BizAnalyst Manual

BizAnalyst Manual
BizAnalyst+
©2009 Ernest Brock, all rights reserved
Acorn Aircraft
[email protected]
http://web.mac.com/acornaircraft/AcornAircraftSite/Acorn_Aircraft.html
Acorn Aircraft
Table of Contents
Biz Analyst+
3
Screen Layout
4
Calculator
5
Time Value of Money Functions
7
Memory Keys 8
Math Functions
9
Trig Functions 10
Tape
12
Settings
13
Worksheets
15
Worksheet Layout
15
Numeric Entry Keypad
16
Amort
18
Black-Scholes
20
Bond
22
Breakeven
25
Cash Flow
27
Convert
30
Date
33
Depreciation
35
Interest Conversion
38
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Lease
39
Loan Amortization
41
Memory
43
∆ Percent
44
Profit Margin
47
Ratios
49
Statistics
54
Edit Screen
54
Forecast Screen
56
Tip
58
Sample Problems
59
Setting up the calculator
59
Time Value of Money (TVM) Computations 60
Lump Sums 60
1. Future Value (FV)
60
2. Present Value (PV)
60
3. Number of Periods (N)
60
3. Interest Rate (I/YR)
61
Regular Annuities
61
1. Future Value (FV)
61
2. Payment (PMT)
62
3. Number of Periods (N)
63
4. Interest Rate (I/Y)
63
5. Annuity Due
64
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Biz Analyst+
Biz Analyst+ is a general purpose business
analysis program for accounting, real estate
and business professionals as well as business students. It features over 100 built in
functions for business, finance, mathematics,
statistics, unit and currency conversions.
Functions operate with a calculator interface
or with worksheets designed to simplify calculations of specific business problems. Keys
and worksheets are generously sized for
easy data entry and computing on the touch
screen.
All time value of money variables are continuously displayed to give you confidence in
your problem setups. Results can be reviewed, annotated and forwarded to clients
using the built in electronic audit tape and
email and are easily moved between worksheets and the calculator.
The contents of the calculator and worksheets are preserved between computing
sessions. If you are interrupted by a phone
call or leave to work in another application,
the next time you start Biz Analyst+ it will be
restored to the state where you left off.
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Screen Layout
A tool bar across the top of the display gives you access to the main functions of the calculator.
Touch any of the icons in the tool bar to select from Calculator, Worksheets, Tape, Settings
and Guide.
• Calculator Use the calculator for general purpose computations and for solving time value of
money problems.
• Worksheets Solutions to a variety of every day business problems are encapsulated in set of
worksheets. Touch the worksheet icon to display an index of the worksheets and then select a
specific worksheet from the index. If a worksheet has already been selected and you want to
view the index, touch the Worksheet icon a second time.
• Tape Review, annotate, cut/copy/paste and mail the results of computations with the tape tool.
•Settings Change the basic calculator settings from the settings screen.
• Guide Access and review the built in user manual. You can also send a tech support email
directly from the "About Biz Analyst+" section of the guide.
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Calculator
The primary function of each key is displayed in white. Many keys have a secondary function
that is displayed in blue at the bottom of the key. To select a second function, touch the 2nd key
(the blue labels will hi light) followed by the corresponding key. For example, touching 2nd LN
computes the natural logarithm of the number in display.
Several keys feature a green status display. The status displays show the current values for
computing time value of money problems.
Annunciators
The numeric display area contains a variety of annunciators that allow you to easily view the
current computation modes in effect.
Angle
The angle annunciator indicates the angular mode
in effect- degrees, radians or gradians.
Calculation Mode
The calculation mode annunciator indicates either chain for chain calculations or AOS for
algebraic computation with operator precedence. Chain calculation mode performs operations as they are entered. AOS mode uses the algebraic hierarchy of operators to group operations. (See the settings guide topic for more information.)
INV
Indicates if the inverse shift is active for selecting an inverse trigonometric function.
HYP
Indicates if the hyperbolic shift is active for selecting a hyperbolic function.
Last Operation
The last operation annunciator displays the last operation that was performed. If you are unsure what key you pressed last, view the last operation annunciator.
Errors
Errors in operation are indicated either by a pop up alert message window or by a numeric
display of nan or inf. For example, 2.÷0.= returns a result of inf. -2y^x.5= returns nan
Numeric Display
The numeric display line displays all pending operations and the final results. If more operations
are pending than can be displayed, the display scrolls to the left, indicated by ...
Decimal Places
The numeric display shows a number of decimal places from 0 to 13. The number of digits displayed to the right of the decimal is selected by touching 2nd DISP followed by 0 - 8. To display
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all available digits touch 2nd DISP decimal point. To activate the floating decimal display, touch
2nd DISP 9.
Entering Numbers
Touch keys to enter numbers and operations into the main display. A negative number is entered by first touching the number then the +/- key. Use the paren keys ( ) to group computations. All pending operations are displayed on the main line.
A number can also be entered in scientific mode by touching the number then E followed by an
exponent. enter a negative exponent by touching +/- after touching E.
Examples:
enter -5.60 by touching the following sequence of keys:
5 . 6 +/- =
enter 5 billion (5 with 9 zeros) by touching the following sequence of keys:
5 E 9 =
Touch = to finalize a computation including any open parens.
Clearing Numbers
During number entry, the C/CE key works like a backspace key. It will erase 1 digit or operation
at a time from the display until the display is empty.
If a number has just been computed, the C/CE key will clear the result to 0.
reset
The reset function will clear memory and return Biz Analyst+ to the factory settings as follows:
M0-M9 !
!
!
!
set to 0
N, I/Y, PV, PMT, FV! set to 0
P/Y, C/Y !
!
!
!
set to 1
Begin/End! !
set to END
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Time Value of Money Functions
The top row of keys are used for computing time value of money (TVM) problems. The TVM
keys are dual operation keys:
• If you touch one of the TVM keys the number in the display line will be stored in the register
associated with that key.
• If you touch the CPT key followed by one of the TVM keys, a value will be computed and displayed for that function.
The current setting of of N, I/Y, PV, PMT and FV is displayed in green immediately above each
of the keys. The display above the keys is rounded to the nearest integer, except I/YR which is
rounded to 2 decimal places. The full value is stored in the calculator and can be viewed by recalling it to the display using RCL. In addition, the current settings for P/Y and C/Y are displayed
in green below the I/Y and PV keys.
N!
stores/computes the number of periods
I/Y!
stores/computes the interest rate per year
PV!
stores/computes the present value
PMT! stores/computes the payment
FV!
stores/computes the future value
You must set 4 of the 5 variables and properly initialize the modifiers P/Y, C/Y and BEG/END
before solving any tvm problem.
×P/Y! Multiplies the value in the display times the P/Y setting and stores the result in N. For
example if P/Y is 12, touch 30 ×P/Y to store 360 in N. (The cross symbol in front of P/Y
is multiply, not the letter "X")
P/Y!
!
!
!
!
stores the number of periods per year. Set it
to 1 for annual payments, 12 for monthly payments.
The current setting of P/Y is always displayed in
green next to the P/Y label on the key. The P/Y key
also sets the value of C/Y to be the same as P/Y.
C/Y!
!
!
stores the number of compounding periods per year.
The current setting of C/Y is always displayed in
green next to the C/Y label on the key.
BEG/END changes TVM computations to make
!
pmt at beginning or end of the periods. Each time
!
you touch the BEG/END key the label will change
!
to the opposite value. For instance, if the PMT key
!
blue label reads BEG and you touch 2nd PMT, the
!
label will change to END indicating END mode will
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!
be used for computations.
prt tvm print the current time value of money values to the
!
audit tape. (Touch the Tape icon in the tool bar to
!
review the tape.)
Example:
!
Compute the monthly payments for a 20 year loan
!
of 250,000 at 7.2% interest compounded monthly,
!
payments made at the end of each month.
Touch the following keys:
2nd BEG/END if END is not displayed under the PMT key.
12 2nd P/Y !!
(C/Y will also be set to 12)
20 2nd ×P/Y!
(N will be set to 240)
250000 PV
7.2 I/Y
0 FV
CPT PMT
The result is -1,968.37
Memory Keys
The memory keys are used to access the calculator storage locations. There are 10
general storage locations numbered 0 thru 9. In addition you can access the N, I/Y,
PV, PMT, FV, P/Y, C/Y registers.
RCL!
!
!
!
recalls a number from storage. Touch RCL
followed by a number 0 - 9 to access the general
registers. Touch RCL followed by N, I/Y, PV,
PMT, FV, P/Y, C/Y to recall a specialized register.
STO !
!
!
!
!
stores the currently displayed value to a
memory location. Touch STO followed by a
number 0 - 9 to store in the general registers.
Touch STO followed by N, I/Y, PV, PMT,
FV, P/Y, C/Y to store in a specialized register.
STO+
STOSTOx
STO÷! perform register arithmetic by touching STO
!
followed by + - x ÷ followed by a valid register
!
number/name.
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example:
!
Sum 5, 10, 15 into storage register 1 and recall
!
the result.
touch the following keys:
5 STO 1!
!
!
(store 5 in storage register 1)
10 STO + 1"(adds 10 to storage register 1)
15 STO + 1"!
(adds 15 to storage register 1)
RCL 1!!
!
!
(30 is displayed)
K
!
stores a constant operation of + num, - num, × num,
÷ num, + num %, - num %, × num %, ÷ num %, yˣ num
example:
!
Use the K function to automate adding 15% to the
!
following numbers: 23.5, 16.5, 18
touch the following keys:
23.5 + 15% K =! (sets K to +15%, result is 26.45)
16.5 ="
!
!
!
(result is 18.98)
18 = !!
!
!
(result is 20.70)
Math Functions
√x!
!
square root of x for x ≥ 0
9 √x returns 3.00
x²!
!
x squared
3 x² returns 9.00
1/x!
!
reciprocal (x ≠ 0)
3 1/x returns 0.33
%!
!
!
!
!
!
!
yˣ!
!
converts last entry to a percentage by
dividing it by 100. If the last entry was
+ or -, % computes the percentage of
the previous number on the display line.
3 % returns 0.03
125.25 + 6.5% = returns 133.39
y raised to x (if y < 0 x must be integer ≥ 0)
3 yˣ 2 = returns 9.00
eˣ!
!
natural antilog
3 2nd eˣ returns 20.09
LN!
!
natural logarithm for x > 0
20.09 2nd LN returns 3.00
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LOG! logarithm base 10 for x > 0
!
2000 2nd LOG returns 3.30
x!!
!
gamma function Γ(x+1) of non integer x
5 2nd x! returns 120.00
rand! returns a random number between 0 and 1
nPr!
!
returns the number of permutations
5 2nd nPr 3 = returns 60.00
nCr!
!
returns the number of combinations
5 2nd nCr 3 = returns 10.00
round!rounds the number in the display to the number of decimal places shown in the display.
ANS! returns the result of the last calculation.
Trig Functions
Angles are computed in degrees, radians or gradians
depending on the setting of the Angle Units on the
Settings page. The current angle setting is always
displayed on the bottom left of the main display line.
The examples given are in degrees.
sin!
sin(x)
!
45 2nd sin returns 0.71
cos!
!
cos(x)
30 2nd cos returns 0.87
tan!
!
tan(x)
25 2nd tan returns 0.47
The inverse trigonometric functions are computed by
first touching the INV key followed by the function.
(You do not need to touch 2nd before touching the
trig function key.)
INV sin!
!
!
arc sin(x) for |x| ≤ 1
INV sin .5 returns 30.00
INV cos!
!
!
arc cos(x) for |x| ≤ 1
INV cos .75 returns 41.41
INV tan!
!
!
arc tan(x)
INV tan .8 returns 38.66
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The hyperbolic functions are computed by first touching
2nd HYP followed by the function. (You do not need
to touch the 2nd key before touching the function)
2nd HYP sin! hyperbolic sin
!
!
10 2nd HYP sin returns 11,013.23
2nd HYP cos! hyperbolic cos
!
!
1.5 2nd HYP cos returns 2.35
2nd HYP tan! hyperbolic tan
!
!
5 2nd HYP tan returns 1.00
The inverse hyperbolic functions are computed by touching
INV 2nd HYP followed by the function. (You do not need
to touch the 2nd key before touching the function)
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Tape
The print tape keeps a running audit of the last 400+ keyboard operations. Operations beyond
the last 400 are dropped off the top of the tape. The print tape can be scrolled up and down by
swiping with your finger. Touch the Edit button to display the keyboard for edits. You can insert
annotations by typing on the keyboard. The standard iPhone 3.0 cut/copy/paste operations are
also supported.
Control buttons
Edit
!
!
Touch the edit button to enable editing and show
the keyboard.
Hide Keyboard
!
Touch the Tape icon in the tool bar to hide
!
the keyboard.
Email
!
Touch the email button to email the print tape.
!
Fill in the To field and then touch Send.
Clear
!
Touch the clear button to erase the print tape.
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Settings
Touch the Settings tool to display the settings screen.
Settings control basic behavior of the calculator.
Click Sound
!
turn on/off keyboard click sound
Number Format
!
!
!
select between comma or period for the separator
between each 3 digits of mantissa and decimal
radix character.
Angle Units
!
!
specify the units for doing trigonometric computations
by touching one of the following:
Deg! angles measured degrees. 360 degrees = 1 revolution
Rad! angles measured in radians 2 Pi radians = 1 revolution
Grad! angles measured in gradians. 400 grads = 1 revolution
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Computing Method
!
!
select from doing calculations using either chain or
full algebraic precedence.
Chain
!
All operations have equal precedence, the calculator
!
solves problems in the order that you enter them.
example:
!
Compute 20 × 3.5 + 5 × 4.2 using chain method.
touch the following keys on the calculator:
keys! display line contents
20" 20
×"
20.00×
3.5" 20.00×3.5
+"
70.00+
5"
70.00+5.00
×"
75.00×
4.2" 75.00×4.2
="
315.00
Algebraic
!
Operations are executed according to an algebraic
!
hierarchy. For instance, multiplication and divisions
!
are performed before addition and subtraction in
!
mixed calculations.
example:
!
Compute 20 × 3.5 + 5 × 4.2 using algebraic method.
touch the following keys on the calculator:
keys! display line contents
20" 20
×"
20.00×
3.5" 20.00×3.5
+"
70.00+
5"
70.00+5.00
×"
70.00+5.00×
4.2" 70.00+5.00×4.2
="
91.00
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Worksheets
Touch the Worksheets icon in the tool bar to display the index of worksheets. Touch an entry on
the index page to open a worksheet. Return to the index page by touching the Worksheets icon
in the tool bar.
You can transfer to another tool while a worksheet is open by touching it's icon in the tool bar.
When you return to the Worksheets, the last worksheet you had open will be displayed. If you
want to display the index, touch the Worksheet icon a second time.
Worksheet Layout
Worksheets have numeric entry fields, result fields, multi button selectors and computation buttons.
Numeric Entry Fields
Numeric entry fields are drawn as a box with a white background. The value of
the field is drawn inside the box. To change the value in a numeric entry field,
touch the field. The background will change to yellow to indicate that it is selected. If the calculator keypad is not already displayed, it will slide up. Touch
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keys on the keypad to edit the value. A new value is stored in the field when you touch the = key
or when you move to another field.
When an entry field is selected, it's value is also placed into the calculator display. (Touch the
calculator icon in the tool bar to view the result.)
Result Fields
Result fields display the result of a calculation and are drawn in a light green
color. They are not editable, but if you touch a result field, it's value will be
placed into the calculator display. (Touch the calculator icon in the tool bar to
view the result.)
Multi Button Selectors
Multi button selectors allow you to choose between modes of calculation. Touch a segment of the selector to activate the mode displayed
on the segment label.
Computation Button
A computation button is a round blue button with a > in the center. Touch a computation
button to compute the value of the field it is next to.
Numeric Entry Keypad
The numeric entry keypad appears when you touch any numeric entry field. You can hide the
numeric keypad by touching 2nd done (touch the 2nd key twice).
Use the keypad to enter values into the selected numeric entry field. Computations can be carried out in any entry field by touching a sequence of numbers and functions on the keypad just
as you would on the calculator. Finalize the value in a field by touching the = key, touching the
next or prev key or by touching another field.
Keys
0-9. +/-!
!
Use the number keys to enter a value.
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!
Enter a negative value by first entering the number
!
then touch the +/- key.
÷×-+
!
Touch these keys to perform arithmetic within a
!
field.
=
!
Touch the equal key to finalize a computation.
←
!
Touch the backspace key to delete digits one
!
at a time until the field is empty. If a value has been
!
finalized, the backspace key will clear it to 0.
clr wrk
!
clear the worksheet variables to their default values.
2nd
!
Touch the second key to access the functions
!
listed at the bottom of the keys.
next !
!
Touch the next key to select the next field in the
!
worksheet.
prev
!
Touch the prev key to select the previous field in
!
the worksheet.
STO
!
touch STO followed by a digit 0 - 9 to store the
!
value in the field in one of the general storage
!
registers.
RCL
!
touch RCL followed by a digit 0 - 9 to place the
!
value stored in one of the general storage registers
!
in the selected field.
disp
!
touch disp followed by a digit 0 - 9 or . to change
!
the number of decimal places displayed.
delete
!
touch the delete key to delete a row from a
!
scrolling list of values. For instance, you can
!
delete a row from the cash flow list or from the
!
statistics list by selecting the row and then
!
touching the delete function.
insert
!
touch the insert key to insert a row in a scrolling
!
list of values.
ANS
!
touch the ANS key to copy the last answer into the current field.
Refer to the calculator description page for information
about the remaining key functions.
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Amort
The Amort worksheet is used to compute an amortization schedule. First solve your TVM problem using the calculator. Then select the Amort worksheet. The Amort worksheet uses the TVM
values to generate the amortization schedule.
Entry Fields
start payment
!
the starting payment of the amortization
end payment
!
the ending payment of the amortization
Result Fields
Balance
!
The remaining balance after making the end
!
payment.
Principal
!
The principal paid during the amortization period.
Interest
!
The interest paid during the amortization period
Compute Button
start payment button
!
Touch the start period button to advance the
!
start and end period fields to the next amortization
!
period. ie. add (end payment#) - (start payment#) to
!
start period and to end period.
!
The start payment button also prints the results
!
of the amortization to the audit tape.
Example
!
Compute an annual amortization schedule for the
!
first 2 years of a 15 year mortgage for 325,000 at
!
7% interest with monthly payments.
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Touch the Calculator tool and key in the TVM values. Make
sure END mode is selected on the PMT then touch:
12 2nd P/Y
15 2nd ×P/Y
7 I/Y
325,000 PV
0 FV
CPT PMT
for a payment of -2,921.19
Then touch the Worksheets tool and select the Amort
worksheet. Touch the start payment field. Then on
the keypad touch:
1 next
12
Then touch the start payment compute button to compute
the 1st year (months 1-12)
Balance = 312,293.18
Principal = -12,706.82
Interest = -22,347.46
To view the 2nd year, touch the start payment compute
button again. The start payment will advance to 13 and the
end payment will advance to 24
Balance = 298,667.79
Principal = -13,625.39
Interest = -21,428.89
You can review the results by touching the Tape tool.
Note:
The payment value is rounded to the number of displayed
digits. All computations are carried out with the rounded
value of the payment.
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Black-Scholes
This worksheet implements the BlackScholes European option pricing model.
!
C = SN(d1) - Ke^(-rt)N(d2)
!
d1= (ln(S/K) + (r + (s^2)/2)^t)/(s *
t^.5)
!
d2 = d1 - s * t^.5
where:
!
C = theoretical call premium
!
S = current stock price
!
t = time until option expiration
!
K = option striking price
!
r = risk-free interest rate
!
N = cumulative standard normal distribution
!
s = standard deviation of stock returns
Refer to numerous articles on the web for
further explanation.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black–Scholes
Entry Fields
Stock Price
!
the current stock price
Strike Price
!
the option striking price
Yrs to Mature
!
the time until option expiration
Risk Free%
!
risk-free interest rate
Volatility%
!
the standard deviation of the stock
Result Fields
The call and put fields return the pricing for a European call option:
call
!
the call option worth at maturity
put
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!
the put option worth
The following "Greeks" can be used as a measure of the sensitivity of the model to variation in
the inputs.
Delta
!
the partial derivative with respect to the price of the stock
Theta
!
the partial derivative with respect to time / 365
Rho
!
the partial derivative with respect to the interest rate / 100
Vega
!
the partial derivative with respect to volatility / 100
Gamma
!
the 2nd derivative of the option price with respect to the price of the stock
Note: the model is computed using IEEE doubles. In particular the computation of N is accurate
to over 15 digits. Many of the models available online at various web sites are not as
rigorous...YMMV
example:
!
A stock is currently selling for 100.00 and the option strike price is 95.00. The option is
due in 90 days. The current risk free interest rate is 5% and the stock's standard deviation is
25%. What is the European call and put valuation using the Black-Scholes pricing model?
touch the Worksheets tool and select the Black-Scholes worksheet.
touch the Stock Price field and use the popup keypad to enter:
100 next! !
(Stock Price = 100)
95 next!
!
(Strike Price = 95)
90 / 365 next!
!
(Yrs to Mature = 0.247)
5 next!
!
!
(Risk Free % = 5)
25 =! !
!
(Volatility = 25)
touch 2nd done to hide the keypad to view the Greeks. Touch the print button to generate a print
output to the the audit tape.
******** Black-Scholes *********
100.00 Stock Price
95.00 Strike Price
0.25 Yrs to Mature
5.00 Risk Free%
25.00 Volitility%
8.49 call
2.33 put
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0.72
-0.03
0.16
-0.28
-0.02
-0.08
0.17
0.03
call ∆
call Θ
call Ρ
put ∆
put Θ
put Ρ
Vega
Γ
Bond
Compute bond price, yield to maturity or call
and
accrued interest using the Bond worksheet.
Selectors
calendar
!
30/360!compute days between dates using a
!
!
!
calendar based on 30 day months, with
!
!
!
360 days in the year
!
Act/Act!compute days between dates using the
!
!
!
actual number of days in the months and
!
!
!
years
Coupon Frequency
!
semi annual! specifies 2 coupons per year
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!
annual!!
Date Format
!
m.dy !
!
!
!
!
!
d.my !
!
!
!
!
specifies 1 coupon per year
Date entries are specified using
!
mm.ddyyyy and are displayed
!
mm/dd/yyyy
Date entries are specified using
!
dd.mmyyyy and are displayed
!
dd/mm/yyyy
where mm = month, dd = day of the month, yyyy = year
For example if m.dy format is selected, you would enter the
date of July 19, 2009 as 7.192009 and it will be displayed as
7/19/2009 Sun
Entry Fields
settlement date
!
the settlement (purchase) date
redemption date
!
the maturity date or call date. the call date must
!
coincide with a coupon date.
cpn%
!
the annual coupon rate as a percentage
Call
!
!
!
the call or redemption value. For to maturity analysis,
enter 100 for call. For to call analysis, enter the
call price.
Yield
!
the yield (as an annual percentage) to maturity or
!
yield to call date.
Price
!
the price per $100 face value
Compute Buttons
Yield
!
computes the yield given the price
Price
!
computes the price given the yield
Result Fields
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23
Acorn Aircraft
Accrued Interest
!
the interest accrued from the last coupon payment
!
date until the settlement date, per $100 face value.
Net
!
Price + Accrued Interest
Macaulay Duration
!
A measurement of how long, in years, it takes for
!
the price of a bond to be repaid by its internal
!
cash flows. Uses classic Macaulay formula.
Duration
!
Modified version of the Macaulay model that
!
accounts for changing interest rates. This shows
!
how much the duration changes for each
!
percentage change in yield.
example:
!
What price should you pay on November 28, 2009 for a
!
6 3/4% U.S. Treasury bond that matures on June 1,
!
2018 if you wish a yield of 8 3/8%? Assume actual
!
calendar basis and semi-annual coupon payments.
touch the Worksheets tool and select the Bond worksheet.
touch Act/Act in the Calendar selector
touch semi annual in the Coupon Frequency selector
touch m.dy in the Date Format selector
touch the settlement date field
on the keypad touch the following keys:
11.282009 next!
6.012018 next!
6.75 next! !
100 next! !
3 ÷ 8 + 8 =!
(settlement date = 11/28/2009 Sat)
(maturity date = 6/1/2018 Fri)
(cpn% = 6.75)
(call = 100)
(Yield = 8.38)
finally touch the Price compute button to compute:
!
Price = 90.25
!
Accrued Interest = 3.32
!
Net = 93.57
!
Duration = 6.01
!
Macaulay Duration = 6.26 years
BizAnalyst+ User Manual
24
Acorn Aircraft
Breakeven
The Breakeven worksheet allows you to
make
business decisions in a typical manufacturing
situation. Input and review the relationship
between fixed costs, variable costs,
unit/selling price, profit and quantity. Enter
any
4 of the variables and solve for the 5th.
Entry Fields
Fixed cost
!
the total cost of any machinery or infrastructure
!
required for producing goods. This cost is
!
incurred regardless of quantity produced.
Variable cost
!
the costs incurred for each unit produced
!
independent of the fixed costs. This includes
!
raw materials cost, labor, energy costs or
!
any other cost that is incurred on a per item
!
basis.
Unit price
!
the selling price per item
Profit
!
the amount of profit resulting from
!
producing a quantity of items.
Quantity
!
the total number of items produced.
Compute Buttons
!
!
!
touch the compute button next to any of the
fields to compute the value of that field based
on the input values of the other 4 fields.
example:
!
Your new led light bulb design has just received
!
UL approval. The equipment to set up a
!
manufacturing line capable of producing 10,000
BizAnalyst+ User Manual
25
Acorn Aircraft
!
!
!
!
!
bulbs a day will cost 1.5 million. Materials, labor
and energy costs will run 1.50 per bulb. To
compete with existing bulbs, you can charge
no more than 3.50 per bulb. How many bulbs
must you produce to break even?
Touch the Worksheets icon in the tool bar and then
select the Breakeven worksheet.
touch the Fixed cost input field and then enter the
following keystrokes on the keypad:
1500000 next!
1.5 next! !
3.5 next! !
0!
!
!
(fixed cost = 1,500,000.00)
(variable cost = 1.50)
(unit cost = 3.5)
!
(profit = 0)
then touch the Quantity compute button. If
you sell 750,000 bulbs, you will recoup your fixed
and variable costs and achieve 0 profit.
example:
!
If you want to earn a profit of 500,000.00
!
how many bulbs must you sell?
Using the setup from the first example, touch the
Profit field, then enter 500000 using the keypad.
touch the Quantity compute button to compute
the quantity required.
You will have to sell 1,000,000 bulbs to achieve a
profit of 500,000.00.
!
BizAnalyst+ User Manual
26
Acorn Aircraft
Cash Flow
Use the Cash Flow worksheet to analyze
uneven cash
flows. Work with up to 80 cash flows in a
scrolling list to
compute total, NPV, NFV, NUS, IRR and
MIRR.
Entry Fields
P/Y
!
I/Y
!
RI%
!
specify the number of periods per year.
the annual interest rate for computing NPV, NFV, NUS
the reinvestment rate for computing MIRR
Cash Flow List
!
enter cash flows into the cash flow list. Touch the list
!
and move your finger up/down to scroll. Touch an
!
entry to hi light it for editing. To edit successive cash
!
flows, use the next key or the = key to move between
!
flows. The column labeled CFj stores the cash flow
!
amount. If the cash flow is repeated a consecutive
!
number of times, enter the repeat count in the column
!
labeled Nj.
!
Rows can be inserted or deleted:
!
!
!
•To delete the selected row, touch 2nd delete on
the keypad.
•To insert a new row before the currently selected row,
BizAnalyst+ User Manual
27
Acorn Aircraft
!
touch 2nd insert on the keypad.
Result Fields
The result fields are automatically computed as the entry
fields are modified. If the keypad is covering the result fields,
touch 2nd done to hide the keypad.
Total
!
the total of the cash flows
NPV
!
net present value of the cash flows using I/Y
NFV
!
net future value (future value of the net present value)
NUS
!
net uniform series (the amount of constant, equal cash
!
flows having a present value equivalent to the net
!
present value).
IRR
!
internal rate of return
Note: Certain cash flows can generate more than 1 solution
for the internal rate of return calculation. The IRR field will
show all the values found.
MIRR
!
modified internal rate of return
MIRR computes a modified internal rate of return based on
the following: MIRR = 100 ((PositiveNFV / -NegativeNPV)^1/n - 1)
where:
!
PositiveNFV = future value of positive cash flows using
!
!
the I/Y rate.
!
NegativeNPV = net present value of negative cash flows
!
!
using the RI% rate.
example:
!
You purchase an apartment for 450,000. The first year
!
after improvements, you net 5,000. Over the next
!
couple years you decrease the vacancy rate and
!
increase the rents. Year 2 you net 6,000, and in
!
year 3 you net 7,000. The following 8 years you net
!
10,000. In year 12 you sell the apartment for 500,000.
!
How did your investment perform? Assume an
!
interest rate of 8% and a reinvestment rate of 5%.
Touch the Worksheets icon on the tool bar and then select
the Cash Flow worksheet. Touch the Clear button in the
lower left corner of the screen. Touch the P/Y field and then
enter the following keystrokes on the keypad:
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Acorn Aircraft
1 next!
8 next!
5 next!
(P/Y = 1)
(I/Y = 8)
(RI%=5)
touch the cash flow list to select CFj in the first row. Then
use the keypad to enter:
450000+/- next next!
5000 next next! !
6000 next next! !
7000 next next! !
10000 next"!
!
8 next!
!
!
500000 next!
!
2nd done! !
!
(CF0 = -450,000)
!
(CF1 = 5,000)
!
(CF2 = 6,000)
!
(CF3 = 7,000)
(CF4=10,000)
!
!
(Nj4=8)
!
(CF5=500,000)
!
(hide the keyboard)
You can view the results on the screen or touch the
Print button to print the results to the Tape. Touch
the Tape icon in the tool bar at the top of the screen
to get the following report:
********** Cash
1.00
8.00
5.00
j
0
1
2
3
4
5
Flow ***********
P/Y
I/Y
RI%
CFj -450,000.00
5,000.00
6,000.00
7,000.00
10,000.00
500,000.00
148,000.00
-190,493.96
-479,696.20
-25,277.60
2.61
3.16
BizAnalyst+ User Manual
Nj
1
1
1
1
8
1
Total
NPV
NFV
NUS
IRR
MIRR
29
Acorn Aircraft
Convert
Over 100 commonly used conversion factors
are stored
in the calculator and are accessed using the
scroll wheels
of the conversion worksheet.
Scroll the left most scroll wheel to select the
type of
conversion. Then scroll the middle and right
scroll wheels to
select the units to convert between. If the
keypad is not
visible, touch the display line to scroll up the
keypad. Enter
the quantity to be converted in the display
and then touch
either the left or right pink button to compute
the conversion
in the direction indicated by the touched button.
The conversion is applied and the lastOp
annunciator shows
the units and direction of conversion.
example:
!
A small residential lot is listed as being 0.125 acres.
!
How many square feet is it?
Touch the Worksheets icon in the toolbar. Then select the
Convert worksheet.
Slide the leftmost wheel so that Area is under the selector
indicator (gray area in the vertical center of the wheel).
Slide the center wheel so that Acre is under the selector.
Slide the rightmost wheel so that ft² is under the selector.
Touch the display line to bring up the keypad and enter
.125
Touch the lower pink arrow button to convert from
Acre to ft² (the pink arrow points to the right indicating a
conversion from the center column to the right column
units).
The result of 5,445.00 is shown, the upper left corner of
the display shows Acre→ft² to indicate Acres were
converted to ft².
example:
BizAnalyst+ User Manual
30
Acorn Aircraft
!
!
Another lot is listed as having 8,200 square
feet. How many acres is this?
Leave the selection wheels in the same position as the
above example. On the keypad enter 8200 and then
touch the upper pink arrow button to convert from
ft² to acres. (The upper pink button points to the left
to indicate a conversion from the right column to the
center column units).
The result is 0.19. The upper left corner of the display
shows ft²→Acre to indicate ft² were converted to
acres. To see more precision in the result, touch
2nd disp 4
to redisplay the result as 0.1882
Money / Currency Conversions
The Money conversions use rates loaded from the
International Monetary Fund web site:
http://www.imf.org/external/np/fin/data/rms_rep.aspx
To update the rates, touch the Update Currency Rates button.
If the keypad is visible, touch 2nd done to hide the keypad
and expose the update button. You must have an active
internet connection for the rates to download. The date of the
last download is displayed below the button. The downloaded
rates are retained in the calculator until the next time the
download button is touched so they can be used when you
are not connected to the internet. The IMF site does not
update all rates every day. The download function stores
the most recently reported rate for each currency.
The currency codes displayed are those defined by
ISO 4217
EUR"
JPY"
GBP"
USD"
AUD"
BHD"
BWP"
BRL"
BND"
CAD"
CLP"
Euro
Japanese Yen
U.K. Pound Sterling
U.S. Dollar
Australian Dollar
Bahrain Dinar
Botswana Pula
Brazilian Real
Brunei Dollar
Canadian Dollar
Chilean Peso
BizAnalyst+ User Manual
31
Acorn Aircraft
CNY"
COP"
CYP"
CZK"
DKK"
HUF"
ISK"
INR"
IDR"
IRR"
ILS"
KZT"
KRW"
KWD"
MYR"
MTL"
MUR"
MXN"
NPR"
NZD"
NOK"
OMR"
PKR"
PLN"
QAR"
RUB"
SAR"
SGD"
ZAR"
LKR"
SEK"
CHF"
THB"
TTD"
AED"
VEB"
Chinese Yuan
Colombian Peso
Cyprus Pound
Czech Koruna
Danish Krone
Hungarian Forint
Icelandic Krona
Indian Rupee
Indonesian Rupiah
Iranian Rial
Israeli New Sheqel
Kazakhstani Tenge
Korean Won
Kuwaiti Dinar
Malaysian Ringgit
Maltese Lira
Mauritian Rupee
Mexican Peso
Nepalese Rupee
New Zealand Dollar
Norwegian Krone
Rial Omani
Pakistani Rupee
Polish Zloty
Qatar Riyal
Russian Ruble
Saudi Arabian Riyal
Singapore Dollar
South African Rand
Sri Lanka Rupee
Swedish Krona
Swiss Franc
Thai Baht
Trinidad And Tobago Dollar
U.A.E. Dirham
Bolivar Fuerte
BizAnalyst+ User Manual
32
Acorn Aircraft
Date
The date spreadsheet computes the number
of days between two dates, the day of the
week for a date or the date some number of
days before or after a starting date.
Selectors
calendar
!
30/360!compute days between dates using a
!
!
!
calendar based on 30 day months, with
!
!
!
360 days in the year
!
Act/Act!compute days between dates using the
!
!
!
actual number of days in the months and
!
!
!
years
Date Format
!
m.dy !
!
!
!
!
!
d.my !
!
!
!
!
Date entries are specified using
!
mm.ddyyyy and are displayed
!
mm/dd/yyyy
Date entries are specified using
!
dd.mmyyyy and are displayed
!
dd/mm/yyyy
where mm = month, dd = day of the month, yyyy = year
For example if m.dy format is selected, you would enter the
date of July 19, 2009 as 7.192009 and it will be displayed as
7/19/2009 Sun
Entry Fields
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33
Acorn Aircraft
Date1
!
the starting date
∆ Days
!
the number of days between Date 1 and Date 2. If
!
Date 2 is before Date 1 a negative value is computed.
!
If you enter a value in ∆ Days using the keypad, Date 2
!
is recomputed to be ∆ Days from Date 1
Date2
!
the ending date. If you enter a value into Date2 the
!
∆ Days value is recomputed.
example:
!
How many days are between Nov. 29, 2009 and
!
Aug. 1, 2010? Assume actual days in m.dy format.
Touch the Worksheet icon in the tool bar, then select the date
worksheet. If the keypad is visible, touch 2nd done to hide it.
touch Date Format m.dy selector
touch Calendar Basis Act/Act selector
touch Date 1 and then enter the following keystrokes on
the keypad:
11.292009 next!
next" !
!
8.012010 ="!
!
!
!
(Date 1 = 11/29/2009 Sun)
(skip over ∆ Days)
(Date 2 = 8/1/2010 Sun)
There are 245 days between the given dates.
example:
!
How many days are between the dates just entered
!
using 30 day months, 360 day years?
touch Calendar Basis 30/360 selector to compute 242 days
example:
!
What is the date and day of the week that is 1,000 days
!
after Sept. 15, 2009? Assume 30/360 calendar, m.dy
!
format.
touch Date1 field and enter the following keystrokes:
9.152009 next!
1000 =!
!
!
!
(Date 1 = 9/15/2009 Tue)
(∆ Days = 1,000.00)
Date 2 is updated to show 6/11/2012 Mon
BizAnalyst+ User Manual
34
Acorn Aircraft
Depreciation
Use the Depreciation worksheet to compute
a depreciation
schedule using a variety of accounting methods.
Selector
Depreciation Method
!
choose a depreciation method for the worksheet
!
!
SL
straight line depreciation method.
!
!
SOYD
sum of years depreciation
!
!
DB !
declining balance depreciation
!
!
!
!
!
DBX
declining balance with cross over to SL. The cross
over point occurs in the year when the DB computation
becomes less than the SL for that year. From that year
to the end of the useful life, SL is used.
Entry Fields
life
!
the useful life of the asset
BizAnalyst+ User Manual
35
Acorn Aircraft
starting month
!
the month to start the depreciation calculation. If only
!
full years are needed, set to 1. If the asset is
!
purchased in the middle of the year, enter the month
!
the asset was purchased. If the asset was purchased
!
in the middle of the month, you can enter a fraction!
ie. if the asset is placed into service April 15, enter 4.5
asset cost
!
the depreciable value of the asset
salvage value
!
the asset value at the end of the depreciation life
DB%
!
the factor to be applied for DB and DBX calculations.
!
The default value is 200%.
Result Fields
depreciation table
!
each row of the depreciation table displays the year,
!
depreciation for the year, remaining book value and
!
the balance of the remaining depreciation.
example:
!
A logic analyzer is purchased for 9,500 with 6 months
!
left in the current fiscal year. The analyzer's useful
!
life is 8 years and the salvage value is 100. Using a
!
200% declining-balance factor, generate a
!
depreciation schedule for the life of the analyzer.
Touch the Worksheet icon in the tool bar and then select the
Depreciation worksheet.
If the keypad is displayed, touch 2nd done to hide the keypad.
Touch the DB segment of the Depreciation Method selector.
Touch the life field and on the keypad enter the following:
8 next!
6 next!
9500 next!
500 next!
100 next!
2nd done!
!
(life = 8)
!
(starting month = 6)
(asset cost = 9,500.00)
(salvage value = 500.00)
(DB% = 100)
(hide the keypad)
The results for are:
YR Depr. Book Balance
BizAnalyst+ User Manual
36
Acorn Aircraft
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1,385.42
2,028.65
1,521.48
1,141.11
855.84
641.88
481.41
361.05
983.16
8,114.58
6,085.93
4,564.45
3,423.34
2,567.50
1,925.62
1,444.21
1,083.16
100.00
8,014.58
5,985.93
4,464.45
3,323.34
2,467.50
1,825.62
1,344.21
983.16
0.00
example:
!
What would the depreciation schedule be if the
!
declining balance with cross over is used?
Leave the setup from the above example. Touch the DBX
segment of the Depreciation Method selector and the
schedule will be updated.
The results for DBX depreciation are:
YR
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Depr. Book
1,385.42 8,114.58
2,028.65 6,085.93
1,521.48 4,564.45
1,141.11 3,423.34
855.84 2,567.50
722.20 1,845.30
722.20 1,123.11
722.20 400.91
300.92 100.00
Balance
8,014.58
5,985.93
4,464.45
3,323.34
2,467.50
1,745.30
1,023.11
300.91
0.00
!
BizAnalyst+ User Manual
37
Acorn Aircraft
Interest Conversion
Use the interest conversion spread sheet to
convert interest
rates between nominal rate (annual percentage rate) and
annual effective rate.
Entry Fields
Nominal Rate%
!
The nominal interest percent
Effective Rate%
!
The effective interest percent
C/Y
!
The number of compounding periods per year
Compute Buttons
Nominal Rate%
!
computes the nominal rate given an effective rate
!
and C/Y
Effective Rate%
!
computes the effective rate given a nominal rate
!
and C/Y
!
example:
!
Find the annual effective interest rate of 8.5% nominal
!
interest compounded monthly.
touch the Worksheets tool and select the Interest Conversion
worksheet.
touch the Effective Rate% edit field to bring up the keypad.
on the keypad touch the following keys:
8.5 next!
12 =! !
(effective percentage = 8.5)
(C/Y = 12)
then touch the Nominal Rate% compute button to get a
result of 8.19
BizAnalyst+ User Manual
38
Acorn Aircraft
Lease
Compute a lease with advance payments.
Solve for payment, lease amount, residual
value or yield (interest).
Entry Fields
Lease amount
!
the loan amount
Residual Value
!
the value remaining at the end of the lease
Interest%
!
the annual interest rate
Lease Term
!
the number of months the lease runs
#Advance PMTs
!
the number of advance payments
PMT
!
the payment amount
Compute Buttons
Lease amount
!
solves for the lease amount
Residual Value
!
solves for the residual value
Interest%
!
solves for the lease yield (interest rate)
PMT
!
solves for the payment amount
BizAnalyst+ User Manual
39
Acorn Aircraft
example: SOLVE FOR PAYMENT
!
A new Lexus valued $45,000 is to be leased for 48 months. The lessee has agreed to
make 4 payments in advance with a purchase option at the end of the lease enabling her to buy
the car for 40% of the purchase price. If the interest rate is 12.5%, what are the monthly payments?
touch the Worksheets tool and select the Lease worksheet. Touch the Lease amount field and
then enter the following using the keypad:
45000 next! !
!
(Lease amount = 45,000)
45000 × 40% next!(Residual Value = 18,000)
12.5 next! !
!
(Interest% = 12.5)
48 next!
!
!
(Lease Term = 48)
4!
!
!
!
!
(#Advance PMTs = 4)
Finally touch the compute button to the right of the PMT field to compute a payment of $869.80
example: SOLVE FOR YIELD
!
Equipment worth $7,500 is leased for 36 months at $180 per month. The lessee has
agreed to pay the first and last month's payments in advance. At the end of the lease, the
equipment may be purchased for $1,800. What is the annual yield to the lessor if the equipment
is purchased?
Touch the Lease amount field and then enter the following using the keypad:
7500 next!
1800 next!
next! !
36 next!
2 next!
180! !
!
!
!
!
!
!
(Lease amount = 7,500)
(Residual Value = 1,800)
(skip over Interest%)
(Lease Term = 36)
!
(#Advance PMTs = 2)
!
(PMT = 180)
Finally touch the compute button to the right of the Interest% field to compute a yield of 5.83%
BizAnalyst+ User Manual
40
Acorn Aircraft
Loan Amortization
Enter and view a loan amortization. The loan
payments,
interest paid and amortization table are
automatically
computed after entering the loan amount,
rate%, P/Y,
Years and C/Y.
Selector
Compounding periods per year (C/Y)
!
Select the number of compounding periods per year.
Annually!
!
sets C/Y = 1
Semi-Annual! sets C/Y = 2
Quarterly!
sets C/Y = 4
Monthly!
!
sets C/Y = 12
Entry Fields
Loan Amount
!
the total amount loaned
Rate%
!
the annual percentage rate
Pmts/Yr (P/Y)
!
the number of payments per year
Years
!
the number of years in the loan
BizAnalyst+ User Manual
41
Acorn Aircraft
Result Fields
Payment:
!
the recurring payment amount
Interest Paid:
!
the total interest paid over the life of the loan
Amortization Table
!
display of all payments showing the interest and
!
principal component of each payment and the
!
remaining balance on the loan.
example:
!
Compute a 20 year loan for 250,000 at 8.5% annual
!
interest with 12 payments per year and monthly
!
compounding.
Touch the Worksheets icon in the tool bar and then select
the Loan Amortization worksheet. Touch the Loan Amount
field and then enter the following keystrokes on the keypad:
250000 next!
8.5 next! !
12 next!
!
20 =! !
!
(Loan Amount = 250,000.00)
(Rate% = 8.5)
(Pmts/YR = 12)
(Years = 20)
touch Monthly on the Compounding periods per
year (C/Y) selector.
The monthly payments are -2,169.56 and the total interest
over the life of the loan is 270,693.14.
example:
!
Compute a Canadian loan for the same loan as
!
the above example. (Canadian loans compound
!
twice a year).
touch the Semi-Annual segment of the Compounding
periods per year (C/Y) selector.
The monthly payments are -2,146.40 and the total interest
over the life of the loan is 265,134.64
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42
Acorn Aircraft
Memory
The memory worksheet displays the 10 general calculator registers. You can review,
change and perform calculations on a register.
Entry Fields
M0
!
!
the memory 0 edit field. Touch M0 to display
the keypad and edit the contents.
M1-M9
!
the edit fields for memory 1 - 9
example:
!
compute and store the natural log of 4.25 in memory 2
touch the M2 field and then enter the following keystrokes
on the keypad:
4.25 2nd LN!
BizAnalyst+ User Manual
!
(M2 = 1.45)
43
Acorn Aircraft
∆ Percent
The Percent Change worksheet has 3 variations on computing the percent change from
a starting value to an ending value. By
choosing the appropriate selector, you can
work %change, %markup or interest rate
problems.
Selector
Touch the appropriate selector button for the type of problem
to be solved. Choosing a problem type will relabel the input
fields as appropriate for the problem type.
% Change
!
choose the % change selector to solve compute
!
the percent change from an old value to a new value.
Interest
!
choose the interest selector for solving a compound
!
interest problem involving a present value, future value
!
and number of compounding periods.
Cost-Sell-Mkup
!
choose the Cost-Sell-Mkup selector for problems
!
involving markups given the cost and selling price of
!
goods.
Compute Buttons
Touch a compute button to solve for the specified variable.
You must enter values for 2 components before solving for
the 3rd in %Change and Cost-Sell-Markup problems. In
Interest problems you must specify 3 components before
solving for the 4th.
Entry Fields
The entry fields of this work sheet are relabeled depending
on the type of problem being worked.
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% Change Entry Fields
Enter any 2 values in the entry fields and touch the compute
button of the 3rd to solve for a value.
Old value
!
the starting or old value of an asset
New value
!
the current or new value of an asset
% Change
!
the percent change from the old value to the new value
#Periods
!
this field is not used for %Change problems and
!
is ignored.
example:
!
An exhibitor at the state fair estimated sales of 12,000.
!
After the close of the fair, actual receipts totaled 13,545.
!
What was the percentage change from the estimated
!
to actual sales?
touch the %Change selector button
touch the Old value field then enter the following on the keypad:
12000 next
13545
touch the compute button next to the % change field
Receipts were 12.88% better than estimated.
example:
!
If rain had kept attendance down at the fair, sales could
!
have been 3% less than the estimate. What would the
!
sales figure have been?
using the same setup as above, touch the %change field
then touch the following on the keypad:
3 +/touch the compute button next to the New value field
to solve.
Receipts would have been 11,640 if it rained.
Interest Entry Fields
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Enter any 3 values in the entry fields and touch the compute
button of the 4th to solve for a value.
Present Value
!
the current value of an asset
Future Value
!
the value of an asset some time in the future
Interest%
!
the interest percentage representing the growth of the
!
asset from the present value to the future value
#Periods
!
the number of compounding periods between the
!
present and future values.
example:
!
You purchased a house for 356,000 and 8 years sold it
!
for 510,000. What was the annual growth rate?
touch the Interest selector button
touch the Present Value field then enter the following on
the keypad:
356000 next"
(Present Value = 356,000)
510000 next"
(Future Value = 510,000)
next" "
(skip over the Interest% field)
8"
"
(#Periods = 8)
touch the compute button next to the Interest% field
The house appreciated at an annual rate of 4.6%
Cost-Sell-Mkup Entry Fields
Enter any 2 values in the entry fields and touch the compute
button of the 3rd to solve for a value.
Cost
!
the cost of an asset or good
Selling Price
!
the selling price of an asset or good
% markup
!
the markup added to the cost to derive the selling price
#Periods
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!
!
this field is not used for Cost-Sell-Markup problems and
is ignored.
example:
!
A pool supply store buys chlorine for 8.00 per gallon bottle
!
and sells it to the customer for 12.50. Find the markup.
touch the Cost-Sell-Mkup selector button
touch the Cost field then enter the following on the keypad:
8 next"
"
(Cost = 8.00)
12.5 next" (Selling price = 12.50)
touch the compute button next to the % markup field
The markup is 56.25
example:
!
A competitor opens a store 2 blocks down from the pool
!
supplier and advertises that they will sell everything at
!
cost plus 20%. What price will the pool supplier have to
!
sell chlorine bottles for to match the competitor's price?
using the setup from the problem above, touch the % markup
field and enter 20 using the keypad.
touch the compute button next to the Selling price field
The Selling price will be 9.60 to match the competitor.
Profit Margin
Compute cost, selling price and profit margin.
Enter any 2 values and solve for the 3rd.
Entry Fields
Cost
!
the item cost
Selling Price
!
the selling price of the item
Profit Margin
!
the profit margin expressed as a percent
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Compute Buttons
Cost
!
computes the cost given a Selling Price
!
and Profit Margin
Selling Price
!
computes the selling price of the item given
!
the Cost and Profit margin
Profit Margin
!
computes the profit margin given the Cost
!
and Selling Price
example:
!
The corner market gets beer from the
!
distributer for 5.00 per six pack. The corner
!
market needs to maintain a 35% profit margin
!
to stay in business. How should the market
!
price the six pack?
Touch the Worksheets icon in the tool bar. Then select
the Profit Margin worksheet.
Touch the Cost field and then enter the following
keystrokes on the keypad:
5 next!
next! !
35!
!
!
(Cost = 5.00)
(skip Selling Price)
!
(Profit Margin = 35)
then touch the Selling Price compute button.
The market needs to charge 7.69 to maintain
a 35% profit margin.
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Ratios
The Ratios worksheet is used to compute
business ratios that are useful for analyzing a
variety of aspects of a company. The worksheet has 3 main displays- an income statement, a balance statement and the ratios.
Ratios are automatically computed from data
in the income and balance statements. You
can manually enter data for the income and
balance statements or, if you have a web
connection, you can download data for a variety of publicly traded companies.
(Please note that downloaded data is provided "as is" and may not be accurate.
Please double check any downloaded data
against a company's published financial
statements.)
Selectors
Quarters/Years
!
Use the Quarters/Years selector to display either the
!
last 4 quarters (if available) or the last 3 years of
!
data.
Income/Balance/Ratios
!
Select from displaying the Income statement, Balance
!
statement or the Ratios.
Text Entry Field
!
!
!
!
!
!
The text entry field at the top of the page is used for
entering the stock market symbol for a company
to download data for. Touch the text entry field
then enter the stock market symbol, then touch
the return key to initiate downloading the company
data.
!
!
All data is provided "as is" for informational purposes
only.
Income and Balance sheet notes
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!
!
!
!
!
!
You can enter data in the income and balance
sheets by touching the field you wish to modify.
The selected field will turn yellow and the
keypad will slide up. Touch the keys on the keypad
to enter a value. Touch the next key or the =
to finalize a value.
!
!
!
Fields that appear in bold text are automatically
computed from other entries in the sheet and
cannot be directly modified.
!
!
To clear the worksheet touch any field and then
touch 2nd clr Work
Ratios sheet notes
!
!
!
!
The ratios display is automatically computed from
entries in the income and balance statements and
is not directly modifiable. The following is a description
of the ratios and their derivation.
Note: In the following descriptions, *working capital =
!
Total Current Assets - Total Current Liabilities
Activity Ratios
!
activity ratios relate information on a company's ability
!
to manage its resources (ie. its assets) efficiently.
inventory turnover
!
Total Revenue / Inventory
#days receivable turnover
!
365 / inventory turnover
accounts receivable turnover
!
Net Income / Total Current Assets
total asset turnover
!
Total Revenue / Total Assets
fixed asset turnover
!
Total Revenue / Property Plant&Equipment
current asset turnover
!
Total Revenue / Total Current Assets
capital employed turnover
!
Total Revenue / Total Stockholder Equity
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working capital turnover
!
Total Revenue / working capital
!
Leverage
!
leverage ratios provide information on the degree of a
!
company's fixed financing obligations and its ability to
!
satisfy these financing obligations.
gearing
!
Long Term Debt / Total Stockholder Equity
total debt to assets
!
Total Liabilities / Total Assets
long term debt to assets
!
Long Term Debt / Total Assets
total debt to equity
!
Total Liabilities / Total Stockholder Equity !
Liquidity
!
liquidity ratios provide information on a company's ability
!
to meet its short-term, immediate obligations.
current ratio
!
Total Current Assets / Total Current Liabilities
quick ratio / acid test
!
(Total Current Assets - Inventory) /
!
Total Current Liabilities
working capital to sales
!
working capital / Cost of Revenue
Management
!
ratios provide information on how well a company's
!
management is doing.
ROCE %!
return on capital employed
!
Income Before Int.&Taxes /
!
(Total Assets - Total Current Liabilities) x 100
ROSF%!
return on shareholders' funds
!
Income Before Int. & Taxes /
!
Total Stockholder Equity x 100
ROTA%!
return on total assets
!
Income Before Int.&Taxes / Total Assets x 100
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ROFA%!
return on fixed assets
!
Income Before Int. & Taxes /
!
Property Plant & Equipment x 100
ROWC%!
return on working capital
!
Income Before Int. & Taxes / working capital x 100
Profitability
!
ratios provide information on the amount of income from
!
each dollar of sales.
gross profit margin %
!
Gross Profit / Total Revenue x 100
operating profit margin %
!
Operating Income or Loss / Total Revenue x 100
net profit margin %
!
Income Before Tax / Total Revenue x 100
retained profit margin %
!
Net Income / Total Revenue x 100
profit markup %
!
Gross Profit / Total Revenue x 100
profit before int&tax %
!
Earnings Before Int.&Taxes / Total Revenue x 100
profit before tax %
!
Income Before Tax / Total Revenue x 100
profit for the year %
!
Net Income / Total Revenue x 100
operating costs %
!
Total Operating Expenses / Total Revenue x 100
interest costs %
!
Interest Expense / Total Revenue x 100
Shareholder
!
ratios describe the company's financial condition in
!
terms of amounts per share of stock.
EPS! !
earnings per share
!
Net Income / Common Shares Outstanding
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dividends/share
!
Dividends Paid / Common Shares Outstanding
dividend payout
!
Dividends Paid / Total Stockholder Equity
retention
!
(Total Stockholder Equity - Dividends Paid) /
!
Total Stockholder Equity
dividend cover
!
Net Income / Dividends Paid
interest cover
!
Income Before Tax / Interest Expense
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Statistics
Use the Statistics worksheet to enter and edit a data set
and to compute a variety of statistics on the set. You
can also do forecasting using linear, log, exponential or
power fitting.
The Statistics worksheet has two screens, the editing
screen and the forecasting screen. The forecast
screen shows a plot of the data pairs and allows you
to enter either an x or a y value and compute the opposite
value using the selected model.
To switch between the two screens, touch the button
in the lower left corner labeled either "Forecast" or
"Edit" depending on which screen is displayed.
Edit Screen
The edit screen allows you to enter and edit
up to 200
data pairs and view the statistics associated
with them. All
statistics are computed as you enter or edit
the values
in the data entry table.
Entry Fields
data entry table
!
touch the data entry table and enter data pairs. You
!
can edit, insert and delete pairs using the keypad.
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Result Fields
∑x!
∑y!
∑x²!
∑y²!
Sx!
Sy!
σx !
σy !
x̄!
ȳ!
x̄,w!
n!
the sum of the x values
the sum of the y values
the sum of the x² values
the sum of the y² values
the standard deviation of the x values
the standard deviation of the y values
the population standard deviation of the x values
the population standard deviation of the y values
the mean of the x values
the mean of the y values
the weighted mean of the x values
the number of samples
example:
!
A fish and game warden logged the size and weight
!
of salmon entering a fish ladder at the dam. In the
!
first hour he recorded 5 fish with lengths of 71, 68, 91,
!
84 and 78 centimeters and weights of 5.3, 5, 7, 6.2, 5.8
!
kilograms. Find the mean, standard deviation and
!
population standard deviation of the lengths and weights.
!
Touch the Worksheets tab and then select the Statistics
worksheet.
Touch the data entry table and then on the keypad touch
the following keys:
2nd clr Work
71 next 5.2 next
68 next 5 next
91 next 7 next
84 next 6.2 next
78 next 5.8 next
2nd done
To review the results on the Tape, touch the Print button
and then touch the Tape tab at the top of the screen.
X Y
71.00 5.20
68.00 5.00
91.00 7.00
84.00 6.20
78.00 5.80
392.00 ∑x
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31,086.00
29.20
173.12
2,319.40
5.00
78.40
5.84
9.40
0.80
8.40
0.73
79.43
∑x²
∑y
∑y²
∑xy
N
x mean
y mean
Sx
Sy
σx
σy
x,w
Forecast Screen
The forecast display draws the current samples as red x's and a yellow fit line on a cartesian plane. You can scroll the plot using a
finger swipe motion. The axis scales can be
adjusted independently using a pinch gesture.
To compute a forecasted value using the current curve fit model, touch either the x or y
edit field. A numeric keypad will appear. Enter the value and touch the Done key. The
forecast value will be computed and displayed in the opposite edit field. The forecast
point will be displayed on the fit curve circled
in green.
Immediately below the edit fields is a green
display of the currently selected fit model. In
the upper right corner of the display the correlation coefficient of the current fit
model is displayed in green.
Selector
Choose from 4 different fit models using the model
selector at the top:
Linear!!
!
!
Log! !
!
!
Exp! !
!
!
computes and draws a linear curve fit
y = b + mx
computes and draws a logarithmic curve fit
y = b + m ln x
computes and draws an exponential curve fit
y = b e^mx
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Pwr!
!
!
!
computes and draws a power curve fit
y = bx^m
Entry Fields
X
!
!
Enter an X value and a value for Y will be computed
using the current fit model
Y
!
!
Enter an Y value and a value for X will be computed
using the current fit model
Result Fields
a
!
the y intercept value using the selected fit model
b
!
the slope value using the selected fit model
R
!
the correlation coefficient value
example:
!
Using the fish samples entered in the above example,
!
compute a linear estimate for the weight of a fish 95
!
centimeters long.
Touch the Linear model button.
Touch the X entry field and enter the following keystrokes
on the keypad:
95 =
The estimated weight for a fish 95 cm long is 7.26 kg.
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Tip
Compute a tip for service. All compute fields
are automatically updated as you enter values in the entry fields.
Entry Fields
Food & Drink
!
the cost of your meal
Tax
!
the amount of tax added to the meal cost
Tip%
!
the tip percentage to compute
#People
!
the number of people in your party that will split the bill
Result Fields
Tip
!
the tip amount (Food&Drink * Tip% / 100)
Total
!
the bill total (Fodd&Drink + Tax + Tip)
Total/Person
!
the amount each person in the party should pay
!
(Total / #People)
example:
!
You and 3 friends have dinner at the El Tacorito
!
restaurant. At the end of the dinner, the waiter
!
presents you with a bill for $95.00 for food and
!
drink with $6.45 in tax. Everyone agrees the service
!
was good and should be computed at 15%. If you
!
split the bill evenly, how much does each person
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!
in your party owe?
touch the Worksheets tool and select the Tip worksheet.
touch the Food & Drink field and then enter the following:
95 next!
6.45 next!
15 next!
4 =! !
(Food & Drink = 95.00)
(Tax = 6.45)
(Tip% = 15)
!
(# People = 4)
The tip comes out to $14.25. The total bill is $115.70
Each person in your party owes $28.93
Sample Problems
Setting up the calculator
The following steps should be used before working any problem.
1. Set the number of decimal places
Touch 2nd disp followed by the number of decimal places you want to view. For most situations, set this to 2 decimal places by touching: 2nd disp 2
2. Set the number of payments per year (P/Y)
Touch 2nd P/Y followed by the number of payments per year. The new value is displayed in
green next to the P/Y label so you can easily see what the current setting is. When you change
the P/Y value, the compounding periods per year (C/Y) is automatically set to the same value.
3. Set the annuity due (BGN) and ordinary annuity (END) mode
The current setting of the mode is displayed under the PMT key. To change it, touch 2nd PMT.
The value will alternate between BGN and END each time you invoke this function.
4. Clear the time value of money registers
Touch 2nd Clr TVM This function clears N, I/Y, PV, PMT and FV, but leaves P/Y and C/Y at their
current settings.
5. Reset the calculator
Touch 2nd reset to clear memory and the calculator to the factory default settings. If you are
unsure of the current state of your calculator or are getting unexpected results, use this function
to return to the baseline calculator setup.
6. Clear the worksheet variables
Before using any worksheet, touch 2nd clr Work on the keypad. This will clear the variables in
the worksheet to the default values.
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Time Value of Money (TVM) Computations
Lump Sums
Lump sum computations take into consideration the change in value over time of a single sum
invested at a given rate of return. These type of problems involve the 4 basic variables:
N!
I/Y!
PV!
FV!
the life of the investment
the interest rate
the present or starting value of the investment
the future or ending value of the investment
Enter any three of the variables and then solve for the 4th variable.
1. Future Value (FV)
If you have $5,000 to invest at 6.5% per year, how much would your investment be worth at the
end of 6 years?
If the calculator screen is not already displayed, touch the Calculator icon in the tool bar at the
top of the screen. Then touch the following keys:
2nd reset" clear the calculator to defaults
5 N" "
set the number of periods to 5
6.5 I/Y"
"
set the interest rate to 6.5
5000+/- PV"set the present value to -5,000
CPT FV"
"
compute the future value
The result is 6,850.43
2. Present Value (PV)
Your daughter will be attending college in 12 years and you have determined that she will need
$125,000 to pay for tuition, room and board and books. If you can earn an average annual rate
of return of 6% per year, how much money would you need to invest today as a lump sum?
Touch the following keys:
2nd reset"
12 N" "
6 I/Y""
125000 FV"
CPT PV"
clear the calculator to defaults
set the number of periods to 5
set the interest rate to 6
set the future value to 125,000
"
compute the present value
The result is -62,121.17. Note that the result is negative. Cash flows that are paid out are generally specified as a negative value and cash returned as a positive value. In this case, you pay
some amount of money into an investment (negative amount) and receive an amount some time
in the future (a positive amount).
3. Number of Periods (N)
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If your daughter were to attend a private college the expenses would be greater than the above
example. You estimate that she would need $200,000. If you have $60,000 to invest at 8%,
how many years before she attends college would you have to begin her college savings plan?
Touch the following keys:
2nd reset" clear the calculator to defaults
8 I/Y""
set the interest rate to 8
60000+/- PV"
set the present value to -60,000
200000 FV" set the future value to 200,000
CPT N""
compute the number of years
You will have to start the savings plan 15.64 years before she attends college.
3. Interest Rate (I/YR)
You have financial commitments that prevent you from investing in your daughter's college fund
until 12 years before she will attend college. At that time you will be able to invest $70,000.
What interest rate will be required for her fund to grow to $125,000 in time for her to attend college?
Touch the following keys:
2nd reset" clear the calculator to defaults
12 N" "
set the number of years to 12
70000+/- PV"
set the present value to -70,000
125000 FV" set the future value to 125,000
CPT I/Y"
"
compute the interest rate
You will need to find an investment that returns 4.95% to attain your goal.
Regular Annuities
A regular annuity is a series of equal cash flows occurring at equally spaced time intervals. In a
regular annuity, the first cash flow occurs at the END of the first period. An annuity due is similar
to a regular annuity, except that the first cash flow occurs immediately (BGN).
Similar to the lump sum computations, the annuity calculations involve the N, I/Y, PV and FV
variables. In addition, they include the PMT variable. To compute an annuity problem, you must
enter 4 of the following 5 variables before solving for the 5th:
N!
I/Y!
PV!
FV!
PMT!
the life of the investment
the interest rate
the present or starting value of the investment
the future or ending value of the investment
the regular payment
1. Future Value (FV)
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If you are making a regular payment and want to compute the sum of the payments with interest
some time in the future you need to solve for Future Value.
You can set aside $5,000 per year towards your daughter's college fund. If you establish her
fund 10 years before she attends college and receive an average annual rate of return of 5.6%,
how much money will she have for paying her expenses?
Touch the following keys:
2nd reset" clear the calculator to defaults
10 N" "
set the number of periods to 10
5.6 I/Y"
"
set the interest rate to 5.6
5000+/- PMT"
set the payment to -5,000
CPT FV"
"
compute the future value
She will have $64,678.99. Note that the payment is specified as a negative amount because it is
a cash outflow from your pocket to the savings plan.
Suppose you establish the savings plan the same as above, but make monthly contributions of
$420. How much money will be accumulated at the end of 10 years?
Touch the following keys:
2nd reset" clear the calculator to defaults
12 2nd P/Y"set the # payments per year to 12
10 2nd ×P/Y"
set the # of periods to 10 × 12 = 120
5.6 I/Y"
"
set the interest rate to 5.6
420+/- PMT"set the payment to -420
CPT FV"
"
compute the future value
She will have $67,355.42.
Note: the 2nd ×P/Y (the shift function of the N key) multiplies the value in the display by the
current P/Y value and stores the result in the N variable. This is a short cut for entering N when
the number of payments per year is greater than 1. You could have computed the value in your
head and entered 120 N instead.
2. Payment (PMT)
Solving for an annuity payment is the process used for computing a home or car loan payment
or for determining the the amount you need to save each year to reach a financial goal.
You are about to purchase a new home. The selling price is $375,000 and the bank is willing to
loan you the money at an annual interest rate of 7.2%. What will your monthly payments be on a
15 year loan?
Touch the following keys:
2nd reset" clear the calculator to defaults
12 2nd P/Y"set the # payments per year to 12
15 2nd ×P/Y"
set the # of periods to 10 × 15 = 180
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7.2 I/Y"
375000 PV"
0 FV" "
CPT PMT"
"
set the interest rate to 7.2
set the present value to 375,000
you will pay the loan to 0 in the future
"
compute the future value
Your monthly payments will be -3,412.68
An alternative way to solve this problem is to use the Loan Amortization worksheet. Touch the
Worksheets icon in the tool bar at the top of the screen twice. Then touch the Loan Amortization
to display the Loan worksheet. You will notice that the values from the above problem have already been filled in except for the Years value. Touch the Years field and enter 15 using the
popup keypad. Touch 2nd done (2nd 2nd) to dismiss the keypad. The payment schedule is displayed in a scrolling list showing the interest paid, principal paid and remaining balance for each
payment. The total amount of interest paid over the life of the loan is show in the Interest Paid
field just above the list.
You live in Canada and need to compute the above loan using a Canadian loan. (Canadian
loans compound semi annually.) What is your payment?
Using the Loan Amortization worksheet as setup above, touch the Semi-Annual button of the
compounding periods per year (C/Y) selector. Your payment will be -3,390.41.
Touch the Calculator icon in the tool bar to return to the calculator. Notice that the C/Y value has
been changed to 2.
3. Number of Periods (N)
If you need to find out how long it will take, you are solving for the number of periods.
You have retirement savings of $1,200,000. You have determined that you need $85,000 per
year to live on. If you expect to earn 5.6% per year on average, how many years will your retirement fund last?
Touch the following keys:
2nd reset"
5.6 I/Y"
1200000+/85000 PMT"
CPT N""
clear the calculator to defaults
"
set the interest rate to 5.6
PV" set the present value to -1,200,000
set the payment to 85,000
compute the number of payments
Your retirement fund will last 28.69 years.
4. Interest Rate (I/Y)
You are offered an investment that costs $50,000 that will pay 5,000 per year for 15 years. At
the end of the 15 years it can be redeemed for 10,000. What is your annual rate of return?
Touch the following keys:
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2nd reset" clear the calculator to defaults
15 N" "
set the number of years to 15
50000+/-PV"set the present value to 50,000
5000 PMT" "
set the payment to 5,000
10000 FV" "
set the future value to 10,000
CPT I/Y"
"
compute the interest rate
The investment returns 6.76% annually.
5. Annuity Due
Annuities due differ from ordinary annuities because the first payment is made at the beginning
of the year instead of the end. To solve annuity due problems, you must change the end/begin
computation mode to begin. You do this by touching 2nd PMT until the blue label shows BGN.
You are about to purchase a new home. The selling price is $375,000 and the bank is willing to
loan you the money at an annual interest rate of 7.2%. What will your monthly payments be on a
15 year loan?
Touch the following keys:
2nd reset" clear the calculator to defaults
12 2nd P/Y"set the # payments per year to 12
15 2nd ×P/Y"
set the # of periods to 10 × 15 = 180
7.2 I/Y"
"
set the interest rate to 7.2
375000 PV" set the present value to 375,000
0 FV" "
you will pay the loan to 0 in the future
CPT PMT"
"
compute the payment
Your monthly payments will be -3,412.68
What will your payments be if you make the payments at the beginning of each month instead of
the end of the month?
Using the same setup as above, change the end/begin mode to begin by touching 2nd PMT.
The blue label should show BGN. Solve for payment:
CPT PMT"
compute the future value
Your monthly payments will be -3,392.32. By making payments early, you save 20.35 per payment.
BizAnalyst+ User Manual
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