided in the filter design Subsystems. To read the annotations, place the block in a model, then right-click on the block and select Explore from the popup menu. Double click on one of the sub-blocks to open the sub-block model and read the annotations.

Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your

Simulink model.

Parameters specific to this reference block are as follows:

Data Input Bit Width: Width of input sample.

Data Input Binary Point: Binary point location of input.

Coefficients: Specify coefficients for the filter. Number of taps is inferred from size of coefficient vector.

Number of Bits per Coefficient: Bit width of each coefficient.

Binary Point per Coefficient: Binary point location for each coefficient.

Sample Period: Sample period of input.

Reference

• J. Hwang and J. Ballagh. Building Custom FIR Filters Using System Generator. 12th

International Field-Programmable Logic and Applications Conference (FPL).

Montpellier, France, September 2002. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 2438

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n-tap MAC FIR Filter

The Xilinx n-tap MAC FIR Filter reference block implements a multiply-accumulate-based FIR filter. The three filter configurations help illustrate the trade-offs between filter throughput and device resource consumption. The Virtex FPGA family (and Virtex family derivatives) provide dedicated circuitry for building fast, compact adders, multipliers, and flexible memory architectures. Each filter design takes advantage of these silicon features by implementing a design that is compact and resource efficient.

Implementation details are provided in the filter design Subsystems. To read the annotations, place the block in a model, then right-click on the block and select Explore from the popup menu. Double click on one of the sub-blocks to open the sub-block model and read the annotations.

Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your

Simulink model.

Parameters specific to this reference block are as follows:

Coefficients: Specify coefficients for the filter. Number of taps is inferred from size of coefficient vector.

Number of Bits per Coefficient: Bit width of each coefficient.

Binary Point for Coefficient: Binary point location for each coefficient.

Number of Bits per Input Sample: Width of input sample.

Binary Point for Input Samples: Binary point location of input.

Input Sample Period: Sample period of input.

Reference

[1] J. Hwang and J. Ballagh. Building Custom FIR Filters Using System Generator. 12th

International Field-Programmable Logic and Applications Conference (FPL). Montpellier,

France, September 2002. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 2438

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Registered Mealy State Machine

A "Mealy machine" is a finite state machine whose output is a function of state transition, for example, a function of the machine's current state and current input. A "registered Mealy machine" is one having registered output, and can be described with the following block diagram:

There are many ways to implement such state machines in System Generator (e.g., using the

MCode block to implement the transition function, and registers to implement state variables). This reference block provides a method for implementing a Mealy machine using block and distributed memory. The implementation is very fast and efficient. For example, a state machine with 8 states, 1 input, and 2 outputs that are registered can be realized with a single block RAM that runs at more than 150 MHz in a Xilinx Virtex device.

The transition function and output mapping are each represented as an N x M matrix, where

N is the number of states, and M is the size of the input alphabet (e.g., M = 2 for a binary input). It is convenient to number rows and columns from 0 to N – 1 and 0 to M – 1 respectively. Each state is represented as an unsigned integer from 0 to N - 1, and each alphabet character is represented as an unsigned integer from 0 to M - 1. The row index of each matrix represents the current state, and the column index represents the input character

For the purpose of discussion, let F be the N x M transition function matrix, and O be the N

x M output function matrix. Then F(i,j) is the next state when the current state is i and the current input character is j, and O(i,j) is the corresponding output of the Mealy machine.

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Example

Consider the problem of designing a Mealy machine to recognize the pattern '1011' in a serial stream of bits. The state transition diagram and equivalent transition table are shown below.

The table lists the next state and output that result from the current state and input. For instance, if the current state is 3 and the input is 1, the next state is 1 and the output is 1, indicating the detection of the desired sequence.

The Registered Mealy State Machine block is configured with next state and output matrices obtained from the next state/output table discussed above. These matrices are constructed as shown below:

Rows of the matrices correspond to states, and columns correspond to input values.

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Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your

Simulink model.

The next state logic, state register, output logic, and output register are implemented using high speed dedicated block RAM. Of the four blocks in the state machine library, this is the fastest and most area efficient. However, the output is registered and thus the input does not affect the output instantaneously.

The number of bits used to implement a Mealy state machine is given by the equations:

depth = (2

k

)(2

i

) = 2

k+i

width = k+o

N = depth*width = (k+o)(2

k+i

)

where

N = total number of block RAM bits s = number of states k = ceil(log2(s)) i = number of input bits o = number of output bits

The following table gives examples of block RAM sizes necessary for various state machines:

Number of States

Number of Input

Bits

8

16

2

4

32

52

100

6

5

5

1

4

1

4

Number of

Output Bits

7

4

10

2

3

11

5

Block RAM Bits

Needed

704

32

5120

4096

4096

2176

24576

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Registered Moore State Machine

A "Moore machine" is a finite state machine whose output is only a function of the machine's current state. A "registered Moore machine" is one having registered output, and can be described with the following block diagram:

There are many ways to implement such state machines in System Generator, e.g., using the

Mcode block. This reference block provides a method for implementing a Moore machine using block and distributed memory. The implementation is very fast and efficient. For example, a state machine with 8 states, 1 input, and 2 outputs that are registered can be realized with a single block RAM that runs at more than 150 MHz in a Xilinx Virtex device.

The transition function and output mapping are each represented as an N x M matrix, where

N is the number of states, and M is the size of the input alphabet (e.g., M = 2 for a binary input). It is convenient to number rows and columns from 0 to N – 1 and 0 to M – 1 respectively. Each state is represented as an unsigned integer from 0 to N - 1, and each alphabet character is represented as an unsigned integer from 0 to M - 1. The row index of each matrix represents the current state, and the column index represents the input character.

For the purpose of discussion, let F be the N x M transition function matrix, and O be the N

x M output function matrix. Then F(i,j) is the next state when the current state is i and the current input character is j, and O(i,j) is the corresponding output of the Mealy machine.

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Example

Consider the problem of designing a Moore machine to recognize the pattern '1011' in a serial stream of bits. The state transition diagram and equivalent transition table are shown below.

The table lists the next state and output that result from the current state and input. For example, if the current state is 4, the output is 1 indicating the detection of the desired sequence, and if the input is 1 the next state is state 1.

The Registered Moore State Machine block is configured with next state matrix and output array obtained from the next state/output table discussed above. They are constructed as shown below:

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The rows of the matrices correspond to the current state. The next state matrix has one column for each input value. The output array has only one column since the input value does not affect the output of the state machine.

Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your

Simulink model.

The next state logic and state register in this block are implemented with high speed dedicated block RAM.

The number of bits used to implement a Moore state machine is given by the equations: ds = (2 k

)(2 i

) = 2 k+i w s

= k

N s

= d s

*w s

= (k)(2 k+i

) where

N s

= total number of next state logic block RAM bits s = number of states k = ceil(log2(s)) i = number of input bits d s

= depth of state logic block RAM w s

= width of state logic block RAM

The following table gives examples of block RAM sizes necessary for various state machines:

Number of States Number of Input Bits Block RAM Bits Needed

32

52

100

2

4

8

16

4

1

4

5

1

6

5

64

8

1536

2048

2560

768

14336

The block RAM width and depth limitations are described in the core datasheet for the

Single Port Block Memory.

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Virtex Line Buffer

The Xilinx Virtex Line Buffer reference block delays a sequential stream of pixels by the specified buffer depth.

Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your

Simulink model.

Parameters specific to this reference block are as follows:

Buffer Depth: Number of samples the stream of pixels is delayed.

Sample Period: Sample rate at which the block will run

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Virtex2 Line Buffer

The Xilinx Virtex2 Line Buffer reference block delays a sequential stream of pixels by the specified buffer depth. It is optimized for the Virtex2 family since it uses the Read Before Write option on the underlying Single Port RAM block

Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your

Simulink model.

Parameters specific to this reference block are as follows:

Buffer Depth: Number of samples the stream of pixels is delayed.

Sample Period: Sample rate at which the block will run.

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Chapter 2: Xilinx Reference Blockset

Virtex2 5 Line Buffer

The Xilinx Virtex2 5 Line Buffer reference block buffers a sequential stream of pixels to construct 5 lines of output. Each line is delayed by N samples, where

N is the length of the line. Line 1 is delayed 4*N samples, each of the following lines are delay by N fewer samples, and line 5 is a copy of the input.

This block uses Virtex2 Line Buffer block which is located in the Imaging library of the Xilinx Reference Blockset.

Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your

Simulink model.

Parameters specific to this reference block are as follows:

Line Size: Number of samples each line is delayed.

Sample Period: Sample rate at which the block will run.

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Chapter 2: Xilinx Reference Blockset

White Gaussian Noise Generator

The Xilinx White Gaussian Noise Generator (WGNG) generates white Gaussian noise using a combination of the Box-Muller algorithm and the Central Limit

Theorem following the general approach described in [1] (reference listed below).

The Box-Muller algorithm generates a unit normal random variable using a transformation of two independent random variables that are uniformly distributed over [0,1]. This is accomplished by storing Box-Muller function values in ROMs and addressing them with uniform random variables.

The uniform random variables are produced by multiple-bit leap-forward LFSRs. A standard

LFSR generates one output per clock cycle. K-bit leap-forward LFSRs are able to generate k outputs in a single cycle. For example, a 4-bit leap-forward LFSR outputs a discrete uniform random variable between 0 and 15. A portion of the 48-bit block parameter seed initializes each LFSR allowing customization. The outputs of four parallel Box-Muller Subsystems are averaged to obtain a probability density function (PDF) that is Gaussian to within 0.2% out to 4.8sigma. The overall latency of the WGNG is 10 clock cycles. The output port noise is a

12 bit signed number with 7 bits after the binary point.

4-bit Leap-Forward LFSR

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Box-Muller Method

Block Parameters

The block parameters dialog box can be invoked by double-clicking the icon in your

Simulink model.

The block parameter is a decimal starting seed value.

Reference

A. Ghazel, E. Boutillon, J. L. Danger, G. Gulak and H. Laamari, Design and Performance

Analysis of a High Speed AWGN Communication Channel Emulator, IEEE PACRIM

Conference, Victoria, B. C., Aug. 2001.

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xilinx.analyzer

xilinx.utilities.importBD

xlAddTerms

xlConfigureSolver

xlfda_denominator

xlfda_numerator

xlGenerateButton

xlgetparam and xlsetparam

xlgetparams

xlGetReOrderedCoeff

xlOpenWaveFormData

xlSetUseHDL

xlTBUtils

Provides the interface between the System

Generator model and Vivado timing paths.

Imports a BD file created in the Vivado IP

Integrator and creates a stub for the System

Generator model that is part of the design.

Automatically adds sinks and sources to

System Generator models.

Configures the Simulink solver settings of a model to provide optimal performance during System Generator simulation.

Returns the denominator of the filter object in an FDATool block.

Returns the numerator of the filter object in an FDATool block.

Provides a programmatic way to invoke the

System Generator code generator.

Used to get and set parameter values in a

System Generator block.

Used to get all parameter values in a System

Generator block.

The xlGetReOrderedCoeff function provides the re-ordered coefficient set of a FIR

Compiler block.

Allow you to populate saved simulation waveform data into running Waveform

Viewer instance.

Sets the 'Use behavioral HDL' option of blocks in a model of a Subsystem.

Provides access to several useful procedures available to the Xilinx Toolbar block, such as layout, redrawlines and getselected.

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xilinx.analyzer

xilinx.analyzer is a MATLAB class that provides an interface between the System Generator model and Vivado timing paths.

The System Generator timing analysis is supported for all compilation targets. The Perform

timing analysis drop down menu under the Clocking tab of the System Generator token provides two options for the trade-off between total runtime vs. accuracy of the Vivado timing data. If you select either the Post Synthesis or the Post Implementation option of

Perform timing analysis and click the Generate button, then Vivado timing paths information is collected during the netlist generation. The xilinx.analyzer class is used to access Vivado timing paths information. The xilinx.analyzer class object processes Vivado timing paths to find 50 unique paths with the worst slack value. The unique timing paths are sorted in increasing value of slack and saved in the analyzer object.

The cross-probing between Vivado timing paths and the System Generator model is made possible through following API functions in the xilinx.analyzer class.

Functions in xilinx.analyzer class:

Function Name

xilinx.analyzer – Construct xilinx.analyzer class object

Description

This is a constructor of the class.

A call to the xilinx.analyzer constructor returns object of the class.

Function Argument

First argument is System

Generator model name.

Second argument is path to already generated netlist directory.

No argument

isValid – Check validity of

Vivado timing paths

getErrorMessage – Get an error message getStatus – Timing analysis status

getVivadoStage – Get

Vivado design stage for timing analysis paths – Access all timing paths

violations – Access paths with timing violations

Indicates if timing analysis data is valid or not. Use this API to make sure that the xilinx.analyzer class construction was successful.

Returns an error message string if the call to the class constructor or other

API function had an error.

Returns ‘FAILED’ if any of the timing paths in the model have a violation, i.e., negative slack.

Returns either Post Synthesis or Post

Implementation. This is the Vivado design stage after which timing analysis was performed.

Returns an array of MATLAB structures.

Each structure contains data for a timing path.

Returns an array of MATLAB structures.

Each member of the array is a path structure with a timing violation.

No argument

No argument

No argument

A string that is equal to either

‘setup’ or ‘hold’

A string that is equal to either

‘setup’ or ‘hold’

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Function Name

print – Print timing path information

highlight – Highlight design blocks for a timing path

highlightOnePath –

Highlight design blocks for one timing path unhighlight – Unhighlight design blocks disp – Display summary of timing analysis

delete – Delete xilinx.analyzer class object

Description

Prints timing path information such as

Slack, Path Delay, Levels of Logic,

Name of Source and Destination blocks, and Source and Destination clocks.

In the System Generator model, highlights blocks for the timing path passed in the argument. Blocks that are already highlighted in the model will remain highlighted.

In the System Generator model, highlights blocks for the timing path passed in the argument. Before highlighting blocks for this path, the blocks that are already highlighted in the model will be unhighlighted.

In the Simulink model, unhighlights all blocks currently highlighted.

Displays a summary of timing analysis results on the MATLAB console, including the worst slack value among all timing paths.

This is a destructor of the xilinx.analyzer class

Function Argument

An array of MATLAB structures for timing path data. The array can have one or more structures.

MATLAB structure for one timing path

MATLAB structure for one timing path

No argument

No argument

No argument

Timing path data in a MATLAB structure:

Field Name

Slack

Delay

Levels_of_Logic

Source

Destination

Source_Clock

Destination_Clock

Path_Constraints

Block_Masks

Simulink_Names

Description

The double value containing timing slack for the path

Total Data Path delay for the path

Number of elements in Vivado design for the timing path. The number of

System Generator blocks in the timing path may be different from

Levels_of_Logic.

First System Generator block in the timing path

Last System Generator block in the timing path

Name of the clock domain for the source block

Name of the clock domain for the destination block

Timing constraint used for the path. For a multi-clock design, the path constraint can be a multi-clock timing constraint.

Cell array where each element contains mask information for a System

Generator block.

Cell array where each element contains hierarchical name of a block in

System Generator model

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Field Name

Vivado_Names

Type

Description

Cell array where each element contains name of System Generator block in

Vivado database

A timing violation type. The value is either ‘setup’ or ‘hold’.

xilinx.analyzer – Construct xilinx.analyzer class object

Syntax

analyzer_object = xilinx.analyzer('<name_of_the_model>', '<path_to_netlist_directory>')

Description

A call to xilinx.analyzer constructor returns object of the class.

The first argument is the name of the System Generator model. The model must be open before the class constructor is called.

The second argument is an absolute or relative path to the netlist directory. You must have read permission to the netlist directory.

To access API functions of the xilinx.analyzer class use the object of the class as described below. To get more details for a specific API function type the following at the MATLAB command prompt: help xilinx.analyzer.<API_function>

Example

//Construct class. Must give the model name and absolute or relative path to the

//target directory

>> timing_object = xilinx.analyzer('fixed_point_IIR', './netlist_for_timing_analysis') timing_object =

Number of setup paths = 9

Worst case setup slack = -1.6430

isValid – Check validity of Vivado timing paths

Syntax

result = analyzer_object.isValid();

Description

If timing analysis data is valid then the result equals '1', otherwise it is '0'. Use this API to make sure that the xilinx.analyzer class construction was successful and the timing data was valid.

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Example

//Determine if timing analysis data is valid

>> valid_status = timing_object.isValid() valid_status =

1

getErrorMessage – Get an error message

Syntax

result = analyzer_object.getErrorMessage();

Description

Returns an error message string if the call to the class constructor or other API function had an error.

Example

//Determine if there was an error in the xilinx.analyzer constructor

//or in any of the API functions

>> err_msg = timing_object.getErrorMessage() err_msg =

''

getStatus – Timing analysis status

Syntax

string = analyzer_object.getStatus();

Description

The returned string is either 'PASSED' or 'FAILED'. If any of the timing paths have a violation, i.e. negative slack, then the timing analysis status is considered failed.

Example

//Determine if there were timing path violations in Simulink model

>> analysis_status = timing_object.getStatus() analysis_status =

FAILED

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getVivadoStage – Get Vivado design stage for timing analysis

Syntax

string = analyzer_object.getVivadoStage();

Description

The returned string is the Vivado design stage after which timing analysis was performed and data collected in Vivado. The value is either 'Post Synthesis' or 'Post Implementation'.

Example

//Determine Vivado stage when timing data was collected

>> design_stage = timing_object.getVivadoStage() design_stage =

Post Synthesis

paths – Access all timing paths

Syntax

<array_of_timing_paths_structure> = analyzer_object.paths('<violation_type>');

Description

The returned value is an array of MATLAB structures. Each structure contains data for a timing path, sorted in decreasing order of timing violation, i.e. in increasing order of slack value.

The argument 'violation_type' is either 'setup' or 'hold' string.

Example

//Return an array of the timing path structures

>> all_timing_paths = timing_object.paths('setup') all_timing_paths =

1x9 struct array with fields:

Slack

Delay

Levels_of_Logic

Source

Destination

Source_Clock

Destination_Clock

Path_Constraints

Block_Masks

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Simulink_Names

Vivado_Names

Type

Note:

There are a total of nine timing paths in this timing analysis.

You can find the data fields in each timing path as shown in Example 1 in

Additional

Information .

violations – Access paths with timing violations

Syntax

<array_of_timing_paths_structure> = analyzer_object.violations('<violation_type>');

Description

The returned value is an array of MATLAB structures. Each member of the array is data for a path with a timing violation. The array elements are sorted in decreasing order of timing violation. If there are no timing violations in the design then the API function returns an empty array.

The argument 'violation_type' is either 'setup' or 'hold'

Example

//Return an array of timing paths with setup violations

>> violating_paths = timing_object.violations('setup') violating_paths =

1x2 struct array with fields:

Slack

Delay

Levels_of_Logic

Source

Destination

Source_Clock

Destination_Clock

Path_Constraints

Block_Masks

Simulink_Names

Vivado_Names

Type

Note:

There are a total of two paths with violations in this timing analysis.

You can find the data fields in each timing path as shown in Example 3 in

Additional

Information .

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print – Print timing path information

Syntax

analyzer_object.print(<timing_path_structures>);

Description

Prints timing data such as Slack, Path Delay, Levels of Logic, Name of Source and

Destination blocks, Source and Destination clocks, Path Constraints, etc. for the input timing path structure.

The argument is an array of MATLAB structures with one or more elements.

Examples

//Print timing path information for path #1

>> timing_object.print(all_timing_paths(1))

Path Num Slack (ns) Delay (ns) Levels of Logic

Source/Destination Blocks Source Clock Destination Clock Path

Constraints

1 -1.6430 11.5690 6 fixed_point_IIR/Delay1 clk clk create_clock -name clk -period 2 [get_ports clk] fixed_point_IIR/IIR Filter Subsystem/Delay4 ans =

1

//Print timing path information for path #3

>> timing_object.print(all_timing_paths(3))

Path Num Slack (ns) Delay (ns) Levels of Logic

Source/Destination Blocks Source Clock Destination Clock Path

Constraints

1 1.1320 0.5270 0 fixed_point_IIR/Delay1 clk clk create_clock -name clk -period 2 [get_ports clk] fixed_point_IIR/Delay1 ans =

1

//Print timing path information for path #2 from violating_paths array

>> timing_obj.print(violating_paths(2))

Path Num Slack (ns) Delay (ns) Levels of Logic

Source/Destination Blocks Source Clock Destination Clock Path

Constraints

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X-Ref Target - Figure 3-1

1 -1.3260 11.2520 6 fixed_point_IIR/Delay1 clk clk create_clock -name clk -period 2 [get_ports clk] fixed_point_IIR/Delay2 ans =

1

highlight – Highlight design blocks for a timing path

Syntax

analyzer_object.highlight(<timing_path_structure>);

Description

This API highlights System Generator blocks for the timing path passed in the argument. It doesn't change the highlighting of a block from other paths, so more than one timing path can be highlighted if you use this function repeatedly.

The argument is the MATLAB structure for one timing path.

Example

//Highlight Simulink model blocks in the selected path

//Don't change highlighting of currently highlighted blocks in the model

>> [result, err_msg] = timing_object.highlight(all_timing_paths(1));

Highlighted System Generator model blocks appear as shown below.

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highlightOnePath – Highlight design blocks for one timing path

Syntax

analyzer_object.highlightOnePath(<timing_path_structure>);

Description

This API highlights System Generator blocks for the timing path passed in the argument. If a block from other paths is already highlighted then it will be unhighlighted first, so only one path is highlighted at a time.

The argument is the MATLAB structure for one timing path.

Example

//Highlight a single path in System Generator model, and unhighlight currently

//highlighted paths

>> [result, err_msg] = timing_object.highlightOnePath(violating_paths(2));

unhighlight – Unhighlight design blocks

Syntax

analyzer_object.unhighlight();

Description

This API unhighlights blocks that are already highlighted. The blocks in System Generator model are displayed in their original colors.

Example

//Unhighlight any Simulink block that is currenly highlighted

>> [result, err_msg] = timing_object.unhighlight();

disp – Display summary of timing analysis

Syntax

analyzer_object.disp();

Description

This API displays the summary of timing paths on the MATLAB console, including the worst slack value.

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Example

//Display a summary of timing analysis

>> timing_object.disp()

Number of setup paths = 9

Worst case setup slack = -1.6430

delete – Delete xilinx.analyzer class object

Syntax

analyzer_object.delete();

Description

This is a destructor for the xilinx.analyzer class.

Example

//Delete xilinx.analyzer object, i.e., timing_object

>> timing_object.delete();

Additional Information

Accessing data fields of timing path structures:

Example 1: Data for timing path #1

//Return the data fields for the timing path with the worst slack

>> all_timing_paths(1) ans =

Slack: -1.6430

Delay: 11.5690

Levels_of_Logic: 6

Source: 'fixed_point_IIR/Delay1'

Destination: 'fixed_point_IIR/IIR Filter Subsystem/Delay4'

Source_Clock: 'clk'

Destination_Clock: 'clk'

Path_Constraints: 'create_clock -name clk -period 2 [get_ports ...'

Block_Masks: {1x5 cell}

Simulink_Names: {1x5 cell}

Vivado_Names: {1x5 cell}

Type: 'setup'

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Example 2:

Data for timing path #3

//Return the data fields for a timing path

>> all_timing_paths(3) ans =

Slack: 1.1320

Delay: 0.5270

Levels_of_Logic: 0

Source: 'fixed_point_IIR/Delay1'

Destination: 'fixed_point_IIR/Delay1'

Source_Clock: 'clk'

Destination_Clock: 'clk'

Path_Constraints: 'create_clock -name clk -period 2 [get_ports ...'

Block_Masks: {'fprintf('','COMMENT: begin icon graphics')...'}

Simulink_Names: {'fixed_point_IIR/Delay1'}

Vivado_Names: {'fixed_point_iir.fixed_point_iir_struct.delay1'}

Type: 'setup'

Example 3: Data for path #1 in violating_paths array

//Return the data fields in a timing path with timing violations

>> violating_paths(1) ans =

Slack: -1.6430

Delay: 11.5690

Levels_of_Logic: 6

Source: 'fixed_point_IIR/Delay1'

Destination: 'fixed_point_IIR/IIR Filter Subsystem/Delay4'

Source_Clock: 'clk'

Destination_Clock: 'clk'

Path_Constraints: 'create_clock -name clk -period 2 [get_ports ...'

Block_Masks: {1x5 cell}

Simulink_Names: {1x5 cell}

Vivado_Names: {1x5 cell}

Type: 'setup'

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xilinx.utilities.importBD

xilinx.utilities.importBD imports a platform framework created in the Vivado IP Integrator into a System Generator model. The command provides an accelerated way to enter the

System Generator circuitry into the design. xilinx.utilities.importBD parses the platform framework for potential System Generator ports and interfaces and creates a sample stub in the Simulink model.

Inputs to the xilinx.utilities.importBD command are the Vivado project to be imported and the name of the model to be created in System Generator.

Syntax

xilinx.utilities.importBD(vivado_project,matlab_file)

Description

xilinx.utilities.importBD parses the platform framework Vivado project for potential System

Generator ports and interfaces and creates a sample stub to speed the development of the

System Generator model.

xilinx.utilities.importBD('<path_to_vivado_project_directory>/<project_name>.xpr',

'mynewmodel') xilinx.utilities.importBD('C:\test_impportBD\platform.xpr', 'mynewmodel')

xlAddTerms

xlAddTerms is similar to the addterms command in Simulink, in that it adds blocks to terminate or drive unconnected ports in a model. With xlAddTerms, output ports are terminated with a Simulink terminator block, and input ports are correctly driven with either a Simulink or System Generator constant block. Additionally System Generator gateway blocks can also be conditionally added.

The optionStruct argument can be configured to instruct xlAddTerms to set a block's property (e.g. set a constant block's value to 5) or to use different source or terminator blocks.

Syntax

xlAddTerms(arg1,optionStruct)

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Description

In the following description, 'source block' refers to the block that is used to drive an unconnected port. And 'term block' refers to the block that is used to terminate an unconnected port. xlAddTerms(arg1,optionStruct) xlAddTerms takes either 1 or 2 arguments. The second argument, optionStruct argument is optional. The first argument can be the name of a system, or a block list.

arg1 Description

gcs

'top/test1'

[1;2;3]

A string-handle of the current system

A string-handle of a system called test1. In this case, xlAddTerms is passed a handle to a system. This will run xlAddTerms on all the blocks under test1, including all children blocks of Subsystems.

{'top/test1'}

A block list of string handles. In this case, xlAddTerms is passed a handle to a block. This will run xlAddTerms only on the block called test1, and will not process child blocks.

{'t/b1';'t/b2';'t/b3'}

A block list of string handles.

A block list of numeric handles.

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The optionStruct argument is optional, but when included, should be a MATLAB structure.

The following table describes the possible values in the structure. The structure field names

(as is true with all MATLAB structure field names) are case sensitive.

optionStruct

Source

SourceWith

TermWith

UseGatewayIns

GatewayIn

Description

xlAddTerms can terminate in-ports using any source block (refer to

SourceWith field). The parameters of the source block can be specified using the Source field of the optionStruct by passing the parameters as sub-fields of the Source field. The Source field prompts xlAddTerms to do a series of set_params on the source block. Since it is possible to change the type of the source block, it is left to the user to ensure that the parameters here are relevant to the source block in use.

E.g. when a Simulink constant block is used as a Source Block, setting the block's value to 10 can be done with:

Source.value = '10'

And when a System Generator Constant block is used as a Source Block, setting the constant block to have a value of 10 and of type UFIX_32_0 can be done with:

Source.const = '10';

Source.arith_type='Unsigned';

Source.bin_pt=0;

Source.n_bits=32;

The SourceWith field allows the source block to be specified. Default is to use a constant block. SourceWith has two sub-fields which must be specified.

SourceWithBlock: A string specifying the full path and name of the block to be used. e.g. 'built-in/Constant' or 'xbsIndex_r3/AddSub'.

SourceWithPort: A string specifying the port number used to connect. E.g.

'1' or '3' Specifying '1' instructs xlAddTerms to connect using port 1, etc.

The TermWith Field allows the term block to be specified. Default is to use a Simulink terminator block. TermWith has two sub-fields which must be specified.

TermWithBlock: A string specifying the full path and name of the block to be used. e.g. 'built-in/Terminator' or 'xbsIndex_r3/AddSub'.

TermWithPort:

A string specifying the port number used to connect. E.g. '1' or '3'

Specifying '1' instructs xlAddTerms to connect using port 1, etc.

Instructs xlAddTerms to insert System Generator gateway ins when required. The existence of the field is used to denote insertion of gateway ins. This field must not be present if gateway ins are not to be used.

If gateway ins are inserted, their parameters can be set using this field, in a similar way as for Source and Term.

For example,

GatewayIn.arith_type='Unsigned';

GatewayIn.n_bits='32'

GatewayIn.bin_pt='0' will set the gateway in to output a ufix_32_0.

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optionStruct

UseGatewayOuts

GatewayOut

RecurseSubsystems

Description

Instructs xlAddTerms to insert System Generator gateway outs when required. The existence of the field is used to denote insertion of gateway outs. This field must not be present if gateway outs are not to be used.

If gateway outs are inserted, their parameters can be set using this field, in a similar way as for Source and Term.

For example,

GatewayOut.arith_type='Unsigned';

GatewayOut.n_bits='32'

Gatewayout.bin_pt='0' will set the gateway out to take an input of ufix_32_0.

Instructs xlAddTerm to recursively run xlAddTerm under all child

Subsystems. Expects a scalar number, 1 or 0.

Examples

Example 1: Runs xlAddTerms on the current system, with the default parameters: constant source blocks are used, and gateways are not added. Subsystems are recursively terminated. xlAddTerms(gcs);

Example 2: runs xlAddTerms on all the blocks in the Subsystem tt./mySubsystem. xlAddTerms(find_system('tt/mySubsystem','SearchDepth',1));

Example 3: runs xlAddTerms on the current system, setting the source block's constant value to 1, using gateway outs and changing the term block to use a Simulink display block.

s.Source.const = '10'; s.UseGatewayOuts = 1; s.TermWith.Block = 'built-in/Display'; s.TermWith.Port = '1'; s.RecurseSubsystem = 1; xlAddTerms(gcs,s);

Remarks

Note that field names are case sensitive. When using the fields 'Source', 'GatewayIn' and

'GatewayOut', users have to ensure that the parameter names to be set are valid.

See Also

Toolbar

,

xlTBUtils

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xlConfigureSolver

The xlConfigureSolver function configures the Simulink solver settings of a model to provide optimal performance during System Generator simulation.

Syntax

xlConfigureSolver(<model_handle>);

Description

The xlConfigureSolver function configures the model referred to by <model_handle>.

<model_handle> canbe a string or numeric handle to a Simulink model. Library models are not supported by this function since they have no simulation solver parameters to configure.

For optimal performance during System Generator simulation, the following Simulink simulation configuration parameters are set:

'SolverType' = 'Variable-step'

'Solver' = 'VariableStepDiscrete'

'SolverMode' = 'SingleTasking'

Examples

To illustrate how the xlConfigureSolver function works, do the following:

1. Open the following MDL file: sysgen/examples/chipscope/chip.mdl

2. Enter the following at the MATLAB command line: gcs ans = chip this is the Model “string” handle

3. Now enter the following from the MATLAB command line:

>> xlConfigureSolver(gcs)

Set 'SolverType' to 'Variable-step'

Set 'Solver' to 'VariableStepDiscrete'

Set 'SolverMode' to 'SingleTasking'

Set 'SingleTaskRateTransMsg' to 'None'

Set 'InlineParams' to 'on'

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xlfda_denominator

The xlfda_denomiator function returns the denominator of the filter object stored in the

Xilinx FDATool block.

Syntax

[den] = xlfda_denominator(FDATool_name);

Description

Returns the denominator of the filter object stored in the Xilinx FDATool block named

FDATool_name, or throws an error if the named block does not exist. The block name can be local (e.g. 'FDATool'), relative (e.g. '../../FDATool'), or absolute (e.g.

'untitled/foo/bar/FDATool').

See Also

xlfda_numerator ,

FDATool

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xlfda_numerator

The xlfda_numerator function returns the numerator of the filter object stored in the Xilinx

FDATool block.

Syntax

[num] = xlfda_numerator(FDATool_name);

Description

Returns the numerator of the filter object stored in the Xilinx FDATool block named

FDATool_name, or throws an error if the named block does not exist. The block name can be local (e.g. 'FDATool'), relative (e.g. '../../FDATool'), or absolute (e.g.

'untitled/foo/bar/FDATool').

See Also

xlfda_denominator

,

FDATool

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xlGenerateButton

The xlGenerateButton function provides a programmatic way to invoke the System

Generator code generator.

Syntax

status = xlGenerateButton(sysgenblock)

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Status

1

Description

IxlGenerateButton invokes the System Generator code generator and returns a status code.

Invoking xlGenerateButton with a System Generator block as an argument is functionally equivalent to opening the System Generator GUI for that token, and clicking on the

Generate button. The following is list of possible status codes returned by xlGenerateButton.

Description

Canceled

Simulation running

Check param error

Compile/generate netlist error

Netlister error

Post netlister script error

Post netlist error

Post generation error

External view mismatch when importing as a configurable Subsystem

See Also

xlgetparam and xlsetparam

,

xlgetparams ,

System Generator block

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Chapter 3: System Generator Utilities

xlgetparam and xlsetparam

Used to get and set parameter values in the

System Generator

token. Both functions are similar to the Simulink get_param and set_param commands and should be used for the

System Generator token instead of the Simulink functions.

Syntax

[value1, value2, ...] = xlgetparam(sysgenblock, param1, param2, ...) xlsetparam(sysgenblock, param1, value1, param2, value2, ...)

Description

The

System Generator

token differs from other blocks in one significant manner; multiple sets of parameters are stored for an instance of a System Generator token. The different sets of parameters stored correspond to different compilation targets available to the System

Generator token. The 'compilation' parameter is the switch used to toggle between different compilation targets stored in the System Generator token. In order to get or set parameters associated with a particular compilation type, it is necessary to first use xlsetparam to change the 'compilation' parameter to the correct compilation target, before getting or setting further values.

[value1, value2, ...] = xlgetparam(sysgenblock, param1, param2, ...)

The first input argument of xlgetparam should be a handle to the System Generator

block. Subsequent arguments are taken as names of parameters. The output returned is an array that matched the number of input parameters. If a requested parameter does not exist, the returned value of xlgetparam is empty. The xlgetparams function can be used to get all the parameters for the current compilation target. xlsetparam(sysgenblock, param1, value1, param2, value2, ...)

The xlsetparam function also takes a handle to a System Generator token as the first argument. Subsequent arguments must be provided in pairs, the first should be the parameter name and the second the parameter value.

Specifying the Compilation Parameter

The 'compilation' parameter on the System Generator token captures the compilation type chosen; for example 'HDL Netlist' or 'IP Catalog'. As previously stated, when a compilation type is changed, the System Generator token will remember all the options chosen for that particular compilation type. For example, when 'HDL Netlist' is chosen, the corresponding target directory could be set to 'hdl_dir', but when 'IP Catalog' is chosen, the target directory could point to a different location, for example 'ip_cat_dir'. Changing the compilation type causes the System Generator token to recall previous options made for

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Chapter 3: System Generator Utilities that compilation type. If the compilation type is selected for the first time, default values are use to populate the rest of the options on the System Generator token.

When using xlsetparam to set the compilation type of a System Generator token, be aware of the above behaviour, since the order in which parameters are set is important; be careful to first set a block's 'compilation' type before setting any other parameters.

When xlsetparam is used to set the 'compilation' parameter, it must be the only parameter that is being set on that command. For example. the form below is not permitted: xlsetparam(sysgenblock,'compilation','HDL Netlist', 'synthesis_tool', 'Vivado synthesis')

Examples

Example 1: Changing the synthesis tool used for HDL netlist. xlsetparam(sysgenblock, 'compilation', 'HDL Netlist'); xlsetparam(sysgenblock, 'synthesis_tool', 'Vivado synthesis')

The first xlsetparam is used to set the compilation target to 'HDL Netlist'. The second xlsetparam

is used to change the synthesis tool used to 'Vivado synthesis'.

Example 2: Getting family and part information.

[fam,part]=xlgetparam(sysgenblock,'xilinxfamily','part') fam =

Virtex2 part = xc2v1000

See Also

xlGenerateButton ,

xlgetparams

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Chapter 3: System Generator Utilities

xlgetparams

The xlgetparams command is used to get all parameter values in a

System Generator

token associated with the current compilation type. The xlgetparams command can be used in conjunction with the xlgetparam and xlsetparam commands to change or retrieve a System Generator token's parameters.

Syntax

paramstruct = xlgetparams(sysgenblock_handle);

To get the sysgenblock_handle

, enter gbc or gcbh at the MATLAB command line.

paramstruct = xlgetparams(' chip/ System Generator

'); paramstruct = xlgetparams(gcb); paramstruct = xlgetparams(gcbh);

Description

All the parameters available to a

System Generator block can be retrieved using the

xletparams command. For more information regarding the parameters, please refer to the

System Generator token documentation. paramstruct = xlgetparams(sysgenblock);

The first input argument of xlgetparams should be a handle to the System Generator token.

The function returns a MATLAB structure that lists the parameter value pairs.

Examples

To illustrate how the xlparams function works, do the following:

1. Open the following MDL file: sysgen/examples/chipscope/chip.mdl

2. Select the System Generator token

3. Enter the following at the MATLAB command line: gcb ans = chip/ System Generator this is the System Genertor token “string” handle

4. Now enter the following from the MATLAB command line: gcbh ans = 4.3431

this is the System Genertor token “numeric” handle

5. Now enter the following from the MATLAB command line: xlgetparams(gcb) the function returns all the parameters associated with the Bitstream compilation type:

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Chapter 3: System Generator Utilities compilation: 'Bitstream' compilation_lut: [1x1 struct] simulink_period: '1' incr_netlist: 'off' trim_vbits: 'Everywhere in Subsystem' dbl_ovrd: 'According to Block Masks' deprecated_control: 'off' block_icon_display: 'Default' xilinxfamily: 'virtex5' part: 'xc5vsx50t' speed: '-1' package: 'ff1136' synthesis_tool: 'Vivado synthesis' directory: './bitstream' testbench: 'off' sysclk_period: '10' core_generation: 'According to Block Masks' run_coregen: 'off' eval_field: '0' clock_loc: 'AH15' clock_wrapper: 'Clock Enables' dcm_input_clock_period: '100' synthesis_language: 'VHDL' ce_clr: 0 preserve_hierarchy: 0 postgeneration_fcn: 'xlBitstreamPostGeneration' settings_fcn: 'xlTopLevelNetlistGUI'

The compilation_lut parameter is another structure that lists the other compilation types that are stored in this System Generator token. Using xlsetparam to set the compilation type allows the parameters associated with that compilation type to be visible to either xlgetparams or xlgetparam.

See Also

xlGenerateButton ,

xlgetparam and xlsetparam

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Chapter 3: System Generator Utilities

xlGetReOrderedCoeff

The xlGetReOrderedCoeff function provides the re-ordered coefficient set of a FIR Compiler block.

Syntax

A = xlGetReOrderedCoeff(new_coeff_set, returnType, block_handle)

Description

Note:

Note: All three parameters of this function are required.

new_coeff_set

The new coefficient set that needs to be loaded into an existing FIR Compiler. Must be supplied to the function in the original order.

block_handle

This is the FIR Compiler block handle in the design. If a FIR Compiler block is selected, then this block_handle can be specified as gcbh.

returnType

This parameter specifies the re-ordered coefficient or just the reload order information format. This value can be specified as either 'coeff' or 'index'. A 'coeff' return type will modify the required coefficient set and provide the re-arranged coefficient set that can be directly supplied to the FIR compiler block. The 'index' return type provides only the coefficient address vector using the new_coeff_set that needs to be processed manually.

Examples

Example 1:

If A is a row vector of coefficients, then the coefficients sorted in the reload order can be obtained as follows: reload_order_coefficients = xlGetReOrderedCoeff(A,'coeff', gcbh)

In this example, reload_order_coefficients specifies the order in which coefficients contained in A should be passed to the FIR Compiler through the reload channel.

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Chapter 3: System Generator Utilities

Example 2:

This example shows how to use an input text file is generated.

reload_order_coefficients = xlGetReOrderedCoeff(A,'coeff',reload_<version>.txt)

Alternatively, the reload address vector can be obtained, reload_order_coefficients = A(xlGetReOrderedCoeff(A,'index',gcbh))

See Also

FIR Compiler 7.2

block

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Chapter 3: System Generator Utilities

xlOpenWaveFormData

Allow you to populate saved simulation waveform data into running Waveform Viewer instance.

Syntax

xlOpenWaveFormData(‘C:/wavedata/model_name.wdb’)

How to Use

1. Make sure an instance of Waveform Viewer is opened in the current SysGen session.

2. Locate the waveform data file (model_name.wdb) you would like to open.

Note:

Note: Waveform data are saved under the wavedata directory.

3. Type xlOpenWaveFormData(‘C:/wavedata/model_name.wdb’) in the MatLab console.

Make sure you enter the absolute path of the waveform data file.

4. Observe the waveform data in Waveform Viewer

See Also

Xilinx Waveform Viewer

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Chapter 3: System Generator Utilities

xlSetUseHDL

This function sets the 'Use behavioral HDL' option of blocks in a model or Subsystem.

Syntax

xlSetUseHDL(system, mode)

Description

The model or system specified in the parameter system is set to either use cores or behavioral HDL, depending on the mode. Mode is a number, where 0 refers to using cores, and 1 refers to using behavioral HDL.

Examples

Example 1: xlSetUseHDL(gcs,0)

This call sets the currently selected system to use cores.

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Chapter 3: System Generator Utilities

xlTBUtils

The xlTBUtils command provides access to several features of the Xilinx

Toolbar

block. This includes access to the layout, rerouting functions and to functions that return selected blocks and lines.

Syntax

xlTBUtils(function, args) e.g. xlTBUtils('ToolBar') xlTBUtils('Layout',struct('verbose',1,'autoroute',0)) xlTBUtils('Layout',optionStruct) xlTBUtils('Redrawlines',struct('autoroute',0)) xlTBUtils('RedrawLines',optionStruct)

[lines,blks]=xlTBUtils('GetSelected','All')

Description

xlTBUtils(function [,args])

xlTBUtils is a collection of functions that are used by the Xilinx Toolbar block. The function argument specifies the name of the function to execute. Further arguments (if required) can be tagged on as supplementary arguments to the function call. Note that the function argument string is not case sensitive. Possible values are enumerated below and explained further in the relevant subtopics.

Function Description

'ToolBar'

'Layout'

Launches the Xilinx Toolbar GUI. If the GUI is already open, it is brought to the front.

Runs the layout algorithm on a model to place and reroute lines on the model. Layout can be customized using the option structure that is detailed below.

'RedrawLines' Runs the routing algorithm on a model to reroute lines on the model.

RedrawLines can be customized using the option structure detailed below.

'GetSelected' Returns MATLAB Simulink handles to blocks and lines that are selected on the system in focus

'xlTBUtils('Layout',optionStruct)

Automatically places and routes a Simulink model. optionStruct is a MATLAB struct data-type, that contains the parameters for Layout. The optionStruct argument is optional.

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Layout expects circuits to be placed left to right. After placement, Layout uses Simulink to autoroute the wire connections. Simulink will route avoiding anything visible on screen, including block labels. Setting "ignore_labels" will 'allow' Simulink to route over labels – after which it is possible to manually move the labels to a more reasonable location. Note that field names are case sensitive.

Field Names Description [Default values]

x_pitch, y_pitch

The gaps (pitch) between block (pixels). x_pitch specifies the amount of spacing to leave between blocks horizontally, and y_pitch specifies vertical spacing. [30].

x_start, y_start autoroute

Left (x_start) and top(y_start) margin spacing (pixels). The amount of spacing to leave on the left and top of a model. [10].

Turns on Simulink auto-routing of lines. (1 | 0) [1] ignore_labels

When auto-routing lines, Simulink will attempt to auto-route around text labels. Setting ignore_labels to 1 will minimize text label size during the routing process.

sys Name of the system to layout. [gcs] verbose When set to 1, a wait bar is shown during the layout process.

xlTBUtils('RedrawLines',optionStruct)

The RedrawLines command will redraw all lines in a Simulink model. If there are lines selected, only selected lines are redrawn otherwise all lines are redrawn. If a branch is selected, the entire line is redrawn; main trunk and all other sub-branches.

Field Names Description [Default values]

autoroute sys

Turns on Simulink auto-routing of lines. (1 | 0) [1]

Name of the system to layout. [gcs]

[lines,blks]=xlTBUtils('GetSelected',arg)

The GetSelected command returns handles to selected blocks and lines of the system in focus. The argument arg is optional. It should be a one of the string values described in the table below.

Field Names Description [Default values]

'all'

'lines'

'blocks'

Gets both selected lines and blocks (default).

Gets only selected lines.

Gets only selected blocks.

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The GetSelected command will return an array with two items, an array of a structure containing line information (lines) and an array of block handles (blks). If the 'lines' argument is used, blks is an empty array; similarly when the 'blocks' argument is used, lines is an empty array.

Examples

Example 1a: Performing Layouts a.verbose = 1; a.autoroute= 0; xlTBUtils('Layout',a);

This will invoke the layout tool with verbose on and autoroute off.

Example 1b: Performing Layouts xlTBUtils('Layout',struct('verbose',1,'autoroute',0));

This will also invoke the layout tool with verbose on and autoroute off.

Example 2: Redrawing lines xlTBUtils('Redrawlines',struct('autoroute',0));

This will redraw the lines of the current system, with auto-routing off.

Example 3: Getting selected lines and blocks

[lines,blks]=xlTBUtils('GetSelected') lines =

1x3 struct array with fields:

Handle

Name

Parent

SrcBlock

SrcPort

DstBlock

DstPort

Points

Branch blks =

1.0e+003 *

3.0320

3.0480

This will return all selected lines and blocks in the current system. In this case, 3 lines and 2 blocks were selected. The first line handle can be accessed using the command lines(1).Handle

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Chapter 3: System Generator Utilities ans =

3.0740e+003

The handle to the first block can be accessed using the command blks(1) ans =

3.0320e+003

Remarks

The actions performed by Layout and RedrawLines will not be in the undo stack. Save a copy of the model before performing the actions, in order to revert to the original model.

This product contains certain software code or other information ("AT&T Software") proprietary to AT&T Corp. ("AT&T"). The AT&T Software is provided to you "AS IS". YOU

ASSUME TOTAL RESPONSIBILITY AND RISK FOR USE OF THE AT&T SOFTWARE. AT&T DOES

NOT MAKE, AND EXPRESSLY DISCLAIMS, ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF ANY

KIND WHATSOEVER, INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF

MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, WARRANTIES OF TITLE OR

NON-INFRINGEMENT OF ANY INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS, ANY WARRANTIES

ARISING BY USAGE OF TRADE, COURSE OF DEALING OR COURSE OF PERFORMANCE, OR

ANY WARRANTY THAT THE AT&T SOFTWARE IS "ERROR FREE" OR WILL MEET YOUR

REQUIREMENTS.

Unless you accept a license to use the AT&T Software, you shall not reverse compile, disassemble or otherwise reverse engineer this product to ascertain the source code for any

AT&T Software.

© AT&T Corp. All rights reserved. AT&T is a registered trademark of AT&T Corp.

See Also

Toolbar

,

xlAddTerms

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Chapter 4

Programmatic Access

System Generator API for Programmatic

Generation

Introduction

A script of System Generator for programmatic generation (PG API script) is a MATLAB

M-function file that builds a System Generator Subsystem by instantiating and interconnecting xBlock, xSignal, xInport, and xOutport objects. It is a programmatic way of constructing System Generator diagrams (for example, Subsystems). As is demonstrated below with examples, the top-level function of a System Generator programmatic script is its entry point and must be invoked through an xBlock contructor. Upon constructor exit,

MATLAB adds the corresponding System Generator Subsystem to the corresponding model.

If no model is opened, a new “untitled” model is created and the System Generator

Subsystem is inserted into it.

The xBlock constructor creates an xBlock object. The object can be created from a library block or it can be a Subsystem. An xSignal object corresponds to a wire that connects a source block to a target. An xInport object instantiates a Simulink Inport and an xOutport

object instantiates a Simulink Outport

The API also has one helper function, xlsub2script which converts a Simulink diagram to a programmatic generation script.

The API works in three modes: learning mode, production mode, and debugging mode. The learning mode allows you to type in the commands without having a physical script file. It is very useful when you learn the API. In this mode, all blocks, ports and Subsystems are added into a Simulink model named “untiled”. Please remember to run xBlock without any argument or to close the untitled model before starting a new learning session. The production mode has an M-function file and is invoked through the xBlock constructor.

You will have a Subsystem generated. The Subsystem can be either in the existing model or can be inserted in a new model. The debugging mode works the same as the production mode except that every time a new object is created or a new connection is established, the

Simulink diagram is rerouted. It is very useful when you debug the script that you set some break points in the script or single step the script.

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xBlock

The xBlock constructor creates an xBlock object. The object can be created from a library block or it can be a Subsystem. The xBlock constructor can be used in three ways:

• to add a leaf block to the current Subsystem,

• to add a Subsystem to the current Subsystem,

• to attach a top-level Subsystem to a model.

The xBlock takes four arguments and is invoked as follows. block = xBlock(source, params, inports, outports);

If the source argument is a string, it is expected to be a library block name. If the source block is in the xbsIndex_r4 library or in the Simulink built-in library, you can use the block name without the library name. For example, calling xBlock('AddSub', ...) is equivalent to xBlock('xbsIndex_r4/AddSub',...). For a source block that is not in the xbsIndex_r4 library or built-in library, you need to use the full path, for example, xBlock('xbsTest_r4/Assert Relation', ...)

. If the source argument is a function handle, it is interpreted as a PG API function. If it is a MATLAB struct, it is treated as a configuration struc to specify how to attach the top-level to a model.

The params argument sets up the parameters. It can be a cell array for position-based binding or a MATLAB struct for name-based binding. If the source parameter is a block in a library, this argument must be a cell array. If the source parameter is a function pointer, this argument must be a cell array.

The inports and outports arguments specify how Subsystem input and output ports are bound. The binding can be a cell array for position-based binding or a MATLAB struct for name-based binding. When specifying an inport/outport binding, an element of a cell array can be an xSignal, an xInport, or an xOutport object. If the port binding argument is a MATLAB struct, a field of the struct is a port name of the block, a value of the struct is the object that the port is bound to.

The two port binding arguments are optional. If the arguments are missing when constructing the xBlock object, the port binding can be specified through the bindPort method of an xBlock object. The bindPort method is invoked as follows: block.bindPort(inports, outports) where inports and outports arguments specify the input and output port binding. In this case, the object block is create by xBlock with only two arguments, the source and the parameter binding.

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Chapter 4: Programmatic Access

Other xBlock methods include the following.

names = block.getOutportNames returns a cell array of outport names,

names = block.getInportNames returns a cell array of inport names,

nin = block.getNumInports returns the number of inports,

nout = block.getNumoutports returns the number of outports.

insigs = block.getInSignals returns a cell array of in coming signals

outsigs = block.getOutSignals returns a cell array of out going signals

xInport

An xInport object represents a Subsystem input port.

The constructor port = xInport(port_name) creates an xInport object with name port_name,

[port1, port2, port3, ...] = xInport(name1, name2, name2, ...) creates a list of input port with names, and port = xInport creates an input port with an automatically generated name.

An xInport object can be passed for port binding.

METHODS

outsigs = port.getOutSignals

returns a cell array of out going signals.

xOutport

An xOutport object represents a Subsystem output port.

The constructor port = xOutport(port_name) creates an xOutport object with name port_name,

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Chapter 4: Programmatic Access

[port1, port2, port3, ...] = xOutport(name1, name2, name2, ...) creates a list of output port with names, and port = xOutport creates an output port with an automatically generated name.

An xOutport object can be passed for port binding.

METHODS

port.bind(obj) connects the object to port, where port is an xOutport object and obj is an xSignal or xInport object. insigs = port.getInSignals

returns a cell array of incoming signals.

xSignal

An xSignal represents a signal object that connects a source to targets.

The constructor sig = xSignal(sig_name) creates an xSignal object with name sig_name,

[sig1, sig2, sig3, ...] = xSignal(name1, name2, name2, ...) creates a list of signals with names, and sig = xSignal creates an xSignal for which a name is automatically generated.

An xSignal object can be passed for port binding.

METHODS

sig.bind(obj) connects the obj to sig, where sig is an xSignal object and obj is an xSignal or an xInport object.

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Chapter 4: Programmatic Access src = sig.getSrc

returns a cell array of the source objects that are driving the xSignal object. The cell array can have at most one element. If the source is an input port, the source object is an xInport object. If the source is an output port of a block, the source object is a struct, having two fields block and port. The block field is an xBlock object and the port field is the port index. dst = sig.getDst

returns a cell array of the destination objects that the xSignal object is driving. Each element can be either a struct or an xOutport object. It is defined same as the return value of the getSrc method.

xlsub2script

xlsub2script

is a helper function that converts a Subsystem into the top level of a

Sysgen script. xlsub2script(Subsystem)

converts the Subsystem into the top-level script. The argument can also be a model.

By default, the generated M-function file is named after the name of the Subsystem with white spaces replaced with underscores. Once the xlsub2script finishes, a help message will guide you how to use the generated script. The main purpose of this xlsub2script function is to make learning Sysgen Script easier. This is also a nice utility that allows you to construct a Subsystem using graphic means and then convert the Subsystem to a PG API

M-function.

xlsub2script(block)

, where block is a leaf block, prints out the xBlock call that creates the block.

The following are the limitations of xlsub2script.

• If the Subsystem has mask initialization code that contains function calls such as gcb, set_param

, get_param, add_block, and so on, the function will error out and you must modify the mask initialization code to remove those Simulink calls.

• If there is an access to global variables inside the Subsystem, you need add corresponding mask parameters to the top Subsystem that you run the xlsub2script.

• If a block’s link is broken, that block is skipped.

xlsub2script

can also be invoked as the following:

xlsub2script(subsyste, options) where options is a MATLAB struct. The options struct can have two fields: forcewrite, and basevars.

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Chapter 4: Programmatic Access

If xlsub2script is invoked for the same Subsystem the second time, xlsub2script will try to overwrite the existing M-function file. By default, xlsub2script will pop up a question dialog asking whether to overwrite the file or not. If the forcewrite field of the options

argument is set to be true or 1, xlsub2script will overwrite the M-function file without asking.

Sometimes a Subsystem is depended on some variables in the MATLAB base workspace. In that case, when you run xlsub2script, you want xlsub2script to pick these base workspace variables and generate the proper code to handle base workspace variables. The basevars

field of the options argument is for that purpose. If you want xlsub2script to pick up every variable in the base workspace, you need to set the basevars field to be

'all'

. If you want xlsub2script to selectively pick up some variables, you can set the basevars

field to be a cell array of strings, where each string is a variable name.

The following are examples of calling xlsub2script with the options argument: xlsub2script(Subsystem, struct('forcewrite', true)); xlsub2script(Subsystem, struct('forcewrite', true, 'basevars',

'all')); options.basevars = {'var1', 'var2', 'var3'); xlsub2script(Subsystem, options); xlsub2script(Subsystem, struct('basevars', {{'var1', 'var2',

'var3'}}));

Note:

In MATLAB, if the field of a struct is a cell array, when you call the struct() function call, you need the extra {}.

xBlockHelp

xBlockHelp(<block_name>)

prints out the parameter names and the acceptable values for the corresponding parameters. When you execute xBlockHelp without a parameter, the available blocks in the xbsIndex_r4 library are listed..

For example, when you execute the following in the MATLAB command line:

xBlockHelp('AddSub')

You'll get the following table in the transcript:

'xbsIndex_r4/AddSub' Parameter Table

Parameter Acceptable value Type

============ ================== ======== mode 'Addition' String

'Subtraction'

'Addition or Subtraction'

------------ ------------------ -------use_carryin 'off' String

'on'

------------ ------------------ -------use_carryout 'off' String

'on'

------------ ------------------ --------

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en 'off' String

'on'

------------ ------------------ -------latency An Int value Int

------------ ------------------ -------precision 'Full' String

'User Defined'

------------ ------------------ -------arith_type 'Signed (2's comp)' String

'Unsigned'

------------ ------------------ -------n_bits An Int value Int

------------ ------------------ -------bin_pt An Int value Int

------------ ------------------ -------quantization 'Truncate' String

'Round (unbiased: +/- Inf)'

------------ ------------------ -------overflow 'Wrap' String

'Saturate'

'Flag as error'

------------ ------------------ -------use_behavioral_HDL 'off' String

'on'

------------ ------------------ -------pipelined 'off' String

'on'

------------ ------------------ -------use_rpm 'off' String

'on'

------------ ------------------ --------

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PG API Examples

Hello World

In this example, you will run the PG API in the learning mode where you can type the commands in the MATLAB command shell.

1. To start a new learning session, in MATLAB command console, run: xBlock.

2. Type the following three commands in MATLAB command console to create a new

Subsystem named 'Subsystem' inside a new model named 'untitled'.

[a, b] = xInport('a', 'b'); s = xOutport('s'); adder = xBlock('AddSub', struct('latency', 1), {a, b}, {s});

The above commands create the Subsystem with two Simulink Inports a and b, an adder block having a latency of one, and a Simulink Outport s. The two Inports source the adder which in turn sources the Subsystem outport. The AddSub parameter refers to the AddSub block inside the xbsIndex_r4 library. By default, if the full block path is not specified, xBlock

will search xbsIndex_r4 and built-in libraries in turn. The library must be loaded before using xBlock. So please use load_system to load the library before invoking xBlock.

Debugging tip: If you type adder in the MATLAB console, System Generator will print a brief description of the adder block to the MATLAB console and the block is highlighted in the Simulink diagram. Similarly, you can type a, b, and s to highlight Subsystem Inports and

Outports.

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MACC

1. Run this example in the learning mode. To start a new learning session, run: xBlock.

2. Type the following commands in the MATLAB console window to create a multiply-accumulate function in a new Subsystem.

[a, b] = xInport('a', 'b'); mac = xOutport('mac'); m = xSignal; mult = xBlock('Mult', struct('latency', 0, 'use_behavioral_HDL', 'on'), {a, b},

{m}); acc = xBlock('Accumulator', struct('rst', 'off', 'use_behavioral_HDL', 'on'), {m},

{mac});

By directing System Generator to generate behavioral HDL, the two blocks should be packed into a single DSP48 block. As of this writing, Vivado synthesis will do so only if you force the multiplier block to be combinational.

Note:

If you don’t close the model that is created in example 1, example 2 is created in a model named untiltled1. Otherwise, a new model untitled is created for this example.

Debugging tip: The PG API provides functions to get information about blocks and signals in the generated Subsystem. After each of the following commands, observe the output in the MATLAB console and the effect on the Simulink diagram. mult_ins = mult.getInSignals mult_ins{1} mult_ins{2} src_a = mult_ins{1}.getSrc src_a{1} m_dst = m.getDst m_dst{1} m_dst{1}.block

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MACC in a Masked Subsystem

If you want a particular Subsystem to be generated by the PG API and pass parameters from the mask parameters of that Subsystem to PG API, you need to run the PG API in production mode, where you need to have a physical M-function file and pass that function to the xBlock

constructor.

1. First create the top-level PG API M-function file MACC_sub.m with the following lines. function MACC_sub(latency, nbits)

[a, b] = xInport('a', 'b'); mac = xOutport('mac'); if latency <= 0

error('latency must be positive'); elseif latency == 1

a_in = a; b_in = b; else

[a_in, b_in] = xSignal;

dblock1 = xBlock('Delay', struct('latency', latency - 1, 'reg_retiming', 'on'),

{a}, {a_in});

block2 = xBlock('Delay', struct('latency', latency - 1, 'reg_retiming', 'on'),

{b}, {b_in}); end m = xSignal; mult = xBlock('Mult', struct('latency', 0, 'use_behavioral_HDL', 'on'), {a_in, b_in}, {m}); acc = xBlock('Accumulator', struct('rst', 'off', 'n_bits', nbits,

'use_behavioral_HDL', 'on'), {m}, {mac});

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2. To mask the Subsystem defined by the script, add two mask parameters latency and nbits.

3. Then put the following lines to the mask initialization of the Subsystem. config.source = str2func('MACC_sub'); config.toplevel = gcb; xBlock(config, {latency, nbits});

In the production mode, the first argument of the xBlock constructor is a MATLAB struct for configuration, which must have a source field and a toplevel field. The source field is a function pointer points to the M-function and the toplevel is string specifying the Simulink

Subsystem. If the top-level field is 1, an untitled model is created and a Subsystem inside that model is created.

Alternatively you can use the MATLAB struct call to create the toplevel configuration: xBlock(struct('source', str2func(MACC_sub), 'toplevel', gcb),{latency, nbits});

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Then click OK.

You’ll get the following Subsystem.

Chapter 4: Programmatic Access

4. Set the mask parameters as shown in the following figure, then click OK:

The following diagram is generated:

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Debugging Tip: Open MACC_sub.m in the MATLAB editor to debug the function. By default the xBlock constructor will do an auto layout in the end. If you want to see the auto layout every time a block is added, invoke the toplevel xBlock as the following: config.source = str2func('MACC_sub'); config.toplevel = gcb; config.debug = 1; xBlock(config, {latency, nbits});

By setting the debug field of the configuration struct to be 1, you’re running the PG API in debug mode where every action will trigger an auto layout.

Caching Tip: Most often you only want to re-generate the Subsystem if needed. The xBlock

constructor has a caching mechanism. You can specify the list of dependent files in a cell array, and set the 'depend' field of the toplevel configuration with this list. If any file in the 'depend' list is changed, or the argument list that passed to the toplevel function is changed, the Subsystem is re-generated. If you want to have the caching capability for the

MACC_sub, invoke the toplevel xBlock as the following: config.source = str2func('MACC_sub'); config.toplevel = gcb; config.depend = {'MACC_sub.m'}; xBlock(config, {latency, nbits});

The depend field of the configuration struct is a cell array. Each element of the array is a file name. You can put a p-file name or an M-file name. You can also put a name without a suffix. The xBlock will use the first in the path.

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PG API Error/Warning Handling & Messages

xBlock Error Messages

Condition

When calling xBlock(NoSubSourceBlock, …)

and the source block does not exist

When calling xBlock(sourceblock, parameterBinding)

, and the parameters are illegal, xBlock will report the Illegal parameterization error. For example, xBlock(‘AddSub’, struct(‘latency’, -1));

When the input port binding list contains objects other than xSignal or xInport:

When the output port binding list contains objects other than xSignal or xOutport:

If the first argument of xBlock is a function pointer, the 2nd argument of xBlock is expected to be a cell array, otherwise, an error is thrown:

If the source configuration struct has toplevel defined, it must point to a Simulink

Subsystem and it must be a char array, otherwise, an error is thrown:

If an object in the outport binding list has already been driven by something, for example, if you try to have two driving sources, an error is thrown. (Note: the error message is not intuitive, we will fix it later.)

Error Message(s)

Source block NoSubSourceBlock cannot be found.

Illegal parameterization: Latency

Latency is set to a value of -1, but the value must be greater than or equal to 0

Only objects of xInport or xSignal can appear in inport binding list.

Only objects of xOutport or xSignal can appear in outport binding list.

Cell array is expected for the second argument of the xBlock call

Top level must be a char array

Source of xSignal object already exists

xInport Error Messages

Condition

If you try to create an xInport object with the same name the second time, an error is thrown. For example, if you call p = xInport(‘a’, ‘a’).

Error Message(s)

A new block named 'untitled/Subsystem/a' cannot be added.

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xOutport Error Messages

Condition

If you try to create an xOutport object with the same name the second time, an error is thrown. For example, if you call p = xOutport(‘a’, ‘a’).

If you try to bind an xOutport object twice, an error is thrown. For example, the following sequence of calls will cause an error: [a, b] = xInport(‘a’, ‘b’); c = xOutport(‘c’); c.bind(a); c.bind(b);

Error Message(s)

A new block named 'untitled/Subsystem/a' cannot be added.

The destination port already has a line connection.

xSignal Error Messages

Condition

If you try to bind an xSignal object with two sources, an error is thrown. For example, the following sequence of calls will cause an error:

[a, b] = xInport(‘a’, ‘b’); sig = xSignal; sig.bind(a); sig.bind(b);

Error Message(s)

Source of xSignal object already exists.

xsub2script Error Messages

Condition Error Message(s)

xlsub2script is invoked without any argument. An argument is expected for xlsub2script

The first argument is not a Subsystem or the model is not opened.

The first argument must be a model, Subsystem, or a block. Please make sure the model is opened or the argument is a valid string for a model or a block.

A Subsystem has simulink function calls in its mask initialization code.

The Subsystem has Goto blocks.

Subsystem has Simulink function calls, such as gcb, get_param, set_param, add_block. Please remove these calls and run xlsub2script again or you can pick a different Subsystem to run xlsub2script.

You have the following Goto blocks, please modify the model to remove them and run xlsub2script again.

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M-Code Access to Hardware Co-Simulation

Hardware co-simulation in System Generator brings on-chip acceleration and verification capabilities into the Simulink simulation environment. In the typical System Generator flow, a System Generator model is first compiled for a hardware co-simulation platform, during which a hardware implementation (bitstream) of the design is generated and associated to a hardware co-simulation block. The block is inserted into a Simulink model and its ports are connected with appropriate source and sink blocks. The whole model is simulated while the compiled System Generator design is executed on an FPGA device.

Alternatively, it is possible to programmatically control the hardware created through the

System Generator hardware co-simulation flow using MATLAB M-code (M-Hwcosim). The

M-Hwcosim interfaces allow for MATLAB objects that correspond to the hardware to be created in pure M-code, independent of the Simulink framework. These objects can then be used to read and write data into hardware.

This capability is useful for providing a scripting interface to hardware co-simulation, allowing for the hardware to be used in a scripted test-bench or deployed as hardware acceleration in M-code. Apart from supporting the scheduling semantics of a System

Generator simulation, M-Hwcosim also gives the flexibility for any arbitrary schedule to be used. This flexibility can be exploited to improve the performance of a simulation, if the user has apriori knowledge of how the design works. Additionally, the M-Hwcosim objects provide accessibility to the hardware from the MATLAB console, allowing for the hardware internal state to be introspected interactively.

Compiling Hardware for Use with M-Hwcosim

Compiling hardware for use in M-Hwcosim follows the same flow as the typical System

Generator hardware co-simulation flow. You start off with a System Generator model in

Simulink, select a hardware co-simulation target in the System Generator token and click

"Generate". At the end of the generation, a hardware co-simulation library is created.

Among other files in the netlist directory, you can find a bit file and an hwc file. The bit file corresponds to the FPGA implementation, and the hwc file contains information required for M-Hwcosim. Both bit file and hwc file are paired by name, e.g. mydesign_cw.bit

and mydesign_cw.hwc.

The hwc file specifies additional meta information for describing the design and the chosen hardware co-simulation interface. With the meta information, a hardware co-simulation instance can be instantiated using M-Hwcosim, through which you can interact with the co-simulation engine.

M-Hwcosim inherits the same concepts of ports and fixed point notations as found in the existing co-simulation block. Every design exposes its top-level ports for external access.

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M-Hwcosim Simulation Semantics

The simulation semantics for M-Hwcosim differs from that used during hardware co-simulation in a System Generator block diagram; the M-Hwcosim simulation semantics is more flexible and is capable of emulating the simulation semantics used in the block-based hardware co-simulation.

In the block-based hardware co-simulation, a rigid simulation semantic is imposed; before advancing a clock cycle, all the input ports of the hardware co-simulation are written to.

Next all the output ports are read and the clock is advanced. In M-Hwcosim the scheduling of when ports are read or written to, is left to the user. For instance it would be possible to create a program that would only write data to certain ports on every other cycle, or to only read the outputs after a certain number of clock cycles. This flexibility allows users to optimize the transfer of data for better performance.

Data Representation

M-Hwcosim uses fixed point data types internally, while it consumes and produces double precision floating point values to external entities. All data samples passing through a port are fixed point numbers. Each sample has a preset data width and an implicit binary point position that are fixed at the compilation time. Data conversions (from double precision to fixed point) happen on the boundary of M-Hwcosim. In the current implementation, quantization of the input data is handled by rounding, and overflow is handled by saturation.

Interfacing to Hardware from M-Code

When a model has been compiled for hardware co-simulation, the generated bitstream can be used in both a model-based Simulink flow, or in M-code executed in MATLAB. The general sequence of operations to access a bitstream in hardware typically follows the sequence described below.

1. Configure the hardware co-simulation interface. Note that the hardware co-simulation configuration is persistent and is saved in the hwc file. If the co-simulation interface is not changed, there is no need to re-run this step.

2. Create a M-Hwcosim instance for a particular design.

3. Open the M-Hwcosim interface.

4. Repeatedly run the following sub-steps until the simulation ends.

a. Write simulation data to input ports.

b. Read simulation data from output ports.

c. Advance the design clock by one cycle.

5. Close the M-Hwcosim interface.

6. Release the M-Hwcosim instance.

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Automatic Generation of M-Hwcosim Testbench

M-Hwcosim enables the testbench generation for hardware co-simulation. When the

Create testbench option is checked in the System Generator token, the hardware co-simulation compilation flow generates an M-code script

(<design>_hwcosim_test.m) and golden test data files

(<design>_<port>_hwcosim_test.dat) for each gateway based on the Simulink simulation. The M-code script uses the M-Hwcosim API to implement a testbench that simulates the design in hardware and verifies the results against the golden test data. Any simulation mismatch is reported in a result file (<design>_hwcosim_test.results).

As shown below in Example 4, the testbench code generated is easily readable and can be used as a basis for your own simulation code.

Example 4

function multi_rates_cw_hwcosim_test

try

% Define the number of hardware cycles for the simulation.

ncycles = 10;

% Load input and output test reference data.

testdata_in2 = load('multi_rates_cw_in2_hwcosim_test.dat');

testdata_in3 = load('multi_rates_cw_in3_hwcosim_test.dat');

testdata_in7 = load('multi_rates_cw_in7_hwcosim_test.dat');

testdata_pb00 = load('multi_rates_cw_pb00_hwcosim_test.dat');

testdata_pb01 = load('multi_rates_cw_pb01_hwcosim_test.dat');

testdata_pb02 = load('multi_rates_cw_pb02_hwcosim_test.dat');

testdata_pb03 = load('multi_rates_cw_pb03_hwcosim_test.dat');

testdata_pb04 = load('multi_rates_cw_pb04_hwcosim_test.dat');

% Pre-allocate memory for test results.

result_pb00 = zeros(size(testdata_pb00));

result_pb01 = zeros(size(testdata_pb01));

result_pb02 = zeros(size(testdata_pb02));

result_pb03 = zeros(size(testdata_pb03));

result_pb04 = zeros(size(testdata_pb04));

% Initialize sample index counter for each sample period to be

% scheduled.

insp_2 = 1;

insp_3 = 1;

insp_7 = 1;

outsp_1 = 1;

outsp_2 = 1;

outsp_3 = 1;

outsp_7 = 1;

% Define hardware co-simulation project file.

project = 'multi_rates_cw.hwc';

% Create a hardware co-simulation instance.

h = Hwcosim(project);

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% Open the co-simulation interface and configure the hardware.

try

open(h);

catch

% If an error occurs, launch the configuration GUI for the user

% to change interface settings, and then retry the process again.

release(h);

drawnow;

h = Hwcosim(project);

open(h);

end

% Simulate for the specified number of cycles.

for i = 0:(ncycles-1)

% Write data to input ports based their sample period.

if mod(i, 2) == 0

h('in2') = testdata_in2(insp_2);

insp_2 = insp_2 + 1;

end

if mod(i, 3) == 0

h('in3') = testdata_in3(insp_3);

insp_3 = insp_3 + 1;

end

if mod(i, 7) == 0

h('in7') = testdata_in7(insp_7);

insp_7 = insp_7 + 1;

end

% Read data from output ports based their sample period.

result_pb00(outsp_1) = h('pb00');

result_pb04(outsp_1) = h('pb04');

outsp_1 = outsp_1 + 1;

if mod(i, 2) == 0

result_pb01(outsp_2) = h('pb01');

outsp_2 = outsp_2 + 1;

end

if mod(i, 3) == 0

result_pb02(outsp_3) = h('pb02');

outsp_3 = outsp_3 + 1;

end

if mod(i, 7) == 0

result_pb03(outsp_7) = h('pb03');

outsp_7 = outsp_7 + 1;

end

% Advance the hardware clock for one cycle.

run(h);

end

% Release the hardware co-simulation instance.

release(h);

% Check simulation result for each output port.

logfile = 'multi_rates_cw_hwcosim_test.results';

logfd = fopen(logfile, 'w');

sim_ok = true;

sim_ok = sim_ok & check_result(logfd, 'pb00', testdata_pb00, result_pb00);

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sim_ok = sim_ok & check_result(logfd, 'pb01', testdata_pb01, result_pb01);

sim_ok = sim_ok & check_result(logfd, 'pb02', testdata_pb02, result_pb02);

sim_ok = sim_ok & check_result(logfd, 'pb03', testdata_pb03, result_pb03);

sim_ok = sim_ok & check_result(logfd, 'pb04', testdata_pb04, result_pb04);

fclose(logfd);

if ~sim_ok

error('Found errors in simulation results. Please refer to ''%s'' for details.', logfile);

end

catch

err = lasterr;

try release(h); end

error('Error running hardware co-simulation testbench. %s', err);

end

%--------------------------------------------------------------------function ok = check_result(fd, portname, expected, actual)

ok = false;

fprintf(fd, ['\n' repmat('=', 1, 95), '\n']);

fprintf(fd, 'Output: %s\n\n', portname);

% Check the number of data values.

nvals_expected = numel(expected);

nvals_actual = numel(actual);

if nvals_expected ~= nvals_actual

fprintf(fd, ['The number of simulation output values (%d) differs ' ...

'from the number of reference values (%d).\n'], ...

nvals_actual, nvals_expected);

return;

end

% Check for simulation mismatches.

mismatches = find(expected ~= actual);

num_mismatches = numel(mismatches);

if num_mismatches > 0

fprintf(fd, 'Number of simulation mismatches = %d\n', num_mismatches);

fprintf(fd, '\n');

fprintf(fd, 'Simulation mismatches:\n');

fprintf(fd, '----------------------\n');

fprintf(fd, '%10s %40s %40s\n', 'Cycle', 'Expected values', 'Actual values');

fprintf(fd, '%10d %40.16f %40.16f\n', ...

[mismatches-1; expected(mismatches); actual(mismatches)]);

return;

end

ok = true;

fprintf(fd, 'Simulation OK\n');

Selecting the Adapter for Point-to-Point Ethernet Hardware

Co-Simulation with M-Hwcosim

When you are performing Point-to-Point Ethernet Hardware Co-Simulation using

M-Hwcosim, you can select the desired Ethernet interface if there are multiple adapters.

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This can be achieved with the following sequence of MATLAB console commands:

1. Get the M-Hwcosim object.

h = Hwcosim('<model_name.hwc>') for example: h = Hwcosim('sysgenFSE.hwc')

2. Get the information for all of the Ethernet adapters.

>> ifc_arr = xlPPEthernetCosimGetAdapters; xlPPEthernetCosimGetAdapters

is a helper function to list all available Ethernet adapters in the system into a MATLAB struct array.

3. Find the human-readable names of the adapters and find the index of the desired adapter.

>> ifc_arr.desc

Example output is shown below.

>> ifc_arr.desc

ans =

Please select an Ethernet interface ans =

Infineon AN983/AN985/ADM9511 NDIS5 64-bits X64 Driver

(00:1e:e5:d6:d5:fd) ans =

Broadcom NetXtreme Gigabit Ethernet Driver (bc:30:5b:d2:23:0b

The first index is always "Please select an Ethernet interface". The other indexes are the device description string, the device name, the MAC address, the connection speed, and the maximum frame size of each Ethernet adapter.

4. Select the index of the Ethernet Adapter connected to the board and set the ethernetInterfaceID property in the M-Hwcosim object. Here the second entry (Infineon adapter) is used.

>> set(h, 'ethernetInterfaceID', ifc_arr(2).dev);

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Resource Management

M-Hwcosim manages resources that it holds for a hardware co-simulation instance. It releases the held resources upon the invocation of the release instruction or when MATLAB exits. However, it is recommended to perform an explicit cleanup of resources when the simulation finishes or throws an error. To allow proper cleanup in case of errors, it is suggested to enclose M-Hwcosim instructions in a MATLAB try-catch block as illustrated below.

try

% M-Hwcosim instructions here

catch

err = lasterror;

% Release any Hwcosim instances

try release(hwcosim_instance); end

rethrow(err);

end

The following command can be used to release all hardware co-simulation instances.

xlHwcosim('release'); % Release all Hwcosim instances

M-Hwcosim MATLAB Class

Hwcosim

The Hwcosim MATLAB class provides a higher level abstraction of the hardware co-simulation engine. Each instantiated Hwcosim object represents a hardware co-simulation instance. It encapsulates the properties, such as the unique identifier, associated with the instance. Most of the instruction invocations take the Hwcosim object as an input argument. For further convenience, alternative shorthand is provided for certain operations.

Actions

Constructor

Destructor

Open hardware

Close hardware

Write data

Read data

Run

Syntax

h = Hwcosim(project) release(h) open(h) close(h) write(h, 'portName', inData); outData = read(h, 'portName'); run(h);

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Actions

Port information

Set property

Get property

Syntax

portinfo(h); set(h, 'propertyName', propertyValue); propertyValue = get(h, 'propertyName');

Constructor

Syntax

h = Hwcosim(project);

Description

Creates an Hwcosim instance. Note that an instance is a reference to the hardware co-simulation project and does not signify an explicit link to hardware; creating a Hwcosim object informs the Hwcosim engine where to locate the FPGA bitstream, it does not download the bitstream into the FPGA. The bitstream is only downloaded to the hardware after an open command is issued.

The project argument should point to the hwc file that describes the hardware co-simulation.

Creating the Hwcosim object will list all import and output ports. The example below shows the output of a call to the Hwcosim constructor, displaying the ID of the object and a list of all the input and output gateways/ports.

>> h = Hwcosim(p)

System Generator Hardware Co-simulation Object

id: 30247

inports:

gateway_in

gateway_in2

outports:

gateway_out

Destructor

Syntax

release(h);

Description

Releases the resources used by the Hwcosim object h. If a link to hardware is still open, release will first close the hardware.

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Open hardware

Syntax

open(h);

Description

Opens the connection between the host PC and the FPGA. Before this function can be called, the hardware co-simulation interface must be configured. The argument, h, is a handle to an Hwcosim object.

Close hardware

Syntax

close(h);

Description

Closes the connection between the host PC and the FPGA. The argument, h, is a handle to an Hwcosim object.

Write data

Syntax

h('portName') = inData; %If inData is array, results in burst write.

h('portName') = [1 2 3 4]; write(h, 'portName', inData); write(h, 'portName', [1 2 3 4]); %burst mode

Description

Ports are referenced by their legalized names. Name legalization is a requirement for VHDL and Verilog synthesis, and converts names into all lower-case, replaces white space with underscores, and adds unique suffixes to avoid namespace collisions. To find out what the legalized input and output port names are, run the helper command portinfo(h), or see the output of Hwcosim at the time of instance creation.

inData

is the data to be written to the port. Normal single writes are performed if inData is a scalar value. If burst mode is enabled and inData is a 1xn array, it will be interpreted as a timeseries and written to the port via burst data transfer.

Read data

Syntax

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Chapter 4: Programmatic Access outData = h('portName'); outData = h('portName', 25); %burst mode outData = read(h, 'portName'); outData = read(h, 'portName', 25); %burst

Description

Ports are referenced by their legalized names (see

Write data

above).

If burst mode is enabled, and depending on whether the read command has 3 or 4 parameters (2 or 3 parameters in the case of a subscript reference h('portName', ...)), outData

will be assigned a scalar or a 1xn array. If an array, the data is the result of a burst data transfer.

Run

Syntax

run(h); run(h, n); run(h, inf); %start free-running clock run(h, 0); %stop free-running clock

Description

When the hardware co-simulation object is configured to run in single-step mode, the run command is used to advance the clock. run(h) will advance the clock by one cycle. run(h,n) will advance the clock by n cycles.

The run command is also used to turn on (and off) free-running clock mode: run(h, inf) will start the free-running clock and run(h, 0) will stop it.

Note:

A read of an output port will need to be preceded either by a 'dummy' run command or by a write, in order to force a synchronization of the read cache with the hardware.

Port information

Syntax

portinfo(h);

Description

This method will return a MATLAB struct array with fields inports and outports, which themselves are struct arrays holding all input and output ports, respectively, again represented as struct arrays. The fieldnames of the individual port structs are the legalized

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Chapter 4: Programmatic Access portnames themselves, so you may obtain a cell array of input port names suitable for

Hwcosim write commands by issuing these commands: a = portinfo(h); inports = fieldnames(a.inports);

You can issue a similar series of commands for output ports (outports).

Additional information contained in the port structs are simulink_name, which provides the fully hierarchical Simulink name including spaces and line breaks, rate, which contains the signal's rate period with respect to the DUT clock, type, which holds the System

Generator data type information, and, if burst mode is enabled, fifo_depth, indicating the maximum size of data bursts that can be sent to Hardware in a batch.

Set property

Syntax

set(h, 'propertyName', propertyValue);

Description

The set method sets or changes any of the contents of the internal properties table of the

Hwcosim instance h. It is required that h already exists before calling this method.

Examples

set(h, 'booleanProperty', logical(0)); set(h, 'integerProperty', int32(12345)); set(h, 'doubleProperty', pi); set(h, 'stringProperty', 'Rosebud!');

For a practical application of the set property method in the context of Point-to-Point

Ethernet Hardware Co-Simulation, see

Selecting the Adapter for Point-to-Point Ethernet

Hardware Co-Simulation with M-Hwcosim

.

Get property

Syntax

propertyValue = get(h, 'propertyName');

Description

The get property method returns the value of any of the contents of the internal properties table in the Hwcosim instance h, referenced by the propertyName key. It is required that h

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Chapter 4: Programmatic Access already exists before calling this method. If the propertyName key does not exist in h, the method throws an exception and prints an error message.

Examples

bool_val = get(h, 'booleanProperty'); int_val = get(h, 'integerProperty'); double = get(h, 'doubleProperty'); str_val = get(h, 'stringProperty');

M-Hwcosim Utility Functions

xlHwcosim

Syntax

xlHwcosim('release');

Description

When M-Hwcosim objects are created global system resources are used to register each of these objects. These objects are typically freed when a release command is called on the object. xlHwcosim provides an easy way to release all resources used by M-Hwcosim in the event of an unexpected error. The release functions for each of the objects should be used if possible since the xlHwcosim call release the resources for all instances of a particular type of object.

Example

xlHwcosim('release') %release all instances of Hwcosim objects.

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Appendix A

Additional Resources and Legal Notices

Xilinx Resources

For support resources such as Answers, Documentation, Downloads, and Forums, see Xilinx

Support .

Solution Centers

See the Xilinx Solution Centers for support on devices, software tools, and intellectual property at all stages of the design cycle. Topics include design assistance, advisories, and troubleshooting tips.

References

These documents provide supplemental material useful with this guide:

1. Vivado Design Suite User Guide: Model-Based DSP Design Using System Generator

( UG897 )

2. Vivado Design Suite Tutorial: Model-Based DSP Design Using System Generator ( UG948 )

3. Vivado Design Suite User Guide: Using the Vivado IDE ( UG893 )

4. Vivado Design Suite User Guide: Design Flows Overview ( UG892 )

5. Vivado Design Suite Migration Methodology Guide ( UG911 )

6. Vivado Design Suite User Guide: Designing with IP ( UG896 )

7. Vivado Design Suite User Guide: Using Constraints ( UG903 )

8. Vivado Design Suite User Guide: Using Tcl Scripting ( UG894 )

9. Vivado Design Suite Tutorial: Design Flows Overview ( UG888 )

10. Vivado Design Suite User Guide: System-Level Design Entry ( UG895 )

11. Vivado® Design Suite User Guide: Release Notes, Installation, and Licensing ( UG973 )

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Appendix A: Additional Resources and Legal Notices

12. UltraFast Design Methodology Guide for the Vivado Design Suite ( UG949 )

13.

Vivado Design Suite Video Tutorials

14.

Vivado Design Suite Tutorials

15.

Vivado Design Suite User Guides

16.

Vivado Design Suite Reference Guides

17.

Vivado Design Suite Methodology Guides

18.

Vivado Design Suite Documentation

19.

Download Center on the Xilinx website

Training Resources

Xilinx provides a variety of training courses and QuickTake videos to help you learn moreabout the concepts presented in this document. Use these links to explore related training resources:

1.

DSP Design Using System Generator Training Course

2.

Vivado Design Suite Quick Take Video: Generating Vivado HLS block for use in System

Generator for DSP

3.

Vivado Design Suite Quick Take Video: Using Vivado HLS C/C++/System C block in

System Generator

4.

Vivado Design Suite Quick Take Video: Using Hardware Co-Simulation with Vivado

System Generator for DSP

5.

Vivado Design Suite Quick Take Video: System Generator Multiple Clock Domains

6.

Vivado Design Suite Quick Take Video: Specifying AXI4-Lite Interfaces for your Vivado

System Generator Design

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Appendix A: Additional Resources and Legal Notices

Please Read: Important Legal Notices

The information disclosed to you hereunder (the “Materials”) is provided solely for the selection and use of Xilinx products. To the maximum extent permitted by applicable law: (1) Materials are made available "AS IS" and with all faults, Xilinx hereby DISCLAIMS

ALL WARRANTIES AND CONDITIONS, EXPRESS, IMPLIED, OR STATUTORY, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO WARRANTIES OF

MERCHANTABILITY, NON-INFRINGEMENT, OR FITNESS FOR ANY PARTICULAR PURPOSE; and (2) Xilinx shall not be liable (whether in contract or tort, including negligence, or under any other theory of liability) for any loss or damage of any kind or nature related to, arising under, or in connection with, the Materials (including your use of the Materials), including for any direct, indirect, special, incidental, or consequential loss or damage (including loss of data, profits, goodwill, or any type of loss or damage suffered as a result of any action brought by a third party) even if such damage or loss was reasonably foreseeable or Xilinx had been advised of the possibility of the same. Xilinx assumes no obligation to correct any errors contained in the Materials or to notify you of updates to the Materials or to product specifications. You may not reproduce, modify, distribute, or publicly display the Materials without prior written consent. Certain products are subject to the terms and conditions of Xilinx’s limited warranty, please refer to

Xilinx’s Terms of Sale which can be viewed at http://www.xilinx.com/legal.htm#tos ; IP cores may be subject to warranty and support terms contained in a license issued to you by Xilinx. Xilinx products are not designed or intended to be fail-safe or for use in any application requiring fail-safe performance; you assume sole risk and liability for use of Xilinx products in such critical applications, please refer to Xilinx’s Terms of Sale which can be viewed at http://www.xilinx.com/legal.htm#tos .

© Copyright 2012–2015 Xilinx, Inc. Xilinx, the Xilinx logo, Artix, ISE, Kintex, Spartan, Virtex, Vivado, Zynq, and other designated brands included herein are trademarks of Xilinx in the United States and other countries. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

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