PL-A741 Machine Vision Camera System Guide
PL-A741 Machine Vision Camera
System Guide
Version 4.0
Copyright © 2003 PixeLINK. All Rights Reserved.
PixeLINK
3030 Conroy Road • Ottawa, Ontario • K1G 6C2 • Canada • Tel: (613) 247-1211 • Fax: (613) 247-2001
Email: [email protected] • Web Site: www.pixelink.com
ii
PixeLINK™ PL-A741 Machine Vision Camera
System Guide
Copyright Notice
Version 4.0
Copyright © 2003, PixeLINK. All rights reserved.
This document contains proprietary and confidential information of PixeLINK. The contents of this document may not be copied
nor duplicated in any form, in whole or in part, without prior written consent from PixeLINK.
By purchasing this product, the Purchaser(s) and/or any subsequent legitimate owner(s) of the product, henceforth referred to as
“the Purchaser,” agree(s) to abide by the terms of this Agreement and read and recognize the following set of definitions
appertaining to the intellectual-property items and trademark references as can be found throughout this System Guide.
PixeLINK provides the information and data included in this document for the Purchaser’s benefit, but it is not possible for PixeLINK
to entirely verify and test all of this information in all circumstances, particularly information relating to non-PixeLINK manufactured
products. PixeLINK makes no warranties or representations relating to the quality, content, or adequacy of this information. Every
effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of this Guide; however, PixeLINK assumes no responsibility for any errors or
omissions in this document. PixeLINK shall not be held liable for any errors or for incidental or consequential damages in
connection with the furnishing, performance, or use of this System Guide or the examples herein.
PixeLINK assumes no responsibility for any damage or loss resulting from the use of this System Guide, loss or claims by third
parties which may arise through the use of this product, any damage or loss caused by deletion of data as a result of malfunction
or repair, or any other damage related to the use of this product or associated documentation. The information in this document is
subject to change without notice.
Definitions of Intellectual Property and Trademark Attributions
This Section is intended to ensure proper attribution and honoring of any and all trademarks and intellectual-property items in
terms of attribution to their respective owners as mentioned in this System Guide. The reader is encouraged to consult this Section
whenever uncertainty presents itself as to the terms, their meaning within the System Guide, and the trademarks and intellectualproperty items they stand to identify, whether by themselves or in conjunction with other terms and items.
PixeLINK is either a trademark or a registered trademark of PixeLINK in Canada and/or other countries; IEEE is a registered
trademark or service mark of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Incorporated in the United States and/or other
countries; FireWire is a trademark of Apple Computer, Inc., registered in the U.S. and other countries; Microsoft, DirectShow, and
Windows are either trademarks or registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States and/or other countries; TIFF
is a trademark or registered trademark of Adobe Systems Incorporated in the United States and/or other countries. All other
products, brand names, company names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners.
Definition of Terms
This Section is intended to define certain terminology used in this System Guide, while ensuring proper attribution and
honoring of any and all trademarks and intellectual-property items in terms of attribution to their respective owners as
mentioned in this System Guide.
The Purchaser shall hereby recognize the following definitions set herein, as can be found throughout this System Guide:
Camera shall henceforth refer to a PixeLINK Camera; API shall henceforth refer to the PixeLINK Camera Application
Programming Interface; Kit shall henceforth refer to a PixeLINK Camera Kit; FireWire shall henceforth refer to the IEEE 1394a
interface specification; DirectShow shall henceforth refer to the Microsoft DirectShow multimedia software; Windows shall
henceforth refer to a Microsoft Windows operating system.
The above Sections set forth Terms and Conditions, compliance with which constitutes a mandatory prerequisite for owning and/or
using the product for which the Guide was created. It is the Purchaser’s responsibility to ensure that the information contained
within the Sections is maintained as a part of the System Guide at all times—should the Purchaser discover that the page(s)
containing the Sections is (are) missing, and/or was not provided with the System Guide, and/or become illegible, PixeLINK should
be contacted as soon as possible and the Sections requested. PixeLINK shall not be held liable for any and all copyright violations
that may ensue in relation to its products and/or the consequences of their intended and unintended usage.
October 2003
Part Number: 04327-01
Version 4.0
Copyright © 2003 PixeLINK
All Rights Reserved
PixeLINK PL-A741
Machine Vision Camera
System Guide
iii
Medical Use
This camera is not intended for use in medical applications.
PixeLINK PL-A741
Machine Vision Camera
System Guide
Version 4.0
Copyright © 2003 PixeLINK
All Rights Reserved
TABLE OF CONTENTS
iv
Table of Contents
1
2
Introduction
1.1
The PixeLINK PL-A741 Machine Vision Camera......................................................... 7
1.2
Topics Covered in this Guide ................................................................................... 7
1.3
System Requirements ............................................................................................. 8
1.4
Functionality with Third-Party and Custom Applications ............................................ 9
1.5
Compatibility with Other PixeLINK Products ............................................................10
1.6
Related PixeLINK Documentation ...........................................................................10
1.7
Camera Accessories...............................................................................................11
Hardware Overview
PL-A741 Camera Hardware Features ......................................................................12
2.2
PL-A741 Camera Dimensions..................................................................................13
2.2.1
Standard Configuration ..........................................................................................13
2.2.2
Right Angle Configuration ......................................................................................15
2.3
Handling and Care.................................................................................................17
2.4
Lens and Protective Glass ......................................................................................18
2.4.1
Lens .....................................................................................................................18
2.4.2
Protective Glass.....................................................................................................18
2.5
Mounting ..............................................................................................................19
2.6
Connectors ...........................................................................................................20
2.6.1
FireWire Connectors (Power, Data, and Control Signals) ..........................................20
2.6.2
Machine Vision Connector (Trigger, Strobe, Pulse)...................................................21
Operation .............................................................................................................22
2.7.1
Operating Environment..........................................................................................22
2.7.2
Storage Environment .............................................................................................23
2.7.3
Power...................................................................................................................23
2.7.4
Status Indicator Light ............................................................................................24
2.7.5
Connecting Multiple Cameras (“Daisy Chaining”) .....................................................24
Camera Features
3.1
26
Supported Features ...............................................................................................26
3.1.1
Video Formats.......................................................................................................26
3.1.2
Basic Features.......................................................................................................26
3.1.3
Advanced Features ................................................................................................27
3.2
4
12
2.1
2.7
3
7
PL-A741 Advanced Features...................................................................................28
Trigger and GPIO Modes
4.1
33
Triggering.............................................................................................................33
4.1.1
Trigger Mode 0 .....................................................................................................33
4.1.2
Trigger Mode 1 .....................................................................................................33
4.1.3
Trigger Mode 2 .....................................................................................................34
4.1.4
Trigger Mode 3 .....................................................................................................34
4.1.5
Trigger Mode 4 .....................................................................................................34
4.2
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GPIO Modes..........................................................................................................35
PixeLINK PL-A741
Machine Vision Camera
System Guide
LIST OF FIGURES
v
4.2.1
GPIO Mode 0 (Strobe)........................................................................................... 35
4.2.2
GPIO Mode 1 (Normal).......................................................................................... 35
4.2.3
GPIO Mode 2 (Pulse)............................................................................................. 35
4.2.4
GPIO Mode 2 (Busy) ............................................................................................. 35
5
Extensions To IIDC 1394-Based Camera Spec v1.30
36
6
Features That Affect Isochronous Packet Size or Format
37
7
Feature Unit List
38
8
Frame Format
39
9
Descriptor Structure Format
40
9.1
Descriptor Version 0x0000 ..................................................................................... 40
9.2
Descriptor Version 0x0001 ..................................................................................... 41
9.3
Descriptor Version 0x0002 ..................................................................................... 42
10 Operating (Exposure) Modes
44
10.2
Rolling Shutter...................................................................................................... 44
10.3
Synchronous Shutter ............................................................................................. 45
Appendix A.
Glossary
47
Appendix B.
Spectral Response
48
TECHNICAL SUPPORT
49
INDEX
50
List of Figures
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
2.1 PL-A741 FireWire Machine Vision Camera, Standard Configuration .......................... 12
2.2 Standard Configuration ....................................................................................... 13
2.3 Standard Configuration, Front View ...................................................................... 13
2.4 Standard Configuration, Top and Side Views ......................................................... 14
2.5 Standard Configuration, Back View....................................................................... 14
2.6 Standard Configuration, Bottom View ................................................................... 15
2.7 Right Angle Configuration.................................................................................... 15
2.8 Right Angle Configuration, Front View .................................................................. 16
2.9 Right Angle Configuration, Top View .................................................................... 16
2.10 Right Angle Configuration, Side View .................................................................. 16
2.11 Right Angle Configuration, Back View ................................................................. 17
2.12 Right Angle Configuration, Bottom View.............................................................. 17
2.13 Camera C-Mount, Exploded View (Standard Configuration shown)......................... 19
2.14 Back View of the PL-A741, Showing Connectors .................................................. 20
2.15 Machine Vision Connector—Interface Schematic .................................................. 21
10.1 Rolling Shutter Integration and Read-Out............................................................ 45
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Machine Vision Camera
System Guide
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LIST OF TABLES
vi
List of Tables
Table
Table
Table
Table
Table
Table
Table
Table
Table
Table
Table
Table
2.1 Pinout of the Machine Vision Connector ..................................................................22
2.2 Operating Environment Conditions .........................................................................22
2.3 Storage Environment Conditions ............................................................................23
2.4 Status Indicator Signals ........................................................................................24
2.5 Packet Sizes.........................................................................................................25
3.1 PL-A741 Basic Features.........................................................................................27
3.2 Details of Selected Advanced Features ...................................................................28
3.3 Advance Feature Configuration Status Registers of the PL-A741 ...............................28
5.1 Color Coding Inquiry CSR for Format_7 ..................................................................36
5.2 Feature Element Inquiry CSRs ...............................................................................36
7.1 Feature Units .......................................................................................................38
10.1 Capture Methods ................................................................................................44
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PixeLINK PL-A741
Machine Vision Camera
System Guide
APPENDIX A. GLOSSARY
PAGE 7
1
Introduction
1.1
The PixeLINK PL-A741 Machine Vision Camera
The PL-A741 is a high-performance, 1.3 megapixel monochrome C-mount camera
designed specifically for machine vision applications. The camera is connected to the
computer by a FireWire interface and is fully IIDC 1.3 compatible. In addition, the
camera provides non-IIDC features that raise it above and beyond the standard,
providing excellent performance for the price.
Camera Features:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
No Framegrabber Required
FireWire Interface (Two Connectors)
IIDC 1.3 (DCAM) Compatible … PLUS Extended
Features
33 fps Uncompressed at 1k × 1k
Extended Dynamic Range
Global Shutter—Frame on Demand
Knee Points (Multiple Slope Exposure)
External Trigger
Available in “Right Angle” configuration
Custom applications can be developed on Windows platforms in C/C++ or Visual Basic
with the PixeLINK Camera Application Programming Interface (API), available in the
PixeLINK Camera SDK and Developer’s Kits (Version 4). The PixeLINK API offers more
functionality and greater control than using the PL-A741 with IIDC features alone. Visit
http://ww.pixelink.com/ or contact your PixeLINK vendor for details.
1.2
Topics Covered in this Guide
This Guide provides a reference for the PL-A741 hardware and connectors, and the
control options available through IIDC 1.3.
Users should consult this Guide …
… before using the PL-A741 with an IIDC-compliant application
… when mounting the PL-A741 within a system or enclosure
PixeLINK PL-A741
Machine Vision Camera
System Guide
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APPENDIX A. GLOSSARY
PAGE 8
… when planning to use an external trigger or GPO device (e.g., strobe, pulse) with
the PL-A741
Sections include:
• A description of the PL-A741 hardware—Section 2
• An overview of IIDC compliance and features available with the PL-A741—Section
3
• A list of available triggering and GPO modes—Section 4
• IIDC features—Sections 5 to 9
• A description of the PL-A741’s operating (exposure) modes and shutter types—
Section 10
References in the PDF version of this Guide are hyperlinked for easy navigation and
access.
1.3
System Requirements
Hardware Requirements
•
•
•
•
•
Microprocessor:
Recommended—Pentium® 4, Mac G4, or equivalent, 1.5 GHz
Minimum—Pentium® III, Mac G4, or equivalent, 450 MHz
Memory:
Recommended—128 MB RAM
Minimum—64 MB RAM
Desktop resolution:
Recommended—1280 × 1024
Minimum—VGA (640 × 480)
25 MB of hard drive space
A video card with 24-bit or 32-bit True Color graphics capability, at least 8 MB of
video memory and the latest vendor driver installed
Operating System Requirements for PixeLINK Software:
Microsoft Windows
The PL-A741 camera can be controlled by PixeLINK applications created using
API Version 4 running on:
• Windows 2000, with Service Pack 1 (SP1) installed, or
• Windows XP, with Service Pack 1 (SP1) installed
Service Packs are available for download from the Microsoft Web Site,
http://www.microsoft.com/
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Machine Vision Camera
System Guide
APPENDIX A. GLOSSARY
PAGE 9
Laptop Computers Only
Because of the specialized hardware configurations of laptop computers, they require
additional installation considerations:
• A built-in FireWire port, or a preinstalled CardBus card slot and a FireWire
CardBus adapter card (400 Mbps)
• An external 12 V DC power supply—Although certain laptop models may be able
to provide power to the camera via the FireWire bus, it is more likely that the system
will require an external power supply for the camera. (Note: A four-pin FireWire
connector cannot provide power to the camera, nor can a CardBus adapter card
provide sufficient power.)
For more information about laptop accessory kits including power supplies and
CardBus cards, visit http://ww.pixelink.com/ or contact your PixeLINK vendor.
1.4
Functionality with Third-Party and Custom Applications
PixeLINK cameras can be controlled by the following kinds of applications:
• Applications compliant with the IIDC 1.3 specification
The PL-A741 can be used “out of the box” with IIDC 1.3 (“DCAM” or “Digital Camera”)
compliant applications. The PL-A741 uses IIDC features extensively for controlling the
camera.
For more information about IIDC 1.3 compliance with the PL-A741, refer to Section 3 (on
page 26).
• Applications created using the PixeLINK Camera API (Version 4)
(For Windows-based systems only) The PixeLINK Camera Application Programming
Interface (API) offers application software developers a means to adapt existing
programs or develop new imaging applications for PixeLINK cameras. It allows rapid
development of custom applications for camera operation by simplifying the most
common tasks associated with configuring and controlling the cameras.
The PixeLINK Camera API Version 4.0 is a dynamic link library (DLL) that provides:
• A powerful, easy to use control interface
• A generic command set that can be used to control different camera models
• Fast and flexible access to streaming video
• The ability to save high quality still images and video clips
The PixeLINK “extensions” in the API control functions not covered by the IIDC 1.3
specification, offering greater functionality than in standalone IIDC usage of the camera.
API functions may be called from C/C++ or Visual Basic.
The PixeLINK Camera API software and reference documentation are included in
PixeLINK Camera Developer's Kits and SDKs.
PixeLINK PL-A741
Machine Vision Camera
System Guide
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APPENDIX A. GLOSSARY
PAGE 10
FREE Demonstration Application
The PixeLINK Developers Application demonstrates all major features of the
PL-A741 and the PixeLINK Camera API. This application is available for
download from the PixeLINK Web site (http://www.pixelink.com/) and in
PixeLINK Camera SDK and Developer’s Kits.
Purchasers of the SDK and Developer’s Kits also receive sample code,
simplifying integration of API functions into custom applications.
• Third-party applications
Third-party software vendors can maximize performance with the PL-A741 by using the
PixeLINK Camera API to integrate camera controls directly into their applications. By
integrating the controls directly, the application can access an extended range of options
not available through IIDC. Check with the third party vendor to see if PixeLINK controls
have been integrated into the software.
The PixeLINK Web site http://www.pixelink.com/ lists third-party applications recognized
by PixeLINK as having been specially designed to work with PixeLINK cameras.
1.5
Compatibility with Other PixeLINK Products
The PL-A741 is compatible with other Version 4.0 PixeLINK Products.
1.6
Related PixeLINK Documentation
•
PL-A741 User’s Manual
This manual describes the functionality of the PixeLINK Megapixel FireWire
camera hardware and software, including the PixeLINK Developers Application.
Users should consult the User’s Manual
… if this is the first time installing FireWire or USB hardware
… before installing PixeLINK software
… as a guide when using the PixeLINK Developers Application
Sections include:
• Installation of the camera hardware and PixeLINK software
• Features and operation of the PixeLINK Developers Application
•
PixeLINK Camera API Reference, Version 4
This manual provides a reference for the PixeLINK Camera API and related
software.
Sections include:
•
Basics principles of using the PixeLINK Camera API
Version 4.0
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PixeLINK PL-A741
Machine Vision Camera
System Guide
APPENDIX A. GLOSSARY
•
•
•
1.7
PAGE 11
A summary of the PixeLINK Camera API functions
Descriptions of individual API functions
Sample code
Camera Accessories
Accessories such as trigger kits, tripod mounts, lenses, laptop accessory kits and handsfree switches are available from PixeLINK. For a current list of accessories, visit the
PixeLINK Web site at http://www.pixelink.com/ or contact your PixeLINK vendor.
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Machine Vision Camera
System Guide
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APPENDIX A. GLOSSARY
PAGE 12
2
Hardware Overview
2.1
PL-A741 Camera Hardware Features
Figure 2.1 PL-A741 FireWire Machine Vision Camera, Standard Configuration
Hardware Features:
•
•
•
•
•
•
1.3 Megapixel imager resolution (1280 × 1024)
FireWire interface (two six-pin connectors)
Machine Vision interface for external trigger and GPO (strobe)
Lens mount for a standard C-mount lens (1" × 32 tpi) [lens not included]
Front and bottom mounting holes for a tripod or other mounting fixture (4–40
screws)
Two configurations: Standard and Right Angle
See Section 2.2 (on page 13) for hardware dimensions and locations of hardware
features.
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APPENDIX A. GLOSSARY
PAGE 13
Accessories
Accessories such as trigger kits, tripod mounts, lenses, laptop accessory kits and handsfree switches are available from PixeLINK. For a current list of accessories, visit the
PixeLINK Web site at http://www.pixelink.com/ or contact your PixeLINK vendor.
2.2
PL-A741 Camera Dimensions
Measurements are ± 0.005 inches (0.15 mm).
2.2.1
Standard Configuration
Height ..............................1.38 in /35 mm
Width ...............................1.97 in/50 mm
Length .............................3.94 in/100 mm
Weight .............................5.6 oz/160 g (without lens)
Figure 2.2 Standard Configuration
Figure 2.3 Standard Configuration, Front View
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Machine Vision Camera
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APPENDIX A. GLOSSARY
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Figure 2.4 Standard Configuration, Top and Side Views
Figure 2.5 Standard Configuration, Back View
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APPENDIX A. GLOSSARY
PAGE 15
Figure 2.6 Standard Configuration, Bottom View
2.2.2
Right Angle Configuration
Height ..............................1.38 in /35 mm
Width ...............................1.97 in/50 mm
Length .............................3.16 in/131 mm
Weight .............................6.7 oz/190 g (without lens)
Figure 2.7 Right Angle Configuration
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APPENDIX A. GLOSSARY
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Figure 2.8 Right Angle Configuration, Front View
Figure 2.9 Right Angle Configuration, Top View
Figure 2.10 Right Angle Configuration, Side View
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APPENDIX A. GLOSSARY
PAGE 17
Figure 2.11 Right Angle Configuration, Back View
Figure 2.12 Right Angle Configuration, Bottom View
2.3
Handling and Care
!
Caution:
Do not open the camera housing.
ESD— Handle the PL-A741 as ANSI/ESD S20.20 Class Type 3 (4000 V).
Cleaning
Housing:
Clean the housing with a cloth dampened (not dripping) with reagentgrade isopropyl alcohol.
Glass:
Clean the protective glass according to the instructions in Section 2.4.2
(on page 18).
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Machine Vision Camera
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APPENDIX A. GLOSSARY
PAGE 18
2.4
Lens and Protective Glass
2.4.1
Lens
The Camera’s C-mount fits a standard C-mount lens (1" × 32 tpi). A lens is not included.
2.4.2
Protective Glass
Each Camera is fitted with a piece of BK7 glass to protect the sensor. The glass is held in
place by the Camera’s C-mount assembly (Figure 2.13, on page 19) and can be removed
if required. (The assembly is identical for the C-mount of the Right Angle configuration.)
The protective glass can be removed for cleaning or for replacement with a special filter.
Because of the risk of damage to the sensor, only the manufacturer should
perform modifications to the camera fittings.
Caution:
!
Removing the glass increases the likelihood of contaminating the
image sensor. If the glass is not place, operate the camera under
clean-room conditions only.
Removing the Glass:
1. Ensure that the FireWire cable is disconnected from the Camera. Remove the lens or
other C-mount attachment.
2. Remove the screws holding the clamp in place (see Figure 2.13, on page 19).
3. Using a pair of fine-point tweezers, carefully lift out the clamp.
4. Place a lint-free cloth over the C-mount. Slowly tip the Camera until the glass lands
gently in the cloth.
5. Store the clamp and screws.
6. Cover the C-mount to protect the sensor from contaminants.
Cleaning the Glass:
Minor cleaning: 1. Carefully apply puffs of dry, compressed air to move particles off
the center of the glass.
2. Remove oils with a swab moistened with reagent-grade isopropyl
alcohol. The swab should be damp but not dripping.
Major cleaning: Remove the glass as directed above and clean with reagent-grade
isopropyl alcohol.
!
Caution:
Do not use acetone to clean the glass.
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APPENDIX A. GLOSSARY
PAGE 19
Figure 2.13 Camera C-Mount, Exploded View (Standard Configuration shown)
2.5
Mounting
Bottom Mount
As shown in Figure 2.6 on page 15 (Standard configuration) and Figure 2.12 on page 17
(Right Angle configuration), there are four M3 threaded holes on the bottom of the
PL-A741 Camera. These holes can be used to attach the camera to an optional ¼-20
nut mounting plate (available from your PixeLINK vendor) or to mount the camera to a
custom fixture.
Sensor-Face Mount
As shown in Figure 2.3 on page 13 (Standard configuration) and Figure 2.9 on page 16
(Right Angle configuration), there are four M3 threaded holes surrounding the C-mount.
These holes can be used to mount the Camera to a custom fixture.
Mounting Clearances
Allow sufficient clearances for access to connectors and the status light (back of camera).
The clearances necessary for adequate cooling are dependent on the ambient
temperature of the operating environment and the thermal conductivity of the mounting
hardware. The camera dissipates 4.2 W, so for optimal performance, the camera should
be mounted on a metal plate or fixture. A metal ¼-20 nut mounting plate is available
from your PixeLINK vendor.
Allow enough room to keep the camera’s internal temperature within tolerance. For
temperature ranges, see Section 2.7 (on page 22).
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Machine Vision Camera
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APPENDIX A. GLOSSARY
PAGE 20
2.6
Connectors
The PL-A741 Camera has the following connectors on the back, as shown in Figure 2.14,
(below):
•
2 six-pin FireWire Connectors—Combined power, data, and control signals (see
Section 2.6.1, below)
•
A six-pin Machine Vision connector—Trigger, strobe, pulse (See Section 2.6.2, on
page 21)
Machine Vision
(Control) Connector
Status Indicator Light
FireWire Connectors
Figure 2.14 Back View of the PL-A741, Showing Connectors
2.6.1
FireWire Connectors (Power, Data, and Control Signals)
Each PixeLINK Camera has two six-pin FireWire connectors (ports), allowing several
devices to be daisy-chained. The FireWire cable carries image data, power and control
signals.
The connectors are compatible with both regular and harness-type (latching) FireWire
plugs.
You do not need to power down the computer to connect or disconnect a camera, nor do
you need to reboot after this is done.
Single camera connection: The FireWire connectors are functionally identical. Either
one of them can be used for a single connection. Do not make more than one
connection between the camera and the computer—the equipment will not be able to
communicate properly and the system can crash.
Multiple camera connections: When connecting multiple cameras, do not create a
functional loop. The number of cameras that may be managed simultaneously depends
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APPENDIX A. GLOSSARY
PAGE 21
on the total bandwidth and may be limited by power availability and the processing
capabilities of the host computer. For more information, see Section 2.7.5 (on page 24).
2.6.2
Machine Vision Connector (Trigger, Strobe, Pulse)
The PL-A741 is equipped with a 6-pin Machine Vision connector, as shown in Figure 2.14
(on page 20), for external control of a trigger, strobe or pulse.
The connector pinout is listed in Table 2.1 (on page 22). The connector’s interface
schematic is shown in Figure 2.15 (below). The mating plug for the connector is an
HR10A-7P-6P, a 6-pin round plug connector with solder-cup pins for the cable wires.
Figure 2.15 Machine Vision Connector—Interface Schematic
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Machine Vision Camera
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APPENDIX A. GLOSSARY
PAGE 22
Table 2.1 Pinout of the Machine Vision Connector
Pin
Pin Name
Function
1
POWER
2
TRIGGER+
3
TRIGGER–
4
GROUND
FireWire cable power, 8–30 V • Maximum current available from this
DC (typically 12 V)
pin is 250 mA.
Positive terminal of optically • To initiate a trigger, apply a voltage of
between 5 V and 12 V (4–11 mA) to
isolated trigger input
the trigger terminals.
Negative terminal of
• The optically isolated trigger input
optically isolated trigger
circuit includes an internal 1 kΩ series
input
resistor.
• When using a voltage higher than 12 V,
add an external resistor with adequate
power rating.
• A typical application of the trigger input
is to connect Pin 1 (POWER) to Pin 2
(TRIGGER+) and use the open
collector output of an external position
sensor device to complete the circuit
from Pin 3 (TRIGGER–) to Pin 4
(GROUND).
Timing: See Section 4.1 (on page 33)
PixeLINK API--Refer to the functions
PxLSetFeature, PxLGetFeature
Logic and chassis ground
5
GP1
6
GP2
(Pinout as viewed
on the back of the
camera, or at the
solder-end of the
mating connector)
2.7
Comments
General Purpose Output
(GPO) 1, for strobe, pulse
General Purpose Output
(GPO) 2, for strobe, pulse
• Open-collector current sink output from
optical isolator. Provides current sink to
Pin 4 (GROUND) when GP1/GP2 (as
appropriate) is active.
• Maximum current is 15 mA.
Timing: See Section 4.2 (on page 35)
PixeLINK API--Refer to the functions
PxLSetFeature, PxLGetFeature
Operation
2.7.1
Operating Environment
Table 2.2 Operating Environment Conditions
Condition
Limits
Temperature
0°C to +50°C (32°F to 122°F)
Temperature change
< 10°C/minute (< 18°F/minute)
Shock
50 G
Vibration
10 G at 20-200 Hz
Humidity
20% - 80% non condensing
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2.7.2
PAGE 23
Storage Environment
Table 2.3 Storage Environment Conditions
2.7.3
Condition
Limits
Temperature
-40°C to + 75°C (-40°F to 167°F)
Temperature change
< 10°C/minute (< 18°F/minute)
Shock
50 G
Vibration
10 G at 20-200 Hz
Humidity
20% - 80% non condensing
Power
The host computer can supply power to the camera via the FireWire bus if the computer
has a six-pin FireWire connector and the total power demand on the bus does not exceed
the bus capacity.
Other systems—such as laptop computers or those with several FireWire devices daisychained—require an external 12 V supply to power the camera. This external power
supply must be connected to the FireWire bus. For information about laptop accessory
kits that include external power supplies, contact your PixeLINK vendor.
Power Demand
The PL-A741 draws 4.2 watts from the FireWire cable. For a single camera, this is
350 mA @ 12 V. For multiple cameras connected to a single bus, see Power
Limitation (below).
Power Limitation
The power capacity of the bus depends on the FireWire adapter card installed in the host
computer. To comply with the FireWire specification, the adapter card may supply a
maximum of 1.5 A per FireWire port. However, it is permissible for the card’s limit to be
lower than 1.5 A per port (say, 1.0 A). Note that many cards do not state their current
limits.
In a multiple camera system, the current required per camera increases with each
additional camera attached to the bus. Each additional camera causes the bus
voltage to drop, so the current demand is increased to maintain a constant power
draw of 4.2 W per camera.
Hence, most two-port FireWire adapter cards will power only three
cameras simultaneously (regardless of whether one or both ports of the
card are in use).
If the current demand exceeds the card capacity, the status lights on the cameras will
switch off. The status light is located on the back of the camera, as shown in Figure
2.14, (on page 20).
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PAGE 24
2.7.4
Status Indicator Light
The camera has a status indicator light, located on the back, as shown in Figure 2.5 (on
page 14) and in Figure 2.14 (on page 20). This light indicates the operational status of
the camera, as described in Table 2.4 (below).
Table 2.4 Status Indicator Signals
Signal
(Type and Color )
Status
Solid GREEN
The camera is ready for operation.
Flashing GREEN
The camera is performing a operation.
Flashing RED
The camera is being initialized.
OR
The camera has issued a warning on the latest
command received.
2.7.5
Solid RED
The camera has experienced an unrecoverable
error—contact PixeLINK (see page 49 for
contact information).
Off
The computer’s FireWire adapter card cannot
supply adequate current for the number of
devices on the bus. Detach some of the devices
or attach a power supply to the FireWire cable.
Connecting Multiple Cameras (“Daisy Chaining”)
When connecting multiple cameras, do not create a functional loop. This will
have the same consequences as making a duplicate connection between a single camera
and the computer. For example, if you connect camera A to camera B and camera B to
camera C, you should not connect camera A directly to Camera C.
Power Limitation
Most two-port FireWire adapter cards can power up to three cameras simultaneously.
For more information, see Power Limitation (on page 23).
FireWire Bandwidth Limitation
The FireWire bus requires that the sum of the packet sizes of the attached cameras be
less than 4800. Packet sizes for cameras operating with 640 × 480 and 1024 × 1280
Regions of Interest (ROI) are given in Table 2.5 (on page 25).
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APPENDIX A. GLOSSARY
PAGE 25
Table 2.5 Packet Sizes
Region of Interest (ROI)
Clock
Frequency
(MHz)
4
6
8
12
16
24
Example:
640 × 480
640
1280
1280
1920
3200
3840
1024 × 1280
1280
1280
1280
2560
2560
2560
Based on the FireWire bus only, what is the largest number of
cameras that can be managed simultaneously if each one operates
with 640 × 480 ROI and an 8 MHz clock frequency?
Solution: The FireWire packet limit is 4800. From Table 2.5 (above),
the packet size for a 640 × 480 ROI at 8 MHz is 1280.
4800
= 3.75
1280
Therefore, no more than three Cameras can be
managed simultaneously at 640 × 480 and 8 MHz.
To confirm:
The total packet size for four cameras is 4 × 1280 = 5120, which exceeds
the FireWire packet limit. The total packet size for three cameras is 3 ×
1280 = 3840, which is less than the limit.
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APPENDIX A. GLOSSARY
PAGE 26
3
Camera Features
The PL-A741 is compliant with the IIDC 1394-based Digital Camera Specification
(Version 1.30). The IIDC specification requires that the camera hardware retain a record
of all the features supported by the camera. The software and drivers used to control
the camera query the camera to retrieve a list of supported features and other
information. The specification also allows the definition of advanced features specific to a
particular camera model.
This section
•
outlines basic features of the PL-A741 camera, and
•
provides a detailed description of advanced features specific to the PL-A741.
This information is intended for system integrators and software developers who are
•
creating low-level drivers for the PL-A741, or
•
integrating the advanced features of the camera into IIDC applications using
third-party software development tools.
Users of the proprietary PixeLINK driver or the PixeLINK Camera API Version 4.0 might
find the information in this section to be too low level and detailed. These people should
instead refer to the PL-A741 User’s Manual and the PixeLINK API Reference Manual.
3.1
Supported Features
Refer to the IIDC specification for more information on accessing and controlling the
basic features.
3.1.1
Video Formats
The PL-A741 supports video Format 0 (VGA non-compressed format, 640 × 480
maximum) for backwards compatibility with older IIDC 1.04 drivers and DirectShow. The
camera also supports Format 7 (partial image sizes).
3.1.2
Basic Features
The PL-A741 supports basic features as shown in Table 3.1 (on page 27).
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3.1.3
%
s
dB
ºC
Max Value
Min Value
Manual
Auto
On/Off
Read Out
One-Push
Auto
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Type
Brightness
Shutter
Gain
Temperature
Trigger
Unit
Feature
Supported
Table 3.1 PL-A741 Basic Features
Absolute
No
Yes No No Yes
0
Absolute
No
Yes No No Yes 0.00004
Relative
No
Yes No No Yes
0
Absolute
No
Yes No No No
See trigger mode descriptions (on page 33)
100
1
Advanced Features
The PL-A741 provides controls for the following Advanced Features:
Camera information retrieval: This feature reports the camera’s hardware and
firmware information, specifically the firmware version, the FPGA version, the
camera’s serial number, and the product ID.
Trigger features: The standard IIDC specification is used whenever possible.
However, the standard does not allow the time to be set between a trigger event and
the start of integration, so a PixeLINK extension is used to enable this feature. See
Section 4.1 (on page 33) for more information about timing.
GPOs/GPIOs: The IIDC specification does not apply to strobes, flashes, or LEDs. A
PixeLINK extension allows control of multiple strobes and a general purpose I/O. The
extension also allows control of the time between a trigger event and the activation
of a strobe, the duration of the strobe and the polarity of the strobe signal. See
Section 4.2 (on page 35) for more information about timing.
Extended shutter (Knee points): This feature allows for multiple-slope-exposure
captures to enable a larger dynamic range. (See Table 3.2 on page 28.)
Lookup Table (LUT): This feature allows a user-specified lookup table to be
applied to the image data, enabling custom filtering and image processing. (See
Table 3.2 on page 28.)
Descriptors: A descriptor is a collection of camera feature properties that is applied
to a frame. Since each frame can have a unique descriptor, custom descriptors can
be used to change camera settings on a frame-by-frame basis for each frame in the
video stream.
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APPENDIX A. GLOSSARY
PAGE 28
Supported
Unit
Type
Table 3.2 Details of Selected Advanced Features
Yes
Yes
fps
s
Absolute
Absolute
Yes
s
Absolute
Feature
Frame Rate
Trigger Delay
Extended Shutter
Knee Points
3.2
PL-A741 Advanced Features
The Advanced Features of the PL-A741 are controlled using IIDC Configuration Status
Registers (CSRs). Table 3.3 (below) lists the CSRs applicable to the PL-A741.
Table 3.3 Advance Feature Configuration Status Registers of the PL-A741
Offset*
Name
000h
004h
ACR
Field
Bit
[0..63]
Description
Advanced Feature Access Control
Register (See NOTE 1)
CAMERA INFO REGISTERS (READ ONLY)
008h
00Ch
010h
014h
018h
01Ch
Quadlet offset of the Serial Number
string from the base address of the initial
register space
Length in bytes of the Serial Number
SERIAL_LENGTH
Value
[0..31]
string
Fpga Version in format
FPGA_VERSION
Value
[0..31]
Byte0.Byte1.Byte2.Byte3
Firmware Version in format
FW_VERSION
Value
[0..31]
Byte0.Byte1.Byte2.Byte3
Quadlet offset of the Camera Description
CAM_DSC_OFST
Value
[0..31]
string from the base address of the initial
register space (See NOTE 2)
Length in bytes of the Camera
CAM_DSC_LNTH
Value
[0..31]
Description string
ADVANCED FEATURE INQUIRY REGISTERS (READ ONLY)
SERIAL_OFFSET
100h
Value
[0..31]
Presence_Inq
[0]
[1..15]
Max_Length
[16..31]
NAME_INQ
104h
NAME_OFFSET
Value
[0..31]
108h
NAME_LENGTH
Value
[0..31]
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Presence of this feature
Reserved
Maximum length of Camera Name in
bytes
Quadlet offset of the Camera Name
string from the base address of the initial
register space (See NOTE 2)
Length in bytes of the Camera Name
string (Read Only)
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Offset*
Name
10Ch
DESC_INQ
110h
DESC_OFFSET
114h
118h
11Ch
PAGE 29
Field
Bit
Description
Presence_Inq
Max_Num
Struct_Ver
[0]
[1..7]
[8..15]
[16..31]
Value
[0..31]
Presence_Inq
[0]
In_Desc_Inq
[1]
Presence of this feature
Reserved
Maximum number of Descriptors
Version of the Descriptor Structure.
Quadlet offset of the Descriptor Structure
from the base address of the initial
register space (See NOTE 2)
Presence of this feature
Can this feature have different values in
different descriptors
1 = Yes, 0 = No
[2..7]
DECIM_INQ
FRAME_RATE_ABS
FLIP_INQ
Base
[8..15]
Max_Value
[16..31]
Offset
[0..31]
H_Pres_Inq
[0]
In_Desc_Inq
[1]
V_Pres_Inq
[2..15]
[16]
In_Desc_Inq
[17]
Presence_Inq
[18..31]
[0]
In_Desc_Inq
[1]
[2..7]
120h
TRIG_ADV_INQ
Trig_Intern_Inq
[8]
Trig_Type_Inq
[9]
[10..31]
124h
TRIG_DEL_ABS
Offset
[0..31]
128h
GPIO_INQ
Presence_Inq
[0]
In_Desc_Inq
[1]
Number
Mode0_Inq
Mode1_Inq
[2..3]
[4..7]
[8]
[9]
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Reserved
Base for decimation. Maximum
decimation is Base^Max_Value (except
when Base = 1 then it is Max_Value)
The maximum value for the decimation
variable
Quadlet offset of the absolute value CSR
for the Frame Rate (only valid in Format
7)
Presence of Horizontal Flip
Can Horizontal Flip have different values
in different descriptors
1 = Yes, 0 = No
Reserved
Presence of Vertical Flip
Can Vertical Flip have different values in
different descriptors
1 = Yes, 0 = No
Reserved
Presence of this feature
Can this feature have different values in
different descriptors
1 = Yes, 0 = No
Reserved
Can the camera be triggered internally
(free running)
1 = Yes, 0 = No
Can the type of trigger be changed
1 = Yes, 0 = No
Reserved
Quadlet offset of the absolute value CSR
for Trigger Delay
Presence of this feature
Can this feature have different values in
different descriptors
1 = Yes, 0 = No
Reserved
Number of GPIO lines (1-15)
Presence of GPIO Mode 0
Presence of GPIO Mode 1
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Offset*
12Ch
130h
134h
138h
13Ch
140h
144h
148h
Description
Presence of GPIO Mode 2
Presence of GPIO Mode 3
Reserved
Quadlet offset of the absolute value CSR
GPIO_PARM1_ABS
Offset
[0..31]
for GPIO 0 Parameter 1 (See NOTE 3)
Quadlet offset of the absolute value CSR
GPIO_PARM2_ABS
Offset
[0..31]
for GPIO 0 Parameter 2 (See NOTE 3)
Quadlet offset of the absolute value CSR
GPIO_PARM3_ABS
Offset
[0..31]
for GPIO 0 Parameter 3 (See NOTE 3)
Presence_Inq
[0]
Presence of this feature
Can this feature have different values in
In_Desc_Inq
[1]
different descriptors
1 = Yes, 0 = No
EX_SHUTTER_INQ
[2..3]
Reserved
Number_Knees
[4..7]
Maximum Number of Knee Points (1-4)
[8..31]
Reserved
Quadlet offset of the absolute value CSR
XSHUT_KNEE_ABS
Offset
[0..31]
for Extended Shutter Knee Point 0 (See
NOTE 4)
Presence_Inq
[0]
Presence of this feature
Can this feature have different values in
In_Desc_Inq
[1]
different descriptors
1 = Yes, 0 = No
LOOKUP_INQ
[2..7]
Reserved
Bit_Depth
[8..15]
Bit depth of an entry in the lookup table
Number
[16..31] Number of entries in the lookup table
Quadlet offset of the first entry in the
lookup table. Each entry occupies a
LOOKUP_OFFSET
Offset
[0..31]
whole number of bytes (e.g. a 10bit entry
occupies 2 bytes). The table must be
written to in order, starting from byte 0.
Presence_Inq
[0]
Presence of this feature
Can this feature have different values in
In_Desc_Inq
[1]
different descriptors
1 = Yes, 0 = No
[2..7]
Reserved
AUTO_AREA_INQ
0 = Valid Area, 1 = Invalid Area
This feature will be ignored until a valid
Invalid_Area
[8]
area is set. The Area must be within the
current image region. (See NOTE 5)
[9..31]
Reserved
ADVANCED FEATURE CONTROL REGISTERS
200h
Name
DESC_CFG
Field
Mode2_Inq
Mode3_Inq
Bit
[10]
[11]
[12..31]
Current
[0..7]
Number
[8..15]
Append_Desc
[16]
[17..31]
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Zero-based index of the descriptor
currently in focus (Format 7 only)
Number of descriptors currently in use
(Format 7 only) (See NOTE 6)
Append Descriptors to each frame
1 = Append, 0 = Don’t Append
Reserved
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APPENDIX A. GLOSSARY
PAGE 31
Offset*
Name
204h
DECIMATION
Field
Bit
Value
[0..15]
[16..31]
20Ch
TRIGGER_ADV
210h
EX_SHUTTER
214h
LOOKUP_TABLE
Source
[0]
Type
[1]
Number
[2..31]
[0..7]
[8..31]
On_Off
[0]
[1..31]
Description
Value for decimation. Actual decimation
is Base^Value except when Base = 1
then it is Value (Format 7 only)
Reserved
Trigger Source
1 = Internal (free running), 0 = External
(hardware or software)
Trigger Type
1 = Global Shutter, 0 = Rolling Shutter
Reserved
Number of Knee Points
Reserved
Lookup Table On/Off
1 = On, 0 = Off
Reserved
GPIO CONTROL REGISTERS
300h
304h
GPIO_0_CFG
GPIO_1_CFG
[2..23]
GPIO 0 On/Off
1 = On, 0 = Off
GPIO 0 Polarity
1 = Active High, 0 = Active Low
Reserved
GPIO 0 Mode
GPIO 1 On/Off
1 = On, 0 = Off
GPIO 1 Polarity
1 = Active High, 0 = Active Low
Reserved
[24..31]
GPIO 1 Mode
On_Off
[0]
Polarity
[1]
Mode
[2..23]
[24..31]
On_Off
[0]
Polarity
[1]
Mode
* Offset from Advanced Feature Offset value (register 0x480)
NOTE 1:
The Feature_Id field of the Advanced Feature Access Control Register is a 48bit value with the following
format:
0–7
8 – 15
Company_ID
(=0x000168)
16 – 23
24 – 31
32 – 39
40 - 47
Advanced_Feature_Unique_ID
(=Feature offset)
For example:
The Feature_Id field for the FLIP_INQ CSR would be 0x000168000114
NOTE 2:
It is not necessary to access the Access Control Register to Read/Write to the value at the offset pointed to by
the value in this register.
NOTE 3:
These are the offsets for the absolute value CSRs for the parameters of GPIO 0. The absolute value CSR
offsets for GPIO X can be calculated as follows:
quadlet offset of Parameter N GPIO X = GPIO_PARMN_ABS + 3 * X.
NOTE 4:
This is the offset for the absolute value CSR for the Extended Shutter Knee Point 0. The absolute value CSR
offsets for Knee Point X can be calculated as follows :
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quadlet offset of Knee Point X = XSHUT_KNEE_ABS + 3 * X.
NOTE 5:
In Format 7 the Auto Area must be within the image region specified by the IMAGE_POSITION and
IMAGE_SIZE registers. In all other formats the Auto area must be within an image region that has Top and
Left coordinates of zero and Height and Width values that correspond to the current Video Format and Mode.
NOTE 6:
Descriptors are added or removed by increasing/decreasing this value. When a descriptor is created it will
have the same values as the current descriptor (Current field) or the camera settings if it is the first descriptor to
be created. When the descriptor number is decreased then the descriptors with a higher index are removed
first.
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APPENDIX A. GLOSSARY
PAGE 33
4
Trigger and GPIO Modes
4.1
Triggering
•
Trigger Modes 0–3 are defined by the IIDC 1.3 specification
•
Trigger Mode 4 is a custom mode.
Note that the trigger input is Low Active.
4.1.1
Trigger Mode 0
The camera starts integration of the incoming light from external trigger input falling edge.
Integration time is described in "Shutter" register. No parameter is needed.
External trigger input
Integration time
“Shutter” register value
4.1.2
Trigger Mode 1
The camera starts integration of the incoming light from external trigger input falling edge.
Integration time is equal to low state time of the external trigger input. No parameter is
needed.
External trigger input
Integration time
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4.1.3
Trigger Mode 2
The camera starts integration of incoming light from first external trigger input falling edge.
At the Nth (parameter) external trigger input falling edge, integration will be stopped.
Parameter is required and must be two or more. (N >= 2)
External trigger input
with parameter = 4
Integration time
4.1.4
Trigger Mode 3
This is an internal trigger mode. The camera issues trigger internally, and cycle time is N
times (parameter) of the cycle time of fastest frame rate. Integration time of incoming light is
described in "Shutter" register. Parameter is required and must be one or more. (N >= 1)
N × Tf (N is parameter. Tf is cycle time of the fastest frame rate)
Internal trigger
Integration time
“Shutter” register value
4.1.5
Trigger Mode 4
The camera captures N (parameter) frames after a trigger at the specified integration time
and frame rate.
External trigger input
Frame output with
parameter = 3
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APPENDIX A. GLOSSARY
4.2
PAGE 35
GPIO Modes
There are four GPIO (General Purpose Input/Output) modes available for use with the GPO
pins on the Machine Vision connector (see Section 2.6.2 on page 21).
• Strobe
• Normal
• Pulse
• Busy
Note that the input is Low Active.
4.2.1
GPIO Mode 0 (Strobe)
The GPO is set after a trigger occurs. The GPO pulse occurs X (parameter 1) seconds from
the trigger and is Y (parameter 2) seconds in duration.
External trigger input
GPO output
X seconds
4.2.2
Y seconds
GPIO Mode 1 (Normal)
The GPO is set to either low or high, depending on the value of Polarity.
4.2.3
GPIO Mode 2 (Pulse)
The GPO is pulsed whenever it is switched on. The GPO outputs X (parameter 1) pulses of Y
(parameter 2) seconds in length separated by Z (parameter 3) seconds.
GPO output
with X = 2
Y seconds
4.2.4
Z seconds
Y seconds
GPIO Mode 2 (Busy)
The GPO is set whenever the camera is unable to respond to a trigger. This is only useful
when using Trigger Type Hardware or Software; for all other modes it will always be set.
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5
Extensions To IIDC 1394-Based
Camera Spec v1.30
Table 5.1 Color Coding Inquiry CSR for Format_7
Offset
Name
Field
Bit
Mono8
[0]
4:1:1 YUV8
[1]
4:2:2 YUV8
[2]
4:4:4 YUV8
RGB8
014h
COLOR_CODING_INQ
Mono16
RGB16
Bayer8
Bayer16
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]
[8]
Description
Y only, Y=8bits, non
compressed
4:1:1, Y=U=V=8bits, non
compressed
4:2:2, Y=U=V=8bits, non
compressed
4:4:4, Y=U=V=8bits, non
compressed
R=G=B=8bits, non
compressed
Y only, Y=16bits, non
compressed
R=G=B=16bits, non
compressed
Bayer Pattern encoding, Red
pixel first, 8bits/pixel
Bayer Pattern encoding, Red
pixel first, 16bits/pixel
ID=0
ID=1
ID=2
ID=3
ID=4
ID=5
ID=6
ID=7
ID=8
[9..30]
In_Desc_Inq
[31]
Can the Color Coding ID have different
values in different descriptors
1 = Yes, 0 = No
Table 5.2 Feature Element Inquiry CSRs
All feature element inquiry registers (Offset 500h to 5FFh) have the following bit added to them:
Offset
Name
Field
Bit
Description
[0..1]
Same as DCAM Specification
Can this feature have different values
In_Desc_Inq
[2]
in different descriptors
5XXh
XX_INQ
1 = Yes, 0 = No
[3..31] Same as DCAM Specification
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APPENDIX A. GLOSSARY
PAGE 37
6
Features That Affect Isochronous
Packet Size or Format
This list includes standard DCAM registers as well as extended registers:
Status and Control Registers
CUR_V_FRM_RATE
CUR_V_MODE
CUR_V_FORMAT
ISO_SPEED
Format 7 Registers
IMAGE_SIZE
COLOR_CODING_ID
BYTE_PER_PACKET
Extended Registers
DECIMATION
FRAME_RATE
DESCRIPTOR (structure at DESC_OFFSET)
When any of these registers are written to ISO_EN, ONE_SHOT and MULTI_SHOT should
all be set to 0. Otherwise, the written values are ignored and an error is returned.
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APPENDIX A. GLOSSARY
PAGE 38
7
Feature Unit List
Table 7.1 Feature Units
Feature
Brightness
Auto Exposure
Sharpness
White Balance
Hue
Saturation
Gamma
Shutter
Gain
Iris
Focus
Temperature
Zoom
Pan
Tilt
Frame Rate
Trigger Delay
Extended Shutter Knee Points
Unit
Percentage
Exposure Value
Percentage
Degrees Kelvin
Degrees
Percentage
None
Seconds
dB
F Number
Meters
Degrees Celcius
Power
Degrees
Degrees
Frames Per Second
Seconds
Seconds
Type
Absolute
Relative
Relative
Absolute
Relative
Relative
Relative
Absolute
Relative
Absolute
Absolute
Absolute
Relative
Relative
Relative
Absolute
Absolute
Absolute
= Advanced Features
Version 4.0
Copyright © 2003 PixeLINK
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PixeLINK PL-A741
Machine Vision Camera
System Guide
APPENDIX A. GLOSSARY
PAGE 39
8
Frame Format
A frame coming from the camera has the following format upon reaching the driver:
Byte 0
Byte 1
Byte 2
…
Byte N-2
Byte N-1
Frame Descriptor (See Descriptor Structure Format on page 40)
= DCAM Frame padding region
N = Number of bytes per frame (width * height * bytes per pixel)
If multiple descriptors are being used, then a synchronization code is encoded in the first
four pixels. This code ensures that the driver knows which frame it is receiving from the
camera, in case the frame size changes between descriptors. The code is encoded as
follows:
Byte 0
Byte 1
Byte 2
Byte 3
Byte 4
Byte 5
Byte 6
Byte 7
Byte 8
Byte 9
Byte 10
Byte 11
Byte 12
Byte 13
Byte 14
Byte 15
Bits 7 … 0
Bits 7 … 1
Bits 7 … 0
Bits 7 … 1
Bits 7 … 0
Bits 7 … 1
Bits 7 … 0
Bits 7 … 1
Bits 7 … 0
Bits 7 … 1
Bits 7 … 0
Bits 7 … 1
Bits 7 … 0
Bits 7 … 1
Bits 7 … 1
Bits 7 … 1
Code Bit 7
Code Bit 6
Code Bit 5
Code Bit 4
Code Bit 3
Code Bit 2
Code Bit 1
Code Bit 0
Where “Code” is an 8-bit number (Bit 7 = MSB). Code is zero for the first frame of a
video stream, and it increments by one for each frame after that, rolling over once it
reaches the number of descriptors currently in use (i.e. if three descriptors are in use
Code will roll over when it reaches 2).
PixeLINK PL-A741
Machine Vision Camera
System Guide
Version 4.0
Copyright © 2003 PixeLINK
All Rights Reserved
APPENDIX A. GLOSSARY
PAGE 40
9
Descriptor Structure Format
The descriptor structure has two parts:
•
The first section of this structure contains a list of all the features that can change
between descriptors.
•
The second section contains all other features.
The first section of the structure is attached to the end of each frame sent to the driver.
The entire structure (first and second sections) is used when accessing the Descriptor
structure located at DESC_OFFSET.
The structure is required to be as small as possible, so only features that can change
from frame-to-frame with the host computer’s “knowledge” are included in the first
section (such as features that may be in “Auto” mode). This structure is referred to in
the PixeLINK API Reference Version 4.
Three versions of the descriptor structure follow.
9.1
Descriptor Version 0x0000
typedef struct _DESCRIPTOR
{
// There is no data attached to the end of a frame for version
0x0000
#if FRAME_STRUCTURE
} DESCRIPTOR, *PDESCRIPTOR;
#else // !FRAME_STRUCTURE
// This section contains all settings that don’t change without
// the host’s knowledge
const U16 wSize = 364;
// Size of this structure (in bytes)
const U16 wVersion = 0x0000; // Version of this structure
float
float
float
float
float
float
float
float
float
float
float
float
fBrightness;
fAutoExposure;
fSharpness;
fWhiteBalance;
fHue;
fSaturation;
fGamma;
fShutter;
fGain;
fIris;
fFocus;
fTemperature;
Version 4.0
Copyright © 2003 PixeLINK
All Rights Reserved
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
Brightness
Auto Exposure
Sharpness
White Balance
Hue
Saturation
Gamma
Shutter
Gain
Iris
Focus
Temperature
PixeLINK PL-A741
Machine Vision Camera
System Guide
APPENDIX A. GLOSSARY
float fTriggerParamter;
float fTriggerDelay;
float fZoom;
float fPan;
float fTilt;
float fOpticalFilter;
float fFrameRate;
float fLeft;
float fTop;
float fWidth;
float fHeight;
float fDecimation;
float fPixelFormat;
float fKneePoint[4];
float fGpioParameter1[16];
float fGpioParameter2[16];
float fGpioParameter3[16];
float fAutoAreaLeft;
float fAutoAreaTop;
float fAutoAreaWidth;
float fAutoAreaHeight;
U8 byGpioMode[16];
U8 byGpioPolarity[16];
U8 byTriggerMode;
U8 byTriggerPolarity;
U8 byTriggerType;
U8 byReserved;
PAGE 41
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
Parameter for Trigger
Trigger Delay
Zoom
Pan
Tilt
Optical Filter
Frame Rate
ROI Left
ROI Top
ROI Width
ROI Height
Decimation
Pixel Format
Extended Shutter Knee Point
GPIO Parameter 1
GPIO Parameter 2
GPIO Parameter 3
Auto Area Left
Auto Area Top
Auto Area Width
Auto Area Height
GPIO Mode
GPIO Polarity
Trigger Mode
Trigger Polarity
Trigger Type
Padding to quadlet align
} DESCRIPTOR, *PDESCRIPTOR;
#endif // FRAME_STRUCTURE
9.2
Descriptor Version 0x0001
typedef struct _DESCRIPTOR
{
const U16 wSize;
const U16 wVersion = 0x0001;
float
float
float
float
float
float
float
float
float
float
float
float
float
float
float
float
fBrightness;
fAutoExposure;
fSharpness;
fWhiteBalance;
fHue;
fSaturation;
fGamma;
fShutter;
fGain;
fIris;
fFocus;
fTemperature;
fTriggerParamter;
fTriggerDelay;
fZoom;
fPan;
PixeLINK PL-A741
Machine Vision Camera
System Guide
// Size of this structure (in bytes)
// Version of this structure
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
Brightness
Auto Exposure
Sharpness
White Balance
Hue
Saturation
Gamma
Shutter
Gain
Iris
Focus
Temperature
Parameter for Trigger
Trigger Delay
Zoom
Pan
Version 4.0
Copyright © 2003 PixeLINK
All Rights Reserved
APPENDIX A. GLOSSARY
PAGE 42
float
float
float
float
float
float
fTilt;
fOpticalFilter;
fAutoAreaLeft;
fAutoAreaTop;
fAutoAreaWidth;
fAutoAreaHeight;
//
//
//
//
//
//
Tilt
Optical Filter
Auto Area Left
Auto Area Top
Auto Area Width
Auto Area Height
#if FRAME_STRUCTURE
} DESCRIPTOR, *PDESCRIPTOR;
#else // !FRAME_STRUCTURE
// This section contains all settings that don’t change without
// the host’s knowledge
float fFrameRate;
// Frame Rate
float fLeft;
// ROI Left
float fTop;
// ROI Top
float fWidth;
// ROI Width
float fHeight;
// ROI Height
float fDecimation;
// Decimation
float fPixelFormat;
// Pixel Format
float fKneePoint[4];
// Extended Shutter Knee Point
float fGpioParameter1[16];
// GPIO Parameter 1
float fGpioParameter2[16];
// GPIO Parameter 2
float fGpioParameter3[16];
// GPIO Parameter 3
U8 byGpioMode[16];
// GPIO Mode
U8 byGpioPolarity[16];
// GPIO Polarity
U8 byTriggerMode;
// Trigger Mode
U8 byTriggerPolarity;
// Trigger Polarity
U8 byTriggerType;
// Trigger Type
U8 byReserved;
// Padding to quadlet align
} DESCRIPTOR, *PDESCRIPTOR;
#endif // FRAME_STRUCTURE
9.3
Descriptor Version 0x0002
typedef struct _DESCRIPTOR
{
const U16 wSize;
bytes)
const U16 wVersion = 0x0002;
float
float
float
float
float
float
fWhiteBalance;
fSaturation;
fBrightness;
fShutter;
fGain;
fKneePoint[4];
// Size of this structure (in
// Version of this structure
//
//
//
//
//
//
White Balance
Saturation
Brightness
Shutter
Gain
Extended Shutter Knee Point
#if FRAME_STRUCTURE
} DESCRIPTOR, *PDESCRIPTOR;
#else // !FRAME_STRUCTURE
// This section contains all settings that don’t change without
// the host’s knowledge
float fAutoExposure;
// Auto Exposure
Version 4.0
Copyright © 2003 PixeLINK
All Rights Reserved
PixeLINK PL-A741
Machine Vision Camera
System Guide
APPENDIX A. GLOSSARY
float
float
float
float
float
float
float
float
float
float
float
float
float
float
float
float
fSharpness;
fHue;
fGamma;
fIris;
fFocus;
fTemperature;
fTriggerParamter;
fTriggerDelay;
fZoom;
fPan;
fTilt;
fOpticalFilter;
fAutoAreaLeft;
fAutoAreaTop;
fAutoAreaWidth;
fAutoAreaHeight;
float fFrameRate;
float fLeft;
float fTop;
float fWidth;
float fHeight;
float fDecimation;
float fPixelFormat;
float fGpioParameter1[16];
float fGpioParameter2[16];
float fGpioParameter3[16];
U8 byGpioMode[16];
U8 byGpioPolarity[16];
U8 byTriggerMode;
U8 byTriggerPolarity;
U8 byTriggerType;
U8 byReserved;
PAGE 43
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
Sharpness
Hue
Gamma
Iris
Focus
Temperature
Parameter for Trigger
Trigger Delay
Zoom
Pan
Tilt
Optical Filter
Auto Area Left
Auto Area Top
Auto Area Width
Auto Area Height
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
Frame Rate
ROI Left
ROI Top
ROI Width
ROI Height
Decimation
Pixel Format
GPIO Parameter 1
GPIO Parameter 2
GPIO Parameter 3
GPIO Mode
GPIO Polarity
Trigger Mode
Trigger Polarity
Trigger Type
Padding to quadlet align
} DESCRIPTOR, *PDESCRIPTOR;
#endif // FRAME_STRUCTURE
PixeLINK PL-A741
Machine Vision Camera
System Guide
Version 4.0
Copyright © 2003 PixeLINK
All Rights Reserved
APPENDIX A. GLOSSARY
PAGE 44
10
Operating (Exposure) Modes
The PL-A741 has two shutter types:
•
Rolling Shutter (free-running image capture)—See Section 10.2, below
•
Synchronous Shutter (triggered image capture)—See Section 10.3, on page 45
Table 10.1 Capture Methods
Use of Other Sync.
Device Possible?**
(e.g., Strobe, Flash)
Method
Capture Type
Shutter
Type
Free-Running Continuous
Continuous
Rolling
No
Internally Triggered Free-Running
Continuous
Continuous
Synchronous
No
Hardware Triggered Frame-onDemand
Frame-on-Demand
Synchronous
Yes
Software Triggered Frame-onDemand
Frame-on-Demand
Synchronous
Yes
** This applies only to the use of the camera with the PixeLINK API or PixeLINK software.
10.2 Rolling Shutter
With a Rolling Shutter, only a few rows of pixels are exposed at one time. The camera
builds a frame by reading out the most exposed row of pixels (and ceasing exposure of
that row), starting exposure of the next unexposed row down in the Region of Interest
(ROI; the user-specified active area on the imager), then repeating the process on the
next most exposed row and continuing until the frame is complete. After the bottom row
of the ROI starts its exposure, the process “rolls” to the top row of the ROI to begin
exposure of the next frame’s pixels.
The exposure down each frame, and from frame-to-frame, remains consistent due to this
continuous read-out.
The row read-out rate is constant, so the longer the exposure setting, the greater the
number of rows being exposed, or integrated, at a given time. (“Integrated” means
that the pixels are building up, or integrating, an electrical charge in response to the
photons hitting them.) Rows are added to the exposed area one at a time. The more
time that a row spends being integrated, the greater the electrical charge built up in the
Version 4.0
Copyright © 2003 PixeLINK
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PixeLINK PL-A741
Machine Vision Camera
System Guide
APPENDIX A. GLOSSARY
PAGE 45
row’s pixels and the brighter the output pixels will be. As each fully exposed row is read
out, another row is added to the set of rows being integrated.
Example:
A very short exposure may be obtained by having only three rows of
integration (see Figure 10.1, page 45). This means that as each row is
being read out, the three rows ahead of it are being exposed. As each row
is read out, another row is added to the group of rows being integrated.
1
•
•
•
2
3
4
The arrowhead indicates the row currently being read out.
Dashed lines indicate inactive rows.
The three (solid) lines preceding the read-out row indicate the rows being integrated.
Figure 10.1 Rolling Shutter Integration and Read-Out
Frames are kept in a circular buffer—that is, one in which the oldest frame is constantly
being overwritten with new frame data—When the camera receives a request for image
data, the data is transmitted to the host computer, starting with the oldest frame in the
buffer.
Because Rolling Shutter exposes rows in the integration area while reading out fully
exposed rows (that is, it does not stop exposure to perform read-out), it provides evenly
exposed image data with the greatest possible speed (under the given parameters). Use
it when a continuous sequence of frames is required, such as in the capture of smooth
video clips.
Each row of pixels has a slightly different exposure start and end times from the adjacent
rows, so Rolling Shutter can produce a jagged or blurred effect in fast-action images
unless the exposure time is sufficiently short. Under this condition, consider using
Synchronous Shutter if the circumstances allow it.
10.3 Synchronous Shutter
With Synchronous Shutter, all rows in the ROI are reset then exposed simultaneously for
a specified time. At the end of the exposure time, each pixel value is transferred
immediately to an adjacent storage area to await read-out. The pixel values are then
read out row-by-row from storage, building the frame. This use of intermediate storage
reduces the gradual overexposure that can occur down the image when the rows are
read out directly from the active area.
PixeLINK PL-A741
Machine Vision Camera
System Guide
Version 4.0
Copyright © 2003 PixeLINK
All Rights Reserved
PAGE 46
APPENDIX A. GLOSSARY
Because all rows are exposed simultaneously, Synchronous Shutter avoids the jagged or
blurred affect produced by Rolling Shutter for fast action images. However, because it
stops exposure to perform read-out, it does not provide the fastest possible sequence of
frames. If speed is the main consideration, use Rolling Shutter if the circumstances allow
it.
Synchronous Shutter requires a trigger event to reset the pixel data and start exposure
for the entire ROI (as opposed to Rolling Shutter, in which exposure is an on-going
process).
See Section 4.1 (on page 33) for information about timing.
Version 4.0
Copyright © 2003 PixeLINK
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PixeLINK PL-A741
Machine Vision Camera
System Guide
APPENDIX A. GLOSSARY
PAGE 47
Appendix A.
Glossary
API Application Programming Interface
DLL Dynamic Link Library
FireWire Apple Computer’s trademark for the IEEE 1394 digital bus protocol
GPIO General Purpose Input/Output
GPO General Purpose Output
IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
fps The frame rate in frames per second.
MB Megabyte
MHz Megahertz
RAM Random Access Memory
RGB Standard for encoding color images (Red, Green, Blue)
Sensor The Camera’s image sensing chip
ROI Region of Interest—The portion of the imager area specified for
viewing in the preview window or capturing in an image or clip.
Video stream The video image data sent over the FireWire bus (cable) from the
camera to the host computer. This is the source of data for the
preview window and any captured images or video clips.A
PixeLINK PL-A741
Machine Vision Camera
System Guide
Version 4.0
Copyright © 2003 PixeLINK
All Rights Reserved
APPENDIX B. SPECTRAL RESPONSE
PAGE 48
Appendix B.
Spectral Response
0.14
0.12
Spectral Response [A/W]
PL-A741 Sensor
0.1
0.08
0.06
0.04
0.02
0
400
500
600
700
Wavelength [nm]
800
900
1000
Figure B.1 Spectral Response of the Image Sensor in the PL-A741 Camera
Version 4.0
Copyright © 2003 PixeLINK
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PixeLINK PL-A741
Machine Vision Camera
System Guide
TECHNICAL SUPPORT
PAGE 49
Technical Support
Tech Notes
Tech Notes on a variety of topics are available on our Web site, at
http://www.pixelink.com/.
Download the Latest Software and Firmware
The PL-A741’s onboard programming (firmware) can be upgraded at your computer.
Whether you have a tech support issue or not, we recommend that you check our
Web site (http://www.pixelink.com/) regularly for the latest versions of your PixeLINK
software and firmware.
Technical Questions
Please follow these steps before contacting our technical support team:
1. Review the relevant sections of the documentation.
2. Check the PixeLINK Web site for
a. new software and firmware;
b. applicable Tech Notes.
3. Carefully document the problem you are experiencing, noting any warning or
error messages that may appear during operation.
4. Have your Camera's serial number and other identifying information at hand.
The serial number can be found on bottom of the Camera.
PixeLINK Customer Support
Email: [email protected]
Web: http://www.pixelink.com/
PixeLINK PL-A741
Machine Vision Camera
System Guide
Version 4.0
Copyright © 2003 PixeLINK
All Rights Reserved
PAGE 50
INDEX
Index
Accessories, 11, 13
Advanced features, 26
Application Programming Interface (API), ii, 7, 8, 9,
10, 11, 22, 26, 40, 44, 47
Configuration status registers (CSRs), 28, 29, 30,
31, 36
Connectors, 7, 12, 19, 20
Decimation, 29, 31
Descriptors, 27, 29, 30, 32, 36, 39, 40
Dimensions, 12
Exposure, 8, 27, 44, 45, 46
Glass (over sensor), 17, 18
Version 4.0
Copyright © 2003 PixeLINK
All Rights Reserved
IIDC compliance, 8
Lookup table (LUT), 27, 30
Machine Vision connector pinout, 21
Mounting, 7, 12, 19
Power, 9, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24
Region of Interest (ROI), 24, 25, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
46, 47
Shutter, 8, 27, 44
Status indicator light, 24
Storage, 45
Trigger, 8, 11, 12, 13, 21, 22, 27, 29, 33, 34, 35, 46
Video stream, 27, 39
PixeLINK PL-A741
Machine Vision Camera
System Guide
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