3-Space Sensor Wireless 2.4GHz User`s Manual

3-Space Sensor Wireless 2.4GHz User`s Manual
3-Space Sensor
3-Space Sensor
Wireless 2.4GHz
Miniature Wireless Attitude & Heading
Reference System
User's Manual
YEI Technology
630 Second Street
Portsmouth, Ohio 45662
www.YeiTechnology.com
www.3SpaceSensor.com
Patents Pending
©2007-2011 Yost Engineering, Inc.
Printed in USA
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3-Space Sensor
Wireless 2.4GHz
Miniature Wireless Attitude & Heading
Reference System
User's Manual
YEI Technology
630 Second Street
Portsmouth, Ohio 45662
www.YeiTechnology.com
www.3SpaceSensor.com
Toll-Free: 888-395-9029
Phone: 740-355-9029
Patents Pending
©2007-2011 Yost Engineering, Inc.
Printed in USA
Table of Contents
1. Usage/Safety Considerations...........................................................................................................................................1
1.1 Usage Conditions.....................................................................................................................................................1
1.2 Technical Support and Repairs................................................................................................................................1
1.3 Regulatory Approval ..............................................................................................................................................1
1.3.1 United States FCC Approval..........................................................................................................................1
1.3.2 Canada IC Approval.......................................................................................................................................2
1.3.3 European Approval.........................................................................................................................................2
1.4 Battery Safety Considerations.................................................................................................................................2
2. Overview of the YEI Wireless 3-Space Sensor...............................................................................................................3
2.1 Introduction.............................................................................................................................................................3
2.2 Applications.............................................................................................................................................................3
2.3 Hardware Overview.................................................................................................................................................4
2.3.1 Wireless Sensor Hardware Overview.............................................................................................................4
2.3.2 Wireless Dongle Hardware Overview............................................................................................................4
2.4 Features....................................................................................................................................................................5
2.5 Block Diagram of Sensor Operation.......................................................................................................................6
2.6 Specifications..........................................................................................................................................................7
2.7 Physical Dimensions................................................................................................................................................8
2.8 Axis Assignment......................................................................................................................................................9
2.9 Wireless Terminology.............................................................................................................................................9
2.10 Wireless LED Modes..........................................................................................................................................10
3. Description of the 3-Space Sensor................................................................................................................................11
3.1 Orientation Estimation...........................................................................................................................................11
3.1.1 Component Sensors......................................................................................................................................11
3.1.2 Scale, Bias, and Cross-Axis Effect...............................................................................................................11
3.1.3 Additional Calibration..................................................................................................................................12
3.1.4 Reference Vectors.........................................................................................................................................12
3.1.5 Orientation Filtering ....................................................................................................................................12
3.1.6 Reference Orientation/Taring.......................................................................................................................13
3.1.7 Other Estimation Parameters........................................................................................................................13
3.2 Communication......................................................................................................................................................14
3.3 Input Device Emulation.........................................................................................................................................14
3.3.1 Axes and Buttons..........................................................................................................................................14
3.3.2 Joystick.........................................................................................................................................................14
3.3.3 Mouse...........................................................................................................................................................14
3.3.4 Wireless Joystick/Mouse..............................................................................................................................14
3.4 Sensor Settings......................................................................................................................................................15
3.4.1 Committing Settings.....................................................................................................................................15
3.4.2 Committing Wireless Settings.......................................................................................................................15
3.4.3 Natural Axes.................................................................................................................................................15
3.4.4 Sensor General Settings................................................................................................................................15
3.4.5 Dongle General Settings...............................................................................................................................16
3.4.6 Sensor Wireless Settings...............................................................................................................................16
3.4.7 Dongle Wireless Settings..............................................................................................................................16
4. 3-Space Sensor Usage/Protocol....................................................................................................................................17
4.1 Usage Overview....................................................................................................................................................17
4.1.1 Protocol Overview........................................................................................................................................17
4.1.2 Computer Interfacing Overview(USB).........................................................................................................17
4.1.3 Computer Interfacing Overview(Wireless)...................................................................................................17
4.2 Wired Protocol Packet Format..............................................................................................................................18
4.2.1 Binary Packet Format...................................................................................................................................18
4.2.2 ASCII Text Packet Format...........................................................................................................................19
4.3 Wireless Protocol Packet Format..........................................................................................................................20
4.3.1 Wireless Communication Format.................................................................................................................20
4.3.2 Binary Packet Format...................................................................................................................................20
4.3.3 Binary Command Response..........................................................................................................................21
4.3.4 Sample Binary Commands............................................................................................................................21
4.3.5 ASCII Text Packet Format...........................................................................................................................22
4.3.6 ASCII Command Response..........................................................................................................................23
4.3.7 Sample ASCII Commands............................................................................................................................23
4.4 Wireless Asynchronous Protocol...........................................................................................................................24
4.4.1 Asynchronous Communication Format........................................................................................................24
4.4.2 Interval and Duration...................................................................................................................................24
4.4.3 Starting/Stopping Asynchronous Transmissions..........................................................................................25
4.4.4 Asynchronous Auto Flush.............................................................................................................................25
4.4.5 Asynchronous Manual Flush.........................................................................................................................25
4.4.6 Asynchronous Timestamps and Flush Bits...................................................................................................26
4.4.7 Sample Asynchronous Requests..................................................................................................................26
4.5 Command Overview..............................................................................................................................................27
4.3.1 Orientation Commands.................................................................................................................................27
4.3.2 Normalized Data Commands........................................................................................................................28
4.3.3 Other Data Commands..................................................................................................................................28
4.3.4 Corrected Data Commands...........................................................................................................................28
4.3.5 Raw Data Commands....................................................................................................................................28
4.3.6 Configuration Write Commands...................................................................................................................29
4.3.7 Configuration Read Commands....................................................................................................................32
4.3.8 Calibration Commands.................................................................................................................................34
4.3.9 Dongle Wireless Asynchronous Flush Commands.......................................................................................35
4.3.10 Wireless Sensor & Dongle Commands.......................................................................................................35
4.3.11 Battery Commands......................................................................................................................................36
4.3.12 Dongle Commands......................................................................................................................................36
4.3.13 General Commands.....................................................................................................................................37
4.3.14 Wireless HID Commands...........................................................................................................................38
4.3.15 Wired HID Commands...............................................................................................................................38
4.3.16 General HID Commands.............................................................................................................................39
Appendix...........................................................................................................................................................................40
USB Connector............................................................................................................................................................40
Hex / Decimal Conversion Chart.................................................................................................................................40
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User's Manual
1. Usage/Safety Considerations
1.1 Usage Conditions
•
Do not use the 3-Space Sensor in any system on which people's lives depend(life support, weapons, etc.)
•
Because of its reliance on a compass, the 3-Space Sensor will not work properly near the earth's north or south
pole.
•
Because of its reliance on a compass and accelerometer, the 3-Space Sensor will not work properly in outer
space or on planets with no magnetic field.
•
Care should be taken when using the 3-Space Sensor in a car or other moving vehicle, as the disturbances
caused by the vehicle's acceleration may cause the sensor to give inaccurate readings.
•
Because of its reliance on a compass, care should be taken when using the 3-Space Sensor near ferrous metal
structures, magnetic fields, current carrying conductors, and should be kept about 6 inches away from any
computer screens or towers.
•
Since the Wireless 3-Space Sensor uses RF communication technology, communication failure modes should
be carefully considered when designing a system that uses the wireless 3-Space Sensor.
•
The Wireless 3-Space Sensor is powered by a rechargeable lithium-polymer battery. Lithium-polymer batteries
have high energy densities and can be dangerous if not used properly. See section 1.4 Battery Considerations
for further information pertaining to battery safety.
1.2 Technical Support and Repairs
Limited Product Warranty: YEI warrants the media and hardware on which products are furnished to be free from
defects in materials and workmanship under normal use for sixty (60) days from the date of delivery. No warranties
exist for any misuse. YEI will repair or replace any defective product which is returned within this time period.
Product Support: YEI provides technical and user support via our toll-free number (888-395-9029) and via email
([email protected]). Support is provided for the lifetime of the equipment. Requests for repairs should be
made through the Support department. For damage occurring outside of the warranty period or provisions, customers
will be provided with cost estimates prior to repairs being performed.
1.3 Regulatory Approval
1.3.1 United States FCC Approval
This device contains FCC ID: OA3MRF24J40MA
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class B digital device, pursuant to part 15 of
the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful interference in a residential
installation. This equipment generates, uses and can radiate radio frequency energy, and if not installed and used in
accordance with the instructions, may cause harmful interference to radio communications. However, there is no
guarantee that interference will not occur in a particular installation. If this equipment does cause harmful interference to
radio or television reception, which can be determined by turning the equipment off and on, the user is encouraged to try
to correct the interference by one or more of the following measures:
•
Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna.
•
Increase the separation between the equipment and receiver.
•
Connect the equipment into an outlet on a circuit different from that to which the receiver is connected.
•
Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/TV technician for help.
To satisfy FCC RF Exposure requirements for mobile and base station transmission devices, a separation distance of 20
cm or more should be maintained between the antenna of this device and persons during operation. To ensure
compliance, operation at closer than this distance is not recommended. The antenna(s) used for this transmitter must not
be co-located or operating in conjunction with any other antenna or transmitter.
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User's Manual
If the Wireless Unit is used in a portable application (antenna is less than 20 cm from persons during operation), the
integrator is responsible for performing Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) testing in accordance with FCC rules 2.1091
1.3.2 Canada IC Approval
This device contains IC ID: 7693A-24J40MA
This device has been certified for use in Canada under Industry Canada (IC) Radio Standards Specification (RSS) RSS210 and RSS-Gen.
1.3.3 European Approval
The device contains a communication module that has been certified for use in European countries.
The following testing has been completed:
Test standard ETSI EN 300 328 V1.7.1 (2006-10):
•
Maximum Transmit Power
•
Maximum EIRP Spectral Density
•
Frequency Range
•
Radiated Emissions
Test standards ETSI EN 301 489-1:2008 and ETSI EN 301 489-17:2008:
•
Radiated Emissions
•
Electro-Static Discharge
•
Radiated RF Susceptibility
1.4 Battery Safety Considerations
The Wireless 3-Space Sensor contains a rechargeable lithium-polymer battery. Lithium-polymer batteries have high
energy densities and can be dangerous if not used and cared for properly. The Wireless 3-space Sensor has been
designed to include multiple levels of battery safety assurance. The Wireless 3-Space Sensor circuitry includes smart
charging circuitry with thermal management to prevent over-charging the battery. The battery pack itself also includes
protection circuitry to prevent over-charge, over-voltage, over-current, and over-discharge conditions.
Most battery issues arise from improper handling of batteries, and particularly from the continued use of damaged
batteries.
As with any lithium-polymer battery-powered device, the following should be observed:
•
Don’t disassemble, crush, puncture, shred, or otherwise attempt to change the form of your battery.
•
Don't attempt to change or modify the battery yourself. Contact YEI technical support for battery replacement
or battery repair.
•
Don’t let the mobile device or battery come in contact with water.
•
Don’t allow the battery to touch metal objects.
•
Don’t place the sensor unit near a heat source. Excessive heat can damage the sensor unit or the battery. High
temperatures can cause the battery to swell, leak, or malfunction.
•
Don’t dry a wet or damp sensor unit with an appliance or heat source, such as a hair dryer or microwave oven.
•
Don't drop the sensor unit. Dropping, especially on a hard surface, can potentially cause damage to the sensor
unit or the battery.
•
Discontinue use immediately and contact YEI technical support if the battery or sensor unit produce odors,
emit smoke, exhibit swelling, produce excess heat, exhibit leaking.
•
Dispose of Lithium-polymer batteries properly in accordance with local, state , and federal guidelines.
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User's Manual
2. Overview of the YEI Wireless 3-Space Sensor
2.1 Introduction
The YEI 3-Space SensorTM Wireless integrates a miniature, high-precision, high-reliability, Attitude and Heading
Reference System (AHRS) with a 2.4GHz DSSS communication interface and a rechargeable lithium-polymer battery
solution into a single low-cost end-use-ready unit. The Attitude and Heading Reference System (AHRS) uses triaxial
gyroscope, accelerometer, and compass sensors in conjunction with advanced on-board filtering and processing
algorithms to determine orientation relative to an absolute reference orientation in real-time.
Orientation can be returned in absolute terms or relative to a designated reference orientation. The proprietary multireference vector mode increases accuracy and greatly reduces and compensates for sensor error. The YEI 3-Space
Sensor Wireless system also utilizes a dynamic sensor confidence algorithm that ensures optimal accuracy and precision
across a wide range of operating conditions.
The YEI 3-Space Sensor Wireless unit features are accessible via a well-documented open communication protocol that
allows access to all available sensor data and configuration parameters using either 2.4GHz DSSS wireless or USB 2.0
interfaces. Versatile commands allow access to raw sensor data, normalized sensor data, and filtered absolute and
relative orientation outputs in multiple formats including: quaternion, Euler angles (pitch/roll/yaw), rotation matrix, axis
angle, two vector(forward/up).
The YEI Wireless 3-Space SensorTM communicates with a host PC via a USB dongle installed in the PC. Up to 15
sensor units can be associated with each wireless dongle, and multiple dongles can be used simultaneously to achieve
high sensor counts or increase individual sensor throughput. Sensor and dongle units have individual wireless network
PAN Id assignment and wireless channel assignment to allow multiple sensors to communicate simultaneously without
interference or performance degradation.
When used as a USB device, the 3-Space SensorTM provides mouse emulation and joystick emulation modes that ease
integration with existing applications.
2.2 Applications
• Robotics
• Motion capture
• Positioning and stabilization
• Vibration analysis
• Inertial augmented localization
• Personnel / pedestrian navigation and tracking
• Unmanned air/land/water vehicle navigation
• Education and performing arts
• Healthcare monitoring
• Gaming and motion control
• Accessibility interfaces
• Virtual reality and immersive simulation
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User's Manual
2.3 Hardware Overview
2.3.1 Wireless Sensor Hardware Overview
4. Indicator LED
5. Input Button 2
3. Input Button 1
2. Recessed Power Switch
1. USB Connector
1.
USB Connector – The 3-Space Sensor uses a 5-pin mini USB connector to connect to a computer via USB
and to charge the internal battery. The USB connector provides for both power and communication signals.
2.
Recessed Power Switch – The 3-Space Sensor can be switch on and off when powered from the internal
battery by using the recessed power switch. When connected via USB, the unit is powered and the batteries
will begin recharging regardless of the position of the recessed power switch
3.
Input Button 1 – The 3-Space Sensor includes two input buttons that can be used in conjunction with the
orientation sensing capabilities of the device. The inputs are especially useful when using the 3-Space Sensor
as an input device such as in joystick emulation mode or mouse emulation mode.
4.
Indicator LED – The 3-Space Sensor includes an RGB LED that can be used for visual status feedback.
5.
Input Button 2 – The 3-Space Sensor includes two input buttons that can be used in conjunction with the
orientation sensing capabilities of the device. The inputs are especially useful when using the 3-Space Sensor
as an input device such as in joystick emulation mode or mouse emulation mode.
2.3.2 Wireless Dongle Hardware Overview
2. Indicator LED
1. USB Connector
1.
USB Connector – The 3-Space Wireless Dongle uses a 5-pin mini USB connector to connect to a computer
via USB. The USB connector provides for both power and communication.
2.
Indicator LED – The 3-Space Wireless Dongle includes an RGB LED that can be used for visual status
feedback.
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User's Manual
2.4 Features
The YEI 3-Space Sensor Wireless has many features that allow it to be a flexible all-in-one solution for your orientation
sensing needs. Below are some of the key features:
• Small self-contained high-performance wireless AHRS at 35mm x 60mm x 15mm and 28 grams
• Integrated 2.4GHz DSSS wireless communication interface allows high-performance at ranges up to 200'
• Integrated Rechargeable Lithium-Polymer battery and charge control allows battery life of 5+ hours at full
performance
• Fast sensor update and filter rate allow use in real-time applications, including stabilization, virtual reality, real-
time immersive simulation, and robotics
• Highly customizable orientation sensing with options such as tunable filtering, oversampling, and orientation
error correction
• Advanced integrated Kalman filtering allows sensor to automatically reduce the effects of sensor noise and sensor
error
• Robust open protocol allows commands to be sent in human readable form, or more quickly in machine readable
form
• Orientation output format available in absolute or relative terms in multiple formats ( quaternion, rotation matrix,
axis angle, two-vector )
• Absolute or custom reference axes
• Access to raw sensor data
• Flexible communication options: USB 2.0 or wireless 2.4GHz DSSS (FCC Certified)
• 2.4Ghz DSSS wireless communication allows orientation sensing without any wires, making activities requiring a
high level of mobility like motion capture possible.
• Wireless sensors have configurable wireless channel selection and network PAN Ids to allow multiple sensors to
communicate simultaneously without interference or performance degradation
• Each communication dongle unit supports up to 15 independent sensor units
• Asynchronous communication support for improved performance with multiple sensor units
• Communication through a virtual COM port
• USB joystick/mouse emulation modes ease integration with existing applications
• Upgradeable firmware
• RGB status LED, two programmable input buttons
• Available in either hand-held or strap-down packaging
• RoHS compliant
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User's Manual
2.5 Block Diagram of Sensor Operation
USB 2.0
Host System
TSS Wireless 2.4Ghz DSSS
LiPo Battery &
Charge Management
Wireless Module
& Antenna
Processor
2.4Ghz DSSS
Wireless Interface
USB 2.0
Interface
USB Mouse &
Joystick
Emulation
Final
Orientation
Kalman
Filter
Non-volatile
Calibration &
Performance
Settings
Scale, Bias, Normalization, &
Error Compensation
3-Axis
Accelerometer
3-Axis
Rate Gyro
3-Axis
Compass
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Temperature
Sensor
User's Manual
2.6 Specifications
General
Part number
TSS-WL (Handheld Sensor Unit)
TSS-WL-S (Strapdown Sensor Unit)
Dimensions
35mm x 60mm x 15mm (1.38 x 2.36 x 0.59 in.)
Weight
28 grams ( 0.98 oz )
Supply voltage
+5v USB
Battery technology
rechargeable Lithium-Polymer
Battery lifetime
5+ hours continuous use at full performance
Communication interfaces
USB 2.0, 2.4GHz DSSS Wireless (FCC certified)
Wireless communication range
up to 200'
Wireless PAN Ids selectable
65536
Wireless channels selectable
16 ( 2.4GHz channel 11 through 26 )
Filter update rate
up to 200Hz with full functionality
Orientation output
absolute & relative quaternion, Euler angles, axis angle, rotation matrix, two vector
Other output
raw sensor data, corrected sensor data, normalized sensor data, temperature
Shock survivability
5000g
Temperature range
-40C ~ 85C ( -40F ~ 185F )
Processor
32-bit RISC running @ 60MHz
Sensor
Orientation range
360º about all axes
Orientation accuracy
±2º for dynamic conditions & all orientations
Orientation resolution
<0.08º
Orientation repeatability
0.085º for all orientations
Accelerometer scale
±2g / ±4g / ±8g selectable
Accelerometer resolution
14 bit
Accelerometer noise density
99µg/√ Hz
Accelerometer sensitivity
0.00024g/digit for ±2g range
0.00048g/digit for ±4g range
0.00096g/digit for ±8g range
Accelerometer temperature sensitivity
±0.008%/°C
Gyro scale
±250/±500/±2000 º/sec selectable
Gyro resolution
16 bit
Gyro noise density
0.03º/sec/√ Hz
Gyro bias stability @ 25°C
11º/hr average for all axes
Gyro sensitivity
0.00875º/sec/digit for ±250º/sec
0.01750º/sec/digit for ±500º/sec
0.070º/sec/digit for ±2000º/sec
Gyro non-linearity
0.2% full-scale
Gyro temperature sensitivity
±0.016%/°C
Compass scale
±1.3 Ga default. Up to ±8.1 Ga available
Compass resolution
12 bit
Compass sensitivity
5 mGa/digit
Compass non-linearity
0.1% full-scale
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User's Manual
Dongle
Part number
TSS-DNG (Wireless Communication Dongle)
Dimensions
22.5mm x 65.6mm x 15mm (0.86 x 2.58 x 0.59 in.)
Weight
12 grams ( 0.42 oz )
Supply voltage
+5v USB
Communication interfaces
USB 2.0, 2.4GHz DSSS Wireless (FCC certified)
Wireless communication range
up to 200'
Wireless sensors supported
15 simultaneous
Wireless PAN Ids selectable
65536
Wireless channels selectable
16 ( 2.4GHz channel 11 through 26 )
Processor
32-bit RISC running @ 60MHz
*Specifications subject to change
2.7 Physical Dimensions
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User's Manual
2.8 Axis Assignment
All YEI 3-Space Sensor product family members have re-mappable axis assignments and axis directions. This
flexibility allows axis assignment and axis direction to match the desired end-use requirements.
The natural axes of the 3-Space Sensor are as follows:
•
The positive X-axis points out of the right hand side of the sensor, which is the side that is facing right when
the buttons face upward and plug faces towards you.
•
The positive Y-axis points out of the top of the sensor, the side with the buttons.
•
The positive Z-axis points out of the front of the sensor, the side opposite the plug.
The natural axes are illustrated in the diagram below
Bear in mind the difference between natural axes and the axes that are used in protocol data. While they are by default
the same, they can be remapped so that, for example, data axis Y could contain data from natural axis X. This allows
users to work with data in a reference frame they are familiar with.
2.9 Wireless Terminology
The following provides a list of commonly used wireless concepts and their definitions.
Pan ID – Refers to a 16-bit number that can be assigned to each individual wireless unit or dongle. The pan ID serves
the purpose of separating units into clusters or networks, such that a unit with one pan ID cannot communicate with a
unit on another pan ID.
Channel – Refers to the frequency on which a given unit transmits or receives upon. There are 16 available channels,
ranging from 11-26, inclusive. Certain channels may be more well-suited for wireless communication than others at any
given time. Refer to the command listing to find out how to scan channels. Like the pan ID, units with different channels
cannot communicate with each other.
Address – Each unit has a unique built-in and unchangeable address (also referred to as hardware ID), which can be
found etched into the back of wireless units (but not dongles). When communicating with a unit, addresses are not used
directly. Instead, a mapping is provided in the form of logical IDs.
Logical ID – Since direct addresses are cumbersome, these are provided as a means to easily communicate with a given
unit. There are 15 such logical IDs. Each logical ID can be mapped to a hardware address to ease communication. A
table of logical IDs and their corresponding hardware addresses can be found inside the suite under the Dongle
submenu, under Wireless Communication Settings... For more information on reading or setting logical IDs, please refer
to the command chart.
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User's Manual
2.10 Wireless LED Modes
Both the dongle and wireless unit have built-in LEDs that are meant to convey information about the state of the
respective device. Each unit and dongle may also have a custom color that can be set. The wireless unit will display the
following LED colors under the following circumstances:
•
Upon receipt of a packet, the wireless unit will flash green temporarily. This will occur regardless of whether the
wireless unit is plugged in or not.
•
When the wireless unit is plugged in and charging, the sensor will flash orange every second.
•
When the wireless unit is plugged in and fully charged, the sensor will flash green every second.
•
When the wireless unit falls below a certain battery life level, it will flash red in increasingly quicker intervals.
Note that this does not happen if the sensor is plugged in.
•
Upon receipt of a packet, the dongle will flash green temporarily.
•
If the dongle transmits a packet that does not reach its destination, the dongle will flash red temporarily.
Under all other circumstances, both devices will display the custom color that has been set. In addition to this default
behavior, it is possible to set a static LED mode, in which the above functionality will be overridden. In this case, the
LED will display only the custom color and nothing else. Please refer to the command chart for information on setting
static LED mode.
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3. Description of the 3-Space Sensor
3.1 Orientation Estimation
The primary purpose of the 3-Space Sensor is to estimate orientation. In order to understand how to handle this
estimation and use it in a meaningful way, there are a few concepts about the sensor that should be understood. The
following sections describe these concepts.
3.1.1 Component Sensors
The 3-Space Sensor estimates orientation by combining the data it gets from three types of sensors: a gyroscope, an
accelerometer, and a compass. A few things you should know about each of these sensors:
•
Accelerometer: This sensor measures the acceleration due to gravity, as well as any other accelerations that
occur. Because of this, this sensor is at its best when the 3-Space Sensor is sitting still. Most jitter seen as the
orientation of the sensor changes is due to shaking causing perturbations in the accelerometer readings. To
account for this, by default, when the 3-Space Sensor is being moved, the gyroscope becomes more
trusted(becomes a greater part of the orientation estimate), and the accelerometer becomes less trusted.
•
Gyroscope: This sensor measures angular motion. It has no ability to give any absolute orientation
information like the accelerometer or compass, and so is most useful for correcting the orientation during
sensor motion. Its role during these times becomes vital, though, as the accelerometer readings can become
unreliable during motion.
•
Compass: This sensor measures magnetic direction. The readings from the compass and accelerometer are
used together to form the absolute component of orientation, which is used to correct any short term changes
the gyroscope makes. Its readings are much more stable than those of the accelerometer, but it can be
adversely affected by any ferrous metal or magnetic objects. When the accelerometer is less trusted, the
compass is treated in the same way so as to avoid updates to orientation based on partial absolute information.
3.1.2 Scale, Bias, and Cross-Axis Effect
The readings taken from each component sensor are not in a readily usable form. The compass and accelerometer
readings are not unit vectors, and the gyroscope readings aren't yet in radians per second. To convert them to these
forms, scale and bias must be taken into account. Scale is how much larger the range of data read from the component
sensor is than the range of data should be when it is converted. For example, if the compass were to give readings in the
range of -500 to 500 on the x axis, but we would like it to be in the range of -1 to 1, the scale would be 500. Bias is how
far the center of the data readings is from 0. If another compass read from -200 to 900 on the x axis, the bias would be
350, and the scale would be 550. The last parameter used in turning this component sensor data into usable data is
cross-axis effect. This is the tendency for a little bit of data on one axis of a sensor to get mixed up with the other two.
This is an effect experienced by the accelerometer and compass. There are 6 numbers for each of these, one to indicate
how much each axis is affected by each other axis. Values for these are generally in the range of 1 to 10%. These
parameters are applied in the following order:
1) Bias is subtracted from each axis
2) The three axes are treated as a vector and multiplied by a matrix representing scale and cross-axis
parameters
Factory calibration provides default values for these parameters for the accelerometer and compass, and users should
probably never need to change these values. To determine these parameters for the gyroscope, you must calibrate it.
Read the Quick Start guide or the 3-Space Suite manual for more information on how to do this.
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User's Manual
3.1.3 Additional Calibration
The 3-Space Sensor provides multiple calibration modes that can improve performance at the cost of additional setup
and calibration routines. For more information on setting these additional modes, please refer to command 169.
•
Bias Mode: Applies default range scaling to raw data readings. Also applies a bias offset to raw data, the
values of which are taken from the provided calibration parameters command. (See section 4.3.7 for more
information)
•
Bias / Scale Mode: The default calibration mode. Applies default range scaling to raw data readings. Also
applies a bias offset to the raw data as well as an additional scale matrix. Uses the matrix and vector portions
from the provided calibration parameters command.
•
Ortho-Calibration Mode: A more advanced calibration mode that requires initial setup steps (Please refer to
the 3-Space Suite Quick Start Guide for information on how to supply ortho-calibration data) . Uses 24
orthogonal data points to provide accelerometer and compass correction factors for enhanced orientation
accuracy.
3.1.4 Reference Vectors
In order to get an absolute estimation of orientation from the accelerometer and compass, the sensor needs a reference
vector for each to compare to the data read from it. The most obvious choice for these are the standard direction of
gravity(down) and the standard direction of magnetic force(north), respectively. However, the sensor does provide
several different modes for determining which reference vector to use:
•
Single Manual: Uses 2 reference vectors it is given as the reference vectors for the accelerometer and
compass.
•
Single Auto: When the sensor powers on or is put into this mode, it calculates gravity and north and uses those
calculated vectors as the reference vectors.
•
Single Auto Continual: The same as Single Auto, but the calculation happens constantly. This can account
for some shifts in magnetic force due to nearby objects or change of location, and also can help to cope with
the instability of the accelerometer.
•
Multiple: Uses a set of reference vectors from which the best are picked each cycle to form a single, final
reference vector. This mode has the ability to compensate for certain errors in the orientation. In this mode the
sensor will have a slightly slower update rate, but will provide greater accuracy. For information on how to set
up this mode, see the Quick Start guide or the 3-Space Suite manual.
3.1.5 Orientation Filtering
The 3-Space Sensor provides several different modes for providing orientation estimation. Note also that IMU data
collection rate is bound to the update rate of the filter. For more information on setting these additional modes, please
refer to command 123.
•
Kalman Filter: The default filter mode. Normalized sensor data and reference vectors are fed into the Kalman
filter, which uses statistical techniques to optimally combine the data into a final orientation reading. Provides
the highest-accuracy orientation at the lowest performance.
•
Alternating Kalman Filter: Uses the same Kalman filter as before, but skips every other update step. Slightly
less accurate than the Kalman filter, but faster.
•
Complementary Filter: Fuses low-pass filtered accelerometer/compass data with high-pass filtered gyroscope
data to provide an orientation estimate. Less accurate than any Kalman filtering techniques, but provides
significantly higher performance.
•
IMU Mode: Performs no orientation filtering, but allows IMU data to be read at the maximum update rate of
800 Hz.
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3.1.6 Reference Orientation/Taring
Given the results of the Kalman filter, the sensor can make a good estimation of orientation, but it will likely be offset
from the actual orientation of the device by a constant angle until it has been given a reference orientation. This
reference orientation tells the sensor where you would like its zero orientation to be. The sensor will always consider
the zero orientation to be the orientation in which the plug is facing towards you and top(the side with buttons on it)
facing up. The sensor must be given a reference orientation that represents the orientation of the sensor when it is in the
position in which you consider the plug to be towards you and the buttons up. The act of giving it this reference
orientation to the sensor is called taring, just as some scales have a tare button which can be pressed to tell the scale that
nothing is on it and it should read zero. For instructions on doing this, refer to the Quick Start guide or 3-Space Suite
manual.
3.1.7 Other Estimation Parameters
The 3-Space Sensor offers a few other parameters to filter the orientation estimate. Please note that these only affect the
final orientation and not the readings of individual component sensors.
•
Oversampling: Oversampling causes the sensor to take extra readings from each of the component sensors and
average them before using them to estimate orientation. This can reduce noise, but also causes each cycle to
take longer proportional to how many extra samples are being taken.
•
Running Average: The final orientation estimate can be put through a running average, which will make the
estimate smoother at the cost of introducing a small delay between physical motion and the sensor's estimation
of that motion.
•
Rho Values: As mentioned earlier, by default the accelerometer and compass are trusted less than the gyros
when the sensor is in motion. Rho values are the mechanism that handles the concept of trust. They involve
parameters, one for the accelerometer and one for the compass, that indicate how much these component
sensors are to be trusted relative to the gyroscope. A lower value for the parameter means more trust. The
default mode for this is “confidence mode”, where the rho value chooses between a minimum and maximum
value based on how much the sensor is moving. The other option is to have a single, static rho value.
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3.2 Communication
Obtaining data about orientation from the sensor or giving values for any of its settings is done through the sensor's
communication protocol. The protocol can be used through either the USB port or wireless interface, using the 3-Space
Wireless Dongle. A complete description of how to use this protocol is given in section 4 of this document. Also, you
may instead use the 3-Space Suite, which provides a graphical method to do the same. To learn how to use this, read the
3-Space Suite manual.
3.3 Input Device Emulation
3.3.1 Axes and Buttons
The 3-Space Sensor has the ability to act as a joystick and/or mouse when plugged in through USB. Both of these are
defined in the same way, as a collection of axes and buttons. Axes are input elements that can take on a range of values,
whereas buttons can only either be on or off. On a joystick, the stick part would be represented as 2 axes, and all the
physical buttons on it as buttons. The 3-Space Sensor has no physical joystick and only 2 physical buttons, so there are
a number of options to use properties of the orientation data as axes and buttons. Each input device on the 3-Space
Sensor has 2 axes and 8 buttons. For more information on setting these up, see the 3-Space Suite manual. All
communication for these input devices is done through the standard USB HID(Human Interface Device) protocol.
3.3.2 Joystick
As far as a modern operating system is concerned, a joystick is any random collection of axes and buttons that isn't a
mouse or keyboard. Joysticks are mostly used for games, but can also be used for simulation, robot controls, or other
applications. The 3-Space Sensor, as a joystick, should appear just like any other joystick to an operating system that
supports USB HID(which most do).
3.3.3 Mouse
When acting as a mouse, the 3-Space Sensor will take control of the system's mouse cursor, meaning if the mouse
portion is not properly calibrated, using it could easily leave you in a situation in which you are unable to control the
mouse cursor at all. In cases like this, unplugging the 3-Space Sensor will restore the mouse to normal operation, and
unless the mouse enabled setting was saved to the sensor's memory, plugging it back in should restore normal operation.
Using the default mouse settings, caution should be exercised in making sure the orientation estimate is properly
calibrated before turning on the mouse. For help with this, see the Quick Start guide.
The mouse defaults to being in Absolute mode, which means that the data it gives is meant to represent a specific
position on screen, rather than an offset from the last position. This can be changed to Relative mode, where the data
represents an offset. In this mode, the data which would have indicated the edges of the screen in Absolute mode will
now represent the mouse moving as quickly as it can in the direction of that edge of the screen. For more information,
see command 251 in section 4.3.7, or the 3-Space Suite manual.
3.3.4 Wireless Joystick/Mouse
The 3-Space Dongle can be set up to receive joystick and mouse data from a 3-Space Sensor wirelessly and present this
data to the computer via a USB interface. This is accomplished by supplying the logical ID of the wireless device that
will act as the mouse/joystick. Commands 240 and 241 are used to enable the wireless joystick and mouse respectively.
When either of these commands are invoked, the chosen wireless sensor will immediately begin transmitting the
requested HID data to the dongle. The update rate at which this information is received is determined by command 215.
Additionally, HID information may be sent synchronously or asynchronously from the wireless sensor to the dongle.
Command 217 allows the user to set the desired mode. Synchronous HID mode is the default mode, in which the dongle
automatically asks for the requested data first. This mode enjoys a high rate of reliability and it is quite easy to interlace
regular protocol commands with HID data transmission/reception. This mode is slower, however, than asynchronous
mode, since information must both be requested and received. Asynchronous mode, on the other hand, forces the sensor
to automatically send HID information without being asked to do so by the dongle. This allows for much higher update
rates, at the expense of reliability due to the increased number of wireless transmissions and potential collisions. It is
recommended to use this mode only if you will be using the 3-Space Sensor only as an HID joystick or mouse at the
given time.
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3.4 Sensor Settings
3.4.1 Committing Settings
Changes made to the 3-Space Sensor will not be saved unless they are committed. This allows you to make changes to
the sensor and easily revert it to its previous state by resetting the chip. For instructions on how to commit your
changes, see the Quick Start guide or 3-Space Suite manual. Any changes relating to the multiple reference vector mode
are an exception to this rule, as all these changes are saved immediately.
3.4.2 Committing Wireless Settings
In addition to committing sensor settings, there are also settings specific to wireless devices. In order to commit these
settings, command 197 must be used. Note that committing the default settings will have no effect on wireless settings,
while committing wireless settings will not change the default settings. A list of wireless settings for the sensor can be
found in table 3.4.6 and a list of wireless settings for the dongle can be found in table 3.4.7.
3.4.3 Natural Axes
The natural axes of the 3-Space Sensor are as follows:
•
The positive X-axis points out of the right hand side of the sensor, which is the side that is facing right when
the buttons face upward and plug faces towards you.
•
The positive Y-axis points out of the top of the sensor, the side with the buttons.
•
The positive Z-axis points out of the front of the sensor, the side opposite the plug.
Bear in mind the difference between natural axes and the axes that are used in protocol data. While they are by default
the same, they can be remapped so that, for example, data axis Y could contain data from natural axis X. This allows
users to work with data in a reference frame they are familiar with. See section 2.8 for a diagram of the natural axes.
3.4.4 Sensor General Settings
Setting Name
Purpose
Default Value
Accelerometer Rho Value
Determine how trusted the accelerometer is
Confidence Mode, 5 to 100
Compass Rho Value
Determine how trusted the compass is
Confidence Mode, 5 to 100
Accelerometer Coefficients
Determines the scale, bias, and cross-axis parameters for the
accelerometer
Factory calibrated
Compass Coefficients
Determines the scale, bias, and cross-axis parameters for the compass
Factory calibrated
Gyroscope Coefficients
Determines the scale, bias and cross-axis parameters for the gyroscope
Factory calibrated
Accelerometer Enabled
Determines whether the compass is enabled or not
TRUE
Compass Enabled
Determines whether the accelerometer is enabled or not
TRUE
Gyroscope Enabled
Determines whether the gyroscope is enabled or not
TRUE
Filter Mode
Determines how orientation is filtered.
1 (Kalman)
Calibration Mode
Determines how raw sensor data is transformed into normalized data
1 (Scale-Bias)
Axis Directions
Determines what natural axis direction each data axis faces
+X, +Y, +Z
Sample Rate
Determines how many samples the sensor takes per cycle
1 from each component sensor
Running Average Percentage
Determines how heavy of a running average to run on the final
orientation
0(no running average)
Desired Update Rate
Determines how long each cycle should take(ideally)
0 microseconds
Reference Mode
Determines how the accelerometer and compass reference vectors are
determined
Single Auto
RS232 Baud Rate
Determines the speed of RS232 communication
115200
CPU Speed
Determines how fast the CPU will run
60 MHz
LED Color
Determines the RGB color of the LED
0,0,1(Blue)
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Joystick Enabled
Determines whether the joystick is enabled or not
TRUE
Mouse Enabled
Determines whether the mouse is enabled or not
FALSE
Button Gyro Disable Length
Determines how many cycles the gyro is ignored after a button is
pressed
5
Multi Reference Weight Power
Determines what power each multi reference vector weight is raised to
10
Multi Reference Cell Divisions
Determines how many cells the multi reference lookup table is divided
into per axis
4
Multi Reference Nearby Vectors Determines how many nearby vectors each multi reference lookup table 8
cell stores
3.4.5 Dongle General Settings
Setting Name
Purpose
Default Value
LED Color
Determines the RGB color of the LED
0,0,1(Blue)
Desired Update Rate
Determines how long each cycle should take (ideally)
0 microseconds
LED Mode
Determines whether the LED mode is static or not.
0 (Non-static)
3.4.6 Sensor Wireless Settings
Setting Name
Purpose
Default Value
PanID
Determines the panID of this sensor.
1
Address
Determines the address of this sensor.
Factory determined (cannot be set, only read)
Channel
Determines the channel of this sensor.
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3.4.7 Dongle Wireless Settings
Setting Name
Purpose
Default Value
PanID
Determines the panID of this dongle.
1
Address
Determines the address of this dongle.
Factory determined (cannot be set, only read)
Channel
Determines the channel of this dongle.
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Logical ID Table
Determines the mapping between logical ID and addresses.
Array of 15 unsigned 16-bit integers, values
initialized to 0
Retries
Determines number of retries dongle will attempt on failed
transaction
3
Joystick Logical ID
Determines the logical ID of the device that will act as the
joystick, or -1 if there is no joystick desired.
-1
Mouse Logical ID
Determines the logical ID of the device that will act as the
mouse, or -1 if there is no mouse desired.
-1
HID Update Rate
Update rate for requesting joystick/mouse information, in
milliseconds.
15 (67 hz)
HID Asynchronous Mode
Determines whether joystick/mouse data transmission is
asynchronous.
0
Asynchronous Flush Mode
Determines whether or not asynchronously requested data is
automatically flushed or whether it must be requested via a
dongle command.
1
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4. 3-Space Sensor Usage/Protocol
4.1 Usage Overview
4.1.1 Protocol Overview
The 3-Space Sensor receives messages from the controlling system in the form of sequences of serial communication
bytes called packets. For ease of use and flexibility of operation, two methods of encoding commands are provided:
binary and text. Binary encoding is more compact, more efficient, and easier to access programmatically. ASCII text
encoding is more verbose and less efficient yet is easier to read and easier to access via a traditional terminal interface.
Both binary and ASCII text encoding methods share an identical command structure and support the entire 3-Space
command set.
The 3-Space Sensor buffers the incoming command stream and will only take an action once the entire packet has been
received and the checksum has been verified as correct(ASCII mode commands do not use checksums for convenience).
Incomplete packets and packets with incorrect checksums will be ignored. This allows the controlling system to send
command data at leisure without loss of functionality. The command buffer will, however, be cleared whenever the 3Space Sensor is either reset or powered off/on.
Specific details of the 3-Space Sensor protocol and its control commands are discussed in the following pages.
4.1.2 Computer Interfacing Overview(USB)
When interfacing with a computer through USB, the 3-Space Sensor presents itself as a COM port, which provides a
serial interface through which host may communication with the sensor unit by using protocol messages. The name of
this COM port is specific to the operating system being used. It is possible to use multiple 3-Space Sensors on a single
computer. Each will be assigned its own COM port. The easiest way to find out which COM port belongs to a certain
sensor is to take note of what COM port appears when that sensor is plugged in(provided the drivers have been installed
on that computer already. Otherwise, find out what COM port appears once driver installation has finished.)
Additionally, each sensor can be identified programatically by reading the serial number of each attached sensor. For
more information on how to install the sensor software on a computer and begin using it, see the Quick Start guide.
4.1.3 Computer Interfacing Overview(Wireless)
To interface to a sensor through a computer wirelessly, the 3-Space Dongle must be connected to the computer through
USB. The Dongle will present itself as a COM port just as the 3-Space Sensor does. Each dongle can be associated
with up to 15 wireless sensor units. To associate a sensor unit with a dongle, the user must place the desired sensor's
serial number in one of the dongle's 15 logical wireless table slots. Any wireless 3-Space Sensors in range that have
been given an address slot on the Dongle may then be communicated to using the Dongle. For information on how to
set up the Dongle's address slots, see the Quick Start guide or <Dongle slot command ##>. For information on what
data to send to the Dongle to communicate with a particular sensor, see section 4.3. The wireless communication
protocol and wired communication protocol support the same commands, but are not identical. This allows the wireless
protocol to include features that are specific to the nature of wireless communication such as wireless addressing,
wireless reliability, and packet-loss handling, etc. For more information pertaining to the wired and wireless
communication protocols, see sections 4.2 and 4.3 respectively.
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4.2 Wired Protocol Packet Format
4.2.1 Binary Packet Format
The binary packet size can be three or more bytes long, depending upon the nature of the command being sent to the
controller. Each packet consists of an initial “start of packet” byte, followed by a “command value” specifier byte,
followed by zero or more “command data” bytes, and terminated by a packet “checksum value” byte.
Each binary packet is at least 3 bytes in length and is formatted as shown in figure 1
247(0xF7)
First Byte – Start of Packet
Command
Second Byte – Command Value
Selected from the command chart
Command Data
…
Command Data
}
Command Data
Zero or more bytes representing
parameters to the command being called.
See the command chart for details.
Last Byte – Packet Checksum
Sum of all other bytes except the first.
Checksum
Figure 1 - Binary Command Packet Format
Binary Return Values:
When a 3 Space Sensor command is called in binary mode, any data it returns will also be in binary format. For
example, if a floating point number is returned, it will be returned as its 4 byte binary representation.
For information on the floating point format, go here: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Single_precision_floatingpoint_format
Also keep in mind that integer and floating point values coming from the sensor are stored in big-endian format.
The Checksum Value:
The checksum is computed as an arithmetic summation of all of the characters in the packet (except the checksum value
itself) modulus 256. This gives a resulting checksum in the range 0 to 255. The checksum for binary packets is
transmitted as a single 8-bit byte value.
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4.2.2 ASCII Text Packet Format
ASCII text command packets are similar to binary command packets, but are received as a single formatted line of text.
Each text line consists of the following: an ASCII colon character followed by an integral command id in decimal,
followed by a list of ASCII encoded floating-point command values, followed by a terminating newline character. The
command id and command values are given in decimal. The ASCII encoded command values must be separated by an
ASCII comma character or an ASCII space character. Thus, legal command characters are: the colon, the comma, the
period, the digits 0 through 9, the minus sign, the new-line, the space, and the backspace. When a command calls for an
integer or byte sized parameter, the floating point number given for that parameter will be interpreted as being the
appropriate data type. For simplicity, the ASCII encoded commands follow the same format as the binary encoded
commands, but ASCII text encodings of values are used rather than raw binary encodings.
Each ASCII packet is formatted as shown in figure 2.
: Command , Data1 , Data2 , ... , DataN \n
End of Packet – The
ASCII newline character
Command Data – Zero or more bytes
representing parameters to the command
being called. See the command chart for
details.
Command Value – Selected from the command chart, in decimal.
Start of ASCII Packet – Indicated by the colon character
Figure 2 - ASCII Command Packet Format
Thus the ASCII packet consists of the the following characters:
: – the ASCII colon character signifies the start of an ASCII text packet.
, – the ASCII comma character acts as a value delimiter when multiple values are specified.
. – the ASCII period character is used in floating point numbers.
0~9 – the ASCII digits are used to in integer and floating point values.
- - the ASCII minus sign is used to indicate a negative number
\n – the ASCII newline character is used to signify the end of an ASCII command packet.
\b – the ASCII backspace character can be used to backup through the partially completed line to correct
errors.
If a command is given in ASCII mode but does not have the right number of parameters, the entire command will be
ignored. Also note that when communicating with the dongle or sensor in the 3-Space Suite, the newline is automatically
appended to the input, thus it is not necessary to add it.
Sample ASCII commands:
:0\n
(If connected to the sensor)
Read orientation as a quaternion
:106,2\n
(If connected to the sensor)
Set oversample rate to 2
:214\n
(If connected to the dongle)
Read signal strength of most recent dongle reception
:208,5\n
(If connected to the dongle)
Read the hardware ID/address of the unit mapped to logical ID 5
ASCII Response:
All values are returned in ASCII text format when an ASCII-format command is issued. To read the return data, simply
read data from the sensor until a Windows newline(a carriage return and a line feed) is encountered.
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4.3 Wireless Protocol Packet Format
4.3.1 Wireless Communication Format
The protocol for communicating with sensors wirelessly is very similar to the wired protocol, but includes
accommodations for wireless unit addressing and wireless communication failures. Thus, all wireless communication
messages now also include an address specifying which sensor they are to be sent to. Additionally, each wireless
protocol command returns status information pertaining to the success or failure of the wireless command. Any
commands sent to address 254 will be sent to the dongle itself.
4.3.2 Binary Packet Format
The wireless binary packet format is very similar to the wired format. Each packet consists of an initial “address”
byte, followed by a “command value” specifier byte, followed by zero or more “command data” bytes, and
terminated by a packet “checksum value” byte.
Each wireless binary packet is at least 3 bytes in length and is formatted as shown in figure 3
248(0xF8)
First Byte – Start of Packet
Sensor Address
Second Byte – Address
Command
Third Byte – Command Value
Selected from the command chart
Command Data
…
Command Data
}
Command Data
Zero or more bytes representing
parameters to the command being called.
See the command chart for details.
Last Byte – Packet Checksum
Sum of all other bytes except the first.
Checksum
Figure 3 - Wireless Binary Command Packet Format
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4.3.3 Binary Command Response
Success/Failure
First Byte – Success or Failure
Indicates whether the command was received and processed
Address
Second Byte – Address
Wireless Logical ID of sensor which responded
Data Length
Third Byte – Data Length
Length of response data which follows. Not present on failure.
}
Response Data
…
Response Data
Response Data
Zero or more bytes representing
a response from a command.
See the command chart for details.
When a binary command is invoked wirelessly, before the data it would normally return in wired mode, it will return
status bytes. First is the success byte, which is a 0 if the command was successful and non-0 if it was not. Some things
which can cause a failure are:
–
–
–
The lack of corresponding wireless sensor at the specified address.
Wireless communication errors or dropped packets.
Improper command formatting or data length
Second is the address byte. This indicates which sensor sent the response. If the success byte indicates a success, the
third byte, the data length byte, will be present as well, indicating how much data follows it. All of the remaining data
can be retrieved by reading the number of bytes indicated by data length. Keep in mind also that when the dongle is
communicated to as if it were a wireless sensor, it will return data in the same format as a wireless response. Since all
dongle commands that are formatted properly return success and the dongle address is a constant 254, all dongle
responses begin with 00 FE.
4.3.4 Sample Binary Commands
Command
Description
Potential Response
F8 01 00 00
Read orientation as a quaternion from sensor 1
00 01 10 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 3F 80 00 00
F8 05 6A 02 6C
Set oversample rate to 2 on sensor 5
00 05 00
F8 03 E6 E6
Read version string from sensor 3
00 03 0C 54 53 53 57 49 52 30
36 30 31 31 31
F8 0D EC EC
Read clock speed from sensor 13
00 0D 04 03 93 87 00
F8 09 77 00 00 00 00
BF 80 00 00 00 00 00
00
Set accelerometer reference vector to (0.0, -1.0, 0.0) on sensor 9
00 09 00
F8 FE C0 BE
Read the panID from the dongle
00 FE 02 00 01
F8 FE D7 14 E9
Set HID update rate to 20ms
00 FE 00
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4.3.5 ASCII Text Packet Format
Wireless ASCII packets are very similar to wired ASCII packets. Each wireless ASCII packet is formatted as shown in
figure 4.
> Address, Command , Data1 , Data2 , ... , DataN \n
End of Packet – The
ASCII newline character
Command Data – Zero or more bytes
representing parameters to the command
being called. See the command chart for
details.
Command Value – Selected from the command chart, in decimal.
Address – Wireless address of the sensor to communicate with.
Start of ASCII Packet – Indicated by the greater than character.
Figure 4 - Wireless ASCII Command Packet Format
Thus the ASCII packet consists of the the following characters:
> – the ASCII greater than character signifies the start of an ASCII text packet.
, – the ASCII comma character acts as a value delimiter when multiple values are specified.
. – the ASCII period character is used in floating point numbers.
0~9 – the ASCII digits are used to in integer and floating point values.
- - the ASCII minus sign is used to indicate a negative number
\n – the ASCII newline character is used to signify the end of an ASCII command packet.
\b – the ASCII backspace character can be used to backup through the partially completed line to correct
errors.
If a command is given in ASCII mode but does not have the right number of parameters, the entire command will be
ignored.
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4.3.6 ASCII Command Response
Success , Address , Data1 , Data2 , ... , DataN \n
End of Packet – The
ASCII newline character
Command Data – Zero or more values
representing a response from a command.
See the command chart for details.
Address – Wireless Logical ID of the sensor which responded with this message.
Success/Failure – Indicates whether the command was received and processed.
When an ASCII command is called wirelessly, before the data it would normally return in wired mode, it will return
status values, each seperated by a comma. First is the success/failure value, which is a 0 if the command was
successful and 1 if it was not. Some things which can cause a failure are:
–
–
–
The lack of a sensor present wirelessly
Communication interference causing the wireless sensor to not respond
Improper command formatting or data length
Second is the address. This indicates which sensor sent the response. So for the command :7,0\n, the response might
be 0,7,0.0,0.0,0.0,1.0\n. Failures will only contain the status values and no data, so a failure of the above command
would look like 1,7\n.
4.3.7 Sample ASCII Commands
Command
Description
Potential Response
>0,1\n
Read orientation as a quaternion from sensor 1
0,1,0.0,0.0,0.707,0.707\n
>5,106,2\n
Set oversample rate to 2 on sensor 5
0,5\n
>3,230\n
Read version string from sensor 3
0,3,TSSWIR060111\n
>13,236\n
Read clock speed from sensor 13
0,13,60000000\n
>9,119,0.0,-1.0,0.0\n
Set accelerometer reference vector to (0.0, -1.0, 0.0) on sensor 9
0,9\n
>254,210\n
Read wireless channel strengths from dongle
0,254,0,4,0,0,0,4,0,1,0,2,
0,1,4,0,1,0\n
>254,196,1\n
Set LED mode to static on the dongle
0,254\n
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4.4 Wireless Asynchronous Protocol
4.4.1 Asynchronous Communication Format
In addition to the standard request/response communication paradigm, the 3-Space sensor also supports an
asynchronous protocol. All asynchronous requests are initiated through the dongle and sent to the corresponding sensor,
but only once. This effectively halves communication overhead allowing a wireless sensor to automatically respond with
given data at the specified interval for a specified amount of time. Providing that the command format is correct, the
sensor given by the specified address will begin automatically transmitting the requested data upon receipt of the
dongle's request. Asynchronous requests follow the same format as regular commands, in that the dongle will return
status bytes indicating whether or not the asynchronous request was received by the sensor in question. Following is the
general format for asynchronous requests:
249(0xF9)
First Byte – Start of Packet
Interval
Second Byte – Interval
High Byte
Interval
Third Byte – Interval
Low Byte
Duration
Four Byte - Duration
High Byte
Duration
Fifth Byte - Duration
Low Byte
Sensor Address
Sixth Byte – Sensor Address
Command
Seventh Byte – Command Value
Selected from the command chart
Command Data
...
Command Data
}
Command Data
Zero or more bytes representing
parameters to the command being called.
See the command chart for details.
Seventh Byte – Packet Checksum
Sum of command byte as well as any
command data only.
Checksum
4.4.2 Interval and Duration
Both the interval and duration are 16-bit unsigned integers representing, in milliseconds, how often data will be sent,
and for how long data will be sent. An interval of zero can be specified, which will force the sensor to send the
information as fast as possible. Specifying a 0xFFFF for the duration will result in an indefinite duration, while a
duration of zero will terminate the asynchronous transmissions altogether for the requested sensor.
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4.4.3 Starting/Stopping Asynchronous Transmissions
Since asynchronous requests return status bytes as a normal command would, it is possible to tell whether or not the
asynchronous request was acknowledged. Just like any other command, the request itself will return a status code, the
logical ID of the sensor, and the number of data bytes. Since these commands return no data, the number of data bytes
will always be zero, and in the case of a failure, there will be no data byte present. Since there is presumably little
wireless traffic occurring while the sensors are being placed into asynchronous mode, most asynchronous start requests
will be received without issue. However, stopping asynchronous transmissions can be more difficult depending on the
number of sensors communicating, since there will be more wireless collisions, more channel noise, and worse, the
wireless sensor might even be in the middle of sending an asynchronous data transmission at the same time the dongle is
requesting that it stop asynchronous communication. The best approach is to attempt each start and stop a number of
times until a success is confirmed. If a failure is read, simply re-send the last asynchronous stop attempt. This can be
done in a loop, talking to multiple sensors per iteration. This has the added effect that the remaining asynchronous
transmissions become easier to stop the less of them there are.
4.4.4 Asynchronous Auto Flush
By default, once a dongle receives data that has been transmitted asynchronously, the data will be flushed as soon as it is
received. For this reason, it is optimal to always be reading out data from the dongle once asynchronous mode has been
initiated. The data format is nearly the same as a standard binary data response (see section 4.3.3). The only difference
in the two is that the success byte will always read 0 in the case of asynchronous data, since there are no continuous
requests, and no concept of failure from the dongle's perspective. Please note that asynchronous requests can only be
invoked in a binary format, and that all asynchronous responses are binary data as well. For information on changing the
asynchronous flush mode, please refer to dongle command 176 in the command chart.
4.4.5 Asynchronous Manual Flush
The dongle can also be configured to flush out asynchronous data only once requested. Additionally, it is possible to
enable timestamps for the requested data, as well as prevent all data from certain sensors from being output by the
dongle. Please refer to section 4.4.6 or dongle commands 178, 179, 180 and 181 in the command chart for more
information. Once the asynchronous manual flush mode has been configured, there are two possible ways to retrieve the
data. In the case that only one sensor is configured to transmit data asynchronously, a single read will most likely
suffice. The single asynchronous read can be invoked by sending dongle command 182 followed by the logical ID of the
sensor that has been configured to transmit asynchronously. The format for this returned data is slightly different than
the auto-flushed data, in that there is no success byte. Instead, the dongle will output the logical ID of the sensor and the
size of the requested data, followed by the data itself. If timestamps are enabled, this data size will include the size of
the timestamp, which is a 32-bit unsigned integer. Note that it is possible that the data size can be zero. This indicates
that the dongle has not received any data since the last time it was polled. Following is a snippet of pseudocode showing
how to retrieve data with a single read:
Enable asynchronous communication for sensor with logical ID N.
Enable asynchronous manual flush mode.
Issue command 182 with single byte parameter N.
Read 1 byte, store as logicalID. (This should be the same as N)
Read 1 byte, store as dataSize.
If dataSize > 0:
If timestamps are enabled:
Read 4 bytes, store as timeStamp
Read dataSize – 4 bytes, store as requestedData
else:
Read dataSize bytes, store as requestedData
In the case that the dongle has sent multiple asynchronous requests to multiple units, it is much more efficient to
perform a bulk read, instead of calling the single read for each logical ID. The bulk read command can be invoked by
issuing command 183. The format of this returned data varies slightly from single reads. The first two bytes that are read
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User's Manual
will be the size of all of the returned data (the size is a 16-bit unsigned integer). From there, the next byte will be the
logical ID of a sensor that has been enabled for flushing out data. The following byte will be the size of the data from
that particular sensor, followed by the data itself. If timestamps are enabled, this data size will include the size of the
timestamp, which is a 32-bit unsigned integer in units of milliseconds. Note that it is possible that the data size can be
zero. Continue to loop through the remaining bytes until all data has been collected. Following is a snippet of
pseudocode showing how to retrieve data with a bulk read:
Enable asynchronous communication for all desired sensors N.
Enable asynchronous manual flush mode.
Issue command 183.
Read two bytes, store as clusterSize (Total size of all data).
idx = 0
while idx < clusterSize:
Read 1 byte, store as logicalID.
idx += 1
Read 1 byte, store as dataSize.
idx += 1
If dataSize > 0:
If timestamps are enabled:
Read 4 bytes, store as timeStamp
Read dataSize – 4 bytes, store as requestedData
else:
Read dataSize bytes, store as requestedData
idx += dataSize
4.4.6 Asynchronous Timestamps and Flush Bits
When requesting asynchronously-transmitted data in manual flush mode, it is possible to add timestamps to the output
data, by using command 178—passing a parameter of 1 will enable timestamps, while 0 will disable them. Command
179 will return a value indicating whether or not timestamps are enabled. Timestamps are 32-bit unsigned integers
representing an absolute time in microseconds. This provides for nearly 71 minutes of continuous timestamping until the
value wraps around. Additionally, you can prevent the dongle from outputting data belonging to certain sensors. This is
useful if you are bulk reading, and know with certainty, that you will only be communicating with a certain number of
sensors, or a particular set of sensors that are already mapped in the address table in a specific manner. This can be set
with command 180. For example, calling command 180 with a parameter of 0 and then another 0 will prevent the
dongle from flushing any of the data unit 0 possibly sent—In this case, not even the logical ID or data length fields will
be present in the bulk read. Calling the same command with a parameter of 1 will re-enable flushing for sensor 0.
Command 181 followed by a parameter, will return the flush bit for the sensor specified by the parameter.
4.4.7 Sample Asynchronous Requests
Request
Description
Potential Response
F9 00 0F 00 64 03 00 03
Place sensor unit 3 into asynchronous transmission mode where it
will run command 0 every 15 milliseconds, then transmit the
resultant quaternion for 100 milliseconds.
00 03 00
F9 00 00 00 00 09 00 09
Disable asynchronous transmission mode for unit 9.
00 09 00
F9 00 00 FF FF 23 00 23
Attempt to send asynchronous request to non-existent unit 23.
01 23
F9 56 78 FF FF 05 20 25
Place sensor unit 5 into asynchronous transmission mode where it
will send all raw sensor data every 22136 milliseconds for an
indefinite period of time.
00 05 00
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4.5 Command Overview
There are over 90 different command messages that are grouped numerically by function. Unused command message
bytes are reserved for future expansion.
When looking at the following command message tables, note the following:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
The “Data Len” field indicates the number of additional data-bytes the command expects to follow the
command-byte itself. This number doesn't include the Start of Packet, Command, or Checksum bytes. Thus,
the total message size can be calculated by adding three bytes to the “Data Len” listed in the table.
Likewise, the “Return Data Len” field indicates the number of data-bytes the command delivers back to the
sender once the command has finished executing.
Under “Return Data Details”, each command lists the sort of data which is being returned and next to this in
parenthesis the form this data takes. For example, a quaternion is represented by 4 floating point numbers, so a
command which returns a quaternion would list “Quaternion(float x4)” for its return data details.
Command length information only applies to binary commands, as ascii commands can vary in length.
For quaternions, data is always returned in x, y, z, w order.
Euler angles are always returned in pitch, yaw, roll order.
When calling commands in ASCII mode, there is no fixed byte length for the parameter data or return data, as
the length depends on the ASCII encoding.
4.3.1 Orientation Commands
Command
0(0x00)
1(0x01)
2(0x02)
3(0x03)
4 (0x04
5(0x05)
6(0x06)
7(0x07)
8(0x08)
9(0x09)
10(0x0A)
11(0x0B)
12(0x0C)
Description
Read tared orientation as
quaternion
Read tared orientation as
euler angles
Long Description
Returns the filtered, tared orientation estimate in
quaternion form.
Returns the filtered, tared orientation estimate in
euler angle form
Read tared orientation as
rotation matrix
Read tared orientation as
axis angle
Returns the filtered, tared orientation estimate in
rotation matrix form
Returns the filtered, tared orientation estimate in
axis-angle form
Returns the filtered, tared orientation estimate in two
Read tared orientation as vector form, where the first vector refers to forward
and the second refers to down.
two vector.
Returns the difference between the measured
Read difference quaternion orientation from last frame and this frame.
Read untared orientation Returns the filtered, untared orientation estimate in
as quaternion
quaternion form.
Read untared orientation Returns the filtered, untared orientation estimate in
as euler angles
euler angle form
Read untared orientation Returns the filtered, untared orientation estimate in
as rotation matrix
rotation matrix form
Read untared orientation Returns the filtered, untared orientation estimate in
as axis angle
axis-angle form
Returns the filtered, untared orientation estimate in
Read untared orientation two vector form, where the first vector refers to north
as two vector.
and the second refers to gravity.
Returns the filtered, tared orientation estimate in two
vector form, where the first vector refers to forward
and the second refers to down. These vectors are
Read tared two vector in given in the sensor reference frame and not the
global reference frame.
sensor frame
Returns the filtered, tared orientation estimate in two
vector form, where the first vector refers to forward
and the second refers to down. These vectors are
Read untared two vector in given in the sensor reference frame and not the
sensor frame
global reference frame.
27
Return
Data Len Return Data Details
Data
Len Data Details
16
Quaternion (float x4)
0
12
Euler Angles (float x3)
0
36
Rotation Matrix (float x9)
0
16
Axis (float x3), Angle (float)
0
24
Forward Vector (float x3),
Down Vector (float x3)
0
16
Quaternion (float x4)
0
16
Quaternion (float x4)
0
16
Euler Angles (float x3)
0
36
Rotation Matrix (float x9)
0
16
Axis (float x3), Angle (float)
0
24
North Vector (float x3),
Gravity Vector (float x3)
0
24
Forward Vector (float x3),
Down Vector (float x3)
0
24
North Vector (float x3),
Gravity Vector (float x3)
0
User's Manual
4.3.2 Normalized Data Commands
Command
32(0x20)
33(0x21)
34(0x22)
35(0x23)
Return
Long Description
Data Len
Returns the normalized gyro rate vector,
accelerometer vector, and compass vector. Note that
the gyro vector is in units of radians/sec, while the
accelerometer and compass are unit-length vectors
indicating the direction of gravity and north,
respectively. These two vectors do not have any
Read all normalized
magnitude data associated with them.
component sensor data
36
Returns the normalized gyro rate vector, which is in
Read normalized gyro rate units of radians/sec.
12
Returns the normalized accelerometer vector. Note
that this is a unit-vector indicating the direction of
Read normalized
gravity. This vector does not have any magnitude
accelerometer vector
data associated with it.
12
Returns the normalized compass vector. Note that
this is a unit-vector indicating the direction of gravity.
Read normalized compass This vector does not have any magnitude data
associated with it.
vector
12
Description
Return Data Details
Data
Len Data Details
Gyro Rate (Vector x3),
Gravity Direction (Vector
x3), North Direction (Vector
x3)
0
Gyro Rate (Vector x3)
0
Gravity Direction (Vector
x3)
0
North Direction (Vector x3)
0
4.3.3 Other Data Commands
Command
36(0x24)
Description
Read temperature C
Long Description
Returns the temperature of the sensor in Celsius.
37(0x25)
Read temperature F
38(0x26)
Read confidence factor
Returns the temperature of the sensor in Fahrenheit
Returns a value indicating how much the sensor is
being moved at the moment. This value will return 1 if
the sensor is completely stationary, and will return 0
if it is in motion. This command can also return
values in between indicating how much motion the
sensor is experiencing.
Return
Data Len Return Data Details
4
Temperature (float)
Data
Len Data Details
0
4
Temperature (float)
0
4
Confidence Factor (float)
0
4.3.4 Corrected Data Commands
Command
Description
39(0x27)
Read corrected
accelerometer
Long Description
Returns the acceleration vector in units of G. Note
that this acceleration will include the static
component of acceleration due to gravity.
40(0x28)
Read corrected compass
Returns the compass vector in units of gauss.
Return
Data Len Return Data Details
12
12
Acceleration Vector in units
of G (float x3)
Compass Vector in units of
gauss (float x3)
Data
Len Data Details
0
0
4.3.5 Raw Data Commands
Command
Description
64(0x40)
Read all raw component
sensor data
65(0x41)
Read raw gyroscope rate
66(0x42)
Read raw accelerometer
data
67(0x43)
Read raw compass data
Return
Data Len Return Data Details
Long Description
Returns the raw gyro rate vector, accelerometer
vector and compass vector as read directly from the
component sensors without any additional postprocessing. The range of values is dependent on the
currently selected range for each respective sensor.
Returns the raw gyro rate vector as read directly
from the gyroscope without any additional postprocessing.
Returns the raw acceleration vector as read directly
from the accelerometer without any additional postprocessing.
Returns the raw compass vector as read directly
from the compass without any additional postprocessing.
28
Data
Len Data Details
36
Gyro Rate in counts per
degrees/sec (Vector x3),
Acceleration Vector in
counts per g (Vector x3),
Compass Vector in counts
per gauss (Vector x3)
0
12
Gyro Rate in counts per
degrees/sec (Vector x3)
0
12
Acceleration Vector in
counts per g (Vector x3)
0
12
Compass Vector in counts
per gauss (Vector x3)
0
User's Manual
4.3.6 Configuration Write Commands
Command
Return
Long Description
Data Len Return Data Details
Sets the tare orientation to be the same as the
current filtered orientation.
0
Sets the tare orientation to be the same as the
supplied orientation, which should be passed as a
quaternion.
0
Sets the tare orientation to be the same as the
supplied orientation, which should be passed as a
0
rotation matrix.
Determines how trusted the accelerometer
contribution is to the overall orientation estimation.
Higher values mean that the accelerometer is less
trusted.
0
Determines how trusted the accelerometer
contribution is to the overall orientation estimation.
Instead of using a single value, uses a minimum and
maximum value. Rho values will be changed within
this range depending on the confidence factor. This
can have the effect of smoothing out the
accelerometer when the sensor is in motion.
0
Determines how trusted the accelerometer
contribution is to the overall orientation estimation.
Higher values mean that the compass is less
trusted.
0
Determines how trusted the compass contribution is
to the overall orientation estimation. Instead of using
a single value, uses a minimum and maximum value.
Rho values will be changed within this range
depending on the confidence factor. This can have
the effect of reducing the compass's effect on the
overall orientation estimation and thus reducing
0
magnetically-induced interference.
Causes the processor to wait for the specified
number of microseconds at the end of each update
loop. Can be useful for bounding the overall update
rate of the sensor if necessary.
0
96(0x60)
Description
Tare with current
orientation
97(0x61)
Tare with quaternion
98(0x62)
Tare with rotation matrix
99(0x63)
Set static accelerometer
rho mode
100(0x64)
Set confidence
accelerometer rho mode
101(0x65)
Set static compass rho
mode
102(0x66)
Set confidence compass
rho mode
103(0x67)
Set desired update rate
104(0x68)
Uses the current tared orientation to set up the
reference vector for the nearest orthogonal
orientation. This is an advanced command that is
best used through 3-Space Sensor Suite calibration
Set multi reference vectors utilities. For more information, please refer to the 3with current orientation
Space Sensor Suite Quick Start Guide.
105(0x69)
106(0x6A)
107(0x6B)
108(0x6C)
Set the current reference vector mode. Parameter
can be 0 for single static mode, which uses a certain
reference vector for the compass and another certain
vector for the accelerometer at all times, 1 for single
auto mode, which uses (0, -1, 0) as the reference
vector for the accelerometer at all times and uses
the average angle between the accelerometer and
compass to calculate the compass reference vector
once upon initiation of this mode, 2 for single auto
continuous mode, which works similarly to single
auto mode, but calculates this continuously, or 3 for
multi-reference mode, which uses a collection of
reference vectors for the compass and
accelerometer both, and selects which ones to use
Set reference vector mode before each step of the filter.
Sets the number of times to sample each
component sensor for each iteration of the filter. This
can smooth out readings at the cost of performance.
If this value is set to 0 or 1, no oversampling occurs
—otherwise, the number of samples per iteration
depends on the specified parameter, up to a
maximum of 10. This setting can be saved to nonvolatile flash memory using the Commit Settings
Set oversample rate
command.
Enable or disable gyroscope readings as inputs to
the orientation estimation. Note that updated
gyroscope readings are still accessible via
commands. This setting can be saved to non-volatile
flash memory using the Commit Settings command.
Enable/disable gyroscope
Enable or disable accelerometer readings as inputs
to the orientation estimation. Note that updated
accelerometer readings are still accessible via
commands. This setting can be saved to non-volatile
flash memory using the Commit Settings command.
Enable/disable
accelerometer
29
Data
Len Data Details
0
16
Quaternion (float x4)
36
Rotation Matrix (float x9)
4
Accelerometer rho value
(float)
8
Minimum accelerometer rho
value (float), Maximum
accelerometer rho value (float)
4
Compass rho value (float)
8
Minimum compass rho value
(float), Maximum compass
rho value (float)
4
Microsecond update rate
(unsigned integer)
0
0
0
1
Mode (Byte), Pin (Byte)
0
1
Samples Per Iteration (Byte)
0
1
Mode (Byte)
0
1
Mode (Byte)
User's Manual
Command
Description
109(0x6D)
Enable/disable compass
Reset multi-reference
vectors to zero
110(0x6E)
111(0x6F)
Set multi-reference table
resolution
112(0x70)
Set compass mulfireference vector
113(0x71)
Set compass multireference check vector
114(0x72)
Set accelerometer multireference vector
115(0x73)
Set accelerometer multireference check vector
Return
Long Description
Data Len Return Data Details
Enable or disable compass readings as inputs to the
orientation estimation. Note that compass readings
are still accessible via commands. This setting can
be saved to non-volatile flash memory using the
Commit Settings command.
0
Resets all reference vectors in the multi-reference
table to zero. Intended for advanced users.
0
Sets the number of cell dimensions and number of
nearby vectors per cell for the multi-reference lookup
table. First parameter indicates the number of cell
divisions—as an example, multi-reference mode, by
default, only handles orientations reachable by
successive rotations of ninety degrees about any of
the three axes, and hence, has a resolution of 4 (360
/ 4 == 90). Thus, a resolution of 8 would provide
rotations of forty-five degrees about any of the three
axes (360 / 8 == 45). The second parameter
indicates the number of adjacent vectors that will be
checked for each In addition, the number of
checked vectors can be adjusted as well. The
second parameters refers to the number of adjacent
reference vectors that are 'averaged' to produce the
final reference vector for the particular orientation, up
to a maximum of 32. Intended for advanced users.
Directly set the multi-reference compass vector at
the specified index. First parameter is index, second
parameter is compass vector. Intended for advanced
users.
Set the compass reading to be used as a check
vector to determine which cell index to draw the
reference vector from. First parameter is an index,
second parameter is the compass vector. Intended
for advanced users.
Directly set the multi-reference accelerometer vector
at the specified index. First parameter is index,
second parameter is compass vector. Intended for
advanced users.
Set the accelerometer reading to be used as a
check vector to determine which cell index to draw
the reference vector from. First parameter is an
index, second parameter is the accelerometer
vector. Intended for advanced users.
Data
Len Data Details
1
Mode (Byte)
0
0
2
Resolution (Byte), Number of
Check Vectors (Byte)
0
13
Index (Byte), Compass
Reference Vector (float x3)
0
13
Index (Byte), Compass
Check Vector (float x3)
0
13
Index (Byte), Accelerometer
Reference Vector (float x3)
0
13
Index (Byte), Accelerometer
Check Vector (float x3)
0
1
Axis Direction Byte (byte)
Sets alternate directions for each of the natural axes
of the sensor. The only parameter is a bitfield
representing the possible combinations of axis
swapping. The lower 3 bits specify which axis each
of the natural axes will be read as:
000: XYZ (standard operation)
001: XZY
002: YXZ
003: YZX
004: ZXY
005: ZYX
(For example, using XZY means that whatever value
appears as Y on the natural axes will now be the Z
component of any new data and vice-versa.)
The 3 bits above those are used to indicate which
axes, if any, should be reversed. If it is cleared, the
axis will be pointing in the positive direction.
Otherwise, the axis will be pointed in the negative
direction.
(Note: These are applied to the axes after the
previous conversion takes place).
Bit 4: Positive/Negative Z (Third resulting component)
Bit 5: Positive/Negative Y (Second resulting
component)
Bit 6: Positive/Negative X (First resulting component)
116(0x74)
Set axis directions
30
User's Manual
Command
Description
Long Description
Sets what percentage of running average to use on
the sensor's orientation. This is computed as
follows:
Return
Data Len Return Data Details
Data
Len Data Details
total_orient = total_orient * percent
total_orient = total_orient + current_orient * (1 –
percent)
current_orient = total_orient
117(0x75)
118(0x76)
119(0x77)
120(0x7c)
121(0x79)
122(0x7a)
123(0x7b)
If the percentage is 0, the running average will be
shut off completely. Maximum value is 97%. This
Set running average
setting can be saved to non-volatile flash memory
percent
using the Commit Settings command.
Set compass reference
Sets the static compass reference vector for Single
vector
Reference Mode.
Set accelerometer
Sets the static accelerometer reference vector for
reference vector
Single Reference Mode.
Resets Kalman filter's state and covariance
Reset Kalman filter
matrices.
Only parameter is the new accelerometer range,
which can be 0 for ±2g (Default range), which can be
1 for ±4g, or 2 for ±8g. Higher ranges can detect and
report larger accelerations, but are not as accurate
for smaller accelerations. This setting can be saved
to non-volatile flash memory using the Commit
Set accelerometer range Settings command.
Set weighting power for multi reference vector
weights. Multi reference vector weights are all raised
to the weight power before they are summed and
used in the calculation for the final reference vector.
Setting this value nearer to 0 will cause the reference
vectors to overlap more, and setting it nearer to
Set multi-reference weight infinity will cause the reference vectors to influence a
smaller set of orientations.
power
Used to disable the orientation filter or set the
orientation filter mode. Changing this parameter can
be useful for tuning filter-performance versus
orientation-update rates. Passing in a parameter of 0
places the sensor into IMU mode, a 1 places the
sensor into Kalman Filtered Mode (Default mode), a
2 places the sensor into Alternating Kalman Filter
Mode, and a 3 places the sensor into
Complementary Filter Mode More information can
be found in Section 3.1.5. This setting can be saved
to non-volatile flash memory using the Commit
Set filter mode
Settings command.
125(0x7d)
Used to further smooth out the orientation at the
cost of higher latency. Passing in a parameter of 0
places the sensor into a static running average
mode, a 1 places the sensor into a confidencebased running average mode, which changes the
running average factor based upon the confidence
factor, which is a measure of how 'in motion' the
sensor is. This setting can be saved to non-volatile
Set running average mode flash memory using the Commit Settings command.
Only parameter is the new gyroscope range, which
can be 0 for ±250 DPS, 1 for ±500 DPS, or 2 for
±2000 DPS (Default range). Higher ranges can
detect and report larger angular rates, but are not as
accurate for smaller angular rates. This setting can
be saved to non-volatile flash memory using the
Commit Settings command.
Set gyroscope range
126(0x7e)
Only parameter is the new compass range, which
can be 0 for ±0.88G, 1 for ±1.3G (Default range), 2
for ±1.9G, 3 for ±2.5G, 4 for ±4.0G, 5 for ±4.7G, 6 for
±5.6G, or 7 for ±8.1G. Higher ranges can detect and
report larger magnetic field strengths but are not as
accurate for smaller magnetic field strengths. This
setting can be saved to non-volatile flash memory
using the Commit Settings command.
124(0x7c)
Set compass range
31
Running Average Percent
(float)
Compass Reference Vector
(float x3)
Accelerometer Reference
Vector (float x3)
0
4
0
12
0
12
0
0
0
1
Accelerometer range setting
(byte)
0
4
Weight power (float)
0
1
Mode (Byte)
0
1
Mode (Byte)
0
1
Gyroscope range setting
(Byte)
0
1
Compass range setting (Byte)
User's Manual
4.3.7 Configuration Read Commands
Command
128(0x80)
129(0x81)
130(0x82)
131(0x83)
132(0x84)
133(0x85)
134(0x86)
135(0x87)
136(0x88)
137(0x89)
138(0x8a)
139(0x8b)
140(0x8c)
141(0x8d)
142(0x8e)
143(0x8f)
144(0x90)
145(0x91)
146(0x92)
147(0x93)
148(0x94)
149(0x95)
Description
Read tare orientation as
quaternion
Read tare orientation as
rotation matrix
Return
Data Len Return Data Details
Long Description
Returns the current tare orientation as a quaternion.
Returns the current tare orientation as a rotation
matrix.
Returns the current accelerometer rho mode as well
as the value. If this mode is set to 0 (static), this will
return the rho mode, the static rho value, and then a
dummy value of 0. If this mode is set to 1, this will
Read accelerometer rho
return the rho mode, and the minimum and
value
maximum rho values.
Returns the current compass rho mode as well as
the value. If this mode is set to 0 (static), this will
return the rho mode, the static rho value, and then a
dummy value of 0. If this mode is set to 1, this will
return the rho mode, and the minimum and
Read compass rho value maximum rho values.
Reads the amount of time taken by the last filter
Read current update rate update step.
Reads the current compass reference vector. Note
Read compass reference that this is not valid if the sensor is in Multi
vector
Reference Vector mode.
Reads the current compass reference vector. Note
Read accelerometer
that this is not valid if the sensor is in Multi
Reference Vector mode.
reference vector
Reads the current reference vector mode. Return
Read reference vector
value can be 0 for single static, 1 for single auto, 2
mode
for single auto continuous or 3 for multi.
Reads the multi-reference mode compass reference
Read compass multivector at the specified index. Intended for advanced
reference vector
users.
Reads the multi-reference mode compass reference
check vector at the specified index. Intended for
Read compass multiadvanced users.
reference check vector
Reads the multi-reference mode accelerometer
Read accelerometer multi- reference vector at the specified index. Intended for
reference vector
advanced users.
Reads the multi-reference mode accelerometer
Read accelerometer multi- reference check vector at the specified index.
Intended for advanced users.
reference check vector
Returns a value indicating whether the gyroscope
Read gyroscope enabled contribution is currently part of the orientation
state
estimate: 0 for off, 1 for on.
Returns a value indicating whether the accelerometer
contribution is currently part of the orientation
Read accelerometer
estimate: 0 for off, 1 for on.
enabled state
Returns a value indicating whether the compass
Read compass enabled
contribution is currently part of the orientation
state
estimate: 0 for off, 1 for on.
Returns a value indicating the current axis direction
setup. For more information on the meaning of this
value, please refer to the Set Axis Direction
Read axis-direction byte command (116).
Returns a value indicating how many times each
component sensor is sampled before being stored
as raw data. A value of 1 indicates that no
oversampling is taking place, while a value that is
higher indicates the number of samples per
Read oversample rate
component sensor per filter update step.
Returns a value indicating how heavily the orientation
estimate is based upon the estimate from the
previous frame. For more information on the meaning
Read running average
of this value, please refer to the Set Running Average
percent
Percent command (117).
Returns the current desired update rate. Note that
this value does not indicate the actual update rate,
but instead indicates the value that should be spent
'idling' in the main loop. Thus, without having set a
specified desired update rate, this value should read
Read desired update rate 0.
Read Kalman filter
covariance matrix
Return the current Kalman filter covariance matrix.
Return the current accelerometer measurement
range, which can be a 0 for ±2g, 1 for ±4g or a 2 for
Read accelerometer range ±8g.
Read multi-reference mode Read weighting power for multi-reference vector
power weight
weights. Intended for advanced users.
32
Data
Len Data Details
16
Quaternion (float x4)
0
36
Rotation Matrix (float x9)
0
9
Accelerometer rho mode
(byte), Accelerometer rho
values (float x2)
0
4
Compass rho mode (byte),
Compass rho values (float
x2)
Last update time in
microseconds (int)
12
Compass reference vector
(float x3)
0
12
Accelerometer reference
vector (float x4)
0
1
Mode (byte)
9
0
0
12
Compass multi-reference
reference vector (float x3)
Compass multi-reference
reference check vector
(float x3)
Accelerometer multireference reference vector
(float x3)
Accelerometer multireference reference check
vector (float x3)
1
Gyroscope enabled value
(byte)
0
1
Accelerometer enabled
value (byte)
0
1
Compass enabled value
(byte)
0
1
Axis direction value (byte)
0
1
Oversample rate (byte)
0
4
Running average percent
(float)
0
4
Desired update rate in
microseconds (int)
0
36
Covariance matrix (float x9)
0
1
Accelerometer range
setting (byte)
0
4
Weight (float)
0
12
12
12
1
Index (byte)
1
Index (byte)
1
Index (byte)
1
Index (byte)
User's Manual
Command
150(0x96)
151(0x97)
152(0x98)
Return
Data Len Return Data Details
Description
Long Description
Read multi-reference
resolution
Read number of multireference cells
Reads number of cell divisions and number of nearby
vectors per cell for the multi-reference vector lookup
table. For more information on these values, please
refer to the Set Multi-Reference Resolution
command (111). Intended for advanced users.
Reads the total number of multi-reference cells.
Intended for advanced users.
153(0x99)
Read filter mode
Read running average
mode
154(0x9a)
Read gyroscope range
155(0x9b)
Read compass range
Returns the current filter mode, which can be 0 for
IMU mode, 1 for Kalman, 2 for Alternating Kalman or
3 for Complementary. For more information, please
refer to the Set Filter Mode command (123).
Reads the selected mode for the running average,
which can be 0 for normal or 1 for confidence.
Reads the current gyroscope measurement range,
which can be 0 for ±250 DPS, 1 for ±500 DPS or 2
for ±2000 DPS.
Reads the current compass measurement range,
which can be 0 for ±0.88G, 1 for ±1.3G, 2 for ±1.9G,
3 for ±2.5G, 4 for ±4.0G, 5 for ±4.7G, 6 for ±5.6G or
7 for ±8.1G.
33
Data
Len Data Details
2
Number of cell divisions
(byte), number of nearby
vectors (byte)
0
4
Number of cells (int)
0
1
0
1
Filter mode (byte)
Running average mode
(byte)
1
Gyroscope range setting
(byte)
0
1
Compass range setting
(byte)
0
0
User's Manual
4.3.8 Calibration Commands
164(0xa4)
Return
Data
Long Description
Data Len Return Data Details
Len Data Details
Sets the current compass calibration parameters to
the specified values. These consist of a bias which
is added to the raw data vector and a matrix by
which the value is multiplied. This setting can be
Set compass calibration saved to non-volatile flash memory using the Commit
Bias (float x3), Matrix (float
Settings command.
coefficients
0
48 x9)
Sets the current accelerometer calibration
parameters to the specified values. These consist of
a bias which is added to the raw data vector and a
matrix by which the value is multiplied. This setting
can be saved to non-volatile flash memory using the
Set accelerometer
Bias (float x3), Matrix (float
Commit Settings command.
calibration coefficients
0
48 x9)
Read compass calibration
Bias (float x3), Matrix (float
coefficients
x9)
Return the current compass calibration parameters.
48
Read accelerometer
Return the current accelerometer calibration
Bias (float x3), Matrix (float
calibration coefficients
parameters.
48
x9)
Read gyroscope
Bias (float x3), Matrix (float
Return the current gyroscope calibration parameters.
48
calibration coefficients
x9)
165(0xa5)
Begin gyroscope autocalibration
Command
160(0xa0)
161(0xa1)
162(0xa2)
163(0xa3)
Description
170(0xaa)
Performs auto-gyroscope calibration. Sensor should
remain still while samples are taken. The gyroscope
bias will be automatically placed into the bias part of
the gyroscope calibration coefficient list.
Sets the current gyroscope calibration parameters to
the specified values. These consist of a bias which
is added to the raw data vector and a matrix by
which the value is multiplied. This setting can be
Set gyroscope calibration saved to non-volatile flash memory using the Commit
Settings command.
coefficients
Sets the current calibration mode, which can be 0 for
Bias, 1 for Scale-Bias and 2 for Ortho-Calibration.
For more information, refer to section 3.1.3
Additional Calibration. This setting can be saved to
non-volatile flash memory using the Commit Settings
command.
Set calibration mode
Reads the current calibration mode, which can be 0
for Bias, 1 for Scale-Bias or 2 for Ortho-Calibration.
For more information, refer to section 3.1.3
Additional Calibration.
Read calibration mode
171(0xab)
Set ortho-calibration data
point from current
orientation
Set the ortho-calibration compass and
accelerometer vectors corresponding to this
orthogonal orientation. Intended for advanced users.
Set ortho-calibration data
point from vector
Directly set a vector corresponding to this orthogonal
orientation. First parameter is type, where 0 is for
compass and 1 is for accelerometer. Second
parameter is index, which indicates the orthogonal
orientation. Intended for advanced users.
166(0xa6)
169(0xa9)
172(0xac)
173(0xad)
174(0xae)
175(0xaf)
Return the vector corresponding to the orthogonal
orientation given by index. First parameter is type,
where 0 is for compass and 1 is for accelerometer.
Read ortho-calibration data Second parameter is index, which indicates the
point
orthogonal orientation. Intended for advanced users.
Stores accelerometer and compass data in the
ortho-lookup table for use in the orientation fusion
algorithm. For best results, each of the 24
orientations should be filled in with component
sensor data. Note also that ortho-calibration data will
not be used unless the calibration mode is set to
Ortho-Calibration. For more information, refer to
Section 3.1.3 Additional Calibration. Intended for
Perform ortho-calibration advanced users.
Clear out all ortho-lookup table data. Intended for
Clear ortho-calibration data advanced users.
34
0
0
0
48
Bias (float x3), Matrix (float
x9)
0
1
Mode (Byte)
1
Mode (byte)
0
0
0
12
0
Accelerometer or compass
vector (float x3)
14
Type (Byte), Index (Byte),
Accelerometer or Compass
Vector (float x3)
2
Type (Byte), Index (Byte)
0
0
0
0
User's Manual
4.3.9 Dongle Wireless Asynchronous Flush Commands
Command
176(0xb0)
177(0xb1)
178(0xb2)
179(0xb3)
Return
Long Description
Data Len Return Data Details
Set the wireless communication's asynchronous
flush mode. If this value is set to 0 (default), data
must be 'released' using manual flush commands. If
this value is set to 1, data will be output immediately
via the dongle's USB connection. For more
information, refer to Section 4.4 Wireless
Asynchronous Protocol. This setting can be set to
non-volatile flash memory by using the Commit
Set async auto-flush mode Settings command.
0
Returns the wireless communication's current
asynchronous flush mode, which can be 0 for auto
flush and 1 for manual flush. For more information,
Returns the current auto- refer to Section 4.4 Wireless Asynchronous
flush mode
1
Auto-flush mode (byte)
Protocol.
Allows the dongle to control timestamping
information that can be prepended to manually
flushed data. Possible values are 0 for no
timestamp, or 1 for timestamping. For more
information, refer to Section 4.4.6 Asynchronous
Set async timestamping Timestamps and Flush Bits.
0
Description
Get async timestamping
180(0xb4)
Set async flush bitfield
181(0xb5)
Get async flush bitfield
182(0xb6)
Manual flush single
183(0xb7)
Manual flush bulk
Returns a value indicating whether timestamping is
currently enabled on manually flushed data. Possible
values are 0 for no timestamp or 1 for timestamping.
For more information, refer to Section 4.4.6
Asynchronous Timestamps and Flush Bits.
Allows the dongle to control which wirelessly
received data is output via manual flush mode. The
parameter represents a bitfield that represents which
wireless sensors' logical IDs can currently output
data. For more information, refer to Section 4.4.6
Asynchronous Timestamps and Flush Bits.
Returns the current manual flush bitfield. For more
information, refer to Section 4.4.6 Asynchronous
Timestamps and Flush Bits.
Flush data output for a single logical ID. For more
information, refer to Section 4.4.5 Asynchronous
Manual Flush.
Flush data output for all logical IDs. For more
information, refer to Section 4.4.5 Asynchronous
Manual Flush.
1
Timestamping enabled
(byte)
0
2
Data
Len Data Details
1
0
1
Timestamping enabled (byte)
0
2
Manual flush bitfield (short)
Auto-flush mode (byte)
Manual flush bitfield (short)
0
Varies
1
Varies
0
Logical ID (Byte)
4.3.10 Wireless Sensor & Dongle Commands
Command
Description
192(0xc0)
Read wireless panID
193(0xc1)
Set wireless panID
194(0xc2)
Read wireless channel
195(0xc3)
Set wireless channel
197(0xc5)
Commit wireless settings
198(0xc6)
Read wireless address
Return
Long Description
Data Len
Return the current panID for this wireless sensor or
dongle. For more information, refer to Section 2.9
Wireless Terminology.
2
Set the current panID for this wireless sensor or
dongle. Note that the panID for a wireless sensor
can only be set via the USB connection. For more
information, refer to Section 2.9 Wireless
Terminology. This setting can be committed to nonvolatile flash memory by calling the Commit
0
Wireless Settings command.
Read the current channel for this wireless sensor or
dongle. For more information, refer to Section 2.9
Wireless Terminology.
1
Set the current channel for this wireless sensor or
dongle. For more information, refer to Section 2.9
Wireless Terminology. This setting can be
committed to non-volatile flash memory by calling
0
the Commit Wireless Settings command.
Commits all current wireless settings to non-volatile
flash memory, which will persist after the sensor is
powered off. For more information on which
parameters can be stored in this manner, refer to
0
Section 3.4 Sensor Settings.
Read the wireless hardware address for this sensor
2
or dongle.
35
Return Data Details
PanID (short)
Data
Len Data Details
0
2
PanID (short)
1
Channel (byte)
Channel (Byte)
0
Address (short)
User's Manual
4.3.11 Battery Commands
Command
Description
201(0xc9)
Read battery voltage
202(0xca)
Read battery percent
remaining
203(0xcb)
Read battery status
Return
Long Description
Data Len
Read the current battery level in volts. Note that this
value will read as slightly higher than it actually is if
it is read via a USB connection.
4
Read the current battery lifetime as a percentage of
the total. Note that this value will read as slightly
higher than it actually is if it is read via a USB
2
connection.
Returns a value indicating the current status of the
battery, which can be a 3 to indicate that the battery
is currently not charging, a 2 to indicate that the
battery is charging and thus plugged in, or a 1 to
1
indicate that the sensor is fully charged.
Return Data Details
Data
Len Data Details
Battery level in voltage
(float)
0
Battery level as percent
(short)
0
Battery charge status
(byte)
0
4.3.12 Dongle Commands
Command
208(0xd0)
Description
Read serial number at
logical ID
209(0xd1)
Set serial number at
logical ID
210(0xd2)
Read wireless channel
noise levels
211(0xd3)
Set wireless retries
212(0xd4)
Read wireless retries
213(0xd5)
Read wireless slots open
214(0xd6)
Read signal strength
Return
Long Description
Data Len
Return the mapped serial number for the given
logical ID.
4
Set the mapped serial number given by the logical
ID. This setting can be committed to non-volatile
flash memory by calling the Commit Wireless
0
Settings command.
Return the noise levels for each of the 16 wireless
channels. A higher value corresponds to a noisier
channel, which can significantly impact wireless
reception and throughput.
16
Set the number of times a dongle will attempt to retransmit a data request after timing out. Default value
is 3. This setting can be committed to non-volatile
flash memory by calling the Commit Wireless
0
Settings command.
Read the number of times a dongle will attempt to
re-transmit a data request after timing out. Default
value is 3.
1
The dongle can simultaneously service up to sixteen
individual data requests to wireless sensors. As
sensors respond, requests are removed from the
table. In the case that too many requests are sent to
the dongle in too short a period, the dongle will begin
tossing them out. This value will return the number of
slots currently open. If this value is 0, no more
wireless requests will be handled until some are
internally processed.
Returns a value indicating the reception strength of
the most recently received packet. Higher values
indicate a stronger link.
36
Return Data Details
Serial number (int)
Channel strengths (byte
x16)
Data
Len Data Details
1
Logical ID (Byte)
5
Logical ID (Byte), Serial
number (int)
0
1
Retries (byte)
0
1
Slots open (byte)
0
1
Last packet signal strength
(byte)
0
Retries (byte)
User's Manual
4.3.13 General Commands
Command
Description
196(0xc4)
Set LED Mode
200(0xc8)
223(0xdf)
Read LED Mode
Read firmware version
string
224(0xe0)
Restore factory settings
225(0xe1)
226(0xe2)
Commit settings
Software reset
227(0xe3)
228(0xe4)
Enable watchdog timer
Disable watchdog timer
Return
Long Description
Data Len Return Data Details
Allows finer-grained control over the sensor LED.
Accepts a single parameter that can be 0 for
standard, which displays all standard LED status
indicators or 1 for static, which displays only the
LED color as specified by command 238.
1
LED mode (byte)
Returns the current sensor LED mode, which can be
0 for standard or 1 for static.
0
Returns a string indicating the current firmware
version.
12
Firmware version (string)
Return all non-volatile flash settings to their original,
0
default settings.
Commits all current sensor settings to non-volatile
flash memory, which will persist after the sensor is
powered off. For more information on which
parameters can be stored in this manner, refer to
Section 3.4 Sensor Settings.
0
Resets the sensor.
0
Enables the onboard watchdog timer with the
specified timeout rate. If a frame takes more than
this amount of time, the sensor will automatically
reset.
0
Disables the watchdog timer.
0
Enter bootloader mode
Read hardware version
string
Places the sensor into a special mode that allows
firmware upgrades. This will case normal operation
until the firmware update mode is instructed to return
the sensor to normal operation. For more information
on upgrading firmware, refer to the 3-Space Sensor
Suite Quick Start Guide.
Returns a string indicating the current hardware
version.
229(0xe5)
230(0xe6)
231(0xe7)
Set UART baud rate
232(0xe8)
Read UART baud rate
233(0xe9)
Set USB Mode
234(0xea)
Get USB Mode
235(0xeb)
236(0xec)
Set clock speed
Get clock speed
237(0xed)
Get serial number
238(0xee)
239(0xef)
Set LED color
Get LED color
Sets the baud rate of the physical UART. This
setting does not need to be committed, but will not
take effect until the sensor is reset. Valid baud rates
are 1200, 2400, 4800, 9600, 19200, 28800, 38400,
57600, 115200 (default), 230400, 460800 and
921600. Note that this is only applicable for sensor
types that have UART interfaces.
Returns the baud rate of the physical UART. Note
that this is only applicable for sensor types that have
UART interfaces.
Sets the communication mode for USB. Accepts
one value that can be 0 for CDC (default) or 1 for
FTDI.
Returns the current USB communication mode.
Sets the current processor clock speed. Possible
values are 15Mhz, 30 Mhz or 60 Mhz (default). This
setting does not need to be committed, but does not
take effect until the sensor is reset.
Returns the current processor clock speed.
Returns the serial number, which will match the
value etched onto the physical sensor.
Sets the color of the LED on the sensor to the
specified RGB color. This setting can be committed
to non-volatile flash memory by calling the Commit
Wireless Settings command.
Returns the color of the LED on the sensor.
37
0
32
0
1
LED mode (byte)
0
0
0
0
4
0
Timeout rate in microseconds
(int)
0
Hardware version (string)
0
4
Data
Len Data Details
0
4
Baud rate (int)
0
Baud rate (int)
0
1
USB communication mode
(byte)
1
USB communication mode
(byte)
0
0
4
4
0
Clock speed in Hz (int)
Clock speed in Hz (int)
4
Serial number (int)
0
12
12
0
RGB Color (float x3)
RGB Color (float x3)
User's Manual
4.3.14 Wireless HID Commands
Command
215(0xd7)
216(0xd8)
Return
Long Description
Data Len
Specify the interval at which HID information is
requested by the dongle. The default and minimum
value is 15ms in synchronous HID mode. In
asynchronous HID mode, the minimum is 5ms. This
setting can be committed to non-volatile flash
Set wireless HID update memory by calling the Commit Wireless Settings
command.
rate
0
Read wireless HID update Return the interval at which HID information is
1
rate
requested by the dongle.
Description
217(0xd9)
Set wireless HID
asynchronous mode
218(0xda)
Read wireless HID
asynchronous mode
240(0xf0)
Set joystick logical ID
241(0xf1)
Set mouse logical ID
242(0xf2)
Read joystick logical ID
243(0xf3)
Read mouse logical ID
Sets the current wireless HID communication mode.
Supplying a 0 makes wireless HID communication
synchronous, while a 1 makes wireless HID
asynchronous. For more information, refer to Section
3.3.4 Wireless Joystick/Mouse. This setting can be
committed to non-volatile flash memory by calling
the Commit Wireless Settings command.
Returns the current wireless HID communication
mode, which can be a 0 for synchronous wireless
HID or a 1 for asynchronous wireless HID.
Causes the sensor at the specified logical ID to
return joystick HID data. Passing a -1 will disable
wireless joystick data. For more information, refer to
Section 3.3.4 Wireless Joystick/Mouse.
Causes the sensor at the specified logical ID to
return mouse HID data. Passing a -1 will disable
wireless mouse data. For more information, refer to
Section 3.3.4 Wireless Joystick/Mouse.
Returns the current logical ID of the joystick-enabled
sensor or -1 if none exists.
Returns the current logical ID of the mouse-enabled
sensor or -1 if none exists.
Return Data Details
Last packet signal strength
(byte)
HID update rate in
milliseconds
0
1
Data
Len Data Details
1
0
1
HID communication mode
HID update rate in
milliseconds (byte)
HID communication mode
(byte)
0
0
1
Joystick logical ID (signed
byte)
0
1
Mouse logical ID (signed
byte)
1
1
Joystick-enabled logical ID
(byte)
Mouse-enabled logical ID
(byte)
0
0
4.3.15 Wired HID Commands
Command
Description
240(0xf0)
Enable/disable joystick
241(0xf1)
Enable/disable mouse
242(0xf2)
Read joystick enabled
243(0xf3)
Read mouse enabled
Return
Data Len
Long Description
Enable or disable streaming of joystick HID data for
this sensor.
0
Enable or disable streaming of mouse HID data for
this sensor.
0
Read whether the sensor is currently streaming
joystick HID data.
1
Read whether the sensor is currently streaming
1
mouse HID data.
38
Return Data Details
Data
Len Data Details
1
Joystick enabled state (byte)
1
Mouse enabled state (byte)
Joystick enabled state
(byte)
0
Mouse enabled state (byte)
0
User's Manual
4.3.16 General HID Commands
Command
244(0xf4)
Long Description
Set control mode
Sets the operation mode for one of the controls. The
first parameter is the control class,which can be 0
for Joystick Axis, 1 for Joystick Button, 2 for Mouse
Axis or 3 for Mouse Button. There are two axes and
eight buttons on the joystick and mouse. The
second parameter, the control index, selects which
one of these axes or buttons you would like to
modify. The third parameter, the handler index,
specifies which handler you want to take care of this
control. These can be the following:
Turn off this control: 255
Axes:
Global Axis: 0
Screen Point: 1
Buttons:
Hardware Button: 0
Orientation Button: 1
Shake Button: 2
245(0xf5)
Set control data
246(0xf6)
Read control mode
247(0xf7)
Read control data
249(0xf9)
Set button gyro disable
length
Get button gyro disable
lentgh
250(0xfa)
Read button state
251(0xfb)
Set mouse
absolute/relative mode
248(0xf8)
252(0xfc)
Read mouse
absolute/relative mode
253(0xfd)
Set joystick and mouse
present/removed
254(0xfe)
Return
Data Len Return Data Details
Description
Get joystick and mouse
present/removed
Sets parameters for the specified control's operation
mode. The control classes and indices are the same
as described in command 244. Each mode can have
up to 10 data points associated with it. How many
should be set and what they should be set to is
entirely based on which mode is being used.
Reads the handler index of this control's mode. The
control classes and indices are the same as
described in command 244.
Reads the value of a certain parameter of the
specified control's operation mode. The control
classes and indices are the same as described in
command 244.
Determines how long, in frames, the gyros should be
disabled after one of the physical buttons on the
sensor is pressed. A setting of 0 means they won't
be disabled at all. This setting helps to alleviate gyro
disturbances cause by the buttons causing small
shockwaves in the sensor.
Returns the current button gyro disable length.
Reads the current state of the sensor's physical
buttons. This value returns a byte, where each bit
represents the state of the sensor's physical
buttons.
Puts the mode in absolute or relative mode. This
change will not take effect immediately and the
sensor must be reset before the mouse will enter
this mode. The only parameter can be 0 for absolute
(default) or 1 for relative
Return the current mouse absolute/relative mode.
Note that if the sensor has not been reset since it
has been put in this mode, the mouse will not reflect
this change yet, even though the command will.
Sets whether the joystick and mouse are present or
removed. The first parameter is for the joystick, and
can be 0 for removed or 1 for present. The second
parameter is for the mouse. If removed, they will not
show up as devices on the target system at all. For
these changes to take effect, the sensor driver may
need to be reinstalled.
Returns whether the joystick and mouse are present
or removed.
39
0
0
1
4
Handler index (byte)
Data point (float)
0
Data
Len Data Details
3
Control class (byte), control
index (byte), handler index
(byte)
7
Control class (byte), control
index (byte), data point index
(byte), data point (float)
2
Control class (byte), control
index (byte)
3
Control class (byte), control
index (byte), data point index
(byte)
1
Number of frames (byte)
1
Number of frames (byte)
0
1
Button state (byte)
0
0
1
1
Absolute or relative mode
(byte)
0
2
0
2
Joystick present/removed
(byte), Mouse
present/removed (byte)
Absolute or relative mode
(byte)
0
Joystick present/removed
(byte), Mouse
present/removed (byte)
User's Manual
Appendix
USB Connector
The 3-Space Sensor has a 5-pin USB Type-B jack and can be connected via a standard 5-pin mini USB cable.
Hex / Decimal Conversion Chart
First Hexadecimal Digit
Second Hexadecimal digit
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
A
B
C
D
E
F
0
000
001
002
003
004
005
006
007
008
009
010
011
012
013
014
015
1
016
017
018
019
020
021
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024
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028
029
030
031
2
032
033
034
035
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3
048
049
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061
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4
064
065
066
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079
5
080
081
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6
096
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111
7
112
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8
128
129
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140
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9
144
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159
A
160
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B
176
177
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191
C
192
193
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D
208
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E
224
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F
240
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40
User's Manual
Notes:
Serial Number: _____________________________________
41
User's Manual
42
User's Manual
43
User's Manual
44
YEI Technology
630 Second Street
Portsmouth, Ohio 45662
Toll-Free: 888-395-9029
Phone: 740-355-9029
www.YeiTechnology.com
www.3SpaceSensor.com
Patents Pending
©2007-2011 Yost Engineering, Inc.
Printed in USA
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