Using Simple Machines
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Using Simple Machines
Using Simple
Machines
Level A
Level B
Level C
Level D
Product #4P42121
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PICTURE CREDIT
page 64 © Lorne Resnick, Getty Images
TEACHER’S GUIDE DEVELOPMENT
Morrison BookWorks, LLC
Produced through the worldwide resources of the National
Geographic Society, John M. Fahey, Jr., President and Chief
Executive Officer; Gilbert M. Grosvenor, Chairman of the Board;
Nina D. Hoffman, Executive Vice President and President,
Books and Education Publishing Group.
Copyright © 2005 National Geographic Society.
All Rights Reserved.
PREPARED BY NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SCHOOL PUBLISHING
Ericka Markman, Senior Vice President and President,
Children's Books and Education Publishing Group; Steve Mico,
Senior Vice President and Editorial Director; Marianne Hiland,
Executive Editor; Richard Easby, Editorial Manager; Jim Hiscott,
Design Manager; Kristin Hanneman, Illustrations Manager;
Matt Wascavage, Manager of Publishing Services; Sean
Philpotts, Production Manager; Jane Ponton, Production Artist.
MANUFACTURING AND QUALITY MANAGEMENT
Christopher A. Liedel, Chief Financial Officer; Phillip L.
Schlosser, Director; Clifton M. Brown III, Manager.
PROGRAM CONSULTANTS
Dr. Shirley V. Dickson, Ph.D. Educational Consultant; Margit E.
McGuire, Ph.D., Professor of Teacher Education and Social
Studies, Seattle University; James A. Shymansky, E Desmond Lee
Professor of Science Education, University of Missouri-St Louis.
PROGRAM REVIEWERS
Sylvia Roe Bath, Teacher, Lake Zurich, Illinois CUSD 95;
Randee Blair, Curriculum Coordinator, Evanston/Skokie, Illinois
School District 65; Patty Frank, Teacher, Creighton, Arizona
School District; Bonnie Goodrich, Learning Specialist, PlymouthCanton, Michigan Community School District; Mary Ann Groke,
Teacher, Jefferson County, Colorado Public Schools; Ann
Hopkins, Literacy Strategy Coach, Fairfield-Suisun, California
Unified School District; Joanne C. Letwinch, Teacher,
Haddonfield, New Jersey Public Schools; Lynn Levin, Reading
Specialist, Fairfax County, Virginia Public Schools; Kirk Robbins,
Teacher, Renton, Washington School District; Stephani Wise,
Teacher, Richardson, Texas Independent School District.
Program Overview
About the Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
Reproduction of the whole or any part of the contents without
written permission from the publisher is prohibited. National
Geographic, National Geographic School Publishing, National
Geographic Theme Sets, and the Yellow Border are
registered trademarks of the National Geographic Society.
Program Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6
The purchasing education institution and its staff are permitted
to make copies of the activity masters and reproducibles.
These pages may be photocopied for noncommercial classroom use only.
Differentiated Instruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
Published by the National Geographic Society
1145 17th Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20036-4688
Placing Students in Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
ISBN: 0-7922-4921-6
Developing Literacy Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
Flexible Use
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
Pacing Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
Research-Based Instruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
Factors Affecting Readability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18
Supporting English Language Learners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22
Assessing Progress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26
Extend Your Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28
Product Number 4P 42121
First Printing January, 2005
Theme Overview
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30
Lesson 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34
Lesson 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39
Lesson 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43
Lesson 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47
Lesson 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51
Extend the Learning
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55
Activity and Assessment Masters
Activity Masters
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59
Assessment Tests
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .73
Open-Book Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .73
Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .74
Test Answers
2
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82
3
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About the Program
“Making A Difference Means Making It Different.”
Program Goals
National Geographic School Publishing is committed to providing the highest
quality materials that meet the diverse needs of teachers and students.
From Position Statement of the International Reading Association (March 2000)
The THEME SETS offer materials that
One size does not fit all
Today’s students come from a variety of cultural and language backgrounds,
socioeconomic levels, and academic levels. Educators realize one size does
not fit all, so no one book can meet the needs of all students.
The THEME SETS program provides differentiated resources for teachers to
meet the diverse needs of their students. Each Theme Set provides four
books crafted to match the wide range of reading levels within each classroom. All books provide the same core concepts but within different contexts
and at different reading levels. For students who struggle with content-area
textbooks, the THEME SETS provide core curriculum that is broken
down, not watered down. For students who are reading on grade
level, the THEME SETS provide literacy and core content curriculum
with appropriate challenge and support. For students who need
more challenging material, the THEME SETS provide literacy and core
content in ways that develop students’ critical thinking skills.
Equity in education is every child’s right
Equity in education is tied to students’ access to quality
curriculum, materials, and teaching. Yet students, especially
those who struggle with reading, are often denied access to
core content. It is essential that these students have access
to grade-level curriculum to prevent the knowledge gap from
widening as they proceed through the grades. The THEME SETS
offer grade-level curriculum to students across a wide range of
reading levels. The THEME SETS also support students as they
develop reading and writing strategies and skills.
4
• facilitate differentiated instruction.
• promote educational equity through access for all students.
• provide essential standards-based curriculum in science and social studies.
• support the developmental needs of students at a variety of reading levels.
• provide explicit instruction in vocabulary and comprehension strategies.
• develop fluency.
• offer comprehensive teaching materials that streamline teacher planning.
Program Consultants
Shirley Dickson, Ph.D. is an educational consultant in literacy for kindergarten
through the secondary grades. She consults on reading research projects and works
with states as they develop and implement state literacy policy. Dr. Dickson’s current
work includes research in preventing reading difficulties in kindergarten through grade
3. Her expertise is the design of effective and comprehensive reading instruction for
typical and struggling learners. Dr. Dickson is a former Director of Literacy for the
Education Commission of the States; Director of Statewide Curriculum Initiatives for
Texas, including the Reading and Math Initiatives; Director of Reading for Texas;
professor in literacy and special education at Northern Illinois University; and
special educator.
Margit E. McGuire, Ph.D. is Director and Professor of Teacher Education at
Seattle University and a former president of the National Council for the Social
Studies. She is the recipient of the Washington Award for Excellence in Teacher
Preparation and has presented nationally and internationally on topics related to
social studies and teacher preparation. She is the author of the Storypath
Program and is engaged in a number of research projects on the Storypath
approach both in Seattle, Washington, and Sydney, Australia.
James A. Shymansky, Ph.D. is an E. Desmond Lee Professor of Science Education at
the University of Missouri-St. Louis. He currently directs the “Science Cooperatives
Project,” a five-year NSF systemic reform effort involving 1,200 elementary school
teachers from 36 school districts in rural Missouri and Iowa. He has authored an
elementary science textbook series and a K–12 science review series. He has also
authored more than a hundred research publications, book chapters, and monographs
on teaching and learning elementary school science. He is the past editor of the
Journal of Research in Science Teaching and currently senior editor of the International
Journal of Science and Mathematics Education and President-Elect of the National
Association for Research in Science Teaching.
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Program Components
Student Books
Each Theme Set includes four books
on different topics. Each book is
written at a different reading level and
focuses on a specific topic to explain
and illustrate the central theme.
All four books are firmly connected
together. They all develop a common
set of Key Concepts and core
vocabulary. The goal is that all
students acquire essential core
content at their own reading levels.
Level A
Level A
Level B
Level C
Level B
Level C
Level D
A Historical Look at
Native Americans
The Nez Perce: People The Pueblos: People
of the Northwest
of the Southwest
The Iroquois: People
of the Northeast
Cheyenne: People
of the Central Plains
Communication Around the World
Telephone
Radio
Television
Internet
Communities and Their Locations
Missoula, Montana
Boston, Massachusetts St. Louis, Missouri
Honolulu, Hawaii
Cultures and Celebrations
Mexico
Italy
Japan
Immigration to the United States
Irish Immigration
Chinese Immigration
Mexican Immigration
Level A
Level D
Level B
Level C
Level D
Animals in Their Habitats
Forest Animals
Ocean Animals
Desert Animals
Rain Forest Animals
Cells at Work
Skin
Muscles
Blood
Bone
Energy
Energy in the Home
Energy in the Factory
Energy at the Airport
Energy at the
Sports Arena
Egypt
Extreme Weather
Droughts
Floods
Tornadoes
Hurricanes
German-Jewish
Immigration
Life Cycles
Giant Pandas
Monarch Butterflies
Poison Dart Frogs
Komodo Dragons
Shaping Earth’s Surface
Wind
Water
Ice
Earthquakes and
Volcanoes
Inventions Bring Change
The Reaper
The Railroad
Water-Powered Mills
The Cotton Gin
Providing Goods
From Cotton to
Blue Jeans
From Trees to Paper
From Wheat to Bread
From Cows to Ice
Cream
Using Earth’s Resources
Indonesia’s
Rain Forests
Greenland’s
Ocean Region
Australia’s Deserts
Peru’s Mountains
Trade Across Time and Cultures
Silk
Spices
Salt
Fur
Using Simple Machines
Machines in
the Home
Machines in Sports
Machines in
Construction
Machines in Health
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Student Book Features
Teacher’s Guide Features
Visual Literacy
Each Theme Set includes explicit
instruction in one visual literacy
skill. Students are shown how
to read and use diagrams, maps,
graphs, and other examples of
visual information.
Each Theme Set has a separate Teacher’s Guide that provides clear instructional
guidelines and comprehensive instructional plans.
Genre Study
Each Theme Set focuses on one nonfiction writing genre
form. The genre is defined and explained to students. At
the same time, students see how the genre is connected
to the subject matter of the Theme Set. Genres covered
in the THEME SETS program include, biographies, how-to
books, compare and contrast article, news report,
reference sources, and others.
Planning Guides
Lesson Plans
Each guide contains planning
guides to help you effectively
manage instructional time.
Each guide contains comprehensive
lesson plans that help you
customize instruction.
Activity Masters
Assessment
Each guide contains Activity
Masters to reinforce core skills
and strategies.
Each guide contains book-level
assessments to help you measure
student progress.
Research and Write
Students have the opportunity to
practice their own researching and
writing skills by creating their own
work based on the genre study they
have learned about in the books.
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Developing Literacy Skills
Flexible Use
The THEME SETS program supports developing readers and writers by providing
appropriate scaffolding and challenges that match the needs of a wide range
of students.
Flexibility is a critical factor in the differentiated classroom. The THEME SETS
program is designed to provide teachers with the flexibility needed to make sure
that every child succeeds and has access to core content.
Vocabulary
Flexible to Fit a Variety of Programs
Within each theme, essential content words are targeted as Key Vocabulary and
explicitly taught to all students before reading. As students read, they encounter
these words repeatedly within rich contexts and have opportunities to use the
words in oral and written activities. In addition to the Key Vocabulary covered in
all four books, specific book-level words are taught and used in small group and
independent activities.
Core instruction: The THEME SETS are designed to be used as part of your core
Comprehension
Supplemental: The THEME SETS can also be used as a supplement to your
content-area texts and reading program. They provide extended opportunities for
students to explore core content in depth. Students will also learn more as they
read the content at their own reading level.
Each theme targets one specific comprehension strategy so that students learn
and apply that strategy as they read. These strategies include determining
importance, making connections, visualizing, asking questions, making inferences, and synthesizing. Teaching notes provide step-by-step help for explicit
instruction, modeling, guided practice, and independent practice.
such as summer school or after school programs. Educators can select those
themes that fit their curriculum objectives. The THEME SETS program also offers
versatility. Each book in a theme is divided into several parts.
Visual Literacy
Flexible Grouping
Understanding how to read diagrams, maps, graphs, charts, and other visual
aids is critical to comprehending nonfiction. Each theme provides explicit
instruction and practice in one kind of visual aid so that students learn how to
extract and interpret information that is presented visually.
The THEME SETS program encourages the teacher to use flexible grouping in
the classroom.
Text Structure and Genres
For each theme, the characteristics of one nonfiction genre/text structure are
explicitly taught in the Genre Study. The second article in each Student Book
serves as a model of that genre. Students also apply their understanding of
that genre by writing a piece that uses that specific genre as an organizational
pattern.
Research and Write
The Research and Write lesson that concludes each book in a theme provides
students with an opportunity to show what they have learned. They research
additional information about the topic covered in their book and then write in
the specific nonfiction form that is the focus of the Genre Study and modeled in
the second article.
10
curriculum. They provide essential and high interest content for many of the core
content areas in science and social studies. Use one or more Theme Sets instead
of content-area texts.
Tutorial: The THEME SETS program is ideally suited to special tutorial programs
Whole Class
Small Groups
The teacher previews
the books with the whole class
and introduces the Key
Concepts and Key Vocabulary.
The teacher can assign books
based on reading ability or by
the student’s interest in the
topic. However, groups do not
necessarily have to be homogeneous. Students can also be
grouped across ability levels so
that they can help each other
learn. The THEME SETS Teacher’s
Guide provides lessons for both
homogeneous and heterogeneous grouping.
Whole Class
By bringing the whole class
together again the teacher
has the opportunity to check
students’ understanding of
the big ideas of the theme.
Students also have the
opportunity to share their
learning with others.
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Pacing Guide
10 Days
The THEME SETS program includes easy-to-follow pacing. This provides the flexibility
needed to custom fit instruction to scheduling needs. The following charts show two
pacing plans, one for five 90-minute lessons and one for ten 45-minute lessons.
5 Days
Teacher’s Guide Pages
Lesson 1
Day 1:
Introduce the Theme
Introduce the Books
Begin Reading: Pages 6–16
First Activity Block
page 34
page 34–35
pages 36–37
Day 2:
Begin Reading: Pages 6–16
Second Activity Block
Check Understanding
pages 36–37
Lesson 1
Day 1:
Introduce the Theme
Introduce the Books
Begin Reading: Pages 6–16
First Activity Block
Second Activity Block
Check Understanding
page 34
page 34–35
pages 36–37
page 38
Introduce Comprehension Strategy
Finish Reading: Pages 6-–16
First Activity Block
Second Activity Block
Check Understanding
page 39
pages 40–41
Day 3:
Introduce Comprehension Strategy
Finish Reading: Pages 6–16
First Activity Block
page 39
pages 40–41
Day 4:
Finish Reading: Pages 6–16
Second Activity Block
Check Understanding
pages 40–41
Share Learning
Think About Key Concept Questions
Visual Literacy
page 42
Lesson 3
Day 5:
Share Learning
page 43
page 42
Day 6:
Think About Key Concept Questions
Visual Literacy
page 44–45
page 46
page 43
page 44–45
page 46
Lesson 4
Lesson 3
Day 3:
page 38
Lesson 2
Lesson 2
Day 2:
Teacher’s Guide Pages
Day 7:
Introduce Genre Study
Begin Reading: Pages 21–26
First Activity Block
page 47
pages 48–49
Day 8:
Begin Reading: Pages 21–26
Second Activity Block
Check Understanding
pages 48–49
Lesson 4
Day 4:
Introduce Genre Study
Begin Reading: Pages 21–26
First Activity Block
Second Activity Block
Check Understanding
page 47
pages 48–49
Lesson 5
page 50
Day 9:
Introduce Key Concept Activities
Finish Reading: Pages 21–26
First Activity Block
page 51
pages 52–53
Day 10:
Finish Reading: Pages 21–26
Second Activity Block
Check Understanding
pages 52–53
Lesson 5
Day 5:
Introduce Key Concept Activities
Finish Reading: Pages 21–26
First Activity Block
Second Activity Block
Check Understanding
page 50
page 51
pages 52–53
page 54
page 54
Extend the Learning
Extend the Learning
Day 1:
Day 1:
Day 2:
Day 3:
12
Research and Write
Research and Write
Sharing Your Work
page 55
page 56
page 57
Day 2:
Day 3:
Research and Write
Research and Write
Sharing Your Work
page 55
page 56
page 57
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Differentiated Instruction
Although the concept of differentiation is simple, the implementation can be
challenging. Differentiation is based on the fact that every child is unique and
that classroom instruction should adapt to meet student differences. Many
educators agree that instruction should have the flexibility and relevance to
address the various readiness levels and learning preferences that are present
in every classroom.
Essential Core Learning
Every student should have access to the essential literacy, science and social
studies content outlined in standards based curriculum. Each of the four books
that make up a Theme Set Unit develops a common set of Key Concepts and core
vocabulary. The goal is that each student acquires the same essential information
by accessing core content at his or her own reading level.
• The same Key Concepts are developed across all levels.
• All students learn the same Key Vocabulary.
The THEME SETS program is designed to provide equal access to core
content for all students at varying reading levels. The detailed lesson plan
encourages flexibility in grouping students. The content provides essential
core learning, and the four reading levels provide access for all. Materials are
designed so teachers have the tools and information they need to implement
a differentiated instructional model.
• All students learn the same visual literacy skills.
• All students can contribute to whole class discussions and activities.
• All students learn and apply the same comprehension strategy.
• All students extend their learning as they research and write.
• All students learn about a variety of genres and forms.
Flexible Grouping
By focusing on essential skills and knowledge, students will be able to recall and
understand the important elements of the subject they are learning about.
Students will benefit from a flexible working environment where the teacher
includes whole class, small group, and individual instruction that takes into
account the ability and readiness of each student in the class.
Differentiated Reading
All students should be given the opportunity to access the content at their own level
of readiness and ability. The four Student Books in each Theme Set provide the same
critical core content at four different reading levels. The teacher now has materials
for struggling readers through fluent readers in her class. Each book presents the
material in a variety of ways. By using the text, pictures, and charts, students have
several access points to develop their understanding of the material.
Each Theme Set is accompanied by a comprehensive Teacher’s Guide that builds on
the best practices in education. The activities vary in complexity, allowing access for all
students. Fluent readers are encouraged to work on their own. Readers who need extra
help are provided with more scaffolding. Examples of scaffolding used in the THEME SETS
include explicit instruction, modeling, guided practice, and independent practice.
The THEME SETS vary across levels by
• increasing the text load and using more complex sentence structure as
levels become more challenging.
• including vocabulary that grows from simple language to increasingly
more difficult words.
• expanding concept load as the levels become more challenging.
• developing Key Concepts visually as well as verbally.
• providing additional picture support at the easier levels.
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Research-Based Instruction
The THEME SETS program incorporates best practices that have been identified
through research. Practices critical to success in reading and comprehension are
highlighted below, as well as ways that the THEME SETS support these practices.
Comprehension
sion can be
“Text comprehen
ction that helps
improved by instru
ific comprehension
readers use spec
strategies.”
t p.49)
(Put Reading Firs
• Each Theme Set focuses on one
of these six reading comprehension
strategies: making connections,
asking questions, visualizing, making
inferences, determining importance,
and synthesizing.
Differentiation
e the same age
“Students who ar
iness to learn,
differ in their read
eir styles of
their interests, th
periences, and
learning, their ex
ances.”
their life circumst
srences? Standard
(Reconcilable Diffe
d Differentiation.
Based Teaching an
son. Educational
Carol Ann Tomlin
. 2000)
Leadership, Sept
• The THEME SETS program teaches
the same critical core content to
every student from struggling to
fluent readers.
• Each theme includes four
high-interest topics
allowing teachers to group their
students by reading ability or by
interest in the topic.
Vocabulary
vocabulary
“Students learn
ey are explicitly
directly when th
vidual words and
taught both indi
rategies. Direct
word-learning st
ction aids
vocabulary instru
ension.”
reading compreh
t p.35)
(Put Reading Firs
Appropriate Reading Level
rs provide their
“Effective teache
tice reading
readers with prac
r appropriate
materials at thei
reading level.”
• The THEME SETS program
provides equal access to
science and social studies
content for all students at
varying reading levels.
p.43)
(The Rand Report
Fluency
onitored oral
“Repeated and m
reading fluency
reading improves
ing achievement.”
and overall read
• Each Theme Set has key words that
are explicitly taught to all students.
• Each Student Book contains booklevel vocabulary words. These
words are explicitly taught and
repeated often in the text.
• Students are encouraged to use
word learning strategies such as
context clues and using word parts
to determine meaning.
• The instructional design of the
THEME SETS program allows students
to repeat reading. The lessons allow
time to monitor students’ progress.
t p.24)
(Put Reading Firs
Reading in the Content Area
ovide comprehen
“Teachers who pr
ruction that is
sion strategy inst
within the condeeply connected
atter learning,
text of subject m
d science, foster
such as history an
velopment.”
comprehension de
p.39)
(The Rand Report
• Each Theme Set explores a core
area of science or social studies
content. Students learn strategies
to help them access and
comprehend the content as they
work through the lessons.
Genres and Forms
e aware of text
“Students who ar
ze the text as
structure organi
ey recognize and
they read, and th
ant information
retain the import
it contains.”
p.40)
(The Rand Report
16
• The THEME SETS program identifies
the characteristics of the major
nonfiction genres and forms.
These help students develop an
understanding of the framework, or
schema, for the genre so that new
information can be remembered.
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Factors Affecting Readability
Teachers can choose from a variety of readability criteria to help make good
judgments in choosing appropriate books for students. Yet, as helpful as these
criteria might be, no one variable can provide a complete picture of text difficulty.
from Level A, Forest Animals
from Level D, Rain Forest Animals
The four books in each Theme Set are designed to address the different reading
levels within most classrooms. While the Key Concepts are the same across all
levels, the texts have been crafted to address the developmental reading needs
of a wide range of students.
In determining text difficulty, numerous variables were considered, including
nonfiction vocabulary, sentence complexity, concept density, concept complexity,
and text density.
Vocabulary
• Vocabulary growth moves from words that are easy, familiar, highly frequent,
and usually short, to words that are less common, less frequent,and more
abstract or technical.
• Multisyllabic words increase as texts become more challenging.
• The number of content words highlighted and included in the glossary
increases across levels.
Sentence Complexity
• Sentence structure moves from simple, predictable language patterns to
more complex patterns with more embedded ideas.
• Sentence length increases as levels become more challenging.
Concept Density
• The three Key Concepts in each theme are developed in all levels.
• Additional related concepts expand the Key Concepts as the books become
more challenging.
Comparing
Comparing the
the Levels
Levels
•• Vocabulary
Vocabularybecomes
becomesmore
morechallenging.
challenging.
Concept Complexity
• Ideas are carefully developed across all levels, but greater prior knowledge
is assumed at the more challenging levels.
• Concept development at more challenging levels requires more analysis and
critical abilities.
Text Density
• The amount of text per page and the length of paragraphs generally increase
as books become more challenging.
•• Sentences
Sentencesbecome
becomemore
morecomplex.
complex.
•• Same
SameKey
KeyConcepts
Conceptsbut
butadditional
additionalrelated
relatedconcepts
conceptsincluded
includedininmore
more
challenging
levels.
challenging levels.
•• Concept
Conceptdevelopment
developmentat
atmore
morechallenging
challenginglevels
levelsrequires
requiresmore
morecritical
critical
thinking.
thinking.
•• Text
Textload
loadincreases.
increases.
• Easier, more familiar topics, such as animals, may include less text than
abstract, less familiar topics, such as energy.
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Student Interest and Motivation
Placing Students in Levels
Matching books to readers is critical in any successful reading program.
Selecting books that students can read and want to read involves ongoing
assessment of students’ reading abilities, an awareness of students’
interests, and the ability to judge the difficulty levels of texts.
Student Reading Ability
Use the assessment tools and student records available in your school district
as one source of information to determine a student’s individual reading level.
Consider also students’ reading habits, self-selected reading books, and other
information in students’ reading portfolios. If you are unsure of the Theme Set
level a student should be reading, you can have a student read the first hundred
words to you orally. If the student reads with less than 90 percent accuracy, place
the student in an easier level. If the student reads with 95 percent or greater
accuracy, place the student in a more difficult level. Reassess student placement
periodically.
Level A
Fry score 2.8
Use Level A with
Students who are particularly interested in a topic often bring rich background
knowledge to that topic. They are motivated to read more about the topic. This prior
knowledge and motivation can allow readers to stretch beyond their overall reading
level. In assigning books to students, consider special interest and knowledge.
Some students may be interested in reading about a topic in a Theme Set that is
above their reading ability. Provide these students with additional scaffolding and
support before, during, and after reading.
Theme Set Reading Levels
The four books in each Theme Set provide a range of reading levels to facilitate
differentiated instruction. However, while Levels A and B are written for struggling
readers, they do not look like typical easy-to-read texts. Because of the importance
for students to read and learn critical content vocabulary, grade-level content
vocabulary was used in Levels A and B. This critical vocabulary was then surrounded
by easy-to-read text. Use these guidelines to match students with levels.
Level B
Fry score 3.6
Use Level B with
Use Level C with
• students who are reading well below
grade level.
• students who are reading at or below
grade level.
• students who are reading at or above
grade level.
• students who generally have limited
vocabulary and background knowledge.
• students who can read two-syllable words
that are easy to decode and within their oral
vocabulary.
• students who have a good grasp of common
vocabulary and are able to use context and
other resources to unlock the meaning of
technical content words.
• students who generally are most successful
with familiar words that are easy to decode
and within their oral vocabulary.
• students who are most successful with
text that uses short and simple sentence
structures with straightforward syntax.
• students who understand content best
when the text uses concrete examples to
explain concepts.
• students who best understand text that
uses mostly short, simple sentences with
straightforward syntax.
• students who understand concepts that are
explained carefully and use some concrete
examples.
• students with reading levels that range from
3.5 to 4.5.
Level D
Fry score 6.5
Level C
Fry score 5.9
• students who can understand simple and
most complex sentence structures.
• students who, with appropriate support,
can understand abstract concepts.
• students with reading levels that range from
4.8 to 5.9.
Use Level D with
• students who are your strongest readers.
• students who have well-developed vocabularies
and broad background knowledge about a
range of topics.
• students who are able to understand
most complex sentence structures used in
expository writing.
• students who can grasp abstract concepts
with appropriate support.
• students with reading levels that range from
6.0 to 6.9.
• students with reading levels that range
from 2.6 to 3.5.
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Supporting English Language Learners
To be successful in mainstream classrooms, students acquiring English need to learn
grade-level content as they learn language. The THEME SETS provide all students with
access to grade-level content in science and social studies while supporting the
development of language and literacy skills. The unique instructional design of the
THEME SETS supports English Language Learners by providing the strategies and
scaffolding they need.
Scaffold the Content
Target Key Concepts
English Language Learners benefit from instruction that
isolates and makes explicit the big ideas of the lesson. Key
Concepts are highlighted on the pages and taught through
concrete examples and visuals.
Scaffold the Instruction
Build background
Background knowledge for Key Concepts is carefully
developed in the Student Books to ensure that
students understand the big ideas.
Activate prior knowledge
The lesson notes for each theme provide detailed
suggestions for connecting what students already
know to what they are learning.
Develop Key Vocabulary
English Language Learners need to build their academic
vocabulary to access grade-level content. In the THEME SETS,
Key Vocabulary is highlighted in the text and defined on the
page. Key Vocabulary is repeated frequently.
Provide strong picture support
Striking National Geographic photos and illustrations
support the text and concepts in comprehensive ways.
Develop visual literacy skills
Lessons in visual literacy offer explicit instruction on
how to understand and interpret information presented
in diagrams, maps, charts, and other visuals.
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Supporting English Language Learners
Scaffold the Instruction
Provide for Different Proficiency Levels
The English Language Learners in your class may be at different stages of acquiring English.
In accommodating these stages, consider adjusting instruction to provide comprehensible
input. Vary student response modes to ensure that all students can participate.
Teach comprehension strategies
The following descriptions of language acquisition stages are summarized from
Sheltered Content Instruction: Teaching English Language Learners with Diverse Abilities
by Jana Echevarria and Anne Graves (Boston: Allyn & Bacon, 2003), pages 15–19.
The THEME SETS program helps students
develop those learning strategies that
empower students to become more
independent and self-directed in their
learning. Each theme provides explicit
instruction and practice in one comprehension strategy. Graphic organizers
help students use the strategy to
understand the content.
Preproduction Level
These students benefit from activities that build listening comprehension and
receptive vocabulary while allowing them to respond through nonverbal means.
They know almost no vocabulary in English. They communicate with gestures,
actions, and a few words. They are building their receptive vocabulary and may
experience a “silent period” as they attempt to process the tremendous amount
of new information about language, culture, and school.
Early Production
These students benefit from lessons that continue to build vocabulary while
encouraging them to produce previously learned language. Students can use
one-word and two-word responses and chunks of language, drawing upon an
English vocabulary of about a thousand words. They can answer who, what,
and where questions with brief responses, and can label and categorize information in English. They communicate more readily in English but may experience “adaptation fatigue” as their frustrations with the new language and culture come to a peak.
Rapid vocabulary acquisition is critical to academic success
for English Language Learners. Not only do English
Language Learners need to close the initial vocabulary gap
with native speakers, but they must also keep pace with
native speakers by steadily expanding their vocabularies.
The THEME SETS program offers a rich array of instructional
opportunities for English Language Learners to acquire
academic vocabulary. These include:
Speech Emergence
Students use language purposefully and produce complete sentences. They
can successfully participate in English in small-group activities. They may feel
continued frustration or experience relief as their knowledge base in English
expands. They may actually make more errors as they experiment with more
complex language patterns. They may feel conflicted about their cultural identity
as they adjust to a new language and cultural environment. They benefit from
activities that expand vocabulary and promote higher levels of language use.
Preteach Vocabulary Key Vocabulary is explicitly taught
before reading.
Intermediate Fluency
Students can read and write in English and have strong conversational skills. They
can produce connected narratives and respond to higher level questions, with
errors that are usually in style or usage. They may lag behind in academic tasks,
however, especially if they lack academic skills in the home language. They benefit
from direct instruction of study skills and learning strategies and from strong
contextual support for academic tasks.
Advanced Fluency
These students have become fluent speakers, readers, and writers of English.
They can participate fully in classroom activities but may still have gaps in
certain academic areas. They will benefit from explicit strategy instruction
and continued affirmation of their home cultures.
Focus on vocabulary
Provide a Rich Context for Words New words are
embedded in rich context to ensure that students develop
a deeper understanding of these words.
24
Multiple Exposures and Opportunities to Use Words
The text of the THEME SETS is carefully crafted to ensure
repeated use of Key Vocabulary so students see words
used in different contexts. Throughout the lessons,
students are engaged in activities and games that provide
rich opportunities to explore and use new vocabulary words.
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Assessing Progress
Assessment provides teachers with valuable information to help plan instruction
and measure progress over time. An assessment program needs to be ongoing
so that changes over time in students’ learning can be noted. An assessment
program needs to include both formal and informal tools so that evaluation of
performance is reliable and useful.
The THEME SETS program helps you informally assess student progress in both
content-area knowledge and literacy development. The following informal
assessment opportunities are built into each Theme Set.
Student Book Assessment Tools
Teacher’s Guide Assessment Tools
Open-Book Test In each Teacher’s Guide, an Open-Book Test is provided as a
blackline master. This test is constructed to help evaluate not only what students have
learned but also how effectively students can reread to find specific information. A full
answer key is provided for all four books in the theme. See pages 73, and 82–83.
Book Assessment Tests In each Teacher’s Guide, a two-page test is provided for each
title in the Theme Set. These tests, provided as blackline masters, help to evaluate
the content knowledge covered in the theme. The format of the test is similar to
the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) test in that it includes
multiple-choice questions, short-constructed responses, and long-constructed
responses. A Scoring Guide is provided for each test. See pages 74–81 and 84–87.
Think About Key Concept Questions At the end of the
first informational article in each Theme Set, a common
set of questions taps into the students’ knowledge of the
three Key Concepts. The Teacher’s Guide provides an
Assessment Check and sample answers for the four
books in each theme. See page 44–45.
Key Concept Activities At the end of the second article,
in each Theme Set, three activities provide opportunities
for students to demonstrate their understanding of the
Key Concepts. These activities tap into the various learning styles. The Teacher’s Guide provides an Assessment
Check to evaluate student products. See page 54.
Research and Write The writing activity that concludes each
book allows students to demonstrate what they have learned
about the content as well as produce a specific nonfiction
writing form. A rubric for evaluating the writing is provided in
the Assessment Check in the Teacher’s Guide. See page 56.
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Extend Your Reading
For additional reading, National Geographic provides many related titles to
support Using Simple Machines. Students can use these books for independent
reading, for research, or to extend their interest in the subject matter.
Nonfiction Reading and Writing Workshops
This product focuses on teaching the essential
strategies students need to comprehend and
write nonfiction. These are the same strategies
that are taught in the THEME SETS program.
Related titles for Using Simple Machines
Windows on Literacy Fluent and Fluent Plus
These nonfiction leveled readers are written at
the Grade 2–3 level and complement your
Theme Set Level A students.
For Research and Further Reading
For Reading and Writing Strategies Practice
Windows on Literacy Fluent and Fluent Plus
Nonfiction Reading and Writing Workshops
Mighty Machines (Level 13)
The comprehension strategy of asking questions is
taught in Simple Machines. For additional instruction
and practice, use the Asking Questions titles in the
Nonfiction Reading and Writing Workshops.
How Does My Bike Work? (Level 14)
Machines Make Fun Rides (Level 16)
Simple Machines (Level 24)
Reading Expeditions
Science Around the House (Fry 3.7, Lexile 500,
Guided Reading Level Q-R)
Machines Make it Move (Fry 5.5, Lexile 880,
Guided Reading Level V-W)
28
Reading Expeditions
This series combines science and social
studies content with literacy development.
Use the reading levels to match the books
to your students’ reading ability.
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Key Concepts
Key Concept 1:
Key Concept 2:
Key Concept 3:
compound machines, force, machines,
simple machines, work
Key Vocabulary
Literacy Development
Machines use force to help people do work.
There are six simple machines.
Compound machines use two or more simple machines operating together.
Comprehension Strategy
Asking Questions
Visual Literacy Labeled Photograph
Genre Study How-to Books
Writing Activity
Write Your Own User Manual
As text becomes more challenging:
Reading Levels
Book Vocabulary
30
Least Challenging
• Vocabulary and text load increase
• Sentence structure and concepts become more complex
Most Challenging
Machines in the Home
Machines in Sports
Machines in Construction
Machines in Health
fulcrum
inclined plane
lever
load
pulley
screw
thread
wedge
wheel and axle
fulcrum
gears
inclined plane
lever
load
pulley
screw
thread
wedge
wheel and axle
fulcrum
inclined plane
lever
load
mechanical advantage
pulley
screw
thread
wedge
wheel and axle
fulcrum
inclined plane
lever
load
mechanical advantage
pitch
pulley
screw
thread
wedge
wheel and axle
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Theme Background
Using Simple Machines explains the simple machines
that people use every day at home, in sports, in
construction, and in health. While each book focuses
on a different area where simple machines are used,
the same key concepts are developed across books
to help students focus on the big ideas.
The theme explores how machines help people do
work. It also explains and gives examples of the six
different simple machines and discusses how simple
machines are put together to make compound
machines. Students use the specific content and
vocabulary within each book to discuss and examine
these big ideas, or Key Concepts.
At a Glance Planner
Each book in this theme includes two articles.
Article 1
Genre: Informational Article Informational
articles present information that might be found
in a report. Informational articles use headings,
subheadings, photographs with labels or captions,
boldface words, and diagrams.
Article 2
Genre: How-to Books How-to books give detailed
step-by-step instructions for how to do or make
something. How-to books use titles, subheads,
labels, diagrams, and illustrations to enhance the
reader’s understanding of the subject matter. This
genre enhances students’ understanding of the
machines described in Article 1.
Literacy Objectives
Correlation to National Standards
Article 1
Comprehension
Strategy
Reading/Language
Arts
Asking Questions
• Read to be informed
Genre: Informational
Article
Text features
• headings
Visual Literacy
Labeled Photograph
• subheadings
Genre Study
• captions
How-to Books
Article 2
Genre: How-to Books
Text features
• title
strategies to comprehend and interpret
• photographs
• diagrams
• Apply a wide range of
Research and Write
Write Your Own
User Manual
texts
• Use visual and written
language to communicate effectively
• Use a variety of informational resources
• Conduct research
Student Edition Pages
Lesson 1
• Activate prior knowledge
• Preview the theme and books
• Discuss Key Vocabulary
• Begin reading the first article
Lesson 2
• Teach and apply the comprehension
strategy
• Finish reading the first article
Activity Masters
Using Simple Machines,
pp. 4–5
Prereading: 3-Column Chart
TG p. 59
Informational Article,
pp. 6–18
Vocabulary: Definition Chart
TG pp. 60–63
Informational Article,
pp. 6–18
Comprehension Model:
Asking Questions TG p. 64
Comprehension Strategy:
Asking Questions TG p. 65
Prereading: 3-Column Chart
TG p. 59
Word Cards: Machines in the
Home TG p. 66
Word Cards: Machines in Sports
TG p. 67
Science
Lesson 3
• Position and motion
of objects (K–4)
• Discuss and complete the Key Concept
questions
• Discuss Visual Literacy
• Motions and forces
(5–8)
See Pacing Guide suggestions on pages 12–13.
• Science and
technology (5–8)
Lesson 4
• Scientific inquiry
(K–4, 5–8)
• Discuss the Genre Study
(How-to Books)
• Begin reading the second article
Think About the Key
Concepts, p. 19
Key Concept Questions TG p. 69
Visual Literacy: Labeled
Photograph,
pp. 20–21
How-to Books, pp. 22–26
Paired Reading Guide TG p. 70
Content Reading Guide TG p. 71
Lesson 5
How-to Books, pp. 22–26
• Finish reading the second article
• Begin Key Concept Activities
Apply the Key Concepts,
p. 27
Extend the Learning
Research and Write,
pp. 28–29
Day 1 Research and Write
Day 2 Research and Write
Day 3 Sharing Your Work
Sharing Your Work, p. 30
• subheads
• diagrams
• labels
• illustrations
32
Prewriting TG p. 72
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Whole Class
Small Groups
Whole Class
•Introduce Theme and Books
•Begin Reading: Pages 6–18
•Check Understanding
Introduce the Theme
Introduce the Books
Activate Prior Knowledge
Preview the Books
Explain that everyone will be reading about a different
place where simple machines are used. Some students
will be reading about machines in the home, while
others will be reading about machines in sports,
machines in construction, or machines in health. Ask:
Have students flip through their books, paying attention
to titles, headings, photographs, captions, diagrams,
and labels. Invite students to identify photographs or
other parts of the book that seem interesting or familiar
to them.
What are some machines that you use every day?
Explain that the first article starting on page 6 and
ending on page 18 is an informational article. It
gives the kind of information you might find in a
report. The headings and subheadings give clues
about what the text will describe and explain. Ask
students to predict what kind of information they
might find out when reading this article.
How do these machines help you get things done?
Distribute the Prereading Master found in this Teacher’s
Guide, page 59. You may want to create a transparency
to model filling in the Master with students.
Write machines on the board. Explain that machines
are tools that help us do work. Ask students to
suggest what they know about machines.
With the class, make a 3-column chart about machines.
In column 1, students can list machines they use. In
column 2, they can explain how the machine helps
them do work. At the end of Lesson 1, students can
add to columns 1 and 2 and fill in column 3, listing
whether each machine is simple or compound. They
can continue to add words and phrases to their charts
as they learn new information about the topics.
Machine
How this machine
helps us do work
Simple/Compound
Then have students turn to page 23. Have them
examine pages 23 to 26. Tell students that this
article is a user manual. Ask:
How is the information in this article organized?
Does this kind of article remind you of other books or
materials you have read?
Point out that knowing how an article is organized
helps students better understand the information in
an article.
Discuss the Introduction
Teach Key Vocabulary
Have students turn to pages 4–5 in their books. Read
aloud the title and introductory text, including the Key
Concepts. Ask students to review their Prereading
Masters and discuss any questions they may have
that might be answered by reading this book.
Introduce the Key Vocabulary words:
Then ask for a show of hands for each book. Point
out that although not all students will be reading the
same book, they all will be reading information that
explains the Key Concepts. Explain that the Key
Concepts are the big ideas or most important ideas.
Read each Key Concept aloud and ask:
compound machines, force, machines, simple
machines, work
Explain that these words are important for
understanding the Key Concepts, or main ideas,
in the book. To introduce each word:
• Write machines on the board. Show how the word
should be divided to pronounce it. Say each word
part and blend the parts to say the word. Have
students repeat the word chorally.
• Draw a chart with 4 columns on the board.
What do you think this Key Concept means?
Then point out how the Key Concepts are used to
organize the first article. Read the first Key Concept
and have students turn to page 8 and find the Key
Concept on that page. Follow this routine for Key
Concept 2 on page 10 and Key Concept 3 on page
16. Explain that the information they read after each
Key Concept explains the big idea of the concept.
Discuss with students the pictures and captions
across the bottom of pages 4–5 and say:
The text on page 4 says that machines help us do
things more easily. How does the machine in the first
picture help you?
Accept students’ ideas, and review the other
pictures and captions in a similar way.
Then direct students’ attention to the large photograph
on page 5. Have students turn to a neighbor who has
a different book and have them share the photograph
and caption shown on page 5.
Word
Definition
Examples or Description
Nonexamples
• Have students skim the first article to find the
word machines in green print on page 9. Write
machines in the first column of the chart.
• Next, ask students to look the word up in the
glossary on page 31 of their books and read the
definition. Ask a volunteer to restate the definition
in his or her own words. Write this definition in the
second column of the chart.
• Have students hunt through their books to find words
that describe or are synonyms for the vocabulary
word. Write these words in the third column of the
chart. Some examples might be tools, devices, make
jobs easier.
• Students can then look for examples of what
the word is not. Write these words in the fourth
column of the chart. Some nonexample words for
machines might be food, home, or amount.
• Then ask students to look for pictures in their
books that help to show what the word means.
Invite students to point to or explain which pictures help them understand the meaning of the
word or relate to the word.
Continue in this way for the words compound machines,
force, simple machines, and work. For instance, what
are some words that describe compound machines?
What is a nonexample of a compound machine?
Students will use this definition chart for specific
book vocabulary words later in this Lesson.
34
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Pages 6–18
Lesson Notes for Machines in
the Home
Lesson Notes for Machines in Sports
Introduce difficult words
Identify four or five words in the section that may be
difficult for students to read. These can include the Key
Vocabulary words if needed. Write the words and show
students how to find parts of the words that they
already know. Sound out the parts they do not know,
and blend the parts together.
Identify four or five words in the section that may be
difficult for students to read. These can include the Key
Vocabulary words if needed. Write the words and show
students how to find parts of the words that they already
know. Sound out the parts they do not know, and blend
the parts together.
First Activity Block
Introduce vocabulary
Pairs
Pairs
Pairs
Begin Reading
Vocabulary
Vocabulary
Vocabulary
• Introduce words difficult
for students to read.
Definition Chart
Definition Chart
Definition Chart
To each student, distribute
the Machines in Sports
Vocabulary Master. Students
can work in pairs to complete
this Master.
To each student, distribute
the Machines in Construction
Vocabulary Master. Students
can work in pairs to complete
this Master.
To each student, distribute
the Machines in Health
Vocabulary Master. Students
can work in pairs to complete
this Master.
• Introduce book vocabulary.
• Begin reading the article
in sections.
• Check comprehension
following each section.
Second Activity Block
See pages 22–25 for strategies for ELL students.
Begin reading the article in sections
Pairs
Individuals
Individuals
Vocabulary
Begin Reading
Independent Reading
Independent Reading
Definition Chart
• Introduce words difficult
for students to read.
Students begin reading
Machines in Construction,
Student Book pages 6–18.
Students begin reading
Machines in Health, Student
Book pages 6–18.
Students can use their
Prereading Master to check
their ideas, add information,
and write questions they may
have on the back of the page.
Students can use their
Prereading Master to check
their ideas, add information,
and write questions they may
have on the back of the page.
To each student, distribute
the Machines in the Home
Vocabulary Master. Students
can work in pairs to complete
this Master.
Introduce the book vocabulary words. (See the
Teaching Notes on the inside front cover of the
Student Books.) Use an approach similar to how you
introduced the Key Vocabulary words. Have students
read the word with you. Check the glossary for the
word’s meaning. Then have volunteers offer words
that describe the word and some nonexamples of
the word.
• Introduce book vocabulary.
• Begin reading the article
in sections.
• Check comprehension
following each section.
Point out that the article is divided into sections based
on the Key Concepts. Have students read each section
aloud. Students can read chorally or take turns. Be sure
each student follows along when others read. Spend
time reviewing the graphic elements (diagrams, labels,
photographs, and captions). After each section, discuss
the content and ask comprehension questions such as:
Introduce vocabulary
Have students bring their vocabulary sheets with them
to this group. Write one vocabulary word on the board.
Have students read the word with you. Have one student
read the glossary definition. Then have volunteers offer
words that describe the word and some nonexamples of
the word. Discuss any misconceptions students may
have. Continue with other vocabulary words and words
students may need to preview.
See pages 22–25 for strategies for ELL students.
Begin reading the article in sections
Point out that the article is divided into sections based
on the Key Concepts. Have students read each section
aloud. Students can read chorally or take turns. Be sure
each student follows along when others read. Spend
time reviewing the graphic elements (diagrams, labels,
photographs, and captions). After each section, discuss
the content and ask comprehension questions such as:
Key Concept 1
Key Concept 1
• How does force help you do work?
• How does force help you do work?
• What are some examples of times you use force?
• What are some examples of times you use force?
Key Concept 2
Key Concept 2
• What are the six simple machines?
• What are the six simple machines?
• How does each simple machine work?
• How does each simple machine work?
Key Concept 3
Key Concept 3
• What are some examples of compound machines?
• What are some examples of compound machines?
• What are the simple machines that make up each
of these compound machines?
• What are the simple machines that make up each
of these compound machines?
Encourage students to use vocabulary words in
their responses.
36
Introduce difficult words
Encourage students to use vocabulary words in
their responses.
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Check Understanding
Share Learning
By now, all students have read most of the
informational article, either independently or in
small groups with the teacher.
Bring the class together, and have students share
what they learned from the books in this theme. Ask:
What place where machines are used did you
read about?
What are some of the ways we use machines in
these places?
What are the big ideas in the article?
Discuss the Key Concepts
Students reading different books can explain how
the Key Concepts apply to the individual topics.
Students will begin to see how the same big ideas
apply to simple and compound machines in general.
Review the Key Concepts with the class using a web
graphic organizer. Ask a volunteer to say the area
where machines are used that he or she read about
in the informational article. Write the name of this
area in the center of the web. Ask the class:
Ways force is used
open a door,
roll out dough
Simple machines
Whole Class
Small Groups
Whole Class
wedge, lever, incline,
plane, screw, wheel,
axle, pulley
•Introduce Comprehension
Strategy
•Finish Reading: Pages 6–18
•Check Understanding
Home
Compound machines
corkscrew:
lever, screw
Sample web for Energy in the Home
Revisit the Prereading Master
Now that students have read most of Article 1, have
them revisit the Prereading Master they began at the
beginning of the Lesson. Students can work in pairs
or independently to compare what they have written
and to get new ideas to add to their charts. They
can also begin labeling each machine as simple
or compound in the third column of the chart.
Introduce
Comprehension Strategy
Asking Questions
Introduce the strategy of asking questions. Explain
that readers can use this strategy to help them make
sense of what they are reading. Asking questions will
make the text easier to understand. Ask:
When you read something, do you sometimes ask
questions in your head about something you want to
know more about or do not understand?
Read and discuss the steps of the strategy shown
at the bottom of the Comprehension Model Master,
TG p. 64.
Model the Strategy
Use the Comprehension Model to model the strategy
for asking questions. You might want to make a
transparency from this Model. This Model provides
information about machines and builds common
background for all students. Say:
I am going to show you how to ask questions about
what you are reading. As I read, I am going to stop and
ask questions to help me understand what I am reading.
Apply the Strategy
After modeling the strategy, review the steps for
asking questions. Then explain to students that they
should use this strategy as they read and reread
Article 1. Discuss with students how to practice the
comprehension strategy, using the Comprehension
Strategy Master.
Activity Master
What are some ways force is used in this area?
What are the simple machines used in this area?
What is one compound machine used in this area?
Name
“
What are some machines
we use every day?
Continue in this way until a web is made for each
of the four titles. Help students make connections
between the big ideas of the theme and each title.
Comprehension Model: Asking Questions
”
What simple machines make up this compound
machine?
A World of Machines
When you hear the word machine, what’s the first
thing that comes to mind? A giant bulldozer or a
crane? A bicycle? Today our world is filled with many
types of machines that help us get work done.
How does force make
“
an object move? I can
Our lives would be very different without machines.
They’re everywhere! From the washer that cleans your
clothes to the bus that takes you to school, we depend
on machines for many things. A machine helps to
make something move and can make doing work
easier. Scientists say that work has been done when a
force is used to move an object over a distance.
look on the Internet to
find out.
”
Machines that are called simple machines do not
have many moving parts. Knives and forks, doorknobs,
and skate wheels are all simple machines. Compound
machines are made of two or more simple machines
put together. Cars, bicycles, trains, and even your body
are all compound machines!
Here is the answer to
“
my first question. Knives,
forks, and doorknobs are
machines I use everyday.
Book title
”
A bicycle is a compound machine that
helps us get from place to place.
Do I need to reread this
“
so I understand it better?
”
Steps for Asking Questions
• Ask questions about how you read.
• Ask questions about what you read.
• Ask questions to learn more.
38
• Remember that some of your questions might not be answered.
64
© 2005 National Geographic Society
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Pages 6–18
Lesson Notes for Machines in
Construction
Lesson Notes for Machines in Health
Review vocabulary
Before discussing the article, review any troublesome words with students. First, have students
identify words they found difficult to pronounce or
to understand.
Before discussing the article, review any troublesome words with students. First, have students
identify words they found difficult to pronounce or
to understand.
Second Activity Block
First Activity Block
Then have students turn to the glossary on page 31
in their books. Review these words with students,
pronouncing them and discussing meanings as needed.
40
Pairs
Pairs
Word Card Activity
Finish Reading/Reread
Discuss Reading
Finish Reading/Reread
Pairs of students reading
Machines in the Home can
use the word cards found
on page 66 of this Teacher’s
Guide as flash cards to
practice reading the words
and saying the definitions.
Using these word cards,
students gain experience
using Key Vocabulary words
and vocabulary words for
Machines in the Home.
Students can work with a
partner to finish reading
Machines in Sports, Student
Book pages 6–18.
• Review vocabulary.
Students finish reading
Machines in Health, Student
Book pages 6–18.
Students then reread the
article with a partner and
complete the Comprehension
Strategy Master.
Individuals
• Discuss the article.
• Discuss comprehension
questions.
Students then reread the
article and complete the
Comprehension Strategy
Master.
See pages 22–25 for strategies for ELL students.
Review vocabulary
Then have students turn to the glossary on page 31
in their books. Review these words with students,
pronouncing them and discussing meanings as needed.
See pages 22–25 for strategies for ELL students.
Discuss the informational article
Discuss the informational article
Ask questions such as:
Ask questions such as:
What do you think this article is mostly about?
What do you think this article is mostly about?
What information was new or most interesting?
What information was new or most interesting?
Were you surprised by anything you learned?
Were you surprised by anything you learned?
Briefly discuss students’ responses to the article.
Briefly discuss students’ responses to the article.
Discuss comprehension questions
After discussing students’ responses to the article,
discuss the following specific content questions. For
each question, have students support their answers
by reading relevant sections from the text.
Discuss comprehension questions
After discussing students’ responses to the article,
discuss the following specific content questions. For
each question, have students support their answers
by reading relevant sections from the text.
Key Concept 1
Key Concept 1
• How does force help you do work?
• How does force help you do work?
• What are some examples of times you use force?
Pairs
Pairs
Individuals
Finish Reading/Reread
Word Card Activity
Finish Reading/Reread
Discuss Reading
• What are some examples of times you use force?
Key Concept 2
Students can work with a
partner to finish reading
Machines in the Home,
Student Book pages 6–18.
Pairs of students reading
Machines in Sports can use
the word cards found on page
67 of this Teacher’s Guide
as flash cards to practice
reading the words and saying
the definitions. Using these
word cards, students gain
experience using Key
Vocabulary words and
vocabulary words for
Machines in Sports.
Students finish reading
Machines in Construction,
Student Book pages 6–18.
• Review vocabulary.
Key Concept 2
• What are the six simple machines?
• What are the six simple machines?
• How does each simple machine work?
• How does each simple machine work?
Key Concept 3
Key Concept 3
• What are some examples of compound machines?
• What are some examples of compound machines?
• What are the simple machines that make up each of
these compound machines?
Students then reread the
article with a partner and
complete the Comprehension
Strategy Master.
Students then reread the
article and complete the
Comprehension Strategy
Master.
• Discuss the article.
• Discuss comprehension
questions.
• What are the simple machines that make up each of
these compound machines?
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Check Understanding
Review the Comprehension
Strategy
Remind students that when they read, they use
different strategies to help them better understand
what they read. Review with them the strategy of
asking questions.
• Ask questions about how you read.
• Ask questions about what you read.
• Ask questions to learn more.
• Remember that some of your questions might
not be answered.
Select a sample passage from one of the four books
and model thinking aloud as you read the passage. You
could also reuse the Comprehension Model Master.
Then review with the class their completed
Comprehension Strategy Master. To begin, have
students work in pairs. Suggest that students
review their Comprehension Strategy Master notes
and select one example of a question they asked.
Ask them to read aloud to their partners the
passage that contains the text they used to ask
their questions.
After students have practiced thinking aloud to ask
questions, ask volunteers to model this process for
the class. Be sure to include students who are reading each of the four books.
Comprehension Strategy Tips
Collect ideas about how students can use the
comprehension strategy of asking questions in their
reading. Record their ideas on chart paper and post
the chart so that students can refer to it when they
read other informational articles of this kind. Leave
some space at the bottom for additional tips as they
come up.
Here is a list of tips that the class might include.
Asking Questions
• Ask questions to learn more about the topic.
• Don’t worry about asking dumb questions.
There are no dumb questions.
• Ask questions about how you’re reading to
check up on yourself.
• Ask questions about what you’re reading so
you know you get it.
• Reread, read on, or look for information to
answer your questions.
• Don’t worry if you can’t answer all
your questions.
Whole Class
•Share Learning
Whole Class
Share Learning
Review the Key Concepts with the class. Remind
students that they have all read an article about the
simple and compound machines found in different
places, and they have all read about the same Key
Concepts. Explain that now students can share what
they have learned from their books. Say:
Area where
machines
are used
In the home
First, we will work in small groups to discuss what we
learned about simple and compound machines. Then
we will come together again to share what we learned
with the class.
Next, distribute the Share Learning Master found on
page 68 of this Teacher’s Guide. Then organize students
into groups of four, with each student reading a different
book. Explain that each student is the group’s “expert”
on his or her book’s information. Group members then
complete this Share Learning Master together, as each
student contributes ideas to complete the chart.
After groups of students have completed their charts,
bring the class together to create a class chart on the
board. Students can share what they’ve learned from
their own books as well as from other students in
their group. Ask questions to help students make
connections to the big ideas among titles.
In sports
In construction
Assessment Check
Students should conclude that
✔ there are many ways force is used to do work.
✔ there are six simple machines.
✔ compound machines have more parts and are more
complex than simple machines.
42
Whole Class
•Think About Key
Concept Questions
In health
•Visual Literacy
Ways force
is used in
this area
The six simple
machines/
Examples
Examples of
compound
machines
wedge (axe),
lever (seesaw),
inclined plane
open a door, (ramp), screw
corkscrew,
roll out
faucet, sewing
(jar), wheel
pizza dough and axle (doormachine
knob), pulley
(outdoor
umbrella)
wedge (arrowhead), lever
(oar), inclined
kicking a ball, plane (ramp),
swimming, screw (barbell),
wheel and
jumping rope
axle (steering
wheel), pulley
(weights
machine)
hammering a
nail, laying a
concrete slab,
lifting a beam
wrapping a
bandage,
removing
a splinter,
making an
incision
bicycle,
sailboat,
pitching
machine
wedge (nail),
lever (hammer),
inclined plane
(ramp), screw shovel, cement
(screw), wheel mixer, crane
and axle
(screwdriver),
pulley (pulley)
wedge
(scalpel), lever
(forceps),
inclined plane
(ramp), screw
(screw), wheel
and axle
(oxygen tank),
pulley (exercise
machines)
surgical
scissors,
prosthetic
arm,
wheelchair
Sample answers for one group of students
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Think About Key
Concept Questions
When we come together as a class to discuss the completed
Key Concept Questions Masters, you can compare what
you have learned to what others have learned about how
machines are used.
Have students turn to page 19 in their Student
Books. On this page, all students will find the same
four questions relating to the Key Concept statements.
Review the Key Concept Questions Master with
students, answering any questions they may have.
Assessment Check
Think About the Key Concepts
1. What are three things that force can do to
an object? Give an example of each.
2. In science, what is the connection between
force and work?
Students should address these main ideas in their responses to
the Key Concept questions:
1. Force can cause an object to move, stop, or change.
Possible Responses to Key Concept Questions
Machines in the Home
Machines in Sports
Machines in Construction
Machines in Health
1. What are three things that force can do to an object? Give an example of each.
Force can make an object move,
stop, or change. Pushing a door
makes it move, stopping the
door from slamming makes it
stop, and rolling out pizza
dough changes it.
Force can make an object
move, stop, or change. Kicking
a ball makes it move, catching
a ball makes it stop, and
swimming changes the
movement of the water.
Force can make an object move,
stop, or change. The hammer
makes the nail move, the wood
stops the nail’s movement, and
flattening the concrete changes
its shape.
Force can make an object
move, stop, or change. Pushing
a wheelchair moves the
patient, pressing a bandage
on a cut stops the blood
flow, and setting a bone
changes its position.
2. Work is what is done when force moves, stops, or changes
the position of an object.
2. In science, what is the connection between force and work?
3. The six simple machines are: wedge, lever, inclined plane,
3. Name the six simple machines. Explain how
each one can help people work.
4. Give two examples of compound machines.
Explain how they help people work.
Read the questions to the class, making sure that
students understand each question. You might ask
volunteers to rephrase the question in their own words,
or you might rephrase the questions for students.
Share Learning
Explain to students that they will complete the Key
Concept Questions Master independently. Then students
will come together as a class to share what they have
learned. Say:
You have each read an article about how machines are
used. Not everyone has read the same book, but all books
have the same Key Concepts. Now, as you complete the
Key Concept Questions Master, think about what you’ve
learned from reading.
screw, wheel and axle, and pulley.
4. There are a variety of compound machines that help
people do work.
Work is the result of force.
Force is what moves, changes,
or stops the movement of
an object.
Work is the result of force.
Force is what moves, changes, or
stops the movement of an object.
Work is the result of
force. Force is what moves,
changes, or stops the
movement of an object.
3. Name the six simple machines. Explain how each one can help people work.
A wedge can help people
cut wood. A lever can reduce
the force of a load. An
inclined plane can help people
move loads up and down.
A screw can keep a lid on a
jar. The wheel and axle of a
doorknob can help people
open and close a door. A
pulley can help people open
an outdoor umbrella.
A wedge can help an
arrow pierce a target.
A lever can help people
row a boat. An inclined
plane can help people do
skateboard tricks. A screw
can keep weightlifting
equipment together.
The wheel and axle of a
doorknob can help change a
car’s direction. A pulley can
help people move weights
on a weight machine.
A wedge can help a nail move into
wood. A lever can help people
hammer a nail. An inclined plane
can help people move loads up
and down. A screw driver can
help a screw twist into wood.
The wheel and axle of a screwdriver can help people insert a
screw. A pulley can help people
lift a heavy load.
A wedge can help people
pierce something. A lever
can reduce the amount of
force needed to do something.
An inclined plane can help
people move loads up and
down. A screw can keep
broken bones together. The
wheel and axle of an oxygen
tank can help people open
the tank. A pulley can help
people lift a heavy load.
4. Give two examples of compound machines. Explain how they help people work.
A corkscrew helps people
open bottles. A faucet helps
people get running water. A
sewing machine helps people
sew faster.
44
Work is the result of
force. Force is what moves,
changes, or stops the
movement of an object.
A bicycle helps people get
somewhere faster. A sailboat
helps people move through
the water. A pitching
machine throws balls at
a baseball player.
A shovel helps people dig. A
cement mixer helps people make
cement. A crane helps people
lift and move very heavy loads.
Surgical scissors help
people cut thread. A
prosthetic arm helps a
person who lost his or her
arm. A wheelchair helps
someone who cannot walk
move around.
45
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Visual Literacy
Labeled Photograph
Have students turn to page 20 in their books. In
all books, this page contains the same information
about labeled photographs, except that the topic
of each diagram is specific to each book. Say:
I am going to read pages 20 and 21 from Machines in
the Home. This book shows a labeled photograph of a
can opener. Since you are not all reading the same
book, you do not have the same labeled photographs
on this page. But the information about labeled
photographs is the same.
After reading the top half of page 20, review the definition of a labeled photograph.
Then read the four steps in the box at the bottom
of page 20. After reading the text in the box, have
students look back at the labeled photographs on
pages 10–18 of their books. Say:
While you are looking at the labeled photographs in
your specific book, I’m going to look at pages 10–18
in Machines in the Home. We’ve all seen these labeled
photographs already, since we’ve all read this article.
Let’s look at these labeled photographs a little more
closely now.
Model the process of reading the labeled photographs
on pages 10–18 in Machines in the Home. Focus on
the titles, photographs, and labels.
Discuss how using labeled photographs like these can
help students clarify their understanding of concepts
and terms. Ask questions such as:
Next, have students turn back to pages 20 and 21 in
their books. Reread the three steps in the box at the
bottom of page 20. As you read each step to the
class, use the labeled photograph on page 21 as a
model. Continue to use examples from Machines in
the Home, but ask volunteers reading other books
to offer similar information. For example:
Whole Class
Small Groups
Whole Class
•Introduce Genre Study
•Begin Reading: 23–26
•Check Understanding
Say: The title tells me what the labeled photograph shows.
The title, Can Opener, means this labeled photograph
shows a can opener.
Introduce Genre
Study
2. Study the labels and the caption.
How-to Books
Say: By reading the labels and captions, I can learn more
information about the photograph. This caption tells me
that a can opener is a compound machine. The labels
point out simple machines that make up a can opener.
Explain to students that authors have varied
purposes for writing. Authors can choose the writing
form that best suits the purpose for writing. These
different forms of writing are called genres. Say:
1. Read the title.
3. Study the photograph.
Say: By carefully reviewing this photograph, I can
see examples of simple machines. For example, I can
see that this sharp part is a wedge. This helps me to
understand more about wedges.
Next, read the text at the bottom of page 21.
Give students five minutes to write down ideas
they have about the photograph. Then have a brief
class discussion about students’ ideas related to
the photograph.
Next, have students turn to page 23. Explain to
students that they will be reading a how-to book
called a user manual.
Then read and discuss the different labels shown on
page 23, which identify and describe some parts of
a user manual.
Remind students that how-to books are organized with
the title, subheads, labels, important information, and
steps for completing a task.
Writers use different forms, or genres, depending on
their purpose for writing. Today we are going to learn
about a genre, or type of writing, called how-to books.
How-to books tell you how to do or make something.
Then have students turn to page 22 of their books.
Read page 22 to the class. Say:
Look at this diagram. It shows six different types of
how-to books. Each of these how-to books can be used
for different purposes. For example, a cookbook can be
used to find out how to make a certain recipe. Why
might you use a craft book?
Continue in this way with each how-to book shown
so that students understand at least one use for
each type.
Find a labeled photograph in your book. What is one
term or idea that was easier to understand after using
this labeled photograph?
Have at least one student reading each of the books
suggest answers.
46
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Pages 23–26
Lesson Notes for Machines in
the Home
Lesson Notes for Machines in Sports
Model reading a how-to book
Ask students when they would use how-to books.
Discuss the parts of a how-to book. Model reading the
information on pages 23–24. Distribute the Content
Reading Guide Master, which students can use to
guide them through reading the user manual. Say:
First Activity Block
Ask students when they would use how-to books.
Discuss the parts of a how-to book. Model reading the
information on pages 23–24. Distribute the Content
Reading Guide Master, which students can use to
guide them through reading the user manual. Say:
Pairs
Individuals
Pairs
Begin Reading
Fluency Practice
Independent Reading
Fluency Practice
• Review the genre.
Students reading Machines in
Sports pair up with students
reading Machines in Health.
Students reread aloud parts
of Article 1 from their own
books to practice reading
fluency. To each pair,
distribute the Fluency
Practice Master on page 70
of this Teacher’s Guide.
Students read Power Drill
User Manual, Student Book
pages 23–26.
Students reading Machines in
Health pair up with students
reading Machines in Sports.
Students reread aloud parts
of Article 1 from their own
books to practice reading
fluency. To each pair,
distribute the Fluency
Practice Master on page 70
of this Teacher’s Guide.
• Model using the
genre article.
• Read parts of the
genre article.
To each student, distribute the
Content Reading Guide Master,
page 71 in this Teacher's
Guide. Students should use the
Master to take notes as they
read for specific information.
We’ve just learned about how people use machines to
help them do work. Now I’m going to read about how to
use a hand mixer.
Begin reading the user manual. Use the labels to
describe the parts. Also point out the important
features. For example:
The first illustration of the hand mixer has numbered
circles on it. These numbers match the numbers listed
on the left. By matching the numbers, I can see the
name of each part.
Continue making observations about the user manual
that will help students draw conclusions about the
important features of a how-to book.
Read parts of the user manual
Have students flip through the user manual. Have
them notice the illustrations, subheads, and bulleted
lists. Say:
Second Activity Block
Pairs
48
Pairs
Individuals
Fluency Practice
Begin Reading
Fluency Practice
Independent Reading
Students reading Machines
in the Home pair up with
students reading Machines in
Construction. Students reread
aloud parts of Article 1 from
their own books to practice
reading fluency. To each pair,
distribute the Fluency
Practice Master on page 70
of this Teacher’s Guide.
• Review the genre.
Students reading Machines
in Construction pair up with
students reading Machines in
the Home. Students reread
aloud parts of Article 1 from
their own books to practice
reading fluency. To each pair,
distribute the Fluency
Practice Master on page 70
of this Teacher’s Guide.
Students read Wheelchair
User Manual, Student Book
pages 23–26.
• Model using the
genre article.
• Read parts of the
genre article.
To each student, distribute
the Content Reading Guide
Master, page 71 in this
Teacher’s Guide. Students
should use the Master to
take notes as they read for
specific information.
We are going to take turns reading information in this
user manual.
Before each student reads, reread the title and
introduction. Skim the text to point out any words
that may be unfamiliar to the reader. Pronounce
these words and discuss their meanings. Then have
students read chorally or take turns reading the user
manual. After students have finished reading, say:
We’ve just read a user manual about how to use a hand
mixer. Now let’s reread to find the important features of
a user manual. This will help us make sure that we’ve
understood what we have read.
Have students read the user manual again and point
out the important features of a user manual.
Model reading a how-to book
We’ve just learned about how people use machines to
help them do work. Now I’m going to read about how to
use a bicycle.
Begin reading the user manual. Use the labels to
describe the parts. Also point out the important
features. For example:
The first illustration of the bicycle has numbered circles
on it. These numbers match the numbers listed on the
left. By matching the numbers, I can see the name of
each part.
Continue making observations about the user
manual that will help students draw conclusions
about the important features of a how-to book.
Read parts of the user manual
Have students flip through the user manual. Have
them notice the illustrations, subheads, and bulleted
lists. Say:
We are going to take turns reading information in this
user manual.
Before each student reads, reread the title and
introduction. Skim the text to point out any words
that may be unfamiliar to the reader. Pronounce
these words and discuss their meanings. Then have
students read chorally or take turns reading the user
manual. After students have finished reading, say:
We’ve just read a user manual about how to use a
bicycle. Now let’s reread to find the important features
of a user manual. This will help us make sure that
we’ve understood what we have read.
Have students read the user manual again and point
out the important features of a user manual.
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Check Understanding
Discuss the Genre
Talk with students about how different types of
writing, or genres, have different purposes. Ask:
After completing the chart, ask questions about the
genre, such as:
When reading the user manuals, was it easy to find
important information?
Content Reading Guide
Topic
Important features
Things to consider
Hand mixer
Parts of the
hand mixer, uses,
safety precautions
Do not get
the machine or
cord wet.
Bicycle
Parts of the
bicycle, what to
do before riding
Make sure brakes
are working.
Power drill
Parts of the
power drill, safety
precautions, how
to set up the drill
Wheelchair
Parts of the
wheelchair, safety
precautions, how
to set up the
wheelchair
What are the parts of a how-to book?
What does the title tell you?
Why are the illustrations important?
Ask volunteers to share one thing they learned from the
user manual they read. What was most interesting?
Share Learning
Have small groups of students share their books.
Organize students into groups of four, with each student
reading a different book.
Have each student walk through the user manuals
with group members, pointing out the illustrations,
subheads, labels, and interesting content.
Then each student should explain in his or her
own words something that was interesting from the
user manuals.
Partially completed class chart
Read for Specific Information
Bring the class together to create a class chart,
using information from the user manuals and
students’ Content Reading Guides. Students can
suggest information found in their own books or
from a classmate’s book. Use at least one example
from each user manual.
50
Small Groups
Whole Class
•Finish Reading: Pages 23–26
•Check Understanding
How are these user manuals similar? How are
they different?
What is the main reason you would use a how-to book?
(to get directions for how to make or do something)
Then review the parts of a how-to book. Ask
questions such as:
Whole Class
•Introduce Key
Concept Activities
Wear safety
goggles.
Introduce Key
Concept Activities
Activity summaries
Have students turn to page 27 in their books. Read
the title of the page and point out that there is one
activity for each Key Concept statement.
Key Concept Activity 1
This activity asks
students to create a
concept web showing
different types of work.
Summarize each activity, and make sure students
understand what the product of each activity should
be (a concept web, two labeled drawings). Use the
art next to each activity to aid in the discussion.
Remind students that they can use information from
the informational and genre articles to complete
each activity.
Key Concept Activity 2
This activity asks students to draw and label
two simple machines.
Assigning the Activities
Do not go
too fast in the
wheelchair.
During Lesson 5, students can work in pairs or small
groups as they begin working on the Key Concept
Activities. Students can complete as much as they
can during this Lesson, but they should be able to
complete at least one activity.
Key Concept Activity 3
This activity asks
students to draw
and label the simple
machines found in two
compound machines.
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Pages 23–26
Lesson Notes for Machines in
Construction
Lesson Notes for Machines in Health
Review reading a how-to book
Have students bring their Content Reading Guide
Masters to the discussion. Have them turn to page
23 to discuss the parts of a how-to book. Say:
Have students bring their Content Reading Guide
Masters to the discussion. Have them turn to page
23 to discuss the parts of a how-to book. Say:
First Activity Block
I’m going to read about how to use a power drill. Here
is the title of the how-to book: Power Drill User Manual.
Pairs/Groups
Pairs/Groups
Key Concept Activities
Key Concept Activities
Discuss and Reread
Key Concept Activities
Students can work in pairs
or small groups to complete
Key Concept Activity 1. They
can also begin Key Concept
Activity 2 at this time.
Students can work in pairs
or small groups to complete
Key Concept Activity 1. They
can also begin Key Concept
Activity 2 at this time.
• Review the genre.
Students can work in pairs
or small groups to complete
Key Concept Activity 1. They
can also begin Key Concept
Activities 2 and 3 at this time.
Students should use the
Student Book to complete
these activities.
Students should use the
Student Book to complete
these activities.
Pairs/Groups
• Review using the
genre article.
• Reread parts of the
genre article.
Students should use the
Student Book to complete
these activities.
Read the introduction and list of parts, pointing out
the number labels on the illustration. Continue reading
and pointing out other important features of the user
manual. Say:
I see that the user manual gives a list of safety precautions.
It is very important to read through these before using the
power drill.
Continue making observations about the user manual
that will help students draw conclusions about the
important features of a how-to book.
Reread parts of the user manual
Have students flip through the how-to books. Have
them notice the illustrations and bulleted lists. Say:
Second Activity Block
We are going to take turns rereading the user manual
for the power drill. The first time we read, we will learn
more about the topic.
52
Pairs/Groups
Pairs/Groups
Pairs/Groups
Continue Key Concept
Activities
Continue Key Concept
Activities
Key Concept Activities
Discuss and Reread
• Review the genre.
Students can continue
working on Key Concept
Activities 2 and 3. Time
permitting, the teacher can
meet with students reading
Machines in the Home to
assess students’ progress on
the Key Concept activities.
Students can continue
working on Key Concept
Activities 2 and 3. Time
permitting, the teacher can
meet with students reading
Machines in Sports to assess
students’ progress on the
Key Concept activities.
Students can work in pairs
or small groups to complete
Key Concept Activity 1. They
can also begin Key Concept
Activities 2 and 3 at this time.
Students should use the
Student Book to complete
these activities.
Have students take turns reading the user manual.
As needed, stop and explain any words or concepts
students may need help understanding. After students
have finished reading, say:
• Review using the
genre article.
We’ve just read a power drill user manual. Now let’s use
your Content Reading Guide to discuss the important
features you found and things to consider.
• Reread parts of the
genre article.
Have students read the user manual and point out
the important features of a user manual.
Review reading a how-to book
I’m going to read about how to use a wheelchair. Here
is the title of the how-to book: Wheelchair User Manual.
Read the introduction and list of parts, pointing out
the number labels on the illustration. Continue reading
and pointing out other important features of the user
manual. Say:
I see that the user manual gives a list of safety precautions.
It is very important to read through these before using
the wheelchair.
Continue making observations about the user manual
that will help students draw conclusions about the
important features of a how-to book.
Reread parts of the user manual
Have students flip through the how-to books. Have
them notice the illustrations and bulleted lists. Say:
We are going to take turns rereading the user manual
for the wheelchair. The first time we read, we will learn
more about the topic.
Have students take turns reading the user manual.
As needed, stop and explain any words or concepts
students may need help understanding. After students
have finished reading, say:
We’ve just read a wheelchair user manual. Now let’s use
your Content Reading Guide to discuss the important
features you found and things to consider.
Have students read the user manual and point out
the important features of a user manual.
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Check Understanding
Assessment Check
Share Learning
Key Concept Activity 1
Concept webs should
By now, all students have read the first article and
the genre article in the Student Book. They have
worked together in mixed groups, in pairs, and as
a class to discuss the Key Concepts. They have
worked independently on the Key Concept activities
found on page 27 of the Student Book.
Now students can come together in mixed groups to
share the Key Concept activities they have completed.
Organize students into groups of four, with each
student reading a different book. Explain that each
student should share his or her work on the Key
Concept activities and compare how other members
of the group completed the same assignment.
Students should be able to explain another group
member’s activity, compared to his or her own.
Students can use questions like these to guide
their discussion:
How is this group member’s information similar to the
information I found?
How is this information different?
How does this information relate to the Key Concepts?
After groups of students have finished discussing
their projects, bring the class together. Students can
share what they’ve learned by comparing a group
member’s project with their own.
Use the questions shown above as a guide for the
class discussion.
54
✔ have a label in the center.
✔ show four different types of work.
✔ show what force does to the object.
✔ be neatly completed.
Key Concept Activity 2
Drawings should
✔ include two simple machines.
✔ have a title for each machine.
✔ include labels on the parts of each simple machine.
Introduce Research
and Write
Explain that students will write their own user manuals.
Have students turn to the Research and Write activity
beginning on page 28 in their books. Explain that
students will be working on steps 1–3 today and
steps 4 and 5 in the next writing lesson. Then say:
Distribute the Prewriting Master to students. Explain
that they will use this Master to organize their
research and take notes. Read the introduction on
the Master and discuss each part.
Read the introduction and allow time for students to
ask questions.
Students can work in pairs or independently to
review the model and conduct research. Students
can ask a classmate to help answer questions they
may have. As students conduct research, circulate
around the classroom to check that students are
using the Prewriting Master correctly.
1. Study the Model
Key Concept Activity 3
Drawings should
Read step 1 to the class. Then have students turn
to page 23. Say:
✔ include two compound machines.
On this page, you will find the beginning of a user manual.
We are going to use the user manuals on pages 23–26 as a
model for writing our own user manuals.
✔ include labels on the simple machines that make up each
compound machine.
✔ be neatly completed.
Read step 2 to the class. Remind students that they
should choose just one machine that is used in the
area that is the focus of their books: in the home,
in sports, in construction, or in health. They should
draw a design for their machines, take notes, and
think of safety precautions for using the machine.
They can look in the library or on the Internet to get
ideas for their user manuals.
I am going to read the introduction from the Machines
in the Home book. This introduction is specific to this
book, but the introductions in your books will talk
about the information you have. Follow along silently
as I read to the class.
✔ be neatly completed.
✔ have a title for each compound machine.
2. Choose a Machine
Look at the title. Notice how the title is in large letters
and easy to read. Titles should stand out from the rest
of the information. The user manuals you write should
have a title that is easy to read.
Continue in this way with each of the important parts
of the user manuals. Then read the text in the blue
box on page 28. This box lists the important parts of
writing a user manual.
Check Progress
Bring the class together to discuss students’
progress. Ask questions such as:
Has everyone chosen a topic and completed his or her
research?
Are you finding enough information about your topic?
Remind students that they will have time to write,
revise, and edit. They will then present their
machines to the class.
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Discuss the Writing
Assessment Check
Briefly discuss students’ progress. Review pages
28–29 in the Student Book.
A well-written user manual
✔ Subheads similar to the model are used to organize the text.
3. Write a User Manual
✔ Important information is presented in bulleted lists.
Read step 3 to the class while students follow along
silently. Remind students to use the user manual in their
books as a guide for writing their own user manuals.
Remind students that when writing their user manuals,
they should focus on getting their ideas on paper. They
can fix spelling and grammar mistakes as they review
and edit. Circulate around the room and meet with
students to help them work through questions they
may have about their writing.
✔ Instructions are easy to follow.
✔ Safety precautions are included and stated clearly.
✔ At least one clearly labeled diagram is used to clarify the text.
Read step 4 to the class. Give students time
to read through their user manuals to make sure that
it is easy to follow, lists safety precautions, tells how to
care for the machine, and includes diagrams. Remind
students that they can also use a peer editor during
this step. Peer editors should focus on spelling,
grammar, punctuation, sense, and interest level.
As a class, have students turn to page 30 in their
books. Read page 30 aloud to the class as students
follow along silently. Explain that students will work
independently to prepare and give a presentation.
Review the following steps with the class so that
students understand each step in the process.
Each student should participate in all the steps.
✔ Writing is free of mechanical errors.
Individual Work
An average user manual
✔ Some subheads similar to the model are used to organize the text.
Step 1. Copy your labeled diagram onto an overhead
transparency. Make sure your diagram is clearly
drawn so the parts of your diagram are easy to see.
✔ Important information is presented in bulleted lists.
4. Read over Your Work
Present Your Machine
✔ Instructions are somewhat easy to follow.
✔ Safety precautions are included and somewhat clear.
✔ At least one labeled diagram is used to clarify the text.
✔ Writing has some mechanical errors.
A poorly-written user manual
✔ Subheads similar to the model are not used to organize the text.
✔ Important information is not presented in bulleted lists.
✔ Instructions are not easy to follow.
✔ Safety precautions are not included or are not clear.
Class Discussion
After each student has completed all four steps,
have students discuss the process of writing a user
manual and presenting a machine.
Students can work independently or in pairs to
answer the following questions in their notebooks:
What did you like most about writing a user manual?
Did you learn something new from someone else’s
presentation?
Step 2. Explain your machine to the class. Using
your transparency on an overhead projector, show
the class your machine and point out the different
parts. Explain what the machine is used for and how
it works.
Step 3. Explain the safety precautions. Explain any
possible dangers there are when using your
machine. Tell the class how to use the machine
in the safest way possible.
Step 4. Show the class how to care for the
machine. Explain how to clean, store, and care
for parts of your machine.
✔ Labeled diagrams do not apply to the text or are not included.
✔ Writing has many mechanical errors.
56
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Activity Master
Name
Contents
Book title
Prereading: 3-Column Chart
Prereading: 3-Column Chart
Provides a tool for recording students’ prior knowledge
about the topic before they read
Machines
Machines
Machines
Machines
Provides a tool for developing strategies for book-level
vocabulary
in
in
in
in
the Home Vocabulary
Sports Vocabulary
Construction Vocabulary
Health Vocabulary
You will be reading about simple machines that are used every day. In column 1, write some
machines that you use. In column 2, explain how the machine helps you do work. At the end
of Lesson 1, add to columns 1 and 2 and fill in column 3, listing whether each machine is
simple or compound. Write any questions you have on the back of this sheet.
58
Comprehension Model
Provides a Master that can be made into a transparency
to model the comprehension strategy
Comprehension Strategy
Provides a tool to help students practice the
comprehension strategy
Word Cards, Machines in the Home
Word Cards, Machines in Sports
Provides cards that can be cut out and used to develop
vocabulary
Share Learning
Provides a tool students can use in small groups to
compare content across all Student Books
Key Concept Questions
Provides a tool students can use in small groups to
answer the Key Concept questions shown on page 19 in
the Student Book
Fluency Practice
Provides a tool for pairs of students as they reread the
text to improve fluency
Content Reading Guide
Provides a tool to help students record specific
information
Prewriting
Provides a tool for organizing students’ ideas before
they write
Open-Book Test
Provides an opportunity for students to demonstrate both
their understanding of the content and their ability to read
for specific information
Machines
Machines
Machines
Machines
Provides an opportunity for students to demonstrate
their understanding of the content with differentiated
multiple-choice and short-answer questions
in
in
in
in
the Home Test
Sports Test
Construction Test
Health Test
How this machine
helps us do work
Simple/Compound
© 2005 National Geographic Society
Machine
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Activity Master
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MACHINES IN THE HOME
MACHINES IN SPORTS
Activity Master
Name
Name
Vocabulary: Definition Chart
Vocabulary: Definition Chart
The words below are from Machines in the Home. Find each word in the glossary of your book.
Write a short definition in the second column. In the next column, write examples or words
that describe the word. In the last column, write words that are not the vocabulary word.
The words below are from Machines in Sports. Find each word in the glossary of your book.
Write a short definition in the second column. In the next column, write examples or words
that describe the word. In the last column, write words that are not the vocabulary word.
Word
Definition
Examples or Description
Word
Nonexamples
force
force
machines
machines
simple
machines
simple
machines
work
work
fulcrum
gears
wedge
© 2005 National Geographic Society
compound
machines
© 2005 National Geographic Society
compound
machines
load
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Definition
Examples or Description
Nonexamples
lever
load
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MACHINES IN CONSTRUCTION
MACHINES IN HEALTH
Activity Master
Name
Name
Vocabulary: Definition Chart
Vocabulary: Definition Chart
The words below are from Machines in Construction. Find each word in the glossary of your
book. Write a short definition in the second column. In the next column, write examples or
words that describe the word. In the last column, write words that are not the vocabulary word.
The words below are from Machines in Health. Find each word in the glossary of your book.
Write a short definition in the second column. In the next column, write examples or words
that describe the word. In the last column, write words that are not the vocabulary word.
Word
Definition
Examples or Description
Word
Nonexamples
force
force
machines
machines
simple
machines
simple
machines
work
work
pulley
fulcrum
wedge
© 2005 National Geographic Society
compound
machines
© 2005 National Geographic Society
compound
machines
thread
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Definition
Examples or Description
Nonexamples
pitch
wedge
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Activity Master
Activity Master
Name
Name
Book title
Comprehension Model: Asking Questions
Book title
Comprehension Strategy: Asking Questions
Use this chart as you read. Write questions you have in column 1. Write answers you find in
column 2. In column 3, you can write any comments you have about what you read.
A World of Machines
When you hear the word machine, what’s the first
thing that comes to mind? A giant bulldozer or a
crane? A bicycle? Today our world is filled with many
types of machines that help us get work done.
My Questions
Answers
Comments
Our lives would be very different without machines.
They’re everywhere! From the washer that cleans your
clothes to the bus that takes you to school, we depend
on machines for many things. A machine helps to
make something move and can make doing work
easier. Scientists say that work has been done when a
force is used to move an object over a distance.
Machines that are called simple machines do not
have many moving parts. Knives and forks, doorknobs,
and skate wheels are all simple machines. Compound
machines are made of two or more simple machines
put together. Cars, bicycles, trains, and even your body
are all compound machines!
• Ask questions about how you read.
• Ask questions about what you read.
• Ask questions to learn more.
• Remember that some of your questions might not be answered.
64
© 2005 National Geographic Society
Steps for Asking Questions
© 2005 National Geographic Society
A bicycle is a compound machine that
helps us get from place to place.
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MACHINES IN THE HOME
Activity Master
MACHINES IN SPORTS
Name
Name
Word Cards: Machines in the Home
Word Cards: Machines in Sports
Cut along the dotted lines. Then fold each strip along the solid line so the word will be
on one side and the definition will be on the other. Practice using these flash cards with
a partner to help you remember definitions for each word.
Cut along the dotted lines. Then fold each strip along the solid line so the word will be
on one side and the definition will be on the other. Practice using these flash cards with
a partner to help you remember definitions for each word.
compound machines
force
lever
machines that are made up of
compound machines
more than one simple machine
something that moves, changes,
force
or stops an object
fulcrum
a straight bar or rod that rotates
about a fixed place
tools or other devices that
help people do work
a grooved wheel and rope system,
screw
used to move loads
simple machines
devices that change how forces act
wheel and axle
a wheel joined to a pole or rod
work
machines
the result of force moving, stopping,
or changing an object
simple machines
© 2005 National Geographic Society
pulley
machines that are made up of
more than one simple machine
something that moves, changes,
or stops an object
the fixed point on which a
lever turns or swivels
© 2005 National Geographic Society
machines
66
Activity Master
wedge
work
tools or other devices that
help people do work
a pole with a ridge called a
thread that spirals around it
devices that change how forces act
an object with one or more sloping sides
that may end in a sharp edge or point
the result of force moving, stopping,
or changing an object
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Activity Master
Activity Master
Name
Name
Book title
Book title
Share Learning
Key Concept Questions
Work with students who have read books different from yours. Each group member is the
expert on one area where machines are used. Each member should share information from
his or her book to complete a row on the chart.
Read the questions on page 19 of your book. Think about what you have learned from reading
your book. Then answer the questions below.
1. What are three things that force can do to an object? Give an example of each.
Area where
machines are used
Ways force is used
in this area
The six simple
machines/Examples
Examples of
compound machines
2. In science, what is the connection between force and work?
3. Name the six simple machines. Explain how each one can help people work.
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© 2005 National Geographic Society
© 2005 National Geographic Society
4. Give two examples of compound machines. Explain how they help people work.
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Activity Master
Activity Master
Name
Name
Book title
Book title
Fluency Practice
Content Reading Guide: How-to books
You will be reading parts of your book with a partner. You will take turns being the reader
and the listener.
You can read how-to books to find out how to do or make something. As you read pages
23–26 in your book, look for the important features of a user manual. Also look for any
special things to consider when using a machine.
Readers will read from their own books. You will pick a short section to read, and you will
read this same section three times.
Listeners will correct missed words. When you hear a missed word, say, STOP, and the word.
Have the reader repeat this word. Then, ask the reader to read that sentence again. Tell the
reader how to improve after each reading, and then fill out the checklist for the reader.
Topic:
Important Features
Things to consider
Reading Checklist
Reader Name:
Reading #1:
great
good
so-so
not very good
Reading #2:
great
good
so-so
not very good
Reading #3:
great
good
so-so
not very good
Check how the reader improved
My partner read more smoothly.
My partner read with more expression.
70
© 2005 National Geographic Society
My partner stopped for more punctuation.
© 2005 National Geographic Society
My partner knew more words.
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Activity Master
Name
Assessment Test
Name
Book title
Prewriting
Book title
Open-Book Test
You will be writing a user manual. Your manual should include information about how to use
a machine that you would find in the area your book is about. Use the user manual beginning
on page 23 as a model.
1.
Machine:
3. Tools that are used to help people do work are called
Subheads to use to organize my information:
4.
is the result of force moving, stopping, or changing an object.
5.
are machines that are made up of more than
is something that moves, changes, or stops an object.
2.
are devices that change how forces act.
.
one simple machine.
6. What are the six simple machines?
How to use this machine:
7. How do machines help people do work?
Safety precautions:
8. What are some compound machines?
How to care for this machine:
9. Look at the diagram on page 23 of your book. What is the part of this machine labeled
with a number 4?
72
© 2005 National Geographic Society
© 2005 National Geographic Society
Other important information to include:
10. What is being shown in Figure B on page 24?
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MACHINES IN THE HOME
MACHINES IN THE HOME
Assessment Test
Name
Use the labeled illustration to answer questions 7–8.
Test
A Seesaw
Circle the letter of the correct answer.
1. Work always requires
A. machines.
B. electricity.
C. an inclined plane.
D. force.
2. All of the following are simple machines
EXCEPT a
A. wheel and axle.
B. screw.
4. Which of the following describes a wedge?
A. a straight bar or rod that rotates about
a fixed place
Bar
sides that may end in a sharp edge
or point
C. a grooved wheel and rope system,
used to move loads
D. a wheel joined to a pole or rod
Movement
5. All how-to books
A. give directions.
D. pulley.
B. label parts of a machine.
A. change how forces act.
Force
B. an object with one or more sloping
C. fulcrum.
3. Simple machines
Load
Fulcrum
C. are manuals.
7. Write one sentence that tells what this labeled illustration is about.
D. all of the above.
B. are not used in modern times.
C. are modern inventions.
D. run on electricity.
6. Name a compound machine used in the home. Explain what makes it a compound machine.
8. What kind of simple machine is this seesaw? How do movement and force relate to each
other in this simple machine?
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MACHINES IN SPORTS
Assessment Test
MACHINES IN SPORTS
Name
Use the labeled illustration to answer questions 7–8.
Test
A Rowing Oar
Circle the letter of the correct answer.
1. Work always requires
A. machines.
B. fuel.
C. an axle.
D. force.
2. All of the following are simple machines
EXCEPT a
A. wheel and axle.
B. screw.
4. Which of the following describes a wedge?
A. a straight bar or rod that rotates about
B. an object with one or more sloping
Fulcrum
C. a grooved wheel and rope system,
used to move loads
Load arm
D. a wheel joined to a pole or rod
5. All how-to books
A. give directions.
D. pulley.
B. label parts of a machine.
A. change how forces act.
Force
sides that may end in a sharp edge
or point
C. fulcrum.
3. Simple machines
Force arm
a fixed place
Movement
Load
C. are manuals.
7. Write one sentence that tells what this labeled illustration is about.
D. all of the above.
B. are not used in modern times.
C. are modern inventions.
D. run on electricity.
6. Name a compound machine used in sports. Explain what makes it a compound machine.
8. What kind of a simple machine is a rowing oar? How do movement and force relate to
each other in this simple machine?
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MACHINES IN CONSTRUCTION
MACHINES IN CONSTRUCTION
Assessment Test
Name
Use the labeled illustration to answer questions 7–8.
Test
Circle the letter of the correct answer.
1. Work always requires
A. machines.
B. fuel.
C. mechanical advantage.
D. force.
2. All of the following are simple machines
EXCEPT a
A. wheel and axle.
B. screw.
4. Which of the following describes a wedge?
A. a straight bar or rod that rotates about
a fixed place
Movement
B. an object with one or more sloping
Force
C. a grooved wheel and rope system,
Load arm
used to move loads
D. a wheel joined to a pole or rod
Force arm
5. All how-to books
A. give directions.
D. pulley.
B. label parts of a machine.
A. change how forces act.
Load
sides that may end in a sharp edge
or point
C. fulcrum.
3. Simple machines
A Person Using
A Hammer
Fulcrum
C. are manuals.
7. Write one sentence that tells what this labeled illustration is about.
D. all of the above.
B. are not used in modern times.
C. are modern inventions.
D. require fuel or electricity.
6. Name a compound machine used in construction. Explain what makes it a compound
machine.
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8. What kind of simple machine is created by the arm and the hammer? Where does the
force come from in this illustration and what does the force make happen?
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MACHINES IN HEALTH
Assessment Test
MACHINES IN HEALTH
Name
Use the labeled illustration to answer questions 7–8.
Test
Forceps
Circle the letter of the correct answer.
1. Work always requires
A. machines.
B. mechanical advantage.
C. moving an object.
D. force.
2. All of the following are simple machines
EXCEPT a
A. wheel and axle.
B. screw.
4. Which of the following describes a wedge?
Fulcrum
a fixed place
B. an object with one or more sloping
sides that may end in a sharp edge
or point
Force arms
Load arms
C. a grooved wheel and rope system,
used to move loads
D. a wheel joined to a pole or rod
5. All how-to books
A. give directions.
D. pulley.
B. label parts of a machine.
A. change how forces act.
Movement
A. a straight bar or rod that rotates about
C. fulcrum.
3. Simple machines
Force
Force
Movement
C. are manuals.
7. Write one sentence that tells what this labeled illustration is about.
D. all of the above.
B. do not give a mechanical advantage.
C. are modern inventions.
D. are not used in modern health care.
6. Name a compound machine used in health care. Explain what makes it a compound
machine.
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8. What simple machine is used in forceps? Explain the relationship between movement and
force in this simple machine.
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OPEN-BOOK TEST
Distribute the Open-Book Test Master to students. This allows students to
demonstrate both their understanding of the content and their ability to read
for specific information. Students should work quietly and independently to
complete this test during this 20-minute period.
Test Questions
1. [Force] is something that moves, changes, or stops an object.
2. [Simple machines] are devices that change how forces act.
3. Tools that are used to help people do work are called [machines].
4. [Work] is the result of force moving, stopping, or changing an object.
5. [Compound machines] are machines that are made up of more than one simple machine.
6. What are the six simple machines?
wedge, lever, inclined plane, screw, wheel and
axle, pulley
wedge, lever, inclined plane, screw, wheel
and axle, pulley
wedge, lever, inclined plane, screw, wheel
and axle, pulley
wedge, lever, inclined plane, screw, wheel
and axle, pulley
7. How do machines help people do work?
Machines make doing work easier.
Machines make doing work easier.
Machines make doing work easier.
Machines make doing work easier.
8. What are some compound machines?
corkscrew, faucet, sewing machine
bicycle, sailboat, pitching machine
shovel, cement mixer, crane
surgical scissors, prosthetic arm, wheelchair
9. Look at the diagram on page 23 of your book. What is the part of this machine
labeled with a number 4?
beater holes
front brake
forward or reverse switch
armrest frames
The mixer should not be put in water.
A person riding a bicycle with the seat at
the correct height
A person wearing safety glasses
A person folding a wheelchair
10. What is being shown in Figure B on page 24?
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MACHINES IN THE HOME
Answers to MultipleChoice Questions
1. D
2. C
Complete The response is a complete sentence that
tells what the diagram is mostly about. The response
includes information related to the parts of a seesaw
and how it works.
Answers to MultipleChoice Questions
1. D
Partial The response is a complete or incomplete
sentence that tells what the diagram is partly about.
The response includes some information related to
a seesaw.
2. C
Unsatisfactory/Incorrect The response is an
incomplete sentence that does not relate to the
diagram. The response does not refer to a seesaw.
5. A
Struggling readers may provide responses that are
less complete than those provided by more advanced
readers. You can take this into account when grading
students’ responses.
Question 8
Struggling readers may provide responses that are
less complete than those provided by more advanced
readers. You can take this into account when grading
students’ responses.
Question 6
Partial The response identifies the seesaw as a
lever or recognizes that the force and the movement
go in opposite directions.
3. A
4. B
5. A
Scoring Guides
Complete The response names a compound
machine used in the home, such as a corkscrew,
faucet, sewing machine, or can opener. The response
identifies that it is a compound machine because it
uses two or more simple machines—wedge, lever,
inclined plane, screw, wheel and axle, or pulley
(e.g., a corkscrew uses a wheel and axle and levers).
84
Question 7
MACHINES IN SPORTS
Complete The response identifies the seesaw as
a lever and recognizes that the force and the
movement go in opposite directions.
Unsatisfactory/Incorrect The response does
not identify the seesaw as a lever nor recognize
that the force and the movement go in opposite
directions.
3. A
4. B
Scoring Guides
Question 6
Complete The response names a compound
machine used in sports, such as a bicycle, sailboat,
pitching machine, or fishing road. The response
identifies that it is a compound machine because it
uses two or more simple machines—wedge, lever,
inclined plane, screw, wheel and axle, or pulley
(e.g., a sailboat uses a wedge and levers).
Partial The response names a compound machine
used in the home and recognizes that it is a compound machine because it uses two or more simple
machines, but does not specify which simple
machines it uses.
Partial The response names a compound machine
used in sports and recognizes that it is a compound
machine because it uses two or more simple
machines, but does not specify which simple
machines it uses.
Unsatisfactory/Incorrect The response includes
little or no information related to a compound
machine used in the home.
Unsatisfactory/Incorrect The response includes
little or no information related to a compound
machine used in sports.
Question 7
Complete The response is a complete sentence that
tells what the diagram is mostly about. The response
includes information related to a rowing oar and how
it works.
Partial The response is a complete or incomplete
sentence that tells what the diagram is partly about.
The response includes some information related to
a rowing oar.
Unsatisfactory/Incorrect The response is an
incomplete sentence that does not relate to the diagram. The response does not refer to a rowing oar.
Question 8
Complete The response identifies the rowing oar
as a lever and recognizes that the force and the
movement go in opposite directions.
Partial The response identifies the rowing oar as a
lever or recognizes that the force and the movement
go in opposite directions.
Unsatisfactory/Incorrect The response does
not identify the rowing oar as a lever nor recognize
that the force and the movement go in opposite
directions.
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MACHINES IN CONSTRUCTION
Answers to MultipleChoice Questions
1. D
2. C
3. A
4. B
5. A
Scoring Guides
Struggling readers may provide responses that are
less complete than those provided by more advanced
readers. You can take this into account when grading
students’ responses.
Question 6
Complete The response names a compound
machine used in construction, such as a shovel,
cement mixer, crane, or vice. The response identifies
that it is a compound machine because it uses two
or more simple machines—wedge, lever, inclined
ramp, screw, wheel and axle, or pulley (e.g., a
cement mixer uses a wheel and axle and a pulley).
Partial The response names a compound machine
used in construction and recognizes that it is a compound machine because it uses two or more simple
machines, but does not specify which simple
machines it uses.
Unsatisfactory/Incorrect The response includes
little or no information related to a compound
machine used in construction.
86
Question 7
Complete The response is a complete sentence that
tells what the diagram is mostly about. The response
includes information related to a person using a
hammer and how it works.
MACHINES IN HEALTH
Answers to MultipleChoice Questions
1. D
Partial The response is a complete or incomplete
sentence that tells what the diagram is partly about.
The response includes some information related to
a person using a hammer.
2. C
Unsatisfactory/Incorrect The response is an
incomplete sentence that does not relate to the
diagram. The response does not refer to a person
using a hammer.
5. A
Question 8
Complete The response identifies the arm using the
hammer as a lever and recognizes that the force
comes from the arm or muscles which make(s) the
hammer move.
Partial The response identifies the arm using
the hammer as a lever or recognizes that the force
comes from the arm or muscles which make(s) the
hammer move.
Unsatisfactory/Incorrect The response does not
identify the arm using the hammer as a lever and does
not recognize where the force comes from nor that it
makes the hammer move.
3. A
4. B
Scoring Guides
Struggling readers may provide responses that are
less complete than those provided by more advanced
readers. You can take this into account when grading
students’ responses.
Question 6
Complete The response names a compound
machine used in health care, such as surgical
scissors, dental instruments, a prosthetic arm, or
a wheelchair. The response identifies that it is a
compound machine because it uses two or more
simple machines—wedge, lever, inclined plane,
screw, wheel and axle, or pulley (e.g., surgical
scissors are made up of wedges and levers).
Partial The response names a compound machine
used in health care and recognizes that it is a
compound machine because it uses two or more
simple machines, but does not specify which simple
machines it uses.
Question 7
Complete The response is a complete sentence
that tells what the diagram is mostly about. The
response includes information related to forceps and
how they work.
Partial The response is a complete or incomplete
sentence that tells what the diagram is partly about.
The response includes some information related
to forceps.
Unsatisfactory/Incorrect The response is an
incomplete sentence that does not relate to the
diagram. The response does not refer to parts
of forceps.
Question 8
Complete The response identifies the forceps as
a pair of levers and recognizes that the force and the
movement go in opposite directions or that moving
the handles or force arms together squeezes the
blades or force arms together.
Partial The response identifies the forceps as a pair
of levers or recognizes that the force and the movement go in opposite directions or that moving the
handles or force arms together squeezes the blades
or force arms together.
Unsatisfactory/Incorrect The response does not
identify the forceps as a pair of levers nor recognize
the relationship between force and movement in this
simple machine.
Unsatisfactory/Incorrect The response includes
little or no information related to a compound
machine used in health care.
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Notes
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Page 4
SOCIAL STUDIES TITLES
SCIENCE TITLES
A Historical Look at Native Americans
Animals in Their Habitats
Communication Around the World
Cells at Work
Communities and Their Locations
Energy
Cultures and Celebrations
Extreme Weather
Immigration to the United States
Life Cycles
Inventions Bring Change
Shaping Earth’s Surface
Providing Goods
Using Earth’s Resources
Trade Across Time and Cultures
Using Simple Machines
For details on individual titles or more information, call 1-800-368-2728
or visit our website at www.ngschoolpub.org
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Page 2
Using Simple Machines
Using Simple
Machines
Level A
Level B
Level C
Level D
Product #4P42121
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