SeisPlus v4.9 - Geotech Instruments, LLC

SeisPlus v4.9 - Geotech Instruments, LLC
SeisPlus v4.9
Interactive Seismological Data Processing Package
User’s Guide
Copyright  2003-2011 Geotech Instruments, LLC
Dallas, Texas
SeisPlus v4.9 User’s Guide
Document History
Date
ECN
Rev
Initials
Description
unkwn
1.0
MR
Initial Release
7/14/03
1.1
MR
Updated Document
3/3/04
1.2
MR
Updated Document
4/8/04
1.3
MR
Updated Document
7/18/05
2.0
MR
Updated Document
8/1/05
2.1
MR
Updated Document
8/16/06
2.2
MR
Manual Phase Picking Updates
3/22/07
3.0
MR
Shakemaps and Spectral Analysis Updates
11/11/08
4.4
MR
Database and JMA Computation Updates
1/24/11
4.7
MR
Updated Document
4/3/11
4.9
MR
Updated Document
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SeisPlus v4.9 User’s Guide
Contents
LIST OF FIGURES...................................................................................................................................... 7
1
GENERAL INFORMATION .............................................................................................................. 9
2
INSTALLING SEISPLUS.................................................................................................................... 9
3
RUNNING SEISPLUS........................................................................................................................ 12
3.1
FILE MENU .................................................................................................................................... 12
3.1.1
Open ..................................................................................................................................... 13
3.1.2
Open SMART-24 File ........................................................................................................... 14
3.1.3
New Event............................................................................................................................. 14
3.1.4
New Multi-Event ................................................................................................................... 14
3.1.5
Open Event ........................................................................................................................... 14
3.1.6
Save ...................................................................................................................................... 15
3.1.7
Save As… .............................................................................................................................. 15
3.1.8
Close ..................................................................................................................................... 15
3.1.9
Import Waveforms ................................................................................................................ 16
3.1.10 Export Waveforms ................................................................................................................ 18
3.1.11 Join Waveforms .................................................................................................................... 20
3.1.12 Add Channels........................................................................................................................ 20
3.1.13 Print Waveforms ................................................................................................................... 21
3.1.14 Print Waveforms Setup ......................................................................................................... 21
3.1.15 Plot Waveforms to Windows Metafile................................................................................... 22
3.1.16 Print Window........................................................................................................................ 22
3.1.17 Print Window Preview.......................................................................................................... 22
3.1.18 Print Setup ............................................................................................................................ 22
3.1.19 Recent File List..................................................................................................................... 22
3.1.20 Close Recent Files Above ..................................................................................................... 22
3.1.21 Exit........................................................................................................................................ 23
3.2
EDIT MENU ................................................................................................................................... 23
3.2.1
Phases................................................................................................................................... 23
3.2.2
Enter Phases......................................................................................................................... 23
3.2.3
Clear Phases......................................................................................................................... 24
3.2.4
Clear Associated Channels................................................................................................... 24
3.2.5
Import Phases....................................................................................................................... 25
3.2.6
Location................................................................................................................................ 25
3.2.7
ShakeMap Results (if this option is present)......................................................................... 25
3.2.8
JMA Results .......................................................................................................................... 25
3.3
OPERATION MENU......................................................................................................................... 26
3.3.1
Associate Channels............................................................................................................... 26
3.3.2
Select Channels .................................................................................................................... 27
3.3.3
Display Waveforms............................................................................................................... 28
3.3.4
Automatic Picking ................................................................................................................ 30
3.3.5
Automatic Picking (Verticals only)....................................................................................... 30
3.3.6
Manual Picking .................................................................................................................... 30
3.3.7
Locate as Local..................................................................................................................... 31
3.3.8
Locate as Regional ............................................................................................................... 32
3.3.9
Locate as Distant.................................................................................................................. 33
3.3.10 Locate Jointly as Local (JHD).............................................................................................. 34
3.3.11 Locate Relatively as Local.................................................................................................... 35
3.3.12 Seismic Source Inversion...................................................................................................... 36
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SeisPlus v4.9 User’s Guide
3.3.13 Plot Epicenter Map (if the Mapping option is present) ........................................................ 36
3.3.14 Plot Local Events Map (if the Mapping option is present)................................................... 36
3.3.15 Plot ShakeMap (if this option is present) ............................................................................. 38
3.4
MATH MENU ................................................................................................................................. 42
3.4.1
Detrend ................................................................................................................................. 42
3.4.2
Integrate ............................................................................................................................... 43
3.4.3
Differentiate.......................................................................................................................... 44
3.4.4
Scale ..................................................................................................................................... 45
3.4.5
Instrument Response............................................................................................................. 45
3.4.6
Rotate.................................................................................................................................... 47
3.4.7
Filter or Decimate ................................................................................................................ 48
3.4.8
FFT ....................................................................................................................................... 49
3.4.9
Spectral Ratio ....................................................................................................................... 52
3.4.10 Response Spectra.................................................................................................................. 55
3.4.11 JMA Intensity, PGA and Drift Ratio..................................................................................... 57
3.5
DATABASE MENU (IF THIS OPTION IS PRESENT) ............................................................................. 61
3.5.1
Write location to database.................................................................................................... 61
3.5.2
Run DBPlus .......................................................................................................................... 62
3.6
SETTINGS MENU ............................................................................................................................ 70
3.6.1
General ................................................................................................................................. 70
3.6.2
Location................................................................................................................................ 71
3.6.3
Seismic Source Inversion...................................................................................................... 75
3.6.4
Stations ................................................................................................................................. 78
3.6.5
SUDS Utilities ...................................................................................................................... 82
3.6.6
Velocity Model...................................................................................................................... 82
3.6.7
ShakeMap (if this option is present) ..................................................................................... 84
3.6.8
Get Configuration................................................................................................................. 85
3.6.9
Import Stations and Velocity Model ..................................................................................... 85
3.7
VIEW MENU .................................................................................................................................. 87
3.7.1
Waveform Info ...................................................................................................................... 87
3.7.2
Location................................................................................................................................ 88
3.7.3
Main Toolbar........................................................................................................................ 88
3.7.4
Math Toolbar........................................................................................................................ 88
3.7.5
Status Bar ............................................................................................................................. 88
4
REFERENCES .................................................................................................................................... 89
5
APPENDIX 1 – INSTALLATION OF THIRD-PARTY SOFTWARE USED BY SEISPLUS (IF
MAPPING OPTION IS PRESENT).................................................................................................. 91
5.1
THE GENERIC MAPPING TOOLS (GMT)......................................................................................... 91
5.1.1
GMT Installation .................................................................................................................. 91
5.1.2
GMT Customization..............................................................................................................91
5.2
NETCDF ....................................................................................................................................... 92
5.3
GNU AWK ..................................................................................................................................... 92
5.4
GHOSTSCRIPT ................................................................................................................................ 92
5.5
SYSTEM ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES .............................................................................................. 92
5.6
GSVIEW......................................................................................................................................... 92
6
APPENDIX 2 – MANUAL PHASE PICKING ................................................................................ 93
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
USING THE PHASE PICKER ............................................................................................................. 93
WINDOW MOVEMENT .................................................................................................................... 94
PICKING PHASES ............................................................................................................................ 94
PICKING AMPLITUDES ................................................................................................................... 94
NAVIGATING THE DATA FILE ......................................................................................................... 95
FILTERS ......................................................................................................................................... 95
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SeisPlus v4.9 User’s Guide
6.7
6.8
7
ROTATION ..................................................................................................................................... 95
INI FILE ENTRIES ........................................................................................................................... 96
APPENDIX 3 - THE HYPOPLUS PROGRAM INPUT FILES..................................................... 97
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
PHASE FILE.................................................................................................................................... 97
STATION LIST FILE ........................................................................................................................ 98
STATION CORRECTIONS FILE ......................................................................................................... 98
VELOCITY MODEL FILE ................................................................................................................. 99
CONFIGURATION FILE ................................................................................................................... 99
BATCH MODE OPERATION........................................................................................................... 100
8
APPENDIX 4 - THE HYPOPLUS PROGRAM OUTPUT FILES............................................... 101
9
APPENDIX 5 – SEISPLUS CATALOG FORMAT ...................................................................... 107
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Left blank intentionally
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SeisPlus v4.9 User’s Guide
List of Figures
Figure 1 SeisPlus initial window.................................................................................................................. 10
Figure 2 SeisPlus Activation Dialog (top) and Successful Activation Window (bottom)............................. 11
Figure 3. SeisPlus Graphical User Interface ............................................................................................... 12
Figure 4. File Menu...................................................................................................................................... 13
Figure 5. Save As Dialog ............................................................................................................................. 16
Figure 6. Import MiniSEED File Dialog ..................................................................................................... 17
Figure 7 Import ASCII Data Dialog ............................................................................................................ 18
Figure 8. Export ASCII Data Dialog ........................................................................................................... 20
Figure 9 Properties for Waveform Printing ................................................................................................. 21
Figure 10. Printer Output Dialog ................................................................................................................ 21
Figure 11. Edit Menu ................................................................................................................................... 23
Figure 12. Enter Phases Dialog................................................................................................................... 24
Figure 13. Operation Menu.......................................................................................................................... 26
Figure 14. Select Channels Dialog .............................................................................................................. 27
Figure 15 Waveform display with variable (top) and fixed magnification (bottom).................................... 29
Figure 16. SeisPlus Location and Epicenter Map for a local event............................................................. 31
Figure 17. SeisPlus Location and Epicenter Map for a regional event. ...................................................... 32
Figure 18. SeisPlus Location and Epicenter Map for a distant event.......................................................... 33
Figure 19. SeisPlus JHD Location Output................................................................................................... 34
Figure 20. SeisPlus Relative Location Output ............................................................................................. 35
Figure 21. Local Events Epicenter Map....................................................................................................... 37
Figure 22. Plot Local Events Dialog............................................................................................................ 37
Figure 23. SeisPlus SMARTShake results: text file (above) and Intensity, PGA and FPGA Shake Maps
(below).................................................................................................................................................. 39
Figure 24. Math Menu ................................................................................................................................. 42
Figure 25. Detrending Processing Info Window.......................................................................................... 43
Figure 26. Scale Window ............................................................................................................................. 45
Figure 27. Instrument Response Deconvolution Window ............................................................................ 46
Figure 28. Rotate Window............................................................................................................................ 48
Figure 29. Filter or Decimate Window ........................................................................................................ 48
Figure 30. Fast Fourier Transform Window................................................................................................ 50
Figure 31. Amplitude Spectrum output ........................................................................................................ 50
Figure 32. Noise PSD Spectrum................................................................................................................... 51
Figure 33. Spectral Ratio Dialog Window ................................................................................................... 53
Figure 34. Spectral Ratio ............................................................................................................................. 54
Figure 35. Response Spectra Dialog Window............................................................................................. 56
Figure 36. Response Spectra output............................................................................................................. 56
Figure 37. JMA Intensity, PGA and Drift Ratio Dialog Window................................................................. 57
Figure 38. JMA Seismic Intensity and Drift Ratio processing results (detailed, top and abbreviated, bottom)
.............................................................................................................................................................. 59
Figure 39. Database Menu........................................................................................................................... 61
Figure 40. Location Attributes ..................................................................................................................... 62
Figure 41. Database Portal.......................................................................................................................... 63
Figure 42. DBPlus DB2Loc window ............................................................................................................ 66
Figure 43. DBPlus Archive Selected Records window................................................................................. 67
Figure 44. DBPlus Delete Selected Records window................................................................................... 68
Figure 45. Settings Menu ............................................................................................................................. 70
Figure 46. SeisPlus General Settings........................................................................................................... 71
Figure 47. Event Location Settings .............................................................................................................. 73
Figure 48. Seismic Source Inversion Settings .............................................................................................. 76
Figure 49. Station List.................................................................................................................................. 79
Figure 50. Station Settings ........................................................................................................................... 80
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SeisPlus v4.9 User’s Guide
Figure 51. Velocity Model............................................................................................................................ 83
Figure 52. ShakeMap Settings...................................................................................................................... 84
Figure 53. View Menu .................................................................................................................................. 87
Figure 54. Waveform Info Window .............................................................................................................. 87
Figure 55. Location Results Window ........................................................................................................... 88
Figure 56. SeisPlus phase picker window.................................................................................................... 93
Figure 57. Determination of the peak-to-peak amplitude (A) and period (T).............................................. 95
Figure 58. Example of location output file for local event (Wulf projection and source parameters may not
be present). ......................................................................................................................................... 105
Figure 59. Example of location output file for distant event...................................................................... 106
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SeisPlus v4.9 User’s Guide
SeisPlus
Interactive Seismological Data Processing Package
1 General Information
SeisPlus performs waveform display, automatic and manual arrival time picking,
hypocenter location of local, regional and teleseismic events, magnitude determination,
epicenter map plotting, moment tensor inversion for local earthquakes based on spectral
amplitudes of body wave trains, as well as import/export of several waveform and phase
data formats.
SeisPlus signal processing toolbox performs trace filtering, decimation, detrending,
integration, differentiation, amplitude scaling, convolution or de-convolution with the
instrument response function, computation of Fast Fourier Transform, spectral ratio,
response spectra, as well as JMA Seismic Intensity and Building Drift Ratio.
As optional add-ons to the standard software package, a strong motion data processing
software module can generate ShakeMaps, and an earthquake database toolbox can be
used to store and access event locations, and generate earthquake bulletins.
Data can be input in one of the following seismological data formats: SUDS, SMART24® raw data format, Mini-SEED, SEISAN, CSS 3.0, GSE or ASCII for waveform files,
and HYPO71, SEISAN or SMART for phase files and configuration files. Processed
waveforms are output in SUDS, SAC, Mini-SEED, GSE2.0 or ASCII format, while
phases and locations are saved only in the native SMART format.
SeisPlus works on any PC running Microsoft Windows 7/Vista/XP/2000 operating
system.
Note: Some program features may be disabled in the demo version.
2 Installing SeisPlus
First, choose a name for the home directory of SeisPlus (e.g. C:\seisplus). Do not use
a directory name containing the blank or dot character. Then, open the compressed
Seisplus Install file e.g. ‘SeisPlus v4.9 Install.zip’ from the SeisPlus
directory of the distribution CD using e.g. Windows Explorer, and extract all files to the
chosen SeisPlus home directory. This procedure will generate all files necessary to run
SeisPlus.
It is recommended that you create on your Desktop a shortcut pointing to the
C:\seisplus\SeisPlus.exe program.
Optionally, install the third-party software used by SeisPlus for epicenter map plotting,
according to instructions given in Appendix 1.
If the earthquake database option is provided, run the Install program from the
distribution CD root directory to install the MySQL relational database needed by
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SeisPlus v4.9 User’s Guide
SeisPlus. Then, run the program runDBMaker.bat from the run subfolder of the
SeisPlus home folder to create the new earthquake database structure.
The SeisPlus software is license protected. For versions 4.5 and earlier, the license key,
either temporary for a SeisPlus trial version or permanent for a SeisPlus full version, is
distributed from the factory as a file by email or on the distribution CD. After the SeisPlus
installation, the license key file has to be copied into the SeisPlus home directory.
For versions 4.6 and above, the application can run as trial version for a limited period of
time (typically 30 days) after first time it is executed. It can be activated anytime into full
permanent version, that is locked to the PC it is activated on, following the steps described
below.
Starting with Windows Vista, and including Windows 7, first time only, run the
SeisPlus program as an administrator.
The first time when executing the program, and everytime before activation, the window
shown in Figure 1 is displayed.
To run the trial version click on the ‘Evaluate SeisPlus’ link and the application
will be started (see §3).
To activate SeisPlus, click on the ‘Activate SeisPlus’ link and the activation
dialog will open as shown in Figure 2 (top). Submit to Geotech the two user codes
displayed in this dialog. Upon receipt of the activation number(s) from the factory, go to
the activation dialog and enter the activation code(s) (if only one code is received enter it
as ‘Activation Code 1’), then press Continue. A window as in Figure 2 (bottom) confirms
a successful activation; press Continue to start the application.
After activation, SeisPlus application starts directly to its main window as described next.
Figure 1 SeisPlus initial window
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SeisPlus v4.9 User’s Guide
Figure 2 SeisPlus Activation Dialog (top) and Successful Activation Window (bottom)
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SeisPlus v4.9 User’s Guide
3 Running SeisPlus
To start SeisPlus, double click with the mouse on the SeisPlus program icon from the
computer desktop. The SeisPlus Graphical User Interface will be displayed, as in the
example shown in Figure 3.
First time when running SeisPlus, configure the program using the Settings menu
selections (see §3.6).
When performing different data processing operations, the program main window shows
in summary the processing results for the current active event(s).
Commands and operations are selectable from the program menus, and the most usual
ones also from the program toolbars.
Following sections describe each of the program commands and operations, in the order
of the available program menu selections.
Figure 3. SeisPlus Graphical User Interface
3.1 File Menu
The File menu, shown in expanded form in Figure 4, allows the operator to issue the main
commands for data file handling and file format conversion:
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SeisPlus v4.9 User’s Guide
Figure 4. File Menu
3.1.1 Open
Opens a waveform file in SUDS format.
SeisPlus native format is SUDS version 1.51 (Banfill, 2003), which is a 32-bit
version of the original PC-SUDS format (Ward, 1989; Banfill, 1999) that includes
the full FDSN station and channel naming convention, supporting in the same time
the original PC-SUDS format. Hereafter, by ‘SUDS’ the new 32-bit version will be
understood.
A file selection dialog box is displayed allowing the user to choose the active
event file in the current work session. SeisPlus opens the selected file displaying
its name in the main SeisPlus window (see Figure 3). An option to display general
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SeisPlus v4.9 User’s Guide
information about the active waveform file is available from the View/Waveform
Information menu (Figure 54).
The SUDS file is copied to the SeisPlus work directory (e.g. c:\Seisplus\temp)
where all subsequent processing is done, while the original file is kept unchanged.
3.1.2 Open SMART-24 File
Opens a SMART-24 raw data files stored in the modified CD1.1 format for the
SMART-24R® series instrument (Geotech Instruments, 2004).
A file selection dialog box allows the user to choose the input file, that is
converted to SUDS format, copied to the SeisPlus work directory (e.g.
c:\Seisplus\temp), and becomes the active file in the current work session.
Its name, same as the input file name but with the extension ‘suds’, is displayed
in the SeisPlus main window (Figure 3). SeisPlus also displays a file information
window that lists data channels, time windows and sample rates, available as well
from the View/Waveform Info menu selection (Figure 54).
All subsequent processing is done on the copied SUDS file, while the initial file
selected by the user is kept unchanged.
3.1.3 New Event
Opens a new event window. Use this command when input data are phases only
(no waveforms available).
Following this menu selection, SeisPlus opens a window with the default name
‘NewEvent’ for the current work session. An empty phase file
‘NewEvent.pha’ is created; use the Edit menu commands to input the phase
data into the file.
3.1.4 New Multi-Event
Opens a new multi-event window. Use this command when input data are several
phase and location files of individual events, to be used in batch-mode processing
(e.g. location).
Following this menu selection, SeisPlus opens a file selection dialog box allowing
the user to select the input phase and location files in SMART format. All input
phases are written to a single multi-event phase file ‘NewEvents.pha’ in
preparation for the batch-mode operation to follow, and a window with the same
name is opened for the current work session.
3.1.5 Open Event
Opens a single event window. Use this command when input data are phases or
location only, with no waveforms available.
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SeisPlus v4.9 User’s Guide
SeisPlus opens a file selection dialog box allowing the user to choose the input
phase or location file in SMART format. In case a location file is selected,
SeisPlus writes all input phases to a phase file with same name but the extension
‘.pha’ into the working directory to allow further processing (e.g. re-location).
SeisPlus opens the selected event file(s), and a window bearing the event name for
the current work session.
3.1.6 Save
Saves all the files of the current event (or multi-event) to the default output
directory, as defined in the Settings/General menu (see §3.6.1).
All current event’s data files from the SeisPlus work directory are saved, including
the SUDS waveform file, phase file and location file(s), epicenter map, JMA
results, SMARTShake results (when available). A message box is displayed
showing the file names (including path name) of the saved files.
Note: This feature is disabled when using a SeisPlus demo version.
3.1.7 Save As…
Saves all the files of the current event (or multi-event) with new names and/or
output directories.
At this menu selection a dialog box is displayed showing the default output file
names of the current event (see Figure 5). Depending on the files existing in the
workspace, some fields from this dialog box may be disabled. By default, all files
are saved to the output directory defined in the Settings/General menu (see §3.6.1).
The user can select which files to save, change the file names, and select different
output directories by using the Browse buttons.
After pressing OK, a confirmation message box displays the file names (including
path name) of the saved files.
Note: This feature is disabled when using a SeisPlus demo version.
3.1.8 Close
Closes current event, prompting for file saving.
The options are: to save the active event files to the default output directory, to
close the event without saving (implying all output files are lost) or to cancel the
Close command and keep the current event open.
The same action (Close) is automatically taken when selecting the menus Open
Waveform, Open Event, New Event, New Multi-Event or Import Waveform, but
in this case the user is not prompted for file saving before closing the current
event window and opening another event.
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SeisPlus v4.9 User’s Guide
Figure 5. Save As Dialog
3.1.9 Import Waveforms
Imports a waveform file from other formats than SUDS, as listed below.
A file selection dialog box allows the user to choose the input file, that is
converted to SUDS format, copied to the SeisPlus work directory (e.g.
c:\Seisplus\temp), and becomes the active file in the current work session.
Its name, same as the input file name but with the extension ‘suds’, is displayed
in the SeisPlus main window (Figure 3). SeisPlus also displays a file information
window that lists data channels, time windows and sample rates, available as well
from the View/Waveform Info menu selection (Figure 54).
All subsequent processing is done on the copied SUDS file, while the initial file
selected by the user is kept unchanged.
SEISAN Format
The SEISAN waveform format (version 8.0 or earlier) as described by Havskov
and Ottemöller (2003).
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SeisPlus v4.9 User’s Guide
MiniSEED Format
The MiniSEED data are Data Only SEED Volumes (IRIS, 1993). Once the input
file is selected, the user can select the MiniSEED record size (bytes) in the input
file from a dialog window like in Figure 6. The default size is 4096.
Figure 6. Import MiniSEED File Dialog
ASCII Format
Single, double or three-channel data files written in a simple ASCII (text) format,
containing one data value per line for each channel (data columns).
In case of a single-channel file, first line in the data file can be a header line
starting with ‘H’ followed by the initial sample time as number of seconds since
01/01/1970, 00:00:00, the sample rate, channel number and digitzer’s bit weight in
Volts/count. Station and component name are read from the input file name
assuming the file name ends with _STACO_CMP.asc, where STACO is the
station code (up to 5 characters), CMP the component code (up to 3 characters) and
‘asc’ is the file extension.
When there is no such header in the file, or to read more than one channel, in the
Import ASCII Data window (Figure 7) the user can unselect the check box ‘Read
header from file’ and enter the data trace information consisting of station,
component name(s) (as many as channels to read from file, up to 3), initial sample
date and time, and sample rate.
To offer flexibility for reading different ASCII file formats, the user also has the
option to enter the number of lines and columns to skip when reading from the
input file (e.g. header lines to skip to get to the data portion of the file, or columns
to skip - maximum 9 - to get to the channel of interest), and a scaling factor to
multiply input data values.
The input data values can be integer or real numbers, while output data values are
integer numbers.
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SeisPlus v4.9 User’s Guide
Figure 7 Import ASCII Data Dialog
CSS Format
CSS data either from a CSS3.0 database (see Sandia National Laboratories, 2002)
or from CSS files as recorded by Geotech’s Intelligent Communication Processor
(ICP) data acquisition system.
The file selection dialog box allows the user to input the file with the wfdisc
table, and all the corresponding waveforms are imported.
GSE Format
The input data are in GSE2.0 or GSE1.0 format (GSETT-2, 1990).
3.1.10
Export Waveforms
Exports the current waveform file to other file formats than SUDS.
The waveform file is converted to the selected output format and saved to the
default output folder defined in the Settings/General menu (see §3.6.1). A message
box is displayed showing the names of the output file(s).
The supported output formats are listed below.
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SeisPlus v4.9 User’s Guide
This feature is disabled when using a SeisPlus demo version.
MiniSEED Format
The MiniSEED data are Data Only SEED Volumes (IRIS, 1993).
The output file contains all the data channels and has the same filename as the
SUDS file but with the extension “msed”. The MiniSEED record size is set to
4096 bytes.
GSE2.0 Format
The output data are in GSE2.0 format (GSETT-2, 1990).
The output file contains all the data channels and has the same filename as the
SUDS file but with the extension ‘gse’.
SAC Format
The SAC data are in binary SAC format, big endian byte order (Tapley and Tull,
1991).
There is one file per data channel, having same filename as the SUDS data file
followed by ’_STACO_CMP.sac’, where ’STACO‘ is the station code (up to 5
characters), ’CMP‘ the component code (up to 3 characters) and ‘sac’ is the file
extension..
ASCII Format
The output ASCII single-channel files are written in a simple ASCII (text) format.
The data channels and the time window for which data will be converted into
ASCII format can be selected from the Export ASCII Data dialog window (Figure
8). For a detailed description of the available selections see §3.3.2.
The output files have same filename as the SUDS file followed by
_STACO_CMP.asc, where STACO is the station code (up to 5 characters), CMP
the component code (up to 3 characters) and ‘asc’ is the file extension.
Each data file has one header line starting with ‘H’ followed by the initial sample
time as number of seconds since 01/01/1970, 00:00:00, the sample rate, channel
number and digitizer’s bit weight in Volts/count. The header line is followed by
the data values in counts for that channel only, one data value per line.
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SeisPlus v4.9 User’s Guide
Figure 8. Export ASCII Data Dialog
3.1.11
Join Waveforms
Reads in a set of continuous, consecutively recorded data files and joins them
together into a single SUDS data file.
A file selection dialog allows the user to choose the input data files, that can be
either SMART-24 raw data files recorded by the SMART-24® series instrument
or SUDS files output by the Geotech’s SMARTGeoHub® or SMART24Reader
software, following the SMART-24 specific file naming convention (file name
starting with yyyymmdd_hhMMss, where yyyy=year, mm=month, dd=day of
month, hh=hour, MM=minute, ss=second of the first data sample time stamp).
The data are stored to a new waveform file that becomes the active (current) event
file. The new file has same name as the first (earliest) data file followed by
‘_jnd’, as a designator for the processing operation performed (data file joined).
If the data files are not sequential in time, or have gaps in data recording, only the
first files (up to the earliest data gap) will be merged together.
3.1.12
Add Channels
Reads in a set of data files recorded during the same period of time on different
stations and channels, for example event files triggerred at different stations, and
combines them together into a single SUDS data file.
A file selection dialog allows the user to choose the input data files, that can be
either SMART-24 raw data files recorded by the SMART-24® series instrument
or SUDS files output by the Geotech’s SMARTGeoHub® or SMART24Reader
software, following the SMART-24 specific file naming convention (file name
starting with yyyymmdd_hhMMss, where yyyy=year, mm=month, dd=day of
month, hh=hour, MM=minute, ss=second of the first data sample time stamp).
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SeisPlus v4.9 User’s Guide
The data are stored to a new waveform file that becomes the active (current) event
file. The new file has same name as the first (earliest) data file followed by
‘_add’, as a designator for the processing operation performed (data adding).
3.1.13
Print Waveforms
Print the waveforms, all channels or ‘picked’ channels only, using fixed or
variable amplitude magnification, according to the selection from the
Settings/General menu (see §3.6.1 nd §3.3.3).
The printer properties can be set-up from the Print Waveforms Setup menu (see
below). To display on screen the same waveform plot that is sent to the printer, use
the command Operation/Display Waveforms (see §3.3.3).
Note: This feature is disabled when using a SeisPlus demo version.
3.1.14
Print Waveforms Setup
Select this menu to customize the settings for waveform printing.
A window as shown in Figure 9 is displayed, showing the properties for waveform
printing and allowing the user to select and set up the printer.
Click on the Printer Output button to choose the printer output type: as
PostScript or PCL, or no printout (Figure 10). Press OK to save the printer
properties, or Cancel to abandon changes and keep the old settings.
Figure 9 Properties for Waveform Printing
Figure 10. Printer Output Dialog
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SeisPlus v4.9 User’s Guide
3.1.15
Plot Waveforms to Windows Metafile
Plot the waveforms, all channels or ‘picked’ channels only, according to the
selection from the Settings/General menu (see §3.6.1), and save the plot as file
using Windows Metafile graphics file format. Windows Metafiles can be inserted
in many Windows applications, for example Microsoft Word.
The output file is written to the default SeisPlus output data folder as set in the
Settings/ General menu (see §3.6.1). The output Windows Metafile file has same
filename as the initial SUDS file with the file extension ‘.wmf’.
3.1.16
Print Window
Print the SeisPlus main window with the summary of the current event(s)
processing results.
Note: This feature is disabled when using a SeisPlus demo version.
3.1.17
Print Window Preview
Preview the SeisPlus main window before printing.
3.1.18
Print Setup
Set up the Windows printer properties for printing the SeisPlus main window.
3.1.19
Recent File List
This list contains the last processed events within the current SeisPlus work
session.
The maximum number of events in the list can be set from the Settings/ General
menu selection (see §3.6.1). This list, as well as the temporary files used in the
current work session, is cleared when exiting the program.
Note: Changing the current event from the Recent File List (instead of using
the Open Waveforms menu) does not prompt for saving the already open
event files before closing, and does not clear the temporary phase files used
for storing interactively entered or imported phases. When using the Recent
File List for event selection, save each processed event before exiting SeisPlus.
Also, use the Edit Phases command (see §3.2.1) to inspect the current phase
file before running the location program for the new event.
3.1.20
Close Recent Files Above
Closes all events processed during the current SeisPlus session, clearing the
temporary directory.
If the current event has not been saved, the user is prompted for file saving before
closing the event window.
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SeisPlus v4.9 User’s Guide
Warning: The Save prompt refers to the current event(s) only, and any
unsaved work from previous events processed during the same session will be
lost at close.
3.1.21
Exit
Exit SeisPlus, clearing the temporary directory.
If the current event has not been saved, the user is prompted for file saving before
closing the event window and exiting the program.
Warning: The Save prompt refers to the current event(s) only, and any unsaved
work from previous events processed during the same session will be lost at
program exit.
3.2 Edit Menu
The second menu, Edit, shown expanded in Figure 11, allows editing the phases,
locations, ShakeMap or JMA processing results files. It also allows operations like enter,
clear and import phases, and clear associated channels.
Figure 11. Edit Menu
3.2.1 Phases
Edit the current event phase file using the Windows editor “Notepad”.
If the phase file does not exist, SeisPlus will first attempt to create it by extracting
the phases from the current waveform file. The phase file is by default in SMART
format and has the same name as the SUDS file but with the extension ‘pha’.
3.2.2 Enter Phases
Use this menu to interactively enter phases and add them to the current phase list.
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SeisPlus v4.9 User’s Guide
When selecting this option, a dialog box is displayed (Figure 12). The user can
enter for each station and component the P- and S- phase information (arrival time,
sign, quality, wave branch and pick weight), as well as trace parameters (duration
in seconds, maximum amplitude in counts and its corresponding period in
seconds). Optionally, the S time can be used to indicate an S-P time interval and
the P arrival time will be ignored (this option is useful for stations without
absolute time).
When clicking on Save or Save & Close the entered phase information is
saved appended to the current phase file. Then, if Save was selected a new dialog
window is displayed. To close the dialog and ignore the entered phase information
click on Close button.
Figure 12. Enter Phases Dialog
3.2.3 Clear Phases
Clear all the picked phases from the current waveform file.
All the phases data are removed from the SUDS file. The user is asked to confirm
this operation in a dialog box window before execution, and another dialog box
window will report if the phases were successfully cleared.
3.2.4 Clear Associated Channels
In the SUDS data file, channels can be stored as single, or associated together in
three-component, orthogonal vector sets (for three-component stations). In the first
case the manual picking program displays each single channel independently,
while in the latter case it deals with three component data together in one display
window.
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SeisPlus v4.9 User’s Guide
This menu selection clears all the channel association information (stored in the
SUDS_CHANSET structures) from the current waveform file. After this operation
the manual picking program displays single channels windows.
Channels can be re-associated into sets using the Associate Channels menu
(§3.3.1).
3.2.5 Import Phases
Import a phase file in a different phase format.
A file selection dialog box is displayed allowing the user to choose the input file
that is first converted into SMART native phase format, and then appended to the
current event phase file (typically containing the phases extracted from the current
waveform file). The following input formats are supported:
HYPO71 format
These files are in HYPO71 phase format (Lee and Lahr, 1972).
When converting these phases into SMART format, amplitudes are transformed
into nanometers units.
SEISAN Format
These files are in SEISAN phase format (Havskov and Ottemöller, 2003).
When converting these phases into SMART format, amplitudes are transformed
into nanometers units.
SMART Format
These files are in SMART native phase format (see Appendix 3).
3.2.6 Location
Edit (and optionally print) the current event location file using the Windows editor
“Notepad”.
3.2.7 ShakeMap Results (if this option is present)
Edit, and optionally print, the ShakeMap processing results file using the Windows
editor “Notepad”.
3.2.8 JMA Results
Edit, and optionally print, the JMA processing results file using the Windows
editor “Notepad”.
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SeisPlus v4.9 User’s Guide
3.3 Operation Menu
The Operation menu allows the operator to issue the main commands for data processing
in SeisPlus, as shown in Figure 13.
Each of the operations is described in detail in the following sections.
Figure 13. Operation Menu
3.3.1 Associate Channels
In the SUDS data file, channels can be stored as single, or associated together in
three-component, orthogonal vector sets (for three-component stations). In the first
case the manual picking program displays each single channel independently,
while in the latter case it deals with three component data together in one display
window.
This menu selection associates channels into three-component sets, based on
station and component names (different components of the same station are
associated together), and writes the channel association information into the
current waveform file, stored in the SUDS_CHANSET structures. After this
operation the manual picking program displays three component data in the same
window.
Channel association information can be cleared using the Clear Associated
Channels menu (§3.2.4).
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SeisPlus v4.9 User’s Guide
3.3.2 Select Channels
Select data channels and the time windows of interest from the current event
waveforms.
Selected traces are stored to a new waveform file that becomes the active (current)
event file. The new file has same filename as the initial SUDS file followed by
‘_sel’, as a designator for the processing operation performed (channel
selection).
If the waveform file follows the SMART-24 specific file naming convention,
where the file start time is part of the file’s name (i.e. file name starting with
yyyymmdd_hhMMss, where yyyy=year, mm=month, dd=day of month,
hh=hour, MM=minute, ss=second corresponding to the time stamp of the first data
sample in the file), and if the file start time is changed by user’s time window
selection, SeisPlus also changes the new file name accordingly, and then adds the
‘_sel’ designator.
However, please note that with this current program version, if the data channels in
the initial SUDS file have different start times, in some cases the name of the new
file might not reflect the true (earliest) file start time. One can then use Save As
command to rename the file manually (see §3.1.7).
The user selection is available from the Select Channels dialog window shown in
Figure 14.
Figure 14. Select Channels Dialog
The list of available data channels is displayed, with trace information that
includes the station and component name, date and time of the first sample, trace
duration (in seconds) and sample rate. The desired channels can be selected with
the mouse (pressing and holding the Control key allows multiple channel
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SeisPlus v4.9 User’s Guide
selection) or from the Select All, Deselect All, Select
Verticals and Select All Horizontals buttons.
All
For this selection all channels having the character ‘v’ or ‘z’ (case insensitive)
anywhere in their component name are considered as verticals, and all the others
as horizontals.
The time window selection is specified by entering the time intervals (in seconds)
to skip at the beginning of the trace and to keep as trace length. Check the ‘Keep
All’ box to keep the trace length until the end.
If the ‘Use same absolute window for all channels’ is checked,
the selection parameters are referring to the channel with the earliest initial sample
time in the file, and the same absolute time window is selected across all other
channels. If this box is unchecked, the time window selection parameters are
referring to each channel individually.
The user can specify to save to the output file only the selected channels, or all
channels, by selecting the corresponding check box under ’Output File’. In
the latter case only the selected channels are cut according to the specified time
window, and all the other channels from the initial file are just copied to the output
file.
3.3.3 Display Waveforms
Display on the screen the waveform file.
All input data channels or picked channels only can be plotted, as selected from
the Settings/General menu (see §3.6.1).
By default, all traces are plotted with variable amplitude magnification (see Figure
15 top), where for each trace the program magnifies the peak amplitude value in
the displayed portion of the waveform to full scale. The magnification factor
applied for each trace is different, and the minimum magnification value is
annotated on the plot vertically down the left margin, labeled as ‘MinX’, for user’s
information.
Another option is to plot all traces with fixed amplitude magnification (see Figure
15 bottom), selected from the Settings/General menu (see §3.6.1). The same
magnification factor is applied for all traces, as entered by the user. Its value is
also annotated on the plot vertically down the left margin following the /MF
command line switch. The full scale value of the traces is annotated on the plot left
margin above the first trace, labeled as ‘FS’.
For both magnification options, each trace is annotated with the peak absolute
sample value in the waveform, above the station/component identifier, and below
is the sample rate.
To print this window, use the command Print Waveforms (see §3.1.13).
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SeisPlus v4.9 User’s Guide
Figure 15 Waveform display with variable (top) and fixed magnification (bottom)
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SeisPlus v4.9 User’s Guide
3.3.4 Automatic Picking
Automatically pick P-arrival times and coda durations on the active waveforms
file.
Prior to running the picker, all old phase picks are cleared automatically. A manual
option to clear all picks is also available from the Clear Phases menu selection
(§3.2.3).
SeisPlus also looks for the maximum amplitude and its corresponding period
during the first 5 seconds after the P pick for the determination of the body wave
magnitude mb in the case of distant events, or during the whole record for the
determination of the Wood-Anderson magnitude of local events. The event type,
local or distant is set using the Settings/ General menu selection (see §3.6.1). The
amplitudes, corresponding periods, and first motion signs are stored in the
waveform file.
After this task is done, the user is prompted whether to go directly to Manual Pick
to inspect the automatic picks.
Finally, the phases are extracted from the waveform file into a phase file in
SMART format, having the same name as the SUDS file but with the extension
‘pha’.
Note: This feature is disabled when using a SeisPlus demo version.
3.3.5 Automatic Picking (Verticals only)
Same function as Automatic Pick, on the vertical components only.
For this selection, all channels having the character ‘v’ or ‘z’ (case insensitive)
anywhere in their component name are considered as verticals.
Note: This feature is disabled when using a SeisPlus demo version.
3.3.6 Manual Picking
Allow the user to manually pick P and S arrival times, amplitudes and coda
durations on the active waveforms file, as described in Appendix 2.
Prior to running the manual picker, all the old picks can be cleared using the Clear
Phases menu selection (see §3.2.3).
After finishing the picking, the phases are extracted from the waveform file into a
phase file in SMART format, having the same name as the SUDS file but with the
extension ‘pha’.
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SeisPlus v4.9 User’s Guide
3.3.7 Locate as Local
Locates the current event as local/regional event using Geiger’s iterative method.
The HYPOPLUS program (Oncescu et al., 1996) is used for event location and MD
or ML magnitude determination (see also §3.6.2).
Location input data for a single event or for multiple events are as read from the
current (active) phase file.
The location output with iteration history and phase information is displayed in a
separate window entitled ‘Local/Regional Event Location’, and the results are
stored in a location file having the same name as the SUDS file but with the
extension ‘evl’, accessible from the Edit or View menus.
For an example of location output file, see Figure 58.
A brief summary with the event location parameters and magnitude is shown in the
main SeisPlus window (see Figure 16).
Note: The magnitude computation is disabled when using a SeisPlus demo version.
Figure 16. SeisPlus Location and Epicenter Map for a local event.
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SeisPlus v4.9 User’s Guide
3.3.8 Locate as Regional
Locates the current event as regional, using the algorithm developed by Wahlström
(1975):
A two-step linear inversion is used to determine the event origin time and the
epicenter geographical coordinates, while the hypocenter depth is fixed to 10 km.
The velocity model used is also fixed, and assumes Conrad discontinuity depth at
10 km, and Mohorovicic discontinuity depth at 35 km.
Location input data for a single event or for multiple events are read from the
current (active) phase file. The phase type (P*, Pg or Pn, S*, Sg or Sn), if not
specified at input, defaults to Pn (for P waves) or Sg (for S waves). Body-wave
magnitude mb is also determined (if amplitude data is available).
The location output with phase information is displayed in a separate window
entitled ‘Regional Event Location’, and the results are stored in a location file
having the same name as the SUDS file but with the extension ‘evl’, accessible
from the Edit or View menus.
A brief summary with the location and magnitude is shown in the main SeisPlus
window (see Figure 17).
Figure 17. SeisPlus Location and Epicenter Map for a regional event.
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SeisPlus v4.9 User’s Guide
3.3.9 Locate as Distant
Locates the current event as distant using the plane wave method.
The HYPOPLUS program (Oncescu et al., 1996) is used for event location and mb
magnitude determination.
Location input data for a single event or for multiple events are as read from the
current (active) phase file.
The complete location output with phase information is displayed in a separate
window entitled ‘Distant Event Location’. The results are stored in a location data
file having the same name as the waveform (SUDS) file but with the extension
‘evt’, accessible from the Edit or View menu selections.
For an example of distant event location output, see Figure 59.
A brief summary with the event location and magnitude results is shown in the
main SeisPlus window (see Figure 18).
Note: The magnitude computation is disabled when using a SeisPlus demo version.
Figure 18. SeisPlus Location and Epicenter Map for a distant event.
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SeisPlus v4.9 User’s Guide
3.3.10
Locate Jointly as Local (JHD)
Locates the current events as local using a Joint Hypocenter Determination (JHD)
method, with the JHDPLUS program (Oncescu and Bonjer, 1997).
To run the JHD location a multi-event phase file must be open, e.g. by using the
New Multi-Event selection of the File menu (see §3.1.4).
The complete location output with iteration history and phase information for all
processed events is displayed in a new window entitled ‘JHD Events Location’,
and a summary including event location parameters and magnitudes is shown in
SeisPlus main window (as seen in Figure 19).
The results are stored in a multi-event location file having the same name as the
waveform (SUDS) file but with the extension ‘evl’, accessible from the Edit or
View menu selections. The format of the event location file is similar with the
HYPOPLUS program output described in Appendix 4 and shown as example in
Figure 58.
Note: This feature is disabled when using a SeisPlus demo version.
Figure 19. SeisPlus JHD Location Output
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SeisPlus v4.9 User’s Guide
3.3.11
Locate Relatively as Local
Locates the current local event relatively to another local event used as reference
(‘master’ event) using a relative hypocenter determination method (Oncescu et al.,
1994). This method can be applied only if the distance between the two
hypocenter positions is much less than the hypocentral distance for all the
stations used.
To run the relative location, location results as output by the HYPOPLUS program
must be available for both events. The location file for the current event must be
open e.g. by using the Open Event selection of the File menu (see also §3.1.5).
When running the relative location, a file selection dialog box allows the user to
enter the location file of the master event. The relative location output is displayed
in a separate window entitled ‘Master Event Location’, and the results are inserted
in front of the old location in the current event location file, that in turn it is
accessible from the Edit or View menus. The relative location output is similar
with the HYPOPLUS program output described in Appendix 4, with the difference
that, for each station observation, the INFO field is replaced by the ratio of the
distance between the two hypocenters to the hypocenter-station distance. This ratio
should be less than 0.01 to justify use of this method. A brief summary with the
locations parameters is shown in the main SeisPlus window (as seen in Figure 20).
Note: This feature is disabled when using a SeisPlus demo version.
Figure 20. SeisPlus Relative Location Output
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SeisPlus v4.9 User’s Guide
3.3.12
Seismic Source Inversion
SeisPlus performs moment tensor inversion for local earthquakes based on spectral
amplitudes of body wave trains, following a method developed by Ebel and Bonjer
(1990) and automated by Rizescu (1999).
Inversion applies constraints for zero trace seismic moment tensor or double
couple source model.
The output includes the moment tensor components, its principal P, B and T axes,
the strike, dip and slip of the two nodal planes, the scalar seismic moment,
together with a stereographic projection on the lower focal hemisphere. Momentmagnitude, stress-drop, source dimension, and energy released, all with standard
errors, are also calculated automatically.
The source inversion output is displayed in a new window ‘Local Event Seismic
Source Inversion’, and the results are appended to the event location file accessible
from the Edit or View menus.
For an example of event location and source inversion output file, see Figure 58.
3.3.13
Plot Epicenter Map (if the Mapping option is present)
In the single event case, it displays on screen the epicenter map for the current
event, as shown in Figure 16.
When two location files are available, for both the local and distant case, the user
is prompted to select which one to display.
The background seismicity is also plotted in the local case if the respective event
coordinates,
depths
and
magnitudes
are
given
in
the
file
‘C:\SeisPlus\catalog.dat’ (for a formatted model of this file see the file
‘catalog.dat_model’ included in the SeisPlus software distribution).
When the current location file contains multiple event locations, the Plot Epicenter
Map function is similar to the Plot Local Events Map function described below
(see §3.3.14).
Note: This feature is disabled when using a SeisPlus demo version.
3.3.14
Plot Local Events Map (if the Mapping option is present)
Displays on screen the epicenter map of local events (Figure 21).
The event locations, using the native SMART format as produced by SeisPlus, are
read from two input folders as entered by the user, or from the default SeisPlus
home folder. The locations are selected according to origin time, latitude and
longitude, depth, and magnitude criteria, using a user interface dialog window as
shown in Figure 22.
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SeisPlus v4.9 User’s Guide
Figure 21. Local Events Epicenter Map
Figure 22. Plot Local Events Dialog
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SeisPlus v4.9 User’s Guide
Each of the two sets of locations, that can be, for example, manual and automatic
locations for the same group of events, are plotted with a different symbol (red and
black dots, respectively).
The background seismicity is also plotted with different symbols (yellow dots) if a
list file with the coordinates, depths and magnitudes is provided as
‘C:\SeisPlus\catalog.dat’ (for a formatted model of this file see the file
‘catalog.dat_model’ included in the SeisPlus software distribution,).
Optionally, as set by the user, either one or both sets of locations are appended to
the background seismicity list.
The map is saved as a PostScript file in the SeisPlus home folder with the name
reflecting
the
file
creation
date
and
time,
e.g.
‘epimap_2004_Mar_03_1227.ps’.
Note: This feature is disabled when using a SeisPlus demo version.
3.3.15
Plot ShakeMap (if this option is present)
Computes and displays on screen the ShakeMaps for the current event, using the
SMARTShake Strong Motion Data Processing software, if this option is present.
Same data processing module is also used by the SMARTQuake® Automated
Earthquake Data Processor, for real-time operation.
Within SeisPlus, SMARTShake performs the following operations:
•
Picking Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) at the recording sites on maximum
horizontal components
•
Computing Intensity values at recording sites based on determined PGA values
and the relationship given in §3.6.7.
•
Filtering of the acceleration data and picking Filtered Peak Ground Acceleration
(FPGA)
•
Gridding the observed ground shaking data values using a continuous curvature
surface gridding algorithm
•
Contouring of the (F)PGA and Intensity data points
•
Generation of 3-D perspective color Shake Maps with isolines of equal (F)PGA or
Intensity values superposed on the regional topography
•
(F)PGA and Intensity Shake Maps plotting and Web publishing
SMARTShake settings can be configured using a Graphical User Interface from
the Settings/ ShakeMap menu selection (see §3.6.7).
Examples of the processing results and Shake Maps generated by SeisPlus with
SMARTShake are given in Figure 23.
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SeisPlus v4.9 User’s Guide
STAT COMP
LATITUDE
LONGITUDE PGA(cm/s2) I DATE
TIME
=====================================================================
VR1E E
45.86567
26.72767
2.1536 2 20040121 054942.700
DU1N N
45.03817
26.03167
3.6639 3 20040121 054945.730
SE1E E
45.03550
26.06767
6.6177 4 20040121 054945.185
PE1N N
45.72300
27.23117
2.4400 3 20040121 054945.140
SU1N N
44.67767
26.25267
6.8156 4 20040121 054947.550
VA1E E
45.88033
27.85700
4.3743 3 20040121 054951.510
AM1E E
44.61017
27.33533
1.5566 2 20040121 054953.300
ZM1E E
43.65217
25.36933
7.3960 4 20040121 055011.045
FPGA Filter: 1 Hz
STAT COMP
LATITUDE
LONGITUDE FPGA(cm/s2) I DATE
TIME
=====================================================================
VR1E E
45.86567
26.72767
1.0516 1 20040121 054942.700
DU1N N
45.03817
26.03167
1.8639 2 20040121 054945.730
SE1E E
45.03550
26.06767
3.2197 3 20040121 054945.185
PE1N N
45.72300
27.23117
2.0010 3 20040121 054945.140
SU1N N
44.67767
26.25267
1.8156 2 20040121 054947.550
VA1E E
45.88033
27.85700
4.3743 3 20040121 054951.510
AM1E E
44.61017
27.33533
1.2566 2 20040121 054953.300
ZM1E E
43.65217
25.36933
4.3960 3 20040121 055011.045
Figure 23. SeisPlus SMARTShake results: text file (above) and Intensity, PGA and
FPGA Shake Maps (below).
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SeisPlus v4.9 User’s Guide
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SeisPlus v4.9 User’s Guide
The following files are output by SeisPlus with SMARTShake module, and they
can be saved to permanent locations using the Save and Save As menu selections
(see §3.1.6 and §3.1.7):
•
The text file with Shake Maps results, having same name as the SUDS file, but
with the extension ‘.txt’.
The file contains a list of channels with station and channel name, station latitude,
longitude, recorded Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) in centimeters/sec2,
corresponding Intensity, and its date and time. For three component stations, the
horizontal component with the maximum PGA value is output.
If the Filtered PGA map is generated, the file also contains similar results
determined on the filtered waveforms, this time with the Filtered Peak Ground
Acceleration (FPGA) in centimeters/sec2 and its corresponding Intensity, and the
filter frequency (the middle of the filter passband).
An example of a SMARTShake results file is shown in Figure 23.
•
PGA Shake Map files, having the same name as the SUDS file, followed by .PGA
and the extension ‘.ps‘ or ‘.gif‘ for PostScript and GIF formatted files,
respectively.
•
Intensity Shake Map files, having the same name as the SUDS file, followed by
.INT and the extension ‘.ps‘ or ‘.gif‘ for PostScript and GIF formatted files,
respectively.
•
Filtered PGA Shake Map files, having the same name as the SUDS file, followed
by .FPGA and the extension ‘.ps‘ or ’.gif‘ for PostScript and GIF formatted
files, respectively.
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SeisPlus v4.9 User’s Guide
3.4 Math Menu
The MathPlus module performs waveform filtering, decimation, detrending (using offset,
linear or parabolic function fit removal), integration or differentiation in time or in
frequency domain, amplitude scaling, convolution or deconvolution with the instrument
response function, computation of Fast Fourier Transform, spectral ratio, response
spectra, as well as JMA Intensity, PGA and Drift Ratio.
This feature is disabled when using a SeisPlus demo version.
The Math menu (Figure 24) offers the following signal processing tools:
Figure 24. Math Menu
3.4.1 Detrend
Performs detrending, using offset, linear or parabolic function fit removal on
selected waveforms from the current event file.
The processed traces are stored to a new waveform file that becomes the active
(current) event file. The new file has same filename as the initial SUDS file
followed by ‘_det’, as a designator for the processing operation performed
(detrending).
The user selection is available from a dialog window as shown in Figure 14 but
with the title ‘Offset Removal’, ‘Linear Detrending’ or ‘Parabolic Detrending’.
The channel and time window selections are as described in §3.3.2, and here they
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SeisPlus v4.9 User’s Guide
define which channels will be detrended and what time window to use for
determining the fit, respectively. The fitted function is removed on all trace length.
Optionally, only processed channels are saved to the output file, or all channels
(non-selected channels being copied only).
SeisPlus displays a processing information window as in Figure 25 showing
selected channels, time window used for detrending, and detrending parameters (in
this example the DC offset removed), and another window with the new waveform
file information (as in Figure 54).
The following submenu selections are available:
Offset
Removes DC offset.
Linear
Removes linear trend.
Parabolic
Removes parabolic trend.
Figure 25. Detrending Processing Info Window
3.4.2 Integrate
Performs integration (in time or in frequency domain) on selected waveforms from
the current event file.
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The processed traces are stored to a new waveform file that becomes the active
(current) event file. The new file has same filename as the initial SUDS file
followed by ‘_int’, as a designator for the processing operation performed
(integration).
The user selection is available from a dialog window as shown in Figure 14 but
with the title ‘Integrate in Time Domain’ or ‘Integrate in Frequency Domain’.
The trace integration is performed on the selected channels and time window (see
also §3.3.2 for a description of the available selections). Optionally, only
processed channels are saved to the output file, or all channels (unselected
channels being copied only).
SeisPlus displays an information window with the new waveform file information
(as in Figure 54).
The following submenu selections are available:
Time
Integrates in time domain.
Frequency
Integrates in frequency domain.
3.4.3 Differentiate
Performs differentiation (in time or in frequency domain) on selected waveforms
from the current event file.
The processed traces are stored to a new waveform file that becomes the active
(current) event file. The new file has same filename as the initial SUDS file
followed by ‘_dif’, as a designator for the processing operation performed
(differentiation).
The user selection is available from a dialog window as shown in Figure 14 but
with the title ‘Differentiate in Time Domain’ or ‘Differentiate in Frequency
Domain’.
The trace differentiation is performed on the selected channels and time window
(see also §3.3.2 for a description of the available selections). Optionally, only
processed channels are saved to the output file, or all channels (non-selected
channels being copied only).
SeisPlus displays an information window with the new waveform information (as
in Figure 54).
The following submenu selections are available:
Time
Differentiates in time domain.
Frequency
Differentiates in frequency domain.
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3.4.4 Scale
Performs amplitude scaling on selected waveforms from the current event file.
The processed traces are stored to a new waveform file that becomes the active
(current) event file, having same filename as the initial SUDS file followed by
‘_sca’, as a designator for the processing operation performed (scaling).
The user selection is available from a dialog window as shown in Figure 26.
Data values are multiplied by the user-entered scale factor value (real number) on
the selected channels and time window (see also §3.3.2 for a description of the
available selections). Optionally, only processed channels are saved to the output
file, or all channels (unselected channels being copied only).
SeisPlus displays an information window with the new waveform file information
(as in Figure 54).
Figure 26. Scale Window
3.4.5 Instrument Response
Convolves or deconvolves with the instrument response function selected
waveforms from the current event file.
The processed traces are stored to a new waveform file that becomes the active
(current) event file. The new file has same filename as the initial SUDS file
followed by ‘_icn’ or ‘_idc’, as a designator for the processing operation
performed (instrument response convolution and instrument response
deconvolution, respectively).
The user selection is available from a dialog window as shown in Figure 27.
The instrument correction is performed on the selected channels and time window
(see also §3.3.2 for a description of the available selections). Optionally, only
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processed channels are saved to the output file, or all channels (unselected
channels being copied only). By checking the ‘Remove offset before
applying instrument correction’ box, the trace DC offset will be
removed first, and a processing info window will display the DC offset (as in
Figure 25).
Figure 27. Instrument Response Deconvolution Window
In the Instrument Response section of the dialog window (Figure 27), default
option is to ‘Use transfer function from calibration
parameters’, i.e. use instrument parameters as configured in SeisPlus (see
Settings/Station menu in §3.6.4). When any channels are selected from the channel
list, the calibration parameters for the first selected channel are displayed, for
information purposes only.
To change the calibration values for this particular channel, check the ‘Change
calibration parameters’ box, then enter the desired values (see also
§3.6.4 for a description of the instrument parameters). To apply these parameters
to all selected channels, check the appropriate box. Press the Update button to
save the entered parameters to SeisPlus configuration files; else, the parameters
will be used one time only, for the current processing operation.
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A second option in the Instrument Response section of the instrument correction
window (Figure 27) allows the user to use the transfer function as read from an
instrument response file in GSE2.0 format, using the poles and zeros
representation. The GSE2.0 instrument response file can be selected or edited by
the user from the ‘Browse’ and ‘Edit instrument response file’
buttons, respectively.
The instrument correction is performed in frequency domain, after applying a
cosine taper at both ends of the trace on 5% of the trace length. When the
processing operation is completed, SeisPlus displays a window with the new
waveform file information (as in Figure 54).
The following submenu selections are available:
Convolve
Convolves traces with the instrument response function.
Deconvolve
Deconvolves traces with the instrument response function.
3.4.6 Rotate
Rotates the traces of two selected horizontal components at the same station from
the current file by a rotation angle given by the station azimuth from epicenter,
changing their orientation from North-East into Radial-Transversal relative to the
epicenter.
The user selection, including the rotation angle, is available from a dialog window
as shown in Figure 28(see also §3.3.2 for a description of the available selections).
The rotated traces are stored to a new waveform file that becomes the active
(current) event file, having same filename as the initial SUDS file followed by
‘_rot’, as a designator for the processing operation performed (rotation). For the
two rotated horizontals, the orientation code in the component name is changed
from ‘N’ (North) to ‘R’ (Radial) and from ‘E’ (East) to ‘T’ (Transversal),
respectively. Optionally, only rotated channels are saved to the output file, or all
channels (unselected channels being copied only).
SeisPlus displays an information window with the new waveform file information
(as in Figure 54).
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Figure 28. Rotate Window
3.4.7 Filter or Decimate
Filters or decimates selected waveforms from the current event file. Filtering uses
causal Butterworth digital high and low pass filters (Banfill, 1999).
The user selection is available from a dialog window as shown in Figure 29.
Figure 29. Filter or Decimate Window
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The processed traces are stored to a new waveform file that becomes the active
(current) event file. The new file has same filename as the initial SUDS file
followed by ‘_flt’ and/or ‘_dec’, as a designator for the processing operation
performed (filtering and/or decimation, respectively).
The filtering and/or decimation is performed on the selected channels and time
window (see also §3.3.2 for a description of the available selections). Optionally,
only processed channels are saved to the output file, or all channels (unselected
channels being copied only).
The user can specify the length (in number of samples) starting from the first
sample of each waveform to be used to determine the zero level (DC offset); this
value will be subtracted from each sample in the waveform before the filtering is
applied. Also, the user can specify the length (in number of samples) at both ends
of the waveform that a cosine taper will be applied to before filtering is performed.
The low-pass and high-pass filter parameters are input as the number of poles for
the filter, and the cut-off frequency given in Hz; each filter can be optionally
turned off by the user with the ‘No filter’ switch.
The user can apply decimation by entering the desired value (integer number) in
the ‘Decimation factor’ field (see Figure 29). To avoid aliasing, a low-pass
filter is recommended to be applied before decimating the data. Depending on the
waveform sample rate, suggested low-pass filter parameters are shown for
information only (displayed values are given for the first selected data channel).
If both decimate and filtering are enabled, filtering is performed first and then the
decimation. The new waveform file name receives both designators ‘_flt_dec’.
Once the processing operation is completed, SeisPlus displays a window with the
new waveform file information (as in Figure 54).
3.4.8 FFT
Computes and displays amplitude or power spectra of selected waveforms from
the current event file. SeisPlus uses a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm that
accommodates large waveforms (up to 231 samples) (see Banfill, 1999).
The user selection is available from a dialog window as shown in Figure 30. An
example of spectrum output is shown in Figure 31.
The spectrum type, amplitude, power, power spectral density (PSD), or noise PSD
can be chosen from the dialog window. The option to compute and display a phase
spectrum is also available.
The spectrum is performed on selected channels as described in §3.3.2, and on
selected time window as follows. The user can specify the starting position in the
waveform, by entering in the ‘Skip from begin’ field the number of the
seconds into the waveform where to begin spectrum computation. ‘Length of
FFT’ to compute is entered as number of points in the FFT, given as the power of
2, and the corresponding time window in seconds at the sample rate of the first
selected channel is displayed for user information.
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Figure 30. Fast Fourier Transform Window
Figure 31. Amplitude Spectrum output
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The spectra (shown in Figure 31) can be displayed on the screen, sent to the
printer, one window (page) for each processed channel, or saved as file using
either the Windows Metafile graphics file format or an ASCII (text) file format, as
selected from the ‘Spectrum Output’ box. Windows Metafiles can be inserted
in many Windows applications, for example Microsoft Word.
The output files, one per channel, are written to the default SeisPlus output data
folder as set in the Settings/ General menu (see §3.6.1). The output file has same
filename as the initial SUDS file followed by ‘_sta_comp’, where ‘sta’ and
‘comp’ are the station and component names for the waveforms used. The output
file extension is ‘.wmf’ for the Windows Metafile file, or ‘.fft’ for the ASCII
(text) file.
The printer and other options for spectra computation and display, e.g. scaling
factor, windowing functions used and control of the X and Y axes, are available
by clicking on the Edit SUDS Utilities Settings button (see Figure
30) or from the Settings/ SUDS Utilities menu (see §3.6.5).
SeisPlus can also be used to compute noise spectra represented as the acceleration
power spectral density (PSD), given in units of dB referred to 1 (m/s2)2/Hz (see
Figure 32), for velocity or acceleration input data. Such noise spectra can be used
for seismic noise surveys to characterize the site noise levels, compared to the
models of ambient Earth noise (e.g. Peterson’s Low Noise Model).
Figure 32. Noise PSD Spectrum
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The following settings are recommended, and can be programmed in SeisPlus,
SUDS Utilities Settings, in the SudsSpec section (see §3.6.5):
•
Enter the appropriate scaling factor used to transform digital counts into
ground motion in units of meter/second (parameter Scaler). This value
represents the ratio between the digitizer LSB bit weight in Volts/count and the
sensor sensitivity in Volts/(m/s) (e.g. 1.6x10-9 for a Smart-24R® instrument with
LSB of 3.2x10-6 Volts/count and a KS-2000 seismometer with sensitivity of 2000
Volts/(m/s)).
•
The range of the Y axis should be set between –80dB and –200dB
(parameters Y_Max and Y_Min, respectively).
•
The FFT Normalization method should be set to 1 (parameter
Normalize).
•
The noise PSD spectrum should be computed e.g. between frequencies of
0.05 Hz (20 sec) and 20 Hz (parameters X_Min and X_Max, respectively).
The spectrum type in SeisPlus FFT dialog window should be set to ‘Noise PSD’.
SeisPlus outputs the results as a plot with the noise spectral level, and the Peterson
low and high noise model curves (see Figure 32).
3.4.9 Spectral Ratio
Computes and displays the spectral ratio of two selected waveforms from the
current event file. SeisPlus computes the H/V Spectral Ratio if the vertical and one
horizontal component of the same instrument are selected, or the Transfer
Function if the same component on two different instruments are selected.
The user selection is available from a dialog window as shown in Figure 33.
The spectral ratio is performed on the two components selected from the list in
Figure 33, in the order specified from the ‘Compute Spectral Ratio’ box
identifying (by station and component name) which amplitude spectrum is used at
numerator and denominator.
For spectral ratio computation is required that both components are recorded
using the same sampling rate.
The user can specify the starting position in the waveform, by entering in the
‘Skip from begin’ field the number of the seconds into the waveform where
to begin spectrum computation. ‘Length of FFT’ to compute is entered as
number of points in the FFT, given as the power of 2, and the corresponding time
window in seconds at the sampling rate of the first selected channel is displayed
for user information.
The user can set a factor to control smoothing of the spectral ratio computation;
enter ‘0’ for no smoothing, ‘1’ to apply once a 5-points smoothing algorithm, ‘n’
to apply n times the 5-points smoothing algorithm. Also the user can specify a
‘Spectral Ratio Clip Value’ to set the maximum limit of the plot Y axis
and draw the spectral ratio plot to clipping limit, while the peak spectral ratio is
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displayed for information (see Figure 34 bottom). If the clip value is set to zero, no
clipping is performed, and the Y axis plot maximum limit is automatically
determined based on the peak spectral ratio value (see Figure 34 top). The plot
frequency limits are determined by the selected FFT length at the low end, and the
Nyquist frequency (half of the sampling frequency) at the high end. The spectral
ratio of 1 is displayed in the plot for reference, as a horizontal line.
The spectral ratio plot can be displayed on the screen, sent to the printer, or saved
to a file using Windows Metafile graphics file format, or in ASCII (text) file
format, as selected from the ‘Spectral Ratio Output’ box.
The output file is written to the default SeisPlus output data folder as set in the
Settings/ General menu (see §3.6.1).
The output file has same filename as the initial SUDS file followed by
‘_sta1_comp1_sta2_comp2’, where ‘sta1’, ‘comp1’, ‘sta2’ and
‘comp2’ are the station and component names for the waveforms used, 1
identifying the amplitude spectrum used at numerator, and 2 at the denominator.
The output file extension is ‘.wmf’ for the Windows Metafile file, or ‘.ratio’
for the ASCII (text) file containing the frequencies and spectral ratio values in two
data columns.
The printer and other options for spectra computation and display, e.g. windowing
functions used and control of the X and Y axes, are available from the Win-SUDS
settings, by clicking on the Edit Win-SUDS Settings button (see Figure
33) or from the Settings/ SUDS Utilities menu (see §3.6.5).
Figure 33. Spectral Ratio Dialog Window
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Figure 34. Spectral Ratio Plots
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3.4.10
Response Spectra
Computes and displays response spectra of selected waveforms from the current
event file.
SeisPlus performs four types of response spectra computation (see Banfill, 1999):
relative displacement response, relative velocity response, pseudo-velocity
response and pseudo-acceleration response.
The user selection is available from a dialog window (see Figure 35).
Channel selection is available as described in §3.3.2. The input time series are
velocity or acceleration data given in centimeters or, if given in different units,
they are converted to centimeters by multiplying data values by the scaling factor
entered in the ‘Scale factor to convert data units to cm’ edit
box.
The spectra are displayed on the screen or printed, one window (page) for each
data channel, or saved to an ASCII (text) file, as selected from the ‘Response
Spectra Output’ box.
When the ‘Write response spectra to output file’ box is
checked, the output files, one for each data channel, are written to the default
SeisPlus output data folder set in the Settings/General menu (see §3.6.1). The
output file has same filename as the initial file followed by
‘_sta_comp.respec’, where ‘sta’ and ‘comp’ are the recording’s station and
component name, respectively, and ‘.respec’ is the file extension.
The printer and other options for spectra computation and display, e.g. damping
values and period values at which the response is calculated, are available from the
Win-SUDS settings, by clicking on the ‘Edit Win-SUDS Settings’ button
in the Response Spectra Dialog window, or from the Settings/SUDS Utilities menu
(see §3.6.5).
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Figure 35. Response Spectra Dialog Window
Figure 36 shows an example of relative displacement response spectra output by
SeisPlus.
Figure 36. Response Spectra output
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3.4.11
JMA Intensity, PGA and Drift Ratio
Computes and displays parameters of interest for structural seismic monitoring:
Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) Seismic Intensity, Peak Ground Acceleration
(PGA), and Building Drift Ratio.
Computation of JMA Seismic Intensity is based on the code written by Y. Hisada
(1997).
The input data file must contain sets of three component acceleration data, e.g.
recorded by different sensors located at different levels of a seismically
instrumented building. JMA Seismic Intensity and PGA values are computed for
all input data channels, up to maximum 9, i.e. 3 sets of three component
acceleration data.
If two sensors are installed on the building, the first one is assumed to be at ground
level (called Grd), and the second at the building top (called Top). If three sensors
are installed on the building, the first one is assumed to be at ground level (called
Grd), the second at the mid level (called Mid), and the third at the building top
(called Top).
The user selection is available from a dialog window as shown in Figure 37.
Figure 37. JMA Intensity, PGA and Drift Ratio Dialog Window
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The list of stations and components, their duration of recording (in seconds) and
sampling rate are displayed for information only. The input time series are
acceleration data typically given in digital counts, to be converted by the program
to gals (cm/sec2) according to the selection from the ‘Instrument
correction’ box:
If the ‘Use calibration parameters’ box is checked, the default option,
the program uses the instrument parameters configured in SeisPlus from the
Settings/Station menu selection (see §3.6.4). When any channels are selected from
the channel list, the calibration parameters for the first selected channel are
displayed, for information purposes only.
Otherwise, e.g. if acceleration data is input in different units than digital counts,
the user can enter in the corresponding edit box in Figure 37 the scaling factor that
the program will use to multiply the input data values to convert them into gals
(cm/sec2) units.
Building Drift Ratio computation can be enabled by checking the ‘Compute
Drift Ratio’ box, and entering in the corresponding edit boxes the building
height (in meters) and the cut-off frequencies (low-pass and high-pass) of the
bandwidth used. Waveforms are filtered using a 4-pole Butterworth band pass
filter with the specified cut-off frequencies, the DC offset is removed, and
acceleration data are double integrated to get displacement.
Depending on the ‘Output format’ box selection in Figure 37, SeisPlus can
output the processing results in detailed or abbreviated form, as shown in Figure
38.
The default option is to use the detailed output, including following parameters
(see Figure 38 top):
•
Event date and time, given as time of the PGA recorded on the first data channel
from file
•
PGA values (in gals), and predominant frequency of the signal recorded on each
component
•
Resultant vector acceleration, i.e. the maximum value over the time series of the
resultant vector of the three component acceleration, for each instrument
•
JMA Seismic Intensity and its corresponding JMA Seismic Intensity Scale value,
for each three component instrument
•
Building Drift Ratio, representing the maximum resultant relative displacement in
horizontal plane between two sensors located at the top and at the ground level of
the building, divided by the building height. The time of the maximum relative
displacement is also output. SeisPlus also outputs the Drift Ratio and time of the
maximum relative displacement for each horizontal component.
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Figure 38. JMA Seismic Intensity and Drift Ratio processing results (detailed, top and
abbreviated, bottom)
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If the abbreviated output is chosen, the following parameters are included (see
Figure 38 bottom):
•
Event date and time, given as time of the PGA recorded on the first data channel
from file
•
JMA Seismic Intensity for the instrument located at the building top level, and the
Resultant vector acceleration recorded at the top instrument (called Top PGA)
•
JMA Seismic Intensity for the instrument located at the building ground level, and
the Resultant vector acceleration recorded at the ground instrument (called Grd
PGA)
•
Maximum JMA Seismic Intensity for the building, representing the maximum of
the JMA Seismic Intensity values determined for all the instruments located on the
building
•
Building Drift Ratio, as explained above.
SeisPlus outputs the processing results to a text file having the same file name as the
initial file but with the extension ‘.jma’, that can be saved to permanent locations
using the Save and Save As menu selections (see §3.1.6 and §3.1.7)
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3.5 Database Menu (if this option is present)
SeisPlus can store the event locations results to a relational database (MySQL), and
provides tools to search the earthquake database and extract data from it as bulletins or
event location reports. Database management tools are provided for database backup,
archive, and maintenance operations.
SeisPlus earthquake database uses the CSS database schema according to IDC
documentation (2001).
SeisPlus earthquake database tools can be configured reading the startup parameters from
the configuration file viewer-opts.conf located in the conf subfolder of the
SeisPlus home folder. The configuration file will contain the location and the name of the
database, and the database user and password.
The database tools execution log messages are stored in the log subfolder of the SeisPlus
folder.
Note: This feature is disabled when using a SeisPlus demo version.
The Database menu (see Figure 39) allows access to the following database functions:
Figure 39. Database Menu
3.5.1 Write location to database
Allows the user to enter the current event location to the SeisPlus database.
This option is available only if a location is available for the current active event,
assuming it was previously obtained e.g. as the result of locating the event with
SeisPlus (see §3.3.7).
The user selection is available from a dialog window as shown in Figure 40.
The selection from the ‘Location type’ box defines if the stored event is local
or distant, while the selection from the ‘Event type’ box defines if the stored
event is an earthquake, a quarry blast, an explosion (man-made event), or
unknown.
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Figure 40. Location Attributes
The user can enter the Event id for storing the location in the SeisPlus database
(for advanced database users only), the recommended and default option being to
use the auto incremented value.
If desired to save more than one location for the same event in the database, one
location has to be identified as the preferred one, by enabling the ‘Preferred
location’ check box. For the preferred location, the user can enter a name (or
comment) in the ‘Event name’ edit box.
When pressing the ‘Write location to DB’ button the location is saved to
the SeisPlus earthquake database, and the status of the write operation (whether
successful or not) is reported.
The DBPlus tool (see below §3.5.2) can be used to inspect the event location entry
in the database.
3.5.2 Run DBPlus
Allows the user to access and manage the earthquake database.
The SeisPlus database tool, DBPlus can search the database for earthquakes,
display the event locations that satisfy the search options, and then extract data in
the form of bulletins or event location reports. Also, DBPlus can perform database
management operations like backup, archive, and maintenance (delete records).
At this menu selection, a dialog window like in Figure 41 is shown, allowing the
selection of the database user: Manager or Operator.
Only the Manager, granted with full access to all database operations, is required
to enter a password. The factory default password stored in the configuration file
is ‘geotech’.
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Figure 41. Database Portal
The Operator account (not password protected) can acess the database using the
DB2Loc interface (Figure 42). The Operator cannot perform database
management operations as Archive Selected Records (Figure 43), Backup Entire
Database, or Delete Selected Records (Figure 44); such selections are presented to
the Operator as inactive.
DB2Loc Interface
DBPlus Graphical User Interface (Figure 42) allows the user to search the
earthquakes database, display the event locations that satisfy the search options,
then extract selected locations in the form of bulletins or event location reports.
The search panel on the left side of the window shows the earthquake search
criteria for the following parameters:
•
Event Magnitude – The user can select the minimum and maximum value allowed
for the event magnitude
•
Event Latitude, Longitude and Depth – The user can specify the geographical area
and depth interval of interest, by selecting the minimum and maximum values
allowed for origin latitude, longitude and depth
•
Event Origin Time - The user can specify a time period of interest, by entering its
start and end time
•
Event Type – The user can choose between Earthquake, Blast, Explosion, or All,
by enabling the respective check box
•
Location Mode – The user can choose between Manual Mode (from SeisPlus),
Automatic Mode (from SMARTQuake®), or Both, by enabling the respective
check box
•
Solution Type – The user can choose to output only Preferred location solutions
(each event having only one preferred location, even if multiple locations are
available for the same event), or All, by enabling the respective check box
When pressing the Search button, the list of event locations found is displayed in
a window with a vertical scroll bar (if needed) at the right of the search panel,
allowing the user to perform multiple event selection. Each location is presented
on one line (using a horizontal scrollbar) with the following event parameters:
Date, Time, Event Type (according to §3.5.1), Magnitude, Magnitude type (for
example, mb), Location type (‘l’ for local, ‘t’ for distant, see §3.5.1), Latitude
(positive for North, negative for South), Longitude (positive for East, negative for
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West), Depth (in kilometers), Location Quality (‘A’, ‘B’, ‘C’ or ‘D’, see §3.6.2),
Event ID (unique identification number associated to each event), Location Status
(‘*’ for preferred location, blank otherwise), Number of Phases used in location,
Number of Stations used in magnitude determination, and name of the Region
where the event is located (see Appendix 4).
When using the default search parameters, all event locations from the database
are listed. Search parameters can be reset to their default values by using the
‘Reset’ button.
Locations can be selected by enabling the individual selection check box on each
location line, or the global Select All check box (selection also available from
the Edit menu).
Then, the selected event locations can be saved to formatted text files by using the
Save Records button.
If the number of location entries found is greater than 100, the user controlled
event selection is not available. Instead, all locations found are selected by default,
and the user has the option to save them to text formatted files. The user can
cancel or confirm this action.
By default, two types of output files are generated, and saved in the dboutput
subfolder of the SeisPlus home folder. From the Option menu, a Catalogue
only selection is available and allows to output only the catalog file.
•
Location file written in SMART format (Appendix 4). This option extracts and
writes to file all parameters found in the database for the selected location,
regenerating the initial location file input into the database with the Write location
to database function (§3.5.1).
There is one file per location named following the SMART-24 specific file naming
convention: file name starting with yyyymmdd_hhMMss, where yyyy=year,
mm=month, dd=day of month, hh=hour, MM=minute, ss=second of the event
origin time, followed by _EvID.evn, where EvID=Event ID and .evn is the
file extension.
•
Catalog file written in a proprierary format (see Appendix 5) based on the SCEDC
catalog format (http://www.data.scec.org/catalog_search/docs/scec_dc.html).
One catalog is output with all selected locations, one location per line and
including the same location parameters as displayed in DB2Loc interface. The
catalog file is named catalogue_yyyy-mm-dd_hhMMss.txt, where
yyyy=year, mm=month, dd=day of month, hh=hour, MM=minute, ss=second of
the file creation time, and .txt is the file extension.
An example of the catalog file is included in Appendix 5.
DBPlus reports the status of executing the Save Records command is shown in
the status bar at the window bottom; if successful, the message Records saved
is printed.
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Archive Selected Records (Move Records)
Allows the database manager to archive selected records of the earthquake
database by moving them to a new database.
A Graphical User Interface as shown in Figure 43 allows the user to search the
earthquakes database, display the event locations that satisfy the search options,
then move selected locations from the initial database to a new database.
The search panel is very similar with the one described for DBPlus, but the
earthquake search criteria are only enabled for the Event Origin Time, while all the
other search options are disabled. For example, all locations for all events occurred
within a calendar year can be archived to a separate database.
The event search, selection and display operations are as described in DBPlus.
Then, the selected event locations can be moved from the initial database to a new
one by using the Move Records button. The user is prompted to enter the new
database name; then a new database with the given name is created if not existing,
and selected records are moved to it. The list of locations left in the initial database
is shown in the display window.
The status of executing the Move Records command is shown in the window
status bar; if successful, the message Records archived is printed.
Backup Entire Database (Copy Records)
Allows the database manager to backup the entire earthquake database by copying
it to a new database.
When selecting this option, the user is prompted to confirm the backup operation
and to enter the new database name; then a new database with the given name is
created if not existing, and the entire content of the current earthquake database is
copied to it. The original database is not altered in any way by this operation.
Warning: No check is made against existing databases; if already existing,
destination database will be overwritten!
Delete Selected Records
Allows the database manager to delete selected records from the earthquake
database.
A Graphical User Interface as shown in Figure 44 allows the user to search the
earthquakes database, display the event locations that satisfy the search options,
then delete selected locations from the database.
The event search, selection and display operations are as described in DBPlus.
Then, the selected event locations can be deleted from the database by using the
Delete Records button. The user is prompted to confirm the operation; then
the selected records are deleted. The list of locations left in the database is shown
in the display window. The status of executing the Delete Records command
is shown in the window status bar; if successful, the message Records
deleted is printed.
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Figure 42. DBPlus DB2Loc window
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Figure 43. DBPlus Archive Selected Records window
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Figure 44. DBPlus Delete Selected Records window
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Left blank intentionally
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3.6 Settings Menu
The Settings menu (see Figure 45) allows the user to configure SeisPlus. Several
submenu selections are available, to control either general purpose settings, or ones
specific to certain data processing modules (e.g. Location):
Figure 45. Settings Menu
3.6.1 General
The user can customize the following SeisPlus General settings (see Figure 46):
•
Default input data folder for reading waveform and phase files, when
selecting the Open or Import commands.
•
Default output data folder for saving waveform and result files, when
selecting the Save, Save As or Export Waveform commands.
•
Maximum number of files in the SeisPlus recent file list (up to 16).
Changing this value becomes effective only at the next program start.
•
Switch to set the event type as local/distant.
•
Switch to display/print waveforms for all traces or for picked traces only.
•
Switch between fixed and variable magnification to display/print
waveforms traces (see see §3.3.3).
•
Switch to set the station naming convention. Select ‘FDSN’ when threecomponent stations use the same station name for all three components.
Select ‘Other’ when unique station/channel names are used and the first
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three characters uniquely identify the station for all three components,
while the fourth character must be different, for example the component
identifier ‘Z’, ‘N’ or ‘E’.
Press OK to save the settings for further use by SeisPlus (to be stored in the file
SeisPlus.ini from the SeisPlus home directory), or Cancel to abandon
changes and keep existing parameters.
Figure 46. SeisPlus General Settings
3.6.2 Location
Select this menu to customize the settings for the location program used to locate
local (§3.3.7) and distant (§3.3.19) events.
SeisPlus uses the robust location program HYPOPLUS (Oncescu et al., 1996). It
applies the Geiger’s iterative method for local and regional event location (up to an
epicentral distance of 11 degrees) and the plane wave method for the distant event
location (between 4 and 98 degrees).
The program includes a ranking of the quality of location, with separate criteria for
local and distant events defined by the user, as well as an association of the
geographic coordinates to the Flinn-Engdahl regions in the output of teleseismic
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locations. The program can read its native phase format SMART or HYPO71
phase format (Lee et al., 1972). The output is in its native format, plus a HYPO71
file in .PRT format when using HYPO71 format as input. The program can
produce and also output station corrections. These are read and/or written from the
files CORR.DAT for the local/regional case and CORRTELE.DAT for the
teleseismic case.
In the iterative location, a scheme is implemented to throw out picks with large
residuals, but trying to bring them back at every new iteration. A scheme for
preventing depth oscillations was also implemented.
HYPOPLUS can use any structure model with constant velocity layers for the
local/regional location case (even with low velocity zones) and can associate the
stations with two different velocity models. Each station can have associated a
different Moho depth and different models are computed as averages for each
epicenter-station pair (attributing to the epicenter the velocity model and Moho
depth of the nearest station). Besides, the program can use different travel time
branches, such as Pn, Pg, P*, Sn, Sg, S* (when using its native input format).
The output contains also the error ellipse parameters, maximum azimuth gap
uncovered by stations, individual station magnitudes, as well as the diagonal
elements of the information density matrix to identify the most influential arrival
times. For the local event case, the program can calculate the duration magnitude
MD or the local magnitude ML.
For the teleseismic locations, the IASP91 travel time tables for a surface focus are
used. Large residuals are thrown out in the plane wave method and a second
inversion is done with the reduced data set. Only standard errors for epicentral
distance, backazimuth and origin time are produced in this case. The output
contains also the individual station magnitudes and the diagonal elements of the
information density matrix. For this case, the program calculates the body wave
magnitude mb.
A Graphical User Interface is provided for easy configuration of the location
program (Figure 47).
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Figure 47. Event Location Settings
After changing/reviewing the parameters from the Location Settings window
(Figure 47), click on Close button to end location configuration.
If the user replies with Save when being prompted whether or not to save the
settings, the SeisPlus configuration is updated and the new parameters are
transported to the corresponding input files for the SeisPlus location module. The
new configuration information is saved in a file called SeisPlus.cfg, and a
copy of the old configuration file is kept in SeisPlus1.cfg.
If option Save As is chosen, the settings are saved to a new configuration file;
you are prompted to enter the desired file name and location. These settings do not
become effective for SeisPlus, but any time later they can be read in and
transported to SeisPlus using the Get Configuration command (see §3.6.8). By this
mechanism, the full configuration can be performed in more that one session.
If, on the other hand, the reply is Don’t Save, the configuration process is
abandoned and no changes are made to the configuration.
The location program parameters and options are the following:
•
The maximum hypocenter adjustment fixes the maximum changes of the
spatial coordinates, in kilometers, at each iteration. The smaller the adjustment, the
greater the number of iterations required to achieve convergence, but helps
convergence for poorly constrained data sets. One tenth of the network “diameter”
is a good value.
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•
The maximum number of iterations limits these iterations. If this
number is achieved without meeting the convergence criteria specified below, the
number of iterations to be printed will be output. The
convergence criterion for hypocenter adjustment and the
convergence criterion for origin-time are respectively tested
against the changes in absolute value of the four hypocenter parameters at each
iteration. If these changes are smaller or equal than the given convergence criteria,
the iteration process is naturally stopped.
•
The default vP/vS ratio is used to compute S-wave travel times (the
velocity input model corresponds to P-waves).
•
Between the maximum epicentral distance with weight 1.0
and the minimum epicentral distance with weight 0.0 a linear
weight will be applied.
•
When the magnitude type for local events is set to ML, an
approximate Wood-Anderson magnitude will be computed (first by deconvolving
the amplitude at the predominant period assuming a 1 Hz seismometer and then by
convolving it with the Wood-Anderson response).
When the magnitude type is set to MD, the duration magnitude will be computed,
according to the formula by Lee et al. (1972) for hypocenter depth less than 33 km
and by Lahr et al. (1974) for greater depths. The MD formula coefficients
(the constant and the coefficients expressing the dependence on the logarithm of
duration and on epicentral distance) for epicenter depth less than 33 km can be set
up by the user in Advanced configuration mode.
For teleseisms, only the body wave magnitude mb is computed.
•
The degree of confidence for the standard error
computation can be set only to 68%, 95% and 99%, corresponding
approximately to one, two or three standard deviations.
•
The maximum residual in station correction computation for
P-waves and S-waves, respectively, limits in absolute value the residuals to be
used when computing station corrections, so that wrong picks will not affect the
station correction values.
•
A switch can be set to fix the hypocenter depth at the value given
below, in kilometers.
•
A switch can be set to do not use S waves when locating the event.
•
A switch can be set to apply distance and azimuth weighting; the
azimuth weighting is implemented as in the program HYPO71 (Lee and Lahr,
1972).
•
A switch can be set to use or not the station corrections from
the file CORR(TELE).DAT, and another one to write or not the
station corrections to the file CORR(TELE).DAT.
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•
The network name can be set (up to 18 characters) to be printed out together
with the location results.
•
A switch can be set to produce a long or short form of location
output on the display; in the first case, the output on the display will pause after
event results.
•
HYPOPLUS can read station list, phase file and write the
results in SMART format (see Appendixes 3 and 4) or it can use other
input/output formats as HYPO71.
Since SeisPlus uses the SMART format, leave this box checked when running
SeisPlus event location. Otherwise, if this box is not checked, the HYPO71 format
is used when running HYPOPLUS as a stand-alone program.
•
The Abs(Res)/Median(Res) are the ratios used to decrease by a factor of
two or to zero, correspondingly, the weights applied to the residuals, for local and
distant events, respectively.
•
The program includes a ranking of the quality of location, also with separate
criteria for local and distant events as defined by the user. In both cases the
ranking ranges between A to D, from best to poorest quality locations.
•
For the local/regional case, the threshold values for the number of
arrivals, rms of residuals, gap in azimuth and the number
of S phases are used to rank the solution.
•
For the teleseismic case, the ranking is done only using the threshold
values of the number of P phases and the rms of
residuals.
3.6.3 Seismic Source Inversion
Select this menu to customize the settings for the seismic source inversion
program (see §3.3.12).
This feature is inactive when using a SeisPlus demo version.
A Graphical User Interface (Figure 48) is provided for easy configuration of the
seismic source inversion program.
After changing/reviewing the parameters from the Seismic Source Inversion
Settings window (Figure 48), click on Close button to end configuration.
If the user replies with Save when being prompted whether or not to save the
settings, the SeisPlus configuration is updated and the new parameters are
transported to the corresponding input files for the SeisPlus seismic source
inversion module. The new configuration information is saved in a file called
SeisPlus.cfg, and a copy of the old configuration file is kept in
SeisPlus1.cfg.
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Figure 48. Seismic Source Inversion Settings
If option Save As is chosen, the settings are saved to a new configuration file;
you are prompted to enter the desired file name and location. These settings do not
become effective for SeisPlus, but any time later they can be read in and
transported to SeisPlus using the Get Configuration command (see §3.6.8). By this
mechanism, the full configuration can be performed in more that one session.
If, on the other hand, the reply is Don’t Save, the configuration process is
abandoned and no changes are made to the configuration.
The seismic source inversion program parameters and options are the following:
•
Maximum P-wave window to compute the displacement
spectrum
Enter duration (in seconds) of the window following the P wave arrivals, to be
used for computing the waveforms spectral amplitudes. Its end time cannot be
later than the S-wave arrival.
For S-waves, the window for computing the spectral amplitudes is two times
longer than for P-waves.
•
Low and high frequency limits
Minimum and maximum values (in Hertz) to limit the frequency band of the
displacement spectrum computed above
•
Maximum residual for phases to be used
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The maximum P-residual (and S-residual), in seconds, limits in absolute value the
location residuals for phases to be used, so that wrong picks will not affect the
inversion results.
•
Maximum weight for phases to be used
The phase weight, given by the picker, ranges between 1 and 4 for very good to
very poor data quality, respectively. The maximum P-weight (and S-weight) limits
the weight of the observations to be used by the program, so that wrong picks will
not affect the inversion results.
•
Clipping parameters
SeisPlus will declare clipped and will not use in the inversion those channels
where at least minimum number of consecutive clipped samples
have amplitudes exceeding the clipping amplitude. This feature is useful
for 16-bit data, less likely to occur on 24-bit data.
•
Coefficient
frequency
in
source
radius
dependence
on
corner
The dependence between the source radius (r) and the corner frequency fc of the Por S-waves spectrum is assumed to follow the relationship: r =
C P,S v S
, where vS
2πf cP ,S
is the S-waves velocity (Brune, 1970). The values of the P- and S-waves constant
coefficients, CP and CS for the chosen source model are entered here.
•
Attenuation parameters
This group of parameters defines the attenuation model used by SeisPlus. The Swaves attenuation is assumed to follow a power law: QS = Q0 f α where QS is the
quality factor, Q0 is the quality factor at the frequency (f) of 1 Hz and α is an
exponent. The values of the parameters Q0 and α can be set differently for
attenuation models corresponding to crustal or deep (≥ 60 km) hypocenters.
The ratio of the P- and S-waves attenuation factors is assumed to be constant and
is another parameter that can be set here (default is 2).
•
Inversion weighting scheme
The inversion module can use: weights for the observed data as those given by the
picker for the P- or S-waves, weights inverse proportional to the observed spectral
amplitudes, combined weights (depending on both picker weights and amplitudes,
the recommended choice) or no weights at all.
•
Enable two-step computation of the source parameters
and errors
The event source parameters (radius, seismic energy, Brune and apparent stress
drop, displacement and seismic moment) are computed as median values over all
observations. Check this box to exclude values outside one sigma interval and to
re-compute the median with the reduced data set.
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•
Check to compute stress and displacement from other
source parameters, otherwise to be determined directly
One can choose to compute the Brune and apparent stress drop and the
displacement from the final source parameters or to determine them directly as
median values of the stations observations.
•
Write out displacement spectra
If this box is checked, the source inversion module outputs the computed
displacement spectra.
They are written in ASCII files, one per observed body-wave phase, named
‘StacoCmpW.dat’, where Staco = station name (maximum 5 characters), Cmp
= component name (maximum 3 characters), W =’P’ or ‘S’ for P- or S-waves,
respectively, and ‘dat’ is the file extension.
•
Station list and location file in SMART format
As well as HYPOPLUS, the source inversion module can use for input/output the
SMART format or it can use other formats as HYPO71 and HYPOPLUS.
Since SeisPlus uses the SMART format, leave this box checked when running
SeisPlus seismic source inversion. Otherwise, if this box is not checked, the
HYPO71 format is used for the station file and the HYPOPLUS format for the
location file when running the seismic source inversion program as a stand-alone
application.
3.6.4 Stations
Use this menu selection to set up the station parameters.
A window with the current stations list is displayed (see Figure 49) where stations
can be configured, added to or removed from the list.
To configure a station, select it with the mouse and click on the Edit button. By
default, the first station is selected. Another window is displayed for customizing
parameters of the chosen station and all its components, as shown in Figure 50.
To add a new station to the list, just click on the Add button. A similar window
will open allowing entering the parameters for the new station, starting from
default values given by the configuration of the last selected station or (by default)
of the first station in the list. Change the default values as needed, starting with the
station name. Press Cancel to abandon adding the new station, or any other
button to save it.
To delete a station from the list, select it with the mouse and then click on the
Delete button. Confirmation is required before removing the station from list.
Use the Close button to end station configuration. A dialog window is displayed,
asking whether or not to save SeisPlus settings. If the reply is Save the
configuration is updated in all control files, and the user is informed that SeisPlus
has been configured. The new configuration information is saved to the file called
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SeisPlus.cfg, and a copy of the old configuration file is kept in
SeisPlus1.cfg, both located in the Seisplus home folder.
If option Save As is chosen, the settings are saved to a new configuration file;
the user is prompted to enter the desired file name and location. These settings do
not become effective for SeisPlus, but any time later they can be read in and
transported to SeisPlus using the Get Configuration command (see §3.6.8). By
this, the full configuration can be performed in more that one session. If, on the
other hand, the reply is Don’t Save, the configuration process is abandoned and
no changes are made to the configuration parameters.
Figure 49. Station List
Station Settings
Station information (and velocity models) can be entered directly in SeisPlus, or
imported from HYPO71 and SEISAN formatted files (see §3.6.9).
Station parameters can be entered, changed or reviewed from the Station Settings
window (Figure 50). When finished click OK to keep the newly entered values or
click Cancel to keep the default values. In either case the station list window is
displayed next, with the option to select another station to be configured or to close
station configuration. Or, you may click on Next to keep the newly entered values
and go to the next station in the list, or on Back to keep the newly entered values
and go to the previous station in the list.
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Figure 50. Station Settings
The following station parameters can be configured:
Station Name
The name of the station, up to five characters (left justified).
When FDSN station name convention is used, three-component stations use the
same station name for all three components.
However, this is not possible when input data are in the old 16-bit SUDS format
without support for long station/component identifiers (version older than 1.51),
where unique station/channel names (up to four characters) are required. In this
case, enter in this field the channel name and make sure that its first three
characters uniquely identify the station for all three components, while the fourth
character must be different, for example the component identifier ‘Z’, ‘N’ or ‘E’.
Also, deselect the use of FDSN station name convention under General Settings
(see §3.6.1).
Latitude
Enter station latitude in degrees. Check the box below if the site is in the southern
hemisphere.
Longitude
Enter station longitude in degrees. Check the box below if the site is in the western
hemisphere.
Elevation
Station elevation in meters.
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Moho depth
Depth of the Mohorovicic discontinuity under the station, in kilometers. This
value, if present, and if its use is enabled in the velocity model configuration
window (lower right corner, see §3.6.6), will replace, for this station only, the
Mohorovicic depth value from the generic velocity model.
Component Parameters
Several components (typically three, one vertical and two horizontals) can be
associated to one station. Any station component can be selected from the
Component name list box, and its parameters are displayed in the Component
section of the Station Settings window (Figure 50).
Component Name
The component descriptor is up to three characters (left justified). For processing
purposes, vertical components will be recognized by the presence of the character
‘V’ or ‘Z’ (uppercase or lowercase) in the component name, and horizontal
components oriented on the North-South or East-West direction by the presence of
the character ‘N’ or ‘E’ (uppercase or lowercase), respectively, in the component
name. When input data are in the old 16-bit SUDS format without support for long
station/component identifiers (version earlier than 1.51), the component descriptor
has one single character.
To change a component’s name, select it from the list and click Edit. A dialog
window opens to allow editing the name. Press OK to keep the new component
name or Cancel to keep the default. To add a new component, click on the Add
button. A dialog window is displayed to allow entering the component name.
Change the default component name (‘NEW’) and press OK to accept it. To delete
an existing component, select it with the mouse and click on the Delete button.
Confirmation will be required before removing the component.
All the following parameters are associated with the component; they can be
changed independently for every station’s component (data channel).
Instrument Parameters
Instrument parameters are used by SeisPlus for magnitude (ML or mb)
determination and source parameters inversion.
Sensor Sensitivity
Sensitivity of the sensor in Volts/(meters/sec) or Volts/(meters/sec2), at the
calibration period (real number). Check the box below if the sensor is an
accelerometer; otherwise a velocity sensor is assumed.
Natural Period
Enter the natural period of the seismometer in seconds (real number). Check the
box below if the station is broad band.
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Damping
Enter the fraction of critical damping (real number).
LSB
Digitizer LSB bit weight, corrected by any gain applied, in microVolts/digital
counts (real number).
Calibration Period
Calibration period in seconds (real number).
Based on the parameters above as entered by the user, the system sensitivity in
nanometers/digital count is computed and displayed, for information purpose only.
3.6.5 SUDS Utilities
Select this menu to customize the settings of several SUDS Utilities programs used
by SeisPlus for waveform picking, display and printing.
This window allows editing the current configuration file of the SUDS Utilities
programs, sudsutil.ini, using the Windows editor Notepad. This file
contains already the printer settings as previously defined in the Print Waveforms
Setup menu (see §3.1.14). Make any desired changes to this file and save them for
future use by the SUDS Utilities programs.
3.6.6 Velocity Model
The velocity model (and station information) can be directly entered in SeisPlus,
or imported from HYPO71 and SEISAN formatted files (see §3.6.9).
This menu allows setting up the P-waves 1-D velocity model used by the location
program and by the seismic source inversion program. A window as shown in
Figure 51 is displayed.
Each row corresponds to one layer of constant velocity; maximum 20 layers can be
input. Velocity inversions are allowed.
The parameters to be entered are the layer thickness in kilometers, the Pwave velocity in km/sec, and the layer density in kg/m3. The layer
density is a parameter used only by the seismic source inversion module, and if
this feature is not used the corresponding field may be left empty.
Indicate the layer below the Mohorovicic discontinuity by
checking the box corresponding to that layer on the right.
Warning: The Mohorovicic discontinuity has to be marked in the model by
checking the appropriate box in order for the location program to run
properly.
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Figure 51. Velocity Model
Check the box below the velocity model to use station dependent
Mohorovicic depth values, as entered in the Station Settings windows, to
replace the Mohorovicic depth value given in this model.
After entering the parameters, click on Close to end configuration.
A dialog window will be displayed, asking whether or not to save SeisPlus
settings. If the reply is Save, then the SeisPlus configuration is updated and the
new velocity model is transported to the corresponding SeisPlus input files. A
window is shown, informing that SeisPlus has been configured; the new
configuration information is saved in a file called SeisPlus.cfg, and a copy of
the old configuration file is kept in SeisPlus1.cfg.
If option Save As is chosen, the settings are saved to a new configuration file;
you are prompted to enter the desired file name and location. These settings do not
become effective for SeisPlus, but any time later they can be read in and
transported to SeisPlus using the Get Configuration command (see §3.6.8). By this
mechanism, the full configuration can be performed in more that one session.
If, on the other hand, the reply is Don’t Save, the configuration process is
abandoned and no changes are made to the velocity model.
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3.6.7 ShakeMap (if this option is present)
This menu selection allows the user to customize the settings of SMARTShake
Strong Motion Data Processing software module for generating Shake Maps, if
this option is present in SeisPlus (see §3.3.15).
SMARTShake parameters can be entered, changed or reviewed from the
ShakeMap Settings window (Figure 52). When finished, click OK to keep the
newly entered values or click Cancel to keep the default values and ignore
parameter changes done in this configuration session.
Figure 52. ShakeMap Settings
The following SMARTShake parameters can be configured (Figure 52):
•
Enable maps on-screen display
Check this box to enable the display of generated Shake Maps on the screen. If this
option is disabled the maps are saved to files only, and no plots are shown on
screen.
•
ShakeMaps boundary condition
Set up a reference position, typically the center of the stations network or of the
epicenter area, and enter its Latitude and Longitude coordinates in the appropriate
fields. Also enter the distance (in degrees) relative to the reference position, along
both Latitude and Longitude directions, at which to zero PGA and Intensity values
when computing the Shake Maps.
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•
Output Intensity ShakeMaps
Check this box to enable production of Intensity Shake Maps. By default, only
PGA Shake Maps are produced.
•
Relationship between Intensity and PGA
Intensity values are determined from the acceleration (PGA) values assuming a
linear dependence of the intensity on the logarithm of the acceleration (given in
units of cm/sec2). The formula’s coefficients can be set by the user.
•
Output Filtered PGA ShakeMaps
Check this box to enable production of Filtered PGA (FPGA) Shake Maps. By
default, only PGA Shake Maps are produced.
•
Filter Cut-off
Enter the band-pass filter cut-off frequencies (in Hertz) in the Low Frequency
and High Frequency fields. The filter is a 4-pole Butterworth band-pass filter
applied in the time domain in the forward direction. Enter ‘0’ for the low or high
frequency values to apply only high-pass or only low-pass filtering. SMARTShake
uses these parameters for filtering the data before determining the maximum
FPGA values for generating the Filtered PGA maps.
3.6.8 Get Configuration
Select this menu to configure SeisPlus from a native configuration file (like
previously saved by SeisPlus). A file selection dialog box is displayed allowing
the user to choose the input file name and location. SeisPlus reads the settings
from the selected configuration file and transports them to all program’s control
files. A window is shown, informing that SeisPlus has been configured; the current
configuration information is saved in a file called SeisPlus.cfg, and a copy of
the old configuration file is kept in SeisPlus1.cfg, both located in SeisPlus
home folder.
3.6.9 Import Stations and Velocity Model
Imports stations coordinates and velocity model from other formats than the native
SMART format (see Appendix 3). A file selection dialog box is displayed
allowing the user to choose the input file. SeisPlus appends the stations from the
input list to its current stations list, and replaces its velocity model with the newly
input one. The new settings are transported to all control files. A window is shown,
informing that SeisPlus has been configured; the new configuration information is
saved in a file called SeisPlus.cfg, and a copy of the old configuration file is
kept in SeisPlus1.cfg, both located in SeisPlus home folder. The following
input formats are supported:
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HYPO71 Format
The HYPO71 format for station list and velocity model (Lee and Lahr, 1972). The
input file can have any name or extension (default extension is .dat).
SEISAN Format
The SEISAN format for station list and velocity model (Havskov and Ottemöller,
2001). The input file can have any name or extension (default extension is .hyp).
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3.7 View Menu
The View menu allows displaying waveform information and processing results, and
selection of the visible tool and status bars (Figure 53):
Figure 53. View Menu
3.7.1 Waveform Info
Select this menu to display information on the waveform file content (Figure 54).
The displayed window shows the list of all data channels present in the data file,
and for each one the network, station and component names, time window, sample
rate, one character each for describing the sensor type and motion type (‘v’ for
velocity, ‘a’ for acceleration and ‘d’ for displacement) and one character for data
units (‘d’ for digital counts, ‘v’ for millivolts, ‘n’ for nanometers (/sec or /sec2)).
Figure 54. Waveform Info Window
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SeisPlus v4.7 User’s Guide
3.7.2 Location
View the content of the location results file (Figure 55).
The displayed window shows the location output (location parameters with phase
information) and the seismic source inversion output (see also Appendix 4).
Figure 55. Location Results Window
3.7.3 Main Toolbar
Check/uncheck this menu to show/hide the Main Toolbar.
3.7.4 Math Toolbar
Check/uncheck this menu to show/hide the disgital signal processing (Math)
Toolbar.
3.7.5 Status Bar
Check/uncheck this menu to show/hide the Status Bar.
Acknowledgement. Optionally, for epicenter map plotting, SeisPlus uses GMT v3.4.3
(Wessel and Smith, 2003), NetCDF v3.5.0 (University Corporation for Atmospheric
Research/Unidata, 2001), GNU Awk v3.0.3 and GNU Ghostscript v7.06 (Free Software
Foundation, 1997, 2003), TerrainBase (National Geophysical Data Center) and GTOPO30
(U.S. Geological Survey), as well as a license of GSview v4.6 by Ghostgum Software
(2003).
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SeisPlus v4.7 User’s Guide
4 References
Banfill, R., 1999. PC-SUDS Utilities Version 2.60, Banfill Software Engineering, Big
Water, Utah, 180p.
Banfill, R., 2003. Win-SUDS Utilities Version 2.90, Banfill Software Engineering,
Valdez, Alaska, 7p.
Brune, J.N., 1970. Tectonic stress and the spectra of seismic shear waves from
earthquakes. J. Geophys. Res., 75, 4997-5009.
Ebel, J.E., Bonjer, K.-P., 1990. Moment tensor inversion of small earthquakes in
southwestern Germany for the fault plane solution. Geophys. J. Int., 101, 133-146.
Geotech Instruments, 2008. SMART-24 Series Data Digitizer Model SMART-24D®,
Data Recorder Model SMART-24R®, Strong Motion Data Recorder Model SMART24A®, and Borehole Data Digitizer Model SMART-24B User’s Manual, Version 2.5,
Dallas, Texas, 318p.
GSETT-2, 1990. Ad hoc group of scientific experts to consider international cooperative
measures to detect and identify seismic events - Conference Room Paper 190/Rev.4,
‘Instructions for the conduct of the preparatory test of phase 3 of GSETT-2’, Sept. 1990,
Geneva, Switzerland.
Havskov, J. and Ottemöller, L., 2003. SEISAN: The Earthquake Analysis Software,
Version 8.0, University of Bergen, Norway, British Geological Survey, UK, 250 p.
International Data Center, 2001. Database Schema – Revision 3, IDC-5.1.1Rev3, 412p.
Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS), 1993. Standard for the
Exchange of Earthquake Data (SEED), Reference Manual, 205 p.
Lahr, J.C., Page, R.A. and Thomas, J.A., 1974. Catalogue of earthquakes in South Central
Alaska, April-June 1972. USGS Open-File Report 74-648, 75p.
Lee, W.H.K. and Lahr, J.C., 1972. HYPO71: A computer program for determining
hypocenter, magnitude, and first motion pattern of local earthquakes. U. S. Geological
Survey Open File Report, 100p.
Oncescu, M.C. and Bonjer, K.P., 1997. A note on the depth recurrence and strain release
of large Vrancea earthquakes, Tectonophysics, 272, p. 291-302.
Oncescu, M.C., Camelbeeck, T. and Martin, H., 1994. A note on the foreshock of the
1992 Roermond earthquake, the Netherlands, Geologie en Mijnbouw, 73, p. 229-233.
Oncescu, M.C. and Rizescu, M., 1994. Conversion program package for seismological
digital data on PCs. Computer & Geosciences, 20, p. 193-196.
Oncescu, M.C., Rizescu, M. and Bonjer, K.P., 1996. SAPS - A completely automated and
networked seismological acquisition and processing system. Computer & Geosciences,
22, p. 89-97.
Oncescu, M.C. and Rizescu, M., 1997. CONVSEIS v4.7 - Conversion program package
for seismological data on PCs, IASPEI Software Shareware Library, Karlsruhe, 63p.
89
SeisPlus v4.7 User’s Guide
Rizescu, M., 1999. A completely automated system for seismological data acquisition,
processing and exchange, PhD Thesis, Institute for Atomic Physics, Bucuresti, 219 p.
Sandia National Laboratories, 2002. National Nuclear Security Administration
Knowledge Base Core Table Schema Document, 70 p.
Tapley, W.C. and Tull, J.E., 1991. SAC - Seismic Analysis Code: User’s manual, Rev.3,
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California.
Wahlström, R., 1975. A Computer Program for Localization of Regional Seismic Events.
Seismological Institute Uppsala, Sweden, Report No. 10-75.
Ward, P., 1989. SUDS - Seismic Unified Data System. USGS Open-File Report 89-188,
Denver, Colorado.
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SeisPlus v4.7 User’s Guide
5 Appendix 1 – Installation of third-party software used
by SeisPlus (if Mapping option is present)
Optionally, for epicenter map plotting, SeisPlus uses the same third-party software as
SMARTQuake®, the SMART Series Automated Earthquake Data Processor.
Geotech recommends that SeisPlus and SMARTQuake® run on different computers, so
that interactive operations will not interfere with automated data processing. However, if
SeisPlus runs on the same machine with SMARTQuake®, and this third-party software
was already installed and customized for use with SMARTQuake®, SeisPlus is ready to
use it and this section can be skipped.
5.1 The Generic Mapping Tools (GMT)
5.1.1 GMT Installation
For information on obtaining and installing the GMT software, visit the GMT web
site http://gmt.soest.hawaii.edu.
The GMT package is available via anonymous ftp from several servers; from any
of them (e.g. SOEST, Dept of Geology & Geophysics, Honolulu, Hawaii)
download the archives for Windows (*.zip files):
GMT_exe.zip
GMT_full.zip
GMT_high.zip
GMT_man.zip
GMT_pdf.zip
GMT_progs.zip
GMT_ps.zip
GMT_scripts.zip
GMT_share.zip
GMT_suppl.zip
GMT_suppl_exe.zip
GMT_tut.zip
GMT_web.zip
Install GMT by uncompressing all the archives to the folder c:\gmt, preserving
the original directory structure.
5.1.2 GMT Customization
GTOPO30 digital elevation models and customized GMT configuration files for
your geographical region of interest can be distributed by the factory on the
SeisPlus distribution CD.
From the root directory of this distribution CD, uncompress the archive file ‘gmt
dem.zip’. When prompted, enter the destination directory to unpack all files as
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SeisPlus v4.7 User’s Guide
‘c:\gmt’ and confirm overwriting the file grdraster.info. This procedure
will install all files necessary to the GMT directory c:\gmt\share\dbase.
5.2 NetCDF
The precompiled NetCDF library for Windows is needed by GMT. It is also available on
the GMT ftp sites. Download the file: Netcdf-3.5.0.win32bin.zip. Install
NetCDF by uncompressing this archive to the target folder c:\netcdf.
5.3 GNU awk
The GMT scripts utilize GNU awk that is also available from all GMT ftp sites.
Download the file: gawk303x.zip. Install GAWK by uncompressing the zip archive to
the folder c:\gnu.
5.4 Ghostscript
For information on obtaining and installing the Ghostscript software, visit the web site
http://www.cs.wisc.edu/~ghost. Download the latest GNU Ghostscript software release
for Windows (version 7.06 or later), from any of the linked GNU distribution sites, for
example ftp://mirror.cs.wisc.edu/pub/mirrors/ghost/gnu. To install the software, run the
self-extractable archive and accept the default settings during the setup.
5.5 System environment variables
From Control Panel/System Properties/Advanced/Environment Variables, set the
following new System Variables:
Variable
Value
GMTHOME
NETCDF
c:\gmt
c:\netcdf
Also, edit the following existing System Variables and add the values:
Variable
Value to add
INCLUDE
LIB
PATH
%NETCDF%\INCLUDE
%NETCDF%\LIB;%GMTHOME%\LIB
c:\gmt\bin;c:\netcdf\bin;c:\gnu\bin;
c:\Program Files\Ghostgum\gsview
5.6 GSview
For information on obtaining and installing the GSview software, visit the web site
http://www.cs.wisc.edu/~ghost.
A license for GSview is provided on the Geotech’s SeisPlus CD. To install the software,
run the self-extractable archive ‘gsv46w32.exe’ and accept the default settings during
the setup. Run GSView and, when seeing the registration reminder, select Register Now
and enter registration details provided by Geotech together with SeisPlus license key.
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6 Appendix 2 – Manual Phase Picking
SeisPlus interactive phase picking uses a modified version of SUDSPick 2.x program
(Banfill, 1999).
It can be used to pick P and S phases arrival times and amplitudes, as well as coda
duration, on multiple components. It also offers options to apply user defined Butterworth
filters and rotation of horizontal components.
This Appendix describes how to use the phase picker. This description is based on the
SUDSPick Chapter in the PC-SUDS Utilities Manual (Banfill, 1999).
6.1 Using the Phase Picker
The phase picker main window is shown in Figure 56.
It is divided into three regions; the upper region that contains the data file waveforms in
their entirety, the menu bar that can be pointed to invoke commands and the lower portion
that displays an adjustable (zoom) window onto one of the waveforms in the upper
portion.
The phase picker displays on the same window three-component sets when so defined in
the SUDS file structures, or just one data component otherwise. Seisplus provides tools to
associate channels ino three-component sets, and to clear associated channels (see §3.3.1,
§3.2.4).
Figure 56. SeisPlus phase picker window.
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6.2 Window movement
Move the mouse cursor into the upper portion of the display. Place the cursor on a
waveform at the desired position of the left side of the window. Press the left mouse
button. Then move the cursor to the desired position of the right side of the window and
again press the mouse button.
Pressing the Home or End keys will move the window to the previous or next waveform
in the set.
Once the window is adjusted to the position of interest phases are picked in the lower
portion of the display.
6.3 Picking phases
Move the mouse cursor into the lower portion of the screen. Place the cursor at the
position of the pick and then press the left mouse button or spacebar.
P, S or Coda phases may be picked by moving the cursor onto the menu bar on the
respective selection and pressing the mouse button, or by pressing the P, S or C keys.
Once the phase type is selected the user is prompted to enter its weight, or to press D to
delete the pick. Uncertainty bars are displayed in the lower portion of the screen; their size
is controlled by settings in the .INI file (see below). A weight of 0 always means the
uncertainty is within the sampling period. The first bar is the 1 weight uncertainty; the
second is for a weight of 2, and so on.
After picking a weight the user is prompted for the direction of first motion and then the
onset. These prompts again may be answered by selecting menu items with the mouse, by
pressing the first letter key or pressing return to leave them unchanged and continuing.
A pick may be deleted by moving the cursor onto the waveform in the upper or lower
portion of the display and pressing D. The user is prompted for which pick to clear: P, S
or Coda. Press the P, S, C or Escape key in response. All related phase information,
including pick time and amplitude, will be deleted.
6.4 Picking Amplitudes
SeisPlus picking program allows the user to pick the P or S phase peak-to-peak amplitude
and period. The user is requested to select the peak maximum and minimum positions.
The program determines the peak-to-peak amplitude from the difference of the two
measured amplitudes, and the period as the double of the time difference of the two
measured times (seeFigure 57).
To pick amplitudes, first move the cursor in the lower portion of the window. Position the
cursor on the top of the peak to be measured and press the left mouse button. The phase
amplitude may be picked by moving the cursor onto the menu bar and selecting with the
mouse the Ampl function or by pressing the A key. Once the amplitude pick is selected
the user is prompted to indicate the position of the next minimum. Position the cursor on
the minimum and press the left mouse button. Next the user is prompted to indicate if the
amplitude pick refers to a P or to an S phase. The P phase is chosen by pressing the left
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SeisPlus v4.7 User’s Guide
mouse button or the P key, and the S phase by pressing the right mouse button or the S
key. The peak-to-peak amplitude and period are displayed in the bottom part of the
window.
A
T/2
Figure 57. Determination of the peak-to-peak amplitude (A) and period (T).
6.5 Navigating the data file
The user may move to the previous or next set of waveforms in the data file by moving
the cursor to the Prev or Next buttons on the menu bar and pressing the mouse button,
or by pressing the Page Up or Page Down key, respectively.
The user may move to the first or last set of waveforms in the data file by pressing the F
or L key, respectively.
The user may navigate to the waveforms of any station in the data file by moving the
cursor to the Jump button on the menu bar and pressing the mouse button, or by pressing
the J key. A table of available stations in the data file is presented, and one can simply
choose the desired one by moving the cursor onto it and pressing the mouse button or
spacebar. This table may contain several pages, represented by the PrevPg and NextPg
buttons. The Close button allows the user to return to the main menu bar without change
(equivalent to pressing Escape key).
With the cursor in the lower portion of the window, press T or the mouse right button to
display cursor time and amplitude.
6.6 Filters
The .INI file contains parameters for high and low pass Butterworth filters (see below).
These filters may be applied to the waveforms at any time. You may toggle these filters
on and off by moving the cursor to the Filt button on the menu bar and pressing the
mouse button or by pressing the F2 function key.
6.7 Rotation
When working with orthogonal three component data with valid channel sets and
component orientations supplied in the SUDS data file, the program can rotate the
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SeisPlus v4.7 User’s Guide
horizontal components into any arbitrary azimuth. This is accomplished by choosing the
Rotate button from the menu bar or pressing the F3 function key. A dialog box will
prompt you for the desired azimuth and then rotate the second component into this
azimuth. The third component is rotated as well and is assumed to be perpendicular to the
second. The orientation data to the left of the waveforms in the upper portion of the screen
will reflect this rotation.
6.8 INI file entries
The following is an example of the [2.X_SUDSPick] section of the file
SUDSUTIL.INI. It represents all of the entries recognized by the program. These
settings can be accessed from SeisPlus Settings under the Win-SUDS menu selection (see
§3.6.6).
[2.X_SUDSPICK]
; Entries for SUDSPICK 2.0 or later.
; Maximum number of samples to read per trace.
Maximum_Samples = 16000000
; Baseline length in seconds.
Baseline = 1.0
; Filter(s) below On or Off by default, can be toggled on menu.
Filter = Off
; Length of cosine taper at start of waveform when filtering in seconds
Taper = 3.0
; Low pass filter corner frequency in Hz.
Low_Pass_Corner = 10.0
; Low pass filter poles (1 pole = 6 dB per octave, value will be rounded
; up to the nearest factor of 2, range: 2-10).
; Set to 0 to disable filter.
Low_Pass_Poles = 4
; High pass filter corner frequency in Hz.
High_Pass_Corner = 0.1
; High pass filter poles (1 pole = 6 dB per octave, value will be rounded
; up to the nearest factor of 2, range: 2-10).
; Set to 0 to disable filter.
High_Pass_Poles = 0
; 75% (1 weight) timing uncertainty in seconds.
1_Weight_Uncertainty = 0.05
; 50% (2 weight) uncertainty = 75% (1 weight) uncertainty times this value, etc.
Uncertainty_Multiplier = 2.0
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7 Appendix 3 - The HYPOPLUS Program Input Files
7.1 Phase File
The phase file in SMART format has the following content (one station entry per line,
maximum 1200 arrival times from up to 600 stations):
Col. 1-5:
Col. 6-8:
Col. 10:
Col. 11:
Col. 12:
Col. 14-21:
Col. 23-24:
Col. 25-26:
Col. 27-32:
Col. 33-34:
Col. 35:
Col. 37:
Col. 38:
Col. 40-41:
Col. 42-47:
Col. 48-49:
Col. 50:
Col. 54-57:
Col. 59-66:
Col. 68-70:
station code (A5)
channel code (A3)
‘P’ for P arrivals information to follow (A1)
sign of P wave arrival (A1)
quality of P wave arrival (A1)
P arrival date as YYYYMMDD, where YYYY=year, MM=month,
DD=day of month;
hour of P wave arrival (I2)
minute of P wave arrival (I2)
second of P wave arrival (F6.3)
branch of P wave arrival; 0 = first arrival; 1 = direct wave; >0 = # of
interface along which the wave was refracted; <0 = # of interface at which
the wave was reflected (I2)
weight of P wave arrival; 0 = 1; 1 = 0.75; 2 = 0.5; 3 = 0.25; 4 = 0 (I1)
‘S’ for S arrivals information to follow (A1);
quality of S wave arrival (A1)
minute of S wave arrival (I2)
second of S wave arrival (F6.3)
branch of S wave arrival; see above col. 33-34 (I2)
weight of S wave arrival (I1)
duration of record in seconds (I4)
maximum amplitude of record in counts (F8.0)
and its corresponding period in sec (F3.0) (to be used in magnitude
computation, or, if zero, the seismometer natural period for a SP station or
the value of 1 second for a BB station will be used instead)
Only on the last line (required to mark end of phase list, may be empty):
Col. 71-73:
Col. 74-78:
Col. 80:
Col. 81:
Col. 83-84:
Col. 85:
an independent magnitude, only to be printed in the output (F3.0)
if different from zero (which means blank), fixes the depth at this value; it
overwrites the switches in HYPOPLUS.CNF, but it is overwritten by the
command line options (F5.0)
if different from zero (which means blank), inhibits the use of S wave; it
overwrites the switches in HYPOPLUS.CNF, but it is overwritten by the
command line options (I1)
if different from zero (which means blank), means explosion and fixes the
depth of event to zero; it is notified in the output file (A1)
if different from zero (which means blank), gives the degree part of latitude
to fix the epicenter (I2)
N or S (A1)
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SeisPlus v4.7 User’s Guide
Col. 86-90:
if different from zero (which means blank), gives the minute part with
decimals of the latitude to fix the epicenter (F5.2)
Col. 92-94: if different from zero (which means blank), gives the degree part of
longitude to fix the epicenter (I3)
Col. 95:
E or W (A1)
Col. 96-100: if different from zero (which means blank), gives the minute part with
decimals of the longitude to fix the epicenter (F5.2)
7.2 Station List File
The file LIST.DAT has the following format (one station entry per line, up to 600
stations):
Col. 2-6:
Col. 7-9:
Col. 10-17:
Col. 18:
Col. 19-27:
Col. 28:
Col. 29-32:
Col. 33:
Col. 34-38:
Col. 39-43:
Col. 44-47:
Col. 48-51:
Col. 52-56:
Col. 57-61:
Col. 62-69:
Col. 70:
Col. 71-75:
Col. 76-80:
station code (A5)
channel code (A3)
station latitude in degrees (F8.5)
‘N’ or ‘S’ (A1)
station longitude in degrees (F9.5)
‘E’ or ‘W’ (A1)
elevation, in meters above sea level (I4)
number of the velocity model to be used for that station (I1)
vP/vS ratio for that station (F5.2)
surface velocity under that station in km/sec (F5.2)
Moho depth under that station in km (F4.1)
magnitude correction for that station (F4.1)
seismometer natural period if the station is short-period or -1. if the station
is broad band (F5.2)
calibration period (F5.2)
gain for that station in counts/nm at calper (F8.2)
S wave switch for that station, 0=do not use, 1=use (I1)
P wave station delay in sec (F5.2) - overwritten by the entry in col. 15-20 in
the file CORR.DAT or CORRTELE.DAT
S wave station delay in sec (F5.2) - overwritten by the entry in col. 35-40 in
the file CORR.DAT.
Other optional parameters (not used by HYPOPLUS):
Col. 82-88: Station attenuation quality factor at 1 Hz (F7.2)
Col. 90-94: Station-dependent frequency exponent of attenuation (F5.2)
Col. 95-102: Sensor sensitivity in Volts/(meters/sec) or Volts/(meters/sec2) at calibration
period (F8.2)
Col. 104:
Motion type, velocity ’v’ or acceleration ’a’ (a1)
Col. 106-113: Digitizer LSB in µVolts/count (F8.5)
7.3 Station Corrections File
The file CORR.DAT or CORRTELE.DAT has the following format (one station entry per
line, up to 600 stations):
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SeisPlus v4.7 User’s Guide
Col. 1-5:
Col. 6-8:
Col. 15-20:
Col. 35-40:
Col. 58-62:
station code (A5)
channel code (A3)
P wave station correction in sec (F6.2)
S wave station correction in sec (F6.2)
magnitude station correction (F5.2)
7.4 Velocity Model File
The file MODEL.DAT has the following format (the two models must have the same total
number of layers; one layer entry per line, maximum 20 layers):
Col. 1-10:
Col. 11-20:
Col. 21-30:
Col. 31-40:
Col. 41-50:
Col. 51-60:
Col. 61-62:
Col. 72:
layer thickness in km for the first (default) model (F10.2)
layer P wave velocity in km/sec for the first (default) model (F10.2)
layer density in kg/m3 for the first (default) model (F10.2) (optional, not
used by HYPOPLUS)
layer thickness in km for the second model (F10.2)
layer P wave velocity in km/sec for the second model (F10.2)
layer density in kg/m3 for the second model (F10.2) (optional, not used by
HYPOPLUS)
designation of the Moho interface just above as ‘Pn’ (A2)
set to ‘1’ to use station dependent depth of the Moho interface as read from
file list.dat, instead of the Moho depth read from this file (A1)
7.5 Configuration File
The file HYPOPLUS.CNF defines the following parameters:
50.
20
99
0.3
0.1
1.5
3.
150.
600.
0
1.75
1
95
n
n
n
2
n
10.
-.87 2. .0035
3. 5.
1. 3.
!Maximum hypocenter adjustment (km)
!Maximum number of iterations
!Number of iterations to be printed if convergence is not
achieved
!Convergence criterion for hypocenter adjustments (km)
!Convergence criterion for origin time adjustment (sec)
!Maximum P-residual in station correction computation (sec)
!Maximum S-residual in station correction computation (sec)
!Maximum epicentral distance with weight 1 (km)
!Minimum epicentral distance with weight 0 (km)
!Flag for magnitude computation:0=MD (duration);1=ML (MWA) or
mb
!Default VP/VS ratio
! 1,0 to output or not long location, to stop or not after
event end in manual mode
!68,95 or 99 (percent probability for std. error computation)
!'y'=
Use
initial
station
corrections
from
file
CORR(TELE).DAT
!'y'= Write station corrections in file CORR(TELE).DAT
!'y','Y','w' or 'W' = Apply distance and azimuth weighting
!'0','1' or '2' to use HYPOPLUS, HYPO71 or SMART format
!'y'= Fix depth at the value that follows in the next line:
!Value to fix depth if previous field is 'y' or 'Y' (in km)
!MD formula coefficients (constant, dependence on log(t), and
on delta) for crustal events (H<33km)
!Abs(Res)/Median(Res)
to
half
or
zero
the
weight,
respectively (LOCAL)
!Abs(Res)/Median(Res)
to
half
or
zero
the
weight,
respectively (TELE)
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SeisPlus v4.7 User’s Guide
6
0.4 180
1
5
0.4 180
1
5
1.0 270
0
6
0.2
5
0.2
5
0.4
My_Network
!Threshold values for no. phases, RMS(Res), azimuth gap, no.
S phases, for quality Q=A local ev.
!Threshold values for no. phases, RMS(Res), azimuth gap, no.
S phases, for quality Q=B local ev.
!Threshold values for no. phases, RMS(Res), azimuth gap, no.
S phases, for quality Q=C local ev.
!Threshold values for no. phases and RMS(Res), for quality
Q=A, distant events
!Threshold values for no. phases and RMS(Res), for quality
Q=B, distant events
!Threshold values for no. phases and RMS(Res), for quality
Q=C, distant events
!Network-ID (max. 18 characters)
7.6 Batch Mode Operation
The HYPOPLUS program supports batch mode operation. Run the program from the
command prompt with the ‘?’ argument in the command line, to get on-line help and a list
of supported options.
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8 Appendix 4 - The HYPOPLUS Program Output Files
HYPOPLUS program applies different location methods for locating local/regional and
distant events: Geiger’s iterative method for local and regional events, and plane wave
method for distant events.
The location files contain the location output for both event types, with similar data
format and some differences as outlined below. Wherever not explicitly stated, the
description of the fields below applies for both local and distant events case. Examples of
location files for a local and distant event are given in Figure 58 and Figure 59,
respectively.
The location file in SMART format has the following content:
Line 1:
Col. 2-19:
Col. 24-25:
Col. 27-58:
Col. 60-61:
Col. 62:
Col. 65-78:
network name (A18)
‘>>’ (A2)
name of the world region where the epicenter is located (A32)
‘Q=’ (A2)
location quality (‘A’, ‘B’, ‘C’ or ‘D’) (A1)
‘Automatic mode’ or ‘ Manual mode’ (right justified) (A14)
Line 2:
Col. 5-8:
Col. 14-24:
Col. 27-34:
Col. 37-45:
Col. 48-52:
Col. 58-59:
Col. 63-65:
Col. 69-73:
Col. 76-78:
Col. 81-85:
‘DATE’ (A4)
‘ORIGIN-TIME’ (A11)
‘LATITUDE’ (A8)
‘LONGITUDE’ (A9)
‘DEPTH’ (A5)
‘MD’ for local event with duration magnitude output,
Or
‘ML’ for local event with Wood-Anderson magnitude output
Or
‘mb’ for distant event (A2)
‘RMS’ (A3)
‘NL/NM’ (A5)
‘GAP’ for local event (A3)
Or
‘BAZ’ for distant event (A3)
‘DELTA’ for distant event only (A5)
Line 3:
Col. 2-11:
Col. 13-24:
Col. 26-33:
Col. 34:
origin time date as YYYY/MM/DD where YYYY=year (I4), MM=month (I2),
and DD=day of month (I2)
origin time as hh:mm:ss.sss, where hh=hour (I2), mm=minute (I2), and
ss.sss=second (F6.3)
epicenter latitude in degrees (F8.5)
‘N ‘or ‘S’ (A1)
101
SeisPlus v4.7 User’s Guide
Col. 36-44:
Col. 45:
Col. 47-52:
Col. 53:
Col. 56-59:
Col. 60-65:
Col. 68-70:
Col. 72-73:
Col. 76-78:
Col. 81-85:
epicenter longitude in degrees (F9.5)
‘E’ or ‘W’ (A1)
hypocenter depth in kilometers (F6.2)
‘*’ if hypocenter depth was fixed, otherwise blank (A1)
magnitude (F4.1)
RMS residual (F6.3)
Number of phases used in determining the location solution (I3)
Number of stations used in determining the magnitude (I2)
Maximum azimuth gap not covered with stations (I3), for local event
Or
Backazimuth (I3), for distant event
Empty, for local event
Or
Epicentral distance in degrees (F5.1), for distant event
Line 4:
Col. 2-8:
Col. 11-12:
Col. 19-24:
Col. 25:
Col. 27-35:
‘ERRORS:’
percent probability for standard error computation (I2)
standard error for origin time, in seconds (F6.3)
‘s’ (A1)
standard error in determining latitude, in kilometers (F7.3) in Col. 27-33,
followed by ‘km’ (A2) in Col. 34-35, for local event
Or
‘ERH =’ (A5) in Col. 27-31, followed by standard error in determining the
horizontal epicenter position, in kilometers (I4) in Col. 32-35, followed by
‘km’ (A2) in Col. 36-37, for distant event
Col. 38-44:
standard error in determining longitude, in kilometers (F7.3), followed by
‘km’ (A2) in Col. 45-46, for local event only
Col. 47-52: standard error in determining depth, in kilometers (F6.2), followed by ‘km’
(A2) in Col. 53-54, for local event only
Col. 56-59: standard error in determining magnitude, in kilometers (F4.1)
Col. 62-63: ‘IT’ (A2)
Col. 64-65: number of iterations to achieve convergence (I2), for local event only
Col. 72:
‘[’ (A1), for local event
Col. 73-82: date when location solution was produced as YYYY/MM/DD, where
YYYY=year (I4), MM=month (I2), and DD=day of month (I2), for local event
Col. 84-91: time when location solution was produced as hh:mm:ss.ss, where
hh=hour (I2), mm=minute (I2), and ss=second (I2), for local event
Col. 92:
‘]’ (A1), for local event
Or
Col 77-78:
standard error in determining backazimuth (I2), for distant event
Col 81-85:
standard error in determining epicentral distance in degrees (F5.1), for
distant event
102
SeisPlus v4.7 User’s Guide
Line 5:
For local event:
Col. 2-15:
Col. 17-25:
Col. 26-32:
Col. 33-34:
Col. 37-45:
Col. 46-52:
Col. 53-54:
Col. 57-72:
Col. 74-76:
‘ERROR ELLIPSE:’ (A14)
‘MajAx/2 =’ (A9)
major axis of the error ellipse in kilometers (F7.3)
‘km’ (A2)
‘MinAx/2 =’ (A9)
minor axis of the error ellipse in kilometers (F7.3)
‘km’ (A2)
‘MajAxisAzimuth =’ (A16)
azimuth of major axis of the error ellipse in degrees (I3)
For distant event:
Col. 2-25:
Col. 26-32:
Col. 72:
Col. 73-82:
Col. 84-91:
Col. 92:
‘IASP91_Tables SLOWNESS=’ (A24)
slowness value, in s/rad (F7.1)
‘[’ (A1)
date when location solution was produced as YYYY/MM/DD, where
YYYY=year (I4), MM=month (I2), and DD=day of month (I2)
time when location solution was calculated as hh:mm:ss.ss, where
hh=hour (I2), mm=minute (I2), and ss=second (I2)
‘]’ (A1)
103
SeisPlus v4.7 User’s Guide
Left blank intentionally
104
SeisPlus v4.7 User’s Guide
My_Network
>> Vrancea, Romania
Q=C Automatic mode
DATE
ORIGIN-TIME LATITUDE LONGITUDE DEPTH
MD
RMS
NL/NM GAP
2002/08/04 6:25:38.739 45.66623N 26.39659E 171.72
4.1 .422s
9/ 5 168
ERRORS: (95%)
5.624s 15.706km
21.549km 48.22km
.1 IT10
[2005/03/28
ERROR ELLIPSE: MajAx/2 = 28.055km MinAx/2 = 17.499km MajAxisAzimuth = 113
STATION CHN DEL AZM EMG INT ARRIVAL_TIME WAVE
O-C
WT
AMP
TAU
1 VRIST SHZ
34 49 168 0 1
6:26: 1.680 U P0
-.378 1.00
72
2
34 49 168 0 1
6:26:18.120
S3 -1.425
.13
3 MLRST SHZ
40 241 166 0 1
6:26: 2.340 U P0
-.072 1.00
4 BRDST SHZ
51 104 162 0 1
6:26: 3.160 D P0
.598 1.00
90
5 ISRST SHZ
60 169 159 0 1
6:26: 3.140 D P1
.149
.75
101
6 SNXST SHZ
77 243 154 0 1
6:26:22.540 U P2 18.576* .00
122
7
77 243 154 0 1
6:28: 1.200
S2 98.320* .00
8 PPEST SHZ 129 60 139 0 1
6:26: 7.120 D P0
.024 1.00
74
9
129 60 139 0 1
6:26:26.240
S3 -2.120
.06
10 HARRS SHZ 163 132 132 0 1
6:26: 9.720 D P0
-.166 1.00
56
11
163 132 132 0 1
6:26:30.340
S2 -2.903
.13
15:50:08]
MAG
3.9
4.1
4.3
4.2
4.1
INFO
.41
.31
.89
.45
.29
.00
.00
.97
.05
1.00
.24
#######
#################
##################-----###############---------------#########-----------------------#####---------------------------#------------------------------##---------------------------#####------------P -----------#########--------------------############-------------------##############----------------################------------###################---------#####################----##########
################### T ########
########
######
#######
NP1:310 71
+/- 16 9
7
74
NP2:218 84 161
16 9 74
P:265
9
N: 20 70
M0
Mw STRESS-DROP/APP
ENERGY
3.6E+14Nm 3.6
2.78/
.01MPa 5.2E+07J
+/- 3.0E+14Nm .2
3.28/
.41MPa 1.8E+09J
T:172 18 NP: 6 EPS:.02
[2005/03/28 15:50:08]
RADIUS
.384km
.104km
DISL.
.9cm
.9cm
ND
7
Figure 58. Example of location output file for local event (Wulf projection and source parameters may not be present).
105
SeisPlus v4.7 User’s Guide
My_Network
>> MEDITERRANEAN SEA
Q=A Automatic mode
DATE
ORIGIN-TIME LATITUDE LONGITUDE DEPTH
mb
RMS
NL/NM BAZ DELTA
2002/04/24 10:49:42.445 36.11494N 12.37338E
0*
5.8 .154s
6/ 5 233
14.1
ERRORS: (95%)
18.755s ERH = 166km
.5
2
1.4
IASP91_Tables SLOWNESS= 779.6s/rad
[2005/03/28 15:31:30]
STATION CHN
ARRIVAL_TIME WAVE
O-C
WT
AMP
TAU mb
INFO
1 MTURS SHZ
10:52:47.493 D P0
.181 1.00 .637E+03
5.9
.74
2 BU1ST SHZ
10:52:47.553 D P0
-.049 1.00
1.00
3 SNXST SHZ
10:52:51.652 D P0
-.207 1.00 .153E+04
6.3
.41
4 MLRST SHZ
10:52:56.091 U P0
-.175
.50 .841E+02
4.9
.12
5 ISRST SHZ
10:52:58.131 D P0
.111 1.00 .135E+04
6.4
.65
6 VRIST SHZ
10:53: 5.329 D P0
.040
.50 .208E+03
5.5
.46
7 BRDST SHZ
10:53: 8.908 U P4
3.822* .00 .648E+03
.00
8 PPEST SHZ
10:53:18.586 U P2
1.793* .00 .102E+04
.00
9 VRILS SHZ
10:54:39.728 U P2 94.439* .00 .138E+04
.00
Figure 59. Example of location output file for distant event.
106
SeisPlus v4.7 User’s Guide
9 Appendix 5 – SeisPlus Catalog Format
COL
1
12
24
LEN
10
11
2
FORMAT
a10
a11
a2
NAME
date
time
eventtype
27
32
4
1
f4.2
a1
magnitude
magtype
34
1
a1
36
44
53
59
7
8
5
1
f7.3
f8.3
f5.1
a1
61
69
8
1
a8
a1
70
75
80
3
4
32
i3
i4
a32
COMMENT
YYYY/MM/DD
HH:mm:SS:ss
event type
type of magnitude
'w' moment magnitude
'b' body-wave magnitude
's' surface-wave mag
'l' local (W-A) mag
'd' coda duration mag
'n' no magnitude
locmode
location type
'A' for automatic
'M' for manual
lat
decimal degrees
lon
decimal degrees
depth
kilometers
quality
location quality
'A','B','C','D', 'Z'=N/A
eventid
event ID
locstatus location status
'*' for preferred
' ' (blank) otherwise
nph
number of picked phases
ngrams
number of station traces
region
region name
SeisPlus database field/table
time/origin
time/origin
1st char=3rd char of remark/remark
'l' for local
'r' for regional
't' for teleseism
2nd char=1st char of etype/origin
'q' for quake
'b' for blast
'e' for explosion
'i' for indeterminate
mb,ms or ml/origin
if
if
if
if
if
no
magtype/netmag=mw
magtype/netmag=mb
magtype/netmag=ms
magtype/netmag=ml
magtype/netmag=md
mb,ms or ml/origin
1st char of remark/remark
lat/origin
lon/origin
depth/origin
2nd char of remark/remark
evid/origin
if orid=prefor/event
nass/origin
N/A - blank
remark/remark, starting with 5th char
107
SeisPlus v4.7 User’s Guide
EXAMPLE OF
#YYY/MM/DD
2002/04/24
2002/08/04
2002/08/04
2003/12/15
2003/12/15
2003/12/15
2003/12/16
2003/12/16
2003/12/16
2006/05/11
A CATALOG LISTING:
HH:mm:SS:ss ET MAG
10:49:42.44 lq 5.80
06:25:38.73 lq 3.60
06:25:39.73 lq 3.60
13:48:06.53 lq 0.20
15:08:37.45 lq 0.00
15:37:20.31 lq 0.00
00:12:52.12 lq 2.20
17:08:43.20 lq 1.40
23:29:34.54 lq 0.40
17:22:27.68 tq 6.40
M
b
w
w
d
d
d
d
d
d
b
T LAT
LON
DEPTH Q
A 36.114
12.373
0.0 A
A 45.666
26.396 171.7 C
A 46.666
27.396 172.7 C
A 45.705
26.518
5.0 D
A 45.704
26.516
5.0 D
A 45.708
26.525
5.0 D
A 45.054
27.746 85.6 D
A 45.707
26.522
5.0 D
A 45.705
26.518
5.0 D
A 20.363
96.818
0.0 D
EVID NPH
5* 9
4* 11
13* 11
7* 6
8* 4
9* 5
10* 6
11* 6
6* 6
12* 24
NGRM REGION
MEDITERRANEAN SEA
Vrancea, Romania
Vrancea, Romania
Vrancea, Romania
Vrancea, Romania
Vrancea, Romania
Vrancea, Romania
Vrancea, Romania
Vrancea, Romania
BURMA
108
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