News from Rohde & Schwarz 167
News from Rohde & Schwarz
ITU-conformant monitoring receiver
Software for
spectrum monitoring systems
Recording, processing and replaying
MPEG2 transport streams
2000/II
167
Number 167
2000/II
Volume 40
Radiomonitoring over wide frequency ranges
at high scan rates
The new Monitoring Receiver ESMB handles
the frequency range from 9 kHz to 3 GHz
and has excellent electrical characteristics
and comprehensive functions – all that combined in an incredibly compact instrument
(page 4).
Photo 43565
Articles
Christian Gottlob
ITU-conformant Monitoring Receiver ESMB ............................................... 4
Incredibly compact – and high-end into the bargain
Werner Rohde;
Alexander Wörner
DTV Recorder Generator DVRG
Recording, processing and replaying MPEG2 transport streams .................. 8
Christoph Balz;
Mathias Leutiger; Ernst Polz
ATSC Test Receiver EFA
All measurement functions for North-American digital TV standard..............11
Patrick Kolligs
Digital Radiocommunication Test Set CRTx
Flexible test platform for general packet radio service (GPRS).................... 14
Johannes Meidert
GH127 AllAudio
Digital recording, distribution and management
of audio signals in radiomonitoring systems ........................................... 16
Jörg Pfitzner
Spectrum Monitoring Software ARGUS 4.0
New software generation for spectrum monitoring systems........................ 18
Heinz-Peter Olbrück;
Jörg Zorenböhmer
Electronic spare-parts catalog
Short clicking is better than long leafing ..................................................21
Software
Application notes
Robert Obertreis
2
News from Rohde & Schwarz
Noise Measurement Software FS-K3
Noise test system with FSE, FSIQ or FSP analyzers................................... 23
Number 167 (2000/II)
Application notes
Rudolf Schindlmeier
Universal Radio Communication Tester CMU 200
GSM power measurement – versatile, fast and accurate ........................... 24
Roland Mahr
Universal Radio Communication Tester CMU 200
Selftesting CMU200............................................................................ 26
Detlef Wiese
Software for mobile-radio conformance test systems: Convenient
parameter sets instead of time-consuming, low-level programming ................ 28
Franz-Josef Zimmermann
TV Test Transmitter SFQ
Bit-error-rate measurement on set-top boxes............................................. 30
Christoph Balz
DVB-T Test Receiver EFA-T
Innovative measurement functions for terrestrial digital TV ......................... 32
Panorama
Ulrich Otto
64 kbit modem for multifunctional mobile radios
Software enhancement of functions for future requirements........................ 34
Regular features
Stefan Böttinger
Workshop on CD-ROM: Miniport Receiver EB200 .................................. 35
Information in print.............................................................................. 36
Press comments....................................................................................37
Universal Radio Communication Tester
CMU200 was presented in No. 165. This
new tester is future-proof thanks to its high
measurement speed and modular concept.
The article on page 24 describes fast
GSM power measurements with CMU 200.
The tester’s versatile selftest capabilities are
detailed on page 26 of this issue.
Photo 43 238/7
Newsgrams........................................................................................ 38
Imprint
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Center: Tel. (+49) 01805124242 · E-mail: customersupport@rohde-schwarz.com · Fax (+4989)
4129-3777 Editor and layout: Ludwig Drexl, Redaktion – Technik (German) · English translation: Dept.
5CL4 · Photos: Stefan Huber · Circulation 90000 six times a year · ISSN 0028-9108 · Supply free of
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Munich · Reproduction of extracts permitted if source is stated and copy sent to Rohde&Schwarz Munich.
News from Rohde & Schwarz Number 167 (2000/II)
3
FIG 1 A strong duo: new Monitoring Receiver
ESMB (top) and Digital Direction Finder DDF190.
The two extremely compact and powerful instruments perform practically all tasks in signal detection, monitoring and measurement
Photo 43456/1
Articles
ITU-conformant Monitoring Receiver ESMB
Incredibly compact –
and high-end into the bargain
There was a time when ITU-conformant test receivers were by no means lightweight
and their high power consumption was an additional drawback in many an
application. Not so the new Monitoring Receiver ESMB (FIG 1): a wide frequency
range from 9 kHz to 3 GHz, excellent electrical characteristics, comprehensive
functions – all combined in an incredibly compact and lightweight instrument –
make it ideal for mobile and stationary use. It is intended as a monitoring receiver
for all tasks in compliance with ITU recommendations and for use in the entire
field of radiomonitoring.
FIGs 2a to 2d
All measurements in
line with ITU recommendations.
2a: bandwidth;
2b to 2d: modulation
2a
2b
2c
FIG 3
RF panoramic display
with DIGI Scan
option
ITU-conformant measurements
ESMB can perform all measurements
in line with ITU recommendations, such
as frequency and frequency offset, field
strength, modulation parameters, bandwidth and frequency occupancy (with
PC) (FIGs 2a to 2d). For bandwidth
measurement both X dB and the more
universal β% method can be adopted.
A special benefit is that parameters can
be measured simultaneously, so time
requirements are cut to a minimum. The
time needed for this kind of procedure
can otherwise be quite bothersome
when a whole series of measurements
has to be carried out.
Before it actually starts to measure signals, important functions in ESMB support their detection, acquisition, assessment and classification. These include
special features like frequency scan,
memory scan, IF panorama or RF spectrum with the DIGI Scan option (FIG 3),
the latter often being the only means of
detecting signals. This option features
scan rates up to 800 MHz/s, in other
words about 10 000 channels/s with
150 kHz bandwidth.
2d
Lean digital
3
ESMB uses highly advanced digital
signal processing. Digital technology
is not only employed for the measurements mentioned above but for the
entire IF processing. Such a large variNews from Rohde & Schwarz
Number 167 (2000/II)
5
FIG 5
Scan with 3D waterfall display
FIG 6
Modulation and
bandwidth measurement with panoramic display
ety of functions would never have been
possible on an analog basis because
of the forbidding space requirements.
ESMB has 18 IF filters from 150 Hz
to 300 kHz for demodulation and a
variety of other filters up to 1 MHz for
measuring level, offset and bandwidth
with the aid of an IF panorama. Providing Average, Min Hold and Max
Hold functions as well as selectable
display range, the panorama is an
indispensable tool in signal assessment.
The IF panorama is not an option by
the way, it is fully integrated into the
basic unit, since it is needed whenever
you want to measure bandwidth.
AM, FM, CW, LSB, USB, ISB, PM and
IQ demodulators are fitted as standard.
The digital concept – all IF functions
being “merely“ computed – allows
subsequent upgrading by loading new
software. This also applies to filters
and other functions of course, should
adaptation become necessary due to
changes in specifications or measurement methods.
Photo 43406/1
FIG 4
As a stand-alone
ESMB is able to
perform all monitoring and measurement tasks
6
News from Rohde & Schwarz
Number 167 (2000/II)
Articles
Designed for mobile use
Low weight and compact dimensions
mean that ESMB can easily be used
in a large variety of applications. In a
stand-alone role it is able to perform all
monitoring and measurement tasks without PC support (FIG 4). The clear-cut
front panel makes for ease of operation,
allowing the user to familiarize with a
minimum of effort without time-consuming study of a manual. The proven operating philosophy of Miniport Receiver
EB 200 [1] was largely adopted here,
an extra benefit because the two instruments are often used together. Easily
understood menus allow simple adaptation of ESMB to different tasks, reducing operator error to a minimum.
Used in a mobile role, not only ESMB‘s
compact size but also its low power
consumption is a special benefit, particularly for the vehicle‘s battery.
Communicative within a system
Controlled from a PC on its modern Ethernet interface, ESMB demonstrates all
its functionality. Rohde&Schwarz offers
Measurement Software ArgusMon [2]
for this purpose (see also page 18).
With the aid of this software, all functions can be controlled, results quickly
and clearly displayed and, if wished,
data recorded, the volume only being
limited by the capacity of the storage medium. Despite its versatility,
ArgusMon is quite simple to handle.
The user interfaces shown in FIGs 5
and 6 are only a fraction of the many
possibilities.
An RS-232-C interface can optionally
be fitted instead of the Ethernet interface. This interface is sufficient for
simple remote-control applications without exacting speed requirements.
Use of ESMB in conjunction with Digital
Direction Finder DDF190 from Rohde&
Schwarz [3, 4] produces a small-scale
system that is almost unparalleled in
terms of functionality and compactness,
and that is able to perform practically
all tasks in signal detection, monitoring and measurement (FIG 1). Suitable Argus drivers are of course available for combination with DF equipment. Thanks to its modern interfaces
and standardized command syntax,
ESMB is easily integrated into large
monitoring systems. Use in unattended
measurement stations is no problem
either, since all results including the
data for spectrum display are available
at the interface.
Premium in reliability and
serviceability
The low power consumption and the
well-devised thermal concept ensure
high reliability even where space is at
a premium. Should any fault occur, the
intelligent test concept (BITE) is a valuable aid in troubleshooting. Out-of-tolerance conditions are signalled acoustically and optically and the defective module is immediately identified.
Replacement is quite straightforward,
reducing downtime to a minimum.
Designed for the future
Simple downloading of new software
and additional free slots for hardware
extensions provide sufficient reserve
capacity for subsequent upgrades.
With its future-oriented technology,
ESMB gives the user a tool that can
always be kept right up to the state
of the art.
Christian Gottlob
REFERENCES
[1] Klenner, Günther: Miniport Receiver EB200
and Handheld Directional Antenna HE200
– Radiolocation from 10 kHz to 3 GHz now
with portable equipment. News from Rohde
& Schwarz (1997) No. 156, pp 4– 6
[2] Fokken, Theodor: Miniport Receiver EB200/
Compact Receiver ESMC – Mini-receivers:
remote control lends weight to network role.
News from Rohde& Schwarz (1999) No.
165, pp 16 –17
[3] Demmel, Franz; Wille, Raimund: VHF-UHF
Direction Finder DDF190 – Digital direction finding from 20 MHz to 3000 MHz to
ITU guidelines. News from Rohde&Schwarz
(1996) No. 152, pp 30– 32
[4] Demmel, Franz; Unselt, Ulrich: Digital Direction Finder DDF190 – Now from 0.5 MHz
through 3000 MHz. News from Rohde&
Schwarz (2000) No. 166, pp 16– 17
Condensed data of ESMB
Frequency range
Measurement functions
9 kHz to 3 GHz
frequency, offset, field strength,
modulation parameters, bandwidth,
frequency occupancy with PC
AM, FM, CW, LSB, USB, ISB, PM, IQ
18 (150 Hz to 300 kHz),
shape factor <2:1; and 3 (200 kHz,
500 kHz, 1 MHz), not for demodulation
frequency scan, memory scan,
RF spectrum DIGI Scan (option)
Ethernet 10BaseT or RS-232-C (option)
<40 W
8 kg
227 mm x 153 mm x 474 mm
Demodulation
Filters
Scan functions
Interfaces
Power consumption
Weight
Dimensions (Wx H x D)
Reader service card 167/01
News from Rohde & Schwarz
Number 167 (2000/II)
7
Articles
DTV Recorder Generator DVRG
Recording, processing and replaying
MPEG2 transport streams
From the very beginning of digital television, Rohde&Schwarz has demonstrated
its competence in terms of MPEG2 with MPEG2 Generator DVG and MPEG2
Measurement Decoder DVMD [1; 2]. This instrument duo with its unparalleled
features is today found virtually wherever MPEG2 transport streams appear and
have to be processed. Now a new member has been added to the family – the
DVRG generator platform (FIG 1). This unit is quite unique, generating the entire
spectrum of digital TV signals while occupying minimum space. In addition to
recording and replaying MPEG2 transport streams, DVRG can optionally process
uncompressed SDI video streams of 270 Mbit/s. Additional software packages
open up a wide range of applications.
Newcomer with many special
features
capacity for recording and replaying
MPEG2 transport streams.
DVRG offers outstanding characteristics
right in its basic version. Featuring compact design of only two height units,
DVRG offers up to 36 Gbytes of storage
The supplied transport-stream library contains predefined signals for many applications and test cases. This library, familiar from DVG and much appreciated
Photo 43401/3
8
News from Rohde & Schwarz
Number 167 (2000/II)
FIG 1 Only two units in height yet easy to operate via the front panel: DTV Recorder Generator
DVRG
Articles
MPEG2 transport stream (TS)
EUT
DVRM
DVQ
TRIG
TS
OUT
IN
TS
IN
DVRG
Stream Explorer  TS stream analysis
Quality Explorer  video ES analysis
FIG 2 Compact test station for error analysis
by users, is continuously expanded by
Rohde&Schwarz to match new requirements and developments in the TV industry. An integrated CD-ROM drive makes
it easy to download signals. And an
optional CD burner is available for
archiving recorded streams.
A trigger input simplifies the selective
recording of video streams. Transport
streams can be recorded before, after
or right at the time of an event, so that
even rare errors or events can be reliably
documented and analyzed (FIG 2).
Beside these characteristics, DVRG is also
compatible with the widely used MPEG2
Generator DVG from Rohde&Schwarz.
This makes for good economics, because
all signals generated for DVG can
be transferred to DVRG unmodified.
Conversely, sequences generated by
DVRG can be downloaded to DVG and
replayed there.
Another strong point of DVRG shows in
continuous operation. Free RAM capacity
is automatically used for signal output.
This means that shorter image sequences
can be output without requiring any hard
disk capacity.
Robust operating system
and comprehensive software
packages
The Windows Embedded NT ™ operating system is the powerful motor
in DVRG. This robust version of the
Windows NT™ 4.0 operating system
known from the PC world also allows
the unit to be powered off in ongoing operation. This does away with
tedious shutdown, an aspect that will
be appreciated by many users. The
main advantage however is that reliable booting is ensured even after a
power failure – an important feature
especially in production.
Connecting a keyboard, mouse and
monitor turns DVRG into a Windows
NT™ workstation, for which exten-
sive software packages are available
for generating, processing and analyzing transport streams in the unit
(FIG 3). The Stream Combiner ™ software [3] allows fast and simple modification and recombination of transport
streams. This software too comes with a
large library of elementary streams into
which elements of recorded sequences
can also be integrated. The coding
of recorded transport streams can be
analyzed and displayed in detail with
the elementary stream analyzer of the
Quality Analyzer software package
[4].
Applications here, there and
everywhere
Video server
Absolutely new in an MPEG2 generator is the optional ITU 601 interface.
This enables recording and replaying
of uncompressed video signals, turning
DVRG into one of the most compact
video servers on the market. DVRG is
thus an ideal signal source for testing
encoders and decoders.
Development
With its versatile capabilities, DVRG
is an ideal tool in the development of
digital TV equipment of every kind, for
example encoders, multiplexers, modulators, receivers, set-top boxes. In the
simplest case, one of the many predefined test signals available in DVRG
can be used. If transport streams with
specific contents are needed, these
can be obtained either by recording
other sources or by freely configuring
the recorded elementary streams of
optional Stream Combiner ™ software
DVG-B1 [3]. For special-purpose tests,
defined error states can also be produced in this way.
Production
Test signals already generated at the
development stage can be re-used in
the production of the equipment in question. Compatibility with DVG – the
MPEG2 generator most widely used –
News from Rohde & Schwarz
Number 167 (2000/II)
9
Articles
FIG 3
Windows™ user
interface for operating DVRG as workstation
subsequently analyzed offline with
other tools such as MPEG2 Measurement Decoder DVMD or Digital Video
Quality Analyzer DVQ [4].
Monitoring
DVRG is suitable also in monitoring
applications. Triggered recording
allows in-depth analysis of error states
that occur only rarely. The trigger signal
is supplied by MPEG2 Realtime Monitor DVRM [5] or by DVQ for example (FIG 2). DVRG can be set to start
recording some time before the trigger
event so that the cause of an error state
can easily be traced. In a workstation
configuration, the Stream Explorer and
Quality Explorer software options can
be installed on these units to produce
a complete, compact test station.
makes it possible to replay signals on
both units.
In addition to the low-wear operation
of DVRG, which makes it ideal for
continuous service, its sturdy design
also makes it an interesting proposition
for a production environment. A stan-
REFERENCES
[1] Fischbacher, Michael; Weigold, Harald:
MPEG2 Generator DVG and MPEG2 Measurement Decoder DVMD – Test equipment
for digital TV in line with MPEG2. News
from Rohde&Schwarz (1996) No. 152,
pp 20–23
[2] Weigold, Harald: MPEG2 measurement
generators and decoders – Let‘s go west:
ATSC ready for takeoff. News from Rohde&
Schwarz (1999) No. 164, pp 20– 21
[3] Fischbacher, Michael; Rohde, Werner:
PC software for MPEG2 dream team
DVG/DVMD. News from Rohde&Schwarz
(1997) No. 154, p 29
[4] Wörner, Alexander: Digital Video Quality
Analyzer DVG – Getting the picture on picture quality. News from Rohde& Schwarz
(1999) No. 163, pp 4– 7
[5] Fischbacher, Michael: MPEG2 Realtime
Monitor DVRM – Digital broadcast networks: operation secured. News from
Rohde&Schwarz (1999) No. 165,
pp 14–15
10
News from Rohde & Schwarz
dard 19-inch enclosure and Ethernet
interface (100BaseT) simplify integration of DVRG into test systems.
Compact, powerful and extremely flexible – these properties make DVRG a
highly versatile MPEG2 test device.
Werner Rohde; Alexander Wörner
If an EUT outputs MPEG2 transport
streams or SDI video streams, these
can be recorded by DVRG for test
or quality-assurance purposes and
Condensed data of DVRG
Signal inputs and outputs
Transport stream
Packet lengths
Sequence length
Signal set
Data memory
Operating system
Remote-control interfaces
Reader service card 167/02
Number 167 (2000/II)
DVB TS ASI (active loop-through input)
DVB TS SPI/LVDS
ISDI (ITU 601/SMPTE 259 E)
to ISO/IEC 1-13818
ATSC: 188/208 bytes (selectable)
DVB:
188/204 bytes (selectable)
endless or limited by hard disk size
transport-stream library with
approx. 80 sequences
18 Gbytes or 2 x 18 Gbytes
Microsoft Windows Embedded NT ™
Ethernet 100BaseT, RS-232-C
Articles
ATSC Test Receiver EFA
All measurement functions for
North-American digital TV standard
Following North America‘s decision in favour of ATSC/VSB (Advanced Television
Systems Committee) for digital TV broadcasting, Rohde & Schwarz started to develop
the necessary instrumentation and transmitters (see overview on page 13). After
the successful launch of test receivers for analog TV signals and European digital
TV standards, a new member for ATSC has now joined the EFA family. Compact in
design and with extensive automatic test functionality, this receiver (FIG 1) is ideal
for applications in the development and production of transmitter modulators as
well as acceptance testing of large transmitter systems and monitoring the quality
of digital TV signals.
EFA – characteristics
FIG 1 ATSC Test Receiver EFA joins EFA
instrument family, adding measurements in
digital TV systems to North-American ATSC/VSB
standard
Photo 43 482/1
ATSC Test Receiver EFA, fully compatible with the ATSC Doc. A/53 standard,
receives, demodulates, decodes and
analyzes VSB (vestigial sideband) signals. All major parameters for demodulating the receive signal can be
selected automatically or manually:
• 8VSB modulation,
• trellis decoder (code rate 2/3),
• variable symbol rate for special
modulator tests and lab analysis,
• Reed-Solomon error correction
207/187/10,
• filter bandwidth 6 MHz, optionally 2 MHz and 8 MHz.
The operating principle of the new
receiver is largely identical with that
of the other receivers of the EFA family
[*] except for standard-specific functions.
Full ATSC coverage by 2002
Key features of the North-American
digital TV standard are the use
of MPEG2 (Moving Pictures Experts
Group) to compress video and audio
signals, and 8VSB modulation (see
box, pp 12 –13).
A decisive factor for fast, nationwide
introduction of digital TV in the United
States was the allocation of additional
6 MHz channels for the parallel transmission of digital TV programs by all
the approximately 1600 broadcast stations. This made it possible to operate
simultaneously on digital and analog
channels during the transition period.
Singular versatility
Another milestone was the definition
of a tight time frame by the legislation,
compelling stations to start broadcasting digital TV signals in good time. The
first digital programs were transmitted
on schedule in November 1998. To
date (May 2000) some 120 stations
are on air with digital programs, providing coverage for about 60% of the USAmerican population. By late 2002 all
commercial TV stations are to follow.
It is planned to shut down all analog
channels by the end of 2006.
The new test receiver features a multitude of innovative measurement functions right from the basic version, allowing comprehensive, in-depth signal
analysis. In addition to measurement
of general parameters such as bit error
ratio (BER) (FIG 2), more thorough
analysis includes:
• I/Q constellation diagrams with
selectable number of symbols to
be represented,
• eye aperture and modulation error
(MER/EVM) versus time,
News from Rohde & Schwarz
Number 167 (2000/II)
11
Articles
• calculation of transmission parameters like pilot carrier,
• amplitude spectrum of user
channel,
• linearity analysis from histogram
of amplitude distribution,
• complex channel transmission
function,
• received echo signals (ghost pattern).
Any failures and degradations are visible straight away from the constellation diagram (FIG 3). Effects of interest
can be located more precisely by varying the number of symbols represented.
A particularly effective method here
is presentation of eye aperture as a
function of time. Eye apertures plus
decision thresholds are displayed on
a largely user-selectable scale revealing, for example, periodic transmission errors or individual interferers
at a glance and allowing immediate
identification. Trend analyses, too, are
possible with this method.
The integrated spectral analysis function enables simple examination of the
signal type and its spectrum. You can
see immediately, for example, whether
there is a marked frequency offset, or
if the pilot-carrier level matches the
specification (FIG 4). An optional filter
with 8 MHz channel bandwidth covers
spectral components outside the 6 MHz
user channel while effectively suppressing more distant components.
of its rapid data acquisition, the test
receiver is an ideal choice not only
in R&D but also in production monitoring, where high measurement speed
is called for.
EFA-ATSC as monitoring
receiver
Monitoring receivers permanently monitor the major parameters of broadcast
signals directly at the transmitting station (FIG 6). EFA-ATSC is tailor-made
for this application. Six parameters
with separately selectable alarm thresholds can be configured for monitoring. Particularly worth emphasizing is
BER monitoring ahead of and after the
various error-protection blocks, allowing early detection of any problems.
Detected transmission errors are saved
in the test receiver together with the
date and time in error reports comprising up to 1000 entries. In addition, it
triggers an acoustic alarm.
8VSB – ATSC modulation for terrestrial
broadcasting of digital TV signals
The ATSC standard employs 8VSB (8-level trelliscoded vestigial sideband) discrete amplitude modulation. Here the incoming data stream at the
transmitter is applied to a data randomizer, ReedSolomon encoder and data interleaver, divided into
packets of two bits and, because of the 2/3 code
rate, coded to produce data packets of three bits
in a Viterbi convolutional encoder (trellis encoder).
Each group of three bits (symbol) represents a
FIG 2
FIG 3
FIG 4
FIG 5
FIG 6
Use as relay receiver
For this special application, EFA is
simply optimized for reception at a
keystroke. This allows reception even
under adverse operating conditions.
The user is also able to configure the
bandwidths of the main amplitude- and
phase-control loops.
Christoph Balz;
Mathias Leutiger; Ernst Polz
Realtime signal analysis
The powerful digital signal processing
of EFA provides fast and in-depth analysis of 8VSB signals (FIG 5). Analysis
is simultaneous with and independent
of demodulation and decoding, so the
MPEG transport stream is permanently
available for vision and sound reproduction. Thanks to this realtime analysis
capability, the large number of measured values necessary for the complex
calculation and display processes are
produced fast for subsequent mathematical-statistical processing. Because
2
Further articles on Test Receivers EFA on pages
32 and 37 of this issue.
3
12
News from Rohde & Schwarz
Number 167 (2000/II)
Captions to FIGs 2 through 6
Measurement menu: all important data visible
at a glance
Constellation diagram, here representing
10 000 symbols
Spectral analysis of 8VSB signal by means
of FFT
Display of calculated 8VSB transmission
parameters in corresponding measurement
menu
Simultaneous analysis/measurement of key
parameters – ideal for monitoring tasks
Articles
Everything for ATSC from Rohde &Schwarz
TV Test Transmitter SFQ
(News 166)
TV Test Transmitter SFQ
SFQ goes North American –
with digital TV standard ATSC
TV Test Transmitter SFQ has proven itself as a platform for the new digital TV
modulation methods introduced in Europe [1]: as a universal test signal source
in the development, production, quality control and servicing of all components
employed in video and audio data transmission. The transmitter generates standard
modulation signals for all the digital methods involved, for terrestrial emission
(DVB-T), cable transmission (DVB-C) and transmission via satellite (DVB-S). The
new model 30 (FIG 1) includes yet another standard: the digital terrestrial TV
transmission standard ATSC recently introduced in North America.
Rohde & Schwarz is launching a new generation of liquid-cooled UHF transmitters
perfectly timed for the startup of regular operation of terrestrial digital TV (DVB-T)
by many countries. The compact design facilitates the installation of new DVB
transmitters at existing sites where space normally is very restricted. Thanks to
modular design, transmitter systems for both digital and analog TV can be created,
meeting future requirements and featuring high economy and reliability.
Photo 42 592
FIG 1 Model 30 of TV Test Transmitter SFQ
generates signals complying with the NorthAmerican TV standard ATSC
All ATSC signals in excellent
quality
In 1996 the Federal Communications
Commission (FCC) selected the TV
standard of the Advanced Television
Systems Committee (ATSC) as the new
digital terrestrial TV standard for the
United States of America. Allocation of
the frequency ranges was completed
a year later. The transition from the
50-year-old analog NTSC system to
the new digital transmission standard
has since rapidly taken place.
SFQ supplies signals of excellent quality in full compliance with specification ATSC DOC. A/53 (8VSB) (FIG 2).
The standard parameters can be modified as required for a given measurement task. The test data sequences
delivered by SFQ allow convenient
measurement of bit error rates at the
receiving equipment. To simulate real
transmission conditions, the quality of
the RF signal from SFQ can be modified and degraded.
Transmission immune to
interference
The ATSC standard employs 8T VSB
(eight-level trellis-coded vestigial sideband) amplitude modulation, which
has eight discrete levels and is immune
to interference. Vestigial sideband filtering of the signal (rolloff characteristic)
reduces the bandwidth to the US channel spacing of 6 MHz and makes for
minimum symbol interference in the
receiver.
News from Rohde & Schwarz
Number 166 (2000/I)
Let's go west:
ATSC ready for takeoff
the TS_ID to identify the correct TS, it
continuously compares its complete
structure with a template that defines
all programs contained in the TS as
well as the associated services for each
program.
A special standard complying with national requirements is used in the US for
terrestrial broadcasting of digital TV signals: ATSC (Advanced Television Systems
Committee). Same as the European DVB standard, ATSC is based on MPEG2 coding
but it differs in some essential features. Several countries in South America and
Asia are about to adopt this standard. So Rohde & Schwarz has integrated the ATSC
standard in all its measuring instruments concerned.
DVRM integration into networkwide monitoring systems
All instrument settings and the polling of
results are remotely controlled. The supplied Windows™ program allows fast
configuration of DVRM, clearly presents
measurement results and the transport
stream structure together with the data
rates and offers special functions such
as continuous recording of comprehensive measurement reports on a storage
medium of the controller. DVRM further
supports Stream Explorer™ software,
which allows in-depth analysis of the
transport stream [1].
to central monitoring software both
locally (COM) and via a data network
link (DCOM).
Apart from comprehensive measuredvalue acquisition via the remote-control
interface, DVRM offers hardware signalling capability via relay contacts.
Each of the twelve contacts can be
assigned one error parameter or any
combination of them. Closed or open
contact signalling of errors is selectable.
DVRM thus ensures complete monitoring of complex networks.
Michael Fischbacher
Photo 42 499/3
Modular not only for output
power
The modular transmitters chiefly consist
of:
• digital exciter
• power amplifier with integrated
power supply
• transmitter rack (with vision/sound
diplexer for analog TV)
Measurements
Interfaces
transport stream to ISO/IEC 1-13818
188/204 bytes (DVB), 188/208 bytes (ATSC)
0.6 to 54 Mbit/s
1 x TS parallel (to DVB-A010),
2 x TS-ASI (to DVB-A010) for DVB
1 x SMPTE 310 and 1 x TS-ASI for ATSC
– parameters to ETR290 (adjusted for ATSC)
– TS structure monitoring
– data rates of overall stream, programs and
substreams (PID)
– monitoring of TS_ID
– monitoring of “other_tables” (only DVB)
– paradigm condition (only ATSC)
– trigger on error
RS-232-C, 12 relay contacts
Reader service card 165/04
News from Rohde & Schwarz Number 165 (1999/V)
20
MPEG2 Measurement Generator DVG
is a versatile transport stream signal
source especially suited for continuous
operation. It is able to provide a comprehensive range of test patterns
(bounce, sweep, colorbars, etc), test
tones (CCITT.033) and moving picture
sequences in a seamless loop. This
makes it an ideal instrument for production testing of set-top boxes and
for testing modulators and transmission links. The generator has been revised and upgraded and the following enhancements have been added:
· ATSC sequences with HDTV video
and audio elementary streams
(Dolby AC-3)
· Faster hardware
· Larger memory
· Expansion of SPI and ASI
interfaces to 208 bytes/packet
The transmitters are therefore ideal
for setting up new DVB networks at
existing sites where space often is
very restricted. On the one hand, this
reduces the costs for the network operator. On the other, it is also very important for the acceptance of the new
medium, because all household roof
antennas would have to be realigned
if the new system were to be installed
at a new site.
Despite the compactness of the new
transmitter family all its modules are
easy to access and service. The ampli-
REFERENCES
[1] Fischbacher, Michael; Rohde, Werner:
PC software for MPEG2 dream team
DVG/DVMD. News from Rohde & Schwarz
(1997) No. 154, p 29
[2] Finkenzeller, Richard; Fischbacher, Michael:
MPEG2 transport stream analysis in networked DVB monitoring system using
Stream Explorer software. News from
Rohde & Schwarz (1998) No. 159,
pp 24 – 25
all functions can be made available
For the last three years Rohde &
Schwarz has been accompanying the
worldwide introduction of digital TV
with its “dream team” made up of
MPEG2 Measurement Generator
DVG, MPEG2 Measurement Decoder
DVMD [1] and the optional software
packages Stream Combiner ™ and
Stream Explorer ™ [2]. The instruments
are now multistandard units and support the North American ATSC standard which differs from the European
standard in some essential features:
· High-resolution formats
(480, 720, 1080 lines)
· Progressive scanning (60 Hz)
· 6-channel Dolby surround AC-3coded audio
· Other tables
· Data-compressed table contents
The transmitters with maximum output
power of 2.5 kW for DVB (FIG 1)
or 10 kW for analog TV require very
little space. They are accommodated
in a 630 mm wide rack together with
other components such as filters, power
couplers and water distribution system.
To produce higher power, a second
rack with amplifiers is simply added
and combined via 3 dB couplers.
FIG 1 Space-saving DVB transmitter for
2.5 kW accommodated in a single rack
News from Rohde & Schwarz Number 165 (1999/V)
11
Condensed data of DVRM
Input signals
Length of transport stream packets
Data rates of transport stream
Signal inputs
Both the control software under
FIG 1
Windows™ and Stream Explorer™
MPEG2 Measurement Generator DVG and
COM
(component
object model)
MPEG2 Measurement offer
Decoder
DVMD
with
optional software nowand
also support
North
DCOMthe(distributed
COM) softAmerican ATSC standard
ware interfaces [2]. This means that
Latest technology with special
features
The new water-cooled UHF Transmitter Family NV/NH 7000 in LDMOS
(lateral diffused metal oxide silicon)
technology meets all requirements of
terrestrial TV standard DVB-T to ETS
300744 and those of the familiar PAL,
SECAM and NTSC standards by suitable configuration of the digital exciter.
The family of equipment is dual-sound
compatible to IRT or NICAM and can
also be configured to comply with the
American ATSC standard for digital
TV.
Transmitters are available for DVB-T
from 400 W to 5 kW (seven power
classes) and for analog TV from 2 kW
to 40 kW (five power classes). Their
main characteristics are:
• latest LDMOS technology for
power amplifiers (high gain, high
linearity)
• very compact design (low space
requirements) through liquid cooling
• digital equalization (accurate
reproducibility of settings)
• high redundancy for high availability
• low installation outlay
• simple swap of modules during
operation
Photo 43 410/3
13
FIG 2 DVRM – specialist for blanket monitoring of broadcast networks
MPEG2 measurement generators and decoders
4
UHF
Transmitter
Family
NH/NV 7000
(News 165)
UHF Transmitter Family NV/NH 7000
Liquid-cooled TV transmitters for
terrestrial digital TV
Photo 43 392/1
specific amplitude level (eight levels). Synchronization data (segment sync, field sync) are added to
the coded signal for data recovery in the receiver
(error correction, channel equalizer). For carrier
recovery in the receiver, the unmodulated carrier
is added to the 8VSB signal as a pilot. To make
the most efficient use of the available bandwidth,
only one sideband of the AM-modulated signal is
transmitted (vestigial-sideband suppression). Prior
to emission, the modulated signal is shaped by a
root-cosine rolloff filter (r = 0.115).
With the aid of the optional software
Stream Combiner ™ DVG-B1, other
external elementary streams can also
be integrated and multiplexed to a
continuous seamless transport stream
for DVG (FIG 2). This function was
enhanced particularly for the use of
Dolby AC-3-coded audio and 4:2:2
or HDTV video sequences of up to
25 Mbit/s. An ATSC setup ensures that
the program paradigm is adhered to
and that all required ATSC tables and
descriptors are added. The comprehensive editor enables modification of
ATSC tables (STT, MGT, TVCT, CVCT,
RRT, EIT, ETT, PIT) and their extension
by other descriptors. The editor also
uses Huffman coding for information
in plain text within the tables. Also
new is the possibility of including com-
15
MPEG2 Realtime
Monitor DVRM
(News 165)
REFERENCES
[*] Balz, Christoph; Leutiger, Mathias: DVB-T
Test Receiver EFA-T. The test reference: now
for terrestrial digital TV too. News from
Rohde& Schwarz (1999) No. 164, pp
4–7
News from Rohde & Schwarz Number 164 (1999/IV)
MPEG2 signal generators and analyzers
(News 164)
Condensed data of EFA-ATSC
Frequency range
model 50:
48 MHz to 862 MHz
model 53:
43 MHz to 1000 MHz
model 53 with
option EFA-B3: 5 MHz to 1000 MHz
model 50:
–77 dBm to +10 dBm
model 53:
–47 dBm to +14 dBm
model 53 with
option EFA-B3: –77 dBm to +14 dBm
6 / 8 / 2 MHz
8VSB
2 to 11 Msymbol/s
auto /freeze/ off
ahead of and after Reed-Solomon decoder,
ahead of Viterbi decoder
level, BER, MER, EVM, SNR, pilot-carrier
level, pilot-carrier frequency, symbol rate
I/Q constellation, amplitude spectrum,
echo signals (ghost pattern), complex
channel transmission function, amplitude
distribution, eye pattern, history
SMPTE 310, MPEG-TS: SPI, ASI
RF preselection (EFA-B3), SAW filter
8 MHz /2 MHz (EFA-B13/ -B14)
Input level range
5
Bandwidths
Modulation
Symbol rate
Equalizer
BER analysis
Measurement functions
Graphical displays
Output signals
Options
Reader service card 167/03
6
News from Rohde & Schwarz
Number 167 (2000/II)
13
Photo 43475/1
FIG 1 Flexible platform for GPRS test scenarios:
Digital Radiocommunication Test Set CRTx and
Industrial Controller PSM
Digital Radiocommunication Test Set CRTx
Flexible test platform for
general packet radio service (GPRS)
General packet radio service (GPRS) is the new service of GSM standard Phase2+
for packet-oriented data transmission. Compared with existing, line-oriented GSM
data services such as high-speed circuit-switched data (HSCSD) [1], GPRS allows
better adaptation to data networks like the Internet and more efficient use of
available radio resources while offering the same data transfer rates. Radiocommunication Test Set CRTx is ready to go for this new data service and, with its
flexible test facilities, provides an excellent platform for GPRS test scenarios.
The arrival of GPRS has added multiple
complexity to the GSM standard, especially with regard to the protocol stack.
This places stringent demands on the
performance and flexibility of a GPRS
test platform, which CRTx meets by
hardware and software extensions.
14
News from Rohde & Schwarz
To meet elevated performance requirements, CRTx is supported by Industrial
Controller PSM (FIG 1). The two units
communicate on a standard Ethernet
link. The more time-critical, lower protocol layers (physical layer and RLC/
MAC) run on CRTx, the higher layers
(LLC and SNDCP) on PSM (FIG 2). The
system as a whole is operated from
Number 167 (2000/II)
PSM using the Windows NT™ operating system.
GPRS test applications are programmed via a powerful API, which
allows each protocol layer to be
checked. In addition, a reference implementation of the complete GPRS protocol stack is available for testing GPRS-
Articles
based applications. RF measurements
like block error rate (BLER) are implemented too. As regards multislot operation, CRTx supports a maximum of four
timeslots uplink and downlink (4+4).
of the software package is installed
on CRTx and part on PSM.
Software option CRGPRS1 incorporates functionality for the GPRS physical layer and RLC/MAC layer in
the unacknowledged mode. Software
option CRGPRS2 adds acknowledged
mode to the RLC/MAC layer, provided that software option CRGPRS1
is installed.
The system is consequently suitable
both for applications in the development of GPRS systems and conformance testing of mobile-radio stations.
PSM must be equipped with option
B10, comprising the Windows NT ™
operating system, a second network
card and an Ethernet cable for connection to CRTx. CRTx, in turn, must
be fitted with option CRT-B3 (network
card) for connection to PSM.
Software option CRGPRS3 comprises
the higher protocol layers LLC and
SNDCP. It is installed on PSM and
requires one of the options CRGPRS1
or CRGPRS2 integrated in CRTx.
Phase2+
Operational
Software
CR02P2P provides full circuit-switched
functionality for GSM Phase2+. Part
Several packages CRTKGxx are also
available, containing GPRS test cases
implemented according to ETSI specification GSM11.10-1.
Patrick Kolligs
General packet radio service (GPRS)
GPRS is a third-generation data service
set up on mobile-radio networks of the
second generation (GSM). Data transmission is packet-switched, not circuitswitched like in HSCSD for example.
This enables better adaptation to existing data networks, such as the Internet and its associated services (WWW,
e-mail, etc).
The short packets comprise a maximum
of 1500 octets. Through channel trunking (multislot) of up to eight timeslots, a
maximum data rate of 115.2 kbit/s is
achieved in full-duplex mode same as
with HSCSD. Since some applications
require a defined, continuous data rate,
the user can select between different
service classes (QoS: quality of service),
for which network operators guarantee
the appropriate data throughput. After
registration, a permanent virtual link
exists round the clock, which also allows
Reader service card 167/04
faster access to the data network.
The major advantage from the point
REFERENCES
[1] Segerer, Franz: HSCSD test software for
GSM Phase2+ – Measurement software
and test cases for new, fast GSM data services. News from Rohde&Schwarz (1999)
No. 163, pp 28 –29
[2] GSM 04.64, version 6.7.0, release 1997
(ETSI TS 101 351)
of view of network operators is the
more efficient use of available radio
resources. With GPRS, this is achieved
chiefly by making use of radio resources
only during data transmission. Timeslots
in uplink and downlink can also be split
dynamically among several subscribers.
The chief advantage of GPRS where
users are concerned is the low cost
compared with former circuit-switched
transmission since only the actual data
FIG 2 Structure of GPRS protocol stack [2]
volume transmitted, not the online time,
is charged. Simultaneous data and
GMM SNDC SMS
GMM SNDC SMS
LLC
LLC
GPRS-based
RLC
applications
can
be
divided into two classes: point-to-point
Relay
RLC
voice communication is possible too.
(eg home banking, travel booking) and
BSSGP
BSSGP
point-to-multipoint (eg news, traffic infor-
MAC
MAC
Network
Service
Network Service
GSM RF
GSMRF
L1
L1
mation).
The first mobiles supporting GPRS are
MS
Um
BSS
Gb
expected to become available late this
year.
SGSN
News from Rohde & Schwarz
Number 167 (2000/II)
15
Software
GH 127 AllAudio
Digital recording, distribution and management
of audio signals in radiomonitoring systems
GH127 AllAudio is PC-based software for simultaneous digital recording of audio
signals from up to 16 channels and their distribution via networks. An integrated
database for data backup and an export function support management of recordings. An optional intercom makes for easy teamwork.
OUT 1
OUT 2
OUT 3
IN
Headphones
LAN
Comp.
WAN
Loudspeaker
WAN
LAN
Comp.
MIC
LAN
Comp.
FIG 1 “Switching
diagram“ of software matrix. Each
coloured module is
available several
times: inputs (IN,
WAN, LAN) same
number as configured hardware
inputs. Outputs or
playback windows
are generated and
switched when user
selects a live channel or recording
LAN
Intercom
WAN
FIFO
LAN
Comp.
WAN
Output
Playback
Advantages through digitization
Conventional radiomonitoring systems
use different analog components to
process audio signals such as:
• switching matrixes,
• recorders,
• distributors, splitters, amplifiers,
• multiplexers,
• intercom.
All these components can be implemented much more flexibly and costefficiently on a PC by software. GH127
AllAudio digitizes all audio signal
sources via multichannel sound cards
and can distribute, record, play back
and store digitized signals. Possible
sources are the audio outputs of receivers, microphones or IF outputs up to
16
News from Rohde & Schwarz
a center frequency of 12.5 kHz (like
VLF-HF Receiver EK 896) or digital
audio signals, eg from Digital Monitoring Direction Finder DDF 0x M from
Rohde& Schwarz.
GH127 AllAudio is ideal for all systems in which automatic audio signal
recording and distribution as well as
communication via intercom are to be
integrated. Radiomonitoring and spectrum management are typical fields of
application.
GH127 AllAudio in detail
Flexible signal distribution
Audio signals are distributed by switchover or mixing the input channels by
Number 167 (2000/II)
GH127 AllAudio at a glance
• Flexible local audio signal
distribution by software configuration of up to 16 channels
• LAN distribution to any number
of workstations by multicast technology
• Speech transmission in WAN by
compression from data rates of
9600 baud per channel
• Local recording of all channels
for optimum use of resources;
central archiving possible
• Integrated database, report
function and data backup for
management of recordings
• Optional intercom with automatic muting of audio sources,
group call, etc
software (FIGs 1 and 2). A data buffer
with 60 s capacity is available for each
channel. The user can play passages
again by positioning the mouse appropriately. Output is on headphones or
simultaneously by loudspeaker. In addition, signals can be switched exclusively to up to three further outputs for
more detailed analysis.
The available LAN or WAN serves for
distributing the signals between stations. Advanced multicast technology
like that in Internet radio is used. In
this way, signals of interest can be
analyzed simultaneously at all workstations. There is no need for multiplexers or complex cabling.
Software
Signals can be compressed for transmission via a WAN (router, modems), so
speech signals are transmitted at data
rates from 9600 baud per channel.
Optional communication via
intercom
Through the optional intercom an operator can report the frequency of a
detected signal he cannot process to
a colleague for example (or to several
colleagues by a group call). Teamwork
thus becomes much simpler.
Virtually any capacity
Signal recording is on the local PC. The
capacity of modern hard disks allows
continuous recording over several days
or even weeks. Audio squelch control
and data compression contribute to
long recording times without a user
having to intervene.
Integrated database
Recordings are administered in an integrated database (FIG 3). The system
automatically registers data such as
recording time, channel and station
name. Users can identify important passages in a recording by bookmarks –
comments which are stored together
with their entry time.
Database and recordings can be
backed up on tape and restored.
FIG 2
FIG 3
Recording database: selected
recording sessions
consist of several
files in WAV format.
Some positions of
recording session
are characterized
by bookmarks.
Session is played
when clicked at corresponding position
Backup may delete recordings while
management information in the database is maintained on the PC. The
user can thus see all recordings. When
accessing archived recordings he is
told on which tape to find them.
In touch by remote control
Several remote-control possibilities are
integrated:
• stations with GH127 can remotely
control other workstations with
GH127 to start or stop recordings,
• monitoring software (eg Rohde &
Schwarz RAMON or ARGUS –
see page 18 of this issue) can
activate audio output of a receiver,
control the volume, etc,
Audio distribution – 2 channels switched for listening
Distribution,
local
Recording Playback
Muting
Volume
Balance
Bookmark
Analysis outputs
• switching statuses of outputs can
be queried so that results of analyses can be assigned correctly,
• recording of each channel can be
controlled by software, and information like time, file name, etc is
exported to a controlling application for management in a common
database.
Easy to get into
The simple and self-explanatory user
interface (Windows NT ™), configurable user groups with different rights
and automatic control of input level are
features that make a change from conventional analog technology or operation for inexperienced users a lot
easier. And integrated data administration allows experienced users to
manage their recordings much better
than before.
GH127 AllAudio can be supplied in
different configurations, eg as software
with sound cards for use on PCs or
as a completely remote-controllable
digital recorder.
Johannes Meidert
Distribution
network
data buffer (60 s)
Reader service card 167/05
News from Rohde & Schwarz
Number 167 (2000/II)
17
Photo 43336
Spectrum Monitoring Software ARGUS 4.0
New software generation for
spectrum monitoring systems
Spectrum Monitoring System ARGUS-IT (formerly SMSI plus TS 9965) [1; 2] is
equipped with different software packages for complex radiomonitoring tasks.
ArgusMon and ArgusEval, now available in upgraded versions, form the core
of the software.
Tried and tested
but still improved
Measurement Software ArgusMon provides very different means of measuring electromagnetic emission in various
modes according to ITU recommendations. It can be scaled by using modular components: controlling a single
device (see [3] and page 5, Monitoring
Receiver ESMB) is as easy as operating
several unattended stations.
tions are also considered. The most
important modifications compared to
version 3.6 are described in what follows.
Evaluation Software ArgusEval allows
comprehensive statistical analysis of
measurement results according to ITU
recommendations. In addition, measured results, the associated definitions
and statistical evaluations can all be
documented.
Both software packages are now available in version 4.0. They come with
improved user-friendliness, even better
oriented on the tasks of radiomonitoring. Plus, the latest ITU recommenda-
18
News from Rohde & Schwarz
Number 167 (2000/II)
FIG 1 System visualizer in ArgusMon produces schematic of complete radiomonitoring stations
Software
The most important
modifications
System visualizer
The new system visualizer in ArgusMon
produces the schematic of a selected
radiomonitoring station: antennas,
receivers, analyzers, decoders and
recording equipment with all their connections are shown in graphical representation (FIG 1). The required connections between antennas and receivers can be selected and switched by
mouse click. A second mouse click on
a device icon opens the interface from
which the user can control the device
and measure with it.
Intermodulation analysis
Intermodulation analysis is now integrated into IMM. The original frequencies can be found much faster since the
number of possible frequencies and the
maximum order can be limited during
calculation and the results displayed
according to probability. Editing the
list of possible original frequencies was
also extended and simplified.
Spectrum mode
In the spectrum mode of IMM it is now
possible to define alarm conditions. If
they are exceeded for example, signal
analysis of the particular frequency can
be started.
performed. Transmitter lists can also be
extracted from databases for example.
Since the location of a transmitter is
often known, ArgusMon can align rotatable antennas towards the transmitter
and then measure.
Practice-proven user manual
The new user manual was developed
in close cooperation with experienced
customers. It explains step by step the
commonest, typical measurement tasks
in radiomonitoring and how to solve
them with the ARGUS software packages.
Further improvements in brief
Interactive measurement mode
The revised interactive measurement
mode (IMM) and the bearing measurement mode (BMM) now ensure direct
access to device settings. This does
away with bothersome setting through
range configuration menus. In addition to spectrum and signal analysis,
the interactive measurement mode now
also offers antenna analysis for fast
omnidirectional, height and elevation
measurements (FIG 2).
FIG 2
Antenna analysis in interactive measurement mode
Bearing measurement mode
In the bearing measurement mode
(FIG 3) it is possible to calculate and
store radiolocation results. This requires
the use of at least two direction finders.
Locations can also be performed by
the automatic measurement mode or
the interactive measurement mode and
the results can be stored.
Automatic measurement mode
In the automatic measurement mode
(FIG 4) scans of transmitter lists can be
FIG 3
• Level cannot only be measured in
dBµV and dBµV/m but now in all
other common units
• A new graphical window shows
frequency-band occupancy during
a measurement in realtime
(FIG 5)
• An auxiliary icon bar shows the
current location and alignment of
the test vehicle at a glance if a
GPS receiver and compass are
connected
Bearing measurement mode
News from Rohde & Schwarz Number 167 (2000/II)
19
Software
FIG 4
Automatic measurement mode
• The newly developed data navigator in ArgusMon and ArgusEval
allows extremely fast access to definition files and measured results
• The time stamp in the measured
results now also indicates milliseconds to accommodate modern
receivers
• The speed of graphics presentation is as much as ten times faster
• ArgusEval contains new statistics
for frequency-band occupancy
according to a planned ITU recommendation (FIG 6). All statistics
can be generated faster because
the measured results can be used
direct. Generating the channels is
no longer necessary
A big step ahead
FIG 5
Frequency-band
occupancy can be
visualized in realtime during measurement
FIG 6
Frequency-channel
statistics in
ArgusEval
20
News from Rohde & Schwarz
Number 167 (2000/II)
Many improvements and additions in
the new version make the software
packages even easier to operate for
faster turnaround. The self-explanatory
user interface increases productivity
decisively and takes stress off the operator in performing the various and complex measurements
Jörg Pfitzner
Reader service card 167/06
REFERENCES
[1] Seidl, Wolf: Spectrum monitoring the ITU
way. News from Rohde& Schwarz (1997)
No. 153, pp 26 –27
[2] Pfitzner, Jörg: Radiomonitoring System
TS 9965 – Complete coverage up to
18 GHz. News from Rohde& Schwarz
(1994) No. 146, pp 22– 25
[3] Fokken, Theodor: Mini-receivers – Remote
control lends weight to network role. News
from Rohde& Schwarz (1999) No. 165,
pp 6 –17
Software
Electronic spare-parts catalog
Short clicking is better than
long leafing
People in spare-parts logistics and field service are often under considerable
pressure, especially when their customers‘ expensive machinery or systems are
shut down due to a defect. A large number of different models, versions and
variants as well as a constantly changing product range aggravate this situation,
and often result in the wrong thing being ordered. One solution to this problem
is electronic spare-parts catalogs (SPCs), with integrated search engines to speed
up the tracing of the right spare part. They reduce the effort involved in updating
spare-parts documentation, simplify the ordering process, and lots more.
get where you want. You familiarize
quickly and intuitively with a unit or
system.
Electronic SPCs reduce the documentation carried by someone in the field
service to a single CD-ROM. Even
electronic SPCs cannot always be upto-date, which is where an amendments service helps, providing the latest
information and changes via diskette,
CD-ROM or straight from the Internet
for daily actuality.
SPC functions
FIG 1 Hierarchical structure of complex units
and systems helps to fid spare parts fast
What is an SPC?
Based on techniques proven on the
Internet, the service center for technical
documentation of the Rohde&Schwarz
Cologne Plant [1] develops electronic
spare-parts catalogs that make logistics
a lot easier. Searching through lists
as well as order operations become
much more convenient. Thanks to the
techniques used, later integration into
complex electronic documentation systems [2] is possible. A free Internet
browser, available on practically every
PC, is used as display software.
In an SPC, parts lists and graphics such
as exploded-view drawings are combined electronically. Parts lists stored
in ASCII format can be integrated as
simply as graphical presentations and
photographs.
Systematic structure for fast
searching
An SPC has a user-friendly hierarchy,
like the corresponding hardware structure resulting from design or integration
(FIG 1). Individual startup pages, lists of
contents, product groups or equipment
family overviews help you to quickly
Presentation and navigation in Internet
browser
Use of standard software (eg Microsoft
Internet Explorer™) simplifies intuitive
working, because you find the familiar
Microsoft Windows™ environment. An
SPC makes use of the standard functions (forward and backward navigation, bookmarking by favourites, etc),
and other functions can be added by
Java scripts. Very many configurations
are possible, so a customer‘s own corporate identity can be created. Further
functions or links to other applications
are easily integrated.
Sophisticated search functions
Searching for individual parts is
extremely simple. This can be done
by selection from graphical presentations and through designations or part
numbers (FIG 2). Full-text search is also
possible (FIG 3).
News from Rohde & Schwarz
Number 167 (2000/II)
21
Software
Automatic contents generation
Ordering and logistics information as
well as graphics are, for the most part,
automatically imported from existing
databases or CAD systems. Operating
an amendments service will generally
require very little manual effort.
Integrated ordering system
An ordering process is initiated for
the particular spare parts or products
through the ordering system. Coupling
to the manufacturer‘s goods management system is possible via an Internet
link.
Notepad and printer functions
The producer and user can file a separate note for each spare part via the
notepad function. So feedback can be
obtained from the field on an online
link.
Graphical views in CGM format can
be printed out by the integrated viewer.
Parts lists can be printed straight from
the browser.
FIG 2 User-friendly combination of picture and
text information
SPC – ideal for experienced
service providers
The functions outlined here are just
examples, and can be expanded in
a whole variety of ways. The service
center for technical documentation at
the Rohde & Schwarz Cologne Plant
assists users in devising tailor-made
concepts for the implementation of electronic documentation and cataloging
of spare parts.
Heinz-Peter Olbrück;
Jörg Zorenböhmer
REFERENCES
[1] Zorenböhmer, Jörg: Technical documentation by high-tech methods. News from
Rohde&Schwarz (1999) No. 162, pp
16–17
[2] Olbrück, Heinz-Peter: Database-supported
information management. News from
Rohde&Schwarz (2000) No. 166, pp
20–21
Reader service card 167/07
22
News from Rohde & Schwarz
FIG 3 Wide range of functions in familiar
software environment, eg full-text research in
Microsoft™ Internet Explorer
Number 167 (2000/II)
Application notes
Noise Measurement Software FS-K3
Noise test system with
FSE, FSIQ or FSP analyzers
The noise figure and the gain of a DUT can be measured highly accurately with
the new Noise Measurement Software FS-K3 and a signal or spectrum analyzer
of the FSE, FSIQ or FSP family. The result is a noise test system that is substantially
superior to a conventional test setup.
Spectrum Analyzers FSE and FSP and
Signal Analyzers FSIQ from Rohde
& Schwarz featuring high sensitivity
and level accuracy are – together
with switchable and calibrated noise
sources – ideal for performing automatic measurements of noise figure
and gain. Noise Measurement Software FS-K3 invests these high-grade
analyzers with characteristics that are
otherwise only obtainable in specialpurpose noise test systems. The following parameters can be measured:
• noise figure in dB,
• noise temperature in Kelvin,
• gain in dB.
The software runs on a commercial PC
with the Microsoft Windows™ 3.1/
95/98/NT operating systems. An
IEEE/IEC-625-1 interface is required
for measurement. In the case of analyzers including the controller function
(FSE-B15) or FSIQ, the application can
run in the particular unit without the
need for a PC.
Settings for the measurements are performed via the software and can be
stored on a data medium. Results can
be exported in the form of WMF, DAT
or TXT files for further processing by
other programs.
Users who already have the predecessor version FSE-K3 will receive a free
upgrade and can take advantage of
the extended functionality.
Noise figure and gain of mixers
A frequent problem when measuring
the noise figure and gain of mixers
is that the broadband noise of commercial noise sources is not only converted into the IF at the required input
frequency but also at the image frequency. The noise power, additionally converted at the image frequency,
causes a measurement error that can
vary by proportion.
One way of avoiding this error is to
use a filter with which the input noise
at the image frequency is strongly suppressed and only the noise component
at the desired receive frequency is
considered. But often, suitable filters
will not be available and first have to
Correction factor for
noise figure and
gain at image
frequency
be provided. That is why this solution
is too time-consuming and inflexible
for use in labs.
FS-K3 offers a way around this problem. The difference between receive
and image frequency in the conversion
losses of a mixer can be entered in
the software. A correction factor for
the measured noise figure or gain is
then calculated as a function of this
difference, which will be called image
rejection. The FIG illustrates the relationship between the correction factor and
image rejection.
To obtain the equivalent noise figure for
a sideband, the correction factor for
the given suppression has to be added
to the measured value. For gain you
proceed in a similar way, but subtract
the correction factor from the measured
value. The suppression can be determined by measuring the conversion
loss of the DUT at the receive and
image frequency, eg with Network
Analyzer ZVR.
Robert Obertreis
Reader service card 167/08
3.5
3.0
Correction factor [dB]
High-grade noise test systems
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0.0
0
5
10
News from Rohde & Schwarz
15
Image rejection [dB]
Number 167 (2000/II)
20
23
Application notes
Universal Radio Communication Tester CMU200
GSM power measurement –
versatile, fast and accurate
Measurement speed and accuracy – these are the key criteria in production because
they determine test times and thus throughput. Universal Radio Communication
Tester CMU200 [*] (FIG 1) optimizes the two parameters for each application. How
this rapid tester helps you to cut down on measurement times is demonstrated
here by the example of power measurements on GSM mobiles.
Photo 43 238/10
FIG 1 Universal Radio Communication Tester
CMU200 optimally matches measurement
requirements in GSM mobile-phone production
Optimized in every case
GSM specifications state how much
power a mobile may emit as a function
of power control level (PCL), together
with the time characteristic a mobile
must comply with (FIG 2). The latter
again depends on PCL. CMU200 performs all the measurements required for
this – fast and extremely accurately.
Power versus frequency
CMU 200 allows GSM-conformant
measurement of the power characteristic in all frequency bands:
• GSM 400 with option CMU-K20
• GSM 900 with option CMU-K21
• GSM 1800 with option CMU-K22
• GSM1900 with option CMU-K23
power characteristic. In manual operation, detailed analysis is simplified by a
zoom function, markers and auxiliary
lines. To allow immediate verification
of compliance with GSM specifications,
the tester automatically positions the
power versus time template over the
measured burst and detects and marks
violations of limits and specifications
(FIG 2). The template is automatically
adapted to the particular power control
level. The user can define template
FIG 2
CMU 200 automatically positions
power versus time
template over measured power characteristic and checks
compliance with
specified values.
Tolerance violations
are marked by fail
indicators and
measured values
highlighted in red
CMU 200 records several bursts (1 to
2000) of a mobile and from these finds
the minimum, maximum and average
24
News from Rohde & Schwarz
Number 167 (2000/II)
and tolerance limits to match mobilespecific requirements. In short, with
CMU 200 you can check at a glance
whether the power characteristic of a
mobile is go or nogo.
The pass/fail indicators are available
also in remote control. So, on the
remote-control computer, you can determine immediately, without elaborate
analysis, whether or not a mobile conforms to GSM specifications. Plus, you
Application notes
can read out the complete power characteristic – minimum, maximum and
average – or selected parts of it. In
the latter case, CMU200 also detects
the minimum, maximum and average
power values of the selected part. This
special feature allows time-optimized
recording of especially critical parts
of the power characteristic and makes
it very easy to trace power ripple of
the useful part.
FIG 4
Hopping in frequency, CMU200
changes power
from highest
through to lowest
power control level
(PCL). All PCLs are
measured in one go
SACCH power change is sent to mobile
Multiframe
Multiframe
(approx. 500 ms) (approx. 500 ms)
Multi-measurement IEEE-bus
command is
executed
PCL 5
Combined with
hopping
Idle multiframe is
inserted while
mobile is waiting
for execution of
command
Configurable
channels A, B, C
13 frames
PCL 19
In the production of GSM mobile
phones, peak power measurement is
sufficient in many cases. It allows,
for example, very fast adjustment of
a mobile, followed only by a compliance check of the power versus
time template. CMU 200 comprises
power meters of different bandwidths
to perform such peak power measurements.
Power versus slot
But this is by no means all this fast
new tester has to offer. Another important measurement is power versus slot
(FIG 3), which is of interest in particular in testing multislot mobile phones.
Here CMU200 measures the average
power of eight successive timeslots in
realtime. It is not possible to carry out
GSM-conformant power measurement
and template verification in such a short
time, so the tester only evaluates part
of the power ramp and from this cal-
15 steps of 13 frames: approx. 900 ms
culates the average power. The training sequence is not determined in this
measurement, nor is the power versus
time template checked. Experience has
shown, however, that results obtained
in this way are usually sufficient in GSM
mobile-phone production.
Power versus PCL
When measuring power versus PCL,
CMU200 shows unbeatable performance, ie time economies. In no more
than two or three seconds, it determines the power of a mobile phone
at all power control levels on three different GSM channels. Using conventional methods (channel and power
change followed by measurement of
power versus time), this would take
more than 30 seconds. Hopping in
frequency, CMU 200 changes power
from the highest through to the lowest
FIG 3 Power versus slot measurement determines power in all eight
timeslots of a frame – an interesting function for multislot mobiles
PCL (FIG 4) and detects the power
in realtime by the same method as
in measurement of power versus slot.
The power measured on three different channels is output in table form for
each PCL (FIG 5). In doing this, the
tester automatically takes into account
the PCLs supported by the mobile.
CMU 200 also incorporates sophisticated selftest functions, which are
described on the next two pages.
Rudolf Schindlmeier
LITERATUR
[*] Mittermaier, Werner; Schmitz, Walter:
Universal Radio Communication Tester
CMU200 – On the fast lane into the mobile
radio future. News from Rohde& Schwarz
(1999) No. 165, pp 4– 7
Reader service card 167/09
FIG 5 CMU 200 measures power through all PCLs of mobile on three
different GSM channels in just two or three seconds
News from Rohde & Schwarz
Number 167 (2000/II)
25
Application notes
Digital Radio Communication Tester CMU200
Selftesting CMU200
Modern measuring instruments are not only expected to be fast and accurate, the
user also wants high reliability and above all long calibration intervals. Should
any repair ever become necessary, accurate fault diagnosis helps to keep servicing
times to a minimum and makes for increased instrument availability. Universal
Radio Communication Tester CMU200 consequently integrates elaborate selftest
facilities allowing fast checking of its basic functions.
Extensive selftests as early as
production
CMU 200 selftest functions are extensively used during its production. The
first selftest is carried out after assembly
and interconnection of all the unit‘s
modules. In this way possible faults are
detected before the instrument is subjected to a five-day burn-in at temperatures varying between 5°C and 45°C.
During this time a continuous selftest is
run in CMU200. Any faults detected
are logged in a file. This reveals both
non-recurrent faults and those appearing at certain temperatures. Such a
procedure detects faults at the earliest
possible stage, so that only good units
are subjected to further checks and
final testing, thus considerably reducing measurement time and costs.
Menu-guided test runs
The selftest menu is called with the
MENU SELECT key on the CMU200
front panel (examples are shown in
FIGs 1 to 3). Then you select the BASE/
Maintenance function group with the
spinwheel and confirm with ENTER.
The selftest menu (Maintenance/Dyn.
Test) opens and you can choose the
particular test with the spinwheel after
pressing the SELECT softkey.
Detailed report
The selected selftest is started by pressing TEST and confirming with ON. You
can cancel a selftest at any time by
An extra benefit for the user
CMU 200 selftest functions offer the
user a convenient way of checking
basic instrument functions and thus
reliably excluding faults. This is important, for example, in the production of
mobiles, where the user needs to be
sure that his measuring equipment is
operating properly.
FIG 1
Example: selection
of selftest function
At Rohde & Schwarz service centers,
the selftest functions are used in incoming inspection of instruments returned.
The tests supply detailed information
about faulty modules, which enables
fast repair, ie replacement. Customers
benefit from short repair times because
their instruments are soon available
for use again.
26
News from Rohde & Schwarz
Number 167 (2000/II)
pressing OFF. At the end of the selftest,
a report is displayed in which you can
scroll up and down with the spinwheel
after pressing the REPORT softkey. Any
fault that may have occurred is thus
easily located and remedied fast by
replacing the module concerned. Normally, of course, no faults will be
detected in the selftest, showing that
your CMU200 is working perfectly –
this is ensured alone by early diagnosis
in production.
Roland Mahr
To find out just how fast CMU200 can measure the power of GSM mobiles, look at pages
24– 25
Reader service card 167/10
Application notes
CMU200 selftest
Module tests
(Any tolerance violations are marked
in red)
FE Selftest RF FRONTEND. Output
of defined supply voltages and logic
switching voltages, limit values and
current measured value for each voltage.
REF Selftest REFERENCE BOARD.
Output of defined tuning and amplitude voltages of PLLs at different frequencies, output of supply voltages
and module temperature, limit values
and current measured value for each
voltage.
DIG Selftest DIGITAL BOARD. Output of defined supply voltages and
frequency-proportional voltages of
clock signals, limit values and current
measured value for each voltage.
FIG 2
Example: REF selftest
RXTX1 Selftest RXTX BOARD1. Output of defined supply voltages, tuning
and amplitude voltages of PLLs of oscillators, tuning voltages of harmonic filters, module temperatures, limit values
and current measured value for each
voltage.
Combined tests
System Selftest All modules are tested
once in consecutive order. Test results
(PASSED or FAILED) and the fault in
question are indicated.
Internal RF LOOP Selftest The frequencies and levels of the RF path are
tested once at connectors RF1 and RF2
using the TX generator and the selective RX power meter with internal RF
coupling. All frequencies and levels are
output and any limit violations marked
in red.
FIG 3
Continuous Selftest Continuous test
of system selftest and internal RF
LOOP selftest. This test was developed specially for the burn-in cycle
and is also very helpful in finding
faults occurring rarely or sporadically.
Test results (PASSED or FAILED) and
the fault in question are indicated.
Any faults found are logged in a specially created file (CST.ERR) together
with the date and time.
1–>4/3–>2 RF LOOP The frequencies and levels of the RF path
are tested once at connectors
RF1–>RF4IN and RF3OUT–>RF2 via
special external N coax cables
(included in CMU Service Kit CMU-Z3)
using the TX generator and the selective RX power meter.
Example: internal RF loop test
News from Rohde & Schwarz
Number 167 (2000/II)
27
Application notes
Software for mobile-radio conformance test systems
Convenient parameter sets instead of
time-consuming, low-level programming
Conformance test systems from Rohde& Schwarz for mobile radio support all
major standards such as GSM900/1800/1900, DECT, TETRA, W-CDMA and
Bluetooth. Hundreds of test cases based on the particular regulations have already
been implemented. But the low-level interface used for programming is much too
time-consuming for users wanting to modify test cases or design their own. To
allow users to concentrate on their tasks, Rohde& Schwarz developed test types
described by parameter sets that very much simplify complex procedures.
Why complicated …
… if there is a simpler way
Conventional development of test
cases involves exact coding of the
test regulation, creating a program
that is no longer changed once validated. Modern high-level languages
(eg C), which are very flexible and
thus suitable for all cases, are used
for programming. But for users who
want to modify supplied tests or create
their own, these low-level interfaces
are relatively complicated and timeconsuming. So there is big demand for
further functionalities beyond validated
test cases, because many users want
to:
• vary test routines without any problems,
• perform qualitative tests in an
early development phase of the
DUTs,
• analyze test results with powerful
tools,
• make optimum use of expensive
hardware.
The Rohde&Schwarz solution to these
requirements takes the form of abstract,
complete test types matched to mobileradio needs. The user can vary these
test types in any way imaginable
thanks to their transparent parameters.
One parameter set describes a test
case that can be completely executed
(FIG 1).
Such requirements can only be met
by high-performance test systems that
provide the measurement competence
in optimum and transparent form and
flexibly cover the range between onebutton testers and very versatile test
systems.
The following test types are currently
available depending on the test-system
family: transceiver, transmitter, receiver,
complex time and special DUT reporting measurements. They are defined
after abstraction of all test cases to be
implemented (possibly for all mobileradio standards) with the aim of obtaining an optimum between the total
number of test types and the number
of parameters to be configured (and
displayed). Such a test type is characterized by:
• the mobile-radio network to be
configured (eg characteristics of
the useful channel),
• test conditions (regarding DUT/
environment),
• its dynamic behaviour (special test
sequence),
• the measurement technique (how
the measurement is conducted),
• processing and display of results.
Example:
transmitter measurements
The test type “transmitter measurements“
determines the transmitter quality of
the DUT. It defines the network and
environmental conditions. Especially
interesting is the response of the DUT
as a function of:
• transmit level and frequency,
• receive level,
• interfering signals,
• supply voltage,
• temperature and vibration,
• position during antenna measurements.
By combining different parameters,
special features of the DUT can be
tested or a series of measurements carried out to find associations that may
reveal design problems. The convenient graphical user interface supports
the user in the creation of test cases
(FIG 2).
The transmitter measurements test type
given as an example (FIG 3) determines:
Parameter
Test case 1
Transceiver
Graphical user interface
Test type
transceiver
Test type
receiver
Test type
transceiver
Test type
receiver
Test type
transmitter
Test type
…
Test case 2
Transceiver
Test case 12
Transceiver
FIG 1
Parameter set
describes complete
executable test case
28
News from Rohde & Schwarz
Number 167 (2000/II)
Test case 29
Transceiver
Application layer
Test type
transmitter
Test type
…
• phase and frequency errors,
• power as a function of time
(for mobile-radio standards with
TDMA),
• modulation parameters (future).
For result analysis, it displays the following (FIG 4):
• phase and frequency error as
maximum and average value,
• average power of transmit signal,
• burst form.
FIG 2
Convenient graphical user interface:
list of all test steps
to be performed
with editor in foreground
Users can freely select the above-mentioned parameters. They can use conformance tests already supplied by
Rohde&Schwarz (normally sampling
tests and thus a small subset of the complete test range) and modify a copy of
them. Creating new test cases within
the given test types is also very simple.
Preset defaults help and support the user
in the first steps.
This powerful open interface places
high demands on the system software,
since it must be able to offer functions
(measurement, stimulus and compensation methods) to handle this variety of
functionalities and implement them correctly for the complex test system. This is
a real challenge but Rohde&Schwarz is
backed up by many years of experience
in all fields of mobile-radio measurements.
FIG 3
Example of RF test
type for transmitter
measurement
Application software is supplied together
with the test cases and combines highgrade measuring instruments for a variety of uses. Users can fully concentrate
on the measurement task itself and the
optimization of DUTs – from development through to conformance testing.
Detlef Wiese
Reader service card 167/11
FIG 4
Overview of test
results for successful analysis
News from Rohde & Schwarz Number 167 (2000/II)
29
Application notes
TV Test Transmitter SFQ
Bit-error-rate measurement on
set-top boxes
Bit error rate (BER) can be measured at different points on set-top boxes for digital
television. A BER instrument must be able to accept and evaluate data in serial
or parallel form or as the payload of an MPEG2 transport stream. This is no
problem with TV Test Transmitter SFQ (FIG 1) and its BER measurement option:
while the necessary signals are generated at the right places in the signal flow,
BER is measured at the same time. Together with an optional noise generator
and fading simulator, SFQ is also able to simulate the interference occurring in
real-life transmissions in a reproducible way.
of 2 x 10 – 4 before the Reed-Solomon
decoder. White Gaussian noise is
added to the useful signal and BER
is measured before the Reed-Solomon
decoder at different noise levels (C/N
settings). The deviation of the measured from the theoretical curve is
then determined at the QEF point to
obtain the equivalent noise degradation (END), which is an important
receiver parameter.
Photo 42 592/2
FIG 1 TV Test Transmitter SFQ produces highly
precise, standard test signals that can be varied
and generated with predefined errors to determine the performance of products at their operating limits
No need for special transmission
testers
Reproducible measurement of BER
under defined conditions is an informative and important measurement when
you want to assess the quality of digital
transmission methods and the components involved. TV Test Transmitter SFQ
[*] features comprehensive BER capability: it evaluates data from receivers,
set-top boxes or demodulator chips in
serial form as data and clock, or in
parallel form as a PRBS sequence, or
as the payload of an MPEG2 transport
stream. No extra digital transmission
tester is necessary. Signal generation
30
News from Rohde & Schwarz
and evaluation can be fully remotecontrolled.
Quasi errorfree
In digital television to DVB specifications, measurement of the quasi
errorfree (QEF) point at a defined
receive level has proven to be especially important. QEF means a BER
FIG 3
Permanent display
of measured BER
Number 167 (2000/II)
What was previously only possible with
a special configuration is now done by
SFQ quite simply: BER measured direct
in an MPEG2 transport stream. For this
purpose SFQ provides a NULL PRBS
PACKET signal before the FEC (forward
error correction) in the coder in which a
pseudo-random bit sequence (PRBS) is
packeted as the payload in an MPEG2
transport stream.
Example: set-top box
The set-top box demodulates and
decodes the RF signal generated by
Application notes
Internally generated MPEG2 transport stream (NULL PRBS PACKET)
Header
4 bytes
Payload (= PRBS)
184 bytes
Payload (= PRBS)
184 bytes
Header
4 bytes
TV Test Transmitter SFQ
Internal MPEG2
transport stream
with payload = PRBS
DUT: set-top box
Channel coding
+ modulator
RF +
noise
RF
Tuner
PRBS
generator
BER
measurement
Clock +
data
Clock +
data
Noise
Demodulator
+ decoder
MPEG2
decoder
Common
interface
Adapter
card
CI TS
Clock +
data (serial)
MPEG2 transport stream (parallel)
FIG 2
Principle of BER
measurement on settop boxes
Header
4 bytes
SFQ (FIG 2). The received MPEG2
transport stream is available at its
common interface. An adapter card
is available as a recommended extra
for this standard interface so that
the MPEG2 transport stream can be
output, converted in level and the
signal then applied to the parallel
input (TS PARALLEL AUX) of SFQ. For
BER measurement, SFQ eliminates the
header from the MPEG2 transport
stream and evaluates bit errors in the
payload.
Payload (= PRBS)
184 bytes
Header
4 bytes
Payload (= PRBS)
184 bytes
Demodulated and decoded MPEG2 transport stream with bit errors
The BER measurement hardware is
accommodated in the DVB-T module of
SFQ. The BER measurement software
option is independent of this module,
however, and works with transport
streams of any modulation format. The
bit error rate currently being measured
is shown in a line of the display (FIG 3).
The user can thus vary the C/N ratio
and see the measured bit error rate at
the same time.
Franz-Josef Zimmermann
Bit error
REFERENCES
[*] Kretschmer, Erhard; Zimmermann, FranzJosef: Digital test signals for the television
future. News from Rohde&Schwarz (1997)
No. 153, pp 14–16
Reader service card 167/12
News from Rohde & Schwarz Number 167 (2000/II)
31
Application notes
DVB-T Test Receiver EFA-T
Innovative measurement functions for
terrestrial digital TV
DVB-T Test Receiver EFA-T (FIG 1) features a multitude of measurement functions for
the complex characteristics of OFDM signals, thus helping to locate transmission
channel problems. Some of these innovative methods are already described in
detail in [1]. A number of new features now allow classification and analysis
of DVB-T signal quality.
the range of values obtained (FIG 2).
Group delay can now be determined
by means of a simple conversion function of EFA-T.
Photo 43 310/6
Polar plot in complex plane
FIG 1 DVB-T Test Receiver EFA-T – now with
enhanced functionality for terrestrial digital TV
The conditions prevailing in a transmission channel can be assessed at a
glance by representing the complex
values of pilots in the complex plane.
While this representation is not referenced to frequency, it offers straightforward phase and amplitude information
in a single diagram (FIG 3).
Channel impulse response
OFDM modulation
Linear distortion
DVB-T employs OFDM (orthogonal
frequency-division multiplex) modulation in accordance with standard
ETS 300744 [2]. Depending on the
transmission mode, 1705 or 6817
mutually orthogonal carriers are sent
simultaneously in a transmission channel (6 MHz, 7 MHz or 8 MHz
bandwidth). Each single carrier is
4QAM, 16QAM or 64QAM modulated. At exactly defined intervals,
individual carriers, called pilots, are
emitted unmodulated with 0° or 180°
phase angle, depending on the carrier number, and at power boosted by
a factor of 16/9. These pilots allow
direct assessment of the quality of
the transmission channel (linear distortion).
EFA-T calculates the theoretical,
expected phase values of the pilots.
At the same time, the actual phase
values and amplitudes of the received
pilots are determined. The quotients of
the theoretical to actual values are a
measure of linear distortion in a transmission channel at a specific frequency.
All values of the pilots together give
the channel transmission function. The
special point about this method is that
all calculations are complex (ie with
real and imaginary components), yielding complex results. So EFA-T outputs
not only the amplitude response of
a transmission channel but also its
phase response. The frequency axis is
freely selectable, and the amplitude/
phase axis automatically adjusts to
32
News from Rohde & Schwarz
Number 167 (2000/II)
The channel transmission function and
the channel impulse response are
linked to each other via the Fourier
transform. EFA-T performs an inverse
Fourier transform (IFFT) to determine
the channel impulse response, whose
main signal (at t = 0) and echoes are
graphically displayed (FIG 4). This
measurement is performed with very
high precision, so the zoom function
of the receiver is particularly valuable
in this case, allowing highly detailed
presentation of results.
This measurement is used on the one
hand to show the channel impulse
response, caused for example by reflections from buildings, mountains and
other obstacles. But it also serves for
monitoring synchronization in singlefrequency networks (SFNs). The SFN
technique allows network operators
Application notes
to operate all transmitters at the same
frequency for broadcasting a DVB-T
signal from several sites. This requires
highly precise time synchronization
of the different transmitters however.
To verify synchronization, EFA-T can
present channel impulse response as
a function of both time and distance
(conversion to kilometers or miles).
Amplitude distribution of
nonlinear distortions
DVB-T signals displayed on an oscilloscope cannot be distinguished from
Gaussian noise. These signals are
known for their very high crest factor.
Monitoring the amplitude distribution of
these signals is particularly important
for the transmitter operator for two
reasons, which should be carefully
weighed up against each other. On
the one hand, (nonlinear) limitation
of the transmitted signals increases
spurious emissions because of intermodulation between the OFDM carriers, so adjacent TV channels may
be affected. For this reason, a high
crest factor of the transmitted signal
is aimed at. On the other hand, too
high a crest factor in conjunction with
effective use of the available transmitter
power can considerably reduce the
lifetime of transmitter output stages.
For this reason, precisely specified
limitation is chosen, ie reduced crest
factor.
FIG 5 illustrates the amplitude distribution of a DVB-T transmitter, showing the
relative frequency of the amplitudes
in a 1 dB amplitude window. The rms
value of the transmitted signal is used
as the basis to which all other values
are referred. Noteworthy is the very
high inherent crest factor of more than
15 dB of EFA-T, which offers a comfortable margin for this type of measurement.
Since the theoretical amplitude distribution characteristic can be exactly calculated with DVB-T, it is included in the
diagram (dotted lines above columns).
FIG 2 Linear distortion in transmission channel (here due to strong fading), top: amplitude
frequency response, bottom: phase frequency
response; frequency axis marked with carrier
number k of OFDM signal
2
FIG 3 Linear distortion as polar plot; real
component represented along long diagonal,
imaginary component along short diagonal
FIG 4 Channel impulse response; useful
signal at t = 0; post-echo with –10 dB at t =
100 µs; pre-echo with –15 dB at t = –50 µs.
Signal is generated by DVB-T Test Transmitter
SFQ fitted with fading simulator option
FIG 5 Amplitude distribution of DVB-T transmitter. Theoretical (ideal) distribution is shown
by dotted lines. Limiting effect of power amplifier is clearly discernible (red arrows)
3
You can see at a glance if and how the
signal is limited in amplitude.
Summary: reference class
EFA-T offers further functions not
described here, such as spectrum
analysis (FFT) and history. So it is
no wonder that the test receiver has
rapidly become a reference in the
4
class of realtime instruments. All functions and graphical displays are of
course available also via the remotecontrol interface. Great ease of operation and extremely fast measurement
cycles round off the comprehensive
and innovative functionality of EFA-T.
Christoph Balz
5
REFERENCES
[1] Balz, Christoph; Leutiger, Mathias: DVB-T
Test Receiver EFA-T – The test reference:
now for terrestrial digital TV too. News
from Rohde& Schwarz (1999) No. 164,
pp 4 –7
[2] Digital systems for television, sound and
data services. Framing structure, channel
coding and modulation for digital terrestrial
television. ETS300744, European Telecommunications Standards Institute, ETSI
Reader service card 167/13
News from Rohde & Schwarz
Number 167 (2000/II)
33
Panorama
64 kbit modem for multifunctional mobile radios
Software enhancement of functions
for future requirements
The newly developed radio equipment families from Rohde & Schwarz, eg Series
4400 [1], are set up with hardware and software modules on a uniform platform.
This principle ensures across-the-board use and radio-system standardization
with all the accompanying potential for low cost of ownership. The universal
platform can be adapted to future requirements by software and hardware
extensions to the basic unit, eg with the 64 kbit high-performance modem for
radio data transmission with high bandwidth efficiency.
Modem implemented by software
The new 64 kbit modem is entirely
implemented as software on one of
the digital signal processors of the
radio. This allows future extensions
or matching to special applications
through a simple software upgrade.
The new method makes considerably
better use of scarce frequency bands
than conventional solutions. Encryption
of communication is just as straightforward as changing to other communications standards, eg from ISDN
through TCP/IP LAN links to mobileradio networks.
must for the military as well as government authorities and organizations
with security missions such as police
forces, fire fighters and border patrols.
In addition, it is ideal for mobile dataacquisition and information systems,
FIG 1
Radio data by software modem shows
how: flexible DF
networks with data
rates of 64 kbit/s
for bearing and
control data
portable control units as well as remote
access applications. The box below
illustrates how the modem meets the
special requirements encountered in
mobile use.
Router
Communikation
server
LAN DF workstations
The new modem has vast potential:
stills, video sequences and fast database queries are now also possible
during mobile use. That makes it a
Mobile radio data must meet special requirements
In contrast to fixed transmit and receive
equipment, radio data units for mobile use
face additional requirements. Fading is a
general problem in mobile radio. It can
be time- and frequency-selective; multipath
fading in particular causes problems when
transmitting data via mobile-radio links.
The new data modem offers significant
advantages by using OFDM (orthogonal
frequency-diversity modulation). Here the
data stream is split into parallel bit streams
and spread over several carriers in the
34
News from Rohde & Schwarz
baseband. In addition to the modulated carriers, pilot tones (sinusoidal) are integrated
in the spectrum for channel estimation and
synchronization.
To enable the baseband signal with up to
24 kHz bandwidth to be transmitted in standardized frequency grids (eg 25 kHz), linear
conversion to the channel frequency is performed by modulation similar to SSB. Since
the data rate is split up among a large
Number 167 (2000/II)
number of carriers, symbol duration can be
selected large enough to minimize fading
effects and intersymbol interference.
To make communication resistant to interference, the various QAM (quadrature
amplitude modulation, q ≤64) signal states
are trellis-coded. Trellis-coded modulation (TCM) is a combination of encoding
and modulation technique that yields an
improvement (coding gain and shaping
gain) of almost 6 dB compared to equivalent QAM without trellis coding.
Panorama
Radio DF networks are a good example of remote-controlled applications.
A central communication server that
processes the data is connected to
detached direction finders via radio
modems (FIG 1) that can transmit
remote-control information plus IF spectra or audio signals thanks to their high
data rate.
Use of the radio modem in conjunction with broadband data transmission media such as satellites or DAB
transmitters opens up completely new
prospects. DAB, originally developed
for digital radio, is basically suitable
for transmitting data of any kind (FIG
2). Interactive multimedia applications
using DAB have asymmetrical throughput. So a query for data on the Internet can use the narrowband path,
whereas the usually vast amount of
FIG 2
The Rohde&
Schwarz product
range offers all components for pointto-point communication from a single
source: various
radio equipment
families, DAB and
DVB transmitters
and IT product
PostMan [2]
DAB
Downlink
Transceiver
Back channel
Transceiver
Intranet
data is returned through the broadband medium. This guarantees the
extremely efficient utilization of the
available resources.
Ulrich Otto
Reader service card 167/14
A
REFERENCES
[1] Fraebel, Michael; Vielhuber, Robert: Software-based radios for professional use.
News from Rohde& Schwarz (2000) No.
166, pp 8 – 9
[2] Kneidel, Thomas: When the PostMan rings
on Internet. News from Rohde& Schwarz
(1997) No. 153, pp 28– 29
CD-ROM
Workshop on CD-ROM: Miniport Receiver EB200
* Obtainable free of charge from your Rohde&
Schwarz representative
DAB
new English/German training
CD-ROM* from Rohde&Schwarz
presents an extensive and versatile,
virtual workshop for familiarizing
with operation and functionality of
Miniport Receiver EB200.
Following an interesting lead-in
animation – you see EB200 emerge
step by step from the drawing board
to become the finished receiver – the
main menu offers you a wide choice of
subjects. First time round though, you
should work from the top down. The
Tutorial tells you all about startup, reception, direct functions and frequency plus
memory scan. Here you can learn how
to handle the device just like in conventional training. Under the next menu
item Operation, you can try out what
you know – virtually – on the receiver,
which is simulated with all its functions.
Test finds out what you know about
EB200 and what you can do with it.
The results tell you how good you are
and what you may need to repeat to
get better. Click on Documentation and
you can read the data sheet, specifications and manual, a presentation of all
information relating to EB200 and a
profile of Rohde&Schwarz.
This virtual workshop offers both users
of Miniport Receiver EB200 and those
interested in it a simple way of finding
out how to operate the device or make
even better use of it.
Stefan Böttinger
News from Rohde & Schwarz Number 167 (2000/II)
35
Information in print
Vector Network Analyzer ZVM (10 MHz to
20 GHz) has the top-class features of the ZVx
models and extends their frequency range to
20 GHz; options and extras as for the other
ZVx models.
EMS Test System TS9980 The 6-page data sheet
provides more information, specifications and
illustrations.
Data sheet PD 757.5543.21
Vector Signal Generator SMIQ (300 kHz to
6.4 GHz) comes with new options; BER measurement and digital standard W-CDMA acc. to
3GPP (FDD) have been added.
enter 167/15
Baseband Fading Simulator ABFS generates signals for universal mobile-radio measurement
applications (I/Q); 2 fading channels, 12 paths
(optional: 4 or 24); noise generators (optional)
for output and second output.
Data sheet PD 757.5466.21
Data sheet PD 757.5314.21
enter 167/17
Signal Analyzer FSIQ 20 Hz to 40 GHz for the
latest FSIQ model; this model and the options
1 dB attenuator, Ethernet interface with RJ-45
connector and exchangeable hard disk (or two)
have been taken into account in the revised data
sheet.
Data sheet PD 757.4160.22
Data sheet PD 757.1460.24
Data sheet PD 757.1525.22
enter 167/18
Microwave Directional Antenna AC008 (1 GHz
to 26.5 GHz) The extended frequency range
of the HL 025 feed made a new edition of this
data sheet necessary.
Data sheet PD 756.5633.23
Data sheet
PD 757.2438.24 +
PD 757.4582.22
enter 167/24
Antenna Impedance Converter EZ-12 (120 kHz
to 30 (120) MHz) has been redesigned and
is calibrated to the future CISPR 25 standard;
remote-controllable AM/FM switchover.
Data sheet PD 757.5289.21
enter 167/25
Precision Halfwave Dipoles HZ-12, HZ-13
(30 MHz to 1000 MHz) The specifications of
the antennas have been extended.
Data sheet PD 757.0387.22
enter 167/26
Web over DVB™ is an interactive Internet service
for sending, controlling, managing and accessing Internet data; transmission in the MPEG2
data stream (IP format), call-up on PC via standard browser.
Signal Generator SML 01 (9 kHz to 1.1 GHz,
resolution 0.1 Hz) offers all the properties of
a universal signal source: setting time <10 ms,
level –140 dBm to +13 dBm (+19 dBm overrange, error typ. <+0.5 dB), SSB phase noise
typ. –128 dBc(Hz), AM, FM/ϕM, pulse; digital sweeps, electronic attenuator; options: pulse
modulator (with generator) and reference oscillator.
Data sheet PD 757.5237.21
Data sheet PD 757.5550.21
DECT Signalling Test Unit PTW15 can be used for
mobile and stationary coverage measurements
(installation, test), network control, software and
hardware development as well as audio tests.
MPEG2 Realtime Monitor DVRM can handle 26
DVB or (as an option) 19 ATSC measurements
at the same time; remote control only, messages
via LEDs, relay contacts and interface; result
documentation, for example, available as an
option.
Data sheet PD 757.5020.21
Data sheet PD 757.5566.21
Series200 Single-Channel Communication
System (118 MHz to 144 MHz, 225 MHz to
400 MHz) Many specifications were outdated
due to ongoing technical development.
Data sheet PD 757.0241.25
enter 167/34
D-Channel Filter ISDNwall A model with S0 interface for connecting several instruments is offered
by Rohde& Schwarz SIT GmbH.
Data sheet PD 757.3770.23
enter 167/35
Rohde & Schwarz electronic workshops “Your
way to independence in maintenance and
repair“ is presented by R & S Cologne Plant in
this brochure: customized stationary, semi-mobile
and mobile test shops especially for applications
without standard solutions.
Info PD 757.5508.21
enter 167/36
New application notes
Bit error ratio BER in DVB as a function of
S/N
enter 167/28
Appl. 7BM03_1E
enter 167/19
enter 167/33
enter 167/27
DTV IP Inserters DIP001 and DIP010 enable the
insertion of Internet/Intranet data for standardindependent transmission in the MPEG2 data
stream; DIP001 requires an external PC, DIP010
has an incorporated PC.
Data sheet PD 757.5637.21
enter 167/32
enter 167/23
enter 167/16
Modulation Generator AMIQ, Simulation Software WinIQSIM The data sheet contains specifications relating to W-CDMA 3GPP (FDD) and
describes the optional digital I/Q output as well
as the AMIQ03 and AMIQ04 models (the latter:
16 Msample).
direction finding in the HF range (error 2°); all
the antennas can be operated simultaneously.
enter 167/37
Program for frequency response measurements
FreRes
Appl. 1MA09_4E
enter 167/38
Calibrating the CMD output level for BER
enter 167/20
enter 167/29
Appl. 1MA24_0E
Compact Coverage Measurement System
TS55-C3 Flexible field-strength measurement
system for stationary and mobile applications
(software ROMES) in public GSM networks,
GSM-R (railway) and E-GSM (extended); optional
GPS navigation and signalling measurement.
Data sheet PD 757.4247.21
enter 167/21
Emission Test System TS9976 (0.15 MHz to
18 GHz) for standard-conformant interference
and spurious measurements on wireless communication equipment in EMC and conformance
testing; for use up to 40 GHz.
Data sheet PD 757.5495.21
36
W-CDMA signal generator solutions by Rohde
& Schwarz
Data sheet PD 757.2580.23
Appl. 1GP39_0E
enter 167/30
enter 167/40
Schz
TV Test Transmitter SFQ (0.3 MHz to 3.3 GHz)
is provided with a new option for BER measurements for the DVB-T test transmitter models.
Data sheet PD 757.3334.26
enter 167/31
Digital Direction Finder DDF 190 (0.5 MHz to
3 GHz) The new ADD 119 antenna (0.5 MHz
to 30 MHz) plus firmware version ≥2 enables
enter 167/22
News from Rohde & Schwarz
enter 167/39
DAB Multiplexer DM001 The STI interface and
other changes are described in the new edition
of the data sheet.
Number 167 (2000/II)
Press comments
Photos: author
Star Award for
ATSC Test Receiver EFA
Into the Bluetooth era –
with Rohde & Schwarz
MOBILE europe, a European journal for wireless communication, decorated the cover of
its March issue with the Bluetooth image
motif from Rohde& Schwarz. Inside the
magazine reported on the new Bluetooth test
system:
Top: the “star”, the new ATSC Test
Receiver EFA;
left: Michael Vondermassen, Head
of the Broadcasting Division, receiving the Star Award
TV Technology, the world‘s major and most
read magazine focusing on the broadcast
industry, presented its Star Award in the category for measurement technology to the
new ATSC Test Receiver EFA from Rohde&
Schwarz at the NAB 2000 show (page 38).
The test receiver won
the prize for its innovative concept and
modern technology.
EFA can simultaneously receive, analyze and demodulate
8VSB-modulated picture data (the transmission
standard
adopted for digital
television in North
America). The Star
Award is presented
just once a year to
the most innovative
products exhibited at
the NAB show in Las Vegas. Articles in this
issue on ATSC-EFA (page 11) and EFA-T (page
32).
Stefan Böttinger
“In TS8960 Rohde&Schwarz is launching the
world‘s first test system for Bluetooth equipment and components. This system, right in
tune with the current Bluetooth core specifications 1.0 and RF test specifications 0.7,
can be used for both conformity tests and
measurements in the development phase or
in quality assurance. All necessary Bluetooth
test cases are ready set, but their parameters
can be modified and adapted as wished.
…TS8960 is available straight away, making
it the first and only Bluetooth test system
obtainable on the world market.”
Instrumentation for digital TV
The front spread of the April edition of the
European broadcasting magazine IBE was
taken up by measurement solutions for DTV
from Rohde&Schwarz. An article inside the
journal described the use of this instrumentation in terrestrial digital TV networks:
“… Digital broadcasting of TV signals by
MPEG 2 is on the increase. In addition to
transmission media like satellite and cable,
terrestrial broadcasting networks are in
the process of being set up in many countries or are planned for the near future.
Rohde & Schwarz offers numerous solutions
for these requirements.”
News from Rohde & Schwarz Number 167 (2000/II)
37
Newsgrams
Competent on-the-spot
service in Asia
NAB – Rohde & Schwarz
with allround assortment
simply replacing the encoder
module.
At the world‘s biggest show for
broadcast technology, the NAB,
which was staged in Las Vegas
from 10 through 14 April,
Rohde&Schwarz presented its
entire range of transmission
and measurement equipment.
The effort was worth it: the
large number of visitors to the
stand and numerous contacts
proved how much interest there
is in the company and what
it has to offer. The focus at
the show was on new generations of test equipment for
digital technologies and on
medium-power transmitters. The
compact, air-cooled transmitters of the NH/NV7000 family
with LDMOS transistors and
integrated analog or OFDM
(8VSB) coder are designed for
digital television from 100 W to
800 W and analog television
in the range 250 W to 2 kW.
They allow precise and efficient
coverage even of small areas.
The exciter is modular, meaning that the transmitters can
be reconfigured from analog
to digital TV (DVB-T, ATSC) by
Among the highlights was the
ATSC Test Receiver EFA, the
world‘s first realtime TV test
receiver for digital TV (see
pages 11 and 37). With
the new MPEG 2 Recorder/
Generator DVRG, transport
streams to ATSC and DVB can
be recorded, decoded, newly
multiplexed and generated. The
new TV Test Transmitter SFQ
produces RF signals for ATSC,
the North-American terrestrial
digital TV standard.
German Navy successfully
trials PostMan
link between a submarine and
a land-based LAN on shortwave. The radio link enabled an
exchange of e-mails using COTS
(commercial off-the-shelf) e-mail
programs. PostMan will also
implement other TCP/IP applications by radio, as was demonstrated by an intranet access
with standard browsers.
Thomas Kneidel
As part of a series of shortwave trials called “PC-Net“, the
German Navy used the PostMan communication software
from Rohde&Schwarz for the
first time early in 2000. With
the aid of PostMan it was possible to set up a wireless TCP/IP
In addition to its own showing,
Rohde&Schwarz was also represented on the stand of its US
partner Acrodyne. The teaming
up of the two transmitter producers has been well received in
the USA and already resulted
in initial joint projects and contracts.
In the words of a seasoned
sales engineer who really
knows the show: “The best NAB
ever!“
Stefan Böttinger
In the capital-goods sector in
particular, customer satisfaction
depends very much on being
able to offer fast and first-class
service. For this reason Rohde&
Schwarz is implementing an
expanded, multistage concept
with its Asian representatives in
the 1999/2000 business year
that will upgrade the service support centers in the various countries to meet the bigger demands
of the market for calibration,
repair and spare-part logistics.
Categorization will also provide
customers with a clearer profile of the individual support
centers.
This means auditing Rohde &
Schwarz‘s Asian support centers and organizing them into
performance categories according to training, equipment inventory, service processes and profiles. The categories range from
basic support (First Line Bronze)
through standard service (First
Line Silver) to above-average
service and support (First Line
Gold). Appropriate upgrading
will be undertaken to achieve
the right performance category
at the right place.
The support for large regions
has been decentralized and
assigned to an area support
center (Second Line Service),
which handles direct most of
the service previously managed
from Munich, thus presenting
greater on-the-spot presence.
The demands made on such an
area support center are very
high, in both technical and logistic terms. The Rohde & Schwarz
Support Center Asia (SCA) sited
in Singapore satisfied all the
requirements and was recently
named the first official area support center (photo). Others are
currently being set up in both
Asia and Latin America.
Hans-Joachim Mann
The SCA team of the area support center for Southeast Asia
Photo: author
38
News from Rohde & Schwarz
Number 167 (2000/II)
Newsgrams
Spectrum Monitoring
System ARGUS-IT on the
roof of the world in
Bhutan
(photo). In Bhutan the focus is on
coordinating the many mediumwave transmitters in the country itself and in the neighbouring countries China and India to
prevent mutual interference. At
the official handover, Bhutan‘s
Deputy Minister of Communication, Dasho Leki Dorji, was very
satisfied with the performance
of ARGUS-IT.
Jörg Pfitzner
(Software for ARGUS-IT, see
page 18 in this issue)
Photo: author
A Spectrum Monitoring System
ARGUS-IT from Rohde&Schwarz
was recently commissioned in
Bhutan, a country in the eastern
Himalayas. It was contracted
by the Ministry of Communication and consists of a station in the capital Thimphu
plus an all-terrain test vehicle
GSM test equipment for
Italy‘s telecommunications
ministry
The ISCTI (Istituto Superiore delle
Communicazioni e delle Tecnologie dell‘Informazione), which
is part of the Italian telecommunications ministry, awarded
Rohde&Schwarz an order to
supply a GSM System Simulator TS8916B with extensive
accessories for a test center in
Rome for the certification of
GSM mobile telephones. The
TS8916B system is the state of
the art in GSM conformance testing and is used by virtually all
producers and test houses worldwide. It comprises a total of nine
physical RF channels and extra
RF instrumentation for measuring
fading effects or wideband interference.
Many years of experience in
all sectors of mobile radio and
especially in certification testing
have made Rohde & Schwarz
the world‘s market leader. The
ISCTI, which is responsible for
certificating digital communications equipment in Italy, intends
to set up a GSM test center by
mid-2000 that covers the broad
spectrum from protocol and RF
tests through to acoustic and
EMC tests plus environmental
simulation.
Safeguard against attacks
from the Internett
In the new version of the BSI
tool “Secure UNIX Administration“, Rohde & Schwarz is offering software with which UNIX
systems can be tested for gaps
in their security. The software
performs security checks automatically or manually, produces
suggestions for correcting weaknesses in security, and even
supports the system administrator in eliminating detected
sources of danger. In the catalog of measures of the “Safe
Internet“ task force, recently
published by Germany‘s ministry of the interior, the BSI tool
Spectrum monitoring on the highest passes of Bhutan (Pele La at
3400 m altitude)
from Rohde&Schwarz is recommended as being especially suitable for protecting IT systems
against denial of service on the
Internet.
Stefan Böttinger
News from Rohde & Schwarz Number 167 (2000/II)
39
News from Rohde & Schwarz 167 (2000/II) · PD 757.5350.21 · B42622
Visit us on Internet at www.rohde-schwarz.com
ROHDE & SCHWARZ GmbH & Co. KG · Muehldorfstrasse 15 · 81671 Munich, Germany · P.O.B. 80 14 69 · 81614 Munich
Support Center: Tel. (+49) 018 05 12 42 42 · E-Mail: customersupport@rohde-schwarz.com · Fax (+49 89) 41 29-37 77
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