MM2 Spread Spectrum Wireless Data Transceiver User Manual

MM2 Spread Spectrum Wireless Data Transceiver User Manual
MM2 Spread Spectrum Wireless Data Transceiver User Manual
MM2
Spread Spectrum
Wireless Data Transceiver
User Manual
Version 1.6
FreeWave Technologies, Inc.
1880 South Flatiron Court
Boulder, CO 80301
(303) 444-3862
(303) 786-9948 Fax
www.FreeWave.com
MM2 USER MANUAL
Copyright © 1995-2008 by FreeWave Technologies, Inc. All rights reserved. Published 2008.
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WARRANTY
FreeWave Technologies warrants the FreeWave Wireless Data Transceiver against defects in materials and
manufacturing for a period of two years from the date of purchase. In the event of a Product failure due to materials
or workmanship, FreeWave will, at its discretion, repair or replace the Product.
In no event will FreeWave Technologies Inc., its suppliers, and its licensors be liable for any damages arising from
the use of or inability to use this Product. This includes business interruption, loss of business information, or other
loss which may arise from the use of this Product. Please be advised that OEM customer’s warranty periods may
vary.
Warranty Policy may not apply:
1.
2.
3.
If Product repair, adjustments or parts replacements is required due to accident, neglect, unusual physical,
electrical or electromagnetic stress.
If Product is used outside of FreeWave specifications.
If Product has been modified, repaired or altered by Customer unless FreeWave specifically authorized such
alterations in each instance in writing. This includes the addition of conformal coating.
The Warranty period begins from the date of shipment and is defined per the Standard Warranty Policy stated above.
Special Rate Replacement Option
A special rate replacement option is offered to non-warranty returns or upgrades. The option to purchase the
replacement unit at this special rate is only valid for that RMA, (Return Material Authorization). The special
replacement rate option expires if not exercised within 30 days of final disposition of RMA.
RESTRICTED RIGHTS
Microsoft and Windows are registered trademarks of the Microsoft Corporation. pcANYWHERE is a registered
trademark of Symantec Corporation. Other product names mentioned in this manual may be copyrights, trademarks,
or registered trademarks of their respective companies and are hereby acknowledged.
Information in this document is subject to change without notice. The information contained in this document is
proprietary and confidential to FreeWave Technologies, Inc.
This manual is for use by purchasers and other authorized users of the FreeWave™ Spread Spectrum Wireless Data
Transceiver only.
No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, or
for any purpose without the express written permission of FreeWave Technologies, Inc.
FreeWave’s Spread Spectrum Wireless Data Transceivers are made in the United States of America.
Printed in the United States of America.
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This product is licensed by The United States. Diversion contrary to U.S. law is prohibited. Shipment or reexport of this product outside of The United States may require authorization by the U.S. Bureau of Export
Administration. Please contact FreeWave Technologies for assistance and further information.
UL NOTIFICATION
Models MM2-T-U, MM2-HS-T-U are suitable for use in Class 1, Division 2, Groups A, B, C, and D or non-
hazardous locations only. Input voltage for the above models is 5 volts +/- 5% DC.
Models MM2-LV-T-U, MM2-HS-LV-T-U are suitable for use in Class 1, Division 2, Groups A, B, C, and D or
non-hazardous locations only. Input voltage for the above models is 3.3 volts +/- 5% DC.
FCC NOTIFICATIONS
This device complies with part 15 of the FCC rules. Operation is subject to the following two conditions: 1) This
device may not cause harmful interference and 2) this device must accept any interference received, including
interference that may cause undesired operation. This device must be operated as supplied by FreeWave
Technologies, Inc. Any changes or modifications made to the device without the express written approval of
FreeWave Technologies may void the user's authority to operate the device.
CAUTION:
The MM2 transceivers have a maximum transmitted output power of 1000mW. It is recommended
that the transmit antenna be kept at least 23 cm away from nearby persons to satisfy FCC RF
exposure requirements.
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class B digital device, pursuant to part 15 of
the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful interference in a
residential installation. This equipment generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed
and used in accordance with the instructions, may cause harmful interference to radio communications. However, no
guarantee shall be made that interference will not occur in a particular installation. If this equipment does cause
harmful interference to radio or television reception, which can be determined by turning the equipment off and on,
the user is encouraged to try to correct the interference by one or more of the following measures:
•
Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna.
•
Increase the separation between the equipment and receiver.
•
Connect the equipment into an outlet on a circuit different from that to which the receiver is connected.
•
Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/TV technician for help.
Note:
Whenever any FreeWave Technologies module is placed inside an enclosure a label must be placed on the
outside of that enclosure which includes the module's FCC ID.
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Table of Contents
ABOUT FREEWAVE TRANSCEIVERS.................................................................................................................6
ABOUT FREEWAVE TRANSCEIVERS.................................................................................................................6
OEM / ENGINEERING NOTIFICATION ..........................................................................................................................6
CHOOSING POINT-TO-POINT OR POINT-TO-MULTIPOINT OPERATION...............................................7
QUICK START ON A POINT-TO-MULTIPOINT NETWORK ..........................................................................8
POINT-TO-MULTIPOINT OPERATION LED'S ...............................................................................................................8
QUICK START ON A POINT-TO-POINT NETWORK........................................................................................9
POINT-TO-POINT OPERATION LED’S..........................................................................................................................9
CHOOSING A LOCATION FOR THE TRANSCEIVERS..................................................................................10
SETTING UP THE TRANSCEIVER USING HYPERTERMINAL ...................................................................11
ACCESSING HYPERTERMINAL’S SETUP MENU .........................................................................................................11
CONNECTING AND DISCONNECTING FROM HYPERTERMINAL...................................................................................14
TROUBLESHOOTING HYPERTERMINAL .....................................................................................................................15
SETTING UP A TRANSCEIVER ...........................................................................................................................16
OPERATION MODE................................................................................................................................................17
SET OPERATION MODE .............................................................................................................................................19
BAUD RATE..............................................................................................................................................................20
SET BAUD RATE .......................................................................................................................................................20
CALL BOOK .............................................................................................................................................................22
EDIT CALL BOOK .....................................................................................................................................................23
PROGRAMMING POINT-TO-POINT EXTENDED CALL BOOK TO USE THREE OR FOUR REPEATERS .............................24
PROGRAMMING POINT-TO-MULTIPOINT CALL BOOK ..............................................................................................24
PROGRAMMING POINT-TO-MULTIPOINT EXTENDED CALL BOOK ............................................................................25
RADIO TRANSMISSION CHARACTERISTICS.................................................................................................25
EDIT RADIO TRANSMISSION CHARACTERISTICS .......................................................................................................26
FreqKey in 900 MHz Transceivers ......................................................................................................................26
(0) Hop Table Version .........................................................................................................................................27
(1) Hop Table Size ...............................................................................................................................................27
(2) Hop Freq Offset .............................................................................................................................................27
(3) Frequency Zone .............................................................................................................................................28
(1) Max Packet Size and (2) Min Packet Size ......................................................................................................30
(3) Xmit Rate........................................................................................................................................................32
(4) RF Data Rate .................................................................................................................................................32
(5) RF Xmit Power...............................................................................................................................................33
(6) Slave Security.................................................................................................................................................33
(7) RTS to CTS .....................................................................................................................................................33
(8) Retry Time Out ...............................................................................................................................................34
(9) Lowpower Mode.............................................................................................................................................35
(A) High Noise .....................................................................................................................................................35
(B) MCU speed ....................................................................................................................................................36
SHOW RADIO STATISTICS ..................................................................................................................................36
NUMBER OF DISCONNECTS .......................................................................................................................................36
ANTENNA REFLECTED POWER .................................................................................................................................36
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TRANSMIT CURRENT (MA) .......................................................................................................................................36
AVERAGE NOISE LEVEL ...........................................................................................................................................37
AVERAGE SIGNAL LEVEL .........................................................................................................................................37
OVERALL RCV RATE (%) .........................................................................................................................................37
RADIO TEMPERATURE ..............................................................................................................................................37
MULTIPOINT PARAMETERS ..............................................................................................................................38
EDIT MULTIPOINT PARAMETERS ..............................................................................................................................38
(0) Number Repeaters..........................................................................................................................................38
(1) Master Packet Repeat ....................................................................................................................................38
Master Packet Repeat in MultiPoint Networks with Repeaters ......................................................................................... 39
(2) Max Slave Retry .............................................................................................................................................39
(3) Retry Odds .....................................................................................................................................................39
(4) DTR Connect..................................................................................................................................................39
(5) Repeater Frequency .......................................................................................................................................40
(6) Network ID.....................................................................................................................................................40
(8) MultiMaster Synch .........................................................................................................................................40
(9) 1 PPS Enable/Delay.......................................................................................................................................40
(A) Slave/Repeater ...............................................................................................................................................41
(B) Diagnostics ....................................................................................................................................................41
(C) Subnet ID.......................................................................................................................................................41
(D) Radio ID........................................................................................................................................................42
(E) Local Mode....................................................................................................................................................42
OVERLAPPING MULTIPOINT NETWORKS ....................................................................................................43
PASSWORDS ............................................................................................................................................................44
SETTING A PASSWORD ..............................................................................................................................................44
Changing a Password..........................................................................................................................................44
Disabling a Password..........................................................................................................................................44
TIME DIVISIBLE MULTIPLE ACCESS (TDMA) ..............................................................................................45
ADDITIONAL SETTINGS ......................................................................................................................................46
LOW BAUD RATES....................................................................................................................................................46
SETUP TIMEOUT .......................................................................................................................................................46
FACTORY DEFAULT SETTINGS.........................................................................................................................47
EXAMPLES OF DATA COMMUNICATION LINKS .........................................................................................48
ADDITIONAL TRANSCEIVER INFORMATION...............................................................................................51
BOARD LEVEL PINOUT .............................................................................................................................................51
MM2-T-U AND MM2-LV-T-U 900 MHZ TRANSCEIVER SPECIFICATIONS ..............................................52
MM2-T-U AND MM2-LV-T-U 900 MHZ TRANSCEIVER SPECIFICATIONS ..............................................54
MECHANICAL DRAWING ....................................................................................................................................56
FREEWAVE TECHNICAL SUPPORT .................................................................................................................57
ERRATA ....................................................................................................................................................................58
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About FreeWave Transceivers
FreeWave transceivers operate in virtually any environment where data communications occur.
OEM / Engineering Notification
Programming the MM2 is accomplished through a text menu system that can be used with Windows HyperTerminal
or similar terminal emulator. FreeWave Technologies, Inc also offers FreeWave Tool Suite which is a graphical
software application that can program the MM2 and also read diagnostic data from the MM2. Tool Suite is available
for download from the FreeWave website. Please contact FreeWave customer support to set up an account.
For OEMs and engineering firms that want to integrate the MM2 into their product, the above approach can be used
for programming the MM2. In addition to this approach, FreeWave Technologies, Inc also offers a more “machine
friendly” method that allows specific commands to be sent directly to the FreeWave MM2 without using the menu
system. The user will need certain information to accomplish this. This information is available from FreeWave
Technologies, Inc electronically. FreeWave Technologies, Inc does require an NDA (Non Disclosure Agreement) to
be signed prior to providing this information. Please contact your FreeWave representative for further details on
obtaining this information.
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Choosing Point-to-Point or Point-to-MultiPoint Operation
A Point-to-Point network is limited to one Master and one Slave transceiver. Up to 4 Repeaters may be added to
extend the reach of the network, but no other Master or Slave may be added.
In a Point-to-MultiPoint network (also referred to as MultiPoint network) the transceiver, designated as a Master, is
able to simultaneously communicate with numerous Slaves. In its simplest form, a MultiPoint network functions with
the Master broadcasting its messages to all Slaves and the Slaves responding to the Master when given data by the
device connected to the data port.
It is important to note the differences between Point-to-Point and MultiPoint networks. In a Point-to-Point network all
packets are acknowledged, whether sent from the Master to the Slave or from the Slave to the Master. In a MultiPoint
network, outbound packets from the Master or Repeater to Slaves or other Repeaters are sent a set number of times
determined by the user. The receiving transceiver, Slave or Repeater, will accept the first packet received that
passes the 32 bit CRC. However, the packet is not acknowledged. On the return trip to the Master, all packets sent
are acknowledged or retransmitted until they are acknowledged. Therefore, the return link in a MultiPoint network is
generally very robust.
Traditionally, a MultiPoint network is used in applications where data is collected from many instruments and reported
back to one central site. As such, the architecture of such a network is different from Point-to-Point applications. The
number of radios in a MultiPoint network is influenced by the following parameters:
1.
Size of the blocks of data. The longer the data blocks, the smaller the network capacity.
2.
Baud rate.
3.
The amount of contention between Slaves. Polled Slaves vs. timed Slaves.
4.
Use of Repeaters. Using the Repeater setting in a MultiPoint network will decrease overall network capacity
by 50%.
For example, if the network will be polling Slaves once a day to retrieve sparse data, several hundred Slaves could
be configured to a single Master. However, if each Slave will be transmitting data at greater levels, then fewer Slaves
should be linked to the Master. The overall network will be closer to capacity with fewer Slaves.
For examples and additional information on data communication links, see the section Examples of Data
Communication Links later in this document.
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Quick Start on a Point-to-MultiPoint Network
The following is a quick start guide for setting up two transceivers in Point-to-MultiPoint mode. This mode allows for a
Master to communicate with several Repeaters and Slaves simultaneously.
1.
For board level configuration, connect the transceiver to a TTL to RS232 converter then connect to the serial
port of a computer either through the data pins or diagnostics pins. Make sure to connect the radio to a
power source (3.3 VDC for Model #MM2-LV-T, and 5.0 VDC for Model #MM2-T).
•
An evaluation interface is available for Model #MM2-T. This will allow the user to directly connect to an
RS232 serial port and use the standard +12VDC power supply. A Diagnostic port is accessible as well
using FreeWave diagnostic cable #ASC0409DC
2.
Open up a Hyper Terminal session.
•
Use the following settings in connecting with hyper terminal
•
Connect to COMx (where 'x' is the number of the com port being connected to)
•
Set data rate to 19,200, data bits - 8, Parity- none, Stop bits – 1, Flow control – none.
3.
To put the unit into setup mode, press the Setup button on the evaluation interface or short pin 2 to ground.
If using the diagnostics port, press Shift-U (capital U).
•
The three LED’s on the board should all turn green, indicating Setup mode.
•
The main menu will appear on the screen.
4.
Press 0 to get into the Operation Mode menu.
•
Press 2 to set the radio as a point to MultiPoint Master.
•
OR, Press 3 to set the radio as a point to MultiPoint Slave.
•
Press Esc to get back to Main menu.
5.
Press 1 in the main menu to change the Baud Rate.
•
The baud rate must be changed to match the baud rate of the device that the radio is to be attached to.
•
Press Esc to get back to Main menu.
6.
At the Main Menu, press 3.
•
Set FreqKey, Max Packet Size, Min Packet Size, RF Data rate identical on all radios in the network.
Changing these values may help to eliminate interference from other FreeWave networks.
•
Press Esc to get back to Main menu.
Note:
7.
At the Main Menu, press 5.
•
Set the Network ID value to any value between 1 and 4095, except 255.
•
Make sure this value is the same on every radio in the network.
Point-to-MultiPoint Operation LED's.
Master
Condition
Slave
Repeater
Carrier
Detect (CD)
Transmit
(TX)
Clear to
Send (CTS)
Carrier
Detect (CD)
Transmit
(TX)
Clear to
Send (CTS)
Carrier
Detect (CD)
Transmit (TX)
Clear to
Send (CTS)
Powered, not linked
Solid red
bright
Solid red
dim
Off 
Solid red
bright
Off 
Blinking red
Solid red
bright
Off 
Blinking
red
Repeater and Slave linked
to Master, no data
Solid red
bright
Solid red
dim
Off 
Solid
green
Off 
* Solid red
bright
Solid
green
Solid red
dim
* Solid red
bright
Repeater and Slave linked
to Master, Master sending
data to Slave
Solid red
bright
Solid red
dim
Off 
Solid
green
Off 
* Solid red
bright
Solid
green
Solid red
dim
* Solid red
bright
Repeater and Slave linked
to Master, Slave sending
data to Master
Solid
green
RCV data
Solid red
dim
Intermittent
flash redo
Solid
green
Intermitten
t flash
redo
* Solid red
bright
Solid
green
Solid red
bright
* Solid red
bright
Solid red
dim
Intermittent
flash redo
Solid
green
Intermitten
t flash
redo
* Solid red
bright
Solid
green
Solid red
bright
* Solid red
bright
or Solid red
bright
Master with diagnostics
program running
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* Clear to Send LED will be solid red with a solid link, as the link weakens the Clear to Send LED on the Repeater or
Slave will begin to flash.
Quick Start on a Point-to-Point Network
When purchased as a pair, the FreeWave® Wireless Data Transceivers are shipped from the factory pre-configured
with most of the settings to operate in Point-to-Point applications. To establish communications between a pair of
FreeWave Wireless Data Transceivers just received from the factory:
1.
Connect the transceiver to the instrument with the TTL to RS232 converter and also attach power.
2.
Set the Modem mode in each transceiver. One should be set as a Point-to-Point Master (Mode 0) and the
other set as a Point-to-Point Slave (Mode 1).
3.
Set the baud rate on each transceiver to match the baud rate of the instrument to which it is attached.
Please note, when setting the transceiver's baud rate, its TTL data rate is set. The baud rate does not have
to be on the same setting for the two transceivers.
4.
Edit the Call Book. Enter the Slave serial number in the Master’s Call Book. Enter the Master’s Serial
number in the Slave’s Call Book, or disable Slave Security (in the Slave).
5.
Connect antennas to the transceiver. Any FreeWave transceiver may be operated without an antenna for
bench-top testing without concern for damaging the product. Noise potential may be reduced on the bench
by lowering the Xmit power.
6.
Shortly after both transceivers are plugged in, they should establish a communications link with each other
and the connection is complete. Using the table below, verify that the radios are operating as expected.
Point-to-Point Operation LED’s
Master
Condition
Slave
Repeater
Carrier
Detect (CD)
Transmit
(TX)
Clear to
Send (CTS)
Carrier
Detect (CD)
Transmit
(TX)
Clear to
Send (CTS)
Carrier
Detect (CD)
Transmit
(TX)
Clear to
Send (CTS)
Solid red
bright 
Solid red
bright
Solid red
bright
Solid red
bright
Off 
Blinking red
Solid red
bright
Off 
Blinking red
Linked, no Repeater,
sending sparse data
Solid
green
Intermitten
t flash
redo
Intermittent
flash
redo
Solid
green
Intermittent
flash
redo
Intermittent
flash
redo
n/a
n/a
n/a
Master calling Slave
through Repeater
Solid red
bright
Solid red
dim
Solid red
bright
Solid red
bright
Off 
Blinking red
Solid red
bright
Off 
Blinking red
Master linked to
Repeater, not to Slave
Flashing
orange
Solid red
dim
Solid red
bright
Solid red
bright
Off 
Blinking red
Solid red
bright
Solid red
dim
Solid red
bright
Repeater linked to Slave
Solid
green
Intermitten
t flash
redo
Intermittent
flash
redo
Solid
green
Intermittent
flash
redo
Intermittent
flash
redo
Solid
green
Intermitt
ent flash
redo
Intermittent
flash
redo
Mode 6 - waiting for ATD
command
Solid red
bright
Off 
Blinking
red
Solid red
bright
Off 
Blinking red
n/a
n/a
n/a
Setup Mode
Solid
green
Solid
green
Solid
green
Solid
green
Solid
green
Solid
green
Solid
green
Solid
green
Powered, no link
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




Solid
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MM2 Spread Spectrum Wireless Data Transceiver User Manual
Choosing a Location for the Transceivers
Placement of the FreeWave transceiver is likely to have a significant impact on its performance. The key to the
overall robustness of the radio link is the height of the antenna. In general, FreeWave units with a higher antenna
placement will have a better communication link. In practice, the transceiver should be placed away from computers,
telephones, answering machines and other similar equipment. To improve the data link, FreeWave Technologies
offers directional and Omni directional antennas with cable lengths ranging from 13 inches up to 200 feet. When
using an external antenna, placement of that antenna is critical to a solid data link. Other antennas in close proximity
are a potential source of interference; use the Radio Statistics to help identify potential problems. The Show Radio
Statistics page is found in option 4 in the Main Menu. An adjustment as little as 2 feet in antenna placement can
resolve some noise problems. In extreme cases, such as when interference is due to a Pager or Cellular Telephone
tower, the band pass filters that FreeWave offers, may reduce this out-of-band noise.
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Setting up the Transceiver using HyperTerminal
Note:
The terms Modem and Transceiver are used interchangeably in this manual and in the text of the Setup
menu. While the words have different meanings, the two terms should be treated as one and the same
when referring to FreeWave products.
Once the transceiver is powered and connected with the programming cable to the programming computer, it may be
programmed for use through HyperTerminal or EZConfig. (NOTE: the MM2 will not work with EZConfig. It will work
with the FreeWave Tools Suite configuration utility)
The following describes how to set HyperTerminal to program the transceivers.
Accessing HyperTerminal’s Setup Menu
Note:
The following screen shots are taken from a computer using Windows XP. The display may vary slightly if using
different operating systems.
1.
Click on the Start button. A cascading menu appears. Select Programs, Accessories, Communications and
then HyperTerminal. A window appears similar to the following:
2.
Double-click on the Hypertrm.exe icon. The following window appears.
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3.
In the Name text box, type in a descriptive name. Select an icon from the Icon selection box.
4.
Click on the OK button. The following “Connect To” dialog box appears:
5.
Select the connection type to be used from the Connect using drop-down menu. In most cases the
connection type will be either Direct to Com1 or Direct to Com2.
6.
Click on the OK button. The Properties dialog box appears for the selected connection type.
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The following are the port settings which must be set for a proper connection:
7.
Port Setting
Menu Option to Select
Bits per second
Data bits
Parity
Stop bits
Flow control
19200
8
None
1
None
After selecting the appropriate menu items for each setting, click on the OK button. The following
HyperTerminal dialog box appears:
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8.
To put the radio into setup mode, short pin 2 to ground. If connected to the diagnostics port, type U (Capital
‘U’) to invoke the Setup menu.
When Setup is invoked, the FreeWave Setup Main Menu will display in the HyperTerminal dialog box. All
three LED’s on the transceiver will turn green    and stay green as long as the transceiver is in the
Setup mode.
9.
Save the HyperTerminal connection settings by selecting Save from the File menu.
IMPORTANT NOTE:
Whenever a change is made to the HyperTerminal settings in an open terminal session,
the connection must be disconnected then reconnected before the settings will take effect.
Connecting and Disconnecting from HyperTerminal
The HyperTerminal dialog box displays several icons in the toolbar. To reconnect to HyperTerminal, click on the
icon, and then click on the Call
icon to reconnect. If the settings have not been saved they must
Disconnect
be reselected when HyperTerminal reconnects to the transceiver.
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Troubleshooting HyperTerminal
The following are some common issues encountered while using HyperTerminal.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Nothing appears on the screen after pressing the Setup button on the transceiver.
This usually indicates one of two things; either the wrong Com port is selected or a null modem cable is
being used. Follow the steps below to change the Com ports.
1. Click on the Disconnect button.
2. Select Properties from the File menu.
3. Click on the Connect To tab and verify that the correct Com port is selected.
4. Click on the OK button to close the Properties dialog box.
5. Click on the Call button.
6. Return the transceiver to Setup mode. The Setup menu screen should appear.
Gibberish appears on the screen after pressing the Setup button.
This usually indicates a Baud Rate problem. Follow the steps below to change the Baud Rate.
The problem may also be that the transceiver under test is TTL and NOT RS-232, make sure the TTL from the
MM2 is being converted to RS232. Gibberish BEFORE the Setup button is pressed indicates Diagnostics is
enabled.
1. Click on the Disconnect button.
2. Select Properties from the File menu.
3. Click on the Configure button.
4. Change the Baud Rate to 19200 and click on the OK button.
5. Click on the OK button to close the Properties dialog box.
6. Click on the Call button.
7. Return the transceiver to Setup mode. The Setup menu screen should appear.
The Setup menu appears on the screen, but nothing happens when keys on the keyboard are
pressed.
This usually indicates a three-wire connection, Rx, Tx & Gnd. Follow the steps below if the connection uses a
three-wire connection.
1. Click on the Disconnect button.
2. Select Properties from the File menu.
3. Click on the Configure button.
4. Change the Flow Control to None and click on the OK button.
5. Click on the OK button to close the Properties dialog box.
6. Click on the Call button.
7. Return the transceiver to Setup mode. The Setup menu screen should appear.
A connection exists, data is being received through HyperTerminal, and some data is correct, but
the remaining data is in unrecognizable characters.
This usually indicates a parity mismatch. To resolve this issue, ensure that the parity of the transceiver and the
parity of HyperTerminal are set the same. HyperTerminal’s parity settings are under Properties and the
FreeWave parity is found under the Baud Rate in the Setup mode.
1. Click on the Disconnect button.
2. Select Properties from the File menu.
3. Click on the Configure button.
4. Change the Parity to None and click on the OK button.
5. Click on the OK button to close the Properties dialog box.
6. Click on the Call button.
Return the transceiver to Setup mode. The Setup menu screen should appear.
For additional troubleshooting for HyperTerminal, call FreeWave Technical Support at (303) 381 9200.
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Setting up a Transceiver
Note:
Once Setup mode has been invoked in HyperTerminal, the process of exiting Setup mode involves pressing
the Escape (Esc) key several times, allowing the transceiver to connect to the network. Otherwise, cycling
the power is the alternative way to exit Setup mode.
Firmware version
Transceiver’s unique
serial number
Setup Menu Options
The following section describes in detail how to use all of the Setup menu options to edit the operational parameters
and view the performance data.
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Operation Mode
The Operation Mode option designates the method FreeWave transceivers use to communicate with each other.
FreeWave transceivers operate in a Master to Slave configuration. Before the transceivers can operate together, they
must be set up to properly communicate.
In a Point-to-Point configuration, Master or Slave Mode may be used on either end of the communication link without
performance degradation. When setting up the transceiver, remember that a number of parameters are controlled by
the settings in the Master. Therefore, deploying the Master on the communications end where it will be easier to
access is advised, but not necessary.
Operation Mode
Description
Point-to-Point
Master (0)
This mode designates the transceiver as the Master in Point-to-Point mode. The Master
may call any or all Slaves designated in its Call Book.
In Point-to-Point mode the Master determines the setting used for most of the radio
transmission characteristics, regardless of the settings in the Slave and/or Repeaters. The
settings not determined by the Master are: RF Xmit Power, Slave Security, Retry Time
Out, and the Hop Table settings.
Point-to-Point
Slave (1)
This mode designates the transceiver as a Slave in Point-to-Point mode. The Slave
communicates with any Master in its Call Book—either directly or through up to four
Repeaters.
When functioning as a Slave, the Entry to Call feature in the transceiver’s Call Book is not
operational. The Call Book may be bypassed in the Slave by setting Slave Security to 1.
See the Slave Security section later in this manual.
Point–toMultiPoint Master
(2)
This mode designates the transceiver as a Master in MultiPoint mode. This mode allows
one Master transceiver to communicate simultaneously with numerous Slaves and
Repeaters.
A Point-to-MultiPoint Master communicates only with other transceivers designated as
Point-to-MultiPoint Slaves or Point-to-MultiPoint Repeaters.
Point-toMultiPoint Slave
(3)
This mode designates the transceiver as a Slave in MultiPoint mode. This mode allows
the Slave to communicate with a MultiPoint Master. The Slave may communicate with its
Master through one or more Repeaters.
Point-to-Point
Slave/Repeater (4)
This mode designates the transceiver to act as either a Slave or Repeater—depending on
the instructions from the Master. The transceiver cannot act as both a Slave and a
Repeater at the same time. True Slave/Repeater functionality is only available in a
MultiPoint mode.
Note:
Repeaters have no security features. When a transceiver is designated a Pointto-Point Slave/Repeater, any Master may use it as a Repeater.
Point-to-Point
Repeater (5)
FreeWave allows the use of up to four Repeaters in a Point-to-Point communications link,
significantly extending the operating range. When designated as a Repeater, a
transceiver behaves as a pass-through link. All settings for the call book, baud rates and
radio transmission characteristics are disabled. A Repeater will connect with any Master
that calls it. The Repeater must be set up properly in the Master's call book.
Point-to-Point
Slave/Master
Switchable (6)
Mode 6 allows the transceiver to be controlled entirely through software commands. A
number of key parameters in FreeWave's user interface may be changed either directly
with a program such as Windows Terminal or through the use of script files. Additionally,
when the Point-to-Point Slave/Master Switchable option is selected and the transceiver is
not calling a Slave, it will function as a Slave and accept any appropriate calls from other
transceivers. Please check the Application Note on Mode 6 for more information
Continued on next page
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Point-toMultiPoint
Repeater (7)
This option allows the transceiver to operate as a Repeater in a MultiPoint network. See
the MultiPoint parameters section for details on enabling MultiPoint Slave/Repeater mode.
Mirrorbit
Master(A)
See FreeWave Application note LAN5424xx for information on Mirrored Bit
Communication
Mirrorbit Slave (B)
See FreeWave Application note LAN5424xx for information on Mirrored Bit
Communication
Ethernet Options
(F)
This menu is only needed for Ethernet transceivers. Although this menu is included here,
it is unrelated to the transceiver’s Mode.
Please see the Ethernet addendum for more information on this menu.
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Set Operation Mode
1.
Selecting 0 Set Operation Mode from the Main Menu displays the following window:
2.
Select the appropriate operation mode by typing the associated number or letter after Enter Choice.
3.
When the selection is accepted, the Set Modem Mode menu will refresh and display the updated mode.
4.
Press the Esc key once to return to the Main Menu.
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Baud Rate
This setting is the communication rate between the transceiver and the instrument to which it is connected. It is
important to note that this is independent of the baud rate for the other transceiver(s) in the network. For example, a
pair of transceivers may be used in an application to send data from remote process instrumentation to an engineer's
computer. In this application, the baud rate for the transceiver on the instrumentation might be set to 9600, and the
transceiver on the engineer’s computer might be set to 57,600.
Set Baud Rate
1.
Selecting 1 Set Baud Rate from the Main Menu displays the following window.
MM2
MM2-HS
2.
Select the appropriate baud rate or option by typing in the associated number or letter after Enter Choice.
As this is the baud rate for the data port, it must match the baud rate of the device attached to the
transceiver.
3.
When the selection is accepted, the Set Baud Rate menu will refresh and display the updated mode.
4.
Press the Esc key to return to the main Setup menu.
Note:
The Setup Baud Rate will ALWAYS default to 19,200 Baud no matter what the data port Baud Rate is set
to (with the above noted exception).
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Menu Option
Description
Actual Baud Rate
(selections 0-9)
The actual baud rate for the transceiver’s data port.
Data, Parity (A)
Modbus RTU (B)
It is desirable to set the baud rate to the highest level supported by the device to which it is
connected. In certain circumstances, however, this may actually result in slower data
communications.
Six data word length and parity configurations are available to be used with FreeWave
transceivers. The default setting is 0 (8, N, 1) and is the most commonly used serial
communications protocol. When Data, Parity are selected from the Baud Rate menu, a
prompt to enter a value for Data, Parity displays. The following describes each option:
Menu Setting
Data Bits
Parity
Stop Bits
0
8
None
1
1
7
Even
1
2
7
Odd
1
3
8
None
2
4
8
Even
1
5
8
Odd
1
Support for Modbus RTU protocol is available. The default setting for Modbus RTU is 0
(Not Enabled).
To enable the Modbus RTU mode:
1. In the Set Baud Rate menu enter (B) and then select 1
Note: When using the transceiver in Modbus RTU mode, the Master Packet
Repeat must match in every radio, regardless of whether the network is in
Point-to-Point or MultiPoint mode.
Modbus RTU timing can be adjusted via this setting. See Modbus RTU Timing
(below) for more information
RS232/485 (C)
Should be set to 0 for the MM2. RS232/485/422 is not supported in this radio. This radio is
TTL only.
Setup Port (D)
Note: DO NOT change this setting unless the correct pinout is available for the new setting.
This setting determines which port, Main or Diagnostics, is used to enter the Setup Main
Menu.
Menu
Port
Additional Information
1
Main Only
2
Diagnostics Only The terminal is connected to the Diagnostic Port.
3
Both Ports
The terminal is connected to the Main Data Port.
The terminal may be connected to either port.
The factory setting is based on the type of transceiver. A setting of “2” will be used with
Ethernet products and Mirrored Bit products, a setting of ”3” will be used otherwise. Setup
mode is invoked by sending a "U" (Shift-U) to the Diagnostics port or by pressing/toggling
the Set-up button/switch, if available. OEM boards may also enter Setup when Pin 2 is
grounded. The Ethernet reset button will NOT put the unit into Setup mode. Ethernet
transceivers must use the “U” option.
Please see the pinout chart later in this manual for a description of the Data and Diagnostics
ports.
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TurnOn Delay (E)
TurnOnDelay- Sets the delay between when the line drivers are turned on and when the
data leaves the data port. This setting can be adjusted for a 1-9mS delay.
TurnOff Delay Mode is not available on this device.
FlowControl (F)
This menu specifies the hardware flow control for the Data port. The options for 0-3 are
described below.
Menu
Port
Additional Information
0
None
Default - Uses software control (XON XOFF)
1
RTS
2
DTR
3
DOT
Modbus RTU Timing
The Modbus RTU setting causes the radio to wait for an amount of time, “gathering” data before sending
out the radio link.
With a setting of 0 (Disabled), the radio will send data out its radio link as soon as the data is received
into the serial port.
With a setting of 1, the radio will wait for a number of slots equal to 2 times the Master Packet Repeat
setting before sending the received data out the radio link. For example, if Master Packet Repeat = 3,
the radio will wait for 6 slots, gathering data up the whole time. At the end of the 6 slots, the radio will
send all received data in one “burst”. This is the appropriate setting for most Modbus RTU devices.
With a setting of 2 and higher, the radio will wait for a number of slots calculated by the following formula:
(Modbus RTU Setting + Master Packet Repeat Setting + 1) x 2
For example, in a radio where the Modbus RTU setting = 2 and the Master Packet Repeat setting =
3, the radio will wait for (2+3+1) x 2, or 12 slots.
Call Book
The Call Book is required to be used in Point-to-Point networks. While the call book is an option in Point-to-MultiPoint
networks, the Network ID feature is strongly recommended in most applications.
The instructions provided in this section are for Point-to-Point mode only. Use of the Call Book for MultiPoint networks
is explained later in this chapter.
Using the Call Book offers both security and flexibility in determining how FreeWave transceivers communicate with
each other.
Three settings must be made for two FreeWave transceivers to communicate in Point-to-Point mode:
1. The Master’s serial number must be listed in the Slave's Call Book or Slave Security is turned off in the
Slave.
2.
The Slave’s serial number must be listed in the Master's Call Book.
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3.
The Master must be programmed to call the Slave.
The Call Book allows users to incorporate up to 10 FreeWave transceivers, designate 1 to 4 Repeaters to be used with
each transceiver, and designate which Slave the Master will call. To set the Entry to Call option, enter C at the prompt,
followed by the menu number corresponding to that Slave. To call any available Slave in the list, enter C then enter A to
direct the Master to Call All.
Note:
To call a Slave through one or more Repeaters, that Slave must be called individually. With Call All
selected, the Master will not connect with any Slaves through Repeaters. The Master calls every Slave in
the list and will connect with the first Slave that responds. When calling through a Repeater, the Master must
first call that Repeater and establish a communication link with it prior to making contact with the Slave.
Edit Call Book
1.
Selecting 2 Call Book from the Main Menu displays the following window:
2.
Select the appropriate number to edit by typing the associated line number at the cursor.
3.
Enter New Number will appear. Enter the 7-digit serial number of the transceiver being called.
4.
The system will prompt for Repeater 1’s number. If no Repeaters are being used, press the Esc key. (skip
step 5) Otherwise, enter the 7-digit serial number of the Repeater.
5.
The system will then prompt for Repeater 2’s number. Enter the 7-digit serial number of the second
Repeater. If only one Repeater is being used, press the Esc key.
6.
The system refreshes the transceiver’s Call Book menu with the new changes.
7.
Press the Esc key to return to the Main Menu.
Note:
When entering numbers into the Call Book, Repeaters need only be defined in the Master Call Book. The
Slave Call Book only requires the Master’s Serial number. A repeater need not have anything listed in its
Call Book.
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PROGRAMMING POINT-TO-POINT EXTENDED CALL BOOK TO USE THREE OR FOUR REPEATERS
In a Point-to-Point configuration FreeWave transceivers can utilize up to 4 Repeaters. To use 3 or 4 Repeaters,
program the Call Book with the Slave’s serial number, followed by the first 2 Repeaters. On the next line enter 9999999 as the transceiver to call. When prompted for the Repeaters enter the third and fourth Repeaters in the link.
The illustration below depicts a Point-to-Point link where a Slave is called through 4 Repeaters. In this example the
Master is calling the Slave, 571-3872, through Repeater 1, 901-1234, then Repeater 2, 910-0234, then Repeater 3,
571-3456, and finally Repeater 4, 571-4567. Entering of serial number 999-9999 in line 1 instructs the Master to
continue calling through the Repeaters programmed on that line.
It is important that the Call Book slots (0-9) are filled sequentially starting with slot 0. When a Master is instructed to
Call All, it will call all Slaves listed until it reaches the first serial number of 000-0000. If a serial number is entered
after the all zero number or as a Repeater, it will not be recognized as a valid number by the Master.
PROGRAMMING POINT-TO-MULTIPOINT CALL BOOK
In a MultiPoint network, the Slaves and Repeaters are not listed in the Master's Call Book. A Slave must have the
Master and any Repeater it is going to use in its Call Book.
Note:
If the Network ID feature is used in a MultiPoint network, no entries are needed in the Call Book of any of the
transceivers. See the Network ID feature in the MultiPoint Parameters section.
The following example shows the Call Books of a MultiPoint network comprised of a Master, Repeater and Slave in
which the Slave can communicate either through the Repeater or directly to the Master:
MultiPoint Master Call Book (Unit Serial Number 555-0001)
Entry Number Repeater1
Repeater2
(0)
000-0000
(1)
000-0000
No serial number entries are necessary in the Master’s Call Book.
MultiPoint Repeater Call Book (Unit Serial Number 555-0002)
Entry
Number Repeater1
Repeater2
(0)
555-0001
(1)
000-0000
MultiPoint Slave Call Book (Unit Serial Number 555-0003).
Entry Number Repeater1
Repeater2
(0)
555-0001
(1)
555-0002
(2)
000-0000
At times it may be desirable to force a Slave to go through a specific MultiPoint Repeater. In this scenario, the Slave’s
Call Book should contain only the serial number for that Repeater as the entry on line 0.
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PROGRAMMING POINT-TO-MULTIPOINT EXTENDED CALL BOOK
In a MultiPoint network, a Slave can be programmed to roam between Masters and Repeaters using the MultiPoint
Extended Call Book function. A Slave with its Call Book configured as below will communicate with any transceiver
whose serial number appears in any of the three columns. This functionality is enabled by setting Network ID to 255
then in the Call Book 999-9999 as the last entry in the first and second columns, and Entry to Call to ALL.
Entry to Call is ALL
Entries at the bottom of
the Number and
Repeater1 Columns are
999-9999
Radio Transmission Characteristics
The Edit Radio Transmission Characteristics option allows the user to modify several different parameters in the
transceiver. Many of these parameters must be maintained throughout the network for proper functionality.
Note:
This menu is only for the sophisticated user who has a good understanding of the principles of radio data
transmission.
The settings for the Slave(s) and Repeater(s) not determined by the Master are RF Xmit Power, Slave Security, Retry
Time Out and Hop Table Size, Hop Table Version, and Hop Table Offset.
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Edit Radio Transmission Characteristics
Selecting 3 Edit Radio Transmission Characteristics from the Main Menu displays the following window:
FREQKEY IN 900 MHZ TRANSCEIVERS
Selection 0 in the Radio Parameters menu allows the user to modify the hopping patterns of the transceiver. Fifteen
choices are available for the FreqKey (0-9 and A-E) setting, representing 15 different pseudo-random hop patterns.
This is to minimize the interference with other FreeWave transceivers operating in the area. For instance, if 10 pairs
of FreeWave transceivers are operating on different networks in close proximity, setting a different FreqKey value
reduces the chance that transceivers will hop to the same frequency at the same time. If two networks were to hop to
the same frequency, the next hop would be to a different frequency for both networks.
Additional network separation can be gained by adjusting the Max and Min packet sizes, options 1 and 2.
After selecting 0 FreqKey, select F for additional options. The Hop Table Parameters will appear in the window. From
this menu, more network differentiation can be defined by way of limiting the number and location of frequencies the
transceivers may hop on in the 902-928 MHz band.
Note:
ALL transceivers in a network must have identical Hop Table settings to function properly.
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Available options
(0) HOP TABLE VERSION
Entry 0 allows the user to choose the portion of the band in which the transceiver will operate.
Selection
0
Note:
Band
Full 902-928 MHz
1
915-928 MHz
2
902-928 MHz, 16 fewer frequencies than full U.S. set
3
916-920 MHz
4
921-928 MHz
5
Uses 902-928 MHz with center frequencies of 911-919
MHz notched out
6
902-915 MHz
Do not use FreqKey 14 (E) with the 915-928 MHz (setting 1), 916-920 MHz (setting 3), and 921-928 (setting
4) hop tables.
(1) HOP TABLE SIZE
The Hop Table Size defines how many separate channels will be used by a given network. In the MM2-T radio, the
Hop Table Size may be set from 50 to 112. In the MM2-HS-T radio, the Hop Table Size may be set from 1 to 40.
(2) HOP FREQ OFFSET
The Hop Freq Offset option is not functional in the 900 MHz spread spectrum transceiver.
Note:
Regardless of the FreqKey used, all transceivers in either Point-to-Point or Point-to-MultiPoint networks
must be set to identical Hop Tables Version, Hop Table Size and Hop Freq Offset.
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(3) FREQUENCY ZONE
Frequency Zone: The idea of frequency zoning is to divide the available band (902MHz to 928 MHz) into smaller bands,
in this case 16 smaller bands each consisting of 5, 7, and 8 Frequency channels depending on the frequency zone.
These 16 Zones are stored in a Word, which is made up of 16 bits numbered 0-15. These bits when displayed LSB to
MSB directly represent the zones that the radio will operate on from lowest frequency to highest. A value of ‘1’ in the bit
sequence will instruct the radio to operate within the represented band. Likewise, a ‘0’ value will instruct the radio to
bypass the represented band. This feature should only be used with the standard hop table.
The following table shows the Frequency Zones for the MM2-T-U and the MM2-LV-T-U:
Binary Zone Number (LSB First)
Beginning Freq. (MHz)
Ending Freq. (MHz)
Number Of Channels
0
902.2464
903.8592
8
1
904.0896
905.4720
7
2
905.7024
907.0848
7
3
907.3152
908.6976
7
4
908.9280
910.3104
7
5
910.5408
911.9232
7
6
912.1536
913.5360
7
7
913.7664
915.1488
7
8
915.3792
916.7616
7
9
916.9920
918.6048
8
10
918.8352
920.2176
7
11
920.4480
921.8304
7
12
922.0608
923.4432
7
13
923.6736
925.0560
7
14
925.2864
926.6688
7
15
926.8992
927.8208
5
The following table shows the Frequency Zones for the MM2-HS-T-U and the MM2-HS-LV-T-U:
Binary Zone Number (LSB First)
Beginning Freq. (MHz)
Ending Freq. (MHz)
Number Of Channels
0
902.5336
903.7824
3
1
904.3968
905.6256
3
2
906.2400
906.8544
2
3
907.4688
908.6976
3
4
909.3120
909.9264
2
5
910.5408
911.7696
3
6
912.3840
912.9984
2
7
913.6128
914.8416
3
8
915.4560
916.6848
3
9
917.2992
917.9136
2
10
918.5280
919.7568
3
11
920.3712
920.9856
2
12
921.6000
922.8288
3
13
923.4432
924.0576
2
14
924.6720
925.9008
3
15
926.5152
927.1296
2
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Frequency Zones are activated through the Setup menu. To enable zoning from the main Setup menu of the radio:
1.
Select Menu 3 “Edit Radio Transmission Characteristics”
2.
Select Option 0 “FreqKey”
3.
Select F “For More”
4.
Select Option 3 “Frequency Zone”
Enter 1 to enable desired frequency zone and a 0 to disable desired frequency zone. Frequency Zone entries begin
with 0 (LSB) and continue through 15 (MSB).
WARNING:
In the MM2-T-U radio, FCC regulations require a minimum of 50 separate channels be used within
a hop pattern. Use the above table to determine the number of frequency zones required for legal
communication.
Please contact FreeWave Technical Support at (303) 381-9200 with questions.
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(1) MAX PACKET SIZE AND (2) MIN PACKET SIZE
The Max and Min Packet Size settings and the RF Data Rate determine the number of bytes in the packets.
Throughput can be enhanced when packet sizes are optimized. In Point-to-Point mode, the Max and Min Packet
Settings will not have material impact on throughput unless maximum throughput is desired. However, this may have
an impact on latency. For example, if small amounts of data are sent and large packet sizes are selected, a certain
amount of time “wasted” between each packet would be seen.
The following 3 tables provide the information to determine optimum setting values.
The default settings for Max and Min packet size and RF Data Rate are 8, 9, and 3, respectively.
The following table defines the Minimum packet size in bytes by way of charting the Min Packet Size setting versus
the RF Data Rate setting. Using the default settings, the actual minimum packet size, in bytes, is 44.
Minimum Packet Size Setting
Min Setting
Min Packet Size
RF Data Rate = 1
Min Packet Size
RF Data Rate = 2
MM2-HS-T-U,
MM2-HS-LV-T-U
MM2-HS-T-U,
MM2-HS-LV-T-U
24
31
38
45
52
59
67
74
81
88
14
19
24
29
34
39
44
49
54
59
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Min Packet Size
RF Data Rate =
2
Min Packet Size
RF Data Rate = 3
All MM2 models
MM2-T-U,
MM2-LV-T-U
15
21
26
31
37
42
47
53
58
63
8
12
16
20
24
28
32
36
40
44
The following table defines the Maximum packet size in bytes by way of charting the Min Packet Size setting versus
the Max Packet Size setting where the RF Data Rate is set to 2 in an MM2-T-U or MM2-LV-T-U radio.
Maximum Packet Size Definition with RF Date Rate of 2 for MM2-T-U, MM2-LV-T-U
Max Setting
Min Setting
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
15
21
26
31
37
42
47
53
58
63
37
42
47
53
58
63
69
74
79
85
58
63
69
74
79
85
90
95
101
106
79
85
90
95
101
106
111
117
122
127
101
106
111
117
122
127
133
138
143
149
122
127
133
138
143
149
154
159
165
170
143
149
154
159
165
170
175
181
186
191
165
170
175
181
186
191
197
202
207
213
186
191
197
202
207
213
218
223
229
234
207
213
218
223
229
234
239
245
250
255
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The following table defines the Maximum packet size in bytes by way of charting the Min Packet Size setting versus
the Max Packet Size setting where the RF Data Rate is set to 3 for any MM2 radio (MM2-T-U, MM2-LV-T-U, MM2HS-T-U, MM2-HS-LV-T-U). Using the default settings, the actual maximum packet size, in bytes, is 172.
Maximum Packet Size Definition with RF Date Rate of 3 for all MM2 models
Max Setting
Min Setting
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0
8
24
40
56
72
88
104
120
136
152
1
12
28
44
60
76
92
108
124
140
156
2
16
32
48
64
80
96
112
128
144
160
3
20
36
52
68
84
100
116
132
148
164
4
24
40
56
72
88
104
120
136
152
168
5
28
44
60
76
92
108
124
140
156
172
6
32
48
64
80
96
112
128
144
160
176
7
36
52
68
84
100
116
132
148
164
180
8
40
56
72
88
104
120
136
152
168
184
9
44
60
76
92
108
124
140
156
172
188
Referencing the default settings, the Master will transmit up to 172 bytes on every hop. If fewer than 172 bytes are
transmitted, the balance is allocated to the Slave's transmission, plus the quantity in the Min Packet Size Setting.
For example, if a Master transmits 100 bytes, the Slave will then have a total of 116 bytes available (72(“leftover
bytes”) + 44 (Min packet size)).
The following table defines the Maximum packet size in bytes by way of charting the Min Packet Size setting versus
the Max Packet Size setting where the RF Data Rate is set to 2 in an MM2-HS-T-U or MM2-HS-LV-T-U radio.
Maximum Packet Size Definition with RF Date Rate of 2 for MM2-HS-T-U, MM2-HS-LV-T-U
Max Setting
Min Setting
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
14
19
24
29
34
39
44
49
54
59
34
39
44
49
54
59
64
69
74
79
54
59
64
69
74
79
84
89
94
99
74
79
84
89
94
99
104
109
114
119
94
99
104
109
114
119
124
129
134
139
114
119
124
129
134
139
144
149
154
159
134
139
144
149
154
159
164
169
174
179
154
157
164
169
174
179
184
189
194
199
174
179
184
189
194
199
204
209
214
219
194
199
204
209
214
219
224
229
234
239
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The following table defines the Maximum packet size in bytes by way of charting the Min Packet Size setting versus
the Max Packet Size setting where the RF Data Rate is set to 1 in an MM2-HS-T-U or MM2-HS-LV-T-U radio.
Maximum Packet Size Definition with RF Date Rate of 1 for MM2-HS-T-U, MM2-HS-LV-T-U
Max Setting
Min Setting
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
24
31
38
45
52
59
67
74
81
88
52
59
67
74
81
88
95
102
109
116
81
88
95
102
109
116
124
131
138
145
109
116
124
131
138
145
152
159
166
173
138
146
152
159
166
173
181
188
195
202
166
173
181
188
195
202
209
216
223
230
195
202
209
216
223
230
238
245
252
255
223
230
238
245
252
255
255
255
255
255
252
255
255
255
255
255
255
255
255
255
255
255
255
255
255
255
255
255
255
255
(3) XMIT RATE
Two settings for the Transmit Rate parameter are available. The setting for normal operation of the transceiver is a
Transmit Rate 1. Transmit Rate 0 is useful to qualitatively gauge signal strength in Point to Point mode. When set to
Transmit Rate 0, the transceivers will transmit back and forth continuously regardless if they have any actual data. In
Point-to-Point operation, Transmit Rate 0 should be used only as a diagnostic tool and not for normal operation. The
strength of the signal may be gauged by the Clear to Send LED. A solid red CTS LED indicates a strong signal; a
blinking CTS LED indicates a weaker signal.
(4) RF DATA RATE
FreeWave transceivers have an adjustable RF Data Rate. RF Data Rate should not be confused with the serial port
Baud Rate. In the MM2-T-U and MM2-LV-T-U, Setting 2 (RF Speed of 154kbps) should be used when the
transceivers are close together and data throughput needs to be optimized. Setting 3 (RF Speed of 115.2kbps)
should be used when the transceivers are farther away and a solid data link is preferred over data throughput.
Similarly, in the MM2-HS-T-U and MM2-HS-LV-T-U, Setting 1 (RF speed of 1.2 Mbps) or 2 (RF Speed of 867 kbps)
should be used to prioritize speed, and Setting 3 (RF Speed of 614 kbps) should be used to prioritize link quality.
Note:
In MultiPoint networks, the RF Data Rate must be set identically in all transceivers. Any transceiver with an
RF Data Rate different from the Master will not establish a link.
In Point to Point networks the Master’s settings take precedence over the Slave.
RF
Data
Rate
Setting
RF Speed for:
RF Speed for:
MM2-T-U
MM2-HS-T-U
MM2-LV-T-U
MM2-HS-LV-T-U
1
N/A
1.2 Mbps
2
154 kbps
867 kbps
3
115.2 kbps
614 kbps
RF Data Rate Speed Table
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(5) RF XMIT POWER
This option sets the transmit power of the radio. A setting of 10 is approximately 1W of output power in an MM2.
RF Xmit
Power (in mW)
Power Setting
0
5
1
10
2
35
3
80
4
140
5
230
6
330
7
480
8
600
9
800
10
1000
(6) SLAVE SECURITY
Slave security is a feature that allows Slave transceivers to accept transmissions from a Master not included in the
Call Book. The default setting is 0 (Slave Security enabled) which means, only a Master which is in the Slaves’ Call
Book may link to that Slave.
Slave Security may be disabled (setting of 1) allowing any Master to call the Slave. Slave Security has no effect in
Point-to-MultiPoint networks where the Network ID is not set to 255.
Slave Security must be set to 1 when the unit is operating in Mode 6 Slave/Master switchable or a Point-to-Point
network where the Slave may need to accept calls from more than 10 different Masters. When Slave Security is set to
1, the transceiver will accept calls from any other FreeWave transceiver. Additional network security measures may
be taken to prevent unauthorized access, such as changing default settings for FreqKey, Hop Table or Frequency
Zones.
(7) RTS TO CTS
Menu selection RTS to CTS in the Radio Parameters menu provides the option of allowing the RTS line on the
Master transceiver to control the CTS line of the Slave. This pass-through control can be enabled in both Point-toPoint and Point-to-MultiPoint. In MultiPoint networks, the Master RTS line will control all Slaves’ CTS lines. When
enabled, the CTS line ceases to function as flow control. It is not recommended to enable this feature when operating
at Baud rates above 38.4kB.
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The default setting of 0 disables this function, where as a setting of 1 enables RTS-CTS control.
RTS-CTS setting 2 is described in detail in the application note #5437 DTR to CTS Line Alarm Feature.
With an RTS to CTS setting of 1, the Master senses the RTS line prior to all scheduled packet transmissions. If the
state has changed, the Master will then transmit a message to the Slave with the new status. This transmission will
occur regardless of data being sent. If data is ready to be sent, the RTS status message will be sent in addition to
the data. In Point-to-Point mode, the Master will continue sending the new status message until it receives an
acknowledgment from the Slave. In MultiPoint mode, the Master will repeat the message the number of times equal
to the Master Packet Repeat value in the MultiPoint Parameters menu.
Master transmit times are completely asynchronous to the occurrence of any change of the RTS line; the latency time
from RTS to CTS is variable. The Max and Min Packet Size parameters in the Radio Parameter menu determine this
duration. Setting both parameters to their maximum value of 9 will produce a maximum latency time of approximately
21 ms, given no Repeaters in the network. At the minimum settings for Max and Min Packet Size (0), the time will be
approximately 5.9ms. Please note that this latency can increase significantly if packets are lost between the Master
and Slave. In Point-to-MultiPoint mode, no absolute guarantee is made that the state change will be communicated to
all Slaves. In Multipoint networks with Repeaters present, the latency will be cumulative for each serial Repeater.
For example: If the latency between the Master and the first Repeater is 15 ms, and 2 serial Repeaters are present,
the total latency will be 45 ms. (M—R1 (15 ms) + R1—R2 (15 ms) + R2—S (15 ms) = 45 ms)
Note:
The RTS to CTS feature does not function in Point-to-Point networks that contain a Repeater. If this feature
is needed in such network, the mode should be changed to Point-to-MultiPoint.
Note:
If DTRConnect is enabled and set to 2, the RTS to CTS feature will not work.
Note:
If the DTRConnect is enabled and set to 1, RTS to CTS mode takes precedence over the functionality of the
CTS line on the Slave relating to the DTRConnect feature.
(8) RETRY TIME OUT
The Retry Time Out parameter in a Slave or Repeater sets the delay the unit will wait before dropping the connection
to a Master or Repeater in MultiPoint mode. The factory default is set at the maximum of 255. The maximum setting
means that if 1 packet in 255 is sent successfully from the Master to the Slave or Repeater, the link will be
maintained. The minimum setting is 8. This allows a Slave or Repeater to drop a connection if less than 1 in 8
consecutive packets is successfully received from the Master.
On the other hand, the function in the Master is effectively the same. With a setting of 255, the Master will allow a
Slave or Repeater to stay connected as long as 1 packet in 255 is successfully received at the Master.
The Retry Time Out parameter is useful when a MultiPoint network has a roving Master or Slave(s). As the link gets
weaker, a lower setting will allow a poor link to break in search of a stronger one.
Note:
Setting Retry Time Out to 20 is recommended in areas where several FreeWave networks exist. This setting
will allow Slaves and Repeaters to drop the connection if the link becomes too weak, while at the same time
prevent errant disconnects due to interference from neighboring networks.
While intended primarily for MultiPoint networks, the Retry Time Out parameter may also be modified in Point-toPoint networks. However, the value in Point-to-Point mode should not be set to less than 151.
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(9) LOWPOWER MODE
The Lowpower Mode feature allows a MultiPoint Slave to consume less power. This is achieved primarily by
dimming the transceiver's LED’s. When set to 2 through 31, the transceiver will sleep between slots. For example, at
a setting of 2 the transceiver sleeps 1 out of 2 slots; at a setting of 3 the transceiver sleeps 2 out of 3 slots, and so on.
The following table shows the changes at different Lowpower Mode settings. The actual current draw depends on
many factors. The table below gives only a qualitative indication of supply current savings. A low number reduces
latency and a high number reduces current consumption.
Current Draw
Setting
Description
0
Lowpower, disabled
1
LED’s dimmed, transceiver remains awake, transceiver is listening to the
Master’s transmissions on every slot, and transceiver’s data port is shut down if
the RTS line is deasserted (low). In this case, the transceiver needs to be
awakened before it will be able to send data to the Master.
2
LED’s dimmed, transceiver sleeps every other slot
3
LED’s dimmed, transceiver sleeps 2 of 3 slots
4-31
LED’s dimmed, transceiver sleeps the number of slots corresponding to the
setting. For example, with a setting of 31 the transceiver sleeps 30 of 31 slots.
More
Less
IMPORTANT NOTES
1.
Lowpower Mode is used only in MultiPoint Slaves using serial protocol. Power savings occur only when the
Slave is linked. No power savings occur when the Slave is transmitting data. Lowpower Mode is of little
value when a Slave has a constant, high throughput. MCUSpeed must be set to ‘0’ and RF Data Rate must
be set to ‘3’ for Lowpower Mode to operate properly.
2.
Additional power savings may be realized when the Number Repeaters is set to 1.
3.
To communicate to a TTL port of a transceiver that is in Lowpower Mode, the RTS line must be held high to
wake it up. The transceiver will wake up within approximately 20 milliseconds of when RTS goes high.
4.
If the RTS line on the Slave is held high, the transceiver will remain in normal operation regardless of the
Lowpower Mode setting. Once RTS is dropped the transceiver reverts to the Lowpower Mode.
5.
If the transceiver has the DTRConnect option set to 1 or 2 and if the Lowpower Mode enabled (set to 1-31),
the RTS line on the transceiver must be asserted for the ‘DTRConnect’ feature to operate properly.
6.
The Diagnostic pins must be disabled or terminated to a cable for the Sleep current in Lowpower mode to
match the specifications. To disable the Diagnostics pins, make sure that:
•
(1) Baud Rate / (D) Setup Port is set to “1” (Main Only)
•
(5) Multipoint Parameters / (B) Diagnostics is set to “0” (Off)
(A) HIGH NOISE – THIS FEATURE IS NOT CURRENTLY FUNCTIONAL IN THE MM2
The High Noise Option is useful in determining if out of band interference is affecting a radio link. A setting of 1 will
provide a reduction of gain in the front end circuit thereby decreasing the affect of any out of band noise. The results
will be seen as a lower signal value and a much lower noise value (as found in Radio Statistics or Diagnostics). If the
noise is not reduced by a greater amount than the signal, the interference is most likely an in band issue.
When a noise problem is shown to be helped by way of the High Noise option, chances are that the noise may be
further squelched by use of a Bandpass filter available for sale from FreeWave Technologies.
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(B) MCU SPEED
MCU Speed controls the speed of the Micro Controller Unit in the transceiver. The default setting is 0 for low speed.
A setting of 1 is required for Ethernet and UDP operation.
The following table describes the MCU speed settings.
Setting
Description
Notes
0
Low speed
Reduces current consumption
1
High speed
Required for 230 KBaud data port rate
Show Radio Statistics
Radio Statistics in the Main Menu allows the user to view data transmission statistics gathered by the transceiver
during the most recent session. This is valuable when the user needs to know the signal strength and noise levels of
the link. Statistics are gathered during each data link and are reset when the next link begins. See display below.
NUMBER OF DISCONNECTS
Any time the link between the Master and the Slave is broken and the radios lose Carrier Detect, it is recorded in the
Number of Disconnects value. The value indicates the total number of disconnects that have occurred from the time
the transceiver is powered on until the radio is put into Setup mode. Under ideal operating conditions, the number of
disconnects should be 0. One or more disconnects may indicate a weak link, the presence of severe interference
problems or loss of power to any of the radios in the link.
ANTENNA REFLECTED POWER
This statistic is not valid in the MM2-T, MM2-LV-T, MM2-HS or MM2-HS-LV series of radios.
TRANSMIT CURRENT (MA)
This statistic is not valid in the MM2-T, MM2-LV-T, MM2-HS or MM2-HS-LV series of radios.
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AVERAGE NOISE LEVEL
The average noise level indicates the level of background noise and interference at this transceiver and at each of
the Repeaters in the link. The number is an average of the noise levels measured at each frequency in the
transceiver’s frequency hop table. The individual measurement values at each frequency hop channel are shown in
the frequency table. Pressing the Enter key when the Radio Statistics menu is displayed, accesses the frequency
table.
Ideally, noise levels should be below 70 J units and the difference between the average signal level and average
noise level should be 30 or more. Noise levels significantly higher than this are an indication of a high level of
interference that may degrade the performance of the link. High noise levels can often be mitigated with band pass
filters, antenna placement or antenna polarization.
AVERAGE SIGNAL LEVEL
The average signal level indicates the level of received signal at this transceiver and at each of the Repeaters in the
link. For each of these, the signal source is the transceiver that transmits to it. The number is an average of the
received signal levels measured at each frequency in the transceiver's frequency hop table. The individual
measurement values at each frequency hop channel are shown in the frequency table. Pressing the Enter key when
the Radio Statistics menu is displayed accesses the frequency table. For a reliable link, the margin should be at least
30 J units. Low Average Signal Levels can often be corrected with higher gain antennas, better antenna placement
and/or additional Repeaters.
Note:
Please consult the install manual for antenna and FCC requirements.
OVERALL RCV RATE (%)
The Overall Receive Rate measures the percentage of data packets that were successfully transmitted from the
Master to the Slave on the first attempt. A number of 75 or higher indicates a robust link that will provide very good
performance even at high data transmission rates. A number of 15 or lower indicates a weak or marginal link that will
provide lower data throughput. An Overall Receive Rate of 100% will provide approximately 100 KBaud of bandwidth
with an RF Data Rate setting of 3 and approximately 150 KBaud of bandwidth with an RF Data Rate of 2. These
numbers are reduced approximately 50% if one or more Repeaters are in the network.
RADIO TEMPERATURE
The Radio Temperature value is the current operating temperature of the transceiver in degrees Celsius. For proper
operation, a FreeWave transceiver must be in the temperature range of -40° to +85° C.
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MultiPoint Parameters
When installing MultiPoint networks it is important to do some up front planning. Unlike Point-to-Point networks, a
Point-to-MultiPoint network requires several parameters are set consistently on all transceivers in the network. This
includes RF data rate, Min and Max Packet Size, and FreqKey.
Note:
If several independent MultiPoint networks are to be located in close proximity the planning becomes more
critical. In such cases, it becomes very important to include as much frequency and time diversity as
possible through use of different FreqKey, Min and Max Packet Size, and Hop Table settings. In some
instances the use of the MultiMaster Synch option may be required.
Edit MultiPoint Parameters
Selecting (5) Edit MultiPoint Parameters from the main menu displays the following window:
(0) NUMBER REPEATERS
In a MultiPoint network it is critical to transmission timing to configure this parameter correctly. The value should be 0
if no Repeaters are in the network and 1 if any number of Repeaters are present. This parameter should be set to
the same value in all transceivers in a MultiPoint network. Number Repeaters needs to be set to 1 when running
Diagnostics from the Master.
(1) MASTER PACKET REPEAT
In a Point-to-MultiPoint network, Slaves do not acknowledge transmissions from the Master. If Slaves did
acknowledge all data transmissions, in a large network, the Master would soon become overwhelmed with
acknowledgments from the Slaves. Without acknowledgements, 100% confidence every Slave has received every
packet cannot be met. To address this issue, the user may modify the Master Packet Repeat setting, assigning a
value between 0 (the packet is transmitted once) to 9 (the packet is transmitted 10 times). For networks with solid RF
links, this parameter should be set to a low value such as 1 or 2. If a network has some weak or marginal links it
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should be set with higher values. If a Slave receives a good packet from a Master more than once it will discard the
repeated packets. Similarly, once a MultiPoint Repeater receives a good packet from the Master, it will discard any
further repeated packets. In turn, the Repeater will send the packet out to the next Repeater or Slaves the number of
times corresponding to its own Master Packet Repeat setting.
Increasing the Master Packet Repeat setting will increase the probability of a packet getting through, but will also
increase latency in the network because each packet from the Master or Repeater is being sent multiple times.
Therefore, it is important to find the optimal mix between network robustness, throughput, and latency. In general, a
setting of 2 to 3 will work well for most well designed networks.
Note:
The Master Packet Repeat may be set to 0 if the user software is capable of, or requires acknowledgment.
In this case if a packet sent by the Master and not received by the Slave, the user software will control the
retries as needed.
MASTER PACKET REPEAT IN MULTIPOINT NETWORKS WITH REPEATERS
The Master Packet Repeat parameter must also be set in MultiPoint Repeaters since a Repeater will appear as a
Master to a Slave. Therefore, the Repeater will send the packet out the number of times corresponding to its own
Master Packet Repeat parameter. If this parameter is set improperly the reliability of the overall network may be
diminished. For example, if a Master's Master Packet Repeat setting is 3, the link between the Master and Repeater
should be robust. If the Repeater's Master Packet Repeat is set to 0, this could cause marginal communications
between the Repeater and the Slaves. The Slaves communicating through this Repeater will only receive the initial
packet from the Master with no repeats. Therefore, if the packet is not received on the first try, the Slave will not
respond as expected.
(2) MAX SLAVE RETRY
The Max Slave Retry setting defines how many times (0 to 9) the Slave will attempt to retransmit a packet to the
Master before beginning to use a back-off algorithm (defined by the Retry Odds setting). Slave retries will stop when
an acknowledgement is received from the Master.
(3) RETRY ODDS
While packets transmitted from the Master to the Slaves in a MultiPoint network, are not acknowledged, packets
transmitted from Slaves to the Master are. It is possible, that more than one Slave will attempt to transmit to the
Master at the same time. Therefore, it is important that a protocol exists to resolve contention for the Master between
Slaves. This is addressed through parameters (2) Max Slave Retry and (3) Retry Odds. Once the Slave has
unsuccessfully attempted to transmit the packet the number of times specified in Max Slave Retry, it will attempt to
transmit to the Master on a random basis. The Retry Odds parameter determines the probability that the Slave will
attempt to retransmit the packet to the Master; a low setting will assign low odds to the Slave attempting to transmit.
Conversely, a high setting will assign higher odds. An example of how this parameter might be used would be when
considering two different Slaves in a MultiPoint network, one with a strong RF link and the other with a weak RF link
to the Master. It may be desirable to assign higher Retry Odds to the Slave with the weaker link to give it a better
chance of competing with the closer Slave(s) for the Master's attention.
When Retry Odds = 0, after the Slave has exhausted the number of retries set in the Max Slave Retry parameter
and still not gained the Master’s attention, the Slave’s data buffer will be purged.
(4) DTR CONNECT
With the setting of 0 in the Slave, the transceiver will transmit when data is received. A setting of 1 will form a Pointto-Point link with the Master when the DTR line is high. With a setting of 2, the transceiver will transmit in bursts.
This mode is valuable when a network has many low data rate devices and it is desirable to increase overall network
capacity.
Note:
If ‘DTRConnect’ is set to 1 and the ‘RTS to CTS’ function is enabled on the radio, then ‘RTS to CTS’ takes
precedence over ‘DTRConnect’.
Note:
If ‘DTRConnect’ is set to ‘2’ and ‘RTS to CTS’ is enabled, then ‘RTS to CTS’ is ignored. The transceiver has
two separate transmit and receive user data buffers. These buffers are 2 Kbytes each. In case of a buffer
overflow, the transceiver will output unpredictable data.
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(5) REPEATER FREQUENCY
Repeater Frequency must be set to a 1 in a Repeater when a FreqKey other than that of the Master is desired. This
condition occurs when parallel Repeaters in a network may have overlapping areas of responsibility. The default
setting of 0 causes the Repeater to use the FreqKey set in Menu 3.
Note:
When Repeater Frequency is set to 0 the FreqKey setting must match the Master or Repeater acting as the
Master for the transceiver.
(6) NETWORK ID
NetWork ID allows MultiPoint networks to be established without using the Call Book. The default setting of 255
enables the Call Book. To enable NetWork ID the value must be set between 0 and 4095 (excluding 255). Since
NetWork ID does not use serial numbers, MultiPoint Masters and Repeaters may be replaced without reprogramming
all of the Slaves in the network. Slaves will link with the first Master or Repeater that it hears that has a matching
NetWork ID. The Network ID function should be used in conjunction with the SubNet ID feature (If necessary).
Without having the serial numbers in the Call Book, a Slave may establish communications with different Masters,
though not at the same time. This is very useful in mobile MultiPoint applications.
(8) MULTIMASTER SYNCH
MultiMaster Synch is reserved for applications, in both Point-to-Point and MultiPoint modes, with concentrations of
Master units where it is necessary to reduce interference between the Masters. Please see application note 5412
Synch Colloc Master in Sync Mode for more information.
(9) 1 PPS ENABLE/DELAY
The 1 PPS Enable/Delay option allows the radio network to propagate a 1PPS signal from the Master to all Slaves in
a MultiPoint network. When this parameter is enabled a properly generated pulse applied on the DTR line of the
Master will provide a 1 PPS pulse on the CD line of any Slave in the network. To use the 1 PPS Enable/Delay
feature the steps outlined below must be followed:
1PPS Enable/Delay Setup:
1.
The 1 PPS Enable/Delay parameter must be set to 0 in the Master.
2.
The Master must have a 1 PPS pulse on the DTR pin.
3.
The 1 PPS Enable/Delay parameter on the Slaves must be enabled. Slaves are calibrated at the factory.
Calibrating a Slave in 1PPS Enable/Delay mode
1. Trigger an oscilloscope on the 1 PPS pulse on the DTR line of the Master.
2. Monitor the CD line of the Slave.
3. If the timing on the Slave differs from the Master it may be adjusted via the value in the Slave's 1 PPS
Enable/Delay parameter. The difference in time between each incremental integer value is 542.534nS.
Changing the parameter to higher values decreases the Slave time delay and changing the parameter to lower
values increases the time delay.
When properly calibrated the CD line of a Slave radio will output a pulse that goes high for about 2mS in synch with
the 1 PPS pulse on the Master radio. The output on the Slave will occur within 20 microseconds of the input to the
Master.
Note:
When 1 PPS is enabled, the Master must have a 1 PPS pulse on its DTR pin, otherwise the RF network will
not function.
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(A) SLAVE/REPEATER
The Slave/Repeater mode allows a transceiver in a MultiPoint network to switch between Slave and Repeater functions.
When in this mode, a transceiver will repeat any packets sent across the network as well as utilize the Data port. This is
an alternative to needing two radios at one site.
Note:
To operate a transceiver as a MultiPoint Slave/Repeater, the operation mode must be set to (7) MultiPoint
Repeater and Slave/Repeater set to 1 in the MultiPoint Parameters menu.
(B) DIAGNOSTICS
This option provides diagnostics data to be viewed at the Master in parallel with application data. The diagnostic
program MUST be run from the Master transceiver. Diagnostics requires the following:
1.
Diagnostics set from 1 - 128 in the Master.
2.
A second computer or serial connection to run the diagnostics software.
3.
A diagnostics cable. (Available from FreeWave Technologies.)
4.
Diagnostics software. (Available on the User Manual and System Tools CD.)
For more information on Diagnostics, please contact FreeWave Technical Support at (303) 381-9200.
(C) SUBNET ID
The Subnet ID function only works in MultiPoint Networks utilizing the Network ID option. In a MultiPoint Network, a Slave
or Repeater will connect with the first Repeater or Master that it hears with the same Network ID. However, where
communications need to be forced to follow a specific path the Subnet ID is quite useful. Subnet ID is particularly helpful
to force two Repeaters in the same network to operate in series rather than in parallel, or if desired, to force Slaves to
communicate to a specific Repeater for load balancing purposes. Two components exist with regard to the Subnet ID:
1.
Rcv Subnet ID. This setting identifies which transceiver a Repeater or Slave will listen to.
2.
Xmt Subnet ID. This setting identifies the ID on which this device transmits, and in turn which devices will
listen to it. The Xmt Subnet ID parameter is relevant for MultiPoint Masters and Repeaters only.
The default (disable) setting for both Rcv and Xmt is F.
Notes: A Master with firmware before x.40 will always transmit and receive on 0. With firmware of 2.40 and greater
(900MHz) the Master may be set to use alternate Subnet ID values. Changing these settings on the Master
is not recommended under normal circumstances.
In some MultiPoint Networks, the FreqKey will be at the same setting for all transceivers. In other networks,
where parallel Repeaters are introduced, the FreqKey value will need to change. See FreqKey and
Repeater Frequency sections earlier in this manual for more information.
If both Rcv Subnet ID and Xmt Subnet ID are set to 0 the Subnet ID will show Roaming in the menu. This
setting will allow a mobile Slave to roam from subnet to subnet and possibly from network to network.
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This drawing depicts a Network in which Subnet ID’s are used to force communications. In this example, Repeater1
must talk directly to the Master; Repeater2 must talk directly to Repeater1. Slaves 1, 2, and 3 are forced along the
direction of the solid lines. Slave4 may link to the first Master or Repeater it hears.
The respective Subnet ID diagram and settings are shown below.
Subnet ID Settings
Transceiver
Rcv Subnet ID
Xmit Subnet ID
Master
F
F
Other Information
The Master uses 0,0.
Master
0
0
The Xmit Subnet ID value may be set in the Master. The
default settings (F, F) actually use 0, 0. The Rcv Subnet ID on
the Master has no affect on the network.
Repeater1
0
1
A 0 will force the transceiver to link only to the Master.
Repeater2
1
2
Rcv SubnetID = 1 forces communication through Repeater1.
Repeater1 transmits on SubnetID 1.
Slave1
0
0 or F
Rcv SubnetID = 0 forces communication through Master.
Slave2
1
0 or F
Rcv SubnetID = 1 forces communication through Repeater1.
Slave3
2
0 or F
Rcv SubnetID = 2 forces communication through Repeater2.
Slave4
0
0
The 0, 0 setting allows the Slave to link with the first Master or
Repeater it hears with the correct NetWork ID.
(D) RADIO ID
Option (D) allows a transceiver to be designated with an arbitrary, user selectable, 4 digit number which identifies the
transceiver in diagnostics mode.
(E) LOCAL MODE
Option (E) allows the user to access an MM2 series Multi-point slave with a local master. This Master is not the
network master. Please see Application note 5457 for more information.
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Overlapping MultiPoint Networks
Overlapping MultiPoint networks may be set up effectively with FreeWave transceivers when several key parameters
are set correctly. Overlapping MultiPoint networks are defined as networks using different Masters which share or
overlap in a specific geographic area. It may also include co-located transceivers configured into different networks.
See application note 5412 Synch Colloc Master in Sync Mode for more details.
Co-located MultiPoint networks require the following parameters be unique for each network:

Network ID, unless using Call Book

Frequency Key (in conjunction with Repeater Frequency)

Max Packet Size

Min Packet Size
For more questions about the installation of Point-to-MultiPoint networks, please contact FreeWave Technical
Support at (303) 381-9200.
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Passwords
Option (8) Change Password in the Main Menu allows the user to set a password that will prevent access to or
changing of any of the radio’s parameters. This option is useful if it is desirable to prevent unauthorized personnel
from gaining access to the radio settings.
Setting a Password
Selecting (8) Chg Password will display the following prompt.
New PW? (<esc> to exit)
To back out of the process and not enable the password press Esc. To set a password, type in exactly 4
characters. The process can be canceled, at any point, by pressing the Esc key. Once the 4 characters have been
entered the following prompt will appear:
<Enter> to accept,<esc> to quit
To accept the password as entered and enable the feature, press the Enter key. The chosen password will be
displayed on the line above. The password is case sensitive and every keystroke is a character. To quit the process
and not enable the password, press Esc.
CHANGING A PASSWORD
Once the password feature has been enabled, it is possible to change to a new password. To enter a new password
select, (8) from the Main Menu. At the Enter Security Code prompt enter, the current password. Once the password
has been entered correctly, the prompt to enter the new password will appear. This is case sensitive and every
keystroke is a character. At any point this process may be cancelled by pressing Esc.
DISABLING A PASSWORD
The process to disable the password is similar to the process to change the password. However, when prompted to
enter the new password the follow the steps below:
1.
Hold down the Alt key and type 0255.
2.
Release the Alt key.
3.
Repeat this step 3 more times (hold Alt and type 0255 a total of 4 times).
Important Note: If the password feature is enabled and the password is forgotten, the transceiver will need to
be returned to FreeWave to have the password disabled.
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Time Divisible Multiple Access (TDMA)
Time Divisible Multiple Access (TDMA) allows radios to do various operations on specific time slots. This option is
only used for peer-to-peer communications or when applications are very time specific.
For additional information about TDMA, contact FreeWave Technical Support at (303) 381-9200.
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Additional Settings
Some additional parameters are not shown in the Setup menu which may be used with FreeWave transceivers.
These additional parameters may be set with DOS based software. The most common additional settings used by
users are described below.
Low Baud Rates
The transceiver's baud rate may be set to 300, 600, or 900 baud.
Setup Timeout
When enabled, this mode invokes a timeout feature for the Setup Menu. If the transceiver goes into Setup mode and
does not receive legitimate menu selections within 3 to 5 seconds, it will exit Setup and resume its previous mode.
For more information, contact FreeWave Technical Support at (303) 381-9200.
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Factory Default Settings
FreeWave MM2 900MHz transceivers are shipped from the factory with the following Default Settings:
Operation Mode
Default
Ethernet Options:
Point to Point Master
0
(0) Ethernet Mode
0
Set Baud Rate
Default
(1) Half/Full Duplex
0
Baud Rate
115200 (MM2-T)
1382400 (MM2-HS)
(2) Slave IP Stack
0
(3) Slave UDP Mode
0
(A) Data Parity
0
(4) IP Address
(B) Modbus RTU
0
(C) RS232/485
0
(D) Setup Port
1
0/0
(1) MASTER PACKET
REPEAT
2
(E) TurnOffDelay/OnDelay
(F) Flow Control
0
(2) MAX SLAVE RETRY
9
Radio Parameters
Default
(3) RETRY ODDS
9
5
(4) DTR CONNECT
0
0
(5) REPEATER FREQUENCY
0
(1) HOP TABLE SIZE
112
(6) NETWORK ID
255
(2) HOP FREQ OFFSET
0
(7) RESERVED
-
(3) Frequency Zone
All 1’s (Enabled)
(8) MULTI MASTER SYNC
0
(4) Government Rules
0
(9) 1 PPS ENABLE DELAY
255
(1) MAX PACKET SIZE
8
(A) SLAVE/REPEATER
0
(2) MIN PACKET SIZE
9
(B) DIAGNOSTICS
0
(3) XMT RATE
1
(C) SUBNET ID
“Disabled”
(4) RF DATA RATE
3
Rx ID
F
(5) RF XMT POWER
10
Tx ID
F
(6) SLAVE SECURITY
0
(D) RADIO ID
Not Set
(7) RTS TO CTS
0
(E) Local Mode
0
(8) RETRY TIMEOUT
255
(F) Radio Name
“blank”
(0) FREQ KEY
(0) HOP TABLE VERSION
(9) LOW POWER MODE
0
(A) High Noise
0
(B) MCU Speed
0
(C) Remote LED
0
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Default
Default
(0) NUMBER OF REPEATERS 1
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Examples of Data Communication Links
FreeWave transceivers’ versatility allows data communication links to be established using a variety of different
configurations.
The example below shows the most common and straightforward link; a Master communicating to a Slave in a Pointto-Point link.
The example below shows how a link might be set up using a Repeater. The Repeater may be located on a hilltop or
other elevated structure enhancing the link from the Master to the Slave. In this configuration, it may be desirable to
use an external Omni directional antenna at the Repeater. Yagi antennas may be used at both the Master and Slave
transceivers.
When a Repeater is used, the RF throughput is cut in half.
The example below shows a link with two Repeaters between the Master and Slave. With two Repeaters more
flexibility in getting around obstacles and greater total range is possible. Once again, it would be desirable to use
external Omni directional antennas with the Repeaters, and attaching a Yagi to the Master and Slave to increase the
range of the link.
When two Repeaters are used no further degradation in the RF throughput of the link is experienced.
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The example below shows a configuration where a Master routinely calls a number of Slaves at different times. The
Master is communicating with a transceiver designated as a Slave/Repeater that is connected to a remote device.
Since this device is placed in an elevated location, the transceiver may also be used as a Repeater when it is not
used as a Slave. At any time the Master may call any of the Slaves, establish a connection, and send and receive
data.
The next example depicts a standard Point-to-MultiPoint network. From the Master, any data is broadcast to all three
Slaves, one of which receives it through a MultiPoint Repeater. The data is in turn sent out of the serial port of each
of the three Slaves. The end device should be configured to interpret the serial message and act on it if necessary.
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The last example is a Point-to-MultiPoint network which uses one of the sites as a Slave/Repeater. This network
functions in the same manner as a standard MultiPoint network with Repeaters. However, the number of radios may
be reduced with the use of the MultiPoint Slave/Repeater feature.
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Additional Transceiver information
Board Level Pinout
J1 - 14 pin, 2.00mm centers, Samtec TMM series, TMM-107-01-G-D-SM-options
Mates with Samtec CLT, SMM, MMS, SQT, ESQT, SQW, TLE, TCSD, TLSD series
1
Input
Model #MM2-LV-T: 3.3 VDC
Model #MM2-T: 5.0 VDC
Active Low, 100μs pulse
2
TTL
Power
2
Input
/Reset
3
Input
Data Terminal Ready
DTR
4
Ground
GND
1
5
Output
Transmitted Data
TxD
0 – 3.3 V TTL
6
Ground
GND
2
7
Input
Received Data
RxD
TTL
1
8
Output
Carrier Detect
CD
0 – 3.3 V TTL
2
9
Input
Request To Send
RTS
TTL
1
10
Output
Clear To Send
CTS
0 – 3.3 V TTL
3
11
Input
Diag Received Data
TTL
1
12
Output
Diag Transmitted Data
0 – 3.3 V TTL
13
Ground
GND
14
Output
Baud Clock
1
– 3.3V output assumes greater than 3.3 V input voltage. At 3V input voltage, signal will be 0 – 3 V TTL.
2
– 0-5V TTL, 330 Ω resistor in series.
3
– 0-5V TTL
Note:
See the following drawing for identification of pin numbers.
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MM2-T-U and MM2-LV-T-U 900 MHz Transceiver Specifications
Specification
Frequency
902 to 928 MHz
Transmit
Output Power
10mW to 1W (+30dBm) See RF transmit power settings.
Range
60 miles Line Of Sight, 0 dB antenna gain
Modulation
2 level GFSK
Spreading method
Frequency hopping
Occupied bandwidth @ 60dB
230 kHz
Channel Spacing
230 kHz
Receive
-4
-108 dBm @ 115.2 kbps for 10 bit error rate
Sensitivity
-4
-103 dBm @ 154 kbps for 10 bit error rate
IF Selectivity
-40 dB at fc ± 230 kHz
RF Selectivity
50 dB at 896 MHz, 935 MHz
Dynamic Range
+10 dBm 3rd Order Intercept Point at Input Connector
Data transmission
115.2 kbps sustained throughput*
Data rate
†
57.6 kbps sustained throughput with Repeaters.
Error detection
32 Bit CRC, retransmit on error
Data encryption
Substitution, dynamic key
Max link throughput
115.2 KBaud
Data interface
TTL
Power requirements
MM2-LV-T-U: 3.3 VDC
Supply voltage
MM2-T-U: 5.0 VDC
Transmit current, for full power at 100% duty cycle
Receive current
Idle current
Sleep current
Hibernate Current
Operating modes
Operating environment
Model #MM2-LV-T-U:
Model #MM2-T-U:
Model #MM2-LV-T-U:
Model #MM2-T-U:
3.3 VDC:
5.0 VDC:
3.3 VDC:
5.0 VDC:
850 mA
760 mA
130 mA
125 mA
Model #MM2-LV-T-U:
Model #MM2-T-U:
Model #MM2-LV-T-U:
Model #MM2-T-U:
Model #MM2-LV-T-U:
Model #MM2-T-U:
Point-to-Point
Point to-MultiPoint
TDMA
3.3 VDC:
5.0 VDC:
3.3 VDC:
5.0 VDC:
3.3 VDC:
5.0 VDC:
35 mA
37 mA
7 mA
8 mA
0.5 mA
0.5 mA
-40° C- +85° C, 0 to 95% humidity non-condensing
* At 100% receive success rate. RF data rate setting of 2.
† Slave-to-Master sustained throughput. At 100% receive success rate. RF data rate setting of 2
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MM2-T-U and MM2-LV-T-U 900 MHz Transceiver Specifications (cont.)
MM2-T-U, MM2-LV-T-U
Data Port
14-pin PCB connector
Enclosure
Bare board
Dimensions
9.6 mm H x 31.5 mm W x 50.8
mm L
Weight
14 grams
Power
requirements
 Model #MM2-LV-T-U: 3.3 VDC
Antenna
MMCX female connector.
External antenna required.
FCC Identifier:
KNY-42182112519
IC Identifier:
2329B-FGR2
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MM2-HS-T-U and MM2-HS-LV-T-U 900 MHz Transceiver Specifications
Specification
Frequency
902 to 928 MHz
Transmit
Output Power
10mW to 1W (+30dBm) See RF transmit power settings.
Range
30 miles Line Of Sight, 0 dB antenna gain
Modulation
2 level GFSK
Spreading method
Frequency hopping
Occupied bandwidth @ 60dB
1.5 MHz
Channel Spacing
1.5 MHz
Receive
-4
-98 dBm @ 614 kbps for 10 bit error rate
-4
Sensitivity
-97 dBm @ 867 kbps for 10 bit error rate
-4
-93 dBm @ 1.2 Mbps for 10 bit error rate
IF Selectivity
-40 dB at fc ± 1.5 MHz
RF Selectivity
50 dB at 896 MHz, 935 MHz
Dynamic Range
+10 dBm 3rd Order Intercept Point at Input Connector
Data transmission
1.01 Mbps sustained throughput*
Data rate
†
505 kbps sustained throughput with Repeaters.
Error detection
32 Bit CRC, retransmit on error
Data encryption
Substitution, dynamic key
Max link throughput
1.01 Mbps
Data interface
TTL
Power requirements
Model #MM2-HS-LV-T-U: 3.3 VDC
Supply voltage
Model #MM2-HS-T-U: 5.0 VDC
Transmit current, for full power at 100% duty cycle
Receive current
Idle current
Sleep current
Hibernate current
Operating modes
Operating environment
Model # MM2-HS-LV-T-U:
Model # MM2-HS-T-U:
Model # MM2-HS-LV-T-U:
Model # MM2-HS-T-U:
3.3 VDC:
5.0 VDC:
3.3 VDC:
5.0 VDC:
730 mA
850 mA
145 mA
135 mA
Model # MM2-HS-LV-T-U:
Model # MM2-HS-T-U:
Model # MM2-HS-LV-T-U:
Model # MM2-HS-T-U:
Model # MM2-HS-LV-T-U:
Model # MM2-HS-T-U:
Point-to-Point
Point to-MultiPoint
TDMA
3.3 VDC:
5.0 VDC:
3.3 VDC:
5.0 VDC:
3.3 VDC:
5.0 VDC:
25 mA
45 mA
6 mA
8 mA
0.5 mA
0.5 mA
-40° C- +85° C, 0 to 95% humidity non-condensing
* At 100% receive success rate. RF data rate setting of 2. Max Packet Size = 8, Min Packet Size = 0.
† Slave-to-Master sustained throughput. At 100% receive success rate. RF data rate setting of 2. Max Packet Size =
8, Min Packet Size = 0.
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MM2-HS-T-U and MM2-HS-LV-T-U 900 MHz Transceiver Specifications (cont.)
MM2-HS-T-U, MM2-HS-LV-T-U
Data Port
14-pin PCB connector
Enclosure
Bare board
Dimensions
9.6 mm H x 31.5 mm W x 50.8
mm L
Weight
14 grams
Power
requirements
 Model #MM2-LV-T-U: 3.3 VDC
Antenna
MMCX female connector.
External antenna required.
FCC Identifier:
KNY-42182112519
IC Identifier:
2329B-FGR2
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Mechanical Drawing
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FreeWave Technical Support
For up-to-date troubleshooting information check the Support page at www.FreeWave.com.
FreeWave provides Technical Support, Monday through Friday, 8:00 AM to 5:00 PM, Mountain Time (GMT -7) Call
toll-free at 1-866-923-6168 or factory direct after hours at 303-381-9200 or email at moreinfo@FreeWave.com
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Errata
Firmware Version 8.68
• Initial Release
Firmware Version 8.69
Fixes/Improvements
• Link acquisition issue corrected
Firmware Version 8.70
• Minor back-end changes
Firmware Version 8.71
Fixes/Improvements
• Improved efficiency and reliability of writing TDMA settings to memory
• Improved efficiency and reliability of writing Diagnostics settings to memory
Firmware Version 8.73
Fixes/Improvements
• RS-485 protocol fixed
• “Use Break Command to Enter Setup” function fixed
• Grand Master mode (for “Multi-Master Sync” feature) fixed
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